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Sample records for acid detergent lignin

  1. Gravimetric determination of acid detergent fiber and lignin in feed: interlaboratory study.

    PubMed

    Möller, Jürgen

    2009-01-01

    On the basis of AOAC Official Method 973.18, a collaborative study was performed to determine fractions of acid detergent fiber (ADF) and lignin (ADL) in animal feed. The study used 6 animal feed and forage samples as blind duplicates and involved 22 participants from 7 countries. The samples analyzed covered a range from 3.5 to 70% ADF and from <1 to 20% ADL. Repeatability standard deviations ranged from 0.27 to 0.95% for ADF and from 0.08 to 0.59% for ADL. The reproducibility standard deviations ranged from 0.56 to 2.44% for ADF and from 0.52 to 2.09% for ADL. Analyzed samples comprised clover and grass silages, soy meal, cattle feed, wheat, and sawdust. The studied method has been published as the EN ISO 13906:2008 standard.

  2. Genome-Wide Analysis of Seed Acid Detergent Lignin (ADL) and Hull Content in Rapeseed (Brassica napus L.).

    PubMed

    Wang, Jia; Jian, Hongju; Wei, Lijuan; Qu, Cunmin; Xu, Xinfu; Lu, Kun; Qian, Wei; Li, Jiana; Li, Maoteng; Liu, Liezhao

    2015-01-01

    A stable yellow-seeded variety is the breeding goal for obtaining the ideal rapeseed (Brassica napus L.) plant, and the amount of acid detergent lignin (ADL) in the seeds and the hull content (HC) are often used as yellow-seeded rapeseed screening indices. In this study, a genome-wide association analysis of 520 accessions was performed using the Q + K model with a total of 31,839 single-nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) sites. As a result, three significant associations on the B. napus chromosomes A05, A09, and C05 were detected for seed ADL content. The peak SNPs were within 9.27, 14.22, and 20.86 kb of the key genes BnaA.PAL4, BnaA.CAD2/BnaA.CAD3, and BnaC.CCR1, respectively. Further analyses were performed on the major locus of A05, which was also detected in the seed HC examination. A comparison of our genome-wide association study (GWAS) results and previous linkage mappings revealed a common chromosomal region on A09, which indicates that GWAS can be used as a powerful complementary strategy for dissecting complex traits in B. napus. Genomic selection (GS) utilizing the significant SNP markers based on the GWAS results exhibited increased predictive ability, indicating that the predictive ability of a given model can be substantially improved by using GWAS and GS.

  3. Genome-Wide Analysis of Seed Acid Detergent Lignin (ADL) and Hull Content in Rapeseed (Brassica napus L.).

    PubMed

    Wang, Jia; Jian, Hongju; Wei, Lijuan; Qu, Cunmin; Xu, Xinfu; Lu, Kun; Qian, Wei; Li, Jiana; Li, Maoteng; Liu, Liezhao

    2015-01-01

    A stable yellow-seeded variety is the breeding goal for obtaining the ideal rapeseed (Brassica napus L.) plant, and the amount of acid detergent lignin (ADL) in the seeds and the hull content (HC) are often used as yellow-seeded rapeseed screening indices. In this study, a genome-wide association analysis of 520 accessions was performed using the Q + K model with a total of 31,839 single-nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) sites. As a result, three significant associations on the B. napus chromosomes A05, A09, and C05 were detected for seed ADL content. The peak SNPs were within 9.27, 14.22, and 20.86 kb of the key genes BnaA.PAL4, BnaA.CAD2/BnaA.CAD3, and BnaC.CCR1, respectively. Further analyses were performed on the major locus of A05, which was also detected in the seed HC examination. A comparison of our genome-wide association study (GWAS) results and previous linkage mappings revealed a common chromosomal region on A09, which indicates that GWAS can be used as a powerful complementary strategy for dissecting complex traits in B. napus. Genomic selection (GS) utilizing the significant SNP markers based on the GWAS results exhibited increased predictive ability, indicating that the predictive ability of a given model can be substantially improved by using GWAS and GS. PMID:26673885

  4. Genome-Wide Analysis of Seed Acid Detergent Lignin (ADL) and Hull Content in Rapeseed (Brassica napus L.)

    PubMed Central

    Wei, Lijuan; Qu, Cunmin; Xu, Xinfu; Lu, Kun; Qian, Wei; Li, Jiana; Li, Maoteng; Liu, Liezhao

    2015-01-01

    A stable yellow-seeded variety is the breeding goal for obtaining the ideal rapeseed (Brassica napus L.) plant, and the amount of acid detergent lignin (ADL) in the seeds and the hull content (HC) are often used as yellow-seeded rapeseed screening indices. In this study, a genome-wide association analysis of 520 accessions was performed using the Q + K model with a total of 31,839 single-nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) sites. As a result, three significant associations on the B. napus chromosomes A05, A09, and C05 were detected for seed ADL content. The peak SNPs were within 9.27, 14.22, and 20.86 kb of the key genes BnaA.PAL4, BnaA.CAD2/BnaA.CAD3, and BnaC.CCR1, respectively. Further analyses were performed on the major locus of A05, which was also detected in the seed HC examination. A comparison of our genome-wide association study (GWAS) results and previous linkage mappings revealed a common chromosomal region on A09, which indicates that GWAS can be used as a powerful complementary strategy for dissecting complex traits in B. napus. Genomic selection (GS) utilizing the significant SNP markers based on the GWAS results exhibited increased predictive ability, indicating that the predictive ability of a given model can be substantially improved by using GWAS and GS. PMID:26673885

  5. A knockout mutation in the lignin biosynthesis gene CCR1 explains a major QTL for acid detergent lignin content in Brassica napus seeds.

    PubMed

    Liu, Liezhao; Stein, Anna; Wittkop, Benjamin; Sarvari, Pouya; Li, Jiana; Yan, Xingying; Dreyer, Felix; Frauen, Martin; Friedt, Wolfgang; Snowdon, Rod J

    2012-05-01

    Seed coat phenolic compounds represent important antinutritive fibre components that cause a considerable reduction in value of seed meals from oilseed rape (Brassica napus). The nutritionally most important fibre compound is acid detergent lignin (ADL), to which a significant contribution is made by phenylpropanoid-derived lignin precursors. In this study, we used bulked-segregant analysis in a population of recombinant inbred lines (RILs) from a cross of the Chinese oilseed rape lines GH06 (yellow seed, low ADL) and P174 (black seed, high ADL) to identify markers with tight linkage to a major quantitative trait locus (QTL) for seed ADL content. Fine mapping of the QTL was performed in a backcross population comprising 872 BC(1)F(2) plants from a cross of an F(7) RIL from the above-mentioned population, which was heterozygous for this major QTL and P174. A 3:1 phenotypic segregation for seed ADL content indicated that a single, dominant, major locus causes a substantial reduction in ADL. This locus was successively narrowed to 0.75 cM using in silico markers derived from a homologous Brassica rapa sequence contig spanning the QTL. Subsequently, we located a B. rapa orthologue of the key lignin biosynthesis gene CINNAMOYL CO-A REDUCTASE 1 (CCR1) only 600 kbp (0.75 cM) upstream of the nearest linked marker. Sequencing of PCR amplicons, covering the full-length coding sequences of Bna.CCR1 homologues, revealed a locus in P174 whose sequence corresponds to the Brassica oleracea wild-type allele from chromosome C8. In GH06, however, this allele is replaced by a homologue derived from chromosome A9 that contains a loss-of-function frameshift mutation in exon 1. Genetic and physical map data infer that this loss-of-function allele has replaced a functional Bna.CCR1 locus on chromosome C8 in GH06 by homoeologous non-reciprocal translocation.

  6. Acid detergent lignin, lodging resistance index, and expression of the caffeic acid O-methyltransferase gene in brown midrib-12 sudangrass

    PubMed Central

    Li, Yuan; Liu, Guibo; Li, Jun; You, Yongliang; Zhao, Haiming; Liang, Huan; Mao, Peisheng

    2015-01-01

    Understanding the relationship between acid detergent lignin (ADL) and lodging resistance index (LRI) is essential for breeding new varieties of brown midrib (bmr) sudangrass (Sorghum sudanense (Piper) Stapf.). In this study, bmr-12 near isogenic lines and their wild-types obtained by back cross breeding were used to compare relevant forage yield and quality traits, and to analyze expression of the caffeic acid O-methyltransferase (COMT) gene using quantitative real time-PCR. The research showed that the mean ADL content of bmr-12 mutants (20.94 g kg−1) was significantly (P < 0.05) lower than measured in N-12 lines (43.45 g kg−1), whereas the LRI of bmr-12 mutants (0.29) was significantly (P < 0.05) higher than in N-12 lines (0.22). There was no significant correlation between the two indexes in bmr-12 materials (r = −0.44, P > 0.05). Sequence comparison of the COMT gene revealed two point mutations present in bmr-12 but not in the wild-type, the second mutation changed amino acid 129 of the protein from Gln (CAG) to a stop codon (UAG). The relative expression level of COMT gene was significantly reduced, which likely led to the decreased ADL content observed in the bmr-12 mutant. PMID:26366111

  7. Polymerization of pentachlorophenol and ferulic acid by fungal extracellular lignin-degrading enzymes.

    PubMed Central

    Rüttimann-Johnson, C; Lamar, R T

    1996-01-01

    High-molecular-weight polymers were produced by a crude concentrated supernatant from ligninolytic Phanerochaete chrysosporium cultures in a reaction mixture containing pentachlorophenol and a humic acid precursor (ferulic acid) in the presence of a detergent and H2O2. Pure manganese peroxidase, lignin peroxidase, and laccase were also shown to catalyze the reaction. PMID:8967777

  8. Biologically produced acid precipitable polymeric lignin

    DOEpatents

    Crawford, Don L.; Pometto, III, Anthony L.

    1984-01-01

    A water soluble, acid precipitable polymeric degraded lignin (APPL), having a molecular weight of at least 12,000 daltons, and comprising, by percentage of total weight, at least three times the number of phenolic hydroxyl groups and carboxylic acid groups present in native lignin. The APPL may be modified by chemical oxidation and reduction to increase its phenolic hydroxyl content and reduce the number of its antioxidant inhibitory side chains, thereby improving antioxidant properties.

  9. Selective conversion of biorefinery lignin into dicarboxylic acids.

    PubMed

    Ma, Ruoshui; Guo, Mond; Zhang, Xiao

    2014-02-01

    The emerging biomass-to-biofuel conversion industry has created an urgent need for identifying new applications for biorefinery lignin. This paper demonstrates a new route to producing dicarboxylic acids from biorefinery lignin through chalcopyrite-catalyzed oxidation in a highly selective process. Up to 95 % selectivity towards stable dicarboxylic acids was obtained for several types of biorefinery lignin and model compounds under mild, environmentally friendly reaction conditions. The findings from this study paved a new avenue to biorefinery lignin conversions and applications.

  10. Selective Conversion of Biorefinery Lignin into Dicarboxylic Acids

    SciTech Connect

    Ma, Ruoshui; Guo, Mond; Zhang, Xiao

    2014-02-01

    The emerging biomass-to-biofuel conversion industry has created an urgent need for identifying new applications for biorefinery lignin. This paper demonstrates a new route to producing dicarboxylic acids from biorefinery lignin through chalcopyrite-catalyzed oxidation in a highly selective process. Up to 95 % selectivity towards stable dicarboxylic acids was obtained for several types of biorefinery lignin and model compounds under mild, environmentally friendly reaction conditions. The findings from this study paved a new avenue to biorefinery lignin conversions and applications.

  11. Experimental Study of Mechanistic Acid Deconstruction of Lignin

    SciTech Connect

    Sturgeon, M.; Kim, S.; Chmely, S. C.; Katahira, R.; Foust, T. D.; Beckham, G. T.

    2012-01-01

    Lignin is a major component of biomass, which remains highly underutilized in selective biomass conversion strategies to renewable fuels and chemicals. Here we are interested in studying the mechanisms related to the acid deconstruction of lignin with a combined theoretical and experimental approach. Quantum mechanical calculations were employed to elucidate possible deconstruction mechanisms with transition state theory. Model dimers, imitating H, S, and G lignins, were synthesized with the most abundant {beta} - O - 4 linkage in lignin. These compounds were then depolymerized using various acids and at different operating conditions. The deconstruction products were analyzed to complement the QM studies and investigate proposed mechanisms.

  12. Computational Mechanistic Studies of Acid-Catalyzed Lignin Model Dimers for Lignin Depolymerization

    SciTech Connect

    Kim, S.; Sturgeon, M. R.; Chmely, S. C.; Paton, R. S.; Beckham, G. T.

    2013-01-01

    Lignin is a heterogeneous alkyl-aromatic polymer that constitutes up to 30% of plant cell walls, and is used for water transport, structure, and defense. The highly irregular and heterogeneous structure of lignin presents a major obstacle in the development of strategies for its deconstruction and upgrading. Here we present mechanistic studies of the acid-catalyzed cleavage of lignin aryl-ether linkages, combining both experimental studies and quantum chemical calculations. Quantum mechanical calculations provide a detailed interpretation of reaction mechanisms including possible intermediates and transition states. Solvent effects on the hydrolysis reactions were incorporated through the use of a conductor-like polarizable continuum model (CPCM) and with cluster models including explicit water molecules in the first solvation shell. Reaction pathways were computed for four lignin model dimers including 2-phenoxy-phenylethanol (PPE), 1-(para-hydroxyphenyl)-2-phenoxy-ethanol (HPPE), 2-phenoxy-phenyl-1,3-propanediol (PPPD), and 1-(para-hydroxyphenyl)-2-phenoxy-1,3-propanediol (HPPPD). Lignin model dimers with a para-hydroxyphenyl ether (HPPE and HPPPD) show substantial differences in reactivity relative to the phenyl ether compound (PPE and PPPD) which have been clarified theoretically and experimentally. The significance of these results for acid deconstruction of lignin in plant cell walls will be discussed.

  13. Formic-acid-induced depolymerization of oxidized lignin to aromatics.

    PubMed

    Rahimi, Alireza; Ulbrich, Arne; Coon, Joshua J; Stahl, Shannon S

    2014-11-13

    Lignin is a heterogeneous aromatic biopolymer that accounts for nearly 30% of the organic carbon on Earth and is one of the few renewable sources of aromatic chemicals. As the most recalcitrant of the three components of lignocellulosic biomass (cellulose, hemicellulose and lignin), lignin has been treated as a waste product in the pulp and paper industry, where it is burned to supply energy and recover pulping chemicals in the operation of paper mills. Extraction of higher value from lignin is increasingly recognized as being crucial to the economic viability of integrated biorefineries. Depolymerization is an important starting point for many lignin valorization strategies, because it could generate valuable aromatic chemicals and/or provide a source of low-molecular-mass feedstocks suitable for downstream processing. Commercial precedents show that certain types of lignin (lignosulphonates) may be converted into vanillin and other marketable products, but new technologies are needed to enhance the lignin value chain. The complex, irregular structure of lignin complicates chemical conversion efforts, and known depolymerization methods typically afford ill-defined products in low yields (that is, less than 10-20wt%). Here we describe a method for the depolymerization of oxidized lignin under mild conditions in aqueous formic acid that results in more than 60wt% yield of low-molecular-mass aromatics. We present the discovery of this facile C-O cleavage method, its application to aspen lignin depolymerization, and mechanistic insights into the reaction. The broader implications of these results for lignin conversion and biomass refining are also considered.

  14. Formic-acid-induced depolymerization of oxidized lignin to aromatics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rahimi, Alireza; Ulbrich, Arne; Coon, Joshua J.; Stahl, Shannon S.

    2014-11-01

    Lignin is a heterogeneous aromatic biopolymer that accounts for nearly 30% of the organic carbon on Earth and is one of the few renewable sources of aromatic chemicals. As the most recalcitrant of the three components of lignocellulosic biomass (cellulose, hemicellulose and lignin), lignin has been treated as a waste product in the pulp and paper industry, where it is burned to supply energy and recover pulping chemicals in the operation of paper mills. Extraction of higher value from lignin is increasingly recognized as being crucial to the economic viability of integrated biorefineries. Depolymerization is an important starting point for many lignin valorization strategies, because it could generate valuable aromatic chemicals and/or provide a source of low-molecular-mass feedstocks suitable for downstream processing. Commercial precedents show that certain types of lignin (lignosulphonates) may be converted into vanillin and other marketable products, but new technologies are needed to enhance the lignin value chain. The complex, irregular structure of lignin complicates chemical conversion efforts, and known depolymerization methods typically afford ill-defined products in low yields (that is, less than 10-20wt%). Here we describe a method for the depolymerization of oxidized lignin under mild conditions in aqueous formic acid that results in more than 60wt% yield of low-molecular-mass aromatics. We present the discovery of this facile C-O cleavage method, its application to aspen lignin depolymerization, and mechanistic insights into the reaction. The broader implications of these results for lignin conversion and biomass refining are also considered.

  15. Cinnamic acid increases lignin production and inhibits soybean root growth.

    PubMed

    Salvador, Victor Hugo; Lima, Rogério Barbosa; dos Santos, Wanderley Dantas; Soares, Anderson Ricardo; Böhm, Paulo Alfredo Feitoza; Marchiosi, Rogério; Ferrarese, Maria de Lourdes Lucio; Ferrarese-Filho, Osvaldo

    2013-01-01

    Cinnamic acid is a known allelochemical that affects seed germination and plant root growth and therefore influences several metabolic processes. In the present work, we evaluated its effects on growth, indole-3-acetic acid (IAA) oxidase and cinnamate 4-hydroxylase (C4H) activities and lignin monomer composition in soybean (Glycine max) roots. The results revealed that exogenously applied cinnamic acid inhibited root growth and increased IAA oxidase and C4H activities. The allelochemical increased the total lignin content, thus altering the sum and ratios of the p-hydroxyphenyl (H), guaiacyl (G), and syringyl (S) lignin monomers. When applied alone or with cinnamic acid, piperonylic acid (PIP, a quasi-irreversible inhibitor of C4H) reduced C4H activity, lignin and the H, G, S monomer content compared to the cinnamic acid treatment. Taken together, these results indicate that exogenously applied cinnamic acid can be channeled into the phenylpropanoid pathway via the C4H reaction, resulting in an increase in H lignin. In conjunction with enhanced IAA oxidase activity, these metabolic responses lead to the stiffening of the cell wall and are followed by a reduction in soybean root growth.

  16. Cinnamic acid increases lignin production and inhibits soybean root growth.

    PubMed

    Salvador, Victor Hugo; Lima, Rogério Barbosa; dos Santos, Wanderley Dantas; Soares, Anderson Ricardo; Böhm, Paulo Alfredo Feitoza; Marchiosi, Rogério; Ferrarese, Maria de Lourdes Lucio; Ferrarese-Filho, Osvaldo

    2013-01-01

    Cinnamic acid is a known allelochemical that affects seed germination and plant root growth and therefore influences several metabolic processes. In the present work, we evaluated its effects on growth, indole-3-acetic acid (IAA) oxidase and cinnamate 4-hydroxylase (C4H) activities and lignin monomer composition in soybean (Glycine max) roots. The results revealed that exogenously applied cinnamic acid inhibited root growth and increased IAA oxidase and C4H activities. The allelochemical increased the total lignin content, thus altering the sum and ratios of the p-hydroxyphenyl (H), guaiacyl (G), and syringyl (S) lignin monomers. When applied alone or with cinnamic acid, piperonylic acid (PIP, a quasi-irreversible inhibitor of C4H) reduced C4H activity, lignin and the H, G, S monomer content compared to the cinnamic acid treatment. Taken together, these results indicate that exogenously applied cinnamic acid can be channeled into the phenylpropanoid pathway via the C4H reaction, resulting in an increase in H lignin. In conjunction with enhanced IAA oxidase activity, these metabolic responses lead to the stiffening of the cell wall and are followed by a reduction in soybean root growth. PMID:23922685

  17. Oxidation in Acidic Medium of Lignins from Agricultural Residues

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Labat, Gisele Aparecida Amaral; Gonçalves, Adilson Roberto

    Agricultural residues as sugarcane straw and bagasse are burned in boilers for generation of energy in sugar and alcohol industries. However, excess of those by-products could be used to obtain products with higher value. Pulping process generates cellulosic pulps and lignin. The lignin could be oxidized and applied in effluent treatments for heavy metal removal. Oxidized lignin presents very strong chelating properties. Lignins from sugarcane straw and bagasse were obtained by ethanol-water pulping. Oxidation of lignins was carried out using acetic acid and Co/Mn/Br catalytical system at 50, 80, and 115 °C for 5 h. Kinetics of the reaction was accomplished by measuring the UV-visible region. Activation energy was calculated for lignins from sugarcane straw and bagasse (34.2 and 23.4 kJ mol-1, respectively). The first value indicates higher cross-linked formation. Fourier-transformed infrared spectroscopy data of samples collected during oxidation are very similar. Principal component analysis applied to spectra shows only slight structure modifications in lignins after oxidation reaction.

  18. Structural changes of corn stover lignin during acid pretreatment.

    PubMed

    Moxley, Geoffrey; Gaspar, Armindo Ribeiro; Higgins, Don; Xu, Hui

    2012-09-01

    In this study, raw corn stover was subjected to dilute acid pretreatments over a range of severities under conditions similar to those identified by the National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL) in their techno-economic analysis of biochemical conversion of corn stover to ethanol. The pretreated corn stover then underwent enzymatic hydrolysis with yields above 70 % at moderate enzyme loading conditions. The enzyme exhausted lignin residues were characterized by ³¹P NMR spectroscopy and functional moieties quantified and correlated to enzymatic hydrolysis yields. Results from this study indicated that both xylan solubilization and lignin degradation are important for improving the enzyme accessibility and digestibility of dilute acid pretreated corn stover. At lower pretreatment temperatures, there is a good correlation between xylan solubilization and cellulose accessibility. At higher pretreatment temperatures, lignin degradation correlated better with cellulose accessibility, represented by the increase in phenolic groups. During acid pretreatment, the ratio of syringyl/guaiacyl functional groups also gradually changed from less than 1 to greater than 1 with the increase in pretreatment temperature. This implies that more syringyl units are released from lignin depolymerization of aryl ether linkages than guaiacyl units. The condensed phenolic units are also correlated with the increase in pretreatment temperature up to 180 °C, beyond which point condensation reactions may overtake the hydrolysis of aryl ether linkages as the dominant reactions of lignin, thus leading to decreased cellulose accessibility.

  19. Advanced Model Compounds for Understanding Acid-Catalyzed Lignin Depolymerization: Identification of Renewable Aromatics and a Lignin-Derived Solvent.

    PubMed

    Lahive, Ciaran W; Deuss, Peter J; Lancefield, Christopher S; Sun, Zhuohua; Cordes, David B; Young, Claire M; Tran, Fanny; Slawin, Alexandra M Z; de Vries, Johannes G; Kamer, Paul C J; Westwood, Nicholas J; Barta, Katalin

    2016-07-20

    The development of fundamentally new approaches for lignin depolymerization is challenged by the complexity of this aromatic biopolymer. While overly simplified model compounds often lack relevance to the chemistry of lignin, the direct use of lignin streams poses significant analytical challenges to methodology development. Ideally, new methods should be tested on model compounds that are complex enough to mirror the structural diversity in lignin but still of sufficiently low molecular weight to enable facile analysis. In this contribution, we present a new class of advanced (β-O-4)-(β-5) dilinkage models that are highly realistic representations of a lignin fragment. Together with selected β-O-4, β-5, and β-β structures, these compounds provide a detailed understanding of the reactivity of various types of lignin linkages in acid catalysis in conjunction with stabilization of reactive intermediates using ethylene glycol. The use of these new models has allowed for identification of novel reaction pathways and intermediates and led to the characterization of new dimeric products in subsequent lignin depolymerization studies. The excellent correlation between model and lignin experiments highlights the relevance of this new class of model compounds for broader use in catalysis studies. Only by understanding the reactivity of the linkages in lignin at this level of detail can fully optimized lignin depolymerization strategies be developed.

  20. Advanced Model Compounds for Understanding Acid-Catalyzed Lignin Depolymerization: Identification of Renewable Aromatics and a Lignin-Derived Solvent.

    PubMed

    Lahive, Ciaran W; Deuss, Peter J; Lancefield, Christopher S; Sun, Zhuohua; Cordes, David B; Young, Claire M; Tran, Fanny; Slawin, Alexandra M Z; de Vries, Johannes G; Kamer, Paul C J; Westwood, Nicholas J; Barta, Katalin

    2016-07-20

    The development of fundamentally new approaches for lignin depolymerization is challenged by the complexity of this aromatic biopolymer. While overly simplified model compounds often lack relevance to the chemistry of lignin, the direct use of lignin streams poses significant analytical challenges to methodology development. Ideally, new methods should be tested on model compounds that are complex enough to mirror the structural diversity in lignin but still of sufficiently low molecular weight to enable facile analysis. In this contribution, we present a new class of advanced (β-O-4)-(β-5) dilinkage models that are highly realistic representations of a lignin fragment. Together with selected β-O-4, β-5, and β-β structures, these compounds provide a detailed understanding of the reactivity of various types of lignin linkages in acid catalysis in conjunction with stabilization of reactive intermediates using ethylene glycol. The use of these new models has allowed for identification of novel reaction pathways and intermediates and led to the characterization of new dimeric products in subsequent lignin depolymerization studies. The excellent correlation between model and lignin experiments highlights the relevance of this new class of model compounds for broader use in catalysis studies. Only by understanding the reactivity of the linkages in lignin at this level of detail can fully optimized lignin depolymerization strategies be developed. PMID:27310182

  1. [Analysis of alkaline CuO degradation products of acid detergent fiber from tobacco leaves by using liquid chromatography].

    PubMed

    Hao, Weiqiang; Wang, Leijun; Wu, Shun; Yue, Bangyi; Chen, Qiang; Zhang, Peipei

    2015-07-01

    The acid detergent fiber (ADF) from tobacco leaves was obtained by treating the sample with petroleum ether-ethanol (6:4, v/v), 30 g/L sodium dodecylsulfate and 0.5 mol/L sulphuric acid containing 20 g/L hexadecyl trimethyl ammonium bromide successively. The ADF was degraded by the alkaline CuO oxidation procedure. In this work, six samples of ADF degradation products from tobacco leaves were prepared. The samples were analyzed by using gradient liquid chromatography (LC) where an Ultimate XB C18 column was used as stationary phase, with a mixture of methanol and water as mobile phase, at a column temperature of 35 °C and a flow rate of 0.8 mL/min. Dual wavelengths of 280 nm and 320 nm were chosen for the detection. It was found that there were four characteristic peaks for the ADF degradation products. By taking these peaks as research object, the optimum time for the degradation was found to be 5 h and the sample solution could be kept stable within 7 days. The established method may provide a new approach for the studies of the differences between lignin composition in different tobacco leaves and the relationship between lignin content and the smoking quality of tobacco leaves. PMID:26672209

  2. Microbial degradation of chelating agents used in detergents with special reference to nitrilotriacetic acid (NTA).

    PubMed

    Egli, T; Bally, M; Uetz, T

    1990-01-01

    The extensive use of phosphate-based detergents and agricultural fertilizers is one of the main causes of the world-wide eutrophication of rivers and lakes. To ameliorate such problems partial or total substitution of phosphates in laundry detergents by synthetic, non-phosphorus containing complexing agents is practiced in several countries. The physiological, biochemical and ecological aspects of the microbial degradation of the complexing agents most frequently used, such as polyphosphates, aminopolycarboxylates (especially of nitrilotriacetic acid), and phosphonates are reviewed.

  3. Peracetic Acid Depolymerization of Biorefinery Lignin for Production of Selective Monomeric Phenolic Compounds.

    PubMed

    Ma, Ruoshui; Guo, Mond; Lin, Kuan-Ting; Hebert, Vincent R; Zhang, Jinwen; Wolcott, Michael P; Quintero, Melissa; Ramasamy, Karthikeyan K; Chen, Xiaowen; Zhang, Xiao

    2016-07-25

    Lignin is the largest source of renewable material with an aromatic skeleton. However, due to the recalcitrant and heterogeneous nature of the lignin polymer, it has been a challenge to effectively depolymerize lignin and produce high-value chemicals with high selectivity. In this study, a highly efficient lignin-to-monomeric phenolic compounds (MPC) conversion method based on peracetic acid (PAA) treatment was reported. PAA treatment of two biorefinery lignin samples, diluted acid pretreated corn stover lignin (DACSL) and steam exploded spruce lignin (SESPL), led to complete solubilization and production of selective hydroxylated monomeric phenolic compounds (MPC-H) and monomeric phenolic acid compounds (MPC-A) including 4-hydroxy-2-methoxyphenol, p-hydroxybenzoic acid, vanillic acid, syringic acid, and 3,4-dihydroxybenzoic acid. The maximized MPC yields obtained were 18 and 22 % based on the initial weight of the lignin in SESPL and DACSL, respectively. However, we found that the addition of niobium pentoxide catalyst to PAA treatment of lignin can significantly improve the MPC yields up to 47 %. The key reaction steps and main mechanisms involved in this new lignin-to-MPC valorization pathway were investigated and elucidated.

  4. Peracetic Acid Depolymerization of Biorefinery Lignin for Production of Selective Monomeric Phenolic Compounds.

    PubMed

    Ma, Ruoshui; Guo, Mond; Lin, Kuan-Ting; Hebert, Vincent R; Zhang, Jinwen; Wolcott, Michael P; Quintero, Melissa; Ramasamy, Karthikeyan K; Chen, Xiaowen; Zhang, Xiao

    2016-07-25

    Lignin is the largest source of renewable material with an aromatic skeleton. However, due to the recalcitrant and heterogeneous nature of the lignin polymer, it has been a challenge to effectively depolymerize lignin and produce high-value chemicals with high selectivity. In this study, a highly efficient lignin-to-monomeric phenolic compounds (MPC) conversion method based on peracetic acid (PAA) treatment was reported. PAA treatment of two biorefinery lignin samples, diluted acid pretreated corn stover lignin (DACSL) and steam exploded spruce lignin (SESPL), led to complete solubilization and production of selective hydroxylated monomeric phenolic compounds (MPC-H) and monomeric phenolic acid compounds (MPC-A) including 4-hydroxy-2-methoxyphenol, p-hydroxybenzoic acid, vanillic acid, syringic acid, and 3,4-dihydroxybenzoic acid. The maximized MPC yields obtained were 18 and 22 % based on the initial weight of the lignin in SESPL and DACSL, respectively. However, we found that the addition of niobium pentoxide catalyst to PAA treatment of lignin can significantly improve the MPC yields up to 47 %. The key reaction steps and main mechanisms involved in this new lignin-to-MPC valorization pathway were investigated and elucidated. PMID:27373451

  5. Pharmacology of bile acid receptors: Evolution of bile acids from simple detergents to complex signaling molecules.

    PubMed

    Copple, Bryan L; Li, Tiangang

    2016-02-01

    For many years, bile acids were thought to only function as detergents which solubilize fats and facilitate the uptake of fat-soluble vitamins in the intestine. Many early observations; however, demonstrated that bile acids regulate more complex processes, such as bile acids synthesis and immune cell function through activation of signal transduction pathways. These studies were the first to suggest that receptors may exist for bile acids. Ultimately, seminal studies by many investigators led to the discovery of several bile acid-activated receptors including the farnesoid X receptor, the vitamin D receptor, the pregnane X receptor, TGR5, α5 β1 integrin, and sphingosine-1-phosphate receptor 2. Several of these receptors are expressed outside of the gastrointestinal system, indicating that bile acids may have diverse functions throughout the body. Characterization of the functions of these receptors over the last two decades has identified many important roles for these receptors in regulation of bile acid synthesis, transport, and detoxification; regulation of glucose utilization; regulation of fatty acid synthesis and oxidation; regulation of immune cell function; regulation of energy expenditure; and regulation of neural processes such as gastric motility. Through these many functions, bile acids regulate many aspects of digestion ranging from uptake of essential vitamins to proper utilization of nutrients. Accordingly, within a short time period, bile acids moved beyond simple detergents and into the realm of complex signaling molecules. Because of the important processes that bile acids regulate through activation of receptors, drugs that target these receptors are under development for the treatment of several diseases, including cholestatic liver disease and metabolic syndrome. In this review, we will describe the various bile acid receptors, the signal transduction pathways activated by these receptors, and briefly discuss the physiological processes that

  6. Mechanistic Study of the Acid Degradation of Lignin Model Compounds

    SciTech Connect

    Sturgeon, M.; Kim, S.; Chmely, S. C.; Foust, T. D.; Beckham, G. T.

    2012-01-01

    Lignin is a major constituent of biomass, which remains underutilized in selective biomass conversion strategies to renewable fuels and chemicals. Here we are interested in understanding the mechanisms related to the acid deconstruction of lignin with a combined theoretical and experimental approach. Two model dimers with a b-O-4 aryl ether linkage (2-phenoxy-1-phenethanol and 2-phenoxy-1-phenyl-1,3 propanediol) and model dimmers with an a-O-4 aryl ether linkage were synthesized and deconstructed in H2SO4. The major products of the acidolysis of the b-O-4 compounds consisted of phenol and two aldehydes, phenylacetaldehyde and benzaldehyde. Quantum mechanical calculations were employed to elucidate possible deconstruction mechanisms with transition state theory. To confirm proposed mechanisms several possible intermediates were studied under similar acidolysis conditions. Although the resonance time for cleavage was on the order several hours, we have shown that the cleavage of the aryl ether linkage affords phenol and aldehydes. We would next like to utilize our mechanism of aryl ether cleavage in actual lignin.

  7. Swelling behaviors of porous lignin based poly (acrylic acid).

    PubMed

    Ma, Yanli; Sun, Yajie; Fu, Yujie; Fang, Guizhen; Yan, Xingru; Guo, Zhanhu

    2016-11-01

    Supramolecular cross-linked porous lignin based poly (acrylic acid) [LBPAA] was lab-synthesized by copolymerizing lignin grafted N, N'-methylene-bisacrylamide (LM) and acrylic acid. LBPAA successfully acted as a water retention agent with salt resistance and biodegradation for agricultural applications. Lignin was found to improve its swelling behaviors with higher water retention, fast swelling and de-swelling rates. The salt tolerance was stronger in the case of LBPAA (60 PAA/40 LM) [60 wt% PAA/40 wt% LM], i.e., 145.79 g·g(-1) higher than PAA at 0.09 mM KCl solution. The effect of ion charges on the LBPAA swelling ratio was greater than that of ionic radius. The weight loss of LBPAA (60 PAA/40 LM) was 5.47%, 4.96%, and 4.56% in the soil of Tangshan, Harbin, and Sian, respectively. The soil moisture content and clay content were observed to decrease gradually with increasing the burial time. The biodegradation test of LBPAA (60 PAA/40 LM) composite exhibited different bacterial colony forming units (CFU), the soil of Tangshan was 2.0 × 10(3) CFU·g(-1) soil, 7.0 × 10(3) CFU·g(-1) soil for Harbin, and 6.10 × 10(4) CFU·g(-1) soil for Sian. However, the organic matter contents in the soils did not have significant changes (Tangshan 6.21 mg·g(-1), Harbin 0.61 mg·g(-1), and Sian 0.405 mg·g(-1)). PMID:27587327

  8. Tandem Catalytic Depolymerization of Lignin by Water-Tolerant Lewis Acids and Rhodium Complexes.

    PubMed

    Jastrzebski, Robin; Constant, Sandra; Lancefield, Christopher S; Westwood, Nicholas J; Weckhuysen, Bert M; Bruijnincx, Pieter C A

    2016-08-23

    Lignin is an attractive renewable feedstock for aromatic bulk and fine chemicals production, provided that suitable depolymerization procedures are developed. Here, we describe a tandem catalysis strategy for ether linkage cleavage within lignin, involving ether hydrolysis by water-tolerant Lewis acids followed by aldehyde decarbonylation by a Rh complex. In situ decarbonylation of the reactive aldehydes limits loss of monomers by recondensation, a major issue in acid-catalyzed lignin depolymerization. Rate of hydrolysis and decarbonylation were matched using lignin model compounds, allowing the method to be successfully applied to softwood, hardwood, and herbaceous dioxasolv lignins, as well as poplar sawdust, to give the anticipated decarbonylation products and, rather surprisingly, 4-(1-propenyl)phenols. Promisingly, product selectivity can be tuned by variation of the Lewis-acid strength and lignin source. PMID:27440544

  9. Biomimetic Fenton-catalyzed lignin depolymerization to high-value aromatics and dicarboxylic acids.

    PubMed

    Zeng, Jijiao; Yoo, Chang Geun; Wang, Fei; Pan, Xuejun; Vermerris, Wilfred; Tong, Zhaohui

    2015-03-01

    By mimicking natural lignin degradation systems, the Fenton catalyst (Fe(3+), H2O2) can effectively facilitate lignin depolymerization in supercritical ethanol (7 MPa, 250 °C) to give organic oils that consist of mono- and oligomeric aromatics, phenols, dicarboxylic acids, and their derivatives in yields up to (66.0±8.5) %. The thermal properties, functional groups, and surface chemistry of lignin before and after Fenton treatment were examined by thermogravimetric analysis, pyrolysis-gas chromatography-mass spectrometry, (31)P NMR spectroscopy, and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy. The results suggest that the Fenton catalyst facilitates lignin depolymerization through cleavage of β-ether bonds between lignin residues. The formation of a lignin-iron chelating complex effectively depresses lignin recondensation; thus minimizing charcoal formation and enhancing the yield of liquid products.

  10. Solubilization of lignin by the ruminal anaerobic fungus Neocallimastix patriciarum.

    PubMed Central

    McSweeney, C S; Dulieu, A; Katayama, Y; Lowry, J B

    1994-01-01

    The ability of the ruminal anaerobic phycomycete Neocallimastix patriciarum to digest model lignin compounds and lignified structures in plant material was studied in batch culture. The fungus did not degrade or transform model lignin compounds that were representative of the predominant intermonomer linkages in lignin, nor did it solubilize acid detergent lignin that had been isolated from spear grass. In a stem fraction of sorghum, 33.6% of lignin was apparently solubilized by the fungus. Solubilization of ester- and either-linked phenolics accounted for 9.2% of the lignin released. The amounts of free phenolic acids detected in culture fluid were equivalent to the apparent loss of ester-linked phenolics from the sorghum substrate. However, the fungus was unable to cleave the ether bond in hydroxycinnamic acid bridges that cross-link lignin and polysaccharide. It is suggested that the majority of the solubilized lignin fraction was a lignin carbohydrate complex containing ether-linked hydroxycinnamic acids. The lignin carbohydrate complex was probably solubilized through dissolution of xylan in the lignin-xylan matrix rather than by lignin depolymerization. PMID:8085834

  11. Comparison of the acetyl bromide spectrophotometric method with other analytical lignin methods for determining lignin concentration in forage samples.

    PubMed

    Fukushima, Romualdo S; Hatfield, Ronald D

    2004-06-16

    Present analytical methods to quantify lignin in herbaceous plants are not totally satisfactory. A spectrophotometric method, acetyl bromide soluble lignin (ABSL), has been employed to determine lignin concentration in a range of plant materials. In this work, lignin extracted with acidic dioxane was used to develop standard curves and to calculate the derived linear regression equation (slope equals absorptivity value or extinction coefficient) for determining the lignin concentration of respective cell wall samples. This procedure yielded lignin values that were different from those obtained with Klason lignin, acid detergent acid insoluble lignin, or permanganate lignin procedures. Correlations with in vitro dry matter or cell wall digestibility of samples were highest with data from the spectrophotometric technique. The ABSL method employing as standard lignin extracted with acidic dioxane has the potential to be employed as an analytical method to determine lignin concentration in a range of forage materials. It may be useful in developing a quick and easy method to predict in vitro digestibility on the basis of the total lignin content of a sample.

  12. Detergents and Dispersants

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Seddon, E. J.; Friend, C. L.; Roski, J. P.

    Lubricant detergents are metal salts of organic surfactants giving corrosion protection, deposit prevention and other formulation performance enhancements. Overbased detergents incorporate colloidal basic inorganic components which neutralize acidic contaminants. Degrees of overbasing, size and form of component affect detergent performance. Sulphonate-, phenate- and salicylate-type detergents incorporating calcium carbonate are the most widely used. Choices of detergent type and level are highly dependent on specific applications, and combinations are needed to optimize performance and cost.

  13. Control of acid drainage from fresh coal refuse: food preservatives as economical alternatives to detergents

    SciTech Connect

    Onysko, S.J.; Erickson, P.M.; Kleinmann, R.L.P.; Hood, M.

    1984-12-01

    Water soluble detergents such as sodium lauryl sulfate (SLS), which can sorb to pyritic materials, have been successfully used by the mining industry for acid drainage prevention in coal refuse. Detergent control of acid drainage from refuse may be uneconomical, however, at sites where extensive rainfall or groundwater movement results in rapid SLS washout. In this study, the performance of two alternative acid control chemicals, sodium benzoate and potassium sorbate, was compared with the performance of SLS in pilot-scale experiments with extensively leached, fresh coal refuse. Chemical cost information is presented that indicates low benzoate and sorbate doses were more economical than comparable SLS doses under the experimental conditions of the study. The unique environmental compatibility of benzoate and sorbate, which are used in food and beverages in concentrations greater than those reported in this study for acid drainage suppression, is also discussed.

  14. Structural Transformation of Isolated Poplar and Switchgrass Lignins from Dilute Acid Pretreatment

    DOE PAGES

    Sun, Qining; Pu, Yunqiao; Meng, Xianzhi; Wells, Tyrone; Ragauskas, Arthur J.

    2015-08-27

    A key step in conversion of cellulosic biomass into sustainable fuels and chemicals is thermochemical pretreatment to reduce plant cell wall recalcitrance. Obtaining an improved understanding of the fundamental chemistry of lignin, the most recalcitrant component of biomass, during pretreatment is critical to the continued development of renewable biofuel production. To examine the intrinsic chemistry of lignin during dilute acid pretreatment (DAP), lignin was isolated from poplar and switchgrass using a cellulolytic enzyme system and then treated under DAP conditions. These results highlight that lignin is subjected to depolymerization reactions within the first 2 min of dilute acid pretreatment andmore » these changes are accompanied by increased generation of aliphatic and phenolic hydroxyl groups of lignin. This is followed by a competing set of depolymerization and repolymerization reactions that lead to a decrease in the content of guaiacyl lignin units and an increase in condensed lignin units as the reaction residence time is extended beyond 5 min. Finally, we showed that a detailed comparison of changes in functional groups and molecular weights of cellulolytic enzyme lignins with different structural parameters, related to the recalcitrant properties of lignin, could be successfully altered during DAP conditions.« less

  15. Structural Transformation of Isolated Poplar and Switchgrass Lignins from Dilute Acid Pretreatment

    SciTech Connect

    Sun, Qining; Pu, Yunqiao; Meng, Xianzhi; Wells, Tyrone; Ragauskas, Arthur J.

    2015-08-27

    A key step in conversion of cellulosic biomass into sustainable fuels and chemicals is thermochemical pretreatment to reduce plant cell wall recalcitrance. Obtaining an improved understanding of the fundamental chemistry of lignin, the most recalcitrant component of biomass, during pretreatment is critical to the continued development of renewable biofuel production. To examine the intrinsic chemistry of lignin during dilute acid pretreatment (DAP), lignin was isolated from poplar and switchgrass using a cellulolytic enzyme system and then treated under DAP conditions. These results highlight that lignin is subjected to depolymerization reactions within the first 2 min of dilute acid pretreatment and these changes are accompanied by increased generation of aliphatic and phenolic hydroxyl groups of lignin. This is followed by a competing set of depolymerization and repolymerization reactions that lead to a decrease in the content of guaiacyl lignin units and an increase in condensed lignin units as the reaction residence time is extended beyond 5 min. Finally, we showed that a detailed comparison of changes in functional groups and molecular weights of cellulolytic enzyme lignins with different structural parameters, related to the recalcitrant properties of lignin, could be successfully altered during DAP conditions.

  16. Redistribution of Lignin Caused by Dilute Acid Pretreatment of Biomass

    SciTech Connect

    Johnson, D. K.; Donohoe, B. S.; Katahira, R.; Tucker, M. P.; Vinzant, T. B.; Himmel, M. E.

    2012-01-01

    Research conducted at NREL has shown that lignin undergoes a phase transition during thermochemical pretreatments conducted above its glass transition temperature. The lignin coalesces within the plant cell wall and appears as microscopic droplets on cell surfaces. It is clear that pretreatment causes significant changes in lignin distribution in pretreatments at all scales from small laboratory reactors to pilot scale reactors. A method for selectively extracting lignin droplets from the surfaces of pretreated cell walls has allowed us to characterize the chemical nature and molecular weight distribution of this fraction. The effect of lignin redistribution on the digestibility of pretreated solids has also been tested. It is clear that removal of the droplets increases the digestibility of pretreated corn stover. The improved digestibility could be due to decreased non-specific binding of enzymes to lignin in the droplets, or because the droplets no longer block access to cellulose.

  17. Positions of polar amino acids alter interactions between transmembrane segments and detergents.

    PubMed

    Tulumello, David V; Deber, Charles M

    2011-05-17

    α-Helical transmembrane (TM) segments in membrane proteins are comprised primarily of hydrophobic amino acids that accommodate insertion from water into the nonpolar membrane bilayer. In many such segments, however, polar residues are also present for structural or functional reasons. These latter residues impair the local favorable acyl interactions required for solvation by hydrophobic media such as phospholipids in native bilayers or detergents used for in vitro characterization. Using a series of Lys-tagged designed TM-like peptides (typified by KK-YAAAIAAIAWAIAAIAAAIAA-KKK) in which single-Asn residue substitutions (from Ile or Ala) were made successively from the center of the hydrophobic region toward the C-terminus, we demonstrate that polar residues strongly alter the nature of the interaction between TM segments and the solvating detergent. Through the application of sodium dodecyl sulfate-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis, circular dichroism spectroscopy, and tryptophan fluorescence, we observed drastic differences in the structures of the detergent-peptide complexes that contain relatively minor sequence differences. For example, the blue shift of the Trp fluorescence (indicating local detergent solvation at this location) differs by as much as ~10 nm depending upon the position of a single Asn substitution in an otherwise identical segment. The overall results suggest that polar point mutations occurring in a biological membrane will elicit comparable effects, placing a significant refolding burden on the local protein structure and potentially leading to disease states through altered protein--lipid interactions in membrane proteins.

  18. Mechanistic Investigation of Acid-Catalyzed Cleavage of Aryl-Ether Linkages: Implications for Lignin Depolymerization

    SciTech Connect

    Sturgeon, M. R.; Kim, S.; Chmely, S. C.; Foust, T. D.; Beckham, G. T.

    2013-01-01

    Carbon-oxygen bonds are the primary inter-monomer linkages lignin polymers in plant cell walls, and as such, catalyst development to cleave these linkages is of paramount importance to deconstruct biomass to its constituent monomers for the production of renewable fuels and chemicals. For many decades, acid catalysis has been used to depolymerize lignin. Lignin is a primary component of plant cell walls, which is connected primarily by aryl-ether linkages, and the mechanism of its deconstruction by acid is not well understood, likely due to its heterogeneous and complex nature compared to cellulose. For effective biomass conversion strategies, utilization of lignin is of significant relevance and as such understanding the mechanisms of catalytic lignin deconstruction to constituent monomers and oligomers is of keen interest. Here, we present a comprehensive experimental and theoretical study of the acid catalysis of a range of dimeric species exhibiting the b-O-4 linkage, the most common inter-monomer linkage in lignin. We demonstrate that the presence of a phenolic species dramatically increases the rate of cleavage in acid at 150 degrees C. Quantum mechanical calculations on dimers with the para-hydroxyl group demonstrate that this acid-catalyzed pathway differs from the nonphenolic dimmers. Importantly, this result implies that depolymerization of native lignin in the plant cell wall will proceed via an unzipping mechanism wherein b-O-4 linkages will be cleaved from the ends of the branched, polymer chains inwards toward the center of the polymer. To test this hypothesis further, we synthesized a homopolymer of b-O-4 with a phenolic hydroxyl group, and demonstrate that it is cleaved in acid from the end containing the phenolic hydroxyl group. This result suggests that genetic modifications to lignin biosynthesis pathways in plants that will enable lower severity processes to fractionate lignin for upgrading and for easier access to the carbohydrate fraction of

  19. Fatty acid profiles from the plasma membrane and detergent resistant membranes of two plant species.

    PubMed

    Carmona-Salazar, Laura; El Hafidi, Mohammed; Gutiérrez-Nájera, Nora; Noyola-Martínez, Liliana; González-Solís, Ariadna; Gavilanes-Ruíz, Marina

    2015-01-01

    It is essential to establish the composition of the plant plasma membrane in order to understand its organization and behavior under continually changing environments. Knowledge of the lipid phase, in particular the fatty acid (FA) complex repertoire, is important since FAs determine many of the physical-chemical membrane properties. FAs are constituents of the membrane glycerolipid and sphingolipid backbones and can also be linked to some sterols. In addition, FAs are components of complex lipids that can constitute membrane micro-domains, and the use of detergent-resistant membranes is a common approach to study their composition. The diversity and cellular allocation of the membrane lipids containing FAs are very diverse and the approaches to analyze them provide only general information. In this work, a detailed FA analysis was performed using highly purified plasma membranes from bean leaves and germinating maize embryos and their respective detergent-resistant membrane preparations. The analyses showed the presence of a significant amount of very long chain FAs (containing 28C, 30C and 32C), in both plasma membrane preparations from bean and maize, that have not been previously reported. Herein is demonstrated that a significant enrichment of very long chain saturated FAs and saturated FAs can occur in detergent-resistant membrane preparations, as compared to the plasma membranes from both plant species. Considering that a thorough analysis of FAs is rarely performed in purified plasma membranes and detergent-resistant membranes, this work provides qualitative and quantitative evidence on the contributions of the length and saturation of FAs to the organization of the plant plasma membrane and detergent-resistant membranes.

  20. Influence of lignin on morphology, structure and thermal behavior of polylactic acid-based biocomposites

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Canetti, Maurizio; Cacciamani, Adriana; Bertini, Fabio

    2016-05-01

    Polylactic acid (PLA) is a thermoplastic biodegradable polymer that can be made from annually renewable resources. Lignin is a natural amorphous polyphenolic macromolecule inexpensive and easily available. In the present study PLA and acetylated lignin biocomposites were prepared by casting from chloroform solution. PLA can crystallize from the melt in the α and α' forms, depending on the adopted crystallization conditions. The presence of the lignin in the biocomposites can interfere with the crystal formation process. Isothermal crystallizations were performed at different temperatures, the presence of lignin causes an increase of the time of crystallization, while the overall crystallization rate and the spherulite radial growth rate decrease with enhancing the lignin content in the biocomposites.

  1. Acid-catalysed xylose dehydration into furfural in the presence of kraft lignin.

    PubMed

    Lamminpää, Kaisa; Ahola, Juha; Tanskanen, Juha

    2015-02-01

    In this study, the effects of kraft lignin (Indulin AT) on acid-catalysed xylose dehydration into furfural were studied in formic and sulphuric acids. The study was done using D-optimal design. Three variables in both acids were included in the design: time (20-80 min), temperature (160-180°C) and initial lignin concentration (0-20 g/l). The dependent variables were xylose conversion, furfural yield, furfural selectivity and pH change. The results showed that the xylose conversion and furfural yield decreased in sulphuric acid, while in formic acid the changes were minor. Additionally, it was showed that lignin has an acid-neutralising capacity, and the added lignin increased the pH of reactant solutions in both acids. The pH rise was considerably lower in formic acid than in sulphuric acid. However, the higher pH did not explain all the changes in conversion and yield, and thus lignin evidently inhibits the formation of furfural.

  2. Lignin hydrolysis and phosphorylation mechanism during phosphoric acid-acetone pretreatment: a DFT study.

    PubMed

    Qin, Wu; Wu, Lingnan; Zheng, Zongming; Dong, Changqing; Yang, Yongping

    2014-12-18

    The study focused on the structural sensitivity of lignin during the phosphoric acid-acetone pretreatment process and the resulting hydrolysis and phosphorylation reaction mechanisms using density functional theory calculations. The chemical stabilities of the seven most common linkages (β-O-4, β-β, 4-O-5, β-1, 5-5, α-O-4, and β-5) of lignin in H3PO4, CH3COCH3, and H2O solutions were detected, which shows that α-O-4 linkage and β-O-4 linkage tend to break during the phosphoric acid-acetone pretreatment process. Then α-O-4 phosphorylation and β-O-4 phosphorylation follow a two-step reaction mechanism in the acid treatment step, respectively. However, since phosphorylation of α-O-4 is more energetically accessible than phosphorylation of β-O-4 in phosphoric acid, the phosphorylation of α-O-4 could be controllably realized under certain operational conditions, which could tune the electron and hole transfer on the right side of β-O-4 in the H2PO4- functionalized lignin. The results provide a fundamental understanding for process-controlled modification of lignin and the potential novel applications in lignin-based imprinted polymers, sensors, and molecular devices.

  3. Characterization of lignin derived from water-only and dilute acid flowthrough pretreatment of poplar wood at elevated temperatures

    SciTech Connect

    Zhang, Libing; Yan, Lishi; Wang, Zheming; Laskar, Dhrubojyoti D.; Swita, Marie S.; Cort, John R.; Yang, Bin

    2015-12-01

    In this study, flowthrough pretreatment of biomass has high potential to valorize lignin derivatives to high-value products, which is vital to enhance the economy of biorefinery plants. Comprehensive understanding of lignin behaviors and solubilization chemistry in aqueous pretreatment such as water-only and dilute acid flowthrough pretreatment is of fundamental importance to achieve the goal of providing flexible platform for lignin utilization. In this study, the effects of flowthrough pretreatment conditions on lignin separation from poplar wood were reported as well as the characteristics of three sub-sets of lignin produced from the pretreatment, including residual lignin in pretreated solid residues (ReL), recovered insoluble lignin in pretreated liquid (RISL), and recovered soluble lignin in pretreatment liquid (RSL). Both the water-only and 0.05% (w/w) sulfuric acid pretreatments were performed at temperatures from 160 to 270°C on poplar wood in a flowthrough reactor system for 2-10 min. Results showed that water-only flowthrough pretreatment primarily removed syringyl (S units). Increased temperature and/or the addition of sulfuric acid enhanced the removal of guaiacyl (G units) compared to water-only pretreatments at lower temperatures, resulting in nearly complete removal of lignin from the biomass. Results also suggested that more RISL was recovered than ReL and RSL in both dilute acid and water-only flowthrough pretreatment at elevated temperatures. NMR spectra of the RISL revealed significant β-O-4 cleavage, α-β deoxygenation to form cinnamyl-like end groups, and slight β-5 repolymerization in both water-only and dilute acid flowthrough pretreatments. In conclusion, elevated temperature and/or dilute acid greatly enhanced lignin removal to almost 100% by improving G unit removal besides S unit removal in flowthrough system. A new lignin chemistry transformation pathway was proposed and revealed the complexity of lignin structural change during

  4. Gas-Phase Partial Oxidation of Lignin to Carboxylic Acids over Vanadium Pyrophosphate and Aluminum-Vanadium-Molybdenum.

    PubMed

    Lotfi, Samira; Boffito, Daria C; Patience, Gregory S

    2015-10-26

    Lignin is a complex polymer that is a potential feedstock for aromatic compounds and carboxylic acids by cleaving the β-O-4 and 5-5' linkages. In this work, a syringe pump atomizes an alkaline solution of lignin into a catalytic fluidized bed operating above 600 K. The vanadium heterogeneous catalysts convert all the lignin into carboxylic acids (up to 25 % selectivity), coke, carbon oxides, and hydrogen. Aluminum-vanadium-molybdenum mostly produced lactic acid (together with formic acid, acrylic acid, and maleic anhydride), whereas the vanadium pyrophosphate catalyst produced more maleic anhydride.

  5. Enhanced lignin monomer production caused by cinnamic Acid and its hydroxylated derivatives inhibits soybean root growth.

    PubMed

    Lima, Rogério Barbosa; Salvador, Victor Hugo; dos Santos, Wanderley Dantas; Bubna, Gisele Adriana; Finger-Teixeira, Aline; Soares, Anderson Ricardo; Marchiosi, Rogério; Ferrarese, Maria de Lourdes Lucio; Ferrarese-Filho, Osvaldo

    2013-01-01

    Cinnamic acid and its hydroxylated derivatives (p-coumaric, caffeic, ferulic and sinapic acids) are known allelochemicals that affect the seed germination and root growth of many plant species. Recent studies have indicated that the reduction of root growth by these allelochemicals is associated with premature cell wall lignification. We hypothesized that an influx of these compounds into the phenylpropanoid pathway increases the lignin monomer content and reduces the root growth. To confirm this hypothesis, we evaluated the effects of cinnamic, p-coumaric, caffeic, ferulic and sinapic acids on soybean root growth, lignin and the composition of p-hydroxyphenyl (H), guaiacyl (G) and syringyl (S) monomers. To this end, three-day-old seedlings were cultivated in nutrient solution with or without allelochemical (or selective enzymatic inhibitors of the phenylpropanoid pathway) in a growth chamber for 24 h. In general, the results showed that 1) cinnamic, p-coumaric, caffeic and ferulic acids reduced root growth and increased lignin content; 2) cinnamic and p-coumaric acids increased p-hydroxyphenyl (H) monomer content, whereas p-coumaric, caffeic and ferulic acids increased guaiacyl (G) content, and sinapic acid increased sinapyl (S) content; 3) when applied in conjunction with piperonylic acid (PIP, an inhibitor of the cinnamate 4-hydroxylase, C4H), cinnamic acid reduced H, G and S contents; and 4) when applied in conjunction with 3,4-(methylenedioxy)cinnamic acid (MDCA, an inhibitor of the 4-coumarate:CoA ligase, 4CL), p-coumaric acid reduced H, G and S contents, whereas caffeic, ferulic and sinapic acids reduced G and S contents. These results confirm our hypothesis that exogenously applied allelochemicals are channeled into the phenylpropanoid pathway causing excessive production of lignin and its main monomers. By consequence, an enhanced stiffening of the cell wall restricts soybean root growth.

  6. Fatty acid-dependent globotriaosyl ceramide receptor function in detergent resistant model membranes.

    PubMed

    Mahfoud, Radhia; Manis, Adam; Lingwood, Clifford A

    2009-09-01

    Glycosphingolipid (GSL) fatty acid strictly regulates verotoxin 1 (VT1) and the HIV adhesin, gp120 binding to globotriaosyl ceramide within Gb(3)/cholesterol detergent resistant membrane (DRM) vesicle constructs and in Gb(3) water-air interface monolayers in a similar manner. VT2 bound Gb(3)/cholesterol vesicles irrespective of fatty acid composition, but VT1 bound neither C18 nor C20Gb(3)vesicles. C18/C20Gb(3) were dominant negative in mixed Gb(3) fatty acid isoform vesicles, but including C24:1Gb(3) gave maximal binding. VT1 bound C18Gb(3) vesicles after cholesterol removal, but C20Gb(3)vesicles required sphingomyelin in addition for binding. HIV-1gp120 also bound C16, C22, and C24, but neither C18 nor C20Gb(3) vesicles. C18 and C20Gb(3) were, in mixtures without C24:1Gb(3), dominant negative for gp120 vesicle binding. Gp120/VT1bound C18 and C24:1Gb(3) mixtures, although neither isoform bound alone. Monolayer surface pressure measurement showed VT1, but not VT2, bound Gb(3) at cellular DRM surface pressures, and confirmed loss of VT1 and gp120 (but not VT2) specific C18Gb(3) binding. We conclude fatty-acid mediated fluidity within simple model GSL/cholesterol DRM can selectively regulate GSL carbohydrate-ligand binding.

  7. Unraveling the Structural Modifications in Lignin of Arundo donax Linn. during Acid-Enhanced Ionic Liquid Pretreatment.

    PubMed

    You, Tingting; Zhang, Liming; Guo, Siqin; Shao, Lupeng; Xu, Feng

    2015-12-23

    Solid acid-enhanced ionic liquid (IL) pretreatment is of paramount importance for boosting the yield of sugars from biomass cost-effectively and environmentally friendly. To unravel the chemical and supramolecular structural changes of lignin after pretreatment, IL-acid lignin (ILAL) and subsequent residual cellulolytic enzyme lignin (RCEL) were isolated from Arundo donax Linn. The structural features were compared with those of the corresponding milled wood lignin (MWL). Results indicated that the pretreatment caused loss of β-O-4', β-β', β-1' linkages and formation of condensed structures in lignin. A preferential breakdown of G-type lignin may have occurred, evidenced by an increased S/G ratio revealed by 2D HSQC NMR analysis. It was determined that the depolymerization of β-O-4' linkage, lignin recondensation, and cleavage of ferulate-lignin ether linkages took place. Moreover, a simulation module was first developed to define morphological changes in lignin based on AFM and TEM analyses. Briefly, tree branch like aggregates was destroyed to monodisperse particles. PMID:26621450

  8. Correlating Detergent Fiber Analysis and Dietary Fiber Analysis Data for Corn Stover

    SciTech Connect

    Wolfrum, E. J.; Lorenz, A. J.; deLeon, N.

    2009-01-01

    There exist large amounts of detergent fiber analysis data [neutral detergent fiber (NDF), acid detergent fiber (ADF), acid detergent lignin (ADL)] for many different potential cellulosic ethanol feedstocks, since these techniques are widely used for the analysis of forages. Researchers working in the area of cellulosic ethanol are interested in the structural carbohydrates in a feedstock (principally glucan and xylan), which are typically determined by acid hydrolysis of the structural fraction after multiple extractions of the biomass. These so-called dietary fiber analysis methods are significantly more involved than detergent fiber analysis methods. The purpose of this study was to determine whether it is feasible to correlate detergent fiber analysis values to glucan and xylan content determined by dietary fiber analysis methods for corn stover. In the detergent fiber analysis literature cellulose is often estimated as the difference between ADF and ADL, while hemicellulose is often estimated as the difference between NDF and ADF. Examination of a corn stover dataset containing both detergent fiber analysis data and dietary fiber analysis data predicted using near infrared spectroscopy shows that correlations between structural glucan measured using dietary fiber techniques and cellulose estimated using detergent techniques, and between structural xylan measured using dietary fiber techniques and hemicellulose estimated using detergent techniques are high, but are driven largely by the underlying correlation between total extractives measured by fiber analysis and NDF/ADF. That is, detergent analysis data is correlated to dietary fiber analysis data for structural carbohydrates, but only indirectly; the main correlation is between detergent analysis data and solvent extraction data produced during the dietary fiber analysis procedure.

  9. Self-sufficient redox biotransformation of lignin-related benzoic acids with Aspergillus flavus.

    PubMed

    Palazzolo, Martín A; Mascotti, María L; Lewkowicz, Elizabeth S; Kurina-Sanz, Marcela

    2015-12-01

    Aromatic carboxylic acids are readily obtained from lignin in biomass processing facilities. However, efficient technologies for lignin valorization are missing. In this work, a microbial screening was conducted to find versatile biocatalysts capable of transforming several benzoic acids structurally related to lignin, employing vanillic acid as model substrate. The wild-type Aspergillus flavus growing cells exhibited exquisite selectivity towards the oxidative decarboxylation product, 2-methoxybenzene-1,4-diol. Interestingly, when assaying a set of structurally related substrates, the biocatalyst displayed the oxidative removal of the carboxyl moiety or its reduction to the primary alcohol whether electron withdrawing or donating groups were present in the aromatic ring, respectively. Additionally, A. flavus proved to be highly tolerant to vanillic acid increasing concentrations (up to 8 g/L), demonstrating its potential application in chemical synthesis. A. flavus growing cells were found to be efficient biotechnological tools to perform self-sufficient, structure-dependent redox reactions. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first report of a biocatalyst exhibiting opposite redox transformations of the carboxylic acid moiety in benzoic acid derivatives, namely oxidative decarboxylation and carboxyl reduction, in a structure-dependent fashion.

  10. Detergent poisoning

    MedlinePlus

    ... this page: //medlineplus.gov/ency/article/002777.htm Detergent poisoning To use the sharing features on this page, please enable JavaScript. Detergents are powerful cleaning products that may contain strong ...

  11. Preparation and evaluation of lignosulfonates as a dispersant for gypsum paste from acid hydrolysis lignin.

    PubMed

    Matsushita, Yasuyuki; Yasuda, Seiichi

    2005-03-01

    In order to effectively utilize a by-product of the acid saccharification process of woody materials, the chemical conversion of guaiacyl sulfuric acid lignin (SAL), one of the acid hydrolysis lignins, into water-soluble sulfonated products with high dispersibitity was investigated. At first, SAL was phenolated (P-SAL) to enhance the solubility and reactivity. Lignosulfonates were prepared from P-SAL by three methods of hydroxymethylation followed by neutral sulfonation (two-step method), sulfomethylation (one-step method) and arylsulfonation. Surprisingly, all prepared lignosulfonates possessed 30 to 70% higher dispersibility for gypsum paste than the commercial lignosulfonate. Evaluation of the preparations for gypsum paste suggested that the higher molecular weights and sulfur contents of the preparations increased their dispersibility. PMID:15491828

  12. Preparation and evaluation of lignosulfonates as a dispersant for gypsum paste from acid hydrolysis lignin.

    PubMed

    Matsushita, Yasuyuki; Yasuda, Seiichi

    2005-03-01

    In order to effectively utilize a by-product of the acid saccharification process of woody materials, the chemical conversion of guaiacyl sulfuric acid lignin (SAL), one of the acid hydrolysis lignins, into water-soluble sulfonated products with high dispersibitity was investigated. At first, SAL was phenolated (P-SAL) to enhance the solubility and reactivity. Lignosulfonates were prepared from P-SAL by three methods of hydroxymethylation followed by neutral sulfonation (two-step method), sulfomethylation (one-step method) and arylsulfonation. Surprisingly, all prepared lignosulfonates possessed 30 to 70% higher dispersibility for gypsum paste than the commercial lignosulfonate. Evaluation of the preparations for gypsum paste suggested that the higher molecular weights and sulfur contents of the preparations increased their dispersibility.

  13. Modulating lignin in plants

    SciTech Connect

    Apuya, Nestor; Bobzin, Steven Craig; Okamuro, Jack; Zhang, Ke

    2013-01-29

    Materials and methods for modulating (e.g., increasing or decreasing) lignin content in plants are disclosed. For example, nucleic acids encoding lignin-modulating polypeptides are disclosed as well as methods for using such nucleic acids to generate transgenic plants having a modulated lignin content.

  14. A clinical pilot study of lignin--ascorbic acid combination treatment of herpes simplex virus.

    PubMed

    Lopez, Blanca Silvia Gonzalez; Yamamoto, Masaji; Utsumi, Katsuaki; Aratsu, Chiaki; Sakagami, Hiroshi

    2009-01-01

    Antiviral drugs as well as natural remedies have been used to reduce symptoms and the rate of recurrences of herpes simplex virus type 1 (HSV-1) infection, a common disease. To evaluate anti-HSV-1 activity of a pine cone lignin and ascorbic acid treatment, a clinical pilot study was carried out. Forty-eight healthy patients of both genders between 4 and 61 years old (mean: 31+/-16 years), with active lesions of HSV-1, took part in the study. According to the HSV-1 stage at the presentation, the patients were classified into the prodromic (16 patients), erythema (11 patients), papule edema (1 patient), vesicle/pustule (13 patients) and ulcer stages (7 patients). One mg of lignin-ascorbic acid tablet or solution was orally administered three times daily for a month. Clinical evaluations were made daily the first week and at least three times a week during the second week after the onset and every six months during the subsequent year to identify recurrence episodes. The patients who began the lignin-ascorbic acid treatment within the first 48 hours of symptom onset did not develop HSV-1 characteristic lesions, whereas those patients who began the treatment later experienced a shorter duration of cold sore lesions and a decrease in the symptoms compared with previous episodes. The majority of the patients reported the reduction in the severity of symptoms and the reduction in the recurrence episodes after the lignin-ascorbic acid treatment compared with previous episodes, suggesting its possible applicability for the prevention and treatment of HSV-1 infection. PMID:20023248

  15. A clinical pilot study of lignin--ascorbic acid combination treatment of herpes simplex virus.

    PubMed

    Lopez, Blanca Silvia Gonzalez; Yamamoto, Masaji; Utsumi, Katsuaki; Aratsu, Chiaki; Sakagami, Hiroshi

    2009-01-01

    Antiviral drugs as well as natural remedies have been used to reduce symptoms and the rate of recurrences of herpes simplex virus type 1 (HSV-1) infection, a common disease. To evaluate anti-HSV-1 activity of a pine cone lignin and ascorbic acid treatment, a clinical pilot study was carried out. Forty-eight healthy patients of both genders between 4 and 61 years old (mean: 31+/-16 years), with active lesions of HSV-1, took part in the study. According to the HSV-1 stage at the presentation, the patients were classified into the prodromic (16 patients), erythema (11 patients), papule edema (1 patient), vesicle/pustule (13 patients) and ulcer stages (7 patients). One mg of lignin-ascorbic acid tablet or solution was orally administered three times daily for a month. Clinical evaluations were made daily the first week and at least three times a week during the second week after the onset and every six months during the subsequent year to identify recurrence episodes. The patients who began the lignin-ascorbic acid treatment within the first 48 hours of symptom onset did not develop HSV-1 characteristic lesions, whereas those patients who began the treatment later experienced a shorter duration of cold sore lesions and a decrease in the symptoms compared with previous episodes. The majority of the patients reported the reduction in the severity of symptoms and the reduction in the recurrence episodes after the lignin-ascorbic acid treatment compared with previous episodes, suggesting its possible applicability for the prevention and treatment of HSV-1 infection.

  16. Characterization of lignin derived from water-only and dilute acid flowthrough pretreatment of poplar wood at elevated temperatures

    DOE PAGES

    Zhang, Libing; Yan, Lishi; Wang, Zheming; Laskar, Dhrubojyoti D.; Swita, Marie S.; Cort, John R.; Yang, Bin

    2015-12-01

    In this study, flowthrough pretreatment of biomass has high potential to valorize lignin derivatives to high-value products, which is vital to enhance the economy of biorefinery plants. Comprehensive understanding of lignin behaviors and solubilization chemistry in aqueous pretreatment such as water-only and dilute acid flowthrough pretreatment is of fundamental importance to achieve the goal of providing flexible platform for lignin utilization. In this study, the effects of flowthrough pretreatment conditions on lignin separation from poplar wood were reported as well as the characteristics of three sub-sets of lignin produced from the pretreatment, including residual lignin in pretreated solid residues (ReL),more » recovered insoluble lignin in pretreated liquid (RISL), and recovered soluble lignin in pretreatment liquid (RSL). Both the water-only and 0.05% (w/w) sulfuric acid pretreatments were performed at temperatures from 160 to 270°C on poplar wood in a flowthrough reactor system for 2-10 min. Results showed that water-only flowthrough pretreatment primarily removed syringyl (S units). Increased temperature and/or the addition of sulfuric acid enhanced the removal of guaiacyl (G units) compared to water-only pretreatments at lower temperatures, resulting in nearly complete removal of lignin from the biomass. Results also suggested that more RISL was recovered than ReL and RSL in both dilute acid and water-only flowthrough pretreatment at elevated temperatures. NMR spectra of the RISL revealed significant β-O-4 cleavage, α-β deoxygenation to form cinnamyl-like end groups, and slight β-5 repolymerization in both water-only and dilute acid flowthrough pretreatments. In conclusion, elevated temperature and/or dilute acid greatly enhanced lignin removal to almost 100% by improving G unit removal besides S unit removal in flowthrough system. A new lignin chemistry transformation pathway was proposed and revealed the complexity of lignin structural change

  17. Effect of lignin content on changes occurring in poplar cellulose ultrastructure during dilute acid pretreatment

    DOE PAGES

    Sun, Qining; Foston, Marcus; Meng, Xianzhi; Sawada, Daisuke; Pingali, Sai Venkatesh; O’Neill, Hugh M.; Li, Hongjia; Wyman, Charles E.; Langan, Paul; Ragauskas, Art J.; et al

    2014-10-14

    Obtaining a better understanding of the complex mechanisms occurring during lignocellulosic deconstruction is critical to the continued growth of renewable biofuel production. A key step in bioethanol production is thermochemical pretreatment to reduce plant cell wall recalcitrance for downstream processes. Previous studies of dilute acid pretreatment (DAP) have shown significant changes in cellulose ultrastructure that occur during pretreatment, but there is still a substantial knowledge gap with respect to the influence of lignin on these cellulose ultrastructural changes. This study was designed to assess how the presence of lignin influences DAP-induced changes in cellulose ultrastructure, which might ultimately have largemore » implications with respect to enzymatic deconstruction efforts. Native, untreated hybrid poplar (Populus trichocarpa x Populus deltoids) samples and a partially delignified poplar sample (facilitated by acidic sodium chlorite pulping) were separately pretreated with dilute sulfuric acid (0.10 M) at 160°C for 15 minutes and 35 minutes, respectively . Following extensive characterization, the partially delignified biomass displayed more significant changes in cellulose ultrastructure following DAP than the native untreated biomass. With respect to the native untreated poplar, delignified poplar after DAP (in which approximately 40% lignin removal occurred) experienced: increased cellulose accessibility indicated by increased Simons’ stain (orange dye) adsorption from 21.8 to 72.5 mg/g, decreased cellulose weight-average degree of polymerization (DPw) from 3087 to 294 units, and increased cellulose crystallite size from 2.9 to 4.2 nm. These changes following DAP ultimately increased enzymatic sugar yield from 10 to 80%. We conclude that, overall, the results indicate a strong influence of lignin content on cellulose ultrastructural changes occurring during DAP. With the reduction of lignin content during DAP, the enlargement of

  18. Effect of lignin content on changes occurring in poplar cellulose ultrastructure during dilute acid pretreatment

    SciTech Connect

    Sun, Qining; Foston, Marcus; Meng, Xianzhi; Sawada, Daisuke; Pingali, Sai Venkatesh; O’Neill, Hugh M.; Li, Hongjia; Wyman, Charles E.; Langan, Paul; Ragauskas, Art J.; Kumar, Rajeev

    2014-10-14

    Obtaining a better understanding of the complex mechanisms occurring during lignocellulosic deconstruction is critical to the continued growth of renewable biofuel production. A key step in bioethanol production is thermochemical pretreatment to reduce plant cell wall recalcitrance for downstream processes. Previous studies of dilute acid pretreatment (DAP) have shown significant changes in cellulose ultrastructure that occur during pretreatment, but there is still a substantial knowledge gap with respect to the influence of lignin on these cellulose ultrastructural changes. This study was designed to assess how the presence of lignin influences DAP-induced changes in cellulose ultrastructure, which might ultimately have large implications with respect to enzymatic deconstruction efforts. Native, untreated hybrid poplar (Populus trichocarpa x Populus deltoids) samples and a partially delignified poplar sample (facilitated by acidic sodium chlorite pulping) were separately pretreated with dilute sulfuric acid (0.10 M) at 160°C for 15 minutes and 35 minutes, respectively . Following extensive characterization, the partially delignified biomass displayed more significant changes in cellulose ultrastructure following DAP than the native untreated biomass. With respect to the native untreated poplar, delignified poplar after DAP (in which approximately 40% lignin removal occurred) experienced: increased cellulose accessibility indicated by increased Simons’ stain (orange dye) adsorption from 21.8 to 72.5 mg/g, decreased cellulose weight-average degree of polymerization (DPw) from 3087 to 294 units, and increased cellulose crystallite size from 2.9 to 4.2 nm. These changes following DAP ultimately increased enzymatic sugar yield from 10 to 80%. We conclude that, overall, the results indicate a strong influence of lignin content on cellulose ultrastructural changes occurring during DAP. With the reduction of lignin content during DAP, the enlargement of

  19. Aromatic and volatile acid intermediates observed during anaerobic metabolism of lignin-derived oligomers

    SciTech Connect

    Colberg, P.J.; Young, L.Y.

    1985-02-01

    Anaerobic enrichment cultures acclimated for 2 years to use a /sup 14/C-labeled, lignin-derived substrate with a molecular weight of 600 as a sole source of carbon were characterized by capillary and packed column gas chromatography. After acclimation, several of the active methanogenic organisms were inhibited with 2-bromoethanesulfonic acid, which suppressed methane formation and enhanced accumulation of a series of metabolic intermediates. Volatile fatty acids levels in 2-bromoethansulfonic acid-amended cultures were 10 times greater than those in the uninhibited, methane-forming organisms with acetate as the predominant component. Furthermore, in the 2-bromoethanesulfonic acid-amended organisms, almost half of the original substrate carbon was metabolized to 10 monaromatic compounds, with the most appreciable quantities accumulated as cinnamic, benzoic, caffeic, vanillic, and ferulic acids. 2-Bromoethanesulfonic acid seemed to effectively block CH/sub 4/ formation in the anaerobic food chain, resulting in the observed buildup of volatile fatty acids and monoaromatic intermediates. Neither fatty acids nor aromatic compounds were detected in the oligolignol substrate before its metabolism, suggesting that these anaerobic organisms have the ability to mediate the cleavage of the ..beta..-aryl-ether bond, the most common intermonomeric linkage in lignin, with the subsequent release of the observed constituent aromatic monomers.

  20. Aromatic and Volatile Acid Intermediates Observed during Anaerobic Metabolism of Lignin-Derived Oligomers

    PubMed Central

    Colberg, P. J.; Young, L. Y.

    1985-01-01

    Anaerobic enrichment cultures acclimated for 2 years to use a 14C-labeled, lignin-derived substrate with a molecular weight of 600 as a sole source of carbon were characterized by capillary and packed column gas chromatography. After acclimation, several of the active methanogenic consortia were inhibited with 2-bromoethanesulfonic acid, which suppressed methane formation and enhanced accumulation of a series of metabolic intermediates. Volatile fatty acids levels in 2-bromoethanesulfonic acid-amended cultures were 10 times greater than those in the uninhibited, methane-forming consortia with acetate as the predominant component. Furthermore, in the 2-bromoethanesulfonic acid-amended consortia, almost half of the original substrate carbon was metabolized to 10 monoaromatic compounds, with the most appreciable quantities accumulated as cinnamic, benzoic, caffeic, vanillic, and ferulic acids. 2-Bromoethanesulfonic acid seemed to effectively block CH4 formation in the anaerobic food chain, resulting in the observed buildup of volatile fatty acids and monoaromatic intermediates. Neither fatty acids nor aromatic compounds were detected in the oligolignol substrate before its metabolism, suggesting that these anaerobic consortia have the ability to mediate the cleavage of the β-aryl-ether bond, the most common intermonomeric linkage in lignin, with the subsequent release of the observed constituent aromatic monomers. PMID:16346722

  1. Early lignin pathway enzymes and routes to chlorogenic acid in switchgrass (Panicum virgatum L.).

    PubMed

    Escamilla-Treviño, Luis L; Shen, Hui; Hernandez, Timothy; Yin, Yanbin; Xu, Ying; Dixon, Richard A

    2014-03-01

    Studying lignin biosynthesis in Panicum virgatum (switchgrass) has provided a basis for generating plants with reduced lignin content and increased saccharification efficiency. Chlorogenic acid (CGA, caffeoyl quinate) is the major soluble phenolic compound in switchgrass, and the lignin and CGA biosynthetic pathways potentially share intermediates and enzymes. The enzyme hydroxycinnamoyl-CoA: quinate hydroxycinnamoyltransferase (HQT) is responsible for CGA biosynthesis in tobacco, tomato and globe artichoke, but there are no close orthologs of HQT in switchgrass or in other monocotyledonous plants with complete genome sequences. We examined available transcriptomic databases for genes encoding enzymes potentially involved in CGA biosynthesis in switchgrass. The protein products of two hydroxycinnamoyl-CoA shikimate/quinate hydroxycinnamoyltransferase (HCT) genes (PvHCT1a and PvHCT2a), closely related to lignin pathway HCTs from other species, were characterized biochemically and exhibited the expected HCT activity, preferring shikimic acid as acyl acceptor. We also characterized two switchgrass coumaroyl shikimate 3'-hydroxylase (C3'H) enzymes (PvC3'H1 and PvC3'H2); both of these cytochrome P450s had the capacity to hydroxylate 4-coumaroyl shikimate or 4-coumaroyl quinate to generate caffeoyl shikimate or CGA. Another switchgrass hydroxycinnamoyl transferase, PvHCT-Like1, is phylogenetically distant from HCTs or HQTs, but exhibits HQT activity, preferring quinic acid as acyl acceptor, and could therefore function in CGA biosynthesis. The biochemical features of the recombinant enzymes, the presence of the corresponding activities in plant protein extracts, and the expression patterns of the corresponding genes, suggest preferred routes to CGA in switchgrass.

  2. Effect of additives on adsorption and desorption behavior of xylanase on acid-insoluble lignin from corn stover and wheat straw.

    PubMed

    Li, Yanfei; Ge, Xiaoyan; Sun, Zongping; Zhang, Junhua

    2015-06-01

    The competitive adsorption between cellulases and additives on lignin in the hydrolysis of lignocelluloses has been confirmed, whereas the effect of additives on the interaction between xylanase and lignin is not clear. In this work, the effects of additives, poly(ethylene glycol) 2000, poly(ethylene glycol) 6000, Tween 20, and Tween 80, on the xylanase adsorption/desorption onto/from acid-insoluble lignin from corn stover (CS-lignin) and wheat straw (WS-lignin) were investigated. The results indicated that the additives could adsorb onto isolated lignin and reduce the xylanase adsorption onto lignin. Compared to CS-lignin, more additives could adsorb onto WS-lignin, making less xylanase adsorbed onto WS-lignin. In addition, the additives could enhance desorption of xylanase from lignin, which might be due to the competitive adsorption between xylanase and additives on lignin. The released xylanase from lignin still exhibited hydrolytic capacity in the hydrolysis of isolated xylan and xylan in corn stover.

  3. Oleic and docosahexaenoic acid differentially phase separate from lipid raft molecules: a comparative NMR, DSC, AFM, and detergent extraction study.

    PubMed

    Shaikh, Saame Raza; Dumaual, Alfred C; Castillo, Alicia; LoCascio, Daniel; Siddiqui, Rafat A; Stillwell, William; Wassall, Stephen R

    2004-09-01

    We have previously suggested that the omega-3 polyunsaturated fatty acid, docosahexaenoic acid (DHA) may in part function by enhancing membrane lipid phase separation into lipid rafts. Here we further tested for differences in the molecular interactions of an oleic (OA) versus DHA-containing phospholipid with sphingomyelin (SM) and cholesterol (CHOL) utilizing (2)H NMR spectroscopy, differential scanning calorimetry, atomic force microscopy, and detergent extractions in model bilayer membranes. (2)H NMR and DSC (differential scanning calorimetry) established the phase behavior of the OA-containing 1-[(2)H(31)]palmitoyl-2-oleoyl-sn-glycero-3-phosphoethanolamine (16:0-18:1PE-d(31))/SM (1:1) and the DHA-containing 1-[(2)H(31)]palmitoyl-2-docosahexaenoyl-sn-glycero-3-phosphoethanolamine (16:0-22:6PE-d(31))/SM (1:1) in the absence and presence of equimolar CHOL. CHOL was observed to affect the OA-containing phosphatidylethanolamine (PE) more than the DHA-containing PE, as exemplified by >2 x greater increase in order measured for the perdeuterated palmitic chain in 16:0-18:1PE-d(31)/SM (1:1) compared to 16:0-22:6PE-d(31)/SM (1:1) bilayers in the liquid crystalline phase. Atomic force microscopy (AFM) experiments showed less lateral phase separation between 16:0-18:1PE-rich and SM/CHOL-rich raft domains in 16:0-18:1PE/SM/CHOL (1:1:1) bilayers than was observed when 16:0-22:6PE replaced 16:0-18:1PE. Differences in the molecular interaction of 16:0-18:1PE and 16:0-22:6PE with SM/CHOL were also found using biochemical detergent extractions. In the presence of equimolar SM/CHOL, 16:0-18:1PE showed decreased solubilization in comparison to 16:0-22:6PE, indicating greater phase separation with the DHA-PE. Detergent experiments were also conducted with cardiomyocytes fed radiolabeled OA or DHA. Although both OA and DHA were found to be largely detergent solubilized, the amount of OA that was found to be associated with raft-rich detergent-resistant membranes exceeded DHA by

  4. Degradation of /sup 14/C-labeled lignins and /sup 14/C-labeled aromatic acids by fusarium solani

    SciTech Connect

    Norris, D.M.

    1980-08-01

    Abilities of isolate AF-W1 of Fusarium solani to degrade the side chain and the ring structure of synthetic dehydrogenative polymerizates, aromatic acids, or lignin in sound wood were investigated under several conditions of growth substrate or basal medium and pH. Significant transformations of lignins occurred in 50 days in both unextracted and extracted sound wood substrances with 3% malt as the growth substrate and the pH buffered initially at 4.0 with 2,2-dimethylsuccinate. Degradation of lignin in such woods also occurred under unbuffered pH conditions when a basal medium of either 3% malt or powdered cellulose in deionized water was present. Decomposition of the lignin in these woods did not occur in cultures where D-glucose was present as a growth substrate. F. solani significantly transformed, as measured as evolved /sup 14/CO/sub 2/, both synthetic side chain (beta, gamma)-/sup 14/C- and U-ring-/sup 14/C-labeled lignins in 30 days under liquid culture conditions of only distilled deionized water and no pH adjustment. Degradation of dehydrogenative polymerizates by F. solani was reduced drastically when D2 was the liquid medium. AF-W1 also cleaved the alpha-/sup 14/C from p- hydroxybenzoic acid and evolved /sup 14/CO/sub 2/ from the substrace, (3-/sup 14/C) cinnamic acid. Thus, the fungus cleaved side chain carbon from substrate that originally lacked hydroxyl substitution on the aromatic nucleus. Surprisingly, small amounts of /sup 14/C cleaved from aromatic acids by F. solani were incorporated into cell mass. Initial buffering of the culture medium to pH 4.0 or 5.0 with 0.1 M2,2-dimethylsuccinate significantly increased F. solani degradation of all lignins or aromatic acids. Results indicated that AF-W1 used lignin as a sole carbon source.

  5. Hydrocarbon fuel detergent

    SciTech Connect

    Meyer, G.R.; Lyons, W.R.

    1990-01-23

    This patent describes a hydrocarbon fuel composition comprising: a hydrocarbon fuel; and a detergent amount of a detergent comprising an alkenylsuccinimide prepared by reacting an alkenylsuccinic acid or anhydride with a mixture of amines, wherein at least 90 weight percent of the alkenyl substituent is derived from an olefin having a carbon chain of from 10 to 30 carbons or mixtures thereof, and wherein the alkenylsuccinic acid or anhydride is reacted with the mixture of amines at a mole ratio of 0.8 to 1.5 moles of the amines per mole of the alkenylsuccinic acid or anhydride.

  6. Cationic DOPC-Detergent Conjugates for Safe and Efficient in Vitro and in Vivo Nucleic Acid Delivery.

    PubMed

    Pierrat, Philippe; Casset, Anne; Didier, Pascal; Kereselidze, Dimitri; Lux, Marie; Pons, Françoise; Lebeau, Luc

    2016-09-15

    The ability of a nonviral nucleic acid carrier to deliver its cargo to cells with low associated toxicity is a critical issue for clinical applications of gene therapy. We describe biodegradable cationic DOPC-C12 E4 conjugates in which transfection efficiency is based on a Trojan horse strategy. In situ production of the detergent compound C12 E4 through conjugate hydrolysis within the acidic endosome compartment was expected to promote endosome membrane destabilization and subsequent release of the lipoplexes into cytosol. The transfection efficiency of the conjugates has been assessed in vitro, and associated cytotoxicity was determined. Cellular uptake and intracellular distribution of the lipoplexes have been investigated. The results show that direct conjugation of DOPC with C12 E4 produces a versatile carrier that can deliver both DNA and siRNA to cells in vitro with high efficiency and low cytotoxicity. SAR studies suggest that this compound might represent a reasonable compromise between the membrane activity of the released detergent and susceptibility of the conjugate to degradation enzymes in vitro. Although biodegradability of the conjugates had low impact on carrier efficiency in vitro, it proved critical in vivo. Significant improvement of transgene expression was obtained in the mouse lung tuning biodegradability of the carrier. Importantly, this also allowed reduction of the inflammatory response that invariably characterizes cationic-lipid-mediated gene transfer in animals. PMID:27380144

  7. Cationic DOPC-Detergent Conjugates for Safe and Efficient in Vitro and in Vivo Nucleic Acid Delivery.

    PubMed

    Pierrat, Philippe; Casset, Anne; Didier, Pascal; Kereselidze, Dimitri; Lux, Marie; Pons, Françoise; Lebeau, Luc

    2016-09-15

    The ability of a nonviral nucleic acid carrier to deliver its cargo to cells with low associated toxicity is a critical issue for clinical applications of gene therapy. We describe biodegradable cationic DOPC-C12 E4 conjugates in which transfection efficiency is based on a Trojan horse strategy. In situ production of the detergent compound C12 E4 through conjugate hydrolysis within the acidic endosome compartment was expected to promote endosome membrane destabilization and subsequent release of the lipoplexes into cytosol. The transfection efficiency of the conjugates has been assessed in vitro, and associated cytotoxicity was determined. Cellular uptake and intracellular distribution of the lipoplexes have been investigated. The results show that direct conjugation of DOPC with C12 E4 produces a versatile carrier that can deliver both DNA and siRNA to cells in vitro with high efficiency and low cytotoxicity. SAR studies suggest that this compound might represent a reasonable compromise between the membrane activity of the released detergent and susceptibility of the conjugate to degradation enzymes in vitro. Although biodegradability of the conjugates had low impact on carrier efficiency in vitro, it proved critical in vivo. Significant improvement of transgene expression was obtained in the mouse lung tuning biodegradability of the carrier. Importantly, this also allowed reduction of the inflammatory response that invariably characterizes cationic-lipid-mediated gene transfer in animals.

  8. In situ micro-spectroscopic investigation of lignin in poplar cell walls pretreated by maleic acid

    DOE PAGES

    Zeng, Yining; Zhao, Shuai; Wei, Hui; Tucker, Melvin P.; Himmel, Michael E.; Mosier, Nathan S.; Meilan, Richard; Ding, Shi -You

    2015-08-27

    In higher plant cells, lignin provides necessary physical support for plant growth and resistance to attack by microorganisms. For the same reason, lignin is considered to be a major impediment to the process of deconstructing biomass to simple sugars by hydrolytic enzymes. Furthermore, the in situ variation of lignin in plant cell walls is important for better understanding of the roles lignin play in biomass recalcitrance.

  9. Kinetic Study of the Acid Degradation of Lignin Model Compound Intermediates

    SciTech Connect

    Sturgeon, M.; Kim, S.; Chmely, S. C.; Foust, T. D.; Beckham, G. T.

    2012-01-01

    Lignin is a major constituent of biomass, which remains underutilized in selective biomass conversion strategies to renewable fuels and chemicals. Here we are interested in understanding the mechanisms related to the acid deconstruction of lignin with a combined theoretical and experimental approach. Two model dimers with a b-O-4 aryl ether linkage (2-phenoxy-1-phenethanol and 2-phenoxy-1-phenyl-1,3 propanediol) were synthesized and deconstructed in H2SO4. The major products of the acidolysis of the b-O-4 compounds consisted of phenol and two aldehydes, phenylacetaldehyde and benzaldehyde. Quantum mechanical calculations were employed to elucidate possible deconstruction mechanisms with transition state theory. To confirm the proposed mechanisms a kentic study of several possible intermediates was done under similar acidolysis conditions. Epoxystyrene and 1-phenyl-1,2-ethandiol were used as intermediates. 2-phenoxyvinylbenzene was synthesized and subsequently deconstructed in H2SO4. The kinetics and product distribution of these intermediates were then used in confirming our proposed mechanisms.

  10. Thioacidolysis Marker Compound for Ferulic Acid Incorporation into Angiosperm Lignins (and an Indicator for Cinnamoyl-coenzyme-A Reductase Deficiency

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    A molecular marker compound, derived from lignin by the thioacidolysis degradative method, for structures produced when ferulic acid is incorporated into lignification in angiosperms (poplar, Arabidopsis, tobacco) has been structurally identified as 1,2,2-trithioethyl ethylguaiacol [1-(4-hydroxy-3-m...

  11. The graft polymers from different species of lignin and acrylic acid: synthesis and mechanism study.

    PubMed

    Ye, De zhan; Jiang, Li; Ma, Chao; Zhang, Ming-hua; Zhang, Xi

    2014-02-01

    The influence of lignin species on the grafting mechanism of lignosulfonate (from eucalyptus and pine, recorded as HLS and SLS, respectively) with acrylic acid (AA) was investigated. The graft polymers were confirmed by the absorption of carbonyl groups in the FTIR spectra. The decreasing phenolic group's content (Ph-OH) is not only due to its participation as grafting site but also to the negative effect of initiator. In the initial period (0-60 min), HLS and SLS both accelerate the polymerization of AA. Additionally, Ph-OH group's content is proportional to product yield (Y%), monomer conversion (C%) and grafting efficiency (GE%), strongly indicating that it acts as active center. Nevertheless, compared with HLS, Y% and C% in SLS grafting system are lower though it has higher Ph-OH group's content, which is due to the quinonoid structure formed by the self-conjugated of phenoxy radical in Guaiacyl unit. Finally, the lignosulfonate grafting mechanism was proposed. PMID:24076194

  12. Experimenting with Detergents

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mitchell, Gail; Phillips, Donald B.

    1977-01-01

    Lists materials and procedures for experimenting with detergents. Included are methods for determination of the densities of dry detergents, ph values of detergent solutions, and a discussion of the ability of detergents to remove iodine stains from cloth. (CS)

  13. The acetyl bromide method is faster, simpler and presents best recovery of lignin in different herbaceous tissues than Klason and thioglycolic acid methods.

    PubMed

    Moreira-Vilar, Flavia Carolina; Siqueira-Soares, Rita de Cássia; Finger-Teixeira, Aline; de Oliveira, Dyoni Matias; Ferro, Ana Paula; da Rocha, George Jackson; Ferrarese, Maria de Lourdes L; dos Santos, Wanderley Dantas; Ferrarese-Filho, Osvaldo

    2014-01-01

    We compared the amount of lignin as determined by the three most traditional methods for lignin measurement in three tissues (sugarcane bagasse, soybean roots and soybean seed coat) contrasting for lignin amount and composition. Although all methods presented high reproducibility, major inconsistencies among them were found. The amount of lignin determined by thioglycolic acid method was severely lower than that provided by the other methods (up to 95%) in all tissues analyzed. Klason method was quite similar to acetyl bromide in tissues containing higher amounts of lignin, but presented lower recovery of lignin in the less lignified tissue. To investigate the causes of the inconsistencies observed, we determined the monomer composition of all plant materials, but found no correlation. We found that the low recovery of lignin presented by the thioglycolic acid method were due losses of lignin in the residues disposed throughout the procedures. The production of furfurals by acetyl bromide method does not explain the differences observed. The acetyl bromide method is the simplest and fastest among the methods evaluated presenting similar or best recovery of lignin in all the tissues assessed.

  14. Catalytic Fast Pyrolysis of Lignin over High-Surface-Area Mesoporous Aluminosilicates: Effect of Porosity and Acidity.

    PubMed

    Custodis, Victoria B F; Karakoulia, Stamatia A; Triantafyllidis, Kostas S; van Bokhoven, Jeroen A

    2016-05-23

    Catalytic fast pyrolysis (CFP) of lignin with amorphous mesoporous aluminosilicates catalysts yields a high fraction of aromatics and a relatively low amount of char/coke. The relationship between the acidity and porosity of Al-MCM-41, Al-SBA-15, and Al-MSU-J with product selectivity during lignin CFP is determined. The acid sites (mild Brønsted and stronger Lewis) are able to catalyze pyrolysis intermediates towards fewer oxygenated phenols and aromatic hydrocarbons. A generalized correlation of the product selectivity and yield with the aluminum content and acidity of the mesoporous aluminosilicates is hard to establish. Zeolitic strong acid sites are not required to achieve high conversion and selectivity to aromatic hydrocarbon because nanosized MCM-41 produces a high liquid yield and selectivity. The two most essential parameters are diffusion, which is influenced by pore and grain size, and the active site, which may be mildly acidic, but is dominated by Lewis acid sites. Nanosized grains and mild acidity are essential ingredients for a good lignin CFP catalyst. PMID:27079742

  15. Catalytic Fast Pyrolysis of Lignin over High-Surface-Area Mesoporous Aluminosilicates: Effect of Porosity and Acidity.

    PubMed

    Custodis, Victoria B F; Karakoulia, Stamatia A; Triantafyllidis, Kostas S; van Bokhoven, Jeroen A

    2016-05-23

    Catalytic fast pyrolysis (CFP) of lignin with amorphous mesoporous aluminosilicates catalysts yields a high fraction of aromatics and a relatively low amount of char/coke. The relationship between the acidity and porosity of Al-MCM-41, Al-SBA-15, and Al-MSU-J with product selectivity during lignin CFP is determined. The acid sites (mild Brønsted and stronger Lewis) are able to catalyze pyrolysis intermediates towards fewer oxygenated phenols and aromatic hydrocarbons. A generalized correlation of the product selectivity and yield with the aluminum content and acidity of the mesoporous aluminosilicates is hard to establish. Zeolitic strong acid sites are not required to achieve high conversion and selectivity to aromatic hydrocarbon because nanosized MCM-41 produces a high liquid yield and selectivity. The two most essential parameters are diffusion, which is influenced by pore and grain size, and the active site, which may be mildly acidic, but is dominated by Lewis acid sites. Nanosized grains and mild acidity are essential ingredients for a good lignin CFP catalyst.

  16. Direct production of biodiesel from high-acid value Jatropha oil with solid acid catalyst derived from lignin

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Background Solid acid catalyst was prepared from Kraft lignin by chemical activation with phosphoric acid, pyrolysis and sulfuric acid. This catalyst had high acid density as characterized by scanning electron microscope (SEM), energy-dispersive x-ray spectrometry (EDX) and Brunauer, Emmett, and Teller (BET) method analyses. It was further used to catalyze the esterification of oleic acid and one-step conversion of non-pretreated Jatropha oil to biodiesel. The effects of catalyst loading, reaction temperature and oil-to-methanol molar ratio, on the catalytic activity of the esterification were investigated. Results The highest catalytic activity was achieved with a 96.1% esterification rate, and the catalyst can be reused three times with little deactivation under optimized conditions. Biodiesel production from Jatropha oil was studied under such conditions. It was found that 96.3% biodiesel yield from non-pretreated Jatropha oil with high-acid value (12.7 mg KOH/g) could be achieved. Conclusions The catalyst can be easily separated for reuse. This single-step process could be a potential route for biodiesel production from high-acid value oil by simplifying the procedure and reducing costs. PMID:22145867

  17. Extracting lignins from mill wastes

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Humphrey, M. F.

    1977-01-01

    Addition of quaternary ammonium compound and activated charcoal to pulp and mill wastes precipitates lignins in sludge mixture. Methanol dissolves lignins for separation from resulting slurry. Mineral acid reprecipitates lignins in filtered solution. Quaternary ammonium compound, activated charcoal, as well as water may be recovered and recycled from this process.

  18. Lignin extraction distinctively enhances biomass enzymatic saccharification in hemicelluloses-rich Miscanthus species under various alkali and acid pretreatments.

    PubMed

    Si, Shengli; Chen, Yan; Fan, Chunfen; Hu, Huizhen; Li, Ying; Huang, Jiangfeng; Liao, Haofeng; Hao, Bo; Li, Qing; Peng, Liangcai; Tu, Yuanyuan

    2015-05-01

    In this study, one- and two-step pretreatments with alkali and acid were performed in the three Miscanthus species that exhibit distinct hemicelluloses levels. As a result, one-step with 4% NaOH or two-step with 2% NaOH and 1% H2SO4 was examined to be optimal for high biomass saccharification, indicating that alkali was the main effecter of pretreatments. Notably, both one- and two-step pretreatments largely enhanced biomass digestibility distinctive in hemicelluloses-rich samples by effectively co-extracting hemicelluloses and lignin. However, correlation analysis further indicated that the effective lignin extraction, other than the hemicelluloses removals, predominately determined biomass saccharification under various alkali and acid pretreatments, leading to a significant alteration of cellulose crystallinity. Hence, this study has suggested the potential approaches in bioenergy crop breeding and biomass process technology.

  19. Isolation and structural characterization of sugarcane bagasse lignin after dilute phosphoric acid plus steam explosion pretreatment and its effect on cellulose hydrolysis.

    PubMed

    Zeng, Jijiao; Tong, Zhaohui; Wang, Letian; Zhu, J Y; Ingram, Lonnie

    2014-02-01

    The structure of lignin after dilute phosphoric acid plus steam explosion pretreatment process of sugarcane bagasse in a pilot scale and the effect of the lignin extracted by ethanol on subsequent cellulose hydrolysis were investigated. The lignin structural changes caused by pretreatment were identified using advanced nondestructive techniques such as gel permeation chromatography (GPC), quantitative (13)C, and 2-D nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR). The structural analysis revealed that ethanol extractable lignin preserved basic lignin structure, but had relatively lower amount of β-O-4 linkages, syringyl/guaiacyl units ratio (S/G), p-coumarate/ferulate ratio, and other ending structures. The results also indicated that approximately 8% of mass weight was extracted by pure ethanol. The bagasse after ethanol extraction had an approximate 22% higher glucose yield after enzyme hydrolysis compared to pretreated bagasse without extraction.

  20. Structural and functional characterization of solute binding proteins for aromatic compounds derived from lignin: p-coumaric acid and related aromatic acids

    PubMed Central

    Tan, Kemin; Chang, Changsoo; Cuff, Marianne; Osipiuk, Jerzy; Landorf, Elizabeth; Mack, Jamey C.; Zerbs, Sarah; Joachimiak, Andrzej; Collart, Frank R.

    2013-01-01

    Lignin comprises 15.25% of plant biomass and represents a major environmental carbon source for utilization by soil microorganisms. Access to this energy resource requires the action of fungal and bacterial enzymes to break down the lignin polymer into a complex assortment of aromatic compounds that can be transported into the cells. To improve our understanding of the utilization of lignin by microorganisms, we characterized the molecular properties of solute binding proteins of ATP.binding cassette transporter proteins that interact with these compounds. A combination of functional screens and structural studies characterized the binding specificity of the solute binding proteins for aromatic compounds derived from lignin such as p-coumarate, 3-phenylpropionic acid and compounds with more complex ring substitutions. A ligand screen based on thermal stabilization identified several binding protein clusters that exhibit preferences based on the size or number of aromatic ring substituents. Multiple X-ray crystal structures of protein-ligand complexes for these clusters identified the molecular basis of the binding specificity for the lignin-derived aromatic compounds. The screens and structural data provide new functional assignments for these solute.binding proteins which can be used to infer their transport specificity. This knowledge of the functional roles and molecular binding specificity of these proteins will support the identification of the specific enzymes and regulatory proteins of peripheral pathways that funnel these compounds to central metabolic pathways and will improve the predictive power of sequence-based functional annotation methods for this family of proteins. PMID:23606130

  1. Structural and functional characterization of solute binding proteins for aromatic compounds derived from lignin: p-coumaric acid and related aromatic acids.

    PubMed

    Tan, Kemin; Chang, Changsoo; Cuff, Marianne; Osipiuk, Jerzy; Landorf, Elizabeth; Mack, Jamey C; Zerbs, Sarah; Joachimiak, Andrzej; Collart, Frank R

    2013-10-01

    Lignin comprises 15-25% of plant biomass and represents a major environmental carbon source for utilization by soil microorganisms. Access to this energy resource requires the action of fungal and bacterial enzymes to break down the lignin polymer into a complex assortment of aromatic compounds that can be transported into the cells. To improve our understanding of the utilization of lignin by microorganisms, we characterized the molecular properties of solute binding proteins of ATP-binding cassette transporter proteins that interact with these compounds. A combination of functional screens and structural studies characterized the binding specificity of the solute binding proteins for aromatic compounds derived from lignin such as p-coumarate, 3-phenylpropionic acid and compounds with more complex ring substitutions. A ligand screen based on thermal stabilization identified several binding protein clusters that exhibit preferences based on the size or number of aromatic ring substituents. Multiple X-ray crystal structures of protein-ligand complexes for these clusters identified the molecular basis of the binding specificity for the lignin-derived aromatic compounds. The screens and structural data provide new functional assignments for these solute-binding proteins which can be used to infer their transport specificity. This knowledge of the functional roles and molecular binding specificity of these proteins will support the identification of the specific enzymes and regulatory proteins of peripheral pathways that funnel these compounds to central metabolic pathways and will improve the predictive power of sequence-based functional annotation methods for this family of proteins.

  2. Acidic pretreatment of wheat straw in decanol for the production of surfactant, lignin and glucose.

    PubMed

    Marinkovic, Sinisa; Le Bras, Jean; Nardello-Rataj, Véronique; Agach, Mickaël; Estrine, Boris

    2012-01-01

    Wheat straw is an abundant residue of agriculture which is increasingly being considered as feedstock for the production of fuels, energy and chemicals. The acidic decanol-based pre-treatment of wheat straw has been investigated in this work. Wheat straw hemicellulose has been efficiently converted during a single step operation into decyl pentoside surfactants and the remaining material has been preserved keeping all its promises as potential feedstock for fuels or value added platform chemicals such as hydroxymethylfurfural (HMF). The enzymatic digestibility of the cellulose contained in the straw residue has been evaluated and the lignin prepared from the material characterized. Wheat-based surfactants thus obtained have exhibited superior surface properties compared to fossil-based polyethoxylates decyl alcohol or alkyl oligoglucosides, some of which are largely used surfactants. In view of the growing importance of renewable resource-based molecules in the chemical industry, this approach may open a new avenue for the conversion of wheat straw into various chemicals. PMID:22312256

  3. Acidic Pretreatment of Wheat Straw in Decanol for the Production of Surfactant, Lignin and Glucose

    PubMed Central

    Marinkovic, Sinisa; Le Bras, Jean; Nardello-Rataj, Véronique; Agach, Mickaël; Estrine, Boris

    2012-01-01

    Wheat straw is an abundant residue of agriculture which is increasingly being considered as feedstock for the production of fuels, energy and chemicals. The acidic decanol-based pre-treatment of wheat straw has been investigated in this work. Wheat straw hemicellulose has been efficiently converted during a single step operation into decyl pentoside surfactants and the remaining material has been preserved keeping all its promises as potential feedstock for fuels or value added platform chemicals such as hydroxymethylfurfural (HMF). The enzymatic digestibility of the cellulose contained in the straw residue has been evaluated and the lignin prepared from the material characterized. Wheat-based surfactants thus obtained have exhibited superior surface properties compared to fossil-based polyethoxylates decyl alcohol or alkyl oligoglucosides, some of which are largely used surfactants. In view of the growing importance of renewable resource-based molecules in the chemical industry, this approach may open a new avenue for the conversion of wheat straw into various chemicals. PMID:22312256

  4. Effects of Soluble Lignin on the Formic Acid-Catalyzed Formation of Furfural: A Case Study for the Upgrading of Hemicellulose.

    PubMed

    Dussan, Karla; Girisuta, Buana; Lopes, Marystela; Leahy, James J; Hayes, Michael H B

    2016-03-01

    A comprehensive study is presented on the conversion of hemicellulose sugars in liquors obtained from the fractionation of Miscanthus, spruce bark, sawdust, and hemp by using formic acid. Experimental tests with varying temperature (130-170 °C), formic acid concentration (10-80 wt%), carbohydrate concentrations, and lignin separation were carried out, and experimental data were compared with predictions obtained by reaction kinetics developed in a previous study. The conversions of xylose and arabinose into furfural were inherently affected by the presence of polymeric soluble lignin, decreasing the maximum furfural yields observed experimentally by up to 24%. These results were also confirmed in synthetic mixtures of pentoses with Miscanthus and commercial alkali lignin. This observation was attributed to side reactions involving intermediate stable sugar species reacting with solubilized lignin during the conversion of xylose into furfural.

  5. Acid-catalyzed hydrolysis of lignin β-O-4 linkages in ionic liquid solvents: a computational mechanistic study.

    PubMed

    Janesko, Benjamin G

    2014-03-21

    This work presents a computational mechanistic study of the acid-catalyzed hydrolysis of lignin β-O-4 linkages in ionic liquid solvents. Model compound 2-hydroyxyethyl phenyl ether undergoes dehydration to vinyl phenyl ether followed by hydrolysis to phenol and "Hibbert's ketones". Larger model compound α-hydroxy-phenethyl phenyl ether illustrates an E1 dehydration mechanism involving resonance-stabilized carbocations. Continuum models for ionic liquid solvents indicate that solvation can significantly affect the reaction rates. The tested continuum ionic liquid solvents give similar results, and differ significantly from continuum organic solvents with comparable dielectric constants. The acidic ionic liquid cation 1-H-3-methylimidazolium has lower predicted catalytic activity than hydronium or HCl, consistent with the former's relatively small acid dissociation constant. Calculations with dispersion-corrected density functionals give similar behavior. Calculations on Lewis acidic metal chlorides used experimentally for lignin hydrolysis suggest that the metal chloride may participate in the initial dehydration. These results provide a baseline for future studies of improved hydrolysis catalysts. PMID:24509442

  6. Exploring Detergent Pollution

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rillo, Thomas J.

    1975-01-01

    Reviews the ecological dangers of certain types of detergents, and the action taken by government agencies and detergent manufacturers to alleviate the problem. Describes classroom activities and instructional procedures designed to illustrate detergent characteristics and the effects of detergent pollution. (MLH)

  7. Through Lignin Biodegradation to Lignin-based Plastics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Yun-Yan

    The consequences of strong noncovalent intermolecular interactions between oligomeric and/or polymeric lignin components are encountered during enzyme-catalyzed lignin degradation and in the properties of lignin-based plastics. A new chapter in the 30-year quest for functional lignin-depolymerizing enzymes has been opened. The lignin-degrading capacity of the flavin-dependent monooxygenase, salicylate hydroxylase acting as a putative lignin depolymerase, has been characterized using a water-soluble native softwood lignin substrate under mildly acidic aqueous conditions. When macromolecular lignins undergo lignin-depolymerase catalyzed degradation, the cleaved components tend to associate with one another, or with nearby associated lignin complexes, through processes mediated by the enzyme acting in a non-catalytic capacity. As a result, the radius of gyration (Rg) falls rapidly to approximately constant values, while the weight-average molecular weight (Mw) of the substrate rises more slowly to an extent dependent on enzyme concentration. Xylanase, when employed in an auxiliary capacity, is able to facilitate dissociation of the foregoing complexes through its interactions with the lignin depolymerase. The flavin-dependent lignin depolymerase must be reduced before reaction with oxygen can occur to form the hydroperoxy intermediate that hydroxylates the lignin substrate prior to cleavage. In the absence of the cofactor, NADH, the necessary reducing power can be provided (albeit more slowly) by the lignin substrate itself. Under such conditions, a simultaneous decrease in R g and Mw is initially observed during the enzymatic process through which the lignin is cleaved. The partially degraded product-lignins arising from lignin depolymerase activity can be readily converted into polymeric materials with mechanical properties that supersede those of polystyrene. Methylation and blending of ball-milled softwood lignins with miscible low-Tg polymers, or simple low

  8. Cell wall, lignin and fatty acid-related transcriptome in soybean: Achieving gene expression patterns for bioenergy legume

    PubMed Central

    Pestana-Calsa, Maria Clara; Pacheco, Cinthya Mirella; de Castro, Renata Cruz; de Almeida, Renata Rodrigues; de Lira, Nayara Patrícia Vieira; Junior, Tercilio Calsa

    2012-01-01

    Increasing efforts to preserve environmental resources have included the development of more efficient technologies to produce energy from renewable sources such as plant biomass, notably through biofuels and cellulosic residues. The relevance of the soybean industry is due mostly to oil and protein production which, although interdependent, results from coordinated gene expression in primary metabolism. Concerning biomass and biodiesel, a comprehensive analysis of gene regulation associated with cell wall components (as polysaccharides and lignin) and fatty acid metabolism may be very useful for finding new strategies in soybean breeding for the expanding bioenergy industry. Searching the Genosoja transcriptional database for enzymes and proteins directly involved in cell wall, lignin and fatty acid metabolism provides gene expression datasets with frequency distribution and specific regulation that is shared among several cultivars and organs, and also in response to different biotic/abiotic stress treatments. These results may be useful as a starting point to depict the Genosoja database regarding gene expression directly associated with potential applications of soybean biomass and/or residues for bioenergy-producing technologies. PMID:22802717

  9. Convenient and rapid removal of detergent from glycolipids in detergent-resistant membrane microdomains.

    PubMed

    Suzuki, Yusuke; Kabayama, Kazuya

    2012-03-01

    Although detergents are often essential in protocols, they are usually incompatible with further biochemical analysis. There are several methods for detergent removal, but the procedures are complicated or suffer from sample loss. Here, we describe a convenient and rapid method for detergent removal from sialic acid-containing glycosphingolipids (gangliosides) and neutral glycolipids in detergent-resistant membrane (DRM) microdomain. It is based on selective detergent extraction, in which the sample is dried on a glass tube, followed by washing with organic solvent. We investigated 18 organic solvents and used high performance thin-layer chromatography (HPTLC) and matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization quadrupole ion trap time-of-flight mass spectrometry (MALDI-QIT-TOF MS) to confirm that dichloroethane (DCE) was the most suitable solvent and completely removed the nonionic detergent Triton X-100. Furthermore, DCE extraction effectively removed interference caused by other nonionic, zwitterionic, or ionic detergents in MALDI-QIT-TOF MS analysis.

  10. Combination of different methods to assess the fate of lignin in decomposing needle and leave litter

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Klotzbücher, Thimo; Filley, Timothy; Kaiser, Klaus; Kalbitz, Karsten

    2010-05-01

    Lignin is a major component of plant litter. However, its fate during litter decay is still poorly understood. One reason is the difficult analysis. Commonly used methods utilize different methodological approaches and focus on different aspects, e.g., content of lignin and/or of lignin-derived phenols and the degree of oxidation. The comparability and feasibility of the methods has not been tested so far. Our aims were: (1) to compare different methods with respect to track lignin degradation during plant litter decay and (2) to evaluate possible advantages of combining the different results. We assessed lignin degradation in decaying litter by 13C-TMAH thermochemolysis and CuO oxidation (each combined with GC/MS) and by determination of acid-detergent lignin (ADL) combined with near infrared spectroscopy. Furthermore, water-extractable organic matter produced during litter decay was examined for indicators of lignin-derived compounds by UV absorbance at 280 nm, fluorescence spectroscopy, and 13C-TMAH GC/MS. The study included litter samples from 5 different tree species (acer, ash, beech, pine, spruce), exposed in litterbags to degradation in a spruce stand for 27 months. First results suggested stronger lignin degradation in coniferous than in deciduous litter. This was indicated by complementary results from various methods: Conifer litter showed a more pronounced decrease in ADL content and a stronger increase in oxidation degree of side chains (Ac/Al ratios of CuO oxidation and 13C-TMAH products). Furthermore water extracted organic matter from needles showed a higher aromaticity and molecule complexity. Thus properties of water extractable organic matter seemed to reflect the extents of lignin degradation in solid litter samples. Contents of lignin-derived phenols determined with the CuO method (VSC content) hardly changed during decay of needles and leaves. These results thus not matched the trends found with the ADL method. Our results suggested that water

  11. Properties of lignin, cellulose, and hemicelluloses isolated from olive cake and olive stones: binding of water, oil, bile acids, and glucose.

    PubMed

    Rodríguez-Gutiérrez, Guillermo; Rubio-Senent, Fátima; Lama-Muñoz, Antonio; García, Aránzazu; Fernández-Bolaños, Juan

    2014-09-10

    A process based on a steam explosion pretreatment and alkali solution post-treatment was applied to fractionate olive stones (whole and fragmented, without seeds) and olive cake into their main constitutive polymers of cellulose (C), hemicelluloses (H), and lignin (L) under optimal conditions for each fraction according to earlier works. The chemical characterization (chromatographic method and UV and IR spectroscopy) and the functional properties (water- and oil-holding capacities, bile acid binding, and glucose retardation index) of each fraction were analyzed. The in vitro studies showed a substantial bile acid binding activity in the fraction containing lignin from olive stones (L) and the alkaline extractable fraction from olive cake (Lp). Lignin bound significantly more bile acid than any other fraction and an amount similar to that bound by cholestyramine (a cholesterol-lowering, bile acid-binding drug), especially when cholic acid (CA) was tested. These results highlight the health-promoting potential of lignin from olive stones and olive cake extracted from olive byproducts.

  12. Enhancing muconic acid production from glucose and lignin-derived aromatic compounds via increased protocatechuate decarboxylase activity

    DOE PAGES

    Johnson, Christopher W.; Salvachua, Davinia; Khanna, Payal; Smith, Holly; Peterson, Darren J.; Beckham, Gregg T.

    2016-04-22

    The conversion of biomass-derived sugars and aromatic molecules to cis,cis-muconic acid (referred to hereafter as muconic acid or muconate) has been of recent interest owing to its facile conversion to adipic acid, an important commodity chemical. Metabolic routes to produce muconate from both sugars and many lignin-derived aromatic compounds require the use of a decarboxylase to convert protocatechuate (PCA, 3,4-dihydroxybenzoate) to catechol (1,2-dihydroxybenzene), two central aromatic intermediates in this pathway. Several studies have identified the PCA decarboxylase as a metabolic bottleneck, causing an accumulation of PCA that subsequently reduces muconate production. A recent study showed that activity of the PCAmore » decarboxylase is enhanced by co-expression of two genetically associated proteins, one of which likely produces a flavin-derived cofactor utilized by the decarboxylase. Using entirely genome-integrated gene expression, we have engineered Pseudomonas putida KT2440-derived strains to produce muconate from either aromatic molecules or sugars and demonstrate in both cases that co-expression of these decarboxylase associated proteins reduces PCA accumulation and enhances muconate production relative to strains expressing the PCA decarboxylase alone. In bioreactor experiments, co-expression increased the specific productivity (mg/g cells/h) of muconate from the aromatic lignin monomer p-coumarate by 50% and resulted in a titer of >15 g/L. In strains engineered to produce muconate from glucose, co-expression more than tripled the titer, yield, productivity, and specific productivity, with the best strain producing 4.92+/-0.48 g/L muconate. Furthermore, this study demonstrates that overcoming the PCA decarboxylase bottleneck can increase muconate yields from biomass-derived sugars and aromatic molecules in industrially relevant strains and cultivation conditions.« less

  13. Cinnamic acid 4-hydroxylase of sorghum [Sorghum biocolor (L.) Moench] gene SbC4H1 restricts lignin synthesis in Arabidopsis

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Cinnamic acid 4-hydroxylase (C4H) is the first hydroxylase enzyme of the phenylpropanoid pathway, and its content and activity affects the lignin synthesis. In this study, we isolated a C4H gene SbC4H1 from the suppression subtractive hybridization library of brown midrib (bmr) mutants of Sorghum b...

  14. Lignin analysis by FT-Raman spectroscopy

    SciTech Connect

    Agarwal, U.P.; Obst, J.R.; Cannon, A.B.

    1996-10-01

    Traditional methods of lignin analysis, such as Klason (acid insoluble) lignin determinations, give satisfactory results, are widely accepted, and often are considered as standard analyses. However, the Klason lignin method is laborious and time consuming; it also requires a fairly large-amount of isolated analyte. FT-Raman spectroscopy offers an opportunity to simplify and speed up lignin analyses. FT-Raman data for a number of hardwoods (angiosperms) and softwoods (gymnosperms) are compared with data obtained using other analytical methods, including Klason lignin (with corrections for acid soluble lignin), acetyl bromide, and FT-IR determinations. In addition, 10 different specimens of Nothofagus dombeyii (chosen because of the widely varying syringyl:guaiacyl monomer compositions of their lignins) were also analyzed. Lignin monomer compositions were determined by thioacidolysis of by nitrobenzene oxidation.

  15. Mutation in Brachypodium caffeic acid O-methyltransferase 6 alters stem and grain lignins and improves straw saccharification without deteriorating grain quality.

    PubMed

    Ho-Yue-Kuang, Séverine; Alvarado, Camille; Antelme, Sébastien; Bouchet, Brigitte; Cézard, Laurent; Le Bris, Philippe; Legée, Frédéric; Maia-Grondard, Alessandra; Yoshinaga, Arata; Saulnier, Luc; Guillon, Fabienne; Sibout, Richard; Lapierre, Catherine; Chateigner-Boutin, Anne-Laure

    2016-01-01

    Cereal crop by-products are a promising source of renewable raw material for the production of biofuel from lignocellulose. However, their enzymatic conversion to fermentable sugars is detrimentally affected by lignins. Here the characterization of the Brachypodium Bd5139 mutant provided with a single nucleotide mutation in the caffeic acid O-methyltransferase BdCOMT6 gene is reported. This BdCOMT6-deficient mutant displayed a moderately altered lignification in mature stems. The lignin-related BdCOMT6 gene was also found to be expressed in grains, and the alterations of Bd5139 grain lignins were found to mirror nicely those evidenced in stem lignins. The Bd5139 grains displayed similar size and composition to the control. Complementation experiments carried out by introducing the mutated gene into the AtCOMT1-deficient Arabidopsis mutant demonstrated that the mutated BdCOMT6 protein was still functional. Such a moderate down-regulation of lignin-related COMT enzyme reduced the straw recalcitrance to saccharification, without compromising the vegetative or reproductive development of the plant.

  16. Mutation in Brachypodium caffeic acid O-methyltransferase 6 alters stem and grain lignins and improves straw saccharification without deteriorating grain quality

    PubMed Central

    Ho-Yue-Kuang, Séverine; Alvarado, Camille; Antelme, Sébastien; Bouchet, Brigitte; Cézard, Laurent; Le Bris, Philippe; Legée, Frédéric; Maia-Grondard, Alessandra; Yoshinaga, Arata; Saulnier, Luc; Guillon, Fabienne; Sibout, Richard; Lapierre, Catherine; Chateigner-Boutin, Anne-Laure

    2016-01-01

    Cereal crop by-products are a promising source of renewable raw material for the production of biofuel from lignocellulose. However, their enzymatic conversion to fermentable sugars is detrimentally affected by lignins. Here the characterization of the Brachypodium Bd5139 mutant provided with a single nucleotide mutation in the caffeic acid O-methyltransferase BdCOMT6 gene is reported. This BdCOMT6-deficient mutant displayed a moderately altered lignification in mature stems. The lignin-related BdCOMT6 gene was also found to be expressed in grains, and the alterations of Bd5139 grain lignins were found to mirror nicely those evidenced in stem lignins. The Bd5139 grains displayed similar size and composition to the control. Complementation experiments carried out by introducing the mutated gene into the AtCOMT1-deficient Arabidopsis mutant demonstrated that the mutated BdCOMT6 protein was still functional. Such a moderate down-regulation of lignin-related COMT enzyme reduced the straw recalcitrance to saccharification, without compromising the vegetative or reproductive development of the plant. PMID:26433202

  17. Sources and relative reactivities of amino acids, neutral sugars, and lignin in an intermittently anoxic marice environment

    SciTech Connect

    Cowie, G.L.; Hedges, J.I. ); Calvert, S.E. )

    1992-05-01

    A sediment-trap sample, representing an annual average particle flux at 50 m in Saanich Inlet, British Columbia, was analyzed for its elemental, amino acid, neutral sugar, and lignin composition. The results uniformly indicate primarily marine organic matter sources for all samples, although relatively higher terrigenous contributions are evident in the sediments. The [delta][sup 13]C values of trap materials also point to primarily autochthonous particle fluxes. Comparison of annual average water-column fluxes to sediment accumulation rates indicates undersampling of sinking particles due to lateral sediment inputs at depth. The anoxic benthic interface appears to be an important site of diagenesis, and selective removal is observed both at compound-class and molecular levels. Preferential loss of marine organic material is indicated by the calculated [delta][sup 13]C value and biochemical composition of the substrate. Concentrations of all measured organic constituents decreased with depth in the uniformly varved 0-14 cm sediment interval, and suggest in situ degradation. Relative reactivities of the biochemical classes indicate a change in diagenetic substrate from that utilized above and at the benthic interface. With the exception of the amino acids, however, diagenesis is generally less selective in the sediments. Protein, polysaccharide, and lignin contributions to total organic carbon decrease from 37% in the sediment-trap sample to 22% at the bottom of the 0.14 cm sediment interval. These biochemicals represent over 40 and 50-60% of the degraded carbon and nitrogen, respectively, and thus are important nutrients for the benthic and water-column communities.

  18. Topochemical distribution of lignin and hydroxycinnamic acids in sugar-cane cell walls and its correlation with the enzymatic hydrolysis of polysaccharides

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Background Lignin and hemicelluloses are the major components limiting enzyme infiltration into cell walls. Determination of the topochemical distribution of lignin and aromatics in sugar cane might provide important data on the recalcitrance of specific cells. We used cellular ultraviolet (UV) microspectrophotometry (UMSP) to topochemically detect lignin and hydroxycinnamic acids in individual fiber, vessel and parenchyma cell walls of untreated and chlorite-treated sugar cane. Internodes, presenting typical vascular bundles and sucrose-storing parenchyma cells, were divided into rind and pith fractions. Results Vascular bundles were more abundant in the rind, whereas parenchyma cells predominated in the pith region. UV measurements of untreated fiber cell walls gave absorbance spectra typical of grass lignin, with a band at 278 nm and a pronounced shoulder at 315 nm, assigned to the presence of hydroxycinnamic acids linked to lignin and/or to arabino-methylglucurono-xylans. The cell walls of vessels had the highest level of lignification, followed by those of fibers and parenchyma. Pith parenchyma cell walls were characterized by very low absorbance values at 278 nm; however, a distinct peak at 315 nm indicated that pith parenchyma cells are not extensively lignified, but contain significant amounts of hydroxycinnamic acids. Cellular UV image profiles scanned with an absorbance intensity maximum of 278 nm identified the pattern of lignin distribution in the individual cell walls, with the highest concentration occurring in the middle lamella and cell corners. Chlorite treatment caused a rapid removal of hydroxycinnamic acids from parenchyma cell walls, whereas the thicker fiber cell walls were delignified only after a long treatment duration (4 hours). Untreated pith samples were promptly hydrolyzed by cellulases, reaching 63% of cellulose conversion after 72 hours of hydrolysis, whereas untreated rind samples achieved only 20% hydrolyzation. Conclusion The low

  19. Does elevated N make lignin more recalcitrant?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Weintraub, M. N.; Rinkes, Z. L.; Grandy, S.; Wickings, K.; Bertrand, I.

    2014-12-01

    Increases in nitrogen (N) availability are often found to reduce decomposition rates of lignin-rich plant litter. However, the biological and chemical mechanisms that cause this inhibitory effect are still unclear. Our goal was to determine why increased N availability inhibits lignin decomposition. We tested two competing hypotheses: 1) decomposers degrade lignin to obtain protected N compounds and stop producing lignin-degrading enzymes if mineral N is available; or 2) chemical reactions between lignin and mineral N make lignin more recalcitrant, thereby limiting the ability of decomposers to break it down. To test these hypotheses, we followed changes in carbon (C) mineralization, microbial biomass and enzyme activities, litter chemistry, and lignin monomer concentrations over a 478-day laboratory incubation of three genotypes of maize stem internodes varying in litter quality. They were factorially combined with either an acidic or neutral pH sandy soil, with and without added N. Adding N reduced C mineralization, microbial biomass, and lignin-degrading enzyme activities in all treatments. Furthermore, our data on litter chemistry and lignin monomers indicate that N addition did not significantly alter the quantity or quality of lignin in any treatment. These results suggest that abiotic interactions between N and lignin compounds did not alter the ability of decomposers to breakdown lignin. Thus, we conclude that mineral N alters microbial enzyme and biomass dynamics, but not lignin chemistry during maize decomposition.

  20. Pseudo-lignin formation and its impact on enzymatic hydrolysis.

    PubMed

    Hu, Fan; Jung, Seokwon; Ragauskas, Arthur

    2012-08-01

    Pseudo-lignin, which can be broadly defined as aromatic material that yields a positive Klason lignin value and is not derived from native lignin, has been recently reported to form during the dilute acid pretreatment of poplar holocellulose. To investigate the chemistry of pseudo-lignin formation, GPC, FT-IR and 13C NMR were utilized to characterize pseudo-lignin extracted from dilute-acid pretreated α-cellulose and holocellulose. The results showed that pseudo-lignin consisting of carbonyl, carboxylic, aromatic and aliphatic structures was produced from dilute acid pretreated cellulose and hemicellulose. Pseudo-lignin extracted from holocellulose pretreated at different conditions had similar molecular weights (Mn∼1000 g/mol; Mw∼5000 g/mol) and structural features (carbonyl, carboxylic, aromatic and methoxy structures). These characterizations have provided the pseudo-lignin formation mechanisms during pretreatment. The presence and structure of pseudo-lignin is important since pseudo-lignin decreases the enzymatic conversion. PMID:22609707

  1. Laundry detergents: an overview.

    PubMed

    Bajpai, Divya; Tyagi, V K

    2007-01-01

    Nowadays laundry detergents are becoming increasingly popular as they can be metered automatically into the washing machine, impart softness, antistaticness, resiliency to fabrics, mild to eyes and skins and shows good dispersibility in water. Because it is consumed when it is used, the sale of laundry detergent is a rather large business. There are many different kinds or brands of laundry detergent sold, many of them claiming some special qualities as selling points. A Laundry detergent composition is a formulated mixture of raw materials that can be classified into different types based on their properties and function in the final product. The different classes of raw materials are surfactants, builders, bleaching agents, enzymes, and minors which remove dirt, stain, and soil from surfaces or textiles gave them pleasant feel and odour. The physico-chemical properties of surfactants make them suitable for laundry purposes. Laundry detergent has traditionally been a powdered or granular solid, but the use of liquid laundry detergents has gradually increased over the years, and these days use of liquid detergent equals or even exceeds use of solid detergent. This review paper describes the history, composition, types, mechanism, consumption, environmental effects and consumption of laundry detergents.

  2. Disinfection byproduct formation from lignin precursors.

    PubMed

    Hua, Guanghui; Kim, Junsung; Reckhow, David A

    2014-10-15

    Lignin is the most abundant aromatic plant component in terrestrial ecosystems. This study was conducted to determine the contribution of lignin residues in natural water to the formation of disinfection byproducts (DBPs) in drinking water. We investigated the formation of different classes of DBPs from lignin model compounds, lignin polymers, and humic substances using two common disinfection techniques, chlorination and chloramination. The contributions of lignin to the overall formation of DBPs from these organic products were determined based on the observed abundances of individual lignin phenols and their DBP yields. Model lignin phenols generally produced higher trichloroacetic acid (TCAA) yields than chloroform and dichloroacetic acid (DCAA) during chlorination. Lignin phenols generally produced higher DBP yields but lower percentages of unknown total organic halogen compared to bulk humic substances and lignin polymers. The relative significance of lignin phenols as chlorination DBP precursors generally follows the order of TCAA > DCAA&chloroform. The relative significance of lignin phenols to DBP formation by chloramination follows the order: TCAA > DCAA&DCAN > chloroform. Overall, lignin phenols are more important as TCAA precursors than as chloroform and DCAA precursors.

  3. Harvest impacts on alfalfa stem neutral detergent fiber concentration and digestibility and cell wall concentration and composition

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Alfalfa (Medicago sativa L.) stem fiber concentration and digestibility, lignin, and polysaccharide composition impact energy availability for livestock and biofuel conversion efficiency and are affected by maturity stage and environmental influences. We evaluated stem neutral detergent fiber (NDF) ...

  4. Effect of detergents on streptolysin S precursor.

    PubMed

    Calandra, G B

    1980-08-01

    Group A streptococci which produce streptolysin S contain a cellular precursor to streptolysin S in the membranes and cytoplasm which is activatable by blending in a Vortex mixer with glass beads and ribonucleic acid (RNA)-core (RNA preparation from yeast). Although no activation of precursor occurred when it was mixed with detergents, it was activated when blended with glass beads and detergents such as Tergitol NP-40 and Brij 35. Maximum activation of precursor was achieved in 1 to 2% detergent, in pH 6.5 buffer, and after 8 min of blending. Detergents Tween 20, 40, 60, and 80, Brij 56, and Lubrol WX also activated precursor, but, of all the hemolysin preparations, those with Tween 40 or 60 or Lubrol WX were the most stable. The addition of RNA-core during or after blending of precursor with detergents enhanced the titer and stability of the hemolysin. This was due in part to the association of the hemolytic moiety with RNA-core. Activation of precursor in the membrane was better with a detergent, whereas that in the cytoplasm was better with RNA-core. Therefore, precursor from two different cellular locations can be differentiated by the effects of RNA-core and detergents on precursor titer.

  5. Microbial conversions of lignin to useful chemicals using a lignin-degrading Streptomyces

    SciTech Connect

    Crawford, D.L.

    1981-01-01

    The lignocellulose-decomposing abilities of an actinomycete, Streptomyces viridosporus T7A, were studied in relation to the potential utilization of this strain for the bioconversion of lignin to useful chemicals. Both carbohydrate and lignin components were degraded. The grass and corn lignocelluloses were degraded much more extensively than the spruce and maple lignocelluloses; therefore the former were considered preferable as substrates for bioconversion. Both inoculated and control culture supernatants contained solvent extractible, phenolic, lignin-derived compounds with recoveries ranging between 3.1 and 12.2% of the initial lignin substrate. Lignin fragments that were identified included p-hydroxybenzoic acid, vanillic acid, protocatechuic acid, p-coumaric acid, syringic acid, ferulic acid, and the ketol (1-hydroxy-3-(4-hydroxy-3-methoxyphenyl)-2-propanone). The potential for using S. viridosporus in lignin to chemical bioconversions was discussed.

  6. Detergent toxicity survey.

    PubMed

    Seabaugh, V M; Bayard, S P; Osterberg, R E; Porter, W K; McCaulley, D F; Hoheisel, C A; Hehir, R M; Bierbower, G W

    1977-04-01

    A survey of over 249 detergent products involving biological testing, chemical analyses, and product label reviews has been conducted from 1971-1976 for determining compliance with the Federal Hazardous Substances Act. Test results for 145 detergent products having both chemical and biological data were examined. All of the tested detergents were rabbit eye irritants. Forty-seven per cent were also either rabbit primary skin irritants or corrosives. Eighty-one per cent were either rabbit esophageal test irritants or corrosives, and 80 per cent had rat oral toxicities 5g/kg or less.

  7. Advances in protease engineering for laundry detergents.

    PubMed

    Vojcic, Ljubica; Pitzler, Christian; Körfer, Georgette; Jakob, Felix; Ronny Martinez; Maurer, Karl-Heinz; Schwaneberg, Ulrich

    2015-12-25

    Proteases are essential ingredients in modern laundry detergents. Over the past 30 years, subtilisin proteases employed in the laundry detergent industry have been engineered by directed evolution and rational design to tailor their properties towards industrial demands. This comprehensive review discusses recent success stories in subtilisin protease engineering. Advances in protease engineering for laundry detergents comprise simultaneous improvement of thermal resistance and activity at low temperatures, a rational strategy to modulate pH profiles, and a general hypothesis for how to increase promiscuous activity towards the production of peroxycarboxylic acids as mild bleaching agents. The three protease engineering campaigns presented provide in-depth analysis of protease properties and have identified principles that can be applied to improve or generate enzyme variants for industrial applications beyond laundry detergents.

  8. Structure of a protein-detergent complex: the balance between detergent cohesion and binding.

    PubMed

    Khao, Jonathan; Arce-Lopera, Jaime; Sturgis, James N; Duneau, Jean-Pierre

    2011-10-01

    Despite the major interest in membrane proteins at functional, genomic, and therapeutic levels, their biochemical and structural study remains challenging, as they require, among other things, solubilization in detergent micelles. The complexity of this task derives from the dependence of membrane protein structure on their anisotropic environment, influenced by a delicate balance between many different physicochemical properties. To study such properties in a small protein-detergent complex, we used fluorescence measurements and molecular dynamics (MD) simulations on the transmembrane part of glycophorin A (GpAtm) solubilized in micelles of dihexanoylphosphatidylcholine (DHPC) detergent. Fluorescence measurements show that DHPC has limited ability to solubilize the peptide, while MD provides a possible molecular explanation for this. We observe that the detergent molecules are balanced between two different types of interactions: cohesive interactions between detergent molecules that hold the micelle together, and adhesive interactions with the peptide. While the cohesive interactions are detergent mediated, the adhesion to the peptide depends on the specific interactions between the hydrophobic parts of the detergent and the topography of the peptide dictated by the amino acids. The balance between these two parameters results in a certain frustration of the system and rather slow equilibration. These observations suggest how molecular properties of detergents could influence membrane protein stabilization and solubilization.

  9. Organic geochemistry of sediments from the continental margin off southern New England, U.S.A.--Part I. Amino acids, carbohydrates and lignin.

    PubMed

    Steinberg, S M; Venkatesan, M I; Kaplan, I R

    1987-01-01

    Total organic carbon (TOC), lignin, amino acids, sugars and amino sugars were measured in recent sediments for the continental margin off southern New England. The various organic carbon fractions decreased in concentration with increasing distance from shore. The fraction of the TOC that was accounted for by these major components also decreased with increasing distance from shore. The concentration of lignin indicated that only about 3-5% of the organic carbon in the nearshore sediment was of terrestrial origin. The various fractions were highly correlated, which was consistent with a simple linear mixing model of shelf organic matter with material form the slope and rise and indicated a significant transport of sediment from the continental shelf to the continental slope and rise.

  10. Organic geochemistry of sediments from the continental margin off southern New England, U.S.A.--Part I. Amino acids, carbohydrates and lignin

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Steinberg, S. M.; Venkatesan, M. I.; Kaplan, I. R.

    1987-01-01

    Total organic carbon (TOC), lignin, amino acids, sugars and amino sugars were measured in recent sediments for the continental margin off southern New England. The various organic carbon fractions decreased in concentration with increasing distance from shore. The fraction of the TOC that was accounted for by these major components also decreased with increasing distance from shore. The concentration of lignin indicated that only about 3-5% of the organic carbon in the nearshore sediment was of terrestrial origin. The various fractions were highly correlated, which was consistent with a simple linear mixing model of shelf organic matter with material form the slope and rise and indicated a significant transport of sediment from the continental shelf to the continental slope and rise.

  11. Detergent-Fearing Milk.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hill, Diane

    1997-01-01

    Describes an activity that demonstrates among the following: diffusion; cohesion and adhesion; properties of surface tension which include wicking, hydrophilic, and hydrophobic molecular behaviors; and break up of fat clusters by liquid dishwashing detergent. (DDR)

  12. Bacterial extracellular lignin peroxidase

    DOEpatents

    Crawford, Donald L.; Ramachandra, Muralidhara

    1993-01-01

    A newly discovered lignin peroxidase enzyme is provided. The enzyme is obtained from a bacterial source and is capable of degrading the lignin portion of lignocellulose in the presence of hydrogen peroxide. The enzyme is extracellular, oxidative, inducible by lignin, larch wood xylan, or related substrates and capable of attacking certain lignin substructure chemical bonds that are not degradable by fungal lignin peroxidases.

  13. Impact of urea on detergent micelle properties.

    PubMed

    Broecker, Jana; Keller, Sandro

    2013-07-01

    Co-solvents, such as urea, can entail drastic changes in the micellization behavior of detergents. We present a systematic quantification of the impact of urea on the critical micellar concentration, the micellization thermodynamics, and the micelle size in three homologous series of commonly used non-ionic alkyl detergents. To this end, we performed demicellization experiments by isothermal titration calorimetry and hydrodynamic size measurements by dynamic light scattering on alkyl maltopyranosides, cyclohexyl alkyl maltopyranosides, and alkyl glucopyranosides at urea concentrations of 0-8 M. For all detergents studied, we found that the critical micellar concentration increases exponentially because the absolute Gibbs free energy of micellization decreases linearly over the entire urea concentration range, as does the micelle size. In contrast, the enthalpic and entropic contributions to micellization reveal more complex, nonlinear dependences on urea concentration. Both free energy and size changes are more pronounced for long-chain detergents, which bury more apolar surface area upon micelle formation. The Gibbs free energy increments per methylene group within each detergent series depend on urea concentration in a linear fashion, although they result from the entropic term for alkyl maltosides but are of enthalpic origin for cyclohexyl alkyl maltosides. We compare our results to transfer free energies of amino acid side chains, relate them to protein-folding data, and discuss how urea-induced changes in detergent micelle properties affect in vitro investigations on membrane proteins.

  14. Lignin nanoparticle synthesis

    DOEpatents

    Dirk, Shawn M.; Cicotte, Kirsten Nicole; Wheeler, David R.; Benko, David A.

    2015-08-11

    A method including reducing a particle size of lignin particles to an average particle size less than 40 nanometers; after reducing the particle size, combining the lignin particles with a polymeric material; and forming a structure of the combination. A method including exposing lignin to a diazonium precursor including a functional group; modifying the lignin by introducing the functional group to the lignin; and combining the modified lignin with a polymeric material to form a composite. An apparatus including a composite of a polymer and lignin wherein the lignin has an average particle size less than 100 micrometers.

  15. Use of lignin extracted from different plant sources as standards in the spectrophotometric acetyl bromide lignin method.

    PubMed

    Fukushima, Romualdo S; Kerley, Monty S

    2011-04-27

    A nongravimetric acetyl bromide lignin (ABL) method was evaluated to quantify lignin concentration in a variety of plant materials. The traditional approach to lignin quantification required extraction of lignin with acidic dioxane and its isolation from each plant sample to construct a standard curve via spectrophotometric analysis. Lignin concentration was then measured in pre-extracted plant cell walls. However, this presented a methodological complexity because extraction and isolation procedures are lengthy and tedious, particularly if there are many samples involved. This work was targeted to simplify lignin quantification. Our hypothesis was that any lignin, regardless of its botanical origin, could be used to construct a standard curve for the purpose of determining lignin concentration in a variety of plants. To test our hypothesis, lignins were isolated from a range of diverse plants and, along with three commercial lignins, standard curves were built and compared among them. Slopes and intercepts derived from these standard curves were close enough to allow utilization of a mean extinction coefficient in the regression equation to estimate lignin concentration in any plant, independent of its botanical origin. Lignin quantification by use of a common regression equation obviates the steps of lignin extraction, isolation, and standard curve construction, which substantially expedites the ABL method. Acetyl bromide lignin method is a fast, convenient analytical procedure that may routinely be used to quantify lignin.

  16. Accurate and reproducible determination of lignin molar mass by acetobromination.

    PubMed

    Asikkala, Janne; Tamminen, Tarja; Argyropoulos, Dimitris S

    2012-09-12

    The accurate and reproducible determination of lignin molar mass by using size exclusion chromatography (SEC) is challenging. The lignin association effects, known to dominate underivatized lignins, have been thoroughly addressed by reaction with acetyl bromide in an excess of glacial acetic acid. The combination of a concerted acetylation with the introduction of bromine within the lignin alkyl side chains is thought to be responsible for the observed excellent solubilization characteristics acetobromination imparts to a variety of lignin samples. The proposed methodology was compared and contrasted to traditional lignin derivatization methods. In addition, side reactions that could possibly be induced under the acetobromination conditions were explored with native softwood (milled wood lignin, MWL) and technical (kraft) lignin. These efforts lend support toward the use of room temperature acetobromination being a facile, effective, and universal lignin derivatization medium proposed to be employed prior to SEC measurements. PMID:22870925

  17. Changes in Lignin and Polysaccharide Components in 13 Cultivars of Rice Straw following Dilute Acid Pretreatment as Studied by Solution-State 2D 1H-13C NMR.

    PubMed

    Teramura, Hiroshi; Sasaki, Kengo; Oshima, Tomoko; Aikawa, Shimpei; Matsuda, Fumio; Okamoto, Mami; Shirai, Tomokazu; Kawaguchi, Hideo; Ogino, Chiaki; Yamasaki, Masanori; Kikuchi, Jun; Kondo, Akihiko

    2015-01-01

    A renewable raw material, rice straw is pretreated for biorefinery usage. Solution-state two-dimensional (2D) 1H-13 C hetero-nuclear single quantum coherence (HSQC) nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) spectroscopy, was used to analyze 13 cultivars of rice straw before and after dilute acid pretreatment, to characterize general changes in the lignin and polysaccharide components. Intensities of most (15 of 16) peaks related to lignin aromatic regions, such as p-coumarate, guaiacyl, syringyl, p-hydroxyphenyl, and cinnamyl alcohol, and methoxyl, increased or remained unchanged after pretreatment. In contrast, intensities of most (11 of 13) peaks related to lignin aliphatic linkages or ferulate decreased. Decreased heterogeneity in the intensities of three peaks related to cellulose components in acid-insoluble residues resulted in similar glucose yield (0.45-0.59 g/g-dry biomass). Starch-derived components showed positive correlations (r = 0.71 to 0.96) with glucose, 5-hydroxymethylfurfural (5-HMF), and formate concentrations in the liquid hydrolysates, and negative correlations (r = -0.95 to -0.97) with xylose concentration and acid-insoluble residue yield. These results showed the fate of lignin and polysaccharide components by pretreatment, suggesting that lignin aromatic regions and cellulose components were retained in the acid insoluble residues and starch-derived components were transformed into glucose, 5-HMF, and formate in the liquid hydrolysate.

  18. Changes in Lignin and Polysaccharide Components in 13 Cultivars of Rice Straw following Dilute Acid Pretreatment as Studied by Solution-State 2D 1H-13C NMR

    PubMed Central

    Teramura, Hiroshi; Sasaki, Kengo; Oshima, Tomoko; Aikawa, Shimpei; Matsuda, Fumio; Okamoto, Mami; Shirai, Tomokazu; Kawaguchi, Hideo; Ogino, Chiaki; Yamasaki, Masanori; Kikuchi, Jun; Kondo, Akihiko

    2015-01-01

    A renewable raw material, rice straw is pretreated for biorefinery usage. Solution-state two-dimensional (2D) 1H-13 C hetero-nuclear single quantum coherence (HSQC) nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) spectroscopy, was used to analyze 13 cultivars of rice straw before and after dilute acid pretreatment, to characterize general changes in the lignin and polysaccharide components. Intensities of most (15 of 16) peaks related to lignin aromatic regions, such as p-coumarate, guaiacyl, syringyl, p-hydroxyphenyl, and cinnamyl alcohol, and methoxyl, increased or remained unchanged after pretreatment. In contrast, intensities of most (11 of 13) peaks related to lignin aliphatic linkages or ferulate decreased. Decreased heterogeneity in the intensities of three peaks related to cellulose components in acid-insoluble residues resulted in similar glucose yield (0.45–0.59 g/g-dry biomass). Starch-derived components showed positive correlations (r = 0.71 to 0.96) with glucose, 5-hydroxymethylfurfural (5-HMF), and formate concentrations in the liquid hydrolysates, and negative correlations (r = –0.95 to –0.97) with xylose concentration and acid-insoluble residue yield. These results showed the fate of lignin and polysaccharide components by pretreatment, suggesting that lignin aromatic regions and cellulose components were retained in the acid insoluble residues and starch-derived components were transformed into glucose, 5-HMF, and formate in the liquid hydrolysate. PMID:26083431

  19. Structure and radical scavenging activity relationships of pyrolytic lignins

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    This work deals with antioxidant properties of pyrolytic lignins against two free radicals, the 1,1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl and the 2,2'-Azino-bis(3-ethylbenzothiazoline-6-sulfonic acid). Pyrolytic lignins produced by the thermal pyrolysis of the Etek lignin were extracted from the liquid pyrolysi...

  20. Flocculation of high purity wheat straw soda lignin

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Flocculant action on lignocellulose mixtures has been studied, but flocculant action on purified sulfur-free lignin has not been reported. In the last step of the industrial process, the purified lignin solution is acidified with sulfuric acid which causes the lignin to become insoluble. The feasi...

  1. Selective aerobic alcohol oxidation method for conversion of lignin into simple aromatic compounds

    DOEpatents

    Stahl, Shannon S; Rahimi, Alireza

    2015-03-03

    Described is a method to oxidize lignin or lignin sub-units. The method includes oxidation of secondary benzylic alcohol in the lignin or lignin sub-unit to a corresponding ketone in the presence of unprotected primarily aliphatic alcohol in the lignin or lignin sub-unit. The optimal catalyst system consists of HNO.sub.3 in combination with another Bronsted acid, in the absence of a metal-containing catalyst, thereby yielding a selectively oxidized lignin or lignin sub-unit. The method may be carried out in the presence or absence of additional reagents including TEMPO and TEMPO derivatives.

  2. Biochemical distributions (amino acids, neutral sugars, and lignin phenols) among size-classes of modern marine sediments from the Washington coast

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Keil, Richard G.; Tsamakis, Elizabeth; Giddings, J. Calvin; Hedges, John I.

    1998-04-01

    In order to examine relationships of organic matter source, composition, and diagenesis with particle size and mineralogy in modern marine depositional regimes, sediments from the continental shelf and slope along the Northwest Pacific rim (Washington coast, USA) were sorted into hydrodynamic size fractions (sand: >250, 63-250 μm; silt: 35-63, 17-35, 8-17, 3-8 μm; and clay-sized: 1-3, 0.5-1, <0.5 μm). The size fractions were then density fractionated to separate distinct organic debris from mineral-associated organic matter, and the various separates were analyzed for their amino acid, aldose, and lignin compositions. The composition of organic matter in the separates changes markedly as a function of particle size and density. Large compositional differences were observed between the clay-sized fractions (dominated mineralogically by smectites), the sand-sized mineral-associated isolates (quartz-rich), and floated coarse organic matter (dominated by vascular plant debris). Organic matter intimately associated with the clay-sized fractions shows the most extensive diagenetic alteration, as reflected in high abundances of nonprotein amino acids (especially β-alanine), elevated lignin phenol acid/aldehyde ratios, and high relative concentrations of the deoxyhexoses fucose and rhamnose. Organic matter in the silt fractions, though degraded, is not as diagenetically altered as in the clay fractions. Enrichment of pollen grains in the silt-size material is reflected by high cinnamic acid to ferulic acid lignin phenol ratios. The highest pollen biochemical signal is observed in the silt fractions of the deepest station (1835 m), where pollen abundances are also highest. Organic matter tightly bound in the silt and sand-sized fractions are enriched in aldoses and show indications of enhanced microbial biomass as reflected by high weight percentages of ribose. Distinct organic debris was composed of relatively unaltered vascular plant remains as reflected by high

  3. Detergent-compatible bacterial amylases.

    PubMed

    Niyonzima, Francois N; More, Sunil S

    2014-10-01

    Proteases, lipases, amylases, and cellulases are enzymes used in detergent formulation to improve the detergency. The amylases are specifically supplemented to the detergent to digest starchy stains. Most of the solid and liquid detergents that are currently manufactured contain alkaline enzymes. The advantages of using alkaline enzymes in the detergent formulation are that they aid in removing tough stains and the process is environmentally friendly since they reduce the use of toxic detergent ingredients. Amylases active at low temperature are preferred as the energy consumption gets reduced, and the whole process becomes cost-effective. Most microbial alkaline amylases are used as detergent ingredients. Various reviews report on the production, purification, characterization, and application of amylases in different industry sectors, but there is no specific review on bacterial or fungal alkaline amylases or detergent-compatible amylases. In this mini-review, an overview on the production and property studies of the detergent bacterial amylases is given, and the stability and compatibility of the alkaline bacterial amylases in the presence of the detergents and the detergent components are highlighted.

  4. Variability in the relationships for alfalfa stem 16- and 96-h in vitro neutral detergent fiber digestibility with composition due to maturity and harvest

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Lignin concentration is strongly negatively correlated with in vitro digestibility of neutral detergent fiber (IVNDFD) when examined across a wide forage maturity range, but this relationship is less clear among forages of similar maturity. We examined the relationships of IVNDFD with lignin and oth...

  5. Beta-ketoadipic acid and muconolactone production from a lignin-related aromatic compound through the protocatechuate 3,4-metabolic pathway.

    PubMed

    Okamura-Abe, Yuriko; Abe, Tomokuni; Nishimura, Kei; Kawata, Yasutaka; Sato-Izawa, Kanna; Otsuka, Yuichiro; Nakamura, Masaya; Kajita, Shinya; Masai, Eiji; Sonoki, Tomonori; Katayama, Yoshihiro

    2016-06-01

    In this work, the effects of PcaJ (beta-ketoadipate:succinyl-coenzyme A transferase)- and PcaD (beta-ketoadipate enol-lactone hydrolase)-inactivation on protocatechuic acid metabolism in Pseudomonas putida KT2440 were evaluated. Beta-ketoadipic acid was produced from protocatechuic acid by the inactivation of PcaJ as expected; however, a portion of the produced beta-ketoadipic acid was converted to levulinic acid through a purification step consisting of extraction from the culture and recrystallization. On the other hand, muconolactone was purified from the culture of the PcaD-inactivated mutant of KT2440, although beta-ketoadipate enol-lactone was supposed to be produced because it is the substrate of PcaD. Under aerobic conditions, it has been reported that lignin-related aromatics are metabolized through PCA 2,3- or 3,4- or 4,5-ring cleavage pathways, and muconolactone is an intermediate observed in the metabolism of catechol, not protocatechuic acid. Our results will provide a prospective route to produce muconolactone with a high yield through the protocatechuate-3,4-metabolic pathway.

  6. Detergent-mediated protein aggregation.

    PubMed

    Neale, Chris; Ghanei, Hamed; Holyoake, John; Bishop, Russell E; Privé, Gilbert G; Pomès, Régis

    2013-04-01

    Because detergents are commonly used to solvate membrane proteins for structural evaluation, much attention has been devoted to assessing the conformational bias imparted by detergent micelles in comparison to the native environment of the lipid bilayer. Here, we conduct six 500-ns simulations of a system with >600,000 atoms to investigate the spontaneous self assembly of dodecylphosphocholine detergent around multiple molecules of the integral membrane protein PagP. This detergent formed equatorial micelles in which acyl chains surround the protein's hydrophobic belt, confirming existing models of the detergent solvation of membrane proteins. In addition, unexpectedly, the extracellular and periplasmic apical surfaces of PagP interacted with the headgroups of detergents in other micelles 85 and 60% of the time, respectively, forming complexes that were stable for hundreds of nanoseconds. In some cases, an apical surface of one molecule of PagP interacted with an equatorial micelle surrounding another molecule of PagP. In other cases, the apical surfaces of two molecules of PagP simultaneously bound a neat detergent micelle. In these ways, detergents mediated the non-specific aggregation of folded PagP. These simulation results are consistent with dynamic light scattering experiments, which show that, at detergent concentrations ≥600 mM, PagP induces the formation of large scattering species that are likely to contain many copies of the PagP protein. Together, these simulation and experimental results point to a potentially generic mechanism of detergent-mediated protein aggregation.

  7. Reactions of Lignin Model Compounds in Ionic Liquids

    SciTech Connect

    Holladay, John E.; Binder, Joseph B.; Gray, Michel J.; White, James F.; Zhang, Z. Conrad

    2009-09-15

    Lignin, a readily available form of biomass, awaits novel chemistry for converting it to valuable aromatic chemicals. Recent work has demonstrated that ionic liquids are excellent solvents for processing woody biomass and lignin. Seeking to exploit ionic liquids as media for depolymerization of lignin, we investigated reactions of lignin model compounds in these solvents. Using Brønsted acid catalysts in 1-ethyl-3-methylimidazolium triflate at moderate temperatures, we obtained up to 11.6% yield of the dealkylation product guaiacol from the model compound eugenol and cleaved phenethyl phenyl ether, a model for lignin ethers. Despite these successes, acid catalysis failed in dealkylation of the unsaturated model compound 4-ethylguaiacol and did not produce monomeric products from organosolv lignin, demonstrating that further work is required to understand the complex chemistry of lignin depolymerization.

  8. Effects of a polar amino acid substitution on helix formation and aggregate size along the detergent-induced peptide folding pathway.

    PubMed

    Alvares, Rohan D A; Tulumello, David V; Macdonald, Peter M; Deber, Charles M; Prosser, R Scott

    2013-02-01

    Membrane proteins constitute a significant fraction of the proteome and are important drug targets. While the transmembrane (TM) segments of these proteins are primarily composed of hydrophobic residues, the inclusion of polar residues-either naturally occurring or as a consequence of a disease-related mutation-places a significant folding burden in this environment, potentially impacting bilayer insertion and/or association of neighboring TM helices. Here we investigate the role of an anionic detergent, sodium dodecylsulfate (SDS), and a zwitterionic detergent, dodecylphosphocholine (DPC), in the folding process, and the effects induced by a single polar substitution, on structure and topology of model α-helical TM segments. The peptides, represented by KK-YAAAIAAIAWAXAAIAAAIAA-KKK-NH(2), where X is I or N, are designed with high aqueous solubilities, through poly-lysine tags. Circular dichroism (CD) and NMR were used to monitor peptide secondary structure and diffusional mobility of both peptide and the detergent hosts. For both peptides, SDS binding commenced at a concentration below its CMC, due to Coulombic attraction of anionic SDS to cationic Lys residues. Increasing SDS binding correlated with increasing peptide helicity. Pulsed field gradient (PFG) NMR diffusion measurements revealed that the Asn-containing peptide bound four fewer detergent molecules, corresponding to ca. 20% less SDS than bound by the Ile peptide. Conversely, zwitterionic DPC binding to either peptide was not observed until the DPC concentration approached its CMC. Our findings confirm quantitatively that a single polar residue within a TM segment may have a significant influence on its local membrane environment.

  9. Lignin-blocking treatment of biomass and uses thereof

    DOEpatents

    Yang, Bin; Wyman, Charles E.

    2009-10-20

    Disclosed is a method for converting cellulose in a lignocellulosic biomass. The method provides for a lignin-blocking polypeptide and/or protein treatment of high lignin solids. The treatment enhances cellulase availability in cellulose conversion. Cellulase efficiencies are improved by the protein or polypeptide treatment. The treatment may be used in combination with steam explosion and acid prehydrolysis techniques. Hydrolysis yields from lignin containing biomass are enhanced 5-20%, and enzyme utilization is increased from 10% to 50%. Thus, a more efficient and economical method of processing lignin containing biomass materials utilizes a polypeptide/protein treatment step that effectively blocks lignin binding of cellulase.

  10. Lignin pyrolysis products, lignans, and resin acids as specific tracers of plant classes in emissions from biomass combustion

    SciTech Connect

    Simoneit, B.R.T. ); Rogge, W.F.; Cass, G.R. ); Mazurek, M.A. ); Standley, L.J. ); Hildemann, L.M. )

    1993-11-01

    Biomass smoke aerosols contain thermally unaltered and partially altered biomarker compounds from major vegetation taxa. These compounds range from C[sub 8] to C[sub 31] and include phytosterols, lignans, phenolic products from lignin, and diterpenoids from resins. Certain of the higher molecular weight biomarkers are vaporized from the parent plant material and subsequently condense unaltered into the particle phase. Other compounds undergo pyrolytic alteration and possibly dimerization. In both cases it is possible to assign many of these compounds to the plant taxa of the unburned fuel. The diterpenoids are good indicators for smoke from burning of gymnosperm wood. The relative distribution of the OH/OCH[sub 3] substituent patterns on the phenolic products indicates the plant class of the biomass that was burned. Application of these relationships to the interpretation of ambient smoke aerosols may permit further evaluation of the sources that contribute to regional biomass burning. 80 refs., 5 figs., 1 tab.

  11. Evidence for lignin oxidation by the giant panda fecal microbiome.

    PubMed

    Fang, Wei; Fang, Zemin; Zhou, Peng; Chang, Fei; Hong, Yuzhi; Zhang, Xuecheng; Peng, Hui; Xiao, Yazhong

    2012-01-01

    The digestion of lignin and lignin-related phenolic compounds from bamboo by giant pandas has puzzled scientists because of the lack of lignin-degrading genes in the genome of the bamboo-feeding animals. We constructed a 16S rRNA gene library from the microorganisms derived from the giant panda feces to identify the possibility for the presence of potential lignin-degrading bacteria. Phylogenetic analysis showed that the phylotypes of the intestinal bacteria were affiliated with the phyla Proteobacteria (53%) and Firmicutes (47%). Two phylotypes were affiliated with the known lignin-degrading bacterium Pseudomonas putida and the mangrove forest bacteria. To test the hypothesis that microbes in the giant panda gut help degrade lignin, a metagenomic library of the intestinal bacteria was constructed and screened for clones that contained genes encoding laccase, a lignin-degrading related enzyme. A multicopper oxidase gene, designated as lac51, was identified from a metagenomic clone. Sequence analysis and copper content determination indicated that Lac51 is a laccase rather than a metallo-oxidase and may work outside its original host cell because it has a TAT-type signal peptide and a transmembrane segment at its N-terminus. Lac51 oxidizes a variety of lignin-related phenolic compounds, including syringaldazine, 2,6-dimethoxyphenol, ferulic acid, veratryl alcohol, guaiacol, and sinapinic acid at conditions that simulate the physiologic environment in giant panda intestines. Furthermore, in the presence of 2,2'-azino-bis(3-ethylbenzothiazoline-6-sulfonic acid) (ABTS), syringic acid, or ferulic acid as mediators, the oxidative ability of Lac51 on lignin was promoted. The absorbance of lignin at 445 nm decreased to 36% for ABTS, 51% for syringic acid, and 51% for ferulic acid after incubation for 10 h. Our findings demonstrate that the intestinal bacteria of giant pandas may facilitate the oxidation of lignin moieties, thereby clarifying the digestion of bamboo lignin

  12. Evidence for Lignin Oxidation by the Giant Panda Fecal Microbiome

    PubMed Central

    Zhou, Peng; Chang, Fei; Hong, Yuzhi; Zhang, Xuecheng; Peng, Hui; Xiao, Yazhong

    2012-01-01

    The digestion of lignin and lignin-related phenolic compounds from bamboo by giant pandas has puzzled scientists because of the lack of lignin-degrading genes in the genome of the bamboo-feeding animals. We constructed a 16S rRNA gene library from the microorganisms derived from the giant panda feces to identify the possibility for the presence of potential lignin-degrading bacteria. Phylogenetic analysis showed that the phylotypes of the intestinal bacteria were affiliated with the phyla Proteobacteria (53%) and Firmicutes (47%). Two phylotypes were affiliated with the known lignin-degrading bacterium Pseudomonas putida and the mangrove forest bacteria. To test the hypothesis that microbes in the giant panda gut help degrade lignin, a metagenomic library of the intestinal bacteria was constructed and screened for clones that contained genes encoding laccase, a lignin-degrading related enzyme. A multicopper oxidase gene, designated as lac51, was identified from a metagenomic clone. Sequence analysis and copper content determination indicated that Lac51 is a laccase rather than a metallo-oxidase and may work outside its original host cell because it has a TAT-type signal peptide and a transmembrane segment at its N-terminus. Lac51 oxidizes a variety of lignin-related phenolic compounds, including syringaldazine, 2,6-dimethoxyphenol, ferulic acid, veratryl alcohol, guaiacol, and sinapinic acid at conditions that simulate the physiologic environment in giant panda intestines. Furthermore, in the presence of 2,2′-azino-bis(3-ethylbenzothiazoline-6-sulfonic acid) (ABTS), syringic acid, or ferulic acid as mediators, the oxidative ability of Lac51 on lignin was promoted. The absorbance of lignin at 445 nm decreased to 36% for ABTS, 51% for syringic acid, and 51% for ferulic acid after incubation for 10 h. Our findings demonstrate that the intestinal bacteria of giant pandas may facilitate the oxidation of lignin moieties, thereby clarifying the digestion of bamboo

  13. Systems biology-guided biodesign of consolidated lignin conversion

    DOE PAGES

    Lin, Lu; Cheng, Yanbing; Pu, Yunqiao; Sun, Su; Li, Xiao; Jin, Mingjie; Pierson, Elizabeth A.; Gross, Dennis C.; Dale, Bruce E.; Dai, Susie Y.; et al

    2016-07-12

    Lignin is the second most abundant biopolymer on the earth, yet its utilization for fungible products is complicated by its recalcitrant nature and remains a major challenge for sustainable lignocellulosic biorefineries. In this study, we used a systems biology approach to reveal the carbon utilization pattern and lignin degradation mechanisms in a unique lignin-utilizing Pseudomonas putida strain (A514). The mechanistic study further guided the design of three functional modules to enable a consolidated lignin bioconversion route. First, P. putida A514 mobilized a dye peroxidase-based enzymatic system for lignin depolymerization. This system could be enhanced by overexpressing a secreted multifunctional dyemore » peroxidase to promote a two-fold enhancement of cell growth on insoluble kraft lignin. Second, A514 employed a variety of peripheral and central catabolism pathways to metabolize aromatic compounds, which can be optimized by overexpressing key enzymes. Third, the β-oxidation of fatty acid was up-regulated, whereas fatty acid synthesis was down-regulated when A514 was grown on lignin and vanillic acid. Therefore, the functional module for polyhydroxyalkanoate (PHA) production was designed to rechannel β-oxidation products. As a result, PHA content reached 73% per cell dry weight (CDW). Further integrating the three functional modules enhanced the production of PHA from kraft lignin and biorefinery waste. Furthermore, this study elucidated lignin conversion mechanisms in bacteria with potential industrial implications and laid out the concept for engineering a consolidated lignin conversion route.« less

  14. Detergent-mediated protein aggregation

    PubMed Central

    Neale, Chris; Ghanei, Hamed; Holyoake, John; Bishop, Russell E.; Privé, Gilbert G.; Pomès, Régis

    2016-01-01

    Because detergents are commonly used to solvate membrane proteins for structural evaluation, much attention has been devoted to assessing the conformational bias imparted by detergent micelles in comparison to the native environment of the lipid bilayer. Here, we conduct six 500-ns simulations of a system with >600,000 atoms to investigate the spontaneous self assembly of dodecylphosphocholine detergent around multiple molecules of the integral membrane protein PagP. This detergent formed equatorial micelles in which acyl chains surround the protein’s hydrophobic belt, confirming existing models of the detergent solvation of membrane proteins. In addition, unexpectedly, the extracellular and periplasmic apical surfaces of PagP interacted with the headgroups of detergents in other micelles 85 and 60% of the time, respectively, forming complexes that were stable for hundreds of nanoseconds. In some cases, an apical surface of one molecule of PagP interacted with an equatorial micelle surrounding another molecule of PagP. In other cases, the apical surfaces of two molecules of PagP simultaneously bound a neat detergent micelle. In these ways, detergents mediated the non-specific aggregation of folded PagP. These simulation results are consistent with dynamic light scattering experiments, which show that, at detergent concentrations ≥600 mM, PagP induces the formation of large scattering species that are likely to contain many copies of the PagP protein. Together, these simulation and experimental results point to a potentially generic mechanism of detergent-mediated protein aggregation. PMID:23466535

  15. Discovery of 12-mer peptides that bind to wood lignin.

    PubMed

    Yamaguchi, Asako; Isozaki, Katsuhiro; Nakamura, Masaharu; Takaya, Hikaru; Watanabe, Takashi

    2016-01-01

    Lignin, an abundant terrestrial polymer, is the only large-volume renewable feedstock composed of an aromatic skeleton. Lignin has been used mostly as an energy source during paper production; however, recent interest in replacing fossil fuels with renewable resources has highlighted its potential value in providing aromatic chemicals. Highly selective degradation of lignin is pivotal for industrial production of paper, biofuels, chemicals, and materials. However, few studies have examined natural and synthetic molecular components recognizing the heterogeneous aromatic polymer. Here, we report the first identification of lignin-binding peptides possessing characteristic sequences using a phage display technique. The consensus sequence HFPSP was found in several lignin-binding peptides, and the outer amino acid sequence affected the binding affinity of the peptides. Substitution of phenylalanine7 with Ile in the lignin-binding peptide C416 (HFPSPIFQRHSH) decreased the affinity of the peptide for softwood lignin without changing its affinity for hardwood lignin, indicating that C416 recognised structural differences between the lignins. Circular dichroism spectroscopy demonstrated that this peptide adopted a highly flexible random coil structure, allowing key residues to be appropriately arranged in relation to the binding site in lignin. These results provide a useful platform for designing synthetic and biological catalysts selectively bind to lignin. PMID:26903196

  16. Discovery of 12-mer peptides that bind to wood lignin

    PubMed Central

    Yamaguchi, Asako; Isozaki, Katsuhiro; Nakamura, Masaharu; Takaya, Hikaru; Watanabe, Takashi

    2016-01-01

    Lignin, an abundant terrestrial polymer, is the only large-volume renewable feedstock composed of an aromatic skeleton. Lignin has been used mostly as an energy source during paper production; however, recent interest in replacing fossil fuels with renewable resources has highlighted its potential value in providing aromatic chemicals. Highly selective degradation of lignin is pivotal for industrial production of paper, biofuels, chemicals, and materials. However, few studies have examined natural and synthetic molecular components recognizing the heterogeneous aromatic polymer. Here, we report the first identification of lignin-binding peptides possessing characteristic sequences using a phage display technique. The consensus sequence HFPSP was found in several lignin-binding peptides, and the outer amino acid sequence affected the binding affinity of the peptides. Substitution of phenylalanine7 with Ile in the lignin-binding peptide C416 (HFPSPIFQRHSH) decreased the affinity of the peptide for softwood lignin without changing its affinity for hardwood lignin, indicating that C416 recognised structural differences between the lignins. Circular dichroism spectroscopy demonstrated that this peptide adopted a highly flexible random coil structure, allowing key residues to be appropriately arranged in relation to the binding site in lignin. These results provide a useful platform for designing synthetic and biological catalysts selectively bind to lignin. PMID:26903196

  17. Detergent-Free Membrane Protein Purification.

    PubMed

    Rothnie, Alice J

    2016-01-01

    Membrane proteins are localized within a lipid bilayer; in order to purify them for functional and structural studies the first step must involve solubilizing or extracting the protein from these lipids. To date this has been achieved using detergents which disrupt the bilayer and bind to the protein in the transmembrane region. However finding conditions for optimal extraction, without destabilizing protein structure, is time consuming and expensive. Here we present a recently-developed method using a styrene-maleic acid (SMA) co-polymer instead of detergents. The SMA co-polymer extracts membrane proteins in a small disc of lipid bilayer which can be used for affinity chromatography purification, thus enabling the purification of membrane proteins while maintaining their native lipid bilayer environment. PMID:27485341

  18. Lignin transformations and reactivity upon ozonation in aqueous media

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Khudoshin, A. G.; Mitrofanova, A. N.; Lunin, V. V.

    2012-03-01

    The reaction of ozone with lignin in aqueous acidic solutions is investigated. The Danckwerst model is used to describe the kinetics of gas/liquid processes occurring in a bubble reactor. The efficient ozonation rate of a soluble lignin analog, sodium lignosulfate, is determined. The main lines of the reaction between ozone and lignin are revealed on the basis of kinetic analysis results and IR and UV spectroscopy data.

  19. Modulation of mutagenicity of various mutagens by lignin derivatives.

    PubMed

    Mikulásová, Mária; Kosíková, Bozena

    2003-03-01

    The effect of lignin on cytotoxicity, mutagenicity and SOS response induced by 4-nitroquinoline-N-oxide (4NQO), 3-(5-nitro-2-furyl)acrylic acid (5NFAA), 2-nitrofluorene (2NF) as well as hydrogen peroxide was investigated in bacterial assay systems, i.e. the Ames test with Salmonella typhimurium TA98, TA100, TA102 and the SOS chromotest with Escherichia coli PQ37. Lignin preparations obtained from beech wood significantly decreased the mutagenicity induced by 4NQO, 2NF and H(2)O(2). In the case of mutagenicity induced by 5NFAA the effect was lower. Antimutagenic properties of lignin samples tested were shown also by SOS chromotest where lignin inhibited the ability of both 4NQO and H(2)O(2) to induce the SOS response. Derivatives of lignin including those from soft and hard wood, as well as from annual plants differ in their efficiency to inhibit the induction of the SOS response. The modified lignins isolated from beech and spruce wood exhibit a high level of protection. Lignins from annual plants-corn cobs and straw-only marginally evoked an antimutagenic response, but their effect was increased by hydrothermic treatment of both annual plants. The results obtained indicate the prospective utilization of lignin preparations as additive in chemo-prevention. The antimutagenic effect of lignin samples varies with the method of isolation and modification, as well as with the genetic origin of the lignin. PMID:12581535

  20. Exploring bacterial lignin degradation.

    PubMed

    Brown, Margaret E; Chang, Michelle C Y

    2014-04-01

    Plant biomass represents a renewable carbon feedstock that could potentially be used to replace a significant level of petroleum-derived chemicals. One major challenge in its utilization is that the majority of this carbon is trapped in the recalcitrant structural polymers of the plant cell wall. Deconstruction of lignin is a key step in the processing of biomass to useful monomers but remains challenging. Microbial systems can provide molecular information on lignin depolymerization as they have evolved to break lignin down using metalloenzyme-dependent radical pathways. Both fungi and bacteria have been observed to metabolize lignin; however, their differential reactivity with this substrate indicates that they may utilize different chemical strategies for its breakdown. This review will discuss recent advances in studying bacterial lignin degradation as an approach to exploring greater diversity in the environment. PMID:24780273

  1. Influence of lignin addition on the enzymatic digestibility of pretreated lignocellulosic biomasses.

    PubMed

    Wang, Wangxia; Zhu, Yangsu; Du, Jing; Yang, Yiqin; Jin, Yongcan

    2015-04-01

    The presence of lignin in lignocellulosic biomass is correlated with its enzymatic digestibility. Their correlation and mechanism have been investigated widely but have not been elucidated clearly. In this study, hydrophilic sulfonated lignin and hydrophobic kraft lignin were introduced into the enzymatic hydrolysis process to investigate their effects on the enzymatic digestibility of different pretreated lignocellulose. The influence of lignin addition on the enzymatic digestibility varied with both introduced lignin type and the pretreatment methods of substrates. Slight enhancement of enzymatic hydrolysis was observed for all substrates by adding kraft lignin. The addition of sulfonated lignin could effectively improve the enzymatic digestibility of green liquor and acidic bisulfite pretreated materials, but had little effect on sulfite-formaldehyde pretreated samples. The enzymatic digestibility of green liquor pretreated masson pine increased from 42% without lignin addition to 75% with 0.3g/g-substrate sulfonated lignin addition.

  2. Comparison of lignin extraction processes: Economic and environmental assessment.

    PubMed

    Carvajal, Juan C; Gómez, Álvaro; Cardona, Carlos A

    2016-08-01

    This paper presents the technical-economic and environmental assessment of four lignin extraction processes from two different raw materials (sugarcane bagasse and rice husks). The processes are divided into two categories, the first processes evaluates lignin extraction with prior acid hydrolysis step, while in the second case the extraction processes are evaluated standalone for a total analysis of 16 scenarios. Profitability indicators as the net present value (NPV) and environmental indicators as the potential environmental impact (PEI) are used through a process engineering approach to understand and select the best lignin extraction process. The results show that both economically and environmentally process with sulfites and soda from rice husk presents the best results; however the quality of lignin obtained with sulfites is not suitable for high value-added products. Then, the soda is an interesting option for the extraction of lignin if high quality lignin is required for high value-added products at low costs.

  3. Comparison of lignin extraction processes: Economic and environmental assessment.

    PubMed

    Carvajal, Juan C; Gómez, Álvaro; Cardona, Carlos A

    2016-08-01

    This paper presents the technical-economic and environmental assessment of four lignin extraction processes from two different raw materials (sugarcane bagasse and rice husks). The processes are divided into two categories, the first processes evaluates lignin extraction with prior acid hydrolysis step, while in the second case the extraction processes are evaluated standalone for a total analysis of 16 scenarios. Profitability indicators as the net present value (NPV) and environmental indicators as the potential environmental impact (PEI) are used through a process engineering approach to understand and select the best lignin extraction process. The results show that both economically and environmentally process with sulfites and soda from rice husk presents the best results; however the quality of lignin obtained with sulfites is not suitable for high value-added products. Then, the soda is an interesting option for the extraction of lignin if high quality lignin is required for high value-added products at low costs. PMID:27174614

  4. Green Diesel from Kraft Lignin in Three Steps.

    PubMed

    Löfstedt, Joakim; Dahlstrand, Christian; Orebom, Alexander; Meuzelaar, Gerrit; Sawadjoon, Supaporn; Galkin, Maxim V; Agback, Peter; Wimby, Martin; Corresa, Elena; Mathieu, Yannick; Sauvanaud, Laurent; Eriksson, Sören; Corma, Avelino; Samec, Joseph S M

    2016-06-22

    Precipitated kraft lignin from black liquor was converted into green diesel in three steps. A mild Ni-catalyzed transfer hydrogenation/hydrogenolysis using 2-propanol generated a lignin residue in which the ethers, carbonyls, and olefins were reduced. An organocatalyzed esterification of the lignin residue with an in situ prepared tall oil fatty acid anhydride gave an esterified lignin residue that was soluble in light gas oil. The esterified lignin residue was coprocessed with light gas oil in a continous hydrotreater to produce a green diesel. This approach will enable the development of new techniques to process commercial lignin in existing oil refinery infrastructures to standardized transportation fuels in the future. PMID:27246391

  5. Modification of lignin content and composition in plants

    DOEpatents

    Ye, Zheng-Hua

    2002-01-01

    Plants and methods of preparing plants having reduced lignin content and/or altered lignin composition are provided. The activities of caffeoyl-CoA O-methyltransferase and/or caffeic acid O-methyltransferase enzymes in the modified plants are reduced.

  6. Lignin phenols derivatives in lichens.

    PubMed

    Zavarzina, A G; Romankevich, E A; Peresypkin, V I; Ulyantzev, A S; Belyaev, N A; Zavarzin, A A

    2015-01-01

    Lignin monophenols have been measured in the cupric oxide oxidation products from lichens of different systematic groups. It is shown for the first time that syringyl structures in most lichens strongly dominate over vanillyl and p-hydroxyl ones (S/V 7-583, S/P 3-30). This distinguishes lichens from algae and mosses (p-hydroxyl phenols are dominant) and from higher plants (S/V ratios are from 0 in gymnosperms to 1.1-5.2 in angiosperms). Molecular ratios of phenols as well as the ratios of acids to aldehydes in lichens were different from lignin of higher plants, suggesting contribution of non-lignin phenols in CuO oxidation products. The contents of syringyl and vanillyl phenols in some lichen species were comparable to non-woody tissues of higher plants. Results of the study suggest that lichens can be important source of aromatic structures in soils and hydrosphere, particularly in the regions were lichens are abundant. PMID:26728733

  7. Lignin phenols derivatives in lichens.

    PubMed

    Zavarzina, A G; Romankevich, E A; Peresypkin, V I; Ulyantzev, A S; Belyaev, N A; Zavarzin, A A

    2015-01-01

    Lignin monophenols have been measured in the cupric oxide oxidation products from lichens of different systematic groups. It is shown for the first time that syringyl structures in most lichens strongly dominate over vanillyl and p-hydroxyl ones (S/V 7-583, S/P 3-30). This distinguishes lichens from algae and mosses (p-hydroxyl phenols are dominant) and from higher plants (S/V ratios are from 0 in gymnosperms to 1.1-5.2 in angiosperms). Molecular ratios of phenols as well as the ratios of acids to aldehydes in lichens were different from lignin of higher plants, suggesting contribution of non-lignin phenols in CuO oxidation products. The contents of syringyl and vanillyl phenols in some lichen species were comparable to non-woody tissues of higher plants. Results of the study suggest that lichens can be important source of aromatic structures in soils and hydrosphere, particularly in the regions were lichens are abundant.

  8. Detection of antibiotics in goat's milk: effect of detergents on the response of microbial inhibitor tests.

    PubMed

    Romero, Tamara; Beltrán, María Carmen; Althaus, Rafael Lisandro; Molina, María Pilar

    2014-08-01

    The aim of the study was to evaluate the interference of acid and alkaline detergents employed in the cleaning of milking equipment of caprine dairy farms on the performance of microbial tests used in antibiotic control (BRT MRL, Delvotest MCS, and Eclipse 100). Eight concentrations of commercial detergents, five acid (0-0.25%) and five alkaline (0-1%) were add to antimicrobial-free goat's milk to evaluate the detergent effect on the response of microbial inhibitor tests. To evaluate the effect of detergents on the detection capability of microbial tests two detergents at 0.5 ml/l (one acid and one basic) and eight concentrations of four β-lactam antibiotics (ampicillin, amoxicillin, cloxacillin and benzylpenicillin) were used. Milk without detergents was used as control. The spiked samples were analysed twelve times by three microbial tests. The results showed that the presence of acid detergents did not affect the response of microbial tests for any of the concentrations tested. However, at concentrations equal to or greater than 2 ml/l alkaline detergents positive results were found in microbial tests (16.7-100%). The detection limits of the screening tests for penicillins were not modified substantially by the presence of detergents. In general, the presence of acid and alkaline detergents in goat's milk did not produce a great interference in the microbial tests, only high concentrations of detergents could cause non-compliant results, but these concentrations are difficult to find in practice if proper cleaning procedures are applied in goat dairy farms.

  9. Inactivation of avian influenza virus using common detergents and chemicals.

    PubMed

    Lombardi, M E; Ladman, B S; Alphin, R L; Benson, E R

    2008-03-01

    Six disinfectant chemicals were tested individually for effectiveness against low pathogenic avian influenza virus (LPAIV) A/H7N2/Chick/MinhMa/04. The tested agents included acetic acid (C2H4O2), citric acid (C6H8O7), calcium hypochlorite (Ca(ClO)2), sodium hypochlorite (NaOCl), a powdered laundry detergent with peroxygen (bleach), and a commercially available iodine/acid disinfectant. Four of the six chemicals, including acetic acid (5%), citric acid (1% and 3%), calcium hypochlorite (750 ppm), and sodium hypochlorite (750 ppm) effectively inactivated LPAIV on hard and nonporous surfaces. The conventional laundry detergent was tested at multiple concentrations and found to be suitable for inactivating LPAIV on hard and nonporous surfaces at 6 g/L. Only citric acid and commercially available iodine/acid disinfectant were found to be effective at inactivating LPAIV on both porous and nonporous surfaces.

  10. Correlative microscopy of detergent granules.

    PubMed

    van Dalen, G; Nootenboom, P; Heussen, P C M

    2011-03-01

    The microstructure of detergent products for textile cleaning determines to a large extent the physical properties of these products. Correlative microscopy was used to reveal the microstructure by reconciling images obtained by scanning electron microscopy with energy dispersive X-ray analysis, X-ray microtomography and Fourier transform infrared microscopy. These techniques were applied on the same location of a subsample of a spray-dried detergent base powder embedded in polyacrylate. In this way, the three-dimensional internal and external structure of detergent granules could be investigated from milli to nano scale with detailed spatial information about the components present. This will generate knowledge how to design optimal microstructures for laundry products to obtain product properties demanded by the market. This method is also very useful for other powder systems used in a large variety of industries (e.g. for pharmaceutical, food, ceramic and metal industries).

  11. Detergent phosphate bans and eutrophication

    SciTech Connect

    Lee, G.F.; Jones, R.A.

    1986-04-01

    The Vollenweider-OECD eutrophication model has been expanded to approximately 400 lakes. It is possible to make a quantitative prediction of the effects of a detergent phosphate ban and thereby to ascertain the potential benefits of such a ban. In order to assess the effect of a detergent phosphate ban on water quality it is necessary to know the percentage of phosphorus in the domestic waste water that enters the water body, either directly or indirectly, and the percentage of the total phosphorus load that is derived from domestic wastewater. Although detergent phosphate bans generally will not result in an overall improvement to water quality, there may be some situations in which eutrophication-related water quality would be improved by a ban. 8 references, 1 figure, 1 table.

  12. Effects of household detergent on anaerobic fermentation of kitchen wastewater from food waste disposer.

    PubMed

    Lee, K H; Park, K Y; Khanal, S K; Lee, J W

    2013-01-15

    This study examines the effects of household detergent on anaerobic methane fermentation of wastewater from food waste disposers (FWDs). Anaerobic toxicity assay (ATA) demonstrated that methane production substantially decreased at a higher detergent concentration. The Gompertz three-parameter model fitted well with the ATA results, and both the extent of methane production (M) and methane production rate (R(m)) obtained from the model were strongly affected by the concentration of the detergent. The 50% inhibitory concentration (IC(50)) of the detergent was 603 mg/L based on R(m). Results from fatty acid methyl esters (FAMEs) analysis of microbial culture revealed that deterioration of methane fermentation was attributed to impaired structure of anaerobic microbial membrane due to detergent. This study suggests that wastewater from FWD could be used for methane production, but it is necessary to reduce the concentration of detergent prior to anaerobic fermentation.

  13. Shell may expand detergent alcohols

    SciTech Connect

    1996-10-23

    Shell Chemical is studying plans to expand detergent alcohols capacity in the US, CW has learned. The company is considering adding capacity for about 80 million lbs/year. If the project is approved, it would be implemented at the company`s Geismar, LA site. Shell will make a final decision on whether to proceed with the project within six months. It has been rumored to be considering a capacity addition as a result of tightening supply of natural and synthetic detergent alcohols.

  14. 40 CFR 180.1022 - Iodine-detergent complex; exemption from the requirement of a tolerance.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 24 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Iodine-detergent complex; exemption... FOOD Exemptions From Tolerances § 180.1022 Iodine-detergent complex; exemption from the requirement of a tolerance. The aqueous solution of hydriodic acid and elemental iodine, including one or both...

  15. 40 CFR 180.1022 - Iodine-detergent complex; exemption from the requirement of a tolerance.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 24 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Iodine-detergent complex; exemption... FOOD Exemptions From Tolerances § 180.1022 Iodine-detergent complex; exemption from the requirement of a tolerance. The aqueous solution of hydriodic acid and elemental iodine, including one or both...

  16. 40 CFR 180.1022 - Iodine-detergent complex; exemption from the requirement of a tolerance.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 23 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Iodine-detergent complex; exemption... FOOD Exemptions From Tolerances § 180.1022 Iodine-detergent complex; exemption from the requirement of a tolerance. The aqueous solution of hydriodic acid and elemental iodine, including one or both...

  17. 40 CFR 180.1022 - Iodine-detergent complex; exemption from the requirement of a tolerance.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 25 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Iodine-detergent complex; exemption... FOOD Exemptions From Tolerances § 180.1022 Iodine-detergent complex; exemption from the requirement of a tolerance. The aqueous solution of hydriodic acid and elemental iodine, including one or both...

  18. 40 CFR 180.1022 - Iodine-detergent complex; exemption from the requirement of a tolerance.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 25 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Iodine-detergent complex; exemption... FOOD Exemptions From Tolerances § 180.1022 Iodine-detergent complex; exemption from the requirement of a tolerance. The aqueous solution of hydriodic acid and elemental iodine, including one or both...

  19. Isolation and characterization of lignin from the oak wood bioethanol production residue for adhesives.

    PubMed

    Lee, Soo Jung; Kim, Hyun Joo; Cho, Eun Jin; Song, Younho; Bae, Hyeun-Jong

    2015-01-01

    Lignin was isolated from the residue of bioethanol production with oak wood via alkaline and catalyzed organosolv treatments at ambient temperature to improve the purity of lignin for the materials application. The isolated lignins were analyzed for their chemical composition by nitrobenzene oxidation method and their functionality was characterized via wet chemistry method, element analysis, (1)H NMR, GPC and FTIR-ATR. The isolated lignin by acid catalyzed organosolv treatment (Acid-OSL) contained a higher lignin content, aromatic proton, phenolic hydroxyl group and a lower nitrogen content that is more reactive towards chemical modification. The lignin-based adhesives were prepared and the bond strength was measured to evaluate the enhanced reactivity of lignin by the isolation. Two steps of phenolation and methylolation were applied for the modification of the isolated lignins and their tensile strengths were evaluated for the use as an adhesive. The acid catalyzed organosolv lignin-based adhesives had comparable bond strength to phenol-formaldehyde adhesives. The analysis of lignin-based adhesives by FTIR-ATR and TGA showed structural similarity to phenol adhesive. The results demonstrate that the reactivity of lignin was enhanced by isolation from hardwood bioethanol production residues at ambient temperature and it could be used in a value-added application to produce lignin-based adhesives.

  20. Isolation and characterization of lignin from the oak wood bioethanol production residue for adhesives.

    PubMed

    Lee, Soo Jung; Kim, Hyun Joo; Cho, Eun Jin; Song, Younho; Bae, Hyeun-Jong

    2015-01-01

    Lignin was isolated from the residue of bioethanol production with oak wood via alkaline and catalyzed organosolv treatments at ambient temperature to improve the purity of lignin for the materials application. The isolated lignins were analyzed for their chemical composition by nitrobenzene oxidation method and their functionality was characterized via wet chemistry method, element analysis, (1)H NMR, GPC and FTIR-ATR. The isolated lignin by acid catalyzed organosolv treatment (Acid-OSL) contained a higher lignin content, aromatic proton, phenolic hydroxyl group and a lower nitrogen content that is more reactive towards chemical modification. The lignin-based adhesives were prepared and the bond strength was measured to evaluate the enhanced reactivity of lignin by the isolation. Two steps of phenolation and methylolation were applied for the modification of the isolated lignins and their tensile strengths were evaluated for the use as an adhesive. The acid catalyzed organosolv lignin-based adhesives had comparable bond strength to phenol-formaldehyde adhesives. The analysis of lignin-based adhesives by FTIR-ATR and TGA showed structural similarity to phenol adhesive. The results demonstrate that the reactivity of lignin was enhanced by isolation from hardwood bioethanol production residues at ambient temperature and it could be used in a value-added application to produce lignin-based adhesives. PMID:25453284

  1. Access of cellulase to cellulose and lignin for poplar solids produced by leading pretreatment technologies.

    PubMed

    Kumar, Rajeev; Wyman, Charles E

    2009-01-01

    Adsorption of cellulase on solids resulting from pretreatment of poplar wood by ammonia fiber expansion (AFEX), ammonia recycled percolation (ARP), controlled pH, dilute acid (DA), flowthrough (FT), lime, and sulfur dioxide (SO(2)) and pure Avicel glucan was measured at 4 degrees C, as were adsorption and desorption of cellulase and adsorption of beta-glucosidase for lignin left after enzymatic digestion of the solids from these pretreatments. From this, Langmuir adsorption parameters, cellulose accessibility to cellulase, and the effectiveness of cellulase adsorbed on poplar solids were estimated, and the effect of delignification on cellulase effectiveness was determined. Furthermore, Avicel hydrolysis inhibition by enzymatic and acid lignin of poplar solids was studied. Flowthrough pretreated solids showed the highest maximum cellulase adsorption capacity (sigma(solids) = 195 mg/g solid) followed by dilute acid (sigma(solids) = 170.0 mg/g solid) and lime pretreated solids (sigma(solids) = 150.8 mg/g solid), whereas controlled pH pretreated solids had the lowest (sigma(solids) = 56 mg/g solid). Lime pretreated solids also had the highest cellulose accessibility (sigma(cellulose) = 241 mg/g cellulose) followed by FT and DA. AFEX lignin had the lowest cellulase adsorption capacity (sigma(lignin) = 57 mg/g lignin) followed by dilute acid lignin (sigma(lignin) = 74 mg/g lignin). AFEX lignin also had the lowest beta-glucosidase capacity (sigma(lignin) = 66.6 mg/g lignin), while lignin from SO(2) (sigma(lignin) = 320 mg/g lignin) followed by dilute acid had the highest (301 mg/g lignin). Furthermore, SO(2) followed by dilute acid pretreated solids gave the highest cellulase effectiveness, but delignification enhanced cellulase effectiveness more for high pH than low pH pretreatments, suggesting that lignin impedes access of enzymes to xylan more than to glucan, which in turn affects glucan accessibility. In addition, lignin from enzymatic digestion of AFEX and dilute

  2. Selective electrochemical detection of 2,4,6-trinitrotoluene (TNT) in water based on poly(styrene-co-acrylic acid) PSA/SiO2/Fe3O4/AuNPs/lignin-modified glassy carbon electrode.

    PubMed

    Mahmoud, Khaled A; Abdel-Wahab, Ahmed; Zourob, Mohammed

    2015-01-01

    A new versatile electrochemical sensor based on poly(styrene-co-acrylic acid) PSA/SiO2/Fe3O4/AuNPs/lignin (L-MMS) modified glassy carbon electrode (GCE) was developed for the selective detection of trace trinitrotoluene (TNT) from aqueous media with high sensitivity. The fabricated magnetic microspheres were characterized by transmission electron microscopy (TEM), energy-dispersive X-ray spectroscopy (EDS), and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS). L-MMS films were cast on the GCE surface to fabricate the TNT sensing electrode. The limit of detection (LOD) of TNT determined by the amperometric i-t curve reached 35 pM. The lignin film and well packed Fe3O4/AuNPs facilitated the pre-concentration of trace TNT on the electrode surface resulting in a fast amperometric response of 3 seconds near the detection limit. The high sensitivity and excellent catalytic activity of the modified electrode could be attributed to the lignin layer and highly packed Fe3O4/AuNPs on the electrode surface. The total recovery of TNT from tapwater and seawater matrices was 98% and 96%, respectively. The electrode film was highly stable after five repeated adsorption/desorption cycles. The new electrochemical sensing scheme provides a highly selective, sensitive and versatile assay for the in-situ detection of TNT in complex water media.

  3. Selective electrochemical detection of 2,4,6-trinitrotoluene (TNT) in water based on poly(styrene-co-acrylic acid) PSA/SiO2/Fe3O4/AuNPs/lignin-modified glassy carbon electrode.

    PubMed

    Mahmoud, Khaled A; Abdel-Wahab, Ahmed; Zourob, Mohammed

    2015-01-01

    A new versatile electrochemical sensor based on poly(styrene-co-acrylic acid) PSA/SiO2/Fe3O4/AuNPs/lignin (L-MMS) modified glassy carbon electrode (GCE) was developed for the selective detection of trace trinitrotoluene (TNT) from aqueous media with high sensitivity. The fabricated magnetic microspheres were characterized by transmission electron microscopy (TEM), energy-dispersive X-ray spectroscopy (EDS), and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS). L-MMS films were cast on the GCE surface to fabricate the TNT sensing electrode. The limit of detection (LOD) of TNT determined by the amperometric i-t curve reached 35 pM. The lignin film and well packed Fe3O4/AuNPs facilitated the pre-concentration of trace TNT on the electrode surface resulting in a fast amperometric response of 3 seconds near the detection limit. The high sensitivity and excellent catalytic activity of the modified electrode could be attributed to the lignin layer and highly packed Fe3O4/AuNPs on the electrode surface. The total recovery of TNT from tapwater and seawater matrices was 98% and 96%, respectively. The electrode film was highly stable after five repeated adsorption/desorption cycles. The new electrochemical sensing scheme provides a highly selective, sensitive and versatile assay for the in-situ detection of TNT in complex water media. PMID:26540539

  4. Soaps and Detergents--A 'Social' Treatment.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rust, S. C.

    1979-01-01

    Describes how social aspects of science can be incorporated into teaching soap and detergents in British secondary chemistry and general science courses. Historical background to the use and production of soap and the development of detergents are also presented. (HM)

  5. Thermodynamic characterization of the exchange of detergents and amphipols at the surfaces of integral membrane proteins.

    PubMed

    Tribet, C; Diab, C; Dahmane, T; Zoonens, M; Popot, J-L; Winnik, F M

    2009-11-01

    The aggregation of integral membrane proteins (IMPs) in aqueous media is a significant concern for mechanistic investigations and pharmaceutical applications of this important class of proteins. Complexation of IMPs with amphiphiles, either detergents or short amphiphilic polymers known as amphipols (APols), renders IMPs water-soluble. It is common knowledge that IMP-detergent complexes are labile, while IMP-APol complexes are exceptionally stable and do not dissociate even under conditions of extreme dilution. To understand the thermodynamic origin of this difference in stability and to guide the design of new APols, we have studied by isothermal titration calorimetry (ITC) the heat exchanges during two reciprocal processes, the "trapping" of detergent-solubilized IMPs in APols and the "stripping" of IMP-APol complexes by detergents, using two IMPs (the transmembrane domain of porin OmpA from Escherichia coli and bacteriorhodopsin from Halobium salinarium), two APols [an anionic polymer derived from acrylic acid (A8-35) and a cationic phosphorylcholine-based polymer (C22-43)], and two neutral detergents [n-octyl thioglucoside (OTG) and n-octyltetraethylene glycol (C(8)E(4))]. In the presence of detergent, free APols and IMP-APol complexes form mixed particles, APol-detergent and IMP-APol-detergent, respectively, according to the regular mixing model. Diluting IMP-APol-detergent complexes below the critical micellar concentration (CMC) of the detergent triggers the dispersion of detergent molecules as monomers, a process characterized by an enthalpy of demicellization. The enthalpy of APol <--> detergent exchange on the hydrophobic surface of IMPs is negligibly small, an indication of the similarity of the molecular interactions of IMPs with the two types of amphiphiles. The enhanced stability against dilution of IMP-APol complexes, compared to IMP-detergent ones, originates from the difference in entropy gain achieved upon release in water of a few APol molecules

  6. Lignin composition in cambial tissues of poplar.

    PubMed

    Christiernin, M

    2006-01-01

    The cambial tissues of a Populus balsamifera, Balsam poplar clone were studied during a growth season. The Klason and acid-soluble lignin contents were determined as well as the carbohydrate monomer distribution and the protein content. Both the phloem and the xylem sides of the cambial region were examined. The samples were analyzed by thioacidolysis and structures of dimeric products were determined by mass spectrometry after desulphuration. Chemical analysis of samples during the growth season was combined with microscopy of embedded specimens that showed the state of cell differentiation at the time of sampling. In spring and early summer, growth is very rapid and the intention was to collect tissue in which exclusively the middle lamella/primary cell wall had begun to lignify. The Klason lignin, protein content and carbohydrate monomer distribution showed that all the specimens from the cambial tissues sampled during a growth season contained predominantly middle lamella and primary walls; except for the developing xylem sampled in August where the carbohydrate composition showed that secondary walls were present. Thioacidolysis showed that the lignin from the cambial tissues had more condensed structures than the lignin from the reference balsam poplar clone wood. More guaiacyl than syringyl units were detected and mass spectrometry showed that the cambial tissues contained more lignin structures with end-groups than the reference sample. These results suggest that lignification in the cambial layer and early developing xylem may take place predominantly in a bulk fashion during the summer.

  7. Fungal biodegradation and enzymatic modification of lignin

    PubMed Central

    Dashtban, Mehdi; Schraft, Heidi; Syed, Tarannum A.; Qin, Wensheng

    2010-01-01

    Lignin, the most abundant aromatic biopolymer on Earth, is extremely recalcitrant to degradation. By linking to both hemicellulose and cellulose, it creates a barrier to any solutions or enzymes and prevents the penetration of lignocellulolytic enzymes into the interior lignocellulosic structure. Some basidiomycetes white-rot fungi are able to degrade lignin efficiently using a combination of extracellular ligninolytic enzymes, organic acids, mediators and accessory enzymes. This review describes ligninolytic enzyme families produced by these fungi that are involved in wood decay processes, their molecular structures, biochemical properties and the mechanisms of action which render them attractive candidates in biotechnological applications. These enzymes include phenol oxidase (laccase) and heme peroxidases [lignin peroxidase (LiP), manganese peroxidase (MnP) and versatile peroxidase (VP)]. Accessory enzymes such as H2O2-generating oxidases and degradation mechanisms of plant cell-wall components in a non-enzymatic manner by production of free hydroxyl radicals (·OH) are also discussed. PMID:21968746

  8. Lignin-rich Enzyme Lignin (LREL), a Cellulase-treated Lignin-Carbohydrate Derived from Plants, Activates Myeloid Dendritic Cells via Toll-like Receptor 4 (TLR4)

    PubMed Central

    Tsuji, Ryohei; Koizumi, Hideki; Aoki, Dan; Watanabe, Yuta; Sugihara, Yoshihiko; Matsushita, Yasuyuki; Fukushima, Kazuhiko; Fujiwara, Daisuke

    2015-01-01

    Lignin-carbohydrates, one of the major cell wall components, are believed to be the structures that form chemical linkage between lignin and cell wall polysaccharides. Due to the molecular complexity of lignin-containing substances, their isolation and the assignment of their biological activities have so far remained a difficult task. Here, we extracted two lignin-containing carbohydrates, lignin-rich enzyme lignin (LREL) and pure enzyme lignin (PEL), from barley husk and demonstrated that they act as immune stimulators of dendritic cells (DCs), which are particularly important in linking innate and adaptive immunity. Thioacidolysis, acid hydrolysis, and mild alkali hydrolysis of both LREL and PEL revealed that their immunostimulatory activities depended on the lignin structure and/or content, neutral sugar content (especially the characteristic distribution of galactose and mannose), and presence of an ester bond. Furthermore, we showed that the immunostimulatory potency of the lignin-carbohydrate depended on its molecular weight and degree of polymerization. We also demonstrated that the LREL-induced activation of DCs was mediated via TLR4. Thus, LREL-induced increases in the expression levels of several cell surface marker proteins, production of inflammatory cytokines IL-12p40 and TNF-α, and activation and nuclear translocation of transcription factors, as was observed in the WT DCs, were completely abrogated in DCs derived from the TLR4−/− mice but not in DCs derived from the TLR2−/−, TLR7−/−, and TLR9−/− mice. We further demonstrated that LRELs isolated from other plant tissues also activated DCs. These immunostimulatory activities of lignin-carbohydrates, extracted from edible plant tissues, could have potential relevance in anti-infectious immunity and vaccine adjuvants. PMID:25548274

  9. Intermolecular detergent-membrane protein noes for the characterization of the dynamics of membrane protein-detergent complexes.

    PubMed

    Eichmann, Cédric; Orts, Julien; Tzitzilonis, Christos; Vögeli, Beat; Smrt, Sean; Lorieau, Justin; Riek, Roland

    2014-12-11

    The interaction between membrane proteins and lipids or lipid mimetics such as detergents is key for the three-dimensional structure and dynamics of membrane proteins. In NMR-based structural studies of membrane proteins, qualitative analysis of intermolecular nuclear Overhauser enhancements (NOEs) or paramagnetic resonance enhancement are used in general to identify the transmembrane segments of a membrane protein. Here, we employed a quantitative characterization of intermolecular NOEs between (1)H of the detergent and (1)H(N) of (2)H-perdeuterated, (15)N-labeled α-helical membrane protein-detergent complexes following the exact NOE (eNOE) approach. Structural considerations suggest that these intermolecular NOEs should show a helical-wheel-type behavior along a transmembrane helix or a membrane-attached helix within a membrane protein as experimentally demonstrated for the complete influenza hemagglutinin fusion domain HAfp23. The partial absence of such a NOE pattern along the amino acid sequence as shown for a truncated variant of HAfp23 and for the Escherichia coli inner membrane protein YidH indicates the presence of large tertiary structure fluctuations such as an opening between helices or the presence of large rotational dynamics of the helices. Detergent-protein NOEs thus appear to be a straightforward probe for a qualitative characterization of structural and dynamical properties of membrane proteins embedded in detergent micelles.

  10. Concentrated liquid detergent pod ingestion in children.

    PubMed

    Sidhu, Natasha; Jaeger, Matthew W

    2014-12-01

    Concentrated liquid detergent pods are an emerging public health hazard, especially in pediatric patients. Ingestion is a more common route of exposure for liquid detergent pods compared with non-pod detergents and it tends to be associated with more severe adverse effects. We present 3 cases that demonstrate the varied clinical symptoms resulting from detergent pod ingestion. These cases not only demonstrate findings such as gastrointestinal and respiratory symptoms but also show more rare neurological symptoms. The cases highlight the dangers of concentrated liquid detergent pod ingestion. To help prevent further life-threatening injuries, there is a need for more consumer information and provider knowledge about the potential adverse complications.

  11. Affinity Chromatography in Nonionic Detergent Solutions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Robinson, Jack B.; Strottmann, James M.; Wick, Donald G.; Stellwagen, Earle

    1980-10-01

    Anionic dye affinity chromatography is commonly unproductive in the presence of nonionic detergents used to extract particulate proteins. Using lactate dehydrogenase as a model protein, Cibacron blue F3GA as a model dye, and Triton X-100 as a model detergent, we find that the dye is encapsulated in nonionic detergent micelles, rendering the dye incapable of ligation with the enzyme. However, the dye can be liberated from the micelles without altering the nonionic detergent concentration by addition of an anionic detergent, such as deoxycholate or sodium dodecyl sulfate, forming mixed anionic/nonionic micelles that displace the anionic dye. Encapsulation of the anionic detergents prevents their activity as protein denaturants. These observations have been successfully translated to the dye affinity chromatography of a detergent extract of brain particulate cyclic nucleotide phosphodiesterase.

  12. Fluorescence analyzer for lignin

    DOEpatents

    Berthold, John W.; Malito, Michael L.; Jeffers, Larry

    1993-01-01

    A method and apparatus for measuring lignin concentration in a sample of wood pulp or black liquor comprises a light emitting arrangement for emitting an excitation light through optical fiber bundles into a probe which has an undiluted sensing end facing the sample. The excitation light causes the lignin concentration to produce fluorescent emission light which is then conveyed through the probe to analyzing equipment which measures the intensity of the emission light. Measures a This invention was made with Government support under Contract Number DOE: DE-FC05-90CE40905 awarded by the Department of Energy (DOE). The Government has certain rights in this invention.

  13. Starch-Lignin Baked Foams

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Starch-kraft lignin foams were prepared by a baking process. Replacing up to 20% of the starch with lignin has no effect on foam density or overall morphology. At 10% replacement, lignin marginally increases water resistance and modulus of elasticity but decreases strain at maximum stress. At 20% re...

  14. Alkaline detergent recycling via ultrafiltration

    SciTech Connect

    Steffani, C.; Meltzer, M.

    1995-06-01

    The metal finishing industry uses alkaline cleaners and detergents to remove oils and dirt from manufactured parts, often before they are painted or plated. The use of these cleaners has grown because environmental regulations are phasing out ozone depleting substances and placing restrictions on the use and disposal of many hazardous solvents. Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory is examining ultrafiltration as a cleaning approach that reclaims the cleaning solutions and minimizes wastes. The ultrafiltration membrane is made from sheets of polymerized organic film. The sheets are rolled onto a supporting frame and installed in a tube. Spent cleaning solution is pumped into a filter chamber and filtered through the membrane that captures oils and dirt and allows water and detergent to pass. The membrane is monitored and when pressure builds from oil and dirt, an automatic system cleans the surface to maintain solution flow and filtration quality. The results show that the ultrafiltration does not disturb the detergent concentration or alkalinity but removed almost all the oils and dirt leaving the solution in condition to be reused.

  15. Microbial degradation of lignin-derived compounds under anaerobic conditions

    SciTech Connect

    Colberg, P.J.

    1983-01-01

    Lignin is the second most abundant form of organic carbon in the biosphere. Recent laboratory studies indicate that a large fraction of polymeric lignin is incompletely degraded by aerobic lignolytic microorganisms and is subsequently released as lignin fragments of reduced molecular size. If such lignin-derived compounds become available in the anaerobic environment, they may serve as potential sources of organic carbon for organisms which release methane precursors. The methanogenic bacteria, in turn, serve as terminal members of the anaerobic food chain, and thus, limit the accumulation of organic carbon in anaerobic sinks. This thesis presents evidence to suggest that lignin-derived compounds which have molecular sizes greater than those of single-ring aromatic compounds (MW > 200) are anaerobically biodegradable to methane. This research involved development of selective enrichment cultures capable of utilizing oligolignols as sole carbon sources. Radiolabeled water-soluble catabolites, released during aerobic lignin degradation by the white rot fungus Phanerochaete chrysosporium, were subjected to anaerobic degradation. The second phase of work involved capillary gas chromatographic analyses of enrichment cultures fed a /sup 14/C-labeled, lignin-derived substrate of average molecular weight 600. 2-Bromoethanesulfonic acid was used to inhibit methane formation and enhance buildup of metabolic intermediates, resulting in the accumulation of volatile fatty acids, phenylacetate, benzoate, catechol, 3-phenyl-propionate, vanillin, syringic acid, vanillic acid, ferulic acid, and caffeic acid. A conceptual model for the anaerobic degradation of two- and three-ring lignin fragments is proposed which overlaps both the ferulate and benzoate degradation pathways at the level of single-ring aromatic compounds.

  16. Exploring the protein stability landscape: Bacillus subtilis lipase A as a model for detergent tolerance.

    PubMed

    Fulton, Alexander; Frauenkron-Machedjou, Victorine Josiane; Skoczinski, Pia; Wilhelm, Susanne; Zhu, Leilei; Schwaneberg, Ulrich; Jaeger, Karl-Erich

    2015-04-13

    A systematic study was conducted with Bacillus subtilis lipase A (BSLA) to determine the effect of every single amino acid substitution on detergent tolerance. BSLA is a minimal α/β-hydrolase of 181 amino acids with a known crystal structure. It can be expressed in Escherichia coli and is biochemically well characterized. Site saturation mutagenesis resulted in a library of 3439 variants, each with a single amino acid exchange as confirmed by DNA sequencing. The library was tested against four detergents, namely SDS, CTAB, Tween 80, and sulfobetaine. Surface remodeling emerged as an effective engineering strategy to increase tolerance towards detergents. Amino acid residues that significantly affect the tolerance for each of the four detergents were identified. In summary, this systematic analysis provides an experimental dataset to help derive novel protein engineering strategies as well as to direct modeling efforts.

  17. Visualizing Lignin Coalescence and Migration Through Maize Cell Walls Following Thermochemical Pretreatment

    SciTech Connect

    Donohoe, B. S.; Decker, S. R.; Tucker, M. P.; Himmel, M. E.; Vinzant, T. B.

    2008-12-01

    Plant cell walls are composed primarily of cellulose, hemicelluloses, lignins, and pectins. Of these components, lignins exhibit unique chemistry and physiological functions. Although lignins can be used as a product feedstock or as a fuel, lignins are also generally seen as a barrier to efficient enzymatic breakdown of biomass to sugars. Indeed, many pretreatment strategies focus on removing a significant fraction of lignin from biomass to better enable saccharification. In order to better understand the fate of biomass lignins that remain with the solids following dilute acid pretreatment, we undertook a structural investigation to track lignins on and in biomass cell walls. SEM and TEM imaging revealed a range of droplet morphologies that appear on and within cell walls of pretreated biomass; as well as the specific ultrastructural regions that accumulate the droplets. These droplets were shown to contain lignin by FTIR, NMR, antibody labeling, and cytochemical staining. We provide evidence supporting the idea that thermochemical pretreatments reaching temperatures above the range for lignin phase transition cause lignins to coalesce into larger molten bodies that migrate within and out of the cell wall, and can redeposit on the surface of plant cell walls. This decompartmentalization and relocalization of lignins is likely to be at least as important as lignin removal in the quest to improve the digestibility of biomass for sugars and fuels production.

  18. Effects of spontaneous heating on fiber composition, fiber digestibility, and in situ disappearance kinetics of neutral detergent fiber for alfalfa-orchardgrass hays.

    PubMed

    Coblentz, W K; Hoffman, P C

    2009-06-01

    During 2006 and 2007, forages from 3 individual hay harvests were utilized to assess the effects of spontaneous heating on concentrations of fiber components, 48-h neutral detergent fiber (NDF) digestibility (NDFD), and in situ disappearance kinetics of NDF for large-round bales of mixed alfalfa (Medicago sativa L.) and orchardgrass (Dactylis glomerata L.). Over the 3 harvests, 96 large-round bales were made at preset bale diameters of 0.9, 1.2, or 1.5 m, and at moisture concentrations ranging from 9.3 to 46.6%. Internal bale temperatures were monitored daily during an outdoor storage period, reaching maxima (MAX) of 77.2 degrees C and 1,997 heating degree days >30 degrees C (HDD) for one specific combination of bale moisture, bale diameter, and harvest. Concentrations of all fiber components (NDF, acid detergent fiber, hemicellulose, cellulose, and lignin) increased in response to spontaneous heating during storage. Changes in concentrations of NDF during storage (poststorage - prestorage; DeltaNDF) were regressed on HDD using a nonlinear regression model (R(2) = 0.848) that became asymptotic after DeltaNDF increased by 8.6 percentage units. Although the specific regression model varied, changes (poststorage - prestorage) in concentrations of acid detergent fiber, cellulose, and lignin also increased in nonlinear relationships with HDD that exhibited relatively high coefficients of determination (R(2) = 0.710 to 0.885). Fiber digestibility, as determined by NDFD, was largely unaffected by heating characteristics except within bales incurring the most extreme levels of HDD or MAX. In situ assessment of ruminal NDF disappearance kinetics indicated that disappearance rate (K(d)) declined by about 40% within the range of heating incurred over these hay harvests. The change in K(d) during storage (DeltaK(d)) was related closely to both HDD and MAX by nonlinear models exhibiting high R(2) statistics (0.907 and 0.883, respectively). However, there was no regression

  19. Lignin blockers and uses thereof

    SciTech Connect

    Yang, Bin; Wyman, Charles E.

    2011-01-25

    Disclosed is a method for converting cellulose in a lignocellulosic biomass. The method provides for a lignin-blocking polypeptide and/or protein treatment of high lignin solids. The treatment enhances cellulase availability in cellulose conversion and allows for the determination of optimized pretreatment conditions. Additionally, ethanol yields from a Simultaneous Saccharification and Fermentation process are improved 5-25% by treatment with a lignin-blocking polypeptide and/or protein. Thus, a more efficient and economical method of processing lignin containing biomass materials utilizes a polypeptide/protein treatment step that effectively blocks lignin binding of cellulase.

  20. Fluorescence analyzer for lignin

    SciTech Connect

    Berthold, J.W.; Malito, M.L.; Jeffers, L.

    1993-06-01

    An apparatus for measuring lignin concentration with time resolved fluorescence in an undiluted wood pulp or black liquor sample, on a real-time, in situ basis is described, comprising: light source means for applying excitation light pulses at a selected wavelength and at known time intervals to the undiluted sample for causing the lignin concentration to produce fluorescent emission light with a fluorescence intensity that monotonically decreases in a quenched fluorescence regime; light detector means for measuring the emission light at the known time intervals and establishing signals indicative thereof; switching means for turning said light detector means on at precise specified time intervals after each excitation light pulse; and signal processing means connected to the light source means and the light detector means for comparing intensities of the emission light from the lignin in the quenched fluorescence regime to the intensities of the excitation light pulses on a time resolved basis for providing a measurement of the lignin concentration in the undiluted sample as a function of the time resolved emission light intensity.

  1. Lignin-Based Thermoplastic Materials.

    PubMed

    Wang, Chao; Kelley, Stephen S; Venditti, Richard A

    2016-04-21

    Lignin-based thermoplastic materials have attracted increasing interest as sustainable, cost-effective, and biodegradable alternatives for petroleum-based thermoplastics. As an amorphous thermoplastic material, lignin has a relatively high glass-transition temperature and also undergoes radical-induced self-condensation at high temperatures, which limits its thermal processability. Additionally, lignin-based materials are usually brittle and exhibit poor mechanical properties. To improve the thermoplasticity and mechanical properties of technical lignin, polymers or plasticizers are usually integrated with lignin by blending or chemical modification. This Review attempts to cover the reported approaches towards the development of lignin-based thermoplastic materials on the basis of published information. Approaches reviewed include plasticization, blending with miscible polymers, and chemical modifications by esterification, etherification, polymer grafting, and copolymerization. Those lignin-based thermoplastic materials are expected to show applications as engineering plastics, polymeric foams, thermoplastic elastomers, and carbon-fiber precursors. PMID:27059111

  2. Lignin-Based Thermoplastic Materials.

    PubMed

    Wang, Chao; Kelley, Stephen S; Venditti, Richard A

    2016-04-21

    Lignin-based thermoplastic materials have attracted increasing interest as sustainable, cost-effective, and biodegradable alternatives for petroleum-based thermoplastics. As an amorphous thermoplastic material, lignin has a relatively high glass-transition temperature and also undergoes radical-induced self-condensation at high temperatures, which limits its thermal processability. Additionally, lignin-based materials are usually brittle and exhibit poor mechanical properties. To improve the thermoplasticity and mechanical properties of technical lignin, polymers or plasticizers are usually integrated with lignin by blending or chemical modification. This Review attempts to cover the reported approaches towards the development of lignin-based thermoplastic materials on the basis of published information. Approaches reviewed include plasticization, blending with miscible polymers, and chemical modifications by esterification, etherification, polymer grafting, and copolymerization. Those lignin-based thermoplastic materials are expected to show applications as engineering plastics, polymeric foams, thermoplastic elastomers, and carbon-fiber precursors.

  3. Detergent-like stressor and nutrient in metabolism of Penicillium chrysogenum

    PubMed Central

    Jakovljević, Violeta; Milićević, Jasmina; Stojanović, Jelica

    2014-01-01

    The influence of detergents on the metabolism of Penicillium chrysogenum from two aspects, as a stress factor and potential nutrient, was studied. The fungus was isolated from the river bed Lepenica, Kragujevac, at a place where sewage domestic wastewater discharged into the river. The fungus was grown in a liquid nutrient medium according to Czapek with and without addition of commercial detergent (MERIX, Henkel, Serbia) at a concentration of 0.3% and 0.5%. The biochemical changes of pH, redox potential, free and total organic acids, total dry weight biomass, activity of alkaline and acid invertase and alkaline phosphatase were evaluated from day 3 to day 16 of the fungus growth. At the same time, detergent disappearance in terms of methylene blue active substances in the medium was measured. The detergent at a concentration of 0.5% showed a fungicide effect. In the medium with 0.3% of detergent, there was increased pH and concentration of organic acids, but decreased redox potential and total dry weight biomass. The detergent also showed an inhibitory effect on invertase and phosphatase activity. P. chrysogenum decomposed 50.2% of the total detergent concentration for an experimental period of 16 days. PMID:26019487

  4. Preparation of lignopolyols from wheat straw soda lignin.

    PubMed

    Ahvazi, Behzad; Wojciechowicz, Olivia; Ton-That, Tan-Minh; Hawari, Jalal

    2011-10-12

    Wheat straw soda lignin was modified and characterized by several qualitative and quantitative methods such as (31)P NMR spectroscopy to evaluate its potential as a substitute for polyols in view of polyurethane applications. Chemical modification of the lignin was achieved with propylene oxide to form lignopolyol derivatives. This was performed by a two-step reaction of lignin with maleic anhydride followed by propylene oxide and by direct oxyalkylation under acidic and alkaline conditions. The physical and chemical properties of lignopolyols from each method and the subsequent chain-extended hydroxyl groups were evaluated. Direct oxyalkylation of lignin under alkaline conditions was found to be more efficient than acidic conditions and more effective than the two-step process for preparing lignopolyol with higher aliphatic hydroxyl contents. PMID:21854019

  5. Effect of liquid hot water pretreatment severity on properties of hardwood lignin and enzymatic hydrolysis of cellulose.

    PubMed

    Ko, Ja Kyong; Kim, Youngmi; Ximenes, Eduardo; Ladisch, Michael R

    2015-02-01

    Lignin, one of the major components of lignocellulosic biomass, plays an inhibitory role on the enzymatic hydrolysis of cellulose. This work examines the role of lignin in pretreated hardwood, where extents of cellulose hydrolysis decrease, rather than increase with increasing severity of liquid hot water pretreatment. Hardwood pretreated with liquid hot water at severities ranging from log Ro  = 8.25 to 12.51 resulted in 80-90% recovery of the initial lignin in the residual solids. The ratio of acid insoluble lignin (AIL) to acid soluble lignin (ASL) increased and the formation of spherical lignin droplets on the cell wall surface was observed as previously reported in the literature. When lignins were isolated from hardwoods pretreated at increasing severities and characterized based on glass transition temperature (Tg ), the Tg of isolated lignins was found to increase from 171 to 180°C as the severity increased from log Ro  = 10.44 to 12.51. The increase in Tg suggested that the condensation reactions of lignin molecules occurred during pretreatment and altered the lignin structure. The contribution of the changes in lignin properties to enzymatic hydrolysis were examined by carrying out Avicel hydrolysis in the presence of isolated lignins. Lignins derived from more severely pretreated hardwoods had higher Tg values and showed more pronounced inhibition of enzymatic hydrolysis.

  6. Analysis of lignin-carbohydrate and lignin-lignin linkages after hydrolase treatment of xylan-lignin, glucomannan-lignin and glucan-lignin complexes from spruce wood.

    PubMed

    Du, Xueyu; Pérez-Boada, Marta; Fernández, Carmen; Rencoret, Jorge; del Río, José C; Jiménez-Barbero, Jesús; Li, Jiebing; Gutiérrez, Ana; Martínez, Angel T

    2014-05-01

    Xylan-lignin (XL), glucomannan-lignin (GML) and glucan-lignin (GL) complexes were isolated from spruce wood, hydrolyzed with xylanase or endoglucanase/β-glucosidase, and analyzed by analytical pyrolysis and 2D-NMR. The enzymatic hydrolysis removed most of the polysaccharide moieties in the complexes, and the lignin content and relative abundance of lignin-carbohydrate linkages increased. Analytical pyrolysis confirmed the action of the enzymatic hydrolysis, with strong decreases of levoglucosane and other carbohydrate-derived products. Unexpectedly it also revealed that the hydrolase treatment alters the pattern of lignin breakdown products, resulting in higher amounts of coniferyl alcohol. From the anomeric carbohydrate signals in the 2D-NMR spectra, phenyl glycoside linkages (undetectable in the original complexes) could be identified in the hydrolyzed GML complex. Lower amounts of glucuronosyl and benzyl ether linkages were also observed after the hydrolysis. From the 2D-NMR spectra of the hydrolyzed complexes, it was concluded that the lignin in GML is less condensed than in XL due to its higher content in β-O-4' ether substructures (62 % of side chains in GML vs 53 % in XL) accompanied by more coniferyl alcohol end units (16 vs 13 %). In contrast, the XL lignin has more pinoresinols (11 vs 6 %) and dibenzodioxocins (9 vs 2 %) than the GML (and both have ~13 % phenylcoumarans and 1 % spirodienones). Direct 2D-NMR analysis of the hydrolyzed GL complex was not possible due to its low solubility. However, after sample acetylation, an even less condensed lignin than in the GML complex was found (with up to 72 % β-O-4' substructures and only 1 % pinoresinols). The study provides evidence for the existence of structurally different lignins associated to hemicelluloses (xylan and glucomannan) and cellulose in spruce wood and, at the same time, offers information on some of the chemical linkages between the above polymers.

  7. Bacterial degradation of detergent compounds.

    PubMed

    Goodnow, R A; Harrison, A P

    1972-10-01

    A survey for surfactant degradation among aerobic bacteria has been undertaken. Tests have been made in peptone medium where such a degradation, if it occurs, will be gratuitous. Tallow-alkyl-sulfate, alkyl-ethoxylate-sulfate, and linear-alkyl-benzene-sulfonate were used. Forty-five strains of 34 species in 19 genera degrade one or more of these detergent compounds. With some species, the surfactant inhibits degradation without inhibiting growth, whereas with one species slight degradation took place even at a toxic concentration of surfactant.

  8. Plants with modified lignin content and methods for production thereof

    SciTech Connect

    Zhao, Qiao; Chen, Fang; Dixon, Richard A.

    2014-08-05

    The invention provides methods for decreasing lignin content and for increasing the level of fermentable carbohydrates in plants by down-regulation of the NST transcription factor. Nucleic acid constructs for down-regulation of NST are described. Transgenic plants are provided that comprise reduced lignin content. Plants described herein may be used, for example, as improved biofuel feedstock and as highly digestible forage crops. Methods for processing plant tissue and for producing ethanol by utilizing such plants are also provided.

  9. Transcription factors for modification of lignin content in plants

    SciTech Connect

    Wang, Huanzhong; Chen, Fang; Dixon, Richard A.

    2015-06-02

    The invention provides methods for modifying lignin, cellulose, xylan, and hemicellulose content in plants, and for achieving ectopic lignification and, for instance, secondary cell wall synthesis in pith cells, by altered regulation of a WRKY transcription factor. Nucleic acid constructs for altered WRKY-TF expression are described. Transgenic plants are provided that comprise modified pith cell walls, and lignin, cellulose, and hemicellulose content. Plants described herein may be used, for example, as improved biofuel feedstock and as highly digestible forage crops.

  10. Detergents in Membrane Protein Purification and Crystallisation.

    PubMed

    Anandan, Anandhi; Vrielink, Alice

    2016-01-01

    Detergents play a significant role in structural and functional characterisation of integral membrane proteins (IMPs). IMPs reside in the biological membranes and exhibit a great variation in their structural and physical properties. For in vitro biophysical studies, structural and functional analyses, IMPs need to be extracted from the membrane lipid bilayer environment in which they are found and purified to homogeneity while maintaining a folded and functionally active state. Detergents are capable of successfully solubilising and extracting the IMPs from the membrane bilayers. A number of detergents with varying structure and physicochemical properties are commercially available and can be applied for this purpose. Nevertheless, it is important to choose a detergent that is not only able to extract the membrane protein but also provide an optimal environment while retaining the correct structural and physical properties of the protein molecule. Choosing the best detergent for this task can be made possible by understanding the physical and chemical properties of the different detergents and their interaction with the IMPs. In addition, understanding the mechanism of membrane solubilisation and protein extraction along with crystallisation requirements, if crystallographic studies are going to be undertaken, can help in choosing the best detergent for the purpose. This chapter aims to present the fundamental properties of detergents and highlight information relevant to IMP crystallisation. The first section of the chapter reviews the physicochemical properties of detergents and parameters essential for predicting their behaviour in solution. The second section covers the interaction of detergents with the biologic membranes and proteins followed by their role in membrane protein crystallisation. The last section will briefly cover the types of detergent and their properties focusing on custom designed detergents for membrane protein studies.

  11. Detergents in Membrane Protein Purification and Crystallisation.

    PubMed

    Anandan, Anandhi; Vrielink, Alice

    2016-01-01

    Detergents play a significant role in structural and functional characterisation of integral membrane proteins (IMPs). IMPs reside in the biological membranes and exhibit a great variation in their structural and physical properties. For in vitro biophysical studies, structural and functional analyses, IMPs need to be extracted from the membrane lipid bilayer environment in which they are found and purified to homogeneity while maintaining a folded and functionally active state. Detergents are capable of successfully solubilising and extracting the IMPs from the membrane bilayers. A number of detergents with varying structure and physicochemical properties are commercially available and can be applied for this purpose. Nevertheless, it is important to choose a detergent that is not only able to extract the membrane protein but also provide an optimal environment while retaining the correct structural and physical properties of the protein molecule. Choosing the best detergent for this task can be made possible by understanding the physical and chemical properties of the different detergents and their interaction with the IMPs. In addition, understanding the mechanism of membrane solubilisation and protein extraction along with crystallisation requirements, if crystallographic studies are going to be undertaken, can help in choosing the best detergent for the purpose. This chapter aims to present the fundamental properties of detergents and highlight information relevant to IMP crystallisation. The first section of the chapter reviews the physicochemical properties of detergents and parameters essential for predicting their behaviour in solution. The second section covers the interaction of detergents with the biologic membranes and proteins followed by their role in membrane protein crystallisation. The last section will briefly cover the types of detergent and their properties focusing on custom designed detergents for membrane protein studies. PMID:27553232

  12. Soaps and detergents: understanding their composition and effect.

    PubMed

    Kirsner, R S; Froelich, C W

    1998-03-01

    Soaps have been used for thousands of years as part of religious ceremonies and daily life. Derived from fatty acids or triglycerides (fats or oils) into their alkali derivatives through a process called saponification, soaps are important for healthcare professionals in preventing the spread of disease. Partly due to their alkaline nature, soaps are limited by their irritancy to the skin and their tendency to form insoluble and inactive salts when combined with either hard water or sea water. Therefore, soap alternatives or synthetic detergents have been developed. Detergents are classified into four groups: anionic, cationic, amphoteric, and non-ionic. These four groups are based on the hydrophilic qualities and surfactants they possess. Each group has characteristics that pertain to its main uses, irritancy, and toxicity. Understanding soaps and detergents may assist clinicians in making intelligent choices when using these agents on their patients as either skin cleansers or wound cleansers. Understanding the characteristics of soaps and detergents is especially important when dealing with at-risk patients such as the elderly.

  13. 40 CFR 80.163 - Detergent certification options.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 16 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Detergent certification options. 80... (CONTINUED) REGULATION OF FUELS AND FUEL ADDITIVES Detergent Gasoline § 80.163 Detergent certification options. To be used to satisfy the detergency requirements under § 80.161(a), a detergent additive must...

  14. 40 CFR 80.163 - Detergent certification options.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 17 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Detergent certification options. 80... (CONTINUED) REGULATION OF FUELS AND FUEL ADDITIVES Detergent Gasoline § 80.163 Detergent certification options. To be used to satisfy the detergency requirements under § 80.161(a), a detergent additive must...

  15. 40 CFR 80.163 - Detergent certification options.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 17 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Detergent certification options. 80... (CONTINUED) REGULATION OF FUELS AND FUEL ADDITIVES Detergent Gasoline § 80.163 Detergent certification options. To be used to satisfy the detergency requirements under § 80.161(a), a detergent additive must...

  16. 40 CFR 80.163 - Detergent certification options.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 17 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Detergent certification options. 80... (CONTINUED) REGULATION OF FUELS AND FUEL ADDITIVES Detergent Gasoline § 80.163 Detergent certification options. To be used to satisfy the detergency requirements under § 80.161(a), a detergent additive must...

  17. Lignin nanotubes as vehicles for gene delivery into human cells.

    PubMed

    Ten, Elena; Ling, Chen; Wang, Yuan; Srivastava, Arun; Dempere, Luisa Amelia; Vermerris, Wilfred

    2014-01-13

    Lignin nanotubes (LNTs) synthesized from the aromatic plant cell wall polymer lignin in a sacrificial alumina membrane template have as useful features their flexibility, ease of functionalization due to the availability of many functional groups, label-free detection by autofluorescence, and customizable optical properties. In this report we show that the physicochemical properties of LNTs can be varied over a wide range to match requirements for specific applications by using lignin with different subunit composition, a function of plant species and genotype, and by choosing the lignin isolation method (thioglycolic acid, phosphoric acid, sulfuric acid (Klason), sodium hydroxide lignin), which influences the size and reactivity of the lignin fragments. Cytotoxicity studies with human HeLa cells showed that concentrations of up to 90 mg/mL are tolerated, which is a 10-fold higher concentration than observed for single- or multiwalled carbon nanotubes (CNTs). Confocal microscopy imaging revealed that all LNT formulations enter HeLa cells without auxiliary agents and that LNTs made from NaOH-lignin penetrate the cell nucleus. We further show that DNA can adsorb to LNTs. Consequently, exposure of HeLa cells to LNTs coated with DNA encoding the green fluorescent protein (GFP) leads to transfection and expression of GFP. The highest transfection efficiency was obtained with LNTs made from NaOH-lignin due to a combination of high DNA binding capacity and DNA delivery directly into the nucleus. These combined features of LNTs make LNTs attractive as smart delivery vehicles of DNA without the cytotoxicity associated with CNTs or the immunogenicity of viral vectors.

  18. Lignin cross-links with cysteine- and tyrosine-containing peptides under biomimetic conditions.

    PubMed

    Diehl, Brett G; Brown, Nicole R

    2014-10-22

    The work presented here investigates the cross-linking of various nucleophilic amino acids with lignin under aqueous conditions, thus providing insight as to which amino acids might cross-link with lignin in planta. Lignin dehydrogenation polymer (DHP) was prepared in aqueous solutions that contained tripeptides with the general structure XGG, where X represents an amino acid with a nucleophilic side chain. Fourier-transform infrared spectroscopy and energy dispersive X-ray spectroscopy showed that peptides containing cysteine and tyrosine were incorporated into the DHP to form DHP-CGG and DHP-YGG adducts, whereas peptides containing other nucleophilic amino acids were not incorporated. Scanning electron microscopy showed that the physical morphology of DHP was altered by the presence of peptides in the aqueous solution, regardless of peptide incorporation into the DHP. Nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) spectroscopy showed that cysteine-containing peptide cross-linked with lignin at the lignin α-position, whereas in the case of the lignin-tyrosine adduct the exact cross-linking pathway could not be determined. This is the first study to use NMR to confirm cross-linking between lignin and peptides under biomimetic conditions. The results of this study may indicate the potential for lignin-protein linkage formation in planta, particularly between lignin and cysteine- and/or tyrosine-rich proteins. PMID:25275918

  19. Lignin blockers and uses thereof

    SciTech Connect

    Yang, Bin; Wyman, Charles E

    2013-11-12

    Disclosed is a method for converting cellulose in a lignocellulosic biomass. The method provides for a lignin-blocking polypeptide and/or protein treatment of high lignin solids. The treatment enhances cellulase availability in cellulose conversion and allows for the determination of optimized pretreatment conditions. Additionally, ethanol yields from a Simultaneous Saccharification and Fermentation process are improved 5-25% by treatment with a lignin-blocking polypeptide and/or protein.

  20. Lignin isolated from steam-exploded eucalyptus wood chips by phase separation and its affinity to Trichoderma reesei cellulase.

    PubMed

    Nonaka, Hiroshi; Kobayashi, Ai; Funaoka, Masamitsu

    2013-07-01

    Steam-exploded eucalyptus wood chips were treated with p-cresol and 72% sulfuric acid at ambient temperature. Steam-exploded lignin was isolated as acetone-soluble and diethyl ether-insoluble compounds from the cresol layer. The lignin extraction yield was only 47%, and the amount of cresol grafted to lignin was much less than that in the case of eucalyptus lignin without steam explosion. Clearly, the steam explosion process depolymerized native lignin, and simultaneously, promoted polymerization via labile benzyl positions. The steam-exploded eucalyptus lignin adsorbed more Trichoderma reesei cellulase; however, its enzymatic activity was less than that of eucalyptus lignin that did not undergo steam explosion. It is evident that pretreatment potentially affects the affinity between lignin and cellulase and the resultant saccharification efficiency.

  1. Corneal injuries from liquid detergent pods.

    PubMed

    Gray, Michael E; West, Constance E

    2014-10-01

    Laundry and dishwasher detergent "pods" were introduced to the United States market in 2010 and are sold by several manufacturers. They represent a high percentage of household cleaning product exposure in the United Kingdom. We present a consecutive case series of 10 children seen in a 9-month period with corneal injuries from exposure to liquid detergent pods.

  2. The influence of detergents on the availability of pertussis toxin substrates.

    PubMed

    Morris, S A; Horn, E M; Hawley, T; Manning, D; Bilezikian, J P

    1991-10-01

    Pertussis toxin-dependent ADP-ribosylation of rat heart and human mononuclear leukocyte membranes was found to be markedly enhanced in the presence of detergents. The order of potency for this effect of detergents was Triton X-100 approximately Lubrol PX greater than digitonin much greater than cholate greater than 3-[(3-cholamidopropyl)dimethylammonia]propanesulfonic acid. Exposure of membranes to increasing concentrations of detergents increased the proportion of pertussis toxin substrate demonstrable in the supernatant fraction whereas the substrate remaining in the pellet fraction demonstrated a complicated relationship with the concentration of detergent. In complementary experiments, it was found that immunochemical detection of G proteins in the pellet fraction from suspensions previously incubated with a maximal concentration of detergent revealed a reduced presence of G proteins with a concomitant increase in the concentration of G proteins in the supernatant fraction; this situation was not observed at submaximal concentrations of detergent during the preincubation of myocardial membranes. The results suggest that the detergent-mediated enhancement of pertussis toxin's action to ADP-ribosylate susceptible G proteins is a complicated process that includes concentration-dependent creation of conditions favorable to the actions of the toxin as well as solubilization of the substrates for the toxin.

  3. Lignin valorization: improving lignin processing in the biorefinery.

    PubMed

    Ragauskas, Arthur J; Beckham, Gregg T; Biddy, Mary J; Chandra, Richard; Chen, Fang; Davis, Mark F; Davison, Brian H; Dixon, Richard A; Gilna, Paul; Keller, Martin; Langan, Paul; Naskar, Amit K; Saddler, Jack N; Tschaplinski, Timothy J; Tuskan, Gerald A; Wyman, Charles E

    2014-05-16

    Research and development activities directed toward commercial production of cellulosic ethanol have created the opportunity to dramatically increase the transformation of lignin to value-added products. Here, we highlight recent advances in this lignin valorization effort. Discovery of genetic variants in native populations of bioenergy crops and direct manipulation of biosynthesis pathways have produced lignin feedstocks with favorable properties for recovery and downstream conversion. Advances in analytical chemistry and computational modeling detail the structure of the modified lignin and direct bioengineering strategies for future targeted properties. Refinement of biomass pretreatment technologies has further facilitated lignin recovery, and this coupled with genetic engineering will enable new uses for this biopolymer, including low-cost carbon fibers, engineered plastics and thermoplastic elastomers, polymeric foams, fungible fuels, and commodity chemicals.

  4. Lignin Valorization: Improving Lignin Processing in the Biorefinery

    SciTech Connect

    Ragauskas, Arthur; Beckham, Gregg; Biddy, Mary J; Chandra, Richard; Chen, Fang; Davis, Dr. Mark F.; Davison, Brian H; Dixon, Richard; Gilna, Paul; Keller, Martin; Langan, Paul; Naskar, Amit K; Saddler, Jack N; Tschaplinski, Timothy J; Tuskan, Gerald A; Wyman, Charles E,; Harber, Karen S

    2014-01-01

    Research and development activities directed toward commercial production of cellulosic ethanol have created the opportunity to dramatically increase the transformation of lignin to value-added products. Here we highlight recent advances in this lignin valorization effort. Discovery of genetic variants in native populations of bioenergy crops and direct manipulation of biosynthesis pathways have produced lignin feedstocks with favorable properties for recovery and downstream conversion. Advances in analytical chemistry and computational modeling detail the structure of the modified lignin and direct bioengineering strategies for future targeted properties. Refinement of biomass pretreatment technologies has further facilitated lignin recovery, and this coupled with genetic engineering will enable new uses for this biopolymer, including low-cost carbon fibers, engineered plastics and thermoplastic elastomers, polymeric foams, fungible fuels, and commodity chemicals.

  5. Identification of the primary mechanism for fungal lignin degradation. Progress report

    SciTech Connect

    1997-06-01

    Many lignin-degrading fungi appear to lack lignin peroxidase (LiP), an enzyme generally thought important for fungal ligninolysis. The authors are working with one of these fungi, Ceriporiopsis subvermispora, an aggressive white-rotter that selectively removes lignin from wood. During this project period, they have obtained the following principal results: new polymeric lignin model compounds were developed to assist in the elucidation of fungal ligninolytic mechanisms; experiments with one of the polymeric lignin models showed that C. subvermispora cultures which express no detectable LiP activity are nevertheless able to degrade nonphenolic lignin structures, this result is significant because LiPs were previously considered essential for fungal attack on these recalcitrant structures, which constitute about 90% of lignin; manganese peroxidases (MnPs), which C. subvermispora does produce, catalyze the peroxidation of unsaturated fatty acids to give fatty acid hydroperoxides, fatty acid hydroperoxides are also used by MnP as oxidants (in place of H{sub 2}O{sub 2}) that support the MnP catalytic cycle, these results indicate that MnP turnover in the presence of unsaturated lipids generates reactive lipid oxyradicals that could act as oxidant of other molecules; MnP-mediated lipid peroxidation results in the co-oxidative cleavage of nonphenolic lignin structures, the MnP/lipid peroxidation system may therefore provide C. subvermispora and other LiP-negative fungi with a mechanism to degrade the principal structures of lignin.

  6. Ancestral amino acid substitution improves the thermal stability of recombinant lignin-peroxidase from white-rot fungi, Phanerochaete chrysosporium strain UAMH 3641.

    PubMed

    Semba, Yasuyuki; Ishida, Manabu; Yokobori, Shin-ichi; Yamagishi, Akihiko

    2015-07-01

    Stabilizing enzymes from mesophiles of industrial interest is one of the greatest challenges of protein engineering. The ancestral mutation method, which introduces inferred ancestral residues into a target enzyme, has previously been developed and used to improve the thermostability of thermophilic enzymes. In this report, we studied the ancestral mutation method to improve the chemical and thermal stabilities of Phanerochaete chrysosporium lignin peroxidase (LiP), a mesophilic fungal enzyme. A fungal ancestral LiP sequence was inferred using a phylogenetic tree comprising Basidiomycota and Ascomycota fungal peroxidase sequences. Eleven mutant enzymes containing ancestral residues were designed, heterologously expressed in Escherichia coli and purified. Several of these ancestral mutants showed higher thermal stabilities and increased specific activities and/or kcat/KM than those of wild-type LiP.

  7. The safety of synthetic zeolites used in detergents.

    PubMed

    Fruijtier-Pölloth, Claudia

    2009-01-01

    Synthetic zeolites are replacing phosphates as builders in laundry detergents; workers and consumers may, therefore, increasingly be exposed to these materials and it is important to assess their safety. This article puts mechanistic, toxicological and exposure data into context for a safety assessment. Zeolites are hygroscopic compounds with ion-exchanging properties. They may partially decompose under acidic conditions such as in the stomach releasing sodium ions, silicic acid and aluminum salts. The intact molecule is not bioavailable after oral intake or exposure through the dermal and inhalational routes. Under current conditions of manufacture and use, no systemic toxicity is to be expected from neither the intact molecule nor the degradation products; a significant effect on the bioavailability of other compounds is not likely. Zeolites may cause local irritation. It is, therefore, important to minimise occupational exposure. The co-operation of detergent manufacturers with the manufacturers of washing machines is necessary to find the right balance between environmental aspects such as energy and water savings and the occurrence of detergent residues on textiles due to insufficient rinsing.

  8. Lignin Bioproducts to Enable Biofuels

    SciTech Connect

    Wyman, Charles E.; Ragauskas, Arthur J

    2015-09-15

    Here we report that today's and tomorrow's biofuels production facilities could benefit tremendously from increasing the value from the large amount of lignin that results from biofuels operations. Certainly, the scientific community, and biofuels industry has begun to recognize the challenges and opportunities associated with lignin.

  9. Detergents enhance EspB secretion from Escherichia coli strains harboring the locus for the enterocyte effacement (LEE) gene.

    PubMed

    Nakasone, Noboru; Toma, Claudia; Higa, Naomi; Koizumi, Yukiko; Ogura, Yasunori; Suzuki, Toshihiko

    2011-02-01

    The effects of detergents (cholic acid, deoxycholic acid, Triton X-100, and Nonidet P-40) on the secretion of EspB from the locus for enterocyte effacement (LEE) gene-positive Escherichia coli strains were examined. Clinical isolates of eight EPEC strains and seven STEC strains were used to detect EspB after they had been cultivated in Luria-Bertani (LB) broth containing one of the detergents. When the bacteria were cultured in LB broth supplemented with one of the detergents, the amount of EspB produced was increased by 2-32-fold depending on the detergent and the strain used. EspB was detected in all strains when they were cultured in LB broth containing all of the detergents. The results obtained in this study can be applied to immunological diagnostic methods for detecting EspB and also to the production of EspB for research purposes.

  10. Mild acetosolv process to fractionate bamboo for the biorefinery: structural and antioxidant properties of the dissolved lignin.

    PubMed

    Li, Ming-Fei; Sun, Shao-Ni; Xu, Feng; Sun, Run-Cang

    2012-02-22

    Fractionation of lignocellulosic material into its constitutive components is of vital importance for the production of biofuels as well as other value-added chemicals. The conventional acetosolv processes are mainly focused on the production of pulp from woody lignocelluloses. In this study, a mild acetosolv process was developed to fractionate bamboo under atmospheric pressure to obtain cellulosic pulp, water-soluble fraction, and acetic acid lignin. The structural features of the lignins obtained under various conditions were characterized with elemental analysis, sugar analysis, alkaline nitrobenzene oxidation, gel permeation chromatography (GPC), (1)H nuclear magnetic resonance ((1)H NMR), and heteronuclear single-quantum coherence (HSQC) spectroscopy. As compared to milled wood lignin (MWL) of bamboo, acetic acid lignins had low impurities (carbohydrates 2.48-4.56%) mainly due to the cleavage of linkages between lignin and carbohydrates. In addition, acetic acid lignins showed a low proportion of syringyl (S) units. Due to the cleavage of linkages between lignin units, acetic acid lignins had weight-average molecular weights ranging from 4870 to 5210 g/mol, less than half that of MWL (13000 g/mol). In addition, acetic acid lignins showed stronger antioxidant activity mainly due to the significant increase of free phenolic hydroxyls. The lignins obtained with such low impurities, high free phenolic hydroxyls, and medium molecular weights are promising feedstocks to replace petroleum chemicals. PMID:22283627

  11. Mechanism of the catalytic ozonization of lignin in the presence of Mn(II) ions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mitrofanova, A. N.; Khudoshin, A. G.; Lunin, V. V.

    2013-07-01

    The reaction between ozone and lignin in aqueous solutions catalyzed by Mn(II) ions is studied. The rate of destruction for aromatic structures of lignin is found to increase in the presence of Mn(II) ions. However, the greatest catalytic effect is observed upon the transformation of aliphatic acids that are difficult to oxidize with ozone. The introduction of catalyst raises the total consumption of ozone from 3 to 7 mol per each structural unit of lignin. A scheme is proposed for the transformation of phenol fragments of lignin using ozone with the participation of Mn(II) ions: at the initial stage, we observe the ozone oxidation of lignin and Mn(II) to Mn(III) ions stabilized with products of lignin oxidation and accompanied by the formation of chelate complexes, and the Mn(III) chelate complexes act as low-molecular mediators, attacking phenol structures and initiating radical processes.

  12. Biomass pretreatments capable of enabling lignin valorization in a biorefinery process.

    PubMed

    Narron, Robert H; Kim, Hoyong; Chang, Hou-Min; Jameel, Hasan; Park, Sunkyu

    2016-04-01

    Recent techno-economic studies of proposed lignocellulosic biorefineries have concluded that creating value from lignin will assist realization of biomass utilization into valuable fuels, chemicals, and materials due to co-valorization and the new revenues beyond carbohydrates. The pretreatment step within a biorefinery process is essential for recovering carbohydrates, but different techniques and intensities have a variety of effects on lignin. Acidic and alkaline pretreatments have been shown to produce diverse lignins based on delignification chemistry. The valorization potential of pretreated lignin is affected by its chemical structure, which is known to degrade, including inter-lignin condensation under high-severity pretreatment. Co-valorization of lignin and carbohydrates will require dampening of pretreatment intensities to avoid such effects, in spite of tradeoffs in carbohydrate production.

  13. Microwave-assisted oxidative digestion of lignin with hydrogen peroxide for TOC and color removal.

    PubMed

    Ouyang, Xinping; Huang, Xiangzhen; Ruan, Tao; Qiu, Xueqing

    2015-01-01

    Dilute lignin solution was successfully digested into colorless and clarified liquor under microwave-assisted oxidative digestion with hydrogen peroxide. High dosage of hydrogen peroxide is needed to effectively digest lignin, but excessive hydrogen peroxide may lead to recondensation of formed fragments in digested lignin. Microwave irradiation greatly facilitates the oxidative digestion of lignin. Compared with conventional heating technique, microwave-assisted digestion achieves the same or higher digestion rate within a shorter time and/or at lower temperature. After digestion, total organic carbon content of lignin solution decreases by 93.9%, and a small amount of aliphatic alkane, alcohol, acid and ester are formed via the cleavage of aromatic rings as well as the deprivation of side chains in original lignin. This work provides an alternative way to efficiently treat spent pulping liquor. PMID:25714638

  14. Microwave-assisted oxidative digestion of lignin with hydrogen peroxide for TOC and color removal.

    PubMed

    Ouyang, Xinping; Huang, Xiangzhen; Ruan, Tao; Qiu, Xueqing

    2015-01-01

    Dilute lignin solution was successfully digested into colorless and clarified liquor under microwave-assisted oxidative digestion with hydrogen peroxide. High dosage of hydrogen peroxide is needed to effectively digest lignin, but excessive hydrogen peroxide may lead to recondensation of formed fragments in digested lignin. Microwave irradiation greatly facilitates the oxidative digestion of lignin. Compared with conventional heating technique, microwave-assisted digestion achieves the same or higher digestion rate within a shorter time and/or at lower temperature. After digestion, total organic carbon content of lignin solution decreases by 93.9%, and a small amount of aliphatic alkane, alcohol, acid and ester are formed via the cleavage of aromatic rings as well as the deprivation of side chains in original lignin. This work provides an alternative way to efficiently treat spent pulping liquor.

  15. Lignin structural alterations in thermochemical pretreatments with limited delignification

    DOE PAGES

    Pu, Yunqiao; Hu, Fan; Huang, Fang; Ragauskas, Arthur J.

    2015-08-02

    Lignocellulosic biomass has a complex and rigid cell wall structure that makes biomass recalcitrant to biological and chemical degradation. Among the three major structural biopolymers (i.e., cellulose, hemicellulose and lignin) in plant cell walls, lignin is considered the most recalcitrant component and generally plays a negative role in the biochemical conversion of biomass to biofuels. The conversion of biomass to biofuels through a biochemical platform usually requires a pretreatment stage to reduce the recalcitrance. Pretreatment renders compositional and structural changes of biomass with these changes ultimately govern the efficiency of the subsequent enzymatic hydrolysis. Dilute acid, hot water, steam explosion,more » and ammonia fiber expansion pretreatments are among the leading thermochemical pretreatments with a limited delignification that can reduce biomass recalcitrance. Practical applications of these pretreatment are rapidly developing as illustrated by recent commercial scale cellulosic ethanol plants. While these thermochemical pretreatments generally lead to only a limited delignification and no significant change of lignin content in the pretreated biomass, the lignin transformations that occur during these pretreatments and the roles they play in recalcitrance reduction is an important research aspect. This review highlights recent advances in our understanding of lignin alterations during these limited delignification thermochemical pretreatments, with emphasis on lignin chemical structures, molecular weights, and redistributions in the pretreated biomass.« less

  16. Lignin structural alterations in thermochemical pretreatments with limited delignification

    SciTech Connect

    Pu, Yunqiao; Hu, Fan; Huang, Fang; Ragauskas, Arthur J.

    2015-08-02

    Lignocellulosic biomass has a complex and rigid cell wall structure that makes biomass recalcitrant to biological and chemical degradation. Among the three major structural biopolymers (i.e., cellulose, hemicellulose and lignin) in plant cell walls, lignin is considered the most recalcitrant component and generally plays a negative role in the biochemical conversion of biomass to biofuels. The conversion of biomass to biofuels through a biochemical platform usually requires a pretreatment stage to reduce the recalcitrance. Pretreatment renders compositional and structural changes of biomass with these changes ultimately govern the efficiency of the subsequent enzymatic hydrolysis. Dilute acid, hot water, steam explosion, and ammonia fiber expansion pretreatments are among the leading thermochemical pretreatments with a limited delignification that can reduce biomass recalcitrance. Practical applications of these pretreatment are rapidly developing as illustrated by recent commercial scale cellulosic ethanol plants. While these thermochemical pretreatments generally lead to only a limited delignification and no significant change of lignin content in the pretreated biomass, the lignin transformations that occur during these pretreatments and the roles they play in recalcitrance reduction is an important research aspect. This review highlights recent advances in our understanding of lignin alterations during these limited delignification thermochemical pretreatments, with emphasis on lignin chemical structures, molecular weights, and redistributions in the pretreated biomass.

  17. A radioimmunoassay for lignin in plant cell walls

    SciTech Connect

    Dawley, R.M.

    1989-01-01

    Lignin detection and determination in herbaceous tissue requires selective, specific assays which are not currently available. A radioimmunoassay (RIA) was developed to study lignin metabolism in these tissues. A {beta}-aryl ether lignin model compound was synthesized, linked to keyhole limpet hemocyanin using a water-soluble carbodiimide, and injected into rabbits. The highest titer of the antiserum obtained was 34 {eta}g/mL of model derivatized BSA. An in vitro system was developed to characterize the RIA. The model compound was linked to amino activated polyacrylamide beads to mimic lignin in the cell walls. {sup 125}I Radiolabelled protein A was used to detect IgG antibody binding. The RIA was shown in the in vitro system to exhibit saturable binding. The amount of antibody bound decreased when the serum was diluted. Immunoelectrophoresis and competitive binding experiments confirmed that both aromatic rings of the lignin model compound had been antigenic. Chlorogenic acid, a phenolic known to be present in plant cells, did not compete for antibody binding. The RIA was used to measure lignin in milled plant samples and barley seedlings. Antiserum binding to wheat cell walls and stressed barley segments was higher than preimmune serum binding. Antibody binding to stressed barley tissue decreased following NaClO{sub 2} delignification. The RIA was found to be less sensitive than expected, so several avenues for improving the method are discussed.

  18. Biomass-derived Lignin to Jet Fuel Range Hydrocarbons via Aqueous Phase Hydrodeoxygenation

    SciTech Connect

    Wang, Hongliang; Ruan, Hao; Pei, Haisheng; Wang, Huamin; Chen, Xiaowen; Tucker, Melvin P.; Cort, John R.; Yang, Bin

    2015-09-14

    A catalytic process, involving the hydrodeoxygenation (HDO) of the dilute alkali extracted corn stover lignin catalysed by noble metal catalyst (Ru/Al2O3) and acidic zeolite (H+-Y), to produce lignin-substructure-based hydrocarbons (C7-C18), primarily C12-C18 cyclic structure hydrocarbons in the jet fuel range, was demonstrated.

  19. Transformation of lignin in surface and buried soils of mountainous landscapes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kovaleva, N. O.; Kovalev, I. V.

    2009-11-01

    The content and composition of the lignin phenols in plants and soils of vertical natural zones were studied in the Northern Caucasus region and Northwestern Tien Shan. Three types of lignin transformation were revealed: steppe, forest, and meadow ones. It was shown that the degree of oxidation of the biopolymer during the transformation of organic matter increased when going from the living plant tissues to humic acids in surface and buried soils. The portion of lignin fragments remained unchanged during the biopolymer transformation in the following series: plant tissues-falloff-litter-soil-humic acids-buried humic acids. It was also shown that the biochemical composition of the plants had a decisive effect on the structure of the humic acids in the soils. The quantitative analysis of the lignin phenols and the 13C NMR spectroscopy proved that the lignin in higher plants was involved in the formation of specific compounds of soil humus, including aliphatic and aromatic molecular fragments. The first analysis of the lignin content and composition in buried soils of different ages was performed, and an increase in the degree of oxidation of the lignin structures was revealed in the soil chronoseries. It was proposed to use the proportions of lignin phenols in surface and buried soils as diagnostic criteria of the vegetation types in different epochs.

  20. Contribution of plant lignin to the soil organic matter formation and stabilization

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Lignin is the third most abundant plant constituent after cellulose and hemicellulose and thought to be one of the building blocks for soil organic matter formation. Lignin can be used as a predictor for long-term soil organic matter stabilization and C sequestration. Soils and humic acids from fo...

  1. Detergent water use eliminates VOC concerns

    SciTech Connect

    Chang, M.

    1996-01-01

    The article describes an electronics manufacturer`s use of detergent water and mechanical equipment (heated pressure washers and floor scrubbers) to replace volatile organic compounds. The cleaning formula development and detergent recovery system are emphasized. Detailed chemical analyses of the waste detergent water and spent filters are provided. The rationale for using detergent water; a process flow diagram for cleaning, recovery and storage; and cost considerations are summarized. At a cost of $300,000, the system removed a significant source of air emissions and enabled the plant to eliminate 30 tons of liquid hazardous waste, improve cleaning effectiveness, and save $99,000 per year in cleaning-related costs. 2 figs., 2 tabs.

  2. Detergent-Specific Membrane Protein Crystallization Screens

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wiener, Michael

    2007-01-01

    A suite of reagents has been developed for three-dimensional crystallization of integral membranes present in solution as protein-detergent complexes (PDCs). The compositions of these reagents have been determined in part by proximity to the phase boundaries (lower consolute boundaries) of the detergents present in the PDCs. The acquisition of some of the requisite phase-boundary data and the preliminary design of several of the detergent- specific screens was supported by a NASA contract. At the time of expiration of the contract, a partial set of preliminary screens had been developed. This work has since been extended under non-NASA sponsorship, leading to near completion of a set of 20 to 30 different and unique detergent- specific 96-condition screens.

  3. 21 CFR 573.600 - Lignin sulfonates.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Lignin sulfonates. 573.600 Section 573.600 Food... Additive Listing § 573.600 Lignin sulfonates. Lignin sulfonates may be safely used in animal feeds in... feeds, as liquid lignin sulfonate, in an amount not to exceed 11 percent of the molasses. (4) As...

  4. 21 CFR 573.600 - Lignin sulfonates.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Lignin sulfonates. 573.600 Section 573.600 Food... Additive Listing § 573.600 Lignin sulfonates. Lignin sulfonates may be safely used in animal feeds in... feeds, as liquid lignin sulfonate, in an amount not to exceed 11 percent of the molasses. (4) As...

  5. Utilization of chemically modified lignin

    SciTech Connect

    Chem, M.J.

    1996-10-01

    A chemical modification method has been developed to convert lignin into lignin graft copolymers. The graft products are macromolecular surface active agents because, within each molecule, a hydrocarbon sidechain has been gown off of a natural oxyphenylpropyl backbone. Surface activity of the graft copolymers was indicated by their capacity to form stable emulsions between incompatible fluid phases and to adhesively bond to wood surfaces. Lignin has been grafted with ethenylbenzene (styrene), 4-methyl-2-oxy-3-oxopent-4-ene (methylmethacrylate), 2-propenamide(acrylamide), 2-propene nitrile (acrylonitrile), cationic monomers, and anionic monomers. Synthesis with anionic, cationic, or polar nonionic monomers produced water soluble, lignin copolymers that were effective dispersing, flocculating, and surface active agents. The nonionic polymers and their hydrolysis products are effective thinners and suspending agents for drilling mud formulations. In reactions with ethenylbenzene, lignin was used to make thermoplastic materials. These products have been shown to be poly(lignin-g-(1-phenylethylene))-containing materials by a series of solubility and extraction tests and are formed with 90% or more grafting efficiency for lignin. These materials have been shown to be thermoplastics, coupling agents for wood and plastic, and biodegradable plastics.

  6. Combination detergent/MALDI matrix: functional cleavable detergents for mass spectrometry.

    PubMed

    Norris, Jeremy L; Porter, Ned A; Caprioli, Richard M

    2005-08-01

    This study reports the synthesis of the first functional cleavable detergent designed specifically for applications in mass spectrometry. Upon cleavage, two inert compounds and the MALDI matrix are formed, eliminating sources of potential interference originating from traditional cleavable detergents. Analysis of peptides demonstrates that MALDI matrix generated in situ results in MALDI spectra equivalent to those prepared using established protocols. Analysis of the membrane protein diacylglycerol kinase was accomplished using the combination detergent/MALDI matrix. Applications of the functional cleavable detergents to the profiling of whole cell lysates results in increased signal-to-noise ratios of many ions and the detection of additional proteins previously not observed.

  7. Synthesis of basic and overbasic sulfonate detergent additives

    SciTech Connect

    Abou El Naga, H.H.; Abd El-Azim, W.M.; Bendary, S.A.; Awad, N.G.

    1993-12-01

    Heavy alkylbenzene, which accumulates as a by-product from linear alkylbenzene synthesis, is evaluated as a starting material for preparation of basic and over basic sulfonate detergent additives. Chemical structure analysis showed that this by-product contains several components in different proportions. Most of these components, as traced via mass spectrometry, showed the presence of paraffinic side chains within the carbon range C{sub 11}--C{sub 22}. Accordingly, sulfonation conditions for it were adjusted to optimize the reaction yield and sulfonic quality. Neutralization of the sulfonic acid was carried out by adding CaO in the presence of methanol as a promoter. Preparation of over basic sulfonate was run via a carbonation process at 55--60 C. Evaluations of synthesized basic calcium sulfonate in comparison to a commercial additive is supported by its efficiency as a detergent additive. The synthesized product has a higher total base number and Ca content than those for the commercial one. On the other hand, evaluation of the synthesized overbasic calcium sulfonate compared with overbasic commercial additives with medium and high alkalinity indicated that the synthesized product can be classified as overbasic calcium sulfonate with medium alkalinity, good dispersive power, and detergent efficiency.

  8. Sulfur-free lignins from alkaline pulping tested in mortar for use as mortar additives.

    PubMed

    Nadif, A; Hunkeler, D; Käuper, P

    2002-08-01

    Sulfur-free lignin, obtained through the acid precipitation of black liquor from the soda pulping process, has been tested as water reducer in mortar. It has also been compared to existing commercial additives such as naphthalene sulfonates and lignosulfonates. The ash content and sugar content of these lignins are low in comparison to lignosulfonates, conferring on them higher purity. A procedure for small scale testing derived from the industrial norms SN-EN196 and ASTM (Designation C230-90) is presented. Specifically, all the sulfur-free lignins tested improved the flow of the mortar. Selected flax lignins performed better than lignosulfonates though still less than naphthalene sulfonates. Furthermore, certain hemp lignins gave comparable results to the lignosulfonates. Overall, the straw lignin prepared herein is comparable in performance to commercially available lignins, such as Organocell, Alcell and Curan 100. The plant from which the lignin was isolated, and the process of the pulp mill are the primary influences on the performance of the lignin.

  9. Consequences of detergent pollution of the sea: effects on regenerating sponge cubes of Geodia cydonium.

    PubMed

    Zahn, R K; Zahn, G; Müller, W E; Müller, I; Beyer, R; Müller-Berger, U; Kupelec, B; Rijavec, M; Britvić, S

    1977-09-01

    Regenerating cubes of the sponge Geodia cydonium cyconium were used as a model in the investigation of detergent pollution in the sea. The anionic detergent sodium dodecylsulphate (SDS) and a 1:1 mixture of Faks and Radion, two commercial laundry detergents, were used in the concentration range from 1 X 10(-9) g/ml (1 ppb) to 1 X 10(-5) g/ml. It is shown that SDS is taken up, weakly accumulated but not incorporated into the macromolecular fractions of the sponge. At concentrations of 0.1 ppm and above, SDS decreases the uptake of thymidine, uridine and phenylalanine into the acid-soluble sponge fraction. Their incorporation into the acid insoluble fractions, which have been isolated, was different from the controls at 10 ppb and higher levels. Faks and Radion were less active by a factor of 10. However, they showed similar effects. The chemical composition of the regenerating sponge cubes with respect to DNA, RNA and protein content has been evaluated. The alterations are less pronounced on detergent incubation than precursor uptake. The use of the cetyltrimethyl-ammoniumbromide-turbidity-dilution technique reveals drastic qualitative changes in the nucleic acid fractions. The relevant literature on biological effects of detergent is listed. It is shown that this investigation extends the scale of known effects far into the low and pollution-relevant concentration levels.

  10. The role of lignin and lignin-like materials during wood hydrolysis

    SciTech Connect

    Zaher, F.A.

    1981-01-01

    The nature of the material precipitating from the acid prehydrolysates and hydrolysates of wood upon storage has been investigated. This material was analyzed for its sugar content, ultraviolet spectra, elemental composition, molecular weight distribution, and thermogravimetric behavior. All the results indicate that this material has the same properties as lignin. The results suggest also that this material is neither a resinification product from sugar decomposition nor extraneous materials of wood (resins, tannins, etc.). It is suggested, too, that the extraction of this material along with sugar during hydrolysis and prehydrolysis causes a considerable error in the results of wood analysis using standard methods based on weight loss. The actual percentages of lignin in the wood samples tested appear to vary from two to four times their values measured by standard methods. Consequently, the actual cellulose content of these materials may be far lower than has been reported. This has serious implications for schemes based on biomass conversion.

  11. Catalytic pyrolysis-GC/MS of lignin from several sources

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Lignin from four different sources extracted by various methods were pyrolyzed at 650 degree C using analytical pyrolysis methods, py-GC/MS. Pyrolysis was carried out in the absence and presence of two heterogeneous catalysts , an acidic zeolite (HZSM-5) catalyst and a mixed metal oxide catalyst (Co...

  12. Effects of Kraft lignin on hydrolysis/dehydration of sugars, cellulosic and lignocellulosic biomass under hot compressed water.

    PubMed

    Daorattanachai, Pornlada; Viriya-empikul, Nawin; Laosiripojana, Navadol; Faungnawakij, Kajornsak

    2013-09-01

    The effect of Kraft lignin presenting on the hydrolysis and dehydration of C5 and C6 sugars, cellulose, hemicelluloses and biomass under hot compressed water (HCW) in the presence of H3PO4 catalyst was intensively studied. The lignin strongly inhibited the acid hydrolysis of cellulose and hemicellulose to glucose and xylose, respectively. Interestingly, the admixed lignin markedly promoted the isomerization of glucose to fructose, and dehydration of fructose (except at the low catalyst loading), resulting in high 5-hydroxymethylfurfural yields. Nonetheless, lignin inhibited the hydrolysis of xylan to xylose and dehydration of xylose to furfural. Moreover, the acidity of the system significantly affects the hydrolysis/dehydration of biomass. It was revealed that the presence of lignin strongly interfered the yields of sugars and furans produced from raw corncob, while the delignified corncob provided significant improvement of product yields, confirming the observed role of lignin in the biomass conversion system via sugar platforms. PMID:23907066

  13. Mechanochemical modification of lignin and application of the modified lignin for thermoplastics and thermosets

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Guo, Xiaojie; Zhang, Jinwen; Xin, Junna

    In this work, mechanochemical modification of lignin and use of the modified lignin in thermoplastics and thermosets were studied. Oleated lignin was successfully prepared by transesterification between lignin and methyl, and the oleation reaction was performed in a solvent-free and room temperature ball milling process with a relatively short time. PLA/lignin blends were prepared through melt extrusion. Compared with the PLA/lignin blends, the PLA/oleated lignin blends exhibited finer dispersion of lignin in the blends, increased glass transition temperature and higher tensile properties, suggesting improved compatibility between lignin and PLA. Carboxylic and anhydride groups were also introduced into the structure of lignin via mechanochemical modification, and the resulting lignin derivatives were used as curing agents for epoxies. The dynamic mechanical properties and thermal stability of the cured epoxy resins were studied using dynamic mechanical analysis (DMA) and thermogravimetric analysis (TGA).

  14. From lignin association to nano-/micro-particle preparation: Extracting higher value of lignin

    DOE PAGES

    Zhao, Wenwen; Simmons, Blake; Singh, Seema; Ragauskas, Arthur J.; Cheng, Gang

    2016-09-26

    As the most abundant source of renewable aromatic compounds on the planet, lignin is gaining growing interest in replacing petroleum-based chemicals and products. Value-added applications of lignin are also essential for economic viability for future bio-refineries. It is however an under-utilized natural resource due to its structural heterogeneities. Lignin nanoparticles offer many opportunities for value-added applications of lignin. The solution structures of lignin were proposed as one of the key elements in controlling lignin nano-/micro-particle preparation. Fundamental understanding of solutionstructures of lignin aid in designing better fabrication of lignin nanoparticles. A deeper understanding of the observed experimental results also pointsmore » to the need for detailed studies of lignin in solution. Lastly, this review consists of two major topics, the solution structures of lignin and lignin nano-/micro-particle preparation. Suggestions for future studies regarding these two topics were also put forward.« less

  15. Lignin-Derived Advanced Carbon Materials.

    PubMed

    Chatterjee, Sabornie; Saito, Tomonori

    2015-12-01

    Lignin is a highly abundant source of renewable carbon that can be considered as a valuable sustainable source of biobased materials. By applying specific pretreatments and manufacturing methods, lignin can be converted into a variety of value-added carbon materials. However, the physical and chemical heterogeneities of lignin complicate its use as a feedstock. Herein lignin manufacturing process, the effects of pretreatments and manufacturing methods on the properties of product lignin, and structure-property relationships in various applications of lignin-derived carbon materials, such as carbon fibers, carbon mats, activated carbons, carbon films, and templated carbon, are discussed.

  16. Lignin-Derived Advanced Carbon Materials

    SciTech Connect

    Chatterjee, Sabornie; Saito, Tomonori

    2015-11-16

    Lignin is a highly abundant source of renewable carbon that can be considered as a valuable sustainable source of biobased materials. By applying specific pretreatments and manufacturing methods, it has been found that lignin can be converted into a variety of value-added carbon materials. However, the physical and chemical heterogeneities of lignin complicate its use as a feedstock. Herein, we discuss the lignin manufacturing process, the effects of pretreatments and manufacturing methods on the properties of product lignin, and structure–property relationships in various applications of lignin-derived carbon materials, such as carbon fibers, carbon mats, activated carbons, carbon films, and templated carbon.

  17. On the surface interactions of proteins with lignin.

    PubMed

    Salas, Carlos; Rojas, Orlando J; Lucia, Lucian A; Hubbe, Martin A; Genzer, Jan

    2013-01-01

    Lignins are used often in formulations involving proteins but little is known about the surface interactions between these important biomacromolecules. In this work, we investigate the interactions at the solid-liquid interface of lignin with the two main proteins in soy, glycinin (11S) and β-conglycinin (7S). The extent of adsorption of 11S and 7S onto lignin films and the degree of hydration of the interfacial layers is quantified via Quartz crystal microgravimetry (QCM) and surface plasmon resonance (SPR). Solution ionic strength and protein denaturation (2-mercaptoethanol and urea) critically affect the adsorption process as protein molecules undergo conformational changes and their hydrophobic or hydrophilic amino acid residues interact with the surrounding medium. In general, the adsorption of the undenatured proteins onto lignin is more extensive compared to that of the denatured biomolecules and a large amount of water is coupled to the adsorbed molecules. The reduction in water contact angle after protein adsorption (by ~40° and 35° for undenatured 11S and 7S, respectively) is explained by strong nonspecific interactions between soy proteins and lignin. PMID:23234476

  18. Laundry detergent capsules and pediatric poisoning

    PubMed Central

    Bonney, Asha G.; Mazor, Suzan; Goldman, Ran D.

    2013-01-01

    Abstract Question A 4-year-old girl was brought into the emergency department vomiting after having had ingested a laundry detergent capsule (LDC) from under the sink at her house. What is the risk of LDC poisoning? What can be done to treat these children? Answer Laundry detergent capsules are relatively new to supermarket shelves in North America, and there has been an emergence of case reports in the literature describing LDC poisoning, which is worse than poisoning from other laundry detergents. Very little is known about the mechanisms causing these severe reactions, which include airway compromise and esophageal perforation, but the attractive appearance of these capsules and easy access at home has governments and health officials concerned about an increase in poisoning. No residual problems have been associated with these cases to date; however, further research is needed to assess long-term effects. PMID:24336541

  19. Enhancing Textile Fiber Identification with Detergent Fluorescence.

    PubMed

    Mujumdar, Nirvani; Heider, Emily C; Campiglia, Andres D

    2015-12-01

    Discovering common origins of trace evidential textile fibers can be a challenging task when fiber structure or dye composition does not provide exclusive identifying information. Introduction of new chemical species after mass production and distribution of a textile may be exploited to trace its history and identify the origin of its fibers. In this article, fluorescence microscopy is used to examine the alteration in the fluorescence spectral fingerprint of single fibers resulting from exposure to commonly used detergents that contain fluorescent whitening agents. Dyed acrylic, cotton, and nylon fibers were laundered and the spectral contribution of the detergent on single fibers was quantified and shown to reach a maximum after five sequential washes; some detergents showed statistically meaningful differences to fiber spectra after only a single wash. Principal component cluster analysis was used to determine that the spectra of laundered fibers are distinct from the spectra of dyed, unwashed cotton or nylon, but not acrylic, fibers. PMID:26647148

  20. CHOBIMALT: a cholesterol-based detergent.

    PubMed

    Howell, Stanley C; Mittal, Ritesh; Huang, Lijun; Travis, Benjamin; Breyer, Richard M; Sanders, Charles R

    2010-11-01

    Cholesterol and its hemisuccinate and sulfate derivatives are widely used in studies of purified membrane proteins but are difficult to solubilize in aqueous solution, even in the presence of detergent micelles. Other cholesterol derivatives do not form conventional micelles and lead to viscous solutions. To address these problems, a cholesterol-based detergent, CHOBIMALT, has been synthesized and characterized. At concentrations above 3−4 μM, CHOBIMALT forms micelles without the need for elevated temperatures or sonic disruption. Diffusion and fluorescence measurements indicated that CHOBIMALT micelles are large (210±30 kDa). The ability to solubilize a functional membrane protein was explored using a G-protein coupled receptor, the human kappa opioid receptor type 1 (hKOR1). While CHOBIMALT alone was not found to be effective as a surfactant for membrane extraction, when added to classical detergent micelles CHOBIMALT was observed to dramatically enhance the thermal stability of solubilized hKOR1.

  1. Conversion of kraft lignin over hierarchical MFI zeolite.

    PubMed

    Kim, Seong-Soo; Lee, Hyung Won; Ryoo, Ryong; Kim, Wookdong; Park, Sung Hoon; Jeon, Jong-Ki; Park, Young-Kwon

    2014-03-01

    Catalytic pyrolysis of kraft lignin was carried out using pyrolysis gas chromatography/mass spectrometry. Hierarchical mesoporous MFI was used as the catalyst and another mesoporous material Al-SBA-15 was also used for comparison. The characteristics of mesoporous MFI were analyzed by X-ray diffraction patterns, N2 adsorption-desorption isotherms, and temperature programmed desorption of NH3. Two catalyst/lignin mass ratios were tested: 5/1 and 10/1. Aromatics and alkyl phenolics were the main products of the catalytic pyrolysis of lignin over mesoporous MFI. In particular, the yields of mono-aromatics such as benzene, toluene, ethylbenzene, and xylene were increased substantially by catalytic upgrading. Increase in the catalyst dose enhanced the production of aromatics further, which is attributed to decarboxylation, decarbonlyation, and aromatization reactions occurring over the acid sites of mesoporous MFI.

  2. Brij detergents reveal new aspects of membrane microdomain in erythrocytes.

    PubMed

    Casadei, Bruna Renata; De Oliveira Carvalho, Patrícia; Riske, Karin A; Barbosa, Raquel De Melo; De Paula, Eneida; Domingues, Cleyton Crepaldi

    2014-09-01

    Membrane microdomains enriched in cholesterol, sphingolipids (rafts), and specific proteins are involved in important physiological functions. However their structure, size and stability are still controversial. Given that detergent-resistant membranes (DRMs) are in the liquid-ordered state and are rich in raft-like components, they might correspond to rafts at least to some extent. Here we monitor the lateral order of biological membranes by characterizing DRMs from erythrocytes obtained with Brij-98, Brij-58, and TX-100 at 4 °C and 37 °C. All DRMs were enriched in cholesterol and contained the raft markers flotillin-2 and stomatin. However, sphingomyelin (SM) was only found to be enriched in TX-100-DRMs - a detergent that preferentially solubilizes the membrane inner leaflet - while Band 3 was present solely in Brij-DRMs. Electron paramagnetic resonance spectra showed that the acyl chain packing of Brij-DRMs was lower than TX-100-DRMs, providing evidence of their diverse lipid composition. Fatty acid analysis revealed that the SM fraction of the DRMs was enriched in lignoceric acid, which should specifically contribute to the resistance of SM to detergents. These results indicate that lipids from the outer leaflet, particularly SM, are essential for the formation of the liquid-ordered phase of DRMs. At last, the differential solubilization process induced by Brij-98 and TX-100 was monitored using giant unilamellar vesicles. This study suggests that Brij and TX-100-DRMs reflect different degrees of lateral order of the membrane microdomains. Additionally, Brij DRMs are composed by both inner and outer leaflet components, making them more physiologically relevant than TX-100-DRMs to the studies of membrane rafts.

  3. Ingestion of Laundry Detergent Packets in Children.

    PubMed

    Shah, Lindsey Wilson

    2016-08-01

    Ingestion of laundry detergent packets is an important threat to young children. Because of their developmental stage, toddlers are prone to place these small, colorful packets in their mouths. The packets can easily burst, sending a large volume of viscous, alkaline liquid throughout the oropharynx. Ingestion causes major toxic effects, including depression of the central nervous system, metabolic acidosis, respiratory distress, and dysphagia. Critical care nurses should anticipate these clinical effects and facilitate prompt intervention. Increased understanding of the risks and clinical effects of ingestion of laundry detergent packets will better prepare critical care nurses to provide care for these children. (Critical Care Nurse 2016; 36[4]:70-75).

  4. Ingestion of Laundry Detergent Packets in Children.

    PubMed

    Shah, Lindsey Wilson

    2016-08-01

    Ingestion of laundry detergent packets is an important threat to young children. Because of their developmental stage, toddlers are prone to place these small, colorful packets in their mouths. The packets can easily burst, sending a large volume of viscous, alkaline liquid throughout the oropharynx. Ingestion causes major toxic effects, including depression of the central nervous system, metabolic acidosis, respiratory distress, and dysphagia. Critical care nurses should anticipate these clinical effects and facilitate prompt intervention. Increased understanding of the risks and clinical effects of ingestion of laundry detergent packets will better prepare critical care nurses to provide care for these children. (Critical Care Nurse 2016; 36[4]:70-75). PMID:27481804

  5. Alcohol adsorption on softwood lignin from aqueous solutions.

    PubMed

    Yang, Y; Ladisch, M R; Ladisch, C M

    1990-02-01

    Lignin prepared by acid and enzyme hydrolysis of a softwood mixture adsorbs acetone, butanol, and other alcohols while showing only a slight uptake of glucose. Adsorption of butanol is independent of temperature in the range of 30-65 degrees C. The Polanyi theory fits adsorption for the linear alcohols methanol through hexanol with values of DeltaS and Delta(mu) ranging from 2.6 to 26 J mol(-1) K(-1)and -0.8 to -8 kJ/mol. The adsorption capacity is given by Q (g alcohol/g lignin) = KC(*). Where C(*) is the equilibrium alcohol concentration (g/mL), K = epsilon(W)exp (Delta/R), and epsilon(w) is the porosity of the lignin (0.23-0.42 mL/g). The value of the adsorption capacity constant K for n-butanol ranges from 1.3 to 2.7 mL/g on sorbent containing 26-72% lignin, while ethanol is 0.5-0.73, acetone is 0.62-1.0, and glucose is 0.35. Adsorption is shown to occur through combined hydrophobic and hydrophilic interactions of the alkyl and hydroxyl groups, respectively, of the adsorbate with the lignin. Consequently, for the alcohols methanol to hexanol, we present the capacity constant K[=K(R) + K(OH)] as a sum of an alky! adsorption constant (0.1-9.5 mL/g) and a hydrophilic (0.40-0.50 mL/g) contribution. This approach may be applicable to organic acids. Lignin's sorbent properties have potential to moderate product inhibition in the anaerobic acetone-butanol-ethanol (ABE) fermentation. PMID:18592519

  6. Comparative geochemistries of lignins and carbohydrates in an anoxic fjord

    SciTech Connect

    Hamilton, S.E.; Hedges, J.I.

    1988-01-01

    A reducing, varved sediment core and monthly (May-September) plankton and sediment trap samples from Saanich Inlet, B.C., Canada, were analyzed for their elemental, lignin and neutral sugar compositions. Total yields of lignin-derived phenols from both the sediment trap and core samples indicated less than 15% and 30%, respectively, of chemically recognizable vascular plant remains, derived predominantly from gymnosperm wood and nonwoody angiosperm tissues. The elevated vanillyl and syringyl acid/aldehyde ratios of this material compared to fresh plant material indicated that it suffered mild aerobic decomposition prior to introduction to the Inlet. Organic carbon, total nitrogen, and total neutral sugars and lignin phenols all exhibited decreasing concentrations with depth in a region of uniform varving (upper 15 cm) in the sediment core. Neutral sugars were consistently the most reactive chemical class, accounting for roughly 15% of the total organic carbon turnover. Although lignin appeared to be degraded within the sediment core, this degradation was nonselective for different lignin types and did not lead to increased acid/aldehyde ratios as occur during aerobic lignin decomposition. Comparisons of the yields of individual neutral sugars from the sediment and sediment trap samples to those expected from the vascular plant component alone indicated that the vascular plant debris in the upper portion of the sediment core had lost a portion of its initial glucose, lyxose, and mannose. In contrast, rhamnose and fucose were produced by all samples in large excess of total yields expected for chemically intact vascular plant and plankton components and must have additional sources.

  7. The fate of lignin during hydrothermal pretreatment

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Effective enzymatic hydrolysis of lignocellulosic biomass benefits from lignin removal, relocation, and/or modification during hydrothermal pretreatment. Phase transition, depolymerization/repolymerization, and solubility effects may all influence these lignin changes. To better understand how lignin is altered, Populus trichocarpa x P. deltoides wood samples and cellulolytic enzyme lignin (CEL) isolated from P. trichocarpa x P. deltoides were subjected to batch and flowthrough pretreatments. The residual solids and liquid hydrolysate were characterized by gel permeation chromatography, heteronuclear single quantum coherence NMR, compositional analysis, and gas chromatography–mass spectrometry. Results Changes in the structure of the solids recovered after the pretreatment of CEL and the production of aromatic monomers point strongly to depolymerization and condensation being primary mechanisms for lignin extraction and redeposition. The differences in lignin removal and phenolic compound production from native P. trichocarpa x P. deltoides and CEL suggested that lignin-carbohydrate interactions increased lignin extraction and the extractability of syringyl groups relative to guaiacyl groups. Conclusions These insights into delignification during hydrothermal pretreatment point to desirable pretreatment strategies and plant modifications. Because depolymerization followed by repolymerization appears to be the dominant mode of lignin modification, limiting the residence time of depolymerized lignin moieties in the bulk liquid phase should reduce lignin content in pretreated biomass. In addition, the increase in lignin removal in the presence of polysaccharides suggests that increasing lignin-carbohydrate cross-links in biomass would increase delignification during pretreatment. PMID:23902789

  8. Preparation and Analysis of Biomass Lignins

    SciTech Connect

    Compere, A L; Griffith, William {Bill} L

    2009-01-01

    Lignin, comprised primarily of three randomly polymerized phenylpropenyl monomers, is, arguably, the second most common organic molecule on earth. In current biorefinery applications, lignin is burned, usually in concentrated pulping or hydrolysis liquor, as a source of process steam and both internal and exported electricity. The aromatic content of lignin makes it a potentially attractive feedstock for highly-valued aromatic chemicals, polymers, and carbon products (graphite, activated carbon, and carbon fiber). Revenue from production of lignin-based chemicals could play a major role in biorefinery profitability if cost-effective methods for lignin separation and purification can be developed. This article presents descriptions of methods for assessing and purifying biorefinery lignins so that they can be evaluated for use as feedstocks for production of chemical products. Areas covered are: 1) initial evaluations of as-received lignin samples (visual, microscopic, separable organics), 2) analysis of common contaminants (bulk and filterable ash and particulate contaminants in liquid and dry lignin samples), 3) preparation of lignins for experimental use as chemical feedstocks (prefiltration, filtration using bench-scale chemical apparatus and larger scale bag filters, one-step lignin precipitation, two-step carbohydrate and lignin precipitation, desalting of dry powdered or precipitated lignin, and lyophilization). These methods have been used successfully at bench-scale to produce the 1 50 kg amounts of wood and grass lignins typically required for bench-scale assessment as chemical feedstocks

  9. Preparation and Analysis of Biomass Lignins

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Compere, Alicia L.; Griffith, William L.

    Lignin, comprised primarily of three randomly polymerized phenylpropenyl monomers, is, arguably, the second most common organic molecule on earth. In current biorefinery applications, lignin is burned, usually in concentrated pulping or hydrolysis liquor, as a source of process steam and both internal and exported electricity. The aromatic content of lignin makes it a potentially attractive feedstock for high-value aromatic chemicals, polymers, and carbon products (graphite, activated carbon, and carbon fiber). Revenue from production of lignin-based chemicals could play a major role in biorefinery profitability if cost-effective methods for lignin separation and purification can be developed. This chapter presents descriptions of methods for assessing and purifying biorefinery lignins so that they can be evaluated for use as feedstock for production of chemical products. Areas covered are: (1) initial evaluations of as-received lignin samples (visual, microscopic, separable organics); (2) analysis of common contaminants (bulk and filterable ash and particulate contaminants in liquid and dry lignin samples); (3) preparation of lignins for experimental use as chemical feedstock (prefiltration, filtration using bench-scale chemical apparatus and larger scale bag filters, one-step lignin precipitation, two-step carbohydrate and lignin precipitation, desalting of dry powdered or precipitated lignin, and lyophilization). These methods have been used successfully at the bench scale to produce the 1-50 kg amounts of wood and grass lignins typically required for bench-scale assessment as chemical feedstocks.

  10. Recent Development in Chemical Depolymerization of Lignin: A Review

    DOE PAGES

    Wang, Hai; Tucker, Melvin; Ji, Yun

    2013-01-01

    This article reviewed recent development of chemical depolymerization of lignins. There were five types of treatment discussed, including base-catalyzed, acid-catalyzed, metallic catalyzed, ionic liquids-assisted, and supercritical fluids-assisted lignin depolymerizations. The methods employed in this research were described, and the important results were marked. Generally, base-catalyzed and acid-catalyzed methods were straightforward, but the selectivity was low. The severe reaction conditions (high pressure, high temperature, and extreme pH) resulted in requirement of specially designed reactors, which led to high costs of facility and handling. Ionic liquids, and supercritical fluids-assisted lignin depolymerizations had high selectivity, but the high costs of ionic liquids recyclingmore » and supercritical fluid facility limited their applications on commercial scale biomass treatment. Metallic catalyzed depolymerization had great advantages because of its high selectivity to certain monomeric compounds and much milder reaction condition than base-catalyzed or acid-catalyzed depolymerizations. It would be a great contribution to lignin conversion if appropriate catalysts were synthesized.« less

  11. ''The control of lignin synthesis''

    SciTech Connect

    Carlson, John E.

    2005-04-07

    In this project we tested the hypothesis that regulation of the synthesis of lignin in secondary xylem cells in conifer trees involves the transport of glucosylated lignin monomers to the wall of xylem cells, followed by de-glucosylation in the cell wall by monolignol-specific glucosidase enzymes, which activates the monomers for lignin polymerization. The information we gathered is relevant to the fundamental understanding of how trees make wood, and to the applied goal of more environmentally friendly pulp and paper production. We characterized the complete genomic structure of the Coniferin-specific Beta-glucosidase (CBG) gene family in the conifers loblolly pine (Pinus taeda) and lodgepole pine (Pinus contorta), and partial genomic sequences were obtained in several other tree species. Both pine species contain multiple CBG genes which raises the possibility of differential regulation, perhaps related to the multiple roles of lignin in development and defense. Subsequent projects will need to include detailed gene expression studies of each gene family member during tree growth and development, and testing the role of each monolignol-specific glucosidase gene in controlling lignin content.

  12. Lignin-assisted coal depolymerization

    SciTech Connect

    Lalvani, S.B.

    1991-01-01

    Previous research has shown that addition of lignin-derived liquids to coal stirred in tetralin under mild reaction conditions (375{degree}C and 300--500 psig) results in a marked enhancement in the rate of coal depolymerization. A mathematical model was developed to study the kinetics of coal depolymerization in the presence of liquid-derived liquids. In the present study, a reaction pathway was formulated to explain the enhancement in coal depolymerization due to lignin (solid) addition. The model postulated assumes that the products of lignin obtained during thermolysis interact with the reactive moieties present in coal while simultaneous depolymerization of coal occurs. A good fit between the experimental data and the kinetic model was found. The results show that in addition to the enhancement in the rate of coal depolymerization, lignin also reacts (and enhances the extent of depolymerization of coal) with those reaction sites in coal that are not susceptible to depolymerization when coal alone is reacted in tetralin under identical reaction conditions. Additional work is being carried out to determine a thorough materials balance on the lignin-assisted coal depolymerization process. A number of liquid samples have been obtained which are being studied for their stability in various environments. 5 refs., 4 figs., 1 tab.

  13. Unravelling lignin formation and structure

    SciTech Connect

    Lewis, N.G. . Inst. of Biological Chemistry)

    1991-01-01

    During this study, we established that the Fagaceae exclusively accumulate Z-monolignois/glucosides, and not the E-isomers. Evidence for the presence of a novel E{yields}Z isomerse has been obtained. Our pioneering work in lignin biosynthesis and structure in situ has also progressed smoothly. We established the bonding environments of a woody angiosperm, Leucanea leucocephala, as well as wheat (T. aestivum) and tobacco (N. tabacum). A cell culture system from Pinus taeda was developed which seems ideal for investigating the early stages of lignification. These cultures excrete peroxidase isozymes, considered to be specifically involved in lignin deposition. We also studied the effect of the putative lignin-degrading enzyme, lignin peroxidase, on monolignols and dehydropolymerisates therefrom. In all cases, polymerization was observed, and not degradation; these polymers are identical to that obtained with horseradish peroxidases/H{sub 2}O{sub 2}. It seems inconceivable that these enzymes can be considered as being primarily responsible for lignin biodegradation.

  14. Early diagenesis of lignin-associated phenolics in the salt marsh grass Spartina alterniflora

    SciTech Connect

    Haddad, R.I.; Martens, C.S. ); Newell, S.Y. ); Fallon, R.D. )

    1992-10-01

    The predepositional stability of lignin in the salt marsh cordgrass Spartina alterniflora was examined in two different degradation studies: one was a traditional litterbag study carried out using post-senescent brown leaves in a North Carolina marsh creek, and the other was a study in which senescing, standing plants were tagged and allowed to undergo in situ degradation in a Sapelo Island, Georgia, salt marsh. Based on results from lignin oxidation product (LOP) analysis of leaves, lignin in the S. alterniflora was shown to be significantly degraded in both studies, with 13 [plus minus] 2% and 25 [plus minus] 12% of the total lignin mass loss occurring over the 496-day litterbag and 146-day tagged studies, respectively. A comparison of the results from both studies suggests that most of the calculated lignin loss (> 90%) occurs early in the degradation history of the plant, with a significant portion occurring while the plant is still standing in the salt marsh. Further detailed evaluation of this loss demonstrates that selective lignin degradation occurs in S. alterniflora, deriving from the preferential loss of labile lignin moieties. Based on measured changes in both the lignin mass loss and the LOP acid/aldehyde ratio, as well as evidence suggesting that degradation occurred under oxic conditions, it is proposed that aromatic ring cleavage was the predominant mechanism of lignin degradation in both studies. In light of these results and those from other recent lignin degradation studies, the authors discuss the geochemical consequences regarding the usefulness of lignin oxidation products as quantitative tracers of vascular plant-derived organic matter being transported, deposited, and buried in aquatic environments.

  15. Coproduction of detergent compatible bacterial enzymes and stain removal evaluation.

    PubMed

    Niyonzima, Francois N; More, Sunil S

    2015-10-01

    Most of the detergents that are presently produced contain the detergent compatible enzymes to improve and accelerate the washing performance by removing tough stains. The process is environment friendly as the use of enzymes in the detergent formulation reduces the utilization of toxic detergent constituents. The current trend is to use the detergent compatible enzymes that are active at low and ambient temperature in order to save energy and maintain fabric quality. As the detergent compatible bacterial enzymes are used together in the detergent formulation, it is important to co-produce the detergent enzymes in a single fermentation medium as the enzyme stability is assured, and production cost gets reduced enormously. The review reports on the production, purification, characterization and application of detergent compatible amylases, lipases, and proteases are available. However, there is no specific review or minireview on the concomitant production of detergent compatible amylases, lipases, and proteases. In this minireview, the coproduction of detergent compatible enzymes by bacterial species, enzyme stability towards detergents and detergent components, and stain release analysis were discussed.

  16. Movement and fate of detergents in groundwater: a field study

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Thurman, E.M.; Barber, L.B.; LeBlanc, D.

    1986-01-01

    The major cations, anions, and detergents in a plume of contaminated groundwater at Otis Air Base on Cape Cod (Mass., U.S.A.) have moved approximately 3.5 km down gradient from the disposal beds. We hypothesize that the detergents form two distinct plumes, which consist of alkyl benzene sulfonates (ABS) detergents and linear alkyl sulfonates (LAS) and sodium dodecyl sulfate (NaLS) detergents. The ABS detergents were deposited from approximately 1940 through 1965, when ABS detergents were banned. From 1965 to the present, LAS and NaLS detergents were in the sewage. The ABS detergents appear to be transported in the aquifer at the same rate as the specific conductance (major cations and anions) and boron, which are currently used as conservative tracers of the plume of contaminated groundwater. There appears to be little or no biological degradation of the ABS detergents in the aquifer, based on their concentration in the plume. On the other hand, the LAS and NaLS detergents have degraded rapidly and have been detected only 0.6 km down gradient. The roleof the detergents in the transport of other organic compounds in the plume is nuclear. There is a separation of the ABS detergent plume and the volatile organic compound plume; however, the time of entry of the detergents and the volatile organic compounds is unknown. Therefore, it is not possible to conclude on the interaction of these two classes of compounds. ?? 1986.

  17. Concentrations and apparent digestibility of lignin and carbohydrate fractions in cell walls of whole-crop cereal silages

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Whole-crop cereal silage (WCCS) of oats generally has lower fiber digestibility than WCCS of barley. When investigated more closely, the difference seems mainly to be in the digestibility of the hemicellulosic fraction (HC), where HC is calculated as neutral detergent fibre (NDF) – acid detergent fi...

  18. ISSUES IN LIGNIN CHEMISTRY. "THE HELSINKI CONNECTION"

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    This presentation covers advances in lignin chemistry (and our Helsinki connection) on dibenzodioxocins, spirodienones, and reduced structures in lignins. It also explores the various roles in defending lignification theory (based on Freudenberg's original hypothesis) against a supposed new contende...

  19. Detergency stability and particle characterization of phosphate-free spray dried detergent powders incorporated with palm C16 methyl ester sulfonate (C16MES).

    PubMed

    Siwayanan, Parthiban; Aziz, Ramlan; Bakar, Nooh Abu; Ya, Hamdan; Jokiman, Ropien; Chelliapan, Shreeshivadasan

    2014-01-01

    Phosphate-free spray dried detergent powders (SDDP) comprising binary anionic surfactants of palm C16 methyl ester sulfonate (C16MES) and linear alkyl benzene sulfonic acid (LABSA) were produced using a 5 kg/h-capacity co-current pilot spray dryer (CSD). Six phosphate-free detergent (PFD) formulations comprising C16MES/LABSA in various ratios under pH 7-8 were studied. Three PFD formulations having C16MES/LABSA in respective ratios of 0:100 (control), 20:80 and 40:60 ratios were selected for further evaluation based on their optimum detergent slurry concentrations. The resulting SDDP from these formulations were analysed for its detergency stability (over nine months of storage period) and particle characteristics. C16MES/LABSA of 40:60 ratio was selected as the ideal PFD formulation since its resulting SDDP has consistent detergency stability (variation of 2.3% in detergency/active over nine months storage period), excellent bulk density (0.37 kg/L), fine particle size at 50% cumulative volume percentage (D50 of 60.48 μm), high coefficient of particle size uniformity (D60/D10 of 3.86) and large spread of equivalent particle diameters. In terms of surface morphology, the SDDP of the ideal formulation were found to have regular hollow particles with smooth spherical surfaces. Although SDDP of the ideal formulation have excellent characteristics, but in terms of flowability, these powders were classified as slightly less free flowing (Hausner ratio of 1.27 and Carr's index of 21.3).

  20. NOx and N2O precursors from biomass pyrolysis: role of cellulose, hemicellulose and lignin.

    PubMed

    Ren, Qiangqiang; Zhao, Changsui

    2013-08-01

    Cellulose, hemicellulose, and lignin play important roles in biomass. Nitrogen in biomass is mainly in forms of proteins (amino acids). Two amino acids, proline and glutamic acid, with different structures were selected as the nitrogen-containing model compound in biomass. Interaction between the two amino acids with cellulose, hemicelluloses, or lignin at different weight ratios was investigated to understand nitrogen chemistry. Considering the composition of wood and agricultural straw, proline and the mixture of cellulose, hemicellulose, and lignin were pyrolyzed under the same condition. Nitrogen transformation during copyrolysis of amino acid with the component at different ratios was identified to determine the role of cellulose, hemicellulose, and lignin. The emissions of HCN and NH3 were detected with a Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) spectrometer. The results indicate that although the structure of the amino acid has a significant effect on the nitrogen transformation during pyrolysis, it is interesting to find some characteristics in common for the aliphatic amino acid and heterocyclic amino acid. The effects of hemicellulose on NH3 formation from the two amino acids are similar, hemicellulose inhibits N-NH3 conversion and lignin promotes NH3 formation for the two amino acids. PMID:23848228

  1. Lignin degradation during plant litter photodegradation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lin, Y.; King, J. Y.

    2014-12-01

    Lignin is the second most abundant compound, after cellulose, synthesized by plants. Numerous studies have demonstrated that initial lignin concentration is negatively correlated with litter decomposition rate under both laboratory and field conditions. Thus lignin is commonly considered to be a "recalcitrant" compound during litter decomposition. However, lignin can also serve as a radiation-absorbing compound during photodegradation, the process through which solar radiation breaks down organic matter. Here, we synthesize recent studies concerning lignin degradation during litter photodegradation and report results from our study on how photodegradation changes lignin chemistry at a molecular scale. Recent field studies have found that litter with high initial lignin concentration does not necessarily exhibit high mass loss during photodegradation. A meta-analysis (King et al. 2012) even found a weak negative correlation between initial lignin concentration and photodegradation rate. Contradicting results have been reported with regard to the change in lignin concentration during photodegradation. Some studies have found significant loss of lignin during photodegradation, while others have not. In most studies, loss of lignin only accounts for a small proportion of the overall mass loss. Using NMR spectroscopy, we found significant loss of lignin structural units containing beta-aryl ether linkages during photodegradation of a common grass litter, Bromus diandrus, even though conventional forage fiber analysis did not reveal changes in lignin concentration. Both our NMR and fiber analyses supported the idea that photodegradation induced loss of hemicellulose, which was mainly responsible for the litter mass loss during photodegradation. Our results suggest that photodegradation induces degradation, but not necessarily complete breakdown, of lignin structures and consequently exposes hemicellulose and cellulose to microbial decomposition. We conclude that lignin

  2. Identification and thermochemical analysis of high-lignin feedstocks for biofuel and biochemical production

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Background Lignin is a highly abundant biopolymer synthesized by plants as a complex component of plant secondary cell walls. Efforts to utilize lignin-based bioproducts are needed. Results Herein we identify and characterize the composition and pyrolytic deconstruction characteristics of high-lignin feedstocks. Feedstocks displaying the highest levels of lignin were identified as drupe endocarp biomass arising as agricultural waste from horticultural crops. By performing pyrolysis coupled to gas chromatography-mass spectrometry, we characterized lignin-derived deconstruction products from endocarp biomass and compared these with switchgrass. By comparing individual pyrolytic products, we document higher amounts of acetic acid, 1-hydroxy-2-propanone, acetone and furfural in switchgrass compared to endocarp tissue, which is consistent with high holocellulose relative to lignin. By contrast, greater yields of lignin-based pyrolytic products such as phenol, 2-methoxyphenol, 2-methylphenol, 2-methoxy-4-methylphenol and 4-ethyl-2-methoxyphenol arising from drupe endocarp tissue are documented. Conclusions Differences in product yield, thermal decomposition rates and molecular species distribution among the feedstocks illustrate the potential of high-lignin endocarp feedstocks to generate valuable chemicals by thermochemical deconstruction. PMID:22018114

  3. Differential detergent sensitivity of extracellular vesicle subpopulations.

    PubMed

    Osteikoetxea, Xabier; Sódar, Barbara; Németh, Andrea; Szabó-Taylor, Katalin; Pálóczi, Krisztina; Vukman, Krisztina V; Tamási, Viola; Balogh, Andrea; Kittel, Ágnes; Pállinger, Éva; Buzás, Edit Irén

    2015-10-14

    Extracellular vesicles (including exosomes, microvesicles and apoptotic bodies) are currently attracting rapidly increasing attention from various fields of biology due to their ability to carry complex information and act as autocrine, paracrine and even endocrine intercellular messengers. In the present study we investigated the sensitivity of size-based subpopulations of extracellular vesicles to different concentrations of detergents including sodium dodecyl sulphate, Triton X-100, Tween 20 and deoxycholate. We determined the required detergent concentration that lysed each of the vesicle subpopulations secreted by Jurkat, THP-1, MiaPaCa and U937 human cell lines. We characterized the vesicles by tunable resistive pulse sensing, flow cytometry and transmission electron microscopy. Microvesicles and apoptotic bodies were found to be more sensitive to detergent lysis than exosomes. Furthermore, we found evidence that sodium dodecyl sulphate and Triton X-100 were more effective in vesicle lysis at low concentrations than deoxycholate or Tween 20. Taken together, our data suggest that a combination of differential detergent lysis with tunable resistive pulse sensing or flow cytometry may prove useful for simple and fast differentiation between exosomes and other extracellular vesicle subpopulations as well as between vesicular and non-vesicular structures.

  4. Diesel fuel detergent additive performance and assessment

    SciTech Connect

    Vincent, M.W.; Papachristos, M.J.; Williams, D.; Burton, J.

    1994-10-01

    Diesel fuel detergent additives are increasingly linked with high quality automotive diesel fuels. Both in Europe and in the USA, field problems associated with fuel injector coking or fouling have been experienced. In Europe indirect injection (IDI) light duty engines used in passenger cars were affected, while in the USA, a direct injection (DI) engine in heavy duty truck applications experienced field problems. In both cases, a fuel additive detergent performance test has evolved using an engine linked with the original field problem, although engine design modifications employed by the manufacturers have ensured improved operation in service. Increasing awareness of the potential for injector nozzle coking to cause deterioration in engine performance is coupled with a need to meet ever more stringent exhaust emissions legislation. These two requirements indicate that the use of detergency additives will continue to be associated with high quality diesel fuels. The paper examines detergency performance evaluated in a range of IDI and DI engines and correlates performance in the two most widely recognised test engines, namely the Peugeot 1.9 litre IDI, and Cummins L10 DI engines. 17 refs., 18 figs., 5 tabs.

  5. Laundry detergent and possible nonaccidental injury.

    PubMed

    Howieson, Alan J; Harley, Oliver J H; Tiernan, Eunan P

    2007-06-01

    Nonaccidental injury is always a concern when children present with unusual injuries. The case of a child who presented with a partial thickness burn secondary to prolonged contact with a liquid biological laundry detergent is described. Initially there was some doubt as to whether the agent in question could cause this injury but a small experiment on a volunteer confirmed it was possible.

  6. Development of novel assays for lignin degradation: comparative analysis of bacterial and fungal lignin degraders.

    PubMed

    Ahmad, Mark; Taylor, Charles R; Pink, David; Burton, Kerry; Eastwood, Daniel; Bending, Gary D; Bugg, Timothy D H

    2010-05-01

    Two spectrophotometric assays have been developed to monitor breakdown of the lignin component of plant lignocellulose: a continuous fluorescent assay involving fluorescently modified lignin, and a UV-vis assay involving chemically nitrated lignin. These assays have been used to analyse lignin degradation activity in bacterial and fungal lignin degraders, and to identify additional soil bacteria that show activity for lignin degradation. Two soil bacteria known to act as aromatic degraders, Pseudomonas putida and Rhodococcus sp. RHA1, consistently showed activity in these assays, and these strains were shown in a small scale experiment to breakdown lignocellulose, producing a number of monocyclic phenolic products. Using milled wood lignin prepared from wheat straw, pine, and miscanthus, some bacterial lignin degraders were found to show specificity for lignin type. These assays could be used to identify novel lignin degraders for breakdown of plant lignocellulose. PMID:20567767

  7. Cationic electrodepositable coating composition comprising lignin

    DOEpatents

    Fenn, David; Bowman, Mark P; Zawacky, Steven R; Van Buskirk, Ellor J; Kamarchik, Peter

    2013-07-30

    A cationic electrodepositable coating composition is disclosed. The present invention in directed to a cationic electrodepositable coating composition comprising a lignin-containing cationic salt resin, that comprises (A) the reaction product of: lignin, an amine, and a carbonyl compound; (B) the reaction product of lignin, epichlorohydrin, and an amine; or (C) combinations thereof.

  8. Liquid Fuels from Lignins: Annual Report

    SciTech Connect

    Chum, H. L.; Johnson, D. K.

    1986-01-01

    This task was initiated to assess the conversion of lignins into liquid fuels, primarily of lignins relevant to biomass-to-ethanol conversion processes. The task was composed of a literature review of this area and an experimental part to obtain pertinent data on the conversion of lignins germane to biomass-to-ethanol conversion processes.

  9. 40 CFR 721.5460 - Organosolv lignin.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 30 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Organosolv lignin. 721.5460 Section... Substances § 721.5460 Organosolv lignin. (a) Chemical substance and significant new uses subject to reporting. (1) The chemical substance identified as an organosolv lignin (PMN P-95-1584; CAS No. 8068-03-9)...

  10. An in vitro cytotoxicity test to predict the ocular irritation potential of detergents and detergent products.

    PubMed

    Scaife, M C

    1985-02-01

    Two in vitro cytotoxicity procedures, the measurement of cell-membrane integrity using fluorescein diacetate and ethidium bromide, and the quantitation of the release of a cell-membrane-bound enzyme, alkaline phosphatase, were used to assess the cytotoxicity of a range of cationic, anionic and nonionic detergents. The in vitro results were compared with the in vivo irritancy of these compounds in the rabbit eye. Although in general the decreasing order of potency of cationic, anionic and nonionic detergents was similar in vivo and in vitro, there were some apparent anomalies which may be due to the differing penetration characteristics of the detergents, as indicated by electrical impedance measurements of the isolated cornea. The study was extended to an examination of the cytotoxicity of a range of completely soluble, detergent-based formulations in a suspension culture of mouse fibroblasts. In this case the in vitro results correlated more closely with those from the in vivo tests.

  11. Enzymatic monitoring of lignin and lignin derivatives biooxidation.

    PubMed

    Ibrahim, Victor; Mamo, Gashaw

    2016-01-01

    Lignin oxidation was enzymatically monitored by measuring methanol released during the reaction. The methanol was oxidized to formaldehyde and hydrogen peroxide, and the latter used to oxidize ABTS to a product measured spectrophotometrically. The efficiency was comparable to the commonly used gas chromatography method. The assay was fast and inexpensive. PMID:26632344

  12. [Effect of wood modification on lignin consumption and synthesis of lignolytic enzymes by the fungus Panus (Lentinus) tigrinus].

    PubMed

    Kadimaliev, D A; Revin, V V; Atykian, N A; Samuilov, V D

    2003-01-01

    Lignin consumption and synthesis of lignolytic enzymes by the fungus Panus (Lentinus) tigrinus cultivated on solid phase (modified and unmodified birch and pine sawdusts) were studied. The fungus grew better and consumed more readily the birch lignin than the pine wood. Peroxidase activity was higher in the case of pine sawdust; laccase and lignolytic activities, in the case of birth sawdust. Treatment with ammonia or sulfuric acid decreased lignin consumption by the fungus cultivated on either medium. Modification of sawdust by ultrasound increased lignin consumption and may be recommended for accelerating biodegradation of lignocellulose substrates. PMID:14593869

  13. Evaluation of the effect of hot-compressed water treatment on enzymatic hydrolysis of lignocellulosic nanofibrils with different lignin content using a quartz crystal microbalance.

    PubMed

    Kumagai, Akio; Lee, Seung-Hwan; Endo, Takashi

    2016-07-01

    Hot-compressed water (HCW) treatment is known to not only improve enzymatic hydrolysis efficiency of lignocellulosic biomass but to also generate insoluble lignin droplets, which retard enzymatic hydrolysis. In this study, the inhibitory effect of the lignin droplets was evaluated by monitoring the initial enzyme adsorption and degradation of lignocellulosic nanofibrils (LCNFs) using a quartz crystal microbalance (QCM). Lignin content was adjusted by the sodium chlorite-acetic acid method and divided into samples with high (24.9 wt%) and low (5.6 wt%) lignin content, which were then subjected to HCW treatment at various temperatures. The changes in lignin content were small with increasing HCW temperature, whereas hemicellulose content decreased, regardless of the initial lignin content. The formation of lignin droplets and pseudo-lignin-like products was confirmed in both LCNFs by atomic force microscopy (AFM) and was predominant in LCNFs with high lignin content treated at 200°C. QCM data showed that the enzyme adsorption amount in both LCNFs after HCW treatment was increased and was greater in LCNFs with low lignin content. Initial enzymatic degradation was substantially slowed in LCNFs with high lignin content, particularly after HCW treatment at temperatures higher than 180°C. These QCM results suggest that the steric hindrance of the deposited lignin is the primary mechanism by which the initial enzymatic hydrolysis is delayed. Biotechnol. Bioeng. 2016;113: 1441-1447. © 2015 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  14. 40 CFR 80.163 - Detergent certification options.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... certification test fuel shall contain an oxygenate compound other than ethanol. A detergent certified under this...), the certification test fuel shall contain an oxygenate compound other than ethanol. A detergent... certification test fuel shall contain no ethanol or other oxygenate. A detergent certified under this...

  15. Sublethal detergent concentrations increase metabolization of recalcitrant polyphosphonates by the cyanobacterium Spirulina platensis.

    PubMed

    Forlani, Giuseppe; Bertazzini, Michele; Giberti, Samuele; Wieczorek, Dorota; Kafarski, Paweł; Lipok, Jacek

    2013-05-01

    As a consequence of increasing industrial applications, thousand tons of polyphosphonates are introduced every year into the environment. The inherent stability of the C-P bond results in a prolonged half-life. Moreover, low uptake rates limit further their microbial metabolization. To assess whether low detergent concentrations were able to increase polyphosphonate utilization by the cyanobacterium Spirulina platensis, tolerance limits to the exposure to various detergents were determined by measuring the growth rate in the presence of graded levels below the critical micellar concentration. Then, the amount of hexamethylenediamine-N,N,N',N'-tetrakis(methylphosphonic acid) that is metabolized in the absence or in the presence of sublethal detergent concentrations was quantified by (31)P NMR analysis on either P-starved or P-fed cyanobacterial cultures. The strain tolerated the presence of detergents in the order: nonionic > anionic > cationic. When added to the culture medium at the highest concentrations showing no detrimental effects upon cell viability, detergents either improved or decreased polyphosphonate utilization, the anionic sodium dodecyl sulfate being the most beneficial. Metabolization was not lower in P-fed cells--a result that strengthens the possibility of using, in the future, this strain for bioremediation purposes. PMID:23089958

  16. Identifying new lignin bioengineering targets: 1. Monolignol-substitute impacts on lignin formation and cell wall fermentability

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    Background Recent discoveries highlighting the metabolic malleability of plant lignification indicate that lignin can be engineered to dramatically alter its composition and properties. Current plant biotechnology efforts are primarily aimed at manipulating the biosynthesis of normal monolignols, but in the future apoplastic targeting of phenolics from other metabolic pathways may provide new approaches for designing lignins that are less inhibitory toward the enzymatic hydrolysis of structural polysaccharides, both with and without biomass pretreatment. To identify promising new avenues for lignin bioengineering, we artificially lignified cell walls from maize cell suspensions with various combinations of normal monolignols (coniferyl and sinapyl alcohols) plus a variety of phenolic monolignol substitutes. Cell walls were then incubated in vitro with anaerobic rumen microflora to assess the potential impact of lignin modifications on the enzymatic degradability of fibrous crops used for ruminant livestock or biofuel production. Results In the absence of anatomical constraints to digestion, lignification with normal monolignols hindered both the rate and extent of cell wall hydrolysis by rumen microflora. Inclusion of methyl caffeate, caffeoylquinic acid, or feruloylquinic acid with monolignols considerably depressed lignin formation and strikingly improved the degradability of cell walls. In contrast, dihydroconiferyl alcohol, guaiacyl glycerol, epicatechin, epigallocatechin, and epigallocatechin gallate readily formed copolymer-lignins with normal monolignols; cell wall degradability was moderately enhanced by greater hydroxylation or 1,2,3-triol functionality. Mono- or diferuloyl esters with various aliphatic or polyol groups readily copolymerized with monolignols, but in some cases they accelerated inactivation of wall-bound peroxidase and reduced lignification; cell wall degradability was influenced by lignin content and the degree of ester group hydroxylation

  17. Modified detergent Ziehl-Neelsen technique for the staining of Cyclospora cayetanensis.

    PubMed Central

    Clarke, S C; McIntyre, M

    1996-01-01

    Cyclospora cayetanensis is a cause of prolonged diarrhoea, mainly in travellers. Laboratory diagnosis may be achieved by a number of methods such as the staining of faecal smears by the modified Ziehl-Neelsen (ZN) technique. Safer methods using this technique have been described for the staining of acid fast bacilli and cryptosporidia by replacing the phenol content of the carbol fuschin stain with various concentrated detergents. In this report the technique was modified slightly using a non-concentrated detergent and applied to the staining of oocysts of C cayetanensis. It was found that oocysts of C cayetanensis do not stain using the modified detergent ZN method when compared with similar preparations containing oocysts of Cryptosporidium spp. PMID:8763270

  18. Systems biology of lignin biosynthesis in Populus trichocarpa: heteromeric 4-coumaric acid:coenzyme A ligase protein complex formation, regulation, and numerical modeling.

    PubMed

    Chen, Hsi-Chuan; Song, Jina; Wang, Jack P; Lin, Ying-Chung; Ducoste, Joel; Shuford, Christopher M; Liu, Jie; Li, Quanzi; Shi, Rui; Nepomuceno, Angelito; Isik, Fikret; Muddiman, David C; Williams, Cranos; Sederoff, Ronald R; Chiang, Vincent L

    2014-03-01

    As a step toward predictive modeling of flux through the pathway of monolignol biosynthesis in stem differentiating xylem of Populus trichocarpa, we discovered that the two 4-coumaric acid:CoA ligase (4CL) isoforms, 4CL3 and 4CL5, interact in vivo and in vitro to form a heterotetrameric protein complex. This conclusion is based on laser microdissection, coimmunoprecipitation, chemical cross-linking, bimolecular fluorescence complementation, and mass spectrometry. The tetramer is composed of three subunits of 4CL3 and one of 4CL5. 4CL5 appears to have a regulatory role. This protein-protein interaction affects the direction and rate of metabolic flux for monolignol biosynthesis in P. trichocarpa. A mathematical model was developed for the behavior of 4CL3 and 4CL5 individually and in mixtures that form the enzyme complex. The model incorporates effects of mixtures of multiple hydroxycinnamic acid substrates, competitive inhibition, uncompetitive inhibition, and self-inhibition, along with characteristic of the substrates, the enzyme isoforms, and the tetrameric complex. Kinetic analysis of different ratios of the enzyme isoforms shows both inhibition and activation components, which are explained by the mathematical model and provide insight into the regulation of metabolic flux for monolignol biosynthesis by protein complex formation.

  19. Cytotoxic factor induced in murine serum after intravenous administration of a dehydrogenation polymer of p-coumaric acid (a synthetic lignin).

    PubMed

    Kohara, A; Shimizu, N; Kawazoe, Y

    1998-10-01

    A cytotoxic factor (CF) toward cultured murine leukemia L1210 cells was induced in mouse serum by intravenous injection of a dehydrogenation polymer of p-coumaric acid (DHP-pCA). When the serum from the treated mice was diluted with ethanol, CF was preserved in its supernatant (EtOH-sup). An EtOH-sup prepared from untreated control mice also showed cytotoxicity, although at much higher concentrations. The CF activity of EtOH-sups from both treated and untreated mice was completely eliminated by acid treatment at pH 2 at 90 degrees C for 30 min but kept intact by alkali treatment. In addition, the CF activity of both EtOH-sups was not affected by digestion with chymotrypsin. CF was recovered in a neutral MeOH-eluate from a DEAE-cellulofine column but not in HCI-MeOH eluate, in which lignified materials including DHP-pCA should have been recovered. These findings strongly suggest that CF is not a metabolite of DHP-pCA but an endogenous component of the normal serum which is augmented by DHP-pCA administration. PMID:9821818

  20. Separation and characterization of lignins from the black liquor of oil palm trunk fiber pulping

    SciTech Connect

    Sun, R.; Tomkinson, J.; Bolton, J.

    1999-11-01

    Six lignin preparations, isolated by a novel two-step precipitation method instead of the traditional one-step precipitation method from the oil palm trunk fiber pulping (OPTFP) black liquor, were found to be relatively free of nonlignin materials such as polysaccharide degradation products, ash, and salts. A lignin fraction with a purity of 99.5% was obtained at an optimum precipitation pH 1.5 after isolation of the nonlignin materials in ethanol. About 94% of the total lignin was recovered by this novel method at this condition, and the value of COD in the treated black liquor reduced significantly to lower 250. The isolated lignin fractions contained syringyl, guaiacyl, and p-hydroxyphenyl units in an approximate molar ratio of 16--20:5:1 on the basis of chemical and spectroscopic analysis. Small amounts of p-hydroxybenzoic acids were found to be esterified to lignin, while ferulic acids were associated to lignin by ether linkage. {sup 13}C-NMR indicated the presence of {beta}-O-4 ether bonds, and {beta}-5 and 5-5{prime} carbon-carbon linkages between the lignin molecules.

  1. Hydrotreating Pyrolytic Lignin to Produce a Refinery Feedstock (Poster)

    SciTech Connect

    French, R. J.

    2013-09-01

    Fast pyrolysis of biomass followed by water separation to produce pyrolytic lignin and hydrotreating of the lignin could be used to produce a stable volatile low-oxygen intermediate liquid. Such a liquid could be converted into a finished motor-fuel in a refinery, taking advantage of the existing infrastructure and economies of scale of refineries. Hydrotreating just the lignin would consume less hydrogen while preserving about half of the energy of the original oil. The aqueous by-products could be reformed to produce the needed hydrogen and would contain much of the unwanted acids and unstable oxygenates. To assess such intermediate liquids, several pyrolytic lignins were prepared by mixing pyrolysis oil with water at 1:1 and 3:1 ratios. The carboxylic acidity in the pyrolytic lignin was reduced to 24 and 10 mg-KOH/g-lignin compared to 81 in the whole oil. These lignins were hydrotreated using Ni-Mo(S)/alumina, Pt/char, or Pd/C(activated) in a semi-batch 1 L stirred autoclave. The oil was stabilized under hydrogen at 150-280 degrees C, then water and light organics were removed by partial depressurization. Hydrodeoxygenation was then performed at 340-400 degrees C. Total pressure was controlled at 70 or 170 bar with hydrogen gas. Organic liquid yields of 39-56% were obtained. For many experiments the organic oxygen content was <7%, acidity was < 7 mg-KOH/g-oil, the volatility was greater than or equal to 94% and, on a carbon basis, the total yield of organic products miscible in hydrocarbons at a 1:10 ratio was over 50%. These properties are probably acceptable to a refinery.The residual liquids left in the reactor at the end of the experiment comprised 60-85% of the organic-phase product while the rest was condensate. 13C-NMR of the residual liquids showed that they were 50-80% aliphatic. 13C-NMR coupled with GC-MS identified phenolic compounds as the main oxygenates in most residual liquids.

  2. Enhanced gene delivery to the lung using biodegradable polyunsaturated cationic phosphatidylcholine-detergent conjugates.

    PubMed

    Pierrat, Philippe; Kereselidze, Dimitri; Lux, Marie; Lebeau, Luc; Pons, Françoise

    2016-09-10

    Lung diseases are among the more representative causes of mortality and morbidity worldwide and gene therapy is considered as a promising therapeutic approach for their treatment. However the design of efficient nucleic acid carriers for airway administration still is a challenge and there is a pressing need for new developments in this field. Herein, new synthetic DNA carriers based on the conjugation of a phospholipid and C12E4, a nonionic detergent, are developed. DNA complexes with phosphatidylcholine-detergent conjugates are administered in mouse airways, and transgene expression and inflammatory activity as an index of toxicity are investigated as a function of time, DNA dose, and presence of helper and stealth lipids. Introduction of a biodegradable linker between the phosphatidylcholine and detergent moieties significantly attenuates the severity of inflammatory response that characterizes cationic lipid-mediated gene transfer. Concurrent introduction of polyunsaturated fatty acid chains in the carrier scaffold improves transgene expression and further reduces airway inflammation. Finally, the biodegradable phosphatidylcholine-detergent conjugates favorably compare to GL67A, the gold standard for DNA delivery to the airway that is currently under clinical evaluation. Our findings indicate that the lipid formulations described herein may have great potential as nucleic acid carriers for gene therapy. PMID:27418568

  3. Enhanced gene delivery to the lung using biodegradable polyunsaturated cationic phosphatidylcholine-detergent conjugates.

    PubMed

    Pierrat, Philippe; Kereselidze, Dimitri; Lux, Marie; Lebeau, Luc; Pons, Françoise

    2016-09-10

    Lung diseases are among the more representative causes of mortality and morbidity worldwide and gene therapy is considered as a promising therapeutic approach for their treatment. However the design of efficient nucleic acid carriers for airway administration still is a challenge and there is a pressing need for new developments in this field. Herein, new synthetic DNA carriers based on the conjugation of a phospholipid and C12E4, a nonionic detergent, are developed. DNA complexes with phosphatidylcholine-detergent conjugates are administered in mouse airways, and transgene expression and inflammatory activity as an index of toxicity are investigated as a function of time, DNA dose, and presence of helper and stealth lipids. Introduction of a biodegradable linker between the phosphatidylcholine and detergent moieties significantly attenuates the severity of inflammatory response that characterizes cationic lipid-mediated gene transfer. Concurrent introduction of polyunsaturated fatty acid chains in the carrier scaffold improves transgene expression and further reduces airway inflammation. Finally, the biodegradable phosphatidylcholine-detergent conjugates favorably compare to GL67A, the gold standard for DNA delivery to the airway that is currently under clinical evaluation. Our findings indicate that the lipid formulations described herein may have great potential as nucleic acid carriers for gene therapy.

  4. Toxicity of laundry detergent components to a freshwater cladoceran and their contribution to detergent toxicity.

    PubMed

    Warne, M S; Schifko, A D

    1999-10-01

    The toxicity of 39 laundry detergent components including surfactants, enzymes, builders, fabric brighteners, fillers, and coloring agents to the cladoceran Ceriodaphnia cf. dubia was determined. The difference between the most and the least toxic components was approximately 17,000-fold and 1,000,000-fold for the mg/L and mmol/L EC50 data, respectively. Two of the components had high toxicity (EC50 values < 1 mg/L), 11 moderate toxicity (EC50 values between 1 and 10 mg/L), and the remaining 26 components had low toxicity (EC50 values > 10 mg/L). Analysis revealed that mixtures of the components interacted antagonistically, additively, and synergistically. On a molarity basis the most toxic group of compounds was the surfactants followed by the brighteners. The most toxic individual components included sodium carboxymethyl cellulose, sodium silicate solution, four brighteners, sodium perborate tetrahydrate, and the surfactants. Many of the most toxic components, however, contributed very little to the toxicity of the detergents due to being present in the detergents at low concentrations. The main contributors to the toxicity of detergents were the sodium silicate solution and the surfactants-with the remainder of the components contributing very little to detergent toxicity. The potential for acute aquatic toxic effects due to the release of secondary or tertiary sewage effluents containing the breakdown products of laundry detergents may frequently be low. However, untreated or primary treated effluents containing detergents may pose a problem. Chronic and/or other sublethal effects that were not examined in this study may also pose a problem.

  5. Solubilization of glycoproteins of envelope viruses by detergents

    SciTech Connect

    Berezin, V.E.; Zaides, V.M.; Artamsnov, A.F.; Isaeva, E.S.; Zhdanov, V.M.

    1986-11-20

    The action of a number of known ionic and nonionic detergents, as well as the new nonionic detergent MESK, on envelope viruses was investigated. It was shown that the nonionic detergents MESK, Triton X-100, and octyl-..beta..-D-glucopyranoside selectively solubilize the outer glycoproteins of the virus particles. The nonionic detergent MESK has the mildest action. Using MESK, purified glycoproteins of influenza, parainfluenza, Venezuelan equine encephalomyelitis, vesicular stomatitis, rabies, and herpes viruses were obtained. The procedure for obtaining glycoproteins includes incubation of the virus suspension with the detergent MESK, removal of subvirus structures by centrifuging, and purification of glycoproteins from detergents by dialysis. Isolated glycoproteins retain a native structure and biological activity and possess high immunogenicity. The detergent MESK is promising for laboratory tests and with respect to the production of subunit vaccines.

  6. Isolation and structural characterization of the milled wood lignin, dioxane lignin, and cellulolytic lignin preparations from brewer's spent grain.

    PubMed

    Rencoret, Jorge; Prinsen, Pepijn; Gutiérrez, Ana; Martínez, Ángel T; Del Río, José C

    2015-01-21

    The structure of the lignin from brewer's spent grain (BSG) has been studied in detail. Three different lignin preparations, the so-called "milled-wood" lignin (MWL), dioxane lignin (DL), and cellulolytic lignin (CEL), were isolated from BSG and then thoroughly characterized by pyrolysis GC/MS, 2D-NMR, and derivatization followed by reductive cleavage (DFRC). The data indicated that BSG lignin presents a predominance of guaiacyl units (syringyl/guaiacyl ratio of 0.4-0.5) with significant amounts of associated p-coumarates and ferulates. The flavone tricin was also present in the lignin from BSG, as also occurred in other grasses. 2D-NMR (HSQC) revealed that the main substructures present are β-O-4' alkyl-aryl ethers (77-79%) followed by β-5' phenylcoumarans (11-13%) and lower amounts of β-β' resinols (5-6%) and 5-5' dibenzodioxocins (3-5%). The results from 2D-NMR (HMBC) and DFRC indicated that p-coumarates are acylating the γ-carbon of lignin side chains and are mostly involved in condensed structures. DFRC analyses also indicated a minor degree of γ-acylation with acetate groups, which takes place preferentially on S lignin (6% of S units are acetylated) over G lignin (only 1% of G units are acetylated).

  7. Engineering Monolignol 4-O-Methyltransferases to Modulate Lignin Biosynthesis

    SciTech Connect

    Bhuiya, M.W.; Liu, C.

    2010-01-01

    Lignin is a complex polymer derived from the oxidative coupling of three classical monolignols. Lignin precursors are methylated exclusively at the meta-positions (i.e. 3/5-OH) of their phenyl rings by native O-methyltransferases, and are precluded from substitution of the para-hydroxyl (4-OH) position. Ostensibly, the para-hydroxyls of phenolics are critically important for oxidative coupling of phenoxy radicals to form polymers. Therefore, creating a 4-O-methyltransferase to substitute the para-hydroxyl of monolignols might well interfere with the synthesis of lignin. The phylogeny of plant phenolic O-methyltransferases points to the existence of a batch of evolutionarily 'plastic' amino acid residues. Following one amino acid at a time path of directed evolution, and using the strategy of structure-based iterative site-saturation mutagenesis, we created a novel monolignol 4-O-methyltransferase from the enzyme responsible for methylating phenylpropenes. We show that two plastic residues in the active site of the parental enzyme are vital in dominating substrate discrimination. Mutations at either one of these separate the evolutionarily tightly linked properties of substrate specificity and regioselective methylation of native O-methyltransferase, thereby conferring the ability for para-methylation of the lignin monomeric precursors, primarily monolignols. Beneficial mutations at both sites have an additive effect. By further optimizing enzyme activity, we generated a triple mutant variant that may structurally constitute a novel phenolic substrate binding pocket, leading to its high binding affinity and catalytic efficiency on monolignols. The 4-O-methoxylation of monolignol efficiently impairs oxidative radical coupling in vitro, highlighting the potential for applying this novel enzyme in managing lignin polymerization in planta.

  8. Novel detergent for whole organ tissue engineering.

    PubMed

    Kawasaki, Takanori; Kirita, Yuhei; Kami, Daisuke; Kitani, Tomoya; Ozaki, Chisa; Itakura, Yoko; Toyoda, Masashi; Gojo, Satoshi

    2015-10-01

    Whole organ tissue engineering for various organs, including the heart, lung, liver, and kidney, has demonstrated promising results for end-stage organ failure. However, the sodium dodecyl sulfate (SDS)-based protocol for standard decellularization has drawbacks such as clot formation in vascularized transplantation and poor cell engraftment in recellularization procedures. Preservation of the surface milieu of extracellular matrices (ECMs) might be crucial for organ generation based on decellularization/recellularization engineering. We examined a novel detergent, sodium lauryl ether sulfate (SLES), to determine whether it could overcome the drawbacks associated with SDS using rat heart and kidney. Both organs were perfused in an antegrade fashion with either SLES or SDS. Although immunohistochemistry for collagen I, IV, laminin, and fibronectin showed similar preservation in both detergents, morphological analysis using scanning electron microscopy and an assay of glycosaminoglycan content on ECMs showed that SLES-treated tissues had better-preserved ECMs than SDS-treated tissues. Mesenteric transplantation revealed SLES did not induce significant inflammation, as opposed to SDS. Platelet adhesion to decellularized tissues was significantly reduced with SLES. Overall, SLES could replace older detergents such as SDS in the decellularization process for generation of transplantable recellularized organs.

  9. [Determination of the detergent efficiency of the detergents disinfecting for surfaces].

    PubMed

    Santucci, R; Kuntzmann, X; Mesli, N; Meunier, O

    2009-01-01

    Since the disinfecting activity of disinfectants is evaluated by standards, the intrinsic detergent activity is not easily quantifiable and no standard have been suggested yet. Beyond the physicochemical parameters like wettability or foaming presented by the manufacturers, it appears necessary to us to objectively measure the real effect of the detergent agent. The objective of our work is to propose a simple, fast and reproducible method to evaluate detersive activity of the disinfecting detergents. We measured three factors (total amount of extracted bacteria, extraction efficiency and slope of extracting curve) by using Rodac prints technique on two different supports (PVC, stainless steel) that have been contaminated by either E. coli or S. aureus. An increasing mark from 1 to 6 is given to each of these factors in case of statistically differences. The three factors allowed us to calculate a "Specific Index of detersion" (SI) for each germ/support couple (3 to 18). Addition of the marks given to each couple for each disinfecting detergent allowed to calculate a "Globally Index of detersion" (GI) (9 to 72). We tested 4 commercialised disinfecting detergents: Surfanios, Aniosurf, Major C100 and Ecodiol. All detergents may be classified according to their effectiveness on a bacterium/support couple (value of the SI). This enlights a specific spectrum for each disinfecting detergents. As a result, Ecodiol seems to be the most effective deterging agent on 3 of the 4 germ/support couples (S. aureus/PVC, E. coli/PVC and E. coli/stainless steel), whereas Aniosurf is most effective on the S. aureus/stainless steel couple. The GI is very useful to choose the best compromise between activities for all situations. GI rankings of the tested agents were as follows: water < Aniosurf < Surfanios < neutralizing < Major C100 < Ecodiol. This experimental model will be used to test and compare the intrinsic detergent activities of other commercialised products which are usually

  10. The Influence of Zeolites on Radical Formation During Lignin Pyrolysis.

    PubMed

    Bährle, Christian; Custodis, Victoria; Jeschke, Gunnar; van Bokhoven, Jeroen A; Vogel, Frédéric

    2016-09-01

    Lignin from lignocellulosic biomass is a promising source of energy, fuels, and chemicals. The conversion of the polymeric lignin to fuels and chemicals can be achieved by catalytic and noncatalytic pyrolysis. The influence of nonporous silica and zeolite catalysts, such as silicalite, HZSM5, and HUSY, on the radical and volatile product formation during lignin pyrolysis was studied by in situ high-temperature electron paramagnetic resonance spectroscopy (HTEPR) as well as GC-MS. Higher radical concentrations were observed in the samples containing zeolite compared to the sample containing only lignin, which suggests that there is a stabilizing effect by the inorganic surfaces on the formed radical fragments. This effect was observed for nonporous silica as well as for HUSY, HZSM5, and silicalite zeolite catalysts. However, the effect is far larger for the zeolites owing to their higher specific surface area. The zeolites also showed an effect on the volatile product yield and the product distribution within the volatile phase. Although silicalite showed no effect on the product selectivity, the acidic zeolites such as HZSM5 or HUSY increased the formation of deoxygenated products such as benzene, toluene, xylene (BTX), and naphthalene.

  11. The Influence of Zeolites on Radical Formation During Lignin Pyrolysis.

    PubMed

    Bährle, Christian; Custodis, Victoria; Jeschke, Gunnar; van Bokhoven, Jeroen A; Vogel, Frédéric

    2016-09-01

    Lignin from lignocellulosic biomass is a promising source of energy, fuels, and chemicals. The conversion of the polymeric lignin to fuels and chemicals can be achieved by catalytic and noncatalytic pyrolysis. The influence of nonporous silica and zeolite catalysts, such as silicalite, HZSM5, and HUSY, on the radical and volatile product formation during lignin pyrolysis was studied by in situ high-temperature electron paramagnetic resonance spectroscopy (HTEPR) as well as GC-MS. Higher radical concentrations were observed in the samples containing zeolite compared to the sample containing only lignin, which suggests that there is a stabilizing effect by the inorganic surfaces on the formed radical fragments. This effect was observed for nonporous silica as well as for HUSY, HZSM5, and silicalite zeolite catalysts. However, the effect is far larger for the zeolites owing to their higher specific surface area. The zeolites also showed an effect on the volatile product yield and the product distribution within the volatile phase. Although silicalite showed no effect on the product selectivity, the acidic zeolites such as HZSM5 or HUSY increased the formation of deoxygenated products such as benzene, toluene, xylene (BTX), and naphthalene. PMID:27486717

  12. Bacterial enzymes involved in lignin degradation.

    PubMed

    de Gonzalo, Gonzalo; Colpa, Dana I; Habib, Mohamed H M; Fraaije, Marco W

    2016-10-20

    Lignin forms a large part of plant biomass. It is a highly heterogeneous polymer of 4-hydroxyphenylpropanoid units and is embedded within polysaccharide polymers forming lignocellulose. Lignin provides strength and rigidity to plants and is rather resilient towards degradation. To improve the (bio)processing of lignocellulosic feedstocks, more effective degradation methods of lignin are in demand. Nature has found ways to fully degrade lignin through the production of dedicated ligninolytic enzyme systems. While such enzymes have been well thoroughly studied for ligninolytic fungi, only in recent years biochemical studies on bacterial enzymes capable of lignin modification have intensified. This has revealed several types of enzymes available to bacteria that enable them to act on lignin. Two major classes of bacterial lignin-modifying enzymes are DyP-type peroxidases and laccases. Yet, recently also several other bacterial enzymes have been discovered that seem to play a role in lignin modifications. In the present review, we provide an overview of recent advances in the identification and use of bacterial enzymes acting on lignin or lignin-derived products. PMID:27544286

  13. Bacterial enzymes involved in lignin degradation.

    PubMed

    de Gonzalo, Gonzalo; Colpa, Dana I; Habib, Mohamed H M; Fraaije, Marco W

    2016-10-20

    Lignin forms a large part of plant biomass. It is a highly heterogeneous polymer of 4-hydroxyphenylpropanoid units and is embedded within polysaccharide polymers forming lignocellulose. Lignin provides strength and rigidity to plants and is rather resilient towards degradation. To improve the (bio)processing of lignocellulosic feedstocks, more effective degradation methods of lignin are in demand. Nature has found ways to fully degrade lignin through the production of dedicated ligninolytic enzyme systems. While such enzymes have been well thoroughly studied for ligninolytic fungi, only in recent years biochemical studies on bacterial enzymes capable of lignin modification have intensified. This has revealed several types of enzymes available to bacteria that enable them to act on lignin. Two major classes of bacterial lignin-modifying enzymes are DyP-type peroxidases and laccases. Yet, recently also several other bacterial enzymes have been discovered that seem to play a role in lignin modifications. In the present review, we provide an overview of recent advances in the identification and use of bacterial enzymes acting on lignin or lignin-derived products.

  14. Biodegradable lignin/polyolefin composite films

    SciTech Connect

    Kosikova, B.; Demjanova, V.; Mikulasova, M.; Lora, J.H.

    1993-12-31

    From the view point of environmental protection, the plastic wastes, especially from packing materials, represent a potential waste problem. Various approaches were examined to develop partially or completely biodegradable plastics. New type of partially biodegradable polyolefins was prepared by blending of polypropylene with lignin, which was recovered in the ALCELL process, an organosolv pulping process that uses ethanol-water as the delignifying agent. Films of blends with up to 10% wt ALCELL lignin, prepared in absence of commercial stabilizers, had acceptable mechanical strengths. The effect of lignin on biodegradability of the composite films was examined by comparison of behaviour of both pure and lignin containing films during treatment with fungus Phanerochaete chrysosporium. It was found that this fungus is able to grow and to produce lignolytic enzymes in the presence of the films containing lignin. Biodegradation of lignin in the composite film was confirmed by the releasing of lignin fragments into the extracellular fluid. Because of measurement of mechanical properties offers a mean of direct estimation of polymer degradation, the degree of biodegradation of the films tested was followed by monitoring of elongation at break. The changes of break at elongation in the course of enzymatic treatment revealed that the lignin/PP composite films are potentially environmentally nonpersisting. The micrographs of the lignin containing films obtained by scanning electron microscopy show the significant changes of the film surface upon degradation with Phanerochaete chrysosporium in contrast to unchanged lignin free film.

  15. Characterization of a purified decolorizing detergent-stable peroxidase from Streptomyces griseosporeus SN9.

    PubMed

    Rekik, Hatem; Nadia, Zaraî Jaouadi; Bejar, Wacim; Kourdali, Sidali; Belhoul, Mouna; Hmidi, Maher; Benkiar, Amina; Badis, Abdelmalek; Sallem, Naim; Bejar, Samir; Jaouadi, Bassem

    2015-02-01

    A novel extracellular lignin peroxidase (called LiP-SN) was produced and purified from a newly isolated Streptomyces griseosporeus strain SN9. The findings revealed that the pure enzyme was a monomeric protein with an estimated molecular mass of 43 kDa and a Reinheitzahl value of 1.63. The 19 N-terminal residue sequence of LiP-SN showed high homology with those of Streptomyces peroxidases. Its optimum pH and temperature were pH 8.5 and 65 °C, respectively. The enzyme was inhibited by sodium azide and potassium cyanide, suggesting the presence of heme components in its tertiary structure. Its catalytic efficiency was higher than that of the peroxidase from Streptomyces albidoflavus strain TN644. Interestingly, LiP-SN showed marked dye-decolorization efficiency and stability toward denaturing, oxidizing, and bleaching agents, and compatibility with EcoVax and Dipex as laundry detergents for 48 h at 40 °C. These properties make LiP-SN a potential candidate for future applications in distaining synthetic dyes and detergent formulations.

  16. Enzymatic detergent formulation containing amylase from Aspergillus niger: a comparative study with commercial detergent formulations.

    PubMed

    Mitidieri, Sydnei; Souza Martinelli, Anne Helene; Schrank, Augusto; Vainstein, Marilene Henning

    2006-07-01

    There is a wide range of biotechnological applications for amylases, including the textile, pharmaceutical, food and laundry industries. Hydrolytic enzymes are 100% biodegradable and enzymatic detergents can achieve effective cleaning with lukewarm water. Microorganisms and culture media were tested for amylase production and the best producer was Aspergillus niger L119 (3.9 U ml(-1) +/- 0.2) in submerged culture and its amylase demonstrated excellent activity at 50-55 degrees C and pH 4.0, remaining stable at 53 degrees C for up to 200 h. In order to establish the potential uses of this enzyme in detergents, different formulations were tested using the A. niger amylase extract. Enzyme activity was compared with three commercial formulations. The detergents are used in hospitals to clean surgical and endoscopy equipment. The presence of amylase in the formulation is because of its action within hospital drainage system, whether or not it has any function in cleaning the equipment.

  17. The mechanism of detergent solubilization of lipid bilayers.

    PubMed

    Lichtenberg, Dov; Ahyayauch, Hasna; Goñi, Félix M

    2013-07-16

    Multiple data are available on the self-assembly of mixtures of bilayer-forming amphiphiles, particularly phospholipids and micelle-forming amphiphiles, commonly denoted detergents. The structure of such mixed assemblies has been thoroughly investigated, described in phase diagrams, and theoretically rationalized in terms of the balance between the large spontaneous curvature of the curvophilic detergent and the curvophobic phospholipids. In this critical review, we discuss the mechanism of this process and try to explain the actual mechanism involved in solubilization. Interestingly, membrane solubilization by some detergents is relatively slow and the common attribute of these detergents is that their trans-bilayer movement, commonly denoted flip-flop, is very slow. Only detergents that can flip into the inner monolayer cause relatively rapid solubilization of detergent-saturated bilayers. This occurs via the following sequence of events: 1), relatively rapid penetration of detergent monomers into the outer monolayer; 2), trans-membrane equilibration of detergent monomers between the two monolayers; 3), saturation of the bilayer by detergents and consequent permeabilization of the membrane; and 4), transition of the whole bilayer to thread-like mixed micelles. When the detergent cannot flip to the inner monolayer, the outer monolayer becomes unstable due to mass imbalance between the monolayers and inclusion of the curvophilic detergent molecules in a flat surface. Consequently, the outer monolayer forms mixed micellar structures within the outer monolayer. Shedding of these micelles into the aqueous solution results in partial solubilization. The consequent leakage of detergent into the liposome results in trans-membrane equilibration of detergent and subsequent micellization through the rapid bilayer-saturation mechanism.

  18. Heterogeneous Ozonolysis of Surface Adsorbed Lignin Pyrolysis Products

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hinrichs, R. Z.

    2012-12-01

    Biomass combustion releases semi-volatile organic compounds into the troposphere, including many phenols and methoxyphenols as the result of lignin pyrolysis. Given their relatively low vapor pressures, these compounds readily adsorb on inorganic and organic aerosol substrates where they may alter aerosol properties and undergo heterogeneous chemistry. We use infrared spectroscopy (DRIFTS and ATR-FTIR) to monitor the adsorption and subsequent heterogeneous ozonolysis of model lignin pyrolysis products, including catechol, eugenol, and 4-propylguaiacol. Ozonolysis reaction kinetics were compared on various inorganic substrates - such as Al2O3 and NaCl, which serve as mineral and sea salt aerosol substrates, respectively - and as a function of ozone concentration and relative humidity. Following in situ FTIR analysis, the adsorbed organics were extracted and analyzed using gas chromatography-mass spectroscopy to identify reaction products and quantify product branching ratios. Ozonolysis of catechol and 4-propylguaiacol readily resulted in ring cleavage forming dicarboxylic acids (e.g., muconic acid). Eugenol ozonolysis proceeded rapidly at the alkene side chain producing homovanillic acid and homovanillin in an approximate 2:1 branching ratio at 0% RH; ring cleavage was also observed. For all lignin pyrolysis products, heterogeneous ozonolysis was faster on NaCl versus Al2O3. Implications for the atmospheric chemistry of semi-volatile methoxylphenols adsorbed on aerosol substrates will be discussed.

  19. Preparing spherical lignin from rice husk.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Hongxi; Zhao, Xu; Ding, Xuefeng; Lei, Hong; Wang, Zichen

    2013-08-01

    Lignin is one of the important branched amorphous polymers, which generally has the irregular and fractal morphology. The preparation of regular sphere of lignin needs long steps and special conditions. In this study, the regular sphere of lignin can be simply prepared from rice husk (RH) under certain conditions. Namely, RH is mixed with 35% ethanol aqueous solution in the proportion of 1:10 (g:mL), non-isothermally heated to 493 K and kept for 5 h. After filtration and air-drying at room temperature, the regular lignin sphere with the diameter of 100-400 nm is obtained. The regular sphere of lignin has the potential utilization in fields such as reactive functional materials, photo sensing materials and surface active materials in cosmetics. The mechanism of formation of the regular spherical lignin is proposed and discussed in this paper.

  20. Lignin-Derived Advanced Carbon Materials

    DOE PAGES

    Chatterjee, Sabornie; Saito, Tomonori

    2015-11-16

    Lignin is a highly abundant source of renewable carbon that can be considered as a valuable sustainable source of biobased materials. By applying specific pretreatments and manufacturing methods, it has been found that lignin can be converted into a variety of value-added carbon materials. However, the physical and chemical heterogeneities of lignin complicate its use as a feedstock. Herein, we discuss the lignin manufacturing process, the effects of pretreatments and manufacturing methods on the properties of product lignin, and structure–property relationships in various applications of lignin-derived carbon materials, such as carbon fibers, carbon mats, activated carbons, carbon films, and templatedmore » carbon.« less

  1. Lignin-Based Triple Shape Memory Polymers.

    PubMed

    Sivasankarapillai, Gopakumar; Li, Hui; McDonald, Armando G

    2015-09-14

    Lignin-based triple shape memory polymers comprised of both permanent covalent cross-links and physical cross-links have been synthesized. A mixing phase with poly(ester-amine) and poly(ester-amide) network having two distinct glass transitions was hot mixed with more structurally homogenized methanol soluble lignin fraction by one-pot, two-step method. Triple shape properties arise from the combined effect of the glass transition of polyester copolymers and lignin and the dissociation of self-complementary hydrogen bonding and cross-link density. The percentage of recovery in each stage was investigated and it was proved that the first recovery is related with lignin-poly(ester-amine) rich network and the second recovery stage is related with lignin-poly(ester-amide) rich network. The thermal and mechanical properties of the lignin-copolymer networks were also investigated using differential scanning calorimetry and dynamic mechanical analysis.

  2. A new high-performance thin layer chromatography-based assay of detergents and surfactants commonly used in membrane protein studies.

    PubMed

    Barret, Laurie-Anne; Polidori, Ange; Bonneté, Françoise; Bernard-Savary, Pierre; Jungas, Colette

    2013-03-15

    The hydrophobic nature of membrane proteins (MPs) necessitates the use of detergents for their extraction, solubilization and purification. Because the concentration of amphiphiles is crucial in the crystallization process, detergent quantification is essential to routine analysis. Here we describe a quantitative high-performance thin-layer chromatography (HPTLC) method we developed for the detection of small quantities of detergent bound to solubilized MPs. After optimization of aqueous deposit conditions, we show that most detergents widely used in membrane protein crystallography display distinctive mobilities in a mixture of dichloromethane, methanol and acetic acid 32:7.6:0.4 (v/v/v). Migration and derivatization conditions were optimized with n-dodecyl-β-D-maltoside (DDM), the most popular detergent for membrane protein crystallization. A linear calibration curve very well fits our data from 0.1 to 1.6 μg of DDM in water with a limit of detection of 0.05 μg. This limit of detection is the best achieved to date for a routine detergent assay, being not modified by the addition of NaCl, commonly used in protein buffers. With these chromatographic conditions, no prior treatment is required to assess the quantities of detergent bound to purified MPs, thus enabling the quantification of close structure detergents via a single procedure. This HPTLC method, which is fast and requires low sample volume, is fully suitable for routine measurements.

  3. Lignin phenols used to infer organic matter sources to Sepetiba Bay - RJ, Brasil

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rezende, C. E.; Pfeiffer, W. C.; Martinelli, L. A.; Tsamakis, E.; Hedges, J. I.; Keil, R. G.

    2010-04-01

    Lignin phenols were measured in the sediments of Sepitiba Bay, Rio de Janeiro, Brazil and in bedload sediments and suspended sediments of the four major fluvial inputs to the bay; São Francisco and Guandu Channels and the Guarda and Cação Rivers. Fluvial suspended lignin yields (Σ8 3.5-14.6 mgC 10 g dw -1) vary little between the wet and dry seasons and are poorly correlated with fluvial chlorophyll concentrations (0.8-50.2 μgC L -1). Despite current land use practices that favor grassland agriculture or industrial uses, fluvial lignin compositions are dominated by a degraded leaf-sourced material. The exception is the Guarda River, which has a slight influence from grasses. The Lignin Phenol Vegetation Index, coupled with acid/aldehyde and 3.5 Db/V ratios, indicate that degraded leaf-derived phenols are also the primary preserved lignin component in the bay. The presence of fringe Typha sp. and Spartina sp. grass beds surrounding portions of the Bay are not reflected in the lignin signature. Instead, lignin entering the bay appears to reflect the erosion of soils containing a degraded signature from the former Atlantic rain forest that once dominated the watershed, instead of containing a significant signature derived from current agricultural uses. A three-component mixing model using the LPVI, atomic N:C ratios, and stable carbon isotopes (which range between -26.8 and -21.8‰) supports the hypothesis that fluvial inputs to the bay are dominated by planktonic matter (78% of the input), with lignin dominated by leaf (14% of the input) over grass (6%). Sediments are composed of a roughly 50-50 mixture of autochthonous material and terrigenous material, with lignin being primarily sourced from leaf.

  4. The Use of Detergents to Purify Membrane Proteins.

    PubMed

    Orwick-Rydmark, Marcella; Arnold, Thomas; Linke, Dirk

    2016-04-01

    Extraction of membrane proteins from biological membranes is usually accomplished with the help of detergents. This unit describes the use of detergents to solubilize and purify membrane proteins. The chemical and physical properties of the different classes of detergents typically used with biological samples are discussed. A separate section addresses the compatibility of detergents with applications downstream of the membrane protein purification process, such as optical spectroscopy, mass spectrometry, protein crystallography, biomolecular NMR, or electron microscopy. A brief summary of alternative membrane protein solubilizing and stabilizing systems is also included. Protocols in this unit include the isolation and solubilization of biological membranes and phase separation; support protocols for detergent removal, detergent exchange, and the determination of critical micelle concentration using different methods are also included.

  5. Subchronic percutaneous toxicity testing of two liquid hand dishwashing detergents.

    PubMed

    Petersen, D W

    1988-09-01

    Subchronic percutaneous toxicity studies were conducted on two liquid dishwashing detergents containing anionic surfactants (C12-14 alkylethoxylate sulphate) to assess the safety of these materials for human exposure. The detergents were administered dermally to the shaved backs of rabbits (dose volume of 2 ml/kg body weight) at concentrations of 0, 0.5, 1.0 and 2.5% in distilled water for 91 days. No adverse systemic effects were demonstrated by assessment of haematological parameters or by gross or microscopic tissue examination. Transient slight to moderate dermal irritation at the detergent application site was observed with detergent A. Slight to moderate dermal irritation confined to the detergent application site was noted in the detergent B study.

  6. Toxicity following laundry detergent pod ingestion.

    PubMed

    Schneir, Aaron B; Rentmeester, Landen; Clark, Richard F; Cantrell, F Lee

    2013-06-01

    Laundry detergent pods (LDPs) have only recently become available in the United States, and there has been increasing concern regarding pediatric ingestions of them. We describe a 15-month-old female infant who ingested an LDP and had a depressed level of consciousness, metabolic acidosis, pulmonary toxicity, and swallowing difficulties. It is currently unclear what the exact etiologic agent(s) is responsible for the toxicity associated with LDPs. The case demonstrates the potential for significant toxicity following the ingestion of an LDP. Clearly, measures should be taken to avoid ingestions of these products.

  7. Cleanser, Detergent, Personal Care Product Pretreatment Evaluation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Adam, Niklas

    2010-01-01

    The purpose of the Cleanser, Detergent, Personal Care Product, and Pretreatment Evaluation & Selection task is to identify the optimal combination of personal hygiene products, crew activities, and pretreatment strategies to provide the crew with sustainable life support practices and a comfortable habitat. Minimal energy, mass, and crew time inputs are desired to recycle wastewater during long duration missions. This document will provide a brief background on the work this past year supporting the ELS Distillation Comparison Test, issues regarding use of the hygiene products originally chosen for the test, methods and results used to select alternative products, and lessons learned from testing.

  8. Use of food and packaging model matrices to investigate the antioxidant properties of biorefinery grass lignins.

    PubMed

    Aguié-Béghin, Véronique; Foulon, Laurence; Soto, Paola; Crônier, David; Corti, Elena; Legée, Frédéric; Cézard, Laurent; Chabbert, Brigitte; Maillard, Marie-Noëlle; Huijgen, Wouter J J; Baumberger, Stéphanie

    2015-11-18

    The antioxidant properties of grass lignins recovered from an alkaline industrial process and from different ethanol organosolv pretreatment processes were compared using two types of tests: (i) classical radical 2,2'-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH(•)) scavenging tests in dioxane/water or ethanol and (ii) tests involving multiphasic systems (lipid dispersion in water or cellulose film suspended in ethanol). These multiphasic systems were representative of food and packaging matrices in view of high-value applications. All lignins, in solution or in the film, effectively scavenged radicals. Moreover, they were competitive with a food commercial rosemary extract to protect linoleic acid against oxidation. Whereas the DPPH(•) test in dioxane was not discriminant, differences appeared between lignins when the test was performed in ethanol or with the multiphasic systems. Moreover, radical scavenging activity was preserved in the film even after its immersion in ethanol. Structural analysis of lignins revealed that low-molar-mass phenolics, namely p-hydroxycinnamic acids and lignin depolymerization products, governed lignin antioxidant properties in the multiphasic systems.

  9. Detergent selection for enhanced extraction of membrane proteins.

    PubMed

    Arachea, Buenafe T; Sun, Zhen; Potente, Nina; Malik, Radhika; Isailovic, Dragan; Viola, Ronald E

    2012-11-01

    Generating stable conditions for membrane proteins after extraction from their lipid bilayer environment is essential for subsequent characterization. Detergents are the most widely used means to obtain this stable environment; however, different types of membrane proteins have been found to require detergents with varying properties for optimal extraction efficiency and stability after extraction. The extraction profiles of several detergent types have been examined for membranes isolated from bacteria and yeast, and for a set of recombinant target proteins. The extraction efficiencies of these detergents increase at higher concentrations, and were shown to correlate with their respective CMC values. Two alkyl sugar detergents, octyl-β-d-glucoside (OG) and 5-cyclohexyl-1-pentyl-β-d-maltoside (Cymal-5), and a zwitterionic surfactant, N-decylphosphocholine (Fos-choline-10), were generally effective in the extraction of a broad range of membrane proteins. However, certain detergents were more effective than others in the extraction of specific classes of integral membrane proteins, offering guidelines for initial detergent selection. The differences in extraction efficiencies among this small set of detergents supports the value of detergent screening and optimization to increase the yields of targeted membrane proteins.

  10. Diffuse corneal abrasion after ocular exposure to laundry detergent pod.

    PubMed

    Whitney, Rachel E; Baum, Carl R; Aronson, Paul L

    2015-02-01

    Although ocular injury from alkaline household cleaning products is well described, there is less known about the significance and extent of injury with ocular exposure to detergent pods. We report a 12-month-old with diffuse corneal abrasion caused by ocular contact with a laundry detergent pod. In addition to the known risks with aspiration with detergent pods, the potential for severe ocular injury is important for parents and clinicians to recognize. Children with ocular exposure to detergent pods should seek immediate medical care.

  11. Heavy metal contents in Egyptian meat and the role of detergent washing on their levels.

    PubMed

    Abou-Arab, A A

    2001-06-01

    Pollution of the environment with heavy metals is a serious problem, which is recognized in most countries of the world. Metals accumulate in the liver, and particularly in the kidneys. The present study provides information about the concentrations of metals in animal organs from both rural and industrial areas. It was surprising that the Pb, Cd, Zn, Cu, Mn and Fe contents in muscle, liver, kidney, heart and spleen in industrial areas were higher than in the same organs of rural areas. Lead concentrations in bovine liver and kidney, in buffalo, elk, sheep and goat kidneys as well as Cd in elk liver and kidneys were higher in the present study than the recommended values. The effect of washing for bovine muscle, liver and kidney using tap water and other detergent solutions on the metals was studied. Washing by only tap water was less effective than the other detergent. The results indicate the efficient role of washing by acidic detergent in the reduction of Pb, Cd and Zn from naturally contaminated meat compared with neutral and alkaline detergent.

  12. Interaction of detergent sclerosants with cell membranes.

    PubMed

    Parsi, Kurosh

    2015-06-01

    Commonly used detergent sclerosants including sodium tetradecyl sulphate (STS) and polidocanol (POL) are clinically used to induce endovascular fibrosis and vessel occlusion. They achieve this by lysing the endothelial lining of target vessels. These agents are surface active (surfactant) molecules that interfere with cell membranes. Surfactants have a striking similarity to the phospholipid molecules of the membrane lipid bilayer. By adsorbing at the cell membrane, surfactants disrupt the normal architecture of the lipid bilayer and reduce the surface tension. The outcome of this interaction is concentration dependent. At high enough concentrations, surfactants solubilise cell membranes resulting in cell lysis. At lower concentrations, these agents can induce a procoagulant negatively charged surface on the external aspect of the cell membrane. The interaction is also influenced by the ionic charge, molecular structure, pH and the chemical nature of the diluent (e.g. saline vs. water). The ionic charge of the surfactant molecule can influence the effect on plasma proteins and the protein contents of cell membranes. STS, an anionic detergent, denatures the tertiary complex of most proteins and in particular the clinically relevant clotting factors. By contrast, POL has no effect on proteins due to its non-ionic structure. These agents therefore exhibit remarkable differences in their interaction with lipid membranes, target cells and circulating proteins with potential implications in a range of clinical applications.

  13. Method for recovering and using lignin in adhesive resins by extracting demethylated lignin

    DOEpatents

    Schroeder, Herbert A.

    1991-01-01

    Lignin, or a lignin derived material, which has been significantly demethylated (e.g., the demethylated lignin found in the raffinate produced as a by-product of dimethyl sulfide production which can be carried out using the spent liquor from wood pulping operations) can be isolated by a process wherein an organic solvent is added to a lignin-containing aqueous solution. The organic solvent is typically a polar, and at least a partially water-immiscible substance such as, for example, ethyl acetate. The resulting lignin-containing aqueous solution/organic solvent mixture is acidified to produce a water layer which is discarded and an organic solvent layer which contains the demethylated lignin. Upon its recovery, the demethylated lignin is preferably dried and stored until it is used (along with an alkali, an aldehyde and an adhesive filler) in compounding an adhesive of the type generally used in the manufacture of plywood.

  14. Method for recovering and using lignin in adhesive resins by extracting demethylated lignin

    DOEpatents

    Schroeder, Herbert A.

    1991-01-01

    Lignin, or a lignin derived material, which has been significantly demethylated (e.g., the demethylated lignin found in the raffinate produced as a by-product of dimethyl sulfide production which can be carried out using the spent liquor from wood pulping operations) can be isolated by a process wherein an organic solvent is added to a lignin-containing aqueous solution. The organic solvent is typically a polar, and at least a partially water-immiscible substance such as, for example, ethyl acetate. The resulting lignin-containing aqueous solution/organic solvent mixture is acidified to produce a water layer which is discarded and an organic solvent layer which contains the demethylated lignin. Upon its recovery, the demethylated lignin is dissolved in an alkaline solution to which an aldehyde source is added to produce a resol-type resin. The aldehyde source may be formaldehyde in solution, paraformaldehyde, hexamethylenetetramine, or other aldehydes including acetaldehyde, furfural, and their derivatives.

  15. (Characterization of lignin peroxidases from Phanerochaete)

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1990-11-14

    Work has continued on characterizing the kinetics of lignin peroxidases and has now expanded to include the chemistry of Mn peroxidases. Progress in these two area in addition to the authors work on the molecular biology of lignin biodegradation is briefly described below. Copies of two reprints and one preprint which have resulted from the work are attached.

  16. Lignin: Characterization of a Multifaceted Crop Component

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Lignin is a plant component with important implications for various agricultural disciplines. It confers rigidity to cell walls, and is therefore associated with tolerance to abiotic and biotic stresses and the mechanical stability of plants. In animal nutrition, lignin is considered an antinutritive component of forages as it cannot be readily fermented by rumen microbes. In terms of energy yield from biomass, the role of lignin depends on the conversion process. It contains more gross energy than other cell wall components and therefore confers enhanced heat value in thermochemical processes such as direct combustion. Conversely, it negatively affects biological energy conversion processes such as bioethanol or biogas production, as it inhibits microbial fermentation of the cell wall. Lignin from crop residues plays an important role in the soil organic carbon cycling, as it constitutes a recalcitrant carbon pool affecting nutrient mineralization and carbon sequestration. Due to the significance of lignin in several agricultural disciplines, the modification of lignin content and composition by breeding is becoming increasingly important. Both mapping of quantitative trait loci and transgenic approaches have been adopted to modify lignin in crops. However, breeding goals must be defined considering the conflicting role of lignin in different agricultural disciplines. PMID:24348159

  17. Method for regulation of plant lignin composition

    DOEpatents

    Chapple, Clint

    1999-01-01

    A method is disclosed for the regulation of lignin composition in plant tissue. Plants are transformed with a gene encoding an active F5H gene. The expression of the F5H gene results in increased levels of syringyl monomer providing a lignin composition more easily degraded with chemicals and enzymes.

  18. Development of Lignin-Based Polyurethane Thermoplastics

    SciTech Connect

    Saito, Tomonori; Perkins, Joshua H; Jackson, Daniel C; Trammell, Neil E; Hunt, Marcus A; Naskar, Amit K

    2013-01-01

    In our continued effort to develop value-added thermoplastics from lignin, here we report utilizing a tailored feedstock to synthesize mechanically robust thermoplastic polyurethanes at very high lignin contents (75 65 wt %). The molecular weight and glass transition temperature (Tg) of lignin were altered through cross-linking with formaldehyde. The cross-linked lignin was coupled with diisocyanate-based telechelic polybutadiene as a network-forming soft segment. The appearance of two Tg s, around 35 and 154 C, for the polyurethanes indicates the existence of two-phase morphology, a characteristic of thermoplastic copolymers. A calculated Flory-Huggins interaction parameter of 7.71 also suggests phase immiscibility in the synthesized lignin polyurethanes. An increase in lignin loading increased the modulus, and an increase in crosslink-density increased the modulus in the rubbery plateau region of the thermoplastic. This path for synthesis of novel lignin-based polyurethane thermoplastics provides a design tool for high performance lignin-based biopolymers.

  19. Tryptophan octyl ester in detergent micelles of dodecylmaltoside: fluorescence properties and quenching by brominated detergent analogs.

    PubMed Central

    de Foresta, B; Gallay, J; Sopkova, J; Champeil, P; Vincent, M

    1999-01-01

    The fluorescence properties of tryptophan octyl ester (TOE), a hydrophobic model of Trp in proteins, were investigated in various mixed micelles of dodecylmaltoside (DM) and 7,8-dibromododecyl beta-maltoside (BrDM) or 10,11-dibromoundecanoyl beta-maltoside (BrUM). This study focuses on the mechanism via which these brominated detergents quench the fluorescence of TOE in a micellar system. The experiments were performed at a pH at which TOE is uncharged and almost completely bound to detergent micelles. TOE binding was monitored by its enhanced fluorescence in pure DM micelles or its quenched fluorescence in pure BrUM or BrDM micelles. In DM/BrUM and DM/BrDM mixed micelles, the fluorescence intensity of TOE decreased, as a nonlinear function of the molar fraction of brominated detergent, to almost zero in pure brominated detergent. The indole moiety of TOE is therefore highly accessible to the bromine atoms located on the detergent alkyl chain because quenching by bromines occurs by direct contact with the fluorophore. TOE is simultaneously poorly accessible to iodide (I(-)), a water-soluble collisional quencher. TOE time-resolved fluorescence intensity decay is heterogeneous in pure DM micelles, with four lifetimes (from 0.2 to 4.4 ns) at the maximum emission wavelength. Such heterogeneity may arise from dipolar relaxation processes in a motionally restricted medium, as suggested by the time-dependent (nanoseconds) red shift (11 nm) of the TOE emission spectrum, and from the existence of various TOE conformations. Time-resolved quenching experiments for TOE in mixed micelles showed that the excited-state lifetime values decreased only slightly with increases in the proportion of BrDM or BrUM. In contrast, the relative amplitude of the component with the longest lifetime decreased significantly relative to that of the short-lived species. This is consistent with a mainly static mechanism for the quenching of TOE by brominated detergents. Molecular modeling of TOE

  20. Use of quaternary ammonium salts of nitrogen containing polymers for improved carburetor detergency

    SciTech Connect

    Biasotti, J.B.; Vartanian, P.F.

    1980-01-15

    A quaternary ammonium salt is described of a copolymer, said copolymer being the olefin polymerization product of: (A) a nitrogen amine free ester of a C/sub 1/-C/sub 6/ olefinically unsaturated aliphatic mono-, di-, or polycarboxylic acid having a tertiary nitrogen atom; and (B) an olefinically unsaturated co-monomer containing a basic nitrogen atom in a side chain; a fuel component, especially gasoline, containing such quaternary ammonium salt of such copolymer as a detergent.

  1. Manipulation of Guaiacyl and Syringyl Monomer Biosynthesis in an Arabidopsis Cinnamyl Alcohol Dehydrogenase Mutant Results in Atypical Lignin Biosynthesis and Modified Cell Wall Structure.

    PubMed

    Anderson, Nickolas A; Tobimatsu, Yuki; Ciesielski, Peter N; Ximenes, Eduardo; Ralph, John; Donohoe, Bryon S; Ladisch, Michael; Chapple, Clint

    2015-08-01

    Modifying lignin composition and structure is a key strategy to increase plant cell wall digestibility for biofuel production. Disruption of the genes encoding both cinnamyl alcohol dehydrogenases (CADs), including CADC and CADD, in Arabidopsis thaliana results in the atypical incorporation of hydroxycinnamaldehydes into lignin. Another strategy to change lignin composition is downregulation or overexpression of ferulate 5-hydroxylase (F5H), which results in lignins enriched in guaiacyl or syringyl units, respectively. Here, we combined these approaches to generate plants enriched in coniferaldehyde-derived lignin units or lignins derived primarily from sinapaldehyde. The cadc cadd and ferulic acid hydroxylase1 (fah1) cadc cadd plants are similar in growth to wild-type plants even though their lignin compositions are drastically altered. In contrast, disruption of CAD in the F5H-overexpressing background results in dwarfism. The dwarfed phenotype observed in these plants does not appear to be related to collapsed xylem, a hallmark of many other lignin-deficient dwarf mutants. cadc cadd, fah1 cadc cadd, and cadd F5H-overexpressing plants have increased enzyme-catalyzed cell wall digestibility. Given that these CAD-deficient plants have similar total lignin contents and only differ in the amounts of hydroxycinnamaldehyde monomer incorporation, these results suggest that hydroxycinnamaldehyde content is a more important determinant of digestibility than lignin content. PMID:26265762

  2. Manipulation of Guaiacyl and Syringyl Monomer Biosynthesis in an Arabidopsis Cinnamyl Alcohol Dehydrogenase Mutant Results in Atypical Lignin Biosynthesis and Modified Cell Wall Structure

    PubMed Central

    Anderson, Nickolas A.; Tobimatsu, Yuki; Ciesielski, Peter N.; Ximenes, Eduardo; Ralph, John; Donohoe, Bryon S.; Ladisch, Michael; Chapple, Clint

    2015-01-01

    Modifying lignin composition and structure is a key strategy to increase plant cell wall digestibility for biofuel production. Disruption of the genes encoding both cinnamyl alcohol dehydrogenases (CADs), including CADC and CADD, in Arabidopsis thaliana results in the atypical incorporation of hydroxycinnamaldehydes into lignin. Another strategy to change lignin composition is downregulation or overexpression of ferulate 5-hydroxylase (F5H), which results in lignins enriched in guaiacyl or syringyl units, respectively. Here, we combined these approaches to generate plants enriched in coniferaldehyde-derived lignin units or lignins derived primarily from sinapaldehyde. The cadc cadd and ferulic acid hydroxylase1 (fah1) cadc cadd plants are similar in growth to wild-type plants even though their lignin compositions are drastically altered. In contrast, disruption of CAD in the F5H-overexpressing background results in dwarfism. The dwarfed phenotype observed in these plants does not appear to be related to collapsed xylem, a hallmark of many other lignin-deficient dwarf mutants. cadc cadd, fah1 cadc cadd, and cadd F5H-overexpressing plants have increased enzyme-catalyzed cell wall digestibility. Given that these CAD-deficient plants have similar total lignin contents and only differ in the amounts of hydroxycinnamaldehyde monomer incorporation, these results suggest that hydroxycinnamaldehyde content is a more important determinant of digestibility than lignin content. PMID:26265762

  3. Effect of non-lytic concentrations of Brij series detergents on the metabolism-independent ion permeability properties of human erythrocytes.

    PubMed Central

    Miseta, A; Bogner, P; Szarka, A; Kellermayer, M; Galambos, C; Wheatley, D N; Cameron, I L

    1995-01-01

    Subcritical micellar concentrations (sub-CMC) of Brij-series detergents alter ion movements between human erythrocytes and their environment when metabolism has been slowed down by incubation at zero degrees centigrade. The effect of nonhemolytic concentrations of detergents on the erythrocyte K+ and Na+ movements is described. Results indicate a significant difference in monovalent cation movements, depending on the number of hydrophilic polyoxyethylene units (n). There is an increasing loss of K+ and gain of Na+ as n increases from 4 to 20. Where n > or = 21, ion movements are not significantly different from those found in erythrocytes not exposed to detergents. The carbon chain length of the detergent fatty acid residue (10-18 carbons) appears to be relatively unimportant, but detergents with unsaturated (oleic acid) hydrophobic regions potentiate K+ release and Na+ uptake when compared to the corresponding saturated fatty acid (stearic acid). The erythrocyte stabilizing effect of detergents against hypo-osmotic shock correlates well with the increase of monovalent ion traffic and the mobility of membrane lipids revealed by fluorescence anisotropy measurements. PMID:8599663

  4. Biodegradation of lignin by Agaricus Bisporus

    SciTech Connect

    Vane, C.H.; Abbott, G.D.; Head, I.M.

    1996-12-31

    The lignolytic activity of Agaricus bisporus will be addressed in this paper. Sound and fungally degraded lignins were characterized by Pyrolysis-Gas Chromatography-Mass Spectrometry (Py-GC-MS), Fourier Transform Infrared Spectroscopy (FnR) and elemental analysis. Fungally degraded lignins displayed increased wt%N, wt%H and wt%O content and decreased wt%C content The FTIR spectrum of decayed lignin showed an increase in the relative intensity of absorption bands assigned to carbonyl and carboxyl functional groups located on the aliphatic side chain and a decrease in absorption bands assigned to aromatic skeletal vibration modes. Semiquantitative Py-GC-MS revealed an 82% decrease in lignin derived pyrolysis products upon biodegradation. No significant increase in pyrolysis products with an oxygenated aliphatic side chain were detected in the fungally degraded lignin however shortening of the aliphatic side chain via cleavage at the {alpha}, {beta} and {gamma} positions was observed.

  5. Detergent-free purification of ABC (ATP-binding-cassette) transporters.

    PubMed

    Gulati, Sonali; Jamshad, Mohammed; Knowles, Timothy J; Morrison, Kerrie A; Downing, Rebecca; Cant, Natasha; Collins, Richard; Koenderink, Jan B; Ford, Robert C; Overduin, Michael; Kerr, Ian D; Dafforn, Timothy R; Rothnie, Alice J

    2014-07-15

    ABC (ATP-binding-cassette) transporters carry out many vital functions and are involved in numerous diseases, but study of the structure and function of these proteins is often hampered by their large size and membrane location. Membrane protein purification usually utilizes detergents to solubilize the protein from the membrane, effectively removing it from its native lipid environment. Subsequently, lipids have to be added back and detergent removed to reconstitute the protein into a lipid bilayer. In the present study, we present the application of a new methodology for the extraction and purification of ABC transporters without the use of detergent, instead, using a copolymer, SMA (polystyrene-co-maleic acid). SMA inserts into a bilayer and assembles into discrete particles, essentially solubilizing the membrane into small discs of bilayer encircled by a polymer, termed SMALPs (SMA lipid particles). We show that this polymer can extract several eukaryotic ABC transporters, P-glycoprotein (ABCB1), MRP1 (multidrug-resistance protein 1; ABCC1), MRP4 (ABCC4), ABCG2 and CFTR (cystic fibrosis transmembrane conductance regulator; ABCC7), from a range of different expression systems. The SMALP-encapsulated ABC transporters can be purified by affinity chromatography, and are able to bind ligands comparably with those in native membranes or detergent micelles. A greater degree of purity and enhanced stability is seen compared with detergent solubilization. The present study demonstrates that eukaryotic ABC transporters can be extracted and purified without ever being removed from their lipid bilayer environment, opening up a wide range of possibilities for the future study of their structure and function.

  6. Effects of Water Hardness on Textile Detergency Performance in Aqueous Cleaning Systems.

    PubMed

    Gotoh, Keiko; Horibe, Kaori; Mei, Yang; Tsujisaka, Toshiyuki

    2016-01-01

    The effects of water hardness on textile detergency in aqueous solutions were systematically investigated using four surfactants: sodium oleate (OLNa), linear dodecylbenzene sulfonate (LAS), sodium dodecyl sulfate (AS), and polyoxyethylene (10) dodecyl ether (AE). Water hardness was adjusted according to the standard procedure described in IEC 60734:2012. As expected, by adding hardness salts the surface tension of the OLNa solution increased. Surprisingly, the addition of hardness salts lowers the surface tension for the LAS and AS solutions. In the case of the AE solution, hardness salt did not affect the surface tension. A decrease in transmittance and foamability after adding hardness salts was observed for every anionic surfactant solution, indicating that anionic surfactants can combine with divalent ions to form insoluble precipitates. Detergency experiments were performed using cotton plain-woven and towel fabrics soiled with a carbon black and oleic acid mixture. One piece each of untreated and soiled fabric were stacked and placed horizontally in detergent solution with or without hardness salts. As a mechanical action of soil removal, the shaking of 190 spm was applied. Soil removal and redeposition due to washing were evaluated from changes in values of the Kubelka-Munk function for both fabrics. With increasing water hardness, soil removal decreased and redeposition increased. In order of decreasing detergency, the surfactants were as follows: LAS > OLNa ≈ AS > AE. The results indicate that precipitates, formed by reaction of LAS or AS with hardness salts, are strongly adsorbed on the water surface because of their hydrophobicity, but they have no detergency power. The field emission scanning electron microscopic observation and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopic analysis showed that Ca(LAS)2 precipitation clung to fiber surfaces, and remained on the surfaces after washing. Significant changes in the cotton fabric due to washing were observed in

  7. Effects of Water Hardness on Textile Detergency Performance in Aqueous Cleaning Systems.

    PubMed

    Gotoh, Keiko; Horibe, Kaori; Mei, Yang; Tsujisaka, Toshiyuki

    2016-01-01

    The effects of water hardness on textile detergency in aqueous solutions were systematically investigated using four surfactants: sodium oleate (OLNa), linear dodecylbenzene sulfonate (LAS), sodium dodecyl sulfate (AS), and polyoxyethylene (10) dodecyl ether (AE). Water hardness was adjusted according to the standard procedure described in IEC 60734:2012. As expected, by adding hardness salts the surface tension of the OLNa solution increased. Surprisingly, the addition of hardness salts lowers the surface tension for the LAS and AS solutions. In the case of the AE solution, hardness salt did not affect the surface tension. A decrease in transmittance and foamability after adding hardness salts was observed for every anionic surfactant solution, indicating that anionic surfactants can combine with divalent ions to form insoluble precipitates. Detergency experiments were performed using cotton plain-woven and towel fabrics soiled with a carbon black and oleic acid mixture. One piece each of untreated and soiled fabric were stacked and placed horizontally in detergent solution with or without hardness salts. As a mechanical action of soil removal, the shaking of 190 spm was applied. Soil removal and redeposition due to washing were evaluated from changes in values of the Kubelka-Munk function for both fabrics. With increasing water hardness, soil removal decreased and redeposition increased. In order of decreasing detergency, the surfactants were as follows: LAS > OLNa ≈ AS > AE. The results indicate that precipitates, formed by reaction of LAS or AS with hardness salts, are strongly adsorbed on the water surface because of their hydrophobicity, but they have no detergency power. The field emission scanning electron microscopic observation and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopic analysis showed that Ca(LAS)2 precipitation clung to fiber surfaces, and remained on the surfaces after washing. Significant changes in the cotton fabric due to washing were observed in

  8. Biodegradability, toxicity and mutagenicity of detergents: Integrated experimental evaluations.

    PubMed

    Pedrazzani, Roberta; Ceretti, Elisabetta; Zerbini, Ilaria; Casale, Rosario; Gozio, Eleonora; Bertanza, Giorgio; Gelatti, Umberto; Donato, Francesco; Feretti, Donatella

    2012-10-01

    The widespread use of detergents has raised concern with regard to the environmental pollution caused by their active ingredients, which are biorefractory, toxic and persistent. Since detergents are complex mixtures of different substances, in which synergistic effects may occur, we aimed to assess the mutagenicity of different detergent formulations, taking into account aquatic toxicity and ready biodegradability. We performed a ready biodegradability test (OECD 301 F), Daphnia magna and Vibrio fischeri toxicity tests, and mutagenicity tests (Salmonella/microsome test, Allium cepa test and comet assay). Six detergent formulations were examined, 3 pre-manufacture and 3 commercially available. All detergents presented ready biodegradability. EC50 values varied for all products, according to the marker organism used, but were always higher than the more stringent value considered for aquatic toxicity assessment (V. fischeri 10-60 mg/L; D. magna 25-300 mg/L; A. cepa 250-2000 mg/L). None of the detergents caused mutations in bacteria. However, one commercial ecolabelled product induced an increase in micronucleus frequency in A. cepa root cells. All pre-manufacture detergents and one commercial one, which gave negative results in the Ames and A. cepa tests, induced DNA damage in human leukocytes. A more accurate evaluation of the environmental impact of complex mixtures such as detergents requires a battery of tests to describe degradation, as well as toxicological and mutagenic features.

  9. 21 CFR 740.17 - Foaming detergent bath products.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 7 2011-04-01 2010-04-01 true Foaming detergent bath products. 740.17 Section 740.17 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) COSMETICS COSMETIC PRODUCT WARNING STATEMENTS Warning Statements § 740.17 Foaming detergent bath...

  10. 21 CFR 740.17 - Foaming detergent bath products.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 7 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Foaming detergent bath products. 740.17 Section 740.17 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) COSMETICS COSMETIC PRODUCT WARNING STATEMENTS Warning Statements § 740.17 Foaming detergent bath...

  11. 21 CFR 740.17 - Foaming detergent bath products.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 7 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Foaming detergent bath products. 740.17 Section 740.17 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) COSMETICS COSMETIC PRODUCT WARNING STATEMENTS Warning Statements § 740.17 Foaming detergent bath...

  12. 21 CFR 740.17 - Foaming detergent bath products.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 7 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Foaming detergent bath products. 740.17 Section 740.17 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) COSMETICS COSMETIC PRODUCT WARNING STATEMENTS Warning Statements § 740.17 Foaming detergent bath...

  13. 21 CFR 740.17 - Foaming detergent bath products.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 7 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Foaming detergent bath products. 740.17 Section 740.17 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) COSMETICS COSMETIC PRODUCT WARNING STATEMENTS Warning Statements § 740.17 Foaming detergent bath...

  14. Concentrating membrane proteins using ultrafiltration without concentrating detergents.

    PubMed

    Feroz, Hasin; Vandervelden, Craig; Ikwuagwu, Bon; Ferlez, Bryan; Baker, Carol S; Lugar, Daniel J; Grzelakowski, Mariusz; Golbeck, John H; Zydney, Andrew L; Kumar, Manish

    2016-10-01

    Membrane proteins (MPs) are of rapidly growing interest in the design of pharmaceutical products, novel sensors, and synthetic membranes. Ultrafiltration (UF) using commercially available centrifugal concentrators is typically employed for laboratory-scale concentration of low-yield MPs, but its use is accompanied by a concomitant increase in concentration of detergent micelles. We present a detailed analysis of the hydrodynamic processes that control detergent passage during ultrafiltration of MPs and propose methods to optimize detergent passage during protein concentration in larger-scale membrane processes. Experiments were conducted using nonionic detergents, octyl-β-D glucoside (OG), and decyl-β-D maltoside (DM) with the bacterial water channel protein, Aquaporin Z (AqpZ) and the light driven chloride pump, halorhodopsin (HR), respectively. The observed sieving coefficient (So ), a measure of detergent passage, was evaluated in both stirred cell and centrifugal systems. So for DM and OG increased with increasing filtrate flux and decreasing shear rates in the stirred cell, that is, with increasing concentration polarization (CP). Similar effects were observed during filtration of MP-detergent (MPD) micelles. However, lower transmission was observed in the centrifugal system for both detergent and MPD systems. This is attributed to free convection-induced shear and hence reduced CP along the membrane surface during centrifugal UF. Thus to concentrate MPs without retention of detergent, design of UF systems that promote CP is required. Biotechnol. Bioeng. 2016;113: 2122-2130. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. PMID:27563851

  15. Two detergent stable alkaline serine-proteases from Bacillus mojavensis A21: purification, characterization and potential application as a laundry detergent additive.

    PubMed

    Haddar, Anissa; Agrebi, Rym; Bougatef, Ali; Hmidet, Noomen; Sellami-Kamoun, Alya; Nasri, Moncef

    2009-07-01

    Two detergent stable alkaline serine-proteases (BM1 and BM2) from Bacillus mojavensis A21 were purified. The molecular weights of BM1 and BM2 enzymes determined by SDS-PAGE were approximately 29,00 Da and 15,50 Da, respectively. The optimum pH values of BM1 and BM2 proteases were shown to be 8.0-10.0 and 10.0, respectively. Both enzymes exhibited maximal activity at 60 degrees C, using casein as a substrate. The N-terminal amino acid sequences of BM1 and BM2 proteases were AQSVPYGISQIKA and AIPDQAATTLL, respectively. Both proteases showed high stability towards non-ionic surfactants. The enzymes were found to be relatively stable towards oxidizing agents. In addition, both enzymes showed excellent stability and compatibility with a wide range of commercial liquid and solid detergents. These properties and the high activity in high alkaline pH make these proteases an ideal choice for application in detergent formulations.

  16. Variation of the detergent-binding capacity and phospholipid content of membrane proteins when purified in different detergents.

    PubMed

    Ilgü, Hüseyin; Jeckelmann, Jean-Marc; Gachet, María Salomé; Boggavarapu, Rajendra; Ucurum, Zöhre; Gertsch, Jürg; Fotiadis, Dimitrios

    2014-04-15

    Purified membrane proteins are ternary complexes consisting of protein, lipid, and detergent. Information about the amounts of detergent and endogenous phospholipid molecules bound to purified membrane proteins is largely lacking. In this systematic study, three model membrane proteins of different oligomeric states were purified in nine different detergents at commonly used concentrations and characterized biochemically and biophysically. Detergent-binding capacities and phospholipid contents of the model proteins were determined and compared. The insights on ternary complexes obtained from the experimental results, when put into a general context, are summarized as follows. 1), The amount of detergent and 2) the amount of endogenous phospholipids bound to purified membrane proteins are dependent on the size of the hydrophobic lipid-accessible protein surface areas and the physicochemical properties of the detergents used. 3), The size of the detergent and lipid belt surrounding the hydrophobic lipid-accessible surface of purified membrane proteins can be tuned by the appropriate choice of detergent. 4), The detergents n-nonyl-β-D-glucopyranoside and Cymal-5 have exceptional delipidating effects on ternary complexes. 5), The types of endogenous phospholipids bound to membrane proteins can vary depending on the detergent used for solubilization and purification. 6), Furthermore, we demonstrate that size-exclusion chromatography can be a suitable method for estimating the molecular mass of ternary complexes. The findings presented suggest a strategy to control and tune the numbers of detergent and endogenous phospholipid molecules bound to membrane proteins. These two parameters are potentially important for the successul crystallization of membrane proteins for structure determination by crystallographic approaches.

  17. Variation of the Detergent-Binding Capacity and Phospholipid Content of Membrane Proteins When Purified in Different Detergents

    PubMed Central

    Ilgü, Hüseyin; Jeckelmann, Jean-Marc; Gachet, María Salomé; Boggavarapu, Rajendra; Ucurum, Zöhre; Gertsch, Jürg; Fotiadis, Dimitrios

    2014-01-01

    Purified membrane proteins are ternary complexes consisting of protein, lipid, and detergent. Information about the amounts of detergent and endogenous phospholipid molecules bound to purified membrane proteins is largely lacking. In this systematic study, three model membrane proteins of different oligomeric states were purified in nine different detergents at commonly used concentrations and characterized biochemically and biophysically. Detergent-binding capacities and phospholipid contents of the model proteins were determined and compared. The insights on ternary complexes obtained from the experimental results, when put into a general context, are summarized as follows. 1), The amount of detergent and 2) the amount of endogenous phospholipids bound to purified membrane proteins are dependent on the size of the hydrophobic lipid-accessible protein surface areas and the physicochemical properties of the detergents used. 3), The size of the detergent and lipid belt surrounding the hydrophobic lipid-accessible surface of purified membrane proteins can be tuned by the appropriate choice of detergent. 4), The detergents n-nonyl-β-D-glucopyranoside and Cymal-5 have exceptional delipidating effects on ternary complexes. 5), The types of endogenous phospholipids bound to membrane proteins can vary depending on the detergent used for solubilization and purification. 6), Furthermore, we demonstrate that size-exclusion chromatography can be a suitable method for estimating the molecular mass of ternary complexes. The findings presented suggest a strategy to control and tune the numbers of detergent and endogenous phospholipid molecules bound to membrane proteins. These two parameters are potentially important for the successul crystallization of membrane proteins for structure determination by crystallographic approaches. PMID:24739165

  18. Catalytic oxidation of biorefinery lignin to value-added chemicals to support sustainable biofuel production.

    PubMed

    Ma, Ruoshui; Xu, Yan; Zhang, Xiao

    2015-01-01

    Transforming plant biomass to biofuel is one of the few solutions that can truly sustain mankind's long-term needs for liquid transportation fuel with minimized environmental impact. However, despite decades of effort, commercial development of biomass-to-biofuel conversion processes is still not an economically viable proposition. Identifying value-added co-products along with the production of biofuel provides a key solution to overcoming this economic barrier. Lignin is the second most abundant component next to cellulose in almost all plant biomass; the emerging biomass refinery industry will inevitably generate an enormous amount of lignin. Development of selective biorefinery lignin-to-bioproducts conversion processes will play a pivotal role in significantly improving the economic feasibility and sustainability of biofuel production from renewable biomass. The urgency and importance of this endeavor has been increasingly recognized in the last few years. This paper reviews state-of-the-art oxidative lignin depolymerization chemistries employed in the papermaking process and oxidative catalysts that can be applied to biorefinery lignin to produce platform chemicals including phenolic compounds, dicarboxylic acids, and quinones in high selectivity and yield. The potential synergies of integrating new catalysts with commercial delignification chemistries are discussed. We hope the information will build on the existing body of knowledge to provide new insights towards developing practical and commercially viable lignin conversion technologies, enabling sustainable biofuel production from lignocellulosic biomass to be competitive with fossil fuel.

  19. Genome sequence and description of the anaerobic lignin-degrading bacterium Tolumonas lignolytica sp. nov.

    SciTech Connect

    Billings, Andrew F.; Fortney, Julian L.; Hazen, Terry C.; Simmons, Blake; Davenport, Karen W.; Goodwin, Lynne; Ivanova, Natalia; Kyrpides, Nikos C.; Mavromatis, Konstantinos; Woyke, Tanja; DeAngelis, Kristen M.

    2015-11-19

    Tolumonas lignolytica BRL6-1T sp. nov. is the type strain of T. lignolytica sp. nov., a proposed novel species of the Tolumonas genus. This strain was isolated from tropical rainforest soils based on its ability to utilize lignin as a sole carbon source. Cells of Tolumonas lignolytica BRL6-1T are mesophilic, non-spore forming, Gram-negative rods that are oxidase and catalase negative. The genome for this isolate was sequenced and returned in seven unique contigs totaling 3.6Mbp, enabling the characterization of several putative pathways for lignin breakdown. Particularly, we found an extracellular peroxidase involved in lignin depolymerization, as well as several enzymes involved in β-aryl ether bond cleavage, which is the most abundant linkage between lignin monomers. We also found genes for enzymes involved in ferulic acid metabolism, which is a common product of lignin breakdown. Finally, by characterizing pathways and enzymes employed in the bacterial breakdown of lignin in anaerobic environments, this work should assist in the efficient engineering of biofuel production from lignocellulosic material.

  20. Genome sequence and description of the anaerobic lignin-degrading bacterium Tolumonas lignolytica sp. nov.

    DOE PAGES

    Billings, Andrew F.; Fortney, Julian L.; Hazen, Terry C.; Simmons, Blake; Davenport, Karen W.; Goodwin, Lynne; Ivanova, Natalia; Kyrpides, Nikos C.; Mavromatis, Konstantinos; Woyke, Tanja; et al

    2015-11-19

    Tolumonas lignolytica BRL6-1T sp. nov. is the type strain of T. lignolytica sp. nov., a proposed novel species of the Tolumonas genus. This strain was isolated from tropical rainforest soils based on its ability to utilize lignin as a sole carbon source. Cells of Tolumonas lignolytica BRL6-1T are mesophilic, non-spore forming, Gram-negative rods that are oxidase and catalase negative. The genome for this isolate was sequenced and returned in seven unique contigs totaling 3.6Mbp, enabling the characterization of several putative pathways for lignin breakdown. Particularly, we found an extracellular peroxidase involved in lignin depolymerization, as well as several enzymes involvedmore » in β-aryl ether bond cleavage, which is the most abundant linkage between lignin monomers. We also found genes for enzymes involved in ferulic acid metabolism, which is a common product of lignin breakdown. Finally, by characterizing pathways and enzymes employed in the bacterial breakdown of lignin in anaerobic environments, this work should assist in the efficient engineering of biofuel production from lignocellulosic material.« less

  1. Catalytic oxidation of biorefinery lignin to value-added chemicals to support sustainable biofuel production.

    PubMed

    Ma, Ruoshui; Xu, Yan; Zhang, Xiao

    2015-01-01

    Transforming plant biomass to biofuel is one of the few solutions that can truly sustain mankind's long-term needs for liquid transportation fuel with minimized environmental impact. However, despite decades of effort, commercial development of biomass-to-biofuel conversion processes is still not an economically viable proposition. Identifying value-added co-products along with the production of biofuel provides a key solution to overcoming this economic barrier. Lignin is the second most abundant component next to cellulose in almost all plant biomass; the emerging biomass refinery industry will inevitably generate an enormous amount of lignin. Development of selective biorefinery lignin-to-bioproducts conversion processes will play a pivotal role in significantly improving the economic feasibility and sustainability of biofuel production from renewable biomass. The urgency and importance of this endeavor has been increasingly recognized in the last few years. This paper reviews state-of-the-art oxidative lignin depolymerization chemistries employed in the papermaking process and oxidative catalysts that can be applied to biorefinery lignin to produce platform chemicals including phenolic compounds, dicarboxylic acids, and quinones in high selectivity and yield. The potential synergies of integrating new catalysts with commercial delignification chemistries are discussed. We hope the information will build on the existing body of knowledge to provide new insights towards developing practical and commercially viable lignin conversion technologies, enabling sustainable biofuel production from lignocellulosic biomass to be competitive with fossil fuel. PMID:25272962

  2. In vitro evaluation of antioxidant and cytotoxic activities of lignin fractions extracted from Acacia nilotica.

    PubMed

    Barapatre, Anand; Meena, Avtar Singh; Mekala, Sowmya; Das, Amitava; Jha, Harit

    2016-05-01

    Lignin is one of the most important phytomacromolecule with diverse therapeutic properties such as anticancer, antimicrobial, anti-inflammatory and immune-stimulatory. The present study was carried out to evaluate the in vitro antioxidant, free radical scavenging and anti-proliferative/cytotoxic activities of eleven different lignin fractions, extracted from the wood of Acacia nilotica by pressurized solvent extraction (PSE) and successive solvent extraction (SSE) methods. Results indicate that the PSE fractions have high polyphenolic content and reducing power. However, the antioxidant efficiency examined by DPPH and ABTS radical scavenging assay was higher in SSE fractions. All lignin fractions revealed a significant ability to scavenge nitric oxide, hydroxyl and superoxide radicals. The extracted lignin fractions display high ferric ion reducing capacity and also possess excellent antioxidant potential in the hydrophobic (linoleic acid) system. Fractions extracted by polar solvent has the highest iron (Fe(2+)) chelating activity as compared to other factions, indicating their effect on the redox cycling of iron. Four lignin fractions depicted higher cytotoxic potential (IC50: 2-15 μg/mL) towards breast cancer cell line (MCF-7) but were ineffective (IC50: ≥ 100 μg/mL) against normal primary human hepatic stellate cells (HHSteCs). These findings suggest that the lignin extracts of A. nilotica wood has a remarkable potential to prevent disease caused by the overproduction of radicals and also seem to be a promising candidate as natural antioxidant and anti-cancer agents. PMID:26836619

  3. [Effect of long-term fertilization on lignin accumulation in typical subtropical upland soil].

    PubMed

    Feng, Shu-zhen; Chen, Xiang-bi; He, Xun-yang; Dong, Ming-zhe; Qiu, Hu-sen; Su, Yi-rong

    2015-01-01

    To investigate the effect of long-term fertilization on lignin accumulation and clarify its influencing factors in subtropical agricultural upland soils, alkaline CuO oxidation and gas chromatography was performed to quantify the amount of lignin and its monomers components (V, S and C). The soil samples were collected from the fertilization treatments of NPK and NPKS (NPK combined with straw) in Huanjiang County, Guangxi Province (limestone soil) and Taoyuan County, Hunan Province (red soil). The results showed that NPK had no significant effect on the lignin content (Sumvsc) of limestone soil, whereas the content in red soil significantly increased by (55 ± 1)%. For the NPKS treatment, the lignin content in limestone and red soil increased by (328 ± 4)% and (456 ± 9)%, respectively. After the same fertilization treatment, the proportion of cinnamyl (C)-type significantly increased in red soil, while a significant increase of vanillyl (V)-type monomers occurred in limestone soil, indicating that lignin degradation in agricultural soils was monomer specific. Furthermore, the acid-to-aldehyde ratios of syringyl-type [(Ac/Al)] or vanillyl-type [(Ac/Al)v] monomers tended to decrease after long-term fertilization with the higher value for limestone soil, suggesting the degree of lignin degradation in limestone was higher than that in red soil. Soil organic matter and total nitrogen were not correlated with lignin content, but were significantly correlated with the composition of VSC monomers. Meanwhile, the available nutrient content in the soil (available nitrogen, phosphorus, and potassium) was closely related to the contents and components of V, S, and C-type monomers (P<0.05). It indicated that the availability of soil nutrition should be considered as a key factor for the accumulation of lignin. PMID:25985658

  4. Knocking on wood: base metal complexes as catalysts for selective oxidation of lignin models and extracts.

    PubMed

    Hanson, Susan K; Baker, R Tom

    2015-07-21

    This work began as part of a biomass conversion catalysis project with UC Santa Barbara funded by the first NSF Chemical Bonding Center, CATSB. Recognizing that catalytic aerobic oxidation of diol C-C bonds could potentially be used to break down lignocellulose, we began to synthesize oxovanadium complexes and explore their fundamental reactivity. Of course there were theories regarding the oxidation mechanism, but our mechanistic studies soon revealed a number of surprises of the type that keep all chemists coming back to the bench! We realized that these reactions were also exciting in that they actually used the oxygen-on-every-carbon property of biomass-derived molecules to control the selectivity of the oxidation. When we found that these oxovanadium complexes tended to convert sugars predominantly to formic acid and carbon dioxide, we replaced one of the OH groups with an ether and entered the dark world of lignin chemistry. In this Account, we summarize results from our collaboration and from our individual labs. In particular, we show that oxidation selectivity (C-C vs C-O bond cleavage) of lignin models using air and vanadium complexes depends on the ancillary ligands, the reaction solvent, and the substrate structure (i.e., phenolic vs non-phenolic). Selected vanadium complexes in the presence of added base serve as effective alcohol oxidation catalysts via a novel base-assisted dehydrogenation pathway. In contrast, copper catalysts effect direct C-C bond cleavage of these lignin models, presumably through a radical pathway. The most active vanadium catalyst exhibits unique activity for the depolymerization of organosolv lignin. After Weckhuysen's excellent 2010 review on lignin valorization, the number of catalysis studies and approaches on both lignin models and extracts has expanded rapidly. Today we are seeing new start-ups and lignin production facilities sprouting up across the globe as we all work to prove wrong the old pulp and paper chemist

  5. Knocking on wood: base metal complexes as catalysts for selective oxidation of lignin models and extracts.

    PubMed

    Hanson, Susan K; Baker, R Tom

    2015-07-21

    This work began as part of a biomass conversion catalysis project with UC Santa Barbara funded by the first NSF Chemical Bonding Center, CATSB. Recognizing that catalytic aerobic oxidation of diol C-C bonds could potentially be used to break down lignocellulose, we began to synthesize oxovanadium complexes and explore their fundamental reactivity. Of course there were theories regarding the oxidation mechanism, but our mechanistic studies soon revealed a number of surprises of the type that keep all chemists coming back to the bench! We realized that these reactions were also exciting in that they actually used the oxygen-on-every-carbon property of biomass-derived molecules to control the selectivity of the oxidation. When we found that these oxovanadium complexes tended to convert sugars predominantly to formic acid and carbon dioxide, we replaced one of the OH groups with an ether and entered the dark world of lignin chemistry. In this Account, we summarize results from our collaboration and from our individual labs. In particular, we show that oxidation selectivity (C-C vs C-O bond cleavage) of lignin models using air and vanadium complexes depends on the ancillary ligands, the reaction solvent, and the substrate structure (i.e., phenolic vs non-phenolic). Selected vanadium complexes in the presence of added base serve as effective alcohol oxidation catalysts via a novel base-assisted dehydrogenation pathway. In contrast, copper catalysts effect direct C-C bond cleavage of these lignin models, presumably through a radical pathway. The most active vanadium catalyst exhibits unique activity for the depolymerization of organosolv lignin. After Weckhuysen's excellent 2010 review on lignin valorization, the number of catalysis studies and approaches on both lignin models and extracts has expanded rapidly. Today we are seeing new start-ups and lignin production facilities sprouting up across the globe as we all work to prove wrong the old pulp and paper chemist

  6. [Effect of long-term fertilization on lignin accumulation in typical subtropical upland soil].

    PubMed

    Feng, Shu-zhen; Chen, Xiang-bi; He, Xun-yang; Dong, Ming-zhe; Qiu, Hu-sen; Su, Yi-rong

    2015-01-01

    To investigate the effect of long-term fertilization on lignin accumulation and clarify its influencing factors in subtropical agricultural upland soils, alkaline CuO oxidation and gas chromatography was performed to quantify the amount of lignin and its monomers components (V, S and C). The soil samples were collected from the fertilization treatments of NPK and NPKS (NPK combined with straw) in Huanjiang County, Guangxi Province (limestone soil) and Taoyuan County, Hunan Province (red soil). The results showed that NPK had no significant effect on the lignin content (Sumvsc) of limestone soil, whereas the content in red soil significantly increased by (55 ± 1)%. For the NPKS treatment, the lignin content in limestone and red soil increased by (328 ± 4)% and (456 ± 9)%, respectively. After the same fertilization treatment, the proportion of cinnamyl (C)-type significantly increased in red soil, while a significant increase of vanillyl (V)-type monomers occurred in limestone soil, indicating that lignin degradation in agricultural soils was monomer specific. Furthermore, the acid-to-aldehyde ratios of syringyl-type [(Ac/Al)] or vanillyl-type [(Ac/Al)v] monomers tended to decrease after long-term fertilization with the higher value for limestone soil, suggesting the degree of lignin degradation in limestone was higher than that in red soil. Soil organic matter and total nitrogen were not correlated with lignin content, but were significantly correlated with the composition of VSC monomers. Meanwhile, the available nutrient content in the soil (available nitrogen, phosphorus, and potassium) was closely related to the contents and components of V, S, and C-type monomers (P<0.05). It indicated that the availability of soil nutrition should be considered as a key factor for the accumulation of lignin.

  7. Skin safety evaluation of laundry detergent products.

    PubMed

    Kwon, Seok; Holland, Daniela; Kern, Petra

    2009-01-01

    The conduct of a scientifically sound safety assessment of new ingredients and finished products is essential prior to their introduction into the marketplace. Such assessments are based on a risk assessment paradigm established by the National Academy of Science (NAS, 1983) that consists of a four-step process: hazard identification, dose-response assessment, exposure assessment, and risk characterization. This risk assessment paradigm has been (1) used as a framework for estimating an adverse health risk posed by environmental chemicals, and (2) applied to systemic toxicological endpoints. The general principles of risk assessment may be applied to skin safety evaluation of consumer products, considering that dermal toxicity is also a threshold phenomenon. This study describes a risk assessment-based approach for skin safety evaluation of laundry detergent products.

  8. The application of heated detergent dewaxing and rehydration to immunohistochemistry.

    PubMed

    Henwood, A F

    2012-01-01

    Hot commercial dishwashing detergent has been used to deparaffinize and hydrate formalin fixed, paraffin embedded sections for immunohistochemistry. Fifty-five antibodies, used routinely for diagnosis, were used to compare hot detergent dewaxing with the proprietary hydrocarbon-based dewaxing reagent supplied with the Bond Max immunohistochemistry system®. A 2% concentration of commercial dishwashing detergent in distilled water was heated to 90° C and paraffin sections were treated twice for 1 min each. Nearly all antibodies gave equivalent results except CD10 and CD57 (hydrocarbon-based dewaxing better) and CD45 and alpha fetoprotein (detergent dewaxing better); the differences, however, were minimal. There also was a significant cost saving using detergent dewaxing. PMID:20854225

  9. A fluorinated detergent for membrane-protein applications.

    PubMed

    Frotscher, Erik; Danielczak, Bartholomäus; Vargas, Carolyn; Meister, Annette; Durand, Grégory; Keller, Sandro

    2015-04-20

    Surfactants carrying fluorocarbon chains hold great promise as gentle alternatives to conventional hydrocarbon-based detergents for the solubilization and handling of integral membrane proteins. However, their inertness towards lipid bilayer membranes has limited the usefulness of fluorinated surfactants in situations where detergent-like activity is required. We demonstrate that fluorination does not necessarily preclude detergency, as exemplified by a fluorinated octyl maltoside derivative termed F6 OM. This nonionic compound readily interacts with and completely solubilizes phospholipid vesicles in a manner reminiscent of conventional detergents without, however, compromising membrane order at subsolubilizing concentrations. Owing to this mild and unusual mode of detergency, F6 OM outperforms a lipophobic fluorinated surfactant in chaperoning the functional refolding of an integral membrane enzyme by promoting bilayer insertion in the absence of micelles.

  10. Quantification of detergent using colorimetric methods in membrane protein crystallography.

    PubMed

    Prince, Chelsy; Jia, Zongchao

    2015-01-01

    Membrane protein crystallography has the potential to greatly aid our understanding of membrane protein biology. Yet, membrane protein crystals remain challenging to produce. Although robust methods for the expression and purification of membrane proteins continue to be developed, the detergent component of membrane protein samples is equally important to crystallization efforts. This chapter describes the development of three colorimetric assays for the quantitation of detergent in membrane protein samples and provides detailed protocols. All of these techniques use small sample volumes and have potential applications in crystallography. The application of these techniques in crystallization prescreening, detergent concentration modification, and detergent exchange experiments is demonstrated. It has been observed that the concentration of detergent in a membrane protein sample can be just as important as the protein concentration when attempting to reproduce crystallization lead conditions.

  11. 75 FR 71123 - Agency Information Collection Activities; Proposed Collection; Comment Request; Safer Detergent...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-11-22

    ... AGENCY Agency Information Collection Activities; Proposed Collection; Comment Request; Safer Detergent... ICR, entitled: ``Safer Detergent Stewardship Initiative (SDSI) Program'' and identified by EPA ICR No... surfactants. Title: Safer Detergent Stewardship Initiative (SDSI) Program. ICR numbers: EPA ICR No....

  12. Methanol fractionation of softwood Kraft lignin: impact on the lignin properties.

    PubMed

    Saito, Tomonori; Perkins, Joshua H; Vautard, Frederic; Meyer, Harry M; Messman, Jamie M; Tolnai, Balazs; Naskar, Amit K

    2014-01-01

    The development of technologies to tune lignin properties for high-performance lignin-based materials is crucial for the utilization of lignin in various applications. Here, the effect of methanol (MeOH) fractionation on the molecular weight, molecular weight distribution, glass transition temperature (Tg ), thermal decomposition, and chemical structure of lignin were investigated. Repeated MeOH fractionation of softwood Kraft lignin successfully removed the low-molecular-weight fraction. The separated high-molecular-weight lignin showed a Tg of 211 °C and a char yield of 47 %, much higher than those of as-received lignin (Tg 153 °C, char yield 41 %). The MeOH-soluble fraction of lignin showed an increased low-molecular-weight fraction and a lower Tg (117 °C) and char yield (32%). The amount of low-molecular-weight fraction showed a quantitative correlation with both 1/Tg and char yield in a linear regression. This study demonstrated the efficient purification or fractionation technology for lignin; it also established a theoretical and empirical correlation between the physical characteristics of fractionated lignins. PMID:24458739

  13. Genetic Augmentation of Syringyl Lignin in Low-lignin Aspen Trees, Final Report

    SciTech Connect

    Chung-Jui Tsai; Mark F. Davis; Vincent L. Chiang

    2004-11-10

    As a polysaccharide-encrusting component, lignin is critical to cell wall integrity and plant growth but also hinders recovery of cellulose fibers during the wood pulping process. To improve pulping efficiency, it is highly desirable to genetically modify lignin content and/or structure in pulpwood species to maximize pulp yields with minimal energy consumption and environmental impact. This project aimed to genetically augment the syringyl-to-guaiacyl lignin ratio in low-lignin transgenic aspen in order to produce trees with reduced lignin content, more reactive lignin structures and increased cellulose content. Transgenic aspen trees with reduced lignin content have already been achieved, prior to the start of this project, by antisense downregulation of a 4-coumarate:coenzyme A ligase gene (Hu et al., 1999 Nature Biotechnol 17: 808- 812). The primary objective of this study was to genetically augment syringyl lignin biosynthesis in these low-lignin trees in order to enhance lignin reactivity during chemical pulping. To accomplish this, both aspen and sweetgum genes encoding coniferaldehyde 5-hydroxylase (Osakabe et al., 1999 PNAS 96: 8955-8960) were targeted for over-expression in wildtype or low-lignin aspen under control of either a constitutive or a xylem-specific promoter. A second objective for this project was to develop reliable and cost-effective methods, such as pyrolysis Molecular Beam Mass Spectrometry and NMR, for rapid evaluation of cell wall chemical components of transgenic wood samples. With these high-throughput techniques, we observed increased syringyl-to-guaiacyl lignin ratios in the transgenic wood samples, regardless of the promoter used or gene origin. Our results confirmed that the coniferaldehyde 5-hydroxylase gene is key to syringyl lignin biosynthesis. The outcomes of this research should be readily applicable to other pulpwood species, and promise to bring direct economic and environmental benefits to the pulp and paper industry.

  14. Characterization of the Protease Activity of Detergents: Laboratory Practicals for Studying the Protease Profile and Activity of Various Commercial Detergents

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Valls, Cristina; Pujadas, Gerard; Garcia-Vallve, Santi; Mulero, Miquel

    2011-01-01

    Detergent enzymes account for about 30% of the total worldwide production of enzymes and are one of the largest and most successful applications of modern industrial biotechnology. Proteases can improve the wash performance of household, industrial, and institutional laundry detergents used to remove protein-based stains such as blood, grass, body…

  15. A novel method to determine residual detergent in biological samples post endotoxin reduction treatment and evaluation of strategies for subsequent detergent removal.

    PubMed

    London, Anne Serdakowski; Japutra, Chietara; Planck, Kyle; Lihon, Michael; Nguyen, Andrew Anh

    2016-08-01

    Endotoxin removal using detergent washes and extractions are well-established, efficient, and cost-effective methods; however, removing residual detergent post treatment has been shown to be a challenge. In this communication, we show a simple and fast method for determining the detergent concentration in a protein solution post treatment and highlight strategies for detergent removal to achieve levels below the critical micelle concentration (CMC), the minimum concentration at which detergent micelles form. PMID:26627559

  16. Phenolic compounds in ectomycorrhizal interaction of lignin modified silver birch

    PubMed Central

    Sutela, Suvi; Niemi, Karoliina; Edesi, Jaanika; Laakso, Tapio; Saranpää, Pekka; Vuosku, Jaana; Mäkelä, Riina; Tiimonen, Heidi; Chiang, Vincent L; Koskimäki, Janne; Suorsa, Marja; Julkunen-Tiitto, Riitta; Häggman, Hely

    2009-01-01

    Background The monolignol biosynthetic pathway interconnects with the biosynthesis of other secondary phenolic metabolites, such as cinnamic acid derivatives, flavonoids and condensed tannins. The objective of this study is to evaluate whether genetic modification of the monolignol pathway in silver birch (Betula pendula Roth.) would alter the metabolism of these phenolic compounds and how such alterations, if exist, would affect the ectomycorrhizal symbiosis. Results Silver birch lines expressing quaking aspen (Populus tremuloides L.) caffeate/5-hydroxyferulate O-methyltransferase (PtCOMT) under the 35S cauliflower mosaic virus (CaMV) promoter showed a reduction in the relative expression of a putative silver birch COMT (BpCOMT) gene and, consequently, a decrease in the lignin syringyl/guaiacyl composition ratio. Alterations were also detected in concentrations of certain phenolic compounds. All PtCOMT silver birch lines produced normal ectomycorrhizas with the ectomycorrhizal fungus Paxillus involutus (Batsch: Fr.), and the formation of symbiosis enhanced the growth of the transgenic plants. Conclusion The down-regulation of BpCOMT in the 35S-PtCOMT lines caused a reduction in the syringyl/guaiacyl ratio of lignin, but no significant effect was seen in the composition or quantity of phenolic compounds that would have been caused by the expression of PtCOMT under the 35S or UbB1 promoter. Moreover, the detected alterations in the composition of lignin and secondary phenolic compounds had no effect on the interaction between silver birch and P. involutus. PMID:19788757

  17. Characterization of electrospun lignin based carbon fibers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Poursorkhabi, Vida; Mohanty, Amar; Misra, Manjusri

    2015-05-01

    The production of lignin fibers has been studied in order to replace the need for petroleum based precursors for carbon fiber production. In addition to its positive environmental effects, it also benefits the economics of the industries which cannot take advantage of carbon fiber properties because of their high price. A large amount of lignin is annually produced as the byproduct of paper and growing cellulosic ethanol industry. Therefore, finding high value applications for this low cost, highly available material is getting more attention. Lignin is a biopolymer making about 15 - 30 % of the plant cell walls and has a high carbon yield upon carbonization. However, its processing is challenging due to its low molecular weight and also variations based on its origin and the method of separation from cellulose. In this study, alkali solutions of organosolv lignin with less than 1 wt/v% of poly (ethylene oxide) and two types of lignin (hardwood and softwood) were electrospun followed by carbonization. Different heating programs for carbonization were tested. The carbonized fibers had a smooth surface with an average diameter of less than 5 µm and the diameter could be controlled by the carbonization process and lignin type. Scanning electron microscopy (SEM) was used to study morphology of the fibers before and after carbonization. Thermal conductivity of a sample with amorphous carbon was 2.31 W/m.K. The electrospun lignin carbon fibers potentially have a large range of application such as in energy storage devices and water or gas purification systems.

  18. Characterization of asparagus lignin by HPLC.

    PubMed

    Jaramillo-Carmona, S; Fuentes-Alventosa, J M; Rodríguez-Gutiérrez, G; Waldron, K W; Smith, A C; Guillén-Bejarano, R; Fernández-Bolaños, J; Jiménez-Araujo, A; Rodríguez-Arcos, R

    2008-09-01

    Lignin is the cell wall component most frequently associated with hardening. Its characterization and quantification are very important to understand the biochemical modifications related to the changes in texture of vegetables such as asparagus (Asparagus officinalis), in which this organoleptic attribute is a very important quality factor. In this study, asparagus lignin from the basal sections of fresh and stored spears was analyzed using 2 methods, the traditional (Klason lignin) and the recently developed derivatization, followed by reductive cleavage (DFRC) method. The latter is a simple and reproducible technique for lignin characterization based on a degradation procedure that produces analyzable monomers and dimers by cleaving alpha- and beta-aryl ethers in lignins. The primary monomers derived from DFRC degradation of lignins are essentially p-coumaryl peracetate, coniferyl peracetate, and sinapyl peracetate. To evaluate the efficiency of the DFRC method, our investigations have been carried on distinct sample types, including wood (data not shown), straw, and asparagus samples. The results have confirmed that lignin composition is affected by plant nature. It has been found that whereas wood samples mostly contain coniferyl units, plant foods, such as straw and asparagus, contain both coniferyl and guaiacyl units. PMID:18803697

  19. Challenging/interesting lignin times

    DOE PAGES

    Ragauskas, Arthur J.

    2016-08-31

    Anyone who is working in the fuels industry knows that we are living in challenging times. On a personal note, I recall that ~5 years ago, some of my children's friends headed out into the petroleum industry to start their careers and several have now returned because of the retrenching work force. Despite these challenging times, the cellulosic ethanol industry continues to develop commercial operations, but with today's cost structure, biofuels production facilities have certainly slowed their pace of development and roll-out. Furthermore, the biological technology platform for biorefining plant polysaccharides to biofuels has been reported to have an intrinsicmore » advantage, if it can convert its waste lignin stream to value-added components.[1]« less

  20. Microwave-Assisted γ-Valerolactone Production for Biomass Lignin Extraction: A Cascade Protocol.

    PubMed

    Tabasso, Silvia; Grillo, Giorgio; Carnaroglio, Diego; Calcio Gaudino, Emanuela; Cravotto, Giancarlo

    2016-01-01

    The general need to slow the depletion of fossil resources and reduce carbon footprints has led to tremendous effort being invested in creating "greener" industrial processes and developing alternative means to produce fuels and synthesize platform chemicals. This work aims to design a microwave-assisted cascade process for a full biomass valorisation cycle. GVL (γ-valerolactone), a renewable green solvent, has been used in aqueous acidic solution to achieve complete biomass lignin extraction. After lignin precipitation, the levulinic acid (LA)-rich organic fraction was hydrogenated, which regenerated the starting solvent for further biomass delignification. This process does not requires a purification step because GVL plays the dual role of solvent and product, while the reagent (LA) is a product of biomass delignification. In summary, this bio-refinery approach to lignin extraction is a cascade protocol in which the solvent loss is integrated into the conversion cycle, leading to simplified methods for biomass valorisation. PMID:27023511

  1. Tonoplast of Beta vulgaris L. contains detergent-resistant membrane microdomains.

    PubMed

    Ozolina, Natalia V; Nesterkina, Irina S; Kolesnikova, Ekaterina V; Salyaev, Ryurik K; Nurminsky, Vadim N; Rakevich, Alexander L; Martynovich, Evgueni F; Chernyshov, Michael Yu

    2013-03-01

    The experiments conducted on tonoplast of Beta vulgaris L. roots were performed to identify detergent-resistant lipid-protein microdomains (DRMs, interpreted as lipid rafts).The presence of DRMs can be found when dynamic clustering of sphingolipids, sterols, saturated fatty acids is registered, and the insolubility of these microdomains in nonionic detergents at low temperatures is proven. The elucidation of tonoplast microdomains has been based on results obtained with the aid of high-speed centrifuging in the sucrose gradient. The experiments have shown that tonoplast microdomains are rich in sphingolipids, free sterols and saturated fatty acids (such a lipid content is also typical of lipid-protein microdomains of other membranes), while only few phospholipids are present in tonoplast microdomains. The presence of microdomains has been confirmed by fluorescence and confocal microscopy using filipin and Laurdan as fluorescent probes. The experiments with Laurdan have shown that tonoplast microdomains are characterized by a high order compared to characteristics of the rest of the tonoplast. Thus, the presence of detergent-resistant lipid-protein microdomains in the tonoplast has been demonstrated.

  2. Susceptibility of biofilm Escherichia coli, Salmonella Enteritidis and Staphylococcus aureus to detergents and sanitizers.

    PubMed

    Ueda, Shigeko; Kuwabara, Yoshihiro

    2007-12-01

    This study was conducted to investigate the susceptibility of the biofilm cells of Escherichia coli O157, Salmonella Enteritidis, and Staphylococcus aureus to some cleaning detergents and sanitizers. No weakly acidic, neutral, and weakly alkaline detergent could remove the biofilm bacteria from stainless steel chips at commonly used concentrations recommended by manufacturers. Among sanitizers, sodium hypochlorite did not completely inactivate any biofilm bacteria at active chlorine concentrations of 25 to 200 microg/ml. Benzalkonium chloride, alkyldiaminoethyl glycine hydrochloride, chlorhexidine digluconate, and polyhexamethylenebiganide inactivated the great majority of E. coli and S. Enteritidis at commonly used concentrations, but did not inactivate S. aureus effectively enough. The biofilm S. aureus population was shown to be more tolerant than the E. coli and/or S. Enteritidis populations to the sanitizers. PMID:18198721

  3. Lignin Sensor Based On Flash-Pyrolysis Mass Spectrometry

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kwack, Eug Y.; Lawson, Daniel D.; Shakkottai, Parthasarathy

    1990-01-01

    New lignin sensor takes only few minutes to measure lignin content of specimen of wood, pulp, paper, or similar material. Includes flash pyrolizer and ion-trap detector that acts as mass spectrometer. Apparatus measures amount of molecular fragments of lignin in pyrolysis products of samples. Helpful in controlling digestors in paper mills to maintain required lignin content, and also in bleaching plants, where good control of bleaching becomes possible if quick determination of lignin content made.

  4. Interactions of myelin basic protein with mixed dodecylphosphocholine/palmitoyllysophosphatidic acid micelles

    SciTech Connect

    Mendz, G.L. ); Brown, L.R. ); Martenson, R.E. )

    1990-03-06

    The interactions of myelin basic protein and peptides derived from it with detergent micelles of lysophosphatidylglycerol, lysophosphatidylserine, palmitoyllysophosphatidic acid, and sodium lauryl sulfate, and with mixed micelles of the neutral detergent dodecylphosphocholine and the negatively charged detergent palmitoyllysophosphatidic acid, were investigated by {sup 1}H NMR spectroscopy and circular dichroic spectropolarimetry. The results with single detergents suggested that there are discrete interaction sites in the protein molecule for neutral and anionic detergent micelles and that at least some of these sites are different for each type of detergent. The data on the binding of the protein and peptides to mixed detergent micelles suggested that intramolecular interactions in the intact protein and in one of the longer peptides limited the formation of helices and also that a balance between hydrophobic and ionic forces is achieved in the interactions of the peptides with the detergents. At high detergent/protein molar ratios, hydrophobic interactions appeared to be favored.

  5. Solubilization of human erythrocyte membranes by ASB detergents.

    PubMed

    Domingues, C C; Malheiros, S V P; Paula, E de

    2008-09-01

    Understanding the membrane solubilization process and finding effective solubilizing agents are crucial challenges in biochemical research. Here we report results on the interaction of the novel linear alkylamido propyl dimethyl amino propanosulfonate detergents, ASB-14 and ASB-16, with human erythrocyte membranes. An estimation of the critical micelle concentration of these zwitterionic detergents (ASB-14 = 100 microM and ASB-16 = 10 microM) was obtained using electron paramagnetic resonance. The amount of proteins and cholesterol solubilized from erythrocytes by these detergents was then determined. The hemolytic activities of the ASB detergents were assayed and the detergent/lipid molar ratios for the onset of hemolysis (Re sat) and total lysis (Re sol) were calculated, allowing the determination of the membrane binding constants (Kb). ASB-14 presented lower membrane affinity (Kb = 7050 M(-1)) than ASB-16 (Kb = 15610 M(-1)). The amount of proteins and cholesterol solubilized by both ASB detergents was higher while Re sat values (0.22 and 0.08 detergent/lipid for ASB-14 and ASB-16, respectively) were smaller than those observed with the classic detergents CHAPS and Triton X-100. These results reveal that, besides their well-known use as membrane protein solubilizers to enhance the resolution of two dimensional electrophoresis/mass spectrometry, ASB-14 and ASB-16 are strong hemolytic agents. We propose that the physicochemical properties of ASB detergents determine their membrane disruption efficiency and can help to explain the improvement in the solubilization of membrane proteins, as reported in the literature.

  6. Solvent/detergent plasma: pharmaceutical characteristics and clinical experience.

    PubMed

    Liumbruno, Giancarlo Maria; Franchini, Massimo

    2015-01-01

    The solvent/detergent treatment is an established virus inactivation technology that has been industrially applied for manufacturing plasma derived medicinal products for almost 30 years. Solvent/detergent plasma is a pharmaceutical product with standardised content of clotting factors, devoid of antibodies implicated in transfusion-related acute lung injury pathogenesis, and with a very high level of decontamination from transfusion-transmissible infectious agents. Many clinical studies have confirmed its safety and efficacy in the setting of congenital as well as acquired bleeding disorders. This narrative review will focus on the pharmaceutical characteristics of solvent/detergent plasma and the clinical experience with this blood product.

  7. Effect of synthetic detergents on germination of fern spores

    SciTech Connect

    Devi, Y.; Devi, S.

    1986-12-01

    Synthetic detergents constitute one of the most important water pollutants by contaminating the lakes and rivers through domestic and industrial use. Considerable information is now available for the adverse effects of detergents an aquatic fauna including fish, algae, and higher aquatic plants. Marked inhibition of germination in orchids and brinjals and of seedlings growth in raddish suggest that rapidly growing systems could be sensitive to detergent polluted water. The present study of the effect of linear alkyl benzene sulphonate on germination of the spores of a fern, Diplazium esculentum aims at the understanding of the effects of water pollution on pteridophytes and the development of spore germination assay for phytoxicity evaluation.

  8. Electrical lysis of cells for detergent-free droplet assays

    PubMed Central

    Tran, T. M.; Abate, A. R.

    2016-01-01

    Efficient lysis is critical when analyzing single cells in microfluidic droplets, but existing methods utilize detergents that can interfere with the assays to be performed. We demonstrate robust cell lysis without the use of detergents or other chemicals. In our method, cells are exposed to electric field immediately before encapsulation in droplets, resulting in cell lysis. We characterize lysis efficiency as a function of control parameters and demonstrate compatibility with enzymatic assays by measuring the catalysis of β-glucosidase, an important cellulase used in the conversion of biomass to biofuel. Our method enables assays in microfluidic droplets that are incompatible with detergents. PMID:27051471

  9. Electrical lysis of cells for detergent-free droplet assays.

    PubMed

    de Lange, N; Tran, T M; Abate, A R

    2016-03-01

    Efficient lysis is critical when analyzing single cells in microfluidic droplets, but existing methods utilize detergents that can interfere with the assays to be performed. We demonstrate robust cell lysis without the use of detergents or other chemicals. In our method, cells are exposed to electric field immediately before encapsulation in droplets, resulting in cell lysis. We characterize lysis efficiency as a function of control parameters and demonstrate compatibility with enzymatic assays by measuring the catalysis of β-glucosidase, an important cellulase used in the conversion of biomass to biofuel. Our method enables assays in microfluidic droplets that are incompatible with detergents. PMID:27051471

  10. Sequestration and Transport of Lignin Monomeric Precursors

    SciTech Connect

    Liu, C.J.; Miao, Y.-C.; Zhang, K.-W.

    2011-01-18

    Lignin is the second most abundant terrestrial biopolymer after cellulose. It is essential for the viability of vascular plants. Lignin precursors, the monolignols, are synthesized within the cytosol of the cell. Thereafter, these monomeric precursors are exported into the cell wall, where they are polymerized and integrated into the wall matrix. Accordingly, transport of monolignols across cell membranes is a critical step affecting deposition of lignin in the secondarily thickened cell wall. While the biosynthesis of monolignols is relatively well understood, our knowledge of sequestration and transport of these monomers is sketchy. In this article, we review different hypotheses on monolignol transport and summarize the recent progresses toward the understanding of the molecular mechanisms underlying monolignol sequestration and transport across membranes. Deciphering molecular mechanisms for lignin precursor transport will support a better biotechnological solution to manipulate plant lignification for more efficient agricultural and industrial applications of cell wall biomass.

  11. Computational Design of Lignin Depolymerization Catalysts

    SciTech Connect

    Kim, S.; Chmely, S. C.; Sturgeon, M.; Katahira, R.; Paton, R. S.; Beckham, G. T.

    2012-01-01

    Lignin is a major component of plant cell walls that is typically underutilized in selective conversion strategies for renewable fuels and chemicals. The mechanisms by which thermal and catalytic treatments deconstruct lignin remain elusive, for which quantum mechanical calculations can offer fundamental insights. In this work, a computational approach has been used to elucidate the reductive deconstruction pathway of a ruthenium-catalyzed system. Transition states have been computed to determine the rate-limiting steps for a catalyst that cleaves arylether linkages. Our calculations are supported by experimental synthesis and kinetic and thermodynamic measurements of the deconstruction of model lignin dimers by a ruthenium catalyst with the ultimate objective of designing new catalysts to eventually utilize lignin in biorefineries.

  12. Characterization of the protease activity of detergents: laboratory practicals for studying the protease profile and activity of various commercial detergents.

    PubMed

    Valls, Cristina; Pujadas, Gerard; Garcia-Vallve, Santi; Mulero, Miquel

    2011-07-01

    Detergent enzymes account for about 30% of the total worldwide production of enzymes and are one of the largest and most successful applications of modern industrial biotechnology. Proteases can improve the wash performance of household, industrial, and institutional laundry detergents used to remove protein-based stains such as blood, grass, body fluids, and food soils. This article describes two easy and cheap laboratory exercises to study the presence, profile, and basic enzymology of detergent proteases. These laboratory practicals are based on the determination of the detergent protease activity of various commercial detergents using the N-succinyl-L-alanyl-L-alanyl-L-prolyl-L-phenylalanine p-nitroanilide method and the bovine serum albumin degradation capacity. Students are also required to elucidate the enzymatic subtype of detergent proteases by studying the inhibitory potential of several types of protease inhibitors revealed by the same experimental methodology. Additionally, the results of the exercises can be used to provide additional insights on elementary enzymology by studying the influence of several important parameters on protease activity such as temperature (in this article) and the influence of pH and effects of surfactants and oxidizers (proposed). Students also develop laboratory skills, problem-solving capacities, and the ability to write a laboratory report. The exercises are mainly designed for an advanced undergraduate project in the biochemistry and biotechnology sciences. Globally, these laboratory practicals show students the biotechnological applications of proteases in the detergent industry and also reinforce important enzymology concepts.

  13. Enzymes, detergents and skin: facts and fantasies.

    PubMed

    Basketter, D A; English, J S C; Wakelin, S H; White, I R

    2008-06-01

    In their raw state, enzymes of bacterial/fungal origin cause allergic reactions in the lung. Proteolytic enzymes also cause irritation to skin, eyes and the respiratory tract. For 40 years, encapsulated enzymes have been used worldwide in detergent products, especially laundry formulations, and have increasing importance due to biodegradability and functionality at low temperatures, offering environmental benefits. Uniquely to the U.K., for years it has been suggested that the inclusion of enzymes in such products leads to adverse skin reactions, including erythema, pruritus and exacerbation of eczema. In this review, we look at the facts, asking whether there is evidence that the hazards identified for enzymes translate into any risk for consumer health. By considering the actual exposures in consumer use and exaggerated product usage, it is concluded that the irritating and allergenic hazards of enzyme raw materials do not translate into a risk of skin reactions, either irritant or allergic. Investigations of numerous individuals with skin complaints attributed to laundry products demonstrate convincingly that enzymes were not responsible. Indeed, enzyme-containing laundry products have an extensive history of safe use. Thus, the supposed adverse effects of enzymes on skin seem to be a consequence of a mythology. The important practical lesson is that when primary or secondary care practitioners are presented with a skin complaint, it should not be dismissed as a result of using an enzyme-containing laundry product as the diagnosis will certainly lie elsewhere. Education for healthcare professionals could usefully be enhanced to take this on board.

  14. Structural Basis of Stereospecificity in the Bacterial Enzymatic Cleavage of β-Aryl Ether Bonds in Lignin.

    PubMed

    Helmich, Kate E; Pereira, Jose Henrique; Gall, Daniel L; Heins, Richard A; McAndrew, Ryan P; Bingman, Craig; Deng, Kai; Holland, Keefe C; Noguera, Daniel R; Simmons, Blake A; Sale, Kenneth L; Ralph, John; Donohue, Timothy J; Adams, Paul D; Phillips, George N

    2016-03-01

    Lignin is a combinatorial polymer comprising monoaromatic units that are linked via covalent bonds. Although lignin is a potential source of valuable aromatic chemicals, its recalcitrance to chemical or biological digestion presents major obstacles to both the production of second-generation biofuels and the generation of valuable coproducts from lignin's monoaromatic units. Degradation of lignin has been relatively well characterized in fungi, but it is less well understood in bacteria. A catabolic pathway for the enzymatic breakdown of aromatic oligomers linked via β-aryl ether bonds typically found in lignin has been reported in the bacterium Sphingobium sp. SYK-6. Here, we present x-ray crystal structures and biochemical characterization of the glutathione-dependent β-etherases, LigE and LigF, from this pathway. The crystal structures show that both enzymes belong to the canonical two-domain fold and glutathione binding site architecture of the glutathione S-transferase family. Mutagenesis of the conserved active site serine in both LigE and LigF shows that, whereas the enzymatic activity is reduced, this amino acid side chain is not absolutely essential for catalysis. The results include descriptions of cofactor binding sites, substrate binding sites, and catalytic mechanisms. Because β-aryl ether bonds account for 50-70% of all interunit linkages in lignin, understanding the mechanism of enzymatic β-aryl ether cleavage has significant potential for informing ongoing studies on the valorization of lignin.

  15. Structural Basis of Stereospecificity in the Bacterial Enzymatic Cleavage of β-Aryl Ether Bonds in Lignin*

    PubMed Central

    Helmich, Kate E.; Pereira, Jose Henrique; Gall, Daniel L.; Heins, Richard A.; McAndrew, Ryan P.; Bingman, Craig; Deng, Kai; Holland, Keefe C.; Noguera, Daniel R.; Simmons, Blake A.; Sale, Kenneth L.; Ralph, John; Donohue, Timothy J.; Adams, Paul D.; Phillips, George N.

    2016-01-01

    Lignin is a combinatorial polymer comprising monoaromatic units that are linked via covalent bonds. Although lignin is a potential source of valuable aromatic chemicals, its recalcitrance to chemical or biological digestion presents major obstacles to both the production of second-generation biofuels and the generation of valuable coproducts from lignin's monoaromatic units. Degradation of lignin has been relatively well characterized in fungi, but it is less well understood in bacteria. A catabolic pathway for the enzymatic breakdown of aromatic oligomers linked via β-aryl ether bonds typically found in lignin has been reported in the bacterium Sphingobium sp. SYK-6. Here, we present x-ray crystal structures and biochemical characterization of the glutathione-dependent β-etherases, LigE and LigF, from this pathway. The crystal structures show that both enzymes belong to the canonical two-domain fold and glutathione binding site architecture of the glutathione S-transferase family. Mutagenesis of the conserved active site serine in both LigE and LigF shows that, whereas the enzymatic activity is reduced, this amino acid side chain is not absolutely essential for catalysis. The results include descriptions of cofactor binding sites, substrate binding sites, and catalytic mechanisms. Because β-aryl ether bonds account for 50–70% of all interunit linkages in lignin, understanding the mechanism of enzymatic β-aryl ether cleavage has significant potential for informing ongoing studies on the valorization of lignin. PMID:26637355

  16. Structural basis of stereospecificity in the bacterial enzymatic cleavage of β-aryl ether bonds in lignin

    DOE PAGES

    Helmich, Kate E.; Pereira, Jose Henrique; Gall, Daniel L.; Heins, Richard A.; McAndrew, Ryan P.; Bingman, Craig; Deng, Kai; Holland, Keefe C.; Noguera, Daniel R.; Simmons, Blake A.; et al

    2015-12-04

    Here, lignin is a combinatorial polymer comprising monoaromatic units that are linked via covalent bonds. Although lignin is a potential source of valuable aromatic chemicals, its recalcitrance to chemical or biological digestion presents major obstacles to both the production of second-generation biofuels and the generation of valuable coproducts from lignin's monoaromatic units. Degradation of lignin has been relatively well characterized in fungi, but it is less well understood in bacteria. A catabolic pathway for the enzymatic breakdown of aromatic oligomers linked via β-aryl ether bonds typically found in lignin has been reported in the bacterium Sphingobium sp. SYK-6. Here, wemore » present x-ray crystal structures and biochemical characterization of the glutathione-dependent β-etherases, LigE and LigF, from this pathway. The crystal structures show that both enzymes belong to the canonical two-domain fold and glutathione binding site architecture of the glutathione S-transferase family. Mutagenesis of the conserved active site serine in both LigE and LigF shows that, whereas the enzymatic activity is reduced, this amino acid side chain is not absolutely essential for catalysis. The results include descriptions of cofactor binding sites, substrate binding sites, and catalytic mechanisms. Because β-aryl ether bonds account for 50–70% of all interunit linkages in lignin, understanding the mechanism of enzymatic β-aryl ether cleavage has significant potential for informing ongoing studies on the valorization of lignin.« less

  17. Structural basis of stereospecificity in the bacterial enzymatic cleavage of β-aryl ether bonds in lignin

    SciTech Connect

    Helmich, Kate E.; Pereira, Jose Henrique; Gall, Daniel L.; Heins, Richard A.; McAndrew, Ryan P.; Bingman, Craig; Deng, Kai; Holland, Keefe C.; Noguera, Daniel R.; Simmons, Blake A.; Sale, Kenneth L.; Ralph, John; Donohue, Timothy J.; Adams, Paul D.; Phillips, George N.

    2015-12-04

    Here, lignin is a combinatorial polymer comprising monoaromatic units that are linked via covalent bonds. Although lignin is a potential source of valuable aromatic chemicals, its recalcitrance to chemical or biological digestion presents major obstacles to both the production of second-generation biofuels and the generation of valuable coproducts from lignin's monoaromatic units. Degradation of lignin has been relatively well characterized in fungi, but it is less well understood in bacteria. A catabolic pathway for the enzymatic breakdown of aromatic oligomers linked via β-aryl ether bonds typically found in lignin has been reported in the bacterium Sphingobium sp. SYK-6. Here, we present x-ray crystal structures and biochemical characterization of the glutathione-dependent β-etherases, LigE and LigF, from this pathway. The crystal structures show that both enzymes belong to the canonical two-domain fold and glutathione binding site architecture of the glutathione S-transferase family. Mutagenesis of the conserved active site serine in both LigE and LigF shows that, whereas the enzymatic activity is reduced, this amino acid side chain is not absolutely essential for catalysis. The results include descriptions of cofactor binding sites, substrate binding sites, and catalytic mechanisms. Because β-aryl ether bonds account for 50–70% of all interunit linkages in lignin, understanding the mechanism of enzymatic β-aryl ether cleavage has significant potential for informing ongoing studies on the valorization of lignin.

  18. Chemical factors that control lignin polymerization.

    PubMed

    Sangha, Amandeep K; Davison, Brian H; Standaert, Robert F; Davis, Mark F; Smith, Jeremy C; Parks, Jerry M

    2014-01-01

    Lignin is a complex, branched polymer that reinforces plant tissue. Understanding the factors that govern lignin structure is of central importance to the development of technologies for converting lignocellulosic biomass into fuels because lignin imparts resistance to chemical, enzymatic, and mechanical deconstruction. Lignin is formed by enzymatic oxidation of phenolic monomers (monolignols) of three main types, guaiacyl (G), syringyl (S), and p-hydroxyphenyl (H) subunits. It is known that increasing the relative abundance of H subunits results in lower molecular weight lignin polymers and hence more easily deconstructed biomass, but it is not known why. Here, we report an analysis of frontier molecular orbitals in mono-, di-, and trilignols, calculated using density functional theory, which points to a requirement of strong p-electron density on the reacting phenolic oxygen atom of the neutral precursor for enzymatic oxidation to occur. This model is consistent with a proton-coupled electron transfer (PCET) mechanism and for the first time explains why H subunits in certain linkages (β-β or β-5) react poorly and tend to "cap" the polymer. In general, β-5 linkages with either a G or H terminus are predicted to inhibit elongation. More broadly, the model correctly accounts for the reactivity of the phenolic groups in a diverse set of dilignols comprising H and G subunits. Thus, we provide a coherent framework for understanding the propensity toward growth or termination of different terminal subunits in lignin.

  19. Metagenomic scaffolds enable combinatorial lignin transformation

    PubMed Central

    Strachan, Cameron R.; Singh, Rahul; VanInsberghe, David; Ievdokymenko, Kateryna; Budwill, Karen; Mohn, William W.; Eltis, Lindsay D.; Hallam, Steven J.

    2014-01-01

    Engineering the microbial transformation of lignocellulosic biomass is essential to developing modern biorefining processes that alleviate reliance on petroleum-derived energy and chemicals. Many current bioprocess streams depend on the genetic tractability of Escherichia coli with a primary emphasis on engineering cellulose/hemicellulose catabolism, small molecule production, and resistance to product inhibition. Conversely, bioprocess streams for lignin transformation remain embryonic, with relatively few environmental strains or enzymes implicated. Here we develop a biosensor responsive to monoaromatic lignin transformation products compatible with functional screening in E. coli. We use this biosensor to retrieve metagenomic scaffolds sourced from coal bed bacterial communities conferring an array of lignin transformation phenotypes that synergize in combination. Transposon mutagenesis and comparative sequence analysis of active clones identified genes encoding six functional classes mediating lignin transformation phenotypes that appear to be rearrayed in nature via horizontal gene transfer. Lignin transformation activity was then demonstrated for one of the predicted gene products encoding a multicopper oxidase to validate the screen. These results illuminate cellular and community-wide networks acting on aromatic polymers and expand the toolkit for engineering recombinant lignin transformation based on ecological design principles. PMID:24982175

  20. Chemical factors that control lignin polymerization

    SciTech Connect

    Sangha, Amandeep K; Davison, Brian H; Standaert, Robert F; Davis, Dr. Mark F.; Smith, Jeremy C; Parks, Jerry M

    2014-01-01

    Lignin is a complex, branched polymer that reinforces plant tissue. Understanding the factors that govern lignin structure is of central importance to the development of technologies for converting lignocellulosic biomass into fuels because lignin imparts resistance to chemical, enzymatic and mechanical deconstruction. Lignin is formed by enzymatic oxidation of phenolic monomers (monolignols) of three main types, guaiacyl (G), syringyl (S) and p- hydroxyphenyl (H). It is known that increasing the relative abundance of H subunits results in lower molecular-weight lignin polymers, and hence more easily deconstructed biomass, but it is not known why. Here, we report an analysis of frontier molecular orbitals in mono-, di- and trilignols, calculated using density functional theory, which points to a requirement of strong p- electron density on the reacting phenolic oxygen atom of the neutral precursor for enzymatic oxidation to occur. This model is consistent with a proton-coupled electron transfer (PCET) mechanism and for the first time explains why H subunits in certain linkages ( - or -5) react poorly and tend to cap the polymer. In general, -5 linkages with either a G or H terminus are predicted to inhibit elongation. More broadly, the model correctly accounts for the reactivity of the phenolic groups in a diverse set of dilignols comprising H and G subunits. Thus, we provide a coherent framework for understanding the propensity toward growth or termination of different terminal subunits in lignin.

  1. Nutritional, fatty acid and triacylglycerol profiles of Castanea sativa Mill. cultivars: a compositional and chemometric approach.

    PubMed

    Barreira, João C M; Casal, Susana; Ferreira, Isabel C F R; Oliveira, M Beatriz P P; Pereira, José Alberto

    2009-04-01

    Four Portuguese chestnut cultivars from the "Castanha da Terra Fria" protected designation of origin were selected: Aveleira, Boa Ventura, Judia and Longal. The nutritional parameters (moisture, fat, protein, carbohydrates, ash and energy) as well as fibers (neutral detergent fiber, acid detergent fiber, acid detergent lignin and cellulose) were characterized. Moisture was the major component followed by carbohydrates, protein and fat, resulting in an energetic value lower than 195 kcal/100 g of fresh fruit. In order to find significant differences among cultivars, the lipidic fraction was studied in detail. Fatty acids (FA) were determined by gas-liquid chromatography with flame ionization detection, revealing a clear prevalence of C18:1 and C18:2, two FA very well-known due to their beneficial effects on human health, e.g., in the prevention of cardiovascular diseases. A triacylglycerols (TAG) profile was obtained by reversed-phase high-performance liquid chromatography with evaporative light-scattering detection. TAG analysis is very important because it furnishes highly specific information due to genetic control of the stereospecific distribution of FA on the glycerol molecule. OLL, PLL, OOL and POL were the major compounds. As far as we know this is the first complete characterization of TAG in chestnut. The obtained data were screened through an analysis of variance (to evaluate the accuracy of the method as well as the uniformity of results for each cultivar) and a discriminant analysis (DA), which gave good results, once that, in some cases, the four cultivars were clustered in four individual groups, obtained through the definition of two DA dimensions.

  2. Mixing and Matching Detergents for Membrane Protein NMR Structure Determination

    SciTech Connect

    Columbus, Linda; Lipfert, Jan; Jambunathan, Kalyani; Fox, Daniel A.; Sim, Adelene Y.L.; Doniach, Sebastian; Lesley, Scott A.

    2009-10-21

    One major obstacle to membrane protein structure determination is the selection of a detergent micelle that mimics the native lipid bilayer. Currently, detergents are selected by exhaustive screening because the effects of protein-detergent interactions on protein structure are poorly understood. In this study, the structure and dynamics of an integral membrane protein in different detergents is investigated by nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) and electron paramagnetic resonance (EPR) spectroscopy and small-angle X-ray scattering (SAXS). The results suggest that matching of the micelle dimensions to the protein's hydrophobic surface avoids exchange processes that reduce the completeness of the NMR observations. Based on these dimensions, several mixed micelles were designed that improved the completeness of NMR observations. These findings provide a basis for the rational design of mixed micelles that may advance membrane protein structure determination by NMR.

  3. Laundry detergents and skin irritancy--a comprehensive review.

    PubMed

    Crawford, Charles; Zirwas, Matthew J

    2014-01-01

    Surface-active agents (surfactants) form the foundation of an effective detergent formulation. As such, surfactants are a major component of laundry detergents. Depending on multiple factors, the amount of residual detergent surfactants in clothing after washing varies but may be sufficient to elicit skin irritation in susceptible individuals and in patients with existing dermatologic disorders. The goal of this review is to examine the relationship between surfactants commonly used in laundry detergent formulations and their potential for skin irritancy. In this context, the role of surfactants in achieving broad-spectrum cleaning performance in laundry is discussed, and currently available methodologies to evaluate and measure the effect of surfactant exposure on the skin are reviewed.

  4. Development of a tactile sensor for evaluation of detergents

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tsuchimi, Daisuke; Tanaka, Mami

    2007-12-01

    This paper is concerned with the development of a tactile sensor using PVDF (Polyvinylidene Fluoride) film as a receptor of the sensor to evaluate a detergent. Tactile sense is the most important sense in the sensation receptor of the human body along with eyesight. When the dish which washed cleanly is rubbed with a finger of human, good tactile sense and sound (vibration signal) like "Kyu-kyu" are obtained. From this tactile sense and sound, we judge that a dish becomes squeaky-clean. This tactile sense and sound are evaluation parameters when consumer selects a detergent. In this study, a tactile sensor using PVDF film as the receptor is fabricated. Sensory test of detergents was conducted. Measurement experiment by the sensor is carried out. Experiment results show that sensor output have good correlation with the result of human sensory test of detergent.

  5. Impact of detergent systems on bacterial survival on laundered fabrics.

    PubMed Central

    Jaska, J M; Fredell, D L

    1980-01-01

    The survival of Staphylococcus aureus was determined from inoculated swatches laundered in either a phosphate or a phosphate-substitute detergent. In a Plackett-Burman design study, the independent variables of detergent type, concentration, and variation, wash water temperature, soil load, cycle time, and water hardness were assigned high and low values. Wash water temperatures of 27, 38, 49, and 60 degrees C were employed. Viable bacteria were recovered from macerated swatches. Statistical analysis disclosed that there was no practical difference in the ability of phosphate or phosphate-substitute detergents to reduce the level of S. aureus on the laundered swatches in this controlled design. Analysis did reveal that water temperature was the most significant independent variables. The remaining variables did not appear to have any practical significance upon bacterial reduction. This bacteriological study did not evaluate other essential detergent properties. PMID:7377775

  6. Differential effects of detergents on keratinocyte gene expression.

    PubMed

    van Ruissen, F; Le, M; Carroll, J M; van der Valk, P G; Schalkwijk, J

    1998-04-01

    We have studied the effect of various detergents on keratinocyte gene expression in vitro, using an anionic detergent (sodium dodecyl sulfate), a cationic detergent cetyltrimethylammoniumbromide (CTAB), and two nonionic detergents, Nonidet P-40 and Tween-20. We measured the effect of these detergents on direct cellular toxicity (lactate dehydrogenase release), on the expression of markers for normal differentiation (cytokeratin 1 and involucrin expression), and on disturbed keratinocyte differentiation (SKALP) by northern blot analysis. As reported in other studies, large differences were noted in direct cellular toxicity. In a culture model that mimics normal epidermal differentiation we found that low concentrations of sodium dodecyl sulfate could induce the expression of SKALP, a proteinase inhibitor that is not normally expressed in human epidermis but is found in hyperproliferative skin. Sodium dodecyl sulfate caused upregulation of involucrin and downregulation of cytokeratin 1 expression, which is associated with the hyperproliferative/inflammatory epidermal phenotype found in psoriasis, wound healing, and skin irritation. These changes were not induced after treatment of cultures with CTAB, Triton X-100, and Nonidet-P40. This effect appeared to be specific for the class of anionic detergents because sodium dodecyl benzene sulfonate and sodium laurate also induced SKALP expression. These in vitro findings showed only a partial correlation with the potential of different detergents to induce clinical, biophysical, and cell biologic changes in vivo in human skin. Both sodium dodecyl sulfate and CTAB were found to cause induction and upregulation of SKALP and involucrin at low doses following a 24 h patch test, whereas high concentrations of Triton X-100 did not. Sodium dodecyl sulfate induced higher rates of transepidermal water loss, whereas CTAB treated skin showed more signs of cellular toxicity. We conclude that the action of anionic detergents on

  7. Lignin conversion: Opportunities and challenges for the integrated biorefinery

    DOE PAGES

    Xie, Shangxian; Ragauskas, Arthur J.; Yuan, Joshua S.

    2016-06-21

    The utilization of lignin for fungible fuels and products represents one of the most imminent challenges in the modern biorefinery because most of the bioprocesses for lignocellulosic biofuels results in a lignin-containing waste stream. Considering lignin's abundance and relatively high energy content, this waste stream can be used as a feedstock for value-added products to improve the sustainability and economic feasibility of the biorefinery. Bioconversion of lignin with microbes recently emerged as an alternative lignin-valorization approach with significant potential. Typically, the microbial bioconversion of lignin requires three major steps: lignin depolymerization, aromatic compounds catabolism, and target product biosynthesis. In thismore » review, we summarize the most recent advances in lignin bioconversion to address the challenges in each of the three steps. In conclusion, we further discuss strategies and perspectives for future research to address the challenges in bioconversion of lignin.« less

  8. Antioxidant activity of lignin phenolic compounds as by-product of pretreatment process of bioethanol production from empty fruits palm bunch

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Meliana, Y.; Setiawan, A. H.

    2016-02-01

    As by-product of pretreatment bioethanol production, ligno-cellulosic biomass creates an abundance of bioresidue. This work is devoted to studies the antioxidant activity of lignin that obtained from recovery process of bioethanol by-product. This by-product comes from pretreatment process of empty fruit palm bunch in acid (pH 2) and alkaline (pH 12) conditions. The samples of purified lignin were characterized by Fourier Transform Infrared (FTIR) and Particle Size Analyzer (PSA). Radical scavenging efficiency of lignin was examined by the 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) method using quercetin as a standard. The value of IC50 showed that the lignin that was purified in acid condition (pH 2) gave the activity value in antioxidant active range (IC50 sample Lignin pH 2 = 69.41), on the other hand the lignin that was purified in alkaline condition (Lignin pH 12) did not have the activity value as an antioxidant (IC50 sample Lignin pH 12 = NA).

  9. 40 CFR 80.156 - Liability for violations of the interim detergent program controls and prohibitions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... CFR part 79 registration, and must also accurately identify if the detergent, at that concentration... interim detergent program controls and prohibitions. 80.156 Section 80.156 Protection of Environment... Detergent Gasoline § 80.156 Liability for violations of the interim detergent program controls...

  10. 40 CFR 80.156 - Liability for violations of the interim detergent program controls and prohibitions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... CFR part 79 registration, and must also accurately identify if the detergent, at that concentration... interim detergent program controls and prohibitions. 80.156 Section 80.156 Protection of Environment... Detergent Gasoline § 80.156 Liability for violations of the interim detergent program controls...

  11. 40 CFR 80.156 - Liability for violations of the interim detergent program controls and prohibitions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... CFR part 79 registration, and must also accurately identify if the detergent, at that concentration... interim detergent program controls and prohibitions. 80.156 Section 80.156 Protection of Environment... Detergent Gasoline § 80.156 Liability for violations of the interim detergent program controls...

  12. EFFECT OF DETERGENT ON ELECTRICAL PROPERTIES OF SQUID AXON MEMBRANE.

    PubMed

    KISHIMOTO, U; ADELMAN, W J

    1964-05-01

    The effects of detergents on squid giant axon action and resting potentials as well as membrane conductances in the voltage clamp have been studied. Anionic detergents (sodium lauryl sulfate, 0.1 to 1.0 mM; dimethyl benzene sulfonate, 1 to 20 mM, pH 7.6) cause a temporary increase and a later decrease of action potential height and the value of the resting potential. Cationic detergent (cetyl trimethyl ammonium chloride, 6 x 10(-5)M or more, pH 7.6) generally brings about immediate and irreversible decreases in the action and resting potentials. Non-ionic detergent (tween 80, 0.1 M, pH 7.6) causes a slight reversible reduction of action potential height without affecting the value of the resting potential. Both anionic and cationic detergents generally decrease the sodium and potassium conductances irreversibly. The effect of non-ionic detergent is to decrease the sodium conductance reversibly, leaving the potassium conductance almost unchanged.

  13. Laundry detergent compatibility of the alkaline protease from Bacillus cereus.

    PubMed

    Banik, Rathindra Mohan; Prakash, Monika

    2004-01-01

    The endogenous protease activity in various commercially available laundry detergents of international companies was studied. The maximum protease activity was found at 50 degrees C in pH range 10.5-11.0 in all the tested laundry detergents. The endogenous protease activity in the tested detergents retained up to 70% on incubation at 40 degrees C for 1 h, whereas less than 30% activity was only found on incubation at 50 degrees C for 1 h. The alkaline protease from an alkalophilic strain of Bacillus cereus was studied for its compatibility in commercial detergents. The cell free fermented broth from shake flask culture of the organism showed maximum activity at pH 10.5 and 50 degrees C. The protease from B. cereus showed much higher residual activity (more than 80%) on incubation with laundry detergents at 50 degrees C for 1 h or longer. The protease enzyme from B. cereus was found to be superior over the endogenous proteases present in the tested commercial laundry detergents in comparison to the enzyme stability during the washing at higher temperature, e.g., 40-50 degrees C.

  14. [Level of blood serum lipids in rats treated with detergents].

    PubMed

    Szymaniec, J; Trzeciak, H I; Machalska, H; Turczyński, B

    1977-01-01

    Male Wistar rats were treated intraperitoneally once per week for 12 weeks with following detergents: Olbrotol-18 (nonionic detergent), a product of etheric condensation of 18 moles of ethylene oxide to 1 mole of the mixture of olein alcohol and cetyl alkohol in ratio 1:1, in a dose of 10 mg/kg; SBO (anionic detergent), sodium 2-ethylhexylsulfosuccinate, in a dose of 10 mg/kg and Sterinol (cationic detergent), benzalkonium bromide, in a dose of 0.6 mg/kg. The control rats were injected with 0.9% saline solution. The content of total cholesterol, beta-lipoproteins and total lipids in serum were estimated. The increase of total cholesterol and the decrease of beta-lipoproteins content in serum of rats after all used detergents were observed as compared with the control. The increase of total lipid content only after long-term treatment with Olbrotol-18 was found. It is concluded that long term intraperitoneal treatment with detergents changes similarly the contents of total cholesterol and of beta-lipoproteins in blood serum of rats.

  15. Toxicity and detoxification of Swedish detergents and softener products.

    PubMed

    Pettersson, A; Adamsson, M; Dave, G

    2000-11-01

    Detergents and softeners are used in large quantities and some of their ingredients are highly toxic to aquatic organisms. In the present study the acute toxicity to Daphnia magna was determined for 26 detergents and five softener Swedish products. Only one of the detergents had a 48-h EC50 > 100 mg/l. The 48-h EC50 for the other 25 detergents ranged from 4 to 85 mg/l. The 48-h EC50 for the five softeners ranged from 15 to 166 mg/l. Detoxification tests, with and without inoculum of sewage organisms, showed that all tested products were detoxified to some extent after 16 days and that the rate of detoxification was considerably higher with addition of sewage organisms. Toxicity to D. magna of the detergents and softeners, and the biotic detoxification rate was correlated with the concentration of surfactants used in formulating the products (more surfactants increased toxicity and a slower rate of detoxification). These results emphasize the importance of biological purification of domestic wastewater containing detergents and a suggested development of less toxic and more easily degradable surfactants.

  16. A glucuronoyl esterase from Acremonium alcalophilum cleaves native lignin-carbohydrate ester bonds.

    PubMed

    Arnling Bååth, Jenny; Giummarella, Nicola; Klaubauf, Sylvia; Lawoko, Martin; Olsson, Lisbeth

    2016-08-01

    The Glucuronoyl esterases (GE) have been proposed to target lignin-carbohydrate (LC) ester bonds between lignin moieties and glucuronic acid side groups of xylan, but to date, no direct observations of enzymatic cleavage on native LC ester bonds have been demonstrated. In the present investigation, LCC fractions from spruce and birch were treated with a recombinantly produced GE originating from Acremonium alcalophilum (AaGE1). A combination of size exclusion chromatography and (31) P NMR analyses of phosphitylated LCC samples, before and after AaGE1 treatment provided the first evidence for cleavage of the LC ester linkages existing in wood. PMID:27397104

  17. Exploitation of hemicellulose, cellulose and lignin from Hesperaloe funifera.

    PubMed

    Sánchez, R; Rodríguez, A; García, J C; Rosal, A; Jiménez, L

    2011-01-01

    This work seeks the integral use of all major components of Hesperaloe funifera, separating hemicelluose by hydrothermal treatments; cellulose by pulping processes; and exploitation of lignin of pulping liquor by pyrolysis and gasification processes. By using sulfuric acid in the hydrothermal treatment (150-190 °C, 0-20 min after reaching operating temperature, 6-10 liquid/solid ratio, 0.1-0.5% sulfuric acid), the glucose and xylose of liquid fraction increase from 1.5% to 5.9%, and 4.0% to 12.4%, respectively; the yields of solid fraction decrease from 91.6% to 79.5%, and the lignin content increase from 23% to 32%. Pulps and paper sheets obtained from solid fractions hydrothermal treatments and from raw material pulped with diethanolamine, are worse than those obtained with soda-anthraquinone (Yield 57.8%; kappa number 24.9; Viscosity 711 mL/g; Brightness 54.8%; Tensile index 73.6 Nm/g; Stretch 2.84%; Burst index 6.13 kN/g and Tear index 1.69 mNm2/g). By acidification (pH 6) of soda pulping liquor it separate lignin-rich solids, which by pyrolysis gave a gas containing 1.13% H2, 31.79% CO and 1.86% CH4 by weight. Gasification of the same sample provided a gas containing 0.18% H2, 24.50% CO and 17.75% CH4.

  18. Effects of wastewater sludge and its detergents on the stability of rotavirus

    SciTech Connect

    Ward, R.L.; Ashley, C.S.

    1980-06-01

    Wastewater sludge reduced the heat required to inactivate rotavirus SA-11, and ionic detergents were identified as the sludge components responsible for this effect. A similar result was found previously with reovirus. The quantitative effects of individual ionic detergents on rotavirus and reovirus were very different, and rotavirus was found to be extremely sensitive to several of these detergents. However, neither virus was destabilized by nonionic detergents. On the contrary, rotavirus was stabilized by a nonionic detergent against the potent destabilizing effects of the ionic detergent sodium dodecyl sulfate. The destabilizing effects of both cationic and anionic detergents on rotavirus were greatly altered by changes in the pH of the medium.

  19. Characterization of electrospun lignin based carbon fibers

    SciTech Connect

    Poursorkhabi, Vida; Mohanty, Amar; Misra, Manjusri

    2015-05-22

    The production of lignin fibers has been studied in order to replace the need for petroleum based precursors for carbon fiber production. In addition to its positive environmental effects, it also benefits the economics of the industries which cannot take advantage of carbon fiber properties because of their high price. A large amount of lignin is annually produced as the byproduct of paper and growing cellulosic ethanol industry. Therefore, finding high value applications for this low cost, highly available material is getting more attention. Lignin is a biopolymer making about 15 – 30 % of the plant cell walls and has a high carbon yield upon carbonization. However, its processing is challenging due to its low molecular weight and also variations based on its origin and the method of separation from cellulose. In this study, alkali solutions of organosolv lignin with less than 1 wt/v% of poly (ethylene oxide) and two types of lignin (hardwood and softwood) were electrospun followed by carbonization. Different heating programs for carbonization were tested. The carbonized fibers had a smooth surface with an average diameter of less than 5 µm and the diameter could be controlled by the carbonization process and lignin type. Scanning electron microscopy (SEM) was used to study morphology of the fibers before and after carbonization. Thermal conductivity of a sample with amorphous carbon was 2.31 W/m.K. The electrospun lignin carbon fibers potentially have a large range of application such as in energy storage devices and water or gas purification systems.

  20. Copper- and Vanadium-Catalyzed Oxidative Cleavage of Lignin using Dioxygen.

    PubMed

    Mottweiler, Jakob; Puche, Marta; Räuber, Christoph; Schmidt, Thomas; Concepción, Patricia; Corma, Avelino; Bolm, Carsten

    2015-06-22

    Transition-metal-containing hydrotalcites (HTc) and V(acac)3 /Cu(NO3 )2 ⋅3 H2 O (acac=acetylacetonate) mixtures were tested for their catalytic activity in the cleavage of the lignin model compound erythro-1-(3,4-dimethoxyphenyl)-2-(2-methoxyphenoxy)-l,3-propanediol (1) with molecular oxygen as oxidant. Both catalytic systems displayed high activity and good selectivity and afforded veratric acid as the main product. The catalyst behavior was studied by EPR spectroscopy, XRD, and Raman spectroscopy. After the catalysts were established for the model system, lignin depolymerization studies were performed with various organsolv and kraft lignin sources. The oxidative depolymerization and lignin bond cleavage were monitored by gel permeation chromatography (GPC), MALDI MS, and 2D-NMR (HSQC). Irrespective of the lignin pretreatment, both HTc-Cu-V and V(acac)3 /Cu(NO3 )2 ⋅3 H2 O were able to cleave the β-O-4 linkages and the resinol structures to form dimeric and trimeric products. PMID:26013592

  1. Leucaena leucocephala (Lam.) de Wit., "subabul" stem lignin: Isolation, structural characterization and thermal properties.

    PubMed

    Yearla, Srinivasa Rao; Padmasree, Kollipara

    2016-06-01

    Lignin is the second most abundant renewable biopolymer on earth after cellulose. It is being used in many industrial applications due to its abundance. In the present study, lignin was isolated from the stems of Leucaena leucocephala (Lam.) de Wit., a high biomass yielding plant using acidic dioxane under N2 atmosphere. Structural characterization of isolated dioxane lignin (DL) was performed by analytical techniques: UV, FT-IR, ¹H NMR and ¹³C NMR. Their monolignol content was determined by nitrobenzene oxidation followed by HPLC-MS/MS analysis. The data was compared with commercial alkali lignin (AL). The results showed that DL is of hardwood guaiacyl-syringyl (GS) type, whereas AL is softwood type with more guaiacyl units and trace amounts of p-hydroxyphenyl units (H). Thermogravimetric analysis (TGA) of DL showed two stage thermal degradation profile similar to AL. The DTGmax for DL and AL were found in the second major loss event of second stage of TGA at 424°C and 404°C, respectively. Differential scanning calorimetry (DSC) study exhibited the glass transition temperatures (Tg) at 132°C and 122°C for DL and AL, respectively. The results from thermal stability studies suggest that dioxane lignin isolated from the "miracle tree" (subabul) can be exploited in various thermoplastic industrial applications. PMID:27468468

  2. Copper- and Vanadium-Catalyzed Oxidative Cleavage of Lignin using Dioxygen.

    PubMed

    Mottweiler, Jakob; Puche, Marta; Räuber, Christoph; Schmidt, Thomas; Concepción, Patricia; Corma, Avelino; Bolm, Carsten

    2015-06-22

    Transition-metal-containing hydrotalcites (HTc) and V(acac)3 /Cu(NO3 )2 ⋅3 H2 O (acac=acetylacetonate) mixtures were tested for their catalytic activity in the cleavage of the lignin model compound erythro-1-(3,4-dimethoxyphenyl)-2-(2-methoxyphenoxy)-l,3-propanediol (1) with molecular oxygen as oxidant. Both catalytic systems displayed high activity and good selectivity and afforded veratric acid as the main product. The catalyst behavior was studied by EPR spectroscopy, XRD, and Raman spectroscopy. After the catalysts were established for the model system, lignin depolymerization studies were performed with various organsolv and kraft lignin sources. The oxidative depolymerization and lignin bond cleavage were monitored by gel permeation chromatography (GPC), MALDI MS, and 2D-NMR (HSQC). Irrespective of the lignin pretreatment, both HTc-Cu-V and V(acac)3 /Cu(NO3 )2 ⋅3 H2 O were able to cleave the β-O-4 linkages and the resinol structures to form dimeric and trimeric products.

  3. Enzymatic aryl-O-methyl-/sup 14/C labeling of model lignin monomers

    SciTech Connect

    Frazer, A.C.; Bossert, I.; Young, L.Y.

    1986-01-01

    Aryl-O-methyl ethers are abundant in aerobic and anaerobic environments. In particular, lignin is composed of units of this type. Lignin monomers specifically radiolabeled in methoxy, side chain, and ring carbons have been synthesized by chemical procedures and are important in studies of lignin synthesis and degradation, humus formation, and microbial O-demethylation. In this paper attention is drawn to an enzymatic procedure for preparing O-methyl-/sup 14/C-labeled aromatic lignin monomers which has not previously been exploited in microbial ecology and physiology studies and which has several advantages compared with chemical synthesis procedures. O-(methyl-/sup 14/C)vanillic and O-(methyl-/sup 14/C)ferulic acids were prepared with S-(methyl-/sup 14/C)adenosyl-L-methionine as the methyl donor, using commercially obtained porcine liver catechol-O-methyltransferase (EC 2.1.1.6). The specific activity of the methylated products was the same as that of the methyl donor, a maximum of about 58 ..mu..Ci/..mu..mol, and the yields were 42% (vanillate) and 35% (ferulate). Thus lignin monomers are readily prepared as O-methylated products of the catechol-O-methyltransferase reaction and, with this enzyme method of preparation, would be more widely available than labeled compounds which require chemical synthesis.

  4. Encapsulated Laccases for the Room-Temperature Oxidation of Aromatics: Towards Synthetic Low-Molecular-Weight Lignins.

    PubMed

    Pistone, Lucia; Ottolina, Gianluca; De, Sudipta; Romero, Antonio A; Martins, Lígia O; Luque, Rafael

    2016-04-01

    A new approach for the encapsulation of laccases with enhanced activity and stability by biomimetic silica mineralisation is reported. A range of lignin model compounds, which includes syringol, syringyl acid, 4-vinylphenol, gallic acid, vanillic acid and guaiacol, was oxidised to lignin-type polymers by the silica-immobilised laccase systems at room temperature. The oxidation rate of the immobilised systems was lower than that of the free enzyme counterparts, but interesting products were observed with the new bio-catalytic materials, which showed reusability and good stability.

  5. Carbon-13 nuclear magnetic resonance analysis, lignin content and carbohydrate composition of humic substances from salt marsh estuaries

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Alberts, James J.; Hatcher, Patrick G.; Price, Mary T.; Filip, Zdenek

    13C nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy, CuO oxidation products of lignin and hydrolyzable carbohydrates were measured for fulvic and humic acids extracted from living and dead Spartina alterniflora and salt marsh sediments. With these methods, there was little evidence for early diagenetic alteration of the humic materials. No trends consistent for fulvic and humic acids were observed for either hydrolyzable carbohydrates or lignin derived phenols, and chemical measurements of these fractions did not agree with spectral estimates. Humic acids appear to contain secondary amide linkages typical of proteins and peptides.

  6. Detergent decellularization of heart valves for tissue engineering: toxicological effects of residual detergents on human endothelial cells.

    PubMed

    Cebotari, Serghei; Tudorache, Igor; Jaekel, Thomas; Hilfiker, Andres; Dorfman, Suzanne; Ternes, Waldemar; Haverich, Axel; Lichtenberg, Artur

    2010-03-01

    Detergents are powerful agents for tissue decellularization. Despite this, the high toxicity of detergent residua can be a major limitation. This study evaluated the efficacy of detergent removal from decellularized pulmonary valves (PVs) and the consequences of repopulation with human endothelial cells (HECs). Porcine PVs were treated with 1% sodium deoxycholate (SDC), group A; 1% sodium dodecyl sulfate (SDS), group B; and a mixture of 0.5% SDC/0.5% SDS, group C (n = 5 each). After each of 10 succeeding wash cycles (WCs), samples of the washing solution (WS) were analyzed by solid phase extraction and high performance liquid chromatography for the presence of detergents. Metabolic activity of HEC was also assessed in the WS samples (cytotoxicity and MTS assays). Decellularized and washed PVs were reseeded with HEC. Histological analysis demonstrated efficient tissue decellularization in all groups. Detergents' concentration in all WSs decreased exponentially and was below 50 mg/L after 6, 8, and 4 WCs in groups A, B, and C, respectively. This concentration resulted in no significant toxic influence on cell cultures, and scaffolds could be efficiently reseeded with HEC. In conclusion, intensive washing of detergent decellularized valvular scaffolds lowers the residual contamination below a hazardous threshold and allows their successful repopulation with HEC for tissue engineering purposes.

  7. Differential distribution of proteins and lipids in detergent-resistant and detergent-soluble domains in rod outer segment plasma membranes and disks

    PubMed Central

    Elliott, Michael H.; Nash, Zack A.; Takemori, Nobuaki; Fliesler, Steven J.; McClellan, Mark E.; Naash, Muna I.

    2009-01-01

    Membrane heterogeneity plays a significant role in regulating signal transduction and other cellular activities. We examined the protein and lipid components associated with the detergent-resistant membrane (DRM) fractions from retinal rod outer segment (ROS) disk and plasma membrane-enriched preparations. Proteomics and correlative western blot analysis revealed the presence of α and β subunits of the rod cGMP-gated ion channel and glucose transporter type 1, among other proteins. The glucose transporter was present exclusively in ROS plasma membrane (not disks) and was highly enriched in DRMs, as was the cGMP-gated channel β-subunit. In contrast, the majority of rod opsin and ATP-binding cassette transporter A4 was localized to detergent-soluble domains in disks. As expected, the cholesterol: fatty acid mole ratio was higher in DRMs than in the corresponding parent membranes (disk and plasma membranes, respectively) and was also higher in disks compared to plasma membranes. Furthermore, the ratio of saturated: polyunsaturated fatty acids was also higher in DRMs compared to their respective parent membranes (disk and plasma membranes). These results confirm that DRMs prepared from both disks and plasma membranes are enriched in cholesterol and in saturated fatty acids compared to their parent membranes. The dominant fatty acids in DRMs were 16: 0 and 18: 0; 22: 6n3 and 18: 1 levels were threefold higher and twofold lower, respectively, in disk-derived DRMs compared to plasma membrane-derived DRMs. We estimate, based on fatty acid recovery that DRMs account for only ~ 8% of disks and ~ 12% of ROS plasma membrane. PMID:17944869

  8. The comparative geochemistries of lignins and carbohydrates in an anoxic fjord

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hamilton, Susan E.; Hedges, John I.

    1988-01-01

    A reducing, varved sediment core and monthly (May-September) plankton and sediment trap samples from Saanich Inlet, B.C., Canada, were analyzed for their elemental, lignin and neutral sugar compositions. Total yields of lignin-derived phenols from both the sediment trap and core samples indicated less than 15% and 30%, respectively, of chemically recognizable vascular plant remains, derived predominantly from gymnosperm wood and nonwoody angiosperm tissues. The elevated vanillyl and syringyl acid/aldehyde ratios of this material compared to fresh plant material indicated that it suffered mild aerobic decomposition prior to introduction to the Inlet. Most of the remaining particular organic material was nitrogen-rich, carbohydrate-poor and apparently plankton-derived. Organic carbon, total nitrogen, and total neutral sugars and lignin phenols all exhibited decreasing concentrations with depth in a region of uniform varving (upper 15 cm) in the sediment core. All profiles exhibited particularly steep concentration decreases within the top 2 cm of sediment. First-order decay constants for all four chemical categories within the upper 14 cm of the core ranged between 0.1-0.2 yr -1. Neutral sugars were consistently the most reactive chemical class, accounting for roughly 15% of the total organic carbon turnover. Although lignin appeared to be degraded within the sediment core, this degradation was nonselective for different lignin types and did not lead to increased acid/aldehyde ratios as occur during aerobic lignin decomposition. Comparisons of the yields of individual neutral sugars from the sediment and sediment trap samples to those expected from the vascular plant component alone indicated that the vascular plant debris in the upper portion of the sediment core had lost a portion of its initial glucose, lyxose, and mannose. In contrast, rhamnose and fucose were produced by all samples in large excess of total yields expected for chemically intact vascular plant

  9. Biobutanediol-mediated liquefaction of empty fruit bunch saccharification residues to prepare lignin biopolyols.

    PubMed

    Lee, Jae Hoon; Lee, Eun Yeol

    2016-05-01

    Saccharification residue from empty fruit bunch (EFB) was liquefied with bio-butanediol to produce lignin biopolyols for the preparation of biopolyurethane. To substitute petroleum-derived polyhydric alcohols, butanediol isomers (1,4-butanediol, levo-2,3-bio-butanediol, and meso-2,3-bio-butanediol) or PEG#400-blended butanediol isomers were used as liquefaction solvents in the presence of sulfuric acid catalyst. Lignin biopolyols with a conversion of 63.3%, a hydroxyl number of 582.7 mg KOH/g and an acid number of 21.7 mg KOH/g were obtained under the optimal condition consisting of 25% biomass loading, 3% acid loading, and a temperature of 150°C for 120 min when liquefied with 1,4-butanediol/PEG#400 blended solvent (9/1, w/w). When the levo-2,3-bio-butanediol solvent was used in the absence of PEG#400, the highest conversion, 68.9%, was obtained. Lignin biopolyol-based biopolyurethanes were synthesized with toluene diisocyanate. FT-IR analysis revealed that EFB lignin biopolyols liquefied with bio-butanediols were suitable monomers for the preparation of biopolyurethane. PMID:26918835

  10. Biobutanediol-mediated liquefaction of empty fruit bunch saccharification residues to prepare lignin biopolyols.

    PubMed

    Lee, Jae Hoon; Lee, Eun Yeol

    2016-05-01

    Saccharification residue from empty fruit bunch (EFB) was liquefied with bio-butanediol to produce lignin biopolyols for the preparation of biopolyurethane. To substitute petroleum-derived polyhydric alcohols, butanediol isomers (1,4-butanediol, levo-2,3-bio-butanediol, and meso-2,3-bio-butanediol) or PEG#400-blended butanediol isomers were used as liquefaction solvents in the presence of sulfuric acid catalyst. Lignin biopolyols with a conversion of 63.3%, a hydroxyl number of 582.7 mg KOH/g and an acid number of 21.7 mg KOH/g were obtained under the optimal condition consisting of 25% biomass loading, 3% acid loading, and a temperature of 150°C for 120 min when liquefied with 1,4-butanediol/PEG#400 blended solvent (9/1, w/w). When the levo-2,3-bio-butanediol solvent was used in the absence of PEG#400, the highest conversion, 68.9%, was obtained. Lignin biopolyol-based biopolyurethanes were synthesized with toluene diisocyanate. FT-IR analysis revealed that EFB lignin biopolyols liquefied with bio-butanediols were suitable monomers for the preparation of biopolyurethane.

  11. Connecting Lignin-Degradation Pathway with Pre-Treatment Inhibitor Sensitivity of Cupriavidus necator

    SciTech Connect

    Wang, W.; Yang, S.; Hunsinger, G. B.; Pienkos, P. T.; Johnson, D. K.

    2014-05-27

    In order to produce lignocellulosic biofuels economically, the complete release of monomers from the plant cell wall components, cellulose, hemicellulose, and lignin, through pre-treatment and hydrolysis (both enzymatic and chemical), and the efficient utilization of these monomers as carbon sources, is crucial. In addition, the identification and development of robust microbial biofuel production strains that can tolerate the toxic compounds generated during pre-treatment and hydrolysis is also essential. In this work, Cupriavidus necator was selected due to its capabilities for utilizing lignin monomers and producing polyhydroxylbutyrate (PHB), a bioplastic as well as an advanced biofuel intermediate. We characterized the growth kinetics of C. necator in pre-treated corn stover slurry as well as individually in the pre-sence of 11 potentially toxic compounds in the saccharified slurry. We found that C. necator was sensitive to the saccharified slurry produced from dilute acid pre-treated corn stover. Five out of 11 compounds within the slurry were characterized as toxic to C. necator, namely ammonium acetate, furfural, hydroxymethylfurfural (HMF), benzoic acid, and p-coumaric acid. Aldehydes (e.g., furfural and HMF) were more toxic than the acetate and the lignin degradation products benzoic acid and p-coumaric acid; furfural was identified as the most toxic compound. Although toxic to C. necator at high concentration, ammonium acetate, benzoic acid, and p-coumaric acid could be utilized by C. necator with a stimulating effect on C. necator growth. Consequently, the lignin degradation pathway of C. necator was reconstructed based on genomic information and literature. The efficient conversion of intermediate catechol to downstream products of cis,cis-muconate or 2-hydroxymuconate-6-semialdehyde may help improve the robustness of C. necator to benzoic acid and p-coumaric acid as well as improve PHB productivity.

  12. Connecting lignin-degradation pathway with pre-treatment inhibitor sensitivity of Cupriavidus necator.

    PubMed

    Wang, Wei; Yang, Shihui; Hunsinger, Glendon B; Pienkos, Philip T; Johnson, David K

    2014-01-01

    To produce lignocellulosic biofuels economically, the complete release of monomers from the plant cell wall components, cellulose, hemicellulose, and lignin, through pre-treatment and hydrolysis (both enzymatic and chemical), and the efficient utilization of these monomers as carbon sources, is crucial. In addition, the identification and development of robust microbial biofuel production strains that can tolerate the toxic compounds generated during pre-treatment and hydrolysis is also essential. In this work, Cupriavidus necator was selected due to its capabilities for utilizing lignin monomers and producing polyhydroxylbutyrate (PHB), a bioplastic as well as an advanced biofuel intermediate. We characterized the growth kinetics of C. necator in pre-treated corn stover slurry as well as individually in the pre-sence of 11 potentially toxic compounds in the saccharified slurry. We found that C. necator was sensitive to the saccharified slurry produced from dilute acid pre-treated corn stover. Five out of 11 compounds within the slurry were characterized as toxic to C. necator, namely ammonium acetate, furfural, hydroxymethylfurfural (HMF), benzoic acid, and p-coumaric acid. Aldehydes (e.g., furfural and HMF) were more toxic than the acetate and the lignin degradation products benzoic acid and p-coumaric acid; furfural was identified as the most toxic compound. Although toxic to C. necator at high concentration, ammonium acetate, benzoic acid, and p-coumaric acid could be utilized by C. necator with a stimulating effect on C. necator growth. Consequently, the lignin degradation pathway of C. necator was reconstructed based on genomic information and literature. The efficient conversion of intermediate catechol to downstream products of cis,cis-muconate or 2-hydroxymuconate-6-semialdehyde may help improve the robustness of C. necator to benzoic acid and p-coumaric acid as well as improve PHB productivity. PMID:24904560

  13. The use of natural abundance stable isotopic ratios to indicate the presence of oxygen-containing chemical linkages between cellulose and lignin in plant cell walls.

    PubMed

    Zhou, Youping; Stuart-Williams, Hilary; Farquhar, Graham D; Hocart, Charles H

    2010-06-01

    Qualitative and quantitative understanding of the chemical linkages between the three major biochemical components (cellulose, hemicellulose and lignin) of plant cell walls is crucial to the understanding of cell wall structure. Although there is convincing evidence for chemical bonds between hemicellulose and lignin and the absence of chemical bonds between hemicellulose and cellulose, there is no conclusive evidence for the presence of covalent bonds between cellulose and lignin. This is caused by the lack of selectivity of current GC/MS-, NMR- and IR-based methods for lignin characterisation as none of these techniques directly targets the possible ester and ether linkages between lignin and cellulose. We modified the widely-accepted "standard" three-step extraction method for isolating cellulose from plants by changing the order of the steps for hemicellulose and lignin removal (solubilisation with concentrated NaOH and oxidation with acetic acid-containing NaClO(2), respectively) so that cellulose and lignin could be isolated with the possible chemical bonds between them intact. These linkages were then cleaved with NaClO(2) reagent in aqueous media of contrasting (18)O/(16)O ratios. We produced cellulose with higher purity (a lower level of residual hemicellulose and no detectable lignin) than that produced by the "standard" method. Oxidative artefacts may potentially be introduced at the lignin removal stage; but testing showed this to be minimal. Cellulose samples isolated from processing plant-derived cellulose-lignin mixtures in media of contrasting (18)O/(16)O ratios were compared to provide the first quantitative evidence for the presence of oxygen-containing ester and ether bonds between cellulose and lignin in Zea mays leaves. However, no conclusive evidence for the presence or lack of similar bonds in Araucaria cunninghamii wood was obtained.

  14. Synthesis and characterization of carbon cryogel microspheres from lignin-furfural mixtures for biodiesel production.

    PubMed

    Zainol, Muzakkir Mohammad; Amin, Nor Aishah Saidina; Asmadi, Mohd

    2015-08-01

    The aim of this work was to study the potential of biofuel and biomass processing industry side-products as acid catalyst. The synthesis of carbon cryogel from lignin-furfural mixture, prepared via sol-gel polycondensation at 90°C for 0.5h, has been investigated for biodiesel production. The effect of lignin to furfural (L/F) ratios, lignin to water (L/W) ratios and acid concentration on carbon cryogel synthesis was studied. The carbon cryogels were characterized and tested for oleic acid conversion. The thermally stable amorphous spherical carbon cryogel has a large total surface area with high acidity. Experimental results revealed the optimum FAME yield and oleic acid conversion of 91.3wt.% and 98.1wt.%, respectively were attained at 65°C for 5h with 5wt.% catalyst loading and 20:1 methanol to oleic acid molar ratio. Therefore, carbon cryogel is highly potential for heterogeneous esterification of free fatty acid to biodiesel.

  15. Molecular evidence for lignin degradation in sulfate-reducing mangrove sediments (Amazônia, Brazil)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dittmar, Thorsten; Lara, Rubén José

    2001-05-01

    - Molecular lignin analyses have become a powerful quantitative approach for estimating flux and fate of vascular plant organic matter in coastal and marine environments. The use of a specific molecular biomarker requires detailed knowledge of its decomposition rates relative to the associated organic matter and its structural diagenetic changes. To gain insight into the poorly known processes of anaerobic lignin diagenesis, molecular analyses were performed in the sulfate-reducing sediment of a north Brazilian mangrove. Organic matter in samples representing different diagenetic stages (i.e., fresh litter, a sediment core, and percolating water) was characterized by alkaline CuO oxidation for lignin composition, element (C, N), and stable carbon isotope analyses. On the basis of these results and on a balance model, long-term in situ decomposition rates of lignin in sulfate-reducing sediments were estimated for the first time. The half-life ( T1/2) of lignin derived from mangrove leaf litter (mainly Rhizophora mangle) was ˜150 yr in the upper 1.5 m of the sediment. Associated organic carbon from leaf tissue was depleted to ˜75% within weeks, followed by a slow mineralization in the sediment ( T1/2 ≈ 300 yr). Unlike the known pathways of lignin diagenesis, even highly degraded lignin did not show any alterations of the propyl or methoxyl side chains, as evident from stable acid to aldehyde ratios and the proportion of methoxylated phenols (vanillyl and syringyl phenols). Aromatic ring cleavage is probably the principal mechanism for lignin decay in the studied environment. Cinnamyl phenols were highly abundant in mangrove leaves and were rapidly depleted during early diagenesis. Thus, the cinnamyl to vanillyl ratio could be used as a tracer for early diagenesis even under the sulfate-reducing conditions. Syringyl phenols were removed from dissolved organic matter in interstitial water, probably by sorption onto the sediment. Suspended organic matter in a

  16. Polymer-grafted lignin surfactants prepared via reversible addition-fragmentation chain-transfer polymerization.

    PubMed

    Gupta, Chetali; Washburn, Newell R

    2014-08-12

    Kraft lignin grafted with hydrophilic polymers has been prepared using reversible addition-fragmentation chain-transfer (RAFT) polymerization and investigated for use as a surfactant. In this preliminary study, polyacrylamide and poly(acrylic acid) were grafted from a lignin RAFT macroinitiator at average initiator site densities estimated to be 2 per particle and 17 per particle. The target degrees of polymerization were 50 and 100, but analysis of cleaved polyacrylamide was consistent with a higher average molecular weight, suggesting not all sites were able to participate in the polymerization. All materials were readily soluble in water, and dynamic light scattering data indicate polymer-grafted lignin coexisted in isolated and aggregated forms in aqueous media. The characteristic size was 15-20 nm at low concentrations, and aggregation appeared to be a stronger function of degree of polymerization than graft density. These species were surface active, reducing the surface tension to as low as 60 dyn/cm at 1 mg/mL, and a greater decrease was observed than for polymer-grafted silica nanoparticles, suggesting that the lignin core was also surface active. While these lignin surfactants were soluble in water, they were not soluble in hexanes. Thus, it was unexpected that water-in-oil emulsions formed in all surfactant compositions and solvent ratios tested, with average droplet sizes of 10-20 μm. However, although polymer-grafted lignin has structural features similar to nanoparticles used in Pickering emulsions, its interfacial behavior was qualitatively different. While at air-water interfaces, the hydrophilic grafts promote effective reductions in surface tension, we hypothesize that the low grafting density in these lignin surfactants favors partitioning into the hexanes side of the oil-water interface because collapsed conformations of the polymer grafts improve interfacial coverage and reduce water-hexanes interactions. We propose that polymer-grafted lignin

  17. [Determination of main degradation products of lignin using reversed-phase high performance liquid chromatography].

    PubMed

    Jiang, Zhijing; Zhu, Junjun; Li, Xin; Lian, Zhina; Yu, Shiyuan; Yong, Qiang

    2011-01-01

    An analytical method using reversed-phase high performance liquid chromatography (RP-HPLC) was developed for the separation and quantitative determination of main degradation products of lignin (4-hydroxybenzoic acid, vanillic acid, syringic acid, 4-hydroxybenzaldehyde, vanillin and syringaldehyde) during the steam exploded pretreatment for corn stovers. The separation was carried out on a C18 column with the mobile phase of acetonitrile-water (containing 1.5% acetic acid) at 30 degrees C at a flow rate of 0.8 mL/min and the detection wavelengths of 254 and 280 nm. Under the optimized conditions, the correlation coefficients of the 6 compounds were between 0.999 9 and 1.000 0. The recoveries of the 6 compounds were all above 96% and the relative standard deviations (n = 6) were less than 2.5%. This method is suitable for the determination of the main degradation products of lignin during the steam exploded pretreatment of lignocellulosics.

  18. Incorporation of Epicatechin Esters into Lignin Enhances Cell Wall Fermentability

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Polyphenolic catechin esters are potentially attractive targets for lignin bioengineering because their copolymerization with monolignols could reduce lignin hydrophobicity and cross-linking to polysaccharides, or facilitate delignification by biomass pretreatments. To test this hypothesis, we biomi...

  19. Deconstruction of Lignin Model Compounds and Biomass-Derived Lignin using Layered Double Hydroxide Catalysts

    SciTech Connect

    Chmely, S. C.; McKinney, K. A.; Lawrence, K. R.; Sturgeon, M.; Katahira, R.; Beckham, G. T.

    2013-01-01

    Lignin is an underutilized value stream in current biomass conversion technologies because there exist no economic and technically feasible routes for lignin depolymerization and upgrading. Base-catalyzed deconstruction (BCD) has been applied for lignin depolymerization (e.g., the Kraft process) in the pulp and paper industry for more than a century using aqueous-phase media. However, these efforts require treatment to neutralize the resulting streams, which adds significantly to the cost of lignin deconstruction. To circumvent the need for downstream treatment, here we report recent advances in the synthesis of layered double hydroxide and metal oxide catalysts to be applied to the BCD of lignin. These catalysts may prove more cost-effective than liquid-phase, non-recyclable base, and their use obviates downstream processing steps such as neutralization. Synthetic procedures for various transition-metal containing catalysts, detailed kinetics measurements using lignin model compounds, and results of the application of these catalysts to biomass-derived lignin will be presented.

  20. Automated continuous flow determination of urine albumin by competition with dye-detergent binding.

    PubMed

    Lever, M; Walmsley, T A

    1978-02-15

    A continuous flow automated method for urine albumin was developed based on the ability of albumin to displace bromophenol blue from a bromophenol blue detergent complex. The method is almost specific for albumin, giving a slight response with an alpha-globulin fraction from serum. Results agreed closely with rocket electrophoresis albumin estimates on urine samples, but significantly less closely with "total urine protein" estimates by an acid protein precipitation, followed by biuret colour reaction, procedure. This method is being used to replace the indefinite "total protein" test for most routine purposes.

  1. Sulfation of chondroitin. Specificity, degree of sulfation, and detergent effects with 4-sulfating and 6-sulfating microsomal systems

    SciTech Connect

    Sugumaran, G.; Silbert, J.E.

    1988-04-05

    Microsomal preparations from chondroitin 6-sulfate-producing chick embryo epiphyseal cartilage, and from chondroitin 4-sulfate-producing mouse mastocytoma cells, were incubated with UDP-(14C)glucuronic acid and UDP-N-acetylgalactosamine to form non-sulfated proteo(14C)chondroitin. Aliquots of the incubations were then incubated with 3'-phosphoadenylylphosphosulfate (PAPS) in the presence or absence of various detergents. In the absence of detergents, there was good sulfation of this endogenous proteo(14C)chondroitin by the original microsomes from both sources. Detergents, with the exception of Triton X-100, markedly inhibited sulfation in the mast cell system but not in the chick cartilage system. These results indicate that sulfation and polymerization are closely linked on cell membranes and that in some cases this organization can be disrupted by detergents. When aliquots of the original incubation were heat inactivated, and then reincubated with new microsomes from chick cartilage and/or mouse mastocytoma cells plus PAPS, there was no significant sulfation of this exogenous proteo(14C) chondroitin with either system unless Triton X-100 was added. Sulfation of exogenous chondroitin and chondroitin hexasaccharide was compared with sulfation of endogenous and exogenous proteo(14C)chondroitin. Sulfate incorporation into hexasaccharide and chondroitin decreased as their concentrations (based on uronic acid) approached that of the proteo(14C)chondroitin. At the same time, the degree of sulfation in percent of substituted hexosamine increased. However, the degree of sulfation did not reach that of the endogenous proteo(14C)chondroitin. Hexasaccharide and chondroitin sulfation were stimulated by the presence of Triton X-100. However, in contrast to the exogenous proteo(14C)chondroitin, there was some sulfation of hexasaccharide and chondroitin in the absence of this detergent.

  2. Anaerobic biodegradation of the lignin and polysaccharide components of lignocellulose and synthetic lignin by sediment microflora

    SciTech Connect

    Benner, R.; Maccubbin, A.E.; Hodson, R.E.

    1984-05-01

    Specifically radiolabeled (/sup 14/C-lignin)lignocelluloses and (/sup 14/C-polysaccharide)lignocelluloses were prepared from a variety of marine and freshwater wetland plants including a grass, a sedge, a rush, and a hardwood. These (/sup 14/C)lignocellulose preparations and synthetic (/sup 14/C)lignin were incubated anaerobically with anoxic sediments collected from a salt marsh, a freshwater marsh, and a mangrove swamp. During long-term incubations lasting up to 300 days, the lignin and polysaccharide components of the lignocelluloses were slowly degraded anaerobically to /sup 14/CO/sub 2/ and /sup 14/CH/sub 4/. Lignocelluloses derived from herbaceous plants were degraded more rapidly than lignocellulose derived from the hardwood. After 294 days, 16.9% of the lignin component and 30.0% of the polysaccharide component of lignocellulose derived from the grass used (Spartina alterniflora) were degraded to gaseous end products. In contrast, after 246 days, only 1.5% of the lignin component and 4.1% of the polysaccharide component of lignocellulose derived from the hardwood used (Rhizophora mangle) were degraded to gaseous end products. Synthetic (/sup 14/C) lignin was degraded anaerobically faster than the lignin component of the hardwood lignocellulose; after 276 days 3.7% of the synthetic lignin was degraded to gaseous end products. Contrary to previous reports, these results demonstrate that lignin and lignified plant tissues are biodegradable in the absence of oxygen. Although lignocelluloses are recalcitrant to anaerobic biodegradation, rates of degradation measured in aquatic sediments are significant and have important implications for the biospheric cycling of carbon from these abundant biopolymers. 31 references.

  3. Influence of Lignin modification on PAN-Lignin copolymers as potential carbon fiber precursors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ramasubramanian, Gauri

    Carbon fiber based polymer composites have been recognized as advanced materials for structural applications. The unique reinforcing abilities of carbon fibers with their combination of high strength-to-weight ratio and excellent fatigue resistance have made carbon fiber based composites exceptional compared to other fiber reinforced composites. However, the high cost involved in current precursor materials for carbon fibers has limited the widespread applicability of carbon fibers. Hence, intensification of research efforts towards cheaper and easily available raw material for fabrication of carbon fibers is justified. The growing demand for low cost carbon fibers for mainstream composite applications has driven recent interests in using lignin as alternative choice of material for carbon fiber precursor. Lignin is a highly aromatic, plant-derived amorphous polymer and has been considered as potential low-cost, bio-based carbon fiber precursor. Copolymers of polyacrylonitrile/lignin were developed as alternative precursors for fabrication of raw fibers using conventional solution spinning techniques. Lignin/polyacrylonitrile copolymers were successfully synthesized and characterized using FT-IR and NMR techniques. The thermal properties of the copolymers were studied by DSC and TGA analysis. The effect of chemical modification on the morphology and stability of the carbon fibers from PAN-Lignin copolymers has been studied using Raman Spectroscopy, X-ray Diffraction and Scanning Electron Microscopy. Modification of lignin prior to copolymerization provided a significant advantage in the improvement of precursor processability using solution spinning. Additionally, carbon fibers obtained from copolymers containing different varieties of lignins were examined. Carbon fibers produced from organosolv lignin/polyacrylonitrile copolymers exhibit promising carbon fiber structure when compared to softwood/lignin polyacrylonitrile copolymers.

  4. Lipids that determine detergent resistance of MDCK cell membrane fractions.

    PubMed

    Manni, Marco M; Cano, Ainara; Alonso, Cristina; Goñi, Félix M

    2015-10-01

    A comparative lipidomic study has been performed of whole Madin-Darby canine kidney epithelial cells and of the detergent-resistant membrane fraction (DRM) obtained after treating the cells with the non-ionic detergent Triton X-100. The DRM were isolated following a standard procedure that is extensively used in cell biology studies. Significant differences were found in the lipid composition of the whole cells and of DRM. The latter were enriched in all the analyzed sphingolipid classes: sphingomyelins, ceramides and hexosylceramides. Diacylglycerols were also preferentially found in DRM. The detergent-resistant fraction was also enriched in saturated over unsaturated fatty acyl chains, and in sn-1 acyl chains containing 16 carbon atoms, over the longer and shorter ones. The glycerophospholipid species phosphatidylethanolamines and phosphatidylinositols, that were mainly unsaturated, did not show a preference for DRM. Phosphatidylcholines were an intermediate case: the saturated, but not the unsaturated species were found preferentially in DRM. The question remains on whether these DRM, recovered from detergent-membrane mixtures by floatation over a sucrose gradient, really correspond to membrane domains existing in the cell membrane prior to detergent treatment.

  5. Lipids that determine detergent resistance of MDCK cell membrane fractions.

    PubMed

    Manni, Marco M; Cano, Ainara; Alonso, Cristina; Goñi, Félix M

    2015-10-01

    A comparative lipidomic study has been performed of whole Madin-Darby canine kidney epithelial cells and of the detergent-resistant membrane fraction (DRM) obtained after treating the cells with the non-ionic detergent Triton X-100. The DRM were isolated following a standard procedure that is extensively used in cell biology studies. Significant differences were found in the lipid composition of the whole cells and of DRM. The latter were enriched in all the analyzed sphingolipid classes: sphingomyelins, ceramides and hexosylceramides. Diacylglycerols were also preferentially found in DRM. The detergent-resistant fraction was also enriched in saturated over unsaturated fatty acyl chains, and in sn-1 acyl chains containing 16 carbon atoms, over the longer and shorter ones. The glycerophospholipid species phosphatidylethanolamines and phosphatidylinositols, that were mainly unsaturated, did not show a preference for DRM. Phosphatidylcholines were an intermediate case: the saturated, but not the unsaturated species were found preferentially in DRM. The question remains on whether these DRM, recovered from detergent-membrane mixtures by floatation over a sucrose gradient, really correspond to membrane domains existing in the cell membrane prior to detergent treatment. PMID:26320877

  6. Effects of Detergents on Ribosomal Precursor Subunits of Bacillus megaterium

    PubMed Central

    Body, Barbara A.; Brownstein, Bernard H.

    1978-01-01

    Cell extracts prepared by osmotic lysis of protoplasts were analyzed by sucrose gradient sedimentation. In the absence of detergents, ribosomal precursor particles were found in a gradient fraction which sedimented faster than mature 50S subunits and in two other fractions coincident with mature 50S and 30S ribosomal subunits. Phospholipid, an indicator of membrane, was shown to be associated with only the fastest-sedimenting ribosomal precursor particle fraction. After the extracts were treated with detergents, all phospholipid was found at the top of the gradients. Brij 58, Triton X-100, and Nonidet P-40 did not cause a change in the sedimentation values of precursors; however, the detergents deoxycholate or LOC (Amway Corp.) disrupted the fastest-sedimenting precursor and converted the ribosomal precursor subunits which sedimented at the 50S and 30S positions to five different classes of more slowly sedimenting particles. Earlier reports on the in vivo assembly of ribosomal subunits have shown that several stages of ribosomal precursor subunits exist, and, in the presence of the detergents deoxycholate and LOC, which had been used to prepare cell extracts, the precursors sedimented more slowly. Our data are consistent with the hypothesis that those detergents selectively modify the structure of ribosomal precursors and lend further support to the hypothesis that the in vivo ribosomal precursor subunits have 50S and 30S sedimentation values. In addition, these data support the idea that the ribosomal precursor particles found in the fast-sedimenting fraction may constitute a unique precursor fraction. PMID:412833

  7. Effects of detergents on ribosomal precursor subunits of Bacillus megaterium.

    PubMed

    Body, A; Brownstein, B H

    1978-01-01

    Cell extracts prepared by osmotic lysis of protoplasts were analyzed by sucrose gradient sedimentation. In the absence of detergents, ribosomal precursor particles were found in a gradient fraction which sedimented faster than mature 50S subunits and in two other fractions coincident with mature 50S and 30S ribosomal subunits. Phospholipid, an indicator of membrane, was shown to be associated with only the fastest-sedimenting ribosomal precursor particle fraction. After the extracts were treated with detergents, all phospholipid was found at the top of the gradients. Brij 58, Triton X-100, and Nonidet P-40 did not cause a change in the sedimentation values of precursors; however, the detergents deoxycholate or LOC (Amway Corp.) disrupted the fastest-sedimenting precursor and converted the ribosomal precursor subunits which sedimented at the 50S and 30S positions to five different classes of more slowly sedimenting particles. Earlier reports on the in vivo assembly of ribosomal subunits have shown that several stages of ribosomal precursor subunits exist, and, in the presence of the detergents deoxycholate and LOC, which had been used to prepare cell extracts, the precursors sedimented more slowly. Our data are consistent with the hypothesis that those detergents selectively modify the structure of ribosomal precursors and lend further support to the hypothesis that the in vivo ribosomal precursor subunits have 50S and 30S sedimentation values. In addition, these data support the idea that the ribosomal precursor particles found in the fast-sedimenting fraction may constitute a unique precursor fraction.

  8. Effect of reduced ferulate-mediated lignin/arabinoxylan cross-linking in corn silage on feed intake, digestibility, and milk production.

    PubMed

    Jung, H G; Mertens, D R; Phillips, R L

    2011-10-01

    Cross-linking of lignin to arabinoxylan by ferulates limits in vitro rumen digestibility of grass cell walls. The effect of ferulate cross-linking on dry matter intake (DMI), milk production, and in vivo digestibility was investigated in ad libitum and restricted-intake digestion trials with lambs, and in a dairy cow performance trial using the low-ferulate sfe corn mutant. Silages of 5 inbred corn lines were fed: W23, 2 W23sfe lines (M04-4 and M04-21), B73, and B73bm3. As expected, the W23sfe silages contained fewer ferulate ether cross-links and B73bm3 silage had a lower lignin concentration than the respective genetic controls. Silages were fed as the sole ingredient to 4 lambs per silage treatment. Lambs were confined to metabolism crates and fed ad libitum for a 12-d adaptation period followed by a 5-d collection period of feed refusals and feces. Immediately following the ad libitum feeding trial, silage offered was limited to 2% of body weight. After a 2-d adaptation to restricted feeding, feed refusals and feces were collected for 5 d. Seventy Holstein cows were blocked by lactation, days in milk, body weight, and milk production and assigned to total mixed ration diets based on the 5 corn silages. Diets were fed for 28 d and data were collected on weekly DMI and milk production and composition. Fecal grab samples were collected during the last week of the lactation trial for estimation of feed digestibility using acid-insoluble ash as a marker. Silage, total mixed ration, feed refusals, and fecal samples were analyzed for crude protein, starch, neutral detergent fiber (NDF), cell wall polysaccharides, and lignin. The W23sfe silages resulted in lower DMI in the ad libitum trial than the W23 silage, but DMI did not differ in the restricted trial. No differences were observed for NDF or cell wall polysaccharide digestibility by lambs with restricted feeding, but the amount of NDF digested daily increased for lambs fed the M04-21 W23sfe silage ad libitum

  9. Chemical linkage of pine polysaccharides to lignin

    SciTech Connect

    Minor, J.L.

    1982-01-01

    Methylation analysis was used to investigate the bonds to lignin of the carbohydrates remaining after enzymatic hydrolysis and alkaline reduction of ball-milled loblolly pine wood and red pine compression wood. The carbohydrates exist as oligomeric chains with degrees of polymerization of 7-14. Approximately one sugar unit per oligomer chain is bonded to lignin. Bonding at C-6 of the hexose units if favored, and the arabinose is bonded exclusively at C-5. Galactan and arabinan are structurally of the so-called ''pectin group substances''. 16 references.

  10. Process for producing phenolic compounds from lignins

    DOEpatents

    Agblevor, Foster A.

    1998-01-01

    A process for the production of low molecular weight phenolic compounds from lignins through the pyrolysis of the lignins in the presence of a strong base. In a preferred embodiment, potassium hydroxide is present in an amount of from about 0.1% to about 5% by weight, the pyrolysis temperature is from about 400.degree. C. to about 600.degree. C. at atmospheric pressure, and the time period for substantial completion of the reaction is from about 1-3 minutes. Examples of low molecular weight phenolic compounds produced include methoxyphenols, non-methoxylated phenols, and mixtures thereof.

  11. Process for producing phenolic compounds from lignins

    DOEpatents

    Agblevor, F.A.

    1998-09-15

    A process is described for the production of low molecular weight phenolic compounds from lignins through the pyrolysis of the lignins in the presence of a strong base. In a preferred embodiment, potassium hydroxide is present in an amount of from about 0.1% to about 5% by weight, the pyrolysis temperature is from about 400 C to about 600 C at atmospheric pressure, and the time period for substantial completion of the reaction is from about 1--3 minutes. Examples of low molecular weight phenolic compounds produced include methoxyphenols, non-methoxylated phenols, and mixtures thereof. 16 figs.

  12. Suitability of the isolated chicken eye test for classification of extreme pH detergents and cleaning products.

    PubMed

    Cazelle, Elodie; Eskes, Chantra; Hermann, Martina; Jones, Penny; McNamee, Pauline; Prinsen, Menk; Taylor, Hannah; Wijnands, Marcel V W

    2015-04-01

    A.I.S.E. investigated the suitability of the regulatory adopted ICE in vitro test method (OECD TG 438) with or without histopathology to identify detergent and cleaning formulations having extreme pH that require classification as EU CLP/UN GHS Category 1. To this aim, 18 extreme pH detergent and cleaning formulations were tested covering both alkaline and acidic extreme pHs. The ICE standard test method following OECD Test Guideline 438 showed good concordance with in vivo classification (83%) and good and balanced specificity and sensitivity values (83%) which are in line with the performances of currently adopted in vitro test guidelines, confirming its suitability to identify Category 1 extreme pH detergent and cleaning products. In contrast to previous findings obtained with non-extreme pH formulations, the use of histopathology did not improve the sensitivity of the assay whilst it strongly decreased its specificity for the extreme pH formulations. Furthermore, use of non-testing prediction rules for classification showed poor concordance values (33% for the extreme pH rule and 61% for the EU CLP additivity approach) with high rates of over-prediction (100% for the extreme pH rule and 50% for the additivity approach), indicating that these non-testing prediction rules are not suitable to predict Category 1 hazards of extreme pH detergent and cleaning formulations.

  13. Caterpillar feeding responses to sorghum leaves with altered lignin levels

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Production of liquid fuels from biomass is impeded by the presence of lignin. Plants with lower or altered lignin are more amenable to lignocellulosic conversion to ethanol and other biofuels, but may be more susceptible to insect damage where lignin is an important resistance factor. Sorghum, Sorg...

  14. Genetics and chemistry of lignin degradation by Streptomyces

    SciTech Connect

    Crawford, D.L.

    1992-01-01

    Our research goal was to define the involvement of lignin peroxidases and other extracellular enzymes in lignin degradation by Streptomyces. We examined the biochemistry and genetics of lignin degrading enzyme production by several strains of Streptomyces. The lignin peroxidase ALiP-P3 of S. viridosporus was characterized kinetically and its activity optimized for oxidation of 2,4-dichlorophenol and vanillyl-acetone. Sensitive spectrophotometric assays were developed for monitoring oxidation of these substrates. ALiP-P3 reaction chemistry was examined using both spectrophotometric assays and gas chromatography/mass spectroscopy. Results showed that the enzyme oxidizes phenolic lignin substructure models in strong preference to nonphenolic ones. The peroxidase was also shown to depolymerize native lignin. We also cloned the ALip-P3 gene S. lividans in plasmid vector pIJ702. The cloned gene was partially sequenced, We also immunologically characterized the lignin peroxidase of S. viridosporus T7A and showed it to be structurally related to peroxidases produced by other lignin-solubilizing Streptomyces, but not the the H8 lignin peroxidase of P. chrysosporium. Studies with peroxidase deficient mutants of strain T7A showed that lignin peroxidases of S. viridosporus are directly involved in the solubilization of lignin. Additional research showed that other enzymes are also probably involved in lignin solubilization, possibly including extracellular esterases.

  15. Genetic engineering of syringyl-enriched lignin in plants

    DOEpatents

    Chiang, Vincent Lee; Li, Laigeng

    2004-11-02

    The present invention relates to a novel DNA sequence, which encodes a previously unidentified lignin biosynthetic pathway enzyme, sinapyl alcohol dehydrogenase (SAD) that regulates the biosynthesis of syringyl lignin in plants. Also provided are methods for incorporating this novel SAD gene sequence or substantially similar sequences into a plant genome for genetic engineering of syringyl-enriched lignin in plants.

  16. Detergent-compatible proteases: microbial production, properties, and stain removal analysis.

    PubMed

    Niyonzima, Francois Niyongabo; More, Sunil

    2015-01-01

    Proteases are one of the most important commercial enzymes used in various industrial domains such as detergent and leather industries. The alkaline proteases as well as other detergent-compatible enzymes such as lipases and amylases serve now as the key components in detergent formulations. They break down various stains during fabric washing. The search for detergent-compatible proteases with better properties is a continuous exercise. The current trend is to use detergent-compatible proteases that are stable over a wide temperature range. Although the proteases showing stability at elevated pH have the capacity to be used in detergent formulations, their usage can be significant if they are also stable and compatible with detergent and detergent ingredients, and also able to remove protein stains. Despite the existence of some reviews on alkaline proteases, there is no specification for the use of alkaline proteases as detergent additives. The present review describes the detergent-compatible proteases tested as detergent additives. An overview was provided for screening, optimization, purification, and properties of detergent compatible proteases, with an emphasis on the stability and compatibility of the alkaline proteases with the detergent and detergent compounds, as well as stain removal examination methods.

  17. Isolation and Analysis of Detergent-Resistant Membrane Fractions.

    PubMed

    Aureli, Massimo; Grassi, Sara; Sonnino, Sandro; Prinetti, Alessandro

    2016-01-01

    The hypothesis that the Golgi apparatus is capable of sorting proteins and sending them to the plasma membrane through "lipid rafts," membrane lipid domains highly enriched in glycosphingolipids, sphingomyelin, ceramide, and cholesterol, was formulated by van Meer and Simons in 1988 and came to a turning point when it was suggested that lipid rafts could be isolated thanks to their resistance to solubilization by some detergents, namely Triton X-100. An incredible number of papers have described the composition and properties of detergent-resistant membrane fractions. However, the use of this method has also raised the fiercest criticisms. In this chapter, we would like to discuss the most relevant methodological aspects related to the preparation of detergent-resistant membrane fractions, and to discuss the importance of discriminating between what is present on a cell membrane and what we can prepare from cell membranes in a laboratory tube.

  18. Detergent activation of the binding protein in the folate radioassay

    SciTech Connect

    Hansen, S.I.; Holm, J.; Lyngbye, J.

    1982-01-01

    A minor cow's whey protein associated with ..beta..-lactoglobulin is used as binding protein in the competitive radioassay for serum and erythrocyte folate. Seeking to optimize the assay, we tested the performance of binder solutions of increasing purity. The folate binding protein was isolated from cow's whey by means of CM-Sepharose CL-6B cation-exchange chromatography, and further purified on a methotrexate-AH-Sepharose 4B affinity matrix. In contrast to ..beta..-lactoglobulin, the purified protein did not bind folate unless the detergents cetyltrimethylammonium (10 mmol/Ll) or Triton X-100 (1 g/L) were present. Such detergent activation was not needed in the presence of serum. There seems to be a striking analogy between these phenomena and the well-known reactivation of certain purified membrane-derived enzymes by surfactants (lipids/detergents).

  19. Detergent solubilization of the EGF receptor from A431 cells

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dayanidhi, R.; Rintoul, D. A.; Spooner, B. S. (Principal Investigator)

    1993-01-01

    Functional reconstitution of purified preparations of human epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) requires dissociation of the protein from its plasma membrane lipid environment. Solubilization of membrane proteins in this manner requires the use of detergents, which are known to disrupt plasma membrane lipid/protein interactions. We have investigated the ability of three nonionic detergents to solubilize the human EGFR selectively, and have also analyzed the effect of these various treatments on the intrinsic tyrosyl kinase activity of the receptor. The nonionic detergent known as n-octyl glucoside (n-octyl beta-D-glucopyranoside) was found to give the best combination of selectivity, yield, and maintenance of enzymatic activity of the human EGFR.

  20. [Control of the effects and side-effects of detergents].

    PubMed

    Schneider, W

    1977-08-01

    An examination of detergents on the skin has to take into account the facultative sensibilisation and the wear and tear. In this connection the effect of summation between soapbody and perfume is pointed out as well as the different results of skin tests. To control the obligate effects, first of all a reliable technical reference has to be established; this is the washing activity, to which the side-effects then are related. To measure the hydratation, the resonance-frequency method of Tronnier and Wagener is used, where especially the syndets react very differently: partly similar to water and partly similar to soft soap. Further methods of examination are the measurement of the roughness and the quantitative determination of the fat of the skin. Concerning certain hand wash detergents and industrial cleaners the grade of rubbing is also of interest. Finally the relatively good compatibility of the bioactive detergents and the rinsing agents is discussed.

  1. Late-onset respiratory distress after inhalation of laundry detergent.

    PubMed

    Wheeler, Derek S; Bonny, Andrea E; Ruddy, Richard M; Jacobs, Brian R

    2003-04-01

    Accidental poisoning with household cleaning products can pose significant risks to children. Exposure to granular laundry detergents accounts for a number of calls each year to poison control centers, though few of these exposures result in hospitalization. While caustic gastrointestinal injury resulting from ingestion of these highly alkaline cleaning agents is well-recognized, few reports address the potential damage to the respiratory tract that can occur following ingestion or inhalation of granular laundry detergent. We present a previously healthy 1-year-old who presented to the emergency department with Late-onset stridor and increased work of breathing following presumed inhalation of granular laundry detergent. Parents, primary care providers, and emergency department physicians need to be aware of the potential toxicity of these widely used household products.

  2. Differential sensitivity to detergents of actin cytoskeleton from nerve endings.

    PubMed

    Cubí, Roger; Matas, Lluís A; Pou, Marta; Aguilera, José; Gil, Carles

    2013-11-01

    Detergent-resistant membranes (DRM), an experimental model used to study lipid rafts, are typically extracted from cells by means of detergent treatment and subsequent ultracentrifugation in density gradients, Triton X-100 being the detergent of choice in most of the works. Since lipid rafts are membrane microdomains rich in cholesterol, depletion of this component causes solubilization of DRM with detergent. In previous works from our group, the lack of effect of cholesterol depletion on DRM solubilization with Triton X-100 was detected in isolated rat brain synaptosomes. In consequence, the aim of the present work is to explore reasons for this observation, analyzing the possible role of the actin cytoskeleton, as well as the use of an alternative detergent, Brij 98, to overcome the insensitivity to Triton X-100 of cholesterol-depleted DRM. Brij 98 yields Brij-DRM that are highly dependent on cholesterol, since marker proteins (Flotillin-1 and Thy-1), as well as actin, appear solubilized after MCD treatment. Pretreatment with Latrunculin A results in a significant increase in Flotillin-1, Thy-1 and actin solubilization by Triton X-100 after cholesterol depletion. Studies with transmission electron microscopy show that combined treatment with MCD and Latrunculin A leads to a significant increase in solubilization of DRM with Triton X-100. Thus, Triton-DRM resistance to cholesterol depletion can be explained, at least partially, thanks to the scaffolding action of the actin cytoskeleton, without discarding differential effects of Brij 98 and Triton X-100 on specific membrane components. In conclusion, the detergent of choice is important when events that depend on the actin cytoskeleton are going to be studied.

  3. Evaluation of Matrix-Assisted Laser Desorption/Ionization Mass Spectrometry for Second-Generation Lignin Analysis

    PubMed Central

    Richel, Aurore; Vanderghem, Caroline; Simon, Mathilde; Wathelet, Bernard; Paquot, Michel

    2012-01-01

    Matrix-Assisted Laser Desorption/Ionization time-of-flight (MALDI-TOF) mass spectrometry is evaluated as an elucidation tool for structural features and molecular weights estimation of some extracted herbaceous lignins. Optimization of analysis conditions, using a typical organic matrix, namely α-cyano-4-hydroxycinnamic acid (CHCA), in combination with α-cyclodextrin, allows efficient ionization of poorly soluble lignin materials and suppression of matrix-related ions background. Analysis of low-mass fragments ions (m/z 100–600) in the positive ion mode offers a “fingerprint” of starting lignins that could be a fine strategy to qualitatively identify principal inter-unit linkages between phenylpropanoid units. The molecular weights of lignins are estimated using size exclusion chromatography and compared to MALDI-TOF-MS profiles. Miscanthus (Miscanthus x giganteus) and Switchgrass (Panicum Virgatum L.) lignins, recovered after a formic acid/acetic acid/water process or aqueous ammonia soaking, are selected as benchmarks for this study. PMID:23300342

  4. Evaluation of matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization mass spectrometry for second-generation lignin analysis.

    PubMed

    Richel, Aurore; Vanderghem, Caroline; Simon, Mathilde; Wathelet, Bernard; Paquot, Michel

    2012-01-01

    Matrix-Assisted Laser Desorption/Ionization time-of-flight (MALDI-TOF) mass spectrometry is evaluated as an elucidation tool for structural features and molecular weights estimation of some extracted herbaceous lignins. Optimization of analysis conditions, using a typical organic matrix, namely α-cyano-4-hydroxycinnamic acid (CHCA), in combination with α-cyclodextrin, allows efficient ionization of poorly soluble lignin materials and suppression of matrix-related ions background. Analysis of low-mass fragments ions (m/z 100-600) in the positive ion mode offers a "fingerprint" of starting lignins that could be a fine strategy to qualitatively identify principal inter-unit linkages between phenylpropanoid units. The molecular weights of lignins are estimated using size exclusion chromatography and compared to MALDI-TOF-MS profiles. Miscanthus (Miscanthus x giganteus) and Switchgrass (Panicum Virgatum L.) lignins, recovered after a formic acid/acetic acid/water process or aqueous ammonia soaking, are selected as benchmarks for this study.

  5. Propensity of lignin to associate: light scattering photometry study with native lignins.

    PubMed

    Contreras, Sofía; Gaspar, Armindo R; Guerra, Anderson; Lucia, Lucian A; Argyropoulos, Dimitris S

    2008-12-01

    Many studies of lignins in solution invoke association and aggregation phenomena to explain their solution behavior (e.g., reprecipitation onto pulp fibers, condensation, etc.). Following their colloidal (apparent) molecular weights in solution as a function of time allows us to explore observable dissociation phenomena. These measurements were carried out using multiple angle laser light scattering (MALLS) photometry in the static mode. The challenges and opportunities of measuring the specific refractive index increment (dn/dC) of lignin solutions and determining the kinetics of the dissociation process were thus investigated. Hardwood and softwood representative lignins were isolated, and method for their full dissolution in THF was further developed, which then lead to accurate dn/dC values being obtained as a function of time. When coupled to additional work using light scattering static measurements and Zimm plots for the same solutions, this effort offers insight into the aggregation and ensuing dissociative events that operate within the lignin macromolecules.

  6. Identifying New Lignin Bioengineering Targets: 1. Monolignol Substitute Impacts on Lignin Formation and Cell Wall Fermentability

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Background: Recent discoveries highlighting the metabolic malleability of plant lignification indicate that lignin can be engineered to dramatically alter its composition and properties. Current plant engineering efforts are primarily aimed at manipulating the biosynthesis of normal monolignols but,...

  7. Identifying New Lignin Bioengineering Targets: Monolignol Substitute Impacts on Lignin Formation and Cell Wall Utilization

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Recent discoveries highlighting the metabolic malleability of plant lignification indicate that lignin can be engineered to dramatically alter its composition and properties. Current plant engineering efforts are primarily aimed at manipulating the biosynthesis of normal monolignols, but in the futu...

  8. An alternative methylation pathway in lignin biosynthesis in Zinnia.

    PubMed Central

    Ye, Z H; Kneusel, R E; Matern, U; Varner, J E

    1994-01-01

    S-Adenosyl-L-methionine:trans-caffeoyl-coenzyme A 3-O-methyltransferase (CCoAOMT) is implicated in disease resistant response, but whether it is involved in lignin biosynthesis is not known. We isolated a cDNA clone for CCoAOMT in differentiating tracheary elements (TEs) induced from Zinnia-isolated mesophyll cells. RNA gel blot analysis showed that the expression of the CCoAOMT gene was markedly induced during TE differentiation from the isolated mesophyll cells. Tissue print hybridization showed that the expression of the CCoAOMT gene is temporally and spatially regulated and that it is associated with lignification in xylem and in phloem fibers in Zinnia organs. Both CCoAOMT and caffeic acid O-methyltransferase (COMT) activities increased when the isolated Zinnia mesophyll cells were cultured, whereas only CCoAOMT activity was markedly enhanced during lignification in the in vitro-differentiating TEs. The induction pattern of the OMT activity using 5-hydroxyferuloyl CoA as substrate during lignification was the same as that using caffeoyl CoA. Taken together, the results indicate that CCoAOMT is associated with lignification during xylogenesis both in vitro and in the plant, whereas COMT is only involved in a stress response in vitro. We propose that CCoAOMT is involved in an alternative methylation pathway in lignin biosynthesis. In Zinnia in vitro-differentiating TEs, the CCoAOMT mediated methylation pathway is dominant. PMID:7994176

  9. 21 CFR 573.600 - Lignin sulfonates.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... DRUGS, FEEDS, AND RELATED PRODUCTS FOOD ADDITIVES PERMITTED IN FEED AND DRINKING WATER OF ANIMALS Food... accordance with the following prescribed conditions: (a) For the purpose of this section, the food additive... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Lignin sulfonates. 573.600 Section 573.600...

  10. 21 CFR 573.600 - Lignin sulfonates.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... DRUGS, FEEDS, AND RELATED PRODUCTS FOOD ADDITIVES PERMITTED IN FEED AND DRINKING WATER OF ANIMALS Food... accordance with the following prescribed conditions: (a) For the purpose of this section, the food additive... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Lignin sulfonates. 573.600 Section 573.600...

  11. 21 CFR 573.600 - Lignin sulfonates.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... DRUGS, FEEDS, AND RELATED PRODUCTS FOOD ADDITIVES PERMITTED IN FEED AND DRINKING WATER OF ANIMALS Food... accordance with the following prescribed conditions: (a) For the purpose of this section, the food additive... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Lignin sulfonates. 573.600 Section 573.600...

  12. Kinetic Model Development for Lignin Pyrolysis

    SciTech Connect

    Clark, J.; Robichaud, D.; Nimlos, M.

    2012-01-01

    Lignin pyrolysis poses a significant barrier to the formation of liquid fuel products from biomass. Lignin pyrolyzes at higher temperatures than other biomass components (e.g. cellulose and hemi-cellulose) and tends to form radicals species that lead to cross-linking and ultimately char formation. A first step in the advancement of biomass-to-fuel technology is to discover the underlying mechanisms that lead to the breakdown of lignin at lower temperatures into more stable and usable products. We have investigated the thermochemistry of the various inter-linkage units found in lignin (B-O4, a-O4, B-B, B-O5, etc) using electronic structure calculations at the M06-2x/6-311++G(d,p) on a series of dimer model compounds. In addition to bond homolysis reactions, a variety of concerted elimination pathways are under investigation that tend to produce closed-shell stable products. Such a bottom-up approach could aid in the targeted development of catalysts that produce more desirable products under less severe reactor conditions.

  13. Flash vacuum pyrolysis of lignin model compounds

    SciTech Connect

    Cooney, M.J.; Britt, P.F.; Buchanan, A.C. III

    1997-03-01

    Despite the extensive research into the pyrolysis of lignin, the underlying chemical reactions that lead to product formation are poorly understood. Detailed mechanistic studies on the pyrolysis of biomass and lignin under conditions relevant to current process conditions could provide insight into utilizing this renewable resource for the production of chemicals and fuel. Currently, flash or fast pyrolysis is the most promising process to maximize the yields of liquid products (up to 80 wt %) from biomass by rapidly heating the substrate to moderate temperatures, typically 500{degrees}C, for short residence times, typically less than two seconds. To provide mechanistic insight into the primary reaction pathways under process relevant conditions, we are investigating the flash vacuum pyrolysis (FVP) of lignin model compounds that contain a {beta}-ether. linkage and {alpha}- or {gamma}-alcohol, which are key structural elements in lignin. The dominant products from the FVP of PhCH{sub 2}CH{sub 2}OPh (PPE), PhC(OH)HCH{sub 2}OPh, and PhCH{sub 2}CH(CH{sub 2}OH)OPh at 500{degrees}C can be attributed to homolysis of the weakest bond in the molecule (C-O bond) or 1,2-elimination. Surprisingly, the hydroxy-substituent dramatically increases the decomposition of PPE. It is proposed that internal hydrogen bonding is accelerating the reaction.

  14. Three-dimensional model of lignin structure

    SciTech Connect

    Jurasek, L.

    1995-12-01

    An attempt to build a three-dimensional model of lignin structure using a computer program is described. The program simulates the biosynthesis of spruce lignin by allowing coniferyl alcohol subunits to be added randomly by six different types of linkages, assumed to be most common. The simulated biosynthesis starts from a number of seed points within restricted space, corresponding to 50 mM initial concentration of coniferyl alcohol. Rules of three-dimensional packing of the subunits within the lignin macro-molecule are observed during the simulated biosynthetic process. Branched oligomeric structures thus generated form crosslinks at those positions where the chains grow close enough to form a link. Inter-chain crosslinking usually joins the oligomers into one macromolecule. Intra-chain crosslinks are also formed and result in closed loops. Typically, a macromolecule with molecular weight of approx. 2 x 105 is formed, with internal density of 1.35g/cm3. Various characteristics of the internal structure, such as branching, crosslinking, bond frequencies, and chain length distribution are described. Breakdown of the polymer was also simulated and the effect of closed loops on the weight average molecular weight is shown. The effect of the shape of the biosynthetic space on the degree of crosslinking is discussed and predictions of the overall molecular shape of lignin particles are made.

  15. Phoma herbarum, a soil fungus able to grow on natural lignin and synthetic lignin (DHP) as sole carbon source and cause lignin degradation.

    PubMed

    Bi, Ran; Lawoko, Martin; Henriksson, Gunnar

    2016-08-01

    The fungus Phoma herbarum isolated from soil showed growth on highly pure lignin extracted from spruce wood and on synthetic lignin (DHP). The lignin remaining after cultivation was shown to have a lower molecular weight. The reduction in the numbers of ether linkages of the extracted lignins was also observed by derivatization followed by reductive cleavage (DFRC) in combination with (31)P NMR studies. The fungal strain showed an ability to degrade synthetic lignin by extracellular catalysts. GC-MS was applied to study the evolution of low molar mass adducts, e.g., monolignols and it was shown that a reduced coniferyl alcohol product was produced from DHP in a cell-free environment. The work has demonstrated the ability of soil microbes to grow on lignin as sole carbon source. The potential impact is in the production of low molar mass renewable phenols for material application. PMID:27260523

  16. Method for recovering and using lignin in adhesive resins

    DOEpatents

    Schroeder, Herbert A.

    1993-01-01

    Lignin, or a lignin derived material, which has been significantly demethylated (e.g., the demethylated lignin found in the raffinate produced as a by-product of dimethyl sulfide production which can be carried out using the spent liquor from wood pulping operations) can be isolated by a process wherein an organic solvent is added to a lignin-containing aqueous solution. The organic solvent is typically a polar, and at least a partially water-immiscible substance such as, for example, ethyl acetate. The resulting lignin-containing aqueous solution/organic solvent mixture is acidified to produce a water layer which is discarded and an organic solvent layer which contains the demethylated lignin. Upon its recovery, the demethylated lignin is dissolved in an alkaline solution to which an aldehyde source is added to produce a resol-type resin. The aldehyde source may be formaldehyde in solution, paraformaldehyde, hexamethylenetetramine, or other aldehydes including acetaldehyde, furfural, and their derivatives.

  17. Isolation of a Bacterium Capable of Degrading Peanut Hull Lignin

    PubMed Central

    Kerr, Thomas J.; Kerr, Robert D.; Benner, Ronald

    1983-01-01

    Thirty-seven bacterial strains capable of degrading peanut hull lignin were isolated by using four types of lignin preparations and hot-water-extracted peanut hulls. One of the isolates, tentatively identified as Arthrobacter sp., was capable of utilizing all four lignin preparations as well as extracted peanut hulls as a sole source of carbon. The bacterium was also capable of degrading specifically labeled [14C]lignin-labeled lignocellulose and [14C]cellulose-labeled lignocellulose from the cordgrass Spartina alterniflora and could also degrade [14C]Kraft lignin from slash pine. After 10 days of incubation with [14C]cellulose-labeled lignocellulose or [14C]lignin-labeled lignocellulose from S. alterniflora, the bacterium mineralized 6.5% of the polysaccharide component and 2.9% of the lignin component. Images PMID:16346424

  18. Isolation of a bacterium capable of degrading peanut hull lignin

    SciTech Connect

    Kerr, T.A.; Kerr, R.D.; Benner, R.

    1983-11-01

    Thirty-seven bacterial strains capable of degrading peanut hull lignin were isolated by using four types of lignin preparations and hot-water-extracted peanut hulls. One of the isolates, tentatively identified as Arthrobacter species, was capable of utilizing all four lignin preparations as well as extracted peanut hulls as a sole source of carbon. The bacterium was also capable of degrading specifically labeled (/sup 14/C) lignin-labeled lignocellulose and (/sup 14/C)cellulose-labeled lignocellulose from the cordgrass Spartina alterniflora and could also degrade (/sup 14/C) Kraft lignin from slash pine. After 10 days of incubation with (/sup 14/C) cellulose-labeled lignocellulose or (/sup 14/C) lignin-labeled lignocellulose from S. alterniflora, the bacterium mineralized 6.5% of the polysaccharide component and 2.9% of the lignin component. (Refs. 24).

  19. Specific lignin accumulation in granulated juice sacs of Citrus maxima.

    PubMed

    Wu, Jia-Ling; Pan, Teng-Fei; Guo, Zhi-Xiong; Pan, Dong-Ming

    2014-12-17

    Juice sac granulation occurring in pummelo fruits [Citrus maxima (Burm.) Merr.] is an undesirable trait, and the underlying mechanism remains unresolved. Previous studies have shown that lignin metabolism is closely associated with the process of juice sac granulation. Here, a method suitable for lignin isolation from pummelo tissues is established. Acetylated lignins from different pummelo tissues and cultivars were analyzed by HSQC NMR. The results showed that lignins in granulated juice sacs were characterized by an extremely high abundance of guaiacyl units (91.13-96.82%), in contrast to lignins from other tissues, including leaves, stems, and segment membranes. The abnormally accumulated lignins in granulated juice sacs were specific and mainly polymerized from coniferyl alcohol. No significant difference was found in lignin types among various cultivars. These findings indicated that the mechanism of juice sac granulation might be similar among various cultivars, although very different degrees of juice sac granulation can be observed.

  20. Analytical pyrolysis of hardwood and softwood lignins and its use in lignin-type determination of hardwood vessel elements

    SciTech Connect

    Obst, J.R.

    1983-01-01

    Pyrolysis, GC and mass spectrometry were performed on milled wood lignins and wood samples. Among the major pyrolysis products identified from loblolly pine lignin were: guaiacol, 4-methylguaiacol, 4-vinylguaiacol, vanillin, coniferaldehyde and coniferyl alcohol. White oak lignin pyrolysis products included: guaiacol, 4-methylguaiacol, vanillin, 2,6-dimethoxyphenol, 4-methyl-2,6-dimethoxyphenol, syringaldehyde and sinapaldehyde. By the identification of pyrolysis products it is thus possible to classify lignins as either guaiacyl-type or syringyl/guaiacyl-type. Pyrolysis of isolated vessel elements from white oak, white birch (Betula papyrifera) and American elm (Ulmus americana) indicated that vessel lignin is of the syringyl/guaiacyl type. 14 references.

  1. Action on ileal smooth muscle of synthetic detergents and pardaxin.

    PubMed

    Primor, N

    1986-01-01

    Pardaxin (PX), a toxic and repellent substance isolated from the Red Sea flatfish, causes a sharp ball-like profile of drop of saline placed on a hydrophobic film to turn into a flattened one. This effect results with a decrease of the contact angle (theta) from 96 degrees to a maximum of 42 degrees at 10(-4) M of PX. The action of sodium dodecyl sulphate (SDS), a synthetic anionic detergent, benzalkonium chloride (BAC) cationic detergent and pardaxin (PX) a toxic protein with detergent properties, were studied in the ileal guinea-pig longitudinal smooth muscle preparation. SDS (4 X 10(-4) M) and PX (5 X 10(-6) M) diminished the muscle contractile response to field stimulation (0.1 Hz, 1 msec) and to acetylcholine (Ach) and to histamine and elicited a prolonged (4-6 min) TTX-insensitive muscle contraction. The dose dependence of muscle contraction to SDS and PX was found to be sigmoidal and occurred over a narrow range of concentrations. The SDS- but not PX-induced muscle contraction could be reduced by diphenhydramine (H1 antihistamine). BAC (10(-5)-10(-4) M) suppressed the muscle's contractile response to electrical stimulation (0.1 Hz, 1 msec), to Ach, histamine and 5-hydroxytryptamine but did not produce muscle contraction. PX at concentrations higher than 5 X 10(-6) M is a potent detergent and at this concentration shares several pharmacological similarities with SDS.

  2. Detergent-assisted oxidative folding of delta-conotoxins.

    PubMed

    DeLa Cruz, R; Whitby, F G; Buczek, O; Bulaj, G

    2003-04-01

    Conotoxins comprise a diverse group of disulfide-rich peptides found in venoms of predatory Conus species. The native conformation of these peptides is marginally stable in comparison with alternative conformations, often resulting in low folding yields. The oxidative folding of hydrophobic delta-conotoxins was found to produce less than 1% of the native peptide [Bulaj, G. et al. (2001) Biochemistry 40, 13201]. In order to identify factors that might improve folding yields, we screened a number of additives including water-soluble polymers, detergents and osmolytes for their ability to increase steady-state accumulation of the native delta-conotoxin PVIA. The presence of a non-ionic detergent Tween and low temperature appeared to be the most effective factors in improving the oxidative folding. The detergent was also effective in promoting folding of other hydrophobic delta-conotoxins. Based on our findings, we discuss a possible mechanism for detergent-assisted folding and the general applicability of this mechanism to facilitating the proper folding of hydrophobic, cysteine-rich peptides.

  3. 40 CFR 80.161 - Detergent additive certification program.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... additive manufacturer must properly register the detergent additive under 40 CFR part 79. For this purpose... claims according to the regulations at 40 CFR part 2. (v) The sample shall be submitted to EPA, at the... shall be informal, and the hearing shall not be subject to or governed by 40 CFR part 22 or by 5...

  4. 40 CFR 80.161 - Detergent additive certification program.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... additive manufacturer must properly register the detergent additive under 40 CFR part 79. For this purpose... documents with such claims according to the regulations at 40 CFR part 2. (v) The sample shall be submitted... shall be informal, and the hearing shall not be subject to or governed by 40 CFR part 22 or by 5...

  5. 40 CFR 80.161 - Detergent additive certification program.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... additive manufacturer must properly register the detergent additive under 40 CFR part 79. For this purpose... claims according to the regulations at 40 CFR part 2. (v) The sample shall be submitted to EPA, at the... shall be informal, and the hearing shall not be subject to or governed by 40 CFR part 22 or by 5...

  6. Arsenic in detergents: Possible danger and pollution hazard

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Angino, E.E.; Magnuson, L.M.; Waugh, T.C.; Galle, O.K.; Bredfeldt, J.

    1970-01-01

    Arsenic at a concentration of 10 to 70 parts per million has been detected in several common presoaks and household detergents. Arsenic values of 2 to 8 parts per billion have been measured in the Kansas River. These concentrations are close to the amount (10 parts per billion) recommended by the United States Public Health Service as a drinking-water standard.

  7. 40 CFR 80.161 - Detergent additive certification program.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... additive manufacturer must properly register the detergent additive under 40 CFR part 79. For this purpose... claims according to the regulations at 40 CFR part 2. (v) The sample shall be submitted to EPA, at the... shall be informal, and the hearing shall not be subject to or governed by 40 CFR part 22 or by 5...

  8. Membrane Protein Solubilization and Composition of Protein Detergent Complexes.

    PubMed

    Duquesne, Katia; Prima, Valérie; Sturgis, James N

    2016-01-01

    Membrane proteins are typically expressed in heterologous systems with a view to in vitro characterization. A critical step in the preparation of membrane proteins after expression in any system is the solubilization of the protein in aqueous solution, typically using detergents and lipids, to obtain the protein in a form suitable for purification, structural or functional analysis. This process is particularly difficult as the objective is to prepare the protein in an unnatural environment, a protein detergent complex, separating it from its natural lipid partners while causing the minimum destabilization or modification of the structure. Although the process is difficult, and relatively hard to master, an increasing number of membrane proteins have been successfully isolated after expression in a wide variety of systems. In this chapter we give a general protocol for preparing protein detergent complexes that is aimed at guiding the reader through the different critical steps. In the second part of the chapter we illustrate how to analyze the composition of protein detergent complexes; this analysis is important as it has been found that compositional variation often causes irreproducible results. PMID:27485340

  9. 40 CFR 80.141 - Interim detergent gasoline program.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... mixtures of gasoline and alcohol fuels, gasoline used as marine fuel, gasoline service accumulation fuel... registered by its manufacturer under 40 CFR part 79 according to the specifications in paragraphs (c) (1... Deposits—Fuel Detergency Requirements Revisited”, Bill Bitting et al., Society of Automotive Engineers,...

  10. 40 CFR 80.141 - Interim detergent gasoline program.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... mixtures of gasoline and alcohol fuels, gasoline used as marine fuel, gasoline service accumulation fuel... registered by its manufacturer under 40 CFR part 79 according to the specifications in paragraphs (c) (1... Deposits—Fuel Detergency Requirements Revisited”, Bill Bitting et al., Society of Automotive Engineers,...

  11. 40 CFR 80.141 - Interim detergent gasoline program.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... mixtures of gasoline and alcohol fuels, gasoline used as marine fuel, gasoline service accumulation fuel... registered by its manufacturer under 40 CFR part 79 according to the specifications in paragraphs (c) (1... Deposits—Fuel Detergency Requirements Revisited”, Bill Bitting et al., Society of Automotive Engineers,...

  12. 40 CFR 80.141 - Interim detergent gasoline program.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... mixtures of gasoline and alcohol fuels, gasoline used as marine fuel, gasoline service accumulation fuel... registered by its manufacturer under 40 CFR part 79 according to the specifications in paragraphs (c) (1... Deposits—Fuel Detergency Requirements Revisited”, Bill Bitting et al., Society of Automotive Engineers,...

  13. 40 CFR 80.141 - Interim detergent gasoline program.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... mixtures of gasoline and alcohol fuels, gasoline used as marine fuel, gasoline service accumulation fuel... registered by its manufacturer under 40 CFR part 79 according to the specifications in paragraphs (c) (1... Deposits—Fuel Detergency Requirements Revisited”, Bill Bitting et al., Society of Automotive Engineers,...

  14. 40 CFR 80.161 - Detergent additive certification program.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... additive manufacturer must properly register the detergent additive under 40 CFR part 79. For this purpose... available information on optimal temperature, light exposure, or other conditions to prolong sample shelf... claims according to the regulations at 40 CFR part 2. (v) The sample shall be submitted to EPA, at...

  15. A Lab Experience to Illustrate the Physicochemical Principles of Detergency

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Poce-Fatou, J. A.; Bethencourt-Nunez, M.; Moreno, C.; Pinto-Ganfornina, J. J.; Moreno-Dorado, F. J.

    2008-01-01

    This article presents a lab experience to study detergency from a physicochemical point of view intended for undergraduate students. By means of a simple experimental device, we analyze the influence of the surfactant concentration in both distilled water and tap water. Our method is based on the measurement of diffuse reflectances of polyester…

  16. Novel seed coat lignins in the Cactaceae: structure, distribution and implications for the evolution of lignin diversity.

    PubMed

    Chen, Fang; Tobimatsu, Yuki; Jackson, Lisa; Nakashima, Jin; Ralph, John; Dixon, Richard A

    2013-01-01

    We have recently described a hitherto unsuspected catechyl lignin polymer (C-lignin) in the seed coats of Vanilla orchid and in cacti of one genus, Melocactus (Chen et al., Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA. 2012, 109, 1772-1777.). We have now determined the lignin types in the seed coats of 130 different cactus species. Lignin in the vegetative tissues of cacti is of the normal guaiacyl/syringyl (G/S) type, but members of most genera within the subfamily Cactoidae possess seed coat lignin of the novel C-type only, which we show is a homopolymer formed by endwise β-O-4-coupling of caffeyl alcohol monomers onto the growing polymer resulting in benzodioxane units. However, the species examined within the genera Coryphantha, Cumarinia, Escobaria and Mammillaria (Cactoideae) mostly had normal G/S lignin in their seeds, as did all six species in the subfamily Opuntioidae that were examined. Seed coat lignin composition is still evolving in the Cactaceae, as seeds of one Mammillaria species (M. lasiacantha) possess only C-lignin, three Escobaria species (E. dasyacantha, E. lloydii and E. zilziana) contain an unusual lignin composed of 5-hydroxyguaiacyl units, the first report of such a polymer that occurs naturally in plants, and seeds of some species contain no lignin at all. We discuss the implications of these findings for the mechanisms that underlie the biosynthesis of these newly discovered lignin types.

  17. 3 in 4 Youngsters Exposed to Laundry Pod Detergent Suffer Poisoning

    MedlinePlus

    ... 160006.html 3 in 4 Youngsters Exposed to Laundry Pod Detergent Suffer Poisoning Hospitalizations 4 times more common with ... THURSDAY, July 21, 2016 (HealthDay News) -- Brightly colored laundry detergent pods pose a much greater risk to young ...

  18. Reductive deconstruction of organosolv lignin catalyzed by zeolite supported nickel nanoparticles

    SciTech Connect

    Kasakov, Stanislav; Shi, Hui; Camaioni, Donald M.; Zhao, Chen; Barath, Eszter; Jentys, Andreas; Lercher, Johannes A.

    2015-11-01

    Mechanistic aspects of deconstruction and hydrodeoxygenation of organosolv lignin using supported Ni catalysts with (Ni/HZSM-5 and Ni/HBEA) and without Brønsted acid sites (Ni/SiO2) are reported. Lignin was deconstructed and converted to saturated cyclic hydrocarbons ranging from C5 to C14. In the one-stage reaction, full conversion with total yield of 70 ± 5 wt.% saturated hydrocarbons was achieved at 593 K and 20 bar H2. The organosolv lignin used consists of seven to eight monolignol subunits and has an average molecular weight of ca. 1200 g mol-1. The monolignols were mainly guaiacyl, syringyl and phenylcoumaran, randomly interconnected through β-O-4, 4-O-5, β-1, 5-5’ and β-β ether bonds. In situ IR spectroscopy was used to follow the changes in lignin constituents during reaction. The proposed reaction pathways for the catalytic transformation of this organosolv lignin to alkanes start with the hydrogenolysis of aryl alkyl ether bonds, followed by hydrogenation of the aromatic compounds on Ni to cyclic alcohols. Oxygen is removed from the alcohols via dehydration on Brønsted acid sites to yield cyclic alkenes that are further hydrogenated to alkanes. Formation of condensation products may occur via intermolecular recombination of aromatic monomers or alkylation of aromatic compounds by alkenes. The financial support from TUM-PNNL cooperation project “Development of new methods for in situ characterization in liquid phase reactions” (CN-177939) is highly appreciated. The work by S.K., H.S., and J.A.L was partially supported by the US Department of Energy, Office of Science, Office of Basic Energy Sciences, Division of Chemical Sciences, Geosciences, and Biosciences.

  19. Evaluation of monitoring indicators for the post-closure care of a landfill for MSW characterized with low lignin content.

    PubMed

    Zheng, Wei; Lü, Fan; Bolyard, Stephanie C; Shao, Liming; Reinhart, Debra R; He, Pinjing

    2015-02-01

    To understand the applicability of the termination indicators for landfill municipal solid waste (MSW) with low initial lignin content, four different accelerated landfill stabilization techniques were applied to anaerobic landfilled waste, including anaerobic flushing with water, anaerobic flushing with Fenton-treated leachate, and aerobic flushing with Fenton-treated and UV/H2O2-treated leachate. Termination indicators, including total organic carbon (TOC), ammonia-N (NH4(+)-N), the ratio of UV absorbance at 254 nm to TOC concentration (SUVA254), fluorescence spectra of leachate, methane production, oxygen consumption, lignocellulose content, and humus-like content were evaluated. Results suggest that oxygen consumption related indicators used as a termination indicator for low-lignin-content MSW were more sensitive than methane consumption related indicators. Aeration increased humic acid (HA) and (HA+FA)/HyI content by 2.9 and 1.7 times compared to the anaerobically stabilized low-lignin-content MSW. On the other hand, both the fulvic acid (FA) and hydrophilic (HyI) fractions remained constant regardless of stabilization technique. The target value developed for low-lignin-content MSW was quite different than developed countries mainly due to low residual biodegradable organic carbon content in stabilized low-lignin-content MSW.

  20. Ultra-high performance supercritical fluid chromatography of lignin-derived phenols from alkaline cupric oxide oxidation.

    PubMed

    Sun, Mingzhe; Lidén, Gunnar; Sandahl, Margareta; Turner, Charlotta

    2016-08-01

    Traditional chromatographic methods for the analysis of lignin-derived phenolic compounds in environmental samples are generally time consuming. In this work, an ultra-high performance supercritical fluid chromatography method with a diode array detector for the analysis of major lignin-derived phenolic compounds produced by alkaline cupric oxide oxidation was developed. In an analysis of a collection of 11 representative monomeric lignin phenolic compounds, all compounds were clearly separated within 6 min with excellent peak shapes, with a limit of detection of 0.5-2.5 μM, a limit of quantification of 2.5-5.0 μM, and a dynamic range of 5.0-2.0 mM (R(2) > 0.997). The new ultra-high performance supercritical fluid chromatography method was also applied for the qualitative and quantitative analysis of lignin-derived phenolic compounds obtained upon alkaline cupric oxide oxidation of a commercial humic acid. Ten out of the previous eleven model compounds could be quantified in the oxidized humic acid sample. The high separation power and short analysis time obtained demonstrate for the first time that supercritical fluid chromatography is a fast and reliable technique for the analysis of lignin-derived phenols in complex environmental samples. PMID:27452148

  1. Structure and expression of the lignin O-methyltransferase gene from Zea mays L.

    PubMed

    Collazo, P; Montoliu, L; Puigdomènech, P; Rigau, J

    1992-12-01

    The isolation and characterization of cDNA and homologous genomic clones encoding the lignin O-methyltransferase (OMT) from maize is reported. The cDNA clone has been isolated by differential screening of maize root cDNA library. Southern analysis indicates that a single gene codes for this protein. The genomic sequence contains a single 916 bp intron. The deduced protein sequence from DNA shares significant homology with the recently reported lignin-bispecific caffeic acid/5-hydroxyferulic OMTs from alfalfa and aspen. It also shares homology with OMTs from bovine pineal glands and a purple non-sulfur photosynthetic bacterium. The mRNA of this gene is present at different levels in distinct organs of the plant with the highest accumulation detected in the elongation zone of roots. Bacterial extracts from clones containing the maize OMT cDNA show an activity in methylation of caffeic acid to ferulic acid comparable to that existing in the plant extracts. These results indicate that the described gene encodes the caffeic acid 3-O-methyltransferase (COMT) involved in the lignin bio-synthesis of maize. PMID:1463825

  2. Lignin down-regulation of Zea mays via dsRNAi and klason lignin analysis.

    PubMed

    Park, Sang-Hyuck; Ong, Rebecca Garlock; Mei, Chuansheng; Sticklen, Mariam

    2014-07-23

    To facilitate the use of lignocellulosic biomass as an alternative bioenergy resource, during biological conversion processes, a pretreatment step is needed to open up the structure of the plant cell wall, increasing the accessibility of the cell wall carbohydrates. Lignin, a polyphenolic material present in many cell wall types, is known to be a significant hindrance to enzyme access. Reduction in lignin content to a level that does not interfere with the structural integrity and defense system of the plant might be a valuable step to reduce the costs of bioethanol production. In this study, we have genetically down-regulated one of the lignin biosynthesis-related genes, cinnamoyl-CoA reductase (ZmCCR1) via a double stranded RNA interference technique. The ZmCCR1_RNAi construct was integrated into the maize genome using the particle bombardment method. Transgenic maize plants grew normally as compared to the wild-type control plants without interfering with biomass growth or defense mechanisms, with the exception of displaying of brown-coloration in transgenic plants leaf mid-ribs, husks, and stems. The microscopic analyses, in conjunction with the histological assay, revealed that the leaf sclerenchyma fibers were thinned but the structure and size of other major vascular system components was not altered. The lignin content in the transgenic maize was reduced by 7-8.7%, the crystalline cellulose content was increased in response to lignin reduction, and hemicelluloses remained unchanged. The analyses may indicate that carbon flow might have been shifted from lignin biosynthesis to cellulose biosynthesis. This article delineates the procedures used to down-regulate the lignin content in maize via RNAi technology, and the cell wall compositional analyses used to verify the effect of the modifications on the cell wall structure.

  3. Lignin Down-regulation of Zea mays via dsRNAi and Klason Lignin Analysis

    PubMed Central

    Park, Sang-Hyuck; Ong, Rebecca Garlock; Mei, Chuansheng; Sticklen, Mariam

    2014-01-01

    To facilitate the use of lignocellulosic biomass as an alternative bioenergy resource, during biological conversion processes, a pretreatment step is needed to open up the structure of the plant cell wall, increasing the accessibility of the cell wall carbohydrates. Lignin, a polyphenolic material present in many cell wall types, is known to be a significant hindrance to enzyme access. Reduction in lignin content to a level that does not interfere with the structural integrity and defense system of the plant might be a valuable step to reduce the costs of bioethanol production. In this study, we have genetically down-regulated one of the lignin biosynthesis-related genes, cinnamoyl-CoA reductase (ZmCCR1) via a double stranded RNA interference technique. The ZmCCR1_RNAi construct was integrated into the maize genome using the particle bombardment method. Transgenic maize plants grew normally as compared to the wild-type control plants without interfering with biomass growth or defense mechanisms, with the exception of displaying of brown-coloration in transgenic plants leaf mid-ribs, husks, and stems. The microscopic analyses, in conjunction with the histological assay, revealed that the leaf sclerenchyma fibers were thinned but the structure and size of other major vascular system components was not altered. The lignin content in the transgenic maize was reduced by 7-8.7%, the crystalline cellulose content was increased in response to lignin reduction, and hemicelluloses remained unchanged. The analyses may indicate that carbon flow might have been shifted from lignin biosynthesis to cellulose biosynthesis. This article delineates the procedures used to down-regulate the lignin content in maize via RNAi technology, and the cell wall compositional analyses used to verify the effect of the modifications on the cell wall structure. PMID:25080235

  4. Norway spruce (Picea abies) laccases: characterization of a laccase in a lignin-forming tissue culture.

    PubMed

    Koutaniemi, Sanna; Malmberg, Heli A; Simola, Liisa K; Teeri, Teemu H; Kärkönen, Anna

    2015-04-01

    Secondarily thickened cell walls of water-conducting vessels and tracheids and support-giving sclerenchyma cells contain lignin that makes the cell walls water impermeable and strong. To what extent laccases and peroxidases contribute to lignin biosynthesis in muro is under active evaluation. We performed an in silico study of Norway spruce (Picea abies (L.) Karst.) laccases utilizing available genomic data. As many as 292 laccase encoding sequences (genes, gene fragments, and pseudogenes) were detected in the spruce genome. Out of the 112 genes annotated as laccases, 79 are expressed at some level. We isolated five full-length laccase cDNAs from developing xylem and an extracellular lignin-forming cell culture of spruce. In addition, we purified and biochemically characterized one culture medium laccase from the lignin-forming cell culture. This laccase has an acidic pH optimum (pH 3.8-4.2) for coniferyl alcohol oxidation. It has a high affinity to coniferyl alcohol with an apparent Km value of 3.5 μM; however, the laccase has a lower catalytic efficiency (V(max)/K(m)) for coniferyl alcohol oxidation compared with some purified culture medium peroxidases. The properties are discussed in the context of the information already known about laccases/coniferyl alcohol oxidases of coniferous plants.

  5. Lignin-degrading Peroxidases from Genome of Selective Ligninolytic Fungus Ceriporiopsis subvermispora*

    PubMed Central

    Fernández-Fueyo, Elena; Ruiz-Dueñas, Francisco J.; Miki, Yuta; Martínez, María Jesús; Hammel, Kenneth E.; Martínez, Angel T.

    2012-01-01

    The white-rot fungus Ceriporiopsis subvermispora delignifies lignocellulose with high selectivity, but until now it has appeared to lack the specialized peroxidases, termed lignin peroxidases (LiPs) and versatile peroxidases (VPs), that are generally thought important for ligninolysis. We screened the recently sequenced C. subvermispora genome for genes that encode peroxidases with a potential ligninolytic role. A total of 26 peroxidase genes was apparent after a structural-functional classification based on homology modeling and a search for diagnostic catalytic amino acid residues. In addition to revealing the presence of nine heme-thiolate peroxidase superfamily members and the unexpected absence of the dye-decolorizing peroxidase superfamily, the search showed that the C. subvermispora genome encodes 16 class II enzymes in the plant-fungal-bacterial peroxidase superfamily, where LiPs and VPs are classified. The 16 encoded enzymes include 13 putative manganese peroxidases and one generic peroxidase but most notably two peroxidases containing the catalytic tryptophan characteristic of LiPs and VPs. We expressed these two enzymes in Escherichia coli and determined their substrate specificities on typical LiP/VP substrates, including nonphenolic lignin model monomers and dimers, as well as synthetic lignin. The results show that the two newly discovered C. subvermispora peroxidases are functionally competent LiPs and also suggest that they are phylogenetically and catalytically intermediate between classical LiPs and VPs. These results offer new insight into selective lignin degradation by C. subvermispora. PMID:22437835

  6. Investigating the degradation process of kraft lignin by β-proteobacterium, Pandoraea sp. ISTKB.

    PubMed

    Kumar, Madan; Singh, Jyoti; Singh, Manoj Kumar; Singhal, Anjali; Thakur, Indu Shekhar

    2015-10-01

    The present study investigates the kraft lignin (KL) degrading potential of novel alkalotolerant Pandoraea sp. ISTKB utilizing KL as sole carbon source. The results displayed 50.2 % reduction in chemical oxygen demand (COD) and 41.1 % decolorization after bacterial treatment. The maximum lignin peroxidase (LiP) and manganese peroxidase (MnP) activity detected was 2.73 and 4.33 U ml(-1), respectively, on day 3. The maximum extracellular and intracellular laccase activities observed were 1.32 U ml(-1) on day 5 and 4.53 U ml(-1) on day 4, respectively. The decolorization and degradation was maximum on day 2. Further, it registered an increase with the production of extracellular laccase. This unusual trend of decolorization and degradation was studied using various aromatic compounds and dyes. SEM and FTIR results indicated significant change in surface morphology and functional group composition during the course of degradation. Gas chromatography and mass spectroscopy (GC-MS) analysis confirmed KL degradation by emergence of new peaks and the identification of low molecular weight aromatic intermediates in treated sample. The degradation of KL progressed through the generation of phenolic intermediates. The identified intermediates implied the degradation of hydroxyphenyl, ferulic acid, guaiacyl, syringyl, phenylcoumarane, and pinoresinol components commonly found in lignin. The degradation, decolorization, and GC-MS analysis indicated potential application of the isolate Pandoraea sp. ISTKB in treatment of lignin-containing pollutants and KL valorization.

  7. A MYB/ZML Complex Regulates Wound-Induced Lignin Genes in Maize.

    PubMed

    Vélez-Bermúdez, Isabel-Cristina; Salazar-Henao, Jorge E; Fornalé, Silvia; López-Vidriero, Irene; Franco-Zorrilla, José-Manuel; Grotewold, Erich; Gray, John; Solano, Roberto; Schmidt, Wolfgang; Pagés, Montserrat; Riera, Marta; Caparros-Ruiz, David

    2015-11-01

    Lignin is an essential polymer in vascular plants that plays key structural roles in vessels and fibers. Lignification is induced by external inputs such as wounding, but the molecular mechanisms that link this stress to lignification remain largely unknown. In this work, we provide evidence that three maize (Zea mays) lignin repressors, MYB11, MYB31, and MYB42, participate in wound-induced lignification by interacting with ZML2, a protein belonging to the TIFY family. We determined that the three R2R3-MYB factors and ZML2 bind in vivo to AC-rich and GAT(A/C) cis-elements, respectively, present in a set of lignin genes. In particular, we show that MYB11 and ZML2 bind simultaneously to the AC-rich and GAT(A/C) cis-elements present in the promoter of the caffeic acid O-methyl transferase (comt) gene. We show that, like the R2R3-MYB factors, ZML2 also acts as a transcriptional repressor. We found that upon wounding and methyl jasmonate treatments, MYB11 and ZML2 proteins are degraded and comt transcription is induced. Based on these results, we propose a molecular regulatory mechanism involving a MYB/ZML complex in which wound-induced lignification can be achieved by the derepression of a set of lignin genes. PMID:26566917

  8. 40 CFR 417.170 - Applicability; description of the manufacture of detergents by dry blending subcategory.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... manufacture of detergents by dry blending subcategory. 417.170 Section 417.170 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) EFFLUENT GUIDELINES AND STANDARDS SOAP AND DETERGENT MANUFACTURING POINT SOURCE CATEGORY Manufacture of Detergents by Dry Blending Subcategory § 417.170...

  9. 40 CFR 80.155 - Interim detergent program controls and prohibitions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... detergent registered under 40 CFR part 79, and in accordance with at least the minimum concentration specifications of that detergent as registered under 40 CFR part 79 or as otherwise provided under § 80.141(d... detergent registered under 40 CFR part 79, and in accordance with at least the minimum...

  10. 76 FR 9013 - Agency Information Collection Activities; Proposed Collection; Comment Request; Detergent Gasoline

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-02-16

    ... AGENCY Agency Information Collection Activities; Proposed Collection; Comment Request; Detergent Gasoline... this action are those who (1) Manufacture gasoline, post-refinery component, or detergent additives, (2) blend detergent additives into gasoline or post-refinery component, or (3) transport or receive...

  11. 40 CFR 80.169 - Liability for violations of the detergent certification program controls and prohibitions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... detergent certification program controls and prohibitions. 80.169 Section 80.169 Protection of Environment... Detergent Gasoline § 80.169 Liability for violations of the detergent certification program controls and..., carrier, distributor, reseller, retailer, wholesale purchaser-consumer, oxygenate blender, or...

  12. 40 CFR 80.169 - Liability for violations of the detergent certification program controls and prohibitions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... detergent certification program controls and prohibitions. 80.169 Section 80.169 Protection of Environment... Detergent Gasoline § 80.169 Liability for violations of the detergent certification program controls and..., carrier, distributor, reseller, retailer, wholesale purchaser-consumer, oxygenate blender, or...

  13. 40 CFR 417.180 - Applicability; description of the manufacture of drum dried detergents subcategory.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... manufacture of drum dried detergents subcategory. 417.180 Section 417.180 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) EFFLUENT GUIDELINES AND STANDARDS SOAP AND DETERGENT MANUFACTURING POINT SOURCE CATEGORY Manufacture of Drum Dried Detergents Subcategory § 417.180...

  14. 40 CFR 417.160 - Applicability; description of the manufacture of liquid detergents subcategory.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... manufacture of liquid detergents subcategory. 417.160 Section 417.160 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) EFFLUENT GUIDELINES AND STANDARDS SOAP AND DETERGENT MANUFACTURING POINT SOURCE CATEGORY Manufacture of Liquid Detergents Subcategory § 417.160 Applicability; description of...

  15. 40 CFR 80.168 - Detergent certification program controls and prohibitions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 17 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Detergent certification program... (CONTINUED) AIR PROGRAMS (CONTINUED) REGULATION OF FUELS AND FUEL ADDITIVES Detergent Gasoline § 80.168 Detergent certification program controls and prohibitions. (a)(1) No person shall sell, offer for...

  16. 40 CFR 80.155 - Interim detergent program controls and prohibitions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... detergent registered under 40 CFR part 79, and in accordance with at least the minimum concentration specifications of that detergent as registered under 40 CFR part 79 or as otherwise provided under § 80.141(d... detergent registered under 40 CFR part 79, and in accordance with at least the minimum...

  17. 40 CFR 80.169 - Liability for violations of the detergent certification program controls and prohibitions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... detergent certification program controls and prohibitions. 80.169 Section 80.169 Protection of Environment... Detergent Gasoline § 80.169 Liability for violations of the detergent certification program controls and..., carrier, distributor, reseller, retailer, wholesale purchaser-consumer, oxygenate blender, or...

  18. 40 CFR 417.160 - Applicability; description of the manufacture of liquid detergents subcategory.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... manufacture of liquid detergents subcategory. 417.160 Section 417.160 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) EFFLUENT GUIDELINES AND STANDARDS SOAP AND DETERGENT MANUFACTURING POINT SOURCE CATEGORY Manufacture of Liquid Detergents Subcategory § 417.160 Applicability; description of...

  19. 40 CFR 80.155 - Interim detergent program controls and prohibitions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... detergent registered under 40 CFR part 79, and in accordance with at least the minimum concentration specifications of that detergent as registered under 40 CFR part 79 or as otherwise provided under § 80.141(d... detergent registered under 40 CFR part 79, and in accordance with at least the minimum...

  20. 40 CFR 417.150 - Applicability; description of the manufacture of spray dried detergents subcategory.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... manufacture of spray dried detergents subcategory. 417.150 Section 417.150 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) EFFLUENT GUIDELINES AND STANDARDS SOAP AND DETERGENT MANUFACTURING POINT SOURCE CATEGORY Manufacture of Spray Dried Detergents Subcategory § 417.150...