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Sample records for acid dha supplementation

  1. Docosahexaenoic acid supplementation (DHA) and the return on investment for pregnancy outcomes.

    PubMed

    Shireman, T I; Kerling, E H; Gajewski, B J; Colombo, J; Carlson, S E

    2016-08-01

    The Kansas University DHA Outcomes Study (KUDOS) found a significant reduction in early preterm births with a supplement of 600mg DHA per day compared to placebo. The objective of this analysis was to determine if hospital costs differed between groups. We applied a post-hoc cost analysis of the delivery hospitalization and all hospitalizations in the following year to 197 mother-infant dyads who delivered at Kansas University Hospital. Hospital cost saving of DHA supplementation amounted to $1678 per infant. Even after adjusting for the estimated cost of providing 600mg/d DHA for 26 weeks ($166.48) and a slightly higher maternal care cost ($26) in the DHA group, the net saving per dyad was $1484. Extrapolating this to the nearly 4 million US deliveries per year suggests universal supplementation with 600mg/d during the last 2 trimesters of pregnancy could save the US health care system up to USD 6 billion. PMID:27499448

  2. Supplementation of orange juice with docosahexaenoic acid improves plasma phospholipid DHA content of children

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Docosahexaenoic acid (DHA) is a long-chain, polyunsaturated fatty acid that is important for brain and retinal development. Its principal dietary source in children is fish. Since many children have a low fish intake, there is concern that they do not receive adequate DHA. In older children, it may ...

  3. Dietary supplementation with docosahexanoic acid (DHA) increases red blood cell membrane flexibility in mice with sickle cell disease

    PubMed Central

    Wandersee, Nancy J.; Maciaszek, Jamie L.; Giger, Katie M.; Hanson, Madelyn S.; Zheng, Suilan; Guo, YiHe; Mickelson, Barbara; Hillery, Cheryl A.; Lykotrafitis, George; Low, Philip S.; Hogg, Neil

    2014-01-01

    Humans and mice with sickle cell disease (SCD) have rigid red blood cells (RBCs). Omega-3 fatty acids, such as docosahexanoic acid (DHA), may influence RBC deformability via incorporation into the RBC membrane. In this study, sickle cell (SS) mice were fed natural ingredient rodent diets supplemented with 3% DHA (DHA diet) or a control diet matched in total fat (CTRL diet). After 8 weeks of feeding, we examined the RBCs for: 1) stiffness, as measured by atomic force microscopy; 2) deformability, as measured by ektacytometry; and 3) percent irreversibly sickled RBCs on peripheral blood smears. Using atomic force microscopy, stiffness is increased and deformability decreased in RBCs from SS mice fed CTRL diet compared to wild-type mice. In contrast, RBCs from SS mice fed DHA diet had markedly decreased stiffness and increased deformability compared to RBCs from SS mice fed CTRL diet. Furthermore, examination of peripheral blood smears revealed less irreversibly sickled RBCs in SS mice fed DHA diet as compared to CTRL diet. In summary, our findings indicate that DHA supplementation improves RBC flexibility and reduces irreversibly sickled cells by 40% in SS mice. These results point to potential therapeutic benefits of dietary omega-3 fatty acids in SCD. PMID:25488613

  4. Effect of Docosahexaenoic Acid (DHA) Supplementation on Inflammatory Cytokine Levels in Infants at High Genetic Risk for Type 1 Diabetes

    PubMed Central

    Chase, H. Peter; Boulware, David; Rodriguez, Henry; Donaldson, David; Chritton, Sonia; Rafkin-Mervis, Lisa; Krischer, Jeffrey; Skyler, Jay S.; Clare-Salzler, Michael

    2014-01-01

    OBJECTIVE Type 1 diabetes (T1D) results from the inflammatory destruction of pancreatic β-cells. In the present study, we investigated the effect of docosahexaenoic acid (DHA) supplementation on stimulated inflammatory cytokine production in white blood cells (WBC) from infants with a high genetic risk for T1D. RESEARCH DESIGN AND METHODS This was a multicenter, two-arm, randomized, double blind pilot trial of DHA supplementation, beginning either in the last trimester of pregnancy (41 infants) or in the first five months after birth (57 infants). Levels of DHA in infant and maternal red blood cell (RBC) membranes and in breast milk were analyzed by gas chromatography/mass spectrometry. Inflammatory cytokines were assayed from whole blood culture supernatants using the Luminex Multiplex assay after stimulation with high dose lipopolysaccharide (LPS), 1μg/mL. RESULTS The levels of RBC DHA were increased by 61–100% in treated compared to control infants at ages 6 to 36 months. There were no statistically significant reductions in production of the inflammatory cytokines, IL-1β, TNFα or IL-12p40 at any of the 6 time points measured. The inflammatory marker, hsCRP, was significantly lower in breast-fed DHA-treated infants compared to all formula-fed infants at age 12 months. Three infants (two received DHA) were removed from the study as a result of developing ≥ two persistently positive biochemical islet autoantibodies. CONCLUSIONS This pilot trial showed that supplementation of infant diets with DHA is safe and fulfilled the pre-study goal of increasing infant RBC DHA levels by at least 20%. Inflammatory cytokine production was not consistently reduced. PMID:25039804

  5. The Pattern of Fatty Acids Displaced by EPA and DHA Following 12 Months Supplementation Varies between Blood Cell and Plasma Fractions

    PubMed Central

    Walker, Celia G.; West, Annette L.; Browning, Lucy M.; Madden, Jackie; Gambell, Joanna M.; Jebb, Susan A.; Calder, Philip C.

    2015-01-01

    Eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA) and docosahexaenoic acid (DHA) are increased in plasma lipids and blood cell membranes in response to supplementation. Whilst arachidonic acid (AA) is correspondingly decreased, the effect on other fatty acids (FA) is less well described and there may be site-specific differences. In response to 12 months EPA + DHA supplementation in doses equivalent to 0–4 portions of oily fish/week (1 portion: 3.27 g EPA+DHA) multinomial regression analysis was used to identify important FA changes for plasma phosphatidylcholine (PC), cholesteryl ester (CE) and triglyceride (TAG) and for blood mononuclear cells (MNC), red blood cells (RBC) and platelets (PLAT). Dose-dependent increases in EPA + DHA were matched by decreases in several n-6 polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFA) in PC, CE, RBC and PLAT, but were predominantly compensated for by oleic acid in TAG. Changes were observed for all FA classes in MNC. Consequently the n-6:n-3 PUFA ratio was reduced in a dose-dependent manner in all pools after 12 months (37%–64% of placebo in the four portions group). We conclude that the profile of the FA decreased in exchange for the increase in EPA + DHA following supplementation differs by FA pool with implications for understanding the impact of n-3 PUFA on blood lipid and blood cell biology. PMID:26247960

  6. The Pattern of Fatty Acids Displaced by EPA and DHA Following 12 Months Supplementation Varies between Blood Cell and Plasma Fractions.

    PubMed

    Walker, Celia G; West, Annette L; Browning, Lucy M; Madden, Jackie; Gambell, Joanna M; Jebb, Susan A; Calder, Philip C

    2015-08-01

    Eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA) and docosahexaenoic acid (DHA) are increased in plasma lipids and blood cell membranes in response to supplementation. Whilst arachidonic acid (AA) is correspondingly decreased, the effect on other fatty acids (FA) is less well described and there may be site-specific differences. In response to 12 months EPA + DHA supplementation in doses equivalent to 0-4 portions of oily fish/week (1 portion: 3.27 g EPA+DHA) multinomial regression analysis was used to identify important FA changes for plasma phosphatidylcholine (PC), cholesteryl ester (CE) and triglyceride (TAG) and for blood mononuclear cells (MNC), red blood cells (RBC) and platelets (PLAT). Dose-dependent increases in EPA + DHA were matched by decreases in several n-6 polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFA) in PC, CE, RBC and PLAT, but were predominantly compensated for by oleic acid in TAG. Changes were observed for all FA classes in MNC. Consequently the n-6:n-3 PUFA ratio was reduced in a dose-dependent manner in all pools after 12 months (37%-64% of placebo in the four portions group). We conclude that the profile of the FA decreased in exchange for the increase in EPA + DHA following supplementation differs by FA pool with implications for understanding the impact of n-3 PUFA on blood lipid and blood cell biology. PMID:26247960

  7. Modulation of blood cell gene expression by DHA supplementation in hypertriglyceridemic men

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Our previous study with docosahexaenoic acid (DHA) supplementation to hypertriglyceridemic men showed that DHA reduced several risk factors for CVD, including the plasma concentration of inflammatory markers. To determine the effect of DHA supplementation on the global gene expression pattern, we pe...

  8. Maternal DHA supplementation protects rat offspring against impairment of learning and memory following prenatal exposure to valproic acid.

    PubMed

    Gao, Jingquan; Wu, Hongmei; Cao, Yonggang; Liang, Shuang; Sun, Caihong; Wang, Peng; Wang, Ji; Sun, Hongli; Wu, Lijie

    2016-09-01

    Docosahexaenoic acid (22:6n-3; DHA) is known to play a critical role in postnatal brain development. However, there have been no studies investigating the preventive effect of DHA on prenatal valproic acid (VPA)-induced behavioral and molecular alterations in offspring. The present study was to evaluate the neuroprotective effects in offspring using maternal feeding of DHA to rats exposed to VPA in pregnancy. In the present study, rats were exposed to VPA on day 12.5 of pregnancy; DHA was administered at the dosages of 100, 300 and 500 mg/kg/day for 3 weeks from day 1 to 21 of pregnancy. The results showed that maternal feeding of DHA to the prenatal exposed to VPA (1) prevented VPA-induced learning and memory impairment but did not change social-related behavior, (2) increased total DHA content in offspring plasma and hippocampus, (3) rescued VPA-induced neuronal loss and apoptosis of pyramidal cells in hippocampal CA1, (4) influenced the content of malondialdehyde and glutathione and the activities of superoxide dismutase and glutathione in the hippocampus, (5) altered levels of apoptosis-related proteins (Bcl-2, Bax and caspase-3) and inhibited the activity of caspase-3 in offspring hippocampus and (6) enhanced relative levels of p-CaMKII and p-CREB proteins in the hippocampus. These findings suggest that maternal feeding with DHA may prevent prenatal VPA-induced impairment of learning and memory, normalize several different molecules associated with oxidative stress and apoptosis in the hippocampus of offspring, and exert preventive effects on prenatal VPA-induced brain dysfunction. PMID:27469996

  9. Effect of dietary docosahexaenoic acid (DHA) in phospholipids or triglycerides on brain DHA uptake and accretion.

    PubMed

    Kitson, Alex P; Metherel, Adam H; Chen, Chuck T; Domenichiello, Anthony F; Trépanier, Marc-Olivier; Berger, Alvin; Bazinet, Richard P

    2016-07-01

    Tracer studies suggest that phospholipid DHA (PL-DHA) more effectively targets the brain than triglyceride DHA (TAG-DHA), although the mechanism and whether this translates into higher brain DHA concentrations are not clear. Rats were gavaged with [U-(3)H]PL-DHA and [U-(3)H]TAG-DHA and blood sampled over 6h prior to collection of brain regions and other tissues. In another experiment, rats were supplemented for 4weeks with TAG-DHA (fish oil), PL-DHA (roe PL) or a mixture of both for comparison to a low-omega-3 diet. Brain regions and other tissues were collected, and blood was sampled weekly. DHA accretion rates were estimated using the balance method. [U-(3)H]PL-DHA rats had higher radioactivity in cerebellum, hippocampus and remainder of brain, with no differences in other tissues despite higher serum lipid radioactivity in [U-(3)H]TAG-DHA rats. TAG-DHA, PL-DHA or a mixture were equally effective at increasing brain DHA. There were no differences between DHA-supplemented groups in brain region, whole-body, or tissue DHA accretion rates except heart and serum TAG where the PL-DHA/TAG-DHA blend was higher than TAG-DHA. Apparent DHA β-oxidation was not different between DHA-supplemented groups. This indicates that more labeled DHA enters the brain when consumed as PL; however, this may not translate into higher brain DHA concentrations. PMID:27135386

  10. The Relationship of Docosahexaenoic Acid (DHA) with Learning and Behavior in Healthy Children: A Review

    PubMed Central

    Kuratko, Connye N.; Barrett, Erin Cernkovich; Nelson, Edward B.; Norman, Salem

    2013-01-01

    Childhood is a period of brain growth and maturation. The long chain omega-3 fatty acid, docosahexaenoic acid (DHA), is a major lipid in the brain recognized as essential for normal brain function. In animals, low brain DHA results in impaired learning and behavior. In infants, DHA is important for optimal visual and cognitive development. The usual intake of DHA among toddlers and children is low and some studies show improvements in cognition and behavior as the result of supplementation with polyunsaturated fatty acids including DHA. The purpose of this review was to identify and evaluate current knowledge regarding the relationship of DHA with measures of learning and behavior in healthy school-age children. A systematic search of the literature identified 15 relevant publications for review. The search found studies which were diverse in purpose and design and without consistent conclusions regarding the treatment effect of DHA intake or biomarker status on specific cognitive tests. However, studies of brain activity reported benefits of DHA supplementation and over half of the studies reported a favorable role for DHA or long chain omega-3 fatty acids in at least one area of cognition or behavior. Studies also suggested an important role for DHA in school performance. PMID:23877090

  11. [Docosahexaenoic acid (DHA) in fetal development and in infant nutrition].

    PubMed

    Valenzuela, A; Nieto, M S

    2001-10-01

    Docosahexanoic acid (C22:6, DHA) is a highly unsaturated omega-3 fatty acid that forms part of the central nervous and visual system structures. DHA is synthesized from its precursor, alfa-linolenic acid, that is also a omega-3 fatty acid and can be obtained from vegetable oils. Marine organisms, specially fish, are good nutritional sources of DHA and eicosapentanoic acid (EPA), another omega-3 fatty acid that has a role in vascular homeostasis. DHA increases membrane fluidity, improving neurogenesis, synaptogenesis and the activity of retinal photoreceptors. The fetus, specially during the last trimester of pregnancy, has high DHA requirements. It is provided by the mother, since fetal DHA synthesis is negligible in this stage of development. Breast feeding provides DHA to the child, but most replacement artificial formulas do not provide this fatty acid. At the present moment, many products for infant nutrition contain DHA. PMID:11775350

  12. Can maternal DHA supplementation offer long-term protection against neonatal hyperoxic lung injury?

    PubMed

    Lingappan, Krithika; Moorthy, Bhagavatula

    2015-12-15

    The effect of adverse perinatal environment (like maternal infection) has long-standing effects on many organ systems, including the respiratory system. Use of maternal nutritional supplements is an exciting therapeutic option that could be used to protect the developing fetus. In a recent issue of the journal, Ali and associates (Ali M, Heyob KM, Velten M, Tipple TE, Rogers LK. Am J Physiol Lung Cell Mol Physiol 309: L441-L448, 2015) specifically look at maternal docosahexaenoic acid (DHA) supplementation and its effect on chronic apoptosis in the lung in a mouse model of perinatal inflammation and postnatal hyperoxia. Strikingly, the authors show that pulmonary apoptosis was augmented even 8 wk after the hyperoxia-exposed mice had been returned to room air. This effect was significantly attenuated in mice that were subjected to maternal dietary DHA supplementation. These findings are novel, significantly advance our understanding of chronic effects of adverse perinatal and neonatal events on the developing lung, and thereby offer novel therapeutic options in the form of maternal dietary supplementation with DHA. This editorial reviews the long-term effects of adverse perinatal environment on postnatal lung development and the protective effects of dietary supplements such as DHA. PMID:26361877

  13. Efficient production of triacylglycerols rich in docosahexaenoic acid (DHA) by osmo-heterotrophic marine protists.

    PubMed

    Liu, Ying; Tang, Jie; Li, Jingjing; Daroch, Maurycy; Cheng, Jay J

    2014-12-01

    Thraustochytrids have recently emerged as a promising source for docosahexaenoic acid (DHA) production due to their high growth rate and oil content. In this study, two thraustochytrid isolates, Aurantiochytrium sp. PKU#SW7 and Thraustochytriidae sp. PKU#Mn16 were used for DHA production. Following growth parameters were optimized to maximize DHA production: temperature, pH, salinity, and glucose concentration. Both isolates achieved the highest DHA yield at the cultivation temperature of 28 °C, pH 6, 100 % seawater, and 2 % glucose. A DHA yield of 1.395 g/l and 1.426 g/l was achieved under the optimized culture conditions. Further investigation revealed that both isolates possess simple fatty acids profiles with palmitic acid and DHA as their dominant constituents, accounting for ∼79 % of total fatty acids. To date, very few studies have focused on the DHA distribution in various lipid fractions which is an important factor for identifying strains with a potential for industrial DHA production. In the present study, the lipids profiles of each strain both revealed that the majority of DHA was distributed in neutral lipids (NLs), and the DHA distribution in NLs of PKU#SW7 was exclusively in the form of triacylglycerols (TAGs) which suggest that PKU#SW7 could be utilized as an alternative source of DHA for dietary supplements. The fermentation process established for both strains also indicating that Aurantiochytrium sp. PKU#SW7 was more suitable for cultivation in fermenter. In addition, the high percentage of saturated fatty acids produced by the two thraustochytrids indicates their potential application in biodiesel production. Overall, our findings suggest that two thraustochytrid isolates are suitable candidates for biotechnological applications. PMID:25186147

  14. Docosahexaenoic Acid (DHA): An Ancient Nutrient for the Modern Human Brain

    PubMed Central

    Bradbury, Joanne

    2011-01-01

    Modern humans have evolved with a staple source of preformed docosahexaenoic acid (DHA) in the diet. An important turning point in human evolution was the discovery of high-quality, easily digested nutrients from coastal seafood and inland freshwater sources. Multi-generational exploitation of seafood by shore-based dwellers coincided with the rapid expansion of grey matter in the cerebral cortex, which characterizes the modern human brain. The DHA molecule has unique structural properties that appear to provide optimal conditions for a wide range of cell membrane functions. This has particular implications for grey matter, which is membrane-rich tissue. An important metabolic role for DHA has recently been identified as the precursor for resolvins and protectins. The rudimentary source of DHA is marine algae; therefore it is found concentrated in fish and marine oils. Unlike the photosynthetic cells in algae and higher plants, mammalian cells lack the specific enzymes required for the de novo synthesis of alpha-linolenic acid (ALA), the precursor for all omega-3 fatty acid syntheses. Endogenous synthesis of DHA from ALA in humans is much lower and more limited than previously assumed. The excessive consumption of omega-6 fatty acids in the modern Western diet further displaces DHA from membrane phospholipids. An emerging body of research is exploring a unique role for DHA in neurodevelopment and the prevention of neuropsychiatric and neurodegenerative disorders. DHA is increasingly being added back into the food supply as fish oil or algal oil supplementation. PMID:22254110

  15. Docosahexaenoic acid (DHA): an ancient nutrient for the modern human brain.

    PubMed

    Bradbury, Joanne

    2011-05-01

    Modern humans have evolved with a staple source of preformed docosahexaenoic acid (DHA) in the diet. An important turning point in human evolution was the discovery of high-quality, easily digested nutrients from coastal seafood and inland freshwater sources. Multi-generational exploitation of seafood by shore-based dwellers coincided with the rapid expansion of grey matter in the cerebral cortex, which characterizes the modern human brain. The DHA molecule has unique structural properties that appear to provide optimal conditions for a wide range of cell membrane functions. This has particular implications for grey matter, which is membrane-rich tissue. An important metabolic role for DHA has recently been identified as the precursor for resolvins and protectins. The rudimentary source of DHA is marine algae; therefore it is found concentrated in fish and marine oils. Unlike the photosynthetic cells in algae and higher plants, mammalian cells lack the specific enzymes required for the de novo synthesis of alpha-linolenic acid (ALA), the precursor for all omega-3 fatty acid syntheses. Endogenous synthesis of DHA from ALA in humans is much lower and more limited than previously assumed. The excessive consumption of omega-6 fatty acids in the modern Western diet further displaces DHA from membrane phospholipids. An emerging body of research is exploring a unique role for DHA in neurodevelopment and the prevention of neuropsychiatric and neurodegenerative disorders. DHA is increasingly being added back into the food supply as fish oil or algal oil supplementation. PMID:22254110

  16. Intrauterine, postpartum and adult relationships between arachidonic acid (AA) and docosahexaenoic acid (DHA).

    PubMed

    Kuipers, Remko S; Luxwolda, Martine F; Janneke Dijck-Brouwer, D A; Muskiet, Frits A J

    2011-11-01

    Erythrocyte (RBC) fatty acid compositions from populations with stable dietary habits but large variations in RBC-arachidonic (AA) and RBC-docosahexaenoic acid (DHA) provided us with insight into relationships between DHA and AA. It also enabled us to estimate the maternal RBC-DHA (mRBC-DHA) status that corresponded with no decrease in mRBC-DHA during pregnancy, or in infant (i) RBC-DHA or mRBC-DHA during the first 3 months postpartum (DHA-equilibrium) while exclusively breastfeeding. At delivery, iRBC-AA is uniformly high and independent of mRBC-AA. Infants born to mothers with low RBC-DHA exhibit higher, but infants born to mothers with high RBC-DHA exhibit lower RBC-DHA than their mothers. This switch from 'biomagnification' into 'bioattenuation' occurs at 6g% mRBC-DHA. At 6g%, mRBC-DHA is stable throughout pregnancy, corresponds with postpartum infant DHA-equilibrium of 6 and 0.4g% DHA in mature milk, but results in postpartum depletion of mRBC-DHA to 5g%. Postpartum maternal DHA-equilibrium is reached at 8g% mRBC-DHA, corresponding with 1g% DHA in mature milk and 7g% iRBC-DHA at delivery that increases to 8g% during lactation. This 8g% RBC-DHA concurs with the lowest risks of cardiovascular and psychiatric diseases in adults. RBC-data from 1866 infants, males and (non-)pregnant females indicated AA vs. DHA synergism at low RBC-DHA, but antagonism at high RBC-DHA. These data, together with high intakes of AA and DHA from our Paleolithic diet, suggest that bioattenuation of DHA during pregnancy and postnatal antagonism between AA and DHA are the physiological standard for humans across the life cycle. PMID:21561751

  17. Omega-3 fatty acids for nutrition and medicine: considering microalgae oil as a vegetarian source of EPA and DHA.

    PubMed

    Doughman, Scott D; Krupanidhi, Srirama; Sanjeevi, Carani B

    2007-08-01

    Long-chain EPA/DHA omega-3 fatty acid supplementation can be co-preventative and co-therapeutic. Current research suggests increasing accumulated long chain omega-3s for health benefits and as natural medicine in several major diseases. But many believe plant omega-3 sources are nutritionally and therapeutically equivalent to the EPA/DHA omega-3 in fish oil. Although healthy, precursor ALA bio-conversion to EPA is inefficient and production of DHA is nearly absent, limiting the protective value of ALA supplementation from flax-oil, for example. Along with pollutants certain fish acquire high levels of EPA/DHA as predatory species. However, the origin of EPA/DHA in aquatic ecosystems is algae. Certain microalgae produce high levels of EPA or DHA. Now, organically produced DHA-rich microalgae oil is available. Clinical trials with DHA-rich oil indicate comparable efficacies to fish oil for protection from cardiovascular risk factors by lowering plasma triglycerides and oxidative stress. This review discusses 1) omega-3 fatty acids in nutrition and medicine; 2) omega-3s in physiology and gene regulation; 3) possible protective mechanisms of EPA/DHA in major diseases such as coronary heart disease, atherosclerosis, cancer and type 2 diabetes; 4) EPA and DHA requirements considering fish oil safety; and 5) microalgae EPA and DHA-rich oils and recent clinical results. PMID:18220672

  18. Exercise contributes to the effects of DHA dietary supplementation by acting on membrane-related synaptic systems

    PubMed Central

    Chytrova, Gabriela; Ying, Zhe; Gomez-Pinilla, Fernando

    2009-01-01

    Dietary omega-3 fatty acid (i.e. docosohexaenoic acid (DHA)) and exercise are gaining recognition for supporting brain function under normal and challenging conditions. Here we evaluate the possibility that the interaction of DHA and exercise can involve specific elements of the synaptic plasma membrane. We found that voluntary exercise potentiated the effects of a 12-day DHA dietary supplementation regimen on increasing the levels of syntaxin 3 (STX-3) and the growth-associated protein (GAP-43) in the adult rat hippocampus region. STX-3 is a synaptic membrane-bound protein involved in the effects of DHA on membrane expansion. The DHA diet and exercise also elevated levels of the NMDA receptor subunit NR2B, which is important for synaptic function underlying learning and memory. The actions of exercise and DHA dietary supplementation reflected on enhanced learning performance in the Morris water maze as learning ability was associated with higher levels of STX-3 and NR2B. The overall findings reveal a mechanism by which exercise can interact with the function of DHA dietary enrichment to elevate the capacity of the adult brain for axonal growth, synaptic plasticity, and cognitive function. PMID:19446534

  19. Effects of maternal docosahexaenoic acid (DHA) supplementation on neuropsychological and visual status of former breast-fed infants at five years of age

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Background: DHA, a major component of the structural phospholipids of brain and retinal cell membranes, is thought by some to be an essential nutrient for infants. Indeed, some studies suggest that low dietary intake during infancy is associated with short-term adverse effects on visual and neural d...

  20. Effects of DHA-enriched hen egg yolk and L-cysteine supplementation on quality of cryopreserved boar semen

    PubMed Central

    Chanapiwat, Panida; Kaeoket, Kampon; Tummaruk, Padet

    2009-01-01

    The objective of the present study was to determine the effects of docosahexaenoic acid (DHA)-enriched hen egg yolks and L-cysteine supplementation on the qualities of the cryopreserved boar semen. A total of 15 ejaculates from 5 Pietrain boars were divided into 4 groups according to the compositions of the freezing extenders used, that is, normal hen egg yolk (group I), DHA-enriched hen egg yolk (group II), normal hen egg yolk with 5 mmol L−1 of cysteine supplementation (group III) and DHA-enriched hen egg yolk with 5 mmol L−1 of cysteine supplementation (group IV). The semen was cryopreserved using controlled rate freezer and was thawed at 50°C for 12 s. Progressive motility, sperm viability, acrosome integrity and functional integrity of sperm plasma membrane of the post-thawed semen were evaluated. The supplementation of L-cysteine in the freezing extender alone (group III) improved progressive motility (P < 0.05), and the supplementation of L-cysteine in combination with DHA-enriched hen egg yolk (group IV) improved both progressive motility (P < 0.05) and acrosome integrity (P < 0.01). The use of DHA-enriched hen egg yolk alone (group II) did not enhance any of the post-thawed semen qualities (P > 0.05). In conclusion, the supplementation of antioxidant L-cysteine alone or in combination with DHA-enriched hen egg yolk significantly improved the post-thawed semen qualities, especially progressive motility and acrosome integrity. PMID:19633681

  1. [Importance of docosahexaenoic acid (DHA): Functions and recommendations for its ingestion in infants].

    PubMed

    Gil-Campos, M; Dalmau Serra, J

    2010-09-01

    Docosahexaenoic acid (DHA) is a n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acid with multiple functions, although these are still under study. The development of visual and neurological functions have been demonstrated in premature infants and neonates, however, its effects are still being studied in certain chronic neurological diseases, and inflammatory and metabolic disorders. The DHA requirements are not fixed but recommendations must be based on an intake similar to the composition of breastfeeding, and in older children and during pregnancy and lactation, to ensure consumption of oily fish at least twice a week. It is essential to recognise the need for supplementation of this fatty acid in some diseases that require restricted diet, and in metabolic alterations resulting in a deficiency, but also know the scientific evidence on the effects produced in different situations. This review updates this information to propose an adequate intake of DHA at different ages and in different diseases. PMID:20570579

  2. Protective role of n6/n3 PUFA supplementation with varying DHA/EPA ratios against atherosclerosis in mice.

    PubMed

    Liu, Liang; Hu, Qinling; Wu, Huihui; Xue, Yihong; Cai, Liang; Fang, Min; Liu, Zhiguo; Yao, Ping; Wu, Yongning; Gong, Zhiyong

    2016-06-01

    The effects of n3 polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFA) on cardiovascular disease are controversial. We currently explored the effects of various ratios of docosahexaenoic acid (DHA) and eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA) on high-fat-induced atherosclerosis. In model apoE(-/-) mice, high-fat diets (HFD) were partially replaced with fish and algal oils (DHA/EPA 2:1, 1:1 and 1:2) and/or plant oils enriched in linoleic and alpha-linolenic acids with an n6/n3 ratio of 4:1. PUFA supplementation significantly reduced the atherosclerotic plaque area, serum lipid profile, inflammatory response, aortic ROS production, proinflammatory factors and scavenger receptor expression as compared to those in the HFD group. However, plant oils did not have a significant effect on the following: serum HDL-C level; aortic ABCA1, ABCG1 and LAL mRNA expression; and CD36 and LOX-1 protein expression. Compared to the plant-oil-treated group, the DHA/EPA 1:1 group had a smaller atherosclerotic plaque area, higher serum HDL-C levels and lesser CD36 and MSR-1 mRNA expression; the DHA/EPA 2:1 group had lower serum TC, LDL-C and TNF-α levels and lower aortic ROS levels. Our study suggested that n3 PUFA from animals had more potent atheroprotective effects than that from plants. Supplementation involving higher DHA/EPA ratios and an n6/n3 ratio of 4:1 was beneficial for reducing serum "bad cholesterol" and a 1:1 DHA/EPA ratio with an n6/n3 ratio of 4:1 was beneficial for improving serum "good cholesterol" and inhibiting ox-LDL uptake. Our results suggest that achieving an n6/n3 ratio of 4:1 in the diet is also important in addition to having an optimal DHA/EPA ratio. PMID:27142749

  3. Beyond Building Better Brains: Bridging the Docosahexaenoic acid (DHA) Gap of Prematurity

    PubMed Central

    Harris, William

    2014-01-01

    Long chain polyunsaturated fatty acids (LCPUFA) including docosahexaenoic acid (DHA), are essential for normal vision and neurodevelopment. DHA accretion in utero occurs primarily in the last trimester of pregnancy to support rapid growth and brain development. Premature infants, born before this process is complete, are relatively deficient in this essential fatty acid. Very low birth weight (VLBW) infants remain deficient for a long period of time due to ineffective conversion from precursor fatty acids, lower fat stores, and a limited nutritional provision of DHA after birth. In addition to long- term visual and neurodevelopmental risks, VLBW infants have significant morbidity and mortality from diseases specific to premature birth, including bronchopulmonary dysplasia (BPD), necrotizing enterocolitis (NEC), and retinopathy of prematurity (ROP). There is increasing evidence that DHA has protective benefits against these disease states. The aim of this article is to identify the unique needs of premature infants, review the current recommendations for LCPUFA provision in infants, and discuss the caveats and innovative new ways to overcome the DHA deficiency through postnatal supplementation, with the long term goal of improving morbidity and mortality in this at risk population. PMID:25357095

  4. N-3 polyunsaturated fatty acid DHA during IVM affected oocyte developmental competence in cattle.

    PubMed

    Oseikria, Mouhamad; Elis, Sébastien; Maillard, Virginie; Corbin, Emilie; Uzbekova, Svetlana

    2016-06-01

    The positive effect of n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids (FAs) on fertility in ruminants seems to be partly mediated through direct effects on the oocyte developmental potential. We aimed to investigate whether supplementation with physiological levels of docosahexaenoic acid (DHA, C22:6 n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids) during IVM has an effect on oocyte maturation and in vitro embryo development in cattle. We reported that DHA (0, 1, 10, or 100 μM) had no effect on oocyte viability or maturation rate after 22-hour IVM. Incubation of oocyte-cumulus complexes with 1-μM DHA during IVM significantly increased (P < 0.05) oocyte cleavage rate as compared with control (86.1% vs. 78.8%, respectively) and the greater than 4-cell embryo rate at Day 2 after parthenogenetic activation (39.1% vs. 29.7%, respectively). Supplementation with 1 μM DHA during IVM also induced a significant increase in the blastocyst rate at Day 7 after IVF as compared with control (30.6% vs. 17.6%, respectively) and tended to increase the number of cells in the blastocysts (97.1 ± 4.9 vs. 81.2 ± 5.3, respectively; P = 0.08). On the contrary, 10-μM DHA had no effects, whereas 100-μM DHA significantly decreased the cleavage rate compared with control (69.5% vs.78.8%, respectively) and the greater than 4-cell embryo rate at Day 2 after parthenogenetic activation (19.5% vs. 29.7%). As was shown by real-time polymerase chain reaction, negative effects of 100-μM DHA were associated with significant increase of progesterone synthesis by oocyte-cumulus complexes, a three-fold increase in expression level of FA transporter CD36 and a two-fold decrease of FA synthase FASN genes in cumulus cells (CCs) of corresponding oocytes. Docosahexaenoic acid at 1 and 10 μM had no effect on expression of those and other key lipid metabolism-related genes in CC. In conclusion, administration of a low physiological dose of DHA (1 μM) during IVM may have beneficial effects on oocyte developmental

  5. Whole body synthesis rates of DHA from α-linolenic acid are greater than brain DHA accretion and uptake rates in adult rats[S

    PubMed Central

    Domenichiello, Anthony F.; Chen, Chuck T.; Trepanier, Marc-Olivier; Stavro, P. Mark; Bazinet, Richard P.

    2014-01-01

    Docosahexaenoic acid (DHA) is important for brain function, however, the exact amount required for the brain is not agreed upon. While it is believed that the synthesis rate of DHA from α-linolenic acid (ALA) is low, how this synthesis rate compares with the amount of DHA required to maintain brain DHA levels is unknown. The objective of this work was to assess whether DHA synthesis from ALA is sufficient for the brain. To test this, rats consumed a diet low in n-3 PUFAs, or a diet containing ALA or DHA for 15 weeks. Over the 15 weeks, whole body and brain DHA accretion was measured, while at the end of the study, whole body DHA synthesis rates, brain gene expression, and DHA uptake rates were measured. Despite large differences in body DHA accretion, there was no difference in brain DHA accretion between rats fed ALA and DHA. In rats fed ALA, DHA synthesis and accretion was 100-fold higher than brain DHA accretion of rats fed DHA. Also, ALA-fed rats synthesized approximately 3-fold more DHA than the DHA uptake rate into the brain. This work indicates that DHA synthesis from ALA may be sufficient to supply the brain. PMID:24212299

  6. DHA derivatives of fish oil as dietary supplements: a nutrition-based drug discovery approach for therapies to prevent metabolic cardiotoxicity

    PubMed Central

    Ma, Yonggang; Lindsey, Merry L.; Halade, Ganesh V.

    2014-01-01

    Introduction During the early 1970s, Danish physicians Jorn Dyerberg and colleagues observed that Greenland Eskimos consuming fatty fishes exhibited low incidences of heart disease. Fish oil is now one of the most commonly consumed dietary supplements. In 2004, concentrated fish oil was approved as a drug by the FDA for the treatment of hyperlipidemia. Fish oil contains two major omega-3 fatty acids: eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA) and docosahexaenoic acid (DHA). With advancements in lipid concentration and purification techniques, EPA- or DHA-enriched products are now commercially available, and the availability of these components in isolation allows their individual effects to be examined. Newly synthesized derivatives and endogenously discovered metabolites of DHA exhibit therapeutic utility for obesity, metabolic syndrome and cardiovascular disease. Areas covered This review summarizes our current knowledge on the distinct effects of EPA and DHA to prevent metabolic syndrome and reduce cardiotoxicity risk. Since EPA is an integral component of fish oil, we will briefly review EPA effects, but our main theme will be to summarize effects of the DHA derivatives that are available today. We focus on using nutrition-based drug discovery to explore the potential of DHA derivatives for the treatment of obesity, metabolic syndrome and cardiovascular diseases. Expert opinion The safety and efficacy evaluation of DHA derivatives will provide novel biomolecules for the drug discovery arsenal. Novel nutritional-based drug discoveries of DHA derivatives or metabolites may provide realistic and alternative strategies for the treatment of metabolic and cardiovascular disease. PMID:22724444

  7. Dietary DHA supplementation causes selective changes in phospholipids from different brain regions in both wild type mice and the Tg2576 mouse model of Alzheimer's disease.

    PubMed

    Bascoul-Colombo, Cécile; Guschina, Irina A; Maskrey, Benjamin H; Good, Mark; O'Donnell, Valerie B; Harwood, John L

    2016-06-01

    Alzheimer's disease (AD) is of major concern in ageing populations and we have used the Tg2576 mouse model to understand connections between brain lipids and amyloid pathology. Because dietary docosahexaenoic acid (DHA) has been identified as beneficial, we compared mice fed with a DHA-supplemented diet to those on a nutritionally-sufficient diet. Major phospholipids from cortex, hippocampus and cerebellum were separated and analysed. Each phosphoglyceride had a characteristic fatty acid composition which was similar in cortex and hippocampus but different in the cerebellum. The biggest changes on DHA-supplementation were within ethanolamine phospholipids which, together with phosphatidylserine, had the highest proportions of DHA. Reciprocal alterations in DHA and arachidonate were found. The main diet-induced alterations were found in ethanolamine phospholipids, (and included their ether derivatives), as were the changes observed due to genotype. Tg mice appeared more sensitive to diet with generally lower DHA percentages when on the standard diet and higher relative proportions of DHA when the diet was supplemented. All four major phosphoglycerides analysed showed age-dependent decreases in polyunsaturated fatty acid contents. These data provide, for the first time, a detailed evaluation of phospholipids in different brain areas previously shown to be relevant to behaviour in the Tg2576 mouse model for AD. The lipid changes observed with genotype are consistent with the subtle alterations found in AD patients, especially for the ethanolamine phospholipid molecular species. They also emphasise the contrasting changes in fatty acid content induced by DHA supplementation within individual phospholipid classes. PMID:26968097

  8. Dietary DHA supplementation causes selective changes in phospholipids from different brain regions in both wild type mice and the Tg2576 mouse model of Alzheimer's disease

    PubMed Central

    Bascoul-Colombo, Cécile; Guschina, Irina A.; Maskrey, Benjamin H.; Good, Mark; O'Donnell, Valerie B.; Harwood, John L.

    2016-01-01

    Alzheimer's disease (AD) is of major concern in ageing populations and we have used the Tg2576 mouse model to understand connections between brain lipids and amyloid pathology. Because dietary docosahexaenoic acid (DHA) has been identified as beneficial, we compared mice fed with a DHA-supplemented diet to those on a nutritionally-sufficient diet. Major phospholipids from cortex, hippocampus and cerebellum were separated and analysed. Each phosphoglyceride had a characteristic fatty acid composition which was similar in cortex and hippocampus but different in the cerebellum. The biggest changes on DHA-supplementation were within ethanolamine phospholipids which, together with phosphatidylserine, had the highest proportions of DHA. Reciprocal alterations in DHA and arachidonate were found. The main diet-induced alterations were found in ethanolamine phospholipids, (and included their ether derivatives), as were the changes observed due to genotype. Tg mice appeared more sensitive to diet with generally lower DHA percentages when on the standard diet and higher relative proportions of DHA when the diet was supplemented. All four major phosphoglycerides analysed showed age-dependent decreases in polyunsaturated fatty acid contents. These data provide, for the first time, a detailed evaluation of phospholipids in different brain areas previously shown to be relevant to behaviour in the Tg2576 mouse model for AD. The lipid changes observed with genotype are consistent with the subtle alterations found in AD patients, especially for the ethanolamine phospholipid molecular species. They also emphasise the contrasting changes in fatty acid content induced by DHA supplementation within individual phospholipid classes. PMID:26968097

  9. Forms of n-3 (ALA, C18:3n-3 or DHA, C22:6n-3) Fatty Acids Affect Carcass Yield, Blood Lipids, Muscle n-3 Fatty Acids and Liver Gene Expression in Lambs.

    PubMed

    Ponnampalam, Eric N; Lewandowski, Paul A; Fahri, Fahri T; Burnett, Viv F; Dunshea, Frank R; Plozza, Tim; Jacobs, Joe L

    2015-11-01

    The effects of supplementing diets with n-3 alpha-linolenic acid (ALA) and docosahexaenoic acid (DHA) on plasma metabolites, carcass yield, muscle n-3 fatty acids and liver messenger RNA (mRNA) in lambs were investigated. Lambs (n = 120) were stratified to 12 groups based on body weight (35 ± 3.1 kg), and within groups randomly allocated to four dietary treatments: basal diet (BAS), BAS with 10.7 % flaxseed supplement (Flax), BAS with 1.8 % algae supplement (DHA), BAS with Flax and DHA (FlaxDHA). Lambs were fed for 56 days. Blood samples were collected on day 0 and day 56, and plasma analysed for insulin and lipids. Lambs were slaughtered, and carcass traits measured. At 30 min and 24 h, liver and muscle samples, respectively, were collected for determination of mRNA (FADS1, FADS2, CPT1A, ACOX1) and fatty acid composition. Lambs fed Flax had higher plasma triacylglycerol, body weight, body fat and carcass yield compared with the BAS group (P < 0.001). DHA supplementation increased carcass yield and muscle DHA while lowering plasma insulin compared with the BAS diet (P < 0.01). Flax treatment increased (P < 0.001) muscle ALA concentration, while DHA treatment increased (P < 0.001) muscle DHA concentration. Liver mRNA FADS2 was higher and CPT1A lower in the DHA group (P < 0.05). The FlaxDHA diet had additive effects, including higher FADS1 and ACOX1 mRNA than for the Flax or DHA diet. In summary, supplementation with ALA or DHA modulated plasma metabolites, muscle DHA, body fat and liver gene expression differently. PMID:26395388

  10. Dietary olive oil supplemented with fish oil, rich in EPA and DHA (n-3) polyunsaturated fatty acids, attenuates colonic inflammation in rats with DSS-induced colitis.

    PubMed

    Camuesco, Desirée; Gálvez, Julio; Nieto, Ana; Comalada, Mònica; Rodríguez-Cabezas, M Elena; Concha, Angel; Xaus, Jordi; Zarzuelo, Antonio

    2005-04-01

    Previous studies proposed a protective role of the dietary intake of (n-3) PUFA in human inflammatory bowel disease (IBD), but almost no studies have been performed using olive oil. The aims of the present study were to test the beneficial effects of an olive oil-based diet with or without fish oil, rich in (n-3) PUFA, in the dextran sodium sulfate (DSS) model of rat colitis and to elucidate the mechanisms involved in their potential beneficial effects, with special attention to the production of some of the mediators involved in the intestinal inflammatory response, such as leukotriene B(4) (LTB(4)), tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNFalpha) and nitric oxide (NO). Rats were fed the different diets for 2 wk before colitis induction and thereafter until colonic evaluation 15 d later. Colitic rats fed the olive oil-based diet had a lower colonic inflammatory response than those fed the soybean oil diet, and this beneficial effect was increased by the dietary incorporation of (n-3) PUFA. A restoration of colonic glutathione levels and lower colonic NO synthase expression occurred in all colitic rats fed an olive oil diet compared with the control colitic group that consumed the soybean oil diet. However, (n-3) PUFA incorporation into an olive oil diet significantly decreased colonic TNFalpha and LTB(4) levels compared with colitic rats that were not supplemented with fish oil. These results affirm the benefits of an olive oil diet in the management of IBD, which are further enhanced by the addition of (n-3) PUFA. PMID:15795419

  11. Effect of Multiple Dietary Supplement Containing Lutein, 
Astaxanthin, Cyanidin-3-Glucoside, and DHA on Accommodative Ability

    PubMed Central

    Kono, Keiko; Shimizu, Yoshiki; Takahashi, Satomi; Matsuoka, Sayuri; Yui, Kei

    2014-01-01

    Objective The study aimed to verify that ingestion of multiple dietary supplement containing lutein, astaxanthin, cyanidin-3-glucoside and docosahexaenoic acid (DHA) would improve accommodative ability of aged and older subjects who were aware of eye strain on a daily basis. Methods A randomized double-blind placebo-controlled parallel group comparison study was conducted for 48 participants aged 45 to 64 years who complained of eye strain. The subjects took multiple dietary supplement containing 10 mg of lutein, 20 mg of bilberry extract and 26.5 mg of black soybean hull extract (a total of 2.3 mg of cyanidin-3-glucoside in both extracts), 4 mg of astaxanthin, and 50 mg of DHA (test supplement) or placebo for four consecutive weeks. Near-point accommodation (NPA) and subjective symptoms were evaluated both before and after four weeks’ intake. Results The variation of the NPA of both eyes from baseline to 4 weeks’ post-intake in the test supplement group was significantly higher than in the placebo group (1.321±0.394 diopter (D) in the test supplement group and 0.108±0.336 D in the placebo group, p=0.023). The multiple dietary supplement group showed improvement in the NPA. Regarding subjective symptoms, significant improvement of “stiff shoulders or neck” and “blurred vision” was also found in the test supplement group compared to the placebo group (p<0.05). There were no safety concerns in this study. Conclusion This study shows that multiple dietary supplement containing lutein, astaxanthin, cyanidin-3-glucoside, and DHA has effect to improve accommodative ability and subjective symptoms related to eye fatigue.

  12. Safety of docosahexaenoic acid (DHA) administered as DHA ethyl ester in a 9-month toxicity study in dogs.

    PubMed

    Dahms, Irina; Beilstein, Paul; Bonnette, Kimberly; Salem, Norman

    2016-06-01

    DHA Ethyl Ester (DHA-EE) is a 90% concentrated ethyl ester of docosahexaenoic acid manufactured from the microalgal oil. The objective of the 9-month study was to evaluate safety of DHA-EE administered to beagle dogs at dose levels 150, 1000 and 2000 mg/kg bw/day by oral gavage and to determine reversibility of any findings after a 2-month recovery period. DHA-EE was well tolerated at all doses. There were observations of dry flaky skin with occasional reddened areas at doses ≥1000 mg/kg bw/day. These findings lacked any microscopic correlate and were no longer present after the recovery period. There were no toxicologically relevant findings in body weights, body weight gains, food consumption, ophthalmological examinations, and ECG measurements. Test article-related changes in hematology parameters were limited to decreases in reticulocyte count in the high-dose males and considered non-adverse. In clinical chemistry parameters, dose-related decreases in cholesterol and triglycerides levels were observed at all doses in males and females and attributed to the known lipid-lowering effects of DHA. There were no effects on other clinical chemistry, urinalysis or coagulation parameters. There were no abnormal histopathology findings attributed to test article. The No-Observable-Adverse-Effect Level of DHA-EE was established at 2000 mg/kg bw/day for both genders. PMID:27036332

  13. EPA/DHA and Vitamin A Supplementation Improves Spatial Memory and Alleviates the Age-related Decrease in Hippocampal RXRγ and Kinase Expression in Rats

    PubMed Central

    Létondor, Anne; Buaud, Benjamin; Vaysse, Carole; Richard, Emmanuel; Layé, Sophie; Pallet, Véronique; Alfos, Serge

    2016-01-01

    Studies suggest that eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA), docosahexaenoic acid (DHA), and vitamin A are critical to delay aged-related cognitive decline. These nutrients regulate gene expression in the brain by binding to nuclear receptors such as the retinoid X receptors (RXRs) and the retinoic acid receptors (RARs). Moreover, EPA/DHA and retinoids activate notably kinase signaling pathways such as AKT or MAPK, which includes ERK1/2. This suggests that these nutrients may modulate brain function in a similar way. Therefore, we investigated in middle-aged rats the behavioral and molecular effects of supplementations with EPA/DHA and vitamin A alone or combined. 18-month-old rats exhibited reference and working memory deficits in the Morris water maze, associated with a decrease in serum vitamin A and hippocampal EPA/DHA contents. RARα, RXRβ, and RXRγ mRNA expression and CAMKII, AKT, ERK1/2 expression were decreased in the hippocampus of middle-aged rats. A combined EPA/DHA and vitamin A supplementation had a beneficial additive effect on reference memory but not in working memory in middle-aged rats, associated with an alleviation of the age-related decrease in RXRγ, CAMKII, AKT, and ERK1 expression in the hippocampus. This study provides a new combined nutritional strategy to delay brain aging. PMID:27242514

  14. EPA/DHA and Vitamin A Supplementation Improves Spatial Memory and Alleviates the Age-related Decrease in Hippocampal RXRγ and Kinase Expression in Rats.

    PubMed

    Létondor, Anne; Buaud, Benjamin; Vaysse, Carole; Richard, Emmanuel; Layé, Sophie; Pallet, Véronique; Alfos, Serge

    2016-01-01

    Studies suggest that eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA), docosahexaenoic acid (DHA), and vitamin A are critical to delay aged-related cognitive decline. These nutrients regulate gene expression in the brain by binding to nuclear receptors such as the retinoid X receptors (RXRs) and the retinoic acid receptors (RARs). Moreover, EPA/DHA and retinoids activate notably kinase signaling pathways such as AKT or MAPK, which includes ERK1/2. This suggests that these nutrients may modulate brain function in a similar way. Therefore, we investigated in middle-aged rats the behavioral and molecular effects of supplementations with EPA/DHA and vitamin A alone or combined. 18-month-old rats exhibited reference and working memory deficits in the Morris water maze, associated with a decrease in serum vitamin A and hippocampal EPA/DHA contents. RARα, RXRβ, and RXRγ mRNA expression and CAMKII, AKT, ERK1/2 expression were decreased in the hippocampus of middle-aged rats. A combined EPA/DHA and vitamin A supplementation had a beneficial additive effect on reference memory but not in working memory in middle-aged rats, associated with an alleviation of the age-related decrease in RXRγ, CAMKII, AKT, and ERK1 expression in the hippocampus. This study provides a new combined nutritional strategy to delay brain aging. PMID:27242514

  15. The Role of Docosahexaenoic Acid (DHA) in the Control of Obesity and Metabolic Derangements in Breast Cancer

    PubMed Central

    Molfino, Alessio; Amabile, Maria Ida; Monti, Massimo; Arcieri, Stefano; Rossi Fanelli, Filippo; Muscaritoli, Maurizio

    2016-01-01

    Obesity represents a major under-recognized preventable risk factor for cancer development and recurrence, including breast cancer (BC). Healthy diet and correct lifestyle play crucial role for the treatment of obesity and for the prevention of BC. Obesity is significantly prevalent in western countries and it contributes to almost 50% of BC in older women. Mechanisms underlying obesity, such as inflammation and insulin resistance, are also involved in BC development. Fatty acids are among the most extensively studied dietary factors, whose changes appear to be closely related with BC risk. Alterations of specific ω-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFAs), particularly low basal docosahexaenoic acid (DHA) levels, appear to be important in increasing cancer risk and its relapse, influencing its progression and prognosis and affecting the response to treatments. On the other hand, DHA supplementation increases the response to anticancer therapies and reduces the undesired side effects of anticancer therapies. Experimental and clinical evidence shows that higher fish consumption or intake of DHA reduces BC cell growth and its relapse risk. Controversy exists on the potential anticancer effects of marine ω-3 PUFAs and especially DHA, and larger clinical trials appear mandatory to clarify these aspects. The present review article is aimed at exploring the capacity of DHA in controlling obesity-related inflammation and in reducing insulin resistance in BC development, progression, and response to therapies. PMID:27058527

  16. The Role of Docosahexaenoic Acid (DHA) in the Control of Obesity and Metabolic Derangements in Breast Cancer.

    PubMed

    Molfino, Alessio; Amabile, Maria Ida; Monti, Massimo; Arcieri, Stefano; Rossi Fanelli, Filippo; Muscaritoli, Maurizio

    2016-01-01

    Obesity represents a major under-recognized preventable risk factor for cancer development and recurrence, including breast cancer (BC). Healthy diet and correct lifestyle play crucial role for the treatment of obesity and for the prevention of BC. Obesity is significantly prevalent in western countries and it contributes to almost 50% of BC in older women. Mechanisms underlying obesity, such as inflammation and insulin resistance, are also involved in BC development. Fatty acids are among the most extensively studied dietary factors, whose changes appear to be closely related with BC risk. Alterations of specific ω-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFAs), particularly low basal docosahexaenoic acid (DHA) levels, appear to be important in increasing cancer risk and its relapse, influencing its progression and prognosis and affecting the response to treatments. On the other hand, DHA supplementation increases the response to anticancer therapies and reduces the undesired side effects of anticancer therapies. Experimental and clinical evidence shows that higher fish consumption or intake of DHA reduces BC cell growth and its relapse risk. Controversy exists on the potential anticancer effects of marine ω-3 PUFAs and especially DHA, and larger clinical trials appear mandatory to clarify these aspects. The present review article is aimed at exploring the capacity of DHA in controlling obesity-related inflammation and in reducing insulin resistance in BC development, progression, and response to therapies. PMID:27058527

  17. Fortification of pork loins with docosahexaenoic acid (DHA) and its effect on flavour

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Pork is traditionally low in docosahexanoic acid (DHA, C22:6n-3) and deficient in omega-3 fats for a balanced human diet. DHA as triglycerides was commercially prepared from the microalgae Schizochytrium and injected into fresh pork loins. Treatments of a mixed brine control (CON), 3.1% sunflower oil in mixed brine (SF) and a 3.1% DHA oil in mixed brine (DHA) were injected into pork loins at 10 mL/100 g and grilled at 205°C. After cooking, the CON and SF pork loins contained 0.03 to 0.05 mg DHA/g of pork and the DHA injected loins contained approximately 1.46 mg DHA/g. This also changed the fatty acid profile of omega-6: omega-3 from, 5 to 1 in the CON pork, to a ratio of 1.7 to 1 in DHA pork. The appearance, odor, oxidation rates and sensory taste, as judged by a trained panel, determined the DHA injected meat to be, 'slightly desirable’ and gave lower 'off flavour’ scores, relative to the CON and SF injected pork. Pork can be fortified with DHA oil to 146 mg/100 g serving, which would meet half the recommended daily omega 3 fatty acid requirements for adult humans and would be desirable in taste. PMID:24257205

  18. Effect of α-linolenic acid and DHA intake on lipogenesis and gene expression involved in fatty acid metabolism in growing-finishing pigs.

    PubMed

    De Tonnac, A; Labussière, E; Vincent, A; Mourot, J

    2016-07-01

    The regulation of lipogenesis mechanisms related to consumption of n-3 PUFA is poorly understood. The aim of the present study was to find out whether α-linolenic acid (ALA) or DHA uptake can have an effect on activities and gene expressions of enzymes involved in lipid metabolism in the liver, subcutaneous adipose tissue and longissimus dorsi (LD) muscle of growing-finishing pigs. Six groups of ten pigs received one of six experimental diets supplemented with rapeseed oil in the control diet, extruded linseed, microalgae or a mixture of both to implement different levels of ALA and DHA with the same content in total n-3. Results were analysed for linear and quadratic effects of DHA intake. The results showed that activities of malic enzyme (ME) and fatty acid synthase (FAS) decreased linearly in the liver with dietary DHA. Although the expression of the genes of these enzymes and their activities were poorly correlated, ME and FAS expressions also decreased linearly with DHA intake. The intake of DHA down-regulates the expressions of other genes involved in fatty acid (FA) metabolism in some tissues of pigs, such as fatty acid desaturase 2 and sterol-regulatory element binding transcription factor 1 in the liver and 2,4-dienoyl CoA reductase 2 in the LD muscle. FA oxidation in the LD muscle and FA synthesis decreased in the liver with increasing amount of dietary DHA, whereas a retroconversion of DHA into EPA seems to be set up in this last tissue. PMID:27181335

  19. Docosahexaenoic acid (DHA) and the developing central nervous system (CNS) - Implications for dietary recommendations.

    PubMed

    Guesnet, Philippe; Alessandri, Jean-Marc

    2011-01-01

    The accretion of docosahexaenoic acid (DHA) in membranes of the central nervous system is required for the optimum development of retina and brain functions. DHA status is determined by the dietary intake of n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFA), both the metabolic precursor α-linolenic acid (α-LNA) and DHA. Clinical studies have shown that feeding term or premature infants with formula low in total n-3 PUFA may alter the maturation of visual acuity. Moreover, feeding infants over the first 6 mon of life with formula containing adequate α-LNA, but no DHA, did not sustain the same cerebral accretion of DHA as that of breast-fed infants. Whether lower DHA accretion in brain of formula-fed term infants impairs neurophysiological performances is not clearly established. Contradictory data have been published, possibly owing to confounding factors such as maternal intakes and/or genetic variations in PUFA metabolism. Nevertheless, a large corpus of data is in favor of the recommendation of regular dietary intakes of DHA (during at least the first 6 mon of life) and suggest that DHA should be added in formulas at the level generally found in human milk (0.2-0.3 wt% of total fatty acids). The maternal intake of n-3 PUFA during pregnancy and lactation is also crucial, since the n-3 PUFA are provided during perinatal development through placental transfer and maternal milk, which determines the DHA status of the newborn and consequently impacts on post-natal development of brain and visual functions. Whether more clinical studies are needed to control and improve the impact of DHA maternal intakes on the progeny's neurodevelopment, several commissions recommended by precaution that DHA average intake for pregnant and lactating women should be of 200-300 mg/day. PMID:20478353

  20. Endogenous Docosahexaenoic Acid (DHA) Prevents Aβ1-42 Oligomer-Induced Neuronal Injury.

    PubMed

    Tan, Yuan; Ren, Huixia; Shi, Zhe; Yao, Xiaoli; He, Chengwei; Kang, Jing-X; Wan, Jian-Bo; Li, Peng; Yuan, Ti-Fei; Su, Huanxing

    2016-07-01

    The intake of the polyunsaturated fatty acid docosahexaenoic acid (DHA) or n-3 fatty acid has been associated with reduced risk of Alzheimer's disease (AD) in epidemiological reports. However, the underlying mechanism remains to be elucidated. Here, we report that exogenous DHA administration could protect neurons against Aβ oligomer-induced injury both in vitro and in vivo, partly through reducing the endoplasmic reticulum (ER) stress, and preventing cell apoptosis. In transgenic fat-1 mice with enriched ω-3 fatty acids, Aβ oligomers induced fewer neuronal losses, when compared to wild-type (WT) mice. We conclude that endogenous DHA are neuroprotective in pathogenesis processes of AD. PMID:26021747

  1. Dietary docosahexaenoic acid supplementation reduces SERCA Ca2+ transport efficiency in rat skeletal muscle.

    PubMed

    Fajardo, Val Andrew; Bombardier, Eric; Irvine, Thomas; Metherel, Adam H; Stark, Ken D; Duhamel, Todd; Rush, James W E; Green, Howard J; Tupling, A Russell

    2015-04-01

    Docosahexaenoic acid (DHA) can reduce the efficiency and increase the energy consumption of Na(+)/K(+)-ATPase pump and mitochondrial electron transport chain by promoting Na(+) and H(+) membrane permeability, respectively. In skeletal muscle, the sarco(endo) plasmic reticulum Ca(2+)-ATPase (SERCA) pumps are major contributors to resting metabolic rate. Whether DHA can affect SERCA efficiency remains unknown. Here, we examined the hypothesis that dietary supplementation with DHA would reduce Ca(2+) transport efficiency of the SERCA pumps in skeletal muscle. Total lipids were extracted from enriched sarcoplasmic reticulum (SR) membranes that were isolated from red vastus lateralis skeletal muscles of rats that were either fed a standard chow diet supplemented with soybean oil or supplemented with DHA for 8 weeks. The fatty acid composition of total SR membrane lipids and the major phospholipid species were determined using electrospray ionization mass spectrometry (ESI-MS). After 8 weeks of DHA supplementation, total SR DHA content was significantly elevated (control, 4.1 ± 1.0% vs. DHA, 9.9 ± 1.7%; weight percent of total fatty acids) while total arachidonic acid was reduced (control, 13.5 ± 0.4% vs. DHA-fed, 9.4 ± 0.2). Similar changes in these fatty acids were observed in phosphatidylcholine, phosphatidylethanolamine, and phosphatidylinositol, altogether indicating successful incorporation of DHA into the SR membranes post-diet. As hypothesized, DHA supplementation reduced SERCA Ca(2+) transport efficiency (control, 0.018 ± 0.0002 vs. DHA-fed, 0.014 ± 0.0009) possibly through enhanced SR Ca(2+) permeability (ionophore ratio: control, 2.8 ± 0.2 vs. DHA-fed, 2.2 ± 0.3). Collectively, our results suggest that DHA may promote skeletal muscle-based metabolism and thermogenesis through its influence on SERCA. PMID:25772907

  2. Nrf2 deficiency causes lipid oxidation, inflammation, and matrix-protease expression in DHA-supplemented and UVA-irradiated skin fibroblasts.

    PubMed

    Gruber, Florian; Ornelas, Cayo Mecking; Karner, Susanne; Narzt, Marie-Sophie; Nagelreiter, Ionela Mariana; Gschwandtner, Maria; Bochkov, Valery; Tschachler, Erwin

    2015-11-01

    Fish oil rich in docosahexaenoic acid (DHA) has beneficial effects on human health. Omega-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids are precursors of eicosanoids and docosanoids, signaling molecules that control inflammation and immunity, and their dietary uptake improves a range of disorders including cardiovascular diseases, ulcerative colitis, rheumatoid arthritis, and psoriasis. The unsaturated nature of these fatty acids, however, makes them prone to oxidation, especially when they are incorporated into (membrane) phospholipids. The skin is an organ strongly exposed to oxidative stress, mainly due to solar ultraviolet radiation. Thus, increased levels of PUFA in combination with oxidative stress could cause increased local generation of oxidized lipids, whose action spectrum reaches from signaling molecules to reactive carbonyl compounds that can crosslink biomolecules. Here, we investigated whether PUFA supplements to fibroblasts are incorporated into membrane phospholipids and whether an increase of PUFA within phospholipids affects the responses of the cells to UV exposure. The redox-sensitive transcription factor Nrf2 is the major regulator of the fibroblast stress response to ultraviolet radiation or exposure to oxidized lipids. Here we addressed how Nrf2 signaling would be affected in PUFA-supplemented human dermal fibroblasts and mouse dermal fibroblasts from Nrf2-deficient and wild type mice. We found, using HPLC-tandem MS, that DHA supplements to culture media of human and murine fibroblasts were readily incorporated into phospholipids and that subsequent irradiation of the supplemented cells with UVA resulted in an increase in 1-palmitoyl-2-(epoxyisoprostane-E2)-sn-glycero-3-phosphorylcholine and Oxo-DHA esterified to phospholipid, both of which are Nrf2 agonists. Also, induction of Nrf2 target genes was enhanced in the DHA-supplemented fibroblasts after UVA irradiation. In Nrf2-deficient murine fibroblasts, the expression of the target genes was, as expected

  3. DHA Supplementation Alone or in Combination with Other Nutrients Does not Modulate Cerebral Hemodynamics or Cognitive Function in Healthy Older Adults

    PubMed Central

    Jackson, Philippa A.; Forster, Joanne S.; Bell, J. Gordon; Dick, James R.; Younger, Irene; Kennedy, David O.

    2016-01-01

    A number of recent trials have demonstrated positive effects of dietary supplementation with the omega-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids (n-3 PUFAs), docosahexaenoic acid (DHA) and eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA) on measures of cognitive function in healthy young and older adults. One potential mechanism by which EPA, and DHA in particular, may exert these effects is via modulation of cerebral hemodynamics. In order to investigate the effects of DHA alone or provided as one component of a multinutrient supplement (also including Gingko biloba, phosphatidylserine and vitamins B9 and B12) on measures of cerebral hemodynamics and cognitive function, 86 healthy older adults aged 50–70 years who reported subjective memory deficits were recruited to take part in a six month daily dietary supplementation trial. Relative changes in the concentration of oxygenated hemoglobin and deoxygenated hemoglobin were assessed using Near Infrared Spectroscopy (NIRS) during the performance of cognitive tasks prior to and following the intervention period. Performance on the cognitive tasks was also assessed. No effect of either active treatment was found for any of the NIRS measures or on the cognitive performance tasks, although the study was limited by a number of factors. Further work should continue to evaluate more holistic approaches to cognitive aging. PMID:26867200

  4. DHA Supplementation Alone or in Combination with Other Nutrients Does not Modulate Cerebral Hemodynamics or Cognitive Function in Healthy Older Adults.

    PubMed

    Jackson, Philippa A; Forster, Joanne S; Bell, J Gordon; Dick, James R; Younger, Irene; Kennedy, David O

    2016-02-01

    A number of recent trials have demonstrated positive effects of dietary supplementation with the omega-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids (n-3 PUFAs), docosahexaenoic acid (DHA) and eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA) on measures of cognitive function in healthy young and older adults. One potential mechanism by which EPA, and DHA in particular, may exert these effects is via modulation of cerebral hemodynamics. In order to investigate the effects of DHA alone or provided as one component of a multinutrient supplement (also including Gingko biloba, phosphatidylserine and vitamins B₉ and B₁₂) on measures of cerebral hemodynamics and cognitive function, 86 healthy older adults aged 50-70 years who reported subjective memory deficits were recruited to take part in a six month daily dietary supplementation trial. Relative changes in the concentration of oxygenated hemoglobin and deoxygenated hemoglobin were assessed using Near Infrared Spectroscopy (NIRS) during the performance of cognitive tasks prior to and following the intervention period. Performance on the cognitive tasks was also assessed. No effect of either active treatment was found for any of the NIRS measures or on the cognitive performance tasks, although the study was limited by a number of factors. Further work should continue to evaluate more holistic approaches to cognitive aging. PMID:26867200

  5. Is there a dietary requirement for DHA in pregnancy?

    PubMed

    Makrides, Maria

    2009-01-01

    The metabolic demand for docosahexaenoic acid (22:6 n-3, DHA) is increased during pregnancy because of the extra needs of the fetus, expanded maternal cell mass and placenta. In Western countries maternal dietary DHA intake in pregnancy is low and it is not clear whether adaptive metabolic mechanisms, such as increased DHA synthesis from precursor fatty acids, are capable of meeting the increased DHA need in pregnancy. Consequently randomized controlled trials are important to determine whether additional dietary DHA in pregnancy modifies maternal or infant health outcomes. The available randomized comparisons of DHA supplements vs placebo have assessed outcomes as diverse as maternal depression, infant visual acuity and development, and infant growth and allergy. The outcomes of these trials have not been conclusive because they have often been limited by small sample size. On the other hand, large-scale trials assessing marine oil supplementation with large doses indicate that DHA supplementation in pregnancy is safe. PMID:19500960

  6. [Reconstitution of polyunsaturated fatty acid synthesis enzymes in mammalian cells to convert LA to DHA].

    PubMed

    Zhu, Guiming; Saleh, Abdulmomen Ali Mohammed; Bahwal, Said Ahmed; Qiu, Lihong; Sun, Jie; Shang, Yu; Jiang, Xudong; Ge, Tangdong; Zhang, Tao

    2015-02-01

    DHA (22:6n-3) is a Ω-3 polyunsaturated fatty acid with 22 carbon atoms and 6 double bonds, which has important biological functions in human body. Human and other mammals synthesize only limited amounts of DHA, more requirements must be satisfied from food resources. However, the natural resources of DHA (Mainly deep-sea fish and other marine products) are prone to depletion. New resources development is still insufficient to satisfy the growing market demand. Previous studies have revealed that the mammals can increase the synthesis of DHA and other long-chain polyunsaturated fatty acids after transgenic procedures. In this study, mammalian cells were transfected with Δ6, Δ5 desaturase, Δ6, Δ5 elongase, Δ15 desaturase (Isolated from nematode Caenorhabditis elegans) and Δ4 desaturase (Isolated from Euglena gracilis), simultaneously. Results show that the expression or overexpression of these 6 enzymes is capable of conversion of the o-6 linoleic acid (LA, 18:2n-6) in DHA (22:6n-3). DHA content has increased from 16.74% in the control group to 25.3% in the experimental group. The strategy and related technology in our research provided important data for future production the valuable DHA (22:6n-3) by using genetically modified animals. PMID:26062349

  7. Healthy effect of different proportions of marine ω-3 PUFAs EPA and DHA supplementation in Wistar rats: Lipidomic biomarkers of oxidative stress and inflammation.

    PubMed

    Dasilva, Gabriel; Pazos, Manuel; García-Egido, Eduardo; Gallardo, Jose Manuel; Rodríguez, Isaac; Cela, Rafael; Medina, Isabel

    2015-11-01

    Dietary intervention with ω-3 marine fatty acids may potentially modulate inflammation and oxidative stress markers related with CVD, metabolic syndrome and cancer. The aim of this study was to evaluate whether different proportions of ω-3 EPA and DHA intake provoke a modulation of the production of lipid mediators and then, an influence on different indexes of inflammation and oxidative stress in a controlled dietary animal experiment using Wistar rats. For such scope, a lipidomic SPE-LC-ESI-MS/MS approach previously developed was applied to determine lipid mediators profile in plasma samples. The effect of ω-3 fatty acids associated to different ratios EPA:DHA was compared with the effect exerted by ω-3 ALA supplementation from linseed oil and ω-6 LA from soybean oil. CRP showed a tendency to greater inflammatory status in all ω-3-fed animals. Interestingly, ratios 1:1 and 2:1 EPA:DHA evidenced a noteworthy healthy effect generating a less oxidative environment and modulating LOX and COX activities toward a decrease in the production of proinflammatory ARA eicosanoids and oxidative stress biomarkers from EPA and DHA. In addition, the ability of 1:1 and 2:1 fish oil diets to reduce lipid mediator levels was in concurrence with the protective effect exerted by decreasing inflammatory markers as ω-6/ω-3 ratio in plasma and membranes. It was also highlighted the effect of a higher DHA amount in the diet reducing the healthy benefits described in terms of inflammation and oxidative stress. Results support the antiinflammatory and antioxidative role of fish oils and, particularly, the effect of adequate proportions EPA:DHA. PMID:26320676

  8. Docosahexaenoic acid supplementation fully restores fertility and spermatogenesis in male delta-6 desaturase-null mice

    PubMed Central

    Roqueta-Rivera, Manuel; Stroud, Chad K.; Haschek, Wanda M.; Akare, Sandeep J.; Segre, Mariangela; Brush, Richard S.; Agbaga, Martin-Paul; Anderson, Robert E.; Hess, Rex A.; Nakamura, Manabu T.

    2010-01-01

    Delta-6 desaturase-null mice (−/−) are unable to synthesize highly unsaturated fatty acids (HUFAs): arachidonic acid (AA), docosahexaenoic acid (DHA), and n6-docosapentaenoic acid (DPAn6). The −/− males exhibit infertility and arrest of spermatogenesis at late spermiogenesis. To determine which HUFA is essential for spermiogenesis, a diet supplemented with either 0.2% (w/w) AA or DHA was fed to wild-type (+/+) and −/− males at weaning until 16 weeks of age (n = 3–5). A breeding success rate of DHA-supplemented −/− was comparable to +/+. DHA-fed −/− showed normal sperm counts and spermiogenesis. Dietary AA was less effective in restoring fertility, sperm count, and spermiogenesis than DHA. Testis fatty acid analysis showed restored DHA in DHA-fed −/−, but DPAn6 remained depleted. In AA-fed −/−, AA was restored at the +/+ level, and 22:4n6, an AA elongated product, accumulated in testis. Cholesta-3,5-diene was present in testis of +/+ and DHA-fed −/−, whereas it diminished in −/− and AA-fed −/−, suggesting impaired sterol metabolism in these groups. Expression of spermiogenesis marker genes was largely normal in all groups. In conclusion, DHA was capable of restoring all observed impairment in male reproduction, whereas 22:4n6 formed from dietary AA may act as an inferior substitute for DHA. PMID:19690334

  9. Mildly abnormal general movement quality in infants is associated with higher Mead acid and lower arachidonic acid and shows a U-shaped relation with the DHA/AA ratio.

    PubMed

    van Goor, S A; Schaafsma, A; Erwich, J J H M; Dijck-Brouwer, D A J; Muskiet, F A J

    2010-01-01

    We showed that docosahexaenoic acid (DHA) supplementation during pregnancy and lactation was associated with more mildly abnormal (MA) general movements (GMs) in the infants. Since this finding was unexpected and inter-individual DHA intakes are highly variable, we explored the relationship between GM quality and erythrocyte DHA, arachidonic acid (AA), DHA/AA and Mead acid in 57 infants of this trial. MA GMs were inversely related to AA, associated with Mead acid, and associated with DHA/AA in a U-shaped manner. These relationships may indicate dependence of newborn AA status on synthesis from linoleic acid. This becomes restricted during the intrauterine period by abundant de novo synthesis of oleic and Mead acids from glucose, consistent with reduced insulin sensitivity during the third trimester. The descending part of the U-shaped relation between MA GMs and DHA/AA probably indicates DHA shortage next to AA shortage. The ascending part may reflect a different developmental trajectory that is not necessarily unfavorable. PMID:20022733

  10. Plasma phospholipid pentadecanoic acid, EPA, and DHA, and the frequency of dairy and fish product intake in young children

    PubMed Central

    Lund-Blix, Nicolai A.; Rønningen, Kjersti S.; Bøås, Håkon; Tapia, German; Andersen, Lene F.

    2016-01-01

    Background There is a lack of studies comparing dietary assessment methods with the biomarkers of fatty acids in children. Objective The objective was to evaluate the suitability of a food frequency questionnaire (FFQ) to rank young children according to their intake of dairy and fish products by comparing food frequency estimates to the plasma phospholipid fatty acids pentadecanoic acid, eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA), and docosahexaenoic acid (DHA). Design Cross-sectional data for the present study were derived from the prospective cohort ‘Environmental Triggers of Type 1 Diabetes Study’. Infants were recruited from the Norwegian general population during 2001–2007. One hundred and ten (age 3–10 years) children had sufficient volumes of plasma and FFQ filled in within 2 months from blood sampling and were included in this evaluation study. The quantitative determination of plasma phospholipid fatty acids was done by fatty acid methyl ester analysis. The association between the frequency of dairy and fish product intake and the plasma phospholipid fatty acids was assessed by a Spearman correlation analysis and by investigating whether participants were classified into the same quartiles of distribution. Results Significant correlations were found between pentadecanoic acid and the intake frequency of total dairy products (r=0.29), total fat dairy products (r=0.39), and cheese products (r=0.36). EPA and DHA were significantly correlated with the intake frequency of oily fish (r=0.26 and 0.37, respectively) and cod liver/fish oil supplements (r=0.47 for EPA and r=0.50 DHA). To a large extent, the FFQ was able to classify individuals into the same quartile as the relevant fatty acid biomarker. Conclusions The present study suggests that, when using the plasma phospholipid fatty acids pentadecanoic acid, EPA, and DHA as biomarkers, the FFQ used in young children showed a moderate capability to rank the intake frequency of dairy products with a high-fat content

  11. DHA Supplemented in Peptamen Diet Offers No Advantage in Pathways to Amyloidosis: Is It Time to Evaluate Composite Lipid Diet?

    PubMed Central

    Amtul, Zareen; Keet, Mary; Wang, Lin; Merrifield, Peter; Westaway, David; Rozmahel, Richard F.

    2011-01-01

    Numerous reports have documented the beneficial effects of dietary docosahexaenoic acid (DHA) on beta-amyloid production and Alzheimer's disease (AD). However, none of these studies have examined and compared DHA, in combination with other dietary nutrients, for its effects on plaque pathogenesis. Potential interactions of DHA with other dietary nutrients and fatty acids are conventionally ignored. Here we investigated DHA with two dietary regimes; peptamen (pep+DHA) and low fat diet (low fat+DHA). Peptamen base liquid diet is a standard sole-source nutrition for patients with gastrointestinal dysfunction. Here we demonstrate that a robust AD transgenic mouse model shows an increased tendency to produce beta-amyloid peptides and amyloid plaques when fed a pep+DHA diet. The increase in beta-amyloid peptides was due to an elevated trend in the levels of beta-secretase amyloid precursor protein (APP) cleaving enzyme (BACE), the proteolytic C-terminal fragment beta of APP and reduced levels of insulin degrading enzyme that endoproteolyse beta-amyloid. On the contrary, TgCRND8 mice on low fat+DHA diet (based on an approximately 18% reduction of fat intake) ameliorate the production of abeta peptides and consequently amyloid plaques. Our work not only demonstrates that DHA when taken with peptamen may have a tendency to confer a detrimental affect on the amyloid plaque build up but also reinforces the importance of studying composite lipids or nutrients rather than single lipids or nutrients for their effects on pathways important to plaque development. PMID:21931647

  12. What is the relationship between gestational age and docosahexaenoic acid (DHA) and arachidonic acid (ARA) levels?

    PubMed

    Baack, Michelle L; Puumala, Susan E; Messier, Stephen E; Pritchett, Deborah K; Harris, William S

    2015-09-01

    Long chain polyunsaturated fatty acids (LCPUFA) including docosahexaenoic acid (DHA) and arachidonic acid (ARA) are increasingly transferred from mother to fetus late in pregnancy. Infants born before this transfer is complete are at risk for deficiency. This study determines the relationship between gestational age (GA) and circulating LCPUFA levels to better understand the unique needs of premature infants born at various GAs. Whole blood was collected within the first 7 days of life from 60 preterm (≤34 weeks GA) and 30 term infants (≥38 weeks GA) and FA levels were analyzed. Since concurrent intravenous lipid emulsion can skew composition data, blood LCPUFA concentrations were also measured. Levels were compared among groups, and linear regression models were used to examine the association between FA composition and GA. Preterm infants had significantly lower DHA and ARA levels than term peers, and whether assessed as concentrations or compositions, both directly correlated with GA (p<0.0001). Moreover, FA comparisons suggest that premature infants have impaired synthesis of LCPUFAs from precursors and may require preformed DHA and ARA. This study confirms that essential FA status is strongly related to GA, and that those babies born the earliest are at the greatest risk of LCPUFA deficiency. PMID:26205427

  13. Docosahexaenoic acid supplementation improves fasting and postprandial plasma lipid profiles in hypertriglyceridemic men.

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Background: The effects of docosahexaenoic acid (DHA) on the concentrations of different subclasses of VLDL, LDL and HDL particles, and their mean diameters in fasting and postprandial plasma has not been studied. Objective: To determine the effects of DHA supplementation on the concentrations of a...

  14. Docosahexaenoic acid (DHA) and docosapentaenoic acid (DPAn-6) algal oils reduce inflammatory mediators in human peripheral mononuclear cells in vitro and paw edema in vivo.

    PubMed

    Nauroth, Julie M; Liu, Ying Chun; Van Elswyk, Mary; Bell, Rebecca; Hall, Eileen Bailey; Chung, Gloria; Arterburn, Linda M

    2010-05-01

    The anti-inflammatory activity associated with fish oil has been ascribed to the long-chain polyunsaturated fatty acids (LC-PUFA), predominantly eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA) and docosahexaenoic acid (DHA). Here we examined the anti-inflammatory effects of two DHA-rich algal oils, which contain little EPA, and determined the contribution of the constituent fatty acids, particularly DHA and docosapentaenoic acid (DPAn-6). In vitro, lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-stimulated Interleukin-1 beta (IL-1beta) and Tumor Necrosis Factor-alpha (TNF-alpha) secretion in human peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMC) was inhibited with apparent relative potencies of DPAn-6 (most potent) > DHA > EPA. In addition, DPAn-6 decreased intracellular levels of cyclooxygenase-2 (COX-2) and was a potent inhibitor of pro-inflammatory prostaglandin E2 (PGE2) production. DHA/DPAn-6-rich DHA-S (DHA-S) algal oil was more effective at reducing edema in rats than DHA-rich DHA-T (DHA-T), suggesting that DPAn-6 has anti-inflammatory properties. Further in vivo analyses demonstrated that feeding DPAn-6 alone, provided as an ethyl ester, reduced paw edema to an extent approaching that of indomethacin and enhanced the anti-inflammatory activity of DHA when given in combination. Together, these results demonstrate that DPAn-6 has anti-inflammatory activity and enhances the effect of DHA in vitro and in vivo. Thus, DHA-S algal oil may have potential for use in anti-inflammatory applications. PMID:20364438

  15. Thraustochytrids as production organisms for docosahexaenoic acid (DHA), squalene, and carotenoids.

    PubMed

    Aasen, Inga Marie; Ertesvåg, Helga; Heggeset, Tonje Marita Bjerkan; Liu, Bin; Brautaset, Trygve; Vadstein, Olav; Ellingsen, Trond E

    2016-05-01

    Thraustochytrids have been applied for industrial production of the omega-3 fatty acid docosahexaenoic (DHA) since the 1990s. During more than 20 years of research on this group of marine, heterotrophic microorganisms, considerable increases in DHA productivities have been obtained by process and medium optimization. Strains of thraustochytrids also produce high levels of squalene and carotenoids, two other commercially interesting compounds with a rapidly growing market potential, but where yet few studies on process optimization have been reported. Thraustochytrids use two pathways for fatty acid synthesis. The saturated fatty acids are produced by the standard fatty acid synthesis, while DHA is synthesized by a polyketide synthase. However, fundamental knowledge about the relationship between the two pathways is still lacking. In the present review, we extract main findings from the high number of reports on process optimization for DHA production and interpret these in the light of the current knowledge of DHA synthesis in thraustochytrids and lipid accumulation in oleaginous microorganisms in general. We also summarize published reports on squalene and carotenoid production and review the current status on strain improvement, which has been hampered by the yet very few published genome sequences and the lack of tools for gene transfer to the organisms. As more sequences now are becoming available, targets for strain improvement can be identified and open for a system-level metabolic engineering for improved productivities. PMID:27041691

  16. Iron and a mixture of DHA and EPA supplementation, alone and in combination, affect bioactive lipid signalling and morbidity of iron deficient South African school children in a two-by-two randomised controlled trial.

    PubMed

    Malan, L; Baumgartner, J; Zandberg, L; Calder, P C; Smuts, C M

    2016-02-01

    We recently reported that iron supplementation increased respiratory morbidity in iron deficient South African children. This increase, however, was attenuated when iron was provided in combination with a mixture of DHA/EPA. To explore potential underlying mechanisms, we examined the effects of iron and DHA/EPA, alone and in combination, on plasma lipid-derived immune modulator concentrations and related gene expression in peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMC). DHA/EPA decreased inflammatory 12-hydroxyeicosatetraenoic acid and tended to increase anti-inflammatory and pro-resolving 17-hydroxydocosahexaenoic acid (17-HDHA), while iron decreased 17-HDHA. However, in combination with iron, the anti-inflammatory effect of DHA/EPA was maintained. These biochemical changes may explain the prevention of iron-induced respiratory morbidity that we observed when iron was supplemented in combination with DHA/EPA during the 8.5 month randomised controlled trial and might lead to a safer approach of delivering iron supplementation. The study was registered at clinicaltrials.gov as NCT01092377. PMID:26869087

  17. DHA Supplementation Decreases Serum C - Reactive Protein and Other Markers of Inflammation in Hypertriglyceridemic Men1-3

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Inflammation is an independent risk factor for the development of cardiovascular disease (CVD). N-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFA) reduce inflammation but the anti-inflammatory effect of docosahexenoic acid (DHA) in hypertriglyceridemic men has not been reported. We determined its effects on cir...

  18. Reduced DHA transfer in diabetic pregnancies: mechanistic basis and long-term neurodevelopmental implications.

    PubMed

    Judge, Michelle P; Casavant, Sharon G; Dias, Juliana A M; McGrath, Jacqueline M

    2016-06-01

    Infants born to diabetic mothers have a higher frequency of impaired neurodevelopment. The omega-3 or n-3 fatty acid docosahexaenoic acid (DHA) is an important structural component of neural tissue and is critical for fetal brain development. Maternal DHA supplementation during pregnancy is linked to better infant neurodevelopment; however, maternal-fetal transfer of DHA is reduced in women with diabetes. Evidence of mechanisms explaining altered maternal-fetal DHA transfer in this population is limited. This review explores existing evidence underpinning reduced maternal-fetal DHA transfer in maternal fuel metabolism in this population. Further research is necessary to evaluate the role of peroxisome proliferator-activated receptors in modulating placental fatty acid binding and maternal-fetal DHA transfer. Considerations for clinical practice include a diet high in DHA and/or provision of supplemental DHA to obstetric diabetic patients within minimum guidelines. PMID:27142302

  19. Regioisomers of phosphatidylcholine containing DHA and their potential to deliver DHA to the brain: role of phospholipase specificities.

    PubMed

    Chen, Su; Subbaiah, Papasani V

    2013-07-01

    Because neurons cannot synthesize docosahexaenoic acid (DHA), a dietary supplement of DHA in the form of phospholipids is recommended for maintaining proper brain functions. A model for delivering dietary sn-2-DHA phosphatidylcholine (PtdCho) to the brain involves phospholipase A2 based deacylation/reacylation cycle followed by delivery of DHA through high-density lipoproteins that bind to the brain capillary endothelial cells in the blood-brain barrier (BBB). Our previous study demonstrated preference of endothelial lipase (EL) for PtdCho species that contain sn-2-DHA, resulting in production of sn-2-DHA lysoPtdCho that is preferentially taken up by the brain. However, since CoA-dependent reacylation of lysoPtdCho with DHA at the sn-2 position is not favored in vivo, we proposed that sn-1-DHA PtdCho in the diet may be a superior source of DHA for the brain. To test this hypothesis, DHA PtdCho regioisomers were prepared, and their hydrolysis by physiologically relevant phospholipases was determined. The data presented here show that: (1) group X secretory PLA2 (sPLA2) is about threefold more active than group V sPLA2 in releasing sn-2 fatty acids from DHA regioisomers, and (2) EL shows its specificity for DHA PtdCho species in a concentration independent manner, suggesting that the enzyme could play a major role in generating free sn-1-DHA or/and sn-2-DHA lysoPtdCho from the regioisomers in the BBB. We propose that PtdCho species containing sn-1-DHA may have the advantages of both "preserving" DHA in deacylation/reacylation cycle and releasing free DHA in the BBB for uptake by the brain. PMID:23604781

  20. Lipid Profiling following Intake of the Omega 3 Fatty Acid DHA Identifies the Peroxidized Metabolites F4-Neuroprostanes as the Best Predictors of Atherosclerosis Prevention

    PubMed Central

    Gladine, Cécile; Newman, John W.; Durand, Thierry; Pedersen, Theresa L.; Galano, Jean-Marie; Demougeot, Céline; Berdeaux, Olivier; Pujos-Guillot, Estelle; Mazur, Andrzej; Comte, Blandine

    2014-01-01

    Abstract The anti-atherogenic effects of omega 3 fatty acids, namely eicosapentaenoic (EPA) and docosahexaenoic acids (DHA) are well recognized but the impact of dietary intake on bioactive lipid mediator profiles remains unclear. Such a profiling effort may offer novel targets for future studies into the mechanism of action of omega 3 fatty acids. The present study aimed to determine the impact of DHA supplementation on the profiles of polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFA) oxygenated metabolites and to investigate their contribution to atherosclerosis prevention. A special emphasis was given to the non-enzymatic metabolites knowing the high susceptibility of DHA to free radical-mediated peroxidation and the increased oxidative stress associated with plaque formation. Atherosclerosis prone mice (LDLR−/−) received increasing doses of DHA (0, 0.1, 1 or 2% of energy) during 20 weeks leading to a dose-dependent reduction of atherosclerosis (R2 = 0.97, p = 0.02), triglyceridemia (R2 = 0.97, p = 0.01) and cholesterolemia (R2 = 0.96, p<0.01). Targeted lipidomic analyses revealed that both the profiles of EPA and DHA and their corresponding oxygenated metabolites were substantially modulated in plasma and liver. Notably, the hepatic level of F4-neuroprostanes, a specific class of DHA peroxidized metabolites, was strongly correlated with the hepatic DHA level. Moreover, unbiased statistical analysis including correlation analyses, hierarchical cluster and projection to latent structure discriminate analysis revealed that the hepatic level of F4-neuroprostanes was the variable most negatively correlated with the plaque extent (p<0.001) and along with plasma EPA-derived diols was an important mathematical positive predictor of atherosclerosis prevention. Thus, oxygenated n-3 PUFAs, and F4-neuroprostanes in particular, are potential biomarkers of DHA-associated atherosclerosis prevention. While these may contribute to the anti-atherogenic effects of DHA

  1. DHA and EPA Content and Fatty Acid Profile of 39 Food Fishes from India

    PubMed Central

    Mahanty, Arabinda; Sankar, T. V.; Anandan, R.; Paul, B. N.; Sarma, Debajit; Syama Dayal, J.; Venkateshwarlu, G.; Mathew, Suseela; Karunakaran, D.; Chanda, Soumen; Shahi, Neetu; Das, Puspita; Das, Partha; Akhtar, Md Shahbaz; Vijayagopal, P.; Sridhar, N.

    2016-01-01

    Docosahexaenoic acid (DHA) is the principal constituent of a variety of cells especially the brain neurons and retinal cells and plays important role in fetal brain development, development of motor skills, and visual acuity in infants, lipid metabolism, and cognitive support and along with eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA) it plays important role in preventing atherosclerosis, dementia, rheumatoid arthritis, Alzheimer's disease, and so forth. Being an essential nutrient, it is to be obtained through diet and therefore searching for affordable sources of these ω-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFA) is important for consumer guidance and dietary counseling. Fish is an important source of PUFA and has unique advantage that there are many food fish species available and consumers have a wide choice owing to availability and affordability. The Indian subcontinent harbors a rich fish biodiversity which markedly varies in their nutrient composition. Here we report the DHA and EPA content and fatty acid profile of 39 important food fishes (including finfishes, shellfishes, and edible molluscs from both marine water and freshwater) from India. The study showed that fishes Tenualosa ilisha, Sardinella longiceps, Nemipterus japonicus, and Anabas testudineus are rich sources of DHA and EPA. Promotion of these species as DHA rich species would enhance their utility in public health nutrition. PMID:27579313

  2. DHA and EPA Content and Fatty Acid Profile of 39 Food Fishes from India.

    PubMed

    Mohanty, Bimal Prasanna; Ganguly, Satabdi; Mahanty, Arabinda; Sankar, T V; Anandan, R; Chakraborty, Kajal; Paul, B N; Sarma, Debajit; Syama Dayal, J; Venkateshwarlu, G; Mathew, Suseela; Asha, K K; Karunakaran, D; Mitra, Tandrima; Chanda, Soumen; Shahi, Neetu; Das, Puspita; Das, Partha; Akhtar, Md Shahbaz; Vijayagopal, P; Sridhar, N

    2016-01-01

    Docosahexaenoic acid (DHA) is the principal constituent of a variety of cells especially the brain neurons and retinal cells and plays important role in fetal brain development, development of motor skills, and visual acuity in infants, lipid metabolism, and cognitive support and along with eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA) it plays important role in preventing atherosclerosis, dementia, rheumatoid arthritis, Alzheimer's disease, and so forth. Being an essential nutrient, it is to be obtained through diet and therefore searching for affordable sources of these ω-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFA) is important for consumer guidance and dietary counseling. Fish is an important source of PUFA and has unique advantage that there are many food fish species available and consumers have a wide choice owing to availability and affordability. The Indian subcontinent harbors a rich fish biodiversity which markedly varies in their nutrient composition. Here we report the DHA and EPA content and fatty acid profile of 39 important food fishes (including finfishes, shellfishes, and edible molluscs from both marine water and freshwater) from India. The study showed that fishes Tenualosa ilisha, Sardinella longiceps, Nemipterus japonicus, and Anabas testudineus are rich sources of DHA and EPA. Promotion of these species as DHA rich species would enhance their utility in public health nutrition. PMID:27579313

  3. Dairy fat blend improves brain DHA and neuroplasticity and regulates corticosterone in mice.

    PubMed

    Dinel, A L; Rey, C; Bonhomme, C; Le Ruyet, P; Joffre, C; Layé, S

    2016-06-01

    Mimicking the breast milk lipid composition appears to be necessary for infant formula to cover the brain's needs in n-3 PUFA. In this study, we evaluated the impact of partial replacement of vegetable oil (VL) in infant formula by dairy fat (DL) on docosahexaenoic acid (DHA) brain level, neuroplasticity and corticosterone in mice. Mice were fed with balanced VL or balanced DL diets enriched or not in DHA and arachidonic acid (ARA) from the first day of gestation. Brain DHA level, microglia number, neurogenesis, corticosterone and glucocorticoid receptor expression were measured in the offsprings. DL diet increased DHA and neuroplasticity in the brain of mice at postnatal day (PND) 14 and at adulthood compared to VL. At PND14, ARA and DHA supplementation increased DHA in VL but not in DL mice brain. Importantly, DHA and ARA supplementation further improved neurogenesis and decreased corticosterone level in DL mice at adulthood. In conclusion, dairy lipids improve brain DHA level and neuroplasticity. PMID:27269711

  4. Producing Docosahexaenoic Acid (DHA)-Rich Algae from Biodiesel-Derived Crude Glycerol: Effects of Impurities on DHA Production and Algal Biomass Composition

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Crude glycerol is the primary byproduct of the biodiesel industry. Producing docosahexaenoic acid (DHA, 22:6 n-3) through fermentation of the alga Schizochytrium limacinum on crude glycerol provides a unique opportunity to utilize a large quantity of this byproduct. The objective of this work is to...

  5. Does docosahexaenoic acid supplementation in term infants enhance neurocognitive functioning in infancy?

    PubMed Central

    Heaton, Alexandra E.; Meldrum, Suzanne J.; Foster, Jonathan K.; Prescott, Susan L.; Simmer, Karen

    2013-01-01

    The proposal that dietary docosahexaenoic acid (DHA) enhances neurocognitive functioning in term infants is controversial. Theoretical evidence, laboratory research and human epidemiological studies have convincingly demonstrated that DHA deficiency can negatively impact neurocognitive development. However, the results from randomized controlled trials (RCTs) of DHA supplementation in human term-born infants have been inconsistent. This article will (i) discuss the role of DHA in the human diet, (ii) explore the physiological mechanisms by which DHA plausibly influences neurocognitive capacity, and (iii) seek to characterize the optimal intake of DHA during infancy for neurocognitive functioning, based on existing research that has been undertaken in developed countries (specifically, within Australia). The major observational studies and RCTs that have examined dietary DHA in human infants and animals are presented, and we consider suggestions that DHA requirements vary across individuals according to genetic profile. It is important that the current evidence concerning DHA supplementation is carefully evaluated so that appropriate recommendations can be made and future directions of research can be strategically planned. PMID:24312040

  6. Producing docosahexaenoic acid (DHA)-rich algae from biodiesel-derived crude glycerol: effects of impurities on DHA production and algal biomass composition.

    PubMed

    Pyle, Denver J; Garcia, Rafael A; Wen, Zhiyou

    2008-06-11

    Crude glycerol is the primary byproduct of the biodiesel industry. Producing docosahexaenoic acid (DHA, 22:6 n-3) through fermentation of the alga Schizochytrium limacinum on crude glycerol provides a unique opportunity to utilize a large quantity of this byproduct. The objective of this work is to investigate the effects of impurities contained in the crude glycerol on DHA production and algal biomass composition. Crude glycerol streams were obtained from different biodiesel refineries. All of the glycerol samples contained methanol, soaps, and various elements including calcium, phosphorus, potassium, silicon, sodium, and zinc. Both methanol and soap were found to negatively influence algal DHA production; these two impurities can be removed from culture medium by evaporation through autoclaving (for methanol) and by precipitation through pH adjustment (for soap). The glycerol-derived algal biomass contained 45-50% lipid, 14-20% protein, and 25% carbohydrate, with 8-13% ash content. Palmitic acid (C16:0) and DHA were the two major fatty acids in the algal lipid. The algal biomass was rich in lysine and cysteine, relative to many common feedstuffs. Elemental analysis by inductively coupled plasma showed that boron, calcium, copper, iron, magnesium, phosphorus, potassium, silicon, sodium, and sulfur were present in the biomass, whereas no heavy metals (such as mercury) were detected in the algal biomass. Overall, the results show that crude glycerol was a suitable carbon source for algal fermentation. The crude glycerol-derived algal biomass had a high level of DHA and a nutritional profile similar to that of commercial algal biomass, suggesting a great potential for using crude glycerol-derived algae in omega-3-fortified food or feed. PMID:18465872

  7. Omega-3 Fatty Acid Formulations in Cardiovascular Disease: Dietary Supplements are Not Substitutes for Prescription Products.

    PubMed

    Fialkow, Jonathan

    2016-08-01

    Omega-3 fatty acid products are available as prescription formulations (icosapent ethyl, omega-3-acid ethyl esters, omega-3-acid ethyl esters A, omega-3-carboxylic acids) and dietary supplements (predominantly fish oils). Most dietary supplements and all but one prescription formulation contain mixtures of the omega-3 fatty acids eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA) and docosahexaenoic acid (DHA). Products containing both EPA and DHA may raise low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C). In clinical trials, the EPA-only prescription product, icosapent ethyl, did not raise LDL-C compared with placebo. To correct a common misconception, it is important to note that omega-3 fatty acid dietary supplements are not US FDA-approved over-the-counter drugs and are not required to demonstrate safety and efficacy prior to marketing. Conversely, prescription products are supported by extensive clinical safety and efficacy investigations required for FDA approval and have active and ongoing safety monitoring programs. While omega-3 fatty acid dietary supplements may have a place in the supplementation of diet, they generally contain lower levels of EPA and DHA than prescription products and are not approved or intended to treat disease. Perhaps due to the lack of regulation of dietary supplements, EPA and DHA levels may vary widely within and between brands, and products may also contain unwanted cholesterol or fats or potentially harmful components, including toxins and oxidized fatty acids. Accordingly, omega-3 fatty acid dietary supplements should not be substituted for prescription products. Similarly, prescription products containing DHA and EPA should not be substituted for the EPA-only prescription product, as DHA may raise LDL-C and thereby complicate the management of patients with dyslipidemia. PMID:27138439

  8. Effects of DHA-rich fish oil supplementation on the lipid profile, markers of muscle damage, and neutrophil function in wheelchair basketball athletes before and after acute exercise.

    PubMed

    Marques, Camila Garcia; Santos, Vinicius Coneglian; Levada-Pires, Adriana Cristina; Jacintho, Thiago Manzoni; Gorjão, Renata; Pithon-Curi, Tânia Cristina; Cury-Boaventura, Maria Fernanda

    2015-06-01

    We investigated the effects of docosahexaenoic acid (DHA)-rich fish oil (FO) supplementation on the lipid profile, levels of plasma inflammatory mediators, markers of muscle damage, and neutrophil function in wheelchair basketball players before and after acute exercise. We evaluated 8 male basketball wheelchair athletes before and after acute exercise both prior to (S0) and following (S1) FO supplementation. The subjects were supplemented with 3 g of FO daily for 30 days. The following components were measured: the plasma lipid profile (total cholesterol, high-density lipoprotein cholesterol, low-density lipoprotein cholesterol, and triglycerides), plasma inflammatory mediators (C-reactive protein, interleukin (IL)-1β, IL-1ra, IL-4, IL-6, IL-8, and tumor necrosis factor-α), markers of muscle damage (creatine kinase and lactate dehydrogenase (LDH)), and neutrophil function (cytokine production, phagocytic capacity, loss of membrane integrity, mitochondrial membrane potential, neutral lipid accumulation, phosphatidylserine externalization, DNA fragmentation, and production of reactive oxygen species (ROS)). Acute exercise increased the plasma levels of total cholesterol, LDH, IL1ra, and IL-6, led to the loss of membrane integrity, ROS production, and a high mitochondrial membrane potential in neutrophils, and reduced the phagocytic capacity and IL-6 production by the neutrophils (S0). However, supplementation prevented the increases in the plasma levels of LDH and IL-6, the loss of membrane integrity, and the alterations in ROS production and mitochondrial membrane potential in the neutrophils that were induced by exercise (S1). In conclusion, DHA-rich FO supplementation reduces the markers of muscle damage, inflammatory disturbances, and neutrophil death induced by acute exercise in wheelchair athletes. PMID:25942100

  9. Gene expression of fatty acid transport and binding proteins in the blood-brain barrier and the cerebral cortex of the rat: differences across development and with different DHA brain status.

    PubMed

    Pélerin, Hélène; Jouin, Mélanie; Lallemand, Marie-Sylvie; Alessandri, Jean-Marc; Cunnane, Stephen C; Langelier, Bénédicte; Guesnet, Philippe

    2014-11-01

    Specific mechanisms for maintaining docosahexaenoic acid (DHA) concentration in brain cells but also transporting DHA from the blood across the blood-brain barrier (BBB) are not agreed upon. Our main objective was therefore to evaluate the level of gene expression of fatty acid transport and fatty acid binding proteins in the cerebral cortex and at the BBB level during the perinatal period of active brain DHA accretion, at weaning, and until the adult age. We measured by real time RT-PCR the mRNA expression of different isoforms of fatty acid transport proteins (FATPs), long-chain acyl-CoA synthetases (ACSLs), fatty acid binding proteins (FABPs) and the fatty acid transporter (FAT)/CD36 in cerebral cortex and isolated microvessels at embryonic day 18 (E18) and postnatal days 14, 21 and 60 (P14, P21 and P60, respectively) in rats receiving different n-3 PUFA dietary supplies (control, totally deficient or DHA-supplemented). In control rats, all the genes were expressed at the BBB level (P14 to P60), the mRNA levels of FABP5 and ACSL3 having the highest values. Age-dependent differences included a systematic decrease in the mRNA expressions between P14-P21 and P60 (2 to 3-fold), with FABP7 mRNA abundance being the most affected (10-fold). In the cerebral cortex, mRNA levels varied differently since FATP4, ACSL3 and ACSL6 and the three FABPs genes were highly expressed. There were no significant differences in the expression of the 10 genes studied in n-3 deficient or DHA-supplemented rats despite significant differences in their brain DHA content, suggesting that brain DHA uptake from the blood does not necessarily require specific transporters within cerebral endothelial cells and could, under these experimental conditions, be a simple passive diffusion process. PMID:25123062

  10. Impact of DHA on Metabolic Diseases from Womb to Tomb

    PubMed Central

    Arnoldussen, Ilse A. C.; Kiliaan, Amanda J.

    2014-01-01

    Long chain polyunsaturated fatty acids (LC-PUFAs) are important mediators in improving and maintaining human health over the total lifespan. One topic we especially focus on in this review is omega-3 LC-PUFA docosahexaenoic acid (DHA). Adequate DHA levels are essential during neurodevelopment and, in addition, beneficial in cognitive processes throughout life. We review the impact of DHA on societal relevant metabolic diseases such as cardiovascular diseases, obesity, and diabetes mellitus type 2 (T2DM). All of these are risk factors for cognitive decline and dementia in later life. DHA supplementation is associated with a reduced incidence of both stroke and atherosclerosis, lower bodyweight and decreased T2DM prevalence. These findings are discussed in the light of different stages in the human life cycle: childhood, adolescence, adulthood and in later life. From this review, it can be concluded that DHA supplementation is able to inhibit pathologies like obesity and cardiovascular disease. DHA could be a dietary protector against these metabolic diseases during a person’s entire lifespan. However, supplementation of DHA in combination with other dietary factors is also effective. The efficacy of DHA depends on its dose as well as on the duration of supplementation, sex, and age. PMID:25528960

  11. Dietary supplementation with cholesterol and docosahexaenoic acid affects concentrations of amino acids in tissues of young pigs

    PubMed Central

    Li, Peng; Kim, Sung Woo; Li, Xilong; Datta, Sujay; Pond, Wilson G.

    2013-01-01

    Cholesterol and docosahexaenoic acid (DHA) are important nutrients for neural development of infants. However, little is known about the effect of cholesterol or DHA on concentrations of amino acids (AA) in neonatal tissues. This study was conducted with the piglet (an established model for studying human infant nutrition) to test the hypothesis that dietary supplementation with the lipids may modulate AA availability in tissues. Sixteen newborn pigs were nursed by sows for 24 h and then assigned to one of four treatment groups, representing supplementation with 0.0% (control), 0.2% cholesterol, 0.2% DHA, or cholesterol plus DHA to the basal milk-formula. All piglets were euthanized at 49 days of age. In brain, cholesterol supplementation reduced (P < 0.05) concentrations of glutamate, serine, glutamine, threonine, β-alanine, alanine, methionine, isoleucine, leucine, and γ-aminobutyrate but increased (P < 0.05) concentrations of glycine and lysine, whereas DHA supplementation similarly affected (P < 0.05) concentrations of the same AA (except for isoleucine and lysine) and taurine. In addition, concentrations of most AA in liver, muscle and plasma were substantially altered by dietary supplementation of cholesterol and DHA in a tissue-dependent manner. Further, DHA reduced concentrations of carnosine in skeletal muscle, as well as ammonia in both plasma and brain. The results reveal that cholesterol and DHA can regulate AA metabolism and availability in various tissues of piglets. These novel findings have important implications for designing the next generation of infant formula to optimize neonatal growth and development. PMID:18972185

  12. Selective decrease of bis(monoacylglycero)phosphate content in macrophages by high supplementation with docosahexaenoic acid.

    PubMed

    Bouvier, Jérôme; Zemski Berry, Karin A; Hullin-Matsuda, Françoise; Makino, Asami; Michaud, Sabine; Geloën, Alain; Murphy, Robert C; Kobayashi, Toshihide; Lagarde, Michel; Delton-Vandenbroucke, Isabelle

    2009-02-01

    Bis(monoacylglycero)phosphate (BMP) is a unique phospholipid (PL) preferentially found in late endosomal membranes, where it forms specialized lipid domains. Recently, using cultured macrophages treated with anti-BMP antibody, we showed that BMP-rich domains are involved in cholesterol homeostasis. We had previously stressed the high propensity of BMP to accumulate docosahexaenoic acid (DHA), compared with other PUFAs. Because phosphatidylglycerol (PG) was reported as a precursor for BMP synthesis in RAW macrophages, we examined the effects of PG supplementation on both FA composition and amount of BMP in this cell line. Supplementation with dioleoyl-PG (18:1/18:1-PG) induced BMP accumulation, together with an increase of oleate proportion. Supplementation with high concentrations of didocosahexaenoyl-PG (22:6/22:6-PG) led to a marked enrichment of DHA in BMP, resulting in the formation of diDHA molecular species. However, the amount of BMP was selectively decreased. Similar effects were observed after supplementation with high concentrations of nonesterified DHA. Addition of vitamin E prevented the decrease of BMP and further increased its DHA content. Supplementation with 22:6/22:6-PG promoted BMP accumulation with an enhanced proportion of 22:6/22:6-BMP. DHA-rich BMP was significantly degraded after cell exposure to oxidant conditions, in contrast to oleic acid-rich BMP, which was not affected. Using a cell-free system, we showed that 22:6/22:6-BMP is highly oxidizable and partially protects cholesterol oxidation, compared with 18:1/18:1-BMP. Our data suggest that high DHA content in BMP led to specific degradation of this PL, possibly through the diDHA molecular species, which is very prone to peroxidation and, as such, a potential antioxidant in its immediate vicinity. PMID:18809971

  13. Toxicological evaluation of arachidonic acid (ARA)-rich oil and docosahexaenoic acid (DHA)-rich oil.

    PubMed

    Lewis, Kara D; Huang, Weifeng; Zheng, Xiaohui; Jiang, Yue; Feldman, Robin S; Falk, Michael C

    2016-10-01

    The safety of DHA-rich oil from Schizochytrium sp. and ARA-rich oil from Mortierella alpina was separately evaluated by testing for gene mutations, clastogenicity, and aneugenicity, and by conducting 28-day and 90-day dietary studies in Wistar rats. The results of all genotoxicity tests were negative. The 28-day and 90-day studies involved dietary exposure to 1000, 2500, and 5000 mg per kg bw of the DHA-rich and ARA-rich oils and two control diets: water and corn oil (vehicle control). There were no treatment-related effects of either the DHA-rich or ARA-rich oils on clinical observations, body weight, food consumption, behavior, hematology, clinical chemistry, coagulation, urinalysis parameters, or necropsy findings. Increases in cholesterol and triglyceride levels were considered related to a high oil diet and non-adverse. The no observable adverse effect level (NOAEL) for both the DHA-rich and ARA-rich oils was 5000 mg per kg bw, the highest dose tested. The results confirm that these oils possess toxicity profiles similar to those of other currently marketed oils and support the safety of DHA-rich oil from Schizochytrium sp. and ARA-rich oil from Mortierella alpina for their proposed uses in food. PMID:27470615

  14. Docosahexaenoic Acid (DHA) But Not Eicosapentaenoic Acid (EPA) Reverses Trans-10, Cis-12 Conjugated Linoleic Acid Induced Insulin Resistance in Mice1

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Objective: t10, c12-Conjugated linoleic acid (CLA) induces insulin resistance and fatty liver in mice which can be reversed by fish oils. We determined if it is eicospentaenoic acid (20:5n-3, EPA) or docoshexaenoic acid (22:6n-3, DHA) that reverses these adverse effects of CLA. Research Design and M...

  15. DHA Suppresses Primary Macrophage Inflammatory Responses via Notch 1/ Jagged 1 Signaling

    PubMed Central

    Ali, Mehboob; Heyob, Kathryn; Rogers, Lynette K.

    2016-01-01

    Persistent macrophages were observed in the lungs of murine offspring exposed to maternal LPS and neonatal hyperoxia. Maternal docosahexaenoic acid (DHA) supplementation prevented the accumulation of macrophages and improved lung development. We hypothesized that these macrophages are responsible for pathologies observed in this model and the effects of DHA supplementation. Primary macrophages were isolated from adult mice fed standard chow, control diets, or DHA supplemented diets. Macrophages were exposed to hyperoxia (O2) for 24 h and LPS for 6 h or 24 h. Our data demonstrate significant attenuation of Notch 1 and Jagged 1 protein levels in response to DHA supplementation in vivo but similar results were not evident in macrophages isolated from mice fed standard chow and supplemented with DHA in vitro. Co-culture of activated macrophages with MLE12 epithelial cells resulted in the release of high mobility group box 1 and leukotriene B4 from the epithelial cells and this release was attenuated by DHA supplementation. Collectively, our data indicate that long term supplementation with DHA as observed in vivo, resulted in deceased Notch 1/Jagged 1 protein expression however, DHA supplementation in vitro was sufficient to suppress release LTB4 and to protect epithelial cells in co-culture. PMID:26940787

  16. Docosahexaenoic acid supplementation decreases remnant-like particle-cholesterol and increases omega-3 index in hypertriglyceridemic men1-3.

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Background: Plasma remnant-like particle-cholesterol (RLP-C) and RBC omega-3 index are novel risk factors for cardiovascular disease. Effects of docosahexaenoic acid (DHA) supplementation on these risk factors in hypertriglyceridemic men have not been studied. Objective: We determined effects of DHA...

  17. (n-3) Fatty Acids and Cardiovascular Health: Are Effects of EPA and DHA Shared or Complementary?123

    PubMed Central

    Mozaffarian, Dariush; Wu, Jason H. Y.

    2012-01-01

    Considerable research supports cardiovascular benefits of consuming omega-3 PUFA, also known as (n-3) PUFA, from fish or fish oil. Whether individual long-chain (n-3) PUFA have shared or complementary effects is not well established. We reviewed evidence for dietary and endogenous sources and cardiovascular effects on biologic pathways, physiologic risk factors, and clinical endpoints of EPA [20:5(n-3)], docosapentaenoic acid [DPA, 22:5(n-3)], and DHA [22:6(n-3)]. DHA requires direct dietary consumption, with little synthesis from or retroconversion to DPA or EPA. Whereas EPA is also largely derived from direct consumption, EPA can also be synthesized in small amounts from plant (n-3) precursors, especially stearidonic acid. In contrast, DPA appears principally derived from endogenous elongation from EPA, and DPA can also undergo retroconversion back to EPA. In experimental and animal models, both EPA and DHA modulate several relevant biologic pathways, with evidence for some differential benefits. In humans, both fatty acids lower TG levels and, based on more limited studies, favorably affect cardiac diastolic filling, arterial compliance, and some metrics of inflammation and oxidative stress. All three (n-3) PUFA reduce ex vivo platelet aggregation and DHA also modestly increases LDL and HDL particle size; the clinical relevance of such findings is uncertain. Combined EPA+DHA or DPA+DHA levels are associated with lower risk of fatal cardiac events and DHA with lower risk of atrial fibrillation, suggesting direct or indirect benefits of DHA for cardiac arrhythmias (although not excluding similar benefits of EPA or DPA). Conversely, EPA and DPA, but not DHA, are associated with lower risk of nonfatal cardiovascular endpoints in some studies, and purified EPA reduced risk of nonfatal coronary syndromes in one large clinical trial. Overall, for many cardiovascular pathways and outcomes, identified studies of individual (n-3) PUFA were relatively limited, especially

  18. Production of 3-hydroxypropionic acid from glycerol by recombinant Klebsiella pneumoniae ΔdhaTΔyqhD which can produce vitamin B₁₂ naturally.

    PubMed

    Ashok, Somasundar; Sankaranarayanan, Mugesh; Ko, Yeounjoo; Jae, Kyeung-Eun; Ainala, Satish Kumar; Kumar, Vinod; Park, Sunghoon

    2013-02-01

    3-Hydroxypropionic acid (3-HP) is an important platform chemical that can be used to synthesize a range of chemical compounds. A previous study demonstrated that recombinant Escherichia coli stains can produce 3-HP from glycerol in the presence of vitamin B₁₂ (coenzyme B₁₂), when overexpressed with a coenzyme B₁₂-dependent glycerol dehydratase (DhaB) and an aldehyde dehydrogenase. The present study examined the production of 3-HP in recombinant Klebsiella pneumoniae strains, which naturally synthesizes vitamin B₁₂ and does not require supplementation of the expensive vitamin. The NAD⁺-dependent gamma-glutamyl-gamma-aminobutyraldehyde dehydrogenase (PuuC) of K. pneumoniae alone or with its DhaB was overexpressed homologously, and two major oxidoreductases, DhaT and YqhD, were disrupted. Without vitamin B₁₂ addition, the recombinant K. pneumoniae ΔdhaTΔyqhD overexpressing PuuC could produce ∼3.8 g/L 3-HP in 12 h of flask culture. However, this was possible only under the appropriate aeration conditions; 1,3-propanediol (1,3-PDO) (instead of 3-HP) was mainly produced when aeration was insufficient, whereas a very small amount of both 3-HP and 1,3-PDO were produced when aeration was too high. The production of a small amount of 3-HP under improper aeration conditions was attributed to either slow NAD⁺ regeneration (under low aeration) or reduced vitamin B₁₂ synthesis (under high aeration). In a glycerol fed-batch bioreactor experiment under a constant DO of 5%, the strain, K. pneumoniae ΔdhaTΔyqhD, overexpressing both PuuC and DhaB could produce >28 g/L 3-HP in 48 h with a yield of >40% on glycerol. Only small amount of 3-HP was produced when cultivation was carried out at a constant aeration of 1 vvm or constant 10% DO. These results show that K. pneumoniae is potentially useful for the production of 3-HP in an economical culture medium that does not require vitamin B₁₂. The results also suggest that the aeration

  19. High-fat meals rich in EPA plus DHA compared with DHA only have differential effects on postprandial lipemia and plasma 8-isoprostane F2α concentrations relative to a control high–oleic acid meal: a randomized controlled trial1234

    PubMed Central

    Purcell, Robert; Latham, Sally H; Botham, Kathleen M; Hall, Wendy L; Wheeler-Jones, Caroline PD

    2014-01-01

    Background: Eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA) plus docosahexaenoic acid (DHA) supplementation has beneficial cardiovascular effects, but postprandial influences of these individual fatty acids are unclear. Objectives: The primary objective was to determine the vascular effects of EPA + DHA compared with DHA only during postprandial lipemia relative to control high–oleic acid meals; the secondary objective was to characterize the effects of linoleic acid–enriched high-fat meals relative to the control meal. Design: We conducted a randomized, controlled, double-blind crossover trial of 4 high-fat (75-g) meals containing 1) high–oleic acid sunflower oil (HOS; control), 2) HOS + fish oil (FO; 5 g EPA and DHA), 3) HOS + algal oil (AO; 5 g DHA), and 4) high–linoleic acid sunflower oil (HLS) in 16 healthy men (aged 35–70 y) with higher than optimal fasting triacylglycerol concentrations (mean ± SD triacylglycerol, 1.9 ± 0.5 mmol/L). Results: Elevations in triacylglycerol concentration relative to baseline were slightly reduced after FO and HLS compared with the HOS control (P < 0.05). The characteristic decrease from baseline in plasma nonesterified fatty acids after a mixed meal was inhibited after AO (Δ 0–3 h, P < 0.05). HLS increased the augmentation index compared with the other test meals (P < 0.05), although the digital volume pulse–reflection index was not significantly different. Plasma 8-isoprostane F2α analysis revealed opposing effects of FO (increased) and AO (reduced) compared with the control (P < 0.05). No differences in nitric oxide metabolites were observed. Conclusions: These data show differential postprandial 8-isoprostane F2α responses to high-fat meals containing EPA + DHA–rich fish oil compared with DHA-rich AO, but these differences were not associated with consistent effects on postprandial vascular function or lipemia. More detailed analyses of polyunsaturated fatty acid–derived lipid mediators are required to determine possible

  20. Optimization of the viability of stem cells derived from umbilical cord blood after maternal supplementation with DHA during the second or third trimester of pregnancy: study protocol for a randomized controlled trial

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Umbilical cord blood (UCB) is an important source of hematopoietic stem cells (HSCs). However, the concentration of cells in cord blood units is limited and this may represent the main restriction to their therapeutic clinical use. The percentage of metabolically active stem cells provides a measure of the viability of cells in an UCB sample. It follows that an active cellular metabolism causes a proliferation in stem cells, offering an opportunity to increase the cellular concentration. A high cell dose is essential when transplanting cord stem cells, guaranteeing, in the receiving patient, a successful outcome. This study is designed to evaluate the impact of docosahexaenoic acid (DHA) supplementation in pregnant women, in order to increase the quantity and viability of the cells in UCB samples. Methods/design The metabolic demand of DHA increases in the course of pregnancy and reaches maximum absorption during the third trimester of pregnancy. According to these observations, this trial will be divided into two different experimental groups: in the first group, participants will be enrolled from the 20th week of estimated stage of gestation, before the maximum absorption of DHA; while in the second group, enrolment will start from the 28th week of estimated stage of gestation, when the DHA request is higher. Participants in the trial will be divided and randomly assigned to the placebo group or to the experimental group. Each participant will receive a complete set of capsules of either placebo (250 mg of olive oil) or DHA (250 mg), to take one a day from the 20th or from the 28th week, up to the 40th week of estimated gestational age. Samples of venous blood will be taken from all participants before taking placebo or DHA, at the 20th or at the 28th week, and at the 37th to 38th week of pregnancy to monitor the level of DHA. Cell number and cellular viability will be evaluated by flow cytometry within 48 hours of the UCB sample collection. Trial

  1. [Therapeutic effects of larger doses of arachidonic acid added to DHA on social impairment and its relation to alterations of polyunsaturated fatty acids in individuals with autism spectrum disorders].

    PubMed

    Yui, Kunio; Koshiba, Mamiko; Nakamura, Shun; Onishi, Masako

    2011-06-01

    The polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFAs), arachidonic acid (ARA) and docosahexaenoic acid (DHA) may play key roles in brain network maturation. ARA plays an important role in signal transduction related to neuronal maturation. This study aims to evaluate the efficacy of supplementing with larger doses of ARA added to DHA in a double-blind, placebo-controlled 16-week trial. To confirm findings observed in the placebo-controlled trial, an additional 16-week open-label study was further conducted. To examine the relationship between the efficacy of the supplementation regimen and alterations in PUFAs levels, we examined plasma levels of PUFAs. We used the Social Responsiveness Scale (SRS) and the Aberrant Behavior Checklist-Community (ABC) to estimate psychotic symptoms. Repeated measures ANOVA revealed that this supplementation significantly improved SRS-measured communication as well as ABC-measured social withdrawal during the placebo-controlled trial. The treatment effect sizes were more favorable for the treatment group compared with the placebo group (communication: 0.87 vs. 0.44; social withdrawal: 0.88 vs. 0.54). At the end of the placebo-controlled trial, there was a significant difference in the change in plasma ARA levels from the baseline and a trend towards a significant difference in plasma ARA levels between the two groups. The open-label study was not powered to detect significant improvements in the outcome measures or significant differences in plasma ARA levels. The present clinical trials suggest that supplementation with larger ARA doses added to DHA improves social impairment in individuals with ASD via ARA-induced upregulation of neuronal functioning. PMID:21800702

  2. Preliminary Validation of a High Docosahexaenoic Acid (DHA) and -Linolenic Acid (ALA) Dietary Oil Blend: Tissue Fatty Acid Composition and Liver Proteome Response in Atlantic Salmon (Salmo salar) Smolts

    PubMed Central

    Nuez-Ortín, Waldo G.; Carter, Chris G.; Wilson, Richard; Cooke, Ira; Nichols, Peter D.

    2016-01-01

    Marine oils are important to human nutrition as the major source of docosahexaenoic acid (DHA), a key omega-3 long-chain (≥C20) polyunsaturated fatty acid (n-3 LC-PUFA) that is low or lacking in terrestrial plant or animal oils. The inclusion of fish oil as main source of n-3 LC-PUFA in aquafeeds is mostly limited by the increasing price and decreasing availability. Fish oil replacement with cheaper terrestrial plant and animal oils has considerably reduced the content of n-3 LC-PUFA in flesh of farmed Atlantic salmon. Novel DHA-enriched oils with high alpha-linolenic acid (ALA) content will be available from transgenic oilseeds plants in the near future as an alternative for dietary fish oil replacement in aquafeeds. As a preliminary validation, we formulated an oil blend (TOFX) with high DHA and ALA content using tuna oil (TO) high in DHA and the flaxseed oil (FX) high in ALA, and assessed its ability to achieve fish oil-like n-3 LC-PUFA tissue composition in Atlantic salmon smolts. We applied proteomics as an exploratory approach to understand the effects of nutritional changes on the fish liver. Comparisons were made between fish fed a fish oil-based diet (FO) and a commercial-like oil blend diet (fish oil + poultry oil, FOPO) over 89 days. Growth and feed efficiency ratio were lower on the TOFX diet. Fish muscle concentration of n-3 LC-PUFA was significantly higher for TOFX than for FOPO fish, but not higher than for FO fish, while retention efficiency of n-3 LC-PUFA was promoted by TOFX relative to FO. Proteomics analysis revealed an oxidative stress response indicative of the main adaptive physiological mechanism in TOFX fish. While specific dietary fatty acid concentrations and balances and antioxidant supplementation may need further attention, the use of an oil with a high content of DHA and ALA can enhance tissue deposition of n-3 LC-PUFA in relation to a commercially used oil blend. PMID:27556399

  3. Preliminary Validation of a High Docosahexaenoic Acid (DHA) and -Linolenic Acid (ALA) Dietary Oil Blend: Tissue Fatty Acid Composition and Liver Proteome Response in Atlantic Salmon (Salmo salar) Smolts.

    PubMed

    Nuez-Ortín, Waldo G; Carter, Chris G; Wilson, Richard; Cooke, Ira; Nichols, Peter D

    2016-01-01

    Marine oils are important to human nutrition as the major source of docosahexaenoic acid (DHA), a key omega-3 long-chain (≥C20) polyunsaturated fatty acid (n-3 LC-PUFA) that is low or lacking in terrestrial plant or animal oils. The inclusion of fish oil as main source of n-3 LC-PUFA in aquafeeds is mostly limited by the increasing price and decreasing availability. Fish oil replacement with cheaper terrestrial plant and animal oils has considerably reduced the content of n-3 LC-PUFA in flesh of farmed Atlantic salmon. Novel DHA-enriched oils with high alpha-linolenic acid (ALA) content will be available from transgenic oilseeds plants in the near future as an alternative for dietary fish oil replacement in aquafeeds. As a preliminary validation, we formulated an oil blend (TOFX) with high DHA and ALA content using tuna oil (TO) high in DHA and the flaxseed oil (FX) high in ALA, and assessed its ability to achieve fish oil-like n-3 LC-PUFA tissue composition in Atlantic salmon smolts. We applied proteomics as an exploratory approach to understand the effects of nutritional changes on the fish liver. Comparisons were made between fish fed a fish oil-based diet (FO) and a commercial-like oil blend diet (fish oil + poultry oil, FOPO) over 89 days. Growth and feed efficiency ratio were lower on the TOFX diet. Fish muscle concentration of n-3 LC-PUFA was significantly higher for TOFX than for FOPO fish, but not higher than for FO fish, while retention efficiency of n-3 LC-PUFA was promoted by TOFX relative to FO. Proteomics analysis revealed an oxidative stress response indicative of the main adaptive physiological mechanism in TOFX fish. While specific dietary fatty acid concentrations and balances and antioxidant supplementation may need further attention, the use of an oil with a high content of DHA and ALA can enhance tissue deposition of n-3 LC-PUFA in relation to a commercially used oil blend. PMID:27556399

  4. Omega-3 fatty acid supplementation enhances stroke volume and cardiac output during dynamic exercise.

    PubMed

    Walser, Buddy; Stebbins, Charles L

    2008-10-01

    Docosahexaenoic acid (DHA) and eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA) have beneficial effects on cardiovascular function. We tested the hypotheses that dietary supplementation with DHA (2 g/day) + EPA (3 g/day) enhances increases in stroke volume (SV) and cardiac output (CO) and decreases in systemic vascular resistance (SVR) during dynamic exercise. Healthy subjects received DHA + EPA (eight men, four women) or safflower oil (six men, three women) for 6 weeks. Both groups performed 20 min of bicycle exercise (10 min each at a low and moderate work intensity) before and after DHA + EPA or safflower oil treatment. Mean arterial pressure (MAP), heart rate (HR), SV, CO, and SVR were assessed before exercise and during both workloads. HR was unaffected by DHA + EPA and MAP was reduced, but only at rest (88 +/- 5 vs. 83 +/- 4 mm Hg). DHA + EPA augmented increases in SV (14.1 +/- 6.3 vs. 32.3 +/- 8.7 ml) and CO (8.5 +/- 1.0 vs. 10.3 +/- 1.2 L/min) and tended to attenuate decreases in SVR (-7.0 +/- 0.6 vs. -10.1 +/- 1.6 mm Hg L(-1) min(-1)) during the moderate workload. Safflower oil treatment had no effects on MAP, HR, SV, CO or SVR at rest or during exercise. DHA + EPA-induced increases in SV and CO imply that dietary supplementation with these fatty acids can increase oxygen delivery during exercise, which may have beneficial clinical implications for individuals with cardiovascular disease and reduced exercise tolerance. PMID:18563435

  5. Whole-body DHA synthesis-secretion kinetics from plasma eicosapentaenoic acid and alpha-linolenic acid in the free-living rat.

    PubMed

    Metherel, Adam H; Domenichiello, Anthony F; Kitson, Alex P; Hopperton, Kathryn E; Bazinet, Richard P

    2016-09-01

    Whole body docosahexaenoic acid (DHA, 22:6n-3) synthesis from α-linolenic acid (ALA, 18:3n-3) is considered to be very low, however, the daily synthesis-secretion of DHA may be sufficient to supply the adult brain. The current study aims to assess whether whole body DHA synthesis-secretion kinetics are different when comparing plasma ALA versus eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA, 20:5n-3) as the precursor. Male Long Evans rats (n=6) were fed a 2% ALA in total fat diet for eight weeks, followed by surgery to implant a catheter into each of the jugular vein and carotid artery and 3h of steady-state infusion with a known amount of (2)H-ALA and (13)C-eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA, 20:5n3). Blood samples were collected at thirty-minute intervals and plasma enrichment of (2)H- and (13)C EPA, n-3 docosapentaenoic acid (DPAn-3, 22:5n-3) and DHA were determined for assessment of synthesis-secretion kinetic parameters. Results indicate a 13-fold higher synthesis-secretion coefficient for DHA from EPA as compared to ALA. However, after correcting for the 6.6 fold higher endogenous plasma ALA concentration, no significant differences in daily synthesis-secretion (nmol/day) of DHA (97.6±28.2 and 172±62), DPAn-3 (853±279 and 1139±484) or EPA (1587±592 and 1628±366) were observed from plasma unesterified ALA and EPA sources, respectively. These results suggest that typical diets which are significantly higher in ALA compared to EPA yield similar daily DHA synthesis-secretion despite a significantly higher synthesis-secretion coefficient from EPA. PMID:27263420

  6. Docosahexaenoic Acid Supplementation Early in Pregnancy May Prevent Deep Placentation Disorders

    PubMed Central

    Carvajal, Jorge A.

    2014-01-01

    Uteroplacental ischemia may cause preterm birth, either due to preterm labor, preterm premature rupture of membranes, or medical indication (in the presence of preeclampsia or fetal growth restriction). Uteroplacental ischemia is the product of defective deep placentation, a failure of invasion, and transformation of the spiral arteries by the trophoblast. The failure of normal placentation generates a series of clinical abnormalities nowadays called “deep placentation disorders”; they include preeclampsia, fetal growth restriction, preterm labor, preterm premature rupture of membranes, in utero fetal death, and placental abruption. Early reports suggested that a LC-PUFAs (long chain polyunsaturated fatty acids) rich diet reduces the incidence of deep placentation disorders. Recent randomized controlled trials are inconsistent to show the benefit of docosahexaenoic acid (DHA) supplementation during pregnancy to prevent deep placentation disorders, but most of them showed that DHA supplementation was associated with lower risk of early preterm birth. We postulate that DHA supplementation, early in pregnancy, may reduce the incidence of deep placentation disorders. If our hypothesis is correct, DHA supplementation, early in pregnancy, will become a safe and effective strategy for primary prevention of highly relevant pregnancy diseases, such as preterm birth, preeclampsia, and fetal growth restriction. PMID:25019084

  7. Prenatal Docosahexaenoic Acid Supplementation and Offspring Development at 18 Months: Randomized Controlled Trial

    PubMed Central

    Ramakrishnan, Usha; Stinger, Amanda; DiGirolamo, Ann M.; Martorell, Reynaldo; Neufeld, Lynnette M.; Rivera, Juan A.; Schnaas, Lourdes; Stein, Aryeh D.; Wang, Meng

    2015-01-01

    Objective We evaluated the effects of prenatal docosahexaenoic acid (DHA) supplementation on offspring development at 18 months of age. Design Randomized placebo double-blind controlled trial. Settings Cuernavaca, Mexico. Participants and Methods We followed up offspring (n = 730; 75% of the birth cohort) of women in Mexico who participated in a trial of DHA supplementation during the latter half of pregnancy. We assessed the effect of the intervention on child development and the potential modifying effects of gravidity, gender, SES, and quality of the home environment. Interventions or Main Exposures 400 mg/day of algal DHA. Outcome Measures Child development at 18 months of age measured using the Spanish version of the Bayley Scales of Infant Development-II. We calculated standardized psychomotor and mental development indices, and behavior rating scale scores. Results Intent-to-treat differences (DHA-control) were: Psychomotor Developmental Index -0.90 (95% CI: -2.35, 0.56), Mental Developmental Index -0.26 (95% CI: -1.63, 1.10) and Behavior Rating Scale -0.01 (95% CI: -0.95, 0.94). Prenatal DHA intake attenuated the positive association between home environment and psychomotor development index observed in the control group (p for interaction = 0.03) suggesting potential benefits for children living in home environments characterized by reduced caregiver interactions and opportunities for early childhood stimulation. Conclusions Prenatal DHA supplementation in a population with low intakes of DHA had no effects on offspring development at 18 months of age although there may be some benefit for infants from poor quality home environments. Trial Registration Clinicaltrials.gov NCT00646360 PMID:26262896

  8. Mfsd2a Is a Transporter for the Essential ω-3 Fatty Acid Docosahexaenoic Acid (DHA) in Eye and Is Important for Photoreceptor Cell Development.

    PubMed

    Wong, Bernice H; Chan, Jia Pei; Cazenave-Gassiot, Amaury; Poh, Rebecca W; Foo, Juat Chin; Galam, Dwight L A; Ghosh, Sujoy; Nguyen, Long N; Barathi, Veluchamy A; Yeo, Sia W; Luu, Chi D; Wenk, Markus R; Silver, David L

    2016-05-13

    Eye photoreceptor membrane discs in outer rod segments are highly enriched in the visual pigment rhodopsin and the ω-3 fatty acid docosahexaenoic acid (DHA). The eye acquires DHA from blood, but transporters for DHA uptake across the blood-retinal barrier or retinal pigment epithelium have not been identified. Mfsd2a is a newly described sodium-dependent lysophosphatidylcholine (LPC) symporter expressed at the blood-brain barrier that transports LPCs containing DHA and other long-chain fatty acids. LPC transport via Mfsd2a has been shown to be necessary for human brain growth. Here we demonstrate that Mfsd2a is highly expressed in retinal pigment epithelium in embryonic eye, before the development of photoreceptors, and is the primary site of Mfsd2a expression in the eye. Eyes from whole body Mfsd2a-deficient (KO) mice, but not endothelium-specific Mfsd2a-deficient mice, were DHA-deficient and had significantly reduced LPC/DHA transport in vivo Fluorescein angiography indicated normal blood-retinal barrier function. Histological and electron microscopic analysis indicated that Mfsd2a KO mice exhibited a specific reduction in outer rod segment length, disorganized outer rod segment discs, and mislocalization of and reduction in rhodopsin early in postnatal development without loss of photoreceptors. Minor photoreceptor cell loss occurred in adult Mfsd2a KO mice, but electroretinography indicated visual function was normal. The developing eyes of Mfsd2a KO mice had activated microglia and up-regulation of lipogenic and cholesterogenic genes, likely adaptations to loss of LPC transport. These findings identify LPC transport via Mfsd2a as an important pathway for DHA uptake in eye and for development of photoreceptor membrane discs. PMID:27008858

  9. Use of algae or algal oil rich in n-3 fatty acids as a feed supplement for dairy cattle.

    PubMed

    Stamey, J A; Shepherd, D M; de Veth, M J; Corl, B A

    2012-09-01

    Fish oil is used as a ration additive to provide n-3 fatty acids to dairy cows. Fish do not synthesize n-3 fatty acids; they must consume microscopic algae or other algae-consuming fish. New technology allows for the production of algal biomass for use as a ration supplement for dairy cattle. Lipid encapsulation of the algal biomass protects n-3 fatty acids from biohydrogenation in the rumen and allows them to be available for absorption and utilization in the small intestine. Our objective was to examine the use of algal products as a source for n-3 fatty acids in milk. Four mid-lactation Holsteins were assigned to a 4×4 Latin square design. Their rations were supplemented with 1× or 0.5× rumen-protected (RP) algal biomass supplement, 1× RP algal oil supplement, or no supplement for 7 d. Supplements were lipid encapsulated (Balchem Corp., New Hampton, NY). The 1× supplements provided 29 g/d of docosahexaenoic acid (DHA), and 0.5× provided half of this amount. Treatments were analyzed by orthogonal contrasts. Supplementing dairy rations with rumen-protected algal products did not affect feed intake, milk yield, or milk component yield. Short- and medium-chain fatty acid yields in milk were not influenced by supplements. Both 0.5× and 1× RP algae supplements increased daily milk fat yield of DHA (0.5 and 0.6±0.10 g/d, respectively) compared with 1× RP oil (0.3±0.10 g/d), but all supplements resulted in milk fat yields greater than that of the control (0.1±0.10g/d). Yield of trans-18:1 fatty acids in milk fat was also increased by supplementation. Trans-11 18:1 yield (13, 20, 27, and 15±3.0 g/d for control, 0.5× RP algae, 1× RP algae, and 1× RP oil, respectively) was greater for supplements than for control. Concentration of DHA in the plasma lipid fraction on d 7 showed that the DHA concentration was greatest in plasma phospholipid. Rumen-protected algal biomass provided better DHA yield than algal oil. Feeding lipid-encapsulated algae supplements

  10. Effects of Short-Term Docosahexaenoic Acid Supplementation on Markers of Inflammation after Eccentric Strength Exercise in Women.

    PubMed

    Corder, Katherine E; Newsham, Katherine R; McDaniel, Jennifer L; Ezekiel, Uthayashanker R; Weiss, Edward P

    2016-03-01

    The omega-3 fatty acid docosahexaenoic acid (DHA) has anti-inflammatory and anti-nociceptive (pain inhibiting) effects. Because strenuous exercise often results in local inflammation and pain, we hypothesized that DHA supplementation attenuates the rise in markers of local muscle inflammation and delayed onset muscle soreness (DOMS) that occur after eccentric strength exercise. Twenty-seven, healthy women (33 ± 2 y, BMI 23.1±1.0 kg·m(-2)) were randomized to receive 9d of 3000 mg/d DHA or placebo in a double-blind fashion. On day 7 of the supplementation period, the participants performed 4 sets of maximal-effort eccentric biceps curl exercise. Before and 48h after the eccentric exercise, markers of inflammation were measured including measures of muscle soreness (10-point visual analog pain scale, VAS), swelling (arm circumference), muscle stiffness (active and passive elbow extension), skin temperature, and salivary C-reactive protein (CRP) concentrations. As expected, muscle soreness and arm circumference increased while active and passive elbow extension decreased. The increase in soreness was 23% less in the DHA group (48h increase in VAS soreness ratings: 4.380.4 vs. 5.600.5, p=0.02). Furthermore, the number of subjects who were able to achieve full active elbow extension 48h after eccentric exercise was greater in the DHA group (71% vs. 15%, p = 0.006), indicating significantly less muscle stiffness. No between-group differences were observed for passive elbow extension (p = 0.78) or arm swelling (p = 0.75). Skin temperature and salivary CRP concentrations did not change from baseline to 48h after exercise in either group. These findings indicate that short-term DHA supplementation reduces exercise-induced muscle soreness and stiffness. Therefore, in addition to other health benefits that n-3 fatty acids have been associated with, DHA supplementation could be beneficial for improving tolerance to new and/or strenuous exercise programs and thereby might

  11. Effects of Short-Term Docosahexaenoic Acid Supplementation on Markers of Inflammation after Eccentric Strength Exercise in Women

    PubMed Central

    Corder, Katherine E.; Newsham, Katherine R.; McDaniel, Jennifer L.; Ezekiel, Uthayashanker R.; Weiss, Edward P.

    2016-01-01

    The omega-3 fatty acid docosahexaenoic acid (DHA) has anti-inflammatory and anti-nociceptive (pain inhibiting) effects. Because strenuous exercise often results in local inflammation and pain, we hypothesized that DHA supplementation attenuates the rise in markers of local muscle inflammation and delayed onset muscle soreness (DOMS) that occur after eccentric strength exercise. Twenty-seven, healthy women (33 ± 2 y, BMI 23.1±1.0 kg·m-2) were randomized to receive 9d of 3000 mg/d DHA or placebo in a double-blind fashion. On day 7 of the supplementation period, the participants performed 4 sets of maximal-effort eccentric biceps curl exercise. Before and 48h after the eccentric exercise, markers of inflammation were measured including measures of muscle soreness (10-point visual analog pain scale, VAS), swelling (arm circumference), muscle stiffness (active and passive elbow extension), skin temperature, and salivary C-reactive protein (CRP) concentrations. As expected, muscle soreness and arm circumference increased while active and passive elbow extension decreased. The increase in soreness was 23% less in the DHA group (48h increase in VAS soreness ratings: 4.380.4 vs. 5.600.5, p=0.02). Furthermore, the number of subjects who were able to achieve full active elbow extension 48h after eccentric exercise was greater in the DHA group (71% vs. 15%, p = 0.006), indicating significantly less muscle stiffness. No between-group differences were observed for passive elbow extension (p = 0.78) or arm swelling (p = 0.75). Skin temperature and salivary CRP concentrations did not change from baseline to 48h after exercise in either group. These findings indicate that short-term DHA supplementation reduces exercise-induced muscle soreness and stiffness. Therefore, in addition to other health benefits that n-3 fatty acids have been associated with, DHA supplementation could be beneficial for improving tolerance to new and/or strenuous exercise programs and thereby might

  12. A 9-wk docosahexaenoic acid-enriched supplementation improves endurance exercise capacity and skeletal muscle mitochondrial function in adult rats.

    PubMed

    Le Guen, Marie; Chaté, Valérie; Hininger-Favier, Isabelle; Laillet, Brigitte; Morio, Béatrice; Pieroni, Gérard; Schlattner, Uwe; Pison, Christophe; Dubouchaud, Hervé

    2016-02-01

    Decline in skeletal muscle mass and function starts during adulthood. Among the causes, modifications of the mitochondrial function could be of major importance. Polyunsaturated fatty (ω-3) acids have been shown to play a role in intracellular functions. We hypothesize that docosahexaenoic acid (DHA) supplementation could improve muscle mitochondrial function that could contribute to limit the early consequences of aging on adult muscle. Twelve-month-old male Wistar rats were fed a low-polyunsaturated fat diet and were given DHA (DHA group) or placebo (control group) for 9 wk. Rats from the DHA group showed a higher endurance capacity (+56%, P < 0.05) compared with control animals. Permeabilized myofibers from soleus muscle showed higher O2 consumptions (P < 0.05) in the DHA group compared with the control group, with glutamate-malate as substrates, both in basal conditions (i.e., state 2) and under maximal conditions (i.e., state 3, using ADP), along with a higher apparent Km for ADP (P < 0.05). Calcium retention capacity of isolated mitochondria was lower in DHA group compared with the control group (P < 0.05). Phospho-AMPK/AMPK ratio and PPARδ mRNA content were higher in the DHA group compared with the control group (P < 0.05). Results showed that DHA enhanced endurance capacity in adult animals, a beneficial effect potentially resulting from improvement in mitochondrial function, as suggested by our results on permeabilized fibers. DHA supplementation could be of potential interest for the muscle function in adults and for fighting the decline in exercise tolerance with age that could imply energy-sensing pathway, as suggested by changes in phospho-AMPK/AMPK ratio. PMID:26646102

  13. Association Between Fatty Acid Supplementation and Prenatal Stress in African Americans: A Randomized Controlled Trial

    PubMed Central

    Keenan, Kate; Hipwell, Alison E.; Bortner, Jenna; Hoffmann, Amy; McAloon, Rose

    2014-01-01

    Objective To test the association between docosahexaenoic acid (DHA)supplementation and perceived stress and cortisol response to a stressor during pregnancy in a sample of African American women living in low-income environments. Methods Sixty-four African American women were enrolled at 16–21 weeks of gestation. Power calculations were computed using published standard deviations for the Perceived Stress Scale and the Trier Social Stress Test. Participants were randomized to either 450 mg per day of DHA(n=43) or placebo (n=21).At baseline, 24, and 30 weeks of gestation, perceived stress was assessed by self-report. Cortisol response to a controlled stressor, the Trier Social Stress Test (TSST) was measured from saliva samples collected upon arrival to the laboratory and after the completion of the TSST. Results Women in the DHA supplementation group reported lower levels of perceived stress at 30 weeks of gestation, controlling for depression and negative life events (mean = 27.4 versus 29.5, (F [3, 47] = 5.06, p = .029, cohen’s d = .65). Women in the DHA supplementation had lower cortisol output in response to arriving to the laboratory and a more modulated response to the stressor (F [1.78, 83.85] = 6.24, p = .004, cohen’s d = .76). Conclusions Pregnant women living in urban low-income environments who received DHA reported reduced perceived stress and lower levels of stress hormones in the third trimester. DHA supplementation may be a method for attenuating the effects of maternal stress during late pregnancy and improving the uterine environment with regard to fetal exposure to glucocorticoids. PMID:25415158

  14. Omega-3 fatty acids, EPA and DHA induce apoptosis and enhance drug sensitivity in multiple myeloma cells but not in normal peripheral mononuclear cells.

    PubMed

    Abdi, J; Garssen, J; Faber, J; Redegeld, F A

    2014-12-01

    The n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA) and docosahexaenoic acid (DHA) have been shown to enhance the effect of chemotherapeutic drugs in clinical studies in cancer patients and to induce apoptotic tumor cell death in vitro. Until now, EPA and DHA have never been investigated in multiple myeloma (MM). Human myeloma cells (L363, OPM-1, OPM-2 and U266) and normal peripheral blood mononuclear cells were exposed to EPA and DHA, and effects on mitochondrial function and apoptosis, caspase-3 activation, gene expression and drug toxicity were measured. Exposure to EPA and DHA induced apoptosis and increased sensitivity to bortezomib in MM cells. Importantly, they did not affect viability of normal human peripheral mononuclear cells. Messenger RNA expression arrays showed that EPA and DHA modulated genes involved in multiple signaling pathways including nuclear factor (NF) κB, Notch, Hedgehog, oxidative stress and Wnt. EPA and DHA inhibited NFκB activity and induced apoptosis through mitochondrial perturbation and caspase-3 activation. Our study suggests that EPA and DHA induce selective cytotoxic effects in MM and increase sensitivity to bortezomib and calls for further exploration into a potential application of these n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids in the therapy of MM. PMID:25277647

  15. Effects of Docosahexaenoic Acid Supplementation on Blood Pressure, Heart Rate, and Serum Lipids in Scottish Men with Hypertension and Hypercholesterolemia

    PubMed Central

    Sagara, Miki; Njelekela, Marina; Teramoto, Takanori; Taguchi, Takashi; Mori, Mari; Armitage, Lesley; Birt, Nina; Birt, Christopher; Yamori, Yukio

    2011-01-01

    To investigate the effects of daily supplementation with docosahexaenoic acid (DHA) on coronary heart disease risks in 38 middle-aged men with hypertension and/or hypercholesterolemia in Scotland, a five-week double-blind placebo-controlled dietary supplementation with either 2 g of DHA or active placebo (1 g of olive oil) was conducted. Percent composition of DHA in plasma phospholipids increased significantly in DHA group. Systolic and diastolic blood pressure and heart rate decreased significantly in DHA group, but not in placebo group. High-density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-C) increased significantly, and total cholesterol (TC)/HDL-C and non-HDL-C/HDL-C ratios decreased significantly in both groups. There was no change in TC and non-HDL-C. We conclude that 2 g/day of DHA supplementation reduced coronary heart disease risk factor level improving blood pressure, heart rate, and lipid profiles in hypertensive, hypercholesterolemic Scottish men who do not eat fish on a regular basis. PMID:21423683

  16. Reduced Symptoms of Inattention after Dietary Omega-3 Fatty Acid Supplementation in Boys with and without Attention Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder.

    PubMed

    Bos, Dienke J; Oranje, Bob; Veerhoek, E Sanne; Van Diepen, Rosanne M; Weusten, Juliette Mh; Demmelmair, Hans; Koletzko, Berthold; de Sain-van der Velden, Monique Gm; Eilander, Ans; Hoeksma, Marco; Durston, Sarah

    2015-09-01

    Attention deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) is one of the most common child psychiatric disorders, and is often treated with stimulant medication. Nonpharmacological treatments include dietary supplementation with omega-3 fatty acids, although their effectiveness remains to be shown conclusively. In this study, we investigated the effects of dietary omega-3 fatty acid supplementation on ADHD symptoms and cognitive control in young boys with and without ADHD. A total of 40 boys with ADHD, aged 8-14 years, and 39 matched, typically developing controls participated in a 16-week double-blind randomized placebo-controlled trial. Participants consumed 10 g of margarine daily, enriched with either 650 mg of eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA)/docosahexaenoic acid (DHA) each or placebo. Baseline and follow-up assessments addressed ADHD symptoms, fMRI of cognitive control, urine homovanillic acid, and cheek cell phospholipid sampling. EPA/DHA supplementation improved parent-rated attention in both children with ADHD and typically developing children. Phospholipid DHA level at follow-up was higher for children receiving EPA/DHA supplements than placebo. There was no effect of EPA/DHA supplementation on cognitive control or on fMRI measures of brain activity. This study shows that dietary supplementation with omega-3 fatty acids reduces symptoms of ADHD, both for individuals with ADHD and typically developing children. This effect does not appear to be mediated by cognitive control systems in the brain, as no effect of supplementation was found here. Nonetheless, this study offers support that omega-3 supplementation may be an effective augmentation for pharmacological treatments of ADHD (NCT01554462: The Effects of EPA/DHA Supplementation on Cognitive Control in Children with ADHD; http://clinicaltrials.gov/show/NCT01554462). PMID:25790022

  17. Moderate oral supplementation with docosahexaenoic acid improves platelet function and oxidative stress in type 2 diabetic patients.

    PubMed

    Véricel, E; Colas, R; Calzada, C; Lê, Q H; Feugier, N; Cugnet, C; Vidal, H; Laville, M; Moulin, P; Lagarde, M

    2015-08-01

    Platelets from patients with type 2 diabetes are characterised by hyperactivation and high level of oxidative stress. Docosahexaenoic acid (DHA) may have beneficial effects on platelet reactivity and redox status. We investigated whether moderate DHA supplementation, given as a triglyceride form, may correct platelet dysfunction and redox imbalance in patients with type 2 diabetes. We conducted a randomised, double-blind, placebo-controlled, two-period crossover trial (n=11 post-menopausal women with type 2 diabetes) to test the effects of 400 mg/day of DHA intake for two weeks on platelet aggregation, markers of arachidonic acid metabolism, lipid peroxidation status, and lipid composition. Each two week-period was separated from the other by a six-week washout. Daily moderate dose DHA supplementation resulted in reduced platelet aggregation induced by collagen (-46.5 %, p< 0.001), and decreased platelet thromboxane B2 (-35 %, p< 0.001), urinary 11-dehydro-thromboxane B2 (-13.2 %, p< 0.001) and F2-isoprostane levels (-19.6 %, p< 0.001) associated with a significant increase of plasma and platelet vitamin E concentrations (+20 % and +11.8 %, respectively, p< 0.001). The proportions of DHA increased both in plasma lipids and in platelet phospholipids. After placebo treatment, there was no effect on any parameters tested. Our findings support a significant beneficial effect of low intake of DHA on platelet function and a favourable role in reducing oxidative stress associated with diabetes. PMID:25832443

  18. [Neurological, neuropsychological, and ophthalmological evolution after one year of docosahexaenoic acid supplementation in phenylketonuric patients].

    PubMed

    Gutiérrez-Mata, Alfonso P; Vilaseca, M Antonia; Capdevila-Cirera, Antoni; Vidal-Oller, Mariona; Alonso-Colmenero, Itziar; Colomé, Roser; López-Sala, Anna; Lambruschini-Ferri, Nilo; Gutiérrez, Alejandra; Gassió, Rosa; Artuch, Rafael; Campistol, Jaume

    2012-08-16

    INTRODUCTION. Phenylketonuria (PKU) is an autosomal recessive metabolic disease caused by a deficiency of phenylalanine hydroxylase. The dietary therapy for the effective management of PKU, in particular the restriction of high-protein foods of animal-origin, compromises patients' intake of fat and distorts the n-3:n-6 ratio of essential fatty acids in the diet. This deficiency can contribute to neurological and visual impairment. AIM. To evaluate changes in white matter alterations, visual evoked potential (VEP) latencies and performance in executive and motor functions in a group of early and continuously treated PKU patients after supplementation with docosahexaneoic acid (DHA). PATIENTS AND METHODS. We selected 21 PKU patients with early diagnosis (age range: 9-25 years), on a Phe-restricted diet and supplemented with PKU formula. Inclusion criteria were: low erythrocyte DHA values, prolonged P100 wave latencies in VEP and/or presence of white matter hyperintensities on brain magnetic resonance imaging (MRI), and intellectual quotient > 80. All patients were treated with DHA (10 mg/kg/day) for 12 months. Assessment was conducted at baseline and after 12 months of treatment, and included biochemical parameters, brain MRI, VEP, ophthalmologic evaluation and neuropsychological tests. RESULTS AND CONCLUSION. All the patients normalized the DHA levels after supplementation. Improvement in the P100 wave latencies, and fine motor skills was significant. No significant improvement in the other explorations was evident after supplementation. Further investigations seem advisable to establish a cause-effect relationship between DHA treatment and the slight improvement observed in some neurological functions. PMID:22829083

  19. No effect of 12 weeks' supplementation with 1 g DHA-rich or EPA-rich fish oil on cognitive function or mood in healthy young adults aged 18-35 years.

    PubMed

    Jackson, Philippa A; Deary, Michael E; Reay, Jonathon L; Scholey, Andrew B; Kennedy, David O

    2012-04-01

    The n-3 PUFA are a unique class of fatty acids that cannot be manufactured by the body, and must be acquired via dietary sources. In the UK, as well as in other Western nations, these 'essential' fatty acids are consumed in quantities that fall below government guidelines. The present study explored the effects of 12 weeks' dietary supplementation with 1 g/d of two types of fish oil (FO; DHA-rich and EPA-rich) in 159 healthy young adults aged 18-35 years. An assessment of performance on a battery of computerised cognitive tasks and mood measures took place before and following the 12-week treatment regimen. Venous blood samples were also supplied by participants at both time points which were later analysed for serum fatty acid concentrations. Despite good adherence to the study protocol - as reflected in increased concentrations of n-3 serum fatty acids - compared with placebo, the observed effects of both active treatments were minimal. The only finding of note revealed that supplementation with EPA-rich FO may reduce subjective mental fatigue at times of high cognitive demand, although further investigation is required. These findings, taken together with other recent reports of null effects, suggest that dietary supplementation with n-3 PUFA in healthy, normally developing and impairment-free populations is unlikely to result in cognitive enhancement. PMID:21864417

  20. Lipid peroxidation during n-3 fatty acid and vitamin E supplementation in humans.

    PubMed

    Allard, J P; Kurian, R; Aghdassi, E; Muggli, R; Royall, D

    1997-05-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate in healthy humans the effect of eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA) and docosahexaenoic acid (DHA) intake, alone or in combination with dL-alpha-tocopherol acetate (vitamin E) supplements on lipid peroxidation. Eighty men were randomly assigned in a double-blind fashion to take daily for 6 wk either menhaden oil (6.26 g, n-3 fatty acids) or olive oil supplements with either vitamin E (900 IU) or its placebo. Antioxidant vitamins, phospholipid composition, malondialdehyde (MDA), and lipid peroxides were measured in the plasma at baseline and week 6. At the same time, breath alkane output was measured. Plasma alpha-tocopherol concentration increased in those receiving vitamin E (P < 0.0001). In those supplemented with n-3 fatty acids, EPA and DHA increased in plasma phospholipids (P < 0.0001) and plasma MDA and lipid peroxides increased (P < 0.001 and P < 0.05, respectively). Breath alkane output did not change significantly and vitamin E intake did not prevent the increase in lipid peroxidation during menhaden oil supplementation. The results demonstrate that supplementing the diet with n-3 fatty acids resulted in an increase in lipid peroxidation, as measured by plasma MDA release and lipid peroxide products, which was not suppressed by vitamin E supplementation. PMID:9168460

  1. Effects of DHA Supplementation on Vascular Function, Telomerase Activity in PBMC, Expression of Inflammatory Cytokines, and PPARγ-LXRα-ABCA1 Pathway in Patients With Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus: Study Protocol for Randomized Controlled Clinical Trial.

    PubMed

    Toupchian, Omid; Sotoudeh, Gity; Mansoori, Anahita; Djalali, Mahmoud; Keshavarz, Seyyed Ali; Nasli-Esfahani, Ensieh; Alvandi, Ehsan; Koohdani, Fariba

    2016-07-01

    Docosahexaenoic acid (DHA), as an omega-3 fatty acid, in a natural ligand of peroxisome proliferator-activated receptors (PPARs). Regarding the combinative effects of Nutrigenomics and Nutrigenetics and due to the lack of in vivo studies conducted using natural ligands of PPARs, we aimed to evaluate the effects of DHA supplementation on vascular function, telomerase activity, and PPARγ-LXRα-ABCA1 pathway, in patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM), based on the Pro12Ala polymorphism in PPARγ encoding gene. 72 T2DM patients (36 dominant and 36 recessive allele carriers), aged 30-70, with body mass index of 18.5 to 35 kg/m2, will be participated in this double blind randomized controlled trial. In each group, stratification will be performed based on sex and age and participants will be randomly assigned to receive 2.4 g/day DHA or placebo (paraffin) for 8 weeks. PPARγ genotyping will be carried out using PCR-RFLP method; Telomerase activity will be estimated by PCR-ELISA TRAP assay; mRNA expression levels of target genes will be assessed using real time PCR. Serum levels of ADMA, sCD163 and adiponectin, will be measured using ELISA commercial kits. The present study is designed in order to help T2DM patients to modify their health conditions based on their genetic backgrounds, and to recommend the proper food ingredients as the natural agonists for PPARs in order to prevent and treat metabolic abnormalities of the disease. PMID:27424010

  2. Impact of carbon and nitrogen feeding strategy on high production of biomass and docosahexaenoic acid (DHA) by Schizochytrium sp. LU310.

    PubMed

    Ling, Xueping; Guo, Jing; Liu, Xiaoting; Zhang, Xia; Wang, Nan; Lu, Yinghua; Ng, I-Son

    2015-05-01

    A new isolated Schizochytrium sp. LU310 from the mangrove forest of Wenzhou, China, was found as a high producing microalga of docosahexaenoic acid (DHA). In this study, the significant improvements for DHA fermentation by the batch mode in the baffled flasks (i.e. higher oxygen supply) were achieved. By applied the nitrogen-feeding strategy in 1000 mL baffled flasks, the biomass, DHA concentration and DHA productivity were increased by 110.4%, 117.9% and 110.4%, respectively. Moreover, DHA concentration of 21.06 g/L was obtained by feeding 15 g/L of glucose intermittently, which was an increase of 41.25% over that of the batch mode. Finally, an innovative strategy was carried out by intermittent feeding carbon and simultaneously feeding nitrogen. The maximum DHA concentration and DHA productivity in the fed-batch cultivation reached to 24.74 g/L and 241.5 mg/L/h, respectively. PMID:25451778

  3. Long-chain omega-3 fatty acids and the brain: a review of the independent and shared effects of EPA, DPA and DHA

    PubMed Central

    Dyall, Simon C.

    2015-01-01

    Omega-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFAs) exhibit neuroprotective properties and represent a potential treatment for a variety of neurodegenerative and neurological disorders. However, traditionally there has been a lack of discrimination between the different omega-3 PUFAs and effects have been broadly accredited to the series as a whole. Evidence for unique effects of eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA), docosahexaenoic acid (DHA) and more recently docosapentaenoic acid (DPA) is growing. For example, beneficial effects in mood disorders have more consistently been reported in clinical trials using EPA; whereas, with neurodegenerative conditions such as Alzheimer’s disease, the focus has been on DHA. DHA is quantitatively the most important omega-3 PUFA in the brain, and consequently the most studied, whereas the availability of high purity DPA preparations has been extremely limited until recently, limiting research into its effects. However, there is now a growing body of evidence indicating both independent and shared effects of EPA, DPA and DHA. The purpose of this review is to highlight how a detailed understanding of these effects is essential to improving understanding of their therapeutic potential. The review begins with an overview of omega-3 PUFA biochemistry and metabolism, with particular focus on the central nervous system (CNS), where DHA has unique and indispensable roles in neuronal membranes with levels preserved by multiple mechanisms. This is followed by a review of the different enzyme-derived anti-inflammatory mediators produced from EPA, DPA and DHA. Lastly, the relative protective effects of EPA, DPA and DHA in normal brain aging and the most common neurodegenerative disorders are discussed. With a greater understanding of the individual roles of EPA, DPA and DHA in brain health and repair it is hoped that appropriate dietary recommendations can be established and therapeutic interventions can be more targeted and refined. PMID:25954194

  4. Effect of Dietary Docosahexaenoic Acid Supplementation on the Participation of Vasodilator Factors in Aorta from Orchidectomized Rats.

    PubMed

    Villalpando, Diva M; Navarro, Rocío; Del Campo, Lara; Largo, Carlota; Muñoz, David; Tabernero, María; Baeza, Ramiro; Otero, Cristina; García, Hugo S; Ferrer, Mercedes

    2015-01-01

    Benefits of n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFAs) against cardiovascular diseases have been reported. Vascular tone regulation is largely mediated by endothelial factors whose release is modulated by sex hormones. Since the incidence of cardiovascular pathologies has been correlated with decreased levels of sex hormones, the aim of this study was to analyze whether a diet supplemented with the specific PUFA docosahexaenoic acid (DHA) could prevent vascular changes induced by an impaired gonadal function. For this purpose, control and orchidectomized rats were fed with a standard diet supplemented with 5% (w/w) sunflower oil or with 3% (w/w) sunflower oil plus 2% (w/w) DHA. The lipid profile, the blood pressure, the production of prostanoids and nitric oxide (NO), and the redox status of biological samples from control and orchidectomized rats, fed control or DHA-supplemented diet, were analyzed. The vasodilator response and the contribution of NO, prostanoids and hyperpolarizing mechanisms were also studied. The results showed that orchidectomy negatively affected the lipid profile, increased the production of prostanoids and reactive oxygen species (ROS), and decreased NO production and the antioxidant capacity, as well as the participation of hyperpolarizing mechanisms in the vasodilator responses. The DHA-supplemented diet of the orchidectomized rats decreased the release of prostanoids and ROS, while increasing NO production and the antioxidant capacity, and it also improved the lipid profile. Additionally, it restored the participation of hyperpolarizing mechanisms by activating potassium. Since the modifications induced by the DHA-supplemented diet were observed in the orchidectomized, but not in the healthy group, DHA seems to exert cardioprotective effects in physiopathological situations in which vascular dysfunction exists. PMID:26540339

  5. Effect of Dietary Docosahexaenoic Acid Supplementation on the Participation of Vasodilator Factors in Aorta from Orchidectomized Rats

    PubMed Central

    Largo, Carlota; Muñoz, David; Tabernero, María; Baeza, Ramiro; Otero, Cristina; García, Hugo S.; Ferrer, Mercedes

    2015-01-01

    Benefits of n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFAs) against cardiovascular diseases have been reported. Vascular tone regulation is largely mediated by endothelial factors whose release is modulated by sex hormones. Since the incidence of cardiovascular pathologies has been correlated with decreased levels of sex hormones, the aim of this study was to analyze whether a diet supplemented with the specific PUFA docosahexaenoic acid (DHA) could prevent vascular changes induced by an impaired gonadal function. For this purpose, control and orchidectomized rats were fed with a standard diet supplemented with 5% (w/w) sunflower oil or with 3% (w/w) sunflower oil plus 2% (w/w) DHA. The lipid profile, the blood pressure, the production of prostanoids and nitric oxide (NO), and the redox status of biological samples from control and orchidectomized rats, fed control or DHA-supplemented diet, were analyzed. The vasodilator response and the contribution of NO, prostanoids and hyperpolarizing mechanisms were also studied. The results showed that orchidectomy negatively affected the lipid profile, increased the production of prostanoids and reactive oxygen species (ROS), and decreased NO production and the antioxidant capacity, as well as the participation of hyperpolarizing mechanisms in the vasodilator responses. The DHA-supplemented diet of the orchidectomized rats decreased the release of prostanoids and ROS, while increasing NO production and the antioxidant capacity, and it also improved the lipid profile. Additionally, it restored the participation of hyperpolarizing mechanisms by activating potassium. Since the modifications induced by the DHA-supplemented diet were observed in the orchidectomized, but not in the healthy group, DHA seems to exert cardioprotective effects in physiopathological situations in which vascular dysfunction exists. PMID:26540339

  6. Effects of Docosahexaenoic Acid on Neurotransmission

    PubMed Central

    Tanaka, Kazuhiro; Farooqui, Akhlaq A.; Siddiqi, Nikhat J.; Alhomida, Abdullah S.; Ong, Wei-Yi

    2012-01-01

    Docosahexaenoic acid (DHA) is the major polyunsaturated fatty acid (PUFA) in the brain and a structural component of neuronal membranes. Changes in DHA content of neuronal membranes lead to functional changes in the activity of receptors and other proteins which might be associated with synaptic function. Accumulating evidence suggests the beneficial effects of dietary DHA supplementation on neurotransmission. This article reviews the beneficial effects of DHA on the brain; uptake, incorporation and release of DHA at synapses, effects of DHA on synapses, effects of DHA on neurotransmitters, DHA metabolites, and changes in DHA with age. Further studies to better understand the metabolome of DHA could result in more effective use of this molecule for treatment of neurodegenerative or neuropsychiatric diseases. PMID:24116288

  7. DHA in Pregnant and Lactating Women from Coastland, Lakeland, and Inland Areas of China: Results of a DHA Evaluation in Women (DEW) Study.

    PubMed

    Li, You; Li, Hong-Tian; Trasande, Leonardo; Ge, Hua; Yu, Li-Xia; Xu, Gao-Sheng; Bai, Man-Xi; Liu, Jian-Meng

    2015-10-01

    Few studies have examined docosahexaenoic acid (DHA) in pregnant and lactating women in developing countries like China, where DHA-enriched supplements are increasingly popular. We aimed to assess the DHA status among Chinese pregnant and lactating women residing areas differing in the availability of aquatic products. In total, 1211 women in mid-pregnancy (17 ± 2 weeks), late pregnancy (39 ± 2 weeks), or lactation (42 ± 7 days) were enrolled from Weihai (coastland), Yueyang (lakeland), and Baotou (inland) city, with approximately 135 women in each participant group by region. DHA concentrations were measured using capillary gas chromatography, and are reported as weight percent of total fatty acids. Mean plasma DHA concentrations were higher in coastland (mid-pregnancy 3.19%, late pregnancy 2.54%, lactation 2.24%) and lakeland women (2.45%, 1.95%, 2.26%) than inland women (2.25%, 1.67%, 1.68%) (p values < 0.001). Similar differences were observed for erythrocyte DHA. We conclude that DHA concentrations of Chinese pregnant and lactating women are higher in coastland and lakeland regions than in inland areas. DHA status in the study population appears to be stronger than populations from other countries studied to date. PMID:26506380

  8. DHA in Pregnant and Lactating Women from Coastland, Lakeland, and Inland Areas of China: Results of a DHA Evaluation in Women (DEW) Study

    PubMed Central

    Li, You; Li, Hong-tian; Trasande, Leonardo; Ge, Hua; Yu, Li-xia; Xu, Gao-sheng; Bai, Man-xi; Liu, Jian-meng

    2015-01-01

    Few studies have examined docosahexaenoic acid (DHA) in pregnant and lactating women in developing countries like China, where DHA-enriched supplements are increasingly popular. We aimed to assess the DHA status among Chinese pregnant and lactating women residing areas differing in the availability of aquatic products. In total, 1211 women in mid-pregnancy (17 ± 2 weeks), late pregnancy (39 ± 2 weeks), or lactation (42 ± 7 days) were enrolled from Weihai (coastland), Yueyang (lakeland), and Baotou (inland) city, with approximately 135 women in each participant group by region. DHA concentrations were measured using capillary gas chromatography, and are reported as weight percent of total fatty acids. Mean plasma DHA concentrations were higher in coastland (mid-pregnancy 3.19%, late pregnancy 2.54%, lactation 2.24%) and lakeland women (2.45%, 1.95%, 2.26%) than inland women (2.25%, 1.67%, 1.68%) (p values < 0.001). Similar differences were observed for erythrocyte DHA. We conclude that DHA concentrations of Chinese pregnant and lactating women are higher in coastland and lakeland regions than in inland areas. DHA status in the study population appears to be stronger than populations from other countries studied to date. PMID:26506380

  9. Polyunsaturated fatty acid supplementation alters proinflammatory gene expression and reduces the incidence of necrotizing enterocolitis in a neonatal rat model.

    PubMed

    Lu, Jing; Jilling, Tamas; Li, Dan; Caplan, Michael S

    2007-04-01

    Although supplementation of preterm formula with polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFA) has been shown to reduce the incidence of necrotizing enterocolitis (NEC) in animal models and clinical trials, the mechanisms remain elusive. We hypothesized that the protective effect of PUFA on NEC may be due to the ability of PUFA to suppress Toll-like receptor (TLR) 4 and platelet-activating factor receptor (PAFR) gene expression (molecules that are important in the pathogenesis of NEC) in epithelial cells. To investigate the efficacy of different PUFA preparations on NEC in a neonatal rat model, we compared the incidence of NEC among the four PUFA supplemented groups--A: arachidonic acid and docosahexaenoic acid (AA+DHA), B: egg phospholipids (EP), C: DHA, and D: control without PUFA. PUFA supplementation reduced the incidence of NEC and inhibited intestinal PAFR and TLR4 gene expression compared with the controls. To validate the in vivo observations, IEC-6 cells were exposed to PAF after pretreatment with AA or DHA. Both AA and DHA supplementation blocked PAF-induced TLR4 and PAFR mRNA expression in these enterocytes. These results suggest that PUFA modulates gene expression of key factors involved in experimental NEC pathogenesis. These effects might in part explain the protective effect of PUFA on neonatal NEC. PMID:17515866

  10. Uncoupling EPA and DHA in Fish Nutrition: Dietary Demand is Limited in Atlantic Salmon and Effectively Met by DHA Alone.

    PubMed

    Emery, James A; Norambuena, Fernando; Trushenski, Jesse; Turchini, Giovanni M

    2016-04-01

    Due to the scarcity of marine fish oil resources, the aquaculture industry is developing more efficient strategies for the utilization of dietary omega-3 long-chain polyunsaturated fatty acids (n-3 LC-PUFA). A better understanding of how fish utilize EPA and DHA, typically provided by fish oil, is needed. However, EPA and DHA have different physiological functions, may be metabolized and incorporated into tissues differently, and may vary in terms of their importance in meeting the fatty acid requirements of fish. To address these questions, Atlantic salmon were fed experimental diets containing, as the sole added dietary lipid source, fish oil (positive control), tallow (negative control), or tallow supplemented with EPA, DHA, or both fatty acids to ~50 or 100 % of their respective levels in the positive control diet. Following 14 weeks of feeding, the negative control diet yielded optimum growth performance. Though surprising, these results support the notion that Atlantic salmon requirements for n-3 LC-PUFA are quite low. EPA was largely β-oxidized and inefficiently deposited in tissues, and increasing dietary levels were associated with potential negative effects on growth. Conversely, DHA was completely spared from catabolism and very efficiently deposited into flesh. EPA bioconversion to DHA was largely influenced by substrate availability, with the presence of preformed DHA having little inhibitory effect. These results clearly indicate EPA and DHA are metabolized differently by Atlantic salmon, and suggest that the n-3 LC-PUFA dietary requirements of Atlantic salmon may be lower than reported and different, if originating primarily from EPA or DHA. PMID:26965251

  11. Short-term supplementation of low-dose gamma-linolenic acid (GLA), alpha-linolenic acid (ALA), or GLA plus ALA does not augment LCP omega 3 status of Dutch vegans to an appreciable extent.

    PubMed

    Fokkema, M R; Brouwer, D A; Hasperhoven, M B; Martini, I A; Muskiet, F A

    2000-11-01

    Vegans do not consume meat and fish and have therefore low intakes of long chain polyunsaturated fatty acids (LCP). They may consequently have little negative feedback inhibition from dietary LCP on conversion of alpha -linolenic acid (ALA) to the LCP omega 3 eicosapentaenoic (EPA) and docosahexaenoic (DHA) acids. We investigated whether supplementation of nine apparently healthy vegans with 2.01 g ALA (4 ml linseed oil), 1.17 g gamma-linolenic acid (GLA) (6 ml borage oil) or their combination increases the LCP omega 3 contents of erythrocytes (RBC) and platelets (PLT), and of plasma phospholipids (PL), cholesterol esters (CE) and triglycerides (TG). The supplements changed the dietary LA/ALA ratio (in g/g) from about 13.7 (baseline) to 6.8 (linseed oil), 14.3 (borage oil) and 6.4 (linseed + borage oil), respectively. ALA or GLA given as single supplements did not increase LCP omega 3 status, but their combination augmented LCP omega 3 (in CE) and EPA (in fasting TG) to a statistically significant, but nevertheless negligible, extent. We conclude that negative feedback inhibition by dietary LCP, if any, does not play an important role in the inability to augment notably DHA status by dietary ALA. The reach of a DHA plateau already at low dietary ALA intakes suggests that dietary DHA causes a non-functional DHA surplus, or is, alternatively, important for maintaining DHA status at a functionally relevant level. PMID:11090255

  12. Microbial Conversion and In Vitro and In Vivo Antifungal Assessment of Bioconverted Docosahexaenoic Acid (bDHA) Against Agricultural Plant Pathogenic Fungi

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The goal of this research is to develop potential antifungal agents through the microbial conversion of docosahexaenoic acid. Bioconverted docosahexaenoic acid (bDHA), obtained from the microbial conversion of docosahexaenoic acid by Pseudomonas aeruginosa PR3, was assessed for its in vitro and in ...

  13. Chronic dietary n-6 PUFA deprivation leads to conservation of arachidonic acid and more rapid loss of DHA in rat brain phospholipids[S

    PubMed Central

    Lin, Lauren E.; Chen, Chuck T.; Hildebrand, Kayla D.; Liu, Zhen; Hopperton, Kathryn E.; Bazinet, Richard P.

    2015-01-01

    To determine how the level of dietary n-6 PUFA affects the rate of loss of arachidonic acid (ARA) and DHA in brain phospholipids, male rats were fed either a deprived or adequate n-6 PUFA diet for 15 weeks postweaning, and then subjected to an intracerebroventricular infusion of 3H-ARA or 3H-DHA. Brains were collected at fixed times over 128 days to determine half-lives and the rates of loss from brain phospholipids (Jout). Compared with the adequate n-6 PUFA rats, the deprived n-6-PUFA rats had a 15% lower concentration of ARA and an 18% higher concentration of DHA in their brain total phospholipids. Loss half-lives of ARA in brain total phospholipids and fractions (except phosphatidylserine) were longer in the deprived n-6 PUFA rats, whereas the Jout was decreased. In the deprived versus adequate n-6 PUFA rats, the Jout of DHA was higher. In conclusion, chronic n-6 PUFA deprivation decreases the rate of loss of ARA and increases the rate of loss of DHA in brain phospholipids. Thus, a low n-6 PUFA diet can be used to target brain ARA and DHA metabolism. PMID:25477531

  14. The omega-3 fatty acid DHA dose-dependently reduces atherosclerosis: a putative role for F4-neuroprostanes a specific class of peroxidized metabolites

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Objective. Consumption of long chain omega-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids is associated with reduced risks of cardiovascular disease but the role of their oxygenated metabolites remains unclear. We hypothesized that peroxidized metabolites of docosahexaenoic acid (DHA, 22:6 n-3) could play a role in ...

  15. Neutrophil fatty acid composition: effect of a single session of exercise and glutamine supplementation.

    PubMed

    Lagranha, C J; Alba-Loureiro, T C; Martins, E F; Pithon-Curi, T C; Curi, R

    2008-06-01

    The fatty acid composition of immune cells appears to contribute to variations of cell function. The independent and combined effects of a single session of exercise (SSE) and glutamine supplementation (GS) on neutrophil fatty acid composition were investigated. Compared to control (no treatment given--i.e. neither SSE or GS), single session of exercise decreased myristic, palmitic and eicosapentaenoic (EPA) acids, and increased lauric, oleic, linoleic, arachidonic (AA) and docosahexaenoic (DHA) acids whereas glutamine supplementation combined with SSE (GS+SSE) increased oleic acid. Polyunsaturated/saturated fatty acid ratio and Unsaturation index were higher in neutrophils from the SSE and GS groups as compared with control. These findings support the proposition that SSE and GS may modulate neutrophil function through alterations in fatty acid composition. PMID:17721676

  16. Decreased arachidonic acid content and metabolism in tissues of NZB/W F1 females fed a diet containing 0. 45% dehydroisoandrosterone (DHA)

    SciTech Connect

    Matsunaga, A.; Cottam, G.L.

    1987-05-01

    A diet containing 0.45% DHA fed to NZB/W mice, a model of systemic lupus erythematosus, delays the time of onset, improves survival and decreases the formation of antibodies to ds-DNA. Essential fatty acid-deficient diets or inclusion of eicosapentaenoic acid have similar beneficial effects and led them to investigate arachidonic acid metabolism in response to feeding DHA. The arachidonic acid content of plasma cholesteryl ester decreased from 37.4 +/- 2.2 to 28.2 +/- 1.3 mg%. In total liver phospholipid the value decreased from 18.1 +/- 0.52 to 13.7 +/- 1.3 mg%, in total kidney phospholipid the value decreased from 24.10 +/- 0.87 to 20.7 +/- 0.32 mg% and in resident peritoneal macrophages the value decreased from 15.4 +/- 4.6 to 3.6 +/- 1.4 mg%. The metabolism of exogenous (1-/sup 14/C)arachidonic acid by resident peritoneal macrophages in response to Zymosan stimulation for 2 hr was examined by extraction of metabolites and separation by HPLC. Cells isolated from DHA-fed animals produced less PGE2 than controls, yet similar amounts of 6-keto PGF1..cap alpha.. were produced. Arachidonic acid metabolites have significant effects on the immune system and may be a mechanism involved in the benefits obtained by inclusion of DHA in the diet.

  17. Supplementation with omega-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids augments brachial artery dilation and blood flow during forearm contraction.

    PubMed

    Walser, Buddy; Giordano, Rose M; Stebbins, Charles L

    2006-06-01

    Omega-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids such as docosahexaenoic acid (DHA) and eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA) have beneficial effects on the heart and vasculature. We tested the hypothesis that 6 weeks of dietary supplementation with DHA (2.0 g/day) and EPA (3.0 g/day) enhances exercise-induced increases in brachial artery diameter and blood flow during rhythmic exercise. In seven healthy subjects, blood pressure, heart rate and brachial artery diameter, blood flow, and conductance were assessed before and during the last 30 s of 90 s of rhythmic handgrip exercise (30% of maximal handgrip tension). Blood pressure (MAP), heart rate (HR), and brachial artery vascular conductance were also determined. This paradigm was also performed in six other healthy subjects who received 6 weeks of placebo (safflower oil). Placebo treatment had no effect on any variable. DHA and EPA supplementation enhanced contraction-induced increases in brachial artery diameter (0.28+/-0.04 vs. 0.14+/-0.03 mm), blood flow (367+/-65 vs. 293+/-55 ml min-1) and conductance (3.86+/-0.71 vs. 2.89+/-0.61 ml min-1 mmHg-1) (P<0.05). MAP and HR were unchanged. Results indicate that treatment with DHA and EPA enhances brachial artery blood flow and conductance during exercise. These findings may have implications for individuals with cardiovascular disease and exercise intolerance (e.g., heart failure). PMID:16770472

  18. Neonatal lamb vigour is improved by feeding docosahexaenoic acid in the form of algal biomass during late gestation.

    PubMed

    Pickard, R M; Beard, A P; Seal, C J; Edwards, S A

    2008-08-01

    To determine whether feeding a sustainable, algal source of docosahexaenoic acid (DHA) to sheep during late pregnancy would improve neonatal lamb vigour, 48 English mule ewes, of known conception date, were divided into four treatment groups. For the last 9 weeks of gestation, ewes received one of two dietary supplements: either a DHA-rich algal biomass providing 12 g DHA/ewe per day, or a control supplement based on vegetable oil. The four dietary treatment groups (n = 12) were: control supplement for the duration of the trial (C), DHA supplement from 9 to 6 weeks before parturition (3 week), DHA supplement from 9 to 3 weeks before parturition (6 week) and DHA supplement for the duration of the trial (9 week). Dietary supplements were fed alongside grass silage and commercial concentrate. There was a tendency for gestation length to be extended with increased duration of DHA supplementation (P = 0.08). After parturition, the concentrations of eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA) and DHA in ewe and lamb plasma and colostrum were elevated in line with increased periods of DHA supplementation. Lambs from the 6-week and 9-week groups stood significantly sooner after birth than lambs from the C group (P < 0.05). These data show that neonatal vigour may be improved by the supplementation of maternal diets with DHA-rich algal biomass and that this beneficial effect depends upon the timing and/or duration of DHA allocation. PMID:22443731

  19. Determinants of Erythrocyte Omega‐3 Fatty Acid Content in Response to Fish Oil Supplementation: A Dose–Response Randomized Controlled Trial

    PubMed Central

    Flock, Michael R.; Skulas‐Ray, Ann C.; Harris, William S.; Etherton, Terry D.; Fleming, Jennifer A.; Kris‐Etherton, Penny M.

    2013-01-01

    Background The erythrocyte membrane content of eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA) and docosahexaenoic acid (DHA), which constitutes the omega‐3 index (O3I), predicts cardiovascular disease mortality. The amount of EPA+DHA needed to achieve a target O3I is poorly defined, as are the determinants of the O3I response to a change in EPA+DHA intake. The objective of this study was to develop a predictive model of the O3I response to EPA+DHA supplementation in healthy adults, specifically identifying factors that determine the response. Methods and Results A randomized, placebo‐controlled, double‐blind, parallel‐group study was conducted in 115 healthy men and women. One of 5 doses (0, 300, 600, 900, 1800 mg) of EPA+DHA was given daily as placebo or fish oil supplements for ≈5 months. The O3I was measured at baseline and at the end of the study. There were no significant differences in the clinical characteristics between the groups at baseline. The O3I increased in a dose‐dependent manner (P<0.0001), with the dose of EPA+DHA alone accounting for 68% (quadratic, P<0.0001) of the variability in the O3I response. Dose adjusted per unit body weight (g/kg) accounted for 70% (linear, P<0.0001). Additional factors that improved prediction of treatment response were baseline O3I, age, sex, and physical activity. Collectively, these explained 78% of the response variability (P<0.0001). Conclusions Our findings validate the O3I as a biomarker of EPA+DHA consumption and identify additional factors, particularly body weight, that can be used to tailor EPA+DHA recommendations to achieve a target O3I. PMID:24252845

  20. The Effect of Omega-3 Docosahexaenoic Acid Supplementation on Gestational Length: Randomized Trial of Supplementation Compared to Nutrition Education for Increasing n-3 Intake from Foods

    PubMed Central

    Harris, Mary A.; Reece, Melanie S.; McGregor, James A.; Wilson, John W.; Burke, Shannon M.; Wheeler, Marsha; Anderson, Jennifer E.; Auld, Garry W.; French, Janice I.; Allen, Kenneth G. D.

    2015-01-01

    Objective. DHA supplementation was compared to nutrition education to increase DHA consumption from fish and DHA fortified foods. Design. This two-part intervention included a randomized double-blind placebo controlled DHA supplementation arm and a nutrition education arm designed to increase intake of DHA from dietary sources by 300 mg per day. Setting. Denver Health Hospitals and Clinics, Denver, Colorado, USA. Population. 871 pregnant women aged 18–40 were recruited between16 and 20 weeks of gestation of whom 564 completed the study and complete delivery data was available in 505 women and infants. Methods. Subjects received either 300 or 600 mg DHA or olive oil placebo or nutrition education. Main Outcome Variable. Gestational length. Results. Gestational length was significantly increased by 4.0–4.5 days in women supplemented with 600 mg DHA per day or provided with nutrition education. Each 1% increase in RBC DHA at delivery was associated with a 1.6-day increase in gestational length. No significant effects on birth weight, birth length, or head circumference were demonstrated. The rate of early preterm birth (1.7%) in those supplemented with DHA (combined 300 and 600 mg/day) was significantly lower than in controls. Conclusion. Nutrition education or supplementation with DHA can be effective in increasing gestational length. PMID:26413500

  1. Omega-3 fatty acids in the gravid pig uterus as affected by maternal supplementation with omega-3 fatty acids.

    PubMed

    Brazle, A E; Johnson, B J; Webel, S K; Rathbun, T J; Davis, D L

    2009-03-01

    Two experiments evaluated the ability of maternal fatty acid supplementation to alter conceptus and endometrial fatty acid composition. In Exp. 1, treatments were 1) the control, a corn-soybean meal diet; 2) flax, the control diet plus ground flax (3.75% of diet); and 3) protected fatty acids (PFA), the control plus a protected fish oil source rich in n-3 PUFA (Gromega, JBS United Inc., Sheridan, IN; 1.5% of diet). Supplements replaced equal parts of corn and soybean meal. When gilts reached 170 d of age, PG600 (PMSG and hCG, Intervet USA, Millsboro, DE) was injected to induce puberty, and dietary treatments (n = 8/treatment) were initiated. When detected in estrus, gilts were artificially inseminated. On d 40 to 43 of gestation, 7 gilts in the control treatment, 8 gilts in the PFA treatment, and 5 gilts in the flax treatment were pregnant and were slaughtered. Compared with the control treatment, the flax treatment tended to increase eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA: C20:5n-3) in fetuses (0.14 vs. 0.25 +/- 0.03 mg/g of dry tissue; P = 0.055), whereas gilts receiving PFA had more (P < 0.05) docosahexaenoic acid (DHA: C22:6n-3) in their fetuses (5.23 vs. 4.04 +/- 0.078 mg/g) compared with gilts fed the control diet. Both the flax and PFA diets increased (P < 0.05) DHA (0.60, 0.82, and 0.85 +/- 0.078 mg/g for the control, flax, and PFA diet, respectively) in the chorioallantois. In the endometrium, EPA and docosapentaenoic acid (C22:5n-3) were increased by the flax diet (P < 0.001; P < 0.05), whereas gilts receiving PFA had increased DHA (P < 0.001). The flax diet selectively increased EPA, and the PFA diet selectively increased DHA in the fetus and endometrium. In Exp. 2, gilts were fed diets containing PFA (1.5%) or a control diet beginning at approximately 170 of age (n = 13/treatment). A blood sample was collected after 30 d of treatment, and gilts were artificially inseminated when they were approximately 205 d old. Conceptus and endometrial samples were collected on

  2. DHA Effects in Brain Development and Function

    PubMed Central

    Lauritzen, Lotte; Brambilla, Paolo; Mazzocchi, Alessandra; Harsløf, Laurine B. S.; Ciappolino, Valentina; Agostoni, Carlo

    2016-01-01

    Docosahexaenoic acid (DHA) is a structural constituent of membranes specifically in the central nervous system. Its accumulation in the fetal brain takes place mainly during the last trimester of pregnancy and continues at very high rates up to the end of the second year of life. Since the endogenous formation of DHA seems to be relatively low, DHA intake may contribute to optimal conditions for brain development. We performed a narrative review on research on the associations between DHA levels and brain development and function throughout the lifespan. Data from cell and animal studies justify the indication of DHA in relation to brain function for neuronal cell growth and differentiation as well as in relation to neuronal signaling. Most data from human studies concern the contribution of DHA to optimal visual acuity development. Accumulating data indicate that DHA may have effects on the brain in infancy, and recent studies indicate that the effect of DHA may depend on gender and genotype of genes involved in the endogenous synthesis of DHA. While DHA levels may affect early development, potential effects are also increasingly recognized during childhood and adult life, suggesting a role of DHA in cognitive decline and in relation to major psychiatric disorders. PMID:26742060

  3. DHA Effects in Brain Development and Function.

    PubMed

    Lauritzen, Lotte; Brambilla, Paolo; Mazzocchi, Alessandra; Harsløf, Laurine B S; Ciappolino, Valentina; Agostoni, Carlo

    2016-01-01

    Docosahexaenoic acid (DHA) is a structural constituent of membranes specifically in the central nervous system. Its accumulation in the fetal brain takes place mainly during the last trimester of pregnancy and continues at very high rates up to the end of the second year of life. Since the endogenous formation of DHA seems to be relatively low, DHA intake may contribute to optimal conditions for brain development. We performed a narrative review on research on the associations between DHA levels and brain development and function throughout the lifespan. Data from cell and animal studies justify the indication of DHA in relation to brain function for neuronal cell growth and differentiation as well as in relation to neuronal signaling. Most data from human studies concern the contribution of DHA to optimal visual acuity development. Accumulating data indicate that DHA may have effects on the brain in infancy, and recent studies indicate that the effect of DHA may depend on gender and genotype of genes involved in the endogenous synthesis of DHA. While DHA levels may affect early development, potential effects are also increasingly recognized during childhood and adult life, suggesting a role of DHA in cognitive decline and in relation to major psychiatric disorders. PMID:26742060

  4. Dietary supplementation with cholesterol and docosahexaenoic acid increases the activity of the arginine-nitric oxide pathway in tissues of young pigs

    PubMed Central

    Li, Peng; Woo Kim, Sung; Li, Xilong; Datta, Sujay; Pond, Wilson G.; Wu, Guoyao

    2008-01-01

    Nitric oxide (NO), synthesized from L-arginine by tetrahydrobiopterin (BH4)-dependent NO synthase (NOS), is critical for neurological and muscular development and function. This study was designed to test the hypothesis that cholesterol and docosahexaenoic acid (DHA) may modulate the arginine-NO pathway in tissues of the young pig. Sixteen newborn pigs were nursed by sows for 24 h and then assigned to one of 4 treatment groups, representing supplementation with 0.0%, 0.2% cholesterol, 0.2% DHA, or cholesterol plus DHA to the basal milk-formula. All piglets were euthanized at 49 days of age. Brain, liver and gastrocnemius muscle were analyzed for BH4, NADPH and arginine, GTP cyclohydrolase-I (GTP-CH) and NOS activities, and NOS protein isoforms. Hepatic NOS activity was below the detection limit in all pigs. DHA supplementation (P<0.01) increased GTP-CH activities, as well as BH4 and NADPH concentrations in brain, liver, and muscle by 24–46%, while enhancing (P<0.05) NOS activities by 45–48% in brain and muscle. Dietary cholesterol supplementation increased (P<0.05) NOS and GTP-CH activities by 17–26% in brain but had no effect in liver or muscle. The enhanced NOS activity in the brain or muscle of cholesterol- or DHA-supplemented piglets was attributable to the combined effects of increased eNOS and nNOS activation (changes in phosphorylation levels) and total iNOS protein. Additionally, DHA and cholesterol enhanced (P>0.05) arginine concentrations in brain (35–42%), but not in liver or muscle. These tissue-specific effects of cholesterol and DHA on NO synthesis may play an important role in postnatal growth and development. PMID:18555806

  5. Effect of reduced dietary protein and supplementation with a docosahexaenoic acid product on broiler performance and meat quality.

    PubMed

    Ribeiro, T; Lordelo, M M; Costa, P; Alves, S P; Benevides, W S; Bessa, R J B; Lemos, J P C; Pinto, R M A; Ferreira, L M A; Fontes, C M G A; Prates, J A M

    2014-01-01

    1. Chicken breast meat is a lean meat due to its low content of intramuscular fat (IMF) resulting in an overall lower acceptability by consumers due to a decrease in juiciness, flavour and increased chewiness. Recently, studies performed in pigs suggested the possibility of increasing IMF by decreasing dietary crude protein (CP) content, an effect possibly mediated through an increased lipogenesis. 2. Dietary supplementation with lipids rich in omega 3 long-chain polyunsaturated fatty acids (n-3 LC-PUFA) may modulate an increase in the content of these fatty acids in meat from monogastric animals and, thus, promote the daily intake of n-3 LC-PUFA by humans. 3. LC-PUFA are very susceptible to oxidation, resulting in off-flavours that affect meat quality and consumers' acceptability. 4. This trial was conducted to assess the effect of reducing dietary CP, from 21% to 17%, on chicken's meat IMF content and, simultaneously, to evaluate if a complementary supplementation with a proprietary n-3 LC-PUFA source (DHA Gold™) could improve meat quality. These effects were assessed by measuring productive performance and meat quality, oxidative stability, sensory traits and fatty acid profile. 5. A reduction in CP content of broiler diets, from 21% to 17%, balanced for lysine, improved performance while it was not sufficient to increase IMF content in chicken meat. In contrast, DHA Gold™ supplementation had a positive impact both in broiler productive parameters and in meat fatty acid profile. 6. In addition, incorporation of 7.4% of DHA Gold™ in the diet promoted carcass yield but negatively affected chicken meat acceptability by consumers, due to a decrease of meat oxidative stability. 7. Overall the data suggest that neither a dietary supplementation with DHA Gold™ nor a reduction in CP have a direct positive effect in the levels of IMF present in broiler meat. PMID:25277689

  6. Enrichment of poultry products with omega3 fatty acids by dietary supplementation with the alga Nannochloropsis and mantur oil.

    PubMed

    Nitsan, Z; Mokady, S; Sukenik, A

    1999-12-01

    Experiments were conducted to evaluate the efficiency of the microalga Nannochloropsis sp. (Nanno.), as a supplement to laying hens' diet, for the production of enriched eggs and meat with omega3 fatty acids (FA). Nanno. has a unique FA composition, namely, the occurrence of a high concentration of eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA; 20:5 omega3) and the absence of other omega3 FA. The effect of supplementing diets with Nanno. on omega3 FA levels in eggs, plasma, liver, and thigh muscle was compared to that of mantur oil, high in alpha-linolenic acid (LNA; 18:3 omega3). Nanno. is rich also in carotenoids, which may be useful for egg yolk pigmentation. The observed effect of Nanno. supplementation on yolk pigmentation was dose responsive, in both the rate of coloration and the color intensity. Addition of enzyme preparations (glucanase plus cellulase or glucanase plus pectinase) slightly elevated the yolk color score. The most prominent changes in the level of omega3 FA in egg yolk were evident when the diets were supplemented with 1% Nanno. or mantur lipid extracts. Levels of dietary algal meal (0.1-1.0%) had low and inconsistent effects on the level of yolk omega3 FA. Algal EPA is not accumulated in the liver or in the egg yolk; it is apparently converted and deposited as docosahexaenoic acid (DHA). LNA from mantur oil was partially converted to DHA, and both DHA and LNA were deposited in egg yolks and livers. It is suggested that the absence of DHA and EPA from thigh muscle is due to the small amount of dietary omega3 FA used in this work, compared to other studies, and to the possibility that in laying hens the egg yolk has a priority on dietary FA over that of muscles. PMID:10606584

  7. Lipid structure does not modify incorporation of EPA and DHA into blood lipids in healthy adults: a randomised-controlled trial.

    PubMed

    West, Annette L; Burdge, Graham C; Calder, Philip C

    2016-09-01

    Dietary supplementation is an effective means to improve EPA and DHA status. However, it is unclear whether lipid structure affects EPA+DHA bioavailability. We determined the effect of consuming different EPA and DHA lipid structures on their concentrations in blood during the postprandial period and during dietary supplementation compared with unmodified fish oil TAG (uTAG). In a postprandial cross-over study, healthy men (n 9) consumed in random order test meals containing 1·1 g EPA+0·37 g DHA as either uTAG, re-esterified TAG, free fatty acids (FFA) or ethyl esters (EE). In a parallel design supplementation study, healthy men and women (n 10/sex per supplement) consumed one supplement type for 12 weeks. Fatty acid composition was determined by GC. EPA incorporation over 6 h into TAG or phosphatidylcholine (PC) did not differ between lipid structures. EPA enrichment in NEFA was lower from EE than from uTAG (P=0·01). Plasma TAG, PC or NEFA DHA incorporation did not differ between lipid structures. Lipid structure did not affect TAG or NEFA EPA incorporation and PC or NEFA DHA incorporation following dietary supplementation. Plasma TAG peak DHA incorporation was greater (P=0·02) and time to peak shorter (P=0·02) from FFA than from uTAG in men. In both studies, the order of EPA and DHA incorporation was PC>TAG>NEFA. In conclusion, EPA and DHA lipid structure may not be an important consideration in dietary interventions. PMID:27424661

  8. Cognitive Findings of an Exploratory Trial of Docosahexaenoic Acid and Lutein in Older Women

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Low levels of docosahexaenoic acid (DHA) and low intake of foods rich in lutein may negatively affect cognitive function. DHA and lutein are concentrated in the brain. The objective of this study was to determine effects of supplemental DHA (800 mg/d) and/or lutein (12 mg/d) on cognitive function in...

  9. Impact of Omega-6 Polyunsaturated Fatty Acid:Eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA)+Docosahexaenoic Acid (DHA) Ratios in LDL Receptor Knockout (LDLr-/-) Mice on Atherosclerotic Lesion Formation and Elicited Peritoneal Macrophage Inflamm

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Objective: Very long chain omega-3 fatty acids have been associated with decreased risk of CVD. LDL receptor knockout mice were used to assess the effect of different omega-6:EPA+DHA ratios on atherosclerotic lesion formation and elicited peritoneal macrophage inflammatory response. Methods and R...

  10. The Effects of Phosphatidylserine and Omega-3 Fatty Acid-Containing Supplement on Late Life Depression

    PubMed Central

    Komori, Teruhisa

    2015-01-01

    Late life depression is often associated with a poor response to antidepressants; therefore an alternative strategy for therapy is required. Although several studies have reported that phosphatidylserine (PS) may be effective for late life depression and that omega-3 fatty acids DHA and EPA have also proven beneficial for many higher mental functions, including depression, no concrete conclusion has been reached. This study was performed to clarify the effect of PS and omega-3 fatty acid-containing supplement for late life depression by not only clinical evaluation but also salivary cortisol levels. Eighteen elderly subjects with major depression were selected for the study. In all, insufficient improvement had been obtained by antidepressant therapy for at least 6 months. The exclusion criteria from prior brain magnetic resonance images (MRI) included the presence of structural MRI findings compatible with stroke or other gross brain lesions or malformations, but not white matter hypersensitivities. They took a supplement containing PS 100 mg, DHA 119 mg and EPA 70 mg three times a day for 12 weeks. The effects of the supplement were assessed using the 17-item Hamilton depression scale (HAM-D17) and the basal levels and circadian rhythm of salivary cortisol. The study adopted them as indices because: salivary cortisol levels are high in patients with depression, their circadian rhythm related to salivary cortisol is often irregular, and these symptoms are alleviated as depression improves. The mean HAM-D17 in all subjects taking the supplement was significantly improved after 12 weeks of taking the supplement. These subjects were divided into 10 non-responders and 8 responders. The basal levels and circadian rhythm of salivary cortisol were normalized in the responders while not in non-responders. PS and omega-3 fatty acids, or other elements of the supplement, may be effective for late life depression, associated with the correction of basal levels and circadian

  11. The Role of FADS1/2 Polymorphisms on Cardiometabolic Markers and Fatty Acid Profiles in Young Adults Consuming Fish Oil Supplements

    PubMed Central

    Roke, Kaitlin; Mutch, David M.

    2014-01-01

    Eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA) and docosahexaenoic acid (DHA) are omega-3 (n-3) fatty acids (FAs) known to influence cardiometabolic markers of health. Evidence suggests that single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) in the fatty acid desaturase 1 and 2 (FADS1/2) gene cluster may influence an individual’s response to n-3 FAs. This study examined the impact of a moderate daily dose of EPA and DHA fish oil supplements on cardiometabolic markers, FA levels in serum and red blood cells (RBC), and whether these endpoints were influenced by SNPs in FADS1/2. Young adults consumed fish oil supplements (1.8 g total EPA/DHA per day) for 12 weeks followed by an 8-week washout period. Serum and RBC FA profiles were analyzed every two weeks by gas chromatography. Two SNPs were genotyped: rs174537 in FADS1 and rs174576 in FADS2. Participants had significantly reduced levels of blood triglycerides (−13%) and glucose (–11%) by week 12; however, these benefits were lost during the washout period. EPA and DHA levels increased significantly in serum (+250% and +51%, respectively) and RBCs (+132% and +18%, respectively) within the first two weeks of supplementation and remained elevated throughout the 12-week period. EPA and DHA levels in RBCs only (not serum) remained significantly elevated (+37% and +24%, respectively) after the washout period. Minor allele carriers for both SNPs experienced greater increases in RBC EPA levels during supplementation; suggesting that genetic variation at this locus can influence an individual’s response to fish oil supplements. PMID:24936800

  12. Maturation of visual acuity is accelerated in breast-fed term infants fed baby food containing DHA-enriched egg yolk.

    PubMed

    Hoffman, Dennis R; Theuer, Richard C; Castañeda, Yolanda S; Wheaton, Dianna H; Bosworth, Rain G; O'Connor, Anna R; Morale, Sarah E; Wiedemann, Lindsey E; Birch, Eileen E

    2004-09-01

    Between 6 and 12 mo of age, blood levels of the (n-3) long-chain PUFA, docosahexaenoic acid (DHA), in breast-fed infants typically decrease due to diminished maternal DHA stores and the introduction of DHA-poor solid foods displacing human milk as the primary source of nutrition. Thus, we utilized a randomized, clinical trial format to evaluate the effect of supplemental DHA in solid foods on visual development of breast-fed infants with the primary outcome, sweep visual-evoked potential (VEP) acuity, as an index for maturation of the retina and visual cortex. At 6 mo of age, breast-fed infants were randomly assigned to receive 1 jar (113 g)/d of baby food containing egg yolk enriched with DHA (115 mg DHA/100 g food; n = 25) or control baby food (0 mg DHA; n = 26). Gravimetric measures were used to estimate the supplemental DHA intake which was 83 mg DHA/d in the supplemented group and 0 mg/d in controls. Although many infants in both groups continued to breast-feed for a mean of 9 mo, RBC DHA levels decreased significantly between 6 and 12 mo (from 3.8 to 3.0 g/100 g total fatty acids) in control infants, whereas RBC DHA levels increased by 34% from 4.1 to 5.5 g/100 g by 12 mo in supplemented infants. VEP acuity at 6 mo was 0.49 logMAR (minimum angle of resolution) and improved to 0.29 logMAR by 12 mo in controls. In DHA-supplemented infants, VEP acuity was 0.48 logMAR at 6 mo and matured to 0.14 logMAR at 12 mo (1.5 lines on the eye chart better than controls). At 12 mo, the difference corresponded to 1.5 lines on the eye chart. RBC DHA levels and VEP acuity at 12 mo were correlated (r = -0.50; P = 0.0002), supporting the need of an adequate dietary supply of DHA throughout 1 y of life for neural development. PMID:15333721

  13. DHA-enriched high–oleic acid canola oil improves lipid profile and lowers predicted cardiovascular disease risk in the canola oil multicenter randomized controlled trial123

    PubMed Central

    Jones, Peter JH; Senanayake, Vijitha K; Pu, Shuaihua; Jenkins, David JA; Connelly, Philip W; Lamarche, Benoît; Couture, Patrick; Charest, Amélie; Baril-Gravel, Lisa; West, Sheila G; Liu, Xiaoran; Fleming, Jennifer A; McCrea, Cindy E; Kris-Etherton, Penny M

    2014-01-01

    Background: It is well recognized that amounts of trans and saturated fats should be minimized in Western diets; however, considerable debate remains regarding optimal amounts of dietary n−9, n−6, and n−3 fatty acids. Objective: The objective was to examine the effects of varying n−9, n−6, and longer-chain n−3 fatty acid composition on markers of coronary heart disease (CHD) risk. Design: A randomized, double-blind, 5-period, crossover design was used. Each 4-wk treatment period was separated by 4-wk washout intervals. Volunteers with abdominal obesity consumed each of 5 identical weight-maintaining, fixed-composition diets with one of the following treatment oils (60 g/3000 kcal) in beverages: 1) conventional canola oil (Canola; n−9 rich), 2) high–oleic acid canola oil with docosahexaenoic acid (CanolaDHA; n−9 and n−3 rich), 3) a blend of corn and safflower oil (25:75) (CornSaff; n−6 rich), 4) a blend of flax and safflower oils (60:40) (FlaxSaff; n−6 and short-chain n−3 rich), or 5) high–oleic acid canola oil (CanolaOleic; highest in n−9). Results: One hundred thirty individuals completed the trial. At endpoint, total cholesterol (TC) was lowest after the FlaxSaff phase (P < 0.05 compared with Canola and CanolaDHA) and highest after the CanolaDHA phase (P < 0.05 compared with CornSaff, FlaxSaff, and CanolaOleic). Low-density lipoprotein (LDL) cholesterol and high-density lipoprotein (HDL) cholesterol were highest, and triglycerides were lowest, after CanolaDHA (P < 0.05 compared with the other diets). All diets decreased TC and LDL cholesterol from baseline to treatment endpoint (P < 0.05). CanolaDHA was the only diet that increased HDL cholesterol from baseline (3.5 ± 1.8%; P < 0.05) and produced the greatest reduction in triglycerides (−20.7 ± 3.8%; P < 0.001) and in systolic blood pressure (−3.3 ± 0.8%; P < 0.001) compared with the other diets (P < 0.05). Percentage reductions in Framingham 10-y CHD risk scores (FRS) from

  14. Dietary Crude Lecithin Increases Systemic Availability of Dietary Docosahexaenoic Acid with Combined Intake in Rats.

    PubMed

    van Wijk, Nick; Balvers, Martin; Cansev, Mehmet; Maher, Timothy J; Sijben, John W C; Broersen, Laus M

    2016-07-01

    Crude lecithin, a mixture of mainly phospholipids, potentially helps to increase the systemic availability of dietary omega-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids (n-3 PUFA), such as docosahexaenoic acid (DHA). Nevertheless, no clear data exist on the effects of prolonged combined dietary supplementation of DHA and lecithin on RBC and plasma PUFA levels. In the current experiments, levels of DHA and choline, two dietary ingredients that enhance neuronal membrane formation and function, were determined in plasma and red blood cells (RBC) from rats after dietary supplementation of DHA-containing oils with and without concomitant dietary supplementation of crude lecithin for 2-3 weeks. The aim was to provide experimental evidence for the hypothesized additive effects of dietary lecithin (not containing any DHA) on top of dietary DHA on PUFA levels in plasma and RBC. Dietary supplementation of DHA-containing oils, either as vegetable algae oil or as fish oil, increased DHA, eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA), and total n-3 PUFA, and decreased total omega-6 PUFA levels in plasma and RBC, while dietary lecithin supplementation alone did not affect these levels. However, combined dietary supplementation of DHA and lecithin increased the changes induced by DHA supplementation alone. Animals receiving a lecithin-containing diet also had a higher plasma free choline concentration as compared to controls. In conclusion, dietary DHA-containing oils and crude lecithin have synergistic effects on increasing plasma and RBC n-3 PUFA levels, including DHA and EPA. By increasing the systemic availability of dietary DHA, dietary lecithin may increase the efficacy of DHA supplementation when their intake is combined. PMID:27038174

  15. Effect of supplementation with calcium salts of fish oil on n-3 fatty acids in milk fat.

    PubMed

    Castañeda-Gutiérrez, E; de Veth, M J; Lock, A L; Dwyer, D A; Murphy, K D; Bauman, D E

    2007-09-01

    Enrichment of milk fat with n-3 fatty acids, in particular eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA) and docosahexaenoic acid (DHA), may be advantageous because of their beneficial effects on human health. In addition, these fatty acids play an important role in reproductive processes in dairy cows. Our objective was to evaluate the protection of EPA and DHA against rumen biohydrogenation provided by Ca salts of fish oil. Four Holstein cows were assigned in a Latin square design to the following treatments: 1) ruminal infusion of Ca salts of fish oil and palm fatty acid distillate low dose (CaFO-1), 2) ruminal infusion of Ca salts of fish oil and palm fatty acid distillate high dose (CaFO-2), 3) ruminal infusion of fish oil high dose (RFO), and 4) abomasal infusion of fish oil high dose (AFO). The high dose of fish oil provided approximately 16 and approximately 21 g/d of EPA and DHA, respectively, whereas the low dose (CaFO-1) provided 50% of these amounts. A 10-d pretreatment period was used as a baseline, followed by 9-d treatment periods with interceding intervals of 10 d. Supplements were infused every 6 h, milk samples were taken the last 3 d, and plasma samples were collected the last day of baseline and treatment periods. Milk fat content of EPA and DHA were 5 to 6 times greater with AFO, but did not differ among other treatments. Milk and milk protein yield were unaffected by treatment, but milk fat yield and DM intake were reduced by 20 and 15%, respectively, by RFO. Overall, results indicate rumen biohydrogenation of long chain n-3 fatty acids was extensive, averaging >85% for EPA and >75% for DHA for the Ca salts and unprotected fish oil supplements. Thus, Ca salts of fish oil offered no protection against the biohydrogenation of EPA and DHA beyond that observed with unprotected fish oil; however, the Ca salts did provide rumen inertness by preventing the negative effects on DM intake and milk fat yield observed with unprotected fish oil. PMID:17699033

  16. Trans isomeric octadecenoic acids are related inversely to arachidonic acid and DHA and positively related to mead acid in umbilical vessel wall lipids.

    PubMed

    Decsi, Tamás; Boehm, Günther; Tjoonk, H M Ria; Molnár, Szilárd; Dijck-Brouwer, D A Janneke; Hadders-Algra, Mijna; Martini, Ingrid A; Muskiet, Frits A J; Boersma, E Rudy

    2002-10-01

    Long-chain PUFA play an important role in early human neurodevelopment. Significant inverse correlations were reported between values of trans isomeric and long-chain PUFA in plasma lipids of preterm infants and children aged 1-15 yr as well as in venous cord blood lipids of full-term infants. Here we report FA compositional data of cord blood vessel wall lipids in 308 healthy, full-term infants (gestational age: 39.7 +/- 1.2 wk, birth weight: 3528 +/- 429 g, mean +/- SD). The median (interquartile range) of the sum of 18-carbon trans FA was 0.22 (0.13) % w/w in umbilical artery and 0.16 (0.10) % w/w in umbilical vein lipids. Nonparametric correlation analysis showed significant inverse correlations between the sum of 18-carbon trans FA and both arachidonic acid and DHA in artery (r = -0.38, P < 0.01, and r = -0.20, P < 0.01) and vein (r = -0.36, P < 0.01, and -0.17, P < 0.01) wall lipids. In addition, the sum of 18-carbon trans FA was significantly positively correlated to Mead acid, a general indicator of EFA deficiency, in both artery (r = +0.35, P < 0.01) and vein (r = +0.31, P< 0.01) wall lipids. The present results obtained in a large group of full-term infants suggest that maternal trans FA intake is inversely associated with long-chain PUFA status of the infant at birth. PMID:12530555

  17. A randomized, placebo-controlled, double-blind trial of supplemental docosahexaenoic acid on cognitive processing speed and executive function in females of reproductive age with phenylketonuria: A pilot study☆, ☆☆

    PubMed Central

    Yi, S.H.L.; Kable, J.A.; Evatt, M.L.; Singh, R.H.

    2014-01-01

    Low blood docosahexaenoic acid (DHA) is reported in patients with phenylketonuria (PKU); however, the functional implications in adolescents and adults are unknown. This pilot study investigated the effect of supplemental DHA on cognitive performance in 33 females with PKU ages 12–47 years. Participants were randomly assigned to receive DHA (10 mg/kg/day) or placebo for 4.5 months. Performance on cognitive processing speed and executive functioning tasks was evaluated at baseline and follow up. Intention-to-treat and per protocol analyses were performed. At follow up, biomarkers of DHA status were significantly higher in the DHA-supplemented group. Performance on the cognitive tasks and reported treatment-related adverse events did not differ. While no evidence of cognitive effect was seen, a larger sample size is needed to be conclusive, which may not be feasible in this population. Supplementation was a safe and effective way to increase biomarkers of DHA status (www.clinicaltrials.gov; Identifier: NCT00892554). PMID:22000478

  18. Fish oil supplementation of maternal rats on an n-3 fatty acid-deficient diet prevents depletion of maternal brain regional docosahexaenoic acid levels and has a postpartum anxiolytic effect.

    PubMed

    Chen, Hui-Feng; Su, Hui-Min

    2012-03-01

    Docosahexaenoic acid (DHA) and arachidonic acid (AA) are the major polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFA) in the neuronal membrane. Most DHA and AA accumulation in the brain occurs during the perinatal period via placenta and milk. This study examined whether maternal brain levels of DHA and AA are depleted during pregnancy and lactation due to meeting the high demand of the developing nervous system in the offspring and evaluated the effects of the reproductive cycle on serotonin metabolism and of fish oil (FO) on postpartum anxiety. Pregnant rats were fed during pregnancy and lactation with a sunflower oil-based n-3 PUFA-deficient diet without or with FO supplementation, which provided 0.37% of the energy source as n-3 PUFA, and the age-matched virgin rats were fed the same diets for 41 days. In both sets of postpartum rats, decreased DHA levels compared to those in virgin females were seen in the hypothalamus, hippocampus, frontal cortex, cerebellum, olfactory bulb and retina, while AA depletion was seen only in the hypothalamus, hippocampus and frontal cortex. Serotonin levels were decreased and turnover increased in the brainstem and frontal cortex in postpartum rats compared to virgin rats. FO supplementation during pregnancy and lactation prevented the decrease in maternal brain regional DHA levels, inhibited monoamine oxidase-A activity in the brainstem and decreased anxiety-like behavior. We propose that the reproductive cycle depletes maternal brain DHA levels and modulates maternal brain serotonin metabolism to cause postpartum anxiety and suggest that FO supplementation may be beneficial for postpartum anxiety in women on an n-3 PUFA-deficient diet. PMID:21543216

  19. Omega-3 DHA and EPA for cognition, behavior, and mood: clinical findings and structural-functional synergies with cell membrane phospholipids.

    PubMed

    Kidd, Parris M

    2007-09-01

    The omega-3 fatty acids docosahexaenoic acid (DHA) and eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA) are orthomolecular, conditionally essential nutrients that enhance quality of life and lower the risk of premature death. They function exclusively via cell membranes, in which they are anchored by phospholipid molecules. DHA is proven essential to pre- and postnatal brain development, whereas EPA seems more influential on behavior and mood. Both DHA and EPA generate neuroprotective metabolites. In double-blind, randomized, controlled trials, DHA and EPA combinations have been shown to benefit attention deficit/hyperactivity disorder (AD/HD), autism, dyspraxia, dyslexia, and aggression. For the affective disorders, meta-analyses confirm benefits in major depressive disorder (MDD) and bipolar disorder, with promising results in schizophrenia and initial benefit for borderline personality disorder. Accelerated cognitive decline and mild cognitive impairment (MCI) correlate with lowered tissue levels of DHA/EPA, and supplementation has improved cognitive function. Huntington disease has responded to EPA. Omega-3 phospholipid supplements that combine DHA/EPA and phospholipids into the same molecule have shown marked promise in early clinical trials. Phosphatidylserine with DHA/EPA attached (Omega-3 PS) has been shown to alleviate AD/HD symptoms. Krill omega-3 phospholipids, containing mostly phosphatidylcholine (PC) with DHA/EPA attached, markedly outperformed conventional fish oil DHA/EPA triglycerides in double-blind trials for premenstrual syndrome/dysmenorrhea and for normalizing blood lipid profiles. Krill omega-3 phospholipids demonstrated anti-inflammatory activity, lowering C-reactive protein (CRP) levels in a double-blind trial. Utilizing DHA and EPA together with phospholipids and membrane antioxidants to achieve a triple cell membrane synergy may further diversify their currently wide range of clinical applications. PMID:18072818

  20. Role of DHA in aging-related changes in mouse brain synaptic plasma membrane proteome.

    PubMed

    Sidhu, Vishaldeep K; Huang, Bill X; Desai, Abhishek; Kevala, Karl; Kim, Hee-Yong

    2016-05-01

    Aging has been related to diminished cognitive function, which could be a result of ineffective synaptic function. We have previously shown that synaptic plasma membrane proteins supporting synaptic integrity and neurotransmission were downregulated in docosahexaenoic acid (DHA)-deprived brains, suggesting an important role of DHA in synaptic function. In this study, we demonstrate aging-induced synaptic proteome changes and DHA-dependent mitigation of such changes using mass spectrometry-based protein quantitation combined with western blot or messenger RNA analysis. We found significant reduction of 15 synaptic plasma membrane proteins in aging brains including fodrin-α, synaptopodin, postsynaptic density protein 95, synaptic vesicle glycoprotein 2B, synaptosomal-associated protein 25, synaptosomal-associated protein-α, N-methyl-D-aspartate receptor subunit epsilon-2 precursor, AMPA2, AP2, VGluT1, munc18-1, dynamin-1, vesicle-associated membrane protein 2, rab3A, and EAAT1, most of which are involved in synaptic transmission. Notably, the first 9 proteins were further reduced when brain DHA was depleted by diet, indicating that DHA plays an important role in sustaining these synaptic proteins downregulated during aging. Reduction of 2 of these proteins was reversed by raising the brain DHA level by supplementing aged animals with an omega-3 fatty acid sufficient diet for 2 months. The recognition memory compromised in DHA-depleted animals was also improved. Our results suggest a potential role of DHA in alleviating aging-associated cognitive decline by offsetting the loss of neurotransmission-regulating synaptic proteins involved in synaptic function. PMID:27103520

  1. Protein and amino Acid supplementation in athletes.

    PubMed

    Armsey, Thomas D; Grime, Todd E

    2002-08-01

    Amino acid supplementation is practiced by numerous individuals with the hope of increasing muscle mass and function by increasing available proteins. Theoretically, this makes a great deal of sense; the scientific facts, however, fail to conclusively prove that ingesting more than the recommended dietary allowance of protein has any effect on otherwise healthy adults. Athletes may be the exception to this rule. This review examines the most current literature pertaining to amino acid supplementation, and reports on the potential benefits and risks of this common practice. PMID:12831703

  2. Dietary reference intakes for DHA and EPA.

    PubMed

    Kris-Etherton, Penny M; Grieger, Jessica A; Etherton, Terry D

    2009-01-01

    Various organizations worldwide have made dietary recommendations for eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA), docosahexaenoic acid (DHA), and fish intake that are primarily for coronary disease risk reduction and triglyceride (TG) lowering. Recommendations also have been made for DHA intake for pregnant women, infants, and vegetarians/vegans. A Dietary Reference Intake (DRI), specifically, an Adequate Intake (AI), has been set for alpha-linolenic acid (ALA) by the Institute of Medicine (IOM) of The National Academies. This amount is based on an intake that supports normal growth and neural development and results in no nutrient deficiency. Although there is no DRI for EPA and DHA, the National Academies have recommended that approximately 10% of the Acceptable Macronutrient Distribution Range (AMDR) for ALA can be consumed as EPA and/or DHA. This recommendation represents current mean intake for EPA and DHA in the United States ( approximately 100mg/day), which is much lower than what many groups worldwide are currently recommending. Global recommendations for long-chain omega-3 fatty acids underscore the pressing need to establish DRIs for DHA and EPA because DRIs are recognized as the "official" standard by which federal agencies issue dietary guidance or policy directives for the health and well-being of individuals in the United States and Canada. Because of the many health benefits of DHA and EPA, it is important and timely that the National Academies establish DRIs for the individual long-chain (20 carbons or greater) omega-3 fatty acids. PMID:19525100

  3. Beneficial effects of omega-3 fatty acids and vitamin B12 supplementation on brain docosahexaenoic acid, brain derived neurotrophic factor, and cognitive performance in the second-generation Wistar rats.

    PubMed

    Rathod, Richa S; Khaire, Amrita A; Kale, Anvita A; Joshi, Sadhana R

    2015-01-01

    In vegetarian population, vitamin B12 deficiency coexists with suboptimal levels of omega-3 fatty acids. Studies indicate a need for supplementation/fortification of vitamin B12 and omega-3 fatty acids to reduce the risk of brain disorders. We have described the effects of vitamin B12 and omega-3 fatty acid supplementation on brain development in F1 generation animals. The current study investigates the effects of vitamin B12 and omega-3 fatty acids supplementation on brain function and cognition. Pregnant Wistar rats were assigned the following groups: control, vitamin B12 deficient (BD), vitamin B12 deficient + omega-3 fatty acid (BDO), vitamin B12 supplemented (BS), vitamin B12 supplemented + omega-3 fatty acid (BSO). The same diets were continued for two generations. BDO group showed higher (P < 0.05) levels of BDNF (brain derived neurotrophic factor) and DHA (docosahexaenoic acid) in the cortex and hippocampus as compared with the BD group. The cognitive performance was also normalized in this group. BS showed comparable levels of DHA, BDNF (protein and mRNA), and CREB mRNA (cAMP response element-binding protein) to that of control group while Tropomyosin receptor kinase mRNA levels were higher. The combined vitamin B12 and omega-3 fatty acid supplementation further enhanced the levels of DHA (P < 0.05) and BDNF (P < 0.05) in the hippocampus and CREB mRNA (P < 0.01) in the cortex as compared with BS group. The cognitive performance of these animals was higher (P < 0.05) as compared with BS group. Our data indicates the beneficial effects of vitamin B12 and omega-3 fatty acid supplementation across two generations on brain development and function. PMID:26249019

  4. Dietary docosahexaenoic acid-enriched glycerophospholipids exert cardioprotective effects in ouabain-treated rats via physiological and metabolic changes.

    PubMed

    Bernard, Monique; Maixent, Jean-Michel; Gerbi, Alain; Lan, Carole; Cozzone, Patrick Jean; Pieroni, Gérard; Armand, Martine; Coste, Thierry Charles

    2016-02-01

    Docosahexaenoic acid (DHA) might prevent heart failure or optimise drug treatments by improving cardiac contraction. We investigated whether DHA-enriched avian glycerophospholipids (GPL-DHA) exert cardioprotection in ouabain-treated rats after 4 weeks of dietary supplementation with 10, 35 or 60 mg DHA per kg body weight versus none (DHA10, DHA35, DHA60 and control groups, respectively). The contractile responsiveness to different doses of ouabain (10(-7) to 10(-4) M), ouabain intoxication (at 3 × 10(-4) M), and relative variations in cardiac energy metabolism were determined using (31)P NMR in isolated perfused rat hearts. The fatty acid composition of cardiac membranes was analysed by gas chromatography. DHA accretion in the heart was dose-dependent (+8%, +30% and +45% for DHA10, DHA35 and DHA60, respectively). The cardiac phosphocreatine content significantly increased at the baseline in DHA35 (+45%) and DHA60 groups (+85%), and at the different doses of ouabain in the DHA60 group (+73% to 98%). The maximum positive inotropy achieved at 10(-4) M ouabain was significantly increased in all DHA groups versus control (+150%, +122.5% and +135% for DHA10, DHA35 and DHA60, respectively), and ouabain intoxication was delayed. The increase in myocardial phosphocreatine content and the improved efficacy of ouabain on myocardial contraction without toxicity suggest the potential of GPL-DHA as a dietary supplement or ingredient for functional food, and possibly as a co-treatment with digitalis drugs in humans. PMID:26662260

  5. Benefits of Docosahexaenoic Acid, Folic Acid, Vitamin D and Iodine on Foetal and Infant Brain Development and Function Following Maternal Supplementation during Pregnancy and Lactation

    PubMed Central

    Morse, Nancy L.

    2012-01-01

    Scientific literature is increasingly reporting on dietary deficiencies in many populations of some nutrients critical for foetal and infant brain development and function. Purpose: To highlight the potential benefits of maternal supplementation with docosahexaenoic acid (DHA) and other important complimentary nutrients, including vitamin D, folic acid and iodine during pregnancy and/or breast feeding for foetal and/or infant brain development and/or function. Methods: English language systematic reviews, meta-analyses, randomised controlled trials, cohort studies, cross-sectional and case-control studies were obtained through searches on MEDLINE and the Cochrane Register of Controlled Trials from January 2000 through to February 2012 and reference lists of retrieved articles. Reports were selected if they included benefits and harms of maternal supplementation of DHA, vitamin D, folic acid or iodine supplementation during pregnancy and/or lactation. Results: Maternal DHA intake during pregnancy and/or lactation can prolong high risk pregnancies, increase birth weight, head circumference and birth length, and can enhance visual acuity, hand and eye co-ordination, attention, problem solving and information processing. Vitamin D helps maintain pregnancy and promotes normal skeletal and brain development. Folic acid is necessary for normal foetal spine, brain and skull development. Iodine is essential for thyroid hormone production necessary for normal brain and nervous system development during gestation that impacts childhood function. Conclusion: Maternal supplementation within recommended safe intakes in populations with dietary deficiencies may prevent many brain and central nervous system malfunctions and even enhance brain development and function in their offspring. PMID:22852064

  6. Omega-3 polyunsaturated fatty acid supplementation and white matter changes in major depression.

    PubMed

    Chhetry, Binod Thapa; Hezghia, Adrienne; Miller, Jeffrey M; Lee, Seonjoo; Rubin-Falcone, Harry; Cooper, Thomas B; Oquendo, Maria A; Mann, J John; Sublette, M Elizabeth

    2016-04-01

    White matter abnormalities are implicated in major depressive disorder (MDD). As omega-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFAs) are low in MDD and affect myelination, we hypothesized that PUFA supplementation may alleviate depression through improving white matter integrity. Acutely depressed MDD patients (n = 16) and healthy volunteers (HV, n = 12) had 25-direction diffusion tensor imaging before and after 6 weeks of fish oil supplementation. Plasma phospholipid omega-3 PUFAs eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA) and docosahexaenoic acid (DHA), and omega-6 PUFA arachidonic acid (AA) levels were determined before and after supplementation using high-throughput extraction and gas chromatography and expressed as a percentage of total phospholipids (PUFA%). Fractional anisotropy (FA) was computed using a least-squares-fit diffusion tensor with non-linear optimization. Regression analyses were performed with changes in PUFA levels or Hamilton Depression Rating Scale scores as predictors, voxel-wise difference maps of FA as outcome, covariates age and sex, with family-wise correction for multiple comparisons. Increases in plasma phospholipid DHA% (but not EPA% or AA%) after fish oil predicted increases in FA in MDD but not HV, in a cluster including genu and body of the corpus callosum, and anterior corona radiata and cingulum (cluster-level p < 0.001, peak t-score = 8.10, p = 0.002). There was a trend for greater change in FA in MDD responders over nonresponders (t = -1.874, df = 13.56, p = 0.08). Decreased depression severity predicted increased FA in left corticospinal tract and superior longitudinal fasciculus (cluster-level p < 0.001, peak t-score = 5.04, p = 0.0001). Increased FA correlated with increased DHA% and decreased depression severity after fish oil supplementation suggests therapeutic effects of omega-3 PUFAs may be related to improvements in white matter integrity. PMID:26802812

  7. Effects of oral eicosapentaenoic acid versus docosahexaenoic acid on human peripheral blood mononuclear cell gene expression

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Objective: Eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA) and docosahexaenoic acid (DHA) have beneficial effects on inflammation and cardiovascular disease (CVD). Our aim was to assess the effect of a six-week supplementation with either olive oil, EPA, or DHA on gene expression in peripheral blood mononuclear cells (...

  8. A High Omega-3 Fatty Acid Multinutrient Supplement Benefits Cognition and Mobility in Older Women: A Randomized, Double-blind, Placebo-controlled Pilot Study

    PubMed Central

    Strike, Siobhán C.; Carlisle, Alison; Gibson, E. Leigh

    2016-01-01

    Background. Mobility is a key determinant of frailty in older persons, and a variety of dietary factors, such as the omega-3 fatty acid docosahexaenoic acid (DHA), are positively associated with decreased frailty and improved mobility and cognition in older persons. Methods. The effects of a multinutrient supplement on mobility and cognition were assessed in postmenopausal women (60–84 years). Participants received either Efalex Active 50+ (1g DHA, 160mg eicosapentaenoic acid, 240mg Ginkgo biloba, 60mg phosphatidylserine, 20mg d-α tocopherol, 1mg folic acid, and 20 µg vitamin B12 per day; N = 15) or placebo (N = 12) for 6 months. Mobility was assessed by VICON 9 motion capture camera system synchronized with Kistler force plates, cognitive performance by computerized cognitive function tests, and blood fatty acid levels by pin-prick analysis. Results. Significant effects of treatment were seen in two of the four cognitive tests, with shorter mean latencies in a motor screening task (p < .05) and more words remembered (p < .03), and one of the three primary mobility measures with improved habitual walking speed (p < .05). Compared with the placebo group, supplementation also resulted in significantly higher blood DHA levels (p < .02). Conclusions. In this pilot study, multinutrient supplementation improved cognition and mobility in able older females at clinically relevant levels, suggesting a potential role in reducing the decline to frailty. PMID:26265727

  9. Dose-response of supplementing marine algae (Schizochytrium spp.) on production performance, fatty acid profiles, and wool parameters of growing lambs.

    PubMed

    Meale, S J; Chaves, A V; He, M L; McAllister, T A

    2014-05-01

    Microalgae are the original source of docosahexaenoic acid (DHA; 22:6n-3) in the marine food chain, and its inclusion in animal feeds has been considered as a means of increasing the DHA level in foods of animal origin. As such, this study aimed to investigate the effects of supplementing an algal meal, high in DHA derived from Schizochytrium spp. (DHA-G), in the diet of Canadian Arcott lambs, on growth, carcass characteristics, wool production, and fatty acid (FA) profiles of subcutaneous adipose tissues (SAT), perirenal adipose tissues (PAT), and skirt muscle (SM). Forty-four lambs were randomly assigned to dietary treatments. Diets consisted of a pelleted, barley-based finishing diet with DHA-G supplemented at 0, 1, 2, or 3% DM as a replacement for flax oil and barley grain. Feed deliveries and orts were recorded daily. Lambs were weighed weekly and slaughtered once they reached ≥ 45 kg live weight. Carcass characteristics, ruminal pH, and liver weights were determined at slaughter. Wool yield was determined on mid-side patches of 100 cm(2) shorn at d 0 and on the day before slaughter (d 105 or 140). Dye bands were used to determine wool growth, fiber diameter, and staple length. Adipose tissues and SM samples were taken at slaughter and analyzed for FA profiles. Data were analyzed using mixed procedure in SAS with orthogonal contrasts testing for linear, quadratic, or cubic responses to increasing levels of DHA-G. Daily DMI, ADG, and G:F were similar as were wool quality and yield (P > 0.05). Carcass characteristics were generally unaffected (P > 0.05), except for body wall thickness (mm), which showed a quadratic response (P = 0.01) with increasing DHA-G. The concentration of eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA; 20:5n-6; mg/100 g fresh tissue) linearly increased (P < 0.001) with DHA-G in both adipose tissues and responded quadratically in SM (P = 0.05). Similarly, DHA (mg/100 g fresh tissue) increased linearly (P < 0.01) with DHA-G in all tissue types (P < 0

  10. The effects of omega 3 fatty acid supplementation on brain tissue oxidative status in aged wistar rats

    PubMed Central

    Avramovic, N; Dragutinovic, V; Krstic, D; Colovic, MB; Trbovic, A; de Luka, S; Milovanovic, I; Popovic, T

    2012-01-01

    Background: The omega 3 fatty acids play an important role in many physiological processes. Their effect is well documented in neurodegenerative diseases and inflammatory diseases. Also, aging as a biophysiological process could be influenced by eicosapentanoic acid (EPA) and docosahexanoic acid (DHA) components of fish oil. However there are not many studies showing the effect of PUFA (polyunsaturated FA) suplementation in eldery brain functions and the response to oxidative strees. The aim of this study was to investigate the effects of dietary omega-3 fatty acid supplementation on levels of lipid peroxidation and oxidant/antioxidant status of brain tissue in aged (24 months old) Wistar rats. Methods: Animals were divided in two groups. Control group (n=8) was fed with standard laboratory food and received water ad libitum. Treated group (n=8) was also fed with standard laboratory food, water ad libitum and received fish oil capsules (EPA+DHA) for 6 weeks. Daily dose was 30mg EPA and 45mg DHA (capsules: 200mg EPA and 300mg DHA; in-house method). At the end of treatment animals were sacrificed and brains were collected and frozen on -80ºC. The levels of lipid peroxidation (malondialdehyde - MDA), activity of catalase (CAT) and activity of superoxide dismutase (SOD) were examined in cerebral cortex. Catalase activity was determined by measuring the decrease in absorbance (H2O2 degradation) at 240 nm for 3 min and expressed as U/mg protein. Total SOD (superoxide dismutase) activity was performed at room temperature according to the method of Misra and Fridovich. The extent of lipid peroxidation (LPO) was estimated as the concentration of thiobarbituric acid reactive product malondialdehyde (MDA) by using the method of Aruoma et al. The incorporation of fatty acids in cellular membranes was confirmed by gas chromatography. Results: Our results showed that lipid peroxidation significantly decreased in treated animal group, where MDA concentration was 0.38±0.001 vs

  11. Delivery of Polyunsaturated Fatty Acids from a Glycerol Polyester Matrix with Anti-oxidant Properties

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Awareness of the health benefits associated with the polyunsaturated acids such as alpha linolenic (ALA), eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA), and docosahexaenoic acid (DHA), has generated interest in formulating foods and dietary supplements with these compounds. However, the highly unsaturated structure o...

  12. Enhanced absorption of n-3 fatty acids from emulsified compared with encapsulated fish oil

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The omega-3 fatty acids, eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA) and docosahexaenoic acid (DHA) have important nutrition and disease management properties. Presently fish oil (FO) supplementation relies on capsular triglyceride. Flavored emulsified lipid preparations may provide an improved approach to FO del...

  13. Statin Use Mitigate the Benefit of Omega-3 Fatty Acids Supplementation-A Meta-Regression of Randomized Trials.

    PubMed

    Sethi, Ankur; Bajaj, Anurag; Khosla, Sandeep; Arora, Rohit R

    2016-01-01

    During last 2 decades, multiple studies have evaluated omega-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids (ω-3 PUFA) supplementation for cardiovascular prevention. The benefit found in previous studies was not demonstrated in more contemporary trials. We aimed to investigate effect of study characteristics, particularly concomitant statin therapy on results of randomized controlled trials. We systematically searched electronic databases for randomized controlled trials evaluating ω-3 PUFA supplementation and reporting clinical outcomes. A meta-analysis was performed using a random effect model, followed by a meta-regression of dose, docosahexaenoic acid/eicosapentaenoic acid (DHA/EPA) ratio, and duration of treatment and use of lipid-lowering/statin therapy in control group. Twenty-three studies with 77,776 patients (38,910 PUFA; 38,866 controls) were included. PUFA had no effect on total mortality [risk ratio (RR) = 0.96; 95% confidence interval (CI), 0.92-1.01] and myocardial infarction (RR = 0.87; 95% CI, 0.73-1.02), but marginally reduced cardiovascular mortality (RR = 0.93; 95% CI, 0.87-0.98). Lower control group statin use (b = 0.222, P = 0.027) and higher DHA/EPA (b = -0.105, P = 0.033) ratio was associated with higher reduction in total mortality. Duration and dose had no effect. None of the variables except duration had significant effect on reduction in cardiovascular mortality by PUFA supplementation. There was evidence of publication bias. Statin use may mitigate, and higher DHA/EPA ratio is associated with the beneficial effect of PUFA supplementation. PMID:25036814

  14. Measurement of lipid supplements in poultry feed by infrared spectroscopy

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Rapid measurement of a fatty acid supplement in poultry feed formulations was performed using near infrared (NIR) spectroscopy with chemometric analysis. A standard feed formulation was amended with up to 10 wt% fatty acid supplement containing docosahexaenoic acid (DHA) and scanned from 10,000 cm-1...

  15. The Omega-3 Polyunsaturated Fatty Acid Docosahexaenoic Acid (DHA) Reverses Corticosterone-Induced Changes in Cortical Neurons

    PubMed Central

    Pusceddu, Matteo M.; Nolan, Yvonne M.; Green, Holly F.; Robertson, Ruairi C.; Stanton, Catherine; Kelly, Philip; Dinan, Timothy G.

    2016-01-01

    Background: Chronic exposure to the glucocorticoid hormone corticosterone exerts cellular stress-induced toxic effects that have been associated with neurodegenerative and psychiatric disorders. Docosahexaenoic acid is a polyunsaturated fatty acid that has been shown to be of benefit in stress-related disorders, putatively through protective action in neurons. Methods: We investigated the protective effect of docosahexaenoic acid against glucocorticoid hormone corticosterone-induced cellular changes in cortical cell cultures containing both astrocytes and neurons. Results: We found that glucocorticoid hormone corticosterone (100, 150, 200 μM) at different time points (48 and 72 hours) induced a dose- and time-dependent reduction in cellular viability as assessed by methyl thiazolyl tetrazolium. Moreover, glucocorticoid hormone corticosterone (200 μM, 72 hours) decreased the percentage composition of neurons while increasing the percentage of astrocytes as assessed by βIII-tubulin and glial fibrillary acidic protein immunostaining, respectively. In contrast, docosahexaenoic acid treatment (6 μM) increased docosahexaenoic acid content and attenuated glucocorticoid hormone corticosterone (200 μM)-induced cell death (72 hours) in cortical cultures. This translates into a capacity for docosahexaenoic acid to prevent neuronal death as well as astrocyte overgrowth following chronic exposure to glucocorticoid hormone corticosterone. Furthermore, docosahexaenoic acid (6 μM) reversed glucocorticoid hormone corticosterone-induced neuronal apoptosis as assessed by terminal deoxynucleotidyl transferase–mediated nick-end labeling and attenuated glucocorticoid hormone corticosterone-induced reductions in brain derived neurotrophic factor mRNA expression in these cultures. Finally, docosahexaenoic acid inhibited glucocorticoid hormone corticosterone-induced downregulation of glucocorticoid receptor expression on βIII- tubulin-positive neurons. Conclusions: This work

  16. Long-chain polyunsaturated fatty acid supplementation had no effect on body weight but reduced energy intake in overweight and obese women.

    PubMed

    Harden, Charlotte J; Dible, Victoria A; Russell, Jean M; Garaiova, Iveta; Plummer, Sue F; Barker, Margo E; Corfe, Bernard M

    2014-01-01

    Longer-chain polyunsaturated fatty acids may have greater appetite-suppressing effects than shorter-chain, monosaturated, and saturated fatty acids. Because fish oils are predominantly composed of n-3 long-chain polyunsaturated fatty acid and may assist in the treatment of obesity comorbidities, their effect on body weight and body mass index is of interest. We hypothesized that daily supplementation with docosahexaenoic acid (DHA)-rich oil would reduce energy intake and body weight in overweight and obese women compared with supplementation with oleic acid (OA) rich oil. A double-blinded, randomized, parallel intervention was conducted. Body mass index (in kilograms per meter squared), body weight (in kilograms), body fat (in percent), and lean tissue (in kilograms) were measured at baseline and 12 weeks after intervention with DHA or OA. Diet diaries were also completed at these time points for estimation of energy and macronutrient intake. Subjects reported significantly lower energy (P = .020), carbohydrate (g) (P = .037), and fat (g) (P = .045) intake after DHA compared with OA. Body mass or composition was not affected by treatment, although a fall in body weight in the DHA group approached statistical significance (P = .089). Daily ingestion of DHA over a 12-week period may reduce energy intake in overweight and obese females, but longer-term and adequately powered studies using subjects of both sexes are needed. Other factors that should be considered include the following: the choice of control, the body mass index category of subjects, and ways of improving the compliancy and accuracy of dietary assessment. PMID:24418242

  17. Effects of docosahexaenoic acid supplementation during pregnancy on fetal heart rate and variability: A randomized clinical trial☆, ☆☆

    PubMed Central

    Gustafson, K.M.; Carlson, S.E.; Colombo, J.; Yeh, H.-W.; Shaddy, D.J.; Li, S.; Kerling, E.H.

    2013-01-01

    DHA (22:6n-3) supplementation during infancy has been associated with lower heart rate (HR) and improved neurobehavioral outcomes. We hypothesized that maternal DHA supplementation would improve fetal cardiac autonomic control and newborn neurobehavior. Pregnant women were randomized to 600 mg/day of DHA or placebo oil capsules at 14.4 (+/−4) weeks gestation. Fetal HRand HRV were calculated from magnetocardiograms (MCGs) at 24, 32 and 36 weeks gestational age (GA). Newborn neurobehavior was assessed using the Neonatal Behavioral Assessment Scale (NBAS). Postpartum maternal and infant red blood cell (RBC) DHA was significantly higher in the supplemented group as were metrics of fetal HRV and newborn neurobehavior in the autonomic and motor clusters. Higher HRV is associated with more responsive and flexible autonomic nervous system (ANS). Coupled with findings of improved autonomic and motor behavior, these data suggest that maternal DHA supplementation during pregnancy may impart an adaptive advantage to the fetus. PMID:23433688

  18. Effects of docosahexaenoic acid supplementation during pregnancy on fetal heart rate and variability: a randomized clinical trial.

    PubMed

    Gustafson, K M; Carlson, S E; Colombo, J; Yeh, H-W; Shaddy, D J; Li, S; Kerling, E H

    2013-05-01

    DHA (22:6n-3) supplementation during infancy has been associated with lower heart rate (HR) and improved neurobehavioral outcomes. We hypothesized that maternal DHA supplementation would improve fetal cardiac autonomic control and newborn neurobehavior. Pregnant women were randomized to 600 mg/day of DHA or placebo oil capsules at 14.4 (+/-4) weeks gestation. Fetal HR and HRV were calculated from magnetocardiograms (MCGs) at 24, 32 and 36 weeks gestational age (GA). Newborn neurobehavior was assessed using the Neonatal Behavioral Assessment Scale (NBAS). Post-partum maternal and infant red blood cell (RBC) DHA was significantly higher in the supplemented group as were metrics of fetal HRV and newborn neurobehavior in the autonomic and motor clusters. Higher HRV is associated with more responsive and flexible autonomic nervous system (ANS). Coupled with findings of improved autonomic and motor behavior, these data suggest that maternal DHA supplementation during pregnancy may impart an adaptive advantage to the fetus. PMID:23433688

  19. Effect of 6 Weeks of n-3 fatty-acid supplementation on oxidative stress in Judo athletes.

    PubMed

    Filaire, Edith; Massart, Alain; Portier, Hugues; Rouveix, Matthieu; Rosado, Fatima; Bage, Anne S; Gobert, Mylene; Durand, Denys

    2010-12-01

    The aim of this investigation was to assess the effects of 6 wk of eicosapentanoic acid (EPA) and docosahexanoic acid (DHA) supplementation on resting and exercise-induced lipid peroxidation and antioxidant status in judoists. Subjects were randomly assigned to receive a placebo or a capsule of polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFAs; 600 mg EPA and 400 mg DHA). Blood samples were collected in preexercise and postexercise conditions (judo-training session), both before and after the supplementation period. The following parameters were analyzed: α-tocopherol, retinol, lag phase , maximum rate of oxidation (Rmax) during the propagating chain reaction, maximum amount of conjugated dienes (CDmax) accumulated after the propagation phase, nitric oxide (NO) and malondyaldehide (MDA) concentrations, salivary glutathione peroxidase activity, and the lipid profile. Dietary data were collected using a 7-day dietary record. A significant interaction effect between supplementation and time (p < .01) on triglycerides was noted, with values significantly lower in the n-3 long-chain-PUFA (LCPUFA) group after supplementation than in the placebo group. Significant interaction effects between supplementation and time on resting MDA concentrations and Rmax were found (p = .03 and p = .04, respectively), with elevated values in the n-3 LCPUFA group after supplementation and no change in the placebo group's levels. The authors observed a significantly greater NO and oxidative-stress increase with exercise (MDA, Rmax, CDmax, and NO) in the n-3 LCPUFA group than with placebo. No main or interaction effects were found for retinol and α-tocopherol. These results indicate that supplementation with n-3 LCPUFAs significantly increased oxidative stress at rest and after a judo-training session. PMID:21116022

  20. A Combined Supplementation of Omega-3 Fatty Acids and Micronutrients (Folic Acid, Vitamin B12) Reduces Oxidative Stress Markers in a Rat Model of Pregnancy Induced Hypertension

    PubMed Central

    Kemse, Nisha G.; Kale, Anvita A.; Joshi, Sadhana R.

    2014-01-01

    Objectives Our earlier studies have highlighted that an altered one carbon metabolism (vitamin B12, folic acid, and docosahexaenoic acid) is associated with preeclampsia. Preeclampsia is also known to be associated with oxidative stress and inflammation. The current study examines whether maternal folic acid, vitamin B12 and omega-3 fatty acid supplementation given either individually or in combination can ameliorate the oxidative stress markers in a rat model of pregnancy induced hypertension (PIH). Materials and Methods Pregnant Wistar rats were assigned to control and five treatment groups: PIH; PIH + vitamin B12; PIH + folic acid; PIH + Omega-3 fatty acids and PIH + combined micronutrient supplementation (vitamin B12 + folic acid + omega-3 fatty acids). L-Nitroarginine methylester (L-NAME; 50 mg/kg body weight/day) was used to induce hypertension during pregnancy. Blood Pressure (BP) was recorded during pregnancy and dams were dissected at d20 of gestation. Results Animals from the PIH group demonstrated higher (p<0.01 for both) systolic and diastolic BP; lower (p<0.01) pup weight; higher dam plasma homocysteine (p<0.05) and dam and offspring malondialdehyde (MDA) (p<0.01), lower (p<0.05) placental and offspring liver DHA and higher (p<0.01) tumor necrosis factor–alpha (TNF–ά) levels as compared to control. Individual micronutrient supplementation did not offer much benefit. In contrast, combined supplementation lowered systolic BP, homocysteine, MDA and placental TNF-ά levels in dams and liver MDA and protein carbonyl in the offspring as compared to PIH group. Conclusion Key constituents of one carbon cycle (folic acid, vitamin B12 and DHA) may play a role in reducing oxidative stress and inflammation in preeclampsia. PMID:25405347

  1. Omega-3 Fatty Acid supplementation during pregnancy.

    PubMed

    Greenberg, James A; Bell, Stacey J; Ausdal, Wendy Van

    2008-01-01

    Omega-3 fatty acids are essential and can only be obtained from the diet. The requirements during pregnancy have not been established, but likely exceed that of a nonpregnant state. Omega-3 fatty acids are critical for fetal neurodevelopment and may be important for the timing of gestation and birth weight as well. Most pregnant women likely do not get enough omega-3 fatty acids because the major dietary source, seafood, is restricted to 2 servings a week. For pregnant women to obtain adequate omega-3 fatty acids, a variety of sources should be consumed: vegetable oils, 2 low-mercury fish servings a week, and supplements (fish oil or algae-based docosahexaenoic acid). PMID:19173020

  2. Continuous gradient temperature Raman spectroscopy of the long chain polyunsaturated fatty acids docosapentaenoic (DPA, 22:5n-6) and docosahexaenoic (DHA; 22:6n-3) from -100 to 20° C

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Broadhurst, C. Leigh; Schmidt, Walter F.; Kim, Moon S.; Nguyen, Julie K.; Qin, Jianwei; Chao, Kuanglin; Bauchan, Gary L.; Shelton, Daniel R.

    2016-05-01

    The structural, cognitive and visual development of the human brain and retina strictly require long-chain polyunsaturated fatty acids (LC-PUFA). Excluding water, the mammalian brain is about 60% lipid. One of the great unanswered questions with respect to biological science in general is the absolute necessity of the LC-PUFA docosahexaenoic acid (DHA; 22:6n-3) in these fast signal processing tissues. A lipid of the same chain length with just one less diene group, docosapentaenoic acid (DPA; 22:5n-6) is fairly abundant in terrestrial food chains yet cannot substitute for DHA. Gradient Temperature Raman spectroscopy (GTRS) applies the temperature gradients utilized in differential scanning calorimetry to Raman spectroscopy, providing a straightforward technique to identify molecular rearrangements that occur near and at phase transitions. Herein we apply GTRS to DPA, and DHA from -100 to 20°C. 20 Mb three-dimensional data arrays with 1°C increments and first/second derivatives allows complete assignment of solid, liquid and transition state vibrational modes, including low intensity/frequency vibrations that cannot be readily analyzed with conventional Raman. DPA and DHA show significant spectral changes with premelting (-33 and -60°C, respectively) and melting (-27 and -44°C, respectively). The CH2-(HC=CH)-CH2 moieties are not identical in the second half of the DHA and DPA structures. The DHA molecule contains major CH2 twisting (1265 cm-1) with no noticeable CH2 bending, consistent with a flat helical structure with small pitch. Further modeling of neuronal membrane phospholipids must take into account this structure for DHA, which would be configured parallel to the hydrophilic head group line.

  3. Responses to n-3 fatty acid (LCPUFA) supplementation of gestating gilts, and lactating and weaned sows.

    PubMed

    Smit, M N; Patterson, J L; Webel, S K; Spencer, J D; Cameron, A C; Dyck, M K; Dixon, W T; Foxcroft, G R

    2013-05-01

    Feeding n-3 long-chain polyunsaturated fatty acids (LCPUFA) to gilts or sows has shown different responses to litter growth, pre-weaning mortality and subsequent reproductive performance of the sow. Two hypotheses were tested: (1) that feeding a marine oil-based supplement rich in protected n-3 LCPUFAs to gilts in established gestation would improve the growth performance of their litters; and (2) that continued feeding of the supplement during lactation and after weaning would offset the negative effects of lactational catabolism induced, using an established experimental model involving feed restriction of lactating primiparous sows. A total of 117 primiparous sows were pair-matched at day 60 of gestation by weight, and when possible, litter of origin, and were allocated to be either control sows (CON) fed standard gestation and lactation diets, or treated sows (LCPUFA) fed the standard diets supplemented with 84 g/day of a n-3 LCPUFA rich supplement, from day 60 of first gestation, through a 21-day lactation, and until euthanasia at day 30 of their second gestation. All sows were feed restricted during the last 7 days of lactation to induce catabolism, providing a background challenge against which to determine beneficial effects of n-3 LCPUFA supplementation on subsequent reproduction. In the absence of an effect on litter size or birth weight, n-3 LCPUFA tended to improve piglet BW gain from birth until 34 days after weaning (P = 0.06), while increasing pre-weaning mortality (P = 0.05). It did not affect energy utilization by the sow during lactation, thus not improving the catabolic state of the sows. Supplementation from weaning until day 30 of second gestation did not have an effect on embryonic weight, ovulation rate or early embryonic survival, but did increase corpora lutea (CL) weight (P = 0.001). Eicosapentaenoic acid and docosahexaenoic acid (DHA) levels were increased in sow serum and CL (P < 0.001), whereas only DHA levels increased in embryos (P

  4. The clinical benefits of long-term supplementation with omega-3 fatty acids in cystic fibrosis patients - A pilot study.

    PubMed

    Hanssens, L; Thiébaut, I; Lefèvre, N; Malfroot, A; Knoop, C; Duchateau, J; Casimir, G

    2016-05-01

    Effectiveness of omega-3 supplementation in cystic fibrosis (CF) remains controversial. This study sought to evaluate clinical status, exercise tolerance, inflammatory parameters, and erythrocyte fatty acid profile after 1 year of oral omega-3 supplementation in CF patients. Fifteen ΔF508-homozygous patients undergoing chronic azithromycin were randomized to receive omega-3 fish oil supplementation at a dose of 60mg/Kg/day or placebo. In comparison with the previous year, in the supplemented group, the number of pulmonary exacerbations decreased at 12 months (1.7 vs. 3.0, p<0.01), as did the duration of antibiotic therapy (26.5 days vs. 60.0 days, p<0.025). Supplementation significantly increased the levels of eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA) and docosahexaenoic acid (DHA) as early as <3 months of administration, with concomitant decreases in arachidonic acid (AA) levels. This pilot study suggests that long-term omega-3 supplementation offers several clinical benefits as to the number of exacerbations and duration of antibiotic therapy in CF patients. PMID:27154364

  5. Effects of Iron Supplementation With and Without Docosahexaenoic Acid on the Cardiovascular Disease Risk Based on Paraoxonase-1, hs-CRP, and ApoB/ApoA-I Ratio in Women with Iron Deficiency Anemia.

    PubMed

    Shidfar, Farzad; Amani, Samira; Vafa, Mohammadreza; Shekarriz, Ramin; Hosseini, Sharieh; Shidfar, Shahrzad; Eshraghian, Mohammadreza; Mousavi, Seyedeh Neda

    2016-01-01

    Numerous studies have demonstrated that tissue deposition of iron following prolonged high dose of oral supplementation for treatment of iron deficiency anemia (IDA) leads to body iron overload and oxidative stress, which starts the process of atherosclerosis. This study aimed to determine the effect of iron supplementation in combination with docosahexaenoic acid (DHA) on the cardiovascular disease risk based on paraoxonase-1 (PON-1), high-sensitivity C-reactive protein (hs-CRP), and ApoB/ApoA-I ratio in women with IDA. In this randomized controlled trial, 76 women with IDA, aged 15-45 years, were included. The patients were randomly assigned to receive 500 mg of DHA supplement or placebo with an iron tablet, once daily for 12 weeks. The participants were assessed by measurement of the serum iron, ferritin, PON-1, hs-CRP levels, and the ApoB/ApoA-I ratio at the beginning and end of study. Serum hs-CRP decreased in the DHA-supplemented group (p = 0.036), and ApoA-I decreased in the placebo group (p = 0.013). No significant difference was detected for the serum PON-1 concentration and the ApoB/ApoA-I ratio in two groups. Iron supplementation combined with DHA may have favorable effects on serum hs-CRP in women with IDA. PMID:26077874

  6. Omega-3 fatty acid supplementation in perinatal settings.

    PubMed

    Blanchard, Dawn S

    2006-01-01

    The purpose of this article is (a) to explain the role of omega-3 fatty acids in human health, specifically in fetal/neonatal development, (b) to summarize the recent research behind the innovations in infant formula manufacturing and advertisement of omega-3 fatty acid supplementation for pregnant and lactating mothers, and (c) to relate the research findings to clinical practice. Omega-3 fatty acid supplementation in perinatal settings is discussed here from three vantage points: (a) supplementation of the third-trimester pregnant woman to enhance fetal development, (b) supplementation of the lactating mother to enhance development of the breastfeeding infant, and (c) supplementation of infant formulas to enhance development of the bottle-feeding infant. Supplementation can occur by increasing one's intake of foods high in omega-3 fatty acids or by ingesting fatty acid nutritional supplements. The challenge of supplementation for vegan and vegetarian women is also addressed. PMID:16940822

  7. Effects of n-3 Fatty Acids Supplementation on Plasma Phospholipids Fatty Acid Composition in Patients with Obstructive Jaundice- a Pilot Study

    PubMed Central

    Popovic, Tamara; Ranic, Marija; Bulajic, Predrag; Milicevic, Miroslav; Arsic, Aleksandra; Vucic, Vesna; Glibetic, Marija

    2009-01-01

    Nutritional and immunological status of patients with obstructive jaundice is usually severely altered, with high mortality rates. The n-3 polyunsaturate fatty acids (PUFA), particularly eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA, 20:5 n-3), posess potent immunomodulatory activities. Thus, our aim was to compare the plasma phospholipid fatty acid (FA) composition of these patients with healthy subjects, as well as before and after 7 days preoperative supplementation with high doses of EPA (0.9 g per day) and docosahexaenoic acid (DHA, 22:6 n-3, 0.6 g per day). We found impaired FA status in obstructive jaundice patients, especially EPA, DHA and PUFA, but significantly increased content of total n-3 FA, 22:5 n-3 FA and particularly EPA, which increased more than 3 fold, after 7 days supplementation. In addition, the n6/n3 ratio significantly decreased from 14.24 to 10.24, demonstrating severely improved plasma phospholipid profile in these patients after the intervention. PMID:19902030

  8. Dietary Omega-3 Polyunsaturated Fatty Acids Improve the Neurolipidome and Restore the DHA Status while Promoting Functional Recovery after Experimental Spinal Cord Injury

    PubMed Central

    Figueroa, Johnny D.; Cordero, Kathia; llán, Miguel S.

    2013-01-01

    Abstract Omega-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids (ω-3 PUFAs) confer multiple health benefits and decrease the risk of neurological disorders. Studies are needed, however, to identify promising cellular targets and to assess their prophylactic value against neurodegeneration. The present study (1) examined the efficacy of a preventive diet enriched with ω-3 PUFAs to reduce dysfunction in a well-established spinal cord injury (SCI) animal model and (2) used a novel metabolomics data analysis to identify potential neurolipidomic targets. Rats were fed with either control chow or chow enriched with ω-3 PUFAs (750 mg/kg/day) for 8 weeks before being subjected to a sham or a contusion SCI operation. We report new evidence showing that rats subjected to SCI after being pre-treated with a diet enriched with ω-3 PUFAs exhibit significantly better functional outcomes. Pre-treated animals exhibited lower sensory deficits, autonomic bladder recovery, and early improvements in locomotion that persisted for at least 8 weeks after trauma. We found that SCI triggers a robust alteration in the cord PUFA neurolipidome, which was characterized by a marked docosahexaenoic acid (DHA) deficiency. This DHA deficiency was associated with dysfunction and corrected with the ω-3 PUFA-enriched diet. Multivariate data analyses revealed that the spinal cord of animals consuming the ω-3 PUFA-enriched diet had a fundamentally distinct neurolipidome, particularly increasing the levels of essential and long chain ω-3 fatty acids and lysolipids at the expense of ω-6 fatty acids and its metabolites. Altogether, dietary ω-3 PUFAs prophylaxis confers resiliency to SCI mediated, at least in part, by generating a neuroprotective and restorative neurolipidome. PMID:23294084

  9. Dietary omega-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids improve the neurolipidome and restore the DHA status while promoting functional recovery after experimental spinal cord injury.

    PubMed

    Figueroa, Johnny D; Cordero, Kathia; Llán, Miguel S; De Leon, Marino

    2013-05-15

    Omega-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids (ω-3 PUFAs) confer multiple health benefits and decrease the risk of neurological disorders. Studies are needed, however, to identify promising cellular targets and to assess their prophylactic value against neurodegeneration. The present study (1) examined the efficacy of a preventive diet enriched with ω-3 PUFAs to reduce dysfunction in a well-established spinal cord injury (SCI) animal model and (2) used a novel metabolomics data analysis to identify potential neurolipidomic targets. Rats were fed with either control chow or chow enriched with ω-3 PUFAs (750 mg/kg/day) for 8 weeks before being subjected to a sham or a contusion SCI operation. We report new evidence showing that rats subjected to SCI after being pre-treated with a diet enriched with ω-3 PUFAs exhibit significantly better functional outcomes. Pre-treated animals exhibited lower sensory deficits, autonomic bladder recovery, and early improvements in locomotion that persisted for at least 8 weeks after trauma. We found that SCI triggers a robust alteration in the cord PUFA neurolipidome, which was characterized by a marked docosahexaenoic acid (DHA) deficiency. This DHA deficiency was associated with dysfunction and corrected with the ω-3 PUFA-enriched diet. Multivariate data analyses revealed that the spinal cord of animals consuming the ω-3 PUFA-enriched diet had a fundamentally distinct neurolipidome, particularly increasing the levels of essential and long chain ω-3 fatty acids and lysolipids at the expense of ω-6 fatty acids and its metabolites. Altogether, dietary ω-3 PUFAs prophylaxis confers resiliency to SCI mediated, at least in part, by generating a neuroprotective and restorative neurolipidome. PMID:23294084

  10. Docosahexaenoic acid prevents trans-10, cis-12 conjugated linoleic acid-induced non-alcoholic fatty liver disease in mice by altering expression of hepatic genes regulating fatty acid synthesis and oxidation

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Background: Concomitant supplementation with docosahexaenoic acid (22:6 n-3; DHA) prevented t10, c12- conjugated linoleic acid (CLA)-induced non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) and insulin resistance. Effective dose of DHA and mechanisms involved are poorly understood. Methods: We examined abi...

  11. Serum level changes of long chain-polyunsaturated fatty acids in patients undergoing periodontal therapy combined with one year of omega-3 supplementation: a pilot randomized clinical trial

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Purpose We aimed to investigate the impact of nonsurgical periodontal treatment combined with one-year dietary supplementation with omega (ω)-3 on the serum levels of eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA), docosahexaenoic acid (DHA), docosapentaenoic acid (DPA), and arachidonic acid (AA). Methods Fifteen patients with chronic generalized periodontitis were treated with scaling and root planing. The test group consisted of seven patients (43.1±6.0 years) supplemented with ω-3, consisting of EPA plus DHA, three capsules, each of 300 mg of ω-3 (180-mg EPA/120-mg DHA), for 12 months. The control group was composed of eight patients (46.1±11.6 years) that took a placebo capsule for 12 months. The periodontal examination and the serum levels of DPA, EPA, DHA, and AA were performed at baseline (T0), and 4 (T1), and 12 (T2) months after therapy. Results In the test group, AA and DPA levels had been reduced significantly at T1 (P<0.05). AA and EPA levels had been increased significantly at T2 (P<0.05). The ΔEPA was significantly higher in the test compared to the placebo group at T2-T0 (P=0.02). The AA/EPA had decreased significantly at T1 and T2 relative to baseline (P<0.05). Conclusions Nonsurgical periodontal treatment combined with ω-3 supplementation significantly increased the EPA levels and decreased the AA/EPA ratio in serum after one year follow-up. However, no effect on the clinical outcome of periodontal therapy was observed. Graphical Abstract PMID:25177518

  12. Incorporation of lutein and docosahexaenoic acid from dietary microalgae into the retina in quail.

    PubMed

    Schnebelen-Berthier, Coralie; Acar, Niyazi; Pouillart, Philippe; Thabuis, Clementine; Rodriguez, Bertrand; Depeint, Flore; Clerc, Elise; Mathiaud, Adeline; Bourdillon, Anne; Baert, Blandine; Bretillon, Lionel; Lecerf, Jean-Michel

    2015-03-01

    Lutein and docosahexaenoic acid (DHA) are associated with the prevention of age-related macular degeneration (AMD). Since microalgae are potent natural sources of these nutrients, their nutritional value should be evaluated based on the bioavailability of lutein and DHA for the retina via the plasmatic compartment. In this study, quail were fed for 5 months either with a diet supplemented or deprived with microalgae rich in lutein and DHA. In the microalgae-fed group, the retinal concentrations of lutein and zeaxanthin gradually increased whereas in plasma, these compounds started to increase from the first month of supplementation. We also observed a significant increase in retinal and plasmatic levels of DHA in the microalgae-fed group. In conclusion, the plasmatic and retinal contents of lutein and DHA were significantly increased in quail fed with lutein- and DHA-rich microalgae. Food fortification with microalgae may be an innovative way to increase lutein and DHA consumption in humans. PMID:25657100

  13. Can breeder reproductive status, performance and egg quality be enhanced by supplementation and transition of n-3 fatty acids?

    PubMed

    Delezie, E; Koppenol, A; Buyse, J; Everaert, N

    2016-08-01

    The aim of this experiment was to investigate the effect of n-3 fatty acid (FA) supplemented diets on breeder performance, productivity and egg quality. Breeders (n = 480) were fed the supplemented diet from 18 weeks onwards; the inclusion level of n-3 FA was increased from 1.5% to 3.0% from 34 weeks of age onwards until 48 weeks of age. Ross-308 broiler breeders (n = 480) were fed one of four different diets: a basal diet rich in n-6 FA (control diet) or one of three diets rich in n-3 FA. For the n-3 FA diets, eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA, 20:5 n-3) and docosahexaenoic acid (DHA, 22:6 n-3) were fed to the broiler breeders at different ratios formulated to obtain EPA/DHA ratios of 1/1, 1/2 or 2/1. Differences in performance, reproduction and egg quality parameters due to n-3 supplementation were noted more for the 1.5% followed by the 3.0% fed broilers than their 1.5% supplemented counterparts. Egg weight (p < 0.001) and egg mass (p = 0.003) were significantly lower and feed conversion (p = 0.008) significantly higher for the n-3 FA (at 3.0% inclusion level) fed broilers compared to the control group. For the EPA- and DHA-fed breeders, a higher proportional abdominal fat percentage (p = 0.025) and proportional albumen weight (%) (p = 0.041) were found respectively. Dietary treatments did not affect reproduction. It can be concluded that the results of the present experiment indicate no significant differences between treatments at 1.5% inclusion levels. However, increasing this level to 3.0% is not recommended due to the rather negative effects on the measured parameters. It should be further investigated whether these adverse effects were obtained due to (i) the higher supplementation level, (ii) combining a supplementation level of 1.5% with 3% or (iii) the duration of supplementation. PMID:26854179

  14. Evaluation of docosahexaenoic acid in a dog model of hypertension induced left ventricular hypertrophy.

    PubMed

    Stanley, William C; Cox, James W; Asemu, Girma; O'Connell, Kelly A; Dabkowski, Erinne R; Xu, Wenhong; Ribeiro, Rogerio F; Shekar, Kadambari C; Hoag, Stephen W; Rastogi, Sharad; Sabbah, Hani N; Daneault, Caroline; des Rosiers, Christine

    2013-12-01

    Marine n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids alter cardiac phospholipids and prevent cardiac pathology in rodents subjected to pressure overload. This approach has not been evaluated in humans or large animals with hypertension-induced pathological hypertrophy. We evaluated docosahexaenoic acid (DHA) in old female dogs with hypertension caused by 16 weeks of aldosterone infusion. Aldosterone-induced hypertension resulted in concentric left ventricular (LV) hypertrophy and impaired diastolic function in placebo-treated dogs. DHA supplementation increased DHA and depleted arachidonic acid in cardiac phospholipids, but did not improve LV parameters compared to placebo. Surprisingly, DHA significantly increased serum aldosterone concentration and blood pressure compared to placebo. Cardiac mitochondrial yield was decreased in placebo-treated hypertensive dogs compared to normal animals, which was prevented by DHA. Extensive analysis of mitochondrial function found no differences between DHA and placebo groups. In conclusion, DHA did not favorably impact mitochondrial or LV function in aldosterone hypertensive dogs. PMID:24065618

  15. Krill oil supplementation increases plasma concentrations of eicosapentaenoic and docosahexaenoic acids in overweight and obese men and women.

    PubMed

    Maki, Kevin C; Reeves, Mathew S; Farmer, Mildred; Griinari, Mikko; Berge, Kjetil; Vik, Hogne; Hubacher, Rachel; Rains, Tia M

    2009-09-01

    Antarctic krill, also known as Euphausia superba, is a marine crustacean rich in both eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA) and docosahexaenoic acid (DHA). We tested the hypothesis that krill oil would increase plasma concentrations of EPA and DHA without adversely affecting indicators of safety, tolerability, or selected metabolic parameters. In this randomized, double-blind parallel arm trial, overweight and obese men and women (N = 76) were randomly assigned to receive double-blind capsules containing 2 g/d of krill oil, menhaden oil, or control (olive) oil for 4 weeks. Results showed that plasma EPA and DHA concentrations increased significantly more (P < .001) in the krill oil (178.4 +/- 38.7 and 90.2 +/- 40.3 micromol/L, respectively) and menhaden oil (131.8 +/- 28.0 and 149.9 +/- 30.4 micromol/L, respectively) groups than in the control group (2.9 +/- 13.8 and -1.1 +/- 32.4 micromol/L, respectively). Systolic blood pressure declined significantly more (P < .05) in the menhaden oil (-2.2 +/- 2.0 mm Hg) group than in the control group (3.3 +/- 1.5 mm Hg), and the response in the krill oil group (-0.8 +/- 1.4 mm Hg) did not differ from the other 2 treatments. Blood urea nitrogen declined in the krill oil group as compared with the menhaden oil group (P < .006). No significant differences for other safety variables were noted, including adverse events. In conclusion, 4 weeks of krill oil supplementation increased plasma EPA and DHA and was well tolerated, with no indication of adverse effects on safety parameters. PMID:19854375

  16. Direct supplementation of diet is the most efficient way of enriching broiler meat with n-3 long-chain polyunsaturated fatty acids.

    PubMed

    Ribeiro, T; Lordelo, M M; Alves, S P; Bessa, R J B; Costa, P; Lemos, J P C; Ferreira, L M A; Fontes, C M G A; Prates, J A M

    2013-01-01

    1. Concentrations of beneficial omega-3 long-chain polyunsaturated fatty acids (n-3 LC-PUFAs) in poultry meat can be improved by increasing the concentration of n-3 PUFA in poultry diets. 2. A decrease in flavour quality is, however, usually associated with the dietary supplementation with n-3 PUFA, which is due to the susceptibility of PUFA to oxidation. 3. This experiment was conducted to study the effects of introducing two different n-3 fatty acid sources (extruded linseed and DHA Gold™, a proprietary algal product rich in docosahexaenoic acid), either separately or together, on broiler productive performance, and meat quality, oxidative stability, sensory traits and LC-PUFA profile. 4. Birds given the algal product displayed better productive performances than animals from other groups. 5. The data revealed an improvement in the fatty acid nutritional value of meat from birds receiving the algal product and an inefficient conversion of α-linolenic acid (LNA) into LC-PUFA. 6. Metabolisation of LNA in vivo is not sufficient to improve meat quality in n-3 LC-PUFA and direct supplementation of the diet with n-3 LC-PUFA is a better alternative to modulate an increase in beneficial fatty acids of broiler meat. 7. The overall acceptability of meat was negatively affected by the dietary supplementation with 7.4% of DHA, in contrast to the supplementation with 3.7% of DHA, which showed to be efficient in improving LC-PUFA meat content without affecting its sensory properties. PMID:24397512

  17. CFH Y402H and ARMS2 A69S Polymorphisms and Oral Supplementation with Docosahexaenoic Acid in Neovascular Age-Related Macular Degeneration Patients: The NAT2 Study

    PubMed Central

    Merle, Bénédicte M. J.; Richard, Florence; Benlian, Pascale; Puche, Nathalie; Delcourt, Cécile; Souied, Eric H.

    2015-01-01

    Purpose Genetic susceptibility could be modified by environmental factors and may also influence differential responses to treatments for age-related macular degeneration (AMD). We investigated whether genotype could influence response to docosahexaenoic acid (DHA)-supplementation in the occurrence of choroidal new vessels (CNV). Methods The Nutritional AMD Treatment 2 (NAT2) study was a randomized, placebo-controlled, double-blind, parallel, comparative study, including 250 patients aged 55 to 85 years with early lesions of age-related maculopathy, visual acuity better than 0.4 Logarithm of Minimum Angle of Resolution units in the study eye and neovascular AMD in the fellow eye. Patients were randomized at baseline to receive either 3 daily fish-oil capsules, each containing 280 mg DHA, 90 mg EPA and 2 mg Vitamin E, or placebo. Results Patients carrying the risk allele (C) for CFH Y402H had no statistically significant increased risk for developing CNV in the study eye (Hazard Ratio (HR)=0.97; 95% Confidence Interval (CI): 0.54-1.76 for heterozygous and HR=1.29; 95%CI: 0.69-2.40 for homozygous). Patients carrying the risk allele (T) for ARMS2 A69S had no statistically significant increased risk for developing CNV in the study eye (HR=1.68; 95%CI: 0.91-3.12) for heterozygous and HR=1.78; 95%CI: 0.90-3.52 for homozygous). A significant interaction was observed between CFH Y402H and DHA-supplementation (p=0.01). We showed a protective effect of DHA-supplementation among homozygous non-risk patients. Among these patients, occurrence of CNV was 38.2% in placebo group versus 16.7% in DHA group (p=0.008). Conclusions These results suggest that a genetic predisposition to AMD conferred by the CFH Y402H variant limits the benefit provided by DHA supplementation. Trial Registration ISRCTN registry 98246501 PMID:26132079

  18. Dietary arachidonic acid in perinatal nutrition: a commentary.

    PubMed

    Lauritzen, Lotte; Fewtrell, Mary; Agostoni, Carlo

    2015-01-01

    Arachidonic acid (AA) is supplied together with docosahexaenoic acid (DHA) in infant formulas, but we have limited knowledge about the effects of supplementation with either of these long-chain polyunsaturated fatty acids (LCPUFA) on growth and developmental outcomes. AA is present in similar levels in breast milk throughout the world, whereas the level of DHA is highly diet dependent. Autopsy studies show similar diet-dependent variation in brain DHA, whereas AA is little affected by intake. Early intake of DHA has been shown to affect visual development, but the effect of LCPUFA on neurodevelopment remains to be established. Few studies have found any functional difference between infants supplemented with DHA alone compared to DHA+AA, but some studies show neurodevelopmental advantages in breast-fed infants of mothers supplemented with n-3 LCPUFA alone. It also remains to be established whether the AA/DHA balance could affect allergic and inflammatory outcomes later in life. Disentangling effects of genetic variability and dietary intake on AA and DHA-status and on functional outcomes may be an important step in the process of determining whether AA-intake is of any physiological or clinical importance. However, based on the current evidence we hypothesize that dietary AA plays a minor role on growth and development relative to the impact of dietary DHA. PMID:25314584

  19. Hybrid striped bass feeds based on fish oil, beef tallow, and eicosapentaenoic acid/docosahexaenoic acid supplements: Insight regarding fish oil sparing and demand for -3 long-chain polyunsaturated fatty acids.

    PubMed

    Bowzer, J; Jackson, C; Trushenski, J

    2016-03-01

    Previous research suggests that saturated (SFA) and monounsaturated fatty acid (MUFA) rich lipids, including beef tallow, can make utilization or diet-to-tissue transfer of long-chain polyunsaturated fatty acids (LC-PUFA) more efficient. We hypothesized that using beef tallow as an alternative to fish oil may effectively reduce the LC-PUFA demand of hybrid striped bass × and allow for greater fish oil sparing. Accordingly, we evaluated growth performance and tissue fatty acid profiles of juvenile fish (23.7 ± 0.3 g) fed diets containing menhaden fish oil (considered an ideal source of LC-PUFA for this taxon), beef tallow (BEEF ONLY), or beef tallow amended with purified sources of eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA) and/or docosahexaenoic acid (DHA) to achieve levels corresponding to 50 or 100% of those observed in the FISH ONLY feed. Diets were randomly assigned to quadruplicate tanks of fish ( = 4; 10 fish/tank), and fish were fed assigned diets to apparent satiation once daily for 10 wk. Survival (98-100%) was equivalent among treatments, but weight gain (117-180%), specific growth rate (1.1-1.5% BW/d), feed intake (1.4-1.8% BW/d), thermal growth coefficient (0.50-0.70), and feed conversion ratio (FCR; 1.1-1.4, DM basis) varied. Except for FCR, no differences were observed between the FISH ONLY and BEEF ONLY treatments, but performance was generally numerically superior among fish fed the diets containing beef tallow supplemented with DHA at the 100% or both EPA and DHA at the 50% or 100% level. Tissue fatty acid composition was significantly distorted in favor among fish fed the beef tallow-based feeds; however, profile distortion was most overt in peripheral tissues. Results suggest that beef tallow may be used as a primary lipid source in practical diets for hybrid striped bass, but performance may be improved by supplementation with LC-PUFA, particularly DHA. Furthermore, our results suggest that -3 LC-PUFA requirements reported for hybrid striped bass may not be

  20. Effect of Long-Chain Polyunsaturated Fatty Acid Supplementation on Neurodevelopmental Outcome in Full-Term Infants

    PubMed Central

    Hadders-Algra, Mijna

    2010-01-01

    It takes more than 20 years before the human brain obtains its complex, adult configuration. Most dramatic developmental changes occur prenatally and early postnatally. During development, long-chain polyunsaturated fatty acids (LCPUFA) such as doxosahexaenoic acid (DHA) and arachidonic acid (AA) are accreted in the brain. Since breastfeeding is associated with a better developmental outcome than formula feeding, and human milk in contrast to traditional standard formula contains LCPUFA, the question arose whether LCPUFA supplementation of infant formula may promote the neurodevelopmental outcome. The current paper reviews the evidence available in full-term infants. It concludes that postnatal supplementation of formula with LCPUFA is associated with a beneficial effect on short-term neurodevelopmental outcome. However, no evidence is available that LCPUFA supplementation enhances neurodevelopmental outcome in full-term infants beyond the age of four months. Nevertheless, it should be realized that very limited information is available on the effect of LCPUFA supplementation on neurodevelopmental outcome at school age or later. It is conceivable that effects of LCPUFA supplementation first emerge or re-emerge at school age when more complex neural functions are expressed. PMID:22254056

  1. Long-Term Effect of Docosahexaenoic Acid Feeding on Lipid Composition and Brain Fatty Acid-Binding Protein Expression in Rats

    PubMed Central

    Elsherbiny, Marwa E.; Goruk, Susan; Monckton, Elizabeth A.; Richard, Caroline; Brun, Miranda; Emara, Marwan; Field, Catherine J.; Godbout, Roseline

    2015-01-01

    Arachidonic (AA) and docosahexaenoic acid (DHA) brain accretion is essential for brain development. The impact of DHA-rich maternal diets on offspring brain fatty acid composition has previously been studied up to the weanling stage; however, there has been no follow-up at later stages. Here, we examine the impact of DHA-rich maternal and weaning diets on brain fatty acid composition at weaning and three weeks post-weaning. We report that DHA supplementation during lactation maintains high DHA levels in the brains of pups even when they are fed a DHA-deficient diet for three weeks after weaning. We show that boosting dietary DHA levels for three weeks after weaning compensates for a maternal DHA-deficient diet during lactation. Finally, our data indicate that brain fatty acid binding protein (FABP7), a marker of neural stem cells, is down-regulated in the brains of six-week pups with a high DHA:AA ratio. We propose that elevated levels of DHA in developing brain accelerate brain maturation relative to DHA-deficient brains. PMID:26506385

  2. Enhanced incorporation of dietary DHA into lymph phospholipids by altering its molecular carrier.

    PubMed

    Subbaiah, Papasani V; Dammanahalli, Karigowda J; Yang, Peng; Bi, Jian; O'Donnell, J Michael

    2016-08-01

    Several previous studies indicated that for optimal uptake by the brain, docosahexaenoic acid (DHA) should be present as phospholipid in the plasma. However most of dietary DHA is absorbed as triacylglycerol (TAG) because it is released as free fatty acid during digestion of either TAG-DHA (fish oil) or sn-2-DHA phospholipid (krill oil), and subsequently incorporated into TAG of chylomicrons. We tested the hypothesis that the absorption of DHA as phospholipid can be increased if it is present in the sn-1 position of dietary phospholipid or in lysophosphatidylcholine (LPC), because it would escape the hydrolysis by pancreatic phospholipase A2. We infused micelle containing the DHA either as LPC or as free acid, into the duodenum of lymph cannulated rats, and analyzed the chylomicrons and HDL of the lymph for the DHA-containing lipids. The results show that while the total amount of DHA absorbed was comparable from the two types of micelle, the percentage of DHA recovered in lymph phospholipids was 5 times greater with LPC-DHA, compared to free DHA. Furthermore, the amount of DHA recovered in lymph HDL was increased by 2-fold when LPC-DHA micelle was infused. These results could potentially lead to a novel strategy to increase brain DHA levels through the diet. PMID:27178174

  3. Enhanced incorporation of dietary DHA into lymph phospholipids by altering its molecular carrier

    PubMed Central

    Subbaiah, Papasani V.; Dammanahalli, Karigowda J.; Yang, Peng; Bi, Jian; O’Donnell, J. Michael

    2016-01-01

    Several previous studies indicated that for optimal uptake by the brain, docosahexaenoic acid (DHA) should be present as phospholipid in the plasma. However most of dietary DHA is absorbed as triacylglycerol (TAG) because it is released as free fatty acid during digestion of either TAG-DHA (fish oil) or sn-2-DHA phospholipid (krill oil), and subsequently incorporated into TAG of chylomicrons. We tested the hypothesis that the absorption of DHA as phospholipid can be increased if it is present in the sn-1 position of dietary phospholipid or in lysophosphatidylcholine (LPC), because it would escape the hydrolysis by pancreatic phospholipase A2. We infused micelle containing the DHA either as LPC or as free acid, into the duodenum of lymph cannulated rats, and analyzed the chylomicrons and HDL of the lymph for the DHA-containing lipids. The results show that while the total amount of DHA absorbed was comparable from the two types of micelle, the percentage of DHA recovered in lymph phospholipids was 5 times greater with LPC-DHA, compared to free DHA. Furthermore, the amount of DHA recovered in lymph HDL was increased by 2-fold when LPC-DHA micelle was infused. These results could potentially lead to a novel strategy to increase brain DHA levels through the diet. PMID:27178174

  4. DHA- Rich Fish Oil Improves Complex Reaction Time in Female Elite Soccer Players

    PubMed Central

    Guzmán, José F.; Esteve, Hector; Pablos, Carlos; Pablos, Ana; Blasco, Cristina; Villegas, José A.

    2011-01-01

    Omega-3 fatty acids (n-3) has shown to improve neuromotor function. This study examined the effects of docosahexaenoic acid (DHA) on complex reaction time, precision and efficiency, in female elite soccer players. 24 players from two Spanish female soccer Super League teams were randomly selected and assigned to two experimental groups, then administered, in a double-blind manner, 3.5 g·day-1 of either DHA-rich fish oil (FO =12) or olive oil (OO = 12) over 4 weeks of training. Two measurements (pre- and post-treatment) of complex reaction time and precision were taken. Participants had to press different buttons and pedals with left and right hands and feet, or stop responding, according to visual and auditory stimuli. Multivariate analysis of variance displayed an interaction between supplement administration (pre/post) and experimental group (FO/OO) on complex reaction time (FO pre = 0.713 ± 0.142 ms, FO post = 0.623 ± 0.109 ms, OO pre = 0.682 ± 1.132 ms, OO post = 0.715 ± 0.159 ms; p = 0.004) and efficiency (FO pre = 40.88 ± 17.41, FO post = 57.12 ± 11.05, OO pre = 49.52 ± 14.63, OO post = 49. 50 ± 11.01; p = 0.003). It was concluded that after 4 weeks of supplementation with FO, there was a significant improvement in the neuromotor function of female elite soccer players. Key points The results obtained from the study suggest that supplementation with DHA produced perceptual-motor benefits in female elite athletes. DHA could be a beneficial supplement in sports where decision making and reaction time efficiency are of importance. PMID:24149875

  5. Effects of Omega-3 Fatty Acids Supplement on Antioxidant Enzymes Activity in Type 2 Diabetic Patients

    PubMed Central

    TOORANG, Fatemeh; DJAZAYERY, Abolghassem; DJALALI, Mahmoud

    2016-01-01

    Background: Diabetes is a major cause of death. Oxidative stress mainly caused by hyperglycemia is the primary reason of related complications. Omega-3 fatty acids are prescribed in diabetes but the effect on antioxidant defense is controversial. This study investigated effects of omega-3 supplementation on antioxidant enzymes activity in type 2 diabetic patients. Methods: A randomized, placebo controlled, double blind clinical trial was performed on 90 type2 diabetic patients. The treatment group took, daily, three capsules of omega-3 for two mo, which totally provided 2714mg omega-3 (EPA=1548 mg, DHA=828 mg and 338 mg of other omega=3 fatty acids). Placebo contained 2100 mg sunflower oil (12% SFA, 65% linoleic acid, 23% MUFA), which is the main oil used in the study population. Food intakes, anthropometric and demographic characteristics, and therapeutic regimen data were recorded before and after the intervention. Fasting blood samples were taken before and after the intervention to measure super oxide dismutase, glutathione peroxidase, glutathione reductase, catalase and total antioxidant capacity in erythrocytes. Results: A total of 81 subjects completed the study. Two study groups were similar as regards duration of diabetes, age and the enzymes at baseline. Energy and macro- and micronutrients intakes, weight and hypoglycemic agent consumption were similar in the two groups at baseline and did not change. Supplementation had no effect on antioxidant enzyme status. Glycated hemoglobin showed a significant reduction by supplementation. Conclusion: Daily supplementation of 2714 mg mega-3 for two mo results in a significant reduction in HbA1c level in type2 diabetic patients with no effects on antioxidant enzymes activity. PMID:27141496

  6. Effect of maternal and postweaning folic acid supplementation on colorectal cancer risk in the offspring

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Intrauterine and early life exposure to folic acid has significantly increased in North America owing to folic acid fortification, widespread supplemental use and periconceptional folic acid supplementation. The effect of maternal and postweaning folic acid supplementation on colorectal cancer risk ...

  7. Higher efficacy of dietary DHA provided as a phospholipid than as a triglyceride for brain DHA accretion in neonatal piglets.

    PubMed

    Liu, Lei; Bartke, Nana; Van Daele, Hans; Lawrence, Peter; Qin, Xia; Park, Hui Gyu; Kothapalli, Kumar; Windust, Anthony; Bindels, Jacques; Wang, Zhe; Brenna, J Thomas

    2014-03-01

    Long-chain PUFAs (LCPUFAs) occur in foods primarily in the natural lipid classes, triacylglycerols (TAGs) or phospholipids (PLs). We studied the relative efficacy of the neural omega-3 DHA provided in formula to growing piglets as a dose of (13)C-DHA bound to either TAG or phosphatidylcholine (PC). Piglets were assigned to identical formula-based diets from early life and provided with TAG-(13)C-DHA or PC-(13)C-DHA orally at 16 days. Days later, piglet organs were analyzed for (13)C-DHA and other FA metabolites. PC-(13)C-DHA was 1.9-fold more efficacious for brain gray matter DHA accretion than TAG-(13)C-DHA, and was similarly more efficacious in gray matter synaptosomes, retina, liver, and red blood cells (RBCs). Liver labeling was greatest, implying initial processing in that organ followed by export to other organs, and suggesting that transfer from gut to bloodstream to liver in part drove the difference in relative efficacy for tissue accretion. Apparent retroconversion to 22:5n-3 was more than double for PC-(13)C-DHA and was more prominent in neural tissue than in liver or RBCs. These data directly support greater efficacy for PC as a carrier for LCPUFAs compared with TAG, consistent with previous studies of arachidonic acid and DHA measured in other species. PMID:24470588

  8. Differential effect of maternal diet supplementation with α-Linolenic adcid or n-3 long-chain polyunsaturated fatty acids on glial cell phosphatidylethanolamine and phosphatidylserine fatty acid profile in neonate rat brains

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    Background Dietary long-chain polyunsaturated fatty acids (LC-PUFA) are of crucial importance for the development of neural tissues. The aim of this study was to evaluate the impact of a dietary supplementation in n-3 fatty acids in female rats during gestation and lactation on fatty acid pattern in brain glial cells phosphatidylethanolamine (PE) and phosphatidylserine (PS) in the neonates. Methods Sprague-Dawley rats were fed during the whole gestation and lactation period with a diet containing either docosahexaenoic acid (DHA, 0.55%) and eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA, 0.75% of total fatty acids) or α-linolenic acid (ALA, 2.90%). At two weeks of age, gastric content and brain glial cell PE and PS of rat neonates were analyzed for their fatty acid and dimethylacetal (DMA) profile. Data were analyzed by bivariate and multivariate statistics. Results In the neonates from the group fed with n-3 LC-PUFA, the DHA level in gastric content (+65%, P < 0.0001) and brain glial cell PE (+18%, P = 0.0001) and PS (+15%, P = 0.0009) were significantly increased compared to the ALA group. The filtered correlation analysis (P < 0.05) underlined that levels of dihomo-γ-linolenic acid (DGLA), DHA and n-3 docosapentaenoic acid (DPA) were negatively correlated with arachidonic acid (ARA) and n-6 DPA in PE of brain glial cells. No significant correlation between n-3 and n-6 LC-PUFA were found in the PS dataset. DMA level in PE was negatively correlated with n-6 DPA. DMA were found to occur in brain glial cell PS fraction; in this class DMA level was correlated negatively with DHA and positively with ARA. Conclusion The present study confirms that early supplementation of maternal diet with n-3 fatty acids supplied as LC-PUFA is more efficient in increasing n-3 in brain glial cell PE and PS in the neonate than ALA. Negative correlation between n-6 DPA, a conventional marker of DHA deficiency, and DMA in PE suggests n-6 DPA that potentially be considered as a marker of tissue

  9. Fatty Acid and Phytosterol Content of Commercial Saw Palmetto Supplements

    PubMed Central

    Penugonda, Kavitha; Lindshield, Brian L.

    2013-01-01

    Saw palmetto supplements are one of the most commonly consumed supplements by men with prostate cancer and/or benign prostatic hyperplasia (BPH). Some studies have found significant improvements in BPH and lower urinary tract symptoms (LUTS) with saw palmetto supplementation, whereas others found no benefits. The variation in the efficacy in these trials may be a result of differences in the putative active components, fatty acids and phytosterols, of the saw palmetto supplements. To this end, we quantified the major fatty acids (laurate, myristate, palmitate, stearate, oleate, linoleate) and phytosterols (campesterol, stigmasterol, β-sitosterol) in 20 commercially available saw palmetto supplements using GC-FID and GC-MS, respectively. Samples were classified into liquids, powders, dried berries, and tinctures. Liquid saw palmetto supplements contained significantly higher (p < 0.05) concentrations of total fatty acids (908.5 mg/g), individual fatty acids, total phytosterols (2.04 mg/g), and individual phytosterols, than the other supplement categories. Powders contained significantly higher (p < 0.05) concentrations of total fatty acids than tinctures, which contain negligible amounts of fatty acids (46.3 mg/g) and phytosterols (0.10 mg/g). Our findings suggest that liquid saw palmetto supplements may be the best choice for individuals who want to take a saw palmetto supplement with the highest concentrations of both fatty acids and phytosterols. PMID:24067389

  10. Red Blood Cell Docosapentaenoic Acid (DPA n-3) is Inversely Associated with Triglycerides and C-reactive Protein (CRP) in Healthy Adults and Dose-Dependently Increases Following n-3 Fatty Acid Supplementation

    PubMed Central

    Skulas-Ray, Ann C.; Flock, Michael R.; Richter, Chesney K.; Harris, William S.; West, Sheila G.; Kris-Etherton, Penny M.

    2015-01-01

    The role of the long-chain omega-3 (n-3) fatty acids eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA) and docosahexaenoic acid (DHA) in lipid metabolism and inflammation has been extensively studied; however, little is known about the relationship between docosapentaenoic acid (DPA, 22:5 n-3) and inflammation and triglycerides (TG). We evaluated whether n-3 DPA content of red blood cells (RBC) was associated with markers of inflammation (interleukin-6 (IL-6), tumor necrosis factor α (TNF-α), and C-reactive protein (CRP) and fasting TG prior to n-3 supplementation in two studies (Study 1: n = 115, aged 20–44 years, body mass index (BMI) 20–30 kg/m2, TG = 34–176 mg/dL; Study 2: n = 28, aged 22–65 years, BMI 24–37 kg/m2, TG = 141–339 mg/dL). We also characterized the dose-response effects of n-3 fatty acid supplementation on RBC n-3 DPA after five months of supplementation with fish oil (Study 1: 0, 300, 600, 900, and 1800 mg/day EPA + DHA) and eight weeks of prescription n-3 ethyl esters (Study 2: 0, 850, and 3400 mg/day EPA + DHA). In Study 1, RBC n-3 DPA was inversely correlated with CRP (R2 = 36%, p < 0.001) and with fasting TG (r = −0.30, p = 0.001). The latter finding was replicated in Study 2 (r = −0.33, p = 0.04). In both studies, n-3 supplementation significantly increased RBC n-3 DPA dose-dependently. Relative increases were greater for Study 1, with increases of 29%–61% vs. 14%–26% for Study 2. The associations between RBC n-3 DPA, CRP, and fasting TG may have important implications for the prevention of atherosclerosis and chronic inflammatory diseases and warrant further study. PMID:26247967

  11. ASSOCIATIONS BETWEEN INCREASES IN PLASMA N-3 POLYUNSATURATED FATTY ACIDS FOLLOWING SUPPLEMENTATION AND DECREASES IN ANGER AND ANXIETY IN SUBSTANCE ABUSERS

    PubMed Central

    Buydens-Branchey, Laure; Branchey, Marc; Hibbeln, Joseph R.

    2008-01-01

    Objective Mounting evidence indicates that low levels of n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFAs) play a role in the pathophysiology of a large number of psychiatric disorders. In light of the suboptimal n-3 PUFAs intake due to poor dietary habits among substance abusers and the strong associations between aggression, anxiety and substance use disorders we examined if insurance of adequate intakes of n-3 PUFAs with supplementation would decrease their anger and anxiety scores. Method Substance abusers (n=22) were assigned to either 3 g of n-3 PUFAs, mainly eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA) and docosahexaenoic acid (DHA) or soybean oil in identically looking capsules. The trial was double-blind, randomized and lasted 3 months. Anger and anxiety scales were administered at baseline and once a month thereafter. Blood samples were collected at baseline and at the end of the trial. Results Patients' dietary intakes of n-3 PUFAs fell below recommended levels. Assignment to n-3 PUFA treatment was accompanied by significant decreases in anger and anxiety scores compared to placebo assignment. These changes were associated with increases in plasma levels of both EPA and DHA but an increase in EPA was more robustly correlated with low end-of-trial anxiety scores and an increase in DHA was more robustly correlated with low end-of-trial anger scores. Conclusion These pilot data indicate that ensuring adequate n-3 PUFA intake via supplementation benefits substance abusers by reducing their anger and anxiety levels. The strong correlations between an increase in plasma EPA and lower anxiety scores and between an increase in plasma DHA and lower anger scores suggests a need for the further exploration of the differential responses to these two n-3 PUFAs in different psychiatric conditions. PMID:18060675

  12. Fatty acid binding protein 7 and n-3 poly unsaturated fatty acid supply in early rat brain development.

    PubMed

    Maximin, Elise; Langelier, Bénédicte; Aïoun, Josiane; Al-Gubory, Kaïs H; Bordat, Christian; Lavialle, Monique; Heberden, Christine

    2016-03-01

    Fatty acid binding protein 7 (FABP7), abundant in the embryonic brain, binds with the highest affinity to docosahexaenoic acid (DHA) and is expressed in the early stages of embryogenesis. Here, we have examined the consequences of the exposure to different DHA levels and of the in utero depletion of FABP7 on early rat brain development. Neurodevelopment was evaluated through the contents of two proteins, connexin 43 (Cx43) and cyclin-dependent kinase 5 (CDK5), both involved in neuroblast proliferation, differentiation, and migration. The dams were fed with diets presenting different DHA contents, from deficiency to supplementation. DHA brain embryos contents already differed at embryonic day 11.5 and the differences kept increasing with time. Cx43 and CDK5 contents were positively associated with the brain DHA levels. When FABP7 was depleted in vivo by injections of siRNA in the telencephalon, the enhancement of the contents of both proteins was lost in supplemented animals, but FABP7 depletion did not modify phospholipid compositions regardless of the diets. Thus, FABP7 is a necessary mediator of the effect of DHA on these proteins synthesis, but its role in DHA uptake is not critical, although FABP7 is localized in phospholipid-rich areas. Our study shows that high contents of DHA associated with FABP7 are necessary to promote early brain development, which prompted us to recommend DHA supplementation early in pregnancy. PMID:26037116

  13. Synthesis of docosahexaenoic acid from eicosapentaenoic acid in retina neurons protects photoreceptors from oxidative stress.

    PubMed

    Simón, María Victoria; Agnolazza, Daniela L; German, Olga Lorena; Garelli, Andrés; Politi, Luis E; Agbaga, Martin-Paul; Anderson, Robert E; Rotstein, Nora P

    2016-03-01

    Oxidative stress is involved in activating photoreceptor death in several retinal degenerations. Docosahexaenoic acid (DHA), the major polyunsaturated fatty acid in the retina, protects cultured retina photoreceptors from apoptosis induced by oxidative stress and promotes photoreceptor differentiation. Here, we investigated whether eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA), a metabolic precursor to DHA, had similar effects and whether retinal neurons could metabolize EPA to DHA. Adding EPA to rat retina neuronal cultures increased opsin expression and protected photoreceptors from apoptosis induced by the oxidants paraquat and hydrogen peroxide (H2 O2 ). Palmitic, oleic, and arachidonic acids had no protective effect, showing the specificity for DHA. We found that EPA supplementation significantly increased DHA percentage in retinal neurons, but not EPA percentage. Photoreceptors and glial cells expressed Δ6 desaturase (FADS2), which introduces the last double bond in DHA biosynthetic pathway. Pre-treatment of neuronal cultures with CP-24879 hydrochloride, a Δ5/Δ6 desaturase inhibitor, prevented EPA-induced increase in DHA percentage and completely blocked EPA protection and its effect on photoreceptor differentiation. These results suggest that EPA promoted photoreceptor differentiation and rescued photoreceptors from oxidative stress-induced apoptosis through its elongation and desaturation to DHA. Our data show, for the first time, that isolated retinal neurons can synthesize DHA in culture. Docosahexaenoic acid (DHA), the major polyunsaturated fatty acid in retina photoreceptors, and its precursor, eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA) have multiple beneficial effects. Here, we show that retina neurons in vitro express the desaturase FADS2 and can synthesize DHA from EPA. Moreover, addition of EPA to these cultures protects photoreceptors from oxidative stress and promotes their differentiation through its metabolization to DHA. PMID:26662863

  14. Omega-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids and vegetarian diets.

    PubMed

    Saunders, Angela V; Davis, Brenda C; Garg, Manohar L

    2013-08-19

    While intakes of the omega-3 fatty acid α-linolenic acid (ALA) are similar in vegetarians and non-vegetarians, intakes of eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA) and docosahexaenoic acid (DHA) are low in vegetarians and virtually absent in vegans. Plasma, blood and tissue levels of EPA and DHA are lower in vegetarians than in non-vegetarians, although the clinical significance of this is unknown. Vegetarians do not exhibit clinical signs of DHA deficiency, but further research is required to ascertain whether levels observed in vegetarians are sufficient to support optimal health. ALA is endogenously converted to EPA and DHA, but the process is slow and inefficient and is affected by genetics, sex, age and dietary composition. Vegetarians can take practical steps to optimise conversion of ALA to EPA and DHA, including reducing intake of linoleic acid. There are no official separate recommendations for intake of fatty acids by vegetarians. However, we suggest that vegetarians double the current adequate intake of ALA if no direct sources of EPA and DHA are consumed. Vegetarians with increased needs or reduced conversion ability may receive some advantage from DHA and EPA supplements derived from microalgae. A supplement of 200-300 mg/day of DHA and EPA is suggested for those with increased needs, such as pregnant and lactating women, and those with reduced conversion ability, such as older people or those who have chronic disease (eg, diabetes). PMID:25369925

  15. Single amino acid supplementation in aminoacidopathies: a systematic review

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Aminoacidopathies are a group of rare and diverse disorders, caused by the deficiency of an enzyme or transporter involved in amino acid metabolism. For most aminoacidopathies, dietary management is the mainstay of treatment. Such treatment includes severe natural protein restriction, combined with protein substitution with all amino acids except the amino acids prior to the metabolic block and enriched with the amino acid that has become essential by the enzymatic defect. For some aminoacidopathies, supplementation of one or two amino acids, that have not become essential by the enzymatic defect, has been suggested. This so-called single amino acid supplementation can serve different treatment objectives, but evidence is limited. The aim of the present article is to provide a systematic review on the reasons for applications of single amino acid supplementation in aminoacidopathies treated with natural protein restriction and synthetic amino acid mixtures. PMID:24422943

  16. Impact of different ratios of Omega-6 polyundaturated fatty acids to eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA) plus docosahexaenoic acid (DHA) on atherosclerotic lesion formation and inflammatory factors in the LDL receptor knockout mouse

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The objective was to assess the effect of different ratios of omega-6 to EPA plus DHA on atherosclerotic lesion formation and plasma inflammatory markers in LDLr-/- mice. Mice (n=10/group) were fed the following diets for 32 weeks: high fat (20% w/w) without EPA and DHA (HF omega-6), and high fat wi...

  17. Altered erythrocyte membrane fatty acid profile in typical Rett syndrome: effects of omega-3 polyunsaturated fatty acid supplementation.

    PubMed

    Signorini, Cinzia; De Felice, Claudio; Leoncini, Silvia; Durand, Thierry; Galano, Jean-Marie; Cortelazzo, Alessio; Zollo, Gloria; Guerranti, Roberto; Gonnelli, Stefano; Caffarelli, Carla; Rossi, Marcello; Pecorelli, Alessandra; Valacchi, Giuseppe; Ciccoli, Lucia; Hayek, Joussef

    2014-11-01

    This study mainly aims at examining the erythrocyte membrane fatty acid (FAs) profile in Rett syndrome (RTT), a genetically determined neurodevelopmental disease. Early reports suggest a beneficial effects of omega-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids (ω-3 PUFAs) on disease severity in RTT. A total of 24 RTT patients were assigned to ω-3 PUFAs-containing fish oil for 12 months in a randomized controlled study (average DHA and EPA doses of 72.9, and 117.1mg/kgb.w./day, respectively). A distinctly altered FAs profile was detectable in RTT, with deficient ω-6 PUFAs, increased saturated FAs and reduced trans 20:4 FAs. FAs changes were found to be related to redox imbalance, subclinical inflammation, and decreased bone density. Supplementation with ω-3 PUFAs led to improved ω-6/ω-3 ratio and serum plasma lipid profile, decreased PUFAs peroxidation end-products, normalization of biochemical markers of inflammation, and reduction of bone hypodensity as compared to the untreated RTT group. Our data indicate that a significant FAs abnormality is detectable in the RTT erythrocyte membranes and is partially rescued by ω-3 PUFAs. PMID:25240461

  18. Docosahexaenoic Acid and Cognition throughout the Lifespan

    PubMed Central

    Weiser, Michael J.; Butt, Christopher M.; Mohajeri, M. Hasan

    2016-01-01

    Docosahexaenoic acid (DHA) is the predominant omega-3 (n-3) polyunsaturated fatty acid (PUFA) found in the brain and can affect neurological function by modulating signal transduction pathways, neurotransmission, neurogenesis, myelination, membrane receptor function, synaptic plasticity, neuroinflammation, membrane integrity and membrane organization. DHA is rapidly accumulated in the brain during gestation and early infancy, and the availability of DHA via transfer from maternal stores impacts the degree of DHA incorporation into neural tissues. The consumption of DHA leads to many positive physiological and behavioral effects, including those on cognition. Advanced cognitive function is uniquely human, and the optimal development and aging of cognitive abilities has profound impacts on quality of life, productivity, and advancement of society in general. However, the modern diet typically lacks appreciable amounts of DHA. Therefore, in modern populations, maintaining optimal levels of DHA in the brain throughout the lifespan likely requires obtaining preformed DHA via dietary or supplemental sources. In this review, we examine the role of DHA in optimal cognition during development, adulthood, and aging with a focus on human evidence and putative mechanisms of action. PMID:26901223

  19. Metabolic effects of krill oil are essentially similar to those of fish oil but at lower dose of EPA and DHA, in healthy volunteers.

    PubMed

    Ulven, Stine M; Kirkhus, Bente; Lamglait, Amandine; Basu, Samar; Elind, Elisabeth; Haider, Trond; Berge, Kjetil; Vik, Hogne; Pedersen, Jan I

    2011-01-01

    The purpose of the present study is to investigate the effects of krill oil and fish oil on serum lipids and markers of oxidative stress and inflammation and to evaluate if different molecular forms, triacylglycerol and phospholipids, of omega-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFAs) influence the plasma level of EPA and DHA differently. One hundred thirteen subjects with normal or slightly elevated total blood cholesterol and/or triglyceride levels were randomized into three groups and given either six capsules of krill oil (N = 36; 3.0 g/day, EPA + DHA = 543 mg) or three capsules of fish oil (N = 40; 1.8 g/day, EPA + DHA = 864 mg) daily for 7 weeks. A third group did not receive any supplementation and served as controls (N = 37). A significant increase in plasma EPA, DHA, and DPA was observed in the subjects supplemented with n-3 PUFAs as compared with the controls, but there were no significant differences in the changes in any of the n-3 PUFAs between the fish oil and the krill oil groups. No statistically significant differences in changes in any of the serum lipids or the markers of oxidative stress and inflammation between the study groups were observed. Krill oil and fish oil thus represent comparable dietary sources of n-3 PUFAs, even if the EPA + DHA dose in the krill oil was 62.8% of that in the fish oil. PMID:21042875

  20. Effects of increasing docosahexaenoic acid intake in human healthy volunteers on lymphocyte activation and monocyte apoptosis

    PubMed Central

    Mebarek, Saïda; Ermak, Natalia; Benzaria, Amal; Vicca, Stéphanie; Dubois, Madeleine; Némoz, Georges; Laville, Martine; Lacour, Bernard; Véricel, Evelyne; Lagarde, Michel; Prigent, Annie-France

    2009-01-01

    Dietary intake of long-chain n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids (n-3 PUFA) has been reported to decrease several markers of lymphocyte activation and modulate monocyte susceptibility to apoptosis. However most human studies examined the combined effect of docosahexaenoic acid (DHA) and eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA) using relatively high daily amounts of n-3 PUFA. The present study investigated the effects of increasing doses of DHA added to the regular diet of human healthy volunteers on lymphocyte response to tetradecanoylphorbol acetate (TPA) plus ionomycin activation, and on monocyte apoptosis induced by oxidized LDL (oxLDL). Eight subjects were supplemented with increasing daily doses of DHA (200, 400, 800 and 1600mg) in a triacylglycerol form containing DHA as the only PUFA, for two weeks each dose. DHA intake dose-dependently increased the proportion of DHA in mononuclear cell phospholipids, the augmentation being significant after 400mg DHA/day. The TPA plus ionomycin-stimulated IL-2 mRNA level started to increase after ingestion of 400mg DHA/day, with a maximum after 800mg intake, and was positively correlated (P<0.003) with DHA enrichment in cell phospholipids. The treatment of monocytes by oxLDL before DHA supplementation drastically reduced mitochondrial membrane potential as compared with native LDL treatment. OxLDL apoptotic effect was significantly attenuated after 400mg DHA/day and the protective effect was maintained throughout the experiment, although to a lesser extent at higher doses. The present results show that supplementation of the human diet with low DHA dosages improves lymphocyte activability. It also increases monocyte resistance to oxLDL-induced apoptosis, which may be beneficial in the prevention of atherosclerosis. PMID:18710607

  1. Polymorphisms in Fatty Acid Desaturase (FADS) Gene Cluster: Effects on Glycemic Controls Following an Omega-3 Polyunsaturated Fatty Acids (PUFA) Supplementation

    PubMed Central

    Cormier, Hubert; Rudkowska, Iwona; Thifault, Elisabeth; Lemieux, Simone; Couture, Patrick; Vohl, Marie-Claude

    2013-01-01

    Changes in desaturase activity are associated with insulin sensitivity and may be associated with type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM). Polymorphisms (SNPs) in the fatty acid desaturase (FADS) gene cluster have been associated with the homeostasis model assessment of insulin sensitivity (HOMA-IS) and serum fatty acid composition. Objective: To investigate whether common genetic variations in the FADS gene cluster influence fasting glucose (FG) and fasting insulin (FI) responses following a 6-week n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFA) supplementation. Methods: 210 subjects completed a 2-week run-in period followed by a 6-week supplementation with 5 g/d of fish oil (providing 1.9 g–2.2 g of EPA + 1.1 g of DHA). Genotyping of 18 SNPs of the FADS gene cluster covering 90% of all common genetic variations (minor allele frequency ≥ 0.03) was performed. Results: Carriers of the minor allele for rs482548 (FADS2) had increased plasma FG levels after the n-3 PUFA supplementation in a model adjusted for FG levels at baseline, age, sex, and BMI. A significant genotype*supplementation interaction effect on FG levels was observed for rs482548 (p = 0.008). For FI levels, a genotype effect was observed with one SNP (rs174456). For HOMA-IS, several genotype*supplementation interaction effects were observed for rs7394871, rs174602, rs174570, rs7482316 and rs482548 (p = 0.03, p = 0.01, p = 0.03, p = 0.05 and p = 0.07; respectively). Conclusion: Results suggest that SNPs in the FADS gene cluster may modulate plasma FG, FI and HOMA-IS levels in response to n-3 PUFA supplementation. PMID:24705214

  2. Interrelationships between maternal DHA in erythrocytes, milk and adipose tissue. Is 1 wt% DHA the optimal human milk content? Data from four Tanzanian tribes differing in lifetime stable intakes of fish.

    PubMed

    Luxwolda, Martine F; Kuipers, Remko S; Koops, Jan-Hein; Muller, Stefan; de Graaf, Deti; Dijck-Brouwer, D A Janneke; Muskiet, Frits A J

    2014-03-14

    Little is known about the interrelationships between maternal and infant erythrocyte-DHA, milk-DHA and maternal adipose tissue (AT)-DHA contents. We studied these relationships in four tribes in Tanzania (Maasai, Pare, Sengerema and Ukerewe) differing in their lifetime intakes of fish. Cross-sectional samples were collected at delivery and after 3 d and 3 months of exclusive breast-feeding. We found that intra-uterine biomagnification is a sign of low maternal DHA status, that genuine biomagnification occurs during lactation, that lactating mothers with low DHA status cannot augment their infants' DHA status, and that lactating mothers lose DHA independent of their DHA status. A maternal erythrocyte-DHA content of 8 wt% was found to correspond with a mature milk-DHA content of 1·0 wt% and with subcutaneous and abdominal (omentum) AT-DHA contents of about 0·39 and 0·52 wt%, respectively. Consequently, 1 wt% DHA might be a target for Western human milk and infant formula that has milk arachidonic acid, EPA and linoleic acid contents of 0·55, 0·22 and 9·32 wt%, respectively. With increasing DHA status, the erythrocyte-DHA content reaches a plateau of about 9 wt%, and it plateaus more readily than milk-DHA and AT-DHA contents. Compared with the average Tanzanian-Ukerewe woman, the average US woman has four times lower AT-DHA content (0·4 v. 0·1 wt%) and five times lower mature milk-DHA output (301 v. 60 mg/d), which contrasts with her estimated 1·8-2·6 times lower mobilisable AT-DHA content (19 v. 35-50 g). PMID:24175990

  3. Enhancement of Anti-Dermatitis Potential of Clobetasol Propionate by DHA [Docosahexaenoic Acid] Rich Algal Oil Nanoemulsion Gel

    PubMed Central

    Sarfaraz Alam, Mohammad; Ali, Mohammad Sajid; Zakir, Foziyah; Alam, Nawazish; Intakhab Alam, Mohammad; Ahmad, Faruque; Siddiqui, Masoom Raza; Ali, Mohammad Daud; Ansari, Mohammad Salahuddin; Ahmad, Sarfaraz; Ali, Maksood

    2016-01-01

    The aim of the present study was to investigate the potential of nanoemulsion formulation for topical delivery of Clobetasol propionate (CP) using algal oil (containing omega-3 fatty acids) as the oil phase. CP has anti-inflammatory, immunomodulatory and antiproliferative activities. However, its clinical use is restricted to some extent due to its poor permeability across the skin. Algal oil was used as the oil phase and was also exploited for its anti-inflammatory effect along with CP in the treatment of inflammation associated with dermatitis. Nanoemulsion formulations were prepared by aqueous phase titration method, using algal oil, tween 20, PEG 200 and water as the oil phase, surfactant, co-surfactant and aqueous phase respectively. Furthermore, different formulations were subjected to evaluate for ex-vivo permeation and in-vivo anti-inflammatory, irritation and contact dermatitis studies. The optimized nanoemulsion was converted into hydrogel-thickened nanoemulsion system (HTN) using carbopol 971 and had a viscosity of 97.57 ± 0.04 PaS. The optimized formulation had small average diameter (120 nm) with zeta potential of -37.01 mV which indicated good long-term stability. In-vivo anti-inflammatory activity indicated 84.55% and 41.04% inhibition of inflammation for drug loaded and placebo formulations respectively. The assessment of skin permeation was done by DSC and histopathology studies which indicated changes in the structure of epidermal membrane of skin. Contact dermatitis reveals that the higher NTPDase activity in the treatment with the CP-loaded nanoemulsion could be related to the higher anti-inflammatory effect in comparison with placebo nanoemulsion gel. PMID:27610146

  4. Enhancement of Anti-Dermatitis Potential of Clobetasol Propionate by DHA [Docosahexaenoic Acid] Rich Algal Oil Nanoemulsion Gel.

    PubMed

    Sarfaraz Alam, Mohammad; Ali, Mohammad Sajid; Zakir, Foziyah; Alam, Nawazish; Intakhab Alam, Mohammad; Ahmad, Faruque; Siddiqui, Masoom Raza; Ali, Mohammad Daud; Ansari, Mohammad Salahuddin; Ahmad, Sarfaraz; Ali, Maksood

    2016-01-01

    The aim of the present study was to investigate the potential of nanoemulsion formulation for topical delivery of Clobetasol propionate (CP) using algal oil (containing omega-3 fatty acids) as the oil phase. CP has anti-inflammatory, immunomodulatory and antiproliferative activities. However, its clinical use is restricted to some extent due to its poor permeability across the skin. Algal oil was used as the oil phase and was also exploited for its anti-inflammatory effect along with CP in the treatment of inflammation associated with dermatitis. Nanoemulsion formulations were prepared by aqueous phase titration method, using algal oil, tween 20, PEG 200 and water as the oil phase, surfactant, co-surfactant and aqueous phase respectively. Furthermore, different formulations were subjected to evaluate for ex-vivo permeation and in-vivo anti-inflammatory, irritation and contact dermatitis studies. The optimized nanoemulsion was converted into hydrogel-thickened nanoemulsion system (HTN) using carbopol 971 and had a viscosity of 97.57 ± 0.04 PaS. The optimized formulation had small average diameter (120 nm) with zeta potential of -37.01 mV which indicated good long-term stability. In-vivo anti-inflammatory activity indicated 84.55% and 41.04% inhibition of inflammation for drug loaded and placebo formulations respectively. The assessment of skin permeation was done by DSC and histopathology studies which indicated changes in the structure of epidermal membrane of skin. Contact dermatitis reveals that the higher NTPDase activity in the treatment with the CP-loaded nanoemulsion could be related to the higher anti-inflammatory effect in comparison with placebo nanoemulsion gel. PMID:27610146

  5. Lipidomic analysis of Arabidopsis seed genetically engineered to contain DHA

    PubMed Central

    Zhou, Xue-Rong; Callahan, Damien L.; Shrestha, Pushkar; Liu, Qing; Petrie, James R.; Singh, Surinder P.

    2014-01-01

    Metabolic engineering of omega-3 long-chain (≥C20) polyunsaturated fatty acids (ω3 LC-PUFA) in oilseeds has been one of the key targets in recent years. By expressing a transgenic pathway for enhancing the synthesis of the ω3 LC-PUFA docosahexaenoic acid (DHA) from endogenous α-linolenic acid (ALA), we obtained the production of fish oil-like proportions of DHA in Arabidopsis seed oil. Liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry (LC-MS) was used to characterize the triacylglycerol (TAG), diacylglycerol (DAG) and phospholipid (PL) lipid classes in the transgenic and wild type Arabidopsis seeds at both developing and mature stages. The analysis identified the appearance of several abundant DHA-containing phosphatidylcholine (PC), DAG and TAG molecular species in mature seeds. The relative abundances of PL, DAG, and TAG species showed a preferred combination of LC-PUFA with ALA in the transgenic seeds, where LC-PUFA were esterified in positions usually occupied by 20:1ω9. Trace amounts of di-DHA PC and tri-DHA TAG were identified and confirmed by high resolution MS/MS. Studying the lipidome in transgenic seeds provided insights into where DHA accumulated and combined with other fatty acids of neutral and phospholipids from the developing and mature seeds. PMID:25225497

  6. Effects of supplementing n-3 fatty acid enriched eggs and walnuts on cardiovascular disease risk markers in healthy free-living lacto-ovo-vegetarians: a randomized, crossover, free-living intervention study

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Plant and marine n-3 fatty acids (FA) may favorably modify select markers of cardiovascular disease risk. Whether supplementing the habitual diet of lacto-ovo-vegetarians (LOV) with walnuts (containing α-linolenic acid, ALA) and n-3 FA enriched eggs (containing primarily docosahexaenoic acid, DHA and ALA) would have equivalent effects on CVD risk factors is explored in this study. Methods In this study, 20 healthy free-living LOVs following their habitual diet were randomly assigned in a crossover design to receive one of three supplements: n-3 FA enriched egg (6/week), walnuts (28.4 g, 6/week) or a standard egg, 6/week (control) for 8 weeks each with 4-wk washout between treatments. Erythrocyte membrane fatty acids, serum lipids and inflammatory markers were measured at the end of each treatment. Results Dietary compliance was observed by an expected increase in erythrocyte membrane ALA following the walnut treatment and in DHA following the n-3 FA enriched egg treatment. Walnut treatment lowered serum triacylglycerol, total cholesterol and Apo B (p < 0.05) compared to the standard egg but not the n-3 FA enriched egg treatment. However, walnut treatment significantly reduced total: HDL cholesterol ratio compared to both egg treatments. There were no differences between treatments for any of the inflammatory markers. Conclusions For LOV, a direct source of DHA such as n-3 FA enriched eggs seems necessary to increase membrane levels of DHA. However for producing an overall favorable blood lipid profile, daily consumption of a handful of walnuts rich in ALA may be a preferred option for lacto-ovo vegetarian. PMID:24673793

  7. Differential effects of eicosapentaenoic and docosahexaenoic acids upon oxidant-stimulated release and uptake of arachidonic acid in human lymphoma U937 cells.

    PubMed

    Obajimi, Oluwakemi; Black, Kenneth D; MacDonald, Donald J; Boyle, Rose M; Glen, Iain; Ross, Brian M

    2005-08-01

    The use of n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids, as found in fish-oil derived dietary supplements, as anti-inflammatory agents is supported by a variety of biochemical and physiological data. Recent studies investigating the therapeutic potential of long chain (>C20) n-3 fatty acids in mental illness have lead to the conclusion, however, that not all n-3 fatty acid types are equally efficacious. In particular eicosapentaeoic acid (EPA) appears to possess antidepressant and antipsychotic activity, while docosahexaenoic acid (DHA) does not, an effect suggested to be due to a differential ability to antagonize arachidonic acid (AA)-dependent cell signalling. In this study, we examine the effect of EPA and DHA supplementation upon uptake and release of arachidonic acid stimulated by tert-butyl hydroperoxide/Fe2+ in U937 cells. Oxidant-stimulated 3H-AA release from cells was enhanced by pre-treatment with EPA, DHA and AA, but not stearic or oleic acids for 18 days, with the order of effect magnitude being EPA > DHA = AA. Supplementation of cells for 1 day gave qualitatively similar results, although the effect magnitude was smaller. To determine whether enhanced release was due to decreased reuptake of AA, cells were cultured in the presence of 10 microM fatty acids. Pre-treatment of cells with EPA, and to a lesser extent AA, but not DHA, inhibited uptake of 3H-AA measured subsequent to the removal of unesterified fatty acids. This study suggests that, in U937 cells, EPA can alter the rate of uptake and release of AA from phospholipids in an exposure time-dependent manner, whereas DHA has no or little effect. Our results predict that EPA will have a more pronounced effect upon AA-dependent processes compared to DHA, and suggests that the relative amounts of EPA and DHA in fish oil supplements may modify their biochemical, and potentially, behavioural effects. PMID:15967385

  8. Restoring the DHA levels in the brains of Zellweger patients.

    PubMed

    Martinez, M

    2001-01-01

    Patients with the Zellweger syndrome and its variants have very low levels of docosahexaenoic acid (DHA) in the brain, retina, and other tissues. Such a marked DHA deficiency could be related to the pathogenesis of peroxisomal disorders. Therefore, restoring the DHA levels in these patients can probably improve the clinical course of the disease. With this rationale, 20 patients with generalized peroxisomal disorders have been treated to date with DHA ethyl ester, at daily doses of 100-500 mg, for variable periods of time. Treatment has been always accompanied by a nutritious diet, normal for the age, in order to provide all the necessary nutrients and avoid a polyunsaturated fatty acid (PUFA) imbalance. The most constant improvement has been normalization of the DHA levels and liver function. Vision has improved in about half the patients and muscle tone has generally increased. Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) examination revealed improvement of myelination in 9 patients. Significantly, the clinical improvement has been most marked in those patients who started the treatment before 6 mo of age. Biochemically, the plasma very long-chain fatty acids (VLCFA) 26:0 and 26:1n-9 decreased markedly despite the complete diet provided. In erythrocytes, the plasmalogen ratio 18: ODMA/18:0 increased in most cases, and sometimes even normalized. All these beneficial effects suggest that DHA deficiency plays a fundamental role in the pathogenesis of peroxisomal disease. Because DHA accretion is maximal during early brain development, it is essential to initiate the treatment as soon as possible. Otherwise, restoration of brain DHA levels and prevention of further damage will not be possible. PMID:11478386

  9. Docosahexaenoic acid at the sn-2 position of structured triacylglycerols improved n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acid assimilation in tissues of hamsters.

    PubMed

    Bandarra, Narcisa M; Lopes, Paula A; Martins, Susana V; Ferreira, Júlia; Alfaia, Cristina M; Rolo, Eva A; Correia, Jorge J; Pinto, Rui M A; Ramos-Bueno, Rebeca P; Batista, Irineu; Prates, José A M; Guil-Guerrero, José L

    2016-05-01

    In this study, we hypothesized that the incorporation of docosahexaenoic acid (DHA) in tissues will be higher when it is ingested as triacylglycerols (TAG) structured at the sn-2 position, which enhances efficacy and health benefits of dietary DHA n-3 supplementation. Ten-week-old Golden Syrian male hamsters were randomly allocated into 4 dietary groups with 10 animals in each: linseed oil (LSO; control group), fish oil (FO), fish oil ethyl esters (FO-EE), and structured DHA at the sn-2 position of TAG (DHA-SL). After 12 weeks, there were no variations in the hamsters' body composition parameters across dietary groups. The DHA-SL diet had the lowest values of total cholesterol, low-density lipoprotein cholesterol, high-density lipoprotein cholesterol, total lipids, and aspartate aminotransferase activity, whereas the inverse was observed for the FO diet. Glucose was increased in the LSO diet without affecting insulin and insulin resistance markers. Whereas n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acid was increased in the brain of hamsters fed the DHA-SL diet, higher levels of n-6 polyunsaturated fatty acid were observed in the liver and erythrocytes of the LSO. The highest omega-3 index was obtained with the DHA-SL diet. The principal component analyses discriminated DHA from other metabolites and set apart 4 clusters matching the 4 diets. Similarly, liver, erythrocytes, and brain were separated from each other, pointing toward an individual signature on fatty acid deposition. The structured sn-2 position DHA-containing TAG ameliorated blood lipids and fatty acid incorporation, in particular eicosapentaenoic acid and DHA in liver, erythrocytes, and brain, relative to commercially FOs, thus improving the health benefits of DHA due to its higher bioavailability. PMID:27101763

  10. Genotoxicity and subchronic toxicity studies of DHA-rich oil in rats.

    PubMed

    Blum, René; Kiy, Thomas; Tanaka, Satohiro; Wong, Andrea W; Roberts, Ashley

    2007-12-01

    Polyunsaturated fatty acids, including docosahexaenoic acid (DHA), are natural constituents of the human diet. DHA-algal oil is produced through the use of the non-toxigenic and non-pathogenic marine protist, Ulkenia sp. The safety of DHA-algal oil was assessed in a subchronic toxicity study and in genotoxicity studies. In a 90-day study, rats were orally administered water or DHA-algal oil at concentrations of 0, 500, 1000, and 2000 mg/kg in combination with 2000, 1500, 1000 or 0 mg/kg DHA-containing fish oil, respectively. Additional animals were administered water, 2000 mg/kg DHA-algal oil, or 2000 mg/kg fish oil for 90 days, followed by a 4-week recovery phase. No treatment-related effects were observed in clinical observations, food and water consumption, mortality, gross pathology, and histopathology. Increased body weights and liver weights in oil-treated groups were attributed to the large lipid load and were not regarded as toxicologically significant. Furthermore, no treatment-related differences in the measured parameters between the DHA-algal oil and fish oil groups were detected. In genotoxicity experiments, DHA-algal oil exerted no mutagenic activity in various bacterial strains, nor did it induce chromosomal aberrations in Chinese hamster fibroblast cells. These results support the safety of DHA-algal oil as a dietary source of DHA. PMID:17933446

  11. Maternal DHA and the Development of Attention in Infancy and Toddlerhood

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Colombo, John; Kannass, Kathleen N.; Jill Shaddy, D.; Kundurthi, Shashi; Maikranz, Julie M.; Anderson, Christa J.; Blaga, Otilia M.; Carlson, Susan E.

    2004-01-01

    Infants were followed longitudinally to document the relationship between docosahexaenoic acid (DHA) levels and the development of attention. Erythrocyte (red-blood cell; RBC) phospholipid DHA (percentage of total fatty acids) was measured from infants and mothers at delivery. Infants were assessed in infant-control habituation at 4, 6, and 8…

  12. Addition of DHA Synergistically Enhances the Efficacy of Regorafenib for Kidney Cancer Therapy.

    PubMed

    Kim, Jeffrey; Ulu, Arzu; Wan, Debin; Yang, Jun; Hammock, Bruce D; Weiss, Robert H

    2016-05-01

    Kidney cancer is the sixth most common cancer in the United States, and its incidence is increasing. The treatment of this malignancy took a major step forward with the recent introduction of targeted therapeutics, such as kinase inhibitors. Unfortunately, kinase inhibition is associated with the onset of resistance after 1 to 2 years of treatment. Regorafenib, like many multikinase inhibitors, was designed to block the activities of several key kinase pathways involved in oncogenesis (Ras/Raf/MEK/ERK) and tumor angiogenesis (VEGF-receptors), and we have recently shown that it also possesses soluble epoxide hydrolase (sEH) inhibitory activity, which may be contributing to its salutary effects in patients. Because sEH inhibition results in increases in the DHA-derived epoxydocosapentaenoic acids that we have previously described to possess anticancer properties, we asked whether the addition of DHA to a therapeutic regimen in the presence of regorafenib would enhance its beneficial effects in vivo We now show that the combination of regorafenib and DHA results in a synergistic effect upon tumor invasiveness as well as p-VEGFR attenuation. In addition, this combination showed a reduction in tumor weights, greater than each agent alone, in a mouse xenograft model of human renal cell carcinoma (RCC), yielding the expected oxylipin profiles; these data were supported in several RCC cell lines that showed similar results in vitro Because DHA is the predominant component of fish oil, our data suggest that this nontoxic dietary supplement could be administered with regorafenib during therapy for advanced RCC and could be the basis of a clinical trial. Mol Cancer Ther; 15(5); 890-8. ©2016 AACR. PMID:26921392

  13. The effect of docosahexaenoic acid on t10, c12-conjugated linoleic acid-induced changes in fatty acid composition of mouse liver, adipose and muscle

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Background: Concomitant supplementation of 1.5% docosahexaenoic acid (22:6 n-3; DHA) with 0.5% t10, c12- conjugated linoleic acid (18:2 n-6; CLA) prevented the CLA-induced increase in expression of hepatic genes involved in fatty acid synthesis and the decrease in expression of genes involved in fat...

  14. A Correlation Study of DHA Dietary Intake and Plasma, Erythrocyte and Breast Milk DHA Concentrations in Lactating Women from Coastland, Lakeland, and Inland Areas of China

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Meng-Jiao; Li, Hong-Tian; Yu, Li-Xia; Xu, Gao-Sheng; Ge, Hua; Wang, Lin-Lin; Zhang, Ya-Li; Zhou, Yu-Bo; Li, You; Bai, Man-Xi; Liu, Jian-Meng

    2016-01-01

    We aimed to assess the correlation between docosahexaenoic acid (DHA) dietary intake and the plasma, erythrocyte and breast milk DHA concentrations in lactating women residing in the coastland, lakeland and inland areas of China. A total of 408 healthy lactating women (42 ± 7 days postpartum) were recruited from four hospitals located in Weihai (coastland), Yueyang (lakeland) and Baotou (inland) city. The categories of food containing DHA, the average amount consumed per time and the frequency of consumption in the past month were assessed by a tailored DHA food frequency questionnaire, the DHA Intake Evaluation Tool (DIET). DHA dietary intake (mg/day) was calculated according to the Chinese Food Composition Table (Version 2009). In addition, fasting venous blood (5 mL) and breast milk (10 mL) were collected from lactating women. DHA concentrations in plasma, erythrocyte and breast milk were measured using capillary gas chromatography, and were reported as absolute concentration (μg/mL) and relative concentration (weight percent of total fatty acids, wt. %). Spearman correlation coefficients were used to assess the correlation between intakes of DHA and its concentrations in biological specimens. The study showed that the breast milk, plasma and erythrocyte DHA concentrations were positively correlated with DHA dietary intake; corresponding correlation coefficients were 0.36, 0.36 and 0.24 for relative concentration and 0.33, 0.32, and 0.18 for absolute concentration (p < 0.05). The median DHA dietary intake varied significantly across areas (p < 0.05), which was highest in the coastland (24.32 mg/day), followed by lakeland (13.69 mg/day), and lowest in the inland (8.84 mg/day). The overall relative and absolute DHA concentrations in breast milk were 0.36% ± 0.23% and 141.49 ± 107.41 μg/mL; the concentrations were significantly lower in inland women than those from coastland and lakeland. We conclude that DHA dietary intake is positively correlated with DHA

  15. A Correlation Study of DHA Dietary Intake and Plasma, Erythrocyte and Breast Milk DHA Concentrations in Lactating Women from Coastland, Lakeland, and Inland Areas of China.

    PubMed

    Liu, Meng-Jiao; Li, Hong-Tian; Yu, Li-Xia; Xu, Gao-Sheng; Ge, Hua; Wang, Lin-Lin; Zhang, Ya-Li; Zhou, Yu-Bo; Li, You; Bai, Man-Xi; Liu, Jian-Meng

    2016-01-01

    We aimed to assess the correlation between docosahexaenoic acid (DHA) dietary intake and the plasma, erythrocyte and breast milk DHA concentrations in lactating women residing in the coastland, lakeland and inland areas of China. A total of 408 healthy lactating women (42 ± 7 days postpartum) were recruited from four hospitals located in Weihai (coastland), Yueyang (lakeland) and Baotou (inland) city. The categories of food containing DHA, the average amount consumed per time and the frequency of consumption in the past month were assessed by a tailored DHA food frequency questionnaire, the DHA Intake Evaluation Tool (DIET). DHA dietary intake (mg/day) was calculated according to the Chinese Food Composition Table (Version 2009). In addition, fasting venous blood (5 mL) and breast milk (10 mL) were collected from lactating women. DHA concentrations in plasma, erythrocyte and breast milk were measured using capillary gas chromatography, and were reported as absolute concentration (μg/mL) and relative concentration (weight percent of total fatty acids, wt. %). Spearman correlation coefficients were used to assess the correlation between intakes of DHA and its concentrations in biological specimens. The study showed that the breast milk, plasma and erythrocyte DHA concentrations were positively correlated with DHA dietary intake; corresponding correlation coefficients were 0.36, 0.36 and 0.24 for relative concentration and 0.33, 0.32, and 0.18 for absolute concentration (p < 0.05). The median DHA dietary intake varied significantly across areas (p < 0.05), which was highest in the coastland (24.32 mg/day), followed by lakeland (13.69 mg/day), and lowest in the inland (8.84 mg/day). The overall relative and absolute DHA concentrations in breast milk were 0.36% ± 0.23% and 141.49 ± 107.41 μg/mL; the concentrations were significantly lower in inland women than those from coastland and lakeland. We conclude that DHA dietary intake is positively correlated with DHA

  16. DHA but Not EPA Emulsions Preserve Neurological and Mitochondrial Function after Brain Hypoxia-Ischemia in Neonatal Mice

    PubMed Central

    Sosunov, Sergey A.; Williams, Jill J.; Zirpoli, Hylde; Vlasakov, Iliyan; Deckelbaum, Richard J.; Ten, Vadim S.

    2016-01-01

    Background and Purpose Treatment with triglyceride emulsions of docosahexaenoic acid (tri-DHA) protected neonatal mice against hypoxia-ischemia (HI) brain injury. The mechanism of this neuroprotection remains unclear. We hypothesized that administration of tri-DHA enriches HI-brains with DHA/DHA metabolites. This reduces Ca2+-induced mitochondrial membrane permeabilization and attenuates brain injury. Methods 10-day-old C57BL/6J mice following HI-brain injury received tri-DHA, tri-EPA or vehicle. At 4–5 hours of reperfusion, mitochondrial fatty acid composition and Ca2+ buffering capacity were analyzed. At 24 hours and at 8–9 weeks of recovery, oxidative injury, neurofunctional and neuropathological outcomes were evaluated. In vitro, hyperoxia-induced mitochondrial generation of reactive oxygen species (ROS) and Ca2+ buffering capacity were measured in the presence or absence of DHA or EPA. Results Only post-treatment with tri-DHA reduced oxidative damage and improved short- and long-term neurological outcomes. This was associated with increased content of DHA in brain mitochondria and DHA-derived bioactive metabolites in cerebral tissue. After tri-DHA administration HI mitochondria were resistant to Ca2+-induced membrane permeabilization. In vitro, hyperoxia increased mitochondrial ROS production and reduced Ca2+ buffering capacity; DHA, but not EPA, significantly attenuated these effects of hyperoxia. Conclusions Post-treatment with tri-DHA resulted in significant accumulation of DHA and DHA derived bioactive metabolites in the HI-brain. This was associated with improved mitochondrial tolerance to Ca2+-induced permeabilization, reduced oxidative brain injury and permanent neuroprotection. Interaction of DHA with mitochondria alters ROS release and improves Ca2+ buffering capacity. This may account for neuroprotective action of post-HI administration of tri-DHA. PMID:27513579

  17. Amino acid supplementation alters bone metabolism during simulated weightlessness

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Zwart, S. R.; Davis-Street, J. E.; Paddon-Jones, D.; Ferrando, A. A.; Wolfe, R. R.; Smith, S. M.

    2005-01-01

    High-protein and acidogenic diets induce hypercalciuria. Foods or supplements with excess sulfur-containing amino acids increase endogenous sulfuric acid production and therefore have the potential to increase calcium excretion and alter bone metabolism. In this study, effects of an amino acid/carbohydrate supplement on bone resorption were examined during bed rest. Thirteen subjects were divided at random into two groups: a control group (Con, n = 6) and an amino acid-supplemented group (AA, n = 7) who consumed an extra 49.5 g essential amino acids and 90 g carbohydrate per day for 28 days. Urine was collected for n-telopeptide (NTX), deoxypyridinoline (DPD), calcium, and pH determinations. Bone mineral content was determined and potential renal acid load was calculated. Bone-specific alkaline phosphatase was measured in serum samples collected on day 1 (immediately before bed rest) and on day 28. Potential renal acid load was higher in the AA group than in the Con group during bed rest (P < 0.05). For all subjects, during bed rest urinary NTX and DPD concentrations were greater than pre-bed rest levels (P < 0.05). Urinary NTX and DPD tended to be higher in the AA group (P = 0.073 and P = 0.056, respectively). During bed rest, urinary calcium was greater than baseline levels (P < 0.05) in the AA group but not the Con group. Total bone mineral content was lower after bed rest than before bed rest in the AA group but not the Con group (P < 0.05). During bed rest, urinary pH decreased (P < 0.05), and it was lower in the AA group than the Con group. These data suggest that bone resorption increased, without changes in bone formation, in the AA group.

  18. Sialic acid supplementation ameliorates puromycin aminonucleoside nephrosis in rats.

    PubMed

    Pawluczyk, Izabella Z A; Najafabadi, Maryam G; Brown, Jeremy R; Bevington, Alan; Topham, Peter S

    2015-09-01

    Defects in sialylation are known to have serious consequences on podocyte function leading to collapse of the glomerular filtration barrier and the development of proteinuria. However, the cellular processes underlying aberrant sialylation in renal disease are inadequately defined. We have shown in cultured human podocytes that puromycin aminonucleoside (PAN) downregulates enzymes involved in sialic acid metabolism and redox homeostasis and these can be rescued by co-treatment with free sialic acid. The aim of the current study was to ascertain whether sialic acid supplementation could improve renal function and attenuate desialylation in an in vivo model of proteinuria (PAN nephrosis) and to delineate the possible mechanisms involved. PAN nephrotic rats were supplemented with free sialic acid, its precursor N-acetyl mannosamine or the NADPH oxidase inhibitor apocynin. Glomeruli, urine, and sera were examined for evidence of kidney injury and therapeutic efficacy. Of the three treatment regimens, sialic acid had the broadest efficacy in attenuating PAN-induced injury. Proteinuria and urinary nephrin loss were reduced. Transmission electron microscopy revealed that podocyte ultrastructure, exhibited less severe foot process effacement. PAN-induced oxidative stress was ameliorated as evidenced by a reduction in glomerular NOX4 expression and a downregulation of urine xanthine oxidase levels. Sialylation dysfunction was improved as indicated by reduced urinary concentrations of free sialic acid, restored electrophoretic mobility of podocalyxin, and improved expression of a sialyltransferase. These data indicate that PAN induces alterations in the expression of enzymes involved in redox control and sialoglycoprotein metabolism, which can be ameliorated by sialic acid supplementation possibly via its properties as both an antioxidant and a substrate for sialylation. PMID:26121320

  19. Replacement of fish oil with a DHA-rich algal meal derived from Schizochytrium sp. on the fatty acid and persistent organic pollutant levels in diets and flesh of Atlantic salmon (Salmo salar, L.) post-smolts.

    PubMed

    Sprague, M; Walton, J; Campbell, P J; Strachan, F; Dick, J R; Bell, J G

    2015-10-15

    The replacement of fish oil (FO) with a DHA-rich Schizochytrium sp. algal meal (AM) at two inclusion levels (11% and 5.5% of diet) was tested in Atlantic salmon post-smolts compared to fish fed a FO diet of northern (NFO) or southern hemisphere (SFO) origin. Fish were preconditioned prior to the 19-week experimental feeding period to reduce long-chain polyunsaturated fatty acid (LC-PUFA) and persistent organic pollutant levels (POPs). Dietary POP levels differed significantly between treatments in the order of NFO>SFO>11 AM/5.5 AM and were subsequently reflected in the flesh. Fish fed the 11 AM diet contained similar DHA levels (g 100 g(-1) flesh) to FO-fed fish, despite percentage differences. However, the low levels of EPA in the diets and flesh of algal-fed fish compromised the overall nutritional value to the final consumer. Nevertheless, further developments in microalgae culture offer a promising alternative lipid source of LC-PUFA to FO in salmon feeds that warrants further investigation. PMID:25952887

  20. Folic acid supplementation and risk for imperforate anus in China.

    PubMed

    Myers, M F; Li, S; Correa-Villaseñor, A; Li, Z; Moore, C A; Hong, S X; Berry, R J

    2001-12-01

    Maternal consumption of folic acid before pregnancy and during early pregnancy is associated with a reduced risk for some birth defects. Whether folic acid can reduce the risk for imperforate anus is unknown. As part of a public health campaign conducted in China from 1993 through 1995, the outcomes of pregnancies of > or =20 weeks' gestation were evaluated among women using folic acid supplements. The women were asked to take one pill containing 400 microg of folic acid (without other vitamins) every day from the time of their premarital examination until the end of their first trimester of pregnancy. Rates of imperforate anus and risk ratios for imperforate anus among the offspring of these women were calculated according to folic acid use. Among the offspring of women who took folic acid and women who did not take folic acid, 20 and 30 infants with imperforate anus were identified, respectively. The rate of imperforate anus was 3.1 per 10,000 among the offspring of women who did not take folic acid and 1.6 per 10,000 among the offspring of women who took folic acid; adjusted for maternal age, the risk ratio was 0.59 (95% confidence interval: 0.33, 1.07). Daily maternal consumption of 400 microg of folic acid before and during early pregnancy may reduce the risk for imperforate anus. PMID:11724722

  1. Selective incorporation of docosahexaenoic acid into lysobisphosphatidic acid in cultured THP-1 macrophages.

    PubMed

    Besson, Nelly; Hullin-Matsuda, Francoise; Makino, Asami; Murate, Motohide; Lagarde, Michel; Pageaux, Jean-Francois; Kobayashi, Toshihide; Delton-Vandenbroucke, Isabelle

    2006-02-01

    Lysobisphosphatidic acid (LBPA) is highly accumulated in specific domains of the late endosome and is involved in the biogenesis and function of this organelle. Little is known about the biosynthesis and metabolism of this lipid. We examined its FA composition and the incorporation of exogenous FA into LBPA in the human monocytic leukemia cell line THP-1. The LBPA FA composition in THP-1 cells exhibits an elevated amount of oleic acid (18:1n-9) and enrichment of PUFA, especially DHA (22:6n-3). DHA supplemented to the medium was efficiently incorporated into LBPA. In contrast, arachidonic acid (20:4n-6) was hardly esterified to LBPA under the same experimental conditions. The turnover of DHA in LBPA was similar to that in other phospholipids. Specific incorporation of DHA into LBPA was also observed in baby hamster kidney fibroblasts, although LBPA in these cells contains very low endogenous levels of DHA in normal growth conditions. Our resuIts, together with published observations, suggest that the specific incorporation of DHA into LBPA is a common phenomenon in mammalian cells. The physiological significance of DHA-enriched LBPA is discussed. PMID:17707985

  2. The targeting mechanism of DHA ligand and its conjugate with Gemcitabine for the enhanced tumor therapy.

    PubMed

    Li, Siwen; Qin, Jingyi; Tian, Caiping; Cao, Jie; Fida, Guissi; Wang, Zhaohui; Chen, Haiyan; Qian, Zhiyu; Chen, Wei R; Gu, Yueqing

    2014-06-15

    Docosahexaenoic acid (DHA), an omega-3 C22 natural fatty acid serving as a precursor for metabolic and biochemical pathways, was reported as a targeting ligand of anticancer drugs. However, its tumor targeting ability and mechanism has not been claimed. Here we hypothesized that the uptake of DHA by tumor cells is related to the phosphatidylethanolamine (PE) contents in cell membranes. Thus, in this manuscript, the tumor-targeting ability of DHA was initially demonstrated in vitro and in vivo on different tumor cell lines by labeling DHA with fluorescence dyes. Subsequently, the tumor targeting ability was then correlated with the contents of PE in cell membranes to study the uptake mechanism. Further, DHA was conjugated with anticancer drug gemcitabine (DHA-GEM) for targeted tumor therapy. Our results demonstrated that DHA exhibited high tumor targeting ability and PE is the main mediator, which confirmed our hypothesis. The DHA-GEM displayed enhanced therapeutic efficacy than that of GEM itself, indicating that DHA is a promising ligand for tumor targeted therapy. PMID:25004114

  3. Curcumin boosts DHA in the brain: Implications for the prevention of anxiety disorders.

    PubMed

    Wu, Aiguo; Noble, Emily E; Tyagi, Ethika; Ying, Zhe; Zhuang, Yumei; Gomez-Pinilla, Fernando

    2015-05-01

    Dietary deficiency of docosahexaenoic acid (C22:6 n-3; DHA) is linked to the neuropathology of several cognitive disorders, including anxiety. DHA, which is essential for brain development and protection, is primarily obtained through the diet or synthesized from dietary precursors, however the conversion efficiency is low. Curcumin (diferuloylmethane), which is a principal component of the spice turmeric, complements the action of DHA in the brain, and this study was performed to determine molecular mechanisms involved. We report that curcumin enhances the synthesis of DHA from its precursor, α-linolenic acid (C18:3 n-3; ALA) and elevates levels of enzymes involved in the synthesis of DHA such as FADS2 and elongase 2 in both liver and brain tissues. Furthermore, in vivo treatment with curcumin and ALA reduced anxiety-like behavior in rodents. Taken together, these data suggest that curcumin enhances DHA synthesis, resulting in elevated brain DHA content. These findings have important implications for human health and the prevention of cognitive disease, particularly for populations eating a plant-based diet or who do not consume fish, a primary source of DHA, since DHA is essential for brain function and its deficiency is implicated in many types of neurological disorders. PMID:25550171

  4. Curcumin boosts DHA in the brain: implications for the prevention of anxiety disorders

    PubMed Central

    Wu, Aiguo; Noble, Emily E.; Tyagi, Ethika; Ying, Zhe; Zhuang, Yumei; Gomez-Pinilla, Fernando

    2015-01-01

    Dietary deficiency of docosahexaenoic acid (C22: 6n-3; DHA) is linked to the neuropathology of several cognitive disorders, including anxiety. DHA, which is essential for brain development and protection, is primarily obtained through the diet or synthesized from dietary precursors, however the conversion efficiency is low. Curcumin (diferuloylmethane), which is a principal component of the spice turmeric, complements the action of DHA in the brain, and this study was performed to determine molecular mechanisms involved. We report that curcumin enhances the synthesis of DHA from its precursor, α-linolenic acid (C18: 3n-3; ALA) and elevates levels of enzymes involved in the synthesis of DHA such as FADS2 and elongase 2 in both liver and brain tissue. Furthermore, in vivo treatment with curcumin and ALA reduced anxiety-like behavior in rodents. Taken together, these data suggest that curcumin enhances DHA synthesis, resulting in elevated brain DHA content. These findings have important implications for human health and the prevention of cognitive disease, particularly for populations eating a plant-based diet or who do not consume fish, a primary source of DHA, since DHA is essential for brain function and its deficiency is implicated in many types of neurological disorders. PMID:25550171

  5. The safety assessment of Pythium irregulare as a producer of biomass and eicosapentaenoic acid for use in dietary supplements and food ingredients.

    PubMed

    Wu, Lei; Roe, Charles L; Wen, Zhiyou

    2013-09-01

    Polyunsaturated fatty acids, docosahexaenoic acid (DHA, 22:6, n-3), eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA, 20:5, n-3), and arachidonic acid (ARA, 20:4 n-6), have multiple beneficial effects on human health and can be used as an important ingredient in dietary supplements, food, feed and pharmaceuticals. A variety of microorganisms has been used for commercial production of these fatty acids. The microorganisms in the Pythium family, particularly Pythium irregulare, are potential EPA producers. The aim of this work is to provide a safety assessment of P. irregulare so that the EPA derived from this species can be potentially used in various commercial applications. The genus Pythium has been widely recognized as a plant pathogen by infecting roots and colonizing the vascular tissues of various plants such as soybeans, corn and various vegetables. However, the majority of the Pythium species (including P. irregulare) have not been reported to infect mammals including humans. The only species among the Pythium family that infects mammals is P. insidiosum. There also have been no reports showing P. irregulare to contain mycotoxins or cause potentially allergenic responses in humans. Based on the safety assessment, we conclude that P. irregulare can be considered a safe source of biomass and EPA-containing oil for use as ingredients in dietary supplements, food, feed and pharmaceuticals. PMID:23900800

  6. Essential role of docosahexaenoic acid towards development of a smarter brain.

    PubMed

    Gharami, Kusumika; Das, Moitreyi; Das, Sumantra

    2015-10-01

    Evolution of the high order brain function in humans can be attributed to intake of poly unsaturated fatty acids (PUFAs) of which the ω-3 fatty acid, docosahexaenoic acid (DHA) has special significance. DHA is abundantly present in the human brain and is an essential requirement in every step of brain development like neural cell proliferation, migration, differentiation, synaptogenesis etc. The multiple double bonds and unique structure allow DHA to impart special membrane characteristics for effective cell signaling. Evidences indicate that DHA accumulate in areas of the brain associated with learning and memory. Many development disorders like dyslexia, autism spectrum disorder, attention deficit hyperactivity disorder, schizophrenia etc. are causally related to decreased level of DHA. The review discusses the various reports of DHA in these areas for a better understanding of the role of DHA in overall brain development. Studies involving laboratory animals and clinical findings in cases as well as during trials have been taken into consideration. Additionally the currently available dietary source of DHA for supplementation as nutraceutics with general caution for overuse has been examined. PMID:26321578

  7. Effect of docosahexaenoic acid monoacylglyceride on systemic hypertension and cardiovascular dysfunction.

    PubMed

    Morin, Caroline; Rousseau, Eric; Blier, Pierre U; Fortin, Samuel

    2015-07-01

    ω-3 Fatty acid supplementation has been associated with lower blood pressure. Cardiovascular diseases are also known to be linked directly to an increase in ω-6 and a reduction in ω-3 fatty acid levels in blood circulation and tissues. To determine the effect of docosahexaenoic acid monoglycerides (MAG-DHA) on blood pressure, lipid profiles, and vascular remodeling in rats fed a high-fat/high-carbohydrate (HFHC) diet. Studies were performed in male rats subjected to 8 wk of HFHC diet supplemented or not with 3 g/day MAG-DHA. After 8 wk of daily MAG-DHA treatment, rats in the HFHC + MAG-DHA group had lower arterial blood pressure and heart rate compared with the HFHC group. Moreover, MAG-DHA prevented the increase aortic wall thickness, whereas lipid analysis of aortic tissues revealed an increase in DHA/AA ratio correlated with the production of resolvin D2 and D3 metabolites. Histological analysis revealed that MAG-DHA prevented the development of LVH in the HFHC group. Serum lipid profile analysis further showed a decrease in total cholesterol (TC) and LDL, including very low-density lipoprotein (VLDL) and triglyceride (TG) levels, together with an increase in HDL levels after 8 wk of MAG-DHA treatment compared with the HFHC group. Furthermore, daily MAG-DHA treatment resulted in reduced proinflammatory marker levels such as CRP, IL-6, TNFα, and IL-1β. Altogether, these findings revealed that per os administration of MAG-DHA prevents HFHC-diet induced hypertension and LVH in rats. PMID:25910811

  8. The differential effects of EPA and DHA on cardiovascular risk factors.

    PubMed

    Cottin, S C; Sanders, T A; Hall, W L

    2011-05-01

    Compelling evidence exists for the cardioprotective benefits resulting from consumption of fatty acids from fish oils, EPA (20:5n-3) and DHA (22:6n-3). EPA and DHA alter membrane fluidity, interact with transcription factors such as PPAR and sterol regulatory element binding protein, and are substrates for enzymes including cyclooxygenase, lipoxygenase and cytochrome P450. As a result, fish oils may improve cardiovascular health by altering lipid metabolism, inducing haemodynamic changes, decreasing arrhythmias, modulating platelet function, improving endothelial function and inhibiting inflammatory pathways. The independent effects of EPA and DHA are poorly understood. While both EPA and DHA decrease TAG levels, only DHA appears to increase HDL and LDL particle size. Evidence to date suggests that DHA is more efficient in decreasing blood pressure, heart rate and platelet aggregation compared to EPA. Fish oil consumption appears to improve arterial compliance and endothelial function; it is not yet clear as to whether differences exist between EPA and DHA in their vascular effects. In contrast, the beneficial effect of fish oils on inflammation and insulin sensitivity observed in vitro and in animal studies has not been confirmed in human subjects. Further investigation to clarify the relative effects of consuming EPA and DHA at a range of doses would enable elaboration of current understanding regarding cardioprotective effects of consuming oily fish and algal sources of long chain n-3 PUFA, and provide clearer evidence for the clinical therapeutic potential of consuming either EPA or DHA-rich oils. PMID:21349231

  9. Omega-3 fatty acid supplementation and cardiovascular disease

    PubMed Central

    Jump, Donald B.; Depner, Christopher M.; Tripathy, Sasmita

    2012-01-01

    Epidemiological studies on Greenland Inuits in the 1970s and subsequent human studies have established an inverse relationship between the ingestion of omega-3 fatty acids [C20–22 ω 3 polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFA)], blood levels of C20–22 ω 3 PUFA, and mortality associated with cardiovascular disease (CVD). C20–22 ω 3 PUFA have pleiotropic effects on cell function and regulate multiple pathways controlling blood lipids, inflammatory factors, and cellular events in cardiomyocytes and vascular endothelial cells. The hypolipemic, anti-inflammatory, anti-arrhythmic properties of these fatty acids confer cardioprotection. Accordingly, national heart associations and government agencies have recommended increased consumption of fatty fish or ω 3 PUFA supplements to prevent CVD. In addition to fatty fish, sources of ω 3 PUFA are available from plants, algae, and yeast. A key question examined in this review is whether nonfish sources of ω 3 PUFA are as effective as fatty fish-derived C20–22 ω 3 PUFA at managing risk factors linked to CVD. We focused on ω 3 PUFA metabolism and the capacity of ω 3 PUFA supplements to regulate key cellular events linked to CVD. The outcome of our analysis reveals that nonfish sources of ω 3 PUFA vary in their capacity to regulate blood levels of C20–22 ω 3 PUFA and CVD risk factors. PMID:22904344

  10. Metabolic Engineering Plant Seeds with Fish Oil-Like Levels of DHA

    PubMed Central

    Petrie, James R.; Shrestha, Pushkar; Zhou, Xue-Rong; Mansour, Maged P.; Liu, Qing; Belide, Srinivas; Nichols, Peter D.; Singh, Surinder P.

    2012-01-01

    Background Omega-3 long-chain (≥C20) polyunsaturated fatty acids (ω3 LC-PUFA) have critical roles in human health and development with studies indicating that deficiencies in these fatty acids can increase the risk or severity of cardiovascular and inflammatory diseases in particular. These fatty acids are predominantly sourced from fish and algal oils, but it is widely recognised that there is an urgent need for an alternative and sustainable source of EPA and DHA. Since the earliest demonstrations of ω3 LC-PUFA engineering there has been good progress in engineering the C20 EPA with seed fatty acid levels similar to that observed in bulk fish oil (∼18%), although undesirable ω6 PUFA levels have also remained high. Methodology/Principal Findings The transgenic seed production of the particularly important C22 DHA has been problematic with many attempts resulting in the accumulation of EPA/DPA, but only a few percent of DHA. This study describes the production of up to 15% of the C22 fatty acid DHA in Arabidopsis thaliana seed oil with a high ω3/ω6 ratio. This was achieved using a transgenic pathway to increase the C18 ALA which was then converted to DHA by a microalgal Δ6-desaturase pathway. Conclusions/Significance The amount of DHA described in this study exceeds the 12% level at which DHA is generally found in bulk fish oil. This is a breakthrough in the development of sustainable alternative sources of DHA as this technology should be applicable in oilseed crops. One hectare of a Brassica napus crop containing 12% DHA in seed oil would produce as much DHA as approximately 10,000 fish. PMID:23145108

  11. Maternal characteristics influence response to DHA during pregnancy.

    PubMed

    Gould, J F; Anderson, A J; Yelland, L N; Gibson, R A; Makrides, M

    2016-05-01

    We explored the degree to which maternal and offspring outcomes resulting from consuming prenatal docosahexaenoic acid (DHA, 800mg/day) in a clinical trial were influenced by maternal characteristics. Among non-smokers, women who received DHA had heavier babies (adjusted mean difference (MD)=99g 95% CI 45-153, p<0.01; interaction p=0.01) and fewer low birth weight babies than control women (adjusted relative risk=0.43 95% CI 0.25-0.74, p<0.01; interaction p=0.01). From women who had not completed further education, children in the DHA group had higher cognitive scores at 18 months compared with control children (adjusted MD=3.15 95% CI 0.93-5.37, p=0.01; interaction p<0.01). Conversely, the children of women who completed further education in the DHA group had lower language scores than control children (adjusted MD -2.82 95% CI -4.90 to -0.73, p=0.01; interaction p=0.04). Our results support the notion that responsiveness to prenatal DHA may depend on the characteristics of specific population subgroups. PMID:27154359

  12. Incorporation of eicosapentaenoic and docosahexaenoic acids into lipid pools when given as supplements providing doses equivalent to typical intakes of oily fish1234

    PubMed Central

    Browning, Lucy M; Walker, Celia G; Mander, Adrian P; West, Annette L; Madden, Jackie; Gambell, Joanna M; Young, Stephen; Wang, Laura; Jebb, Susan A

    2012-01-01

    Background: Estimation of the intake of oily fish at a population level is difficult. The measurement of eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA) and docosahexaenoic acid (DHA) in biological samples may provide a useful biomarker of intake. Objective: We identified the most appropriate biomarkers for the assessment of habitual oily fish intake and changes in intake by elucidating the dose- and time-dependent response of EPA and DHA incorporation into various biological samples that represent roles in fatty acid transport, function, and storage. Design: This was a double-blind, randomized, controlled intervention trial in 204 men and women that lasted 12 mo. EPA and DHA capsules were provided in a manner to reflect sporadic consumption of oily fish (ie, 1, 2, or 4 times/wk). EPA and DHA were assessed at 9 time points over 12 mo in 9 sample types (red blood cells, mononuclear cells, platelets, buccal cells, adipose tissue, plasma phosphatidylcholine, triglycerides, cholesteryl esters, and nonesterified fatty acids). Results: A dose response (P < 0.05) was observed for EPA and DHA in all pools except for red blood cell EPA (P = 0.057). EPA and DHA measures in plasma phosphatidylcholine and platelets were best for the discrimination between different intakes (P < 0.0001). The rate of incorporation varied between sample types, with the time to maximal incorporation ranging from days (plasma phosphatidylcholine) to months (mononuclear cells) to >12 mo (adipose tissue). Conclusions: Plasma phosphatidylcholine EPA plus DHA was identified as the most suitable biomarker of acute changes in EPA and DHA intake, and platelet and mononuclear cell EPA plus DHA were the most suitable biomarkers of habitual intake. This trial was registered at Current Controlled Trials (www.controlled-trials.com) as ISRCTN48398526. PMID:22932281

  13. Dietary Long-Chain Omega-3 Fatty Acids Do Not Diminish Eosinophilic Pulmonary Inflammation in Mice

    PubMed Central

    Bratt, Jennifer M.; Jiang, Xiaowen; Pedersen, Theresa L.; Grapov, Dmitry; Adkins, Yuriko; Kelley, Darshan S.; Newman, John W.; Kenyon, Nicholas J.; Stephensen, Charles B.

    2014-01-01

    Although the effects of fish oil supplements on airway inflammation in asthma have been studied with varying results, the independent effects of the fish oil components, eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA) and docosahexaenoic acid (DHA), administered separately, are untested. Here, we investigated airway inflammation and hyperresponsiveness using a mouse ovalbumin exposure model of asthma assessing the effects of consuming EPA (1.5% wt/wt), DHA (1.5% wt/wt), EPA plus DHA (0.75% each), or a control diet with no added omega-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids. Consuming these diets for 6 weeks resulted in erythrocyte membrane EPA contents (molar %) of 9.0 (± 0.6), 3.2 (± 0.2), 6.8 (± 0.5), and 0.01 (± 0.0)%; DHA contents were 6.8 (± 0.1), 15.6 (± 0.5), 12.3 (± 0.3), and 3.8 (± 0.2)%, respectively. The DHA group had the highest bronchoalveolar lavage (BAL) fluid eosinophil and IL-6 levels (P < 0.05). Similar trends were seen for macrophages, IL-4, and IL-13, whereas TNF-α was lower in omega-3 polyunsaturated fatty acid groups than the control (P < 0.05). The DHA group also had the highest airway resistance, which differed significantly from the EPA plus DHA group (P < 0.05), which had the lowest. Oxylipins were measured in plasma and BAL fluid, with DHA and EPA suppressing arachidonic acid–derived oxylipin production. DHA-derived oxylipins from the cytochrome P450 and 15-lipoxygenase pathways correlated significantly with BAL eosinophil levels. The proinflammatory effects of DHA suggest that the adverse effects of individual fatty acid formulations should be thoroughly considered before any use as therapeutic agents in asthma. PMID:24134486

  14. Effect of Supplementation of Fish and Canola Oil in the Diet on Milk Fatty Acid Composition in Early Lactating Holstein Cows

    PubMed Central

    Vafa, Toktam S.; Naserian, Abbas A.; Heravi Moussavi, Ali R.; Valizadeh, Reza; Mesgaran, Mohsen Danesh

    2012-01-01

    This study examined the effects of supplementation of fish oil and canola oil in the diet on milk yield, milk components and fatty acid composition of Holstein dairy cows in early lactation. Eight multiparous early lactation Holstein cows (42±12 DIM, 40±6 kg daily milk yield) were fed a total mixed ration supplemented with either 0% oil (Control), 2% fish oil (FO), 1% canola oil +1% fish oil (FOCO), or 2% canola oil (CO) according to a double 4×4 Latin square design. Each period lasted 3 wk; experimental analyses were restricted to the last week of each period. Supplemental oils were added to a basal diet which was formulated according to NRC (2001) and consisted of 20% alfalfa, 20% corn silage and 60% concentrate. Milk yield was similar between diets (p>0.05), but dry matter intake (DMI) was lower (p<0.05) in cows fed FO diet compared to other diets. Milk fat percentage and daily yield decreased (p<0.01) with the supplementation of fish and canola oil. The daily yield and percentage of milk protein, lactose and solids-not-fat (SNF) were not affected by diets (p>0.05). The proportion (g/100 g fatty acids) of short chain fatty acids (SCFA) decreased and polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFA) increased (p<0.05) in milk of all cows fed diets supplemented with oil. The proportions of 6:0, 8:0, 10:0 12:0 and 14:0 fatty acids in milk fat decreased (p<0.01) for all diets supplemented with oil, but the proportions of 14:1, 16:0 and 16:1 fatty acids were not affected by diets (p>0.05). The proportion of trans(t)-18:1 increased (p<0.01) in milk fat of cows fed FO and FOCO diets, but CO diet had the highest proportion of cis(c)-11 18:1 (p<0.01). The concentration of t-10, c-12 18:2, c-9 t-11 18:2, 18:3, eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA, 20:5) and docosahexaenoic acid (DHA, 22:6) increased (p<0.05) in FO and FOCO diets in comparison with the other two diets. These data indicate that including fish oil in combination with canola oil significantly modifies the fatty acid composition of

  15. [Supplementation with omega fatty acids in various diseases].

    PubMed

    Sicińska, Paulina; Pytel, Edyta; Kurowska, Joanna; Koter-Michalak, Maria

    2015-01-01

    For some decades, an increase in propagation of coronary heart disease, obesity, diabetes, tumors and mental disorders has been observed. Consequently, new and effective methods of treatment of these diseases using drugs and diet supplements have been developed. A promising solution is the use of polyunsaturated fatty acids in the treatment of some diseases. These compounds have broad application in prevention of many diseases and are used to support standard therapies. Their activity is connected with participation in metabolic processes regulating biochemical transformations in cells and tissues. Omega-3 fatty acids regulate production of cytokines, increased levels of which may contribute to occurrence of chronic inflammatory diseases, autoaggression of the immunological system, arteriosclerosis or tumor development. These substances exert a beneficial effect on the blood system by improvement of blood circulation and nerve signal transmission. Omega-3 fatty acids reduce the risk of irregular heartbeat, stabilize arterial pressure, and restore balance in cholesterol metabolism disorders. They also play a key role in maintaining physical and mental efficiency; thus administration of these compounds for young children is of great importance. Nevertheless, administration of omega-3 fatty acids in the diet seems to be essential. The purpose of this study is to present the structure and sources of omega-3 and - 6 fatty acids and discuss the problems concerning therapeutic use of these compounds in various disorders. PMID:26206997

  16. Metabolic Engineering Camelina sativa with Fish Oil-Like Levels of DHA

    PubMed Central

    Belide, Srinivas; Kennedy, Yoko; Lester, Geraldine; Liu, Qing; Divi, Uday K.; Mulder, Roger J.; Mansour, Maged P.; Nichols, Peter D.; Singh, Surinder P.

    2014-01-01

    Background Omega-3 long-chain (≥C20) polyunsaturated fatty acids (ω3 LC-PUFA) such as eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA) and docosapentaenoic acid (DHA) are critical for human health and development. Numerous studies have indicated that deficiencies in these fatty acids can increase the risk or severity of cardiovascular, inflammatory and other diseases or disorders. EPA and DHA are predominantly sourced from marine fish although the primary producers are microalgae. Much work has been done to engineer a sustainable land-based source of EPA and DHA to reduce pressure on fish stocks in meeting future demand, with previous studies describing the production of fish oil-like levels of DHA in the model plant species, Arabidopsis thaliana. Principal Findings In this study we describe the production of fish oil-like levels (>12%) of DHA in the oilseed crop species Camelina sativa achieving a high ω3/ω6 ratio. The construct previously transformed in Arabidopsis as well as two modified construct versions designed to increase DHA production were used. DHA was found to be stable to at least the T5 generation and the EPA and DHA were found to be predominantly at the sn-1,3 positions of triacylglycerols. Transgenic and parental lines did not have different germination or seedling establishment rates. Conclusions DHA can be produced at fish oil-like levels in industrially-relevant oilseed crop species using multi-gene construct designs which are stable over multiple generations. This study has implications for the future of sustainable EPA and DHA production from land-based sources. PMID:24465476

  17. On the potential application of polar and temperate marine microalgae for EPA and DHA production

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Long chain polyunsaturated fatty acids (LC-PUFAs) such as eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA) and docosahexaenoic acid (DHA) are considered essential omega-3 fatty acids in human nutrition. In marine microalgae EPA and/or DHA are allegedly involved in the regulation of membrane fluidity and thylakoid membrane functioning. The cellular content of EPA and DHA may therefore be enhanced at low temperature and irradiance conditions. As a result, polar and cold temperate marine microalgal species might potentially be suitable candidates for commercial EPA and DHA production, given their adaptation to low temperature and irradiance habitats. In the present study we investigated inter- and intraspecific EPA and DHA variability in five polar and (cold) temperate microalgae. Intraspecific EPA and DHA content did not vary significantly in an Antarctic (Chaetoceros brevis) and a temperate (Thalassiosira weissflogii) centric diatom after acclimation to a range of irradiance levels at two temperatures. Interspecific variability was investigated for two Antarctic (Chaetoceros brevis and Pyramimonas sp. (Prasinophyceae)) and three cold-temperate species (Thalassiosira weissflogii, Emiliania huxleyi (Prymnesiophyceae) and Fibrocapsa japonica (Raphidophyceae)) during exponential growth. Interspecific variability was shown to be much more important than intraspecific variability. Highest relative and absolute levels of DHA were measured in the prymnesiophyte E. huxleyi and the prasinophyte Pyramimonas sp., while levels of EPA were high in the raphidophyte F. japonica and the diatoms C. brevis and T. weissflogii. Yet, no significant differences in LC-PUFA content were found between polar and cold-temperate species. Also, EPA and DHA production rates varied strongly between species. Highest EPA production rate (174 μg L-1 day-1) was found in the Antarctic diatom Chaetoceros brevis, while DHA production was highest in the cold-temperate prymnesiophyte Emiliania huxleyi (164 μg L-1 day-1). We

  18. Metabolomic analysis of amino acid and energy metabolism in rats supplemented with chlorogenic acid

    PubMed Central

    Ruan, Zheng; Yang, Yuhui; Zhou, Yan; Wen, Yanmei; Ding, Sheng; Liu, Gang; Wu, Xin; Deng, Zeyuan; Assaad, Houssein; Wu, Guoyao

    2016-01-01

    This study was conducted to investigate effects of chlorogenic acid (CGA) supplementation on serum and hepatic metabolomes in rats. Rats received daily intragastric administration of either CGA (60 mg/kg body weight) or distilled water (control) for 4 weeks. Growth performance, serum biochemical profiles, and hepatic morphology were measured. Additionally, serum and liver tissue extracts were analyzed for metabolomes by high-resolution 1H nuclear magnetic resonance-based metabolomics and multivariate statistics. CGA did not affect rat growth performance, serum biochemical profiles, or hepatic morphology. However, supplementation with CGA decreased serum concentrations of lactate, pyruvate, succinate, citrate, β-hydroxybutyrate and acetoacetate, while increasing serum concentrations of glycine and hepatic concentrations of glutathione. These results suggest that CGA supplementation results in perturbation of energy and amino acid metabolism in rats. We suggest that glycine and glutathione in serum may be useful biomarkers for biological properties of CGA on nitrogen metabolism in vivo. PMID:24927697

  19. Production of ω-3 Polyunsaturated Fatty Acids From Cull Potato Using an Algae Culture Process

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chi, Zhanyou; Hu, Bo; Liu, Yan; Frear, Craig; Wen, Zhiyou; Chen, Shulin

    Algal cultivation for converting cull potato to docosahexaenoic acid (DHA) was studied. Schizochytrium limacinum SR21 was selected as the better producing strain, compared with Thraustochytrium aureum because of higher cell density and DHA content. Used as both carbon and nitrogen source, an optimal ratio of hydrolyzed potato broth in the culture medium was determined as 50%, with which the highest production of 21.7 g/L dry algae biomass and 5.35 g/L DHA was obtained, with extra glucose supplemented. Repeat culture further improved the cell density but not fed batch culture, suggesting limited growth was most likely caused by metabolites inhibition.

  20. Folic acid supplementation and IVF pregnancy outcome in women with unexplained infertility.

    PubMed

    Murto, T; Skoog Svanberg, A; Yngve, A; Nilsson, T K; Altmäe, S; Wånggren, K; Salumets, A; Stavreus-Evers, A

    2014-06-01

    Folic acid supplements are commonly used by infertile women which leads to a positive folate status. However, the effect of folic acid supplements on pregnancy outcome in women with unexplained infertility has not been well investigated. This study evaluated folic acid supplement use and folate status in women with unexplained infertility in relation to IVF pregnancy outcome. In addition, use of folic acid supplements and folate status were compared between women with unexplained infertility and fertile, nonpregnant control women. Women with unexplained infertility used significantly more folic acid supplements and had higher median total folic acid intake from supplements compared with fertile control women (both P < 0.001). Women with unexplained infertility also had significantly higher median plasma folate and lower median plasma homocysteine concentrations than fertile women (both P < 0.001), but folic acid supplementation or folate status were not related to pregnancy outcome in women with unexplained infertility. In conclusion, folic acid supplementation or good folate status did not have a positive effect on pregnancy outcome following infertility treatment in women with unexplained infertility. Folate is one of the B vitamins which has been suggested to be related to infertility. Folic acid is an artificial form of folate which is commonly used in dietary supplements. Folic acid supplementation has been shown to increase folate concentrations and decrease concentrations of the amino acid homocysteine in the blood. Folic acid supplementation is commonly used by infertile women, but the effect on pregnancy outcome in women with a diagnosis of unexplained infertility has not been thoroughly investigated. In the present study, folic acid supplement use and folate status (concentrations of folate and homocysteine) in women with unexplained infertility were evaluated in relation to pregnancy outcome. In addition, the use of folic acid supplements and folate

  1. Limited evidence for trans-generational effects of maternal dietary supplementation with ω-3 fatty acids on immunity in broiler chickens.

    PubMed

    Koppenol, Astrid; Delezie, Evelyne; Parmentier, Henk K; Buyse, Johan; Everaert, Nadia

    2015-02-01

    The aim of the present study was to investigate whether the immune response of broiler chickens is modulated by including different omega-3 (ω-3) polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFAs) in the maternal diet. Broiler breeder hens (n = 120 birds per group) were fed one of four diets, differing in the ratios of n-6:n-3 PUFAs and eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA):docosahexaenoic acid (DHA). At 28 weeks of age, the eggs produced were incubated to obtain 720 chicks (n = 180 per group). All broiler chicks were fed a control diet and were vaccinated against Newcastle disease virus (NDV). Blood samples were taken at different time points after immunisation with human serum albumin (HuSA) in Freund's adjuvant to determine the acute phase response, antibody response and cytokine production. Addition of EPA to the maternal diet was associated with greater ovotransferrin concentrations post-immunisation, compared to other groups. Altering the ratios of n-6:n-3 PUFA or EPA:DHA in the maternal diet did not affect the offspring in terms of production of caeruloplasmin, α1-acid glycoprotein, interleukin (IL)-1β, IL-6, IL-12 or tumour necrosis factor (TNF)-α. Dietary manipulation of the maternal diet did not influence the specific antibody response to HuSA or NDV, nor did it alter the levels of natural antibody binding to keyhole limpet haemocyanin in the offspring. Thus, maternal supplementation with n-3 PUFAs played a minor role in perinatal programming of the immune response of broiler chickens. PMID:25576140

  2. DHA-induced stress response in human colon cancer cells - Focus on oxidative stress and autophagy.

    PubMed

    Pettersen, Kristine; Monsen, Vivi Talstad; Hakvåg Pettersen, Caroline Hild; Overland, Hilde Bremseth; Pettersen, Grete; Samdal, Helle; Tesfahun, Almaz Nigatu; Lundemo, Anne Gøril; Bjørkøy, Geir; Schønberg, Svanhild A

    2016-01-01

    Polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFAs) are important constituents of the diet and health benefits of omega-3/n-3 PUFAs, especially eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA, 20:5 n-3) and docosahexaenoic acid (DHA, 22:6 n-3) have been well documented in relation to several diseases. Increasing evidence suggests that n-3 PUFAs may have anticancer activity and improve the effect of conventional cancer therapy. The mechanisms behind these effects are still unclear and need to be elucidated. We have examined the DHA-induced stress response in two human colon cancer cell lines, SW620 and Caco-2. SW620 cells are growth-inhibited at early time points by DHA, while the growth of Caco-2 cells almost remains unaffected by the same treatment. Gene expression analysis of SW620 cells treated with DHA revealed changes at early time points; transcripts involved in oxidative stress and autophagy were among the first to be differentially expressed. We find that oxidative stress is induced in both cell lines, although at different time points and to different extent. DHA induced nuclear translocation of the oxidative stress sensor NFE2L2 in both cell lines, indicating an induction of an anti-oxidative response. However, vitamin E did not counteract ROS-production or the translocation of NFE2L2 to the nucleus. Neither vitamin E nor the antioxidants butylated hydoxyanisole (BHA) and butylated hydoxytoluene (BHT) did affect the growth inhibition in SW620 cells after DHA-treatment. Also, siRNA-mediated down-regulation of NFE2L2 did not sensitize SW620 and Caco-2 cells to DHA. These results indicate that oxidative stress response is not the cause of DHA-induced cytotoxicity in SW620 cells. Using biochemical and imaging based functional assays, we found a low basal level of autophagy and no increase in autophagic flux after adding DHA to the SW620 cells. However, Caco-2 cells displayed a higher level of autophagy, both in the absence and presence of DHA. Inhibition of autophagy by siRNA mediated knock down

  3. Omega-3 fatty acids are able to modulate the painful symptoms associated to cyclophosphamide-induced-hemorrhagic cystitis in mice.

    PubMed

    Freitas, Raquel D S; Costa, Kesiane M; Nicoletti, Natália F; Kist, Luiza W; Bogo, Maurício R; Campos, Maria M

    2016-01-01

    This study investigated the effects of the long-term dietary fish oil supplementation or the acute administration of the omega-3 fatty acid docosahexaenoic acid (DHA) in the mouse hemorrhagic cystitis (HC) induced by the anticancer drug cyclophosphamide (CYP). HC was induced in mice by a single CYP injection (300mg/kg ip). Animals received four different diets containing 10% and 20% of corn or fish oil, during 21days. Separated groups received DHA by ip (1μmol/kg) or intrathecal (i.t.; 10μg/site) routes, 1h or 15min before CYP. The behavioral tests (spontaneous nociception and mechanical allodynia) were carried out from 1h to 6h following CYP injection. Bladder inflammatory changes, blood cell counts and serum cytokines were evaluated after euthanasia (at 6h). Immunohistochemistry analysis was performed for assessing spinal astrocyte and microglia activation or GPR40/FFAR1 expression. Either fish oil supplementation or DHA treatment (ip and i.t.) markedly prevented visceral pain, without affecting CYP-evoked bladder inflammatory changes. Moreover, systemic DHA significantly prevented the neutrophilia/lymphopenia caused by CYP, whereas this fatty acid did not significantly affect serum cytokines. DHA also modulated the spinal astrocyte activation and the GPR40/FFAR1 expression. The supplementation with fish oil enriched in omega-3 fatty acids or parenteral DHA might be interesting nutritional approaches for cancer patients under chemotherapy schemes with CYP. PMID:26482705

  4. Enteral Omega-3 Fatty Acid, γ-Linolenic Acid, and Antioxidant Supplementation in Acute Lung Injury

    PubMed Central

    Rice, Todd W.; Wheeler, Arthur P.; Thompson, B. Taylor; deBoisblanc, Bennett P.; Steingrub, Jay; Rock, Peter

    2013-01-01

    Context The omega-3 (n-3) fatty acids docosahexaenoic acid and eicosapentaenoic acid, along with γ-linolenic acid and antioxidants, may modulate systemic inflammatory response and improve oxygenation and outcomes in patients with acute lung injury. Objective To determine if dietary supplementation of these substances to patients with acute lung injury would increase ventilator-free days to study day 28. Design, Setting, and Participants The OMEGA study, a randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled, multicenter trial conducted from January 2, 2008, through February 21, 2009. Participants were 272 adults within 48 hours of developing acute lung injury requiring mechanical ventilation whose physicians intended to start enteral nutrition at 44 hospitals in the National Heart, Lung, and Blood Institute ARDS Clinical Trials Network. All participants had complete follow-up. Interventions Twice-daily enteral supplementation of n-3 fatty acids, γ-linolenic acid, and antioxidants compared with an isocaloric control. Enteral nutrition, directed by a protocol, was delivered separately from the study supplement. Main Outcome Measure Ventilator-free days to study day 28. Results The study was stopped early for futility after 143 and 129 patients were enrolled in the n-3 and control groups. Despite an 8-fold increase in plasma eicosapentaenoic acid levels, patients receiving the n-3 supplement had fewer ventilator-free days (14.0 vs 17.2; P=.02) (difference, -3.2 [95% CI, -5.8 to -0.7]) and intensive care unit-free days (14.0 vs 16.7; P=.04). Patients in the n-3 group also had fewer nonpulmonary organ failure-free days (12.3 vs 15.5; P=.02). Sixty-day hospital mortality was 26.6% in the n-3 group vs 16.3% in the control group (P=.054), and adjusted 60-day mortality was 25.1% and 17.6% in the n-3 and control groups, respectively (P=.11). Use of the n-3 supplement resulted in more days with diarrhea (29% vs 21%; P=.001). Conclusions Twice-daily enteral supplementation of n-3

  5. Docosahexaenoic acid attenuates in endocannabinoid synthesis in RAW 264.7 macrophages activated with benzo(a)pyrene and lipopolysaccharide.

    PubMed

    Gdula-Argasińska, Joanna; Bystrowska, Beata

    2016-09-01

    Endocannabinoids are synthetized as a results of demand from membrane phospholipids. The formation and actions of these lipid mediators depend to a great extent on the prevalence of precursor fatty acid (FA), and can be influenced by diet or supplementation. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the interactive effects of lipopolysaccharide (LPS) and benzo(a)pyrene (BaP) in RAW 264.7 cells supplemented with docosahexaenoic acid (DHA). After LPS and/or BaP treatment in macrophages pre-incubated with DHA, a significant decrease in the amount of fatty acid was observed. The highest content of monounsaturated fatty acids was detected in RAW 264.7 cells co-treated with LPS and BaP. Significant interactions between LPS and BaP co-treatment in terms of endocannabinoid levels were observed in RAW 264.7 cells after DHA supplementation. The highest amount of endocannabinoids was detected in macrophages supplemented with DHA and co-treated with BaP and LPS: arachidonoyl ethanolamine AEA (5.9μg/mL), docosahexaenoyl ethanolamide DHEA (10.6μg/mL) and nervonoyl ethanolamide NEA (16.5μg/mL). The highest expression of cyclooxygenase (COX-2) and cannabinoid receptor 2 (CB2) was noted in macrophages supplemented with DHA and activated with LPS and BaP. Our data suggested a novel, CB2 receptor-dependent, environmental stress reaction in macrophages co-treated with LPS and BaP after supplementation with DHA. Despite the synergistic LPS and BaP action DHA potentiates the anti-inflammatory response in RAW 264.7 cells. PMID:27329536

  6. Systematic metabolomic analysis of eicosanoids after omega-3 polyunsaturated fatty acid supplementation by a highly specific liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry-based method.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Xu; Yang, Nan; Ai, Ding; Zhu, Yi

    2015-04-01

    Omega-3 (ω-3) polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFAs) have beneficial effects in many pathological processes, especially cardiovascular disease, and their protective eicosanoid metabolites are thought to play important roles. However, how ω-3 PUFAs affect the eicosanoid profile has not been elucidated comprehensively. Here, we systematically analyzed the eicosanoid metabolites induced by ω-3 PUFA supplementation. We developed an LC-MS/MS-based method covering 32 arachidonic acid (ARA) metabolites and 37 ω-3 PUFA-derived products. The limits of detection for eicosanoids were between 0.0625 and 1 pg and the detection specificity was optimized. We then quantified eicosanoids in mouse and human plasma and mouse aorta samples after ω-3 PUFA supplementation. Levels of EPA hydroxyl products, 4-HDoHE, 17,18-EEQ, 17,18-DiHETE, TXB2, and LXA4 were significantly changed in both mouse samples, and those of 2-series PGs, EDPs and DHA hydroxyl products were changed in aorta samples. Correlation network analysis of mouse plasma data revealed that some eicosanoids had higher connection degree or betweenness centrality score than others after ω-3 PUFA supplementation. Eicosanoids in human plasma were profiled across five time points after ω-3 PUFA supplementation. Fuzzy c-mean clustering algorithm suggested that the time curves of eicosanoid activity could be described with three kinetic patterns: sustained upregulation, short-term upregulation, and downregulation. This is the first systematic profiling of eicosanoids with ω-3 PUFA supplementation. The highly specific eicosanoid metabolomic and related data analysis methods would be powerful tools for comprehensive eicosanoid study. PMID:25736083

  7. Docosahexaenoic acid and visual functioning in preterm infants: a review.

    PubMed

    Molloy, Carly; Doyle, Lex W; Makrides, Maria; Anderson, Peter J

    2012-12-01

    Preterm children are at risk for a number of visual impairments which can be important for a range of other more complex visuocognitive tasks reliant on visual information. Despite the relatively high incidence of visual impairments in this group there are no good predictors that would allow early identification of those at risk for adverse outcomes. Several lines of evidence suggest that docosahexaenoic acid (DHA) supplementation for preterm infants may improve outcomes in this area. For example, diets deficient in the long-chain polyunsaturated fatty acid DHA have been shown to reduce its concentration in the cerebral cortex and retina, which interferes with physiological processes important for cognition and visual functioning. Further, various studies with pregnant and lactating women, as well as formula-fed infants, have demonstrated a general trend that supplementation with dietary DHA is associated with better childhood outcomes on tests of visual and cognitive development over the first year of life. However, research to date has several methodological limitations, including concentrations of DHA supplementation that have been too low to emulate the in utero accretion of DHA, using single measures of visual acuity to make generalised assumptions about the entire visual system, and little attempt to match what we know about inadequate DHA and structural ramifications with how specific functions may be affected. The objective of this review is to consider the role of DHA in the context of visual processing with a specific emphasis on preterm infants and to illustrate how future research may benefit from marrying what we know about structural consequences to inadequate DHA with functional outcomes that likely have far-reaching ramifications. Factors worth considering for clinical neuropsychological evaluation are also discussed. PMID:23065239

  8. 17β-estradiol increases liver and serum docosahexaenoic acid in mice fed varying levels of α-linolenic acid.

    PubMed

    Mason, Julie K; Kharotia, Shikhil; Wiggins, Ashleigh K A; Kitson, Alex P; Chen, Jianmin; Bazinet, Richard P; Thompson, Lilian U

    2014-08-01

    Docosahexaenoic acid (DHA) is considered to be important for cardiac and brain function, and 17β-estradiol (E2) appears to increase the conversion of α-linolenic acid (ALA) into DHA. However, the effect of varying ALA intake on the positive effect of E2 on DHA synthesis is not known. Therefore, the objective of this study was to investigate the effects of E2 supplementation on tissue and serum fatty acids in mice fed a low-ALA corn oil-based diet (CO, providing 0.6 % fatty acids as ALA) or a high ALA flaxseed meal-based diet (FS, providing 11.2 % ALA). Ovariectomized mice were implanted with a slow-release E2 pellet at 3 weeks of age and half the mice had the pellet removed at 7 weeks of age. Mice were then randomized onto either the CO or FS diet. After 4 weeks, the DHA concentration was measured in serum, liver and brain. A significant main effect of E2 was found for liver and serum DHA, corresponding to 25 and 15 % higher DHA in livers of CO and FS rats, respectively, and 19 and 13 % in serum of CO and FS rats, respectively, compared to unsupplemented mice. There was no effect of E2 on brain DHA. E2 results in higher DHA in serum and liver, at both levels of dietary ALA investigated presently, suggesting that higher ALA intake may result in higher DHA in individuals with higher E2 status. PMID:24913495

  9. The Potential Benefits and Adverse Effects of Phytic Acid Supplement in Streptozotocin-Induced Diabetic Rats

    PubMed Central

    Omoruyi, F. O.; Budiaman, A.; Eng, Y.; Olumese, F. E.; Hoesel, J. L.; Ejilemele, A.; Okorodudu, A. O.

    2013-01-01

    In this study, the effect of phytic acid supplement on streptozotocin-induced diabetic rats was investigated. Diabetic rats were fed rodent chow with or without phytic acid supplementation for thirty days. Blood and organ samples were collected for assays. The average food intake was the highest and the body weight gain was the lowest in the group fed phytic acid supplement compared to the diabetic and normal control groups. There was a downward trend in intestinal amylase activity in the group fed phytic acid supplement compared to the other groups. The spike in random blood glucose was the lowest in the same group. We noted reduced serum triglycerides and increased total cholesterol and HDL cholesterol levels in the group fed phytic acid supplement. Serum alkaline phosphatase and alanine amino transferase activities were significantly (P < 0.05) increased by phytic acid supplementation. Systemic IL-1β level was significantly (P < 0.05) elevated in the diabetic control and supplement treated groups. The liver lipogenic enzyme activities were not significantly altered among the groups. These results suggest that phytic acid supplementation may be beneficial in the management of diabetes mellitus. The observed adverse effect on the liver may be due to the combined effect of streptozotocin-induced diabetes and phytic acid supplementation. PMID:24454345

  10. Chemoprevention of DMBA-induced mammary carcinogenesis in rats by low-dose EPA and DHA.

    PubMed Central

    Noguchi, M.; Minami, M.; Yagasaki, R.; Kinoshita, K.; Earashi, M.; Kitagawa, H.; Taniya, T.; Miyazaki, I.

    1997-01-01

    We investigated the effects of low-dose eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA) and docosahexaenoic acid (DHA) on the incidence and growth of 7,12-dimethylbenz(a)anthracene (DMBA)-induced mammary carcinoma in rats fed a high-fat (HF) diet. We also examined the effects of these treatments on the fatty acid composition of tumour and serum. Tumour incidence was significantly decreased by the administration of low-dose EPA and DHA, whereas their inhibitory effects on tumour growth did not reach significance. Serum arachidonic acid (AA) level was decreased by the administration of low-dose EPA and tended to be decreased by the administration of low-dose DHA, whereas tumour AA levels were not changed. The administration of low-dose EPA and DHA may be useful for inhibiting the incidence of breast cancer. PMID:9020478

  11. Safety evaluation of DHA-rich Algal Oil from Schizochytrium sp.

    PubMed

    Fedorova-Dahms, I; Marone, P A; Bauter, M; Ryan, A S

    2011-12-01

    The safety of DHA-rich Algal Oil from Schizochytrium sp. containing 40-45 wt% DHA and up to 10 wt% EPA was evaluated by testing for gene mutations, clastogenicity and aneugenicity, and in a subchronic 90-day Sprague-Dawley rat dietary study with in utero exposure, followed by a 4-week recovery phase. The results of all genotoxicity tests were negative. In the 90-day study, DHA-rich Algal Oil was administered at dietary levels of 0.5, 1.5, and 5 wt% along with two control diets: a standard low-fat basal diet and a basal diet supplemented with 5 wt% of concentrated Fish Oil. There were no treatment-related effects of DHA-rich Algal Oil on clinical observations, body weight, food consumption, behavior, hematology, clinical chemistry, coagulation, or urinalysis. Increases in absolute and relative weights of the liver, kidney, spleen and adrenals (adrenals and spleen with histological correlates) were observed in both the Fish Oil- and the high-dose of DHA-rich Algal Oil-treated females and were not considered to be adverse. The no observed adverse effect level (NOAEL) for DHA-rich Algal Oil under the conditions of this study was 5 wt% in the diet, equivalent to an overall average DHA-rich Algal Oil intake of 4260 mg/kg bw/day for male and female rats. PMID:21914458

  12. Unsaturated fatty acids supplementation reduces blood lead level in rats.

    PubMed

    Skoczyńska, Anna; Wojakowska, Anna; Nowacki, Dorian; Bobak, Łukasz; Turczyn, Barbara; Smyk, Beata; Szuba, Andrzej; Trziszka, Tadeusz

    2015-01-01

    Some dietary factors could inhibit lead toxicity. The aim of this study was to evaluate the effect of dietary compounds rich in unsaturated fatty acids (FA) on blood lead level, lipid metabolism, and vascular reactivity in rats. Serum metallothionein and organs' lead level were evaluated with the aim of assessing the possible mechanism of unsaturated FA impact on blood lead level. For three months, male Wistar rats that were receiving drinking water with (100 ppm Pb) or without lead acetate were supplemented per os daily with virgin olive oil or linseed oil (0.2 mL/kg b.w.) or egg derived lecithin fraction: "super lecithin" (50 g/kg b.w.). Mesenteric artery was stimulated ex vivo by norepinephrine (NE) administered at six different doses. Lecithin supplementation slightly reduced pressor responses of artery to NE. Lead administered to rats attenuated the beneficial effect of unsaturated FA on lipid metabolism and vascular reactivity to adrenergic stimulation. On the other hand, the super lecithin and linseed oil that were characterized by low omega-6 to omega-3 ratio (about 1) reduced the blood lead concentration. This effect was observed in lead poisoned rats (p < 0.0001) and also in rats nonpoisoned with lead (p < 0.05). PMID:26075218

  13. Unsaturated Fatty Acids Supplementation Reduces Blood Lead Level in Rats

    PubMed Central

    Skoczyńska, Anna; Wojakowska, Anna; Nowacki, Dorian; Bobak, Łukasz; Turczyn, Barbara; Smyk, Beata; Szuba, Andrzej; Trziszka, Tadeusz

    2015-01-01

    Some dietary factors could inhibit lead toxicity. The aim of this study was to evaluate the effect of dietary compounds rich in unsaturated fatty acids (FA) on blood lead level, lipid metabolism, and vascular reactivity in rats. Serum metallothionein and organs' lead level were evaluated with the aim of assessing the possible mechanism of unsaturated FA impact on blood lead level. For three months, male Wistar rats that were receiving drinking water with (100 ppm Pb) or without lead acetate were supplemented per os daily with virgin olive oil or linseed oil (0.2 mL/kg b.w.) or egg derived lecithin fraction: “super lecithin” (50 g/kg b.w.). Mesenteric artery was stimulated ex vivo by norepinephrine (NE) administered at six different doses. Lecithin supplementation slightly reduced pressor responses of artery to NE. Lead administered to rats attenuated the beneficial effect of unsaturated FA on lipid metabolism and vascular reactivity to adrenergic stimulation. On the other hand, the super lecithin and linseed oil that were characterized by low omega-6 to omega-3 ratio (about 1) reduced the blood lead concentration. This effect was observed in lead poisoned rats (p < 0.0001) and also in rats nonpoisoned with lead (p < 0.05). PMID:26075218

  14. Docosahexaenoic Acid Status in Pregnancy Determines the Maternal Docosahexaenoic Acid Status 3-, 6- and 12 Months Postpartum. Results from a Longitudinal Observational Study

    PubMed Central

    Markhus, Maria Wik; Rasinger, Josef Daniel; Malde, Marian Kjellevold; Frøyland, Livar; Skotheim, Siv; Braarud, Hanne Cecilie; Stormark, Kjell Morten; Graff, Ingvild Eide

    2015-01-01

    Background Essential fatty acid status as well as docosahexaenoic acid (DHA, 22:6n-3) declines during pregnancy and lactation. As a result, the DHA status may not be optimal for child development and may increase the risk for maternal postpartum depression. The objective of this study was to assess changes in the maternal fatty acid status from pregnancy to 12 months postpartum, and to study the impact of seafood consumption on the individual fatty acid status. Methods Blood samples and seafood consumption habits (gestation week 28, and three-, six- and 12 months postpartum) were collected in a longitudinal observational study of pregnant and postpartum women (n = 118). Multilevel linear modeling was used to assess both changes over time in the fatty acid status of red blood cells (RBC), and in the seafood consumption. Results Six fatty acids varied the most (>80%) across the four time points analyzed, including the derivative of the essential α-linoleic acid (ALA, 18:3n-3), DHA; the essential linoleic acid (LA, 18:2 n-6); and the LA derivative, arachidonic acid (AA, 20:4n-6). Over all, a large variation in individuals’ DHA- and AA status was observed; however, over the 15-month study period only small inter-individual differences in the longitudinal trajectory of DHA- and AA abundance in the RBC were detected. The median intake of seafood was lower than recommended. Regardless, the total weekly frequency of seafood and eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA, 20:5n-3)/DHA-supplement intake predicted the maternal level of DHA (μg/g RBC). Conclusion The period of depletion of the maternal DHA status during pregnancy and lactation, seem to turn to repletion from about six months postpartum towards one year after childbirth, irrespective of RBC concentration of DHA during pregnancy. Seafood and EPA/DHA-supplement intake predicted the DHA levels over time. Trial Registration www.helseforskning.etikkom.no 2009/570/REC, project number: 083.09 PMID:26331947

  15. Differential Regulation of Hepatic Transcription Factors in the Wistar Rat Offspring Born to Dams Fed Folic Acid, Vitamin B12 Deficient Diets and Supplemented with Omega-3 Fatty Acids

    PubMed Central

    Meher, Akshaya; Joshi, Asmita; Joshi, Sadhana

    2014-01-01

    Nutritional status of the mother is known to influence various metabolic adaptations required for optimal fetal development. These may be mediated by transcription factors like peroxisome proliferator activated receptors (PPARs), which are activated by long chain polyunsaturated fatty acids. The objective of the current study was to examine the expression of different hepatic transcription factors and the levels of global methylation in the liver of the offspring born to dams fed micronutrient deficient (folic acid and vitamin B12) diets and supplemented with omega-3 fatty acids. Female rats were divided into five groups (n = 8/group) as follows; control, folic acid deficient (FD), vitamin B12 deficient (BD) and omega-3 fatty acid supplemented groups (FDO and BDO). Diets were given starting from pre-conception and continued throughout pregnancy and lactation. Pups were dissected at the end of lactation. Liver tissues were removed; snap frozen and stored at −80°C. Maternal micronutrients deficiency resulted in lower (p<0.05) levels of pup liver docosahexaenoic acid (DHA) and arachidonic acid (ARA) as compared to the control group. Pup liver PPARα and PPARγ expression was lower (p<0.05) in the BD group although there were no differences in the expression of SREBP-1c, LXRα and RXRα expression. Omega-3 fatty acids supplementation to this group normalized (p<0.05) levels of both PPARα and PPARγ but reduced (p<0.05) SREBP-1c, LXRα and RXRα expression. There was no change in any of the transcription factors in the pup liver in the FD group. Omega-3 fatty acids supplementation to this group reduced (p<0.05) PPARα, SREBP-1c and RXRα expression. Pup liver global methylation levels were higher (p<0.01) in both the micronutrients deficient groups and could be normalized (p<0.05) by omega-3 fatty acid supplementation. Our novel findings suggest a role for omega-3 fatty acids in the one carbon cycle in influencing the hepatic expression of transcription factors

  16. Zebrafish retinal defects induced by ethanol exposure are rescued by retinoic acid and folic acid supplement

    PubMed Central

    Muralidharan, Pooja; Sarmah, Swapnalee; Marrs, James A.

    2014-01-01

    Fetal Alcohol Spectrum Disorder (FASD) is caused by prenatal alcohol exposure, producing craniofacial, sensory, motor, and cognitive defects. FASD is highly prevalent in low socioeconomic populations, which are frequently accompanied by malnutrition. FASD-associated ocular pathologies include microphthalmia, optic nerve hypoplasia, and cataracts. The present study characterizes specific retinal tissue defects, identifies ethanol-sensitive stages during retinal development, and dissects the effect of nutrient supplements, such as retinoic acid (RA) and folic acid (FA) on ethanol-induced retinal defects. Exposure to pathophysiological concentrations of ethanol (during midblastula transition through somitogenesis; 2–24 hours post fertilization [hpf]) altered critical transcription factor expression involved in retinal cell differentiation, and produced severe retinal ganglion cell, photoreceptor, and Müller glial differentiation defects. Ethanol exposure did not alter retinal cell differentiation induction, but increased retinal cell death and proliferation. RA and FA nutrient co-supplementation rescued retinal photoreceptor and ganglion cell differentiation defects. Ethanol exposure during retinal morphogenesis stages (16–24 hpf) produced retinal defects like those seen with ethanol exposure between 2–24 hpf. Significantly, during an ethanol-sensitive time window (16–24 hpf), RA co-supplementation moderately rescued these defects, whereas FA co-supplementation showed significant rescue of optic nerve and photoreceptor differentiation defects. Interestingly, RA, but not FA, supplementation after ethanol exposure could reverse ethanol-induced optic nerve and photoreceptor differentiation defects. Our results indicate that various ethanol-sensitive events underlie FASD-associated retinal defects. Nutrient supplements like retinoids and folate were effective in alleviating ethanol-induced retinal defects. PMID:25541501

  17. Zebrafish retinal defects induced by ethanol exposure are rescued by retinoic acid and folic acid supplement.

    PubMed

    Muralidharan, Pooja; Sarmah, Swapnalee; Marrs, James A

    2015-03-01

    Fetal Alcohol Spectrum Disorder (FASD) is caused by prenatal alcohol exposure, producing craniofacial, sensory, motor, and cognitive defects. FASD is highly prevalent in low socioeconomic populations, which are frequently accompanied by malnutrition. FASD-associated ocular pathologies include microphthalmia, optic nerve hypoplasia, and cataracts. The present study characterizes specific retinal tissue defects, identifies ethanol-sensitive stages during retinal development, and dissects the effect of nutrient supplements, such as retinoic acid (RA) and folic acid (FA) on ethanol-induced retinal defects. Exposure to pathophysiological concentrations of ethanol (during midblastula transition through somitogenesis; 2-24 h post fertilization [hpf]) altered critical transcription factor expression involved in retinal cell differentiation, and produced severe retinal ganglion cell, photoreceptor, and Müller glial differentiation defects. Ethanol exposure did not alter retinal cell differentiation induction, but increased retinal cell death and proliferation. RA and FA nutrient co-supplementation rescued retinal photoreceptor and ganglion cell differentiation defects. Ethanol exposure during retinal morphogenesis stages (16-24 hpf) produced retinal defects like those seen with ethanol exposure between 2 and 24 hpf. Significantly, during an ethanol-sensitive time window (16-24 hpf), RA co-supplementation moderately rescued these defects, whereas FA co-supplementation showed significant rescue of optic nerve and photoreceptor differentiation defects. Interestingly, RA, but not FA, supplementation after ethanol exposure could reverse ethanol-induced optic nerve and photoreceptor differentiation defects. Our results indicate that various ethanol-sensitive events underlie FASD-associated retinal defects. Nutrient supplements like retinoids and folate were effective in alleviating ethanol-induced retinal defects. PMID:25541501

  18. 7 Things to Know about Omega-3 Fatty Acids

    MedlinePlus

    ... DHA are found in seafood, such as fatty fish (e.g., salmon, tuna, and trout) and shellfish ( ... are also available as dietary supplements; for example, fish oil supplements contain EPA and DHA, and flaxseed ...

  19. Auditory- and Visual-Evoked Potentials in Mexican Infants Are Not Affected by Maternal Supplementation with 400 mg/d Docosahexaenoic Acid in the Second Half of Pregnancy1234

    PubMed Central

    Stein, Aryeh D.; Wang, Meng; Rivera, Juan A.; Martorell, Reynaldo; Ramakrishnan, Usha

    2012-01-01

    The evidence relating prenatal supplementation with DHA to offspring neurological development is limited. We investigated the effect of prenatal DHA supplementation on infant brainstem auditory-evoked responses and visual- evoked potentials in a double-blind, randomized controlled trial in Cuernavaca, Mexico. Pregnant women were supplemented daily with 400 mg DHA or placebo from gestation wk 18–22 through delivery. DHA and placebo groups did not differ in maternal characteristics at randomization or infant characteristics at birth. Brainstem auditory-evoked responses were measured at 1 and 3 mo in 749 and 664 infants, respectively, and visual-evoked potentials were measured at 3 and 6 mo in 679 and 817 infants, respectively. Left-right brainstem auditory-evoked potentials were moderately correlated (range, 0.26–0.43; all P < 0.001) and left-right visual-evoked potentials were strongly correlated (range, 0.79–0.94; all P < 0.001) within any assessment. Correlations across visits were modest to moderate (range, 0.09–0.38; all P < 0.01). The offspring of DHA-supplemented women did not differ from those of control women with respect to any outcome measure (all comparisons P > 0.10). We conclude that DHA supplementation during pregnancy did not influence brainstem auditory-evoked responses at 1 and 3 mo or visual-evoked potentials at 3 and 6 mo. PMID:22739364

  20. One-generation reproductive toxicity study of DHA-rich oil in rats.

    PubMed

    Blum, René; Kiy, Thomas; Waalkens-Berendsen, Ine; Wong, Andrea W; Roberts, Ashley

    2007-12-01

    Polyunsaturated fatty acids, including docosahexaenoic acid (DHA), are natural constituents of the human diet. DHA-algal oil is produced through the use of the marine protist, Ulkenia sp. The reproductive toxicity of DHA-algal oil was assessed in a one-generation study. Rats were provided diets containing DHA-algal oil at concentrations of 1.5, 3.0, or 7.5%, and the control group received a diet containing 7.5% corn oil. Males and females were treated for 10 weeks prior to mating and during mating. Females continued to receive test diets during gestation and lactation. In parental animals, clinical observations, mortality, fertility, and reproductive performance were unaffected by treatment. Differences in food consumption, body weight, and liver weight in the treated groups were not considered to be due to an adverse effect of DHA-algal oil. Spleen weight increases in treated animals were associated with extramedullary hematopoiesis. Yellow discoloration of abdominal adipose tissue was observed in rats from the high-dose group, and histological examination revealed steatitis in all treated parental groups. Exposure to DHA-algal oil did not influence the physical development of F(1) animals. These results demonstrate that DHA-algal oil at dietary concentrations of up to 7.5% in rats does not affect reproductive capacity or pup development. PMID:17976878

  1. Folic Acid Supplementation Stimulates Notch Signaling and Cell Proliferation in Embryonic Neural Stem Cells

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Huan; Huang, Guo-wei; Zhang, Xu-mei; Ren, Da-lin; X. Wilson, John

    2010-01-01

    The present study investigated the effect of folic acid supplementation on the Notch signaling pathway and cell proliferation in rat embryonic neural stem cells (NSCs). The NSCs were isolated from E14–16 rat brain and grown as neurospheres in serum-free suspension culture. Individual cultures were assigned to one of 3 treatment groups that differed according to the concentration of folic acid in the medium: Control (baseline folic acid concentration of 4 mg/l), low folic acid supplementation (4 mg/l above baseline, Folate-L) and high folic acid supplementation (40 mg/l above baseline, Folate-H). NSCs were identified by their expression of immunoreactive nestin and proliferating cells by incorporation of 5'bromo-2'deoxyuridine. Cell proliferation was also assessed by methyl thiazolyl tetrazolium assay. Notch signaling was analyzed by real-time PCR and western blot analyses of the expression of Notch1 and hairy and enhancer of split 5 (Hes5). Supplementation of NSCs with folic acid increased the mRNA and protein expression levels of Notch1 and Hes5. Folic acid supplementation also stimulated NSC proliferation dose-dependently. Embryonic NSCs respond to folic acid supplementation with increased Notch signaling and cell proliferation. This mechanism may mediate the effects of folic acid supplementation on neurogenesis in the embryonic nervous system. PMID:20838574

  2. Differential Ratios of Omega Fatty Acids (AA/EPA+DHA) Modulate Growth, Lipid Peroxidation and Expression of Tumor Regulatory MARBPs in Breast Cancer Cell Lines MCF7 and MDA-MB-231

    PubMed Central

    Mansara, Prakash P.; Deshpande, Rashmi A.; Vaidya, Milind M.; Kaul-Ghanekar, Ruchika

    2015-01-01

    Omega 3 (n3) and Omega 6 (n6) polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFAs) have been reported to exhibit opposing roles in cancer progression. Our objective was to determine whether different ratios of n6/n3 (AA/EPA+DHA) FAs could modulate the cell viability, lipid peroxidation, total cellular fatty acid composition and expression of tumor regulatory Matrix Attachment Region binding proteins (MARBPs) in breast cancer cell lines and in non-cancerous, MCF10A cells. Low ratios of n6/n3 (1:2.5, 1:4, 1:5, 1:10) FA decreased the viability and growth of MDA-MB-231 and MCF7 significantly compared to the non-cancerous cells (MCF10A). Contrarily, higher n6/n3 FA (2.5:1, 4:1, 5:1, 10:1) decreased the survival of both the cancerous and non-cancerous cell types. Lower ratios of n6/n3 selectively induced LPO in the breast cancer cells whereas the higher ratios induced in both cancerous and non-cancerous cell types. Interestingly, compared to higher n6/n3 FA ratios, lower ratios increased the expression of tumor suppressor MARBP, SMAR1 and decreased the expression of tumor activator Cux/CDP in both breast cancer and non-cancerous, MCF10A cells. Low n6/n3 FAs significantly increased SMAR1 expression which resulted into activation of p21WAF1/CIP1 in MDA-MB-231 and MCF7, the increase being ratio dependent in MDA-MB-231. These results suggest that increased intake of n3 fatty acids in our diet could help both in the prevention as well as management of breast cancer. PMID:26325577

  3. Differential anti-cancer effects of purified EPA and DHA and possible mechanisms involved.

    PubMed

    Serini, S; Fasano, E; Piccioni, E; Cittadini, A R M; Calviello, G

    2011-01-01

    As the concepts of pharmaconutrition are receiving increasing attention, it seems essential to clearly assess the effects of specific dietary compounds in specific groups of patients or clinical conditions. We are herein interested in better defining the differential anti-neoplastic effects of the two major n-3 long chain polyunsaturated fatty acids present in fish oil, eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA) and docosahexaenoic acid (DHA). The efficiency of these fatty acids represents a subject of intense interest and debate, and whereas plenty of preclinical studies have strongly demonstrated their preventive and therapeutic effect in different kinds of cancers, the results of the epidemiologic studies are still controversial, and only a few trials have been performed. It has been reported that EPA and DHA may act either through the same or different mechanisms, thus suggesting that a differential efficacy could exist. At present, however, this point has not been clarified, although its better comprehension would allow a more proper and effective use of these fatty acids in the human interventional studies. In an attempt to elucidate this aspect we have herein analyzed the data obtained in the studies which have directly compared the antitumor effects of separate treatments with EPA or DHA. Most of the in vitro data indicate DHA as the more powerful antineoplastic agent. However, an equivalent efficiency of EPA and DHA is suggested by the few in vivo studies. Possible reasons for this discrepancy are discussed and pathways of cell growth that could be differentially influenced by EPA and DHA are described. PMID:21824086

  4. DHA diet reduces AD pathology in young APPswe/PS1 Delta E9 transgenic mice: possible gender effects.

    PubMed

    Perez, Sylvia E; Berg, Brian M; Moore, Kenneth A; He, Bin; Counts, Scott E; Fritz, Jason J; Hu, Yuan-Shih; Lazarov, Orly; Lah, James J; Mufson, Elliott J

    2010-04-01

    Epidemiological and clinical trial findings suggest that consumption of docosahexaenoic acid (DHA) lowers the risk of Alzheimer's disease (AD). We examined the effects of short-term (3 months) DHA enriched diet on plaque deposition and synaptic defects in forebrain of young APPswe/PS1 Delta E9 transgenic (tg) and non-transgenic (ntg) mice. Gas chromatography revealed a significant increase in DHA concomitant with a decrease of arachidonic acid in both brain and liver in mice fed with DHA. Female tg mice consumed relatively more food daily than ntg female mice, independent of diet. Plaque load was significantly reduced in the cortex, ventral hippocampus and striatum of female APPswe/PS1 Delta E9 tg mice on DHA diet compared to female tg mice on control diet. Immunoblot quantitation of the APOE receptor, LR11, which is involved in APP trafficking and A beta production, were unchanged in mice on DHA or control diets. Moreover drebrin levels were significantly increased in the hippocampus of tg mice on the DHA diet. Finally, in vitro DHA treatment prevented amyloid toxicity in cell cultures. Our findings support the concept that increased DHA consumption may play and important role in reducing brain insults in female AD patients. PMID:19859965

  5. Genetic and Kinetic Characterization of the Novel AmpC β-Lactamases DHA-6 and DHA-7

    PubMed Central

    Pérez-Llarena, Francisco José; Zamorano, Laura; Kerff, Frédéric; Beceiro, Alejandro; García, Patricia; Miró, Elisenda; Larrosa, Nieves; Gómez-Bertomeu, Frederic; Méndez, José Antonio; González-López, Juan José; Oliver, Antonio; Galleni, Moreno; Navarro, Ferran

    2014-01-01

    During a Spanish surveillance study, two natural variants of DHA β-lactamases, DHA-6 and DHA-7, were found, with the replacements Ala226Thr and Phe322Ser, respectively, with respect to DHA-1. The DHA-6 and DHA-7 enzymes were isolated from Escherichia coli and Enterobacter cloacae clinical isolates, respectively. The aim of this study was to genetically, microbiologically, and biochemically characterize the DHA-6 and DHA-7 β-lactamases. The blaDHA-6 and blaDHA-7 genes were located in the I1 and HI2 incompatibility group plasmids of 87.3 and 310.4 kb, respectively. The genetic contexts of blaDHA-6 and blaDHA-7 were similar to that already described for the blaDHA-1 gene and included the qnrB4 and aadA genes. The MICs for cephalothin, aztreonam, cefotaxime, and ceftazidime were 8- to 32-fold lower for DHA-6 than for DHA-1 or DHA-7 expressed in the same isogenic E. coli TG1 strain. Interestingly, the MIC for cefoxitin was higher in the DHA-6-expressing transformant than in DHA-1 or DHA-7. Biochemical studies with pure β-lactamases revealed slightly lower catalytic efficiencies of DHA-6 against cephalothin, ceftazidime, and cefotaxime than those of DHA-1 and DHA-7. To understand this behavior, stability experiments were carried out and showed that the DHA-6 protein displayed significantly higher stability than the DHA-1 and DHA-7 enzymes. The proximity of Thr226 to the N terminus in the tertiary protein structure in DHA-6 may promote this stabilization and, consequently, may induce a slight reduction in the dynamic of this enzyme that primarily affects the hydrolysis of some of the bulkiest antibiotics. PMID:25136023

  6. Reply: Omega-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids for postpartum depression

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    To the Editors: We appreciate the interest and the comments of Chiu et al. concerning our recently published study investigating the effect of maternal docosahexaenoic acid (DHA) supplementation to prevent postpartum depression (PPD). We agree with many of their criticisms and, in fact, discussed th...

  7. Supplementing antioxidants to pigs fed diets high in oxidants: II. Effects on carcass characteristics, meat quality, and fatty acid profile.

    PubMed

    Lu, T; Harper, A F; Dibner, J J; Scheffler, J M; Corl, B A; Estienne, M J; Zhao, J; Dalloul, R A

    2014-12-01

    The study was conducted to determine effects of dietary supplementation with a blend of antioxidants (ethoxyquin and propyl gallate) on carcass characteristics, meat quality, and fatty acid profile in finishing pigs fed a diet high in oxidants. A total of 100 crossbred barrows (10.9±1.4 kg BW, 36±2 d of age) were randomly allotted to 5 diet treatments (5 replicate pens per treatment, 4 pigs per pen). Treatments included: 1) HO: high oxidant diet containing 5% oxidized soy oil and 10% PUFA source which contributed 5.56% crude fat and 2.05% docosahexanoic acid (DHA) to the diet; 2) VE: the HO diet with 11 IU/kg of added vitamin E; 3) AOX: the HO diet with antioxidant blend (135 mg/kg); 4) VE+AOX: the HO diet with both vitamin E and antioxidant blend; and 5) SC: a standard corn-soy control diet with nonoxidized oil and no PUFA source. The trial lasted for 118 d; on d 83, the HO diet pigs were switched to the SC diet due to very poor health. From that point, the VE pigs displayed the poorest performance. On d 118, 2 pigs from each pen were harvested for sampling. Compared to pigs fed SC diet, the HO and VE pigs (P<0.05) showed lighter carcass weight, less back fat, less lean body mass, and smaller loin eye area. In addition, the VE pigs had decreased dressing percentage than the AOX and VE+AOX pigs (65.7 vs. 75.3 and 74.2%). Compared to the SC pigs, greater moisture percentage (74.7 vs. 77.4%) and less extractable lipid content (2.43 vs. 0.95%) were found in VE fed pigs (P<0.05). Drip loss of loin muscle in VE pigs was less than SC pigs (0.46 vs. 3.98%, P=0.02), which was associated with a trend for a greater 24-h muscle pH (5.74 vs. 5.54, P=0.07). The antioxidant blend addition in the high oxidant diet attenuated all of these effects to levels similar to SC (P>0.05), except a* value (redness) and belly firmness. Visible yellow coloration of backfat and lipofuscin in HO and VE pigs was observed at harvest at d 118. The high oxidant diet resulted in greater

  8. Folic Acid Supplementation in Pregnancy and the Risk of Pre-Eclampsia—A Cohort Study

    PubMed Central

    Wen, Shi Wu; Guo, Yanfang; Rodger, Marc; White, Ruth Rennicks; Yang, Qiuying; Smith, Graeme N.; Perkins, Sherry L.; Walker, Mark C.

    2016-01-01

    This prospective cohort study designed to assess the effect of folic acid supplementation in pregnancy on the risk of preeclampsia (PE) took place in Ottawa, ON and Kingston, ON, Canada, from September 1, 2002 to August 31, 2008. Pregnant women, less than 20 weeks gestational age were recruited and delivered in the Ottawa region and the Kingston General Hospital. Demographic characteristics of the study participants and the patterns of supplementation of folic acid were described and occurrence of PE between women with folic acid supplementation during pregnancy and women without were compared. Multiple logistic regression was used in the estimation of the independent effect of supplementation of folic acid. Additional analyses assessing the effect of low RBC and serum folate and dose-response relationship were performed. Analyses were performed in all study participants, and then in high risk and low risk sub-groups, respectively. A total of 7,669 participants were included in the final analysis. Ninety five percent of the study participants were taking folic acid supplementation in early second trimester. The rate of PE was lower in the supplementation group than in the no supplementation group, and the difference was statistically significant in high risk women. Similar patterns of associations were observed in analysis by RBC and serum folate levels and in dose-response analysis. Folic acid supplementation in pregnancy may reduce PE risk in pregnant women, especially in those women with increased risk of developing PE. PMID:26901463

  9. Assessment of Folic Acid Supplementation in Pregnant Women by Estimation of Serum Levels of Tetrahydrofolic Acid, Dihydrofolate Reductase, and Homocysteine

    PubMed Central

    Saxena, Vartika; Mirza, Anissa Atif; Kumari, Ranjeeta; Sharma, Kapil; Bharadwaj, Jyoti

    2016-01-01

    Background. Status of folic acid use in pregnant women of the hilly regions in North India was little known. This study was carried out to assess the folic acid use and estimate folate metabolites in pregnant women of this region. Materials and Methods. This cross-sectional study is comprised of 76 pregnant women, whose folic acid supplementation was assessed by a questionnaire and serum levels of homocysteine, tetrahydrofolic acid (THFA), and dihydrofolate reductase (DHFR) were estimated using Enzyme Linked Immunoassays. Results. The study data revealed awareness of folic acid use during pregnancy was present in 46.1% and 23.7% were taking folic acid supplements. The study depicted that there was no statistically significant difference between serum levels of THFA and DHFR in pregnant women with and without folic acid supplements (p = 0.790). Hyperhomocysteinemia was present in 15.78% of the participants. Conclusion. Less awareness about folic acid supplementation and low use of folic acid by pregnant women were observed in this region. Sufficient dietary ingestion may suffice for the escalated requirements in pregnancy, but since this cannot be ensured, hence folic acid supplementation should be made as an integral part of education and reproductive health programs for its better metabolic use, growth, and development of fetus. PMID:27064332

  10. Polyunsaturated fatty acid supplementation reverses cystic fibrosis-related fatty acid abnormalities in CFTR-/- mice by suppressing fatty acid desaturases.

    PubMed

    Njoroge, Sarah W; Laposata, Michael; Boyd, Kelli L; Seegmiller, Adam C

    2015-01-01

    Cystic fibrosis patients and model systems exhibit consistent abnormalities in metabolism of polyunsaturated fatty acids that appear to play a role in disease pathophysiology. Recent in vitro studies have suggested that these changes are due to overexpression of fatty acid desaturases that can be reversed by supplementation with the long-chain polyunsaturated fatty acids docosahexaenoate and eicosapentaenoate. However, these findings have not been tested in vivo. The current study aimed to test these results in an in vivo model system, the CFTR(-/-) knockout mouse. When compared with wild-type mice, the knockout mice exhibited fatty acid abnormalities similar to those seen in cystic fibrosis patients and other model systems. The abnormalities were confined to lung, ileum and pancreas, tissues that are affected by the disease. Similar to in vitro models, these fatty acid changes correlated with increased expression of Δ5- and Δ6-desaturases and elongase 5. Dietary supplementation with high-dose free docosahexaenoate or a combination of lower-dose docosahexaenoate and eicosapentaenoate in triglyceride form corrected the fatty acid abnormalities and reduced expression of the desaturase and elongase genes in the ileum and liver of knockout mice. Only the high-dose docosahexaenoate reduced histologic evidence of disease, reducing mucus accumulation in ileal sections. These results provide in vivo support for the hypothesis that fatty acid abnormalities in cystic fibrosis result from abnormal expression and activity of metabolic enzymes in affected cell types. They further demonstrate that these changes can be reversed by dietary n-3 fatty acid supplementation, highlighting the potential therapeutic benefit for cystic fibrosis patients. PMID:25448610

  11. Exercise and DHA prevent the negative effects of hypoxia on EEG and nerve conduction velocity.

    PubMed

    Erken, Haydar Ali; Erken, Gülten; Colak, Rıdvan; Genç, Osman

    2013-12-01

    It is known that hypoxia has a negative effect on nervous system functions, but exercise and DHA (docosahexaenoic acid) have positive effect. In this study, it was investigated whether exercise and/or DHA can prevent the effects of hypoxia on EEG and nerve conduction velocity (NCV). 35 adult Wistar albino male rats were divided into five groups (n=7): control (C), hypoxia (H), hypoxia and exercise (HE), hypoxia and DHA (HD), and hypoxia and exercise and DHA (HED) groups. During the 28-day hypoxia exposure, the HE and HED groups of rats were exercised (0% incline, 30 m/min speed, 20 min/day, 5 days a week). In addition, DHA (36 mg/kg/day) was given by oral gavage to rats in the HD and HED groups. While EEG records were taken before and after the experimental period, NCV records were taken after the experimental period from anesthetized rats. Data were analyzed by paired t-test, one-way ANOVA, and post hoc Tukey test. In this study, it was shown that exposure to hypoxia decreased theta activity and NCV, but exercise and DHA reduced the delta activity, while theta, alpha, beta activities, and NCV were increased. These results have shown that the effects of hypoxia exposure on EEG and NCV can be prevented by exercise and/or DHA. PMID:24377343

  12. Changes in PTGS1 and ALOX12 Gene Expression in Peripheral Blood Mononuclear Cells Are Associated with Changes in Arachidonic Acid, Oxylipins, and Oxylipin/Fatty Acid Ratios in Response to Omega-3 Fatty Acid Supplementation

    PubMed Central

    Berthelot, Claire C.; Kamita, Shizuo George; Sacchi, Romina; Yang, Jun; Nording, Malin L.; Georgi, Katrin; Hegedus Karbowski, Christine; German, J. Bruce; Weiss, Robert H.; Hogg, Ronald J.; Hammock, Bruce D.; Zivkovic, Angela M.

    2015-01-01

    Introduction There is a high degree of inter-individual variability among people in response to intervention with omega-3 fatty acids (FA), which may partly explain conflicting results on the effectiveness of omega-3 FA for the treatment and prevention of chronic inflammatory diseases. In this study we sought to evaluate whether part of this inter-individual variability in response is related to the regulation of key oxylipin metabolic genes in circulating peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs). Methods Plasma FA and oxylipin profiles from 12 healthy individuals were compared to PBMC gene expression profiles following six weeks of supplementation with fish oil, which delivered 1.9 g/d eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA) and 1.5 g/d docosahexaenoic acid (DHA). Fold changes in gene expression were measured by a quantitative polymerase chain reaction (qPCR). Results Healthy individuals supplemented with omega-3 FA had differential responses in prostaglandin-endoperoxide synthase 1 (PTGS1), prostaglandin-endoperoxide synthase 2 (PTGS2), arachidonate 12-lipoxygenase (ALOX12), and interleukin 8 (IL-8) gene expression in isolated PBMCs. In those individuals for whom plasma arachidonic acid (ARA) in the phosphatidylethanolamine (PE) lipid class decreased in response to omega-3 intervention, there was a corresponding decrease in gene expression for PTGS1 and ALOX12. Several oxylipin product/FA precursor ratios (e.g. prostaglandin E2 (PGE2)/ARA for PTGS1 and 12-hydroxyeicosatetraenoic acid (12-HETE)/ARA for ALOX12) were also associated with fold change in gene expression, suggesting an association between enzyme activity and gene expression. The fold-change in PTGS1 gene expression was highly positively correlated with ALOX12 gene expression but not with PTGS2, whereas IL-8 and PTGS2 were positively correlated. Conclusions The regulation of important oxylipin metabolic genes in PBMCs varied with the extent of change in ARA concentrations in the case of PTGS1 and ALOX12

  13. The marine n-3 PUFA DHA evokes cytoprotection against oxidative stress and protein misfolding by inducing autophagy and NFE2L2 in human retinal pigment epithelial cells

    PubMed Central

    Johansson, Ida; Monsen, Vivi Talstad; Pettersen, Kristine; Mildenberger, Jennifer; Misund, Kristine; Kaarniranta, Kai; Schønberg, Svanhild; Bjørkøy, Geir

    2015-01-01

    Accumulation and aggregation of misfolded proteins is a hallmark of several diseases collectively known as proteinopathies. Autophagy has a cytoprotective role in diseases associated with protein aggregates. Age-related macular degeneration (AMD) is the most common neurodegenerative eye disease that evokes blindness in elderly. AMD is characterized by degeneration of retinal pigment epithelial (RPE) cells and leads to loss of photoreceptor cells and central vision. The initial phase associates with accumulation of intracellular lipofuscin and extracellular deposits called drusen. Epidemiological studies have suggested an inverse correlation between dietary intake of marine n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFAs) and the risk of developing neurodegenerative diseases, including AMD. However, the disease-preventive mechanism(s) mobilized by n-3 PUFAs is not completely understood. In human retinal pigment epithelial cells we find that physiologically relevant doses of the n-3 PUFA docosahexaenoic acid (DHA) induce a transient increase in cellular reactive oxygen species (ROS) levels that activates the oxidative stress response regulator NFE2L2/NRF2 (nuclear factor, erythroid derived 2, like 2). Simultaneously, there is a transient increase in intracellular protein aggregates containing SQSTM1/p62 (sequestosome 1) and an increase in autophagy. Pretreatment with DHA rescues the cells from cell cycle arrest induced by misfolded proteins or oxidative stress. Cells with a downregulated oxidative stress response, or autophagy, respond with reduced cell growth and survival after DHA supplementation. These results suggest that DHA both induces endogenous antioxidants and mobilizes selective autophagy of misfolded proteins. Both mechanisms could be relevant to reduce the risk of developing aggregate-associate diseases such as AMD. PMID:26237736

  14. Reduction of n-3 PUFAs, specifically DHA and EPA, and enhancement of peroxisomal beta-oxidation in type 2 diabetic rat heart

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background There is overwhelming evidence that dietary supplementation with n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFAs), mainly EPA (C20:5n-3) and DHA (C22:6n-3), has cardiovascular protective effects on patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) but not on healthy people. Because the T2DM heart increases fatty acid oxidation (FAO) to compensate for the diminished utilization of glucose, we hypothesize that T2DM hearts consume more n-3 PUFAs and, therefore, need more n-3 PUFAs. In the present study, we investigated the changes in cardiac n-3 PUFAs and peroxisomal beta-oxidation, which are responsible for the degradation of PUFAs in a high-fat diet (HFD) and low-dose streptozotocin- (STZ) induced type 2 diabetic rat model. Methods and results The capillary gas chromatography results showed that all the n-3 (or omega-3) PUFAs, especially DHA (~50%) and EPA (~100%), were significantly decreased, and the n-6/n-3 ratio (~115%) was significantly increased in the hearts of diabetic rats. The activity of peroxisomal beta-oxidation, which is crucial to very-long-chain and unsaturated FA metabolism (including DHA), was significantly elevated in DM hearts. Additionally, the real-time PCR results showed that the mRNA expression of most peroxisomal beta-oxidation key enzymes were up-regulated in T2DM rat hearts, which might contribute to the reduction of n-3 (or omega-3) PUFAs. Conclusion In conclusion, our results indicate that T2DM hearts consume more n-3 PUFAs, especially DHA and EPA, due to exaggerated peroxisomal beta-oxidation. PMID:23057715

  15. Glucose supplementation-induced changes in the Auxenochlorella protothecoides fatty acid composition suitable for biodiesel production.

    PubMed

    Krzemińska, Izabela; Oleszek, Marta

    2016-10-01

    This study evaluates the effect of different concentrations of glucose supplementation on growth, lipid accumulation, and the fatty acid profile in the Auxenochlorella protothecoides. Addition of glucose promoted the growth rate and decreased the chlorophyll content. Compared with photoautotrophic cells, an increase in the lipid content was observed in mixotrophic cells. The glucose addition induced changes in the fatty acid profile. Higher content of saturated fatty acids was found in the case of cells growing in the glucose-free medium. Oleic acid was the predominant component in mixotrophic cells supplemented with 5gL(-1) glucose, while linoleic acids dominated in cultures supplemented with both 1 and 3gL(-1) glucose. The use of glucose was associated with decreased levels of linolenic acid and PUFA. The changes in the fatty acid profile in mixotrophic cells are favourable for biodiesel production. PMID:27485282

  16. Effects of docosahexaenoic acid on learning and memory impairment induced by repeated propofol anesthesia in young rats

    PubMed Central

    TIAN, MING; LI, ZHI; WANG, GAO; PAN, WEIZHONG; LI, KEZHONG

    2016-01-01

    The aim of the present study was to investigate the effects of docosahexaenoic acid (DHA) on the learning and memory ability of young rats exposed to propofol, and its underlying mechanisms. Sprague Dawley rats (n=60) were randomly divided into six groups: Control group (group A); solvent control group (group B); propofol group (group C); low-dose DHA + propofol group (group D); medium dose DHA + propofol group (group E); and high-dose DHA + propofol group (group F). The Morris water maze (MWM) test was performed to evaluate the rats' learning and memory ability, and tissue samples from the hippocampi of the rats were obtained for biochemical analysis. The results of the MWM test revealed that DHA supplementation administered to young rats led to an evident decrease in the latency to find the maze platform, and a significant increase in the number of platform crossings in groups E and F compared with group C (P<0.05). High-performance liquid chromatography indicated that glutamate concentration levels were significantly lower and γ-aminobutyric acid concentration levels were significantly higher in the hippocampi of group E and F rats treated with DHA compared with group C rats (P<0.05). Furthermore, DHA treatment alleviated the decrease in brain-derived neurotrophic factor levels (P<0.05), and superoxide dismutase (P<0.05) and glutathione peroxidase (P<0.05) activities induced by the administration of propofol. Additionally, DHA treatment decreased malondialdehyde levels in the hippocampi of rats (P<0.05). The aforementioned findings demonstrate that DHA was able to effectively improve learning and memory dysfunction induced by repeated propofol-induced anesthesia in young rats. This data suggests that DHA may be a potential candidate for further preclinical studies aimed at treating postoperative cognitive dysfunction. PMID:27073471

  17. ω-3 Fatty Acids in the Prevention of Cognitive Decline in Humans123

    PubMed Central

    Cederholm, Tommy; Salem, Norman; Palmblad, Jan

    2013-01-01

    The brain is a lipid-rich organ where docosahexaenoic acid (DHA) is enriched and where eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA) may have anti-inflammatory effects. The potential role for n–3 (ω-3) fatty acids such as DHA and EPA in the prevention of cognitive decline, including Alzheimer’s disease (AD) has attracted major interest for the past 20 y. This review presents our understanding of recent observational, interventional, and experimental studies, with the aim of providing some answers to the following question: Can n–3 FA intake modulate cognitive function during aging? In longitudinal observation studies we mainly observe inverse relations between fish intake or serum concentrations of DHA and cognitive impairment. Intervention studies of EPA and DHA supplementation in healthy old individuals have been negative so far (i.e., after up to 2 years of treatment, no differences in cognitive decline between treated and nontreated participants have been observed). In studies that provided EPA and DHA to adults with mild cognitive impairment or age-related cognitive impairment the data seem to be positive. However, when patients with established AD were supplemented with EPA and DHA it appears no benefit was gained. For studies on healthy individuals, a major concern is that the treatment periods may have been too short. There might also be subgroup effects because of the carriage of apolipoprotein Eε4 alleles or risk factor burden. Experimental studies appear to be consistently positive (i.e., n–3 FA supplementation in rodents over a substantial portion of their lives reduces amyloid-β deposition and hippocampal neuron loss and improves cognitive functioning). We are getting closer to providing evidence-based recommendations on fish and fish oil intake to facilitate memory function during old age. In the meantime it is advised to follow the general CDC dietary recommendations of 2–3 fish meals per week or the equivalent intake of long chain n–3 fatty acids

  18. Docosahexaenoic Acid and Adult Memory: A Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis

    PubMed Central

    Yurko-Mauro, Karin; Alexander, Dominik D.; Van Elswyk, Mary E.

    2015-01-01

    Introduction Subjective memory complaints are common with aging. Docosahexaenoic acid (DHA; 22:6 n-3) is a long-chain polyunsaturated fatty acid (LCPUFA) and an integral part of neural membrane phospholipids that impacts brain structure and function. Past research demonstrates a positive association between DHA plasma status/dietary intake and cognitive function. Objectives The current meta-analysis was designed to determine the effect of DHA intake, alone or combined with eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA; 20:5 n-3), on specific memory domains: episodic, working, and semantic in healthy adults aged 18 years and older. A secondary objective was to systematically review/summarize the related observational epidemiologic literature. Methods A systematic literature search of clinical trials and observational studies that examined the relationship between n-3 LCPUFA on memory outcomes in healthy adults was conducted in Ovid MEDLINE and EMBASE databases. Studies of subjects free of neurologic disease at baseline, with or without mild memory complaints (MMC), were included. Random effects meta-analyses were conducted to generate weighted group mean differences, standardized weighted group mean differences (Hedge’s g), z-scores, and p-values for heterogeneity comparing DHA/EPA to a placebo. A priori sub-group analyses were conducted to evaluate the effect of age at enrollment, dose level, and memory type tested. Results Episodic memory outcomes of adults with MMC were significantly (P<.004) improved with DHA/EPA supplementation. Regardless of cognitive status at baseline, > 1 g/day DHA/EPA improved episodic memory (P<.04). Semantic and working memory changes from baseline were significant with DHA but no between group differences were detected. Observational studies support a beneficial association between intake/blood levels of DHA/EPA and memory function in older adults. Conclusion DHA, alone or combined with EPA, contributes to improved memory function in older adults with

  19. Supplementation with Guanidinoacetic Acid in Women with Chronic Fatigue Syndrome

    PubMed Central

    Ostojic, Sergej M.; Stojanovic, Marko; Drid, Patrik; Hoffman, Jay R.; Sekulic, Damir; Zenic, Natasa

    2016-01-01

    A variety of dietary interventions has been used in the management of chronic fatigue syndrome (CFS), yet no therapeutic modality has demonstrated conclusive positive results in terms of effectiveness. The main aim of this study was to evaluate the effects of orally administered guanidinoacetic acid (GAA) on multidimensional fatigue inventory (MFI), musculoskeletal soreness, health-related quality of life, exercise performance, screening laboratory studies, and the occurrence of adverse events in women with CFS. Twenty-one women (age 39.3 ± 8.8 years, weight 62.8 ± 8.5 kg, height 169.5 ± 5.8 cm) who fulfilled the 1994 Centers for Disease Control and Prevention criteria for CFS were randomized in a double-blind, cross-over design, from 1 September 2014 through 31 May 2015, to receive either GAA (2.4 grams per day) or placebo (cellulose) by oral administration for three months, with a two-month wash-out period. No effects of intervention were found for the primary efficacy outcome (MFI score for general fatigue), and musculoskeletal pain at rest and during activity. After three months of intervention, participants receiving GAA significantly increased muscular creatine levels compared with the placebo group (36.3% vs. 2.4%; p < 0.01). Furthermore, changes from baseline in muscular strength and aerobic power were significantly greater in the GAA group compared with placebo (p < 0.05). Results from this study indicated that supplemental GAA can positively affect creatine metabolism and work capacity in women with CFS, yet GAA had no effect on main clinical outcomes, such as general fatigue and musculoskeletal soreness. PMID:26840330

  20. Supplementation with Guanidinoacetic Acid in Women with Chronic Fatigue Syndrome.

    PubMed

    Ostojic, Sergej M; Stojanovic, Marko; Drid, Patrik; Hoffman, Jay R; Sekulic, Damir; Zenic, Natasa

    2016-02-01

    A variety of dietary interventions has been used in the management of chronic fatigue syndrome (CFS), yet no therapeutic modality has demonstrated conclusive positive results in terms of effectiveness. The main aim of this study was to evaluate the effects of orally administered guanidinoacetic acid (GAA) on multidimensional fatigue inventory (MFI), musculoskeletal soreness, health-related quality of life, exercise performance, screening laboratory studies, and the occurrence of adverse events in women with CFS. Twenty-one women (age 39.3 ± 8.8 years, weight 62.8 ± 8.5 kg, height 169.5 ± 5.8 cm) who fulfilled the 1994 Centers for Disease Control and Prevention criteria for CFS were randomized in a double-blind, cross-over design, from 1 September 2014 through 31 May 2015, to receive either GAA (2.4 grams per day) or placebo (cellulose) by oral administration for three months, with a two-month wash-out period. No effects of intervention were found for the primary efficacy outcome (MFI score for general fatigue), and musculoskeletal pain at rest and during activity. After three months of intervention, participants receiving GAA significantly increased muscular creatine levels compared with the placebo group (36.3% vs. 2.4%; p < 0.01). Furthermore, changes from baseline in muscular strength and aerobic power were significantly greater in the GAA group compared with placebo (p < 0.05). Results from this study indicated that supplemental GAA can positively affect creatine metabolism and work capacity in women with CFS, yet GAA had no effect on main clinical outcomes, such as general fatigue and musculoskeletal soreness. PMID:26840330

  1. A randomized trial on folic acid supplementation and risk of recurrent colorectal adenoma

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Background: Evidence from observational studies suggests that inadequate folate status enhances colorectal carcinogenesis, but results from some randomized trials do not support this hypothesis. Objective: To assess the effect of folic acid supplementation on recurrent colorectal adenoma, we conduc...

  2. Omega-3 fatty acids for breast cancer prevention and survivorship.

    PubMed

    Fabian, Carol J; Kimler, Bruce F; Hursting, Stephen D

    2015-01-01

    Women with evidence of high intake ratios of the marine omega-3 fatty acids eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA) and docosahexaenoic acid (DHA) relative to the omega-6 arachidonic acid have been found to have a reduced risk of breast cancer compared with those with low ratios in some but not all case-control and cohort studies. If increasing EPA and DHA relative to arachidonic acid is effective in reducing breast cancer risk, likely mechanisms include reduction in proinflammatory lipid derivatives, inhibition of nuclear factor-κB-induced cytokine production, and decreased growth factor receptor signaling as a result of alteration in membrane lipid rafts. Primary prevention trials with either risk biomarkers or cancer incidence as endpoints are underway but final results of these trials are currently unavailable. EPA and DHA supplementation is also being explored in an effort to help prevent or alleviate common problems after a breast cancer diagnosis, including cardiac and cognitive dysfunction and chemotherapy-induced peripheral neuropathy. The insulin-sensitizing and anabolic properties of EPA and DHA also suggest supplementation studies to determine whether these omega-3 fatty acids might reduce chemotherapy-associated loss of muscle mass and weight gain. We will briefly review relevant omega-3 fatty acid metabolism, and early investigations in breast cancer prevention and survivorship. PMID:25936773

  3. Identification of DHA-23, a novel plasmid-mediated and inducible AmpC beta-lactamase from Enterobacteriaceae in Northern Taiwan

    PubMed Central

    Hsieh, Wen-Shyang; Wang, Nai-Yu; Feng, Jou-An; Weng, Li-Chuan; Wu, Hsueh-Hsia

    2015-01-01

    Objectives: AmpC β-lactamases are classified as Amber Class C and Bush Group 1. AmpC β-lactamases can hydrolyze broad and extended-spectrum cephalosporins, and are not inhibited by β-lactamase inhibitors such as clavulanic acid. This study was conducted to identify DHA-23, a novel plasmid-mediated and inducible AmpC β-lactamase obtained from Enterobacteriaceae. Methods: A total of 210 carbapenem-resistant Enterobacteriaceae isolates were collected from a medical center (comprising two branches) in Northern Taiwan during 2009–2012. AmpC β-lactamase genes were analyzed through a polymerase chain reaction using plasmid DNA templates and gene sequencing. The genetic relationships of the isolates were typed using pulsed-field gel electrophoresis following the digestion of intact genomic DNA by using XbaI. Results: Three enterobacterial isolates (one Escherichia coli and two Klebsiella pneumoniae) were obtained from three hospitalized patients. All three isolates were resistant or intermediately susceptible to all β-lactams, and exhibited reduced susceptibility to carbapenems. These three isolates expressed a novel AmpC β-lactamase, designated DHA-23, approved by the curators of the Lahey website. DHA-23 differs from DHA-1 and DHA-6 by one amino acid substitution (Ser245Ala), exhibiting three amino acid changes compared with DHA-7 and DHA-Morganella morganii; three amino acid changes compared with DHA-3; four amino acid changes compared with DHA-5; and eight amino acid changes compared with DHA-2 (>97% identity). This AmpC β-lactamase is inducible using a system involving ampR. Conclusion: This is the first report to address DHA-23, a novel AmpC β-lactamase. DHA-type β-lactamases are continuous threat in Taiwan. PMID:25999942

  4. Rise in DPA Following SDA-Rich Dietary Echium Oil Less Effective in Affording Anti-Arrhythmic Actions Compared to High DHA Levels Achieved with Fish Oil in Sprague-Dawley Rats

    PubMed Central

    Abeywardena, Mahinda Y.; Adams, Michael; Dallimore, Julie; Kitessa, Soressa M.

    2016-01-01

    Stearidonic acid (SDA; C18:4n-3) has been suggested as an alternative to fish oil (FO) for delivering health benefits of C ≥ 20 long-chain n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids (LC n-3 PUFA). Echium oil (EO) represents a non-genetically-modified source of SDA available commercially. This study compared EO and FO in relation to alterations in plasma and tissue fatty acids, and for their ability to afford protection against ischemia-induced cardiac arrhythmia and ventricular fibrillation (VF). Rats were fed (12 weeks) diets supplemented with either EO or FO at three dose levels (1, 3 and 5% w/w; n = 18 per group). EO failed to influence C22:6n-3 (DHA) but increased C22:5n-3 (DPA) in tissues dose-dependently, especially in heart tissue. Conversely, DHA in hearts of FO rats showed dose-related elevation; 14.8%–24.1% of total fatty acids. Kidney showed resistance for incorporation of LC n-3 PUFA. Overall, FO provided greater cardioprotection than EO. At the highest dose level, FO rats displayed lower (p < 0.05) episodes of VF% (29% vs. 73%) and duration (22.7 ± 12.0 vs. 75.8 ± 17.1 s) than the EO group but at 3% EO was comparable to FO. We conclude that there is no endogenous conversion of SDA to DHA, and that DPA may be associated with limited cardiac benefit. PMID:26742064

  5. Rise in DPA Following SDA-Rich Dietary Echium Oil Less Effective in Affording Anti-Arrhythmic Actions Compared to High DHA Levels Achieved with Fish Oil in Sprague-Dawley Rats.

    PubMed

    Abeywardena, Mahinda Y; Adams, Michael; Dallimore, Julie; Kitessa, Soressa M

    2016-01-01

    Stearidonic acid (SDA; C18:4n-3) has been suggested as an alternative to fish oil (FO) for delivering health benefits of C ≥ 20 long-chain n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids (LC n-3 PUFA). Echium oil (EO) represents a non-genetically-modified source of SDA available commercially. This study compared EO and FO in relation to alterations in plasma and tissue fatty acids, and for their ability to afford protection against ischemia-induced cardiac arrhythmia and ventricular fibrillation (VF). Rats were fed (12 weeks) diets supplemented with either EO or FO at three dose levels (1, 3 and 5% w/w; n = 18 per group). EO failed to influence C22:6n-3 (DHA) but increased C22:5n-3 (DPA) in tissues dose-dependently, especially in heart tissue. Conversely, DHA in hearts of FO rats showed dose-related elevation; 14.8%-24.1% of total fatty acids. Kidney showed resistance for incorporation of LC n-3 PUFA. Overall, FO provided greater cardioprotection than EO. At the highest dose level, FO rats displayed lower (p < 0.05) episodes of VF% (29% vs. 73%) and duration (22.7 ± 12.0 vs. 75.8 ± 17.1 s) than the EO group but at 3% EO was comparable to FO. We conclude that there is no endogenous conversion of SDA to DHA, and that DPA may be associated with limited cardiac benefit. PMID:26742064

  6. Chem I Supplement: Emphasis on Acids and Bases

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Journal of Chemical Education Staff

    1977-01-01

    Provides supplementary notes on acids and bases suitable for secondary school chemistry instruction, including acidity in solid and natural waters, acidity balance in body chemistry, acid and basic foods, pH values of common fluids, examples of drugs, and commercial preparation of nitric acid. (SL)

  7. Anger induced by interferon-alpha is moderated by ratio of arachidonic acid to omega-3 fatty acids

    PubMed Central

    Lotrich, Francis E.; Sears, Barry; McNamara, Robert K.

    2013-01-01

    Objective Anger worsens in some patients during interferon-alpha (IFN-α) therapy. Elevated anger has also been associated with lower long-chain omega-3 (LCn-3) fatty acid levels. We examined whether fatty acids could influence vulnerability to anger during IFN-α exposure. Methods Plasma arachidonic acid (AA), eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA), and docosahexaenoic acid (DHA) levels were determined prior to IFN-α therapy by mass spectroscopy. Repeated-measure analyses examined the relationship between AA/EPA+DHA and the subsequent development of labile anger and irritability in 82 subjects who prospectively completed the Anger, Irritability, and Assault Questionnaire (AIAQ) during the first eight weeks of IFN-α therapy. Results Prior to IFN-α therapy, AA/EPA+DHA did not correlate with either labile anger or irritability. Pre-treatment AA/EPA+DHA did correlate with the subsequent maximal increase in labile anger during IFN-α therapy (r=0.33; p=0.005). Over time, labile anger increased more in subjects with above median AA/EPA+DHA ratios (p<0.05). Of the 17 subjects ultimately requiring psychiatric intervention for anger, 14/17 had above-median AA/EPA+DHA ratios (p=0.009). There was also an interaction with the tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-α) promoter polymorphism (A-308G), such that only those with both elevated AA/EPA+DHA and the A allele had increased labile anger (p=0.001). In an additional 18 subjects, we conversely observed that selective serotonin reuptake inhibitor treatment was associated with increased irritability during IFN-α therapy. Conclusion LCn-3 fatty acid status may influence anger development during exposure to elevated inflammatory cytokines, and may interact with genetic risk for increased brain TNF-α. LCn-3 supplements may be one strategy for minimizing this adverse side effect of IFN-α. PMID:24182638

  8. Folic acid supplementation influences the distribution of neural tube defect subtypes: A registry-based study.

    PubMed

    Bergman, J E H; Otten, E; Verheij, J B G M; de Walle, H E K

    2016-01-01

    Periconceptional folic acid (FA) reduces neural tube defect (NTD) risk, but seems to have a varying effect per NTD subtype. We aimed to study the effect of FA supplementation on NTD subtype distribution using data from EUROCAT Northern Netherlands. We included all birth types with non-syndromal NTDs born in 1997-2012. By Fisher's exact test we analyzed possible differences in NTD subtype distribution between a correct FA supplementation group and incorrect FA supplementation group. We found proportionally fewer cervical/thoracic spina bifida cases and more lumbar/sacral spina bifida cases in the correct FA supplementation group, irrespective of the presence of the main NTD risk factors. The effect on NTD subtype distribution was only seen when FA supplementation was started before conception. We conclude that FA not only prevents the occurrence of a significant proportion of NTDs, but might also decrease the severity of NTDs, as long as supplementation is started before conception. PMID:26627544

  9. Impact of multiple micronutrient vs. iron - folic acid supplements on maternal anemia and micronutrient status in pregnancy

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Background. Multiple micronutrient (MMN) supplements could increase hemoglobin and improve micronutrient status of pregnant women more than iron ± folic acid supplements alone. Objective. To compare the effects of MMN vs. iron ± folic acid supplements on hemoglobin and micronutrient status of pregn...

  10. Characteristic of lipids and fatty acid compositions of the neon flying squid, Ommastrephes bartramii.

    PubMed

    Saito, Hiroaki; Ishikawa, Satoru

    2012-01-01

    The lipids and fatty acids of the neon flying squid (Ommastrephes bartramii) were an-alyzed to clarify its lipid physiology and health benefit as marine food. Triacylglycerols were the only major component in the digestive gland (liver). In all other organs (mantle, arm, integument, and ovary), sterols and phospholipids were the major components with noticeable levels of ceramide aminoethyl phosphonate and sphingomyelin. The significant levels of sphingolipids suggest the O. bartramii lipids is a useful source for cosmetics. Although the lipid content between the liver and all other tissues markedly differed from each other, the same nine dominant fatty acids in the triacylglycerols were found in all organs; 14:0, 16:0, 18:0, 18:1n-9, 20:1n-9, 20:1n-11, 22:1n-11, 20:5n-3 (icosapentaenoic acid, EPA), and 22:6n-3 (docosahexaenoic acid, DHA). Unusually high 20:1n-11 levels in the O. bartramii triacylglycerols were probably characteristic for western Pacific animal depot lipids, compared with non-detectable levels of 20:1n-11 reported in other marine animals. O. bartramii concurrently has high levels of DHA in their triacylglycerols. The major fatty acids in the phospholipids were 16:0, 18:0, 20:1n-9, EPA, and DHA without 20:1n-11. Markedly high levels of both EPA and DHA were observed in phosphatidylethanolamine, while only DHA was found as the major one in phosphatidylcholine. In particular, high levels of DHA were found both in its depot triacylglycerols and tissue phospholipids in all organs of O. bartramii, similar to that in highly migratory fishes. The high DHA levels in all its organs suggest that O. bartramii lipids is a healthy marine source for DHA supplements. PMID:23018852

  11. Circulating Unmetabolized Folic Acid: Relationship to Folate Status and Effect of Supplementation

    PubMed Central

    Tam, Carolyn; O'Connor, Deborah; Koren, Gideon

    2012-01-01

    There are increasing concerns that exposure to unmetabolized folic acid, which results from folic acid intakes that overwhelm the liver's metabolic capacity, may be associated with adverse effects. In this paper, we examined the folic acid status of women of reproductive age in relation to dietary intake and the effect of folic acid supplementation (1.1 mg or 5 mg). Plasma unmetabolized folic acid was not significantly correlated with folate intake estimated by food frequency questionnaire or biomarkers. The proportion of women with detectable levels of unmetabolized folic acid increased from 65% to 100% after twelve weeks of supplementation (P < 0.05); however, the increase in concentrations did not reach statistical significance and the effect was not sustained. Moreover, there were no significant differences between the two doses. This suggests that there are mechanisms by which the body adapts to high folic acid intakes to limit exposure to unmetabolized folic acid. PMID:22529856

  12. Omega-3 polyunsaturated fatty acid supplementation attenuates blood pressure increase at onset of isometric handgrip exercise in healthy young and older humans.

    PubMed

    Clark, Christine M; Monahan, Kevin D; Drew, Rachel C

    2016-07-01

    Aging is associated with alterations of autonomic nerve activity, and dietary intake of omega-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids, such as eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA) and docosahexaenoic acid (DHA) found in fish oil (FO), can modulate autonomic nerve activity. However, the effect of omega-3 polyunsaturated fatty acid consumption on age-related cardiovascular responses at the onset of isometric handgrip exercise, a time of rapid autonomic adjustments, is unknown. Accordingly, 14 young (25 ± 1 years; mean ± SE) and 15 older (64 ± 2 years) healthy subjects ingested 4 g FO daily for 12 weeks. On pre- and postintervention visits, participants performed 15-sec bouts of isometric handgrip at 10%, 30%, 50%, and 70% maximal voluntary contraction (MVC) while beat-to-beat systolic, diastolic, and mean arterial blood pressure (SBP, DBP, MAP; Finometer) and heart rate (HR; electrocardiogram) were recorded. All baseline cardiovascular variables were similar between groups and visits, except DBP was higher in older subjects (P < 0.05). FO increased erythrocyte EPA and DHA content in both groups (P < 0.05). FO attenuated MAP and DBP increases in response to handgrip in both age groups (change from baseline during 70% MVC handgrip pre- and post-FO: young MAPΔ 14 ± 2 mmHg versus 10 ± 2 mmHg, older MAPΔ 14 ± 3 mmHg versus 11 ± 2 mmHg; young DBPΔ 12 ± 1 mmHg versus 7 ± 2 mmHg, older DBPΔ 12 ± 1 mmHg versus 7 ± 1 mmHg; P < 0.05). FO augmented the PP (SBP-DBP) increase with 70% MVC handgrip in both groups (P < 0.05), but did not alter SBP or HR increases with handgrip. These findings suggest that FO supplementation attenuates MAP and DBP increases at the onset of isometric handgrip exercise in healthy young and older humans. PMID:27440746

  13. Omega-3-Acid Ethyl Esters Block the Protumorigenic Effects of Obesity in Mouse Models of Postmenopausal Basal-like and Claudin-Low Breast Cancer.

    PubMed

    Ford, Nikki A; Rossi, Emily L; Barnett, Kelsey; Yang, Peiying; Bowers, Laura W; Hidaka, Brandon H; Kimler, Bruce F; Carlson, Susan E; Shureiqi, Imad; deGraffenried, Linda A; Fabian, Carol J; Hursting, Stephen D

    2015-09-01

    Obesity induces chronic inflammation and is an established risk and progression factor for triple-negative breast cancers, including basal-like (BL) and claudin-low (CL) subtypes. We tested the effects of dietary supplementation with ethyl esters of the marine-derived anti-inflammatory omega-3 fatty acids eicosapentaenoic and docosahexaenoic acid (EPA+DHA; Lovaza) on growth of murine BL and CL mammary tumors. Female ovariectomized C57BL/6 mice were fed a control diet or a diet-induced obesity (DIO) diet with or without EPA+DHA (0.025%, resulting in blood levels of EPA and DHA comparable with women taking Lovaza 4 g/d) for 6 weeks. All mice were then orthotopically injected with Wnt-1 cells (a BL tumor cell suspension derived from MMTV-Wnt-1 transgenic mouse mammary tumors) or M-Wnt cells (a CL tumor cell line cloned from the Wnt-1 tumor cell suspension). Mice were killed when tumors were 1 cm in diameter. EPA+DHA supplementation did not significantly affect Wnt-1 or M-Wnt mammary tumor growth in normoweight control mice. However, EPA+DHA supplementation in DIO mice reduced growth of Wnt-1 and M-Wnt tumors; reduced leptin:adiponectin ratio and proinflammatory eicosanoids in the serum; improved insulin sensitivity; and decreased tumoral expression of COX-2 and phospho-p65. Thus, EPA+DHA supplementation in mouse models of postmenopausal BL and CL breast cancer offsets many of the protumorigenic effects of obesity. These preclinical findings, in combination with results from parallel biomarker studies in women, suggest that EPA+DHA supplementation may reduce the burden of BL and CL breast cancer in obese women. PMID:26100521

  14. Omega-3-Acid Ethyl Esters Block the Pro-tumorigenic Effects of Obesity in Mouse Models of Postmenopausal Basal-Like and Claudin-Low Breast Cancer

    PubMed Central

    Ford, Nikki A.; Rossi, Emily L.; Barnett, Kelsey; Yang, Peiying; Bowers, Laura W.; Hidaka, Brandon H.; Kimler, Bruce F.; Carlson, Susan E.; Shureiqi, Imad; deGraffenried, Linda A.; Fabian, Carol J.; Hursting, Stephen D.

    2015-01-01

    Obesity induces chronic inflammation and is an established risk and progression factor for triple-negative breast cancers, including basal-like (BL) and claudin-low (CL) subtypes. We tested the effects of dietary supplementation with ethyl esters of the marine-derived anti-inflammatory omega-3 fatty acids eicosapentaenoic and docosahexaenoic acid (EPA+DHA; Lovaza®) on growth of murine BL and CL mammary tumors. Female ovariectomized C57BL/6 mice were fed a control diet or a diet-induced obesity (DIO) diet with or without EPA+DHA (0.025%, resulting in blood levels of EPA and DHA comparable to women taking Lovaza 4 g/day) for 6 weeks. All mice were then orthotopically injected with Wnt-1 cells (a BL tumor cell suspension derived from MMTV-Wnt-1 transgenic mouse mammary tumors) or M-Wnt cells (a CL tumor cell line cloned from the Wnt-1 tumor cell suspension). Mice were killed when tumors were 1 cm in diameter. EPA+DHA supplementation did not significantly impact Wnt-1 or M-Wnt mammary tumor growth in normoweight control mice. However, EPA+DHA supplementation in DIO mice reduced growth of Wnt-1 and M-Wnt tumors; reduced leptin:adiponectin ratio and pro-inflammatory eicosanoids in the serum; improved insulin sensitivity; and decreased tumoral expression of cyclooxygenase-2 and phospho-p65. Thus, EPA+DHA supplementation in mouse models of postmenopausal BL and CL breast cancer offsets many of the pro-tumorigenic effects of obesity. These preclinical findings, in combination with results from parallel biomarker studies in women, suggest EPA+DHA supplementation may reduce the burden of BL and CL breast cancer in obese women. PMID:26100521

  15. DIETARY BILE ACID SUPPLEMENTATION IMPROVES INTESTINAL INTEGRITY AND SURVIVAL IN A MURINE MODEL

    PubMed Central

    Perrone, Erin E.; Chen, Chen; Longshore, Shannon W.; Okezie, Oneybuchi; Warner, Brad W.; Sun, Chen-Chih; Alaish, Samuel M.; Strauch, Eric D.

    2010-01-01

    Purpose In vitro supplementation of the bile salt, taurodeoxycholic acid (TDCA), has been shown to stimulate proliferation and prevent intestinal apoptosis in IEC-6 cells. We hypothesize that addition of TDCA to a rodent liquid diet will be protective against induced intestinal injury. Methods C57Bl6 mice were fed a liquid diet with or without 50mg/kg/day TDCA supplementation. After 6 days, the mice were injected with LPS (10mg/kg) to induce intestinal injury. Specimens were obtained 24 hours later and evaluated for intestinal apoptosis, crypt proliferation, and villus length. A separate cohort of animals were injected with LPS (25mg/kg) and followed 7 days for survival. Results Mice whose diet was supplemented with TDCA had significantly increased survival. After LPS-induced injury, mice supplemented with TDCA showed decreased intestinal apoptosis by both H&E and caspase-3. They also had increased intestinal proliferation by BrdU-staining and increased villus length. Conclusions Dietary taurodeoxycholic acid supplementation alleviates mucosal damage and improves survival after LPS-induced intestinal injury. TDCA is protective of the intestinal mucosa by increasing resistance to injury-induced apoptosis, stimulating enterocyte proliferation and increasing villus length. TDCA supplementation also results in an increased survival benefit. Therefore, bile acid supplementation may potentially protect the intestine from injury or infection. PMID:20620329

  16. Docosahexaenoic diet supplementation, exercise and temperature affect cytokine production by lipopolysaccharide-stimulated mononuclear cells.

    PubMed

    Capó, Xavier; Martorell, Miquel; Sureda, Antoni; Batle, Juan Miguel; Tur, Josep Antoni; Pons, Antoni

    2016-09-01

    Acute exercise induces changes in peripheral mononuclear cells' (PBMCs) capabilities to produce cytokines. The aim was to investigate the effect of docosahexaenoic acid (DHA) diet supplementation on cytokine production, by lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-stimulated PBMCs after exercise, and the in vitro influence of temperature. Fifteen male soccer players were randomly assigned to a placebo or an experimental group. The experimental group consumed an almond-based beverage enriched with DHA (1.16 g DHA/day) for 8 weeks, whereas the placebo group consumed a similar non-enriched beverage. Blood samples were taken before and after the nutritional intervention in basal conditions and 2 h after acute exercise. Nutritional intervention significantly increased the DHA content in erythrocytes only in experimental group (from 34 ± 3.6 to 43 ± 3.6 nmols DHA/10(9) erythrocytes). Exercise significantly increased Toll-like receptor 4 (TLR4) in PBMCs but only in the placebo group (203 %). Exercise also significantly increased IL6, IL8, VEGF, INFγ, TNFα, IL1α, IL1β, MCP1, and EGG production rates by LPS-stimulated PBMCs, and this response was attenuated by DHA supplementation. Temperature but not DHA also affected the pattern of cytokine production increasing IL6, IL8, IL1β, and MCP1 synthesis. The higher change was evidenced in IL1β increasing the production rate at 39.5 °C from 3.19 ± 0.77 to 22.4 ± 6.1 pg/h 10(6) PBMC in placebo and from 2.36 ± 0.11 to 10.6 ± 0.38 pg/h 10(6) PBMC in the supplemented group. The profile of affected cytokines differs between temperature and exercise, suggesting a different PBMC activation pathway. DHA diet supplementation only attenuated cytokine production after exercise and not that induced by temperature. PMID:27139422

  17. Towards the Industrial Production of Omega-3 Long Chain Polyunsaturated Fatty Acids from a Genetically Modified Diatom Phaeodactylum tricornutum

    PubMed Central

    Hamilton, Mary L.; Warwick, Joanna; Terry, Anya; Allen, Michael J.; Napier, Johnathan A.; Sayanova, Olga

    2015-01-01

    The marine diatom Phaeodactylum tricornutum can accumulate up to 30% of the omega-3 long chain polyunsaturated fatty acid (LC-PUFA) eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA) and, as such, is considered a good source for the industrial production of EPA. However, P. tricornutum does not naturally accumulate significant levels of the more valuable omega-3 LC-PUFA docosahexaenoic acid (DHA). Previously, we have engineered P. tricornutum to accumulate elevated levels of DHA and docosapentaenoic acid (DPA) by overexpressing heterologous genes encoding enzyme activities of the LC-PUFA biosynthetic pathway. Here, the transgenic strain Pt_Elo5 has been investigated for the scalable production of EPA and DHA. Studies have been performed at the laboratory scale on the cultures growing in up to 1 L flasks a 3.5 L bubble column, a 550 L closed photobioreactor and a 1250 L raceway pond with artificial illumination. Detailed studies were carried out on the effect of different media, carbon sources and illumination on omega-3 LC-PUFAs production by transgenic strain Pt_Elo5 and wild type P. tricornutum grown in 3.5 L bubble columns. The highest content of DHA (7.5% of total fatty acids, TFA) in transgenic strain was achieved in cultures grown in seawater salts, Instant Ocean (IO), supplemented with F/2 nutrients (F2N) under continuous light. After identifying the optimal conditions for omega-3 LC-PUFA accumulation in the small-scale experiments we compared EPA and DHA levels of the transgenic strain grown in a larger fence-style tubular photobioreactor and a raceway pond. We observed a significant production of DHA over EPA, generating an EPA/DPA/DHA profile of 8.7%/4.5%/12.3% of TFA in cells grown in a photobioreactor, equivalent to 6.4 μg/mg dry weight DHA in a mid-exponentially growing algal culture. Omega-3 LC-PUFAs production in a raceway pond at ambient temperature but supplemented with artificial illumination (110 μmol photons m-2s-1) on a 16:8h light:dark cycle, in natural seawater

  18. Folic Acid Supplementation Adversely Affects Chemosensitivity of Colon Cancer Cells to 5-fluorouracil.

    PubMed

    Ishiguro, Lisa; Yang, Michael; Sohn, Kyoung-Jin; Streutker, Catherine J; Grin, Andrea; Croxford, Ruth; Kim, Young-In

    2016-07-01

    Folic acid (FA) fortification and widespread supplemental use have significantly increased folate status in North America. Furthermore, >50% of colorectal cancer patients use FA supplement. The increased folate status may interfere with cancer chemotherapy. We investigated the effect of FA supplementation on chemosensitivity of human colon cancer cells to 5-fluorouracil (5-FU) using a xenograft model. Mice harboring human HCT116 colon cancer xenografts were randomized to receive the control, or 4× or 12.5× supplemental levels of FA. Within each diet group, mice were randomized to receive 5-FU+leucovorin or saline and xenograft growth and characteristics were determined. The expression of genes involved in folate metabolism and cancer treatment was determined. FA supplementation and 5-FU significantly interacted to influence xenograft growth (P < 0.007). At the control level, 5-FU significantly inhibited the growth of the xenografts (P < 0.0001). However, at the 4× supplemental level, 5-FU-treated xenografts grew faster than untreated xenografts (P = 0.048) while at the 12.5× supplemental level, 5-FU exhibited no effect. Cell proliferation, degree of necrosis, and expression of the selected genes did not significantly differ by the supplemental levels of FA. Our data suggest that FA supplementation may be detrimental to 5-FU chemotherapy of colon cancer and pose public health concern. PMID:27175995

  19. Growth and acid production of Candida species in human saliva supplemented with glucose.

    PubMed

    Samaranayake, L P; Hughes, A; Weetman, D A; MacFarlane, T W

    1986-05-01

    Growth characteristic and acid production of oral isolates of Candida albicans and Candida glabrata in glucose supplemented and glucose-free, pooled, human whole saliva were examined. Both Candida species exhibited sigmoidal growth curves in batch cultures of mixed saliva, supplemented with glucose. The growth of Candida in saliva was accompanied by a rapid decline in pH from 7.5 to 3.2 over 48 h and the major acidic components initiating and sustaining this pH drop were pyruvates and acetates. These acidic metabolites may play an important role in the pathogenesis of oral Candida infections. PMID:3091791

  20. Effects of ascorbic acid supplementation on copper-induced oxidative changes in human erythrocytes

    SciTech Connect

    Calabrese, E.J.; Kemp, J.

    1985-01-01

    A previously reported study indicated that ascorbic acid reduces the occurrence of copper acetate-induced methemoglobin (METHB) formation in vitro. The present study was designed to evaluate these findings in an in vivo exposure of ascorbic acid (1 gm/day) for up to four weeks with an in vitro copper acetate incubation stress at baseline (just prior to supplementation) and at two and four weeks after initiation of treatment. The results indicated that the ascorbic acid supplementation had no significant effects on the occurrence of copper acetate induced oxidant stress (i.e. METHB increase and GSH decrease). Possible explanations for this apparent discrepancy are provided.

  1. A critical period for omega-3 nutritional supplementation in the development of the rodent visual system.

    PubMed

    De Velasco, P C; Sandre, P C; Tavares Do Carmo, M G; Faria-Melibeu, A C; Campello-Costa, P; Ferraz, A C; Andrade Da Costa, B L S; Serfaty, C A

    2015-07-30

    Retinocollicular connections form precise topographical maps that are normally completed through the selective elimination of misplaced axons and the stabilization of topographically ordered axon terminals during early development. Omega-3 fatty acids, acquired exclusively through the diet, and its main metabolite, docosahexaenoic acid (DHA), are involved in brain development and synaptic maturation. We have previously shown that the nutritional restriction of omega-3/DHA results in abnormal retinocollicular topographical fine-tuning. Therefore, we studied the role of omega-3 fatty acids nutritional supplementation and the developmental time windows during which this postnatal supplementation would restore normal topographical maps in the visual system. Female rats and their litters were chronically fed with either control (soy oil) or restricted omega-3 (coconut oil) diets. Fish oil supplementation was introduced between either postnatal day (PND) 7-13, PND7-28 or PND21-42. At PND13, PND28 or PND42, animals received an anterograde eye injection of a neuronal tracer to visualize retinocollicular axons. Confirming previous observations we found that an omega-3/DHA deficiency resulted in an abnormally high innervation density of retinal axons at the visual layers of the superior colliculus (SC). Although a short-term fish oil supplementation between PND7-13 could not restore normal retinocollicular topography, an extended treatment between PND7-28 completely recovered normal innervation densities of retinotectal axons. However, a late onset supplementation protocol, between PND28-42, was no longer effective in the restoration of the abnormal topographical pattern induced by an early omega-3 nutritional malnutrition. The results suggest a critical period for omega3/DHA dietary intake for the proper development of visual topographical maps. PMID:25916576

  2. Feeding a Diet Enriched in Docosahexaenoic Acid to Lactating Dams Improves the Tolerance Response to Egg Protein in Suckled Pups

    PubMed Central

    Richard, Caroline; Lewis, Erin D.; Goruk, Susan; Field, Catherine J.

    2016-01-01

    The objective of this study was to determine the effect of feeding a maternal diet supplemented with docosahexaenoic acid (DHA) during the suckling period on the development of the immune system and oral tolerance (OT) in offspring. Dams were randomized to consume one of two nutritionally adequate diets throughout the suckling period: control (N = 12, 0% DHA) or DHA (N = 8, 0.9% DHA) diet. At 11 days, pups from each dam were randomly assigned to a mucosal OT challenge: the placebo or the ovalbumin (OVA) treatment. At three weeks, plasma immunoglobulins and splenocyte cytokine production ex vivo were measured. OVA-tolerized pups had a lower Th2 (IL-13) response to OVA despite the presence of more activated T cells and memory cells (CD27+, all p < 0.05). Feeding a high DHA diet improved the ability of splenocytes to respond to mitogens toward a skewed Th1 response and led to a higher IL-10 and a lower TGF-β production after stimulation with OVA (all p < 0.05). Untolerized DHA-fed pups had lower plasma concentrations of OVA-specific immunoglobulin E (p for interaction < 0.05). Overall, feeding a high DHA maternal diet improves the tolerance response in untolerized suckled pups in a direction that is thought to be beneficial for the establishment of OT. PMID:26907333

  3. Nutrition in brain development and aging: role of essential fatty acids.

    PubMed

    Uauy, Ricardo; Dangour, Alan D

    2006-05-01

    The essential fatty acids (EFAs), particularly the n-3 long-chain polyunsaturated fatty acids (LCPs), are important for brain development during both the fetal and postnatal period. They are also increasingly seen to be of value in limiting the cognitive decline during aging. EFA deficiency was first shown over 75 years ago, but the more subtle effects of the n-3 fatty acids in terms of skin changes, a poor response to linoleic acid supplementation, abnormal visual function, and peripheral neuropathy were only discovered later. Both n-3 and n-6 LCPs play important roles in neuronal growth, development of synaptic processing of neural cell interaction, and expression of genes regulating cell differentiation and growth. The fetus and placenta are dependent on maternal EFA supply for their growth and development, with docosahexaenomic acid (DHA)-supplemented infants showing significantly greater mental and psychomotor development scores (breast-fed children do even better). Dietary DHA is needed for the optimum functional maturation of the retina and visual cortex, with visual acuity and mental development seemingly improved by extra DHA. Aging is also associated with decreased brain levels of DHA: fish consumption is associated with decreased risk of dementia and Alzheimer's disease, and the reported daily use of fish-oil supplements has been linked to improved cognitive function scores, but confirmation of these effects is needed. PMID:16770950

  4. Supplementation with Omega-3 Fatty Acids in Psychiatric Disorders: A Review of Literature Data.

    PubMed

    Bozzatello, Paola; Brignolo, Elena; De Grandi, Elisa; Bellino, Silvio

    2016-01-01

    A new application for omega-3 fatty acids has recently emerged, concerning the treatment of several mental disorders. This indication is supported by data of neurobiological research, as highly unsaturated fatty acids (HUFAs) are highly concentrated in neural phospholipids and are important components of the neuronal cell membrane. They modulate the mechanisms of brain cell signaling, including the dopaminergic and serotonergic pathways. The aim of this review is to provide a complete and updated account of the empirical evidence of the efficacy and safety that are currently available for omega-3 fatty acids in the treatment of psychiatric disorders. The main evidence for the effectiveness of eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA) and docosahexaenoic acid (DHA) has been obtained in mood disorders, in particular in the treatment of depressive symptoms in unipolar and bipolar depression. There is some evidence to support the use of omega-3 fatty acids in the treatment of conditions characterized by a high level of impulsivity and aggression and borderline personality disorders. In patients with attention deficit hyperactivity disorder, small-to-modest effects of omega-3 HUFAs have been found. The most promising results have been reported by studies using high doses of EPA or the association of omega-3 and omega-6 fatty acids. In schizophrenia, current data are not conclusive and do not allow us either to refuse or support the indication of omega-3 fatty acids. For the remaining psychiatric disturbances, including autism spectrum disorders, anxiety disorders, obsessive-compulsive disorder, eating disorders and substance use disorder, the data are too scarce to draw any conclusion. Concerning tolerability, several studies concluded that omega-3 can be considered safe and well tolerated at doses up to 5 g/day. PMID:27472373

  5. Supplementation with Omega-3 Fatty Acids in Psychiatric Disorders: A Review of Literature Data

    PubMed Central

    Bozzatello, Paola; Brignolo, Elena; De Grandi, Elisa; Bellino, Silvio

    2016-01-01

    A new application for omega-3 fatty acids has recently emerged, concerning the treatment of several mental disorders. This indication is supported by data of neurobiological research, as highly unsaturated fatty acids (HUFAs) are highly concentrated in neural phospholipids and are important components of the neuronal cell membrane. They modulate the mechanisms of brain cell signaling, including the dopaminergic and serotonergic pathways. The aim of this review is to provide a complete and updated account of the empirical evidence of the efficacy and safety that are currently available for omega-3 fatty acids in the treatment of psychiatric disorders. The main evidence for the effectiveness of eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA) and docosahexaenoic acid (DHA) has been obtained in mood disorders, in particular in the treatment of depressive symptoms in unipolar and bipolar depression. There is some evidence to support the use of omega-3 fatty acids in the treatment of conditions characterized by a high level of impulsivity and aggression and borderline personality disorders. In patients with attention deficit hyperactivity disorder, small-to-modest effects of omega-3 HUFAs have been found. The most promising results have been reported by studies using high doses of EPA or the association of omega-3 and omega-6 fatty acids. In schizophrenia, current data are not conclusive and do not allow us either to refuse or support the indication of omega-3 fatty acids. For the remaining psychiatric disturbances, including autism spectrum disorders, anxiety disorders, obsessive-compulsive disorder, eating disorders and substance use disorder, the data are too scarce to draw any conclusion. Concerning tolerability, several studies concluded that omega-3 can be considered safe and well tolerated at doses up to 5 g/day. PMID:27472373

  6. Effect of dietary fatty acid supplements, varying in fatty acid composition, on milk fat secretion in dairy cattle fed diets supplemented to less than 3% total fatty acids.

    PubMed

    Stoffel, C M; Crump, P M; Armentano, L E

    2015-01-01

    Dietary fatty acids can affect both milk fat yield and fatty acid (FA) composition. This relationship is well established when the dietary level of FA exceeds 3% of diet dry matter (DM). We could find no reports directly examining the effects of dietary FA profile on milk fat at levels below 3%. Twenty-four primiparous and 36 multiparous lactating cows were paired by production (1 high with 1 low, within parity) to form 30 experimental units. Pairs were fed 6 diets in five 6×6 balanced Latin squares with 21-d periods, and data were collected during the last 5d of each period. Two control diets were fed: a corn control diet (CC; 29% corn silage, 16% alfalfa silage, 19% corn grain, and 8% distillers grain on a DM basis) containing 1.8% FA; and a low-oil control diet (LOC; 9% corn silage, 35% alfalfa silage, 20% food-grade corn starch, and 8% corn gluten feed on a DM basis) containing 1.2% FA. A portion of the food-grade corn starch in LOC was replaced with 4 different FA supplements to create the 4 treatment diets. Treatments were 1.7% (DM basis) of a 50:50 blend of corn oil and high-linoleic safflower oil (LO), 1.7% high-oleic sunflower oil (OO), 1.7% palm oil (PO), or 1.8% calcium salts of palm fatty acids (PFA). The resultant diets were thus enriched in linoleic (LO), oleic (OO), or palmitic acid (PO and PFA). Dietary treatments did not affect dry matter intake. Addition of any of the fat sources to LOC resulted in increased milk yield, but milk fat yields and milk FA composition were variable for the different treatments. The LO treatment resulted in lower milk fat yield, fat concentration, and C16:0 yield but increased both trans-10 C18:1 and trans-10,cis-12 C18:2 yields compared with the other added FA treatments. Diets PO and PFA resulted in increased milk C16:0 yield and decreased total milk C18 yield compared with OO. Regression analysis revealed a negative coefficient for dietary linoleic acid content over basal (LOC) for both milk short-chain FA yield and

  7. Effect of parenteral amino acid supplementation in preterm low birth weight newborn.

    PubMed

    Alo, D; Shahidullah, M; Mannan, M A; Noor, K

    2010-07-01

    This interventional study was done to determine the effect of parenteral amino acid supplementation on weight change, biochemical effect and incidence of sepsis in preterm low birth weight newborns during their hospital stay. It was carried out during the period of June 2006-May 2007 in the Newborn unit of a tertiary care hospital of Bangladesh. Sixty preterm (28-34weeks), low birth weight (1000-1800g) AGA (appropriate for gestational age) newborns were enrolled within 24 hours of birth. Intervention and control newborns were matched in terms of birth weight and gestational age. Samples were volunteers. Parenteral amino acid (5%) supplementation in addition to usual nutritional management until enteral feeding reached three fourth of total calorie intake. Usual nutritional management was 10% intravenous dextrose and subsequent enteral feeding. Main outcome measured with weight change, biochemical effect and incidence of sepsis. Weight change was observed by two parameters such as mean percentage of maximum postnatal weight loss and mean days to reach birth weight, both were significantly lower in intervention than control group (p<0.05). Biochemical effect of parenteral amino acid supplementation investigated in this study has been shown to have no effect. There was no difference in incidence of sepsis between intervention and control group (p>0.05). Improved nutritional supplementation with parenteral amino acids resulted in better growth as evident by lesser degree of weight loss and earlier regaining of birth weight in the early neonatal period. Biochemical parameters are not affected by parenteral amino acid supplementation. PMID:20639832

  8. Influence of different systems for feeding supplements to grazing dairy cows on milk fatty acid composition.

    PubMed

    Akbaridoust, Ghazal; Plozza, Tim; Trenerry, Victor C; Wales, William J; Auldist, Martin J; Dunshea, Frank R; Ajlouni, Said

    2014-05-01

    This study investigated the effects of different strategies for feeding supplements to grazing dairy cows on the proportions of fatty acids in milk. Two hundred and sixteen cows were fed supplementary grain and forage according to one of 3 different strategies; (1) CONTROL: cows grazed perennial ryegrass pasture (14 kg dry matter/d) supplemented with milled barley grain fed in the milking parlour and pasture silage offered in the paddock; (2) Partial mixed ration 1 (PMR1): same pasture allotment and supplement as CONTROL strategy, but the supplements presented as a mixed ration after each milking in feedpad, and; (3) Partial mixed ration 2 (PMR2): same pasture allotment, supplemented with a mixed ration of milled barley grain, alfalfa hay, corn silage and crushed corn grain fed in a feedpad. Within each strategy, cows were assigned to receive either 6, 8, 10 or 12 kg dry matter supplement/cow per d. Milk fatty acid proportions from cows fed CONTROL and PMR1 strategies were similar and different from those fed PMR2, particularly at 10 to 12 kg dry matter supplement/cow per d. The reduction in milk fat yield and concentration in cows fed high amounts of supplement as CONTROL and PMR1 was coincident with 4 × increase in 10t-18:1 proportion. The composition of the partial mixed ration (PMR) and the amount offered affected milk fatty acid proportions and milk fat content, however, the method of supplementation did not. PMID:24560061

  9. Docosahexaenoic acid intake ameliorates ketamine-induced impairment of spatial cognition and learning ability in ICR mice.

    PubMed

    Huang, Shucai; Dai, Yuanyuan; Zhang, Zhiwen; Hao, Wei; Chen, Hongxian

    2014-09-19

    Several studies have reported the ketamine-induced cognitive impairment. Docosahexaenoic acid (DHA) supplementation improves cognitive function in human infants and protects against learning impairment in patients with Alzheimer's disease (AD). In this study, we investigated the effect of DHA on ketamine-induced impairment of spatial cognition and learning ability in Institute of Cancer Research (ICR) mice. Morris water maze (MWM) was used to assess spatial learning and memory. Gamma-aminobutyric acid (GABA) levels in the hippocampus and prefrontal cortex were measured using high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC). The results showed that intraperitoneal injection of ketamine (30mg/kg, twice per day) for 4 weeks led to the decline of spatial cognitive ability in mice, and 420mg/(kgd) DHA supplementation for 6 weeks improved ketamine-induced spatial cognitive impairment to a certain extent. The up-regulation of GABA levels in the hippocampus and prefrontal cortex was related to the improvement in spatial learning. Our results suggested that DHA supplementation would be a promising intervention to improve ketamine-induced spatial memory and cognitive dysfunction, and this effect of DHA might be correlated with the up-regulation of GABA levels. PMID:25123439

  10. Modulation of blood oxylipin levels by long-chain omega-3 fatty acid supplementation in hyper- and normolipidemic men

    PubMed Central

    Schuchardt, Jan Philipp; Schmidt, Simone; Kressel, Gaby; Willenberg, Ina; Hammock, Bruce D; Hahn, Andreas; Schebb, Nils Helge

    2014-01-01

    Introduction Long chain omega-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids (LC n-3 PUFA) such as EPA and DHA have been shown to possess beneficial health effects, and it is believed that many of their effects are mediated by their oxygenated products (oxylipins). Recently, we have shown that serum levels of several hydroxy, epoxy, and dihydroxy FAs are dependent on the individual status of the parent FAs in a cohort of normo- and hyperlipidemic subjects. So far, the effect of an increased dietary LC n-3 PUFA intake on hydroxy, epoxy, and dihydroxy FA levels has not been investigated in subjects with mild combined hyperlipidemia. Subjects and Methods In the present study, we compared oxylipin patterns of 10 hyperlipidemic (cholesterol >200 mg/dl; triglyceride >150 mg/ml) and 10 normolipidemic men in response to twelve weeks of LC n-3 PUFA intake (1.14 g DHA and 1.56 g EPA). Levels of 44 free hydroxy, epoxy and dihydroxy FAs were analyzed in serum by LC-MS. Additionally, oxylipin levels were compared with their parent PUFA levels in erythrocyte membranes; a biomarker for the individual PUFA status. Results Differences in the oxylipin pattern between normo- and hyperlipidemic subjects were minor before and after treatment. In all subjects, levels of EPA-derived oxylipins (170–4,800 pM) were considerably elevated after LC n-3 PUFA intake (150–1,400 %), the increase of DHA-derived oxylipins (360–3,900 pM) was less pronounced (30–130 %). The relative change of EPA in erythrocyte membranes is strongly correlated (r ≥ 0.5; p<0.05) with the relative change of corresponding epoxy and dihydroxy FA serum levels. The effect on arachidonic acid (AA)-derived oxylipin levels (140–27,100 pM) was inconsistent. Discussion and Conclusions The dietary LC PUFA composition has a direct influence on the endogenous oxylipin profile, including several highly biological active EPA- and DHA-derived lipid mediators. The shift in oxylipin pattern appears to be dependent on the initial LC PUFA

  11. Effect of boric acid supplementation of ostrich water on the expression of Foxn1 in thymus.

    PubMed

    Xiao, Ke; Ansari, Abdur Rahman; Rehman, Zia Ur; Khaliq, Haseeb; Song, Hui; Tang, Juan; Wang, Jing; Wang, Wei; Sun, Peng-Peng; Zhong, Juming; Peng, Ke-Mei

    2015-11-01

    Foxn1 is essential for thymus development. The relationship between boric acid and thymus development, optimal dose of boric acid in ostrich diets, and the effects of boric acid on the expression of Foxn1 were investigated in the present study. Thirty healthy ostriches were randomly divided into six groups: Group I, II, III, IV, V, VI, and supplemented with boric acid at the concentration of 0 mg/L, 40 mg/L, 80 mg/L, 160 mg/L, 320 mg/L, 640 mg/L, respectively. The histological changes in thymus were observed by HE staining, and the expression of Foxn1 analyzed by immunohistochemistry and western blot. TUNEL method was used to label the apoptotic cells. Ostrich Foxn1 was sequenced by Race method. The results were as following: Apoptosis in ostrich thymus was closely related with boric acid concentrations. Low boric acid concentration inhibited apoptosis in thymus, but high boric acid concentration promoted apoptosis. Foxn1-positive cells were mainly distributed in thymic medulla and rarely in cortex. Foxn1 is closely related to thymus growth and development. The nucleotide sequence and the encoded protein of Foxn1 were 2736 bases and 654 amino acids in length. It is highly conserved as compared with other species. These results demonstrated that the appropriate boric acid supplementation in water would produce positive effects on the growth development of ostrich thymus by promoting Foxn1 expression, especially at 80 mg/L, and the microstructure of the thymus of ostrich fed 80 mg/L boric acid was well developed. The supplementation of high dose boron (>320 mg/L) damaged the microstructure of thymus and inhibited the immune function by inhibiting Foxn1 expression, particularly at 640 mg/L. The optimal dose of boric acid supplementation in ostrich diets is 80 mg/L boric acid. The genomic full-length of African ostrich Foxn1 was cloned for the first time in the study. PMID:25665795

  12. Different Effects of Eicosapentaenoic and Docosahexaenoic Acids on Atherogenic High-Fat Diet-Induced Non-Alcoholic Fatty Liver Disease in Mice.

    PubMed

    Suzuki-Kemuriyama, Noriko; Matsuzaka, Takashi; Kuba, Motoko; Ohno, Hiroshi; Han, Song-Iee; Takeuchi, Yoshinori; Isaka, Masaaki; Kobayashi, Kazuto; Iwasaki, Hitoshi; Yatoh, Shigeru; Suzuki, Hiroaki; Miyajima, Katsuhiro; Nakae, Dai; Yahagi, Naoya; Nakagawa, Yoshimi; Sone, Hirohito; Yamada, Nobuhiro; Shimano, Hitoshi

    2016-01-01

    Non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD), the hepatic manifestation of metabolic syndrome, can progress to steatohepatitis (NASH) and advanced liver damage, such as that from liver cirrhosis and cancer. Recent studies have shown the benefits of consuming n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFAs) for the treatment of NAFLD. In the present study, we investigated and compared the effects of the major n-3 PUFAs-eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA, C20:5) and docosahexaenoic acid (DHA, C22:6)-in preventing atherogenic high-fat (AHF) diet-induced NAFLD. Mice were fed the AHF diet supplemented with or without EPA or DHA for four weeks. Both EPA and DHA reduced the pathological features of AHF diet-induced NASH pathologies such as hepatic lobular inflammation and elevated serum transaminase activity. Intriguingly, EPA had a greater hepatic triacylglycerol (TG)-reducing effect than DHA. In contrast, DHA had a greater suppressive effect than EPA on AHF diet-induced hepatic inflammation and ROS generation, but no difference in fibrosis. Both EPA and DHA could be effective for treatment of NAFLD and NASH. Meanwhile, the two major n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids might differ in a relative contribution to pathological intermediate steps towards liver fibrosis. PMID:27333187

  13. Different Effects of Eicosapentaenoic and Docosahexaenoic Acids on Atherogenic High-Fat Diet-Induced Non-Alcoholic Fatty Liver Disease in Mice

    PubMed Central

    Suzuki-Kemuriyama, Noriko; Matsuzaka, Takashi; Kuba, Motoko; Ohno, Hiroshi; Han, Song-iee; Takeuchi, Yoshinori; Isaka, Masaaki; Kobayashi, Kazuto; Iwasaki, Hitoshi; Yatoh, Shigeru; Suzuki, Hiroaki; Miyajima, Katsuhiro; Nakae, Dai; Yahagi, Naoya; Nakagawa, Yoshimi; Sone, Hirohito; Yamada, Nobuhiro; Shimano, Hitoshi

    2016-01-01

    Non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD), the hepatic manifestation of metabolic syndrome, can progress to steatohepatitis (NASH) and advanced liver damage, such as that from liver cirrhosis and cancer. Recent studies have shown the benefits of consuming n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFAs) for the treatment of NAFLD. In the present study, we investigated and compared the effects of the major n-3 PUFAs—eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA, C20:5) and docosahexaenoic acid (DHA, C22:6)—in preventing atherogenic high-fat (AHF) diet-induced NAFLD. Mice were fed the AHF diet supplemented with or without EPA or DHA for four weeks. Both EPA and DHA reduced the pathological features of AHF diet-induced NASH pathologies such as hepatic lobular inflammation and elevated serum transaminase activity. Intriguingly, EPA had a greater hepatic triacylglycerol (TG)-reducing effect than DHA. In contrast, DHA had a greater suppressive effect than EPA on AHF diet-induced hepatic inflammation and ROS generation, but no difference in fibrosis. Both EPA and DHA could be effective for treatment of NAFLD and NASH. Meanwhile, the two major n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids might differ in a relative contribution to pathological intermediate steps towards liver fibrosis. PMID:27333187

  14. Industry experience in promoting weekly iron-folic acid supplementation in the Philippines.

    PubMed

    Garcia, Josel; Datol-Barrett, Eva; Dizon, Maynilad

    2005-12-01

    After participating in a pilot project under a government-industry partnership to promote the adoption of weekly iron-folic acid supplementation among women of reproductive age in the Philippines in 1998, United Laboratories (UNILAB), the Philippines' largest private pharmaceutical company, decided in April 2002 to launch a weekly iron-folic acid supplement for pregnant and non-pregnant women under the brand name Femina. The business objective set for the Femina brand was to build the category of preventive iron-folic acid supplements in line with the Philippine Department of Health's advocacy on weekly supplementation as an alternate to daily dosing to reduce the prevalence of anemia in the country. The brand was supported with an integrated mix of traditional advertising media with complementary direct-to-consumer educational programs that aimed to create awareness of iron-deficiency anemia, its causes and effects, and the role of weekly intake of iron-folic acid in preventing the condition. Aggressive marketing support for 1 year was successful in creating awareness among the target women. Significant lessons derived from consumers identified opportunity areas that can be further addressed in developing advocacy programs on weekly iron supplementation implemented on a nationwide scale in the future. PMID:16466091

  15. Folic acid supplementation for pregnant women and those planning pregnancy: 2015 update.

    PubMed

    Chitayat, David; Matsui, Doreen; Amitai, Yona; Kennedy, Deborah; Vohra, Sunita; Rieder, Michael; Koren, Gideon

    2016-02-01

    During the last decade critical new information has been published pertaining to folic acid supplementation in the prevention of neural tube defects (NTDs) and other folic acid-sensitive congenital malformations. These new data have important implications for women, their families, and health care professionals. We performed a review looking for the optimal dosage of folic acid that should be given to women of reproductive age who are planning or not avoiding conception to propose updated guidelines and thus help health care providers and patients. In addition to fortification of dietary staples with folic acid, women of reproductive age should supplement before conception with 0.4-1.0 mg of folic acid daily as part of their multivitamins. In the United States all enriched rice is also fortified with folic acid at 0.7 mg per pound of raw rice. However, this is not the case in many countries, and it has been estimated that only 1% of industrially milled rice is fortified with folic acid. In countries where rice is the main staple (eg, China), this does not allow effective folate fortification. Whereas the incidence of NTDs is around 1/1000 in the United States, it is 3- to 5-fold higher in Northern China and 3-fold higher in India. A recent population-based US study estimated that the reduction in NTD rates by folic acid is more modest than previously predicted. The potential of NTD prevention by folic acid is underutilized due to low adherence with folic acid supplementation, and calls for revising the policy of supplementation have been raised. We identified groups of women of reproductive age who may benefit from higher daily doses of folic acid, and this should be considered in current practice. These include women who have had previous pregnancies with NTDs, those who did not plan their pregnancy and hence did not supplement, and women with low intake or impaired adherence to daily folic acid supplementation. In addition, women with known genetic variations in

  16. Maternal milk DHA content predicts cognitive performance in a sample of 28 nations.

    PubMed

    Lassek, William Day; Gaulin, Steven J C

    2015-10-01

    Convergent evidence from neuronal biology and hominin brain hypertrophy suggests that omega-3 fatty acids are a limiting resource for neural and cognitive development in Homo sapiens, and therefore that children from populations with higher omega-3 availability should display superior cognitive performance. Using multiple regression, we tested this prediction in a sample of 28 countries, with Programme for International Student Assessment (PISA) math scores in 2009 as an index of cognitive performance, and country-specific breast milk levels of omega-3 docosahexaenoic acid (DHA) as an index of omega-3 availability. Breast milk DHA makes a highly significant contribution to math scores (β = 0.462, P = 0.006), greater in magnitude than the control variables of per capita Gross Domestic Product (PCGDP) and educational expenditures per pupil. Together, dietary fish (positively) and total fat (negatively) explain 61% of the variance in maternal milk DHA in a larger sample of 39 countries. PMID:23795772

  17. VITAMIN B6, B12 AND FOLIC ACID SUPPLEMENTATION AND COGNITIVE FUNCTION: A SYSTEMATIC REVIEW OF RANDOMIZED TRIALS

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Despite their important role in cognitive function, the value of B vitamin supplementation is unknown. A systematic review of the effect of vitamins B6, B12, and folic acid supplementation on cognitive function was performed. Literature search conducted in MEDLINE with supplemental articles from re...

  18. Folic acid supplementation for pregnant women and those planning pregnancy: 2015 update

    PubMed Central

    Chitayat, David; Matsui, Doreen; Amitai, Yona; Kennedy, Deborah; Vohra, Sunita; Rieder, Michael

    2015-01-01

    Abstract During the last decade critical new information has been published pertaining to folic acid supplementation in the prevention of neural tube defects (NTDs) and other folic acid–sensitive congenital malformations. These new data have important implications for women, their families, and health care professionals. We performed a review looking for the optimal dosage of folic acid that should be given to women of reproductive age who are planning or not avoiding conception to propose updated guidelines and thus help health care providers and patients. In addition to fortification of dietary staples with folic acid, women of reproductive age should supplement before conception with 0.4‐1.0 mg of folic acid daily as part of their multivitamins. In the United States all enriched rice is also fortified with folic acid at 0.7 mg per pound of raw rice. However, this is not the case in many countries, and it has been estimated that only 1% of industrially milled rice is fortified with folic acid. In countries where rice is the main staple (eg, China), this does not allow effective folate fortification. Whereas the incidence of NTDs is around 1/1000 in the United States, it is 3‐ to 5‐fold higher in Northern China and 3‐fold higher in India. A recent population‐based US study estimated that the reduction in NTD rates by folic acid is more modest than previously predicted. The potential of NTD prevention by folic acid is underutilized due to low adherence with folic acid supplementation, and calls for revising the policy of supplementation have been raised. We identified groups of women of reproductive age who may benefit from higher daily doses of folic acid, and this should be considered in current practice. These include women who have had previous pregnancies with NTDs, those who did not plan their pregnancy and hence did not supplement, and women with low intake or impaired adherence to daily folic acid supplementation. In addition, women with

  19. Soy-Based Multiple Amino Acid Oral Supplementation Increases the Anti-Sarcoma Effect of Cyclophosphamide

    PubMed Central

    Yao, Chien-An; Chen, Chin-Chu; Wang, Nai-Phog; Chien, Chiang-Ting

    2016-01-01

    The use of a mixture of amino acids caused a selective apoptosis induction against a variety of tumor cell lines, reduced the adverse effects of anti-cancer drugs and increased the sensitivity of tumor cells to chemotherapeutic agents. We evaluated the effects and underlying mechanisms of soy-derived multiple amino acids’ oral supplementation on the therapeutic efficacy of low-dose cyclophosphamide (CTX) and on tumor growth, apoptosis, and autophagy in severe combined immunodeficiency (SCID) mice that were injected with sarcoma-180 (S-180) cells. 3-methyladenine or siRNA knockdown of Atg5 was used to evaluate its effect on sarcoma growth. A comparison of mice with implanted sarcoma cells, CTX, and oral saline and mice with implanted sarcoma cells, CTX, and an oral soy-derived multiple amino acid supplement indicated that the soy-derived multiple amino acid supplement significantly decreased overall sarcoma growth, increased the Bax/Bcl-2 ratio, caspase 3 expression, and apoptosis, and depressed LC3 II-mediated autophagy. Treatment with 3-methyladenine or Atg5 siRNA elicited similar responses as CTX plus soy-derived multiple amino acid in downregulating autophagy and upregulating apoptosis. A low dose of CTX combined with an oral soy-derived multiple amino acid supplement had a potent anti-tumor effect mediated through downregulation of autophagy and upregulation of apoptosis. PMID:27043621

  20. A Review: Supplementation of Foods with Essential Fatty Acids-Can It Turn a Breeze without Further Ado?

    PubMed

    Ganesh, Vijayalakshmi; Hettiarachchy, Navam S

    2016-07-01

    This paper focuses on the critical aspects of supplementation of foods with essential fatty acids (EFAs), the need, health benefits of supplementation and the constraints of the process. Current trend of supplementation of foods with EFAs has been gaining momentum and more research pioneers due to the health benefits in par with the direct intake of EFA supplements. Technologies including encapsulation, nanotechnology, molecular complexing, genetic engineering and more emerging means, hold promise to food supplementation with EFAs. Food trials with adoption of various technologies, studies of bioavailability and health benefits are still underway and crucial before EFA supplementation in foods can hit the market on a global scale. PMID:26147443

  1. Effect of early maternal docosahexaenoic acid intake on neuropsychological status and visual acuity at five years of age of breast-fed infants

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    We previously reported better psychomotor development at 30 months of age in infants whose mothers received a docosahexaenoic acid (DHA) supplement for the first 4 months of lactation. We now assess neuropsychological and visual function of the same children at 5 years of age. Breastfeeding women w...

  2. Fatty acid amide supplementation decreases impulsivity in young adult heavy drinkers.

    PubMed

    van Kooten, Maria J; Veldhuizen, Maria G; de Araujo, Ivan E; O'Malley, Stephanie S; Small, Dana M

    2016-03-01

    Compromised dopamine signaling in the striatum has been associated with the expression of impulsive behaviors in addiction, obesity and alcoholism. In rodents, intragastric infusion of the fatty acid amide oleoylethanolamide increases striatal extracellular dopamine levels via vagal afferent signaling. Here we tested whether supplementation with PhosphoLean™, a dietary supplement that contains the precursor of the fatty acid amide oleoylethanolamide (N-oleyl-phosphatidylethanolamine), would reduce impulsive responding and alcohol use in heavy drinking young adults. Twenty-two individuals were assigned to a three-week supplementation regimen with PhosphoLean™ or placebo. Impulsivity was assessed with self-report questionnaires and behavioral tasks pre- and post-supplementation. Although self-report measures of impulsivity did not change, supplementation with PhosphoLean™, but not placebo, significantly reduced false alarm rate on a Go/No-Go task. In addition, an association was found between improved sensitivity on the Go/No-Go task and reduced alcohol intake. These findings provide preliminary evidence that promoting fatty acid derived gut-brain dopamine communication may have therapeutic potential for reducing impulsivity in heavy drinkers. PMID:26656766

  3. Peroxydisulfate Oxidation of L-Ascorbic Acid for Its Direct Spectrophotometric Determination in Dietary Supplements

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Salkić, M.; Selimović, A.; Pašalić, H.; Keran, H.

    2014-03-01

    A selective and accurate direct spectrophotometric method was developed for the determination of L-as cor bic acid in dietary supplements. Background correction was based on the oxidation of L-ascorbic acid by potassi um peroxydisulfate in an acidic medium. The molar absorptivity of the proposed method was 1.41 · 104 l/(mol · cm) at 265 nm. The method response was linear up to an L-ascorbic acid concentration of 12.00 μg/ml. The detection limit was 0.11 μg/ml, and the relative standard deviation was 0.9 % (n = 7) for 8.00 μg/ml L-ascorbic acid. Other compounds commonly found in the dietary supplements did not interfere with the detection of L-ascorbic acid. The proposed procedure was successfully applied to the determination of L-ascorbic acid in these supplements, and the results obtained agreed with those obtained by iodine titration.

  4. Effects of two different dietary sources of long chain omega-3, highly unsaturated fatty acids on incorporation into the plasma, red blood cell, and skeletal muscle in horses.

    PubMed

    Hess, T M; Rexford, J K; Hansen, D K; Harris, M; Schauermann, N; Ross, T; Engle, T E; Allen, K G D; Mulligan, C M

    2012-09-01

    The objective of this study was to examine the effects of different sources of dietary omega-3 (n-3) fatty acid supplementation on plasma, red blood cell, and skeletal muscle fatty acid compositions in horses. Twenty-one mares were blocked by age, BW, and BCS and assigned to 1 of 3 dietary treatments with 7 mares per treatment. Dietary treatments were: 1) control or no fatty acid supplement (CON), 2) 38 g of n-3 long chain, highly unsaturated fatty acid (LCHUFA) supplement/d provided by algae and fish oil (MARINE) containing alpha-linolenic acid (ALA), eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA), docosahexaenoic acid (DHA), and docosapentaenoic acid (DPA), and 3) 38 g of n-3 LCHUFA supplement/d provided by a flaxseed meal (FLAX) containing ALA. Each supplement was added to a basal diet consisting of hay and barley and was fed for 90 d. Blood samples and muscle middle gluteal biopsies were taken at d 0, 30, 60 and 90 of supplementation. Plasma, red blood cell and skeletal muscle fatty acid profiles were determined via gas chromatography. Plasma linoleic acid (LA) and ALA were at least 10 and 60% less (P < 0.01), respectively, in the MARINE compared with the FLAX and CON groups. Plasma EPA and DHA were only detected in the MARINE group, and EPA increased 40% (P < 0.001) from d 30 to 60, and DHA 19% (P < 0.01) from d 30 to 90. Red blood cell LA and ALA were not different among treatments. Red blood cell EPA and DHA were only detected in the MARINE group, where EPA increased 38% (P < 0.01) from d 30 to 60, and DHA increased 56% (P < 0.001) between d 30 and 90. Skeletal muscle LA was at least 17% less (P < 0.001) in the MARINE group compared with the other treatments. Skeletal muscle ALA was 15% less (P = 0.03) in the MARINE group compared with FLAX and CON groups. Skeletal muscle EPA was at least 25% greater (P < 0.001) in MARINE group compared with other treatments and increased (P < 0.001) by 71% from d 30 to 60. Skeletal muscle DHA was at least 57% greater (P < 0.001) in the MARINE

  5. The HR96 activator, atrazine, reduces sensitivity of D. magna to triclosan and DHA

    PubMed Central

    Sengupta, Namrata; Litoff, Elizabeth J.; Baldwin, William S.

    2015-01-01

    HR96 is a CAR/PXR/VDR ortholog in invertebrates, and a promiscuous endo- and xenobiotic nuclear receptor involved in acclimation to toxicants. Daphnia HR96 is activated by chemicals such as atrazine and linoleic acid (LA) (n-6 fatty acid), and inhibited by triclosan and docosahexaenoic acid (DHA)(n-3 fatty acid). We hypothesized that inhibitors of HR96 may block the protective responses of HR96 based on previously performed luciferase assays. Therefore, we performed acute toxicity tests with two-chemical mixtures containing a HR96 inhibitor (DHA or triclosan) and a HR96 activator (LA or atrazine). Surprisingly, results demonstrate that triclosan and DHA are less toxic when co-treated with 20–80 μM atrazine. Atrazine provides concentration-dependent protection as lower concentrations have no effect and higher concentrations cause toxicity. LA, a weaker HR96 activator, did not provide protection from triclosan or DHA. Atrazine’s protective effects are presumably due to its ability to activate HR96 or other toxicologically relevant transcription factors and induce protective enzymes. Atrazine did not significantly induce glucosyltransferase, a crucial enzyme in triclosan detoxification. However, atrazine did increase antioxidant activities, crucial pathways in triclosan’s toxicity, as measured through GST activity and the TROLOX equivalence assay. The increase in antioxidant capacity is consistent with atrazine providing protection from a wide range of toxicants that induce ROS, including triclosan and unsaturated fatty acids predisposed to lipid peroxidation. PMID:25747156

  6. Effects of folic acid supplementation on serum homocysteine and lipoprotein (a) levels during pregnancy

    PubMed Central

    Hekmati Azar Mehrabani, Zohreh; Ghorbanihaghjo, Amir; Sayyah Melli, Manizheh; Hamzeh-Mivehroud, Maryam; Fathi Maroufi, Nazila; Bargahi, Nasrin; Bannazadeh Amirkhiz, Maryam; Rashtchizadeh, Nadereh

    2015-01-01

    Introduction:There are many ideas concerning the etiology and pathogenesis of preeclampsia including endothelial dysfunction, inflammation and angiogenesis. Elevated levels of total homocysteine (Hcy) and lipoprotein (a) [Lp(a)] are risk factors for endothelial dysfunction. This study aimed to evaluate the effect of high dose folic acid (FA) on serum Hcy and Lp(a) concentrations with respect to methylenetetrahydrofolate reductase (MTHFR) polymorphisms 677C→T during pregnancy. Methods: In a prospective uncontrolled intervention, 90 pregnant women received 5 mg FA supplementation before pregnancy till 36th week of pregnancy. The MTHFR polymorphisms 677C→T, serum lactate dehydrogenase activity, urine protein and creatinine concentrations were measured before starting folic acid administration. Serum levels of Hcy and Lp(a) were determined before and after completion of folic acid supplementation period. Results: Supplementation of the patients with FA for 36 week decreased the median (minimum– maximum) levels of serum Hcy from 11.40 μmol/L (4.40-28.70) to 9.70 (1.60-20.80) μmol/L (p=0.001). There was no significant change in serum Lp(a) after FA supplementation (p=0.17). The overall prevalence of genotypes in pregnant women that were under study for MTHFR C677T polymorphism was 53.3% CC, 26.7% CT and 20.0% TT. There was no correlation between decreasing level of serum Hcy in the patients receiving FA and MTHFR polymorphisms. Conclusion:Although FA supplementation decreased serum levels of Hcy in different MTHFR genotypes, serum Lp(a) was not changed by FA supplements. Our data suggests that FA supplementation effects on serum Hcy is MTHFR genotype independent in pregnant women. PMID:26929921

  7. Maternal B vitamin status in pregnancy week 18 according to reported use of folic acid supplements

    PubMed Central

    Bjørke-Monsen, Anne Lise; Roth, Christine; Magnus, Per; Midttun, Øivind; Nilsen, Roy M.; Reichborn-Kjennerud, Ted; Stoltenberg, Camilla; Susser, Ezra; Vollset, Stein Emil; Ueland, Per Magne

    2013-01-01

    Scope Epidemiological studies on the association between pregnancy outcomes and use of periconceptional folic acid are often based on maternal reported intake. Use of folic acid during pregnancy is associated with a higher socioeconomic status known to have an impact on diet quality. We have studied plasma B vitamin status according to reported use of folic acid supplements during the periconceptional period in Norwegian women. Methods and results Plasma levels of folate, cobalamin, pyridoxal 5′-phosphate (vitamin B6), riboflavin and the metabolic markers total homocysteine, methylmalonic acid and 3-hydroxykynurenine were measured in pregnancy week 18 and related to reported intake of folic acid from 4 weeks prior to conception throughout week 18 in 2911 women from the Norwegian Mother and Child Cohort Study (MoBa) conducted by the Norwegian Institute of Public Health. Being a folic acid user during the periconceptional period was associated with a better socioeconomic status, and a higher intake of several micronutrients, including vitamins, trace-metals and omega 3 fatty acids. Folic acid users had a significantly better plasma B vitamin status. Conclusions Epidemiological data based on maternal reported intake of folic acid supplements during pregnancy, should take into account the numerous nutritional implications, in addition to higher blood folate levels, of being a folic acid user. PMID:23001761

  8. New beauveriolides produced by amino acid-supplemented fermentation of Beauveria sp. FO-6979.

    PubMed

    Matsuda, Daisuke; Namatame, Ichiji; Tomoda, Hiroshi; Kobayashi, Susumu; Zocher, Rainer; Kleinkauf, Horst; Omura, Satoshi

    2004-01-01

    Five new beauveriolides were isolated from the acetone extracts of Beauveria sp. FO-6979 mycelia fermented in amino acid-supplemented media. The structures were elucidated by spectroscopic studies including NMR experiments and chemical degradation. All the beauveriolides are cyclodepsipeptides consisting of one 3-hydroxy-4-methyl fatty acid, two L-amino acids and one D-amino acid in common. Beauveriolide VII with the structure of cyclo-[3-hydroxy-4-methyloctanoyl-L-phenylalanyl-L-alanyl-D-valyl] inhibited lipid droplet formation and cholesteryl ester synthesis in macrophages, but the other beauveriolides showed only slight or almost no effect on lipid droplet formation. PMID:15032479

  9. Folic Acid supplementation and pregnancy: more than just neural tube defect prevention.

    PubMed

    Greenberg, James A; Bell, Stacey J; Guan, Yong; Yu, Yan-Hong

    2011-01-01

    Folate (vitamin B(9)) is an essential nutrient that is required for DNA replication and as a substrate for a range of enzymatic reactions involved in amino acid synthesis and vitamin metabolism. Demands for folate increase during pregnancy because it is also required for growth and development of the fetus. Folate deficiency has been associated with abnormalities in both mothers (anemia, peripheral neuropathy) and fetuses (congenital abnormalities). This article reviews the metabolism of folic acid, the appropriate use of folic acid supplementation in pregnancy, and the potential benefits of folic acid, as well as the possible supplementation of l-methylfolate for the prevention of pregnancy-related complications other than neural tube defects. PMID:22102928

  10. B vitamin supplementation reduces excretion of urinary dicarboxylic acids in autistic children.

    PubMed

    Kałużna-Czaplińska, Joanna; Socha, Ewa; Rynkowski, Jacek

    2011-07-01

    Urinary dicarboxylic acids are an important source of information about metabolism and potential problems especially connected with energy production, intestinal dysbiosis, and nutritional individuality in autistic children. A diet rich in vitamins and macroelements is a new idea of intervention in autism. The objective of the present study was to test the hypothesis that vitamin B2, vitamin B6, and magnesium supplementation is effective in reducing the level of dicarboxylic acids in the urine of autistic children. We examined the levels of succinic, adipic, and suberic acids in the urine of autistic children before and after vitamin supplementation. Thirty children with autism received magnesium (daily dose, 200 mg), vitamin B6 (pyridoxine; daily dose, 500 mg), and vitamin B2 (riboflavin; daily dose, 20 mg). The treatment was provided for a period of 3 months. Organic acids were determined using gas chromatography/mass spectrometry. Before supplementation, the levels of succinic, adipic, and suberic acids in the urine of autistic children were 41.47 ± 50.40 μmol/mmol creatinine, 15.61 ± 15.31 μmol/mmol creatinine, 8.02 ± 6.08 μmol/mmol creatinine; and after supplementation, the levels were 9.90 ± 8.26 μmol/mmol creatinine, 2.92 ± 2.41 μmol/mmol creatinine, and 2.57 ± 3.53 μmol/mmol creatinine, respectively. The results suggest that the supplementation reduces the level of dicarboxylic acid in the urine of autistic children. PMID:21840465

  11. The Δ4-desaturation pathway for DHA biosynthesis is operative in the human species: Differences between normal controls and children with the Zellweger syndrome

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    Background Docosahexaenoic acid (DHA, 22:6ω3) is a fundamental component of cell membranes, especially in the brain and retina. In the experimental animal, DHA deficiency leads to suboptimal neurological performance and visual deficiencies. Children with the Zellweger syndrome (ZS) have a profound DHA deficiency and symptoms that can be attributed to their extremely low DHA levels. These children seem to have a metabolic defect in DHA biosynthesis, which has never been totally elucidated. Treatment with DHA ethyl ester greatly improves these patients, but if we could normalize their endogenous DHA production we could get additional benefits. We examined whether DHA biosynthesis by Δ4-desaturation could be enhanced in the human species by transfecting the enzyme, and if this could normalize the DHA levels in cells from ZS patients. Results We showed that the Δ4-desaturase gene (Fad4) from Thraustochytrium sp, which can be expressed by heterologous transfection in other plant and yeast cells, can also be transfected into human lymphocytes, and that it expresses the enzyme (FAD4, Δ4-desaturase) by producing DHA from direct Δ4-desaturation of 22:5ω3. We also found that the other substrate for Δ4-desaturase, 22:4ω6, was parallely desaturated to 22:5ω6. Conclusions The present "in vitro" study demonstrates that Δ4-desaturase can be transfected into human cells and synthesize DHA (as well as 22:5ω6, DPA) from 22:5ω3 and 22:4ω6, respectively, by putative Δ4-desaturation. Even if this pathway may not be the physiological route for DHA biosynthesis "in vivo", the present study opens new perspectives for the treatment of patients within the ZS spectrum. PMID:20828389

  12. Fish oil supplements in New Zealand are highly oxidised and do not meet label content of n-3 PUFA.

    PubMed

    Albert, Benjamin B; Derraik, José G B; Cameron-Smith, David; Hofman, Paul L; Tumanov, Sergey; Villas-Boas, Silas G; Garg, Manohar L; Cutfield, Wayne S

    2015-01-01

    We evaluated the quality and content of fish oil supplements in New Zealand. All encapsulated fish oil supplements marketed in New Zealand were eligible for inclusion. Fatty acid content was measured by gas chromatography. Peroxide values (PV) and anisidine values (AV) were measured, and total oxidation values (Totox) calculated. Only 3 of 32 fish oil supplements contained quantities of eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA) and docosahexaenoic acid (DHA) that were equal or higher than labelled content, with most products tested (69%) containing <67%. The vast majority of supplements exceeded recommended levels of oxidation markers. 83% products exceeded the recommended PV levels, 25% exceeded AV thresholds, and 50% exceeded recommended Totox levels. Only 8% met the international recommendations, not exceeding any of these indices. Almost all fish oil supplements available in the New Zealand market contain concentrations of EPA and DHA considerably lower than claimed by labels. Importantly, the majority of supplements tested exceeded the recommended indices of oxidative markers. Surprisingly, best-before date, cost, country of origin, and exclusivity were all poor markers of supplement quality. PMID:25604397

  13. Breast meat traits of Muscovy ducks fed on a microalga (Crypthecodinium cohnii) meal supplemented diet.

    PubMed

    Schiavone, A; Chiarini, R; Marzoni, M; Castillo, A; Tassone, S; Romboli, I

    2007-10-01

    1. A trial was conducted in order to increase the docosahexaenoic acid (DHA) content in the meat of Muscovy ducks (Cairina moschata domestica L.) fed on a diet supplemented with the microalga Crypthecodinium cohnii. 2. Two diets were provided to 48 male and 48 female ducks, belonging to an Italian rural strain during the last 3 weeks of life: a maize-soybean based diet as the control diet and the same diet supplemented with 5 g/kg microalga meal. 3. Dietary treatment did not induce differences in growth performances and slaughter traits. Similarly, chemical composition, colour, pH, oxidative stability and sensory characteristics of breast muscle were not influenced by the diet. 4. A significant increase of DHA content in breast meat of ducks fed on the Crypthecodinium cohnii enriched diet was observed. PMID:17952729

  14. Aerobic growth of campylobacter in media supplemented with a-ketoglutaric, lactic, and/or fumaric acids

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    A study was conducted to examine the ability of Campylobacter spp. to grow aerobically in media supplemented with selected organic acids. Basal broth media composed of tryptose, yeast extract, and a mineral-vitamin solution was supplemented with a-ketoglutaric, lactic, and/or fumaric acids. The fina...

  15. Resistance training and timed amino acid supplementation protects against the loss of muscle mass and strength with disuse

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Space flight and ground-based models of weightlessness result in loss of muscle mass and strength. Amino acid supplementation and resistance training reverse these losses but their optimal combination is not known. We examined the effect of an amino acid supplement and resistance training on muscl...

  16. Dietary supplementation with methylseleninic acid, but not selenomethionine, reduces spontaneous metastasis of Lewis lung carcinoma in mice

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Dietary supplementation with methylseleninic acid reduces spontaneous metastasis of Lewis lung carcinoma in mice Lin Yan*, Lana C. DeMars The present study investigated the effects of dietary supplementation with methylseleninic acid (MSeA) on spontaneous metastasis of Lewis lung carcinoma (LLC) in...

  17. Public health significance of supplementation or fortification of grain products with folic acid

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The need for supplemental folate can be traced to the initial phase of the discovery of this vitamin as a micronutrient for the prevention of pregnancy related anemia. In the post discovery era, folic acid was used primarily to prevent deficiency as manifested by low blood folate levels and megalob...

  18. Regeneration of the intestinal mucosa in Eimeria and E. Coli challenged broilers supplemented with amino acids.

    PubMed

    Gottardo, E T; Prokoski, K; Horn, D; Viott, A D; Santos, T C; Fernandes, J I M

    2016-05-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the regeneration of the intestinal mucosa in Eimeria and E. coli challenged broilers supplemented with glutamine, arginine, and threonine. Six hundred male broilers at one d of age from the Cobb strain were utilized. The design was completely randomized using a 2×3 factorial design (unchallenged and challenged and 3 diets). A commercial diet was used as a control and 2 other diets were formulated with glutamine (1.5 and 3% Aminogut®), arginine (1 and 2% L-Arginine), and threonine (1 and 2% L-threonine). The animals that consumed diets supplemented with amino acids presented better (P<0.05) feed conversion in the period from one to 42 d of age. The ability of cell proliferation and the villus:crypt ratio in response to enteric challenge were greater (P<0.05) for broilers that received diets supplemented with amino acids. High levels of amino acids in the experimental feeds reflected in greater protein levels in poultry house litter, and they did not interfere with ammonia production. The supplementation of diets with trophic amino acids can positively contribute to the regeneration and proliferation of the intestinal mucosa in broilers and to the maintenance of zootechnical performance when submitted to enteric challenges. PMID:26846258

  19. Vitamin E supplementation does not prevent ethanol-reduced hepatic retinoic acid levels in rats

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Chronic, excessive ethanol intake can increase retinoic acid (RA) catabolism by inducing cytochrome P450 2E1 (CYP2E1). Vitamin E (VE) is an antioxidant implicated in CYP2E1 inhibition. In the current study, we hypothesized that VE supplementation inhibits CYP2E1 and decreases RA catabolism, thereby ...

  20. Plant compared with marine n-3 fatty acid effects on cardiovascular risk factors and outcomes: what is the verdict?

    PubMed

    Sanders, Thomas A B

    2014-07-01

    Plants provide α-linolenic acid [ALA; 18:3n-3 (18:3ω-3)], which can be converted via eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA; 20:5n-3) to docosahexaenoic acid (DHA; 22:6n-3), which is required for normal visual and cognitive function. Dietary ALA is provided mainly by vegetable oils, especially soybean and rapeseed oils, but is destroyed by partial hydrogenation; it is also present in high amounts in walnuts and flaxseed. Dietary EPA and DHA are provided mainly by fish and so are absent from vegan diets and only present in trace amounts in vegetarian diets. Vegetarians and vegans have lower proportions of DHA in blood and tissue lipids compared with omnivores. High intakes of EPA and DHA (typically in the range of 3-5 g/d) but not ALA have favorable effects on several cardiovascular disease (CVD) risk factors and have been postulated to delay arterial aging and cardiovascular mortality, but these intakes are beyond the range of normal dietary intake. Arterial stiffness, which is a measure of arterial aging, appears to be lower in vegans than in omnivores; and risk of CVD in vegetarians and vegans is approximately one-third that in omnivores. Prospective cohort studies showed higher intakes of EPA+DHA, and less consistently ALA, to be associated with a lower risk of CVD, especially fatal coronary heart disease, but meta-analyses of randomized controlled trials of supplementation of EPA+DHA or ALA in secondary prevention of CVD showed no clear benefit. Current evidence is insufficient to warrant advising vegans and vegetarians to supplement their diets with EPA or DHA for CVD prevention. PMID:24898234

  1. Supplementation of milled chia seeds increases plasma ALA and EPA in postmenopausal women.

    PubMed

    Jin, Fuxia; Nieman, David C; Sha, Wei; Xie, Guoxiang; Qiu, Yunping; Jia, Wei

    2012-06-01

    Ten postmenopausal women (age 55.6 ± 0.8 years, BMI 24.6 ± 1.1 kg/m²) ingested 25 g/day milled chia seed during a 7-week period, with six plasma samples collected for measurement of α-linolenic acid (ALA), eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA), docosapentaenoic acid (DPA), and docosahexaenoic acid (DHA). Subjects operated as their own controls with overnight fasted blood samples taken at baseline (average of two samples), and then after 1, 2, 3, 5, and 7 weeks supplementation. Plasma ALA increased significantly after one week supplementation and was 138 % above baseline levels by the end of the study (overall time effect, P < 0.001). EPA increased 30 % above baseline (overall time effect, P = 0.019) and was correlated across time with ALA (r = 0.84, P = 0.02). No significant change in plasma DPA levels was measured (overall time effect, P = 0.067). Plasma DHA decreased slightly by the end of the study (overall time effect, P = 0.030) and was not correlated with change in ALA. In conclusion, ingestion of 25 g/day milled chia seeds for seven weeks by postmenopausal women resulted in significant increases in plasma ALA and EPA but not DPA and DHA. PMID:22538527

  2. Effect of docosahexaenoic acid and sardine oil diets on the ultrastructure of hepatocytes in adult mice.

    PubMed

    Tamura, M; Suzuki, H

    1995-08-01

    The influence of docosahexaenoic acid (DHA) on the ultrastructure of hepatocytes was studied. Adult male mice of Crj:CD-1 (ICR) strain were fed a fat-free purified diet supplemented with 5% (by weight) of purified DHA, refined sardine oil, and palm oil. The mice were fed the DHA diet or the palm oil diet for 7 days, and the sardine oil diet or the palm oil diet for one month. There were significant ultrastructural changes in the hepatocytes between the mice fed palm oil diet and the animals fed DHA and sardine oil diets. Many lipid droplets in the tissues of mice fed the palm oil diet were observed. Few lipid droplets were contained in the hepatocytes from the mice fed DHA and sardine oil diets, but electron-dense bodies were found in their tissues. These electron-dense bodies were mainly found near the region of the nucleus, blood sinusoids and bile canaliculi. These results suggest that the dense bodies found in the DHA and sardine oil diet groups may appear as a result of acceleration of lipid metabolism in the liver of mice. PMID:8676220

  3. Impact of Genotype on EPA and DHA Status and Responsiveness to Increased Intakes.

    PubMed

    Minihane, Anne Marie

    2016-03-01

    At a population level, cardioprotective and cognitive actions of the fish oil (FO) derived long-chain n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids (LC n-3 PUFAs) eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA) and docosahexaenoic acid (DHA) have been extensively demonstrated. In addition to dietary intake, which is limited for many individuals, EPA and DHA status is dependent on the efficiency of their biosynthesis from α-linolenic acid. Gender and common gene variants have been identified as influencing the rate-limiting desaturase and elongase enzymes. Response to a particular intake or status is also highly heterogeneous and likely influenced by genetic variants which impact on EPA and DHA metabolism and tissue partitioning, transcription factor activity, or physiological end-point regulation. Here, available literature relating genotype to tissue LC n-3 PUFA status and response to FO intervention is considered. It is concluded that the available evidence is relatively limited, with much of the variability unexplained, though APOE and FADS genotypes are emerging as being important. Although genotype × LC n-3 PUFA interactions have been described for a number of phenotypes, few have been confirmed in independent studies. A more comprehensive understanding of the genetic, physiological and behavioural modulators of EPA and DHA status and response to intervention is needed to allow refinement of current dietary LC n-3 PUFA recommendations and stratification of advice to "vulnerable" and responsive subgroups. PMID:26950146

  4. Impact of Genotype on EPA and DHA Status and Responsiveness to Increased Intakes

    PubMed Central

    Minihane, Anne Marie

    2016-01-01

    At a population level, cardioprotective and cognitive actions of the fish oil (FO) derived long-chain n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids (LC n-3 PUFAs) eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA) and docosahexaenoic acid (DHA) have been extensively demonstrated. In addition to dietary intake, which is limited for many individuals, EPA and DHA status is dependent on the efficiency of their biosynthesis from α-linolenic acid. Gender and common gene variants have been identified as influencing the rate-limiting desaturase and elongase enzymes. Response to a particular intake or status is also highly heterogeneous and likely influenced by genetic variants which impact on EPA and DHA metabolism and tissue partitioning, transcription factor activity, or physiological end-point regulation. Here, available literature relating genotype to tissue LC n-3 PUFA status and response to FO intervention is considered. It is concluded that the available evidence is relatively limited, with much of the variability unexplained, though APOE and FADS genotypes are emerging as being important. Although genotype × LC n-3 PUFA interactions have been described for a number of phenotypes, few have been confirmed in independent studies. A more comprehensive understanding of the genetic, physiological and behavioural modulators of EPA and DHA status and response to intervention is needed to allow refinement of current dietary LC n-3 PUFA recommendations and stratification of advice to “vulnerable” and responsive subgroups. PMID:26950146

  5. Trans isomers of EPA and DHA in omega-3 products on the European market.

    PubMed

    Sciotto, Caterina; Mjøs, Svein A

    2012-07-01

    The levels of trans isomers of eicosapentaenoic (EPA) acid and docosahexaenoic acid (DHA) in 77 omega-3 products on the European market have been studied. Fatty acids were analyzed as fatty acid methyl esters by gas chromatography with a flame ionization detector, using a cyanopropyl coated stationary phase. The amount of mono-trans EPA isomers relative to the corresponding all-cis isomer ranged from 0.19 to 4.5 %. The corresponding values for mono-trans DHA relative to the all-cis isomer ranged from 0.25 to 5.9 %. There was a strong correlation between the degree of isomerization of EPA and DHA, showing that DHA was 1.26 times more isomerized than EPA. Division of the samples into different product groups showed that samples with a low degree of isomerization were found in all groups, except one. This shows that a high degree of isomerization is avoidable, and also points to deodorization of the oils as the main source of trans isomers. PMID:22566205

  6. Metabolomic analysis of amino acid and fat metabolism in rats with L-tryptophan supplementation.

    PubMed

    Ruan, Zheng; Yang, Yuhui; Wen, Yanmei; Zhou, Yan; Fu, Xiaofang; Ding, Sheng; Liu, Gang; Yao, Kang; Wu, Xin; Deng, Zeyuan; Wu, Guoyao; Yin, Yulong

    2014-12-01

    Tryptophan (TRP) is an important precursor for several neurotransmitters and metabolic regulators, which play a vital role in regulating nutrient metabolism. The purpose of this study was to investigate the effects of tryptophan supplementation on the biochemical profiles, intestinal structure, liver structure and serum metabolome in rats. Rats received daily intragastric administration of either tryptophan at doses of 200 mg/kg body weight per day or saline (control group) for 7 days. TRP supplementation had a tendency to decrease the body weight of rats (P > 0.05). The levels of urea and CHO in serum were decreased in the TRP-supplemented group rats compared with control group rats (P < 0.05). TRP supplementation increased the villus height and the ratio of villus height to crypt depth in the jejunum compared to control group rats (P < 0.05). Metabolic effects of tryptophan supplementation include: (1) increases in the serum concentrations of lysine, glycine, alanine, glutamate, glutamine, citrulline, methionine, tyrosine, 1-methylhistidine, and albumin, and decreases in the concentrations of serum branched-chain amino acid (isoleucine, valine and leucine); (2) decreases in the serum concentrations of formate and nitrogenous products (trimethylamine, TMAO, methylamine and dimethylamine), and in the contraction of trimethylamine in feces; (3) decreases in serum levels of lipids, low density lipoprotein, very low density lipoprotein, together with the elevated ratio of acetoacetate to β-hydroxybutyrate. The results indicate that tryptophan supplementation reduced the catabolism of dietary amino acids and promoted protein synthesis in rats, promoted the oxidation of fatty acid and reduced fat deposition in the body of rats. PMID:25139634

  7. Supplementation with Cashew Nut and Cottonseed Meal to Modify Fatty Acid Content in Lamb Meat.

    PubMed

    Pereira, Elzania S; Mizubuti, Ivone Y; Oliveira, Ronaldo L; Pinto, Andréa P; Ribeiro, Edson L A; Gadelha, Carla R F; Campos, Ana C N; Pereira, Marília F; Carneiro, Maria S S; Arruda, Paulo C; Silva, Luciano P

    2016-09-01

    This study evaluates the effect of cashew nut meal (CNM), whole cottonseed (WCS), and calcium salts of long-chain fatty acids (Ca-LCFA) on the fatty acid profiles of meat from hair lambs. Thirty-five 60-d-old, male, noncastrated Santa Ines lambs with an initial average body weight of 13.00 ± 1.80 kg were used in a randomized complete-block design with 7 blocks and 5 treatments. The experimental treatments consisted of a control diet (CON) without supplemental lipids and 4 test diets with different lipid supplements that were selected according to the degree of protection from ruminal hydrogenation and their polyunsaturated fatty acid richness. The tests diets included the following modifications: supplementation with WCS, supplementation with CNM, supplementation with both cottonseed and CNM (CSCNM), and supplementation with Ca-LCFA. The C18:1n9c content was highest in the meat of the animals fed the CNM diet (42.00%). The meat from lambs fed the WCS and Ca-LCFA diets had higher C18:0 contents (25.23 and 22.80%, respectively). The C16:1 content was higher in the meat from the animals fed the CNM and CON diets (1.54 and 1.49%, respectively). C18:2c9t11 concentration was higher in the meat from the animals fed the Ca-LCFA and CNM diets. The estimated enzyme activity of Δ9-desaturase C18 was highest in the muscles of the lambs fed the CON, CNM, and CSCNM diets. The use of cashew nuts in the diet resulted in an increase in the C18:2c9t11 content of the lamb meat, which improved the nutritional characteristics of the fat. PMID:27472154

  8. Alpha-lipoic acid supplementation: a tool for obesity therapy?

    PubMed

    Carbonelli, M G; Di Renzo, L; Bigioni, M; Di Daniele, N; De Lorenzo, A; Fusco, M A

    2010-01-01

    Lipid peroxidation has supposed as the major biochemical alteration underling oxidant-induced cell injury in stress including numerous diseases. One of the natural molecules know to prevent or retard oxidation is alpha-lipoic acid (LA) and, therefore, the lipoic acid/dihydrolipoic acid (LA/DHLA) redox couple has received considerable attention. Recent studies have highlighted the potential of free LA and DHLA as powerful metabolic antioxidants that are able to scavenge the reactive oxygen species, to recycle other antioxidants. Our aim was to investigate the beneficial effects of LA in the treatment of Italian pre-obese and obese subjects. We screened 1612 subjects for enrollment; of these, 1127 subjects (445 men and 682 women, 18-60 age) met enrolment criteria and were enrolled in the study. According to body mass index (BMI) the 53% was obese and the 43% was pre-obese. The subjects were treated for 4 month with 800 mg/day of LA. In pre-obese subject significant reduction (p<0.001) of weight (8%, both gender), BMI (2 points), blood pressure, and abdominal circumference (female 6 cm, male 7 cm) were observed. In obese subjects significant reductions (p<0.001) of weight (9%, both gender), BMI (female 3 point, male 4 point), blood pressure and abdominal circumference (female 9 cm, male 11 cm) were observed. Our study indicated that LA is an ideal antioxidant candidate for the therapy of obesity related diseases. Further clinical studies should be considered to highlight the role and efficacy of LA treatment. PMID:20388095

  9. Effects of ascorbic acid supplementation on male reproductive system during exposure to hypoxia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Havazhagan, G.; Riar, S. S.; Kain, A. K.; Bardhan, Jaya; Thomas, Pauline

    1989-09-01

    Two groups of male rats were exposed to simulated altitudes of 6060 m and 7576 m for 6 h/day for 7 days (intermittent exposure). In two additional groups of animals exposed to the same altitude, 100 mg of ascorbic acid (AA) was fed daily for 5 days prior to the exposure period and also during the exposure period. Rats that did not receive AA showed loss of body weight and weight of reproductive organs after exposure. Sex organs showed atrophy on histological examination and there was a deterioration in spermatozoal quality. There was an increase in alkaline and acid phosphatase, and decrease in protein, sialic acid and glyceryl phosphorylcholine content in various reproductive tissues after exposure. All the above changes in histology and biochemical composition could be partially prevented by AA supplementation. AA supplementation can therefore protect the male reproductive system from deleterious effects of hypoxia. The probable mechanism of action of AA is discussed.

  10. Interactions between prebiotics, probiotics, polyunsaturated fatty acids and polyphenols: diet or supplementation for metabolic syndrome prevention?

    PubMed

    Peluso, Ilaria; Romanelli, Luca; Palmery, Maura

    2014-05-01

    The metabolic syndrome can be prevented by the Mediterranean diet, characterized by fiber, omega-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids and polyphenols. However, the composition of the Mediterranean diet, which can be viewed as a natural multiple supplement, is poorly controlled, and its beneficial effects poorly predictable. The metabolic syndrome is associated with intestinal dysbiosis and the gut microbioma seems to be the main target and player in the interactions occurring between probiotics, prebiotics, omega 3 polyunsaturated fatty acids, and polyphenols. From the reviewed evidence, it is reasonable to manage growth and metabolism of gut microflora with specific prebiotics and polyphenols. Even though the healthy properties of functional foods and nutraceuticals still need to be fully elucidated, available data suggest that well-designed supplements, containing the better ratio of omega-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids and antioxidants, specific probiotic strains, and selected polyphenols and prebiotics, could be useful in metabolic syndrome prevention and treatment. PMID:24467635

  11. 19,20-EpDPE, a bioactive CYP450 metabolite of DHA monoacyglyceride, decreases Ca²⁺ sensitivity in human pulmonary arteries.

    PubMed

    Morin, Caroline; Fortin, Samuel; Rousseau, Eric

    2011-10-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate the effect of docosahexaenoic acid monoacylglyceride (MAG-DHA) on human pulmonary arterial tone. Tension measurements on pulmonary arterial tissues demonstrated that MAG-DHA reduced U-46619-induced tone, which is highly sensitive to the H-1152 inhibitor. Results also showed that MAG-DHA treatments decreased RhoA activity levels, which in turn inactivated the Rho-kinase pathway, leading to a reduction in U-46619-induced Ca(2+) sensitivity of permeabilized pulmonary artery smooth muscle cells. According to the mechanical responses assessing U-46619-induced Ca(2+) sensitivity in the absence or presence of 3 μM MAG-DHA, MAG-DHA plus 1 μM N-methylsulfonyl-6-(2-propargyloxyphenyl) hexanamide (MS-PPOH, a cytochrome P-450 epoxygenase inhibitor) and 300 nM 19,20-epoxydocosapentaenoic acid (a cytochrome P-450 epoxygenase-dependent DHA metabolite), our data suggest that the MAG-DHA is metabolized in a bioactive epoxymetabolite. This epoxyeicosanoid in turn decreases active tone and Ca(2+) sensitivity of smooth muscles cells through an inhibition of the Rho-kinase pathway. Together, these data provide primary evidence regarding the mode of action of MAG-DHA in human pulmonary arteries and suggest that this compound may be of pharmacological interest in patients with pulmonary hypertension to generate intracellular bioactive metabolites. PMID:21821782

  12. Ability of rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss) to convert and store EPA and DHA when reared on plant oil replacement feeds

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    To determine the potential for improving the conversion and deposition of the important omega-3 fatty acids docosahexaenoic acid (DHA; 22:6n-3) and eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA; 20:5n-3) in fish, forty-three families of rainbow trout were fed a diet low in these components and then evaluated for their...

  13. Differential effects of EPA versus DHA on postprandial vascular function and the plasma oxylipin profile in men[S

    PubMed Central

    McManus, Seán; Tejera, Noemi; Awwad, Khader; Rigby, Neil; Fleming, Ingrid; Cassidy, Aedin; Minihane, Anne Marie

    2016-01-01

    Our objective was to investigate the impact of EPA versus DHA on arterial stiffness and reactivity and underlying mechanisms (with a focus on plasma oxylipins) in the postprandial state. In a three-arm crossover acute test meal trial, men (n = 26, 35–55 years) at increased CVD risk received a high-fat (42.4 g) test meal providing 4.16 g of EPA or DHA or control oil in random order. At 0 h and 4 h, blood samples were collected to quantify plasma fatty acids, long chain n-3 PUFA-derived oxylipins, nitrite and hydrogen sulfide, and serum lipids and glucose. Vascular function was assessed using blood pressure, reactive hyperemia index, pulse wave velocity, and augmentation index (AIx). The DHA-rich oil significantly reduced AIx by 13% (P = 0.047) with the decrease following EPA-rich oil intervention not reaching statistical significance. Both interventions increased EPA- and DHA-derived oxylipins in the acute postprandial state, with an (1.3-fold) increase in 19,20-dihydroxydocosapentaenoic acid evident after DHA intervention (P < 0.001). In conclusion, a single dose of DHA significantly improved postprandial arterial stiffness as assessed by AIx, which if sustained would be associated with a significant decrease in CVD risk. The observed increases in oxylipins provide a mechanistic insight into the AIx effect. PMID:27170732

  14. Differential effects of EPA versus DHA on postprandial vascular function and the plasma oxylipin profile in men.

    PubMed

    McManus, Seán; Tejera, Noemi; Awwad, Khader; Vauzour, David; Rigby, Neil; Fleming, Ingrid; Cassidy, Aedin; Minihane, Anne Marie

    2016-09-01

    Our objective was to investigate the impact of EPA versus DHA on arterial stiffness and reactivity and underlying mechanisms (with a focus on plasma oxylipins) in the postprandial state. In a three-arm crossover acute test meal trial, men (n = 26, 35-55 years) at increased CVD risk received a high-fat (42.4 g) test meal providing 4.16 g of EPA or DHA or control oil in random order. At 0 h and 4 h, blood samples were collected to quantify plasma fatty acids, long chain n-3 PUFA-derived oxylipins, nitrite and hydrogen sulfide, and serum lipids and glucose. Vascular function was assessed using blood pressure, reactive hyperemia index, pulse wave velocity, and augmentation index (AIx). The DHA-rich oil significantly reduced AIx by 13% (P = 0.047) with the decrease following EPA-rich oil intervention not reaching statistical significance. Both interventions increased EPA- and DHA-derived oxylipins in the acute postprandial state, with an (1.3-fold) increase in 19,20-dihydroxydocosapentaenoic acid evident after DHA intervention (P < 0.001). In conclusion, a single dose of DHA significantly improved postprandial arterial stiffness as assessed by AIx, which if sustained would be associated with a significant decrease in CVD risk. The observed increases in oxylipins provide a mechanistic insight into the AIx effect. PMID:27170732

  15. Evidence for the essentiality of arachidonic and docosahexaenoic acid in the postnatal maternal and infant diet for the development of the infant's immune system early in life.

    PubMed

    Richard, Caroline; Lewis, Erin D; Field, Catherine J

    2016-05-01

    Long-chain polyunsaturated fatty acids (LCPUFA), especially the balance between arachidonic (AA) and docosahexaenoic (DHA) acids are known to have important immunomodulatory roles during the postnatal period when the immune system is rapidly developing. AA and DHA are required in infant formula in many countries but are optional in North America. The rationale for adding these LCPUFA to full-term formula is based on their presence in breast milk and randomized controlled studies that suggest improved cognitive function in preterm infants, but results are more variable in full-term infants. Recently, the European Food Safety Authority has proposed, based on a lack of functional evidence, that AA is not required in infant formula for full-term infants during the first year of life but DHA should remain mandatory. The purpose of this review is to review the evidence from epidemiological and intervention studies regarding the essentiality of AA and DHA in the postnatal infant and maternal diet (breast-feeding) for the immune system development early in life. Although studies support the essentiality of DHA for the immune system development, more research is needed to rule out the essentiality of AA. Nevertheless, intervention studies have demonstrated improvement in many markers of immune function in infants fed formula supplemented with AA and DHA compared with unsupplemented formula, which appears to consistently result in beneficial health outcomes including reduction in the risk of developing allergic and atopic disease early in life. PMID:27138971

  16. The Impact of Cholesterol, DHA, and Sphingolipids on Alzheimer's Disease

    PubMed Central

    Grimm, Marcus O. W.; Zimmer, Valerie C.; Lehmann, Johannes; Grimm, Heike S.; Hartmann, Tobias

    2013-01-01

    Alzheimer's disease (AD) is a devastating neurodegenerative disorder currently affecting over 35 million people worldwide. Pathological hallmarks of AD are massive amyloidosis, extracellular senile plaques, and intracellular neurofibrillary tangles accompanied by an excessive loss of synapses. Major constituents of senile plaques are 40–42 amino acid long peptides termed β-amyloid (Aβ). Aβ is produced by sequential proteolytic processing of the amyloid precursor protein (APP). APP processing and Aβ production have been one of the central scopes in AD research in the past. In the last years, lipids and lipid-related issues are more frequently discussed to contribute to the AD pathogenesis. This review summarizes lipid alterations found in AD postmortem brains, AD transgenic mouse models, and the current understanding of how lipids influence the molecular mechanisms leading to AD and Aβ generation, focusing especially on cholesterol, docosahexaenoic acid (DHA), and sphingolipids/glycosphingolipids. PMID:24575399

  17. Microalgal biofactories: a promising approach towards sustainable omega-3 fatty acid production

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Omega-3 fatty acids eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA) and docosahexaenoic acid (DHA) provide significant health benefits and this has led to an increased consumption as dietary supplements. Omega-3 fatty acids EPA and DHA are found in animals, transgenic plants, fungi and many microorganisms but are typically extracted from fatty fish, putting additional pressures on global fish stocks. As primary producers, many marine microalgae are rich in EPA (C20:5) and DHA (C22:6) and present a promising source of omega-3 fatty acids. Several heterotrophic microalgae have been used as biofactories for omega-3 fatty acids commercially, but a strong interest in autotrophic microalgae has emerged in recent years as microalgae are being developed as biofuel crops. This paper provides an overview of microalgal biotechnology and production platforms for the development of omega-3 fatty acids EPA and DHA. It refers to implications in current biotechnological uses of microalgae as aquaculture feed and future biofuel crops and explores potential applications of metabolic engineering and selective breeding to accumulate large amounts of omega-3 fatty acids in autotrophic microalgae. PMID:22830315

  18. DHA induces apoptosis by altering the expression and cellular location of GRP78 in colon cancer cell lines.

    PubMed

    Fasano, Elena; Serini, Simona; Piccioni, Elisabetta; Toesca, Amelia; Monego, Giovanni; Cittadini, Achille R; Ranelletti, Franco O; Calviello, Gabriella

    2012-11-01

    n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids exert growth-inhibitory and pro-apoptotic effects in colon cancer cells. We hypothesized that the anti-apoptotic glucose related protein of 78kDa (GRP78), originally described as a component of the unfolded protein response in endoplasmic reticulum (ER), could be a molecular target for docosahexaenoic acid (DHA) in these cells. GRP78 total and surface overexpression was previously associated with a poor prognosis in several cancers, whereas its down-regulation with decreased cancer growth in animal models. DHA treatment induced apoptosis in three colon cancer cell lines (HT-29, HCT116 and SW480), and inhibited their total and surface GRP78 expression. The cell ability to undergo DHA-induced apoptosis was inversely related to their level of GRP78 expression. The transfection of the low GRP78-expressing SW480 cells with GRP78-GFP cDNA significantly induced cell growth and inhibited the DHA-driven apoptosis, thus supporting the essential role of GRP78 in DHA pro-apoptotic effect. We suggest that pERK1/2 could be the first upstream target for DHA, and demonstrate that, downstream of GRP78, DHA may exert its proapoptotic role by augmenting the expression of the ER resident factors ERdj5 and inhibiting the phosphorylation of PKR-like ER kinase (PERK), known to be both physically associated with GRP78, and by activating caspase-4. Overall, the regulation of cellular GRP78 expression and location is suggested as a possible route through which DHA can exert pro-apoptotic and antitumoral effects in colon cancer cells. PMID:22898250

  19. Dietary docosahexaenoic acid alleviates autistic-like behaviors resulting from maternal immune activation in mice.

    PubMed

    Weiser, Michael J; Mucha, Brittany; Denheyer, Heather; Atkinson, Devon; Schanz, Norman; Vassiliou, Evros; Benno, Robert H

    2016-03-01

    The prevalence of autism spectrum disorders over the last several decades has risen at an alarming rate. Factors such as broadened clinical definitions and increased parental age only partially account for this precipitous increase, suggesting that recent changes in environmental factors may also be responsible. One such factor could be the dramatic decrease in consumption of anti-inflammatory dietary omega-3 (n-3) polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFAs) relative to the amount of pro-inflammatory omega-6 (n-6) PUFAs and saturated fats in the Western diet. Docosahexaenoic acid (DHA) is the principle n-3 PUFA found in neural tissue and is important for optimal brain development, especially during late gestation when DHA rapidly and preferentially accumulates in the brain. In this study, we tested whether supplementation of a low n-3 PUFA diet with DHA throughout development could improve measures related to autism in a mouse model of maternal immune activation. We found that dietary DHA protected offspring from the deleterious effects of gestational exposure to the viral mimetic polyriboinosinic-polyribocytidilic acid on behavioral measures of autism and subsequent adulthood immune system reactivity. These data suggest that elevated dietary levels of DHA, especially during pregnancy and nursing, may help protect normal neurodevelopment from the potentially adverse consequences of environmental insults like maternal infection. PMID:26703213

  20. Improving the fatty acid profile of winter milk from housed cows with contrasting feeding regimes by oilseed supplementation.

    PubMed

    Stergiadis, S; Leifert, C; Seal, C J; Eyre, M D; Steinshamn, H; Butler, G

    2014-12-01

    Many studies show concentrations of nutritionally desirable fatty acids in bovine milk are lower when cows have no access to grazing, leading to seasonal fluctuations in milk quality if cows are housed for part of the year. This study investigated the potential to improve the fatty acid profiles of bovine milk by oilseed supplementation (rolled linseed and rapeseed) during a period of indoor feeding in both organic and conventional production systems. Both linseed and rapeseed increased the concentrations of total monounsaturated fatty acids, vaccenic acid, oleic acid and rumenic acid in milk, but decreased the concentration of the total and certain individual saturated fatty acids. Linseed resulted in greater changes than rapeseed, and also significantly increased the concentrations of α-linolenic acid, total polyunsaturated fatty acids and total omega-3 fatty acids. The response to oilseed supplementation, with respect to increasing concentrations of vaccenic acid and omega-3 fatty acids, appeared more efficient for organic compared with conventional diets. PMID:24996337

  1. Fatty acid composition and sensory traits of beef fed palm oil supplements.

    PubMed

    Partida, J A; Olleta, J L; Sañudo, C; Albertí, P; Campo, M M

    2007-07-01

    This study measured the effect of replacing dietary fat from an animal source with palm oil supplements on the intramuscular fatty acid profile and sensory quality traits of the meat from young bulls. Thirty-six entire male Friesian calves (mean age=6.8±1.1 months, mean live weight=162.5±28.6kg) were assigned to one of four isoenergetic (1.03 MFU/kg DM) and isoproteinic (15.5% CP) diets, that differed in their fat additives: (D1) lard-tallow mix (control); (D2) hydrogenated palm oil fatty acids (PFA); (D3) calcium salt of partially hydrogenated PFA, and (D4) calcium salt of the fatty acid distillate from palm oil. Bulls (mean live weight=391.3±30.3kg) were slaughtered under commercial conditions and sensory tests were performed to evaluate the effects of the four diets and ageing time (1, 10, and 21d). Only the proportions of C16:0 and C18:0 were significantly affected by the palm oil dietary supplement. Ageing time affected grass odour, tenderness, juiciness, fibrosity, liver flavour, and acid flavour. Nevertheless, palm oil supplements did not negatively alter the organoleptic characteristics of the meat. PMID:22060986

  2. Induction of oxiapoptophagy on 158N murine oligodendrocytes treated by 7-ketocholesterol-, 7β-hydroxycholesterol-, or 24(S)-hydroxycholesterol: Protective effects of α-tocopherol and docosahexaenoic acid (DHA; C22:6 n-3).

    PubMed

    Nury, Thomas; Zarrouk, Amira; Mackrill, John J; Samadi, Mohammad; Durand, Philippe; Riedinger, Jean-Marc; Doria, Margaux; Vejux, Anne; Limagne, Emeric; Delmas, Dominique; Prost, Michel; Moreau, Thibault; Hammami, Mohamed; Delage-Mourroux, Régis; O'Brien, Nora M; Lizard, Gérard

    2015-07-01

    In demyelinating or non-demyelinating neurodegenerative diseases, increased levels of 7-ketocholesterol (7KC), 7β-hydroxycholesterol (7β-OHC) and 24(S)-hydroxycholesterol (24S-OHC) can be observed in brain lesions. In 158N murine oligodendrocytes, 7KC triggers a complex mode of cell death defined as oxiapoptophagy, involving simultaneous oxidative stress, apoptosis and autophagy. In these cells, 7KC as well as 7β-OHC and 24S-OHC induce a decrease of cell proliferation evaluated by phase contrast microscopy, an alteration of mitochondrial activity quantified with the MTT test, an overproduction of reactive oxygen species revealed by staining with dihydroethidium and dihydrorhodamine 123, caspase-3 activation, PARP degradation, reduced expression of Bcl-2, and condensation and/or fragmentation of the nuclei which are typical criteria of oxidative stress and apoptosis. Moreover, 7KC, 7β-OHC and 24S-OHC promote conversion of microtubule-associated protein light chain 3 (LC3-I) to LC3-II which is a characteristic of autophagy. Consequently, 7β-OHC and 24S-OHC, similarly to 7KC, can be considered as potent inducers of oxiapoptophagy. Furthermore, the different cytotoxic effects associated with 7KC, 7β-OHC and 24S-OHC-induced oxiapoptophagy are attenuated by vitamin E (VitE, α-tocopherol) and DHA which enhances VitE protective effects. In 158N murine oligodendrocytes, our data support the concept that oxiapoptophagy, which can be inhibited by VitE and DHA, could be a particular mode of cell death elicited by cytotoxic oxysterols. PMID:25683890

  3. Supplementation with iron and folic acid enhances growth in adolescent Indian girls.

    PubMed

    Kanani, S J; Poojara, R H

    2000-02-01

    The prevalence of anemia is high in adolescent girls in India, with over 70% anemic. Iron-folic acid (IFA) supplements have been shown to enhance adolescent growth elsewhere in the world. To confirm these results in India, a study was conducted in urban areas of Vadodora, India to investigate the effect of IFA supplements on hemoglobin, hunger and growth in adolescent girls 10-18 y of age. Results show that there was a high demand for IFA supplements and >90% of the girls consumed 85 out of 90 tablets provided. There was an increment of 17.3 g/L hemoglobin in the group of girls receiving IFA supplements, whereas hemoglobin decreased slightly in girls in the control group. Girls and parents reported that girls increased their food intake. A significant weight gain of 0.83 kg was seen in the intervention group, whereas girls in the control group showed little weight gain. The growth increment was greater in the 10- to 14-y-old age group than in the 15- to 18-y-old group, as expected, due to rapid growth during the adolescent spurt. IFA supplementation is recommended for growth promotion among adolescents who are underweight. PMID:10721926

  4. Folic acid supplementation, dietary folate intake during pregnancy and risk for spontaneous preterm delivery: a prospective observational cohort study

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Health authorities in numerous countries recommend periconceptional folic acid to pregnant women to prevent neural tube defects. The objective of this study was to examine the association of folic acid supplementation during different periods of pregnancy and of dietary folate intake with the risk of spontaneous preterm delivery (PTD). Methods The Norwegian Mother and Child Cohort Study is a population-based prospective cohort study. A total of 65,668 women with singleton pregnancies resulting in live births in 1999–2009 were included. Folic acid supplementation was self-reported from 26 weeks before pregnancy until week 24 during pregnancy. At gestational week 22, the women completed a food frequency questionnaire, which allowed the calculation of their average total folate intake from foods and supplements for the first 4–5 months of pregnancy. Spontaneous PTD was defined as the spontaneous onset of delivery between weeks 22+0 and 36+6 (n = 1,628). Results The median total folate intake was 266 μg/d (interquartile range IQR 154–543) in the overall population and 540 μg/d (IQR 369–651) in the supplement users. Eighty-three percent reported any folic acid supplementation from <8 weeks before to 24 weeks after conception while 42% initiated folic acid supplementation before their pregnancy. Cox regression analysis showed that the amount of folate intake from the diet (hazard ratio HR 1.16; confidence interval CI 0.65-2.08) and from the folic acid supplements (HR 1.04; CI 0.95-1.13) was not significantly associated with the risk of PTD. The initiation of folic acid supplementation more than 8 weeks before conception was associated with an increased risk for PTD (HR 1.19; CI 1.05-1.34) compared to no folic acid supplementation pre-conception. There was no significant association with PTD when supplementation was initiated within 8 weeks pre-conception (HR 1.01; CI 0.88-1.16). All analyses were adjusted for maternal characteristics and

  5. Effects of squat exercise and branched-chain amino acid supplementation on plasma free amino acid concentrations in young women.

    PubMed

    Shimomura, Yoshiharu; Kobayashi, Hisamine; Mawatari, Kazunori; Akita, Keiichi; Inaguma, Asami; Watanabe, Satoko; Bajotto, Gustavo; Sato, Juichi

    2009-06-01

    The present study was conducted to examine alterations in plasma free amino acid concentrations induced by squat exercise and branched-chain amino acid (BCAA) supplementation in young, untrained female subjects. In the morning on the exercise session day, participants ingested drinks containing either BCAA (isoleucine:leucine:valine=1:2.3:1.2) or dextrin (placebo) at 0.1 g/kg body weight 15 min before a squat exercise session, which consisted of 7 sets of 20 squats, with 3 min intervals between sets. In the placebo trial, plasma BCAA concentrations were decreased subsequent to exercise, whereas they were significantly increased in the BCAA trial until 2 h after exercise. Marked changes in other free amino acids in response to squat exercise and BCAA supplementation were observed. In particular, plasma concentrations of methionine and aromatic amino acids were temporarily decreased in the BCAA trial, being significantly lower than those in the placebo trial. These results suggest that BCAA intake before exercise affects methionine and aromatic amino acid metabolism. PMID:19602839

  6. Effect of lipid supplementation on milk odd- and branched-chain fatty acids in dairy cows.

    PubMed

    Baumann, E; Chouinard, P Y; Lebeuf, Y; Rico, D E; Gervais, R

    2016-08-01

    Eight ruminally fistulated, multiparous Holstein cows were arranged in a double 4×4 Latin square with 14-d periods to investigate the effects of lipid supplementation on performance, rumen parameters, the milk odd- and branched-chain fatty acid (OBCFA) profile, and the relationships between milk OBCFA and rumen parameters. Lipid supplementation is known to inhibit microbial growth in the rumen, decrease de novo microbial fatty acid synthesis, and increase the uptake of circulating fatty acids by the mammary gland; treatments were selected to isolate these effects on the milk OBCFA profile. The 4 treatments were (1) a lipid-free emulsion medium infused in the rumen (CTL), (2) soybean oil as a source of polyunsaturated fatty acids infused in the rumen (RSO), (3) saturated fatty acids (38% 16:0, 40% 18:0) infused in the rumen (RSF), and (4) saturated fatty acids infused in the abomasum (ASF). Fat supplements were provided continuously as emulsions at a rate of 450g/d. Preplanned contrasts compared CTL to RSO, RSO to RSF, and RSF to ASF. Infusing RSO slightly decreased ruminal pH, but did not affect volatile fatty acids profile and milk fat concentration as compared with CTL. The yields of energy-corrected milk, fat, and protein were greater with RSF compared with RSO. The concentration of odd-chain fatty acids was decreased by RSO, whereas even-chain iso fatty acids were not affected. Milk fat concentration of 17:0 + cis-9 17:1 was higher for RSF than for RSO, due to the saturated fatty acids supplement containing 2% 17:0 + cis-9 17:1. Limited differences were observed in the milk OBCFA profile between RSF and ASF. A multiple regression analysis yielded the following equation for predicting rumen pH based on milk fatty acids: pH=6.24 - (0.56×4:0) + (1.67 × iso 14:0) + (4.22 × iso 15:0) + (9.41×22:0). Rumen propionate concentration was negatively correlated with milk fat concentration of iso 14:0 and positively correlated with milk 15:0, whereas the acetate

  7. Docosahexaenoic Acid-Derived Fatty Acid Esters of Hydroxy Fatty Acids (FAHFAs) With Anti-inflammatory Properties.

    PubMed

    Kuda, Ondrej; Brezinova, Marie; Rombaldova, Martina; Slavikova, Barbora; Posta, Martin; Beier, Petr; Janovska, Petra; Veleba, Jiri; Kopecky, Jan; Kudova, Eva; Pelikanova, Terezie; Kopecky, Jan

    2016-09-01

    White adipose tissue (WAT) is a complex organ with both metabolic and endocrine functions. Dysregulation of all of these functions of WAT, together with low-grade inflammation of the tissue in obese individuals, contributes to the development of insulin resistance and type 2 diabetes. n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFAs) of marine origin play an important role in the resolution of inflammation and exert beneficial metabolic effects. Using experiments in mice and overweight/obese patients with type 2 diabetes, we elucidated the structures of novel members of fatty acid esters of hydroxy fatty acids-lipokines derived from docosahexaenoic acid (DHA) and linoleic acid, which were present in serum and WAT after n-3 PUFA supplementation. These compounds contained DHA esterified to 9- and 13-hydroxyoctadecadienoic acid (HLA) or 14-hydroxydocosahexaenoic acid (HDHA), termed 9-DHAHLA, 13-DHAHLA, and 14-DHAHDHA, and were synthesized by adipocytes at concentrations comparable to those of protectins and resolvins derived from DHA in WAT. 13-DHAHLA exerted anti-inflammatory and proresolving properties while reducing macrophage activation by lipopolysaccharides and enhancing the phagocytosis of zymosan particles. Our results document the existence of novel lipid mediators, which are involved in the beneficial anti-inflammatory effects attributed to n-3 PUFAs, in both mice and humans. PMID:27313314

  8. Effect of forage type with or without corn supplementation on animal performance, beef fatty acid composition, and palatability.

    PubMed

    Wright, A M; Andrae, J G; Rosso, C Fernandez; Miller, M C; Pavan, E; Bridges, W; Duckett, S K

    2015-10-01

    Thirty-two steers were used to examine forage type (legumes [ and ] vs. grasses [ and ]) with or without individual corn grain supplementation (0 vs. 0.75% of live weight [LW]/d) on beef fatty acid composition and palatability. In each year, steers ( = 16/yr) were randomly assigned to forage type ( = 8/forage type per yr) and to supplementation treatments within forage type ( = 4/supplementation treatment/forage type per yr). Forage types (grasses vs. legumes) were replicated in 2 paddocks of perennial and annual forage type pastures. A mixed model was developed with forage type, corn grain supplementation, and the 2-way interaction as fixed effects and 2 different error terms, one for testing forage and another for testing grain supplement and grain supplement × forage interaction. Corn grain supplementation increased ( = 0.01) ADG by 0.29 kg/d and final LW by 13 kg. Hot carcass weight, dressing percentage (DP), and KPH were greater ( < 0.05) for steers supplemented with corn grain. Carcasses from steers grazing legumes had greater ( = 0.04) DP compared with carcasses from steers grazing grasses. Alpha-linolenic acid concentration was higher ( < 0.05) in LM of steers grazing legumes than in LM of steers grazing grasses, both without supplementation. Supplementation decreased ( < 0.05) linolenic acid levels for both forage types; however, the magnitude of this reduction was greater for legumes than for grasses. The ratio of -6 to -3 PUFA was greater ( = 0.03) in the LM of corn grain-supplemented steers than in the LM of nonsupplemented steers. Supplementation of corn grain decreased ( < 0.05) the percentage of odd-chain fatty acids and increased ( < 0.05) the percentage of MUFA in the LM. Warner-Bratzler shear force values were not altered ( > 0.05) by forage type, supplementation, or the 2-way interaction. Beef finished on legumes had greater concentrations of -3 PUFA, whereas beef supplemented with corn grain had a greater ratio of -6 to -3 fatty acids. On a

  9. Dietary fatty acids affect semen quality: a review.

    PubMed

    Esmaeili, V; Shahverdi, A H; Moghadasian, M H; Alizadeh, A R

    2015-05-01

    Mammalian spermatozoa are characterized by a high proportion of polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFA) which play a crucial role in fertilization. This review focuses on analysis of sperm fatty acid profiles and the effects of omega-3, saturated and trans dietary and sperm fatty acids on sperm parameters. Two major points have been pivotal points of investigation in the field of sperm fatty acid profiles: first, the comparison between fatty acid profiles of fertile and infertile men and second, the effect of dietary fatty acids on sperm fatty acid profiles as well as sperm quality and quantity. Docosahexaenoic acid (DHA, C22:6n-3), and palmitic acid (C16:0) are the predominant PUFA and saturated fatty acids, respectively, in human sperm cells. Higher levels of DHA are concentrated on the sperm's head or tail varying among different species. However, the human sperm head contains a higher concentration of DHA. Dietary fatty acids influence on sperm fatty acid profiles and it seems that sperm fatty acid profiles are most sensitive to dietary omega-3 PUFA. Although improvements in sperm parameters are a response to omega-3 sources after more than 4 weeks of supplementation in the male diet, time-dependent and dose-dependent responses may explain the failure in some experiments. In human spermatozoa, elevated saturated or trans fatty acid concentration and a low DHA level is a concern. The regulations of the sperm fatty acid mean melting point as well as expression regulation of peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor gamma (PPARG) alongside with spermatozoon assembly, anti-apoptosis effects, eicosanoid formation, and hormone activity are the putative key factors that induce a response by inclusion of omega-3 PUFA. PMID:25951427

  10. Rumen Degradability and Small Intestinal Digestibility of the Amino Acids in Four Protein Supplements

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Y.; Jin, L.; Wen, Q. N.; Kopparapu, N. K.; Liu, J.; Liu, X. L.; Zhang, Y. G.

    2016-01-01

    The supplementation of livestock feed with animal protein is a present cause for public concern, and plant protein shortages have become increasingly prominent in China. This conflict may be resolved by fully utilizing currently available sources of plant protein. We estimated the rumen degradability and the small intestinal digestibility of the amino acids (AA) in rapeseed meal (RSM), soybean meal (SBM), sunflower seed meal (SFM) and sesame meal (SSM) using the mobile nylon bag method to determine the absorbable AA content of these protein supplements as a guide towards dietary formulations for the dairy industry. Overall, this study aimed to utilize protein supplements effectively to guide dietary formulations to increase milk yield and save plant protein resources. To this end, we studied four cows with a permanent rumen fistula and duodenal T-shape fistula in a 4×4 Latin square experimental design. The results showed that the total small intestine absorbable amino acids and small intestine absorbable essential amino acids were higher in the SBM (26.34% and 13.11% dry matter [DM], respectively) than in the SFM (13.97% and 6.89% DM, respectively). The small intestine absorbable Lys contents of the SFM, SSM, RSM and SBM were 0.86%, 0.88%, 1.43%, and 2.12% (DM basis), respectively, and the absorbable Met contents of these meals were 0.28%, 1.03%, 0.52%, and 0.47% (DM basis), respectively. Among the examined food sources, the milk protein score of the SBM (0.181) was highest followed by those of the RSM (0.136), SSM (0.108) and SFM (0.106). The absorbable amino acid contents of the protein supplements accurately reflected protein availability, which is an important indicator of the balance of feed formulation. Therefore, a database detailing the absorbable AA should be established. PMID:26732449

  11. Rumen Degradability and Small Intestinal Digestibility of the Amino Acids in Four Protein Supplements.

    PubMed

    Wang, Y; Jin, L; Wen, Q N; Kopparapu, N K; Liu, J; Liu, X L; Zhang, Y G

    2016-02-01

    The supplementation of livestock feed with animal protein is a present cause for public concern, and plant protein shortages have become increasingly prominent in China. This conflict may be resolved by fully utilizing currently available sources of plant protein. We estimated the rumen degradability and the small intestinal digestibility of the amino acids (AA) in rapeseed meal (RSM), soybean meal (SBM), sunflower seed meal (SFM) and sesame meal (SSM) using the mobile nylon bag method to determine the absorbable AA content of these protein supplements as a guide towards dietary formulations for the dairy industry. Overall, this study aimed to utilize protein supplements effectively to guide dietary formulations to increase milk yield and save plant protein resources. To this end, we studied four cows with a permanent rumen fistula and duodenal T-shape fistula in a 4×4 Latin square experimental design. The results showed that the total small intestine absorbable amino acids and small intestine absorbable essential amino acids were higher in the SBM (26.34% and 13.11% dry matter [DM], respectively) than in the SFM (13.97% and 6.89% DM, respectively). The small intestine absorbable Lys contents of the SFM, SSM, RSM and SBM were 0.86%, 0.88%, 1.43%, and 2.12% (DM basis), respectively, and the absorbable Met contents of these meals were 0.28%, 1.03%, 0.52%, and 0.47% (DM basis), respectively. Among the examined food sources, the milk protein score of the SBM (0.181) was highest followed by those of the RSM (0.136), SSM (0.108) and SFM (0.106). The absorbable amino acid contents of the protein supplements accurately reflected protein availability, which is an important indicator of the balance of feed formulation. Therefore, a database detailing the absorbable AA should be established. PMID:26732449

  12. Three targets of branched-chain amino acid supplementation in the treatment of liver disease.

    PubMed

    Holecek, Milan

    2010-05-01

    The article explains the pathogenesis of disturbances in branched-chain amino acid (BCAA; valine, leucine, and isoleucine) and protein metabolism in various forms of hepatic injury and it is suggested that the main cause of decrease in plasma BCAA concentration in liver cirrhosis is hyperammonemia. Three possible targets of BCAA supplementation in hepatic disease are suggested: (1) hepatic encephalopathy, (2) liver regeneration, and (3) hepatic cachexia. The BCAA may ameliorate hepatic encephalopathy by promoting ammonia detoxification, correction of the plasma amino acid imbalance, and by reduced brain influx of aromatic amino acids. The influence of BCAA supplementation on hepatic encephalopathy could be more effective in chronic hepatic injury with hyperammonemia and low concentrations of BCAA in blood than in acute hepatic illness, where hyperaminoacidemia frequently develops. The favorable effect of BCAA on liver regeneration and nutritional state of the body is related to their stimulatory effect on protein synthesis, secretion of hepatocyte growth factor, glutamine production and inhibitory effect on proteolysis. Presumably the beneficial effect of BCAA on hepatic cachexia is significant in compensated liver disease with decreased plasma BCAA concentrations, whereas it is less pronounced in hepatic diseases with inflammatory complications and enhanced protein turnover. It is concluded that specific benefits associated with BCAA supplementation depend significantly on the type of liver disease and on the presence of inflammatory reaction. An important task for clinical research is to identify groups of patients for whom BCAA treatment can significantly improve the health-related quality of life and the prognosis of hepatic disease. PMID:20071143

  13. Conjugated linoleic acid and calcium co-supplementation improves bone health in ovariectomised mice.

    PubMed

    Park, Yooheon; Kim, Jonggun; Scrimgeour, Angus G; Condlin, Michelle L; Kim, Daeyoung; Park, Yeonhwa

    2013-09-01

    Osteoporosis is a significant health concern for the elderly; conjugated linoleic acid (CLA) has been shown to improve overall bone mass when calcium is included as a co-supplement. However, potential effects of CLA and calcium on bone mass during a period of bone loss have not been reported. The purpose of this study was to determine how dietary calcium modulates the effects of conjugated linoleic acid (CLA) in preventing bone loss, using an ovariectomised mouse model. CLA supplementation significantly prevented ovariectomy-associated weight and fat mass gain, compared to non-supplemented controls. CLA significantly increased bone markers without major changes in bone mineral composition in the femur compared to respective controls. CLA treatment increased serum parathyroid hormone (PTH) significantly (p=0.0172), while serum 1,25-dihydroxyvitamin D3 concentration was not changed by CLA. Meanwhile, CLA significantly reduced femur tartrate resistant acid phosphatase (TRAP) activity, suggesting potential reduction of osteoclastogenesis. The data suggest that CLA, along with dietary calcium, has great potential to be used to prevent bone loss and weight gain associated with menopause. PMID:23578644

  14. Administration of DHA Reduces Endoplasmic Reticulum Stress-Associated Inflammation and Alters Microglial or Macrophage Activation in Traumatic Brain Injury.

    PubMed

    Harvey, Lloyd D; Yin, Yan; Attarwala, Insiya Y; Begum, Gulnaz; Deng, Julia; Yan, Hong Q; Dixon, C Edward; Sun, Dandan

    2015-01-01

    We investigated the effects of the administration of docosahexaenoic acid (DHA) post-traumatic brain injury (TBI) on reducing neuroinflammation. TBI was induced by cortical contusion injury in Sprague Dawley rats. Either DHA (16 mg/kg in dimethyl sulfoxide) or vehicle dimethyl sulfoxide (1 ml/kg) was administered intraperitonially at 5 min after TBI, followed by a daily dose for 3 to 21 days. TBI triggered activation of microglia or macrophages, detected by an increase of Iba1 positively stained microglia or macrophages in peri-lesion cortical tissues at 3, 7, and 21 days post-TBI. The inflammatory response was further characterized by expression of the proinflammatory marker CD16/32 and the anti-inflammatory marker CD206 in Iba1(+) microglia or macrophages. DHA-treated brains showed significantly fewer CD16/32(+) microglia or macrophages, but an increased CD206(+) phagocytic microglial or macrophage population. Additionally, DHA treatment revealed a shift in microglial or macrophage morphology from the activated, amoeboid-like state into the more permissive, surveillant state. Furthermore, activated Iba1(+) microglial or macrophages were associated with neurons expressing the endoplasmic reticulum (ER) stress marker CHOP at 3 days post-TBI, and the administration of DHA post-TBI concurrently reduced ER stress and the associated activation of Iba1(+) microglial or macrophages. There was a decrease in nuclear translocation of activated nuclear factor kappa-light-chain-enhancer of activated B cells protein at 3 days in DHA-treated tissue and reduced neuronal degeneration in DHA-treated brains at 3, 7, and 21 days after TBI. In summary, our study demonstrated that TBI mediated inflammatory responses are associated with increased neuronal ER stress and subsequent activation of microglia or macrophages. DHA administration reduced neuronal ER stress and subsequent association with microglial or macrophage polarization after TBI, demonstrating its therapeutic

  15. Administration of DHA Reduces Endoplasmic Reticulum Stress-Associated Inflammation and Alters Microglial or Macrophage Activation in Traumatic Brain Injury

    PubMed Central

    Harvey, Lloyd D.; Yin, Yan; Attarwala, Insiya Y.; Begum, Gulnaz; Deng, Julia; Yan, Hong Q.; Dixon, C. Edward

    2015-01-01

    We investigated the effects of the administration of docosahexaenoic acid (DHA) post-traumatic brain injury (TBI) on reducing neuroinflammation. TBI was induced by cortical contusion injury in Sprague Dawley rats. Either DHA (16 mg/kg in dimethyl sulfoxide) or vehicle dimethyl sulfoxide (1 ml/kg) was administered intraperitonially at 5 min after TBI, followed by a daily dose for 3 to 21 days. TBI triggered activation of microglia or macrophages, detected by an increase of Iba1 positively stained microglia or macrophages in peri-lesion cortical tissues at 3, 7, and 21 days post-TBI. The inflammatory response was further characterized by expression of the proinflammatory marker CD16/32 and the anti-inflammatory marker CD206 in Iba1+ microglia or macrophages. DHA-treated brains showed significantly fewer CD16/32+ microglia or macrophages, but an increased CD206+ phagocytic microglial or macrophage population. Additionally, DHA treatment revealed a shift in microglial or macrophage morphology from the activated, amoeboid-like state into the more permissive, surveillant state. Furthermore, activated Iba1+ microglial or macrophages were associated with neurons expressing the endoplasmic reticulum (ER) stress marker CHOP at 3 days post-TBI, and the administration of DHA post-TBI concurrently reduced ER stress and the associated activation of Iba1+ microglial or macrophages. There was a decrease in nuclear translocation of activated nuclear factor kappa-light-chain-enhancer of activated B cells protein at 3 days in DHA-treated tissue and reduced neuronal degeneration in DHA-treated brains at 3, 7, and 21 days after TBI. In summary, our study demonstrated that TBI mediated inflammatory responses are associated with increased neuronal ER stress and subsequent activation of microglia or macrophages. DHA administration reduced neuronal ER stress and subsequent association with microglial or macrophage polarization after TBI, demonstrating its therapeutic potential to

  16. The VITamin D and OmegA-3 TriaL (VITAL): rationale and design of a large randomized controlled trial of vitamin D and marine omega-3 fatty acid supplements for the primary prevention of cancer and cardiovascular disease.

    PubMed

    Manson, Joann E; Bassuk, Shari S; Lee, I-Min; Cook, Nancy R; Albert, Michelle A; Gordon, David; Zaharris, Elaine; Macfadyen, Jean G; Danielson, Eleanor; Lin, Jennifer; Zhang, Shumin M; Buring, Julie E

    2012-01-01

    Data from laboratory studies, observational research, and/or secondary prevention trials suggest that vitamin D and marine omega-3 fatty acids may reduce risk for cancer or cardiovascular disease (CVD), but primary prevention trials with adequate dosing in general populations (i.e., unselected for disease risk) are lacking. The ongoing VITamin D and OmegA-3 TriaL (VITAL) is a large randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled, 2 x 2 factorial trial of vitamin D (in the form of vitamin D(3) [cholecalciferol], 2000 IU/day) and marine omega-3 fatty acid (Omacor fish oil, eicosapentaenoic acid [EPA]+docosahexaenoic acid [DHA], 1g/day) supplements in the primary prevention of cancer and CVD among a multi-ethnic population of 20,000 U.S. men aged ≥ 50 and women aged ≥ 55. The mean treatment period will be 5 years. Baseline blood samples will be collected in at least 16,000 participants, with follow-up blood collection in about 6000 participants. Yearly follow-up questionnaires will assess treatment compliance (plasma biomarker measures will also assess compliance in a random sample of participants), use of non-study drugs or supplements, occurrence of endpoints, and cancer and vascular risk factors. Self-reported endpoints will be confirmed by medical record review by physicians blinded to treatment assignment, and deaths will be ascertained through national registries and other sources. Ancillary studies will investigate whether these agents affect risk for diabetes and glucose intolerance; hypertension; cognitive decline; depression; osteoporosis and fracture; physical disability and falls; asthma and other respiratory diseases; infections; and rheumatoid arthritis, systemic lupus erythematosus, thyroid diseases, and other autoimmune disorders. PMID:21986389

  17. Effect of Boric Acid Supplementation on the Expression of BDNF in African Ostrich Chick Brain.

    PubMed

    Tang, Juan; Zheng, Xing-ting; Xiao, Ke; Wang, Kun-lun; Wang, Jing; Wang, Yun-xiao; Wang, Ke; Wang, Wei; Lu, Shun; Yang, Ke-li; Sun, Peng-Peng; Khaliq, Haseeb; Zhong, Juming; Peng, Ke-Mei

    2016-03-01

    The degree of brain development can be expressed by the levels of brain brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF). BDNF plays an irreplaceable role in the process of neuronal development, protection, and restoration. The aim of the present study was to evaluate the effects of boric acid supplementation in water on the ostrich chick neuronal development. One-day-old healthy animals were supplemented with boron in drinking water at various concentrations, and the potential effects of boric acid on brain development were tested by a series of experiments. The histological changes in brain were observed by hematoxylin and eosin (HE) staining and Nissl staining. Expression of BDNF was analyzed by immunohistochemistry, quantitative real-time PCR (QRT-PCR), and enzyme linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA). Apoptosis was evaluated with Dutp-biotin nick end labeling (TUNEL) reaction, and caspase-3 was detected with QRT-PCR. The results were as follows: (1) under the light microscope, the neuron structure was well developed with abundance of neurites and intact cell morphology when animals were fed with less than 160 mg/L of boric acid (groups II, III, IV). Adversely, when boric acid doses were higher than 320 mg/L(groups V, VI), the high-dose boric acid neuron structure was damaged with less neurites, particularly at 640 mg/L; (2) the quantity of BDNF expression in groups II, III, and IV was increased while it was decreased in groups V and VI when compared with that in group I; (3) TUNEL reaction and the caspase-3 mRNA level showed that the amount of cell apoptosis in group II, group III, and group IV were decreased, but increased in group V and group VI significantly. These results indicated that appropriate supplementation of boric acid, especially at 160 mg/L, could promote ostrich chicks' brain development by promoting the BDNF expression and reducing cell apoptosis. Conversely, high dose of boric acid particularly in 640 mg/L would damage the neuron structure of

  18. Leucine-enriched essential amino acid supplementation during moderate steady state exercise enhances postexercise muscle protein synthesis

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    BACKGROUND: The effects of essential amino acid (EAA) supplementation during moderate steady state (ie, endurance) exercise on postexercise skeletal muscle metabolism are not well described, and the potential role of supplemental leucine on muscle protein synthesis (MPS) and associated molecular re...

  19. Effect of dietary supplementation of omega-3 fatty acids and high levels of dietary protein on performance of sows.

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    This study was conducted to determine the effect of dietary supplementation of omega-3 fatty acids (O3FA), with or without high levels of dietary protein supplementation, on the performance of sows and their litters during first and subsequent parities. Sixty-four pregnant gilts with body weight (BW...

  20. Keto analogue and amino acid supplementation and its effects on ammonemia and performance under thermoneutral conditions.

    PubMed

    Camerino, Saulo Rodrigo Alves e Silva; Lima, Rafaela Carvalho Pereira; França, Thássia Casado Lima; Herculano, Edla de Azevedo; Rodrigues, Daniela Souza Araújo; Gouveia, Marcos Guilherme de Sousa; Cameron, L C; Prado, Eduardo Seixas

    2016-02-01

    Alterations of cerebral function, fatigue and disturbance in cognitive-motor performance can be caused by hyperammonemia and/or hot environmental conditions during exercise. Exercise-induced hyperammonemia can be reduced through supplementation with either amino acids or combined keto analogues and amino acids (KAAA) to improve exercise tolerance. In the present study, we evaluated KAAA supplementation on ammonia metabolism and cognitive-motor performance after high-intensity exercise under a low heat stress environment. Sixteen male cyclists received a ketogenic diet for 2 d and were divided into two groups, KAAA (KEx) or placebo (CEx) supplementation. The athletes performed a 2 h cycling session followed by a maximum test (MAX), and blood samples were obtained at rest and during exercise. Cognitive-motor tasks were performed before and after the protocol, and the exhaustion time was used to evaluate physical performance. The hydration status was also evaluated. The CEx group showed a significant increase (∼ 70%) in ammonia concentration at MAX, which did not change in the KEx group. The non-supplemented group showed a significant increase in uremia. Both the groups had a significant increase in blood urate concentrations at 120 min, and an early significant increase from 120 min was observed in the CEx group. There was no change in the glucose concentrations of the two groups. A significant increase in lactate was observed at the MAX moment in both groups. There was no significant difference in the exhaustion times between the groups. No changes were observed in the cognitive-motor tasks after the protocol. We suggest that KAAA supplementation decreases ammonia concentration during high-intensity exercise but does not affect physical or cognitive-motor performances under a low heat stress environment. PMID:26679329

  1. Dietary arachidonic acid dose-dependently increases the arachidonic acid concentration in human milk.

    PubMed

    Weseler, Antje R; Dirix, Chantal E H; Bruins, Maaike J; Hornstra, Gerard

    2008-11-01

    Lactation hampers normalization of the maternal arachidonic acid (AA) status, which is reduced after pregnancy and can further decline by the presently recommended increased consumption of (n-3) long-chain PUFA [(n-3) LCPUFA]. This may be unfavorable for breast-fed infants, because they also require an optimum supply of (n-6) LCPUFA. We therefore investigated the LCPUFA responses in nursing mothers upon increased consumption of AA and (n-3) LCPUFA. In a parallel, double-blind, controlled trial, lactating women received for 8 wk no extra LCPUFA (control group, n = 8), 200 (low AA group, n = 9), or 400 (high AA group, n = 8) mg/d AA in combination with (n-3) LCPUFA [320 mg/d docosahexaenoic acid (DHA), 80 mg/d eicosapentaenoic acid, and 80 mg/d other (n-3) fatty acids], or this dose of (n-3) LCPUFA alone [DHA + eicosapentaenoic acid group, n = 8]. Relative concentrations of AA, DHA, and sums of (n-6) and (n-3) LCPUFA were measured in milk total lipids (TL) and erythrocyte phospholipids (PL) after 2 and 8 wk and changes were compared by ANCOVA. The combined consumption of AA and (n-3) LCPUFA caused dose-dependent elevations of AA and total (n-6) LCPUFA concentrations in milk TL and did not significantly affect the DHA and total (n-3) LCPUFA increases caused by (n-3) LCPUFA supplementation only. This latter treatment did not significantly affect breast milk AA and total (n-6) LCPUFA concentrations. AA and DHA concentrations in milk TL and their changes were strongly and positively correlated with their corresponding values in erythrocyte PL (r(2) = 0.27-0.50; P

  2. Effect of maternal folic acid supplementation on hepatic one-carbon unit associated gene expressions in newborn piglets.

    PubMed

    Liu, Jing-Bo; Chen, Dai-Wen; Yu, Bing; Mao, Xiang-bing

    2011-08-01

    Intrauterine growth retardation (IUGR) induces alterations to hepatic gene expressions which might program poor postnatal growth and health status. Maternal folic acid supplementation was administered in gilt diets to test whether hepatic mRNA expressions of some important genes induced by IUGR could be rescued by folic acid supplementation. Thirty-two Yorkshire gilts were allotted to two treatment groups of control (C folic acid 1.3 mg/kg) or folic acid supplementation (FS folic acid 30 mg/kg) after mating, to study the effects of maternal folic acid supplementation on the mRNA expression of methionine adenosyltransferase (MAT), cystathionine-β-synthase (CBS), methylenetetrahydrofolate reductase (MTHFR), DNA methyltransferase1 (DNMT1), peroxisomal proliferator-activated receptor (PPARγ), glucocorticoid receptor (GR), obesity receptor (ob-R) and Acyl-CoA oxidase (AOX) in the liver of IUGR and NBW piglets. Blood and liver samples were collected for determinations of serum folic acid and gene expressions. The total number of born piglets, number of piglets born alive, average birth weight and 21 days average weight were not affected by dietary treatment (P>0.05), and serum folic acid concentration of piglets was greater in FS than C groups (P<0.05). Real-time PCR indicated that gene expression of MAT1A, MAT2A and DNMT1 were lower in IUGR piglets but could be elevated by maternal folic acid supplementation. Transcript expression levels of PPARγ, GR and AOX were higher in IUGR piglets, but were decreased to the level of normal piglets by maternal folic acid supplementation. Our results suggested that maternal folic acid supplementation be an effective way to rescue the gene expressions negatively induced by IUGR. PMID:21108044

  3. Folic acid supplementation in early pregnancy and asthma in children aged six

    PubMed Central

    MARTINUSSEN, Marit P.; RISNES, Kari R.; JACOBSEN, Geir W.; BRACKEN, Michael B.

    2011-01-01

    Objective To assess whether folic acid intake during the first trimester of pregnancy is related to asthma in the offspring by the age of 6 years. Study design Prospective cohort study of 1,499 women who were followed from first trimester of pregnancy. Their children were followed until they were 6 years old. Results 51% of the women used folic acid in the month before conception and 88% in the third month of pregnancy. The adjusted OR per 100 microgram increase in average daily intake of folic acid was 0.98 (95% CI:0.93-1.04). For categories of daily folate intake, there was no evidence of associations with childhood asthma nor evidence of any dose response relation for any time period (all ptrend>0.05) Conclusion Our results do not support any association of folic acid supplementation in pregnancy and asthma risk in offspring by age 6 years. PMID:21982024

  4. Bacteria obtained from a sequencing batch reactor that are capable of growth on dehydroabietic acid.

    PubMed Central

    Mohn, W W

    1995-01-01

    Eleven isolates capable of growth on the resin acid dehydroabietic acid (DhA) were obtained from a sequencing batch reactor designed to treat a high-strength process stream from a paper mill. The isolates belonged to two groups, represented by strains DhA-33 and DhA-35, which were characterized. In the bioreactor, bacteria like DhA-35 were more abundant than those like DhA-33. The population in the bioreactor of organisms capable of growth on DhA was estimated to be 1.1 x 10(6) propagules per ml, based on a most-probable-number determination. Analysis of small-subunit rRNA partial sequences indicated that DhA-33 was most closely related to Sphingomonas yanoikuyae (Sab = 0.875) and that DhA-35 was most closely related to Zoogloea ramigera (Sab = 0.849). Both isolates additionally grew on other abietanes, i.e., abietic and palustric acids, but not on the pimaranes, pimaric and isopimaric acids. For DhA-33 and DhA-35 with DhA as the sole organic substrate, doubling times were 2.7 and 2.2 h, respectively, and growth yields were 0.30 and 0.25 g of protein per g of DhA, respectively. Glucose as a cosubstrate stimulated growth of DhA-33 on DhA and stimulated DhA degradation by the culture. Pyruvate as a cosubstrate did not stimulate growth of DhA-35 on DhA and reduced the specific rate of DhA degradation of the culture. DhA induced DhA and abietic acid degradation activities in both strains, and these activities were heat labile. Cell suspensions of both strains consumed DhA at a rate of 6 mumol mg of protein-1 h-1.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS) PMID:7793937

  5. Update on marine omega-3 fatty acids: management of dyslipidemia and current omega-3 treatment options.

    PubMed

    Weintraub, Howard

    2013-10-01

    Low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C) is currently the primary target in the management of dyslipidemia, and statins are first-line pharmacologic interventions. Adjunct therapy such as niacins, fibrates, bile acid sequestrants, or cholesterol absorption inhibitors may be considered to help reduce cardiovascular risk. This review discusses the need for alternative adjunct treatment options and the potential place for omega-3 fatty acids as such. The cardiovascular benefits of fish consumption are attributed to the omega-3 fatty acids eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA) and docosahexaenoic acid (DHA), and a variety of omega-3 fatty acid products are available with varied amounts of EPA and DHA. The product types include prescription drugs, food supplements, and medical foods sourced from fish, krill, algal and plant oils or purified from these oils. Two prescription omega-3 fatty acids are currently available, omega-3 fatty acid ethyl esters (contains both EPA and DHA ethyl esters), and icosapent ethyl (IPE; contains high-purity EPA ethyl ester). A pharmaceutical containing free fatty acid forms of omega-3 is currently in development. Omega-3 fatty acid formulations containing EPA and DHA have been shown to increase LDL-C levels while IPE has been shown to lower triglyceride levels without raising LDL-C levels, alone or in combination with statin therapy. In addition, recent studies have not been able to demonstrate reduced cardiovascular risk following treatment with fibrates, niacins, cholesterol absorption inhibitors, or omega-3 fatty acid formulations containing both EPA and DHA in statin-treated patients; thus, there remains a need for further cardiovascular outcomes studies for adjunct therapy. PMID:24075771

  6. Linoleic acid supplementation results in increased arachidonic acid and eicosanoid production in CF airway cells and in cftr−/− transgenic mice

    PubMed Central

    Zaman, Munir M.; Martin, Camilia R.; Andersson, Charlotte; Bhutta, Abdul Q.; Cluette-Brown, Joanne E.; Laposata, Michael

    2010-01-01

    Cystic fibrosis (CF) patients display a fatty acid imbalance characterized by low linoleic acid levels and variable changes in arachidonic acid. This led to the recommendation that CF patients consume a high-fat diet containing >6% linoleic acid. We hypothesized that increased conversion of linoleic acid to arachidonic acid in CF leads to increased levels of arachidonate-derived proinflammatory metabolites and that this process is exacerbated by increasing linoleic acid levels in the diet. To test this hypothesis, we determined the effect of linoleic acid supplementation on downstream proinflammatory biomarkers in two CF models: 1) in vitro cell culture model using 16HBE14o− sense [wild-type (WT)] and antisense (CF) human airway epithelial cells; and 2) in an in vivo model using cftr−/− transgenic mice. Fatty acids were analyzed by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC/MS), and IL-8 and eicosanoids were measured by ELISA. Neutrophils were quantified in bronchoalveolar lavage fluid from knockout mice following linoleic acid supplementation and exposure to aerosolized Pseudomonas LPS. Linoleic acid supplementation increased arachidonic acid levels in CF but not WT cells. IL-8, PGE2, and PGF2α secretion were increased in CF compared with WT cells, with a further increase following linoleic acid supplementation. cftr−/− Mice supplemented with 100 mg of linoleic acid had increased arachidonic acid levels in lung tissue associated with increased neutrophil infiltration into the airway compared with control mice. These findings support the hypothesis that increasing linoleic acid levels in the setting of loss of cystic fibrosis transmembrane conductance regulator (CFTR) function leads to increased arachidonic acid levels and proinflammatory mediators. PMID:20656894

  7. DOCOSAHEXAENOIC ACID PARTIALLY AMELIORATES DEFICITS IN SOCIAL BEHAVIOR AND ULTRASONIC VOCALIZATIONS CAUSED BY PRENATAL ETHANOL EXPOSURE

    PubMed Central

    Wellmann, Kristen A.; George, Finney; Brnouti, Fares; Mooney, Sandra M.

    2015-01-01

    Prenatal ethanol exposure disrupts social behavior in humans and rodents. One system particularly important for social behavior is the somatosensory system. Prenatal ethanol exposure alters the structure and function of this area. Docosahexaenoic acid (DHA), an omega 3 polyunsaturated fatty acid, is necessary for normal brain development and brains from ethanol-exposed animals are DHA deficient. Thus, we determined whether postnatal DHA supplementation ameliorated behavioral deficits induced by prenatal ethanol exposure. Timed pregnant Long-Evans rats were assigned to one of three groups: ad libitum access to an ethanol-containing liquid diet, pair fed an isocaloric isonutritive non-alcohol liquid diet, or ad libitum access to chow and water. Pups were assigned to one of two postnatal treatment groups; gavaged intragastrically once per day between postnatal day (P)11 and P20 with DHA (10 g/kg in artificial rat milk) or artificial rat milk. A third group was left untreated. Isolation-induced ultrasonic vocalizations (iUSVs) were recorded on P14. Social behavior and play-induced USVs were tested on P28 or P42. Somatosensory performance was tested with a gap crossing test around P33 or on P42. Anxiety was tested on elevated plus maze around P35. Animals exposed to ethanol prenatally vocalized less, play fought less, and crossed a significantly shorter gap than control-treated animals. Administration of DHA ameliorated these ethanol-induced deficits such that the ethanol-exposed animals given DHA were no longer significantly different to control-treated animals. Thus, DHA administration may have therapeutic value to reverse some of ethanol’s damaging effects. PMID:25746516

  8. Docosahexaenoic acid partially ameliorates deficits in social behavior and ultrasonic vocalizations caused by prenatal ethanol exposure.

    PubMed

    Wellmann, Kristen A; George, Finney; Brnouti, Fares; Mooney, Sandra M

    2015-06-01

    Prenatal ethanol exposure disrupts social behavior in humans and rodents. One system particularly important for social behavior is the somatosensory system. Prenatal ethanol exposure alters the structure and function of this area. Docosahexaenoic acid (DHA), an omega 3 polyunsaturated fatty acid, is necessary for normal brain development and brains from ethanol-exposed animals are DHA deficient. Thus, we determined whether postnatal DHA supplementation ameliorated behavioral deficits induced by prenatal ethanol exposure. Timed pregnant Long-Evans rats were assigned to one of three groups: ad libitum access to an ethanol-containing liquid diet, pair fed an isocaloric isonutritive non-alcohol liquid diet, or ad libitum access to chow and water. Pups were assigned to one of two postnatal treatment groups; gavaged intragastrically once per day between postnatal day (P)11 and P20 with DHA (10g/kg in artificial rat milk) or artificial rat milk. A third group was left untreated. Isolation-induced ultrasonic vocalizations (iUSVs) were recorded on P14. Social behavior and play-induced USVs were tested on P28 or P42. Somatosensory performance was tested with a gap crossing test around P33 or on P42. Anxiety was tested on elevated plus maze around P35. Animals exposed to ethanol prenatally vocalized less, play fought less, and crossed a significantly shorter gap than control-treated animals. Administration of DHA ameliorated these ethanol-induced deficits such that the ethanol-exposed animals given DHA were no longer significantly different to control-treated animals. Thus, DHA administration may have therapeutic value to reverse some of ethanol's damaging effects. PMID:25746516

  9. Pilot study of dietary fatty acid supplementation in the treatment of adult periodontitis.

    PubMed

    Rosenstein, Elliot D; Kushner, Laura J; Kramer, Neil; Kazandjian, Gregory

    2003-03-01

    The anti-inflammatory effects of both n-3 and n-6 polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFA) have been demonstrated in vitro and in many disease states, in particular in the treatment of rheumatoid arthritis. The benefit of n-3 PUFA supplementation has been documented in animal models of periodontal inflammation and a trend towards reduced inflammation has been seen in human experimental gingivitis. The purpose of this study was to examine the potential anti-inflammatory effects of PUFA supplementation, by administration of fish oil as a source of the n-3 PUFA, eicosapentaenoic acid, and borage oil as a source of the n-6 PUFA, gamma-linolenic acid (GLA), to adults with periodontitis. Thirty adult human subjects with periodontitis were administered either fish oil 3000 mg daily; borage oil 3000 mg daily; fish oil 1500 and borage oil 1500 mg daily, or placebo. The modified gingival index, the plaque index (PI), periodontal probing depths and beta-glucuronidase levels in gingival crevicular fluid were measured at baseline and after 12 weeks of treatment. Improvement in gingival inflammation was observed in subjects treated with borage oil (P<0.016), with a trend apparent in subjects treated with fish oil or a combination of PUFA. There was no statistically significant improvement in PI, although a trend was apparent in those receiving borage oil. Improvement in probing depth was seen in those subjects treated with either fish oil alone or borage oil alone, but statistical significance was only seen for the comparison of borage oil and placebo (P<0.044). No change was seen in gingival crevicular fluid (GCF) beta-glucuronidase levels. The use of borage oil supplementation, a source of the n-6 PUFA, GLA, can have beneficial effects on periodontal inflammation. n-6 PUFA supplementation seemed to offer more impressive results than either n-3 PUFA supplementation or the combination of lower doses of the two supplements. Additional studies will be necessary to more fully assess the

  10. Comparison of the effects of EPA and DHA alone or in combination in a murine model of myocardial infarction.

    PubMed

    Madingou, Ness; Gilbert, Kim; Tomaro, Leandro; Prud'homme Touchette, Charles; Trudeau, François; Fortin, Samuel; Rousseau, Guy

    2016-08-01

    The aim of this project was to investigate the impact of two dietary omega-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFAs), eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA) and docosahexaenoic acid (DHA), alone or in combination, on infarct size. Adult, male Sprague-Dawley rats were fed for 14 days with different omega-3 diets. The animals were subjected to ischemia for 40min followed by reperfusion. Infarct size, Akt (protein kinase B) activation level, caspase-3 activity and mitochondrial permeability transition pore (mPTP) opening were measured. The results indicate that EPA or DHA alone significantly reduced infarct size compared to the other diets. Akt activity was increased in the group fed EPA or DHA alone, whereas no significant activation was observed in the other groups compared to no omega-3 PUFA. DHA alone reduced caspase-3 activity and conferred resistance to mPTP opening. In conclusion, our results demonstrate that EPA and DHA are individually effective in diminishing infarct size in our experimental model while their combination is not. PMID:27499449

  11. Folate/Folic Acid Knowledge, Intake, and Self-Efficacy of College-Aged Women: Impact of Text Messaging and Availability of a Folic Acid-Containing Supplement

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rampersaud, Gail C.; Sokolow, Andrew; Gruspe, Abigail; Colee, James C.; Kauwell, Gail P. A.

    2016-01-01

    Objective: To evaluate the impact of educational text messages (TMs) on folate/folic acid knowledge and consumption among college-aged women, and to evaluate the impact of providing folic acid supplements on folate/folic acid intake among college-aged women. Participants: A total of 162 women (18-24 years) recruited from a university. Methods: The…

  12. A review of the biologic and pharmacologic role of docosapentaenoic acid n-3

    PubMed Central

    Yazdi, Puya G

    2014-01-01

    Fish oil contains a complex mixture of omega-3 fatty acids, of which eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA), docosapentaenoic acid (DPA), and docosahexaenoic acid (DHA) are the three predominant forms. There has been a plethora of previous research on the effects and associations of fish oil supplementation with various clinical manifestations. While the majority of this work was focused on EPA and DHA as the active compounds, emerging research has begun to elucidate the specific role that DPA plays in these physiological processes and its differences with the other omega-3 fatty acids. The purpose of this review is to focus on the new studies undertaken with DPA. This review summarizes the biochemical mechanisms involved in the biosynthesis and metabolism of DPA before focusing on its effects in cardiovascular disease, immune function, and psychiatric and cognitive health. The limited studies point toward a positive role that DPA supplementation can play in these processes and that is separate and distinct from traditional supplementation with DHA and EPA. PMID:25232466

  13. Dietary uptake of omega-3 fatty acids in mouse tissue studied by time-of-flight secondary ion mass spectrometry (TOF-SIMS).

    PubMed

    Sjövall, Peter; Rossmeisl, Martin; Hanrieder, Jörg; Kuda, Ondrej; Kopecky, Jan; Bryhn, Morten

    2015-07-01

    Dietary intake of omega-3 fatty acids is associated with considerable health benefits, including the prevention of metabolic disorders such as cardiovascular disease and type 2 diabetes. Furthermore, incorporation of the main omega-3 fatty acids, eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA) and docosahexaenoic acid (DHA), at the systemic level has been found to be more efficient when these fatty acids are supplied in the form of marine phospholipids compared to triglycerides. In this work, the uptake of omega-3 fatty acids and their incorporation in specific lipids were studied in adipose, skeletal muscle, and liver tissues of mice given high-fat diets with or without omega-3 supplements in the form of phospholipids or triglycerides using time-of-flight secondary ion mass spectrometry (TOF-SIMS). The results demonstrate significant uptake of EPA and DHA, and the incorporation of these fatty acids in specific lipid molecules, in all three tissue types in response to the dietary omega-3 supplements. Moreover, the results indicate reduced concentrations of arachidonic acid (AA) and depletion of lipids containing AA in tissue samples from mice given supplementary omega-3, as compared to the control mice. The effect on the lipid composition, in particular the DHA uptake and AA depletion, was found to be significantly stronger when the omega-3 supplement was supplied in the form of phospholipids, as compared to triglycerides. TOF-SIMS was found to be a useful technique for screening the lipid composition and simultaneously obtaining the spatial distributions of various lipid classes on tissue surfaces. PMID:25694146

  14. Branched-chain amino acid supplementation during repeated prolonged skiing exercises at altitude.

    PubMed

    Bigard, A X; Lavier, P; Ullmann, L; Legrand, H; Douce, P; Guezennec, C Y

    1996-09-01

    This study was conducted to test the hypothesis that a branched-chain amino acid (BCAA) supplementation would minimize changes in body composition and alterations in plasma amino acid profile induced by prolonged exercises at altitude. Twenty-four highly trained subjects participated in six successive sessions of ski mountaineering (6-8 hr duration, altitude 2,500-4,100 m). Twelve subjects took a dietary supplement of BCAA (BCAA group) and 12 took a dietary supplement that was 98% carbohydrate (C group). Body weight decreased in C subjects (-2.1%, p < .01), while the body weight loss recorded in the BCAA group was not statistically significant (-1.2%, NS). Changes in body composition that resulted from repeated skiing exercise at altitude were not significantly minimized by BCAA administration. Peak power output recorded during an incremental bicycle exercise decreased in C subjects but did not change significantly in BCAA subjects. Results of this study demonstrate that neither changes in body composition related to the ski mountaineering program nor muscular performance during isometric contraction was significantly affected by BCAA administration. PMID:8876349

  15. Oral conjugated linoleic acid supplementation enhanced glycogen resynthesis in exercised human skeletal muscle.

    PubMed

    Tsao, Jung-Piao; Liao, Su-Fen; Korivi, Mallikarjuna; Hou, Chien-Wen; Kuo, Chia-Hua; Wang, Hsueh-Fang; Cheng, I-Shiung

    2015-01-01

    Present study examined the effects of conjugated linoleic acid (CLA) supplementation on glycogen resynthesis in exercised human skeletal muscle. Twelve male participants completed a cross-over trial with CLA (3.8 g/day for 8 week) or placebo supplements by separation of 8 weeks. CLA is a mixture of trans-10 cis-12 and cis-9 trans-11 isomers (50:50). On experiment day, all participants performed 60-min cycling exercise at 75% VO2 max, then consumed a carbohydrate meal immediately after exercise and recovered for 3 h. Biopsied muscle samples from vastus lateralis were obtained immediately (0 h) and 3 h following exercise. Simultaneously, blood and gaseous samples were collected for every 30 min during 3-h recovery. Results showed significantly increased muscle glycogen content with CLA after a single bout of exercise (P < 0.05). Muscle glucose transporter type 4 expression was significantly elevated immediately after exercise, and this elevation was continued until 3 h after exercise in CLA trial. However, P-Akt/Akt ratio was not significantly altered, while glucose tolerance was impaired with CLA. Gaseous exchange data showed no beneficial effect of CLA on fat oxidation, instead lower non-esterified fatty acid and glycerol levels were found at 0 h. Our findings conclude that CLA supplementation can enhance the glycogen resynthesis rate in exercised human skeletal muscle. PMID:25385360

  16. Transcriptome and gene expression analysis of DHA producer Aurantiochytrium under low temperature conditions.

    PubMed

    Ma, Zengxin; Tan, Yanzhen; Cui, Guzhen; Feng, Yingang; Cui, Qiu; Song, Xiaojin

    2015-01-01

    Aurantiochytrium is a promising docosahexaenoic acid (DHA) production candidate due to its fast growth rate and high proportions of lipid and DHA content. In this study, high-throughput RNA sequencing technology was employed to explore the acclimatization of this DHA producer under cold stress at the transcriptional level. The overall de novo assembly of the cDNA sequence data generated 29,783 unigenes, with an average length of 1,200 bp. In total, 13,245 unigenes were annotated in at least one database. A comparative genomic analysis between normal conditions and cold stress revealed that 2,013 genes were differentially expressed during the growth stage, while 2,071 genes were differentially expressed during the lipid accumulation stage. Further functional categorization and analyses showed some differentially expressed genes were involved in processes crucial to cold acclimation, such as signal transduction, cellular component biogenesis, and carbohydrate and lipid metabolism. A brief survey of the transcripts obtained in response to cold stress underlines the survival strategy of Aurantiochytrium; of these transcripts, many directly or indirectly influence the lipid composition. This is the first study to perform a transcriptomic analysis of the Aurantiochytrium under low temperature conditions. Our results will help to enhance DHA production by Aurantiochytrium in the future. PMID:26403200

  17. Transcriptome and gene expression analysis of DHA producer Aurantiochytrium under low temperature conditions

    PubMed Central

    Ma, Zengxin; Tan, Yanzhen; Cui, Guzhen; Feng, Yingang; Cui, Qiu; Song, Xiaojin

    2015-01-01

    Aurantiochytrium is a promising docosahexaenoic acid (DHA) production candidate due to its fast growth rate and high proportions of lipid and DHA content. In this study, high-throughput RNA sequencing technology was employed to explore the acclimatization of this DHA producer under cold stress at the transcriptional level. The overall de novo assembly of the cDNA sequence data generated 29,783 unigenes, with an average length of 1,200 bp. In total, 13,245 unigenes were annotated in at least one database. A comparative genomic analysis between normal conditions and cold stress revealed that 2,013 genes were differentially expressed during the growth stage, while 2,071 genes were differentially expressed during the lipid accumulation stage. Further functional categorization and analyses showed some differentially expressed genes were involved in processes crucial to cold acclimation, such as signal transduction, cellular component biogenesis, and carbohydrate and lipid metabolism. A brief survey of the transcripts obtained in response to cold stress underlines the survival strategy of Aurantiochytrium; of these transcripts, many directly or indirectly influence the lipid composition. This is the first study to perform a transcriptomic analysis of the Aurantiochytrium under low temperature conditions. Our results will help to enhance DHA production by Aurantiochytrium in the future. PMID:26403200

  18. Neurodevelopmental outcomes at 7 years’ corrected age in preterm infants who were fed high-dose docosahexaenoic acid to term equivalent: a follow-up of a randomised controlled trial

    PubMed Central

    Gibson, Robert A; Anderson, Peter J; McPhee, Andrew J; Sullivan, Thomas R; Gould, Jacqueline F; Ryan, Philip; Doyle, Lex W; Davis, Peter G; McMichael, Judy E; French, Noel P; Colditz, Paul B; Simmer, Karen; Morris, Scott A; Makrides, Maria

    2015-01-01

    Objective To determine if improvements in cognitive outcome detected at 18 months’ corrected age (CA) in infants born <33 weeks’ gestation receiving a high-docosahexaenoic acid (DHA) compared with standard-DHA diet were sustained in early childhood. Design Follow-up of a multicentre randomised controlled trial. Randomisation was stratified for sex, birth weight (<1250 vs ≥1250 g) and hospital. Setting Five Australian tertiary hospitals from 2008 to 2013. Participants 626 of the 657 participants randomised between 2001 and 2005 were eligible to participate. Interventions High-DHA (≈1% total fatty acids) enteral feeds compared with standard-DHA (≈0.3% total fatty acids) from age 2–4 days until term CA. Primary outcome Full Scale IQ of the Wechsler Abbreviated Scale of Intelligence (WASI) at 7 years CA. Prespecified subgroup analyses based on the randomisation strata (sex, birth weight) were conducted. Results 604 (92% of the 657 originally randomised) consented to participate (291 high-DHA, 313 standard-DHA). To address missing data in the 604 consenting participants (22 for primary outcome), multiple imputation was performed. The Full Scale IQ was not significantly different between groups (high-DHA 98.3, SD 14.0, standard-DHA 98.5, SD 14.9; mean difference adjusted for sex, birthweight strata and hospital −0.3, 95% CI −2.9 to 2.2; p=0.79). There were no significant differences in any secondary outcomes. In prespecified subgroup analyses, there was a significant sex by treatment interaction on measures of parent-reported executive function and behaviour. Scores were within the normal range but girls receiving the high-DHA diet scored significantly higher (poorer outcome) compared with girls receiving the standard-DHA diet. Conclusions Supplementing the diets of preterm infants with a DHA dose of approximately 1% total fatty acids from days 2–4 until term CA showed no evidence of benefit at 7 years’ CA. Trial registration number

  19. Amino acid supplementation does not alter whole-body phenylalanine kinetics in Arabian geldings.

    PubMed

    Urschel, Kristine L; Geor, Raymond J; Hanigan, Mark D; Harris, Pat A

    2012-03-01

    Stable isotope infusion methods have not been extensively used in horses to study protein metabolism. The objectives were to develop infusion and sampling methodologies for [1-(13)C] phenylalanine and apply these methods to determine whether the addition of supplemental amino acids to a control diet affected whole-body phenylalanine kinetics in mature horses. Arabian geldings were studied using a 6-h primed (9 μmol/kg), constant (6 μmol · kg(-1) · h(-1)) i.v. infusion of L-[1-(13)C] phenylalanine, with blood and breath sampled every 30 min, to measure whole-body phenylalanine kinetics in response to receiving the control diet (n = 12) or the control diet supplemented with equimolar amounts of glutamate (+Glu; 55 mg · kg(-1) · d(-1); n = 5), leucine (+Leu; 49 mg · kg(-1) · d(-1); n = 5), lysine (+Lys; 55 mg · kg(-1) · d(-1); n = 5), or phenylalanine (+Phe; 62 mg · kg(-1) · d(-1); n = 6). The plasma concentrations of the supplemented amino acid in horses receiving the +Leu, +Lys, and +Phe diets were 58, 53, and 36% greater, respectively, than for the control treatment (P < 0.05). Isotopic plateau was attained in blood [1-(13)C] phenylalanine and breath (13)CO(2) enrichments by 60 and 270 min, respectively. Phenylalanine flux (+20%) and oxidation (+110%) were greater (P < 0.05) in horses receiving the +Phe treatment than in those fed the control diet. There was no effect of treatment diet on nonoxidative phenylalanine disposal or phenylalanine release from protein breakdown. The developed methods are a valuable way to study protein metabolism and assess dietary amino acid adequacy in horses and will provide a useful tool for studying amino acid requirements in the future. PMID:22259192

  20. Effect of Dietary Supplementation of Organic Acids on Performance, Intestinal Histomorphology, and Serum Biochemistry of Broiler Chicken

    PubMed Central

    Adil, Sheikh; Banday, Tufail; Bhat, Gulam Ahmad; Mir, Masood Saleem; Rehman, Manzoor

    2010-01-01

    The aim of the study was to determine the effect of dietary supplementation of organic acids on the performance, intestinal histomorphology, and blood biochemistry of broiler chicken. The birds in the control (T1) group were fed the basal diet whereas in other treatment groups basal diet was supplemented with 2% butyric acid (T2), 3% butyric acid (T4), 2% fumaric acid (T4), 3% fumaric acid (T5), 2% lactic acid (T6), and 3% lactic acid (T7). Broiler chicken fed diets supplemented with organic acids had significantly (P < .05) improved body weight gains and feed conversion ratio. No effect (P < .05) on cumulative feed consumption was observed. The addition of organic increased villus height in the small intestines but the differences were not significant (P < .05) in case of the ileum. Serum calcium and phosphorus concentrations were increased (P < .05) but no effect (P < .05) on the concentration of serum glucose and cholesterol, serum glutamic pyruvic transaminase (SGPT), and serum glutamic oxaloacetate transaminase (SGOT) was observed. The results indicated that the organic acid supplementation, irrespective of type and level of acid used, had a beneficial effect on the performance of broiler chicken. PMID:20613998

  1. The effect of ascorbic acid supplementation on endosulfan toxicity in rabbits.

    PubMed

    Ozdem, Sebahat; Nacitarhan, Cahit; Gulay, Mehmet S; Hatipoglu, Fatma S; Ozdem, Sadi S

    2011-06-01

    We investigated the endosulfan-induced alterations and the effect of vitamin C supplementation on endosulfan-induced alterations in serum biochemical markers of oxidative stress and antioxidant capacity in rabbits. Basal, 4th and 6th week serum levels of total oxidant status (TOS), thiobarbituric acid reactive substances (TBARS), advanced oxidation protein products (AOPP), total antioxidant capacity (TAC), total protein sulfhydryl (T-SH) and glutathione-S-transferase (GST) were measured in rabbits administered endosulfan (1 mg/kg) alone or in combination with vitamin C (20 mg/kg) for 6 weeks. Control rabbits received either vehicles or vitamin C. Serum TOS, TBARS and AOPP levels at 4th and 6th week were significantly higher whereas T-SH levels were significantly lower than basal values in endosulfan-administered rabbits. GST increased significantly at 4th week but decreased below basal value at 6th week. Similarly, TAC decreased significantly at 6th week. Vitamin C supplementation increased TAC at 4th and 6th weeks in controls and increased T-SH and GST and decreased TOS, TBARS and AOPP at 4th week in endosulfan-administered rabbits. TAC increased significantly at 6th week by vitamin C supplementation in endosulfan-administered rabbits. There were significant increments in TBARS and decrements in TAC and GST levels at 6th week compared to 4th week in endosulfan-administered rabbits. Present findings indicated to an increased and progressively uncompensated oxidant stress in endosulfan-administered rabbits that was substantially ameliorated by vitamin C supplementation through an improvement in antioxidant capacity. It was suggested that vitamin C supplementation might be helpful in preventing the detrimental effects of increased oxidative stress caused by endosulfan exposure. PMID:21245203

  2. n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids supplementation enhances hippocampal functionality in aged mice

    PubMed Central

    Cutuli, Debora; De Bartolo, Paola; Caporali, Paola; Laricchiuta, Daniela; Foti, Francesca; Ronci, Maurizio; Rossi, Claudia; Neri, Cristina; Spalletta, Gianfranco; Caltagirone, Carlo; Farioli-Vecchioli, Stefano; Petrosini, Laura

    2014-01-01

    As major components of neuronal membranes, omega-3 polyunsaturated acids (n-3 PUFA) exhibit a wide range of regulatory functions, modulating from synaptic plasticity to neuroinflammation, from oxidative stress to neuroprotection. Recent human and animal studies indicated the n-3 PUFA neuroprotective properties in aging, with a clear negative correlation between n-3 PUFA levels and hippocampal deficits. The present multidimensional study was aimed at associating cognition, hippocampal neurogenesis, volume, neurodegeneration and metabolic correlates to verify n-3 PUFA neuroprotective effects in aging. To this aim 19 month-old mice were given n-3 PUFA mixture, or olive oil or no dietary supplement for 8 weeks during which hippocampal-dependent mnesic functions were tested. At the end of behavioral testing morphological and metabolic correlates were analyzed. n-3 PUFA supplemented aged mice exhibited better object recognition memory, spatial and localizatory memory, and aversive response retention, without modifications in anxiety levels in comparison to controls. These improved hippocampal cognitive functions occurred in the context of an enhanced cellular plasticity and a reduced neurodegeneration. In fact, n-3 PUFA supplementation increased hippocampal neurogenesis and dendritic arborization of newborn neurons, volume, neuronal density and microglial cell number, while it decreased apoptosis, astrocytosis and lipofuscin accumulation in the hippocampus. The increased levels of some metabolic correlates (blood Acetyl-L-Carnitine and brain n-3 PUFA concentrations) found in n-3 PUFA supplemented mice also pointed toward an effective neuroprotection. On the basis of the present results n-3 PUFA supplementation appears to be a useful tool in health promotion and cognitive decline prevention during aging. PMID:25202271

  3. Evaluation of suppressive and pro-resolving effects of EPA and DHA in human primary monocytes and T-helper cells[S

    PubMed Central

    Jaudszus, Anke; Gruen, Michael; Watzl, Bernhard; Ness, Christina; Roth, Alexander; Lochner, Alfred; Barz, Dagmar; Gabriel, Holger; Rothe, Michael; Jahreis, Gerhard

    2013-01-01

    Despite their beneficial anti-inflammatory properties, eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA) and docosahexaenoic acid (DHA) may increase the infection risk at high doses, likely by generating an immune-depressed state. To assess the contribution of different immune cell populations to the immunomodulatory fatty acid effect, we comparatively investigated several aspects of inflammation in human T-helper (Th) cells and monocytes. Both fatty acids, but DHA to a lesser extent compared with EPA, selectively and dose-dependently reduced the percentage of cytokine-expressing Th cells in a peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor (PPAR)γ-dependent fashion, whereas the expression of the cell surface marker CD69 was unaltered on activated T cells. In monocytes, both EPA and DHA increased interleukin (IL)-10 without affecting tumor necrosis factor (TNF)-α and IL-6. Cellular incorporation of EPA and DHA occurred mainly at the expense of arachidonic acid. Concomitantly, thromboxane B (TXB)2 and leukotriene B (LTB)4 in supernatants decreased, while levels of TXB3 and LTB5 increased. This increase was independent of activation and in accordance with cyclooxygenase expression patterns in monocytes. Moreover, EPA and DHA gave rise to a variety of mono- and trihydroxy derivatives of highly anti-inflammatory potential, such as resolvins and their precursors. Our results suggest that EPA and DHA do not generally affect immune cell functions in an inhibitory manner but rather promote pro-resolving responses. PMID:23349208

  4. Maternal Multiple Micronutrient Supplementation Has Limited Impact on Micronutrient Status of Bangladeshi Infants Compared with Standard Iron Folic Acid Supplementation

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    We examined the impact of type of maternal micronutrient supplement, time of introduction of a prenatal food supplement and the two interventions combined on micronutrient status of infants in rural Bangladesh. In a community trial, 4436 pregnant women were randomized to Early or Usual start of food...

  5. Nicotinic acid supplementation in diet favored intramuscular fat deposition and lipid metabolism in finishing steers.

    PubMed

    Yang, Zhu-Qing; Bao, Lin-Bin; Zhao, Xiang-Hui; Wang, Can-Yu; Zhou, Shan; Wen, Lu-Hua; Fu, Chuan-Bian; Gong, Jian-Ming; Qu, Ming-Ren

    2016-06-01

    Nicotinic acid (NA) acting as the precursor of NAD(+)/NADH and NADP(+)/NADPH, participates in many biochemical processes, e.g. lipid metabolism. The main purpose of this study was to investigate the effects of dietary NA on carcass traits, meat quality, blood metabolites, and fat deposition in Chinese crossbred finishing steers. Sixteen steers with the similar body weight and at the age of 24 months were randomly allocated into control group (feeding basal diet) and NA group (feeding basal diet + 1000 mg/kg NA). All experimental cattle were fed a 90% concentrate diet and 10% forage straw in a 120-day feeding experiment. The results showed that supplemental NA in diet increased longissimus area, intramuscular fat content (17.14% vs. 9.03%), marbling score (8.08 vs. 4.30), redness (a*), and chroma (C*) values of LD muscle, but reduced carcass fat content (not including imtramuscular fat), pH24 h and moisture content of LD muscle, along with no effect on backfat thickness. Besides, NA supplementation increased serum HDL-C concentration, but decreased the serum levels of LDL-C, triglyceride, non-esterified fatty acid, total cholesterol, and glycated serum protein. In addition, NA supplementation increased G6PDH and ICDH activities of LD muscle. These results suggested that NA supplementation in diet improves the carcass characteristics and beef quality, and regulates the compositions of serum metabolites. Based on the above results, NA should be used as the feed additive in cattle industry. PMID:27048556

  6. Omega-3 fatty acid profile of eggs from laying hens fed diets supplemented with chia, fish oil, and flaxseed.

    PubMed

    Coorey, Ranil; Novinda, Agnes; Williams, Hannah; Jayasena, Vijay

    2015-01-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate the effect of diets supplemented with fish oil, flaxseed, and chia seed on the omega-3 fatty acid composition and sensory properties of hens' eggs. No significant difference in yolk fat content was found between treatments. The fatty acid composition of egg yolk was significantly affected by the dietary treatments. Inclusion of chia at 300 g/kg into the diet produced eggs with the highest concentration of omega-3 fatty acid. Eicosapentaenoic acid and docosahexaenoic acid were only detected in eggs from laying hens fed the diet supplemented with fish oil. Diet had a significant effect on color, flavor and overall acceptability of eggs. Types and levels of omega-3 fatty acids in feed influence the level of yolk omega-3 fatty acids in egg yolk. Inclusion of chia into the hens' diet significantly increased the concentration of yolk omega-3 fatty acid without significant change in sensory properties. PMID:25557903

  7. Branched-chain amino acid supplementation during bed rest: effect on recovery

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Stein, T. P.; Donaldson, M. R.; Leskiw, M. J.; Schluter, M. D.; Baggett, D. W.; Boden, G.

    2003-01-01

    Bed rest is associated with a loss of protein from the weight-bearing muscle. The objectives of this study are to determine whether increasing dietary branched-chain amino acids (BCAAs) during bed rest improves the anabolic response after bed rest. The study consisted of a 1-day ambulatory period, 14 days of bed rest, and a 4-day recovery period. During bed rest, dietary intake was supplemented with either 30 mmol/day each of glycine, serine, and alanine (group 1) or with 30 mmol/day each of the three BCAAs (group 2). Whole body protein synthesis was determined with U-(15)N-labeled amino acids, muscle, and selected plasma protein synthesis with l-[(2)H(5)]phenylalanine. Total glucose production and gluconeogenesis from alanine were determined with l-[U-(13)C(3)]alanine and [6,6-(2)H(2)]glucose. During bed rest, nitrogen (N) retention was greater with BCAA feeding (56 +/- 6 vs. 26 +/- 12 mg N. kg(-1). day(-1), P < 0.05). There was no effect of BCAA supplementation on either whole body, muscle, or plasma protein synthesis or the rate of 3-MeH excretion. Muscle tissue free amino acid concentrations were increased during bed rest with BCAA (0.214 +/- 0.066 vs. 0.088 +/- 0.12 nmol/mg protein, P < 0.05). Total glucose production and gluconeogenesis from alanine were unchanged with bed rest but were significantly reduced (P < 0.05) with the BCAA group in the recovery phase. In conclusion, the improved N retention during bed rest is due, at least in part, to accretion of amino acids in the tissue free amino acid pools. The amount accreted is not enough to impact protein kinetics in the recovery phase but does improve N retention by providing additional essential amino acids in the early recovery phase.

  8. Long chain n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids increase the efficacy of docetaxel in mammary cancer cells by downregulating Akt and PKCε/δ-induced ERK pathways.

    PubMed

    Chauvin, Lucie; Goupille, Caroline; Blanc, Charly; Pinault, Michelle; Domingo, Isabelle; Guimaraes, Cyrille; Bougnoux, Philippe; Chevalier, Stephan; Mahéo, Karine

    2016-04-01

    Taxanes can induce drug resistance by increasing signaling pathways such as PI3K/Akt and ERK, which promote survival and cell growth in human cancer cells. We have previously shown that long chain n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids, such as docosahexaenoic acid (DHA, 22:6n-3) decrease resistance of experimental mammary tumors to anticancer drugs. Our objective was to determine whether DHA could increase tumor sensitivity to docetaxel by down-regulating these survival pathways. In docetaxel-treated MDA-MB-231 cells, phosphorylated-ERK1/2 levels were increased by 60% in membrane and nuclear compartments, compared to untreated cells. Our data showed that ERK1/2 activation depended on PKC activation since: i) enzastaurin (a pan-PKC inhibitor) blocked docetaxel-induced ERK1/2 phosphorylation ii) docetaxel increased PKC activity by 30% and phosphatidic acid level by 1.6-fold iii) inhibition of PKCε and PKCδ by siRNA resulted in reduced phosphorylated ERK1/2 levels. In DHA-supplemented cells, docetaxel was unable to increase PKCε and δ levels in membrane and nuclear fractions, resulting in diminished ERK1/2 phosphorylation and increased docetaxel efficacy. Reduced membrane level of PKCε and PKCδ was associated with significant incorporation of DHA in all phospholipids, including phosphatidylcholine which is a major source of phosphatidic acid. Additionally, examination of the Akt pathway showed that DHA could repress docetaxel-induced Ser473Akt phosphorylation. In rat mammary tumors, dietary DHA supplementation during docetaxel chemotherapy repressed ERK and Akt survival pathways and in turn strongly improved taxane efficacy. The P-ERK level was negatively correlated with tumor regression. These findings are of potential clinical importance in treating chemotherapy-refractory cancer. PMID:26821209

  9. Effect of thyroxine supplementation on the response to perfluoro-n-decanoic acid (PFDA) in rats

    SciTech Connect

    Gutshall, D.M.; Pilcher, G.D.; Langley, A.E.

    1988-01-01

    Perfluoro-n-decanoic acid (PFDA) is a member of a family of perfluorinated carboxylic acids that have found widespread commercial applications as lubricants, surfactants, wetting agents and corrosion inhibitors. The effects of thyroxine (T{sub 4}) supplementation on perfluoro-n-decanoic acid- (PFDA) induced decreases in food consumption, body weight, and body temperature were examined. A dose-response study was carried out with 50-, 100-, 200-, or 250-{mu}g/kg ip doses of T{sub 4} for 7 d prior to PFDA administration, and daily dosing with T{sub 4} was continued for an additional 30 d. From this study a T{sub 4} dose of 200 {mu}g/kg was chosen, and subsequent experiments were conducted with this dose. Supplementation with T{sub 4} at 200 {mu}g/kg daily alleviated the hypophagia but not the severe weight loss and hypothermia produced by PFDA treatment. Their results suggest that some component of the thyroid axis plays a role in feeding behavior. In addition, the PFDA-induced wasting syndrome and hypothermia appear to be unrelated to changes in serum thyroid hormones. The unexpected observation that severe weight loss occurred in the presence of essentially normal food intake suggests that PFDA alters basic cellular metabolic processes.

  10. Branched-chain amino acid supplementation: impact on signaling and relevance to critical illness.

    PubMed

    Mattick, John S A; Kamisoglu, Kubra; Ierapetritou, Marianthi G; Androulakis, Ioannis P; Berthiaume, Francois

    2013-01-01

    The changes that occur in mammalian systems following trauma and sepsis, termed systemic inflammatory response syndrome, elicit major changes in carbohydrate, protein, and energy metabolism. When these events persist for too long they result in a severe depletion of lean body mass, multiple organ dysfunction, and eventually death. Nutritional supplementation has been investigated to offset the severe loss of protein, and recent evidence suggests that diets enriched in branched-chain amino acids (BCAAs) may be especially beneficial. BCAAs are metabolized in two major steps that are differentially expressed in muscle and liver. In muscle, BCAAs are reversibly transaminated to the corresponding α-keto acids. For the complete degradation of BCAAs, the α-keto acids must travel to the liver to undergo oxidation. The liver, in contrast to muscle, does not significantly express the branched-chain aminotransferase. Thus, BCAA degradation is under the joint control of both liver and muscle. Recent evidence suggests that in liver, BCAAs may perform signaling functions, more specifically via activation of mTOR (mammalian target of rapamycin) signaling pathway, influencing a wide variety of metabolic and synthetic functions, including protein translation, insulin signaling, and oxidative stress following severe injury and infection. However, understanding of the system-wide effects of BCAAs that integrate both metabolic and signaling aspects is currently lacking. Further investigation in this respect will help rationalize the design and optimization of nutritional supplements containing BCAAs for critically ill patients. PMID:23554299

  11. Unaffected Arm Muscle Hypercatabolism in Dysphagic Subacute Stroke Patients: The Effects of Essential Amino Acid Supplementation

    PubMed Central

    Aquilani, Roberto; Boselli, Mirella; D'Antona, Giuseppe; Baiardi, Paola; Boschi, Federica; Viglio, Simona; Iadarola, Paolo; Pasini, Evasio; Barbieri, Annalisa; Dossena, Maurizia; Bongiorno, Andria Innocenza; Verri, Manuela

    2014-01-01

    Alterations in muscle protein turnover of the unaffected side of stroke patients could contribute to physical disability. We investigated whether hypercatabolic activity occurred in unaffected arm muscle and whether supplemented essential amino acids (EAAs) could limit muscle hypercatabolism (MH). Thirty-eight dysphagic subacute stroke subjects (<3 months after acute event) (29 males + 9 females; 69.7 ± 11.4 yrs) were enrolled and randomized to receive 8 g/day EAAs (n = 19; EAA group) or isocaloric placebo (maltodextrin; n = 19, Plac group). Before randomization, all patients had their arterial (A) and venous (V) amino acids measured and muscle (A − V) differences calculated in the unaffected arm. Eight matched and healthy subjects served as controls. When compared to healthy controls, the entire stroke population showed significant muscle release (= negative value A − V) of the amino acid phenylalanine (phenyl-) indicating a prevalence of MH. Moreover, randomized EAA and Plac groups had similar rates of MH. After 38 days from the start of the protocol, the EAA group but not the Plac group had MH converted to balanced protein turnover or anabolic activity. We concluded that muscle protein metabolism of the unaffected arm of dysphagic subacute stroke individuals could be characterized by MH which can be corrected by supplemented EAAs. PMID:25431770

  12. Folic acid supplements and colorectal cancer risk: meta-analysis of randomized controlled trials

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Qin, Tingting; Du, Mulong; Du, Haina; Shu, Yongqian; Wang, Meilin; Zhu, Lingjun

    2015-07-01

    Numerous studies have investigated the effects of folic acid supplementation on colorectal cancer risk, but conflicting results were reported. We herein performed a meta-analysis based on relevant studies to reach a more definitive conclusion. The PubMed and Embase databases were searched for quality randomized controlled trials (RCTs) published before October 2014. Eight articles met the inclusion criteria and were subsequently analyzed. The results suggested that folic acid treatment was not associated with colorectal cancer risk in the total population (relative risk [RR] = 1.00, 95% confidence interval [CI] = 0.82-1.22, P = 0.974). Moreover, no statistical effect was identified in further subgroup analyses stratified by ethnicity, gender, body mass index (BMI) and potential confounding factors. No significant heterogeneity or publication bias was observed. In conclusion, our meta-analysis demonstrated that folic acid supplementation had no effect on colorectal cancer risk. However, this finding must be validated by further large studies.

  13. Unaffected arm muscle hypercatabolism in dysphagic subacute stroke patients: the effects of essential amino acid supplementation.

    PubMed

    Aquilani, Roberto; Boselli, Mirella; D'Antona, Giuseppe; Baiardi, Paola; Boschi, Federica; Viglio, Simona; Iadarola, Paolo; Pasini, Evasio; Barbieri, Annalisa; Dossena, Maurizia; Bongiorno, Andria Innocenza; Verri, Manuela

    2014-01-01

    Alterations in muscle protein turnover of the unaffected side of stroke patients could contribute to physical disability. We investigated whether hypercatabolic activity occurred in unaffected arm muscle and whether supplemented essential amino acids (EAAs) could limit muscle hypercatabolism (MH). Thirty-eight dysphagic subacute stroke subjects (<3 months after acute event) (29 males+9 females; 69.7±11.4 yrs) were enrolled and randomized to receive 8 g/day EAAs (n=19; EAA group) or isocaloric placebo (maltodextrin; n=19, Plac group). Before randomization, all patients had their arterial (A) and venous (V) amino acids measured and muscle (A-V) differences calculated in the unaffected arm. Eight matched and healthy subjects served as controls. When compared to healthy controls, the entire stroke population showed significant muscle release (=negative value A-V) of the amino acid phenylalanine (phenyl-) indicating a prevalence of MH. Moreover, randomized EAA and Plac groups had similar rates of MH. After 38 days from the start of the protocol, the EAA group but not the Plac group had MH converted to balanced protein turnover or anabolic activity. We concluded that muscle protein metabolism of the unaffected arm of dysphagic subacute stroke individuals could be characterized by MH which can be corrected by supplemented EAAs. PMID:25431770

  14. Emerging Roles of Branched-Chain Amino Acid Supplementation in Human Diseases

    PubMed Central

    Tamanna, Nahid; Mahmood, Niaz

    2014-01-01

    The branched-chain amino acids (BCAAs), namely, valine, leucine, and isoleucine, are indispensable amino acids required for body protein synthesis. Unlike other amino acids, the BCAAs are primarily catabolised in the extrahepatic tissues. The BCAAs play role in regulation of protein synthesis and turnover as well as maintenance of the body glutamate-glutamine level. In strenuous and traumatic conditions, the BCAAs are oxidized which limits their availability in tissues. Such condition affects the body glutamate-glutamine pool and protein synthesis mechanisms. Thus BCCA supplementation is emerging as a nutritional strategy for treating many diseases. Many studies have found that BCAA administration is able to improve the health status of the patients suffering from different diseases even though there are conditions where they do not exert any effect. There are also some reports where elevated BCAAs have been shown to be associated with the pathogenesis of diseases. In this review, we have discussed the implication of BCAA supplementation in different pathological conditions and their relevant outcomes.

  15. Effects of docosahexaenoic acid and sardine oil diets on the ultrastructure of jejunal absorptive cells in adult mice.

    PubMed

    Tamura, M; Suzuki, H

    1996-01-01

    The influence of docosahexaenoic acid (DHA) and sardine oil diets on the ultrastructure of jejunal absorptive cells was studied. Adult male Crj:CD-1 (ICR) mice were fed a fat-free semisynthetic diet supplemented with 5% (by weight) purified DHA ethyl ester, refined sardine oil, or palm oil. The mice received the DHA or palm oil diets for 7 days (groups 1 and 2) and the refined sardine oil or palm oil diets for 30 days (groups 3 and 4). There were significant ultrastructural changes in the jejunal absorptive cells between the mice fed on the palm oil diet and those receiving the DHA and sardine oil diets. The endoplasmic reticulum and Golgi apparatus of some jejunal absorptive cells in the mice fed on the palm oil diet for 7 and 30 days developed vacuolation on the upper site of the nucleus. In contrast, many granules, which appeared to be lipid droplets, were observed in the endoplasmic reticulum and Golgi apparatus of the jejunal absorptive cells in the DHA and sardine oil diet groups. These results suggest that ultrastructural differences in the jejunal absorptive cells between mice in the omega-3 fatty acid and palm oil diet groups may be associated with the changes in lipid metabolism. PMID:9001686

  16. DHA-containing oilseed: a timely solution for the sustainability issues surrounding fish oil sources of the health-benefitting long-chain omega-3 oils.

    PubMed

    Kitessa, Soressa M; Abeywardena, Mahinda; Wijesundera, Chakra; Nichols, Peter D

    2014-05-01

    Benefits of long-chain (≥C20) omega-3 oils (LC omega-3 oils) for reduction of the risk of a range of disorders are well documented. The benefits result from eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA) and docosahexaenoic acid (DHA); optimal intake levels of these bioactive fatty acids for maintenance of normal health and prevention of diseases have been developed and adopted by national and international health agencies and science bodies. These developments have led to increased consumer demand for LC omega-3 oils and, coupled with increasing global population, will impact on future sustainable supply of fish. Seafood supply from aquaculture has risen over the past decades and it relies on harvest of wild catch fisheries also for its fish oil needs. Alternate sources of LC omega-3 oils are being pursued, including genetically modified soybean rich in shorter-chain stearidonic acid (SDA, 18:4ω3). However, neither oils from traditional oilseeds such as linseed, nor the SDA soybean oil have shown efficient conversion to DHA. A recent breakthrough has seen the demonstration of a land plant-based oil enriched in DHA, and with omega-6 PUFA levels close to that occurring in marine sources of EPA and DHA. We review alternative sources of DHA supply with emphasis on the need for land plant oils containing EPA and DHA. PMID:24858407

  17. DHA-Containing Oilseed: A Timely Solution for the Sustainability Issues Surrounding Fish Oil Sources of the Health-Benefitting Long-Chain Omega-3 Oils

    PubMed Central

    Kitessa, Soressa M.; Abeywardena, Mahinda; Wijesundera, Chakra; Nichols, Peter D.

    2014-01-01

    Benefits of long-chain (≥C20) omega-3 oils (LC omega-3 oils) for reduction of the risk of a range of disorders are well documented. The benefits result from eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA) and docosahexaenoic acid (DHA); optimal intake levels of these bioactive fatty acids for maintenance of normal health and prevention of diseases have been developed and adopted by national and international health agencies and science bodies. These developments have led to increased consumer demand for LC omega-3 oils and, coupled with increasing global population, will impact on future sustainable supply of fish. Seafood supply from aquaculture has risen over the past decades and it relies on harvest of wild catch fisheries also for its fish oil needs. Alternate sources of LC omega-3 oils are being pursued, including genetically modified soybean rich in shorter-chain stearidonic acid (SDA, 18:4ω3). However, neither oils from traditional oilseeds such as linseed, nor the SDA soybean oil have shown efficient conversion to DHA. A recent breakthrough has seen the demonstration of a land plant-based oil enriched in DHA, and with omega-6 PUFA levels close to that occurring in marine sources of EPA and DHA. We review alternative sources of DHA supply with emphasis on the need for land plant oils containing EPA and DHA. PMID:24858407

  18. Folic acid supplementation of pregnant mice suppresses heat-induced neural tube defects in the offspring.

    PubMed

    Shin, J H; Shiota, K

    1999-11-01

    Neural tube defects (NTD) are a group of malformations that result from the failure of the neural tube to close early in embryonic development and among the most common congenital malformations in humans. It has been reported that a substantial proportion of NTD in humans can be prevented by folic acid (FA) supplementation prior to conception and during the first months of pregnancy, and myo-inositol (MI) was shown to reduce the incidence of NTD in curly tail mice which are not prevented by FA. Brief maternal hyperthermia (HT) early in pregnancy has been implicated in NTD both in humans and laboratory animals, and anterior NTD including exencephaly and anencephaly are induced frequently when pregnant mice are exposed to HT. We examined the effect of FA or MI supplementation of pregnant mice on the occurrence of heat-induced NTD in the offspring. When pregnant mice were treated with FA (3 mg/kg) daily from gestational day (GD) 0.5 through GD 9.5 and heated at GD 8.5, the prevalence of NTD in the fetuses (26.6%) was significantly lower than the corresponding figure in the HT alone group (38.6%; P < 0.05). However we failed to detect the preventive effect of MI (500 mg/kg). The results of this study suggest that prenatal FA supplementation decreases HT-induced NTD in mice and sufficient FA intake during early pregnancy may be recommended to avoid the birth of malformed children. PMID:10539786

  19. Oral essential amino acid supplements in children with advanced chronic renal failure.

    PubMed

    Jones, R W; Dalton, N; Start, K; El-Bishti, M M; Chantler, C

    1980-07-01

    The effects on growth, nitrogen balance, and body composition of a protein-restricted diet supplemented with oral essential amino acids (EAA) were studied in seven children with advanced chronic renal failure. The diet was designed to provide minimum protein requirements for height-age, half in unselected form and half as an EAA supplement. Energy from carbohydrate and fat were increased to give a protein/energy ratio of 1.25 G:100 kcal. Nitrogen balance, studied in five children before and after 6 to 8 months of EAA treatment, was improved in each case. intracellular water (total body water minus bromide space) increased in four children but fell in three children during treatment. No significant improvement in growth, expressed as height or height velocity standard deviation scores in relation to bone age, was observed. Serum urea and urea/creatinine ratio fell after institution of EAA treatment, but the fall was not sustained. Although the EAA preparation proved acceptable to the children, dietary assessments indicated that the desired dietary aims were rarely achieved. It is concluded that, in this pediatric age group, the long-term application of a protein restricted diet with EAA supplements is of limited value. PMID:7395791

  20. Supplementation with Abscisic Acid Reduces Malaria Disease Severity and Parasite Transmission.

    PubMed

    Glennon, Elizabeth K K; Adams, L Garry; Hicks, Derrick R; Dehesh, Katayoon; Luckhart, Shirley

    2016-06-01

    Nearly half of the world's population is at risk for malaria. Increasing drug resistance has intensified the need for novel therapeutics, including treatments with intrinsic transmission-blocking properties. In this study, we demonstrate that the isoprenoid abscisic acid (ABA) modulates signaling in the mammalian host to reduce parasitemia and the formation of transmissible gametocytes and in the mosquito host to reduce parasite infection. Oral ABA supplementation in a mouse model of malaria was well tolerated and led to reduced pathology and enhanced gene expression in the liver and spleen consistent with infection recovery. Oral ABA supplementation also increased mouse plasma ABA to levels that can signal in the mosquito midgut upon blood ingestion. Accordingly, we showed that supplementation of a Plasmodium falciparum-infected blood meal with ABA increased expression of mosquito nitric oxide synthase and reduced infection prevalence in a nitric oxide-dependent manner. Identification of the mechanisms whereby ABA reduces parasite growth in mammals and mosquitoes could shed light on the balance of immunity and metabolism across eukaryotes and provide a strong foundation for clinical translation. PMID:27001761

  1. Immune response, productivity and quality of milk from grazing goats as affected by dietary polyunsaturated fatty acid supplementation.

    PubMed

    Caroprese, Mariangela; Ciliberti, Maria Giovana; Santillo, Antonella; Marino, Rosaria; Sevi, Agostino; Albenzio, Marzia

    2016-04-01

    This study was undertaken to assess how diet supplemented with fish oil and linseed improve the immune profile, the production performance, and milk quality of grazing goats by a diet supplementation of fish oil or linseed. Twenty-four Garganica grazing goats were divided into three groups named control (CON), fish oil (FO) and linseed (LIN) according to the fat supplement received in their diet. In vivo immune responses were evaluated by monitoring cell-mediated and humoral immune responses in order to verify the effects of polyunsaturated fatty acids supplementation on goats' health status. Goat milk samples were analysed weekly to determine milk chemical composition, fatty acid profile, and somatic cell count. Diet based on linseed supplementation (LIN) significantly increased milk yield by 30%, milk fat yield by 67%, protein yield by 34%, and casein yield by 41% as compared with CON. Fat content increased by 30% in LIN milk as compared with CON milk, and by 12% as compared with FO milk. Linseed modified milk fatty acid profile; LIN milk showed lower SFA and higher PUFA than FO milk. The modified fatty acid composition of LIN milk resulted in lower AI and TI indexes than FO and CON milk. Linseed and fish oil administration can reduce humoral immunity of goats, but has no effect in their cellular immunity. Dietary linseed supplementation in grazing dairy goat supports feeding programs to improve milk composition and quality, and a modulation of their immune responses. PMID:27033938

  2. Modification of the Technical Properties of Lactobacillus johnsonii NCC 533 by Supplementing the Growth Medium with Unsaturated Fatty Acids

    PubMed Central

    Muller, J. A.; Ross, R. P.; Sybesma, W. F. H.; Fitzgerald, G. F.; Stanton, C.

    2011-01-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate the influence of supplementing growth medium with unsaturated fatty acids on the technical properties of the probiotic strain Lactobacillus johnsonii NCC 533, such as heat and acid tolerance, and inhibition of Salmonella enterica serovar Typhimurium infection. Our results showed that the membrane composition and morphology of L. johnsonii NCC 533 were significantly changed by supplementing a minimal Lactobacillus medium with oleic, linoleic, and linolenic acids. The ratio of saturated to unsaturated plus cyclic fatty acids in the bacterial membrane decreased by almost 2-fold when minimal medium was supplemented with unsaturated fatty acids (10 μg/ml). The subsequent acid and heat tolerance of L. johnsonii decreased by 6- and 20-fold when the strain was grown in the presence of linoleic and linolenic acids, respectively, compared with growth in oleic acid (all at 10 μg/ml). Following acid exposure, significantly higher (P < 0.05) oleic acid content was detected in the membrane when growth medium was supplemented with linoleic or linolenic acid, indicating that saturation of the membrane fatty acids occurred during acid stress. Cell integrity was determined in real time during stressed conditions using a fluorescent viability kit in combination with flow cytometric analysis. Following heat shock (at 62.5°C for 5 min), L. johnsonii was unable to form colonies; however, 60% of the bacteria showed no cell integrity loss, which could indicate that the elevated heat inactivated vital processes within the cell, rendering it incapable of replication. Furthermore, L. johnsonii grown in fatty acid-enriched minimal medium had different adhesion properties and caused a 2-fold decrease in S. enterica serovar Typhimurium UK1-lux invasion of HT-29 epithelial cells compared with bacteria grown in minimal medium alone. This could be related to changes in the hydrophobicity and fluidity of the membrane. Our study shows that technical

  3. The effect of supplementing rumen undegradable unsaturated fatty acids on marbling in early-weaned steers.

    PubMed

    Mangrum, K S; Tuttle, G; Duckett, S K; Sell, G S; Krehbiel, C R; Long, N M

    2016-02-01

    The objective of this study was to determine if supplementation with a rumen undegradable unsaturated fatty acids (FA) source improved marbling deposition in early-weaned steers. All steers (Angus, = 23; Angus × Hereford, = 24) were weaned at 150 ± 5 d of age. Steers were blocked by BW and breed and then randomly assigned to either control (CON; average 1.5 kg of corn gluten feed [CGF], = 23) or isocaloric supplementation containing a rumen undegradable fat source (RUF; 200 g of Megalac-R added to an average of 1.06 kg of CGF, = 24) offered 5 d/wk for 110 d. All steers had ad libitum access to pastures throughout treatment and received supplements individually. Steer BW and blood samples were collected at 0, 55, and 110 d of supplementation, and real-time ultrasound measurements were collected at d 110. Following treatment, steers were transported to Oklahoma State University for finishing and subsequent harvesting at a commercial plant. All data were analyzed using the PROC MIXED procedure of SAS either as repeated measures or ANOVA depending on parameters. There were no significant changes in BW from the beginning of treatment to harvest due to treatment. Ultrasound data showed that RUF steers tended ( = 0.08) to have more i.m. fat than CON at d 110. Serum concentrations of FA showed a treatment × day interaction ( < 0.02) for 16:0, 18:0, 18:1-9, 18:2, 20:4, and total FA. These specific FA concentrations slightly increased in CON steers, but there was a more pronounced increase in the concentration of these FA across the supplementation period in RUF steers. Serum triglyceride and cholesterol concentrations were increased ( < 0.01) on d 55 and 110 in RUF steers compared with those in CON steers. Serum leptin concentration in RUF steers was greater ( < 0.01) than