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Sample records for acid diammonium salt

  1. Comparison of antioxidant activities of different parts from snow chrysanthemum (Coreopsis tinctoria Nutt.) and identification of their natural antioxidants using high performance liquid chromatography coupled with diode array detection and mass spectrometry and 2,2'-azinobis(3-ethylbenzthiazoline-sulfonic acid)diammonium salt-based assay.

    PubMed

    Chen, L X; Hu, D J; Lam, S C; Ge, L; Wu, D; Zhao, J; Long, Z R; Yang, W J; Fan, B; Li, S P

    2016-01-01

    Snow chrysanthemum (Coreopsis tinctoria Nutt.), a world-widely well-known flower tea material, has attracted more and more attention because of its beneficial health effects such as antioxidant activity and special flavor. In this study, a high performance liquid chromatography coupled with diode array detection and mass spectrometry (HPLC-DAD-MS) and 2,2'-azinobis(3-ethylbenzthiazoline-sulfonic acid)diammonium salt (ABTS) based assay was employed for comparison and identification of antioxidants in different samples of snow chrysanthemum. The results showed that snow chrysanthemum flowers possessed the highest while stems presented the lowest antioxidant capacities. Fourteen detected peaks with antioxidant activity were temporarily identified as 3,4',5,6,7-pentahydroxyflavanone-O-hexoside, chlorogenic acid, 2R-3',4',8-trihydroxyflavanone-7-O-glucoside, flavanomarein, flavanocorepsin, flavanokanin, quercetagitin-7-O-glucoside, 3',5,5',7-tetrahydroxyflavanone-O-hexoside, marein, maritimein, 1,3-dicaffeoylquinic acid, coreopsin, okanin and acetyl-marein by comparing their UV spectra, retention times and MS data with standards or literature data. Antioxidants existed in snow chrysanthemum are quite different from those reported in Chrysanthemum morifolium, a well-known traditional beverage in China, which indicated that snow chrysanthemum may be a promising herbal tea material with obvious antioxidant activity. PMID:26521095

  2. Comparison of antioxidant activities of different parts from snow chrysanthemum (Coreopsis tinctoria Nutt.) and identification of their natural antioxidants using high performance liquid chromatography coupled with diode array detection and mass spectrometry and 2,2'-azinobis(3-ethylbenzthiazoline-sulfonic acid)diammonium salt-based assay.

    PubMed

    Chen, L X; Hu, D J; Lam, S C; Ge, L; Wu, D; Zhao, J; Long, Z R; Yang, W J; Fan, B; Li, S P

    2016-01-01

    Snow chrysanthemum (Coreopsis tinctoria Nutt.), a world-widely well-known flower tea material, has attracted more and more attention because of its beneficial health effects such as antioxidant activity and special flavor. In this study, a high performance liquid chromatography coupled with diode array detection and mass spectrometry (HPLC-DAD-MS) and 2,2'-azinobis(3-ethylbenzthiazoline-sulfonic acid)diammonium salt (ABTS) based assay was employed for comparison and identification of antioxidants in different samples of snow chrysanthemum. The results showed that snow chrysanthemum flowers possessed the highest while stems presented the lowest antioxidant capacities. Fourteen detected peaks with antioxidant activity were temporarily identified as 3,4',5,6,7-pentahydroxyflavanone-O-hexoside, chlorogenic acid, 2R-3',4',8-trihydroxyflavanone-7-O-glucoside, flavanomarein, flavanocorepsin, flavanokanin, quercetagitin-7-O-glucoside, 3',5,5',7-tetrahydroxyflavanone-O-hexoside, marein, maritimein, 1,3-dicaffeoylquinic acid, coreopsin, okanin and acetyl-marein by comparing their UV spectra, retention times and MS data with standards or literature data. Antioxidants existed in snow chrysanthemum are quite different from those reported in Chrysanthemum morifolium, a well-known traditional beverage in China, which indicated that snow chrysanthemum may be a promising herbal tea material with obvious antioxidant activity.

  3. Process for producing granular diammonium phosphate

    SciTech Connect

    Fairchild, W.D.

    1988-05-17

    A process for the production of solid granular diammonium phosphate is described comprising: reacting anhydrous ammonia with phosphoric acid in a reactor to form a partially reacted slurry of monoammonium phosphate and diammonium phosphate; pumping the slurry to a granulator-reactor and further reacting the slurry with anhydrous ammonia to form a solid granular diammonium phosphate mixture having a particle range size consisting of undersize, oversize and product; drying the solid granular diammonium phosphate mixture in a dryer; dividing the dried solid granular diammonium phosphate mixture being discharged from the dryer into a first portion and a second portion; diverting and feeding the first portion of the dried granular diammonium phosphate mixture back to the granulator-reactor; feeding the second portion of dried granular diammonium phosphate mixture to a classifying means consisting of a set of screens including an oversize screen and a product screen set to a narrow size separation to separate the mixture of the solid granular diammonium phosphate into undersize, oversize and product solid granular diammonium phosphate; milling the oversize granular diammonium phosphate; recycling to the granular-reactor the milled oversized granular diammonium phosphate and the undersized granular particles obtained during the classifying of the solid granular diammonium phosphate mixture; and collecting the desired product granular particle thereby enhancing the production of a narrow range of granular diammonium phosphate particle size distribution within a broad range of particle size distribution.

  4. Effect of impurities in wet-process phosphoric acids on DAP grades. [Diammonium phosphate

    SciTech Connect

    Achorn, F.P.; Dillard, E.F.; Frazier, A.W.; Salladay, D.G.

    1980-11-01

    Results of this study identify the main problems in meeting diammonium phosphate (DAP) grade specifications and suggest some possible solutions to these problems as follows: 1. The major source of grade deficiency in the commercial samples which were investigated was calcium. Some solutions to this problem are to maintain filter cloths in the phosphoric acid unit in good condition, operate the phosphoric acid unit at as low an acid temperature as consistent with good operation of this unit, and partially clarify the acid before it is used. 2. In the DAP unit the amount of Fe/sub 2/O/sub 3/ and F in the acid affects the content of C.I. P/sub 2/O/sub 5/ in the product. If the F:Fe/sub 2/O/sub 3/ wt ratio in the product can be kept above 2.3:1, probably the C.I.-P/sub 2/O/sub 5/ content of the product will be less than 0.1 percent. At lower F:Fe/sub 2/O/sub 3/ wt ratios, it is advantageous to have low retention times in the preneutralizer and ammoniator-granulator when the N:P mole ratio is 1.4:1 or higher. 3. Other data show that the N:P mole ratio in the slurry from the preneutralizer to the granulator must be above 1.4:1 to avoid nitrogen deficiencies. At lower ratios the product will contain some MAP; this causes nitrogen deficiency in the products. 4. The Mg and Al contents of the acids have less effect on grade deficiency than Ca and Fe. 5. To avoid highly viscous preneutralizer slurries when low preneutralizer retention times are used, ensure that there is sufficient F available (F:Fe/sub 2/O/sub 3/ wt ratio > 2.0:1) to combine with the Fe/sub 2/O/sub 3/ to form coarse crystals. An alternative to this latter suggestion is to replace the preneutralizer with a TVA pipe reactor which is partially installed in the granulator and discharges viscous slurry directly onto the bed of material in the granulator.

  5. Hydroxycarboxylic acids and salts

    DOEpatents

    Kiely, Donald E; Hash, Kirk R; Kramer-Presta, Kylie; Smith, Tyler N

    2015-02-24

    Compositions which inhibit corrosion and alter the physical properties of concrete (admixtures) are prepared from salt mixtures of hydroxycarboxylic acids, carboxylic acids, and nitric acid. The salt mixtures are prepared by neutralizing acid product mixtures from the oxidation of polyols using nitric acid and oxygen as the oxidizing agents. Nitric acid is removed from the hydroxycarboxylic acids by evaporation and diffusion dialysis.

  6. Optimizing available phosphorus in calcareous soils fertilized with diammonium phosphate and phosphoric acid using Freundlich adsorption isotherm.

    PubMed

    Naeem, Asif; Akhtar, Muhammad; Ahmad, Waqar

    2013-01-01

    In calcareous soils, phosphorus (P) retention and immobilization take place due to precipitation and adsorption. Since soil pH is considered a major soil variable affecting the P sorption, an acidic P fertilizer could result in low P adsorption compared to alkaline one. Therefore, P adsorption from DAP and phosphoric acid (PA) required to produce desired soil solution P concentration was estimated using Freundlich sorption isotherms. Two soils from Faisalabad and T. T. Singh districts were spiked with 0, 10, and 20 % CaCO3 for 15 days. Freundlich adsorption isotherms (P = aC(b/a)) were constructed, and theoretical doses of PA and DAP to develop a desired soil solution P level (i.e., 0.20 mg L(-1)) were calculated. It was observed that P adsorption in soil increased with CaCO3. Moreover, at all the levels of CaCO3, P adsorption from PA was lower compared to that from DAP in both the soils. Consequently, lesser quantity of PA was required to produce desired solution P, 0.2 mg L(-1), compared to DAP. However, extrapolating the developed relationship between soil CaCO3 contents and quantity of fertilizer to other similar textured soils needs confirmation. PMID:24307878

  7. Safety Assessment of Citric Acid, Inorganic Citrate Salts, and Alkyl Citrate Esters as Used in Cosmetics.

    PubMed

    Fiume, Monice M; Heldreth, Bart A; Bergfeld, Wilma F; Belsito, Donald V; Hill, Ronald A; Klaassen, Curtis D; Liebler, Daniel C; Marks, James G; Shank, Ronald C; Slaga, Thomas J; Snyder, Paul W; Andersen, F Alan

    2014-05-26

    The CIR Expert Panel (Panel) assessed the safety of citric acid, 12 inorganic citrate salts, and 20 alkyl citrate esters as used in cosmetics, concluding that these ingredients are safe in the present practices of use and concentration. Citric acid is reported to function as a pH adjuster, chelating agent, or fragrance ingredient. Some of the salts are also reported to function as chelating agents, and a number of the citrates are reported to function as skin-conditioning agents but other functions are also reported. The Panel reviewed available animal and clinical data, but because citric acid, calcium citrate, ferric citrate, manganese citrate, potassium citrate, sodium citrate, diammonium citrate, isopropyl citrate, stearyl citrate, and triethyl citrate are generally recognized as safe direct food additives, dermal exposure was the focus for these ingredients in this cosmetic ingredient safety assessment.

  8. Diammonium phosphate stimulates transcription of L-lactate dehydrogenase leading to increased L-lactate production in the thermotolerant Bacillus coagulans strain.

    PubMed

    Sun, Lifan; Li, Yanfeng; Wang, Limin; Wang, Yanping; Yu, Bo

    2016-08-01

    Exploration of cost-effective fermentation substrates for efficient lactate production is an important economic objective. Although some organic nitrogen sources are also cheaper, inorganic nitrogen salts for lactate fermentation have additional advantages in facilitating downstream procedures and significantly improving the commercial competitiveness of lactate production. In this study, we first established an application of diammonium phosphate to replace yeast extract with a reduced 90 % nitrogen cost for a thermotolerant Bacillus coagulans strain. In vivo enzymatic and transcriptional analyses demonstrated that diammonium phosphate stimulates the gene expression of L-lactate dehydrogenase, thus providing higher specific enzyme activity in vivo and increasing L-lactic acid production. This new information provides a foundation for establishing a cost-effective process for polymer-grade L-lactic acid production in an industrial setting. PMID:26883345

  9. Supplementation of medium with diammonium hydrogen phosphate enhanced the D-lactate dehydrogenase levels leading to increased D-lactic acid productivity.

    PubMed

    Singhvi, Mamata; Jadhav, Akanksha; Gokhale, Digambar

    2013-10-01

    The production of D-lactic acid by Lactobacillus lactis RM2-24 was investigated using modified media to increase the efficiency of the fermentation process. The results indicated that the addition of 5 g/l peptone and 1 g/l (NH4)2HPO4 enhanced D-lactic acid production by 32%, as compared to that obtained from non supplemented media, with a productivity of 3.0 g/l/h. Lactate dehydrogenase (LDH) expression profile in these different media was studied which resulted in appearance of additional LDH isoform produced by cells when they were grown in HSYE supplemented with (NH4)2HPO4. The additional LDH appears to be L-LDH contributing to production of L-lactic acid in the fermented broth. This is totally new information in the lactic acid fermentation and could be very useful to industries engaged in D-lactic acid production. PMID:23932744

  10. Supplementation of medium with diammonium hydrogen phosphate enhanced the D-lactate dehydrogenase levels leading to increased D-lactic acid productivity.

    PubMed

    Singhvi, Mamata; Jadhav, Akanksha; Gokhale, Digambar

    2013-10-01

    The production of D-lactic acid by Lactobacillus lactis RM2-24 was investigated using modified media to increase the efficiency of the fermentation process. The results indicated that the addition of 5 g/l peptone and 1 g/l (NH4)2HPO4 enhanced D-lactic acid production by 32%, as compared to that obtained from non supplemented media, with a productivity of 3.0 g/l/h. Lactate dehydrogenase (LDH) expression profile in these different media was studied which resulted in appearance of additional LDH isoform produced by cells when they were grown in HSYE supplemented with (NH4)2HPO4. The additional LDH appears to be L-LDH contributing to production of L-lactic acid in the fermented broth. This is totally new information in the lactic acid fermentation and could be very useful to industries engaged in D-lactic acid production.

  11. 21 CFR 573.914 - Salts of volatile fatty acids.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Salts of volatile fatty acids. 573.914 Section 573... Food Additive Listing § 573.914 Salts of volatile fatty acids. (a) Identity. The food additive is a blend containing the ammonium or calcium salt of isobutyric acid and the ammonium or calcium salts of...

  12. 21 CFR 573.914 - Salts of volatile fatty acids.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Salts of volatile fatty acids. 573.914 Section 573... Food Additive Listing § 573.914 Salts of volatile fatty acids. (a) Identity. The food additive is a blend containing the ammonium or calcium salt of isobutyric acid and the ammonium or calcium salts of...

  13. 21 CFR 573.914 - Salts of volatile fatty acids.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Salts of volatile fatty acids. 573.914 Section 573... Food Additive Listing § 573.914 Salts of volatile fatty acids. (a) Identity. The food additive is a blend containing the ammonium or calcium salt of isobutyric acid and the ammonium or calcium salts of...

  14. Synthesis of acid addition salt of delta-aminolevulinic acid from 5-bromo levulinic acid esters

    DOEpatents

    Moens, Luc

    2003-06-24

    A process of preparing an acid addition salt of delta-aminolevulinc acid comprising: a) dissolving a lower alkyl 5-bromolevulinate and hexamethylenetetramine in a solvent selected from the group consisting of water, ethyl acetate, chloroform, acetone, ethanol, tetrahydrofuran and acetonitrile, to form a quaternary ammonium salt of the lower alkyl 5-bromolevulinate; and b) hydrolyzing the quaternary ammonium salt with an inorganic acid to form an acid addition salt of delta-aminolevulinic acid.

  15. 21 CFR 172.863 - Salts of fatty acids.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Salts of fatty acids. 172.863 Section 172.863 Food... Multipurpose Additives § 172.863 Salts of fatty acids. The food additive salts of fatty acids may be safely..., magnesium, potassium, and sodium salts of the fatty acids conforming with § 172.860 and/or oleic...

  16. 21 CFR 172.863 - Salts of fatty acids.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Salts of fatty acids. 172.863 Section 172.863 Food... Multipurpose Additives § 172.863 Salts of fatty acids. The food additive salts of fatty acids may be safely..., magnesium, potassium, and sodium salts of the fatty acids conforming with § 172.860 and/or oleic...

  17. 21 CFR 172.863 - Salts of fatty acids.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2010-04-01 2009-04-01 true Salts of fatty acids. 172.863 Section 172.863 Food... Multipurpose Additives § 172.863 Salts of fatty acids. The food additive salts of fatty acids may be safely..., magnesium, potassium, and sodium salts of the fatty acids conforming with § 172.860 and/or oleic...

  18. 21 CFR 172.863 - Salts of fatty acids.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Salts of fatty acids. 172.863 Section 172.863 Food... Multipurpose Additives § 172.863 Salts of fatty acids. The food additive salts of fatty acids may be safely..., magnesium, potassium, and sodium salts of the fatty acids conforming with § 172.860 and/or oleic...

  19. 40 CFR 721.9630 - Polyfluorosulfonic acid salt.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 32 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Polyfluorosulfonic acid salt. 721.9630... Substances § 721.9630 Polyfluorosulfonic acid salt. (a) Chemical substance and significant new uses subject to reporting. (1) The chemical substance identified generically as polyfluorosulfonic acid salt...

  20. Production of carboxylic acid and salt co-products

    SciTech Connect

    Hanchar, Robert J.; Kleff, Susanne; Guettler, Michael V.

    2014-09-09

    This invention provide processes for producing carboxylic acid product, along with useful salts. The carboxylic acid product that is produced according to this invention is preferably a C.sub.2-C.sub.12 carboxylic acid. Among the salts produced in the process of the invention are ammonium salts.

  1. 40 CFR 721.9630 - Polyfluorosulfonic acid salt.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 31 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Polyfluorosulfonic acid salt. 721.9630... Substances § 721.9630 Polyfluorosulfonic acid salt. (a) Chemical substance and significant new uses subject to reporting. (1) The chemical substance identified generically as polyfluorosulfonic acid salt...

  2. 40 CFR 721.1930 - Butanoic acid, antimony (3=) salt.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 31 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Butanoic acid, antimony (3=) salt. 721... Substances § 721.1930 Butanoic acid, antimony (3=) salt. (a) Chemical substance and significant new uses subject to reporting. (1) The chemical substance identified as butanoic acid, antimony (3=) salt (PMN...

  3. 40 CFR 721.1930 - Butanoic acid, antimony (3=) salt.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 32 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Butanoic acid, antimony (3=) salt. 721... Substances § 721.1930 Butanoic acid, antimony (3=) salt. (a) Chemical substance and significant new uses subject to reporting. (1) The chemical substance identified as butanoic acid, antimony (3=) salt (PMN...

  4. 40 CFR 721.9630 - Polyfluorosulfonic acid salt.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 32 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Polyfluorosulfonic acid salt. 721.9630... Substances § 721.9630 Polyfluorosulfonic acid salt. (a) Chemical substance and significant new uses subject to reporting. (1) The chemical substance identified generically as polyfluorosulfonic acid salt...

  5. 40 CFR 721.1930 - Butanoic acid, antimony (3=) salt.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 30 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Butanoic acid, antimony (3=) salt. 721... Substances § 721.1930 Butanoic acid, antimony (3=) salt. (a) Chemical substance and significant new uses subject to reporting. (1) The chemical substance identified as butanoic acid, antimony (3=) salt (PMN...

  6. 40 CFR 721.1930 - Butanoic acid, antimony (3=) salt.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 32 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Butanoic acid, antimony (3=) salt. 721... Substances § 721.1930 Butanoic acid, antimony (3=) salt. (a) Chemical substance and significant new uses subject to reporting. (1) The chemical substance identified as butanoic acid, antimony (3=) salt (PMN...

  7. 40 CFR 721.9630 - Polyfluorosulfonic acid salt.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 31 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Polyfluorosulfonic acid salt. 721.9630... Substances § 721.9630 Polyfluorosulfonic acid salt. (a) Chemical substance and significant new uses subject to reporting. (1) The chemical substance identified generically as polyfluorosulfonic acid salt...

  8. 40 CFR 721.9630 - Polyfluorosulfonic acid salt.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 30 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Polyfluorosulfonic acid salt. 721.9630... Substances § 721.9630 Polyfluorosulfonic acid salt. (a) Chemical substance and significant new uses subject to reporting. (1) The chemical substance identified generically as polyfluorosulfonic acid salt...

  9. 40 CFR 721.1930 - Butanoic acid, antimony (3=) salt.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 31 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Butanoic acid, antimony (3=) salt. 721... Substances § 721.1930 Butanoic acid, antimony (3=) salt. (a) Chemical substance and significant new uses subject to reporting. (1) The chemical substance identified as butanoic acid, antimony (3=) salt (PMN...

  10. 21 CFR 172.863 - Salts of fatty acids.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Salts of fatty acids. 172.863 Section 172.863 Food... of fatty acids. The food additive salts of fatty acids may be safely used in food and in the... salts of the fatty acids conforming with § 172.860 and/or oleic acid derived from tall oil fatty...

  11. 40 CFR 721.7375 - Potassium salt of polyolefin acid.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 30 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Potassium salt of polyolefin acid. 721... Substances § 721.7375 Potassium salt of polyolefin acid. (a) Chemical substance and significant new uses subject to reporting. (1) The chemical substance identified generically as a potassium salt of...

  12. 40 CFR 721.1650 - Alkylbenzenesulfonic acid and sodium salts.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... salts. 721.1650 Section 721.1650 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED... Specific Chemical Substances § 721.1650 Alkylbenzenesulfonic acid and sodium salts. (a) Chemical substances... alkyl benzenesulfonic acid and sodium salts (PMNs P-88-1783, P-88-2231, P-88-2237, and P-88-2530)...

  13. 40 CFR 721.7375 - Potassium salt of polyolefin acid.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 31 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Potassium salt of polyolefin acid. 721... Substances § 721.7375 Potassium salt of polyolefin acid. (a) Chemical substance and significant new uses subject to reporting. (1) The chemical substance identified generically as a potassium salt of...

  14. 40 CFR 721.6140 - Dialkyldithiophosphoric acid, aliphatic amine salt.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ..., aliphatic amine salt. 721.6140 Section 721.6140 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY... Specific Chemical Substances § 721.6140 Dialkyldithiophosphoric acid, aliphatic amine salt. (a) Chemical... as a dialkyldithiophosphoric acid, aliphatic amine salt (P-90-1839) is subject to reporting...

  15. 40 CFR 721.9650 - Tetramethylammonium salts of alkylbenzenesulfonic acid.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 31 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Tetramethylammonium salts of... Specific Chemical Substances § 721.9650 Tetramethylammonium salts of alkylbenzenesulfonic acid. (a... generically as tetramethylammonium salts of alkylbenzenesulfonic acid (PMN P-92-1364) is subject to...

  16. 40 CFR 721.5278 - Substituted naphthalenesulfonic acid, alkali salt.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ..., alkali salt. 721.5278 Section 721.5278 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY... Specific Chemical Substances § 721.5278 Substituted naphthalenesulfonic acid, alkali salt. (a) Chemical... as a substituted naphthalenesulfonic acid, alkali salt (PMN P-95-85) is subject to reporting...

  17. 40 CFR 721.9650 - Tetramethylammonium salts of alkylbenzenesulfonic acid.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 32 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Tetramethylammonium salts of... Specific Chemical Substances § 721.9650 Tetramethylammonium salts of alkylbenzenesulfonic acid. (a... generically as tetramethylammonium salts of alkylbenzenesulfonic acid (PMN P-92-1364) is subject to...

  18. 40 CFR 721.1650 - Alkylbenzenesulfonic acid and sodium salts.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... salts. 721.1650 Section 721.1650 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED... Specific Chemical Substances § 721.1650 Alkylbenzenesulfonic acid and sodium salts. (a) Chemical substances... alkyl benzenesulfonic acid and sodium salts (PMNs P-88-1783, P-88-2231, P-88-2237, and P-88-2530)...

  19. 40 CFR 721.5278 - Substituted naphthalenesulfonic acid, alkali salt.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ..., alkali salt. 721.5278 Section 721.5278 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY... Specific Chemical Substances § 721.5278 Substituted naphthalenesulfonic acid, alkali salt. (a) Chemical... as a substituted naphthalenesulfonic acid, alkali salt (PMN P-95-85) is subject to reporting...

  20. 40 CFR 721.3629 - Triethanolamine salts of fatty acids.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 30 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Triethanolamine salts of fatty acids... Substances § 721.3629 Triethanolamine salts of fatty acids. (a) Chemical substances and significant new uses subject to reporting. (1) The chemical substances identified generically as triethanolamine salts of...

  1. 40 CFR 721.3629 - Triethanolamine salts of fatty acids.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 32 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Triethanolamine salts of fatty acids... Substances § 721.3629 Triethanolamine salts of fatty acids. (a) Chemical substances and significant new uses subject to reporting. (1) The chemical substances identified generically as triethanolamine salts of...

  2. 40 CFR 721.3629 - Triethanolamine salts of fatty acids.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 31 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Triethanolamine salts of fatty acids... Substances § 721.3629 Triethanolamine salts of fatty acids. (a) Chemical substances and significant new uses subject to reporting. (1) The chemical substances identified generically as triethanolamine salts of...

  3. 40 CFR 721.3629 - Triethanolamine salts of fatty acids.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 31 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Triethanolamine salts of fatty acids... Substances § 721.3629 Triethanolamine salts of fatty acids. (a) Chemical substances and significant new uses subject to reporting. (1) The chemical substances identified generically as triethanolamine salts of...

  4. 40 CFR 721.9650 - Tetramethylammonium salts of alkylbenzenesulfonic acid.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 30 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Tetramethylammonium salts of... Specific Chemical Substances § 721.9650 Tetramethylammonium salts of alkylbenzenesulfonic acid. (a... generically as tetramethylammonium salts of alkylbenzenesulfonic acid (PMN P-92-1364) is subject to...

  5. 40 CFR 721.6140 - Dialkyldithiophosphoric acid, aliphatic amine salt.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ..., aliphatic amine salt. 721.6140 Section 721.6140 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY... Specific Chemical Substances § 721.6140 Dialkyldithiophosphoric acid, aliphatic amine salt. (a) Chemical... as a dialkyldithiophosphoric acid, aliphatic amine salt (P-90-1839) is subject to reporting...

  6. 40 CFR 721.5278 - Substituted naphthalenesulfonic acid, alkali salt.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ..., alkali salt. 721.5278 Section 721.5278 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY... Specific Chemical Substances § 721.5278 Substituted naphthalenesulfonic acid, alkali salt. (a) Chemical... as a substituted naphthalenesulfonic acid, alkali salt (PMN P-95-85) is subject to reporting...

  7. 40 CFR 721.7375 - Potassium salt of polyolefin acid.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 31 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Potassium salt of polyolefin acid. 721... Substances § 721.7375 Potassium salt of polyolefin acid. (a) Chemical substance and significant new uses subject to reporting. (1) The chemical substance identified generically as a potassium salt of...

  8. 40 CFR 721.3629 - Triethanolamine salts of fatty acids.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 32 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Triethanolamine salts of fatty acids... Substances § 721.3629 Triethanolamine salts of fatty acids. (a) Chemical substances and significant new uses subject to reporting. (1) The chemical substances identified generically as triethanolamine salts of...

  9. 40 CFR 721.1650 - Alkylbenzenesulfonic acid and sodium salts.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... salts. 721.1650 Section 721.1650 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED... Specific Chemical Substances § 721.1650 Alkylbenzenesulfonic acid and sodium salts. (a) Chemical substances... alkyl benzenesulfonic acid and sodium salts (PMNs P-88-1783, P-88-2231, P-88-2237, and P-88-2530)...

  10. 40 CFR 721.5278 - Substituted naphthalenesulfonic acid, alkali salt.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ..., alkali salt. 721.5278 Section 721.5278 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY... Specific Chemical Substances § 721.5278 Substituted naphthalenesulfonic acid, alkali salt. (a) Chemical... as a substituted naphthalenesulfonic acid, alkali salt (PMN P-95-85) is subject to reporting...

  11. 40 CFR 721.1650 - Alkylbenzenesulfonic acid and sodium salts.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... salts. 721.1650 Section 721.1650 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED... Specific Chemical Substances § 721.1650 Alkylbenzenesulfonic acid and sodium salts. (a) Chemical substances... alkyl benzenesulfonic acid and sodium salts (PMNs P-88-1783, P-88-2231, P-88-2237, and P-88-2530)...

  12. 40 CFR 721.5278 - Substituted naphthalenesulfonic acid, alkali salt.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ..., alkali salt. 721.5278 Section 721.5278 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY... Specific Chemical Substances § 721.5278 Substituted naphthalenesulfonic acid, alkali salt. (a) Chemical... as a substituted naphthalenesulfonic acid, alkali salt (PMN P-95-85) is subject to reporting...

  13. 40 CFR 721.6140 - Dialkyldithiophosphoric acid, aliphatic amine salt.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ..., aliphatic amine salt. 721.6140 Section 721.6140 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY... Specific Chemical Substances § 721.6140 Dialkyldithiophosphoric acid, aliphatic amine salt. (a) Chemical... as a dialkyldithiophosphoric acid, aliphatic amine salt (P-90-1839) is subject to reporting...

  14. 40 CFR 721.6140 - Dialkyldithiophosphoric acid, aliphatic amine salt.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ..., aliphatic amine salt. 721.6140 Section 721.6140 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY... Specific Chemical Substances § 721.6140 Dialkyldithiophosphoric acid, aliphatic amine salt. (a) Chemical... as a dialkyldithiophosphoric acid, aliphatic amine salt (P-90-1839) is subject to reporting...

  15. 40 CFR 721.9650 - Tetramethylammonium salts of alkylbenzenesulfonic acid.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 31 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Tetramethylammonium salts of... Specific Chemical Substances § 721.9650 Tetramethylammonium salts of alkylbenzenesulfonic acid. (a... generically as tetramethylammonium salts of alkylbenzenesulfonic acid (PMN P-92-1364) is subject to...

  16. 40 CFR 721.7375 - Potassium salt of polyolefin acid.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 32 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Potassium salt of polyolefin acid. 721... Substances § 721.7375 Potassium salt of polyolefin acid. (a) Chemical substance and significant new uses subject to reporting. (1) The chemical substance identified generically as a potassium salt of...

  17. 40 CFR 721.6140 - Dialkyldithiophosphoric acid, aliphatic amine salt.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ..., aliphatic amine salt. 721.6140 Section 721.6140 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY... Specific Chemical Substances § 721.6140 Dialkyldithiophosphoric acid, aliphatic amine salt. (a) Chemical... as a dialkyldithiophosphoric acid, aliphatic amine salt (P-90-1839) is subject to reporting...

  18. 40 CFR 721.1650 - Alkylbenzenesulfonic acid and sodium salts.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... salts. 721.1650 Section 721.1650 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED... Specific Chemical Substances § 721.1650 Alkylbenzenesulfonic acid and sodium salts. (a) Chemical substances... alkyl benzenesulfonic acid and sodium salts (PMNs P-88-1783, P-88-2231, P-88-2237, and P-88-2530)...

  19. 40 CFR 721.9650 - Tetramethylammonium salts of alkylbenzenesulfonic acid.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 32 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Tetramethylammonium salts of... Specific Chemical Substances § 721.9650 Tetramethylammonium salts of alkylbenzenesulfonic acid. (a... generically as tetramethylammonium salts of alkylbenzenesulfonic acid (PMN P-92-1364) is subject to...

  20. 40 CFR 721.7375 - Potassium salt of polyolefin acid.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 32 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Potassium salt of polyolefin acid. 721... Substances § 721.7375 Potassium salt of polyolefin acid. (a) Chemical substance and significant new uses subject to reporting. (1) The chemical substance identified generically as a potassium salt of...

  1. 40 CFR 721.2270 - Aliphatic dicarboxylic acid salt.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 30 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Aliphatic dicarboxylic acid salt. 721... Substances § 721.2270 Aliphatic dicarboxylic acid salt. (a) Chemical substance and significant new uses... salt (PMN P-92-1352) is subject to reporting under this section for the significant new uses...

  2. 21 CFR 172.350 - Fumaric acid and salts of fumaric acid.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Fumaric acid and salts of fumaric acid. 172.350... HUMAN CONSUMPTION Special Dietary and Nutritional Additives § 172.350 Fumaric acid and salts of fumaric acid. Fumaric acid and its calcium, ferrous, magnesium, potassium, and sodium salts may be safely...

  3. 21 CFR 172.350 - Fumaric acid and salts of fumaric acid.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Fumaric acid and salts of fumaric acid. 172.350... HUMAN CONSUMPTION Special Dietary and Nutritional Additives § 172.350 Fumaric acid and salts of fumaric acid. Fumaric acid and its calcium, ferrous, magnesium, potassium, and sodium salts may be safely...

  4. 21 CFR 172.350 - Fumaric acid and salts of fumaric acid.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Fumaric acid and salts of fumaric acid. 172.350... HUMAN CONSUMPTION Special Dietary and Nutritional Additives § 172.350 Fumaric acid and salts of fumaric acid. Fumaric acid and its calcium, ferrous, magnesium, potassium, and sodium salts may be safely...

  5. Salt and cocrystals of sildenafil with dicarboxylic acids: solubility and pharmacokinetic advantage of the glutarate salt.

    PubMed

    Sanphui, Palash; Tothadi, Srinu; Ganguly, Somnath; Desiraju, Gautam R

    2013-12-01

    Sildenafil is a drug used to treat erectile dysfunction and pulmonary arterial hypertension. Because of poor aqueous solubility of the drug, the citrate salt, with improved solubility and pharmacokinetics, has been marketed. However, the citrate salt requires an hour to reach its peak plasma concentration. Thus, to improve solubility and bioavailability characteristics, cocrystals and salts of the drug have been prepared by treating aliphatic dicarboxylic acids with sildenafil; the N-methylated piperazine of the drug molecule interacts with the carboxyl group of the acid to form a heterosynthon. Salts are formed with oxalic and fumaric acid; salt monoanions are formed with succinic and glutaric acid. Sildenafil forms cocrystals with longer chain dicarboxylic acids such as adipic, pimelic, suberic, and sebacic acids. Auxiliary stabilization via C-H···O interactions is also present in these cocrystals and salts. Solubility experiments of sildenafil cocrystal/salts were carried out in 0.1N HCl aqueous medium and compared with the solubility of the citrate salt. The glutarate salt and pimelic acid cocrystal dissolve faster than the citrate salt in a two hour dissolution experiment. The glutarate salt exhibits improved solubility (3.2-fold) compared to the citrate salt in water. Solubilities of the binary salts follow an inverse correlation with their melting points, while the solubilities of the cocrystals follow solubilities of the coformer. Pharmacokinetic studies on rats showed that the glutarate salt exhibits doubled plasma AUC values in a single dose within an hour compared to the citrate salt. The high solubility of glutaric acid, in part originating from the strained conformation of the molecule and its high permeability, may be the reason for higher plasma levels of the drug.

  6. 21 CFR 172.350 - Fumaric acid and salts of fumaric acid.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Fumaric acid and salts of fumaric acid. 172.350... Nutritional Additives § 172.350 Fumaric acid and salts of fumaric acid. Fumaric acid and its calcium, ferrous... prescribed conditions: (a) The additives meet the following specifications: (1) Fumaric acid contains...

  7. 40 CFR 721.2270 - Aliphatic dicarboxylic acid salt.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 32 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Aliphatic dicarboxylic acid salt. 721... Substances § 721.2270 Aliphatic dicarboxylic acid salt. (a) Chemical substance and significant new uses subject to reporting. (1) The chemical substance identified generically as aliphatic dicarboxylic...

  8. 40 CFR 721.2270 - Aliphatic dicarboxylic acid salt.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 32 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Aliphatic dicarboxylic acid salt. 721... Substances § 721.2270 Aliphatic dicarboxylic acid salt. (a) Chemical substance and significant new uses subject to reporting. (1) The chemical substance identified generically as aliphatic dicarboxylic...

  9. 40 CFR 721.2270 - Aliphatic dicarboxylic acid salt.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 31 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Aliphatic dicarboxylic acid salt. 721... Substances § 721.2270 Aliphatic dicarboxylic acid salt. (a) Chemical substance and significant new uses subject to reporting. (1) The chemical substance identified generically as aliphatic dicarboxylic...

  10. 40 CFR 721.2270 - Aliphatic dicarboxylic acid salt.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 31 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Aliphatic dicarboxylic acid salt. 721... Substances § 721.2270 Aliphatic dicarboxylic acid salt. (a) Chemical substance and significant new uses subject to reporting. (1) The chemical substance identified generically as aliphatic dicarboxylic...

  11. 40 CFR 721.1648 - Substituted benzenesulfonic acid salt (generic).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 31 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Substituted benzenesulfonic acid salt (generic). 721.1648 Section 721.1648 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED... Specific Chemical Substances § 721.1648 Substituted benzenesulfonic acid salt (generic). (a)...

  12. 40 CFR 721.1648 - Substituted benzenesulfonic acid salt (generic).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 32 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Substituted benzenesulfonic acid salt (generic). 721.1648 Section 721.1648 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED... Specific Chemical Substances § 721.1648 Substituted benzenesulfonic acid salt (generic). (a)...

  13. 40 CFR 721.1648 - Substituted benzenesulfonic acid salt (generic).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 31 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Substituted benzenesulfonic acid salt (generic). 721.1648 Section 721.1648 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED... Specific Chemical Substances § 721.1648 Substituted benzenesulfonic acid salt (generic). (a)...

  14. 40 CFR 721.1648 - Substituted benzenesulfonic acid salt (generic).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 30 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Substituted benzenesulfonic acid salt (generic). 721.1648 Section 721.1648 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED... Specific Chemical Substances § 721.1648 Substituted benzenesulfonic acid salt (generic). (a)...

  15. 40 CFR 721.1648 - Substituted benzenesulfonic acid salt (generic).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 32 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Substituted benzenesulfonic acid salt (generic). 721.1648 Section 721.1648 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED... Specific Chemical Substances § 721.1648 Substituted benzenesulfonic acid salt (generic). (a)...

  16. Effects of diammonium glycyrrhizinate on random skin flap survival in rats: An experimental study

    PubMed Central

    Lv, Qing-Bo; Gao, Xiang; Lin, Ding-Sheng; Chen, Yun; Cao, Bin; Zhou, Kai-Liang

    2016-01-01

    Partial necrosis of skin flaps continues to restrict the survival of local skin flaps following plastic and reconstructive surgeries. The aim of the present study was to investigate the effects of diammonium glycyrrhizinate (DG), a salt of glycyrrhetinic acid that has been widely used in the therapy of chronic hepatitis and human immunodeficiency virus infection, on random skin flap survival in rats. McFarlane flaps were established in 60 male Sprague-Dawley rats randomly divided into three groups. Group I served as the control group and was injected with saline (10 mg/kg) once per day. Group II and group III were the experimental groups, and were injected with 10 mg/kg DG once and twice per day, respectively. On day 7, the survival area of the flap was measured. Tissue samples were stained with hematoxylin and eosin and immunohistochemically evaluated. Tissue edema, neutrophil density, superoxide dismutase (SOD) activity and malondialdehyde (MDA) levels were evaluated. The mean survival areas of the flaps of group II were significantly larger when compared with those of group I (P<0.05), and the rats of group III exhibited significantly higher survival areas than group II (P<0.05). Histologic and immunohistochemical evaluation showed that microvessel development and the expression level of vascular endothelial growth factor were higher in the two experimental groups than in the control group. Furthermore, SOD activity was significantly increased (P<0.05), while the neutrophil density and MDA level were significantly reduced (P<0.05) in group II when compared with group I. Significant differences between group II and group III with regard to SOD activity and MDA level were also observed (P<0.05). Thus, DG may have a dose-dependent effect on promoting the survival of random skin flaps. PMID:27588181

  17. 40 CFR 721.6200 - Fatty acid polyamine condensate, phosphoric acid ester salts.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ..., phosphoric acid ester salts. 721.6200 Section 721.6200 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION... ester salts. (a) Chemical substances and significant new uses subject to reporting. (1) The chemical substances identified as fatty acid polyamine condensate, phosphate ester salts (PMNs P-90-1984 and...

  18. 40 CFR 721.3620 - Fatty acid amine condensate, polycarboxylic acid salts.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 31 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Fatty acid amine condensate, polycarboxylic acid salts. 721.3620 Section 721.3620 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY... Specific Chemical Substances § 721.3620 Fatty acid amine condensate, polycarboxylic acid salts....

  19. 40 CFR 721.3620 - Fatty acid amine condensate, polycarboxylic acid salts.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 31 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Fatty acid amine condensate, polycarboxylic acid salts. 721.3620 Section 721.3620 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY... Specific Chemical Substances § 721.3620 Fatty acid amine condensate, polycarboxylic acid salts....

  20. 40 CFR 721.3620 - Fatty acid amine condensate, polycarboxylic acid salts.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 32 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Fatty acid amine condensate, polycarboxylic acid salts. 721.3620 Section 721.3620 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY... Specific Chemical Substances § 721.3620 Fatty acid amine condensate, polycarboxylic acid salts....

  1. 40 CFR 721.2086 - Coco acid triamine condensate, polycarboxylic acid salts.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 30 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Coco acid triamine condensate, polycarboxylic acid salts. 721.2086 Section 721.2086 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY... Specific Chemical Substances § 721.2086 Coco acid triamine condensate, polycarboxylic acid salts....

  2. 40 CFR 721.2086 - Coco acid triamine condensate, polycarboxylic acid salts.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 31 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Coco acid triamine condensate, polycarboxylic acid salts. 721.2086 Section 721.2086 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY... Specific Chemical Substances § 721.2086 Coco acid triamine condensate, polycarboxylic acid salts....

  3. 40 CFR 721.2086 - Coco acid triamine condensate, polycarboxylic acid salts.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 31 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Coco acid triamine condensate, polycarboxylic acid salts. 721.2086 Section 721.2086 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY... Specific Chemical Substances § 721.2086 Coco acid triamine condensate, polycarboxylic acid salts....

  4. 40 CFR 721.3620 - Fatty acid amine condensate, polycarboxylic acid salts.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 32 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Fatty acid amine condensate, polycarboxylic acid salts. 721.3620 Section 721.3620 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY... Specific Chemical Substances § 721.3620 Fatty acid amine condensate, polycarboxylic acid salts....

  5. 40 CFR 721.2086 - Coco acid triamine condensate, polycarboxylic acid salts.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 32 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Coco acid triamine condensate, polycarboxylic acid salts. 721.2086 Section 721.2086 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY... Specific Chemical Substances § 721.2086 Coco acid triamine condensate, polycarboxylic acid salts....

  6. 40 CFR 721.3620 - Fatty acid amine condensate, polycarboxylic acid salts.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 30 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Fatty acid amine condensate, polycarboxylic acid salts. 721.3620 Section 721.3620 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY... Specific Chemical Substances § 721.3620 Fatty acid amine condensate, polycarboxylic acid salts....

  7. 40 CFR 721.2086 - Coco acid triamine condensate, polycarboxylic acid salts.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 32 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Coco acid triamine condensate, polycarboxylic acid salts. 721.2086 Section 721.2086 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY... Specific Chemical Substances § 721.2086 Coco acid triamine condensate, polycarboxylic acid salts....

  8. Polyimide amic acid salts and polyimide membranes formed therefrom

    SciTech Connect

    Ding, Yong; Bikson, Benjamin; Nelson, Joyce Katz; Macheras, James Timothy

    2004-04-06

    The invention relates to preparation and uses of novel polymeric materials, polyimide amic acid salts (PIAAS). The use of these materials for the fabrication of fluid separation membranes is further disclosed.

  9. Direct esterification of ammonium salts of carboxylic acids

    SciTech Connect

    Halpern, Yuval

    2003-06-24

    A non-catalytic process for producing esters, the process comprising reacting an ammonium salt of a carboxylic acid with an alcohol and removing ammonia from the reaction mixture. Selectivities for the desired ester product can exceed 95 percent.

  10. On the Existence of Hydrogen Salts of Monoprotic Acids

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stojanovska, Marina I.; Petrusevski, Vladimir M.; Soptrajanov, Bojan T.

    2012-01-01

    The notion that acid salts exist only for diprotic and polyprotic acids is found in many high school and university textbooks, although the "only" condition is not always stated explicitly. A fairly simple experiment shows that there is a pronounced exothermic effect when pure acetic acid is added to potassium acetate. Experiments with similar…

  11. Imidazolinium and amidinium salts as Lewis acid organocatalysts

    PubMed Central

    Sereda, Oksana; Clemens, Nicole; Heckel, Tatjana

    2012-01-01

    Summary The application of imidazolinium and amidinium salts as soft Lewis acid organocatalysts is described. These salts were suitable catalysts for the activation of unsaturated thioesters in a Diels–Alder reaction and in the ring opening of thiiranes and epoxides. The products were isolated in good yields. The mild catalysts did not cause desulfurization of the products containing a thiol or thiocarbonyl group. PMID:23209514

  12. 40 CFR 721.6200 - Fatty acid polyamine condensate, phosphoric acid ester salts.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 32 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Fatty acid polyamine condensate... New Uses for Specific Chemical Substances § 721.6200 Fatty acid polyamine condensate, phosphoric acid... substances identified as fatty acid polyamine condensate, phosphate ester salts (PMNs P-90-1984 and...

  13. 21 CFR 573.320 - Diammonium phosphate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... phosphoric acid with anhydrous ammonia. It contains not less than 106.25 percent equivalent crude protein... (Pb). (b) It is used in ruminant feeds as a source of phosphorus and nitrogen in an amount that supplies not more than 2 percent of equivalent crude protein in the total daily ration. (c) To assure...

  14. Preparation and characterization of ambazone salt with nicotinic acid

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kacsó, I.; Muresan-Pop, M.; Borodi, Gh.; Bratu, I.

    2012-02-01

    Salt formation is a good method of increasing solubility, dissolution rate and consequently the bioavailability of poor soluble acidic or basic drugs. The aim of this study was to obtain and to investigate the structural properties of the compound that was obtained by solvent drop grinding method at room temperature starting from the 1:1 molar ratios of ambazone (AMB) and nicotinic acid (NA). The obtained compound (AMB•NA) was investigated by thermal analysis (DSC, TG-DTA), X-ray powder diffraction (PXRD) and infrared spectroscopy (FTIR). The difference between the patterns of AMB•NA and of the starting compounds evidenced the formation of a salt. Using X-ray powder diffraction data, the lattice parameters were determined. The thermal and FTIR measurements on the pure compounds and on the (1:1) grinding mixture of AMB with NA confirm the salt formation.

  15. Methanol conversion over metal salts of 12-tungstophosphoric acid

    SciTech Connect

    Hayashi, H.; Moffat, J.B.

    1983-05-01

    The sodium, boron, calcium, magnesium, zinc, aluminum, and zirconium salts of 12-tungstophosphoric acid have been prepared and characterized using x-ray diffraction, mercury porosimetry, the chemisorption of ammonia, and Hammett indicators. Methanol conversion at 350/sup 0/C and a variety of residence times produced hydrocarbons ranging from C/sub 1/ to C/sub 5/ in amounts which varied with the cation. The more strongly acidic salts produced the higher yields of hydrocarbons. The maximum yield of the major product C/sub 4/ was found with the aluminum salt. The activities were related to the partial change on the oxygen atoms in the various catalysts. 3 figures, 1 table.

  16. Dilute acid/metal salt hydrolysis of lignocellulosics

    DOEpatents

    Nguyen, Quang A.; Tucker, Melvin P.

    2002-01-01

    A modified dilute acid method of hydrolyzing the cellulose and hemicellulose in lignocellulosic material under conditions to obtain higher overall fermentable sugar yields than is obtainable using dilute acid alone, comprising: impregnating a lignocellulosic feedstock with a mixture of an amount of aqueous solution of a dilute acid catalyst and a metal salt catalyst sufficient to provide higher overall fermentable sugar yields than is obtainable when hydrolyzing with dilute acid alone; loading the impregnated lignocellulosic feedstock into a reactor and heating for a sufficient period of time to hydrolyze substantially all of the hemicellulose and greater than 45% of the cellulose to water soluble sugars; and recovering the water soluble sugars.

  17. Oxalic acid, epsom salt and the poison bottle.

    PubMed

    Campbell, W A

    1982-03-01

    1 During the 19th century inadequate control of the sale of poisons, widespread illiteracy, and the English addiction to self-medication contributed to the high incidence of accidental poisoning by oxalic acid mistaken for Epsom salt. 2 Chemical methods for identifying oxalic acid failed when the product was adulterated. 3 Many mechanical devices were proposed to prevent careless dispensing; designs for poison bottles of distinctive shape, colour and texture appeared regularly for 40 years. PMID:6757103

  18. 40 CFR 721.6200 - Fatty acid polyamine condensate, phosphoric acid ester salts.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... ester salts. (a) Chemical substances and significant new uses subject to reporting. (1) The chemical..., phosphoric acid ester salts. 721.6200 Section 721.6200 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) TOXIC SUBSTANCES CONTROL ACT SIGNIFICANT NEW USES OF CHEMICAL SUBSTANCES...

  19. 40 CFR 721.6200 - Fatty acid polyamine condensate, phosphoric acid ester salts.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... ester salts. (a) Chemical substances and significant new uses subject to reporting. (1) The chemical..., phosphoric acid ester salts. 721.6200 Section 721.6200 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) TOXIC SUBSTANCES CONTROL ACT SIGNIFICANT NEW USES OF CHEMICAL SUBSTANCES...

  20. 40 CFR 721.6200 - Fatty acid polyamine condensate, phosphoric acid ester salts.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 30 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Fatty acid polyamine condensate, phosphoric acid ester salts. 721.6200 Section 721.6200 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION... New Uses for Specific Chemical Substances § 721.6200 Fatty acid polyamine condensate, phosphoric...

  1. New salts of amino acids with dimeric cations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ghazaryan, V. V.; Fleck, M.; Petrosyan, A. M.

    2010-10-01

    Among salts of amino acids there are compounds with the composition 2A..HX, which consist of dimeric A...A+ cations with short symmetric or asymmetric hydrogen bonds between zwitter-ionic and protonated moieties. These species are materials liable to undergo phase transitions or possess interesting nonlinear optical properties. Here, we report the preparation of 20 new salts with dimeric cations from aqueous solutions, including compounds of glycine, betaine, β- alanine, L-alanine, L-phenylalanine, L-threonine, L-valine, L-leucine and L-proline, with BF4-, ClO4-, Cl-, Br-, HSeO3-, and HC2O4-; as anions. The prepared salts are characterized by IR and Raman spectroscopy. Some of them are grown in form of good quality single crystals, which allowed the determination of their crystal structure.

  2. 40 CFR 721.3032 - Boric acid (H3BO2), zinc salt.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 31 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Boric acid (H3BO2), zinc salt. 721... Substances § 721.3032 Boric acid (H3BO2), zinc salt. (a) Chemical substance and significant new uses subject to reporting. (1) The chemical substance identified as boric acid (H3BO2), zinc salt (PMN...

  3. 40 CFR 721.3032 - Boric acid (H3BO2), zinc salt.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 31 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Boric acid (H3BO2), zinc salt. 721... Substances § 721.3032 Boric acid (H3BO2), zinc salt. (a) Chemical substance and significant new uses subject to reporting. (1) The chemical substance identified as boric acid (H3BO2), zinc salt (PMN...

  4. 40 CFR 721.3032 - Boric acid (H3BO2), zinc salt.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 32 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Boric acid (H3BO2), zinc salt. 721... Substances § 721.3032 Boric acid (H3BO2), zinc salt. (a) Chemical substance and significant new uses subject to reporting. (1) The chemical substance identified as boric acid (H3BO2), zinc salt (PMN...

  5. 40 CFR 721.3032 - Boric acid (H3BO2), zinc salt.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 32 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Boric acid (H3BO2), zinc salt. 721... Substances § 721.3032 Boric acid (H3BO2), zinc salt. (a) Chemical substance and significant new uses subject to reporting. (1) The chemical substance identified as boric acid (H3BO2), zinc salt (PMN...

  6. 40 CFR 721.6110 - Alkyldi(alkyloxyhydroxypropyl) derivative, phosphoric acid esters, potassium salts.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ...) derivative, phosphoric acid esters, potassium salts. 721.6110 Section 721.6110 Protection of Environment...) derivative, phosphoric acid esters, potassium salts. (a) Chemical substance and significant new uses subject...) derivative, phosphoric acid esters, potassium salts (PMN P-91-818) is subject to reporting under this...

  7. 40 CFR 721.10177 - Phosphoric acid, yttrium(3+) salt (1:1).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 31 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Phosphoric acid, yttrium(3+) salt (1:1... Specific Chemical Substances § 721.10177 Phosphoric acid, yttrium(3+) salt (1:1). (a) Chemical substance... acid, yttrium(3+) salt (1:1) (PMN P-04-153; CAS No. 13990-54-0) is subject to reporting under...

  8. 40 CFR 721.10177 - Phosphoric acid, yttrium(3+) salt (1:1).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 32 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Phosphoric acid, yttrium(3+) salt (1:1... Specific Chemical Substances § 721.10177 Phosphoric acid, yttrium(3+) salt (1:1). (a) Chemical substance... acid, yttrium(3+) salt (1:1) (PMN P-04-153; CAS No. 13990-54-0) is subject to reporting under...

  9. 40 CFR 721.10177 - Phosphoric acid, yttrium(3+) salt (1:1).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 32 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Phosphoric acid, yttrium(3+) salt (1:1... Specific Chemical Substances § 721.10177 Phosphoric acid, yttrium(3+) salt (1:1). (a) Chemical substance... acid, yttrium(3+) salt (1:1) (PMN P-04-153; CAS No. 13990-54-0) is subject to reporting under...

  10. 40 CFR 721.10177 - Phosphoric acid, yttrium(3+) salt (1:1).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 30 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Phosphoric acid, yttrium(3+) salt (1:1... Specific Chemical Substances § 721.10177 Phosphoric acid, yttrium(3+) salt (1:1). (a) Chemical substance... acid, yttrium(3+) salt (1:1) (PMN P-04-153; CAS No. 13990-54-0) is subject to reporting under...

  11. 40 CFR 721.10177 - Phosphoric acid, yttrium(3+) salt (1:1).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 31 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Phosphoric acid, yttrium(3+) salt (1:1... Specific Chemical Substances § 721.10177 Phosphoric acid, yttrium(3+) salt (1:1). (a) Chemical substance... acid, yttrium(3+) salt (1:1) (PMN P-04-153; CAS No. 13990-54-0) is subject to reporting under...

  12. 40 CFR 721.3032 - Boric acid (H3BO2), zinc salt.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 30 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Boric acid (H3BO2), zinc salt. 721... Substances § 721.3032 Boric acid (H3BO2), zinc salt. (a) Chemical substance and significant new uses subject to reporting. (1) The chemical substance identified as boric acid (H3BO2), zinc salt (PMN...

  13. 21 CFR 172.725 - Gibberellic acid and its potassium salt.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Gibberellic acid and its potassium salt. 172.725... Additives § 172.725 Gibberellic acid and its potassium salt. The food additives gibberellic acid and its potassium salt may be used in the malting of barley in accordance with the following prescribed...

  14. 21 CFR 172.725 - Gibberellic acid and its potassium salt.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Gibberellic acid and its potassium salt. 172.725... HUMAN CONSUMPTION Other Specific Usage Additives § 172.725 Gibberellic acid and its potassium salt. The food additives gibberellic acid and its potassium salt may be used in the malting of barley...

  15. 21 CFR 172.725 - Gibberellic acid and its potassium salt.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Gibberellic acid and its potassium salt. 172.725... HUMAN CONSUMPTION Other Specific Usage Additives § 172.725 Gibberellic acid and its potassium salt. The food additives gibberellic acid and its potassium salt may be used in the malting of barley...

  16. 21 CFR 172.725 - Gibberellic acid and its potassium salt.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Gibberellic acid and its potassium salt. 172.725... HUMAN CONSUMPTION Other Specific Usage Additives § 172.725 Gibberellic acid and its potassium salt. The food additives gibberellic acid and its potassium salt may be used in the malting of barley...

  17. 40 CFR 721.5465 - Amine salt of organic acid (generic).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 31 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Amine salt of organic acid (generic... Substances § 721.5465 Amine salt of organic acid (generic). (a) Chemical substance and significant new uses subject to reporting. (1) The chemical substance identified generically as amine salt of organic acid...

  18. 40 CFR 721.5465 - Amine salt of organic acid (generic).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 32 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Amine salt of organic acid (generic... Substances § 721.5465 Amine salt of organic acid (generic). (a) Chemical substance and significant new uses subject to reporting. (1) The chemical substance identified generically as amine salt of organic acid...

  19. 40 CFR 721.5465 - Amine salt of organic acid (generic).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 31 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Amine salt of organic acid (generic... Substances § 721.5465 Amine salt of organic acid (generic). (a) Chemical substance and significant new uses subject to reporting. (1) The chemical substance identified generically as amine salt of organic acid...

  20. 40 CFR 721.5465 - Amine salt of organic acid (generic).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 32 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Amine salt of organic acid (generic... Substances § 721.5465 Amine salt of organic acid (generic). (a) Chemical substance and significant new uses subject to reporting. (1) The chemical substance identified generically as amine salt of organic acid...

  1. 40 CFR 721.5465 - Amine salt of organic acid (generic).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 30 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Amine salt of organic acid (generic... Substances § 721.5465 Amine salt of organic acid (generic). (a) Chemical substance and significant new uses subject to reporting. (1) The chemical substance identified generically as amine salt of organic acid...

  2. 21 CFR 172.725 - Gibberellic acid and its potassium salt.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2010-04-01 2009-04-01 true Gibberellic acid and its potassium salt. 172.725... HUMAN CONSUMPTION Other Specific Usage Additives § 172.725 Gibberellic acid and its potassium salt. The food additives gibberellic acid and its potassium salt may be used in the malting of barley...

  3. 40 CFR 721.6110 - Alkyldi(alkyloxyhydroxypropyl) derivative, phosphoric acid esters, potassium salts.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ...) derivative, phosphoric acid esters, potassium salts. 721.6110 Section 721.6110 Protection of Environment...) derivative, phosphoric acid esters, potassium salts. (a) Chemical substance and significant new uses subject...) derivative, phosphoric acid esters, potassium salts (PMN P-91-818) is subject to reporting under this...

  4. 40 CFR 721.10550 - Rare earth salt of a carboxylic acid (generic).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 31 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Rare earth salt of a carboxylic acid... Specific Chemical Substances § 721.10550 Rare earth salt of a carboxylic acid (generic). (a) Chemical... as rare earth salt of a carboxylic acid (PMN P-05-324) is subject to reporting under this section...

  5. 40 CFR 721.10550 - Rare earth salt of a carboxylic acid (generic).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 32 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Rare earth salt of a carboxylic acid... Specific Chemical Substances § 721.10550 Rare earth salt of a carboxylic acid (generic). (a) Chemical... as rare earth salt of a carboxylic acid (PMN P-05-324) is subject to reporting under this section...

  6. 40 CFR 721.9640 - Salt of an acrylic acid - acrylamide terpolymer (generic).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 32 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Salt of an acrylic acid - acrylamide... Specific Chemical Substances § 721.9640 Salt of an acrylic acid - acrylamide terpolymer (generic). (a... generically as salt of an acrylic acid - acrylamide terpolymer (PMN P-99-817) is subject to reporting...

  7. 40 CFR 721.9640 - Salt of an acrylic acid - acrylamide terpolymer (generic).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 32 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Salt of an acrylic acid - acrylamide... Specific Chemical Substances § 721.9640 Salt of an acrylic acid - acrylamide terpolymer (generic). (a... generically as salt of an acrylic acid - acrylamide terpolymer (PMN P-99-817) is subject to reporting...

  8. 40 CFR 721.9640 - Salt of an acrylic acid - acrylamide terpolymer (generic).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 31 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Salt of an acrylic acid - acrylamide... Specific Chemical Substances § 721.9640 Salt of an acrylic acid - acrylamide terpolymer (generic). (a... generically as salt of an acrylic acid - acrylamide terpolymer (PMN P-99-817) is subject to reporting...

  9. 40 CFR 721.980 - Sodium salt of azo acid dye.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 32 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Sodium salt of azo acid dye. 721.980... Substances § 721.980 Sodium salt of azo acid dye. (a) Chemical substance and significant new uses subject to reporting. (1) The chemical substance identified generically as a sodium salt of azo acid dye (PMN...

  10. 40 CFR 721.3625 - Fatty acid amine salt (generic name).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 32 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Fatty acid amine salt (generic name... Substances § 721.3625 Fatty acid amine salt (generic name). (a) Chemical substance and significant new uses subject to reporting. (1) The chemical substance identified generically as fatty acid amine salt (PMN...

  11. 40 CFR 721.980 - Sodium salt of azo acid dye.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 30 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Sodium salt of azo acid dye. 721.980... Substances § 721.980 Sodium salt of azo acid dye. (a) Chemical substance and significant new uses subject to reporting. (1) The chemical substance identified generically as a sodium salt of azo acid dye (PMN...

  12. 40 CFR 721.3625 - Fatty acid amine salt (generic name).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 30 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Fatty acid amine salt (generic name... Substances § 721.3625 Fatty acid amine salt (generic name). (a) Chemical substance and significant new uses subject to reporting. (1) The chemical substance identified generically as fatty acid amine salt (PMN...

  13. 40 CFR 721.980 - Sodium salt of azo acid dye.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 32 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Sodium salt of azo acid dye. 721.980... Substances § 721.980 Sodium salt of azo acid dye. (a) Chemical substance and significant new uses subject to reporting. (1) The chemical substance identified generically as a sodium salt of azo acid dye (PMN...

  14. 40 CFR 721.3625 - Fatty acid amine salt (generic name).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 31 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Fatty acid amine salt (generic name... Substances § 721.3625 Fatty acid amine salt (generic name). (a) Chemical substance and significant new uses subject to reporting. (1) The chemical substance identified generically as fatty acid amine salt (PMN...

  15. 40 CFR 721.3625 - Fatty acid amine salt (generic name).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 31 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Fatty acid amine salt (generic name... Substances § 721.3625 Fatty acid amine salt (generic name). (a) Chemical substance and significant new uses subject to reporting. (1) The chemical substance identified generically as fatty acid amine salt (PMN...

  16. 40 CFR 721.980 - Sodium salt of azo acid dye.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 31 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Sodium salt of azo acid dye. 721.980... Substances § 721.980 Sodium salt of azo acid dye. (a) Chemical substance and significant new uses subject to reporting. (1) The chemical substance identified generically as a sodium salt of azo acid dye (PMN...

  17. 40 CFR 721.3625 - Fatty acid amine salt (generic name).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 32 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Fatty acid amine salt (generic name... Substances § 721.3625 Fatty acid amine salt (generic name). (a) Chemical substance and significant new uses subject to reporting. (1) The chemical substance identified generically as fatty acid amine salt (PMN...

  18. 40 CFR 721.980 - Sodium salt of azo acid dye.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 31 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Sodium salt of azo acid dye. 721.980... Substances § 721.980 Sodium salt of azo acid dye. (a) Chemical substance and significant new uses subject to reporting. (1) The chemical substance identified generically as a sodium salt of azo acid dye (PMN...

  19. 40 CFR 721.9640 - Salt of an acrylic acid - acrylamide terpolymer (generic).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 30 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Salt of an acrylic acid - acrylamide... Specific Chemical Substances § 721.9640 Salt of an acrylic acid - acrylamide terpolymer (generic). (a... generically as salt of an acrylic acid - acrylamide terpolymer (PMN P-99-817) is subject to reporting...

  20. 40 CFR 721.9640 - Salt of an acrylic acid - acrylamide terpolymer (generic).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 31 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Salt of an acrylic acid - acrylamide... Specific Chemical Substances § 721.9640 Salt of an acrylic acid - acrylamide terpolymer (generic). (a... generically as salt of an acrylic acid - acrylamide terpolymer (PMN P-99-817) is subject to reporting...

  1. Growth and characterization of diammonium copper disulphate hexahydrate single crystal

    SciTech Connect

    Siva Sankari, R.; Perumal, Rajesh Narayana

    2014-03-01

    Graphical abstract: Diammonium copper disulphate hexahydrate (DACS) is one of the most promising inorganic dielectric crystals with exceptional mechanical properties. Good quality crystals of DACS were grown by using solution method in a period of 30 days. The grown crystals were subjected to single crystal X-ray diffraction analysis in order to establish their crystalline nature. Thermo gravimetric, differential thermal analysis, FTIR, and UV–vis–NIR analysis were performed for the crystal. Several solid state physical parameters have been determined for the grown crystals. The dielectric constant and the dielectric loss and AC conductivity of the grown crystal were studied as a function of frequency and temperature has been calculated and plotted. - Highlights: • Diammonium copper disulphate is grown for the first time and CCDC number obtained. • Thermal analysis is done to see the stability range of the crystals. • Band gap and UV cut off wavelength of the crystal are determined to be 2.4 eV and 472.86 nm, respectively. • Dielectric constant, dielectric loss and AC conductivity are plotted as a function of applied field. - Abstract: Diammonium copper disulphate hexahydrate is one of the most promising inorganic crystals with exceptional dielectric properties. A good quality crystal was harvested in a 30-day period using solution growth method. The grown crystal was subjected to various characterization techniques like single crystal X-ray diffraction analysis, thermo gravimetric, differential thermal analysis, FTIR, and UV–vis–NIR analysis. Unit cell dimensions of the grown crystal have been identified from XRD studies. Functional groups of the title compounds have been identified from FTIR studies. Thermal stability of the samples was checked by TG/DTA studies. Band gap of the crystal was calculated. The dielectric constant and dielectric loss were studied as a function of frequency of the applied field. AC conductivity was plotted as a function

  2. Palmitoleic acid calcium salt: a lubricant and bactericidal powder from natural lipids.

    PubMed

    Yamamoto, Yoshiaki; Kawamura, Yuki; Yamazaki, Yuki; Kijima, Tatsuro; Morikawa, Toshiya; Nonomura, Yoshimune

    2015-01-01

    Palmitoleic acid is a promising bactericidal agent for cleansing products with alternative bactericidal abilities. In this study, we focus on the physical and biological activity of palmitoleic acid calcium salt (C16:1 fatty acid Ca salt) because it forms via an ion-exchange reaction between palmitoleic acid and Ca ions in tap water, and remains on the skin surface during the cleansing process. Here, we prepared C16:1 fatty acid Ca salt to investigate its crystal structure and physical and bactericidal properties. The Ca salt was a plate-shaped lamellar crystalline powder with a particle diameter of several micrometers to several tens of micrometers; it exhibited significant lubricity and alternative bactericidal activity against Staphylococcus aureus (S. aureus) and Propionibacterium acnes (P. acnes). We also examined other fatty acid Ca salts prepared from lauric acid (C12:0 fatty acid), palmitic acid (C16:0 fatty acid), and oleic acid (C18:1 fatty acid). The bactericidal activities and lubricity of the fatty acid Ca salts changed with the alkyl chain length and the degree of unsaturation. The C16:1 fatty acid Ca salt exhibited the strongest selective bactericidal ability among the four investigated fatty acid Ca salts. These findings suggest that C16:1 fatty acid and its Ca salt have potential applications in cleansing and cosmetic products. PMID:25757432

  3. 21 CFR 172.350 - Fumaric acid and salts of fumaric acid.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... (CONTINUED) FOOD FOR HUMAN CONSUMPTION (CONTINUED) FOOD ADDITIVES PERMITTED FOR DIRECT ADDITION TO FOOD FOR... in food in accordance with the following prescribed conditions: (a) The additives meet the following... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2010-04-01 2009-04-01 true Fumaric acid and salts of fumaric acid....

  4. Synthesis of an acid addition salt of delta-aminolevulinic acid from 5-bromo levulinic acid esters

    DOEpatents

    Moens, Luc

    1999-01-01

    A process of preparing an acid addition salt of delta-aminolevulinic acid comprising: dissolving a lower alkyl 5-bromolevulinate and an alkali metal diformylamide in an organic solvent selected from the group consisting of acetonitrile, methanol, tetrahydrofuran, 2-methyltetrahydrofuran and methylformate or mixtures thereof to form a suspension of an alkyl 5-(N,N-diformylamino) levulinate ester; and hydrolyzing said alkyl 5-(N,N-diformylamino) levulinate with an inorganic acid to form an acid addition salt of delta-amino levulinic acid.

  5. Synthesis of an acid addition salt of delta-aminolevulinic acid from 5-bromo levulinic acid esters

    DOEpatents

    Moens, L.

    1999-05-25

    A process is disclosed for preparing an acid addition salt of delta-aminolevulinic acid comprising. The process involves dissolving a lower alkyl 5-bromolevulinate and an alkali metal diformylamide in an organic solvent selected from the group consisting of acetonitrile, methanol, tetrahydrofuran, 2-methyltetrahydrofuran and methylformate or mixtures to form a suspension of an alkyl 5-(N,N-diformylamino) levulinate ester; and hydrolyzing the alkyl 5-(N,N-diformylamino) levulinate with an inorganic acid to form an acid addition salt of delta-amino levulinic acid.

  6. Students' Understanding of Acid, Base and Salt Reactions in Qualitative Analysis.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tan, Kim-Chwee Daniel; Goh, Ngoh-Khang; Chia, Lian-Sai; Treagust, David F.

    2003-01-01

    Uses a two-tier, multiple-choice diagnostic instrument to determine (n=915) grade 10 students' understanding of the acid, base, and salt reactions involved in basic qualitative analysis. Reports that many students did not understand the formation of precipitates and the complex salts, acid/salt-base reactions, and thermal decomposition involved in…

  7. 40 CFR 721.10140 - Phosphoric acid, tin (2+) salt (2:3).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 32 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Phosphoric acid, tin (2+) salt (2:3... Specific Chemical Substances § 721.10140 Phosphoric acid, tin (2+) salt (2:3). (a) Chemical substance and...+) salt (2:3) (PMN P-06-33, CAS No. 15578-32-2) is subject to reporting under this section for...

  8. 40 CFR 721.720 - Alkoxylated fatty acid amide, alkylsulfate salt.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ..., alkylsulfate salt. 721.720 Section 721.720 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED... Specific Chemical Substances § 721.720 Alkoxylated fatty acid amide, alkylsulfate salt. (a) Chemical... as an alkoxylated fatty acid amide, alkylsulfate salt (PMN P-97-136) is subject to reporting...

  9. 40 CFR 721.720 - Alkoxylated fatty acid amide, alkylsulfate salt.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ..., alkylsulfate salt. 721.720 Section 721.720 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED... Specific Chemical Substances § 721.720 Alkoxylated fatty acid amide, alkylsulfate salt. (a) Chemical... as an alkoxylated fatty acid amide, alkylsulfate salt (PMN P-97-136) is subject to reporting...

  10. 40 CFR 721.10098 - Disubstituted benzoic acid, alkali metal salt (generic).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... metal salt (generic). 721.10098 Section 721.10098 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION... New Uses for Specific Chemical Substances § 721.10098 Disubstituted benzoic acid, alkali metal salt... identified generically as disubstituted benzoic acid, alkali metal salt (PMN P-03-643) is subject...

  11. 40 CFR 721.2175 - Salt of cyclodiamine and mineral acid.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 31 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Salt of cyclodiamine and mineral acid... Substances § 721.2175 Salt of cyclodiamine and mineral acid. (a) Chemical substance and significant new uses subject to reporting. (1) The chemical substance identified generically as a salt of cyclodiamine...

  12. 40 CFR 721.720 - Alkoxylated fatty acid amide, alkylsulfate salt.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ..., alkylsulfate salt. 721.720 Section 721.720 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED... Specific Chemical Substances § 721.720 Alkoxylated fatty acid amide, alkylsulfate salt. (a) Chemical... as an alkoxylated fatty acid amide, alkylsulfate salt (PMN P-97-136) is subject to reporting...

  13. 40 CFR 721.2098 - Aliphatic polycarboxylic acid metal salt (generic).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... salt (generic). 721.2098 Section 721.2098 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY... Specific Chemical Substances § 721.2098 Aliphatic polycarboxylic acid metal salt (generic). (a) Chemical... as an aliphatic polycarboxylic acid metal salt (PMN P-01-7) is subject to reporting under...

  14. 40 CFR 721.10140 - Phosphoric acid, tin (2+) salt (2:3).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 32 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Phosphoric acid, tin (2+) salt (2:3... Specific Chemical Substances § 721.10140 Phosphoric acid, tin (2+) salt (2:3). (a) Chemical substance and...+) salt (2:3) (PMN P-06-33, CAS No. 15578-32-2) is subject to reporting under this section for...

  15. 40 CFR 721.10098 - Disubstituted benzoic acid, alkali metal salt (generic).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... metal salt (generic). 721.10098 Section 721.10098 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION... New Uses for Specific Chemical Substances § 721.10098 Disubstituted benzoic acid, alkali metal salt... identified generically as disubstituted benzoic acid, alkali metal salt (PMN P-03-643) is subject...

  16. 40 CFR 721.2098 - Aliphatic polycarboxylic acid metal salt (generic).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... salt (generic). 721.2098 Section 721.2098 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY... Specific Chemical Substances § 721.2098 Aliphatic polycarboxylic acid metal salt (generic). (a) Chemical... as an aliphatic polycarboxylic acid metal salt (PMN P-01-7) is subject to reporting under...

  17. 40 CFR 721.2098 - Aliphatic polycarboxylic acid metal salt (generic).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... salt (generic). 721.2098 Section 721.2098 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY... Specific Chemical Substances § 721.2098 Aliphatic polycarboxylic acid metal salt (generic). (a) Chemical... as an aliphatic polycarboxylic acid metal salt (PMN P-01-7) is subject to reporting under...

  18. 40 CFR 721.10098 - Disubstituted benzoic acid, alkali metal salt (generic).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... metal salt (generic). 721.10098 Section 721.10098 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION... New Uses for Specific Chemical Substances § 721.10098 Disubstituted benzoic acid, alkali metal salt... identified generically as disubstituted benzoic acid, alkali metal salt (PMN P-03-643) is subject...

  19. 40 CFR 721.4663 - Fluorinated carboxylic acid alkali metal salts.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... metal salts. 721.4663 Section 721.4663 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY... Specific Chemical Substances § 721.4663 Fluorinated carboxylic acid alkali metal salts. (a) Chemical... fluorinated carboxylic acid alkali metal salts (PMNs P-95-979/980/981) are subject to reporting under...

  20. 40 CFR 721.4663 - Fluorinated carboxylic acid alkali metal salts.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... metal salts. 721.4663 Section 721.4663 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY... Specific Chemical Substances § 721.4663 Fluorinated carboxylic acid alkali metal salts. (a) Chemical... fluorinated carboxylic acid alkali metal salts (PMNs P-95-979/980/981) are subject to reporting under...

  1. 40 CFR 721.4663 - Fluorinated carboxylic acid alkali metal salts.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... metal salts. 721.4663 Section 721.4663 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY... Specific Chemical Substances § 721.4663 Fluorinated carboxylic acid alkali metal salts. (a) Chemical... fluorinated carboxylic acid alkali metal salts (PMNs P-95-979/980/981) are subject to reporting under...

  2. 40 CFR 721.720 - Alkoxylated fatty acid amide, alkylsulfate salt.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ..., alkylsulfate salt. 721.720 Section 721.720 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED... Specific Chemical Substances § 721.720 Alkoxylated fatty acid amide, alkylsulfate salt. (a) Chemical... as an alkoxylated fatty acid amide, alkylsulfate salt (PMN P-97-136) is subject to reporting...

  3. 40 CFR 721.2098 - Aliphatic polycarboxylic acid metal salt (generic).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... salt (generic). 721.2098 Section 721.2098 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY... Specific Chemical Substances § 721.2098 Aliphatic polycarboxylic acid metal salt (generic). (a) Chemical... as an aliphatic polycarboxylic acid metal salt (PMN P-01-7) is subject to reporting under...

  4. 40 CFR 721.2175 - Salt of cyclodiamine and mineral acid.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 32 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Salt of cyclodiamine and mineral acid... Substances § 721.2175 Salt of cyclodiamine and mineral acid. (a) Chemical substance and significant new uses subject to reporting. (1) The chemical substance identified generically as a salt of cyclodiamine...

  5. 40 CFR 721.10140 - Phosphoric acid, tin (2+) salt (2:3).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 30 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Phosphoric acid, tin (2+) salt (2:3... Specific Chemical Substances § 721.10140 Phosphoric acid, tin (2+) salt (2:3). (a) Chemical substance and...+) salt (2:3) (PMN P-06-33, CAS No. 15578-32-2) is subject to reporting under this section for...

  6. 40 CFR 721.10140 - Phosphoric acid, tin (2+) salt (2:3).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 31 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Phosphoric acid, tin (2+) salt (2:3... Specific Chemical Substances § 721.10140 Phosphoric acid, tin (2+) salt (2:3). (a) Chemical substance and...+) salt (2:3) (PMN P-06-33, CAS No. 15578-32-2) is subject to reporting under this section for...

  7. 40 CFR 721.4663 - Fluorinated carboxylic acid alkali metal salts.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... metal salts. 721.4663 Section 721.4663 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY... Specific Chemical Substances § 721.4663 Fluorinated carboxylic acid alkali metal salts. (a) Chemical... fluorinated carboxylic acid alkali metal salts (PMNs P-95-979/980/981) are subject to reporting under...

  8. 40 CFR 721.10487 - Alkylbenzenes sulfonic acids, metal salts (generic).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... salts (generic). 721.10487 Section 721.10487 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY... Specific Chemical Substances § 721.10487 Alkylbenzenes sulfonic acids, metal salts (generic). (a) Chemical... as alkylbenzenes sulfonic acids, metal salts (PMNs P-04-599, P-04-600, P-04-605, and P-04-606)...

  9. 40 CFR 721.10382 - Diphosphoric acid, calcium salt (1:1).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 32 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Diphosphoric acid, calcium salt (1:1... Specific Chemical Substances § 721.10382 Diphosphoric acid, calcium salt (1:1). (a) Chemical substance and... salt (1:1) (PMN P-10-313; CAS No. 14866-19-4) is subject to reporting under this section for...

  10. 40 CFR 721.720 - Alkoxylated fatty acid amide, alkylsulfate salt.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ..., alkylsulfate salt. 721.720 Section 721.720 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED... Specific Chemical Substances § 721.720 Alkoxylated fatty acid amide, alkylsulfate salt. (a) Chemical... as an alkoxylated fatty acid amide, alkylsulfate salt (PMN P-97-136) is subject to reporting...

  11. 40 CFR 721.2175 - Salt of cyclodiamine and mineral acid.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 32 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Salt of cyclodiamine and mineral acid... Substances § 721.2175 Salt of cyclodiamine and mineral acid. (a) Chemical substance and significant new uses subject to reporting. (1) The chemical substance identified generically as a salt of cyclodiamine...

  12. 40 CFR 721.2175 - Salt of cyclodiamine and mineral acid.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 31 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Salt of cyclodiamine and mineral acid... Substances § 721.2175 Salt of cyclodiamine and mineral acid. (a) Chemical substance and significant new uses subject to reporting. (1) The chemical substance identified generically as a salt of cyclodiamine...

  13. 40 CFR 721.2098 - Aliphatic polycarboxylic acid metal salt (generic).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... salt (generic). 721.2098 Section 721.2098 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY... Specific Chemical Substances § 721.2098 Aliphatic polycarboxylic acid metal salt (generic). (a) Chemical... as an aliphatic polycarboxylic acid metal salt (PMN P-01-7) is subject to reporting under...

  14. 40 CFR 721.4663 - Fluorinated carboxylic acid alkali metal salts.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... metal salts. 721.4663 Section 721.4663 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY... Specific Chemical Substances § 721.4663 Fluorinated carboxylic acid alkali metal salts. (a) Chemical... fluorinated carboxylic acid alkali metal salts (PMNs P-95-979/980/981) are subject to reporting under...

  15. 40 CFR 721.10098 - Disubstituted benzoic acid, alkali metal salt (generic).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... metal salt (generic). 721.10098 Section 721.10098 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION... New Uses for Specific Chemical Substances § 721.10098 Disubstituted benzoic acid, alkali metal salt... identified generically as disubstituted benzoic acid, alkali metal salt (PMN P-03-643) is subject...

  16. 40 CFR 721.10098 - Disubstituted benzoic acid, alkali metal salt (generic).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... metal salt (generic). 721.10098 Section 721.10098 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION... New Uses for Specific Chemical Substances § 721.10098 Disubstituted benzoic acid, alkali metal salt... identified generically as disubstituted benzoic acid, alkali metal salt (PMN P-03-643) is subject...

  17. 40 CFR 721.10382 - Diphosphoric acid, calcium salt (1:1).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 32 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Diphosphoric acid, calcium salt (1:1... Specific Chemical Substances § 721.10382 Diphosphoric acid, calcium salt (1:1). (a) Chemical substance and... salt (1:1) (PMN P-10-313; CAS No. 14866-19-4) is subject to reporting under this section for...

  18. 40 CFR 721.2175 - Salt of cyclodiamine and mineral acid.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 30 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Salt of cyclodiamine and mineral acid... Substances § 721.2175 Salt of cyclodiamine and mineral acid. (a) Chemical substance and significant new uses subject to reporting. (1) The chemical substance identified generically as a salt of cyclodiamine...

  19. 40 CFR 721.10140 - Phosphoric acid, tin (2+) salt (2:3).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 31 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Phosphoric acid, tin (2+) salt (2:3... Specific Chemical Substances § 721.10140 Phosphoric acid, tin (2+) salt (2:3). (a) Chemical substance and...+) salt (2:3) (PMN P-06-33, CAS No. 15578-32-2) is subject to reporting under this section for...

  20. Optical properties of KDP crystals doped with pyrenetetrasulfonic acid salt

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pritula, I. M.; Bezkrovnaya, O. N.; Lopin, A. V.; Kolybaeva, M. I.; Puzikov, V. M.; Zubatyuk, R. I.; Shishkin, O. V.; Gayvoronsky, V. Ya.

    2013-03-01

    KDP crystals with incorporated molecules of the luminophore 1,3,6,8-pyrenetetrasulfonic acid tetrasodium salt (SPA) were grown from KH2PO4 solutions by the temperature lowering method. The luminescence spectra of KDP/SPA crystals and SPA solutions in distilled water and in KH2PO4 solutions, were studied. The increase of the dye content gives rise to excimer luminescence in the solutions and in KDP crystals, which is due to the formation of associated dye molecules. SPA molecules possessing negative electrostatic potential are incorporated into the pyramidal growth sector of KDP crystal.

  1. The control of nitrilotriacetic acid in edetic acid and its salts by liquid chromatography.

    PubMed

    Crosbie, G A; Lodi, A; McB Miller, J H; Skellern, G G

    2003-10-15

    Two liquid chromatographic methods have been developed and validated for the determination of nitrilotriacetic acid (NTA) in edetic acid (EDTA) and its salts. In one method NTA and EDTA are separated on a polymer column without pretreatment, and are detected amperometrically using a glassy-carbon electrode. In the other method NTA and EDTA are complexed with ferric ions and the complexes separated on a porous graphite carbon stationary phase with ultraviolet detection at 215 nm. Both methods were sufficiently selected and sensitive to allow the control of NTA (0.1% m/m) in sample of EDTA and its salts.

  2. Kinetics of CO2 Absorption into Aqueous Basic Amino Acid Salt: Potassium Salt of Lysine Solution.

    PubMed

    Shen, Shufeng; Yang, Ya-nan; Bian, Yangyang; Zhao, Yue

    2016-02-16

    Aqueous amino acid salts are considered as an attractive alternative to alkanolamine solvents (e.g., MEA) for carbon dioxide (CO2) absorption. The kinetics of CO2 into unloaded aqueous solutions of potassium lysinate (LysK) was studied using a wetted wall column at concentrations ranging from 0.25 to 2.0 M and temperatures from 298 to 333 K. Physicochemical properties of aqueous LysK solutions such as density, viscosity, and physical solubility of CO2 were measured to evaluate the reaction rate constants. The reaction pathway is described using zwitterion mechanism taking into account the effect of ionic strength on the reaction rate. Under the fast pseudo-first-order regime, the reaction rate parameters were obtained and correlated in a power-law reaction rate expression. LysK shows higher chemical reactivity toward CO2 than the industrial standard MEA and most of amino acid salts. Its reaction rate constants increase considerably with concentration and temperature. The reaction order is found to be an average value of 1.58 with respect to LysK. The forward second-order kinetic rate constant, k2 0 , are obtained as 31615 and 84822 m3 kmol−1 s−1 at 298 and 313 K, respectively with activation energy of 51.0 kJ mol−1. The contribution of water to the zwitterion deprotonation seems to be more significant than that of LysK for the above-mentioned kinetic conditions PMID:26751093

  3. Self-assembly of fatty acid-alkylboladiamine salts.

    PubMed

    Douliez, Jean-Paul; Navailles, Laurence; Nallet, Frédéric

    2006-01-17

    Long-chain fatty acids are insoluble in aqueous solution and form crystal precipitates. It is then of particular importance to determine the physicochemical parameters allowing their dispersion in water to improve their bioavailability and their utilization as surfactants. Herein, we report a study on salt-free catanionic systems in aqueous solution made of mixtures between palmitic or stearic fatty acids and alkylboladiamines (Abd's) differing by their alkyl chain length. Phase contrast microscopy, solid-state NMR, Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy, and small-angle neutron scattering were used to characterize the phase behavior of these systems at molar ratio of fatty acid to Abd of 1 and 2. Whatever the Abd and the molar ratio, fatty acids were embedded at low temperature in a bilayer gel phase which crystallizes after a period of rest. At an equimolar ratio, the gel phases transited upon raising the temperature to an isotropic phase made of worm-like micelles except in the case of the ethylenediamine chain for which a lamellar fluid phase was observed. At a molar ratio of 2 and high temperature, fatty acids were embedded in a lamellar fluid phase which self-orients with its stacking axis perpendicular to the magnetic field. However, for a long alkylboladiamine such as spermine, worm-like micelles formed. The phase behavior at high temperature is discussed in terms of molecular volume. PMID:16401110

  4. Magnesium, calcium and strontium salts of phenylacetic acid.

    PubMed

    Arlin, Jean Baptiste; Kennedy, Alan R; Shankland, Kenneth

    2012-02-01

    Three alkaline earth metal salts of phenylacetic acid were examined and all were found to have similar structural types to analogous salts of benzoic and halobenzoic acids. Thus, a synchrotron study shows that the cations in catena-poly[[[tetraaquamagnesium(II)]-μ-phenylacetato-κ(2)O:O'] phenylacetate], {[Mg(C(8)H(7)O(2))(H(2)O)(4)](C(8)H(7)O(2))}(n), form a one-dimensional coordination polymer that propagates through Mg-O-C-O-Mg interactions involving both crystallographically independent Mg centres (Z' = 2) and through translation along the a axis. The polymeric chains pack to give alternate inorganic layers and organic bilayers. The Ca and Sr species catena-poly[[[diaqua(phenylacetato-κ(2)O,O')calcium(II)]-μ(3)-phenylacetato-1':1:1''κ(4)O:O,O':O'] monohydrate], {[Ca(C(8)H(7)O(2))(2)(H(2)O)(2)]·H(2)O}(n), and catena-poly[[[diaqua(phenylacetato-κ(2)O,O')strontium(II)]-μ(3)-phenylacetato-1':1:1''κ(4)O:O,O':O'] monohydrate], {[Sr(C(8)H(7)O(2))(2)(H(2)O)(2)]·H(2)O}(n), are essentially isostructural. Both form one-dimensional coordination polymers through a carboxylate group that forms four M-O bonds. The polymeric chains propagate via 2(1) screw axes parallel to the b axis and are further linked in the bc plane by hydrogen bonding involving the non-metal-bound water molecule. Similarly to the Mg salt, both have inorganic layers that alternate with organic bilayers. PMID:22307244

  5. Alleviation of salt stress in lemongrass by salicylic acid.

    PubMed

    Idrees, Mohd; Naeem, M; Khan, M Nasir; Aftab, Tariq; Khan, M Masroor A; Moinuddin

    2012-07-01

    Soil salinity is one of the key factors adversely affecting the growth, yield, and quality of crops. A pot study was conducted to find out whether exogenous application of salicylic acid could ameliorate the adverse effect of salinity in lemongrass (Cymbopogon flexuosus Steud. Wats.). Two Cymbopogon varieties, Krishna and Neema, were used in the study. Three salinity levels, viz, 50, 100, and 150 mM of NaCl, were applied to 30-day-old plants. Salicylic acid (SA) was applied as foliar spray at 10(-5) M concentration. Totally, six SA-sprays were carried out at 10-day intervals, following the first spray at 30 days after sowing. The growth parameters were progressively reduced with the increase in salinity level; however, growth inhibition was significantly reduced by the foliar application of SA. With the increase in salt stress, a gradual decrease in the activities of carbonic anhydrase and nitrate reductase was observed in both the varieties. SA-treatment not only ameliorated the adverse effects of NaCl but also showed a significant improvement in the activities of these enzymes compared with the untreated stressed-plants. The plants supplemented with NaCl exhibited a significant increase in electrolyte leakage, proline content, and phosphoenol pyruvate carboxylase activity. Content and yield of essential oil was also significantly decreased in plants that received salinity levels; however, SA overcame the unfavorable effects of salinity stress to a considerable extent. Lemongrass variety Krishna was found to be more adapted to salt stress than Neema, as indicated by the overall performance of the two varieties under salt conditions.

  6. 40 CFR 721.10370 - Phosphonic acid, p-octyl-, lanthanum (3+) salt (2:1).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 32 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Phosphonic acid, p-octyl-, lanthanum... New Uses for Specific Chemical Substances § 721.10370 Phosphonic acid, p-octyl-, lanthanum (3+) salt... substance identified as phosphinic acid, p-octyl-, lanthanum (3+) salt (2:1) (PMN P-10-99; CAS No....

  7. 40 CFR 721.10370 - Phosphonic acid, p-octyl-, lanthanum (3+) salt (2:1).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 32 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Phosphonic acid, p-octyl-, lanthanum... New Uses for Specific Chemical Substances § 721.10370 Phosphonic acid, p-octyl-, lanthanum (3+) salt... substance identified as phosphinic acid, p-octyl-, lanthanum (3+) salt (2:1) (PMN P-10-99; CAS No....

  8. 40 CFR 721.10370 - Phosphonic acid, p-octyl-, lanthanum (3+) salt (2:1).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 31 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Phosphonic acid, p-octyl-, lanthanum... New Uses for Specific Chemical Substances § 721.10370 Phosphonic acid, p-octyl-, lanthanum (3+) salt... substance identified as phosphinic acid, p-octyl-, lanthanum (3+) salt (2:1) (PMN P-10-99; CAS No....

  9. 40 CFR 721.10382 - Diphosphoric acid, calcium salt (1:1).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 31 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Diphosphoric acid, calcium salt (1:1... Specific Chemical Substances § 721.10382 Diphosphoric acid, calcium salt (1:1). (a) Chemical substance and significant new uses subject to reporting. (1) The chemical substance identified as diphosphoric acid,...

  10. 78 FR 34648 - Citric Acid and Certain Citrate Salts: Preliminary Results of Countervailing Duty Administrative...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-06-10

    ... International Trade Administration Citric Acid and Certain Citrate Salts: Preliminary Results of Countervailing... review of the countervailing duty (CVD) order on citric acid and citrate salts from the People's Republic... (202) 482-1503. Scope of the Order The merchandise subject to the order is citric acid and...

  11. 40 CFR 721.10474 - Substituted amino ethane sulfonic acid salt (generic).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 32 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Substituted amino ethane sulfonic acid... Specific Chemical Substances § 721.10474 Substituted amino ethane sulfonic acid salt (generic). (a... generically as substituted amino ethane sulfonic acid salt (PMN P-04-107) is subject to reporting under...

  12. 40 CFR 721.10474 - Substituted amino ethane sulfonic acid salt (generic).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 31 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Substituted amino ethane sulfonic acid... Specific Chemical Substances § 721.10474 Substituted amino ethane sulfonic acid salt (generic). (a... generically as substituted amino ethane sulfonic acid salt (PMN P-04-107) is subject to reporting under...

  13. 40 CFR 721.10633 - Aromatic sulfonic acid amino azo dye salts (generic).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 32 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Aromatic sulfonic acid amino azo dye... Specific Chemical Substances § 721.10633 Aromatic sulfonic acid amino azo dye salts (generic). (a) Chemical... as aromatic sulfonic acid amino azo dye salts (PMN P-12-276) is subject to reporting under...

  14. 40 CFR 721.3031 - Boric acid (H3BO3), zinc salt (2=3).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 31 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Boric acid (H3BO3), zinc salt (2=3... Substances § 721.3031 Boric acid (H3BO3), zinc salt (2=3). (a) Chemical substance and significant new uses subject to reporting. (1) The chemical substance identified as boric acid (H3BO3), zinc salt (2=3) (PMN...

  15. 40 CFR 721.3031 - Boric acid (H3BO3), zinc salt (2=3).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 32 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Boric acid (H3BO3), zinc salt (2=3... Substances § 721.3031 Boric acid (H3BO3), zinc salt (2=3). (a) Chemical substance and significant new uses subject to reporting. (1) The chemical substance identified as boric acid (H3BO3), zinc salt (2=3) (PMN...

  16. 40 CFR 721.3031 - Boric acid (H3BO3), zinc salt (2=3).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 32 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Boric acid (H3BO3), zinc salt (2=3... Substances § 721.3031 Boric acid (H3BO3), zinc salt (2=3). (a) Chemical substance and significant new uses subject to reporting. (1) The chemical substance identified as boric acid (H3BO3), zinc salt (2=3) (PMN...

  17. 40 CFR 721.3031 - Boric acid (H3BO3), zinc salt (2=3).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 31 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Boric acid (H3BO3), zinc salt (2=3... Substances § 721.3031 Boric acid (H3BO3), zinc salt (2=3). (a) Chemical substance and significant new uses subject to reporting. (1) The chemical substance identified as boric acid (H3BO3), zinc salt (2=3) (PMN...

  18. 40 CFR 721.3031 - Boric acid (H3BO3), zinc salt (2=3).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 30 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Boric acid (H3BO3), zinc salt (2=3... Substances § 721.3031 Boric acid (H3BO3), zinc salt (2=3). (a) Chemical substance and significant new uses subject to reporting. (1) The chemical substance identified as boric acid (H3BO3), zinc salt (2=3) (PMN...

  19. Salts of phenylacetic acid and 4-hydroxyphenylacetic acid with Cinchona alkaloids: Crystal structures, thermal analysis and FTIR spectroscopy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Amombo Noa, Francoise M.; Jacobs, Ayesha

    2016-06-01

    Seven salts were formed with phenylacetic acid (PAA), 4-hydroxyphenylacetic acid (HPAA) and the Cinchona alkaloids; cinchonidine (CIND), quinidine (QUID) and quinine (QUIN). For all the structures the proton was transferred from the carboxylic acid of the PAA/HPAA to the quinuclidine nitrogen of the respective Cinchona alkaloid. For six of the salts, water was included in the crystal structures with one of these also incorporating an isopropanol solvent molecule. However HPAA co-crystallised with quinine to form an anhydrous salt, (HPAA-)(QUIN+). The thermal stability of the salts were determined and differential scanning calorimetry revealed that the (HPAA-)(QUIN+) salt had the highest thermal stability compared to the other salt hydrates. The salts were also characterized using Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy. (PAA-)(QUID+)·H2O and (PAA-)(QUIN+)·H2O are isostructural and Hirshfeld surface analysis was completed to compare the intermolecular interactions in these two structures.

  20. Lubricant and Bactericidal Properties of Calcium Salts of Fatty Acids: Effect of Degree of Unsaturation.

    PubMed

    Yamamoto, Yoshiaki; Kijima, Tatsuro; Morikawa, Toshiya; Nonomura, Yoshimune

    2015-01-01

    Fatty acids containing a C18 alkyl chain such as stearic acid (C18:0 fatty acid), oleic acid (C18:1 fatty acid) and linoleic acid (C18:2 fatty acid) are common emulsifiers in skin-care products and cosmetics and are also used in skin cleansers. In this study, we prepared calcium salts (Ca salts) of the above fatty acids to determine the effect of the degree of unsaturation of the alkyl chain. Scanning electron microscopy images and X-ray diffraction patterns show that C18:0 and C18:1 fatty acid Ca salts are plate-shaped, lamellar-crystalline powder, while C18:2 fatty acid Ca salt is amorphous powder. Therefore, C18:2 fatty acid Ca salt exhibits a lower lubrication ability than do C18:0 and C18:1 fatty acid Ca salts. In addition, the bactericidal ability against Staphylococcus aureus, Staphylococcus epidermidis and Propionibacterium acnes improved with increasing degree of unsaturation. These findings suggest that Ca salts of unsaturated fatty acids have potential applications in cleansing and cosmetic products.

  1. 40 CFR 721.7770 - Alkylphenoxypoly(oxyethylene) sulfuric acid ester, substituted amine salt.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... ester, substituted amine salt. (a) Chemical substance and significant new uses subject to reporting. (1... amine salt (PMN P-92-396) is subject to reporting under this section for the significant new uses... acid ester, substituted amine salt. 721.7770 Section 721.7770 Protection of Environment...

  2. 40 CFR 721.7770 - Alkylphenoxypoly(oxyethylene) sulfuric acid ester, substituted amine salt.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... ester, substituted amine salt. (a) Chemical substance and significant new uses subject to reporting. (1... amine salt (PMN P-92-396) is subject to reporting under this section for the significant new uses... acid ester, substituted amine salt. 721.7770 Section 721.7770 Protection of Environment...

  3. 40 CFR 721.7770 - Alkylphenoxypoly(oxyethylene) sulfuric acid ester, substituted amine salt.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... ester, substituted amine salt. (a) Chemical substance and significant new uses subject to reporting. (1... amine salt (PMN P-92-396) is subject to reporting under this section for the significant new uses... acid ester, substituted amine salt. 721.7770 Section 721.7770 Protection of Environment...

  4. 40 CFR 721.7770 - Alkylphenoxypoly(oxyethylene) sulfuric acid ester, substituted amine salt.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... acid ester, substituted amine salt. 721.7770 Section 721.7770 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL... ester, substituted amine salt. (a) Chemical substance and significant new uses subject to reporting. (1... amine salt (PMN P-92-396) is subject to reporting under this section for the significant new...

  5. 40 CFR 721.10097 - Disubstituted benzenesulfonic acid, alkali metal salt (generic).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ..., alkali metal salt (generic). 721.10097 Section 721.10097 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL... metal salt (generic). (a) Chemical substance and significant new uses subject to reporting. (1) The chemical substance identified generically as disubstituted benzenesulfonic acid, alkali metal salt (PMN...

  6. 40 CFR 721.10097 - Disubstituted benzenesulfonic acid, alkali metal salt (generic).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ..., alkali metal salt (generic). 721.10097 Section 721.10097 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL... metal salt (generic). (a) Chemical substance and significant new uses subject to reporting. (1) The chemical substance identified generically as disubstituted benzenesulfonic acid, alkali metal salt (PMN...

  7. 40 CFR 721.10097 - Disubstituted benzenesulfonic acid, alkali metal salt (generic).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ..., alkali metal salt (generic). 721.10097 Section 721.10097 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL... metal salt (generic). (a) Chemical substance and significant new uses subject to reporting. (1) The chemical substance identified generically as disubstituted benzenesulfonic acid, alkali metal salt (PMN...

  8. 40 CFR 721.10097 - Disubstituted benzenesulfonic acid, alkali metal salt (generic).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ..., alkali metal salt (generic). 721.10097 Section 721.10097 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL... metal salt (generic). (a) Chemical substance and significant new uses subject to reporting. (1) The chemical substance identified generically as disubstituted benzenesulfonic acid, alkali metal salt (PMN...

  9. 40 CFR 721.10097 - Disubstituted benzenesulfonic acid, alkali metal salt (generic).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ..., alkali metal salt (generic). 721.10097 Section 721.10097 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL... metal salt (generic). (a) Chemical substance and significant new uses subject to reporting. (1) The chemical substance identified generically as disubstituted benzenesulfonic acid, alkali metal salt (PMN...

  10. 21 CFR 173.45 - Polymaleic acid and its sodium salt.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... reference in accordance with 5 U.S.C. 552(a) and 1 CFR part 51. Copies are available from the Division of... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Polymaleic acid and its sodium salt. 173.45... and its sodium salt. Polymaleic acid (CAS Reg. No. 26099-09-2) and its sodium salt (CAS Reg. No....

  11. 21 CFR 173.45 - Polymaleic acid and its sodium salt.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... accordance with 5 U.S.C. 552(a) and 1 CFR part 51. Copies are available from the Division of Product Policy... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2010-04-01 2009-04-01 true Polymaleic acid and its sodium salt. 173.45 Section... sodium salt. Polymaleic acid (CAS Reg. No. 26099-09-2) and its sodium salt (CAS Reg. No. 70247-90-4)...

  12. 21 CFR 173.45 - Polymaleic acid and its sodium salt.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... reference in accordance with 5 U.S.C. 552(a) and 1 CFR part 51. Copies are available from the Division of... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Polymaleic acid and its sodium salt. 173.45... and its sodium salt. Polymaleic acid (CAS Reg. No. 26099-09-2) and its sodium salt (CAS Reg. No....

  13. 40 CFR 721.6110 - Alkyldi(alkyloxyhydroxypropyl) derivative, phosphoric acid esters, potassium salts.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ...) derivative, phosphoric acid esters, potassium salts. (a) Chemical substance and significant new uses subject...) derivative, phosphoric acid esters, potassium salts. 721.6110 Section 721.6110 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) TOXIC SUBSTANCES CONTROL ACT SIGNIFICANT NEW USES OF...

  14. 40 CFR 721.6110 - Alkyldi(alkyloxyhydroxypropyl) derivative, phosphoric acid esters, potassium salts.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ...) derivative, phosphoric acid esters, potassium salts. (a) Chemical substance and significant new uses subject...) derivative, phosphoric acid esters, potassium salts. 721.6110 Section 721.6110 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) TOXIC SUBSTANCES CONTROL ACT SIGNIFICANT NEW USES OF...

  15. 40 CFR 721.1675 - Disulfonic acid rosin amine salt of a benzidine derivative (generic name).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) TOXIC SUBSTANCES CONTROL ACT SIGNIFICANT NEW USES OF CHEMICAL SUBSTANCES Significant New Uses for Specific Chemical Substances § 721.1675 Disulfonic acid rosin amine salt of a... 40 Protection of Environment 32 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Disulfonic acid rosin amine salt of...

  16. 40 CFR 721.6110 - Alkyldi(alkyloxyhydroxypropyl) derivative, phosphoric acid esters, potassium salts.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ...) derivative, phosphoric acid esters, potassium salts. (a) Chemical substance and significant new uses subject...) derivative, phosphoric acid esters, potassium salts. 721.6110 Section 721.6110 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) TOXIC SUBSTANCES CONTROL ACT SIGNIFICANT NEW USES OF...

  17. 40 CFR 721.1675 - Disulfonic acid rosin amine salt of a benzidine derivative (generic name).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) TOXIC SUBSTANCES CONTROL ACT SIGNIFICANT NEW USES OF CHEMICAL SUBSTANCES Significant New Uses for Specific Chemical Substances § 721.1675 Disulfonic acid rosin amine salt of a... 40 Protection of Environment 30 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Disulfonic acid rosin amine salt of...

  18. 40 CFR 721.1675 - Disulfonic acid rosin amine salt of a benzidine derivative (generic name).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) TOXIC SUBSTANCES CONTROL ACT SIGNIFICANT NEW USES OF CHEMICAL SUBSTANCES Significant New Uses for Specific Chemical Substances § 721.1675 Disulfonic acid rosin amine salt of a... 40 Protection of Environment 31 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Disulfonic acid rosin amine salt of...

  19. 40 CFR 721.1675 - Disulfonic acid rosin amine salt of a benzidine derivative (generic name).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) TOXIC SUBSTANCES CONTROL ACT SIGNIFICANT NEW USES OF CHEMICAL SUBSTANCES Significant New Uses for Specific Chemical Substances § 721.1675 Disulfonic acid rosin amine salt of a... 40 Protection of Environment 31 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Disulfonic acid rosin amine salt of...

  20. 40 CFR 721.7770 - Alkylphenoxypoly(oxyethylene) sulfuric acid ester, substituted amine salt.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... acid ester, substituted amine salt. 721.7770 Section 721.7770 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL... ester, substituted amine salt. (a) Chemical substance and significant new uses subject to reporting. (1) The chemical substance identified as alkyl phenoxypoly(oxyethylene) sulfuric acid ester,...

  1. 77 FR 22560 - Citric Acid and Certain Citrate Salts From the People's Republic of China: Extension of Time...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-04-16

    ... International Trade Administration Citric Acid and Certain Citrate Salts From the People's Republic of China... acid and certain citrate salts (``citric acid'') from the People's Republic of China (``PRC'').\\1\\ On...). \\2\\ See Citric Acid and Certain Citrate Salts From the People's Republic of China: Extension of...

  2. 77 FR 9891 - Citric Acid and Certain Citrate Salts from the People's Republic of China: Amended Final Results...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-02-21

    ... International Trade Administration Citric Acid and Certain Citrate Salts from the People's Republic of China... antidumping duty order on citric acid and certain citrate salts (``citric acid'') from the People's Republic... Act of 1930, as amended (``the Act''). \\1\\ See Citric Acid and Certain Citrate Salts from the...

  3. Bile acid salt binding with colesevelam HCl is not affected by suspension in common beverages.

    PubMed

    Hanus, Martin; Zhorov, Eugene

    2006-12-01

    It has been previously reported that anions in common beverages may bind to bile acid sequestrants (BAS), reducing their capacity for binding bile acid salts. This study examined the ability of the novel BAS colesevelam hydrochloride (HCl), in vitro, to bind bile acid sodium salts following suspension in common beverages. Equilibrium binding was evaluated under conditions of constant time and varying concentrations of bile acid salts in simulated intestinal fluid (SIF). A stock solution of sodium salts of glycochenodeoxycholic acid (GCDC), taurodeoxycholic acid (TDC), and glycocholic acid (GC), was added to each prepared sample of colesevelam HCl. Bile acid salt binding was calculated by high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) analysis. Kinetics experiments were conducted using constant initial bile acid salt concentrations and varying binding times. The affinity, capacity, and kinetics of colesevelam HCl binding for GCDC, TDC, and GC were not significantly altered after suspension in water, carbonated water, Coca-Cola, Sprite, grape juice, orange juice, tomato juice, or Gatorade. The amount of bile acid sodium salt bound as a function of time was unchanged by pretreatment with any beverage tested. The in vitro binding characteristics of colesevelam HCl are unchanged by suspension in common beverages. PMID:16937334

  4. A biocompatible calcium salt of hyaluronic acid grafted with polyacrylic acid.

    PubMed

    Nakagawa, Yoshiyuki; Nakasako, Satoshi; Ohta, Seiichi; Ito, Taichi

    2015-03-01

    We have synthesized hyaluronic acid (HA) grafted with polyacrylic acid (PAA) via controlled radical polymerization (CRP) in aqueous media. The grafted HA (HA-g-PAA) showed slow degradation by hyaluronidase compared with unmodified HA as a result of the steric hindrance produced by grafted PAA, and PAA was detached by hydrolysis and enzymatic degradation by lipase. It formed an insoluble salt immediately after mixing with Ca(2+) by the binding between grafted PAA and Ca(2+). Both HA-g-PAA and its salt showed good biocompatibility, especially to mesothelial cells in vitro. Finally, they were administered into mice subcutaneously and intraperitoneally. The residue of the material was observed 7 days after subcutaneous administration, while the material was almost cleared from the peritoneum 7 days after intraperitoneal administration with or without Ca(2+). HA-g-PAA is expected to be applicable to medical uses such as drug delivery in the peritoneum and for materials preventing peritoneal adhesion.

  5. Enhancing Skin Permeation of Biphenylacetic Acid (BPA) Using Salt Formation with Organic and Alkali Metal Bases.

    PubMed

    Pawar, Vijay; Naik, Prashant; Giridhar, Rajani; Yadav, Mange Ram

    2015-01-01

    In the present study, a series of organic and alkali metal salts of biphenylacetic acid (BPA) have been prepared and evaluated in vitro for percutaneous drug delivery. The physicochemical properties of BPA salts were determined using solubility measurements, DSC, and IR. The DSC thermogram and FTIR spectra confirmed the salt formation with organic and alkali metal bases. Among the series, salts with organic amines (ethanolamine, diethanolamine, triethanolamine, and diethylamine) had lowered melting points while the alkali metal salt (sodium) had a higher melting point than BPA. The in vitro study showed that salt formation improves the physicochemical properties of BPA, leading to improved permeability through the skin. Amongst all the prepared salts, ethanolamine salt (1b) showed 7.2- and 5.4-fold higher skin permeation than the parent drug at pH 7.4 and 5.0, respectively, using rat skin.

  6. Efficacy of zosteric acid sodium salt on the yeast biofilm model Candida albicans.

    PubMed

    Villa, Federica; Pitts, Betsey; Stewart, Philip S; Giussani, Barbara; Roncoroni, Simone; Albanese, Domenico; Giordano, Carmen; Tunesi, Marta; Cappitelli, Francesca

    2011-10-01

    Candida albicans is the most notorious and the most widely studied yeast biofilm former. Design of experiments (DoE) showed that 10 mg/L zosteric acid sodium salt reduced C. albicans adhesion and the subsequent biofilm formation by at least 70%, on both hydrophilic and hydrophobic surfaces of 96-well plates. Indeed, biofilm imaging revealed the dramatic impact of zosteric acid sodium salt on biofilm thickness and morphology, due to the inability of the cells to form filamentous structures while remaining metabolically active. In the same way, 10 mg/L zosteric acid sodium salt inhibited C. albicans biofilm formation when added after the adhesion phase. Contrary to zosteric acid sodium salt, methyl zosterate did not affect yeast biofilm. In addition, zosteric acid sodium salt enhanced sensitivity to chlorhexidine, chlorine, hydrogen peroxide, and cis-2-decenoic acid, with a reduction of 0.5 to 8 log units. Preliminary in vitro studies using suitable primary cell based models revealed that zosteric acid sodium salt did not compromise the cellular activity, adhesion, proliferation or morphology of either the murine fibroblast line L929 or the human osteosarcoma line MG-63. Thus the use of zosteric acid sodium salt could provide a suitable, innovative, preventive, and integrative approach to preventing yeast biofilm formation. PMID:21614460

  7. Transcriptional profiling of wine yeast in fermenting grape juice: regulatory effect of diammonium phosphate.

    PubMed

    Marks, Virginia D; van der Merwe, George K; van Vuuren, Hennie J J

    2003-05-01

    The nitrogen composition of grape musts affects fermentation kinetics and production of aroma and spoilage compounds in wine. It is common practice in wineries to supplement grape musts with diammonium phosphate (DAP) to prevent nitrogen-related fermentation problems. Laboratory strains of Saccharomyces cerevisiae preferentially use rich nitrogen sources, such as ammonia, over poor nitrogen sources. We used global gene expression analysis to monitor the effect of DAP addition on gene expression patterns in wine yeast in fermenting Riesling grape must. The expression of 350 genes in the commercial wine yeast strain VIN13 was affected; 185 genes were down-regulated and 165 genes were up-regulated in response to DAP. Genes that were down-regulated encode small molecule transporters and nitrogen catabolic enzymes, including those linked to the production of urea, a precursor of ethyl carbamate in wine. Genes involved in amino acid metabolism, assimilation of sulfate, de novo purine biosynthesis, tetrahydrofolate one-carbon metabolism, and protein synthesis were up-regulated. The expression level of 86 orphan genes was also affected by DAP. PMID:12689635

  8. Antagonistic effects of abscisic acid and jasmonates on salt stress-inducible transcripts in rice roots.

    PubMed Central

    Moons, A; Prinsen, E; Bauw, G; Van Montagu, M

    1997-01-01

    Abscisic acid (ABA) and jasmonates have been implicated in responses to water deficit and wounding. We compared the molecular and physiological effects of jasmonic acid (JA) (< or = 10 microM), ABA, and salt stress in roots of rice. JA markedly induced a cationic peroxidase, two novel 32- and 28-kD proteins, acidic PR-1 and PR-10 pathogenesis-related proteins, and the salt stress-responsive SalT protein in roots. Most JA-responsive proteins (JIPs) from roots also accumulated when plants were subjected to salt stress. None of the JIPs accumulated when plants were treated with ABA. JA did not induce an ABA-responsive group 3 late-embryogenesis abundant (LEA) protein. Salt stress and ABA but not JA induced oslea3 transcript accumulation. By contrast, JA, ABA, and salt stress induced transcript accumulation of salT and osdrr, which encodes a rice PR-10 protein. However, ABA also negatively affected salT transcript accumulation, whereas JA negatively affected ABA-induced oslea3 transcript levels. Endogenous root ABA and methyl jasmonate levels showed a differential increase with the dose and the duration of salt stress. The results indicate that ABA and jasmonates antagonistically regulated the expression of salt stress-inducible proteins associated with water deficit or defense responses. PMID:9437865

  9. In search of pure liquid salt forms of aspirin: ionic liquid approaches with acetylsalicylic acid and salicylic acid.

    PubMed

    Bica, Katharina; Rijksen, Christiaan; Nieuwenhuyzen, Mark; Rogers, Robin D

    2010-02-28

    We present an ionic liquid (IL) approach towards a dual functional liquid salt form of aspirin using different pharmaceutically active cations composed of antibacterials, analgesics, local anesthetics, and antiarrhythmic drugs in combination with acetylsalicylic acid or its metabolite salicylic acid and discuss stability of these ILs in comparison to solid salts. Several low-melting or liquid salts of salicylic acid with dual functionality and promising properties were isolated and characterized; however, although such ILs with aspirin could be prepared, they suffer from limited stability and slowly decompose into the corresponding salicylate ILs when exposed to moisture.

  10. 40 CFR 721.10135 - Phosphinic acid, P,P-diethyl-, zinc salt (2:1).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 32 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Phosphinic acid, P,P-diethyl-, zinc... Specific Chemical Substances § 721.10135 Phosphinic acid, P,P-diethyl-, zinc salt (2:1). (a) Chemical... acid, P,P-diethyl-, zinc salt (2:1) (PMN P-05-11; CAS No. 284685-45-6) is subject to reporting...

  11. 40 CFR 721.10135 - Phosphinic acid, P,P-diethyl-, zinc salt (2:1).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 32 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Phosphinic acid, P,P-diethyl-, zinc... Specific Chemical Substances § 721.10135 Phosphinic acid, P,P-diethyl-, zinc salt (2:1). (a) Chemical... acid, P,P-diethyl-, zinc salt (2:1) (PMN P-05-11; CAS No. 284685-45-6) is subject to reporting...

  12. 40 CFR 721.10135 - Phosphinic acid, P,P-diethyl-, zinc salt (2:1).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 31 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Phosphinic acid, P,P-diethyl-, zinc... Specific Chemical Substances § 721.10135 Phosphinic acid, P,P-diethyl-, zinc salt (2:1). (a) Chemical... acid, P,P-diethyl-, zinc salt (2:1) (PMN P-05-11; CAS No. 284685-45-6) is subject to reporting...

  13. 40 CFR 721.10135 - Phosphinic acid, P,P-diethyl-, zinc salt (2:1).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 31 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Phosphinic acid, P,P-diethyl-, zinc... Specific Chemical Substances § 721.10135 Phosphinic acid, P,P-diethyl-, zinc salt (2:1). (a) Chemical... acid, P,P-diethyl-, zinc salt (2:1) (PMN P-05-11; CAS No. 284685-45-6) is subject to reporting...

  14. 40 CFR 721.10135 - Phosphinic acid, P,P-diethyl-, zinc salt (2:1).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 30 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Phosphinic acid, P,P-diethyl-, zinc... Specific Chemical Substances § 721.10135 Phosphinic acid, P,P-diethyl-, zinc salt (2:1). (a) Chemical... acid, P,P-diethyl-, zinc salt (2:1) (PMN P-05-11; CAS No. 284685-45-6) is subject to reporting...

  15. 40 CFR 180.1068 - C12-C18 fatty acid potassium salts; exemption from the requirement of a tolerance.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 25 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false C12-C18 fatty acid potassium salts... RESIDUES IN FOOD Exemptions From Tolerances § 180.1068 C12-C18 fatty acid potassium salts; exemption from the requirement of a tolerance. C12-C18 fatty acids (saturated and unsaturated) potassium salts...

  16. 40 CFR 180.1068 - C12-C18 fatty acid potassium salts; exemption from the requirement of a tolerance.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 25 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false C12-C18 fatty acid potassium salts... RESIDUES IN FOOD Exemptions From Tolerances § 180.1068 C12-C18 fatty acid potassium salts; exemption from the requirement of a tolerance. C12-C18 fatty acids (saturated and unsaturated) potassium salts...

  17. 40 CFR 180.1068 - C12-C18 fatty acid potassium salts; exemption from the requirement of a tolerance.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 24 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false C12-C18 fatty acid potassium salts... RESIDUES IN FOOD Exemptions From Tolerances § 180.1068 C12-C18 fatty acid potassium salts; exemption from the requirement of a tolerance. C12-C18 fatty acids (saturated and unsaturated) potassium salts...

  18. 40 CFR 180.1068 - C12-C18 fatty acid potassium salts; exemption from the requirement of a tolerance.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 24 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false C12-C18 fatty acid potassium salts... RESIDUES IN FOOD Exemptions From Tolerances § 180.1068 C12-C18 fatty acid potassium salts; exemption from the requirement of a tolerance. C12-C18 fatty acids (saturated and unsaturated) potassium salts...

  19. 21 CFR 872.3490 - Carboxymethylcellulose sodium and/or polyvinylmethylether maleic acid calcium-sodium double salt...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... polyvinylmethylether maleic acid calcium-sodium double salt denture adhesive. 872.3490 Section 872.3490 Food and Drugs... maleic acid calcium-sodium double salt denture adhesive. (a) Identification. A carboxymethylcellulose sodium and/or polyvinylmethylether maleic acid calcium-sodium double salt denture adhesive is a...

  20. 21 CFR 872.3490 - Carboxymethylcellulose sodium and/or polyvinylmethylether maleic acid calcium-sodium double salt...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... polyvinylmethylether maleic acid calcium-sodium double salt denture adhesive. 872.3490 Section 872.3490 Food and Drugs... maleic acid calcium-sodium double salt denture adhesive. (a) Identification. A carboxymethylcellulose sodium and/or polyvinylmethylether maleic acid calcium-sodium double salt denture adhesive is a...

  1. 21 CFR 872.3490 - Carboxymethylcellulose sodium and/or polyvinylmethylether maleic acid calcium-sodium double salt...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... polyvinylmethylether maleic acid calcium-sodium double salt denture adhesive. 872.3490 Section 872.3490 Food and Drugs... maleic acid calcium-sodium double salt denture adhesive. (a) Identification. A carboxymethylcellulose sodium and/or polyvinylmethylether maleic acid calcium-sodium double salt denture adhesive is a...

  2. 21 CFR 872.3490 - Carboxymethylcellulose sodium and/or polyvinylmethylether maleic acid calcium-sodium double salt...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... polyvinylmethylether maleic acid calcium-sodium double salt denture adhesive. 872.3490 Section 872.3490 Food and Drugs... maleic acid calcium-sodium double salt denture adhesive. (a) Identification. A carboxymethylcellulose sodium and/or polyvinylmethylether maleic acid calcium-sodium double salt denture adhesive is a...

  3. 21 CFR 872.3490 - Carboxymethylcellulose sodium and/or polyvinylmethylether maleic acid calcium-sodium double salt...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... polyvinylmethylether maleic acid calcium-sodium double salt denture adhesive. 872.3490 Section 872.3490 Food and Drugs... maleic acid calcium-sodium double salt denture adhesive. (a) Identification. A carboxymethylcellulose sodium and/or polyvinylmethylether maleic acid calcium-sodium double salt denture adhesive is a...

  4. 40 CFR 180.1068 - C12-C18 fatty acid potassium salts; exemption from the requirement of a tolerance.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 23 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false C12-C18 fatty acid potassium salts... RESIDUES IN FOOD Exemptions From Tolerances § 180.1068 C12-C18 fatty acid potassium salts; exemption from the requirement of a tolerance. C12-C18 fatty acids (saturated and unsaturated) potassium salts...

  5. 77 FR 33399 - Citric Acid and Certain Citrate Salts From the People's Republic of China: Preliminary Results of...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-06-06

    ... Administrative Review, 77 FR 1455 (January 10, 2012). \\10\\ See Citric Acid and Certain Citrate Salts from the... International Trade Administration Citric Acid and Certain Citrate Salts From the People's Republic of China... administrative review of the antidumping duty order on citric acid and certain citrate salts (``citric......

  6. Synthesis, single crystal structure and energy optimization of a multicomponent salt of imidazole and tetrabromoterepthalic acid

    SciTech Connect

    Singha, S.; Kumar, S.; Dey, S. K.

    2015-06-24

    Single crystal of a multicomponent salt (IMTBTP) of imidazole with tetrabromoterepthalic acid has been synthesized by slow evaporation method at room temperature. The crystal structure of the salt has been determined by single crystal x-ray diffraction technique. The supramolecular structure analysis reveals that the multicomponent salt is formed by noncovalent hydrogen bonding interaction and Br···π interaction. The energy optimization and HOMO-LUMO energy gap calculation have been carried out by Density Functional Theory.

  7. Chromatographic resolution of a salt into its parent acid and base constituents.

    PubMed

    Davankov, Vadim; Tsyurupa, Maria

    2006-12-01

    Based on the results of the earlier proposed process of separation of mixtures of mineral electrolytes by size-exclusion chromatography (SEC), it has been suggested that a mineral salt must spontaneously resolve, at least partially, into its parent acid and base constituents, provided that the separating media discriminates the anion and cation of the salt according to their size. Indeed, migration of a zone of an aqueous salt solution through a bed of neutral nanoporous hypercrosslinked polystyrene-type packing was shown to result in the generation of acidic and alkaline effluent fractions. The principle of spontaneous salt resolution has been extended to other types of discriminating interactions between the stationary phase and the two ions of the salt. The idea was exemplified by the resolution of ammonium acetate, due to hydrophobic retention of the acetate, into fractions enriched in ammoniac and then acetic acid.

  8. Bulk, surface properties and water uptake mechanisms of salt/acid amorphous composite systems.

    PubMed

    Bianco, Stefano; Tewes, Frederic; Tajber, Lidia; Caron, Vincent; Corrigan, Owen I; Healy, Anne Marie

    2013-11-01

    Developing amorphous pharmaceuticals can be desirable due to advantageous biopharmaceutical properties. Low glass transition temperature (Tg) amorphous drugs can be protected from crystallisation by mixing with high Tg excipients, such as polymers, or with salt forms. However, both polymers and salts can enhance the water uptake. The aim of this study was to formulate physico-chemically stable amorphous materials, by co-processing different proportions of sulfathiazole and its sodium salt to produce an optimum ratio, characterised by the best physical stability and lowest hygroscopicity. Both sulfathiazole and salt amorphised upon spray drying. At room temperature, sulfathiazole crystallised within 1h at <5% relative humidity while the salt deliquesced when exposed to ambient humidity conditions. In the case of composite systems, FTIR spectroscopy, thermal and surface analysis suggested interactions with an acid:salt stoichiometry of 1:2. Increasing proportions of salt raised the Tg, enhancing the storage stability, however this was opposed by an enhanced hygroscopicity. The water uptake mechanism within the different amorphous systems, analysed by fitting the water sorption isotherms with the Young and Nelson equation, was dependent on the ratio employed, with the salt and the acid facilitating absorption and adsorption, respectively. Tuning the properties of amorphous salt/acid composites by optimising the ratio appears potentially promising to improve the physical stability of amorphous formulations. PMID:23948137

  9. 40 CFR 721.3820 - L-Glutamic acid, N-(1-oxododecyl)-, disodium salt.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ...)-, disodium salt. 721.3820 Section 721.3820 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) TOXIC SUBSTANCES CONTROL ACT SIGNIFICANT NEW USES OF CHEMICAL SUBSTANCES Significant New Uses for Specific Chemical Substances § 721.3820 L-Glutamic acid, N-(1-oxododecyl)-, disodium salt. (a)...

  10. 40 CFR 721.3820 - L-Glutamic acid, N-(1-oxododecyl)-, disodium salt.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ...)-, disodium salt. 721.3820 Section 721.3820 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) TOXIC SUBSTANCES CONTROL ACT SIGNIFICANT NEW USES OF CHEMICAL SUBSTANCES Significant New Uses for Specific Chemical Substances § 721.3820 L-Glutamic acid, N-(1-oxododecyl)-, disodium salt. (a)...

  11. 40 CFR 721.3820 - L-Glutamic acid, N-(1-oxododecyl)-, disodium salt.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ...)-, disodium salt. 721.3820 Section 721.3820 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) TOXIC SUBSTANCES CONTROL ACT SIGNIFICANT NEW USES OF CHEMICAL SUBSTANCES Significant New Uses for Specific Chemical Substances § 721.3820 L-Glutamic acid, N-(1-oxododecyl)-, disodium salt. (a)...

  12. 40 CFR 721.3820 - L-Glutamic acid, N-(1-oxododecyl)-, disodium salt.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ...)-, disodium salt. 721.3820 Section 721.3820 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) TOXIC SUBSTANCES CONTROL ACT SIGNIFICANT NEW USES OF CHEMICAL SUBSTANCES Significant New Uses for Specific Chemical Substances § 721.3820 L-Glutamic acid, N-(1-oxododecyl)-, disodium salt. (a)...

  13. 40 CFR 721.10487 - Alkylbenzenes sulfonic acids, metal salts (generic).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... salts (generic). 721.10487 Section 721.10487 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) TOXIC SUBSTANCES CONTROL ACT SIGNIFICANT NEW USES OF CHEMICAL SUBSTANCES Significant New Uses for Specific Chemical Substances § 721.10487 Alkylbenzenes sulfonic acids, metal salts (generic). (a)...

  14. Structure of seven organic salts assembled from 2,6-diaminopyridine with monocarboxylic acids, dicarboxylic acids, and tetracarboxylic acids

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gao, Xingjun; Zhang, Huan; Wen, Xianhong; Liu, Bin; Jin, Shouwen; Wang, Daqi

    2015-08-01

    Studies concentrating on non-covalent interactions between the organic base of 2,6-diaminopyridine, and carboxylic acids have led to an increased understanding of the role 2,6-diaminopyridine in binding with carboxylic acid derivatives. Here anhydrous and hydrated multi-component organic acid-base salts of 2,6-diaminopyridine have been prepared with the carboxylic acids as nicotinic acid, o-chlorobenzoic acid, 1,3-benzodioxole-5-carboxylic acid, 3,5-dinitrosalicylic acid, 4-nitro-phthalic acid, 1,4-cyclohexanedicarboxylic acid, and butane-1,2,3,4-tetracarboxylic acid. The seven crystalline compounds were characterized by X-ray diffraction analysis, infrared (IR), melting point (mp), and elemental analysis. All structures adopted the hetero R22(8) supramolecular synthons. The supramolecular architectures bear extensive Nsbnd H⋯N, Osbnd H⋯N, Osbnd H⋯O, Nsbnd H⋯O, and CH⋯O associations as well as other nonbonding contacts as CHsbnd N, CH2sbnd O, π-π, C-π, O-π, Cl-π, Clsbnd O, and Osbnd O interactions. The role of weak and strong hydrogen bonding in the crystal packing is ascertained.

  15. Comparison of peak shape in hydrophilic interaction chromatography using acidic salt buffers and simple acid solutions.

    PubMed

    Heaton, James C; Russell, Joseph J; Underwood, Tim; Boughtflower, Robert; McCalley, David V

    2014-06-20

    The retention and peak shape of neutral, basic and acidic solutes was studied on hydrophilic interaction chromatography (HILIC) stationary phases that showed both strong and weak ionic retention characteristics, using aqueous-acetonitrile mobile phases containing either formic acid (FA), ammonium formate (AF) or phosphoric acid (PA). The effect of organic solvent concentration on the results was also studied. Peak shape was good for neutrals under most mobile phase conditions. However, peak shapes for ionised solutes, particularly for basic compounds, were considerably worse in FA than AF. Even neutral compounds showed deterioration in performance with FA when the mobile phase water concentration was reduced. The poor performance in FA cannot be entirely attributed to the negative impact of ionic retention on ionised silanols on the underlying silica base materials, as results using PA at lower pH (where their ionisation is suppressed) were inferior to those in AF. Besides the moderating influence of the salt cation on ionic retention, it is likely that salt buffers improve peak shape due to the increased ionic strength of the mobile phase and its impact on the formation of the water layer on the column surface.

  16. Salt and acid studies on canine lingual epithelium.

    PubMed

    Simon, S A; Garvin, J L

    1985-11-01

    A section of dog tongue just anterior to the circumvallate papillae was placed in an Ussing chamber and characterized with respect to monovalent cation transport pathways, response to HCl, and the interaction between salt and acid for the purposes of determining whether ion transport through the tongue is related to the transduction process. The primary findings of this work follow. The stimulation of the short-circuit current (Isc) with decreasing pH on the dorsal surface results from a net Cl- efflux through an amiloride- and ouabain-insensitive pathway that changed its selectivity from cationic at neutral pH to anionic at lower pH values. The stimulation is abolished at isotonic NaCl concentrations. This behavior would not be predicted from the proton-binding model to a "sour receptor" as suggested by Beidler (Handbook of Sensory Physiology; Berlin: Springer-Verlag, 1971). In symmetrical solutions of Krebs-Henseleit buffer, Isc is inhibited 30% by 10(-4) M amiloride on the mucosal side and 100% by 10(-3) M ouabain on the serosal side. These results coupled with net Cl- and Na+ flux measurements show that Isc is due to a net Cl- efflux. With 1.0 M NaCl on the dorsal side, 10(-4) M amiloride inhibits Isc 84%. In contrast, when the mucosal surface is bathed in KCl (1.0 M), CsCl (1.0 M), or HCl (10(-3) M), Isc is insensitive to both 10(-4) M amiloride and/or 10(-3) M ouabain. These data suggest that K+, Cs+, and H+ traverse the tongue through different pathways from Na+ and are not energized by a Na+ gradient. PMID:4061627

  17. 40 CFR 721.10630 - Amino acid, carboxyalkyl, alkylsulfonate, alkali salt (generic).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 32 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Amino acid, carboxyalkyl... Significant New Uses for Specific Chemical Substances § 721.10630 Amino acid, carboxyalkyl, alkylsulfonate... chemical substances identified generically as amino acid, carboxyalkyl, alkylsulfonate, alkali salts...

  18. 40 CFR 721.10630 - Amino acid, carboxyalkyl, alkylsulfonate, alkali salt (generic).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 31 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Amino acid, carboxyalkyl... Significant New Uses for Specific Chemical Substances § 721.10630 Amino acid, carboxyalkyl, alkylsulfonate... chemical substances identified generically as amino acid, carboxyalkyl, alkylsulfonate, alkali salts...

  19. Reaction of /alpha/,/beta/-unsaturated acyl isothiocyanates with salts of dithiocarbamic acids

    SciTech Connect

    Krus, K.; Masias, A.; Beletskaya, I.P.

    1989-01-10

    The reaction of unsaturated isothiocyanates with the sodium and calcium salts of N-alkyl- and N,N-dialkyldithiocarbamic acids was studied. Depending on the structure of the dithiocarbamate, the reaction products are thiazines or acyl dithiocarbamates. For the salts of methyldithiocarbamic acid the effect of the concentration and the nature of the metal on the relative yields of 6-phenyl-3-methylpropiorhodanine and 6-phenylpropiorhodanine was studied. A method is proposed for the synthesis of 3-substituted propiorhodanines.

  20. Structure of eight molecular salts assembled from noncovalent bonding between carboxylic acids, imidazole, and benzimidazole

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jin, Shouwen; Zhang, Huan; Liu, Hui; Wen, Xianhong; Li, Minghui; Wang, Daqi

    2015-09-01

    Eight organic salts of imidazole/benzimidazole have been prepared with carboxylic acids as 2-methyl-2-phenoxypropanoic acid, α-ketoglutaric acid, 5-nitrosalicylic acid, isophthalic acid, 4-nitro-phthalic acid, and 3,5-dinitrosalicylic acid. The eight crystalline forms reported are proton-transfer compounds of which the crystals and compounds were characterized by X-ray diffraction analysis, IR, mp, and elemental analysis. These structures adopted hetero supramolecular synthons, with the most common R22(7) motif observed at salts 2, 3, 5, 6 and 8. Analysis of the crystal packing of 1-8 suggests that there are extensive strong Nsbnd H⋯O, and Osbnd H⋯O hydrogen bonds (charge assisted or neutral) between acid and imidazolyl components in all of the salts. Except the classical hydrogen bonding interactions, the secondary propagating interactions also play important roles in structure extension. This variety, coupled with the varying geometries and number of acidic groups of the acids utilized, has led to the creation of eight supramolecular arrays with 1D-3D structure. The role of weak and strong noncovalent interactions in the crystal packing is analyzed. The results presented herein indicate that the strength and directionality of the Nsbnd H⋯O, and Osbnd H⋯O hydrogen bonds between acids and imidazole/benzimidazole are sufficient to bring about the formation of organic salts.

  1. 76 FR 4288 - Citric Acid and Certain Citrate Salts From the People's Republic of China: Notice of Extension of...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-01-25

    ... International Trade Administration Citric Acid and Certain Citrate Salts From the People's Republic of China... review of the antidumping duty order on citric acid and certain citrate salts (``citric acid'') from the... administrative review of citric acid from the PRC within this time limit. Among other things, additional time...

  2. Conservation of energy in monoammonium and diammonium phosphate fertilizer granulation plants. Final progress report No. 12

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1983-09-01

    Work done during the last three years to further commercialize pipe-cross reactor (PCR) technology in the production of granular homogeneous NPKS, monoammonium phosphate (MAP), and diammonium phosphate (DAP) fertilizers is summarized. The theory of granulation, the energy savings when replacing conventional ammoniation-granulation with PCR melt granulation, investment cost and payback, etc. are discussed in detail. (MHR)

  3. Antiviral effect of diammonium glycyrrhizinate on cell infection by porcine parvovirus

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Porcine parvovirus (PPV) can cause reproductive failure in swine resulting in economic losses to the industry. Antiviral effects of diammonium glycyrrhizinate (DG) have been reported on several animal viruses; however, to date it has yet to be tested on PPV. In this study, the antiviral activity of ...

  4. Negative salt effect in an acid-base diode: Simulations and experiments

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Roszol, L.; Várnai, A.; Lorántfy, B.; Noszticzius, Z.; Wittmann, M.

    2010-02-01

    The paper describes a new phenomenon discovered in the electrolytic analog of a semiconductor diode. As an example, the phenomenon is studied in the 0.1M KOH-0.1M HCl diode where the alkaline and the acidic reservoirs are connected by a hydrogel cylinder. First the traditional, so-called positive salt effect is discussed. In that case some salt is added to the alkaline reservoir of a reverse biased electrolyte diode and as a result, close to a critical concentration of the added salt the electric current increases sharply. The so-called negative salt effect appears as a suppression of the positive one. It is shown by numerical simulations, by approximate analytical formulae, and also by experiments that the high current caused by the salt contamination in the alkaline reservoir can be mostly suppressed by relatively small salt concentrations in the acidic reservoir. Thus a straightforward application of the negative salt effect would be the sensitive detection of nonhydrogen cations in an acidic medium (e.g., in ion chromatography).

  5. Inhibition studies of soybean (Glycine max) urease with heavy metals, sodium salts of mineral acids, boric acid, and boronic acids.

    PubMed

    Kumar, Sandeep; Kayastha, Arvind M

    2010-10-01

    Various inhibitors were tested for their inhibitory effects on soybean urease. The K(i) values for boric acid, 4-bromophenylboronic acid, butylboronic acid, and phenylboronic acid were 0.20 +/- 0.05 mM, 0.22 +/- 0.04 mM, 1.50 +/- 0.10 mM, and 2.00 +/- 0.11 mM, respectively. The inhibition was competitive type with boric acid and boronic acids. Heavy metal ions including Ag(+), Hg(2+), and Cu(2+) showed strong inhibition on soybean urease, with the silver ion being a potent inhibitor (IC(50) = 2.3 x 10(-8) mM). Time-dependent inhibition studies exhibited biphasic kinetics with all heavy metal ions. Furthermore, inhibition studies with sodium salts of mineral acids (NaF, NaCl, NaNO(3), and Na(2)SO(4)) showed that only F(-) inhibited soybean urease significantly (IC(50) = 2.9 mM). Competitive type of inhibition was observed for this anion with a K(i) value of 1.30 mM.

  6. 40 CFR 747.200 - Triethanolamine salt of tricarboxylic acid.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ...-1005) has been regulated by the Environmental Protection Agency, at 40 CFR 747.200, as published in the... regulated by the Environmental Protection Agency (40 CFR 747.200 published in the Federal Register of... 40 Protection of Environment 32 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Triethanolamine salt of...

  7. 40 CFR 747.200 - Triethanolamine salt of tricarboxylic acid.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ...-1005) has been regulated by the Environmental Protection Agency, at 40 CFR 747.200, as published in the... regulated by the Environmental Protection Agency (40 CFR 747.200 published in the Federal Register of... 40 Protection of Environment 31 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Triethanolamine salt of...

  8. 40 CFR 747.200 - Triethanolamine salt of tricarboxylic acid.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ...-1005) has been regulated by the Environmental Protection Agency, at 40 CFR 747.200, as published in the... regulated by the Environmental Protection Agency (40 CFR 747.200 published in the Federal Register of... 40 Protection of Environment 32 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Triethanolamine salt of...

  9. 40 CFR 747.200 - Triethanolamine salt of tricarboxylic acid.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ...-1005) has been regulated by the Environmental Protection Agency, at 40 CFR 747.200, as published in the... regulated by the Environmental Protection Agency (40 CFR 747.200 published in the Federal Register of... 40 Protection of Environment 30 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Triethanolamine salt of...

  10. 40 CFR 747.200 - Triethanolamine salt of tricarboxylic acid.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ...-1005) has been regulated by the Environmental Protection Agency, at 40 CFR 747.200, as published in the... regulated by the Environmental Protection Agency (40 CFR 747.200 published in the Federal Register of... 40 Protection of Environment 31 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Triethanolamine salt of...

  11. Exogenous gibberellic acid reprograms soybean to higher growth and salt stress tolerance.

    PubMed

    Hamayun, Muhammad; Khan, Sumera Afzal; Khan, Abdul Latif; Shin, Jae-Ho; Ahmad, Bashir; Shin, Dong-Hyun; Lee, In-Jung

    2010-06-23

    The agricultural industry is severely affected by salinity due to its high magnitude of adverse impacts and worldwide distribution. We observed the role of exogenous gibberellic acid (GA(3)) in salinity alleviation of soybean. We found that GA(3) application significantly promoted plant length and plant fresh/dry biomass while markedly hindered by NaCl induced salt stress. The adverse effect of salt stress was mitigated by GA(3), as growth attributes significantly recovered, when GA(3) was added to salt stressed soybean plants. Elevated GA(3) treatments increased daidzein and genistein contents (commonly known as phytoestrogens) of soybean leaves under control and salt stress conditions. Phytohormonal analysis of soybean showed that the level of bioactive gibberellins (GA(1) and GA(4)) and jasmonic acid increased in GA(3) treated plants, while the endogenous abscisic acid and salicylic acid contents declined under the same treatment. GA(3) mitigated the adverse effects of salt stress by regulating the level of phytohormones, thus aiding the plant in resuming its normal growth and development. The presence of GA(1) and GA(4) showed that both early-C13-hydroxylation and non-C13-hydroxylation pathways of GA biosynthesis are functional in soybean. It was concluded that GA(3) ameliorates the adverse effects of salt stress and restores normal growth and development of soybean.

  12. Closed cycle ion exchange method for regenerating acids, bases and salts

    DOEpatents

    Dreyfuss, Robert M.

    1976-01-01

    A method for conducting a chemical reaction in acidic, basic, or neutral solution as required and then regenerating the acid, base, or salt by means of ion exchange in a closed cycle reaction sequence which comprises contacting the spent acid, base, or salt with an ion exchanger, preferably a synthetic organic ion-exchange resin, so selected that the counter ions thereof are ions also produced as a by-product in the closed reaction cycle, and then regenerating the spent ion exchanger by contact with the by-product counter ions. The method is particularly applicable to closed cycle processes for the thermochemical production of hydrogen.

  13. General Synthesis of Amino Acid Salts from Amino Alcohols and Basic Water Liberating H2.

    PubMed

    Hu, Peng; Ben-David, Yehoshoa; Milstein, David

    2016-05-18

    An atom-economical and environmentally friendly method to transform amino alcohols to amino acid salts using just basic water, without the need of pre-protection or added oxidant, catalyzed by a ruthenium pincer complex, is developed. Water is the solvent, the source of the oxygen atom of the carboxylic acid group, and the actual oxidant, with liberation of dihydrogen. Many important and useful natural and unnatural amino acid salts can be produced in excellent yields by applying this new method. PMID:27139983

  14. [Simultaneous separation of organic acid and organic salts by electrostatic ion chromatography].

    PubMed

    Shen, G J; Yang, R F; Yu, A M

    2001-09-01

    The electrostatic ion chromatographic column was prepared by coating conjugated acid salt micelles on the surface of octadecyl silica stationary phase. Pure water was used as mobile phase, and the conductance detector was connected on-line to electrostatic ion chromatograph. The conditions under which organic acid and organic salts were detected were studied. The mechanism for the above separation is discussed. Sodium benzoate and citric acid in Lichee drink were separated and determined. This method is rapid, simple with little interference and good reproducibility without any pollution since the mobile phase is water. This is an environmental friendly analytical method. PMID:12545440

  15. 40 CFR 747.195 - Triethanolamine salt of a substituted organic acid.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... Agency, at 40 CFR 747.195, as published in the Federal Register of June 14, 1984. A copy of the... organic acid. 747.195 Section 747.195 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED... Substances § 747.195 Triethanolamine salt of a substituted organic acid. This section identifies...

  16. 40 CFR 747.195 - Triethanolamine salt of a substituted organic acid.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... Agency, at 40 CFR 747.195, as published in the Federal Register of June 14, 1984. A copy of the... organic acid. 747.195 Section 747.195 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED... Substances § 747.195 Triethanolamine salt of a substituted organic acid. This section identifies...

  17. 40 CFR 747.195 - Triethanolamine salt of a substituted organic acid.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... Agency, at 40 CFR 747.195, as published in the Federal Register of June 14, 1984. A copy of the... organic acid. 747.195 Section 747.195 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED... Substances § 747.195 Triethanolamine salt of a substituted organic acid. This section identifies...

  18. 40 CFR 747.195 - Triethanolamine salt of a substituted organic acid.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... Agency, at 40 CFR 747.195, as published in the Federal Register of June 14, 1984. A copy of the... organic acid. 747.195 Section 747.195 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED... Substances § 747.195 Triethanolamine salt of a substituted organic acid. This section identifies...

  19. 40 CFR 747.195 - Triethanolamine salt of a substituted organic acid.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... Agency, at 40 CFR 747.195, as published in the Federal Register of June 14, 1984. A copy of the... organic acid. 747.195 Section 747.195 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED... Substances § 747.195 Triethanolamine salt of a substituted organic acid. This section identifies...

  20. 76 FR 5782 - Citric Acid and Certain Citrate Salts From Canada: Preliminary Results of Antidumping Duty...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-02-02

    ... Part, and Final Determination to Not Revoke Order in Part: Canned Pineapple Fruit from Thailand, 68 FR... Administrative Reviews and Requests for Revocation in Part, 75 FR 37759 (June 30, 2010). Also on June 30, 2010... Acid and Certain Citrate Salts from Canada, 74 FR 16843 (April 13, 2009) (Citric Acid LTFV)....

  1. 76 FR 34044 - Citric Acid and Certain Citrate Salts From Canada: Final Results of Antidumping Duty...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-06-10

    ... Citrate Salts From Canada: Preliminary Results of Antidumping Duty Administrative Review, 76 FR 5782... The scope of this order includes all grades and granulation sizes of citric acid, sodium citrate, and.... The scope also includes blends of citric acid, sodium citrate, and potassium citrate; as well...

  2. 78 FR 34338 - Citric Acid and Certain Citrate Salts From Canada: Preliminary Results of Antidumping Duty...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-06-07

    ...: Antidumping Duty Orders, 74 FR 25703 (May 29, 2009) (Citric Acid Duty Orders). Methodology The Department has...: Assessment of Antidumping Duties, 68 FR 23954 (May 6, 2003). Cash Deposit Requirements The following deposit... International Trade Administration Citric Acid and Certain Citrate Salts From Canada: Preliminary Results...

  3. Copolymer of methacrylic acid with its diethylammonium salt: Effective waterproofing agent for oil wells

    SciTech Connect

    Kuznetsova, O.N.; Avvakumova, N.I.

    1992-08-10

    In the development of technology for the copolymerization of methacrylic acid with its diethylammonium salt (MAA-MAA{center_dot}DEA), the polymer-like reaction of polymethacrylic acid (PMAA) with diethylamine (DEA) and the polymerization of MAA in the presence of DEA have been studied. 13 refs., 3 figs., 4 tabs.

  4. Five organic salts assembled from carboxylic acids and bis-imidazole derivatives through collective noncovalent interactions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jin, Shouwen; Guo, Jianzhong; Liu, Li; Wang, Daqi

    2011-10-01

    Five multicomponent crystals of bis(imidazole) derivatives have been prepared with 5-nitrosalicylic acid, 5-sulfosalicylic acid, and phthalic acid. The five crystalline forms reported are organic salts of which the crystal structures have all been determined by X-ray diffraction. The results presented herein indicate that the strength and directionality of the N sbnd H⋯O, O sbnd H⋯O, and N sbnd H⋯N hydrogen bonds (ionic or neutral) between carboxylic acids and ditopic imidazoles are sufficient to bring about the formation of binary organic salts. All supramolecular architectures of the organic salts 1- 5 involve extensive O sbnd H⋯O, and N sbnd H⋯O hydrogen bonds as well as other noncovalent interactions. The role of weak and strong noncovalent interactions in the crystal packing is ascertained. These noncovalent interactions combined, all the complexes displayed 3D framework structure.

  5. Solubility of the Sodium and Ammonium Salts of Oxalic Acid in Water with Ammonium Sulfate.

    PubMed

    Buttke, Lukas G; Schueller, Justin R; Pearson, Christian S; Beyer, Keith D

    2016-08-18

    The solubility of the sodium and ammonium salts of oxalic acid in water with ammonium sulfate present has been studied using differential scanning calorimetry, X-ray crystallography, and infrared spectroscopy. The crystals that form from aqueous mixtures of ammonium sulfate/sodium hydrogen oxalate were determined to be sodium hydrogen oxalate monohydrate under low ammonium sulfate conditions and ammonium hydrogen oxalate hemihydrate under high ammonium sulfate conditions. Crystals from aqueous mixtures of ammonium sulfate/sodium oxalate were determined to be ammonium oxalate monohydrate under moderate to high ammonium sulfate concentrations and sodium oxalate under low ammonium sulfate concentrations. It was also found that ammonium sulfate enhances the solubility of the sodium oxalate salts (salting in effect) and decreases the solubility of the ammonium oxalate salts (salting out effect). In addition, a partial phase diagram for the ammonium hydrogen oxalate/water system was determined.

  6. Solubility of the Sodium and Ammonium Salts of Oxalic Acid in Water with Ammonium Sulfate.

    PubMed

    Buttke, Lukas G; Schueller, Justin R; Pearson, Christian S; Beyer, Keith D

    2016-08-18

    The solubility of the sodium and ammonium salts of oxalic acid in water with ammonium sulfate present has been studied using differential scanning calorimetry, X-ray crystallography, and infrared spectroscopy. The crystals that form from aqueous mixtures of ammonium sulfate/sodium hydrogen oxalate were determined to be sodium hydrogen oxalate monohydrate under low ammonium sulfate conditions and ammonium hydrogen oxalate hemihydrate under high ammonium sulfate conditions. Crystals from aqueous mixtures of ammonium sulfate/sodium oxalate were determined to be ammonium oxalate monohydrate under moderate to high ammonium sulfate concentrations and sodium oxalate under low ammonium sulfate concentrations. It was also found that ammonium sulfate enhances the solubility of the sodium oxalate salts (salting in effect) and decreases the solubility of the ammonium oxalate salts (salting out effect). In addition, a partial phase diagram for the ammonium hydrogen oxalate/water system was determined. PMID:27482644

  7. Effects of essential fatty acid deficiency on enterohepatic circulation of bile salts in mice.

    PubMed

    Lukovac, S; Los, E L; Stellaard, F; Rings, E H H M; Verkade, H J

    2009-09-01

    Essential fatty acid (EFA) deficiency in mice has been associated with increased bile production, which is mainly determined by the enterohepatic circulation (EHC) of bile salts. To establish the mechanism underlying the increased bile production, we characterized in detail the EHC of bile salts in EFA-deficient mice using stable isotope technique, without interrupting the normal EHC. Farnesoid X receptor (FXR) has been proposed as an important regulator of bile salt synthesis and homeostasis. In Fxr(-/-) mice we additionally investigated to what extent alterations in bile production during EFA deficiency were FXR dependent. Furthermore, we tested in differentiating Caco-2 cells the effects of EFA deficiency on expression of FXR-target genes relevant for feedback regulation of bile salt synthesis. EFA deficiency-enhanced bile flow and biliary bile salt secretion were associated with elevated bile salt pool size and synthesis rate (+146 and +42%, respectively, P < 0.05), despite increased ileal bile salt reabsorption (+228%, P < 0.05). Cyp7a1 mRNA expression was unaffected in EFA-deficient mice. However, ileal mRNA expression of Fgf15 (inhibitor of bile salt synthesis) was significantly reduced, in agreement with absent inhibition of the hepatic bile salt synthesis. Bile flow and biliary secretion were enhanced to the same extent in EFA-deficient wild-type and Fxr(-/-) mice, indicating contribution of other factors besides FXR in regulation of EHC during EFA deficiency. In vitro experiments show reduced induction of mRNA expression of relevant genes upon chenodeoxycholic acid and a selective FXR agonist GW4064 stimulation in EFA-deficient Caco-2 cells. In conclusion, our data indicate that EFA deficiency is associated with interrupted negative feedback of bile salt synthesis, possibly because of reduced ileal Fgf15 expression.

  8. Conformation of the umifenovir cation in the molecular and crystal structures of four carboxylic acid salts

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Orola, Liana; Sarcevica, Inese; Kons, Artis; Actins, Andris; Veidis, Mikelis V.

    2014-01-01

    The umifenovir salts of maleic, salicylic, glutaric, and gentisic acid as well as the chloroform solvate of the salicylate were prepared. Single crystals of the five compounds were obtained and their molecular and crystal structures determined by X-ray diffraction. In each structure the conformation of phenyl ring with respect to the indole group of the umifenovir moiety is different. The water solubility and melting points of the studied umifenovir salts have been determined.

  9. Supplementation of dairy cow diets with calcium salts of long-chain fatty acids and nicotinic acid in early lactation.

    PubMed

    Erickson, P S; Murphy, M R; Clark, J H

    1992-04-01

    Forty multiparous Holstein cows were assigned to one of four treatments 15 d postpartum according to milk yield during wk 2 postpartum to examine the effects of supplementing niacin, Ca salts of long-chain fatty acids, and their interaction. Treatments were control, niacin (12 g/d), Ca salts of long-chain fatty acids (3% of dietary DM), or a combination of niacin and Ca salts. On d 99 postpartum, all cows were fed the control treatment for 2 wk to evaluate residual effects. Milk and FCM yields, blood plasma NEFA and beta-hydroxybutyrate concentrations, and apparent total tract hemicellulose digestibility were increased; milk protein percentage, milk SNF percentage, and blood plasma glucose concentrations were reduced by treatments containing the Ca soaps. Niacin supplementation increased milk protein content and yield but reduced blood plasma beta-hydroxybutyrate concentration. During the residual period, in which all cows received the control treatment, milk yield and plasma NEFA concentration remained elevated, milk protein and SNF contents remained depressed, and milk fat content was reduced for cows previously supplemented with Ca salts of long-chain fatty acids. Methionine and phenylalanine uptakes by the mammary gland were enhanced by niacin supplementation. Results indicated that dairy cattle in early lactation yielded more milk when their diets were supplemented with Ca salts of long-chain fatty acids and that niacin supplementation increased milk protein content and yield.

  10. Synthesis and biological activity of arylspiroborate salts derived from caffeic Acid phenethyl ester.

    PubMed

    Hébert, Martin J G; Flewelling, Andrew J; Clark, Trevor N; Levesque, Natalie A; Jean-François, Jacques; Surette, Marc E; Gray, Christopher A; Vogels, Christopher M; Touaibia, Mohamed; Westcott, Stephen A

    2015-01-01

    Two novel boron compounds containing caffeic acid phenethyl ester (CAPE) derivatives have been prepared and characterized fully. These new compounds and CAPE have been investigated for potential antioxidant and antimicrobial properties and their ability to inhibit 5-lipoxygenase and whether chelation to boron improves their biological activity. Sodium salt 4 was generally more active than ammonium salt 5 in the biological assays and surpassed the radical scavenging ability of CAPE. Compounds 4 and 5 were more active than CAPE and Zileuton in human polymorphonuclear leukocytes. These results clearly show the effectiveness of the synthesized salts as transporter of CAPE. PMID:25834744

  11. Synthesis and Biological Activity of Arylspiroborate Salts Derived from Caffeic Acid Phenethyl Ester

    PubMed Central

    Hébert, Martin J. G.; Flewelling, Andrew J.; Clark, Trevor N.; Jean-François, Jacques; Surette, Marc E.; Gray, Christopher A.; Vogels, Christopher M.; Touaibia, Mohamed; Westcott, Stephen A.

    2015-01-01

    Two novel boron compounds containing caffeic acid phenethyl ester (CAPE) derivatives have been prepared and characterized fully. These new compounds and CAPE have been investigated for potential antioxidant and antimicrobial properties and their ability to inhibit 5-lipoxygenase and whether chelation to boron improves their biological activity. Sodium salt 4 was generally more active than ammonium salt 5 in the biological assays and surpassed the radical scavenging ability of CAPE. Compounds 4 and 5 were more active than CAPE and Zileuton in human polymorphonuclear leukocytes. These results clearly show the effectiveness of the synthesized salts as transporter of CAPE. PMID:25834744

  12. 40 CFR 721.10202 - Benzoic acid, 4-chloro-2- [(substituted)azo]-, strontium salt (1:1) (generic).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 32 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Benzoic acid, 4-chloro-2- -, strontium... New Uses for Specific Chemical Substances § 721.10202 Benzoic acid, 4-chloro-2- -, strontium salt (1:1... identified generically as benzoic acid, 4-chloro-2- -, strontium salt (1:1) (PMN P-08-701) is subject...

  13. 77 FR 72323 - Citric Acid and Certain Citrate Salts From the People's Republic of China: Final Results of...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-12-05

    ... International Trade Administration Citric Acid and Certain Citrate Salts From the People's Republic of China...) has completed its administrative review of the countervailing duty (CVD) order on citric acid and... is citric acid and certain citrate salts. The product is currently classified under the...

  14. 76 FR 47146 - Citric Acid and Certain Citrate Salts From the People's Republic of China: Extension of Time...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-08-04

    ... International Trade Administration Citric Acid and Certain Citrate Salts From the People's Republic of China...'') published the initiation of the administrative review of the antidumping duty order on citric acid and certain citrate salts (``citric acid'') from the People's Republic of China (``PRC''). See Initiation...

  15. 77 FR 1455 - Citric Acid and Certain Citrate Salts From the People's Republic of China: Extension of Time...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-01-10

    ..., 76 FR 37781, 37785 (June 28, 2011). This review covers the period May 1, 2010, through April 30, 2011... International Trade Administration Citric Acid and Certain Citrate Salts From the People's Republic of China... acid and certain citrate salts (``citric acid'') from the People's Republic of China (``PRC'')....

  16. [Preparation and antitussive, expectorant and antiasthmatic activities of verticinone-bile acids salts].

    PubMed

    Xu, Fang-Zhou; Zhang, Yong-Hui; Ruan, Han-Li; Pi, Hui-Fang; Chen, Chang; Wu, Ji-Zhou

    2007-03-01

    To search for potential drugs with potent antitussive, expectorant, antiasthmatic activities and low toxicity, a series of verticinone-bile acids salts were prepared based on the clearly elucidated antitussive, expectorant and antiasthmatic activities of verticinone in bulbs of Fritillaria and different bile acids in Snake Bile. The antitussive, expectorant and antiasthmatic activities of these verticinone-bile acid salts were then screened with different animal models. Ver-CA (verticinone-cholic acid salt) and Ver-CDCA (verticinone-chenodeoxycholic acid salt) showed much more potent activities than other compounds. The bioactivities of Ver-CA and Ver-CDCA are worthy to be intensively studied, and it is also deserved to pay much attention to their much more potent antitussive effects than codeine phosphate. In order to elucidate whether they have synergistic effect and attenuated toxicity, their activities will be continuously compared with single verticinone, cholic acid and chenodeoxycholic acid at the same doses on different animal models. The application of "combination principles" in traditional Chinese medicinal formulations may be a novel way in triditional Chinese medicine research and discovery.

  17. Synthesis and optical resolution of an allenoic acid by diastereomeric salt formation induced by chiral alkaloids.

    PubMed

    Nyhlén, Jonas; Eriksson, Lars; Bäckvall, Jan-E

    2008-01-01

    A synthetic procedure for the preparation of 4-cyclohexyl-2-methyl-buta-2,3-dienoic acid in the two optically active forms has been developed. Synthesis of the racemic allenoic acid was made by an efficient route with good overall yield. Resolution of the enantiomers was achieved by forming the cinchonidine and cinchonine diastereomeric salt, respectively, and the enantiomers were isolated in up to 95% enantiomeric excess. The absolute configuration of the allenoic acid was determined by X-ray crystallography.

  18. Process for the preparation of 3,4-dihydroxybutanoic acid and salts thereof

    DOEpatents

    Hollingsworth, Rawle I.

    1994-01-01

    A process for the preparation of 3,4-dihydroxybutanoic acid (1) and salts thereof from a glucose source containing 1,4-linked glucose as a substituent is described. The process uses an alkali metal hdyroxide and hydrogen peroxide to convert the glucose source to (1). The compound (1) is useful as a chemical intermediate to naturally occurring fatty acids and is used to prepare 3,4-dihydroxybutanoic acid-gamma-lactone (2) and furanone (3), particularly stereoisomers of these compounds.

  19. Process For The Preparation Of 3,4-Dihyd Roxybutanoic Acid And Salts Thereof

    DOEpatents

    Hollingsworth, Rawle I.

    1994-06-07

    A process for the preparation of 3,4-dihydroxybutanoic acid (1) and salts thereof from a glucose source containing 1,4-linked glucose as a substituent is described. The process uses an alkali metal hdyroxide and hydrogen peroxide to convert the glucose source to (1). The compound (1) is useful as a chemical intermediate to naturally occurring fatty acids and is used to prepare 3,4-dihydroxybutanoic acid-gamma-lactone (2) and furanone (3), particularly stereoisomers of these compounds.

  20. Release of salicylic acid, diclofenac acid and diclofenac acid salts from isotropic and anisotropic nonionic surfactant systems across rat skin.

    PubMed

    Gabboun, N H; Najib, N M; Ibrahim, H G; Assaf, S

    2001-01-01

    Release of salicylic acid, diclofenac acid, diclofenac diethylamine and diclofenac sodium, from lyotropic structured systems, namely; neat and middle liquid crystalline phases, across mid-dorsal hairless rat skin into aqueous buffer were studied. Release results were compared with those from the isotropic systems. The donor systems composed of the surfactant polyoxyethylene (20) isohexadecyl ether, HCl buffer of pH 1 or distilled water and the specific drug. High performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) methods were used to monitor the transfer of the drugs across the skin barrier. Results indicated that the rate-determining step in the transport process was the release of the drug from the specified donor system. Further, apparent zero order release was demonstrated with all systems. Except for diclofenac sodium, drug fluxes decreased as the donor medium changed from isotropic to anisotropic. The decrease in fluxes was probably due to the added constrains on the movement of drug molecules. By changing the anisotropic donor medium from neat to middle phase, drug flux decreased in case of salicylic acid and diclofenac sodium. In the mean time, flux increased in case of the diethylamine salt and appeared nearly similar in case of diclofenac acid. Rates of drug transfer across the skin from the anisotropic donors seemed to be largely controlled by the entropy contribution to the transport process. The type and extent of drug-liquid crystal interactions probably influenced the latter.

  1. Joint effect of organic acids and inorganic salts on cloud droplet activation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Frosch, M.; Prisle, N. L.; Bilde, M.; Varga, Z.; Kiss, G.

    2011-04-01

    We have investigated CCN properties of internally mixed particles composed of one organic acid (oxalic acid dihydrate, succinic acid, adipic acid, citric acid, cis-pinonic acid, or Nordic reference fulvic acid) and one inorganic salt (sodium chloride or ammonium sulphate). Surface tension and water activity of aqueous model solutions with concentrations relevant for CCN activation were measured using a tensiometer and osmometry, respectively. The measurements were used to calculate Köhler curves and critical supersaturations, which were compared to measured critical supersaturations of particles with the same chemical compositions, determined with a cloud condensation nucleus counter. Surfactant surface partitioning was not accounted for. For the aqueous solutions containing cis-pinonic acid and fulvic acid, a depression of surface tension was observed, but for the remaining solutions the effect on surface tension was negligible at concentrations relevant for cloud droplet activation. The surface tension depression of aqueous solutions containing both organic acid and inorganic salt was approximately the same as or smaller than that of aqueous solutions containing the same mass of the corresponding pure organic acids. Water activity was found to be highly dependent on the type and amount of inorganic salt. Sodium chloride was able to decrease water activity more than ammonium sulphate and both inorganic salts are predicted to have a smaller Raoult term than the studied organic acids. Increasing the mass ratio of the inorganic salt led to a decrease in water activity. Water activity measurements were compared to results from the E-AIM model and values estimated from both constant and variable van't Hoff factors. The correspondence between measurements and estimates was overall good, except for highly concentrated solutions. Critical supersaturations calculated with Köhler theory based on measured water activity and surface tension, but not accounting for surface

  2. 76 FR 82275 - Citric Acid and Certain Citrate Salts From the People's Republic of China: Extension of Time...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-12-30

    ... International Trade Administration Citric Acid and Certain Citrate Salts From the People's Republic of China... countervailing duty order on citric acid and certain citrate salts from the People's Republic of China (PRC). See Countervailing Duty Orders and Amendments of Final Affirmative Countervailing Duty Determinations: Citric...

  3. Esterification and transesterification of greases to fatty acid methyl esters with highly active diphanylammonium salts

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    We have conducted an investigation designed to identify alternate catalysts for the production of fatty acid methyl esters (FAME) to be used as biodiesel. Diphenylammonium sulfate (DPAS) and diphenylammonium chloride (DPA-HCl) salts were found to be highly active homogeneous catalysts for the simu...

  4. Esterification and Transesterification of greases to fatty acid methyl esters with highly active diphenylamine salts

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Diphenylamine sulfate (DPAS) and diphenylamine hydrochloride (DPACl) salts were found to be highly active catalysts for esterification and transesterification of inexpensive greases to fatty acid methyl esters (FAME). In the presence of catalytic amounts of DPAS or DPACl and excess methanol, the fr...

  5. 40 CFR 721.7785 - Substituted alkyl aminomethylene polyphosphonic acid, salt (generic).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 31 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Substituted alkyl aminomethylene polyphosphonic acid, salt (generic). 721.7785 Section 721.7785 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION... New Uses for Specific Chemical Substances § 721.7785 Substituted alkyl aminomethylene...

  6. 40 CFR 721.7785 - Substituted alkyl aminomethylene polyphosphonic acid, salt (generic).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 32 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Substituted alkyl aminomethylene polyphosphonic acid, salt (generic). 721.7785 Section 721.7785 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION... New Uses for Specific Chemical Substances § 721.7785 Substituted alkyl aminomethylene...

  7. 40 CFR 721.7785 - Substituted alkyl aminomethylene polyphosphonic acid, salt (generic).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 32 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Substituted alkyl aminomethylene polyphosphonic acid, salt (generic). 721.7785 Section 721.7785 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION... New Uses for Specific Chemical Substances § 721.7785 Substituted alkyl aminomethylene...

  8. 40 CFR 721.7785 - Substituted alkyl aminomethylene polyphosphonic acid, salt (generic).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 30 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Substituted alkyl aminomethylene polyphosphonic acid, salt (generic). 721.7785 Section 721.7785 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION... New Uses for Specific Chemical Substances § 721.7785 Substituted alkyl aminomethylene...

  9. 40 CFR 721.7785 - Substituted alkyl aminomethylene polyphosphonic acid, salt (generic).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 31 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Substituted alkyl aminomethylene polyphosphonic acid, salt (generic). 721.7785 Section 721.7785 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION... New Uses for Specific Chemical Substances § 721.7785 Substituted alkyl aminomethylene...

  10. 75 FR 51055 - Propionic Acid and Salts, and Urea Sulfate; Registration Review Proposed Decisions; Notice of...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-08-18

    ...This notice announces the availability of EPA's proposed registration review decisions for the pesticides propionic acid and salts, and urea sulfate and opens a public comment period on the proposed decisions. Registration review is EPA's periodic review of pesticide registrations to ensure that each pesticide continues to satisfy the statutory standard for registration, that is, that the......

  11. 75 FR 78243 - Propionic Acid and Salts, Urea Sulfate, Methidathion, and Methyl Parathion; Registration Review...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-12-15

    ...This notice announces the availability of EPA's final registration review decisions for the pesticides propionic acid and salts, case no. 4078, urea sulfate, case no. 7213, methidathion, case no. 0034, and methyl parathion, case no. 0153. Registration review is EPA's periodic review of pesticide registrations to ensure that each pesticide continues to satisfy the statutory standard for......

  12. Observation of microporous cesium salts of 12-tungstosilicic acid using scanning transmission electron microscopy.

    PubMed

    Hiyoshi, Norihito; Kamiya, Yuichi

    2015-06-21

    Heteropolyanions and their arrays in microporous cesium salts of 12-tungstosilicic acid, Cs2.5H1.5[SiW12O40] and Cs4.0[SiW12O40], were observed by aberration-corrected scanning transmission electron microscopy. Microstructures that form micropores in the polyoxometalates were visualized.

  13. Solubility of calcium salts of unconjugated and conjugated natural bile acids.

    PubMed

    Gu, J J; Hofmann, A F; Ton-Nu, H T; Schteingart, C D; Mysels, K J

    1992-05-01

    The approximate solubility products of the calcium salts of ten unconjugated bile acids and several taurine conjugated bile acids were determined. The formation of micelles, gels, and/or precipitates in relation to Ca2+,Na+, and bile salt concentration was summarized by "phase maps." Because the ratio of Ca2+ to bile salt in the precipitates was ca. 1:2, and the activity of Ca2+ but not that of bile salt (BA-) could be measured, the ion product of aCa2+ [BA-]2 was calculated. The ion product (= Ksp) ranged over nine orders of magnitude and the solubility thus ranged over three orders of magnitude; its value depended on the number and orientation of the hydroxyl groups in the bile acid. Ion products (in units of 10(-9) mol/l)3 were as follows: cholic (3 alpha OH,7 alpha OH,12 alpha OH) 640; ursocholic (3 alpha OH,7 beta OH,12 alpha OH) 2300; hyocholic (3 alpha OH,6 alpha OH,7 alpha OH) 11; ursodeoxycholic (3 alpha OH,7 beta OH) 91; chenodeoxycholic (3 alpha OH,7 alpha OH) 10; deoxycholic (3 alpha OH,12 alpha OH) 1.5; 12-epideoxycholic (lagodeoxycholic, 3 alpha OH,12 beta OH) 2.2; hyodeoxycholic (3 alpha OH,6 alpha OH) 0.7; and lithocholic (3 alpha OH) 0.00005. The critical micellization temperature of the sodium salt of murideoxycholic acid (3 alpha OH,6 beta OH) was greater than 100 degrees C, and its Ca2+ salt was likely to be very insoluble. Taurine conjugates were much more soluble than their corresponding unconjugated derivatives: chenodeoxycholyltaurine, 384; deoxycholyltaurine, 117; and cholyltaurine, greater than 10,000. Calcium salts of unconjugated bile acids precipitated rapidly in contrast to those of glycine conjugates which were metastable for months. Thus, hepatic conjugation of bile acids with taurine or glycine not only enhances solubility at acidic pH, but also at Ca2+ ion concentrations present in bile and intestinal content.

  14. Regulation of ion homeostasis by aminolevulinic acid in salt-stressed wheat seedlings

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Türk, Hülya; Genişel, Mucip; Erdal, Serkan

    2016-04-01

    Salinity is regarded as a worldwide agricultural threat, as it seriously limits plant development and productivity. Salt stress reduces water uptake in plants by disrupting the osmotic balance of soil solution. In addition, it creates a damaged metabolic process by causing ion imbalance in cells. In this study, we aim to examine the negative effects of 5-aminolevulinic acid (ALA) (20 mg/l) on the ion balance in wheat seedling leaves exposed to salt stress (150 mM). Sodium is known to be highly toxic for plant cells at high concentrations, and is significantly increased by salt stress. However, it can be reduced by combined application of ALA and salt, compared to salt application alone. On the other hand, while the K+/Na+ ratio was reduced by salt stress, ALA application changed this ratio in favor of K+. Manganese, iron, and copper were also able to reduce stress. However, ALA pre-treatment resulted in mineral level increments. Conversely, the stress-induced rise in magnesium, potassium, calcium, phosphorus, zinc, and molybdenum were further improved by ALA application. These data clearly show that ALA has an important regulatory effect of ion balance in wheat leaves.

  15. Effect alteration of methamphetamine by amino acids or their salts on ambulatory activity in mice.

    PubMed

    Kuribara, H; Tadokoro, S

    1983-02-01

    Effect alterations of methamphetamine by pretreatment of amino acids or their salts on ambulatory activity in mice were investigated to confirm a fact that certain amino acids, particularly monosodium L-glutamate, are added to methamphetamine by the street users, and that the amino acids augment the effect of methamphetamine. The ambulatory activity of mouse was measured by a tilting-type round activity cage of 25 cm in diameter. The amino acids or their salts tested were monosodium L-glutamate, monosodium L-aspartate, gamma-amino-butyric acid, L-alanine, L-lysine hydrochloride and L-arginine hydrochloride. A single administration of each chemical at doses of 1 and 2 g/kg i.p. did not induce a marked change in the ambulatory activity in mice. Methamphetamine 2 mg/kg s.c. induced an increase in the ambulatory activity with a peak at 40 min after the administration, and the increased ambulatory activity persisted for 3 hr. The ambulation-increasing effect of methamphetamine was augmented by the pretreatment of monosodium L-glutamate and monosodium L-aspartate at 30 min before the methamphetamine administration, while attenuated by the pretreatment of L-lysine hydrochloride and L-arginine hydrochloride in a dose-dependent manner. Gamma-aminobutyric acid and L-alanine did not affect the effect of methamphetamine. Similar augmentation and attenuation in the ambulation-increasing effect of methamphetamine were induced by the pretreatment of sodium bicarbonate 0.9 g/kg i.p. (urinary alkalizer) and ammonium chloride 0.07 g/kg i.p. (urinary acidifier), respectively. The urinary pH level was elevated by the administration of monosodium L-glutamate, monosodium L-aspartate and sodium bicarbonate, and decreased by L-lysine hydrochloride, L-arginine hydrochloride and ammonium chloride. Gamma-aminobutyric acid and L-alanine did not elicit a marked change in the urinary pH level. The present experiment confirms the fact in human that monosodium L-glutamate augments the effect of

  16. Aggregation of 12-Hydroxystearic Acid and Its Lithium Salt in Hexane: Molecular Dynamics Simulations.

    PubMed

    Gordon, Ryan; Stober, Spencer T; Abrams, Cameron F

    2016-07-28

    12-Hydroxystearic acid (12HSA) is a well-known organogelator, and its metal salts and derivatives find roles in many important applications. The structures of aggregates of 12-hydroxysteric acid and its salts depend sensitively on cation type, but a fundamental understanding of this phenomenon is lacking. In this study, molecular dynamics simulations were conducted on the microsecond long time scales for (1) 12HSA and (2) its lithium salt, each at 12.5 wt % in explicit hexane solvent. Self-assembly was accelerated by using a modified potential to prohibit alkane chain dihedral gauche states (all-trans-12HSA) and then verified by continuation using standard force-field parameters. In three independent simulation, acceleration using "gauche-less" potentials resulted in self-assembled pseudocrystalline aggregates through formation of polarized five- and six-membered rings between inter-12-hydroxyl groups and head-to-head carboxylic acid dimerization. When subjected to the unmodified dihedral potential, two of the three structures remained stable after 1 μs of MD. Stable structures exhibited a "ring-of-rings" motif, composed of two six-membered acetic acid-dimerized ring bundles with six satellite rings, while the unstable structure did not. In strong contrast, the lithium salt produced a network of fibrils that spanned the volume of the sample. When lithium ions were substituted for carboxylic acid protons in the stable acid structures, they remained intact but lost their chiral nature. Both the acid and lithium structures displayed scattering peaks that agreed with experiment. Taken together, our results suggest that this ring-of-rings structure could be a primary feature of the self-assembly of 12HSA in organic solvents. PMID:27387154

  17. Electrolyte salts for power sources

    DOEpatents

    Doddapaneni, N.; Ingersoll, D.

    1995-11-28

    Electrolyte salts are disclosed for power sources comprising salts of phenyl polysulfonic acids and phenyl polyphosphonic acids. The preferred salts are alkali and alkaline earth metal salts, most preferably lithium salts. 2 figs.

  18. Electrolyte salts for power sources

    DOEpatents

    Doddapaneni, Narayan; Ingersoll, David

    1995-01-01

    Electrolyte salts for power sources comprising salts of phenyl polysulfonic acids and phenyl polyphosphonic acids. The preferred salts are alkali and alkaline earth metal salts, most preferably lithium salts.

  19. Resolution of enantiomers of novel C2 -symmetric aminobisphosphinic acids via diastereomeric salt formation with quinine.

    PubMed

    Kaboudin, Babak; Faghihi, Mohammad Reza; Kazemi, Foad; Yokomatsu, Tsutomu

    2015-01-01

    C2 -symmetric N,N-bis(phosphinomethyl)amines were prepared by the thermal reaction of aromatic aldehydes with ammonia and hypophosphorus acid as previously described. Both enantiomers of C2 -symmetric N,N-bis(phosphinomethyl)amine were obtained in a high enantiomeric purity through the diastereomeric salt formation with (-)-quinine, and subsequent fractional crystallization. X-ray crystallographic analysis of one of the diastereomeric salts clearly revealed that (-)-quinine could be an efficient resolving agent for obtaining the single enantiomer (R,R)-N,N-bis(phosphinomethyl)amine.

  20. Length Scale Dependence of the Dynamic Properties of Hyaluronic Acid Solutions in the Presence of Salt

    SciTech Connect

    Horkay, Ferenc; Falus, Peter; Hecht, Anne-Marie; Geissler, Erik

    2010-12-07

    In solutions of the charged semirigid biopolymer hyaluronic acid in salt-free conditions, the diffusion coefficient D{sub NSE} measured at high transfer momentum q by neutron spin echo is more than an order of magnitude smaller than that determined by dynamic light scattering, D{sub DLS}. This behavior contrasts with neutral polymer solutions. With increasing salt content, D{sub DLS} approaches D{sub NSE}, which is independent of ionic strength. Contrary to theoretical expectation, the ion-polymer coupling, which dominates the low q dynamics of polyelectrolyte solutions, already breaks down at distance scales greater than the Debye-Hueckel length.

  1. Effects of calcium salts of acidic monomers on mineral induction of phosphoprotein immobilized to agarose beads.

    PubMed

    Ito, Shuichi; Iijima, Masahiro; Motai, Fumiko; Mizoguchi, Itaru; Saito, Takashi

    2012-10-01

    The aim of this study is to evaluate the mineralizing potential of acidic monomers and their calcium salts for mineralization, using an in vitro mineral induction model. Phosvitin (PV) was used as a model phosphoprotein in this study. PV was immobilized on agarose beads with divinyl sulfone. Five aliquots of agarose-immobilized PV, acidic monomers, and their calcium salts were incubated in mineralizing solution at various concentrations. The PV beads and acidic monomers were incubated at 37°C. Samples were taken at several time points during the incubation. Then, the agarose beads were analyzed for bound calcium by atomic absorption spectrometry. The mineral formed on the agarose beads was identified as an apatite by microarea X-ray diffraction. Additionally, the specimens were observed using scanning electron microscopy (SEM). Mineral induction time decreased with increasing solution saturation. 4-METCa salt [calcium salt of 4-methacryloxyethyl trimellitate (CMET)] significantly reduced the mineral induction time. Using these data, the interfacial tension for mineral induction of PV and CMET was determined to be 90.1 and 92.7 ergs/cm(2), respectively. The mineral induced in each specimen after incubation for 24 h was identified by its X-ray diffraction pattern as apatite. SEM observation showed that lath-shaped crystals were formed on the surfaces of the CMET. We conclude that CMET could play a role in dentin remineralization.

  2. Bile salt recognition by human liver fatty acid binding protein.

    PubMed

    Favretto, Filippo; Santambrogio, Carlo; D'Onofrio, Mariapina; Molinari, Henriette; Grandori, Rita; Assfalg, Michael

    2015-04-01

    Fatty acid binding proteins (FABPs) act as intracellular carriers of lipid molecules, and play a role in global metabolism regulation. Liver FABP (L-FABP) is prominent among FABPs for its wide ligand repertoire, which includes long-chain fatty acids as well as bile acids (BAs). In this work, we performed a detailed molecular- and atomic-level analysis of the interactions established by human L-FABP with nine BAs to understand the binding specificity for this important class of cholesterol-derived metabolites. Protein-ligand complex formation was monitored using heteronuclear NMR, steady-state fluorescence spectroscopy, and mass spectrometry. BAs were found to interact with L-FABP with dissociation constants in the narrow range of 0.6-7 μm; however, the diverse substitution patterns of the sterol nucleus and the presence of side-chain conjugation resulted in complexes endowed with various degrees of conformational heterogeneity. Trihydroxylated BAs formed monomeric complexes in which single ligand molecules occupied similar internal binding sites, based on chemical-shift perturbation data. Analysis of NMR line shapes upon progressive addition of taurocholate indicated that the binding mechanism departed from a simple binary association equilibrium, and instead involved intermediates along the binding path. The co-linear chemical shift behavior observed for L-FABP complexes with cholate derivatives added insight into conformational dynamics in the presence of ligands. The observed spectroscopic features of L-FABP/BA complexes, discussed in relation to ligand chemistry, suggest possible molecular determinants of recognition, with implications regarding intracellular BA transport. Our findings suggest that human L-FABP is a poorly selective, universal BA binder. PMID:25639618

  3. Bile salt recognition by human liver fatty acid binding protein.

    PubMed

    Favretto, Filippo; Santambrogio, Carlo; D'Onofrio, Mariapina; Molinari, Henriette; Grandori, Rita; Assfalg, Michael

    2015-04-01

    Fatty acid binding proteins (FABPs) act as intracellular carriers of lipid molecules, and play a role in global metabolism regulation. Liver FABP (L-FABP) is prominent among FABPs for its wide ligand repertoire, which includes long-chain fatty acids as well as bile acids (BAs). In this work, we performed a detailed molecular- and atomic-level analysis of the interactions established by human L-FABP with nine BAs to understand the binding specificity for this important class of cholesterol-derived metabolites. Protein-ligand complex formation was monitored using heteronuclear NMR, steady-state fluorescence spectroscopy, and mass spectrometry. BAs were found to interact with L-FABP with dissociation constants in the narrow range of 0.6-7 μm; however, the diverse substitution patterns of the sterol nucleus and the presence of side-chain conjugation resulted in complexes endowed with various degrees of conformational heterogeneity. Trihydroxylated BAs formed monomeric complexes in which single ligand molecules occupied similar internal binding sites, based on chemical-shift perturbation data. Analysis of NMR line shapes upon progressive addition of taurocholate indicated that the binding mechanism departed from a simple binary association equilibrium, and instead involved intermediates along the binding path. The co-linear chemical shift behavior observed for L-FABP complexes with cholate derivatives added insight into conformational dynamics in the presence of ligands. The observed spectroscopic features of L-FABP/BA complexes, discussed in relation to ligand chemistry, suggest possible molecular determinants of recognition, with implications regarding intracellular BA transport. Our findings suggest that human L-FABP is a poorly selective, universal BA binder.

  4. Diffusion dialysis. Effect of membrane composition on acid/salt separation

    SciTech Connect

    Narebska, A.; Warszawski, A. )

    1992-05-01

    Diffusion dialysis is an energy-saving separation technique. In order to highlight the relationship between membrane composition and ability to separate acid/salt mixtures by diffusion dialysis, a few anion-exchange membranes were examined. Experiments on solubility/diffusivity phenomena were carried out in contact with hydrochloric acid and sodium chloride solutions (single- and two-solute experiments). Computations using Glueckauf and Tye models have indicated high nonuniformity in the distribution of fixed charged within the membranes and different accessibilities of the internal membrane volumes for the acid and salt. The Neosepta AFN-7 membrane (Tokuymam Soda Co.) has proved effective in differentiating the permeants by sorption (k{sub HCl}/k{sub NaCl} {approx} 2) and diffusivity ({bar D}{sub HCl}/{bar D}{sub NaCl} up to 10). This membrane is also the only one which, when in contact with two-solutes solutions, absorbs the acid preferentially to the salt. For this membrane the preferential sorption and transport of the acid depends not only on the physical structure of the membrane but also on the chemical nature of the polymer which contains pyridine moieties.

  5. Effect of recombinant bovine somatotropin and calcium salts of long-chain fatty acids on milk from Italian buffalo.

    PubMed

    Polidori, F; Sgoifo Rossi, C A; Senatore, E M; Savoini, G; Dell'Orto, V

    1997-09-01

    Fifty-one lactating Italian river buffalo were used in an 84-d study to evaluate the effects of recombinant bovine somatotropin (bST) and Ca salts of long-chain fatty acids on productive performance. Treatments were 1) control diet, 2) the control diet plus 0.3 kg/d of added Ca salts of long-chain fatty acids, 3) the control diet plus 320 mg of recombinant bST injected every 21 d for four cycles, and 4) the control diet plus 0.3 kg/d of added Ca salts of long-chain fatty acids and 320 mg of recombinant bST administered as previously described. Administration of bST and Ca salts of long-chain fatty acids increased milk production. Milk fat percentage was not affected by treatments. The percentage of short-chain fatty acids in milk fat was reduced by the addition of Ca salts. Medium-chain, long-chain, and unsaturated fatty acids in milk fat were increased by bST treatment. Milk protein percentage was decreased by the addition of Ca salts of long-chain fatty acids. Milk casein content, as a percentage of total protein or as a percentage of true protein, was unaffected by bST. Body condition score was lowered by bST administration, but the addition of Ca salts of long-chain fatty acids reduced body condition loss in buffalo that were treated with somatotropin. PMID:9313156

  6. Process for the preparation of 3,4-dihydroxybutanoic acid and salts thereof

    DOEpatents

    Hollingsworth, Rawle I.

    1994-01-01

    A process for the preparation of 3,4-dihydroxybutanoic acid (1) and salts thereof from a glucose source containing 1,4-1inked glucose as a substituent is described. The process uses an alkali metal hdyroxide and hydrogen peroxide to convert the glucose source to (1). The compound (1) is useful as a chemical intermediate to naturally occurring fatty acids and is used to prepare 3,4-dihydroxybutanoic acid-gamma-lactone (2) and furanone (3), particularly stereoisomers of these compounds.

  7. Improvement in the docosahexaenoic acid production of Schizochytrium sp. S056 by replacement of sea salt.

    PubMed

    Chen, Wei; Zhou, Pengpeng; Zhu, Yuanmin; Xie, Chen; Ma, Lin; Wang, Xiaopeng; Bao, Zhendong; Yu, Longjiang

    2016-02-01

    Schizochytrium is a marine microalga that requires high concentrations of sea salt for growth, although problems arise with significant amounts of chloride ions in the culture medium, which corrodes the fermenters. In this work, we evaluated that cell growth and docosahexaenoic acid (DHA) production can be improved when using 1 % (w/v) sodium sulfate instead of 2 % (w/v) sea salt in the culture medium for Schizochytrium sp. S056. In practice, the use of sodium sulfate as the sodium salt led to chloride ion levels in the medium that can be completely removed, thus avoiding fermenter corrosion during Schizochytrium sp. S056 growth, reducing cost and increasing DHA production, and simplifying the disposal of fermentation wastewater. Additionally, we demonstrated that the osmolality of growth media did not play a crucial role in the production of DHA. These findings may be significantly important to companies involved in production of PUFAs by marine microbes.

  8. 40 CFR 721.10252 - Thiosulfuric acid (H2S2O3), manganese(2+) salt (1:1).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 31 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Thiosulfuric acid (H2S2O3), manganese... New Uses for Specific Chemical Substances § 721.10252 Thiosulfuric acid (H2S2O3), manganese(2+) salt... substance identified as thiosulfuric acid (H2S2O3), manganese(2+) salt (1:1) (PMN P-09-373; CAS No....

  9. 40 CFR 721.10252 - Thiosulfuric acid (H2S2O3), manganese(2+) salt (1:1).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 32 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Thiosulfuric acid (H2S2O3), manganese... New Uses for Specific Chemical Substances § 721.10252 Thiosulfuric acid (H2S2O3), manganese(2+) salt... substance identified as thiosulfuric acid (H2S2O3), manganese(2+) salt (1:1) (PMN P-09-373; CAS No....

  10. 40 CFR 721.10252 - Thiosulfuric acid (H2S2O3), manganese(2+) salt (1:1).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 32 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Thiosulfuric acid (H2S2O3), manganese... New Uses for Specific Chemical Substances § 721.10252 Thiosulfuric acid (H2S2O3), manganese(2+) salt... substance identified as thiosulfuric acid (H2S2O3), manganese(2+) salt (1:1) (PMN P-09-373; CAS No....

  11. 40 CFR 721.3130 - Sulfuric acid, mono-C9-11-alkyl esters, sodium salts.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 32 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Sulfuric acid, mono-C9-11-alkyl esters... Specific Chemical Substances § 721.3130 Sulfuric acid, mono-C9-11-alkyl esters, sodium salts. (a) Chemical... acid, mono-C9-11-alkyl esters, sodium salts (PMN P-01-149; CAS No. 84501-49-5) is subject to...

  12. 40 CFR 721.3130 - Sulfuric acid, mono-C9-11-alkyl esters, sodium salts.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 30 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Sulfuric acid, mono-C9-11-alkyl esters... Specific Chemical Substances § 721.3130 Sulfuric acid, mono-C9-11-alkyl esters, sodium salts. (a) Chemical... acid, mono-C9-11-alkyl esters, sodium salts (PMN P-01-149; CAS No. 84501-49-5) is subject to...

  13. 40 CFR 721.3130 - Sulfuric acid, mono-C9-11-alkyl esters, sodium salts.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 31 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Sulfuric acid, mono-C9-11-alkyl esters... Specific Chemical Substances § 721.3130 Sulfuric acid, mono-C9-11-alkyl esters, sodium salts. (a) Chemical... acid, mono-C9-11-alkyl esters, sodium salts (PMN P-01-149; CAS No. 84501-49-5) is subject to...

  14. 40 CFR 721.3130 - Sulfuric acid, mono-C9-11-alkyl esters, sodium salts.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 32 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Sulfuric acid, mono-C9-11-alkyl esters... Specific Chemical Substances § 721.3130 Sulfuric acid, mono-C9-11-alkyl esters, sodium salts. (a) Chemical... acid, mono-C9-11-alkyl esters, sodium salts (PMN P-01-149; CAS No. 84501-49-5) is subject to...

  15. 40 CFR 721.3130 - Sulfuric acid, mono-C9-11-alkyl esters, sodium salts.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 31 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Sulfuric acid, mono-C9-11-alkyl esters... Specific Chemical Substances § 721.3130 Sulfuric acid, mono-C9-11-alkyl esters, sodium salts. (a) Chemical... acid, mono-C9-11-alkyl esters, sodium salts (PMN P-01-149; CAS No. 84501-49-5) is subject to...

  16. Dissipative crystallization of aqueous mixtures of potassium salts of poly(riboadenylic acid) and poly(ribouridylic acid).

    PubMed

    Okubo, Tsuneo

    2011-10-15

    Dissipative drying patterns of aqueous mixtures of potassium salts of poly(riboadenylic acid) (KPolyA) and poly(ribouridylic acid) (KPolyU) were studied on a cover glass, a watch glass and a glass dish at room temperature. Accumulation of the polymers forming the broad rings near the outside edge and the inner area of the dried film was observed. The fine multiple ring structures formed when the affinity of the polymer with the substrate is strong. Microscopic drying patterns changed drastically depending on the location in the dried film. Microscopic drying patterns were mainly dendritic long rods and sword (halberd)-like rods. They are assigned to the crystals of double-stranded and triple-stranded helices of the A:U and A:2U complexes, respectively. Cross-like drying patterns are also observed originated from the salt-polymer interaction.

  17. Alleviation of salt-induced oxidative damage by 5-aminolevulinic acid in wheat seedlings

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Genişel, Mucip; Erdal, Serkan

    2016-04-01

    The aim of this study was to elucidate how 5-aminolevulinic acid (ALA), the precursor of chlorophyll compounds, affects the defence mechanisms of wheat seedlings induced by salt stress. To determine the possible stimulative effects of ALA against salinity, 11-day old wheat seedlings were sprayed with ALA at two different concentrations (10 and 20 mg.l-1) and then stressed by exposure to salt (150 mM NaCl). The salt stress led to significant changes in the antioxidant activity. While guaiacol peroxidase activity decreased, the activities of superoxide dismutase, catalase, and ascorbate peroxidase markedly increased under salt stress. Compared to the salt stress alone, the application of ALA beforehand further increased the activity of these enzymes. This study is the first time the effects of ALA have been monitored with regard to protein content and the isoenzyme profiles of the antioxidant enzymes. Although the salt stress reduced both the soluble protein content and protein band intensities, pre-treating with ALA significantly mitigated these stress-induced reductions. The data for the isoenzyme profiles of the antioxidant enzymes paralleled that of the ALA-induced increases in antioxidant activity. As a consequence of the high antioxidant activity in the seedlings pre-treated with ALA, the stress-induced elevations in the reactive oxygen species, superoxide anion, and hydrogen peroxide contents and lipid peroxidation levels were markedly diminished. Taken together, this data demonstrated that pre-treating with ALA confers resistance to salt stress by modulating the protein synthesis and antioxidant activity in wheat seedlings.

  18. Croconic acid and alkali metal croconate salts: some new insights into an old story.

    PubMed

    Braga, Dario; Maini, Lucia; Grepioni, Fabrizia

    2002-04-15

    The solid-state structures of a series of alkali metal salts of the croconate dianion (C(5)O(5)(2-)) and of croconic acid (H(2)C(5)O(5)) have been determined. The alkali metal croconates were obtained by ring contraction of rhodizonic acid (H(2)C(6)O(6)), upon treatment with alkali metal hydroxides and recrystallisation from water. The novel species Na(2)C(5)O(5) x 2H(2)O, Rb(2)C(5)O(5) and Cs(2)C(5)O(5), as well as the mixed hydrogencroconate/croconate salt K(3)(HC(5)O(5))(C(5)O(5)) small middle dot2 H(2)O are described and compared with the Li(+), K(+) and NH(4)(+) salts. Single crystals of croconic acid were obtained by crystallisation of croconic acid in the presence of HCl. Crystal structure determinations showed that the C(5)O(5)(2-) ions tend to organize themselves in columns. The interplanar separations lie in the narrow range 3.12-3.42 A and do not necessarily reflect the presence of pi-stacking interactions. It is argued that the small interplanar separation is the result of a compromise between packing of flat croconate units and the spherical cations together with the water molecules that fill the coordination spheres of the alkali metal atoms. PMID:11933108

  19. Graft polymerization of acrylic acid and methacrylic acid onto poly(vinylidene fluoride) powder in presence of metallic salt and sulfuric acid

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Deng, Bo; Yu, Yang; Zhang, Bowu; Yang, Xuanxuan; Li, Linfan; Yu, Ming; Li, Jingye

    2011-02-01

    Poly(vinylidene fluoride) (PVDF) powder was grafted with acrylic acid (AAc) or methacrylic acid (MAA) by the pre-irradiation induced graft polymerization technique. The presence of graft chains was proven by FT-IR spectroscopy. The degree of grafting (DG) was calculated by the acid-base back titration method. The synergistic effect of acid and Mohr's salt on the grafting kinetics was examined. The results indicated that adding sulfuric acid and Mohr's salt simultaneously in AAc or MAA solutions led to a strong enhancement in the degree of grafting. The grafted PVDF powder was cast into microfiltration (MF) membranes using the phase inversion method and some properties of the obtained MF membranes were characterized.

  20. 40 CFR 180.1284 - Ammonium salts of higher fatty acids (C8-C18 saturated; C8-C12 unsaturated); exemption from the...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 24 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Ammonium salts of higher fatty acids... Ammonium salts of higher fatty acids (C8-C18 saturated; C8-C12 unsaturated); exemption from the requirement of a tolerance. Ammonium salts of C8-C18 saturated and C8-C12 unsaturated higher fatty acids...

  1. 40 CFR 180.1284 - Ammonium salts of higher fatty acids (C8-C18 saturated; C8-C12 unsaturated); exemption from the...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 24 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Ammonium salts of higher fatty acids... Ammonium salts of higher fatty acids (C8-C18 saturated; C8-C12 unsaturated); exemption from the requirement of a tolerance. Ammonium salts of C8-C18 saturated and C8-C12 unsaturated higher fatty acids...

  2. 40 CFR 180.1284 - Ammonium salts of higher fatty acids (C8-C18 saturated; C8-C12 unsaturated); exemption from the...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 23 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Ammonium salts of higher fatty acids... Ammonium salts of higher fatty acids (C8-C18 saturated; C8-C12 unsaturated); exemption from the requirement of a tolerance. Ammonium salts of C8-C18 saturated and C8-C12 unsaturated higher fatty acids...

  3. 40 CFR 180.1284 - Ammonium salts of higher fatty acids (C8-C18 saturated; C8-C12 unsaturated); exemption from the...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 25 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Ammonium salts of higher fatty acids... Ammonium salts of higher fatty acids (C8-C18 saturated; C8-C12 unsaturated); exemption from the requirement of a tolerance. Ammonium salts of C8-C18 saturated and C8-C12 unsaturated higher fatty acids...

  4. 40 CFR 180.1284 - Ammonium salts of higher fatty acids (C8-C18 saturated; C8-C12 unsaturated); exemption from the...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 25 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Ammonium salts of higher fatty acids... Ammonium salts of higher fatty acids (C8-C18 saturated; C8-C12 unsaturated); exemption from the requirement of a tolerance. Ammonium salts of C8-C18 saturated and C8-C12 unsaturated higher fatty acids...

  5. 40 CFR 721.5400 - 3,6,9,12,15,18,21-Hepta-oxa-tetra-triaoctanoic acid, sodium salt.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ...-triaoctanoic acid, sodium salt. 721.5400 Section 721.5400 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION... acid, sodium salt. (a) Chemical substance and significant new uses subject to reporting. (1) The chemical substance identified as 3,6,9,12,15,18,21-hep-ta-oxa-te-tra-tri-aocta-noic acid, sodium salt...

  6. Nutrient salts promote light-induced degradation of indole-3-acetic Acid in tissue culture media.

    PubMed

    Dunlap, J R; Robacker, K M

    1988-10-01

    The disappearance of indole-3-acetic acid (IAA) from cell-free liquid culture medium was followed in response to nutrient salts found in Murashige-Skoog salt base, light, and pH range of 4 to 7. The loss of IAA was accelerated by light or Murashige-Skoog salts. However, the combination of both light and Murashige-Skoog salts acted synergistically to catalyze the destruction of over 80% of the original IAA within 7 days of continuous incubation. Under these same conditions, the loss of IAA was decreased to approximately 50% by adjusting the initial pH of the medium to 7. Iron was identified as the single major contributor to light-catalyzed destruction of IAA. Removal of nitrates, which represented 87% of the molar salt composition, also reduced the light-catalyzed loss of IAA. Treatments that protected IAA from degradation, such as darkness or removal of iron from the medium, suppressed the growth of muskmelon (Cucumis melo. Naud., var. reticulatus) callus tissue cultured for 30 days. Treatments in the light that rapidly degraded IAA resulted in maximum growth. Consequently, the brief exposure to IAA prior to degradation was apparently sufficient to initiate physiological changes required for growth. Possible approaches to the preservation of IAA during incubation are discussed. PMID:16666312

  7. Recent developments in producing monoammonium and diammonium phosphates using the TVA pipe-cross reactor

    SciTech Connect

    Salladay, D.G.; Achorn, F.P.; Greenhill, J.L.

    1981-11-01

    For several years regional NPKS granulation plants have been producing small quantities of MAP (nonammonium phosphate) with the TVA pipe-cross reactor. Now primary phosphate producers are beginning to produce MAP at rates approaching 100 tons per hour by using large pipe-cross reactors. Although much of the recent interest has been in MAP production, production of DAP (diammonium phosphide) with the PCR has continued at one location in the US. The DAP-PCR design has been refined and solutions to the scaling problems have been found. Several other primary phosphate producers are considering using a PCR to produce DAP.

  8. Supported phosphate and carbonate salts for heterogeneous catalysis of triglycerides to fatty acid methyl esters

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Britton, Stephanie Lynne

    Fatty acid methyl esters made from vegetable oil, or biodiesel, have been identified as a substitute for diesel derived from crude oil. Biodiesel is currently made using a homogeneous base catalyst to perform the transesterification of triglycerides with methanol to generate fatty acid methyl esters (FAME). The use of a homogeneous catalyst necessitates additional purification of the product and byproducts before sale, and the catalyst is consumed and discarded. The development of a heterogeneous basic catalyst for the production of FAME is desirable. Tribasic phosphate salts and dibasic carbonate salts are active for the production of FAME but generally operate as homogeneous catalysts. Supporting these phosphate and carbonate salts on mesoporous MCM-41, microporous silica gel, and nonporous a-alumina proved successful to greater or lesser degrees depending on the identity of the support and pretreatment of the support. Although these salts were supported and were active for the production of FAME from canola oil, they proved to be operating as homogeneous catalysts due to leaching of the active species off the surface of the support. Further investigation of the active species present in the tribasic phosphate catalysts identified the active support as orthophosphate, and NMR studies revealed the phosphorus to be present as orthophosphate and diphosphate in varying proportions in each catalyst. Evaluation of the acid-washing support pretreatment process revealed that the exposure of the support to acid plays a large role in the development of activity on the surface of the catalyst, but manipulation of these parameters did not prevent leaching of the active site off the surface of the catalyst. Alternate methods of support pretreatment were no more effective in preventing leaching. Tribasic phosphate supported on silica gel is not effective as a heterogeneous catalyst for FAME production from triglycerides because of the lack of stability of the phosphate on the

  9. Joint effect of organic acids and inorganic salts on cloud droplet activation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Frosch, M.; Prisle, N. L.; Bilde, M.; Varga, Z.; Kiss, G.

    2010-07-01

    We have investigated CCN properties of internally mixed particles composed of one organic acid (oxalic acid, succinic acid, adipic acid, citric acid, cis-pinonic acid, or nordic reference fulvic acid) and one inorganic salt (sodium chloride or ammonium sulphate). Surface tension and water activity of aqueous model solutions with concentrations relevant for CCN activation were measured using a tensiometer and osmometry, respectively. The measurements were used to calculate Köhler curves, which were compared to measured critical supersaturations of particles with the same chemical compositions, determined with a cloud condensation nucleus counter. Surfactant surface partitioning was not accounted for. For the mixtures containing cis-pinonic acid or fulvic acid, a depression of surface tension was observed, but for the remaining mixtures the effect on surface tension was negligle at concentrations relevant for cloud droplet activation, and water activity was the more significant term in the Köhler equation. The surface tension depression of aqueous solutions containing both organic acid and inorganic salt was approximately the same as or smaller than that of aqueous solutions containing the same mass of the corresponding pure organic acids. Water activity was found to be highly dependent on the type and amount of inorganic salt. Sodium chloride was able to decrease water activity more than ammonium sulphate and both inorganic compounds had a higher effect on water activity than the studied organic acids, and increasing the mass ratio of the inorganic compound led to a decrease in water activity. Water activity measurements were compared to results from the E-AIM model and values estimated from both constant and variable van't Hoff factors to evaluate the performance of these approaches. The correspondence between measuments and estimates was overall good, except for highly concentrated solutions. Critical supersaturations calculated with Köhler theory based on

  10. Enhanced copper surface protection in aqueous solutions containing short-chain alkanoic acid potassium salts.

    PubMed

    Abelev, Esta; Starosvetsky, David; Ein-Eli, Yair

    2007-10-23

    The ability of dissolved potassium monocarboxylate salts to produce surface passivation and to inhibit aqueous corrosion of copper was studied. The electrochemical measurements indicate that the inhibiting efficiency of these compounds, with a general formula Cn-1H2n-1COOK or CnK (n=3...12), is dependent on the hydrocarbon chain length. The inhibiting efficiency was higher for a longer hydrocarbon chain of n-alkanoic acid. The degree of copper protection was found to increase with an increase in n-alkanoic acid potassium salt concentration; the optimum concentration of potassium dodecanoate (C12K) in sulfate solutions was found to be 0.07 M. The protective layers formed at the copper surface subsequent to exposure in various n-alkanoic acid potassium salt solutions were characterized by contact angle measurements, electrochemical impedance spectroscopy, X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy, and Fourier transform infrared reflection spectroscopy. Pronounced copper protection was attributed to the growth of a protective film on the copper surface, containing both copper oxides and copper carboxylate compounds. It is suggested that the organic molecules enhance copper protection by covering copper oxides with a thin and dense organic layer, which prevents water molecules or aggressive anions from interacting with the copper surface.

  11. Reactions Between Water Soluble Organic Acids and Nitrates in Atmospheric Aerosols: Recycling of Nitric Acid and Formation of Organic Salts

    SciTech Connect

    Wang, Bingbing; Laskin, Alexander

    2014-03-25

    Atmospheric particles often include a complex mixture of nitrate and secondary organic materials accumulated within the same individual particles. Nitrate as an important inorganic component can be chemically formed in the atmosphere. For instance, formation of sodium nitrate (NaNO3) and calcium nitrate Ca(NO3)2 when nitrogen oxide and nitric acid (HNO3) species react with sea salt and calcite, respectively. Organic acids contribute a significant fraction of photochemically formed secondary organics that can condense on the preexisting nitrate-containing particles. Here, we present a systematic microanalysis study on chemical composition of laboratory generated particles composed of water soluble organic acids and nitrates (i.e. NaNO3 and Ca(NO3)2) investigated using computer controlled scanning electron microscopy with energy dispersive analysis of X-rays (CCSEM/EDX) and Fourier transform infrared micro-spectroscopy (micro-FTIR). The results show that water-soluble organic acids can react with nitrates releasing gaseous HNO3 during dehydration process. These reactions are attributed to acid displacement of nitrate with weak organic acids driven by the evaporation of HNO3 into gas phase due to its relatively high volatility. The reactions result in significant nitrate depletion and formation of organic salts in mixed organic acids/nitrate particles that in turn may affect their physical and chemical properties relevant to atmospheric environment and climate. Airborne nitrate concentrations are estimated by thermodynamic calculations corresponding to various nitrate depletions in selected organic acids of atmospheric relevance. The results indicate a potential mechanism of HNO3 recycling, which may further affect concentrations of gas- and aerosol-phase species in the atmosphere and the heterogeneous reaction chemistry between them.

  12. 40 CFR 721.5252 - 2-Naphthalenecarboxylic acid, 4,4′-methylenebis [3-hydroxy-, zinc salt.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ...-methylenebis [3-hydroxy-, zinc salt. 721.5252 Section 721.5252 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL...′-methylenebis [3-hydroxy-, zinc salt. (a) Chemical substance and significant new uses subject to reporting. (1) The chemical substance identified as 2-Naphthalenecarboxylic acid, 4,4′-methylenebis [3-hydroxy-,...

  13. 40 CFR 721.5252 - 2-Naphthalenecarboxylic acid, 4,4′-methylenebis [3-hydroxy-, zinc salt.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ...-methylenebis [3-hydroxy-, zinc salt. 721.5252 Section 721.5252 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL...′-methylenebis [3-hydroxy-, zinc salt. (a) Chemical substance and significant new uses subject to reporting. (1) The chemical substance identified as 2-Naphthalenecarboxylic acid, 4,4′-methylenebis [3-hydroxy-,...

  14. 40 CFR 721.5252 - 2-Naphthalenecarboxylic acid, 4,4′-methylenebis [3-hydroxy-, zinc salt.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ...-methylenebis [3-hydroxy-, zinc salt. 721.5252 Section 721.5252 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL...′-methylenebis [3-hydroxy-, zinc salt. (a) Chemical substance and significant new uses subject to reporting. (1) The chemical substance identified as 2-Naphthalenecarboxylic acid, 4,4′-methylenebis [3-hydroxy-,...

  15. 40 CFR 721.5252 - 2-Naphthalenecarboxylic acid, 4,4′-methylenebis [3-hydroxy-, zinc salt.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ...-methylenebis [3-hydroxy-, zinc salt. 721.5252 Section 721.5252 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL...′-methylenebis [3-hydroxy-, zinc salt. (a) Chemical substance and significant new uses subject to reporting. (1) The chemical substance identified as 2-Naphthalenecarboxylic acid, 4,4′-methylenebis [3-hydroxy-,...

  16. 40 CFR 721.5252 - 2-Naphthalenecarboxylic acid, 4,4′-methylenebis [3-hydroxy-, zinc salt.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ...-methylenebis [3-hydroxy-, zinc salt. 721.5252 Section 721.5252 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL...′-methylenebis [3-hydroxy-, zinc salt. (a) Chemical substance and significant new uses subject to reporting. (1) The chemical substance identified as 2-Naphthalenecarboxylic acid, 4,4′-methylenebis [3-hydroxy-,...

  17. 40 CFR 721.10202 - Benzoic acid, 4-chloro-2- [(substituted)azo]-, strontium salt (1:1) (generic).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... salt (1:1) (generic). 721.10202 Section 721.10202 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) TOXIC SUBSTANCES CONTROL ACT SIGNIFICANT NEW USES OF CHEMICAL SUBSTANCES Significant New Uses for Specific Chemical Substances § 721.10202 Benzoic acid, 4-chloro-2- -, strontium salt...

  18. 40 CFR 721.10202 - Benzoic acid, 4-chloro-2- [(substituted)azo]-, strontium salt (1:1) (generic).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... salt (1:1) (generic). 721.10202 Section 721.10202 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) TOXIC SUBSTANCES CONTROL ACT SIGNIFICANT NEW USES OF CHEMICAL SUBSTANCES Significant New Uses for Specific Chemical Substances § 721.10202 Benzoic acid, 4-chloro-2- -, strontium salt...

  19. 40 CFR 721.10202 - Benzoic acid, 4-chloro-2- [(substituted)azo]-, strontium salt (1:1) (generic).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... salt (1:1) (generic). 721.10202 Section 721.10202 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) TOXIC SUBSTANCES CONTROL ACT SIGNIFICANT NEW USES OF CHEMICAL SUBSTANCES Significant New Uses for Specific Chemical Substances § 721.10202 Benzoic acid, 4-chloro-2- -, strontium salt...

  20. Exogenous jasmonic acid can enhance tolerance of wheat seedlings to salt stress.

    PubMed

    Qiu, ZongBo; Guo, JunLi; Zhu, AiJing; Zhang, Liang; Zhang, ManMan

    2014-06-01

    Jasmonic acid (JA) is regarded as endogenous regulator that plays an important role in regulating stress responses, plant growth and development. To investigate the physiological mechanisms of salt stress mitigated by exogenous JA, foliar application of 2mM JA was done to wheat seedlings for 3days and then they were subjected to 150mM NaCl. Our results showed that 150mM NaCl treatment significantly decreased plant height, root length, shoot dry weight, root dry weight, the concentration of glutathione (GSH), chlorophyll b (Chl b) and carotenoid (Car), the activities of superoxide dismutase (SOD), peroxidase (POD), catalase (CAT), ascorbate peroxidase (APX), enhanced the concentration of malondialdehyde (MDA), hydrogen peroxide (H2O2) and the rate of superoxide radical (O2•-) generation in the wheat seedlings when compared with the control. However, treatments with exogenous JA for 3 days significantly enhanced salt stress tolerance in wheat seedlings by decreasing the concentration of MDA and H2O2, the production rate of O2•- and increasing the transcript levels and activities of SOD, POD, CAT and APX and the contents of GSH, Chl b and Car, which, in turn, enhanced the growth of salt stressed seedlings. These results suggested that JA could effectively protect wheat seedlings from salt stress damage by enhancing activities of antioxidant enzymes and the concentration of antioxidative compounds to quench the excessive reactive oxygen species caused by salt stress and presented a practical implication for wheat cultivation in salt-affected soils.

  1. Catalytic actions of alkaline salts in reactions between 1,2,3,4-butanetetracarboxylic acid and cellulose: II. Esterification.

    PubMed

    Ji, Bolin; Tang, Peixin; Yan, Kelu; Sun, Gang

    2015-11-01

    1,2,3,4-Butanetetracarboxylic acid (BTCA) reacts with cellulose in two steps with catalysis of alkaline salts such as sodium hypophosphite: anhydride formation and esterification of anhydride with cellulose. The alkali metal ions were found effective in catalyzing formation of BTCA anhydride in a previous report. In this work, catalytic functions of the alkaline salts in the esterification reaction between BTCA anhydride and cellulose were investigated. Results revealed that acid anions play an important role in the esterification reaction by assisting removal of protons on intermediates and completion of the esterification between cellulose and BTCA. Besides, alkaline salts with lower pKa1 values of the corresponding acids are more effective ones for the reaction since addition of these salts could lead to lower pH values and higher acid anion concentrations in finishing baths. The mechanism explains the results of FTIR and wrinkle recovery angles of the fabrics cured under different temperatures and times.

  2. 76 FR 56158 - Citric Acid and Certain Citrate Salts From the People's Republic of China: Extension of Time...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-09-12

    ... International Trade Administration Citric Acid and Certain Citrate Salts From the People's Republic of China... administrative review of the countervailing duty order on citric acid and certain citrate sales from People's Republic of China, covering the period September 19, 2008, through December 31, 2009. See Citric Acid...

  3. 40 CFR 180.1121 - Boric acid and its salts, borax (sodium borate decahydrate), disodium octaborate tetrahydrate...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 25 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Boric acid and its salts, borax... EXEMPTIONS FOR PESTICIDE CHEMICAL RESIDUES IN FOOD Exemptions From Tolerances § 180.1121 Boric acid and its... the requirement of a tolerance is established for residues of the pesticidal chemical boric acid...

  4. 40 CFR 180.1121 - Boric acid and its salts, borax (sodium borate decahydrate), disodium octaborate tetrahydrate...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 24 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Boric acid and its salts, borax... EXEMPTIONS FOR PESTICIDE CHEMICAL RESIDUES IN FOOD Exemptions From Tolerances § 180.1121 Boric acid and its... the requirement of a tolerance is established for residues of the pesticidal chemical boric acid...

  5. 40 CFR 180.1121 - Boric acid and its salts, borax (sodium borate decahydrate), disodium octaborate tetrahydrate...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 25 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Boric acid and its salts, borax... EXEMPTIONS FOR PESTICIDE CHEMICAL RESIDUES IN FOOD Exemptions From Tolerances § 180.1121 Boric acid and its... the requirement of a tolerance is established for residues of the pesticidal chemical boric acid...

  6. 40 CFR 180.1121 - Boric acid and its salts, borax (sodium borate decahydrate), disodium octaborate tetrahydrate...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 23 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Boric acid and its salts, borax... EXEMPTIONS FOR PESTICIDE CHEMICAL RESIDUES IN FOOD Exemptions From Tolerances § 180.1121 Boric acid and its... the requirement of a tolerance is established for residues of the pesticidal chemical boric acid...

  7. 40 CFR 180.1121 - Boric acid and its salts, borax (sodium borate decahydrate), disodium octaborate tetrahydrate...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 24 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Boric acid and its salts, borax... EXEMPTIONS FOR PESTICIDE CHEMICAL RESIDUES IN FOOD Exemptions From Tolerances § 180.1121 Boric acid and its... the requirement of a tolerance is established for residues of the pesticidal chemical boric acid...

  8. An evaluation of critical loads of soil acidity in areas of high sea salt deposition.

    PubMed

    Reynolds, B

    2000-05-15

    The empirical and mass balance approaches to setting critical loads of acidity for mineral soils have been evaluated using field data from forest sites in Wales. Using the Simple Mass Balance Equation (SMBE) with Sitka spruce as the biological target, critical loads ranged between 2.3 and 9.8 keq H+ ha(-1) year(-1) compared to mapped empirical critical loads which ranged between 0.2 and 0.5 keq H+ ha(-1) year(-1). At all sites the empirical critical load was exceeded with respect to deposited sulfur acidity. There were no exceeded sites for the SMBE critical loads. The big differences between the two methods arise from the large ANC leaching term in the SMBE model which is determined by the relatively low (Ca + Mg + K)/Al(crit) ratio for Sitka spruce, compared to other conifers, and the influence of the large deposition of sea salt base cations. The low value of the (Ca + Mg + K)/Al(crit) ratio for Sitka spruce implies that it is tolerant of very acidic soil conditions, however, the ratio is based on the results of only one solution culture study and may thus be uncertain under field conditions. Large sea salt base cation deposition directly influences SMBE critical loads because the predicted soil water base cation concentrations permit large concentrations of hydrogen ions and aluminium (low ANC values) before the critical chemical limit is transgressed. Where weathering rates are low, critical ANC leaching (ANC(lecrit)) becomes the dominant term in the SMBE, with the counter intuitive result that the critical load becomes a linear function of sea salt base cation deposition. Thus the current formulation of the SMBE may not be appropriate for low weathering rate areas receiving large amounts of sea salt base cation deposition.

  9. Steroid binding to Autotaxin links bile salts and lysophosphatidic acid signalling.

    PubMed

    Keune, Willem-Jan; Hausmann, Jens; Bolier, Ruth; Tolenaars, Dagmar; Kremer, Andreas; Heidebrecht, Tatjana; Joosten, Robbie P; Sunkara, Manjula; Morris, Andrew J; Matas-Rico, Elisa; Moolenaar, Wouter H; Oude Elferink, Ronald P; Perrakis, Anastassis

    2016-01-01

    Autotaxin (ATX) generates the lipid mediator lysophosphatidic acid (LPA). ATX-LPA signalling is involved in multiple biological and pathophysiological processes, including vasculogenesis, fibrosis, cholestatic pruritus and tumour progression. ATX has a tripartite active site, combining a hydrophilic groove, a hydrophobic lipid-binding pocket and a tunnel of unclear function. We present crystal structures of rat ATX bound to 7α-hydroxycholesterol and the bile salt tauroursodeoxycholate (TUDCA), showing how the tunnel selectively binds steroids. A structure of ATX simultaneously harbouring TUDCA in the tunnel and LPA in the pocket, together with kinetic analysis, reveals that bile salts act as partial non-competitive inhibitors of ATX, thereby attenuating LPA receptor activation. This unexpected interplay between ATX-LPA signalling and select steroids, notably natural bile salts, provides a molecular basis for the emerging association of ATX with disorders associated with increased circulating levels of bile salts. Furthermore, our findings suggest potential clinical implications in the use of steroid drugs. PMID:27075612

  10. Steroid binding to Autotaxin links bile salts and lysophosphatidic acid signalling

    PubMed Central

    Keune, Willem-Jan; Hausmann, Jens; Bolier, Ruth; Tolenaars, Dagmar; Kremer, Andreas; Heidebrecht, Tatjana; Joosten, Robbie P.; Sunkara, Manjula; Morris, Andrew J.; Matas-Rico, Elisa; Moolenaar, Wouter H.; Oude Elferink, Ronald P.; Perrakis, Anastassis

    2016-01-01

    Autotaxin (ATX) generates the lipid mediator lysophosphatidic acid (LPA). ATX-LPA signalling is involved in multiple biological and pathophysiological processes, including vasculogenesis, fibrosis, cholestatic pruritus and tumour progression. ATX has a tripartite active site, combining a hydrophilic groove, a hydrophobic lipid-binding pocket and a tunnel of unclear function. We present crystal structures of rat ATX bound to 7α-hydroxycholesterol and the bile salt tauroursodeoxycholate (TUDCA), showing how the tunnel selectively binds steroids. A structure of ATX simultaneously harbouring TUDCA in the tunnel and LPA in the pocket, together with kinetic analysis, reveals that bile salts act as partial non-competitive inhibitors of ATX, thereby attenuating LPA receptor activation. This unexpected interplay between ATX-LPA signalling and select steroids, notably natural bile salts, provides a molecular basis for the emerging association of ATX with disorders associated with increased circulating levels of bile salts. Furthermore, our findings suggest potential clinical implications in the use of steroid drugs. PMID:27075612

  11. Salt-mediated self-assembly of thioctic acid on gold nanoparticles.

    PubMed

    Volkert, Anna A; Subramaniam, Varuni; Ivanov, Michael R; Goodman, Amanda M; Haes, Amanda J

    2011-06-28

    Self-assembled monolayer (SAM) modification is a widely used method to improve the functionality and stability of bulk and nanoscale materials. For instance, the chemical compatibility and utility of solution-phase nanoparticles are often improved using covalently bound SAMs. Herein, solution-phase gold nanoparticles are modified with thioctic acid SAMs in the presence and absence of salt. Molecular packing density on the nanoparticle surfaces is estimated using X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy and increases by ∼20% when molecular self-assembly occurs in the presence versus the absence of salt. We hypothesize that as the ionic strength of the solution increases, pinhole and collapsed-site defects in the SAM are more easily accessible as the electrostatic interaction energy between adjacent molecules decreases, thereby facilitating the subsequent assembly of additional thioctic acid molecules. Significantly, increased SAM packing densities increase the stability of functionalized gold nanoparticles by a factor of 2 relative to nanoparticles functionalized in the absence of salt. These results are expected to improve the reproducible functionalization of solution-phase nanomaterials for various applications. PMID:21524135

  12. Comparing organic acids and salt derivatives as antimicrobials against selected poultry-borne Listeria monocytogenes strains in vitro.

    PubMed

    Lues, Jan Frederick Rykers; Theron, Maria Magdalena

    2012-12-01

    This article reports on the antilisterial properties of selected organic acids and salt derivatives in order to suggest possible alternatives in food preservation and pathogen control in the poultry meat processing industry. The susceptibility of two Listeria monocytogenes isolates was assessed against five organic acids (lactic, acetic, malic, citric, and propionic) and two acid-salt derivatives (sorbic acid [potassium salt] and benzoic acid [sodium salt]) across a series of pH environments. Minimum inhibitory concentrations (MICs) of the acids were tested against the two strains by means of an agar-dilution method. In general, strain CC60 was found to be more resistant than strain CC77 to both organic acids and salts. At pH values of 7 and above, high MIC levels (low susceptibility) were noted for potassium sorbate, sodium benzoate, and lactic acids, whereas susceptibility at lower pH increased reaching pH5 where the isolates were susceptible to all the organic acids tested. A small increase in pH notably reduced antimicrobial activity against the organisms. At pH 7, the isolates just about lost susceptibility to benzoic, lactic, malic, and sorbic acids. Although the activity of the majority of acids was linked to pH, some acids were not as closely related (e.g., potassium sorbate, sodium benzoate, and citric acid), and this suggests that the type of organic acids plays a role in inhibition. The relatively high MICs reported for compounds that are conventionally used as preservatives against Listeria spp. raise concern. The results furthermore suggest that the type of organic acid used to set pH, and not only pH alone, plays a role in determining inhibition. It was confirmed that a "one size fits all" approach to preservation is not always effective. Furthermore, the need for microbiological data to the subspecies level to inform the selection of preservatives was highlighted. PMID:23190165

  13. Fourier Transform Infrared Spectroscopy Demonstrates The Reactivity Of The Protonated Carboxyl Group Of The Acid Salt Of Calcium Bilirubinate.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Soloway, R. D.; Wu, J.-G.; Xu, D.-F.; Zhang, Y.-F.; Martini, D. K.; Hong, N.-K.; Crowther, R. S.

    1989-12-01

    Calcium bilirubinate is a major salt in pigment gallstones. Bilirubin IX (H2BR) is a tetrapyrrole with 1 propionic acid side chain on both the B and C rings. A striking feature is the strong intramolecular hydrogen bonding of both carboxyl groups as determined by x-ray diffraction. This greatly reduces aqueous solubility. Much less is known about the structure of the salts of calcium bilirubinate since single crystals have not been formed. One or both carboxyl groups of bilirubin may coordinate with calcium in stone, forming the acid or neutral salt.

  14. Azetidine-2-carboxylic acid resistant mutants of Arabidopsis thaliana with increased salt tolerance

    SciTech Connect

    Lehle, F.R.; Murphy, M.A.; Khan, R.A. )

    1989-04-01

    Nineteen mutant Arabidopsis families resistant to the proline analog azetidine-2-carboxylic acid (ACA) were characterized in terms of NaCl tolerance and proline content. Mutants were selected from about 64,000 progeny of about 16,000 self-pollinated Columbia parents which had been mutated with ethyl methane sulfonate during seed imbibition. Selections were performed during seed germination on aseptic agar medium containing 0.2 to 0.25 mM ACA. Nineteen mutant families, 12 clearly independent, retained resistance to ACA in the M{sub 4} generation. Based on germination on 150 mM NaCl, 13 of the mutant families were more tolerant than the wild type. Two mutants of intermediate resistance to ACA were markedly more salt tolerant than the others. Four mutant families appeared to overproduce proline. Of these, only 3 showed slight increases in salt tolerance.

  15. Effect of diffusion layer pH and solubility on the dissolution rate of pharmaceutical acids and their sodium salts. II: Salicylic acid, theophylline, and benzoic acid.

    PubMed

    Serajuddin, A T; Jarowski, C I

    1985-02-01

    The pH-solubility profiles of salicylic acid and theophylline, as determined by the addition of HCl or NaOH to their aqueous suspensions, were identical with those of their sodium salts except during phase transitions from acid to salt or vice versa. Supersaturated solutions were formed during phase transitions. Unlike the solubility profiles, the pH-intrinsic dissolution rate profiles of an acid and its salt differed greatly. Good conformity with the Noyes-Whitney equation was demonstrated when the solubility values under pH conditions as the diffusion layer thickness, h, approaches zero (Cs,h = 0) were used rather than solubilities under pH conditions of the bulk media (Cs). The pH when h approaches zero (pHh = 0) was estimated by equilibration of a dissolution medium with an excess of material. Good correlation was shown between the pHh = 0 values of benzoic acid estimated according to this method and the pHh = 0 values reported in the literature. The intrinsic dissolution rate constant, the ratio of the diffusion coefficient to the diffusion layer thickness (D/h), may be assumed constant when comparing the dissolution rates of salicylic acid, theophylline and sodium theophylline. On the other hand, D/h decreased significantly during dissolution of sodium salicylate due to a large increase in Cs,h = 0 and the consequent increase in viscosity in the diffusion layer. A simple method of predicting the dissolution rate of an acid or a salt at different pH values has been developed.

  16. Salicylic acid negatively affects the response to salt stress in pea plants.

    PubMed

    Barba-Espín, G; Clemente-Moreno, M J; Alvarez, S; García-Legaz, M F; Hernández, J A; Díaz-Vivancos, P

    2011-11-01

    We studied the effect of salicylic acid (SA) treatment on the response of pea plants to salinity. Sodium chloride (NaCl)-induced damage to leaves was increased by SA, which was correlated with a reduction in plant growth. The content of reduced ascorbate and glutathione in leaves of salt-treated plants increased in response to SA, although accumulation of the respective oxidised forms occurred. An increase in hydrogen peroxide also occurred in leaves of salt-exposed plants treated with SA. In the absence of NaCl, SA increased ascorbate peroxidase (APX; 100 μm) and glutathione-S transferase (GST; 50 μm) activities and increased catalase (CAT) activity in a concentration-dependent manner. Salinity decreased glutathione reductase (GR) activity, but increased GST and CAT activity. In salt-stressed plants, SA also produced changes in antioxidative enzymes: 100 μm SA decreased APX but increased GST. Finally, a concentration-dependent increase in superoxide dismutase (SOD) activity was induced by SA treatment in salt-stressed plants. Induction of PR-1b was observed in NaCl-stressed plants treated with SA. The treatment with SA, as well as the interaction between salinity and SA treatment, had a significant effect on PsMAPK3 expression. The expression of PsMAPK3 was not altered by 70 mm NaCl, but was statistically higher in the absence than in the presence of SA. Overall, the results show that SA treatment negatively affected the response of pea plants to NaCl, and this response correlated with an imbalance in antioxidant metabolism. The data also show that SA treatment could enhance the resistance of salt-stressed plants to possible opportunistic pathogen attack, as suggested by increased PR-1b gene expression.

  17. Comparative proteomic analysis of β-aminobutyric acid-mediated alleviation of salt stress in barley.

    PubMed

    Mostek, Agnieszka; Börner, Andreas; Weidner, Stanisław

    2016-02-01

    The non-protein amino acid β-aminobutyric acid (BABA) is known to induce plant resistance to a broad spectrum of biotic and abiotic stresses. This is the first study describing the effect of BABA seed priming on physiological and proteomic changes under salt stress conditions in barley (Hordeum vulgare). The aim of our study was to investigate the changes of fresh weight, dry weight and relative water content (RWC) as well as root proteome changes of two barley lines contrasting in salt tolerance (DH14, DH 187) in response to salt stress after seed priming in water or in 800 μM BABA. Seed priming with BABA significantly increased (p ≤ 0.05) RWC in both barley lines, which indicates considerably lower water loss in BABA-primed plants than in the non-primed control plants. Dry and fresh matter increased significantly in line DH 187, whereas no changes were detected in line DH14. BABA-primed plants of both lines showed different proteomic patterns than the non-primed control plants. The root proteins exhibiting significant abundance changes (1.75-fold change, p ≤ 0.05) were separated by two-dimensional polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis (2D- PAGE). Thirty-one spots, representing 24 proteins, were successfully identified by MALDI TOF/TOF mass spectrometry. The most prominent differences include the up-regulation of antioxidant enzymes (catalase, peroxidase and superoxide dismutase), PR proteins (chitinase, endo-1,3-β-glucosidase), and chaperones (cyclophilin, HSC 70). Our results indicate that BABA induces defence and detoxification processes which may enable faster and more effective responses to salt stress, increasing the chances of survival under adverse environmental conditions.

  18. Molecular interactions between lecithin and bile salts/acids in oils and their effects on reverse micellization.

    PubMed

    Njauw, Ching-Wei; Cheng, Chih-Yang; Ivanov, Viktor A; Khokhlov, Alexei R; Tung, Shih-Huang

    2013-03-26

    It has been known that the addition of bile salts to lecithin organosols induces the formation of reverse wormlike micelles and that the worms are similar to long polymer chains that entangle each other to form viscoelastic solutions. In this study, we further investigated the effects of different bile salts and bile acids on the growth of lecithin reverse worms in cyclohexane and n-decane. We utilized rheological and small-angle scattering techniques to analyze the properties and structures of the reverse micelles. All of the bile salts can transform the originally spherical lecithin reverse micelles into wormlike micelles and their rheological behaviors can be described by the single-relaxation-time Maxwell model. However, their efficiencies to induce the worms are different. In contrast, before phase separation, bile acids can induce only short cylindrical micelles that are not long enough to impart viscoelasticity. We used Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy to investigate the interactions between lecithin and bile salts/acids and found that different bile salts/acids employ different functional groups to form hydrogen bonds with lecithin. Such effects determine the relative positions of the bile salts/acids in the headgroups of lecithin, thus resulting in varying efficiencies to alter the effective critical packing parameter for the formation of wormlike micelles. This work highlights the importance of intermolecular interactions in molecular self-assembly.

  19. Structure of six anhydrous molecular salts assembled from noncovalent associations between carboxylic acids and bis-N-imidazoles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jin, Shouwen; Guo, Ming; Wang, Daqi

    2012-08-01

    Six crystalline organic acid-base adducts derived from bis(N-imidazolyl) and carboxylic acids (3,5-dinitrobenzoic acid, 5-nitrosalicylic acid, 3,5-dinitrosalicylic acid, and phthalic acid) were prepared and characterized by X-ray diffraction analysis, IR, mp, and elemental analysis. The six compounds are all organic salts. In salts 1, 2, 4, 5, and 6 the corresponding bis(imidazole) derivatives are diprotonated, while in 3, the corresponding bis(imidazole) derivative is only monoprotonated. All supramolecular architectures of the salts 1-6 involve extensive Nsbnd H⋯O, Osbnd H⋯O, CH⋯O, and CH2⋯O hydrogen bonds as well as other noncovalent interactions. The role of weak and strong noncovalent interactions in the crystal packing is ascertained. All the salts displayed 3D framework structures under the cooperation of these weak interactions. The results presented herein indicate that the strength and directionality of the N+sbnd H⋯O-, Osbnd H⋯O, and Nsbnd H⋯N hydrogen bonds between carboxylic acids and ditopic imidazoles are sufficient to bring about the formation of binary organic salts.

  20. Modification of fatty acid profile of cow milk by calcium salts of fatty acids and its use in ice cream.

    PubMed

    Nadeem, Muhammad; Abdullah, Muhammad; Hussain, Imtiaz; Inayat, Saima

    2015-02-01

    This study was conducted to determine the effect of calcium salts of fatty acids (CSFA) on fatty acid profile of milk of "Sahiwal" cows and suitability of milk with modified fatty acids in the formulation of ice cream. Fatty acid profile of cow milk was modified by feeding CSFA to eighteen randomly stratified "Sahiwal" cows of first and early lactation divided into three groups. CSFA were offered at two different levels i.e. T1 (150 g per cow per day) T2 (300 g per cow per day) both treatments were compared with a control (T0) without any addition of calcium salts of fatty acids. Iso caloric and iso nitrogenous feeds were given to both experimental groups and control. Concentrations of short chain fatty acids in T0, T1 and T2 were 9.85 ± 0.48a, 8.8 ± 0.24b and 7.1 ± 0.37c %, respectively and the concentrations of C18:1 and C18:2 increased (P < 0.05) from 27.6 ± 1.32b % to 31.7 ± 1.68a % and 2.15 ± 0.09b % to 2.79 ± 0.05a %, respectively, at T2 level. Incorporation of milk fat of T1 and T2 (modified fatty acids profile) in ice cream did not have any adverse effect on pH, acidity and compositional attributes of ice cream. Viscosity of T1 was 67.94 ± 3.77a as compared to (T0) control 68.75 ± 2.46a (CP). Firmness of experimental samples and control were almost similar (P > 0.05) overall acceptability score of T2 was 7.1 ± 0.28b out of 9 (total score) which was more than 78 ± 2.92 %. It was concluded that CSFA may be successfully incorporated up to T2 level (300 g per cow per day) into the feed of "Sahiwal" cows to produce milk with higher content of unsaturated fatty acids and it may be used in the formulation of ice cream with acceptable sensory characteristics and increased health benefits.

  1. Three salts from the reactions of cysteamine and cystamine with L-(+)-tartaric acid.

    PubMed

    Benylles, Amina; Cairns, Donald; Cox, Philip J; Kay, Graeme

    2013-06-01

    Reaction between cysteamine (systematic name: 2-aminoethanethiol, C2H7NS) and L-(+)-tartaric acid [systematic name: (2R,3R)-2,3-dihydroxybutanedioic acid, C4H6O6] results in a mixture of cysteamine tartrate(1-) monohydrate, C2H8NS(+)·C4H5O6(-)·H2O, (I), and cystamine bis[tartrate(1-)] dihydrate, C4H14N2S2(2+)·2C4H5O6(-)·2H2O, (III). Cystamine [systematic name: 2,2'-dithiobis(ethylamine), C4H12N2S2], reacts with L-(+)-tartaric acid to produce a mixture of cystamine tartrate(2-), C4H14N2S2(2+)·C4H4O6(2-), (II), and (III). In each crystal structure, the anions are linked by O-H···O hydrogen bonds that run parallel to the a axis. In addition, hydrogen bonding involving protonated amino groups in all three salts, and water molecules in (I) and (III), leads to extensive three-dimensional hydrogen-bonding networks. All three salts crystallize in the orthorhombic space group P2(1)2(1)2(1).

  2. Freezing points and small-scale deicing tests for salts of levulinic acid made from grain sorghum.

    PubMed

    Ganjyal, G; Fang, Q; Hanna, M A

    2007-11-01

    Deicers from renewable resources are needed to overcome the disadvantages of using traditional deicers. Salts made from levulinic acid produced using grain sorghum as raw material were tested as road deicing agents. Freezing points of these salts viz., sodium levulinate, magnesium levulinate and calcium levulinate along with rock salt (sodium chloride) were determined according to American Society for Testing and Materials (ASTM) D 1177-94 standard at concentrations of 10, 20, 30 and 40 % w/w. There were significant differences among the freezing points of the salts. Freezing points for rock salt, sodium levulinate, calcium levulinate and magnesium levulinate, for different concentrations, were in the ranges of -6.6 to -20.5, -2.9 to -15.0, -2.1 to -7.8 and -1.5 to -6.5 degrees C, respectively. Deicing effectiveness of the salts of levulinic acid were investigated by conducting small-scale deicing tests with aqueous solutions of various salt concentrations (2%, 5% and 10%) in a laboratory freezer and by spraying the deicer on a graveled surface covered by ice and snow with the average temperature during the testing at -2.7 degrees C. Deicing capabilities of the three salts of levulinic acid differed. At -2.7 degrees C, all three salts caused melting of the ice. Among the different levulinates studied sodium levulinate was the most effective deicing agent. These salts of levulinates could be a viable replacement for traditional deicers and could help in reducing the disadvantages of traditional deicers.

  3. Radioluminescence of polyester resin modified with acrylic acid and its salts

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Szalińska, H.; Wypych, M.; Pietrzak, M.; Szadkowska-Nicze, M.

    Polimal-109 polyester resin and its compounds containing acrylic acid and its salts such as: sodium, potassium, magnesium, calcium, barium, iron, cobalt, copper and manganese acrylates were studied by the radioluminescence method, including isothermal luminescence (ITL) at a radiation temperature of 77 K, thermoluminescence (RTL) and spectral distributions of isothermal luminescence. Measurements of optical absorption at 77 K before and after irradiation of the investigated samples were also carried out. The results obtained have shown that metal ions play a significant part in the processes taking place in the polyester matrix under the influence of γ 60Co radiation.

  4. Polymer-induced fractal patterns of [60]fullerene containing poly(methacrylic acid) in salt solutions.

    PubMed

    Tan, Chung How; Ravi, Palaniswamy; Dai, Sheng; Tam, Kam Chiu

    2004-11-01

    Well-defined water-soluble pH-responsive [60]fullerene (C60) containing poly(methacrylic acid) (PMAA-b-C60) was synthesized using the atom transfer radical polymerization technique. By varying pH and salt concentration, different types of fractal patterns at nano- to microscopic dimensions were observed for negatively charged PMAA-b-C60, while such structure was not observed for positively charged poly(2-dimethylaminoethyl methacrylate)-b-C60. We demonstrated that negatively charged fullerene containing polymeric systems can serve as excellent nanotemplates for the controlled growth of inorganic crystals at the nano- to micrometer length scale, and the possible mechanism was proposed.

  5. Salting-out effects on the characterization of naphthenic acids from Athabasca oil sands using electrospray ionization.

    PubMed

    Headley, John V; Barrow, Mark P; Peru, Kerry M; Derrick, Peter J

    2011-01-01

    There is growing interest in the mass spectrometric characterization of oil sands acids present in natural waters and contaminated soils. This interest stems from efforts to isolate the principal toxic components of oil sands acid extractable organics in aquatic environment. Salting-out effects are demonstrated for nanospray ionization mass spectra of Athabasca oil sands acid extractable organics (naphthenic acids), using Fourier transform ion cyclotron resonance (FT-ICR) mass spectrometry. The differences in spectra obtained for the sodium naphthenates in dichloromethane/acetonitrile cosolvents compared to spectra obtained in the absence of saturated sodium chloride salts, are used here as a surrogate to indicate the more bioavailable or toxic components in natural waters. Whereas, monocarboxylic compounds (C(n)H(2n+Z)O(2)) were prevalent in the Z =-4, -6, and -12 (2, 3 and 6-ring naphthenic acids respectively) family in the carbon number range of 13 to 19 in the dichloromethane/acetonitrile cosolvent systems, salting-out effects resulted in a general enhancement of Z =-4 species, relative to others. Likewise, the shift in relative intensities of species containing O(1), O(3), O(4), O(2)S and O(3)S was dramatic for systems with and without saturated salts present. The O(4) and O(3)S species for example, were prevalent in the dichloromethane/acetonitrile cosolvent but were non-detected in the presence of saturated salts. Interactions of oil sands acids with salts are expected to occur in oil sands processed waters and natural saline waters. As evident by the distribution of species observed, salting-out effects will play a major role in limiting the bioavailability of oil sands acids in aquatic systems.

  6. Hardening with salicylic acid induces concentration-dependent changes in abscisic acid biosynthesis of tomato under salt stress.

    PubMed

    Horváth, Edit; Csiszár, Jolán; Gallé, Ágnes; Poór, Péter; Szepesi, Ágnes; Tari, Irma

    2015-07-01

    The role of salicylic acid (SA) in the control of abscisic acid (ABA) biosynthesis is controversial although both plant growth regulators may accumulate in tissues under abiotic and biotic stress conditions. Hardening of tomato plants to salinity stress with 10(-4)M SA ("high SA") resulted in an up-regulation of ABA biosynthesis genes, zeaxanthin epoxidase (SlZEP1), 9-cis-epoxycarotenoid dioxygenase (SlNCED1) and aldehyde oxidases (SlAO1 and SlAO2) in the roots and led to ABA accumulation both in root and leaf tissues. In plants pre-treated with lower concentration of SA (10(-7)M, "low SA"), the up-regulation of SlNCED1 in the roots promoted ABA accumulation in the root tissues but the hormone concentration remained at control level in the leaves. Salt stress induced by 100mM NaCl reduced the transcript abundance of ABA biosynthetic genes and inhibited SlAO activity in plants hardened with "high SA", but the tissues maintained root ABA level over the untreated control. The combined effect of "high SA" and ABA under salt stress led to partially recovered photosynthetic activity, reduced ethylene production in root apices, and restored root growth, which is one of the main features of salt tolerance. Unlike "high SA", hardening with "low SA" had no influence on ethylene production, and led to reduced elongation of roots in plants exposed to 100mM NaCl. The up-regulation of carotenoid cleavage dioxygenases SlCCD1A and SlCCD1B by SA, which produce apocarotenoids, may open new pathways in SA sensing and signalling processes.

  7. Safety evaluation of chitosan and chitosan acid salts from Panurilus argus lobster.

    PubMed

    Lagarto, Alicia; Merino, Nelson; Valdes, Odalys; Dominguez, Jesus; Spencer, Evelyn; de la Paz, Nilia; Aparicio, Guillermo

    2015-01-01

    Chitosan is a natural polymer with excellent properties such as biocompatibility, biodegradability, non-toxicity and adsorptive abilities. We obtained chitosan derived from Panurilus argus lobster shell and its lactate and acetate salts to introduce in pharmaceutical industry. We examined the single and repeated dose toxicity of chitosan and its lactate and acetate salts. Single oral doses of 2000 mg/kg were well tolerated for all three materials. In the repeat dose tests, animals treated with chitosan only show a slight erythrocytes increase. Variations in erythrocyte and leukocyte count and some biochemical parameters were observed in animals treated with chitosan acid salts. One g/kg orally was found to be the subacute NOAEL for chitosan due to the hematological findings observed were not considered adverse. Chitosans obtained from Panurilus argus lobster shell have low toxicity and may be safe in rats because it did not cause any lethality or changes in the general behavior in both the single and repeated dose toxicity studies.

  8. Adsorption and condensation of amino acids and nucleotides with soluble mineral salts

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Orenberg, J.; Lahav, N.

    1986-01-01

    The directed synthesis of biopolymers in an abiotic environment is presumably a cyclic sequence of steps which may be realized in a fluctuating environment such as a prebiotic pond undergoing wetting-drying cycles. Soluble mineral salts have been proposed as an essential component of this fluctuating environment. The following sequence may be considered as a most primitive mechanism of information transfer in a fluctuating environment: (1) adsorption of a biomolecule onto a soluable mineral salt surface to act as an adsorbed template; (2) specific adsorption of biomonomers onto the adsorbed template; (3) condensation of the adsorbed biomonomers; and (4) desorption of the elongated oligomer. In this investigation, the salts selected for study were CaSO4.2H2O(gypsum), SrSO4, and several other metal sulfates and chlorides. Adsorption of the monomeric species, gly, 5'AMP 5'GMP, and 5'CMP was investigated. The adsorbed template biopolymers used were Poly-A, Poly-G, Poly-C, and Poly-U. The results of studies involving these experimental participants, the first two steps of the proposed primitive information transfer mechanism, and condensation of amino acids to form oligomers in a fluctuating environment are to be reported.

  9. Safety evaluation of chitosan and chitosan acid salts from Panurilus argus lobster.

    PubMed

    Lagarto, Alicia; Merino, Nelson; Valdes, Odalys; Dominguez, Jesus; Spencer, Evelyn; de la Paz, Nilia; Aparicio, Guillermo

    2015-01-01

    Chitosan is a natural polymer with excellent properties such as biocompatibility, biodegradability, non-toxicity and adsorptive abilities. We obtained chitosan derived from Panurilus argus lobster shell and its lactate and acetate salts to introduce in pharmaceutical industry. We examined the single and repeated dose toxicity of chitosan and its lactate and acetate salts. Single oral doses of 2000 mg/kg were well tolerated for all three materials. In the repeat dose tests, animals treated with chitosan only show a slight erythrocytes increase. Variations in erythrocyte and leukocyte count and some biochemical parameters were observed in animals treated with chitosan acid salts. One g/kg orally was found to be the subacute NOAEL for chitosan due to the hematological findings observed were not considered adverse. Chitosans obtained from Panurilus argus lobster shell have low toxicity and may be safe in rats because it did not cause any lethality or changes in the general behavior in both the single and repeated dose toxicity studies. PMID:25450835

  10. Unfolding of Hydrated Alkyl Diammonium Cations Revealed by Cryogenic Ion Mobility-Mass Spectrometry.

    PubMed

    Servage, Kelly A; Fort, Kyle L; Silveira, Joshua A; Shi, Liuqing; Clemmer, David E; Russell, David H

    2015-07-22

    Hydration of the ammonium ion plays a key role in determining the biomolecular structure as well as local structure of water in aqueous environments. Experimental data obtained by cryogenic ion mobility-mass spectrometry (cryo-IM-MS) show that dehydration of alkyl diammonium cations induces a distinct unfolding transition at a critical number of water molecules, n = 21 to 23, n = 24 to 26, and n = 27 to 29, for 1,7-diaminoheptane, 1,8-diaminooctane, and 1,10-diaminodecane, respectively. Results are also presented that reveal compelling evidence for unique structural transitions of hydrated ammonium ions associated with the development of the hydrogen-bond network around individual charged groups. The ability to track the evolution of structure upon stepwise dehydration provides direct insight into the intricate interplay between solvent-molecule interactions that are responsible for defining conformations. Such insights are potentially valuable in understanding how ammonium ion solvation influences conformation(s) of larger biomolecules.

  11. Singularity of proton transport in salts of orthoperiodic and orthotellurium acids: theoretical modeling using density functional calculations.

    PubMed

    Zyubina, Tatiana S; Shilov, Gennady V; Dobrovolsky, Yury A; Leonova, Ludmila S; Mebel, Alexander M

    2004-07-21

    Density functional B3LYP calculations have been performed to investigate proton transport in orthoperiodic and orthotellurium acids, their salts MIO(6)H(4)(M = Li, Rb, Cs) and CsH(5)TeO(6), dimers of the salt*acid type MIO(6)H(4)*H(5)IO(6)(M = Rb, Cs), CsIO(6)H(4)*H(6)TeO(6), CsHSO(4)*H(6)TeO(6), Cs(2)SO(4)*H(6)TeO(6), and also in double-substituted and binary salts Rb(2)H(3)IO(6) and Rb(4)H(2)I(2)O(10). It has been shown that the energy of salt dimerization is 33-35 kcal mol(-1) and the activation barrier for proton migration between the neighboring octahedrons of the salt*acid --> acid*salt type is calculated to be 3-13 kcal mol(-1). The activation energy of the proton migration along the octahedron, 20-30 kcal mol(-1), is comparable with the barrier for water molecule separation. Quantum-chemical calculations correlate with the results of X-ray and electrochemical studies.

  12. 77 FR 74171 - Citric Acid and Certain Citrate Salts From the People's Republic of China: Final Results of...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-12-13

    ... sodium citrate, otherwise known as citric acid sodium salt, and the monohydrate and monopotassium forms of potassium citrate.\\5\\ Sodium citrate also includes both trisodium citrate and monosodium citrate... acid and sodium citrate are classifiable under 2918.14.0000 and 2918.15.1000 of the Harmonized...

  13. 76 FR 2648 - Citric Acid and Certain Citrate Salts From People's Republic of China: Extension of Time Limit...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-01-14

    ... Revocation in Part, 75 FR 37759 (June 30, 2010). The preliminary results of this administrative review are... International Trade Administration Citric Acid and Certain Citrate Salts From People's Republic of China... initiation of administrative review of the countervailing duty order on citric acid and certain citrate...

  14. Effect of pH alkaline salts of fatty acids on the inhibition of bacteria associated with poultry processing

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The agar diffusion assay was used to examine the effect of pH on the ability of alkaline salts of three fatty acids (FA) to inhibit growth of bacteria associated with poultry processing. FA solutions were prepared by dissolving 0.5 M concentrations of caprylic, capric, or lauric acid in separate ali...

  15. Adsorption of bile acid by chitosan salts prepared with cinnamic acid and analogue compounds.

    PubMed

    Murata, Yoshifumi; Nagaki, Kumiko; Kofuji, Kyouko; Sanae, Fujiko; Kontani, Hitoshi; Kawashima, Susumu

    2006-01-01

    A chitosan (CS) powder treated with cinnamic acid and an analogue compound (CN) was prepared as CS-CN. Using it, bile acid adsorption by CS-CN and the release of CN were investigated in vitro. When CS-CN was soaked in a taurocholate solution, it released CN and simultaneously adsorbed the bile acid. For CS-CN prepared with cinnamic acid, the amount of CN released was 0.286 +/- 0.001 mmol/g CS-CN; the amount of taurocholate adsorbed was 0.284 +/- 0.003 mmol/g CS-CN. These two functions were recognized on alginate or pectin gel beads containing CS-CN. The amount of released CN was altered extensively by the species of CN used for gel-bead preparation. Results suggest that CS-CN is a candidate for complementary medicine to prevent lifestyle-related diseases.

  16. Crystallization of a salt of a weak organic acid and base: solubility relations, supersaturation control and polymorphic behavior.

    PubMed

    Jones, H P; Davey, R J; Cox, B G

    2005-03-24

    Control of crystallization processes for organic salts is of importance to the pharmaceutical industry as many active pharmaceutical materials are marketed as salts. In this study, a method for estimating the solubility product of a salt of a weak acid and weak base from measured pH-solubility data is described for the first time. This allows calculation of the supersaturation of solutions at known pH. Ethylenediammonium 3,5-dinitrobenzoate is a polymorphic organic salt. A detailed study of the effects of pH, supersaturation, and temperature of crystallization on the physical properties of this salt shows that the desired polymorph may be produced by appropriate selection of the pH and supersaturation of crystallization. Crystal morphology is also controlled by these crystallization conditions.

  17. A Locked Nucleic Acid Probe Based on Selective Salt-Induced Effect Detects Single Nucleotide Polymorphisms

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Jing; Wu, Huizhe; Chen, Qiuchen; Zhao, Pengfei; Zhao, Haishan; Yao, Weifan; Wei, Minjie

    2015-01-01

    Detection of single based genetic mutation by using oligonucleotide probes is one of the common methods of detecting single nucleotide polymorphisms at known loci. In this paper, we demonstrated a hybridization system which included a buffer solution that produced selective salt-induced effect and a locked nucleic acid modified 12 nt oligonucleotide probe. The hybridization system is suitable for hybridization under room temperature. By using magnetic nanoparticles as carriers for PCR products, the SNPs (MDR1 C3435T/A) from 45 volunteers were analyzed, and the results were consistent with the results from pyrophosphoric acid sequencing. The method presented in this paper differs from the traditional method of using molecular beacons to detect SNPs in that it is suitable for research institutions lacking real-time quantitative PCR detecting systems, to detect PCR products at room temperature. PMID:26347880

  18. Effects of salt concentration on the reaction rate of Glc with amino acids, peptides, and proteins.

    PubMed

    Yamaguchi, Keiko; Noumi, Yuri; Nakajima, Katsumi; Nagatsuka, Chiharu; Aizawa, Haruko; Nakawaki, Rie; Mizude, Eri; Otsuka, Yuzuru; Homma, Takeshi; Chuyen, Nguyen Van

    2009-11-01

    The reaction between the amino group and the carbonyl group is important in food quality control. Furthermore, advanced glycation end products from foods are considered to relate to aging and diabetes. Thus, it is important to control this reaction. In this study, we investigated the effects of salt concentration on the rates of browning reaction of amino acid, peptides, and proteins. A high concentration of sodium chloride retarded the reaction rate of Glc with amino acids as measured with the absorbance at 470 nm, but did not change the browning rate of Glc with peptides. On the other hand, sodium chloride retarded the browning reaction rate of proteins as measured with polymerization degree or by the loss of Lys. It is hoped that the results of this study will be applied in the control of amino-carbonyl reaction rates in the food industry. PMID:19897911

  19. Solubility and reactivity of peroxyacetyl nitrate (PAN) in dilute aqueous salt solutions and in sulphuric acid

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Frenzel, A.; Kutsuna, S.; Takeuchi, K.; Ibusuki, T.

    The loss rates of PAN in several dilute aqueous salt solutions (NaBr, Na 2SO 3, KI, NaNO 2, FeCl 3, and FeSO 4) and in sulphuric acid were measured at 279 K with a simple bubbler experiment. They are little different from that in pure water. For 5 M sulphuric acid hydrolysis and solubility were determined in the temperature range of 243-293 K. The hydrolysis rate kh=3.2×10 -4 s -1 at 293 K is close to that in water. The observed temperature dependence of the Henry's Law constant H=10- 6.6±0.6exp((4780±420)/T) M atm -1 leads to enthalpy and entropy of solvation Δ Hsolv=-39.7±3.5 kJ mol -1 and Δ Ssolv=-126±11 J mol -1 K -1, respectively.

  20. Preparation of volatile fatty acid (VFA) calcium salts by anaerobic digestion of glucose.

    PubMed

    Li, Xiaofen; Swan, Janis E; Nair, Giridhar R; Langdon, Alan G

    2015-01-01

    Many potentially useful intermediates such as hydrogen and volatile fatty acids (VFAs) are formed during the complex anaerobic digestion processes that produce methane from biomass. This study recovers VFAs from an anaerobic digester by a combination of gas stripping and absorption with calcium carbonate slurry. Glucose was used as the model substrate because it is readily available, inexpensive, and easily digested. Sludge from a meatworks anaerobic digester produced methane and carbon dioxide (and sometimes a small amount of hydrogen) when batch-fed with glucose. Conditioning the neutral anaerobic sludge to an acidic pH (below 4.8) was achieved using repeated 1 g L(-1) doses of glucose. After conditioning, mainly VFAs and hydrogen were produced. The intermediate VFAs could be stripped using headspace gas. In subsequent fed-batch digestion/stripping cycles, the pH decreased when glucose was added and then increased when the VFA was gas stripped. The predominant acids formed at low pH values were lactic, butyric, and acetic acids. Lactic acid was converted to VFAs during stripping. The VFA calcium salts recovered were 80% butyrate and 20% acetate with minor quantities of propionate and valerate. PMID:25274086

  1. Preparation of volatile fatty acid (VFA) calcium salts by anaerobic digestion of glucose.

    PubMed

    Li, Xiaofen; Swan, Janis E; Nair, Giridhar R; Langdon, Alan G

    2015-01-01

    Many potentially useful intermediates such as hydrogen and volatile fatty acids (VFAs) are formed during the complex anaerobic digestion processes that produce methane from biomass. This study recovers VFAs from an anaerobic digester by a combination of gas stripping and absorption with calcium carbonate slurry. Glucose was used as the model substrate because it is readily available, inexpensive, and easily digested. Sludge from a meatworks anaerobic digester produced methane and carbon dioxide (and sometimes a small amount of hydrogen) when batch-fed with glucose. Conditioning the neutral anaerobic sludge to an acidic pH (below 4.8) was achieved using repeated 1 g L(-1) doses of glucose. After conditioning, mainly VFAs and hydrogen were produced. The intermediate VFAs could be stripped using headspace gas. In subsequent fed-batch digestion/stripping cycles, the pH decreased when glucose was added and then increased when the VFA was gas stripped. The predominant acids formed at low pH values were lactic, butyric, and acetic acids. Lactic acid was converted to VFAs during stripping. The VFA calcium salts recovered were 80% butyrate and 20% acetate with minor quantities of propionate and valerate.

  2. Unified molecular picture of the surfaces of aqueous acid, base, and salt solutions.

    PubMed

    Mucha, Martin; Frigato, Tomaso; Levering, Lori M; Allen, Heather C; Tobias, Douglas J; Dang, Liem X; Jungwirth, Pavel

    2005-04-28

    The molecular structure of the interfacial regions of aqueous electrolytes is poorly understood, despite its crucial importance in many biological, technological, and atmospheric processes. A long-term controversy pertains between the standard picture of an ion-free surface layer and the strongly ion specific behavior indicating in many cases significant propensities of simple inorganic ions for the interface. Here, we present a unified and consistent view of the structure of the air/solution interface of aqueous electrolytes containing monovalent inorganic ions. Molecular dynamics calculations show that in salt solutions and bases the positively charged ions, such as alkali cations, are repelled from the interface, whereas the anions, such as halides or hydroxide, exhibit a varying surface propensity, correlated primarily with the ion polarizability and size. The behavior of acids is different due to a significant propensity of hydronium cations for the air/solution interface. Therefore, both cations and anions exhibit enhanced concentrations at the surface and, consequently, these acids (unlike bases and salts) reduce the surface tension of water. The results of the simulations are supported by surface selective nonlinear vibrational spectroscopy, which reveals among other things that the hydronium cations are present at the air/solution interface. The ion specific propensities for the air/solution interface have important implications for a whole range of heterogeneous physical and chemical processes, including atmospheric chemistry of aerosols, corrosion processes, and bubble coalescence.

  3. The Effect of Salts on Electrospray Ionization of Amino Acids in the Negative Mode

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kim, H. I.; Johnson, P. V.; Beegle, L. W.; Kanik, I.

    2004-01-01

    The continued search for organics on Mars will require the development of simplified procedures for handling and processing of soil or rock core samples prior to analysis by onboard instrumentation. Extraction of certain organic molecules such as amino acids from rock and soil samples using a liquid solvent (H2O) has been shown to be more efficient (by approximately an order of magnitude) than heat extraction methods. As such, liquid extraction (using H2O) of amino acid molecules from rock cores or regolith material is a prime candidate for the required processing. In this scenario, electrospray ionization (ESI) of the liquid extract would be a natural choice for ionization of the analyte prior to interrogation by one of a variety of potential analytical separation techniques (mass spectroscopy, ion mobility spectroscopy, etc.). Aside from the obvious compatibility of ESI and liquid samples, ESI offers simplicity and a soft ionization capability. In order to demonstrate that liquid extraction and ESI can work as part of an in situ instrument on Mars, we must better understand and quantify the effect salts have on the ESI process. In the current work, we have endeavored to investigate the feasibility and limitations of negative mode ESI of Martian surface samples in the context of sample salt content using ion mobility spectroscopy (IMS).

  4. Eight salts constructed from 4-phenylthiazol-2-amine and carboxylic acid derivatives through combination of strong hydrogen bonding and weak noncovalent interactions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jin, Shouwen; Zhu, Qiaowang; Wei, ShuaiShuai; Wang, Daqi

    2013-10-01

    Eight crystalline organic salts derived from 4-phenylthiazol-2-amine and carboxylic acid derivatives (2-chloronicotinic acid, 3-hydroxy-2-naphthoic acid, p-nitrobenzoic acid, 2-hydroxy-5-(phenyldiazenyl)benzoic acid, 5-nitrosalicylic acid, 5-sulfosalicylic acid, oxalic acid, and L-malic acid) were prepared and characterized by X-ray diffraction analysis, IR, mp, and elemental analysis. In all of the salts except 6, 7, and 8, the 4-phenylthiazol-2-amine and carboxylic acid components are held together by two fused heterosynthons: a R22(7) heterosynthon and a R22(8) heterosynthon. All supramolecular architectures of the organic salts 1-8 involve extensive Nsbnd H⋯O hydrogen bonds as well as other noncovalent interactions. The role of weak and strong noncovalent interactions in the crystal packing is ascertained. The salts displayed 2D/3D framework structure under these weak interactions.

  5. Expression of fatty acid desaturase genes and fatty acid accumulation in Chlamydomonas sp. ICE-L under salt stress.

    PubMed

    An, Meiling; Mou, Shanli; Zhang, Xiaowen; Zheng, Zhou; Ye, Naihao; Wang, Dongsheng; Zhang, Wei; Miao, Jinlai

    2013-12-01

    The Antarctic ice microalgae Chlamydomonas sp. ICE-L which is highly resistant to salt stress holds promise in providing an alternative species for the production of microalgal oil. We studied the effects of the alga in confrontation with NaCl stress on the growth, oil yield and expression of fatty acid desaturase genes. The growth rate of Chlamydomonas sp. ICE-L decreased with the gradual increase in NaCl concentration. Interestingly, we found that the highest lipid content was achieved at 16‰ NaCl, reaching 23% (w/w). Meanwhile, the expression of Δ9ACPCiFAD increased rapidly while Δ12CiFAD, ω3CiFAD2 and Δ6CiFAD showed a delayed elevation in response to altered salt stress. C18:3 was the dominant PUFA, which account for about 75% TFA in Chlamydomonas sp. ICE-L. Under 96‰ and 128‰ NaCl stress, the content of C20:5 almost approached that of C18:3. In contrast, low salinity enhanced the dominance of C18:3 at the expense of C20:3 and C20:5.

  6. A unified molecular picture of the surfaces of aqueous acid, base, and salt solutions

    SciTech Connect

    Mucha, M.; Frigato, Tomaso; Levering, Lori; Allen, Heather C.; Tobias, Douglas J.; Dang, Liem X.; Jungwirth, Pavel

    2005-04-28

    A unified view of the structure of the air/solution interface of simple aqueous electrolytes containing monovalent inorganic ions is developed using molecular dynamics simulations and vibrational sum frequency generation spectroscopy. In salt solutions and bases the positively charged ions, such as alkali cations, are repelled from the air/solution interface, while the anions, such as halides or hydroxide, exhibit a varying propensity for the surface, correlated primarily with the polarizability of the ion. As a result, there is a net depletion of ions from the interfacial layer as a whole, which is connected via the Gibbs adsorption equation to an increase in surface tension with respect to neat water. The behavior of acids, such as aqueous HCl or HBr, is different due to a significant propensity of hydronium cations for the air/solution interface. Therefore, both cations and anions exhibit enhanced concentrations at the surface and, consequently, these acids reduce the surface tension of water. The key to the qualitatively different surface behavior of aqueous salt solutions and bases on one side and acids on the other thus lies in the appreciable adsorption of hydronium cations at the air/solution interface with their “hydrophobic” oxygen side oriented towards the gas phase. The results of the molecular dynamics calculations are supported by surface selective non-linear vibrational spectroscopy, which reveals among other things that the hydronium cations are present at the air/solution interface. The propensity of inorganic ions for the air/solution interface has important implications for heterogeneous chemical processes, in particular for atmospheric chemistry.

  7. Lithocholic acid decreases expression of bile salt export pump through farnesoid X receptor antagonist activity.

    PubMed

    Yu, Jinghua; Lo, Jane-L; Huang, Li; Zhao, Annie; Metzger, Edward; Adams, Alan; Meinke, Peter T; Wright, Samuel D; Cui, Jisong

    2002-08-30

    Bile salt export pump (BSEP) is a major bile acid transporter in the liver. Mutations in BSEP result in progressive intrahepatic cholestasis, a severe liver disease that impairs bile flow and causes irreversible liver damage. BSEP is a target for inhibition and down-regulation by drugs and abnormal bile salt metabolites, and such inhibition and down-regulation may result in bile acid retention and intrahepatic cholestasis. In this study, we quantitatively analyzed the regulation of BSEP expression by FXR ligands in primary human hepatocytes and HepG2 cells. We demonstrate that BSEP expression is dramatically regulated by ligands of the nuclear receptor farnesoid X receptor (FXR). Both the endogenous FXR agonist chenodeoxycholate (CDCA) and synthetic FXR ligand GW4064 effectively increased BSEP mRNA in both cell types. This up-regulation was readily detectable at as early as 3 h, and the ligand potency for BSEP regulation correlates with the intrinsic activity on FXR. These results suggest BSEP as a direct target of FXR and support the recent report that the BSEP promoter is transactivated by FXR. In contrast to CDCA and GW4064, lithocholate (LCA), a hydrophobic bile acid and a potent inducer of cholestasis, strongly decreased BSEP expression. Previous studies did not identify LCA as an FXR antagonist ligand in cells, but we show here that LCA is an FXR antagonist with partial agonist activity in cells. In an in vitro co-activator association assay, LCA decreased CDCA- and GW4064-induced FXR activation with an IC(50) of 1 microm. In HepG2 cells, LCA also effectively antagonized GW4064-enhanced FXR transactivation. These data suggest that the toxic and cholestatic effect of LCA in animals may result from its down-regulation of BSEP through FXR. Taken together, these observations indicate that FXR plays an important role in BSEP gene expression and that FXR ligands may be potential therapeutic drugs for intrahepatic cholestasis.

  8. The tetraethylammonium salt of monensic acid-An antidote for subacute cadmium intoxication: a study using an ICR mouse model.

    PubMed

    Ivanova, Juliana; Gluhcheva, Yordanka G; Kamenova, Kalina; Arpadjan, Sonja; Mitewa, Mariana

    2012-10-01

    In this study, the ability of the chelating agent monensic acid (administered as the tetraethylammonium salt) to reduce the cadmium (Cd) concentration in the kidneys, liver, heart, lungs, spleen and testes of Cd-intoxicated mice was investigated. Chelation therapy with the tetraethylammonium salt of monensic acid led to a significant decrease of the Cd concentration in all of the organs of the Cd-treated mice. This effect varied from 50% in the kidneys to 90% in the hearts of the sacrificed animals (compared to the Cd-treated controls). No redistribution of the toxic metal ions to the brain of the animals as a result of the detoxification with the chelating agent was observed. The detoxification of the animals with the antibiotic salt did not perturb the endogenous levels of copper (Cu) or zinc (Zn). The tetraethylammonium salt of monensic acid significantly ameliorated the Cd-induced total iron (Fe) depletion in the liver and spleen of Cd-treated mice. It also restored to control levels the values of transferrin-bound Fe and the total iron binding capacity (TIBC) of the plasma. These results imply that the tetraethylammonium salt of monensic acid could be an efficient antidote in cases of Cd-intoxication. PMID:22677540

  9. Iodine-Catalyzed Decarboxylative Amidation of β,γ-Unsaturated Carboxylic Acids with Chloramine Salts Leading to Allylic Amides.

    PubMed

    Kiyokawa, Kensuke; Kojima, Takumi; Hishikawa, Yusuke; Minakata, Satoshi

    2015-10-26

    The iodine-catalyzed decarboxylative amidation of β,γ-unsaturated carboxylic acids with chloramine salts is described. This method enables the regioselective synthesis of allylic amides from various types of β,γ-unsaturated carboxylic acids containing substituents at the α- and β-positions. In the reaction, N-iodo-N-chloroamides, generated by the reaction of a chloramine salt with I2 , function as a key active species. The reaction provides an attractive alternative to existing methods for the synthesis of useful secondary allylic amine derivatives. PMID:26493878

  10. Separation of aromatic carboxylic acids using quaternary ammonium salts on reversed-phase HPLC. 1. Separation behavior of aromatic carboxylic acids

    SciTech Connect

    Kawamura, K.; Okuwaki, A.; Verheyen, T.; Perry, G.J.

    2006-02-15

    In order to develop separation processes and analytical methods for aromatic carboxylic acids for the coal oxidation products, the separation behavior of aromatic carboxylic acids on a reversed-phase HPLC using eluent containing quaternary ammonium salt has been investigated. The retention mechanism of aromatic carboxylic acids was discussed on the basis of both ion-pair partition model and ion-exchange model. The retention behavior of aromatic carboxylic acids possessing one (or two) carboxylic acid group(s) followed the ion-pair partition model, where linear free energy relationship was observed between the capacity factor and the extraction equilibrium constants of benzoic acid and naphthalene carboxylic acid. Besides, the retention behavior followed ion-exchange model with increasing the number of carboxylic acids, where the capacity factor of benzene polycarboxylic acids is proportional to the association constants between aromatic acids and quaternary ammonium ions calculated on the basis of an electrostatic interaction model.

  11. Extraction of phenol using sulfuric acid salts of trioctylamine in a supported liquid membrane

    SciTech Connect

    Wang, M.L.; Hu, K.H. )

    1994-04-01

    The extraction of phenol by trioctylamine sulfate salts in a supported-liquid membrane (SLM) process was investigated. In the extraction process, a transport model, which included the film diffusion of phenol in the aqueous phase, the membrane diffusion within the SLM, and the interfacial chemical reaction, was built. The experimental parameters, such as the cell constant ([beta]), the diffusivity of (TOA)[sub 2]H[sub 2]SO[sub 4][center dot]PhOH in the SLM (D[sub c,b]), and the mass-transfer coefficient of phenol in the aqueous solution (K[sub L]), were determined from experiments. On the basis of the experimental data and the results obtained from the transport model, the rate-controlling step of the extraction of phenol by an SLM during permeation is discussed. The effects of the operating variables and parameters, such as the initial concentration of phenol in the aqueous phase, sulfuric acid, sodium hydroxide, and trioctylamine sulfate salts, on the extraction of phenol were examined.

  12. Localized corrosion of high performance metal alloys in an acid/salt environment

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Macdowell, L. G.; Ontiveros, C.

    1991-01-01

    Various vacuum jacketed cryogenic supply lines at the Space Shuttle launch site at Kennedy Space Center use convoluted flexible expansion joints. The atmosphere at the launch site has a very high salt content, and during a launch, fuel combustion products include hydrochloric acid. This extremely corrosive environment has caused pitting corrosion failure in the thin walled 304L stainless steel flex hoses. A search was done to find a more corrosion resistant replacement material. The study focussed on 19 metal alloys. Tests which were performed include electrochemical corrosion testing, accelerated corrosion testing in a salt fog chamber, and long term exposure at a beach corrosion testing site. Based on the results of these tests, several nickel based alloys were found to have very high resistance to this corrosive environment. Also, there was excellent agreement between the electrochemical tests and the actual beach exposure tests. This suggests that electrochemical testing may be useful for narrowing the field of potential candidate alloys before subjecting samples to long term beach exposure.

  13. UV screening of ferulic acid-zinc basic salt nanohybrid with controlled release rate.

    PubMed

    Biswick, Timothy; Park, Dae-Hwan; Shul, Yong-Gun; Hwang, Seong-Ju; Choy, Jin-Ho

    2011-01-01

    Ferulic acid (FA), an organic UV absorber and free radical scavenger, was intercalated into an inorganic zinc basic salt (ZBS) matrix to prepare a UV screening material. FA molecules were vertically oriented bilayer in the ZBS lattice with an expansion of approximately 22.7 angstroms along the c-axis. The FA-ZBS nanohybrid exhibited a superior UV-A approximately UV-B screening ability and an antioxidant activity that was comparable to that of a pure FA molecule. The in vitro release test showed the biphasic release of the FA molecules from the FA-ZBS nanohybrid that consisted of an initial burst, followed by a slow and sustained release. PMID:21446466

  14. Extraction of metals and/or metalloids from acidic media using supercritical fluids and salts

    DOEpatents

    Wai, C.M.; Smart, N.G.; Lin, Y.

    1998-06-23

    A method is described for extracting metalloid and metal species from a solid or liquid material by exposing the material to a fluid solvent, particularly supercritical carbon dioxide, containing a chelating agent. The chelating agent forms chelates that are soluble in the fluid to allow removal of the species from the material. In preferred embodiments, the extraction solvent is supercritical carbon dioxide and the chelating agent comprises a trialkyl phosphate, a triaryl phosphate, a trialkylphosphine oxide, a triarylphosphine oxide, or mixtures thereof. The method provides an environmentally benign process for removing contaminants from industrial waste. The method is particularly useful for extracting actinides from acidic solutions, and the process can be aided by the addition of nitrate salts. The chelate and supercritical fluid can be regenerated, and the contaminant species recovered, to provide an economic, efficient process. 7 figs.

  15. Extraction of metals and/or metalloids from acidic media using supercritical fluids and salts

    DOEpatents

    Wai, Chien M.; Smart, Neil G.; Lin, Yuehe

    1998-01-01

    A method of extracting metalloid and metal species from a solid or liquid material by exposing the material to a fluid solvent, particularly supercritical carbon dioxide, containing a chelating agent is described. The chelating agent forms chelates that are soluble in the fluid to allow removal of the species from the material. In preferred embodiments, the extraction solvent is supercritical carbon dioxide and the chelating agent comprises a trialkyl phosphate, a triaryl phosphate, a trialkylphosphine oxide, a triarylphosphine oxide, or mixtures thereof. The method provides an environmentally benign process for removing contaminants from industrial waste. The method is particularly useful for extracting actinides from acidic solutions, and the process can be aided by the addition of nitrate salts. The chelate and supercritical fluid can be regenerated, and the contaminant species recovered, to provide an economic, efficient process.

  16. Aquatic risk assessment of 2-sulfonato fatty acid methyl ester sodium salt (MES).

    PubMed

    Miura, Kazuaki

    2007-01-01

    The aquatic risk of 2-sulfonato fatty acid methyl ester sodium salt (MES) used in household detergents was assessed. The environmental exposure assessment expressed as predicted environmental concentration (PEC) was determined on the basis of monitoring results from the seven sites of four rivers in the urban area in Tokyo and Osaka. The 95 percentile as well as geometric mean of the MES concentration was found to exhibit a good correlation with the geometric mean of the Biochemical Oxygen Demand (BOD; the latter's regression was greater than 0.99). The predicted no effect concentration (PNEC) for the aquatic environment was estimated by performing chronic assays of algae and daphnia. The risk characterization ratio (RCR: PEC/PNEC) was less than 1. Therefore, it is concluded that MES will not adversely affect the aquatic environment in Japan.

  17. Mixing Acid Salts and Layered Double Hydroxides in Nanoscale under Solid Condition.

    PubMed

    Nakayama, Hirokazu; Hayashi, Aki

    2014-01-01

    The immobilization of potassium sorbate, potassium aspartate and sorbic acid in layered double hydroxide under solid condition was examined. By simply mixing two solids, immobilization of sorbate and aspartate in the interlayer space of nitrate-type layered double hydroxide, so called intercalation reaction, was achieved, and the uptakes, that is, the amount of immobilized salts and the interlayer distances of intercalation compounds were almost the same as those obtained in aqueous solution. However, no intercalation was achieved for sorbic acid. Although intercalation of sorbate and aspartate into chloride-type layered double hydroxide was possible, the uptakes for these intercalation compounds were lower than those obtained using nitrate-type layered double hydroxide. The intercalation under solid condition could be achieved to the same extent as for ion-exchange reaction in aqueous solution, and the reactivity was similar to that observed in aqueous solution. This method will enable the encapsulation of acidic drug in layered double hydroxide as nano level simply by mixing both solids. PMID:25080007

  18. Antioxidant activities of a polyglucuronic acid sodium salt obtained from TEMPO-mediated oxidation of xanthan.

    PubMed

    Delattre, C; Pierre, G; Gardarin, C; Traikia, M; Elboutachfaiti, R; Isogai, A; Michaud, P

    2015-02-13

    A xanthouronic acid sodium salt called xanthouronan was produced from xanthan by regioselective oxidation with NaOCl/NaBr using 2,2,6,6-tetramethylpiperidine-1-oxy radical (TEMPO) as catalyst. The efficiency of the one pot TEMPO-mediated oxidation was confirmed by HPAEC-PAD, (13)C NMR, and FT-IR. The oxidation degree was close to 98% and the mass yield of this new polyglucuronic acid was higher than 90% (w/w). The macromolecular characterization of xanthouronan using SEC-MALLS showed a molecular size reduced by a third due to the oxidation treatment and the degree of polymerization (DP) of the xanthouronan form was about 665. The evaluation of the enzymatic degradation of this C-6 carboxylated xanthan by various polysaccharide hydrolases and one polysaccharide lyase showed its high resistant to biodegradation. The antioxidant activity of xanthouronan was also tested by using the 2,2'-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyle (DPPH) and hydroxyl radical procedures. At 1 g/L, xanthouronan presented 75% of the ascorbic acid antioxidant activity.

  19. Tryptophanase-catalyzed L-tryptophan synthesis from D-serine in the presence of diammonium hydrogen phosphate.

    PubMed

    Shimada, Akihiko; Ozaki, Haruka; Saito, Takeshi; Noriko, Fujii

    2009-06-01

    Tryptophanase, an enzyme with extreme absolute stereospecificity for optically active stereoisomers, catalyzes the synthesis of l-tryptophan from l-serine and indole through a beta-substitution mechanism of the ping-pong type, and has no activity on d-serine. We previously reported that tryptophanase changed its stereospecificity to degrade d-tryptophan in highly concentrated diammonium hydrogen phosphate, (NH(4))(2)HPO(4) solution. The present study provided the same stereospecific change seen in the d-tryptophan degradation reaction also occurs in tryptophan synthesis from d-serine. Tryptophanase became active to d-serine to synthesize l-tryptophan in the presence of diammonium hydrogen phosphate. This reaction has never been reported before. d-serine seems to undergo beta-replacement via an enzyme-bonded alpha-aminoacylate intermediate to yield l-tryptophan.

  20. Usnic Acid Potassium Salt: An Alternative for the Control of Biomphalaria glabrata (Say, 1818)

    PubMed Central

    Lima, Vera L. M.; Pereira, Eugênia C.; Falcão, Emerson P. S.; Melo, Ana M. M. A.; da Silva, Nicácio Henrique

    2014-01-01

    In Brazil, the snail Biomphalaria glabrata is the most important vector of schistosomiasis due to its wide geographical distribution, high infection rate and efficient disease transmission. Among the methods of schistosomiasis control, the World Health Organization recommends the use of synthetic molluscicides, such as niclosamide. However, different substances of natural origin have been tested as alternatives for the control or eradication of mollusks. The literature describes the antitumor, antimicrobial and antiviral properties of usnic acid as well as other important activities of common interest between medicine and the environment. However, usnic acid has a low degree of water solubility, which can be a limiting factor for its use, especially in aquatic environments, since the organic solvents commonly used to solubilize this substance can have toxic effects on aquatic biota. Thus, the aim of the present study was to test the potassium salt of usnic acid (potassium usnate) with regard to molluscicidal activity and toxicity to brine shrimp (Artemia salina). To obtain potassium usnate, usnic acid was extracted with diethyl ether isolated and purified from the lichen Cladonia substellata. Biological assays were performed with embryos and adult snails of B. glabrata exposed for 24 h to the usnate solution solubilized in dechlorinated water at 2.5; 5 and 10 µg/ml for embryos, 0.5; 0.9; 1;5 and 10 µg/ml for mollusks and 0.5; 1; 5; 10 µg/ml for A. salina. The lowest lethal concentration for the embryos and adult snails was 10 and 1 µg/ml, respectively. No toxicity to A. salina was found. The results show that modified usnic acid has increased solubility (100%) without losing its biological activity and may be a viable alternative for the control of B. glabrata. PMID:25375098

  1. Usnic acid potassium salt: an alternative for the control of Biomphalaria glabrata (Say, 1818).

    PubMed

    Martins, Mônica C B; Silva, Monique C; Silva, Luanna R S; Lima, Vera L M; Pereira, Eugênia C; Falcão, Emerson P S; Melo, Ana M M A; da Silva, Nicácio Henrique

    2014-01-01

    In Brazil, the snail Biomphalaria glabrata is the most important vector of schistosomiasis due to its wide geographical distribution, high infection rate and efficient disease transmission. Among the methods of schistosomiasis control, the World Health Organization recommends the use of synthetic molluscicides, such as niclosamide. However, different substances of natural origin have been tested as alternatives for the control or eradication of mollusks. The literature describes the antitumor, antimicrobial and antiviral properties of usnic acid as well as other important activities of common interest between medicine and the environment. However, usnic acid has a low degree of water solubility, which can be a limiting factor for its use, especially in aquatic environments, since the organic solvents commonly used to solubilize this substance can have toxic effects on aquatic biota. Thus, the aim of the present study was to test the potassium salt of usnic acid (potassium usnate) with regard to molluscicidal activity and toxicity to brine shrimp (Artemia salina). To obtain potassium usnate, usnic acid was extracted with diethyl ether isolated and purified from the lichen Cladonia substellata. Biological assays were performed with embryos and adult snails of B. glabrata exposed for 24 h to the usnate solution solubilized in dechlorinated water at 2.5; 5 and 10 µg/ml for embryos, 0.5; 0.9; 1;5 and 10 µg/ml for mollusks and 0.5; 1; 5; 10 µg/ml for A. salina. The lowest lethal concentration for the embryos and adult snails was 10 and 1 µg/ml, respectively. No toxicity to A. salina was found. The results show that modified usnic acid has increased solubility (100%) without losing its biological activity and may be a viable alternative for the control of B. glabrata.

  2. Arabidopsis Fatty Acid Desaturase FAD2 Is Required for Salt Tolerance during Seed Germination and Early Seedling Growth

    PubMed Central

    Sun, Jian; Li, Bei; Zhu, Qiang; Chen, Shaoliang; Zhang, Hongxia

    2012-01-01

    Fatty acid desaturases play important role in plant responses to abiotic stresses. However, their exact function in plant resistance to salt stress is unknown. In this work, we provide the evidence that FAD2, an endoplasmic reticulum localized ω-6 desaturase, is required for salt tolerance in Arabidopsis. Using vacuolar and plasma membrane vesicles prepared from the leaves of wild-type (Col-0) and the loss-of-function Arabidopsis mutant, fad2, which lacks the functional FAD2, we examined the fatty acid composition and Na+-dependent H+ movements of the isolated vesicles. We observed that, when compared to Col-0, the level of vacuolar and plasma membrane polyunsaturation was lower, and the Na+/H+ exchange activity was reduced in vacuolar and plasma membrane vesicles isolated from fad2 mutant. Consistent with the reduced Na+/H+ exchange activity, fad2 accumulated more Na+ in the cytoplasm of root cells, and was more sensitive to salt stress during seed germination and early seedling growth, as indicated by CoroNa-Green staining, net Na+ efflux and salt tolerance analyses. Our results suggest that FAD2 mediated high-level vacuolar and plasma membrane fatty acid desaturation is essential for the proper function of membrane attached Na+/H+ exchangers, and thereby to maintain a low cytosolic Na+ concentration for salt tolerance during seed germination and early seedling growth in Arabidopsis. PMID:22279586

  3. Screening nitrogen-rich bases and oxygen-rich acids by theoretical calculations for forming highly stable salts.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Xueli; Gong, Xuedong

    2014-08-01

    Nitrogen-rich heterocyclic bases and oxygen-rich acids react to produce energetic salts with potential application in the field of composite explosives and propellants. In this study, 12 salts formed by the reaction of the bases 4-amino-1,2,4-trizole (A), 1-amino-1,2,4-trizole (B), and 5-aminotetrazole (C), upon reaction with the acids HNO3 (I), HN(NO2 )2 (II), HClO4 (III), and HC(NO2 )3 (IV), are studied using DFT calculations at the B97-D/6-311++G** level of theory. For the reactions with the same base, those of HClO4 are the most exothermic and spontaneous, and the most negative Δr Gm in the formation reaction also corresponds to the highest decomposition temperature of the resulting salt. The ability of anions and cations to form hydrogen bonds decreases in the order NO3 (-) >N(NO2 )2 (-) >ClO4 (-) >C(NO2 )3 (-) , and C(+) >B(+) >A(+) . In particular, those different cation abilities are mainly due to their different conformations and charge distributions. For the salts with the same anion, the larger total hydrogen-bond energy (EH,tot ) leads to a higher melting point. The order of cations and anions on charge transfer (q), second-order perturbation energy (E2 ), and binding energy (Eb ) are the same to that of EH,tot , so larger q leads to larger E2 , Eb , and EH,tot . All salts have similar frontier orbitals distributions, and their HOMO and LUMO are derived from the anion and the cation, respectively. The molecular orbital shapes are kept as the ions form a salt. To produce energetic salts, 5-aminotetrazole and HClO4 are the preferred base and acid, respectively.

  4. Mutual Amino Acid Catalysis in Salt-Induced Peptide Formation Supports this Mechanism's Role in Prebiotic Peptide Evolution

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Suwannachot, Yuttana; Rode, Bernd M.

    1999-10-01

    The presence of some amino acids and dipeptides under the conditions of the salt-induced peptide formation reaction (aqueous solution at 85 °C, Cu(II) and NaCl) has been found to catalyze the formation of homopeptides of other amino acids, which are otherwise produced only in traces or not at all by this reaction. The condensation of Val, Leu and Lys to form their homodipeptides can occur to a considerable extent due to catalytic effects of other amino acids and related compounds, among which glycine, histidine, diglycine and diketopiperazine exhibit the most remarkable activity. These findings also lead to a modification of the table of amino acid sequences preferentially formed by the salt-induced peptide formation (SIPF) reaction, previously used for a comparison with the sequence preferences in membrane proteins of primitive organisms

  5. Hydrogen bonded supramolecular structures of eight organic salts based on 2,6-diaminopyridine, and organic acids

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jin, Shouwen; Zhao, Ying; Liu, Bin; Jin, Xiunan; Zhang, Huan; Wen, Xianhong; Liu, Hui; Jin, Li; Wang, Daqi

    2015-11-01

    Here anhydrous and hydrated multi-component organic acid-base salts of 2,6-diaminopyridine have been prepared with the organic acids as trichloroacetic acid, 3,5-dinitrobenzoic acid, 5-nitrosalicylic acid, 3,5-dihydroxybenzoic acid, 5-sulfosalicylic acid, m-phthalic acid, naphthalene-1,5-disulfonic acid, and glutaric acid. The eight crystalline compounds were characterized by X-ray diffraction analysis, infrared (IR), melting point (mp), and elemental analysis. Except salt 4, all structures adopted the hetero R22(8) supramolecular synthon. There were extensive N-H···O/O-H···O/N-H···N/N-H···S hydrogen bonds as well as CH···O, CH-N, CH-π, NH-π, π-π, C-π, Cl-O, and O-O interactions in the supramolecular architectures. The combination of these weak and strong hydrogen bonding associations in the crystal packing led to the formation of the 2D/3D structures.

  6. 40 CFR 721.5400 - 3,6,9,12,15,18,21-Hepta-oxa-tetra-triaoctanoic acid, sodium salt.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... acid, sodium salt. (a) Chemical substance and significant new uses subject to reporting. (1) The...-triaoctanoic acid, sodium salt. 721.5400 Section 721.5400 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) TOXIC SUBSTANCES CONTROL ACT SIGNIFICANT NEW USES OF CHEMICAL SUBSTANCES...

  7. 40 CFR 721.5400 - 3,6,9,12,15,18,21-Hepta-oxa-tetra-triaoctanoic acid, sodium salt.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... acid, sodium salt. (a) Chemical substance and significant new uses subject to reporting. (1) The...-triaoctanoic acid, sodium salt. 721.5400 Section 721.5400 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) TOXIC SUBSTANCES CONTROL ACT SIGNIFICANT NEW USES OF CHEMICAL SUBSTANCES...

  8. 40 CFR 721.5400 - 3,6,9,12,15,18,21-Hepta-oxa-tetra-triaoctanoic acid, sodium salt.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... acid, sodium salt. (a) Chemical substance and significant new uses subject to reporting. (1) The...-triaoctanoic acid, sodium salt. 721.5400 Section 721.5400 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) TOXIC SUBSTANCES CONTROL ACT SIGNIFICANT NEW USES OF CHEMICAL SUBSTANCES...

  9. INHIBITION OF GERMINATION AND OUTGROWTH OF CLOSTRIDIUM PERFRINGENS SPORES BY LACTIC ACID SALTS DURING COOLING OF COOKED GROUND TURKEY

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Inhibition of Clostridium perfringens spore germination and outgrowth by lactic acid salts during exponential cooling of cooked ground turkey products was evaluated. Injected turkey containing either calcium lactate, potassium lactate, or sodium lactate (1.0, 2.0, 3.0 or 4.8% w/w) along with a cont...

  10. 76 FR 49735 - Citric Acid and Certain Citrate Salts From the People's Republic of China: Partial Rescission of...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-08-11

    ... Suspended Investigation; Opportunity To Request Administrative Review, 76 FR 24460 (May 2, 2011). On May 31... Duty Administrative Reviews and Request for Revocation in Part, 76 FR 37781 (June 28, 2011). Rescission... International Trade Administration Citric Acid and Certain Citrate Salts From the People's Republic of...

  11. 76 FR 17835 - Citric Acid and Certain Citrate Salts From the People's Republic of China: Extension of Time...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-03-31

    ... Administrative Review, 75 FR 37759 (June 30, 2010). On January 25, 2011, the Department published the extension... Time Limit for the Preliminary Results of the Antidumping Duty Administrative Review, 76 FR 4288... International Trade Administration A-570-937] Citric Acid and Certain Citrate Salts From the People's...

  12. The inhibitive effect of some quaternary ammonium salts towards corrosion of aluminium in hydrochloric acid solution

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mohamed, A.-M. K.; Al-Nadjm, A.; Fouda, A.-A. S.

    1998-10-01

    The inhibitive action of some quaternary ammonium salts towards the corrosion of aluminium in hydrochloric acid was tested by thermometric, mass loss and polarization measurements. Parallelism between the different methods was established. It is suggested that the tested compounds act as cathodic inhibitors. The inhibitors appear to function through adsorption, following the Temkin adsorption isotherm. The values of free energy of adsorption have been calculated and discussed. The inhibitor character of the additives depends upon the concentration as well as the composition of the inhibitor. Within the given homolegous series the contribution of the functional group to adsorption increases with the length of the chain. The aim of this article is to throw some light on the mechanism of inhibition of these bulky molecules on the corrosion of aluminium in hydrochloric acid. L'action inhibitrice de certains sels d'ammonium quaternaires vis-à-vis de la corrosion de l'aluminium dans l'acide chlorhydrique en solution a été testée par des mesures thermiques de perte de matière et de polarisation. Il est suggéré que les composés testés agissent comme des inhibiteurs cathodiques, fonctionnant par adsorption suivant l'isotherme de Temkin. Les énergies libres d'adsorption ont été calculées et discutées. Le caractère inhibiteur des additifs dépend aussi bien de leur concentration que de leur composition. Pour une série d'inhibiteurs homologues, la contribution à l'adsorption du groupe fonctionnel augmente avec la longueur de la chaîne. Le but de cet article est de mieux comprendre le mécanisme d'inhibition de ces grosses molécules sur la corrosion de l'aluminium dans l'acide chlorhydrique.

  13. Analysis of trace inorganic anions in weak acid salts by single pump cycling-column-switching ion chromatography.

    PubMed

    Huang, Zhongping; Ni, Chengzhu; Zhu, Zhuyi; Pan, Zaifa; Wang, Lili; Zhu, Yan

    2015-05-01

    The application of ion chromatography with the single pump cycling-column-switching technique was described for the analysis of trace inorganic anions in weak acid salts within a single run. Due to the hydrogen ions provided by an anion suppressor electrolyzing water, weak acid anions could be transformed into weak acids, existing as molecules, after passing through the suppressor. Therefore, an anion suppressor and ion-exclusion column were adopted to achieve on-line matrix elimination of weak acid anions with high concentration for the analysis of trace inorganic anions in weak acid salts. A series of standard solutions consisting of target anions of various concentrations from 0.005 to 10 mg/L were analyzed, with correlation coefficients r ≥ 0.9990. The limits of detection were in the range of 0.67 to 1.51 μg/L, based on the signal-to-noise ratio of 3 and a 25 μL injection volume. Relative standard deviations for retention time, peak area, and peak height were all less than 2.01%. A spiking study was performed with satisfactory recoveries between 90.3 and 104.4% for all anions. The chromatographic system was successfully applied to the analysis of trace inorganic anions in five weak acid salts.

  14. Performance of tall oil fatty acid salt as a steam-foam surfactant

    SciTech Connect

    Osterloh, W.T.; Jante, M.J. Jr.

    1995-12-31

    We report the results of laboratory experiments designed to evaluate the performance of the sodium salt of tall oil acid (TOA) as a steam-foam surfactant. The objective of the experiments was to determine if this inexpensive material could be used to reduce the chemical costs of the steam foam process. Tall oil acid is a commercially available blend of oleic and linoleic carboxylic acids obtained by distillation of the wastes from pine pulping mills. The sodium salt soap, TOA{sup -}Na{sup +}, is easily produced by one-step neutralization of TOA with sodium hydroxide. The performance of TOA{sup -}Na{sup +} was measured in terms of the rate and magnitude at which the foam pressure gradient, Vp, increased when TOA{sup -}Na{sup +} and nitrogen were injected into a linear sandpack. Performance was also measured as a function of temperature, TOA{sup -}Na{sub +} concentration, foam liquid volume fraction, foam velocity, salinity, pH, and oil saturation. Experimental results show that TOA{sup -}Na{sup +} is an effective foaming agent that can produce large pressure gradients in a sandpack. The dominant parameters found to control TOA{sup -}Na{sup +} performance were salinity, temperature, and pH. To generate a large Vp at high temperature and in the presence of oil, the salinity of the TOA{sup -}Na{sup +} solution had to be increased by adding between 1.0 and 1.5 wt% sodium chloride. The TOA{sup -}Na{sup +} was effective up to 204{degrees}C, but a large Vp could not be produced at 260{degrees}C. The pH of the TOA{sup -}Na{sup +} solution had to be greater than about nine to achieve a large Vp. Sodium sesquicarbonate was used to buffer the solution at a pH of ten. Other notable results include that TOA{sup -}Na{sup +}foam performance was not adversely affected by oil and that stable foams were produced at high and low foam velocities and at low liquid volume fractions.

  15. Identification of didecyldimethylammonium salts and salicylic acid as antimicrobial compounds in commercial fermented radish kimchi.

    PubMed

    Li, Jing; Chaytor, Jennifer L; Findlay, Brandon; McMullen, Lynn M; Smith, David C; Vederas, John C

    2015-03-25

    Daikon radish (Raphanus sativus) fermented with lactic acid bacteria, especially Leuconostoc or Lactobacillus spp., can be used to make kimchi, a traditional Korean fermented vegetable. Commercial Leuconostoc/radish root ferment filtrates are claimed to have broad spectrum antimicrobial activity. Leuconostoc kimchii fermentation products are patented as preservatives for cosmetics, and certain strains of this organism are reported to produce antimicrobial peptides (bacteriocins). We examined the antimicrobial agents in commercial Leuconostoc/radish root ferment filtrates. Both activity-guided fractionation with Amberlite XAD-16 and direct extraction with ethyl acetate gave salicylic acid as the primary agent with activity against Gram-negative bacteria. Further analysis of the ethyl acetate extract revealed that a didecyldimethylammonium salt was responsible for the Gram-positive activity. The structures of these compounds were confirmed by a combination of (1)H- and (13)C NMR, high-performance liquid chromatography, high-resolution mass spectrometry, and tandem mass spectrometry analyses. Radiocarbon dating indicates that neither compound is a fermentation product. No antimicrobial peptides were detected. PMID:25779084

  16. Synthesis, crystal structure and biological activity of 2-hydroxyethylammonium salt of p-aminobenzoic acid.

    PubMed

    Crisan, Manuela E; Bourosh, Paulina; Maffei, Massimo E; Forni, Alessandra; Pieraccini, Stefano; Sironi, Maurizio; Chumakov, Yurii M

    2014-01-01

    p-Aminobenzoic acid (pABA) plays important roles in a wide variety of metabolic processes. Herein we report the synthesis, theoretical calculations, crystallographic investigation, and in vitro determination of the biological activity and phytotoxicity of the pABA salt, 2-hydroxyethylammonium p-aminobenzoate (HEA-pABA). The ability of neutral and anionic forms of pABA to interact with TIR1 pocket was investigated by calculation of molecular electrostatic potential maps on the accessible surface area, docking experiments, Molecular Dynamics and Quantum Mechanics/Molecular Mechanics calculations. The docking study of the folate precursor pABA, its anionic form and natural auxin (indole-3-acetic acid, IAA) with the auxin receptor TIR1 revealed a similar binding mode in the active site. The phytotoxic evaluation of HEA-pABA, pABA and 2-hydroxyethylamine (HEA) was performed on the model plant Arabidopsis thaliana ecotype Col 0 at five different concentrations. HEA-pABA and pABA acted as potential auxin-like regulators of root development in Arabidopsis thaliana (0.1 and 0.2 mM) and displayed an agravitropic root response at high concentration (2 mM). This study suggests that HEA-pABA and pABA might be considered as potential new regulators of plant growth. PMID:25054237

  17. Synthesis, Crystal Structure and Biological Activity of 2-Hydroxyethylammonium Salt of p-Aminobenzoic Acid

    PubMed Central

    Crisan, Manuela E.; Bourosh, Paulina; Maffei, Massimo E.; Forni, Alessandra; Pieraccini, Stefano; Sironi, Maurizio; Chumakov, Yurii M.

    2014-01-01

    p-Aminobenzoic acid (pABA) plays important roles in a wide variety of metabolic processes. Herein we report the synthesis, theoretical calculations, crystallographic investigation, and in vitro determination of the biological activity and phytotoxicity of the pABA salt, 2-hydroxyethylammonium p-aminobenzoate (HEA-pABA). The ability of neutral and anionic forms of pABA to interact with TIR1 pocket was investigated by calculation of molecular electrostatic potential maps on the accessible surface area, docking experiments, Molecular Dynamics and Quantum Mechanics/Molecular Mechanics calculations. The docking study of the folate precursor pABA, its anionic form and natural auxin (indole-3-acetic acid, IAA) with the auxin receptor TIR1 revealed a similar binding mode in the active site. The phytotoxic evaluation of HEA-pABA, pABA and 2-hydroxyethylamine (HEA) was performed on the model plant Arabidopsis thaliana ecotype Col 0 at five different concentrations. HEA-pABA and pABA acted as potential auxin-like regulators of root development in Arabidopsis thaliana (0.1 and 0.2 mM) and displayed an agravitropic root response at high concentration (2 mM). This study suggests that HEA-pABA and pABA might be considered as potential new regulators of plant growth. PMID:25054237

  18. Identification of didecyldimethylammonium salts and salicylic acid as antimicrobial compounds in commercial fermented radish kimchi.

    PubMed

    Li, Jing; Chaytor, Jennifer L; Findlay, Brandon; McMullen, Lynn M; Smith, David C; Vederas, John C

    2015-03-25

    Daikon radish (Raphanus sativus) fermented with lactic acid bacteria, especially Leuconostoc or Lactobacillus spp., can be used to make kimchi, a traditional Korean fermented vegetable. Commercial Leuconostoc/radish root ferment filtrates are claimed to have broad spectrum antimicrobial activity. Leuconostoc kimchii fermentation products are patented as preservatives for cosmetics, and certain strains of this organism are reported to produce antimicrobial peptides (bacteriocins). We examined the antimicrobial agents in commercial Leuconostoc/radish root ferment filtrates. Both activity-guided fractionation with Amberlite XAD-16 and direct extraction with ethyl acetate gave salicylic acid as the primary agent with activity against Gram-negative bacteria. Further analysis of the ethyl acetate extract revealed that a didecyldimethylammonium salt was responsible for the Gram-positive activity. The structures of these compounds were confirmed by a combination of (1)H- and (13)C NMR, high-performance liquid chromatography, high-resolution mass spectrometry, and tandem mass spectrometry analyses. Radiocarbon dating indicates that neither compound is a fermentation product. No antimicrobial peptides were detected.

  19. An acidity scale of tetrafluoroborate salts of phosphonium and iron hydride compounds in [D2]dichloromethane.

    PubMed

    Li, Tianshu; Lough, Alan J; Morris, Robert H

    2007-01-01

    Equilibrium constants (K) for reactions between acids and the conjugate base forms of a number of phosphonium salts, [HPR3][BF4], and iron hydrides, [Fe(CO)3H(PR3)2][BF4], in CD(2)Cl(2) have been determined by means of 31P and 1H NMR spectroscopy at 20 degrees C. The anchor compound chosen for pK(CD(2)Cl(2)) determinations was [HPCy3][BF4] with a pK(CD(2)Cl(2)) value of 9.7, as assigned by literature convention (Cy: cyclohexyl). A continuous scale of pK(CD(2)Cl(2)) values covering the range from 9.7 to -3 was created and correlated with the DeltaH values reported by Angelici and co-workers and literature pK(a) values. The pK(CD(2)Cl(2)) values for 15 other hydride or dihydrogen complexes of the iron group elements and of diethyl ether were also placed on this scale. The crystal structures of [Fe(CO)3H(PCy(2)Ph)2][BF4] and [Fe(CO)3(PCy(2)Ph)2] revealed that the trans-oriented, bulky, unsymmetrical phosphane ligands distort the equatorial plane of the complexes. The acidity of iron carbonyl hydrides is an important feature of the reactions of iron hydrogenase enzymes.

  20. Accumulation of fatty acids in purslane grown in hydroponic salt stress conditions.

    PubMed

    Anastácio, Ana; Carvalho, Isabel S

    2013-03-01

    Purslane (Portulaca oleracea L.) is the eighth most common plant distributed throughout the world being a heat- and drought-tolerant plant. In this study, we evaluated the effect of salinity on total amounts of fatty acids (FAs) and ω3/ω6 ratio in leaves of purslane. Plants exposed to four levels of chloride salinity in the root zone (60, 90, 120 and 240 mM NaCl) for 40 days showed no signs of toxicity or death. The main FAs detected were C16:0>C18:3>C18:2. The ratio of ω6 to ω3 was not changed with salt stress. Hierarchic cluster analysis brought together 60 and 90 mM NaCl in control plants, based on their FA content. The results of this study confirm the purslane as a plant rich in FAs whose consumption may contribute to dietary intake of ω3 polyunsaturated fatty acid, with obvious benefits to human health.

  1. Nonequimolar Mixture of Organic Acids and Bases: An Exception to the Rule of Thumb for Salt or Cocrystal.

    PubMed

    Pratik, Saied Md; Datta, Ayan

    2016-08-01

    Formation of salt and/or cocrystal from organic acid-base mixtures has significant consequences in the pharmaceutical industry and its related intellectual property rights (IPR). On the basis of calculations using periodic dispersion corrected DFT (DFT-D2) on formic acid-pyridine adduct, we have demonstrated that an equimolar stoichiometric ratio (1:1) exists as a neutral cocrystal. On the other hand, the nonequimolar stoichiometry (4:1) readily forms an ionic salt. While the former result is in agreement with the ΔpKa rule between the base and the acid, the latter is not. Calculations reveal that, within the equimolar manifold (n:n; n = 1-4), the mixture exists as a hydrogen bonded complex in a cocrystal-like environment. However, the nonequimolar mixture in a ratio of 5:1 and above readily forms salt-like structures. Because of the cooperative nature of hydrogen bonding, the strength of the O-H···N hydrogen bond increases and eventually transforms into O(-)···H-N(+) (complete proton transfer) as the ratio of formic acid increases and forms salt as experimentally observed. Clearly, an enhanced polarization of formic acid on aggregation increases its acidity and, hence, facilitates its transfer to pyridine. Motion of the proton from formic acid to pyridine is shown to follow a relay mechanism wherein the proton that is far away from pyridine is ionized and is subsequently transferred to pyridine via hopping across the neutral formic acid molecules (Grotthuss type pathway). The dynamic nature of protons in the condensed phase is also evident for cocrystals as the barrier of intramolecular proton migration in formic acid (leading to tautomerism), ΔH(⧧)tautomer = 17.1 kcal/mol in the presence of pyridine is half of that in free formic acid (cf. ΔH(⧧)tautomer = 34.2 kcal/mol). We show that an acid-base reaction can be altered in the solid state to selectively form a cocrystal or salt depending on the strength and nature of aggregation. PMID:27400140

  2. Nonequimolar Mixture of Organic Acids and Bases: An Exception to the Rule of Thumb for Salt or Cocrystal.

    PubMed

    Pratik, Saied Md; Datta, Ayan

    2016-08-01

    Formation of salt and/or cocrystal from organic acid-base mixtures has significant consequences in the pharmaceutical industry and its related intellectual property rights (IPR). On the basis of calculations using periodic dispersion corrected DFT (DFT-D2) on formic acid-pyridine adduct, we have demonstrated that an equimolar stoichiometric ratio (1:1) exists as a neutral cocrystal. On the other hand, the nonequimolar stoichiometry (4:1) readily forms an ionic salt. While the former result is in agreement with the ΔpKa rule between the base and the acid, the latter is not. Calculations reveal that, within the equimolar manifold (n:n; n = 1-4), the mixture exists as a hydrogen bonded complex in a cocrystal-like environment. However, the nonequimolar mixture in a ratio of 5:1 and above readily forms salt-like structures. Because of the cooperative nature of hydrogen bonding, the strength of the O-H···N hydrogen bond increases and eventually transforms into O(-)···H-N(+) (complete proton transfer) as the ratio of formic acid increases and forms salt as experimentally observed. Clearly, an enhanced polarization of formic acid on aggregation increases its acidity and, hence, facilitates its transfer to pyridine. Motion of the proton from formic acid to pyridine is shown to follow a relay mechanism wherein the proton that is far away from pyridine is ionized and is subsequently transferred to pyridine via hopping across the neutral formic acid molecules (Grotthuss type pathway). The dynamic nature of protons in the condensed phase is also evident for cocrystals as the barrier of intramolecular proton migration in formic acid (leading to tautomerism), ΔH(⧧)tautomer = 17.1 kcal/mol in the presence of pyridine is half of that in free formic acid (cf. ΔH(⧧)tautomer = 34.2 kcal/mol). We show that an acid-base reaction can be altered in the solid state to selectively form a cocrystal or salt depending on the strength and nature of aggregation.

  3. Influence of Salt Intake on Association of Blood Uric Acid with Hypertension and Related Cardiovascular Risk

    PubMed Central

    Hou, Lei; Zhang, Mingtao; Han, Wei; Tang, Yong; Xue, Fang; Liang, Shaohua; Zhang, Biao; Wang, Weizhi; Asaiti, Kuliqian; Wang, Yanhong; Pang, Haiyu; Wang, Zixing; Wang, Yuyan; Qiu, Changchun; Jiang, Jingmei

    2016-01-01

    Background A relationship of blood uric acid (UA) with hypertension and cardiovascular risk is under debate thus salt intake is hypothesized to contribute to such associations. Methods In this cross-sectional study, stratified cluster random sampling elicited a sample of 1805 Kazakhs with 92.4% compliance. Hypertension and moderate-or-high total cardiovascular risk (mTCR) were defined according to guidelines. Sodium intake was assessed by urinary sodium excretion. Prevalence ratios (PRs) were used to express associations of UA with hypertension and mTCR. Results In the highest tertile of sodium intake in women, the adjusted PRs (95% confidence intervals) of low to high quartiles compared with the lowest quartile of UA, were 1.22(0.78–1.91), 1.18(0.75–1.85), and 1.65(1.09–2.51) for hypertension and 1.19(0.74–1.90), 1.39(0.91–2.11), and 1.65(1.10–2.47) for mTCR (P for trend <0.05). However, these findings were not shown for other sodium intake levels. There were similar results in men. PRs markedly increased with a concomitant increase in UA and sodium intake and there was a significant interaction (P = 0.010) for mTCR with PRs of 1.69(1.10–2.60) for men and 3.70(2.09–6.52) for women in those with the highest compared with the lowest quartile of UA and tertile of sodium intake. Similar findings were shown for hypertension. Conclusions This study implied that a high salt intake may enhance the associations of UA with hypertension and cardiovascular risk. PMID:27042828

  4. Mechano-switchable, luminescent gels derived from salts of a long-chained, fatty-acid gelator.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Mohan; Weiss, Richard G

    2016-07-27

    Stimulus-responsive molecular gel systems, based on metal salts of a luminescent gelator, 9,10-dioxooctadecanoic acid (DODA), are reported. These salts are structurally the simplest metallo-gelators of which we are aware that exhibit controllable mechano-responsive and luminescent properties. Aggregation is more favored by the metal salts than for DODA itself. However, gelation ability differs dramatically depending on the metal ion: whereas the salts with zinc(ii) and calcium(ii) are inefficient gelators, those with nickel(ii) and copper(ii) can gelate various aromatic liquids, alkanes, and long-chained alcohols. Unlike the DODA gels, no aggregation-induced shift in the positions of the emission spectra of the metal salts could be observed as the sols were transformed to their gel phases. Gels of both nickel(ii) and copper(ii) salts in benzonitrile are among the few known examples with crystalline networks and exhibiting thixotropic behavior. However, there are significant differences in their abilities to recover the initial viscoelastic properties. Structural data for the solid and gel states lead us to conclude that differences among the gelating abilities can be attributed principally to the specific nature of interactions of the salts at their head groups. They appear to control the mechanical and emissive properties of the gels as well as whether the initial aggregation of the salts in the sol phases will support the growth of 1D objects that are capable of maintaining strong contacts, leading to 3D networks and gel formation. Overall, the results provide a facile strategy for the design of luminescent materials with controllable mechano-responsiveness by modifying the metal ions within fibrillar assemblies. PMID:27400800

  5. Spectroscopic studies of solid-state forms of donepezil free base and salt forms with various salicylic acids

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Brittain, Harry G.

    2014-12-01

    The polymorphic forms of donepezil free base have been studied using X-ray powder diffraction, Fourier transform infrared absorption spectroscopy, and differential scanning calorimetry. None of the free base crystal forms was observed to exhibit detectable fluorescence in the solid state under ambient conditions. Crystalline salt products were obtained by the reaction of donepezil with salicylic and methyl-substituted salicylic acids, with the salicylate and 4-methylsalicylate salts being obtained as non-solvated products, and the 3-methylsalicylate and 5-methylsalicylate salts being obtained as methanol solvated products. The intensity of solid-state fluorescence from donepezil salicylate and donepezil 4-methylsalicylate was found to be reduced relative to the fluorescence intensity of the corresponding free acids, while the solid-state fluorescence intensity of donepezil 3-methylsalicylate methanolate and donepezil 5-methylsalicylate methanolate was greatly increased relative to the fluorescence intensity of the corresponding free acids. Desolvation of the solvated salt products led to formation of glassy solids that exhibited strong green fluorescence.

  6. Effect of supplementation with calcium salts of fish oil on n-3 fatty acids in milk fat.

    PubMed

    Castañeda-Gutiérrez, E; de Veth, M J; Lock, A L; Dwyer, D A; Murphy, K D; Bauman, D E

    2007-09-01

    Enrichment of milk fat with n-3 fatty acids, in particular eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA) and docosahexaenoic acid (DHA), may be advantageous because of their beneficial effects on human health. In addition, these fatty acids play an important role in reproductive processes in dairy cows. Our objective was to evaluate the protection of EPA and DHA against rumen biohydrogenation provided by Ca salts of fish oil. Four Holstein cows were assigned in a Latin square design to the following treatments: 1) ruminal infusion of Ca salts of fish oil and palm fatty acid distillate low dose (CaFO-1), 2) ruminal infusion of Ca salts of fish oil and palm fatty acid distillate high dose (CaFO-2), 3) ruminal infusion of fish oil high dose (RFO), and 4) abomasal infusion of fish oil high dose (AFO). The high dose of fish oil provided approximately 16 and approximately 21 g/d of EPA and DHA, respectively, whereas the low dose (CaFO-1) provided 50% of these amounts. A 10-d pretreatment period was used as a baseline, followed by 9-d treatment periods with interceding intervals of 10 d. Supplements were infused every 6 h, milk samples were taken the last 3 d, and plasma samples were collected the last day of baseline and treatment periods. Milk fat content of EPA and DHA were 5 to 6 times greater with AFO, but did not differ among other treatments. Milk and milk protein yield were unaffected by treatment, but milk fat yield and DM intake were reduced by 20 and 15%, respectively, by RFO. Overall, results indicate rumen biohydrogenation of long chain n-3 fatty acids was extensive, averaging >85% for EPA and >75% for DHA for the Ca salts and unprotected fish oil supplements. Thus, Ca salts of fish oil offered no protection against the biohydrogenation of EPA and DHA beyond that observed with unprotected fish oil; however, the Ca salts did provide rumen inertness by preventing the negative effects on DM intake and milk fat yield observed with unprotected fish oil.

  7. Effect of supplementation with calcium salts of fish oil on n-3 fatty acids in milk fat.

    PubMed

    Castañeda-Gutiérrez, E; de Veth, M J; Lock, A L; Dwyer, D A; Murphy, K D; Bauman, D E

    2007-09-01

    Enrichment of milk fat with n-3 fatty acids, in particular eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA) and docosahexaenoic acid (DHA), may be advantageous because of their beneficial effects on human health. In addition, these fatty acids play an important role in reproductive processes in dairy cows. Our objective was to evaluate the protection of EPA and DHA against rumen biohydrogenation provided by Ca salts of fish oil. Four Holstein cows were assigned in a Latin square design to the following treatments: 1) ruminal infusion of Ca salts of fish oil and palm fatty acid distillate low dose (CaFO-1), 2) ruminal infusion of Ca salts of fish oil and palm fatty acid distillate high dose (CaFO-2), 3) ruminal infusion of fish oil high dose (RFO), and 4) abomasal infusion of fish oil high dose (AFO). The high dose of fish oil provided approximately 16 and approximately 21 g/d of EPA and DHA, respectively, whereas the low dose (CaFO-1) provided 50% of these amounts. A 10-d pretreatment period was used as a baseline, followed by 9-d treatment periods with interceding intervals of 10 d. Supplements were infused every 6 h, milk samples were taken the last 3 d, and plasma samples were collected the last day of baseline and treatment periods. Milk fat content of EPA and DHA were 5 to 6 times greater with AFO, but did not differ among other treatments. Milk and milk protein yield were unaffected by treatment, but milk fat yield and DM intake were reduced by 20 and 15%, respectively, by RFO. Overall, results indicate rumen biohydrogenation of long chain n-3 fatty acids was extensive, averaging >85% for EPA and >75% for DHA for the Ca salts and unprotected fish oil supplements. Thus, Ca salts of fish oil offered no protection against the biohydrogenation of EPA and DHA beyond that observed with unprotected fish oil; however, the Ca salts did provide rumen inertness by preventing the negative effects on DM intake and milk fat yield observed with unprotected fish oil. PMID:17699033

  8. Development of Spheroidal Inorganic Sorbents for Treatment of Acidic Salt-Bearing Liquid Waste

    SciTech Connect

    Collins, J.L.

    2001-09-07

    A spheroidal composite inorganic sorbent was developed for U.S. Department of Energy-Efficient Separations and Processing Crosscutting Program (USDOE-ESP) for potential use in removing radioactive cesium isotopes from acidic high-salt waste streams such as those at Idaho National Engineering and Environmental Laboratory (INEEL). The sorbent, zirconium monohydrogen phosphate (ZrHP) embedded with fine powder of ammonium molybdophosphate (AMP), was prepared using a unique internal gelation process which can be used to make porous reproducible microspheres that are structurally strong, have a low tendency for surface erosion, and improve the flow dynamics for column operations. Both ZrHP and AMP are excellent sorbent materials and, being inorganic, are stable in high radiation fields. AMP is a very effective sorbent for removing cesium from salt-bearing waste streams for a wide range of acidity. In the pH range of 2 to 10, ZrHP is also a very effective sorbent for removing Cs, Sr, Th, U(VI), Pu(IV), Am(III), Hg, and Pb from streams of lower ionic concentrations. Crucial to developing the spheroidal AMP-ZrHP sorbent was to determine the ideal weight percentage of AMP that could be embedded in the ZrHP microspheres in order to maintain the structural integrity of the microspheres and also achieve a good cesium separation. A total of 12 preparations were made. The dry weight percentage of AMP ranged from 30 to 60. Overall, the best composite microspheres prepared contained 50% AMP (by dry weight measurement). Another composite microsphere, which was composed of titanium monohydrogen phosphate (TiHP) embedded with 18 wt % (air-dried weight) potassium cobalt hexacyanoferrate (KCoCF) and developed for a different separations application, was also batch tested for comparison. It proved to be as effective in removing,the cesium as the air-dried AMP (50 wt %)-ZrHP. Granular KCoCF was also prepared and was very effective. Large samples of each of these materials were sent to

  9. Chiral recognition in salts of trans-1,2-diaminocyclohexane and optically active tartaric acids: crystal structure of 1:2 salt of ( S, S)-diaminocyclohexane with ( R, R)-tartaric acid

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rychlewska, Urszula

    1999-01-01

    X-ray results for the highly organised superstructure (space group P6 522) of the 1:2 salt of (1 S,2 S)-diaminocyclohexane with ( R, R)-tartaric acid ( 1) are compared with the previously reported [1] crystal structures of two diastereomeric 1:1 salts of ( R, R)-diaminocyclohexane with ( R, R)- and ( S, S)-tartaric acid. The asymmetric unit of the unit cell of 1 consists of one molecule of ( S, S)-diaminocyclohexane, one molecule of ( R, R)-hydrogentartrate, half a molecule of ( R, R)-tartaric acid, half of an ( R, R)-tartrate anion, and a water molecule. The presence of all three ionisation states of ( R, R)-tartrate in one crystal is most unusual, as is the anti conformation of the carboxyl group in ( R, R)-tartaric acid. Association of ( S, S)-diaminocyclohexane and ( R, R)-hydrogentartrate involves three-centre hydrogen bonds between ammonium groups as donors and α-hydroxycarboxylate and α-hydroxycarboxyl moieties as acceptors. The remaining hydrogen bonds stabilise this motif and expand it to three dimensions. The results provide some insights into the enantioselective association of trans-1,2-diaminocyclohexane with optically active tartaric acids, the main driving force being the hydrogen bonding. While in a homochiral 1:1 salt the two ions combine by a scissors-shaped hydrogen bonding motif formed by two ammonium functions as donors and vicinal hydroxyl groups as acceptors, in heterochiral salts the cation and anion species join together via three-centre hydrogen bonds between ammonium functions and planar or nearly planar α-hydroxycarboxylate moieties.

  10. Belowground carbon dynamics in loblolly pine (Pinus taeda) immediately following diammonium phosphate fertilization.

    PubMed

    Gough, Christopher M; Seiler, John R

    2004-07-01

    Forest soils store an immense quantity of labile carbon (C) and a may be a large potential sink for atmospheric C. Forest management practices such as fertilization may enhance overall C storage in soils, yet changes in physiological processes following nutrient amendments have not been widely investigated. We intensively monitored belowground C dynamics for nearly 200 days following diammonium phosphate fertilization of pot-grown loblolly pine (Pinus taeda L.) seedlings in an effort to examine the short-term effects of fertilization on processes involved in soil C sequestration. Soil respiration rates initially increased in fertilized pots relative to controls, followed by a brief reversal in this trend and then a final sustained pattern of elevated rates of soil respiration in the fertilized treatment. Patterns in soil respiration rates over time reflected changes in autotrophic (root) and heterotrophic (microbial) components of soil respiration. Root respiration rates were greater in the fertilized treatment 49 days following fertilization and returned to control rates by the end of the study. In contrast, microbial respiration rates and microbial activity per soil C concentration remained depressed over the same time period. Compared with control seedlings, total root biomass was 27% greater in fertilized seedlings harvested at the end of the study, indicating that the elevated soil respiration rates observed toward the end of the study were a result of increased respiring root biomass. We conclude that fertilization, at least over the short-term, may increase soil C sequestration by increasing belowground biomass production and reducing microbial driven C turnover. PMID:15123456

  11. Quantification and fatty acid profiles of sulfolipids in two halophytes and a glycophyte grown under different salt concentrations.

    PubMed

    Ramani, Balasubramanian; Zorn, Holger; Papenbrock, Jutta

    2004-01-01

    This study was aimed at understanding the role of sulfolipids in salt tolerance mechanisms of the halophytes Aster tripolium L., Compositae, and Sesuvium portulacastrum L., Aizoaceae, and of the glycophyte Arabidopsis thaliana (L.) Heynh., Brassicaceae. In Aster and Sesuvium the sulfolipid contents increased significantly under salt stress conditions (517 mM or 864 mM). In Arabidopsis, changes in sulfolipid contents were not observed (NaCl up to 100 mM). The fatty acid profile of sulfoquinovosyldiacylglycerol (SQDG) in Aster was modified with increasing NaCl concentrations. LC-MS analyses of sulfolipids from Aster and Sesuvium revealed the presence of 18:3/18:3 and 16:0/18:3 molecules. Obviously, the function of sulfolipids during salt stress differs between halophytic species and between halophytes and glycophytes where sulfolipid accumulation was not observed. PMID:15666543

  12. Nuclear-localized AtHSPR links abscisic acid-dependent salt tolerance and antioxidant defense in Arabidopsis.

    PubMed

    Yang, Tao; Zhang, Liang; Hao, Hongyan; Zhang, Peng; Zhu, Haowei; Cheng, Wei; Wang, Yongli; Wang, Xinyu; Wang, Chongying

    2015-12-01

    Salt stress from soil or irrigation water limits plant growth. A T-DNA insertion mutant in C24, named athspr (Arabidopsis thaliana heat shock protein-related), showed several phenotypes, including reduced organ size and enhanced sensitivity to environmental cues. The athspr mutant is severely impaired under salinity levels at which wild-type (WT) plants grow normally. AtHSPR encodes a nuclear-localized protein with ATPase activity, and its expression was enhanced by high salinity and abscisic acid (ABA). Overexpression (OE) of AtHSPR significantly enhanced tolerance to salt stress by increasing the activities of the antioxidant system and by maintaining K(+) /Na(+) homeostasis. Quantitative RT-PCR analyses showed that OE of AtHSPR increased the expression of ABA/stress-responsive, salt overly sensitive (SOS)-related and antioxidant-related genes. In addition, ABA content was reduced in athspr plants with or without salt stress, and exogenous ABA restored WT-like salt tolerance to athspr plants. athspr exhibited increased leaf stomatal density and stomatal index, slower ABA-induced stomatal closure and reduced drought tolerance relative to the WT. AtHSPR OE enhanced drought tolerance by reducing leaf water loss and stomatal aperture. Transcript profiling in athspr showed a differential salt-stress response for genes involved in accumulation of reactive oxygen species (ROS), ABA signaling, cell death, stress response and photosynthesis. Taken together, our results suggested that AtHSPR is involved in salt tolerance in Arabidopsis through modulation of ROS levels, ABA-dependent stomatal closure, photosynthesis and K(+) /Na(+) homeostasis. PMID:26603028

  13. Roles of Gibberellins and Abscisic Acid in Regulating Germination of Suaeda salsa Dimorphic Seeds Under Salt Stress.

    PubMed

    Li, Weiqiang; Yamaguchi, Shinjiro; Khan, M Ajmal; An, Ping; Liu, Xiaojing; Tran, Lam-Son P

    2015-01-01

    Seed heteromorphism observed in many halophytes is an adaptive phenomenon toward high salinity. However, the relationship between heteromorphic seed germination and germination-related hormones under salt stress remains elusive. To gain an insight into this relationship, the roles of gibberellins (GAs) and abscisic acid (ABA) in regulating germination of Suaeda salsa dimorphic brown and black seeds under salinity were elucidated by studying the kinetics of the two hormones during germination of the two seed types with or without salinity treatment. Morphological analysis suggested that brown and black are in different development stage. The content of ABA was higher in dry brown than in black seeds, which gradually decreased after imbibition in water and salt solutions. Salt stress induced ABA accumulation in both germinating seed types, with higher induction effect on black than brown seeds. Black seeds showed lower germination percentage than brown seeds under both water and salt stress, which might be attributed to their higher ABA sensitivity rather than the difference in ABA content between black and brown seeds. Bioactive GA4 and its biosynthetic precursors showed higher levels in brown than in black seeds, whereas deactivated GAs showed higher content in black than brown seeds in dry or in germinating water or salt solutions. High salinity inhibited seed germination through decreasing the levels of GA4 in both seeds, and the inhibited effect of salt stress on GA4 level of black seeds was more profound than that of brown seeds. Taken together higher GA4 content, and lower ABA sensitivity contributed to the higher germination percentage of brown seeds than black seeds in water and salinity; increased ABA content and sensitivity, and decreased GA4 content by salinity were more profound in black than brown seeds, which contributed to lower germination of black seeds than brown seeds in salinity. The differential regulation of ABA and GA homeostases by salt

  14. The NPR1-dependent salicylic acid signalling pathway is pivotal for enhanced salt and oxidative stress tolerance in Arabidopsis.

    PubMed

    Jayakannan, Maheswari; Bose, Jayakumar; Babourina, Olga; Shabala, Sergey; Massart, Amandine; Poschenrieder, Charlotte; Rengel, Zed

    2015-04-01

    The role of endogenous salicylic acid (SA) signalling cascades in plant responses to salt and oxidative stresses is unclear. Arabidopsis SA signalling mutants, namely npr1-5 (non-expresser of pathogenesis related gene1), which lacks NPR1-dependent SA signalling, and nudt7 (nudix hydrolase7), which has both constitutively expressed NPR1-dependent and NPR1-independent SA signalling pathways, were compared with the wild type (Col-0) during salt or oxidative stresses. Growth and viability staining showed that, compared with wild type, the npr1-5 mutant was sensitive to either salt or oxidative stress, whereas the nudt7 mutant was tolerant. Acute salt stress caused the strongest membrane potential depolarization, highest sodium and proton influx, and potassium loss from npr1-5 roots in comparison with the wild type and nudt7 mutant. Though salt stress-induced hydrogen peroxide production was lowest in the npr1-5 mutant, the reactive oxygen species (ROS) stress (induced by 1mM of hydroxyl-radical-generating copper-ascorbate mix, or either 1 or 10mM hydrogen peroxide) caused a higher potassium loss from the roots of the npr1-5 mutant than the wild type and nudt7 mutant. Long-term salt exposure resulted in the highest sodium and the lowest potassium concentration in the shoots of npr1-5 mutant in comparison with the wild type and nudt7 mutant. The above results demonstrate that NPR1-dependent SA signalling is pivotal to (i) controlling Na(+) entry into the root tissue and its subsequent long-distance transport into the shoot, and (ii) preventing a potassium loss through depolarization-activated outward-rectifying potassium and ROS-activated non-selective cation channels. In conclusion, NPR1-dependent SA signalling is central to the salt and oxidative stress tolerance in Arabidopsis. PMID:25614660

  15. Roles of Gibberellins and Abscisic Acid in Regulating Germination of Suaeda salsa Dimorphic Seeds Under Salt Stress

    PubMed Central

    Li, Weiqiang; Yamaguchi, Shinjiro; Khan, M. Ajmal; An, Ping; Liu, Xiaojing; Tran, Lam-Son P.

    2016-01-01

    Seed heteromorphism observed in many halophytes is an adaptive phenomenon toward high salinity. However, the relationship between heteromorphic seed germination and germination-related hormones under salt stress remains elusive. To gain an insight into this relationship, the roles of gibberellins (GAs) and abscisic acid (ABA) in regulating germination of Suaeda salsa dimorphic brown and black seeds under salinity were elucidated by studying the kinetics of the two hormones during germination of the two seed types with or without salinity treatment. Morphological analysis suggested that brown and black are in different development stage. The content of ABA was higher in dry brown than in black seeds, which gradually decreased after imbibition in water and salt solutions. Salt stress induced ABA accumulation in both germinating seed types, with higher induction effect on black than brown seeds. Black seeds showed lower germination percentage than brown seeds under both water and salt stress, which might be attributed to their higher ABA sensitivity rather than the difference in ABA content between black and brown seeds. Bioactive GA4 and its biosynthetic precursors showed higher levels in brown than in black seeds, whereas deactivated GAs showed higher content in black than brown seeds in dry or in germinating water or salt solutions. High salinity inhibited seed germination through decreasing the levels of GA4 in both seeds, and the inhibited effect of salt stress on GA4 level of black seeds was more profound than that of brown seeds. Taken together higher GA4 content, and lower ABA sensitivity contributed to the higher germination percentage of brown seeds than black seeds in water and salinity; increased ABA content and sensitivity, and decreased GA4 content by salinity were more profound in black than brown seeds, which contributed to lower germination of black seeds than brown seeds in salinity. The differential regulation of ABA and GA homeostases by salt

  16. The NPR1-dependent salicylic acid signalling pathway is pivotal for enhanced salt and oxidative stress tolerance in Arabidopsis

    PubMed Central

    Jayakannan, Maheswari; Bose, Jayakumar; Babourina, Olga; Shabala, Sergey; Massart, Amandine; Poschenrieder, Charlotte; Rengel, Zed

    2015-01-01

    The role of endogenous salicylic acid (SA) signalling cascades in plant responses to salt and oxidative stresses is unclear. Arabidopsis SA signalling mutants, namely npr1-5 (non-expresser of pathogenesis related gene1), which lacks NPR1-dependent SA signalling, and nudt7 (nudix hydrolase7), which has both constitutively expressed NPR1-dependent and NPR1-independent SA signalling pathways, were compared with the wild type (Col-0) during salt or oxidative stresses. Growth and viability staining showed that, compared with wild type, the npr1-5 mutant was sensitive to either salt or oxidative stress, whereas the nudt7 mutant was tolerant. Acute salt stress caused the strongest membrane potential depolarization, highest sodium and proton influx, and potassium loss from npr1-5 roots in comparison with the wild type and nudt7 mutant. Though salt stress-induced hydrogen peroxide production was lowest in the npr1-5 mutant, the reactive oxygen species (ROS) stress (induced by 1mM of hydroxyl-radical-generating copper-ascorbate mix, or either 1 or 10mM hydrogen peroxide) caused a higher potassium loss from the roots of the npr1-5 mutant than the wild type and nudt7 mutant. Long-term salt exposure resulted in the highest sodium and the lowest potassium concentration in the shoots of npr1-5 mutant in comparison with the wild type and nudt7 mutant. The above results demonstrate that NPR1-dependent SA signalling is pivotal to (i) controlling Na+ entry into the root tissue and its subsequent long-distance transport into the shoot, and (ii) preventing a potassium loss through depolarization-activated outward-rectifying potassium and ROS-activated non-selective cation channels. In conclusion, NPR1-dependent SA signalling is central to the salt and oxidative stress tolerance in Arabidopsis. PMID:25614660

  17. The NPR1-dependent salicylic acid signalling pathway is pivotal for enhanced salt and oxidative stress tolerance in Arabidopsis.

    PubMed

    Jayakannan, Maheswari; Bose, Jayakumar; Babourina, Olga; Shabala, Sergey; Massart, Amandine; Poschenrieder, Charlotte; Rengel, Zed

    2015-04-01

    The role of endogenous salicylic acid (SA) signalling cascades in plant responses to salt and oxidative stresses is unclear. Arabidopsis SA signalling mutants, namely npr1-5 (non-expresser of pathogenesis related gene1), which lacks NPR1-dependent SA signalling, and nudt7 (nudix hydrolase7), which has both constitutively expressed NPR1-dependent and NPR1-independent SA signalling pathways, were compared with the wild type (Col-0) during salt or oxidative stresses. Growth and viability staining showed that, compared with wild type, the npr1-5 mutant was sensitive to either salt or oxidative stress, whereas the nudt7 mutant was tolerant. Acute salt stress caused the strongest membrane potential depolarization, highest sodium and proton influx, and potassium loss from npr1-5 roots in comparison with the wild type and nudt7 mutant. Though salt stress-induced hydrogen peroxide production was lowest in the npr1-5 mutant, the reactive oxygen species (ROS) stress (induced by 1mM of hydroxyl-radical-generating copper-ascorbate mix, or either 1 or 10mM hydrogen peroxide) caused a higher potassium loss from the roots of the npr1-5 mutant than the wild type and nudt7 mutant. Long-term salt exposure resulted in the highest sodium and the lowest potassium concentration in the shoots of npr1-5 mutant in comparison with the wild type and nudt7 mutant. The above results demonstrate that NPR1-dependent SA signalling is pivotal to (i) controlling Na(+) entry into the root tissue and its subsequent long-distance transport into the shoot, and (ii) preventing a potassium loss through depolarization-activated outward-rectifying potassium and ROS-activated non-selective cation channels. In conclusion, NPR1-dependent SA signalling is central to the salt and oxidative stress tolerance in Arabidopsis.

  18. Crystal structure of a lithium salt of a glucosyl derivative of lithocholic acid.

    PubMed

    Gubitosi, Marta; Meijide, Francisco; D'Annibale, Andrea; Vázquez Tato, José; Jover, Aida; Galantini, Luciano; Travaglini, Leana; di Gregorio, Maria Chiara; Pavel, Nicolae V

    2016-09-01

    The crystal structure of a Li(+) salt of a glucosyl derivative of lithocholic acid (lithium 3α-(α-d-glucopyranosyl)-5β-cholan-24-oate) has been solved. The crystal belongs to the orthorhombic system, P212121 spatial group, and includes acetone and water in the structure with a 1:1:2 stoichiometry. Monolayers, having a hydrophobic interior and hydrophilic edges, are recognized in the crystal structure. Li(+) is coordinated to three hydroxyl groups of three different glucose residues, with two of them belonging to the same monolayer. A fourth molecule, located in this monolayer, is involved in the coordination of the cation through the carboxylate ion by an electrostatic interaction, thus completing a distorted tetrahedron. All Li(+)-oxygen distances values are very close to the sum of the ionic radius of Li(+) and van der Waals radius of oxygen. Each steroid molecule is linked to other five steroid molecules through hydrogen bonds. Water and acetone are also involved in the hydrogen bond network. A hierarchical organization can be recognized in the crystal, the helical assembly along 21 screw axes being left-handed. PMID:27394960

  19. Structure and catalytic properties of magnesia-supported copper salts of molybdovanadophosphoric acid.

    PubMed

    Zhou, Guangdong; Yang, Xiaomei; Liu, Jie; Zhen, Kaiji; Wang, Haishui; Cheng, Tiexin

    2006-05-25

    The structure and stability of magnesia-supported copper salts of molybdovanadophosphoric acid (Cu(2)PMo(11)VO(40)) were characterized by different techniques. The catalyst was prepared in ethanol by impregnation because this solvent does not hurt texture of the water-sensitive MgO and Cu(2)PMo(11)VO(40). The Keggin-type structure compound may be degraded partially to form oligomerized polyoxometalate when supported on MgO. However, the oligomers can rebuild as the Keggin structure again after thermal treatment in air or during the reaction. Meanwhile, the V atoms migrate out of the Keggin structure to form a lacunary structure, as observed by Fourier transform IR spectroscopy. Moreover, the presence of Cu(2+) as a countercation showed an affirmative influence on the migration of V atoms, and the active sites derived from the lacunary species generated after release of V from the Keggin anion. The electron paramagnetic resonance data imply that V(5+) autoreduces to V(4+) in the fresh catalyst, and during the catalytic reaction a large number of V(4+) ions are produced, which enhance the formation of O(2-) vacancies around the metal atoms. These oxygen vacancies may also improve the reoxidation function of the catalyst. This behavior is correlated to higher catalytic properties of this catalyst. The oxidative dehydrogenation of hexanol to hexanal was studied over this catalyst. After reaction at 553.2 K for 50 h, catalytic properties did not decrease and exhibited higher selectivity (>96.0%) toward hexanal. PMID:16706435

  20. Chemical, sensory and shelf life evaluation of sliced salmon treated with salts of organic acids

    PubMed Central

    Sallam, Khalid Ibrahim

    2007-01-01

    This study was carried out to evaluate the shelf life, chemical quality and sensory attributes of salmon slices treated by dipping in 2.5% aqueous solution of sodium acetate (NaA), sodium lactate (NaL), or sodium citrate (NaC) during refrigerated storage at 1 °C. The chemical analyses demonstrated significant reduction in K value, hypoxanthine (Hx) concentration, total volatile base nitrogen (TVB-N), and trimethylamine (TMA) in treated salmon slices when compared with the control. Sensory scores of treated salmon were in a typical category for appearance, juiciness and tenderness compared with the control. Only minor changes in the sensory attributes were recognized by few panellists in NaA- and NaL-treated samples. A shelf life of 12, 12 and 15 days has been estimated for salmon treated with NaL, NaC, and NaA, respectively, versus 8 days for control. The salts of organic acids can therefore be used as safe preservatives for fish under refrigerated storage. PMID:17245440

  1. Evaluation of poly (aspartic acid sodium salt) as a draw solute for forward osmosis.

    PubMed

    Gwak, Gimun; Jung, Bokyung; Han, Sungsoo; Hong, Seungkwan

    2015-09-01

    Poly (aspartic acid sodium salt) (PAspNa) was evaluated for its potential as a novel draw solute in forward osmosis (FO). The inherent advantages of PAspNa, such as good water solubility, high osmotic pressure, and nontoxicity, were first examined through a series of physicochemical analyses and atomic-scale molecular dynamics simulations. Then, lab-scale FO tests were performed to evaluate its suitability in practical processes. Compared to other conventional inorganic solutes, PAspNa showed comparable water flux but significantly lower reverse solute flux, demonstrating its suitability as a draw solute. Moreover, fouling experiments using synthetic wastewater as a feed solution demonstrated that PAspNa reversely flowed to the feed side reduced inorganic scaling on the membrane active layer. The recyclability of PAspNa was studied using both nanofiltration (NF) and membrane distillation (MD) processes, and the results exhibited its ease of recovery. This research reported the feasibility and applicability of FO-NF or FO-MD processes using PAspNa for wastewater reclamation and brackish water desalination. PMID:26005789

  2. Evaluation of poly (aspartic acid sodium salt) as a draw solute for forward osmosis.

    PubMed

    Gwak, Gimun; Jung, Bokyung; Han, Sungsoo; Hong, Seungkwan

    2015-09-01

    Poly (aspartic acid sodium salt) (PAspNa) was evaluated for its potential as a novel draw solute in forward osmosis (FO). The inherent advantages of PAspNa, such as good water solubility, high osmotic pressure, and nontoxicity, were first examined through a series of physicochemical analyses and atomic-scale molecular dynamics simulations. Then, lab-scale FO tests were performed to evaluate its suitability in practical processes. Compared to other conventional inorganic solutes, PAspNa showed comparable water flux but significantly lower reverse solute flux, demonstrating its suitability as a draw solute. Moreover, fouling experiments using synthetic wastewater as a feed solution demonstrated that PAspNa reversely flowed to the feed side reduced inorganic scaling on the membrane active layer. The recyclability of PAspNa was studied using both nanofiltration (NF) and membrane distillation (MD) processes, and the results exhibited its ease of recovery. This research reported the feasibility and applicability of FO-NF or FO-MD processes using PAspNa for wastewater reclamation and brackish water desalination.

  3. Ammonium salts of carbamodithioic acid as potent vaginal trichomonacides and fungicides.

    PubMed

    Kushwaha, Bhavana; Mandalapu, Dhanaraju; Bala, Veenu; Kumar, Lokesh; Pandey, Aastha; Pandey, Deepti; Yadav, Santosh Kumar; Singh, Pratiksha; Shukla, P K; Maikhuri, Jagdamba P; Sankhwar, Satya N; Sharma, Vishnu L; Gupta, Gopal

    2016-01-01

    Chemical attenuation of the reactive oxygen species (ROS)-sensitive anaerobes Trichomonas vaginalis, which is the most prevalent non-viral sexually transmitted infection, and two often coexisting vaginal infections, namely Candida albicans and Staphylococcus aureus, which are opportunistic reproductive tract infections, was attempted with novel ammonium salts of carbamodithioic acid through inhibition of free thiols. In vitro and in vivo efficacies of the designed compounds were evaluated as topical vaginal microbicides. Five compounds showed exceptional activity against drug-resistant and -susceptible strains with negligible toxicity to host (HeLa) cells in vitro in comparison with the standard vaginal microbicide nonoxynol-9 (N-9), without disturbing the normal vaginal flora (i.e. Lactobacillus). The compounds significantly inhibited the cytopathic effects of Trichomonas on HeLa cells in vitro with efficacies comparable with metronidazole (MTZ); however, their efficacy to rescue host cells from co-infection (protozoal and fungal) was greater than that of MTZ. The compounds inhibited β-haemolysis of red blood cells caused by Trichomonas and were found to be active in vivo in the mouse subcutaneous abscess assay. Some compounds rapidly immobilized human sperm. A mechanism involving inhibition of free thiols and consequently the cysteine proteases of T. vaginalis by the new compounds has been proposed. Thus, a unique scaffold of antimicrobial agents has been discovered that warrants further investigation for development as contraceptive vaginal microbicides.

  4. Ammonium salts of carbamodithioic acid as potent vaginal trichomonacides and fungicides.

    PubMed

    Kushwaha, Bhavana; Mandalapu, Dhanaraju; Bala, Veenu; Kumar, Lokesh; Pandey, Aastha; Pandey, Deepti; Yadav, Santosh Kumar; Singh, Pratiksha; Shukla, P K; Maikhuri, Jagdamba P; Sankhwar, Satya N; Sharma, Vishnu L; Gupta, Gopal

    2016-01-01

    Chemical attenuation of the reactive oxygen species (ROS)-sensitive anaerobes Trichomonas vaginalis, which is the most prevalent non-viral sexually transmitted infection, and two often coexisting vaginal infections, namely Candida albicans and Staphylococcus aureus, which are opportunistic reproductive tract infections, was attempted with novel ammonium salts of carbamodithioic acid through inhibition of free thiols. In vitro and in vivo efficacies of the designed compounds were evaluated as topical vaginal microbicides. Five compounds showed exceptional activity against drug-resistant and -susceptible strains with negligible toxicity to host (HeLa) cells in vitro in comparison with the standard vaginal microbicide nonoxynol-9 (N-9), without disturbing the normal vaginal flora (i.e. Lactobacillus). The compounds significantly inhibited the cytopathic effects of Trichomonas on HeLa cells in vitro with efficacies comparable with metronidazole (MTZ); however, their efficacy to rescue host cells from co-infection (protozoal and fungal) was greater than that of MTZ. The compounds inhibited β-haemolysis of red blood cells caused by Trichomonas and were found to be active in vivo in the mouse subcutaneous abscess assay. Some compounds rapidly immobilized human sperm. A mechanism involving inhibition of free thiols and consequently the cysteine proteases of T. vaginalis by the new compounds has been proposed. Thus, a unique scaffold of antimicrobial agents has been discovered that warrants further investigation for development as contraceptive vaginal microbicides. PMID:26706422

  5. Salicylic acid differently impacts ethylene and polyamine synthesis in the glycophyte Solanum lycopersicum and the wild-related halophyte Solanum chilense exposed to mild salt stress.

    PubMed

    Gharbi, Emna; Martínez, Juan-Pablo; Benahmed, Hela; Fauconnier, Marie-Laure; Lutts, Stanley; Quinet, Muriel

    2016-10-01

    This study aimed to determine the effects of exogenous application of salicylic acid (SA) on the toxic effects of salt in relation to ethylene and polyamine synthesis, and to correlate these traits with the expression of genes involved in ethylene and polyamine metabolism in two tomato species differing in their sensitivity to salt stress, Solanum lycopersicum cv Ailsa Craig and its wild salt-resistant relative Solanum chilense. In S. chilense, treatment with 125 mM NaCl improved plant growth, increased production of ethylene, endogenous salicylic acid and spermine. The production was related to a modification of expression of genes involved in ethylene and polyamine metabolism. In contrast, salinity decreased plant growth in S. lycopersicum without affecting endogenous ethylene, salicylic or polyamine concentrations. Exogenous application of salicylic acid at 0.01 mM enhanced shoot growth in both species and affected ethylene and polyamine production in S. chilense. Concomitant application of NaCl and salicylic acid improved osmotic adjustment, thus suggesting that salt and SA may act in synergy on osmolyte synthesis. However, the beneficial impact of exogenous application of salicylic acid was mitigated by salt stress since NaCl impaired endogenous SA accumulation in the shoot and salicylic acid did not improve plant growth in salt-treated plants. Our results thus revealed that both species respond differently to salinity and that salicylic acid, ethylene and polyamine metabolisms are involved in salt resistance in S. chilense. PMID:27105808

  6. Salicylic acid differently impacts ethylene and polyamine synthesis in the glycophyte Solanum lycopersicum and the wild-related halophyte Solanum chilense exposed to mild salt stress.

    PubMed

    Gharbi, Emna; Martínez, Juan-Pablo; Benahmed, Hela; Fauconnier, Marie-Laure; Lutts, Stanley; Quinet, Muriel

    2016-10-01

    This study aimed to determine the effects of exogenous application of salicylic acid (SA) on the toxic effects of salt in relation to ethylene and polyamine synthesis, and to correlate these traits with the expression of genes involved in ethylene and polyamine metabolism in two tomato species differing in their sensitivity to salt stress, Solanum lycopersicum cv Ailsa Craig and its wild salt-resistant relative Solanum chilense. In S. chilense, treatment with 125 mM NaCl improved plant growth, increased production of ethylene, endogenous salicylic acid and spermine. The production was related to a modification of expression of genes involved in ethylene and polyamine metabolism. In contrast, salinity decreased plant growth in S. lycopersicum without affecting endogenous ethylene, salicylic or polyamine concentrations. Exogenous application of salicylic acid at 0.01 mM enhanced shoot growth in both species and affected ethylene and polyamine production in S. chilense. Concomitant application of NaCl and salicylic acid improved osmotic adjustment, thus suggesting that salt and SA may act in synergy on osmolyte synthesis. However, the beneficial impact of exogenous application of salicylic acid was mitigated by salt stress since NaCl impaired endogenous SA accumulation in the shoot and salicylic acid did not improve plant growth in salt-treated plants. Our results thus revealed that both species respond differently to salinity and that salicylic acid, ethylene and polyamine metabolisms are involved in salt resistance in S. chilense.

  7. Microarray analysis of the moss Physcomitrella patens reveals evolutionarily conserved transcriptional regulation of salt stress and abscisic acid signalling.

    PubMed

    Richardt, Sandra; Timmerhaus, Gerrit; Lang, Daniel; Qudeimat, Enas; Corrêa, Luiz G G; Reski, Ralf; Rensing, Stefan A; Frank, Wolfgang

    2010-01-01

    Regulatory networks of salt stress and abscisic acid (ABA) responses have previously been analyzed in seed plants. Here, we report microarray expression profiles of 439 genes encoding transcription-associated proteins (TAPs) in response to salt stress and ABA in the salt-tolerant moss Physcomitrella patens. Fourteen and 56 TAP genes were differentially expressed within 60 min of NaCl and ABA treatment, respectively, indicating that these responses are regulated at the transcriptional level. Overlapping expression profiles, as well as the up-regulation of ABA biosynthesis genes, suggest that ABA mediates the salt stress responses in P. patens. Comparison to public gene expression data of Arabidopsis thaliana and phylogenetic analyses suggest that the role of DREB-like, Dof, and bHLH TAPs in salt stress responses have been conserved during embryophyte evolution, and that the function of ABI3-like, bZIP, HAP3, and CO-like TAPs in seed development and flowering emerged from pre-existing ABA and light signalling pathways.

  8. Effect of dietary potassium and anionic salts on acid-base and mineral status in periparturient cows.

    PubMed

    Rérat, M; Schlegel, P

    2014-06-01

    Dry cow diets based on grassland forage from intensive production contain high amounts of K and could be responsible for a reduced ability to maintain Ca homoeostasis. The aim of this study was to determine whether a moderate anionic salt supplementation to a forage-based pre-calving diet with varying native K content affects the mineral and acid-base status in transition cows. Twenty-four dry and pregnant Holstein cows, without antecedent episodes of clinical hypocalcemia, were assigned to two diets during the last 4 weeks before estimated calving date. Twelve cows were fed a hay-based diet low in K (18 g K/kg DM), and 12, a hay-based diet high in K (35 g K/kg DM). Within each diet, six cows received anionic salts during the last 2 weeks before the estimated calving day. After calving, all cows received the high K diet ad libitum. Blood samples were taken daily from day 11 pre-partum to day 5 post-partum. Urine samples were taken on days 7 and 2 pre-partum and on day 2 post-partum. The anionic salt did not alter feed intake during the pre-partum period. Serum Ca was not influenced by the dietary treatments. Feeding pre-partum diets with low K concentrations induced a reduced metabolic alkalotic charge, as indicated by reduced pre-partum urinary base-acid quotient. Transition cows fed the low K diet including anionic salts induced a mild metabolic acidosis before calving, as indicated by higher urinary Ca, lower urinary pH and net acid-base excretion. Although serum Ca during the post-partum period was not affected by dietary treatment, feeding a low K diet moderately supplemented with anionic salts to reach a dietary cation-anion difference close to zero permitted to obtain a metabolic response in periparturient cows without altering the dry matter intake.

  9. Salt secretion is linked to acid-base regulation of ionocytes in seawater-acclimated medaka: new insights into the salt-secreting mechanism.

    PubMed

    Liu, Sian-Tai; Horng, Jiun-Lin; Chen, Po-Yen; Hwang, Pung-Pung; Lin, Li-Yih

    2016-01-01

    Ionocytes in the skin and gills of seawater (SW) teleosts are responsible for both salt and acid secretion. However, the mechanism through which ionocytes secrete acid is still unclear. Here, we hypothesized that apical Na(+)/H(+) exchangers (NHE2/3), carbonic anhydrase (CA2-like), and basolateral HCO3(-)/Cl(-) exchanger (AE1) are involved in acid secretion. In addition, the hypothesized involvement of basolateral AE1 suggested that acid secretion may be linked to Cl(-) secretion by ionocytes. The scanning ion-selective electrode technique (SIET) was used to measure H(+) and Cl(-) secretion by ionocytes in the skin of medaka larvae acclimated to SW. Treatment with inhibitors of NHE, CA, and AE suppressed both H(+) and Cl(-) secretion by ionocytes. Short-term exposure to hypercapnic SW stimulated both H(+) and Cl(-) secretion. mRNA of CA2-like and AE1 were localized to ionocytes in the skin. Branchial mRNA levels of NKCC1a, CA2-like, and AE1a increased together with the salinity to which fish were acclimated. In addition, both AE1a and AE1b mRNA increased in fish acclimated to acidified (pH 7) SW; NKCC1a mRNA increased in fish acclimated to pH 9 SW. This study reveals the mechanism of H(+) secretion by ionocytes, and refines our understanding of the well-established mechanism of Cl(-) secretion by ionocytes of SW fish. PMID:27511107

  10. Salt secretion is linked to acid-base regulation of ionocytes in seawater-acclimated medaka: new insights into the salt-secreting mechanism

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Sian-Tai; Horng, Jiun-Lin; Chen, Po-Yen; Hwang, Pung-Pung; Lin, Li-Yih

    2016-01-01

    Ionocytes in the skin and gills of seawater (SW) teleosts are responsible for both salt and acid secretion. However, the mechanism through which ionocytes secrete acid is still unclear. Here, we hypothesized that apical Na+/H+ exchangers (NHE2/3), carbonic anhydrase (CA2-like), and basolateral HCO3−/Cl− exchanger (AE1) are involved in acid secretion. In addition, the hypothesized involvement of basolateral AE1 suggested that acid secretion may be linked to Cl− secretion by ionocytes. The scanning ion-selective electrode technique (SIET) was used to measure H+ and Cl− secretion by ionocytes in the skin of medaka larvae acclimated to SW. Treatment with inhibitors of NHE, CA, and AE suppressed both H+ and Cl− secretion by ionocytes. Short-term exposure to hypercapnic SW stimulated both H+ and Cl− secretion. mRNA of CA2-like and AE1 were localized to ionocytes in the skin. Branchial mRNA levels of NKCC1a, CA2-like, and AE1a increased together with the salinity to which fish were acclimated. In addition, both AE1a and AE1b mRNA increased in fish acclimated to acidified (pH 7) SW; NKCC1a mRNA increased in fish acclimated to pH 9 SW. This study reveals the mechanism of H+ secretion by ionocytes, and refines our understanding of the well-established mechanism of Cl− secretion by ionocytes of SW fish. PMID:27511107

  11. Bupivacaine salts of diflunisal and other aromatic hydroxycarboxylic acids: aqueous solubility and release characteristics from solutions and suspensions using a rotating dialysis cell model.

    PubMed

    Østergaard, Jesper; Larsen, Susan W; Parshad, Henrik; Larsen, Claus

    2005-11-01

    In the search for poorly soluble bupivacaine salts potentially enabling prolonged postoperative pain relief after local joint administration in the form of suspensions the solubility of bupivacaine salts of diflunisal and other aromatic hydroxycarboxylic acids were investigated together with the release characteristics of selected 1:1 salts from solutions and suspensions using a rotating dialysis cell model. The poorest soluble bupivacaine salts were obtained from the aromatic ortho-hydroxycarboxylic acids diflunisal, 5-iodosalicylic acid, and salicylic acid (aqueous solubilities: 0.6-1.9 mM at 37 degrees C). Diffusant appearance rates in the acceptor phase upon instillation of solutions of various salts in the donor cell applied to first-order kinetics. Calculated permeability coefficients for bupivacaine and the counterions diflunisal, 5-iodosalicylic acid, and mandelic acid were found to be correlated with the molecular size of the diffusants. Release experiments at physiological pH involving suspensions of the bupivacaine-diflunisal salt revealed that at each sampling point the diflunisal concentration exceeded that of bupivacaine in the acceptor phase. However, after an initial lag period, a steady state situation was attained resulting in equal and constant fluxes of the two diffusants controlled by the permeability coefficients in combination with the solubility product of the salt. Due to the fact that the saturation solubility of the bupivacaine-salicylic acid salt in water exceeded that of bupivacaine at pH 7.4, suspensions of the latter salt were unable to provide simultaneous release of the cationic and anionic species at pH 7.4. The release profiles were characterised by a rapid release of salicylate accompanied by a much slower appearance of bupivacaine in the acceptor phase caused by precipitation of bupivacaine base from the solution upon dissolution of the salt in the donor cell.

  12. Synthesis, characterization, and swelling behaviors of salt-sensitive maize bran-poly(acrylic acid) superabsorbent hydrogel.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Mingyue; Cheng, Zhiqiang; Zhao, Tianqi; Liu, Mengzhu; Hu, Meijuan; Li, Junfeng

    2014-09-01

    A novel composite hydrogel was prepared via UV irradiation copolymerization of acrylic acid and maize bran (MB) in the presence of composite initiator (2,2-dimethoxy-2-phenylacetophenone and ammonium persulfate) and cross-linker (N,N'-methylenebis(acrylamide)). Under the optimized conditions, maize bran-poly(acrylic acid) was obtained (2507 g g(-1) in distilled water and 658 g g(-1) in 0.9 wt % NaCl solution). Effects of granularity, salt concentration, and various cations and anions on water absorbency were investigated. It was found that swelling was extremely sensitive to the ionic strength and cation and anion type. Swelling kinetics and water diffusion mechanism in distilled water were also discussed. Moreover, the product showed excellent water retention capability under the condition of high temperature or high pressure. The salt sensitivity, good water absorbency, and excellent water retention capability of the hydrogels give this intelligentized polymer wide potential applications.

  13. Synthesis, characterization, and swelling behaviors of salt-sensitive maize bran-poly(acrylic acid) superabsorbent hydrogel.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Mingyue; Cheng, Zhiqiang; Zhao, Tianqi; Liu, Mengzhu; Hu, Meijuan; Li, Junfeng

    2014-09-01

    A novel composite hydrogel was prepared via UV irradiation copolymerization of acrylic acid and maize bran (MB) in the presence of composite initiator (2,2-dimethoxy-2-phenylacetophenone and ammonium persulfate) and cross-linker (N,N'-methylenebis(acrylamide)). Under the optimized conditions, maize bran-poly(acrylic acid) was obtained (2507 g g(-1) in distilled water and 658 g g(-1) in 0.9 wt % NaCl solution). Effects of granularity, salt concentration, and various cations and anions on water absorbency were investigated. It was found that swelling was extremely sensitive to the ionic strength and cation and anion type. Swelling kinetics and water diffusion mechanism in distilled water were also discussed. Moreover, the product showed excellent water retention capability under the condition of high temperature or high pressure. The salt sensitivity, good water absorbency, and excellent water retention capability of the hydrogels give this intelligentized polymer wide potential applications. PMID:25133321

  14. Spreadsheet Techniques for Evaluating the Solubility of Sparingly Soluble Salts of Weak Acids

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Guinón, José L.; García-Antón, José; Pérez-Herranz, Valentín

    1999-08-01

    A spreadsheet of Microsoft Excel for determining the solubility of sparingly soluble salts is described. The chart and worksheet are shown simultaneously on the screen. The worksheet can be used for any salt by merely changing the data for the solubility product constant and ionization constants. Practical examples of calculations are given and discussed.

  15. Porous media investigation before and after hydrochloric acid injection on a pre-salt carbonate coquinas sample.

    PubMed

    Machado, A C; Teles, A P; Pepin, A; Bize-Forest, N; Lima, I; Lopes, R T

    2016-04-01

    Porous space characterization of carbonate rocks is an important aid in petroleum exploration from carbonate reservoir. In this study, X-ray microtomography technique was applied to evaluate total porosity of a coquina sample extracted from pre-salt reservoir, in Brazil, before and after acid injection. Two image processing program were used in order to assess performance. The results showed that microtomography has potential to compute porosity of coquina samples and provides information about rock porous network. PMID:26794261

  16. Gold-catalysed cross-coupling between aryldiazonium salts and arylboronic acids: probing the usefulness of photoredox conditions.

    PubMed

    Cornilleau, Thomas; Hermange, Philippe; Fouquet, Eric

    2016-08-21

    The synthesis of biaryl compounds from aryldiazonium salts and arylboronic acids was achieved using PPh3AuCl as catalyst, CsF as base and acetonitrile as solvent. Combined to photosensitizers, irradiation by blue LEDs allowed accelerating the reaction and expanding its scope. Various functional groups were compatible including bromoaryls, iodoaryls, aldehydes and alcohols. A 2-iodobenzyl alcohol moiety was smoothly introduced by this method, enabling its consecutive isotopic labelling by a Pd-catalysed alkoxycarbonylation. PMID:27452177

  17. Theoretical studies of salt-bridge formation by amino acid side chains in low and medium polarity environments.

    PubMed

    Nagy, Peter I; Erhardt, Paul W

    2010-12-16

    Salt-bridge formation between Asp/Glu···Lys and Asp/Glu···Arg side chains has been studied by model systems including formic and acetic acids as proton donors and methylamine, guanidine, and methylguanidine as proton acceptors. Calculations have been performed up to the CCSD(T)(CBS)//MP2/aug-cc-pvtz level with formic acid proton donors. Complexes formed with acetic acid were studied at the CCSD(T)/aug-cc-pvdz//MP2/aug-cc-pvdz level. Protein environments of low and moderate polarity were mimicked by a continuum solvent with dielectric constants (ε) set to 5 and 15, respectively. Free energy differences, ΔG(tot), were calculated for the neutral, hydrogen-bonded form and for the tautomeric ion pair. These values predict that a salt bridge is not favored for the Asp/Glu···Lys pair, even in an environment with ε as large as 15. In contrast, the Asp/Glu···Arg salt bridge is feasible even in an environment with ε = 5. Charge transfers for the complexes were calculated on the basis of CHELPG and AIM charges.

  18. Upregulation of miRNA-143, -145, -192, and -194 in esophageal epithelial cells upon acidic bile salt stimulation.

    PubMed

    Bus, P; Siersema, P D; Verbeek, R E; van Baal, J W P M

    2014-08-01

    Barrett's esophagus (BE) is a metaplastic condition of the distal esophagus that occurs because of chronic gastroesophageal reflux. Previous studies have identified BE-specific microRNAs (miRNAs) in comparison with normal squamous epithelium (SQ). We hypothesized that BE-specific miRNAs could be induced in esophageal SQ cells by exposure to acid and/or bile salts. We aimed to determine whether BE-specific miRNAs are upregulated in an esophageal SQ cell line (Het-1A) in an environment with acid and/or bile salts and whether this is nuclear factor-κB (NF-κB) dependent. Acid and/or bile salt incubations were performed in Het-1A cells. Experiments were performed with or without inhibiting the NF-κB pathway. Quantitative reverse transcriptase polymerase chain reaction was performed to determine expression of miRNA-143, -145, -192, -194, cyclo-oxygenase-2 (COX2), mucin 2 (MUC2), and sex determining region Y-box 9. For validation, we determined levels of these miRNAs in biopsies from patients with reflux esophagitis and normal SQ. Significantly increased expression levels of miRNA-143 (2.7-fold), -145 (2.6-fold), -192 (2.0-fold), -194 (2.2-fold), COX2, MUC2, and sex determining region Y-box 9 were found upon acidic bile salt incubation, but not upon acid or bile salt alone. NF-κB pathway inhibition significantly decreased miRNA-143, -192, -194, COX2, and MUC2 expression. Additionally, miRNA-143, -145 and -194 expression was increased in reflux esophagitis biopsies compared with normal SQ, but no changes were found in miRNA-192 expression. Our findings suggest that upregulation of BE-specific miRNAs by acidic bile may be an early event in the transition of SQ to BE and that their expression is partly regulated by the NF-κB pathway. PMID:24006894

  19. Upregulation of miRNA-143, -145, -192, and -194 in esophageal epithelial cells upon acidic bile salt stimulation.

    PubMed

    Bus, P; Siersema, P D; Verbeek, R E; van Baal, J W P M

    2014-08-01

    Barrett's esophagus (BE) is a metaplastic condition of the distal esophagus that occurs because of chronic gastroesophageal reflux. Previous studies have identified BE-specific microRNAs (miRNAs) in comparison with normal squamous epithelium (SQ). We hypothesized that BE-specific miRNAs could be induced in esophageal SQ cells by exposure to acid and/or bile salts. We aimed to determine whether BE-specific miRNAs are upregulated in an esophageal SQ cell line (Het-1A) in an environment with acid and/or bile salts and whether this is nuclear factor-κB (NF-κB) dependent. Acid and/or bile salt incubations were performed in Het-1A cells. Experiments were performed with or without inhibiting the NF-κB pathway. Quantitative reverse transcriptase polymerase chain reaction was performed to determine expression of miRNA-143, -145, -192, -194, cyclo-oxygenase-2 (COX2), mucin 2 (MUC2), and sex determining region Y-box 9. For validation, we determined levels of these miRNAs in biopsies from patients with reflux esophagitis and normal SQ. Significantly increased expression levels of miRNA-143 (2.7-fold), -145 (2.6-fold), -192 (2.0-fold), -194 (2.2-fold), COX2, MUC2, and sex determining region Y-box 9 were found upon acidic bile salt incubation, but not upon acid or bile salt alone. NF-κB pathway inhibition significantly decreased miRNA-143, -192, -194, COX2, and MUC2 expression. Additionally, miRNA-143, -145 and -194 expression was increased in reflux esophagitis biopsies compared with normal SQ, but no changes were found in miRNA-192 expression. Our findings suggest that upregulation of BE-specific miRNAs by acidic bile may be an early event in the transition of SQ to BE and that their expression is partly regulated by the NF-κB pathway.

  20. Novel Halomonas sp. B15 isolated from Larnaca Salt Lake in Cyprus that generates vanillin and vanillic acid from ferulic acid.

    PubMed

    Vyrides, Ioannis; Agathangelou, Maria; Dimitriou, Rodothea; Souroullas, Konstantinos; Salamex, Anastasia; Ioannou, Aristostodimos; Koutinas, Michalis

    2015-08-01

    Vanillin is a high value added product with many applications in the food, fragrance and pharmaceutical industries. A natural and low-cost method to produce vanillin is by microbial bioconversions through ferulic acid. Until now, limited microorganisms have been found capable of bioconverting ferulic acid to vanillin at high yield. This study aimed to screen halotolerant strains of bacteria from Larnaca Salt Lake which generate vanillin and vanillic acid from ferulic acid. From a total of 50 halotolenant/halophilic strains 8 grew in 1 g/L ferulic acid and only 1 Halomonas sp. B15 and 3 Halomonas elognata strains were capable of bioconverting ferulic acid to vanillic acid at 100 g NaCl/L. The highest vanillic acid (365 mg/L) at these conditions generated by Halomonas sp. B15 which corresponds to ferulic acid bioconversion yield of 36.5%. Using the resting cell technique with an initial ferulic acid concentration of 0.5 g/L at low salinity, the highest production of vanillin (245 mg/L) took place after 48 h, corresponding to a bioconversion yield of 49%. This is the first reported Halomonas sp. with high yield of vanillin production from ferulic acid at low salinity.

  1. Fluorinated Boronic Acid-Appended Bipyridinium Salts for Diol Recognition and Discrimination via (19)F NMR Barcodes.

    PubMed

    Axthelm, Jörg; Görls, Helmar; Schubert, Ulrich S; Schiller, Alexander

    2015-12-16

    Fluorinated boronic acid-appended benzyl bipyridinium salts, derived from 4,4'-, 3,4'-, and 3,3'-bipyridines, were synthesized and used to detect and differentiate diol-containing analytes at physiological conditions via (19)F NMR spectroscopy. An array of three water-soluble boronic acid receptors in combination with (19)F NMR spectroscopy discriminates nine diol-containing bioanalytes--catechol, dopamine, fructose, glucose, glucose-1-phosphate, glucose-6-phosphate, galactose, lactose, and sucrose--at low mM concentrations. Characteristic (19)F NMR fingerprints are interpreted as two-dimensional barcodes without the need of multivariate analysis techniques.

  2. Carbonic acid salts at 25 or 45 degrees C to control loquat decay under shelf life conditions.

    PubMed

    Molinu, M G; D'Hallewin, G; Dore, A; Serusi, A; Venditti, T; Agabbio, M

    2005-01-01

    Generally recognised as save compounds (G.R.A.S) are attractive substitutes to synthetic chemicals in postharvest control diseases. They meet safety requirements, are cheap and able to be integrated with other disease control technologies. Among G.R.A.S compounds, carbonic acid salts have been investigated on carrots, bell pepper, melons, sweet cherries and their efficacy was also evaluated when combined with biological control agents. Moreover, the possibility to use sodium carbonate and sodium bicarbonate to prevent P. digitatum an P. italicum spread on Citrus fruit was studied since the begin of the 20th century. We explored the possibility to extend the use of carbonate-bicarbonate salts on loquat fruit in order to control the pathogens and to extend postharvest life. Loquat is a very perishable fruit, susceptible to decay, mechanical damage, moisture and nutritional losses during its postharvest life. We tested the combined effect of temperature and sodium or potassium carbonate-bicarbonate and ammonium carbonate. The fruit was dipped in the salt solutions at variable concentrations (0.5, 1 and 2% w/v) at 25 or 45 degrees C for two minutes and than stored under shelf life conditions (25 degrees C and 70% RH). Decay, weight loss, pH, titrable acidity and sugar content were detected after twelve days. Preliminary data show that the combined treatments were effective in decay control depending on salts. Best results were obtained with 2% potassium and sodium carbonate solution at 25 degrees C. Weight losses were related to treatment temperature and salts concentrations whereas, no differences were detected in the chemical parameters compared to the control. PMID:16637201

  3. Bioefficacy of a novel calcium-potassium salt of (-)-hydroxycitric acid.

    PubMed

    Downs, Bernard W; Bagchi, Manashi; Subbaraju, Gottumukkala V; Shara, Michael A; Preuss, Harry G; Bagchi, Debasis

    2005-11-11

    Obesity is associated with cardiovascular disease, diabetes and certain forms of cancer. Popular strategies on weight loss often fail to address many key factors such as fat mass, muscle density, bone density, water mass, their inter-relationships and impact on energy production, body composition, and overall health and well-being. (-)-Hydroxycitric acid (HCA), a natural plant extract from the dried fruit rind of Garcinia cambogia, has been reported to promote body fat loss in humans without stimulating the central nervous system. The level of effectiveness of G. cambogia extract is typically attributed solely to HCA. However, other components by their presence or absence may significantly contribute to its therapeutic effectiveness. Typically, HCA used in dietary weight loss supplement is bound to calcium, which results in a poorly soluble (<50%) and less bioavailable form. Conversely, the structural characteristics of a novel Ca2+/K+ bound (-)-HCA salt (HCA-SX or Super CitriMax) make it completely water soluble as well as bioavailable. An efficacious dosage of HCA-SX (4500 mg/day t.i.d.) provides a good source of Ca2+ (495 mg, 49.5% of RDI) and K+ (720 mg, 15% of RDI). Ca2+ ions are involved in weight management by increasing lipid metabolism, enhancing thermogenesis, and increasing bone density. K+, on the other hand, increases energy, reduces hypertension, increases muscle strength and regulates arrhythmias. Both Ca and K act as buffers in pH homeostasis. HCA-SX has been shown to increase serotonin availability, reduce appetite, increase fat oxidation, improve blood lipid levels, reduce body weight, and modulate a number of obesity regulatory genes without affecting the mitochondrial and nuclear proteins required for normal biochemical and physiological functions. PMID:16055158

  4. Hydrogen bonding patterns in salts of derivatives of aminopyrimidine and thiobarbituric acid.

    PubMed

    Gomathi, Sundaramoorthy; Nirmalram, Jeyaraman Selvaraj; Muthiah, Packianathan Thomas

    2015-04-01

    Three salts, namely 2-amino-4,6-dimethylpyrimidin-1-ium thiobarbiturate trihydrate (I), 2-amino-4,6-dimethoxypyrimidin-1-ium thiobarbiturate dihydrate (II) and 2,4-diamino-5-(3',4',5'-trimethoxybenzyl)pyrimidin-1-ium thiobarbiturate (III), were synthesized and characterized by IR and X-ray diffraction techniques. The primary interaction between the acid and base happens via N-H...O hydrogen bonds in (II) and (III), and via water-mediated N-H...OW and OW-HW...S in (I). The water molecules present in compound (I) form a (H2O)12 water cluster via water-water interactions. In all three compounds (I)-(III), thiobarbiturate anions form self-complementary pairs with a robust R2(2)(8) motif via a pair of N-H...O/N-H...S hydrogen bonds. They mimic the nucleobase base pairs by utilizing the same groups (thymine/uracil uses N3-H and C4=O8 groups during the formation of Watson-Crick and Hoogsteen base pairs with adenine). Compound (I) forms a water-mediated base pair through N-H...OW hydrogen bonds and forms an R4(2)(12) motif. The formation of N-H...S hydrogen bonds, water-mediated base pairs and water-water interactions in these crystal systems offers scope for these systems to be considered as a model in the study of hydration of nucleobases and water-mediated nucleobase base pairs in macromolecules.

  5. Selective inhibition of sweetness by the sodium salt of +/-2-(4-methoxyphenoxy)propanoic acid.

    PubMed

    Schiffman, S S; Booth, B J; Sattely-Miller, E A; Graham, B G; Gibes, K M

    1999-08-01

    The purpose of this study was to determine the degree to which the sodium salt of +/-2-(4-methoxyphenoxy)propanoic acid (Na-PMP) reduced sweet intensity ratings of 15 sweeteners in mixtures. Na-PMP has been approved for use in confectionary/frostings, soft candy and snack products in the USA at concentrations up to 150 p.p.m. A trained panel evaluated the effect of Na-PMP on the intensity of the following 15 sweeteners: three sugars (fructose, glucose, sucrose), three terpenoid glycosides (monoammonium glycyrrhizinate, rebaudioside-A, stevioside), two dipeptide derivatives (alitame, aspartame), two N-sulfonylamides (acesulfame-K, sodium saccharin), two polyhydric alcohols (mannitol, sorbitol), 1 dihydrochalcone (neohesperidin dihydrochalcone), one protein (thaumatin) and one sulfamate (sodium cyclamate). Sweeteners were tested at concentrations isosweet with 2.5, 5, 7.5 and 10% sucrose in mixtures with two levels of Na-PMP: 250 and 500 p.p.m. In addition, the 15 sweeteners were tested either immediately or 30 s after a pre-rinse with 500 p.p.m. Na-PMP. In mixtures, Na-PMP at both the 250 and 500 p.p.m. levels significantly blocked sweetness intensity for 12 of the 15 sweeteners. However, when Na-PMP was mixed with three of the 15 sweeteners (monoammonium glycyrrhizinate, neohesperidin dihydrochalcone and thaumatin), there was little reduction in sweetness intensity. Pre-rinsing with Na-PMP both inhibited and enhanced sweetness with the greatest enhancements found for monoammonium glycyrrhizinate, neohesperidin dihydrochalcone and thaumatin, which were not suppressed by Na-PMP in mixtures. The mixture data suggest that Na-PMP is a selective competitive inhibitor of sweet taste. The finding that pre-treatment can produce enhancement may be due to sensitization of sweetener receptors by Na-PMP.

  6. Sourdough fermentation or addition of organic acids or corresponding salts to bread improves nutritional properties of starch in healthy humans.

    PubMed

    Liljeberg, H G; Lönner, C H; Björck, I M

    1995-06-01

    Postprandial blood glucose and insulin responses to barley bread containing organic acids or corresponding salts were evaluated in healthy human subjects. The satiety score and the rate and extent of in vitro starch digestion were also studied. Lactic acid was generated by use of a homofermentative starter culture or added to the dough. In addition, products were baked with Ca-lactate, or with Na-propionate at two different concentrations. Consumption of the product baked with a high concentration of Na-propionate significantly lowered the postprandial blood glucose and insulin responses, and significantly prolonged the duration of satiety compared with all other breads. When subjects consumed the breads baked with sourdough, lactic acid and Na-propionate, their glucose and insulin responses were reduced compared with the wholemeal bread alone. The rate of in vitro amylolysis was reduced only by ingestion of the breads containing lactic acid, suggesting that the beneficial impact of Na-propionate on metabolic responses and satiety was related to effects other than a reduced rate of starch hydrolysis. All bread products had a similar concentration of in vitro resistant starch of 1.3-2.1 g/100 g (starch basis). It is concluded that sourdough baking and other fermentation processes may improve the nutritional features of starch. The results also demonstrate that certain salts of organic acids may have metabolic effects.

  7. Safety assessment of (-)-hydroxycitric acid and Super CitriMax, a novel calcium/potassium salt.

    PubMed

    Soni, M G; Burdock, G A; Preuss, H G; Stohs, S J; Ohia, S E; Bagchi, D

    2004-09-01

    (-)-Hydroxycitric acid (HCA) is a principle constituent (10-30%) of the dried fruit rind of Garcinia cambogia, a plant native to Southeastern Asia. The dried rind has been used for centuries throughout Southeast Asia as a food preservative, flavoring agent and carminative. Extensive experimental studies show that HCA inhibits fat synthesis and reduces food intake. The objective of this review is to systematically review the available safety/toxicity literature on HCA to determine its safety in-use. The primary mechanism of action of HCA appears to be related to its ability to act as a competitive inhibitor of the enzyme ATP-citrate lyase, which catalyzes the conversion of citrate and coenzyme A to oxaloacetate and acetyl coenzyme A (acetyl-CoA), primary building blocks of fatty acid and cholesterol synthesis. Super CitriMax, a novel calcium/potassium-HCA extract (HCA-SX), is considerably more soluble and bioavailable than calcium-based HCA ingredients. Acute oral toxicity studies in animals demonstrate that CitriMax (50% HCA as calcium salt) has a low acute oral toxicity. In a subchronic study in rats, the gavage administration of HCA-SX at doses up to 2500 mg/kg/day for a period of 90 days caused a significant decrease in body weight and reduction in feed consumption without any adverse effects. The structure, mechanism of action, long history of use of HCA and other toxicity studies indicate that HCA-SX is unlikely to cause reproductive or developmental effects. HCA-SX was not mutagenic in the presence or absence of metabolic activation in Ames genotoxicity assays in strains TA98 and TA102. HCA-SX-induced increases in number of revertants in other strains (TA100 and TA1535 in the absence of metabolic activation and in strain TA1537 in the presence of metabolic activation) but these were not considered as biologically indicative of a mutagenic effect. In several, placebo-controlled, double-blind trials employing up to 2800 mg/day HCA, no treatment-related adverse

  8. Efficacy of a novel calcium/potassium salt of (-)-hydroxycitric acid in weight control.

    PubMed

    Preuss, H G; Garis, R I; Bramble, J D; Bagchi, D; Bagchi, M; Rao, C V S; Satyanarayana, S

    2005-01-01

    The weight-loss efficacy of a novel, water-soluble, calcium-potassium salt of (-)-hydroxycitric acid (HCA-SX) was re-examined in 90 obese subjects (BMI: 30-50.8 kg/m2). We combined data from two previously reported randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled clinical studies in order to achieve a better statistical evaluation based on a larger population. This re-examination of data also allowed us to reflect more intensely on various aspects of weight loss studies. Subjects were randomly divided into three groups: group A received a daily dose of HCA-SX 4, 667 mg (providing 2,800 mg HCA per day); group B was given a daily dose of a combination of HCA-SX 4,667 mg, niacin-bound chromium (NBC) 4 mg (providing 400 microg elemental chromium), and Gymnema sylvestre extract (GSE) 400 mg (providing 100 mg gymnemic acid); and group C received a placebo in three equally divided doses 30-60 min before each meal. All subjects were provided a 2,000 kcal diet/day and participated in a supervised walking program for 30 min/day, 5 days/week. Eighty-two subjects completed the study. At the end of 8 weeks, in group A, both body weight and BMI decreased by 5.4%, low-density lipoprotein and triglycerides levels were reduced by 12.9% and 6.9%, respectively, while high-density lipoprotein levels increased by 8.9%, serum leptin levels decreased by 38%, serotonin levels increased by 44.5% and urinary excretion of fat metabolites increased by 32-109%. Group B demonstrated similar beneficial changes, but generally to a greater extent. No significant adverse effects were observed. The combined results confirm that HCA-SX and, to a greater degree, the combination of HCA-SX plus NBC and GSE reduce body weight and BMI, suppress appetite, improve blood lipid profiles, increase serum leptin and serotonin levels and increase fat oxidation more than placebo. We conclude that dosage levels, timing of administration, subject compliance and bioavailability of HCA-SX significantly affect results and

  9. Novel fatty acid gentamicin salts as slow-release drug carrier systems for anti-infective protection of vascular biomaterials.

    PubMed

    Obermeier, A; Matl, F D; Schwabe, J; Zimmermann, A; Kühn, K D; Lakemeier, S; von Eisenhart-Rothe, R; Stemberger, A; Burgkart, R

    2012-07-01

    Infections of vascular prostheses are still a major risk in surgery. The current work presents an in vitro evaluation of novel slow release antibiotic coatings based on new gentamicin fatty acid salts for polytetrafluoroethylene grafts. These grafts were coated with gentamicin sodium dodecyl sulfate, gentamicin laurate and gentamicin palmitate. Drug release kinetics, anti-infective characteristics, biocompatibility and haemocompatibility of developed coatings were compared to commercially available gelatin sealed PTFE grafts (SEALPTFE™) and knitted silver coated Dacron(®) grafts (InterGard(®)). Each gentamicin fatty acid coating showed a continuous drug release in the first eight hours followed by a low continuous release. Grafts coated with gentamicin fatty acids reduced bacterial growth even beyond pathologically relevant high concentrations. Cytotoxicity levels depending on drug formulation bringing up gentamicin palmitate as the most promising biocompatible coating. Thrombelastography studies, ELISA assays and an amidolytic substrate assay confirmed haemocompatibility of developed gentamicin fatty acid coatings comparable to commercially available grafts. PMID:22476651

  10. Use of agar diffusion assay to measure bactericidal activity of alkaline salts of fatty acids against bacteria associated with poultry processing

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The agar diffusion assay was used to examine antibacterial activity of alkaline salts of caproic, caprylic, capric, lauric, and myristic acids. A 0.5M concentration of each fatty acid was dissolved in 1.0 M potassium hydroxide (KOH), and pH of the mixtures was adjusted to 10.5 with citric acid. Solu...

  11. Reductive smelting of spent lead-acid battery colloid sludge in a molten Na2CO3 salt

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hu, Yu-jie; Tang, Chao-bo; Tang, Mo-tang; Chen, Yong-ming

    2015-08-01

    Lead extraction from spent lead-acid battery paste in a molten Na2CO3 salt containing ZnO as a sulfur-fixing agent was studied. Some influencing factors, including smelting temperature, reaction time, ZnO and salt dosages, were investigated in detail using single-factor experiments. The optimum conditions were determined as follows: T = 880°C; t = 60 min; Na2CO3/paste mass ratio = 2.8:1; and the ZnO dosage is equal to the stoichiometric requirement. Under the optimum conditions, the direct recovery rate of lead reached 98.14%. The results suggested that increases in temperature and salt dosage improved the direct recovery rate of lead. XRD results and thermodynamic calculations indicated that the reaction approaches of lead and sulfur were PbSO4→Pb and PbSO4→ZnS, respectively. Sulfur was fixed in the form of ZnS, whereas the molten salt did not react with other components, serving only as a reaction medium.

  12. 40 CFR 721.1550 - Benzenediazonium, 4-(di-methyl-amino)-, salt with 2-hy-droxy-5-sul-fo-benzoic acid (1:1).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ...-amino)-, salt with 2-hy-droxy-5-sul-fo-benzoic acid (1:1). (a) Chemical substance and significant new... 40 Protection of Environment 32 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Benzenediazonium, 4-(di-methyl-amino)-, salt with 2-hy-droxy-5-sul-fo-benzoic acid (1:1). 721.1550 Section 721.1550 Protection of...

  13. 40 CFR 721.1550 - Benzenediazonium, 4-(di-methyl-amino)-, salt with 2-hy-droxy-5-sul-fo-benzoic acid (1:1).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ...-amino)-, salt with 2-hy-droxy-5-sul-fo-benzoic acid (1:1). (a) Chemical substance and significant new... 40 Protection of Environment 32 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Benzenediazonium, 4-(di-methyl-amino)-, salt with 2-hy-droxy-5-sul-fo-benzoic acid (1:1). 721.1550 Section 721.1550 Protection of...

  14. 40 CFR 721.1550 - Benzenediazonium, 4-(di-methyl-amino)-, salt with 2-hy-droxy-5-sul-fo-benzoic acid (1:1).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ...-amino)-, salt with 2-hy-droxy-5-sul-fo-benzoic acid (1:1). (a) Chemical substance and significant new... 40 Protection of Environment 31 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Benzenediazonium, 4-(di-methyl-amino)-, salt with 2-hy-droxy-5-sul-fo-benzoic acid (1:1). 721.1550 Section 721.1550 Protection of...

  15. 40 CFR 721.1550 - Benzenediazonium, 4-(di-methyl-amino)-, salt with 2-hy-droxy-5-sul-fo-benzoic acid (1:1).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ...-amino)-, salt with 2-hy-droxy-5-sul-fo-benzoic acid (1:1). (a) Chemical substance and significant new... 40 Protection of Environment 31 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Benzenediazonium, 4-(di-methyl-amino)-, salt with 2-hy-droxy-5-sul-fo-benzoic acid (1:1). 721.1550 Section 721.1550 Protection of...

  16. 40 CFR 721.1550 - Benzenediazonium, 4-(di-methyl-amino)-, salt with 2-hy-droxy-5-sul-fo-benzoic acid (1:1).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ...-amino)-, salt with 2-hy-droxy-5-sul-fo-benzoic acid (1:1). (a) Chemical substance and significant new... 40 Protection of Environment 30 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Benzenediazonium, 4-(di-methyl-amino)-, salt with 2-hy-droxy-5-sul-fo-benzoic acid (1:1). 721.1550 Section 721.1550 Protection of...

  17. Effects of Salt Stress on Amino Acid, Organic Acid, and Carbohydrate Composition of Roots, Bacteroids, and Cytosol of Alfalfa (Medicago sativa L.) 1

    PubMed Central

    Fougère, Francoise; Le Rudulier, Daniel; Streeter, John G.

    1991-01-01

    Ethanol-soluble organic acid, carbohydrate, and amino acid constituents of alfalfa (Medicago sativa) roots and nodules (cytosol and bacteroids) have been identified by gas-liquid chromatography and high performance liquid chromatography. Among organic acids, citrate was the predominant compound in roots and cytosol, with malonate present in the highest concentration in bacteroids. These two organic acids together with malate and succinate accounted for more than 85% of the organic acid pool in nodules and for 97% in roots. The major carbohydrates in roots, nodule cytosol, and bacteroids were (descending order of concentration): sucrose, pinitol, glucose, and ononitol. Maltose and trehalose appeared to be present in very low concentrations. Asparagine, glutamate, alanine, γ-aminobutyrate, and proline were the major amino acids in cytosol and bacteroids. In addition to these solutes, serine and glutamine were well represented in roots. When alfalfa plants were subjected to 0.15 m sodium chloride stress for 2 weeks, total organic acid concentration in nodules and roots were depressed by more than 40%, whereas lactate concentration increased by 11, 27, and 94% in cytosol, roots, and bacteroids, respectively. In bacteroids, lactate became the most abundant organic acid and might contribute partly to the osmotic adjustment. On the other hand, salt stress induced a large increase in the amino acid and carbohydrate pools. Within the amino acids, proline showed the largest increase, 11.3-, 12.8-, and 8.0-fold in roots, cytosol, and bacteroids, respectively. Its accumulation reflected an osmoregulatory mechanism not only in roots but also in nodule tissue. In parallel, asparagine concentration was greatly enhanced; this amide remained the major nitrogen solute and, in bacteroids, played a significant role in osmoregulation. On the contrary, the salt treatment had a very limited effect on the concentration of other amino acids. Among carbohydrates, pinitol concentration was

  18. Acidity constants in methanol/water mixtures of polycarboxylic acids used in drug salt preparations. Potentiometric determination of aqueous pKa values of quetiapine formulated as hemifumarate.

    PubMed

    Garrido, Gemma; Ràfols, Clara; Bosch, Elisabeth

    2006-05-01

    The acidic dissociation constants in a number of methanol/water mixtures of mono and polycarboxylic acids commonly used in the preparation of drug salts were determined. These solvent mixtures are usually used to determine the pKa of drugs of low aqueous solubility. However, when these drugs are prepared in salt form, the acid-base equilibria of both the basic drug and the counter-anion are involved in the potentiometric titration curves. In these instances, the inclusion of the pKa of acids as constant values in the curve fitting provides easy computation of the drug pKa without the need of any previous step to get the free base. As an application example, the aqueous pKa values of the quetiapine formulated as hemifumarate (Seroquel) were estimated by extrapolation from the experimental pKa in several methanol/water mixtures, which were then calculated according to the suitable constants of fumaric acid. The estimated aqueous pKa values of quetiapine are compared with those directly obtained in aqueous solution by potentiometry and by capillary electrophoresis.

  19. Alleviation of salt-induced photosynthesis and growth inhibition by salicylic acid involves glycinebetaine and ethylene in mungbean (Vigna radiata L.).

    PubMed

    Khan, M Iqbal R; Asgher, M; Khan, Nafees A

    2014-07-01

    The influence of salicylic acid (SA) in alleviation of salt stress in mungbean (Vigna radiata L.) through modulation of glycinebetaine (GB) and ethylene was studied. SA application at 0.5 mM increased methionine (Met) and GB accumulation in plants concomitant with the suppression of ethylene formation by inhibiting 1-aminocyclopropane carboxylic acid synthase (ACS) activity more conspicuously under salt stress than no stress. The increased GB accumulation together with reduced ethylene under salt stress by SA application was associated with increased glutathione (GSH) content and lower oxidative stress. These positive effects on plant metabolism induced by SA application led to improved photosynthesis and growth under salt stress. These results suggest that SA induces GB accumulation through increased Met and suppresses ethylene formation under salt stress and enhances antioxidant system resulting in alleviation of adverse effects of salt stress on photosynthesis and growth. These effects of SA were substantiated by the findings that application of SA-analogue, 2, 6, dichloro-isonicotinic acid (INA) and ethylene biosynthesis inhibitor, aminoethoxyvinylglycine (AVG) resulted in similar effects on Met, GB, ethylene production, photosynthesis and growth under salt stress. Future studies on the interaction between SA, GB and ethylene could be exploited for adaptive responses of plants under salt stress.

  20. The role of putrescine in the regulation of proteins and fatty acids of thylakoid membranes under salt stress

    PubMed Central

    Shu, Sheng; Yuan, Yinghui; Chen, Jie; Sun, Jin; Zhang, Wenhua; Tang, Yuanyuan; Zhong, Min; Guo, Shirong

    2015-01-01

    Polyamines can alleviate the inhibitory effects of salinity on plant growth by regulating photosynthetic efficiency. However, little information is available to explain the specific mechanisms underlying the contribution of polyamines to salt tolerance of the photosynthetic apparatus. Here, we investigated the role of putrescine (Put) on the photosynthetic apparatus of cucumber seedlings under salt stress. We found that NaCl stress resulted in severe ion toxicity and oxidative stress in cucumber chloroplasts. In addition, salinity caused a significant increase in the saturated fatty acid contents of thylakoid membranes. Put altered unsaturated fatty acid content, thereby alleviating the disintegration of thylakoid grana lamellae and reducing the number of plastoglobuli in thylakoid membranes. BN-PAGE revealed Put up-regulated the expression of ATP synthase, CP47, D1, Qb, and psbA proteins and down-regulated CP24, D2, and LHCII type III in NaCl-stressed thylakoid membranes. qRT-PCR analysis of gene expression was used to compare transcript and protein accumulation among 10 candidate proteins. For five of these proteins, induced transcript accumulation was consistent with the pattern of induced protein accumulation. Our results suggest that Put regulates protein expression at transcriptional and translational levels by increasing endogenous polyamines levels in thylakoid membranes, which may stabilise photosynthetic apparatus under salt stress. PMID:26435404