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Sample records for acid drainage waters

  1. Geochemical characterisation of seepage and drainage water quality from two sulphide mine tailings impoundments: Acid mine drainage versus neutral mine drainage

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Heikkinen, P.M.; Raisanen, M.L.; Johnson, R.H.

    2009-01-01

    Seepage water and drainage water geochemistry (pH, EC, O2, redox, alkalinity, dissolved cations and trace metals, major anions, total element concentrations) were studied at two active sulphide mine tailings impoundments in Finland (the Hitura Ni mine and Luikonlahti Cu mine/talc processing plant). The data were used to assess the factors influencing tailings seepage quality and to identify constraints for water treatment. Changes in seepage water quality after equilibration with atmospheric conditions were evaluated based on geochemical modelling. At Luikonlahti, annual and seasonal changes were also studied. Seepage quality was largely influenced by the tailings mineralogy, and the serpentine-rich, low sulphide Hitura tailings produced neutral mine drainage with high Ni. In contrast, drainage from the high sulphide, multi-metal tailings of Luikonlahti represented typical acid mine drainage with elevated contents of Zn, Ni, Cu, and Co. Other factors affecting the seepage quality included weathering of the tailings along the seepage flow path, process water input, local hydrological settings, and structural changes in the tailings impoundment. Geochemical modelling showed that pH increased and some heavy metals were adsorbed to Fe precipitates after net alkaline waters equilibrated with the atmosphere. In the net acidic waters, pH decreased and no adsorption occurred. A combination of aerobic and anaerobic treatments is proposed for Hitura seepages to decrease the sulphate and metal loading. For Luikonlahti, prolonged monitoring of the seepage quality is suggested instead of treatment, since the water quality is still adjusting to recent modifications to the tailings impoundment.

  2. Use of O and S Isotopes to Define Sources of Water and Sulfate in Acid Mine Drainage Waters

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Earnest, D.

    2001-12-01

    Coal mining in Maryland, West Virginia, Pennsylvania, and other states has resulted in acid mine drainage problems in rivers throughout the region. The underground workings at the Kempton Mine have been abandoned since the 1950's, and the water filling these mines is discharged at a rate of 6,000,000 gallons per day into the headwaters of the Potomac River. This water has an average pH of 3.0 and an average dissolved load of 1 g/L. Evaluation of the mitigation options requires identification of water and acidity sources. We are using isotopic compositions of mine drainage waters to define hydrologic sources, flow paths, and acid sources. Water samples were taken monthly of mine water and other local sources. Oxygen isotope analyses are conducted on these samples. Seasonal variations in δ ^{18}O composition of mine drainage would suggest significant rapid meteoric input. Little or no variation in \\delta18O composition would suggest that mine drainage is derived primarily from groundwater sources or that the residence time in the mine is long. Sulfate precipitated as barite from these samples is analyzed for δ ^{34}S and \\delta18O. There is significantly more sulfate in the mine drainage waters than there is iron. The isotopic signature is used to determine whether the sulfur source is pyritic or organic. Sulfate δ 18O data are used to distinguish between sub-aerial and sub-aqueous oxidation of sulfur.

  3. WATER DRAINAGE MODEL

    SciTech Connect

    J.B. Case

    2000-05-30

    The drainage of water from the emplacement drift is essential for the performance of the EBS. The unsaturated flow properties of the surrounding rock matrix and fractures determine how well the water will be naturally drained. To enhance natural drainage, it may be necessary to introduce engineered drainage features (e.g. drilled holes in the drifts), that will ensure communication of the flow into the fracture system. The purpose of the Water Drainage Model is to quantify and evaluate the capability of the drift to remove water naturally, using the selected conceptual repository design as a basis (CRWMS M&O, 1999d). The analysis will provide input to the Water Distribution and Removal Model of the EBS. The model is intended to be used to provide postclosure analysis of temperatures and drainage from the EBS. It has been determined that drainage from the EBS is a factor important to the postclosure safety case.

  4. Impacts on water quality and biota from natural acid rock drainage in Colorado's Lake Creek watershed

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Bird, D.A.; Sares, Matthew A.; Policky, Greg A.; Schmidt, Travis S.; Church, Stanley E.

    2006-01-01

    Colorado's Lake Creek watershed hosts natural acid rock drainage that significantly impacts surface water, streambed sediment, and aquatic life. The source of the ARD is a group of iron-rich springs that emerge from intensely hydrothermally altered, unexploited, low-grade porphyry copper mineralization in the Grizzly Peak Caldera. Source water chemistry includes pH of 2.5 and dissolved metal concentrations of up to 277 mg/L aluminum, 498 mg/L iron, and 10 mg/L copper. From the hydrothermally altered area downstream for 27 kilometers to Twin Lakes Reservoir, metal concentrations in streambed sediment are elevated and the watershed experiences locally severe adverse impacts to aquatic life due to the acidic, metal-laden water. The water and sediment quality of Twin Lakes Reservoir is sufficiently improved that the reservoir supports a trout fishery, and remnants of upstream ARD are negligible.

  5. Acid mine drainage. (Latest citations from the Selected Water Resources Abstracts data base). Published Search

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1992-08-01

    The bibliography contains citations concerning the control and treatment of acid mine drainage. Techniques discussed for treating wastes containing heavy metals include precipitation, cementation, ion exchange, charge membrane, ultrafiltration, ozonation, solvent extraction, and electrodialysis. The environmental impacts of acid mine drainage on rivers, streams, and lakes are also discussed. (Contains 250 citations and includes a subject term index and title list.)

  6. Acid mine drainage. (Latest citations from the Selected Water Resources Abstracts database). Published Search

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1993-09-01

    The bibliography contains citations concerning the control and treatment of acid mine drainage. Techniques discussed for treating wastes containing heavy metals include precipitation, cementation, ion exchange, charge membrane, ultrafiltration, ozonation, solvent extraction, and electrodialysis. The environmental impacts of acid mine drainage on rivers, streams, and lakes are also discussed. (Contains 250 citations and includes a subject term index and title list.)

  7. Acid mine drainage. (Latest citations from the Selected Water Resources Abstracts database). Published Search

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1993-11-01

    The bibliography contains citations concerning the control and treatment of acid mine drainage. Techniques discussed for treating wastes containing heavy metals include precipitation, cementation, ion exchange, charge membrane, ultrafiltration, ozonation, solvent extraction, and electrodialysis. The environmental impacts of acid mine drainage on rivers, streams, and lakes are also discussed. (Contains 250 citations and includes a subject term index and title list.)

  8. The influence of acidic mine and spoil drainage on water quality in the mid-Wales area.

    PubMed

    Fuge, R; Laidlaw, I M; Perkins, W T; Rogers, K P

    1991-06-01

    The many abandoned base metal mines of the mid-Wales ore field are sources of extensive pollution. Some of the mineralised veins contain large amounts of pyrite and marcasite and oxidative weathering of these produces sulphuric acid resulting in very acidic mine drainage waters. In addition, the spoil tips associated with these mines can contain abundant iron sulphides. Drainage waters from these sources have pH values as low as 2.6 and are heavily contaminated with metals such as Al, Zn, Cd and Ni.Two of the main rivers of the area, the Rheidol and Ystwyth, intercept heavily contaminated acidic drainage which has a marked effect on water quality. The Rheidol contains over 100 μg L(-1) Zn for 16 km downstream of the acid water influx. This level is over three times the recommended EEC limit for Zn in salmonoid waters of low hardness. PMID:24202839

  9. Electricity generation from synthetic acid-mine drainage (AMD) water using fuel cell technologies

    SciTech Connect

    Shaoan Cheng; Brian A. Dempsey; Bruce E. Logan

    2007-12-15

    Acid-mine drainage (AMD) is difficult and costly to treat. We investigated a new approach to AMD treatment using fuel cell technologies to generate electricity while removing iron from the water. Utilizing a recently developed microbial fuel cell architecture, we developed an acid-mine drainage fuel cell (AMD-FC) capable of abiotic electricity generation. The AMD-FC operated in fed-batch mode generated a maximum power density of 290 mW/m{sup 2} at a Coulombic efficiency greater than 97%. Ferrous iron was completely removed through oxidation to insoluble Fe(III), forming a precipitate in the bottom of the anode chamber and on the anode electrode. Several factors were examined to determine their effect on operation, including pH, ferrous iron concentration, and solution chemistry. Optimum conditions were a pH of 6.3 and a ferrous iron concentration above about 0.0036 M. These results suggest that fuel cell technologies can be used not only for treating AMD through removal of metals from solution, but also for producing useful products such as electricity and recoverable metals. Advances being made in wastewater fuel cells will enable more efficient power generation and systems suitable for scale-up. 35 refs., 8 figs.

  10. Effects of acid mine drainage on water, sediment and associated benthic macroinvertebrate communities

    SciTech Connect

    Rutherford, L.G.; Cherry, D.S.; Dobbs, M.G.; Cairns, J. Jr.; Zipper, C.E.

    1995-12-31

    The toxic constituents of abandoned mined land (AML) discharges (acidic pH, heavy metals, total suspended solids) are extremely toxic to aquatic life . Studies were undertaken to ascertain environmental impacts to the upper Powell River, Lee and Wise Counties, Va. These impacts included disruptions in physical water quality, sediment quality, altered benthic macroinvertebrate assemblages, and toxicity of the water column and sediments from short-term impairment bioassays, and the potential to bioaccumulate selected metals (Al, Fe, Mn, P, Zn, Cu, Mg, S, Ni, Cd) by periphyton and resident bivalves. Water chemistry and macroinvertebrate assemblages were collected at upstream control, just below acid mine drainage and other downstream sites. Selected trace metal concentrations (Al, Fe, Mn, P, Zn, Cu, Mg, S, Ni, Cd) were determined for water, sediment and resident bivalves using ICP-AES. Acidic pH ranged from 2.15--3.3 at three AML-influenced seeps and varied from 6.4--8.0 at reference stations. At one AML-influenced creek, acidic pH conditions worsened from summer to fall and eradicated aquatic life throughout a 1.5 km stretch of that creek as it flowed into another creek. An additional dilution of 3.4 km in the second creek was needed to nearly neutralize the acidic pH problem. Conductivity (umhos/cm) ranged from 32--278 at reference sites and from 245--4,180 at AML-impact sites. Benthic macroinvertebrate abundance and taxon richness were essentially eliminated in the seeps or reached numbers of 1 -3 taxa totaling < 10 organisms relative to reference areas where richness values were 12--17 and comprised 300--977 organisms. Concentrations of Fe, Al, Mg and Cu and Zn were highest in the environmentally stressed stations of low pH and high conductivity relative to the reference stations. Iron was, by far, the element in highest concentration followed by Al and Mg.

  11. Impact of acid mine drainages on surficial waters of an abandoned mining site.

    PubMed

    García-Lorenzo, M L; Marimón, J; Navarro-Hervás, M C; Pérez-Sirvent, C; Martínez-Sánchez, M J; Molina-Ruiz, José

    2016-04-01

    Weathering of sulphide minerals produces a great variety of efflorescences of soluble sulphate salts. These minerals play an important role for environmental pollution, since they can be either a sink or a source for acidity and trace elements. This paper aims to characterise surface waters affected by mining activities in the Sierra Minera of Cartagena-La Union (SE, Spain). Water samples were analysed for trace metals (Zn, Cd, Pb, Cu, As and Fe), major ions (Na(+), K(+), Ca(2+) and Mg(2+)) and anions (F(-), Cl(-), NO3 (-), CO3 (2-), SO4 (2-)) concentrations and were submitted to an "evaporation-precipitation" experiment that consisted in identifying the salts resulting from the evaporation of the water aliquots sampled onsite. Mineralogy of the salts was studied using X-ray diffraction and compared with the results of calculations using VISUAL MINTEQ. The study area is heavily polluted as a result of historical mining and processing activities that has produced large amount of wastes characterised by a high trace elements content, acidic pH and containing minerals resulting from the supergene alteration of the raw materials. The mineralogical study of the efflorescences obtained from waters shows that magnesium, zinc, iron and aluminium sulphates predominate in the acid mine drainage precipitates. Minerals of the hexahydrite group have been quantified together with minerals of the rozenite group, alunogen and other phases such as coquimbite and copiapite. Calcium sulphates correspond exclusively to gypsum. In a semiarid climate, such as that of the study area, these minerals contribute to understand the response of the system to episodic rainfall events. MINTEQ model could be used for the analysis of waters affected by mining activities but simulation of evaporation gives more realistic results considering that MINTEQ does not consider soluble hydrated salts. PMID:26347422

  12. DEVELOPMENT AND VALIDATION OF AN ACID MINE DRAINAGE TREATMENT PROCESS FOR SOURCE WATER

    SciTech Connect

    Lane, Ann

    2015-12-31

    Throughout Northern Appalachia and surrounding regions, hundreds of abandoned mine sites exist which frequently are the source of Acid Mine Drainage (AMD). AMD typically contains metal ions in solution with sulfate ions which have been leached from the mine. These large volumes of water, if treated to a minimum standard, may be of use in Hydraulic Fracturing (HF) or other industrial processes. This project’s focus is to evaluate an AMD water treatment technology for the purpose of providing treated AMD as an alternative source of water for HF operations. The HydroFlex™ technology allows the conversion of a previous environmental liability into an asset while reducing stress on potable water sources. The technology achieves greater than 95% water recovery, while removing sulfate to concentrations below 100 mg/L and common metals (e.g., iron and aluminum) below 1 mg/L. The project is intended to demonstrate the capability of the process to provide AMD as alternative source water for HF operations. The second budget period of the project has been completed during which Battelle conducted two individual test campaigns in the field. The first test campaign demonstrated the ability of the HydroFlex system to remove sulfate to levels below 100 mg/L, meeting the requirements indicated by industry stakeholders for use of the treated AMD as source water. The second test campaign consisted of a series of focused confirmatory tests aimed at gathering additional data to refine the economic projections for the process. Throughout the project, regular communications were held with a group of project stakeholders to ensure alignment of the project objectives with industry requirements. Finally, the process byproduct generated by the HydroFlex process was evaluated for the treatment of produced water against commercial treatment chemicals. It was found that the process byproduct achieved similar results for produced water treatment as the chemicals currently in use. Further

  13. Characterization of water reservoirs affected by acid mine drainage: geochemical, mineralogical, and biological (diatoms) properties of the water.

    PubMed

    Valente, T; Rivera, M J; Almeida, S F P; Delgado, C; Gomes, P; Grande, J A; de la Torre, M L; Santisteban, M

    2016-04-01

    This work presents a combination of geochemical, mineralogical, and biological data obtained in water reservoirs located in one of the most paradigmatic mining regions, suffering from acid mine drainage (AMD) problems: the Iberian Pyrite Belt (IPB). Four water reservoirs located in the Spanish sector of the IBP, storing water for different purposes, were selected to achieve an environmental classification based on the effects of AMD: two mining dams (Gossan and Águas Ácidas), a reservoir for industrial use (Sancho), and one with water used for human supply (Andévalo). The results indicated that the four reservoirs are subject to the effect of metallic loads from polluted rivers, although with different levels: Águas Ácidas > Gossan > Sancho ≥ Andévalo. In accordance, epipsammic diatom communities have differences in the respective composition and dominant taxa. The dominant diatoms in each reservoir indicated acid water: Pinnularia acidophila and Pinnularia aljustrelica were found in the most acidic dams (Gossan and Águas Ácidas, with pH <3), Pinnularia subcapitata in Sancho (pH 2.48-5.82), and Eunotia exigua in Andévalo (pH 2.34-6.15). PMID:26032451

  14. Interaction of acid mine drainage with waters and sediments of West Squaw Creek in the West Shasta Mining District, California

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Filipek, L.H.; Kirk, Nordstrom D.; Ficklin, W.H.

    1987-01-01

    Acid mine drainage has acidified large volumes of water and added high concentrations of dissolved heavy metals to West Squaw Creek, a California stream draining igneous rocks of low acid-neutralizing capacity. During mixing of the acid sulfate stream waters in the South Fork of West Squaw Creek with an almost equal volume of dilute uncontaminated water, Cu, Zn, Mn, and Al remained in solution rather than precipitating or adsorbing on solid phases. Changes in the concentration of these generally conservative metals could be used to determine relative flow volumes of acid tributaries and the main stream. An amorphous orange precipitate (probably ferric hydroxides or a mixture of ferric hydroxides and jarosite) was ubiquitous in the acid stream beds and was intimately associated with algae at the most acid sites. Relative sorption of cations decreased with decreasing water pH. However, arsenic was almost completely scavenged from solution within a short distance from the sulfide sources.

  15. GROUNDWATER IMPACTED BY ACID MINE DRAINAGE

    EPA Science Inventory

    The generation and release of acidic, metal-rich water from mine wastes continues to be an intractable environmental problem. Although the effects of acid mine drainage (AMD) are most evident in surface waters, there is an obvious need for developing cost-effective approaches fo...

  16. FISH HABITATS IMPACTED BY ACIDIC MINE DRAINAGE

    EPA Science Inventory

    This data set represents in-stream fish spawning and hatching areas that have been impacted by elevated acid content waters discharging from areas near mining activities. It is based on an EPA fisheries survey completed in 1995. Acid Mine Drainage, or AMD, occurs when water co...

  17. The Impact of Microbial Communities on Water Quality in an Acid Mine Drainage Impacted Watershed

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    McDaniel, G. R.; Rademacher, L. K.; Faul, K. L.; Brunell, M.; Burmeister, K. C.

    2011-12-01

    Acid mine drainage (AMD) from the former Leona Heights Sulfur mine in Oakland, CA, contributes toxic levels of Cu, Cd, and Zn and elevated levels of Fe2+ and SO42- to downstream reaches of Lion Creek via Leona Creek. To investigate the extent of AMD and its relationship to microbial community structure, water samples were collected from three tributaries (two natural, and one with AMD) as well as the inlet and outlet of Lake Aliso (a reservoir downstream of the confluence of the three tributaries) beginning in July 2009. Lake Aliso was dammed in the late 1800s but since the early 1990s it has been full during the dry season and drained during the wet season, thus dramatically altering the geochemical conditions on a seasonal basis. Natural waters from Lion Creek and Horseshoe Creek tributaries dilute the water from Leona Creek, thus reducing concentrations of major ions and metals below toxic levels before water discharges into Lake Aliso. Precipitation events lead to episodes of increased mobilization of Cu and Cd in Leona Creek and produce toxic levels of these metals below the confluence with Lion Creek. Tributary mixing calculations suggest that even though Leona Creek contributes the smallest volume of water of the three tributaries, it is the main source of metals entering Lake Aliso. The input of the metal-rich AMD from Leona Creek changes the redox conditions of Lion Creek. In addition, Lake Aliso has a significant impact on water quality in the Lion Creek watershed. Observations of temperature, conductivity, pH, and dissolved oxygen in lake depth profiles indicate that Lake Aliso is stratified during the dry season when the lake is full. Based on concentration differences between the inlet and outlet of the lake, Na, Mg, SO42-, Ca, Mn, Zn, Cd, Cu and Ni are removed from the water while K, As, Pb and Fe are mobilized when Lake Aliso is full. Geochemical modeling using PhreeqcI suggests the deposition of minerals containing the metals that are being removed

  18. PASSIVE TREATMENT OF ACID ROCK DRAINAGE FROM A SUBSURFACE MINE

    EPA Science Inventory

    Acidic, metal-contaminated drainages are a critical problem facing many areas of the world. Acid rock drainage results when metal sulfide minerals, particularly pyrite, are oxidized by exposure to oxygen and water. The deleterious effects of these drainages on receiving streams a...

  19. Drainage water management for water quality protection

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Land drainage has been central to the development of North America since colonial times. Increasingly, agricultural drainage is being targeted as a conduit for pollution, particularly nutrient pollution. The export of agricultural drainage water and associated pollutants to surface water can be mana...

  20. Water chemistry and ecotoxicity of an acid mine drainage-affected stream in subtropical China during a major flood event.

    PubMed

    Lin, C; Wu, Y; Lu, W; Chen, A; Liu, Y

    2007-04-01

    Field and laboratory work was carried out to investigate the chemistry and ecotoxicity of stream water affected by acid mine drainage in a tributary catchment of the Pearl River in subtropical China during a major flood that corresponded to a return period of 100 years. The results indicate that stream water was affected by acid mine drainage from the Dabaoshan mine at least to a distance of 25 km downstream of the mine water discharge point. It appears that H(+) generated from sulfide oxidation in the waste rock dumps was readily available for exporting. The amount of H(+) being discharged into the receiving stream depended on the volume of out-flowing waters. However, there was a lag time for the discharges of the metals. This may be attributed to the slower release of metals, relative to H(+), because it might take more time for the dissolution of heavy metal-bearing compounds, particularly the sparsely soluble jarosites. Fe, Zn and Al were the major metals of potential toxicity contained in the AMD-affected stream water, followed by Mn, Cu, Pb, As, Cd and Ni. The concentrations of these metals in the water decreased rapidly down the stream. This corresponds with an increase in the concentrations of reactive heavy metal fractions in benthic mud down the stream, reflecting the precipitation of heavy metal compounds with increasing pH and their subsequent deposition in the streambed. Toxicity tests show that the AMD-affected stream water at 3.5 km downstream of the discharge point was highly toxic to the test organism. At 25 km downstream of the discharge point where stream water pH was as high as 5.75, marked toxic responses of the test organism were still observed. PMID:16979817

  1. Climate Change and Water Quality in the Rocky Mountains: challenges of too much summer for addressing acid rock drainage (Invited)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    McKnight, D. M.; Crouch, C. M.; Rue, G. P.

    2013-12-01

    A major water quality concern in the Rocky Mountains is acid rock drainage, which causes acidic conditions and high metal concentrations. The 30-year water quality record for the Snake River watershed in Colorado, USA, shows that for the summer low-flow period zinc concentrations have increased four- to six-fold concurrently with a two- to three week advancement in spring snowmelt. We found that the main source of acidity, zinc and other metals, including rare earth elements to the upper Snake River was a tributary draining an alpine area rich in disseminated pyrite. By conducting a tracer experiment in this tributary, we demonstrated that more than half of the trace metal and acidity loading entered in an upper steep, rocky reach where the tributary is fed by an alpine spring. Another increase in flow and metal loading occurred where the tributary flows through a gently-sloped wetland area containing a bog iron deposit. Analysis of the tracer experiment indicated a significant increase in hyporheic exchange along this wetland reach, where decreases in pH of the water exchanging in the hyporheic zone may be mobilizing metals that had been sequestered in the wetland through sorption to iron oxides. One possible scenario is that decreasing pH in the upper reach has reached a threshold, resulting in mobilization of metals from the hyporheic zone of the wetland. This study illustrates how changes in hydrologic regime may cause changes in biogeochemical processes that exacerbate the danger to aquatic ecosystems associated with acid rock drainage.

  2. The 2005 catastrophic acid crater lake drainage, lahar, and acidic aerosol formation at Mount Chiginagak volcano, Alaska, USA: Field observations and preliminary water and vegetation chemistry results

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schaefer, Janet R.; Scott, William E.; Evans, William C.; Jorgenson, Janet; McGimsey, Robert G.; Wang, Bronwen

    2008-07-01

    A mass of snow and ice 400-m-wide and 105-m-thick began melting in the summit crater of Mount Chiginagak volcano sometime between November 2004 and early May 2005, presumably owing to increased heat flux from the hydrothermal system, or possibly from magma intrusion and degassing. In early May 2005, an estimated 3.8 × 106 m3 of sulfurous, clay-rich debris and acidic water, with an accompanying acidic aerosol component, exited the crater through a tunnel at the base of a glacier that breaches the south crater rim. Over 27 km downstream, the acidic waters of the flood inundated an important salmon spawning drainage, acidifying Mother Goose Lake from surface to depth (approximately 0.5 km3 in volume at a pH of 2.9 to 3.1), killing all aquatic life, and preventing the annual salmon run. Over 2 months later, crater lake water sampled 8 km downstream of the outlet after considerable dilution from glacial meltwater was a weak sulfuric acid solution (pH = 3.2, SO4 = 504 mg/L, Cl = 53.6 mg/L, and F = 7.92 mg/L). The acid flood waters caused severe vegetation damage, including plant death and leaf kill along the flood path. The crater lake drainage was accompanied by an ambioructic flow of acidic aerosols that followed the flood path, contributing to defoliation and necrotic leaf damage to vegetation in a 29 km2 area along and above affected streams, in areas to heights of over 150 m above stream level. Moss species killed in the event contained high levels of sulfur, indicating extremely elevated atmospheric sulfur content. The most abundant airborne phytotoxic constituent was likely sulfuric acid aerosols that were generated during the catastrophic partial crater lake drainage event. Two mechanisms of acidic aerosol formation are proposed: (1) generation of aerosol mist through turbulent flow of acidic water and (2) catastrophic gas exsolution. This previously undocumented phenomenon of simultaneous vegetation-damaging acidic aerosols accompanying drainage of an acidic

  3. The 2005 catastrophic acid crater lake drainage, lahar, and acidic aerosol formation at Mount Chiginagak volcano, Alaska, USA: Field observations and preliminary water and vegetation chemistry results

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Schaefer, J.R.; Scott, W.E.; Evans, William C.; Jorgenson, J.; McGimsey, R.G.; Wang, B.

    2008-01-01

    A mass of snow and ice 400-m-wide and 105-m-thick began melting in the summit crater of Mount Chiginagak volcano sometime between November 2004 and early May 2005, presumably owing to increased heat flux from the hydrothermal system, or possibly from magma intrusion and degassing. In early May 2005, an estimated 3.8??106 m3 of sulfurous, clay-rich debris and acidic water, with an accompanying acidic aerosol component, exited the crater through a tunnel at the base of a glacier that breaches the south crater rim. Over 27 km downstream, the acidic waters of the flood inundated an important salmon spawning drainage, acidifying Mother Goose Lake from surface to depth (approximately 0.5 km3 in volume at a pH of 2.9 to 3.1), killing all aquatic life, and preventing the annual salmon run. Over 2 months later, crater lake water sampled 8 km downstream of the outlet after considerable dilution from glacial meltwater was a weak sulfuric acid solution (pH = 3.2, SO4 = 504 mg/L, Cl = 53.6 mg/L, and F = 7.92 mg/L). The acid flood waters caused severe vegetation damage, including plant death and leaf kill along the flood path. The crater lake drainage was accompanied by an ambioructic flow of acidic aerosols that followed the flood path, contributing to defoliation and necrotic leaf damage to vegetation in a 29 km2 area along and above affected streams, in areas to heights of over 150 m above stream level. Moss species killed in the event contained high levels of sulfur, indicating extremely elevated atmospheric sulfurcontent. The most abundant airborne phytotoxic constituent was likely sulfuric acid aerosols that were generated during the catastrophic partial crater lake drainage event. Two mechanisms of acidic aerosol formation are proposed: (1) generation of aerosol mist through turbulent flow of acidic water and (2) catastrophic gas exsolution. This previously undocumented phenomenon of simultaneous vegetationdamaging acidic aerosols accompanying drainage of an acidic crater

  4. MiniSipper: a new in situ water sampler for high-resolution, long-duration acid mine drainage monitoring.

    PubMed

    Chapin, Thomas P; Todd, Andrew S

    2012-11-15

    Abandoned hard-rock mines can be a significant source of acid mine drainage (AMD) and toxic metal pollution to watersheds. In Colorado, USA, abandoned mines are often located in remote, high elevation areas that are snowbound for 7-8 months of the year. The difficulty in accessing these remote sites, especially during winter, creates challenging water sampling problems and major hydrologic and toxic metal loading events are often under sampled. Currently available automated water samplers are not well suited for sampling remote snowbound areas so the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) has developed a new water sampler, the MiniSipper, to provide long-duration, high-resolution water sampling in remote areas. The MiniSipper is a small, portable sampler that uses gas bubbles to separate up to 250 five milliliter acidified samples in a long tubing coil. The MiniSipper operates for over 8 months unattended in water under snow/ice, reduces field work costs, and greatly increases sampling resolution, especially during inaccessible times. MiniSippers were deployed in support of an U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) project evaluating acid mine drainage inputs from the Pennsylvania Mine to the Snake River watershed in Summit County, CO, USA. MiniSipper metal results agree within 10% of EPA-USGS hand collected grab sample results. Our high-resolution results reveal very strong correlations (R(2)>0.9) between potentially toxic metals (Cd, Cu, and Zn) and specific conductivity at the Pennsylvania Mine site. The large number of samples collected by the MiniSipper over the entire water year provides a detailed look at the effects of major hydrologic events such as snowmelt runoff and rainstorms on metal loading from the Pennsylvania Mine. MiniSipper results will help guide EPA sampling strategy and remediation efforts in the Snake River watershed. PMID:23103760

  5. MiniSipper: A new in situ water sampler for high-resolution, long-duration acid mine drainage monitoring

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Chapin, Thomas P.; Todd, Andrew S.

    2012-01-01

    Abandoned hard-rock mines can be a significant source of acid mine drainage (AMD) and toxic metal pollution to watersheds. In Colorado, USA, abandoned mines are often located in remote, high elevation areas that are snowbound for 7–8 months of the year. The difficulty in accessing these remote sites, especially during winter, creates challenging water sampling problems and major hydrologic and toxic metal loading events are often under sampled. Currently available automated water samplers are not well suited for sampling remote snowbound areas so the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) has developed a new water sampler, the MiniSipper, to provide long-duration, high-resolution water sampling in remote areas. The MiniSipper is a small, portable sampler that uses gas bubbles to separate up to 250 five milliliter acidified samples in a long tubing coil. The MiniSipper operates for over 8 months unattended in water under snow/ice, reduces field work costs, and greatly increases sampling resolution, especially during inaccessible times. MiniSippers were deployed in support of an U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) project evaluating acid mine drainage inputs from the Pennsylvania Mine to the Snake River watershed in Summit County, CO, USA. MiniSipper metal results agree within 10% of EPA-USGS hand collected grab sample results. Our high-resolution results reveal very strong correlations (R2 > 0.9) between potentially toxic metals (Cd, Cu, and Zn) and specific conductivity at the Pennsylvania Mine site. The large number of samples collected by the MiniSipper over the entire water year provides a detailed look at the effects of major hydrologic events such as snowmelt runoff and rainstorms on metal loading from the Pennsylvania Mine. MiniSipper results will help guide EPA sampling strategy and remediation efforts in the Snake River watershed.

  6. LABORATORY EVALUATION OF ZERO-VALENT IRON TO TREAT WATER IMPACTED BY ACID MINE DRAINAGE

    EPA Science Inventory

    This study examines the applicability and limitations of granular zero-valent iron for the treatment of water impacted by mine wastes. Rates of acid neutralization and of metal (Cu, Cd, Ni, Zn, Hg, Al, and Mn) and metalloid (As) uptake were determined in batch systems using simu...

  7. Drainage Water Filtration

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Tile drainage discharge from managed turf is known to carry elevated concentrations of agronomic fertilizers and chemicals. One approach being considered to reduce the transport is end-of-tile-filters. Laboratory and field studies have been initiated to address the efficacy of this approach. Result...

  8. Isotope geochemistry of waters affected by acid mine drainage in old labour sites (SE, Spain).

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pérez-Sirvent, Carmen; Martinez-Sanchez, Maria Jose; Garcia-Lorenzo, Maria Luz; Agudo, Ines; Hernandez-Cordoba, Manuel; Recio, Clemente

    2015-04-01

    The ore deposits of this zone have iron, lead and zinc as the main metal components. Iron is present in oxides, hydroxides, sulfides, sulfates, carbonates, and silicates; lead and zinc occur in sulfides (galena and sphalerite, respectively), carbonates, sulfates, and lead or zinc-bearing (manganese, iron) oxides. Mining started with the Romans and activity peaked in the second half of the 19th century and throughout the 20th century until the 1980's. From 1940 to 1957, mineral concentration was made by froth flotation and, prior to this, by gravimetric techniques. The mining wastes, or tailings, with a very fine particle size were deposited inland (tailings dams) and, since 1957, huge releases were made in directly the sea coast. The objective of this work was to evaluate processes affecting waters from abandoned mine sites by way of stable isotopic analysis, particularly H and O stable isotopes from water and S and O from dissolved sulfates. Several common chemical and physical processes, such as evaporation, water-rock interaction and mixing could alter water isotopic composition. Evaporation, which causes an enrichment in δD and δ18O in the residual water, is an important process in semiarid areas. The results obtained indicate that, for sites near the coast, waters are meteoric, and marine infiltration only takes place in the deepest layers near the shore or if water remains stagnated in sediments with low permeability. The main source of sulfate was the oxidation of sulfides, resulting in the liberation of acid, sulfate and metals. In order to assess the mechanism responsible for sulfide oxidation, the stoichiometric isotope balance model and the general isotope balance model were tested, suggesting that the oxidation via Fe3+ was predominant in the surface, and controlled by A. ferrooxidans, while at depth, sulfate reduction occurred.

  9. Integrated on-farm drainage management for drainage water disposal

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Providing environmentally safe methods for drainage water disposal is a significant challenge for irrigated agriculture. Subsurface drainage water contains salt and nutrients that may have significant deleterious effects on surface water quality. A system was developed for the reuse of saline drai...

  10. Zinc isotope investigation of surface and pore waters in a mountain watershed impacted by acid rock drainage.

    PubMed

    Aranda, Suzan; Borrok, David M; Wanty, Richard B; Balistrieri, Laurie S

    2012-03-15

    The pollution of natural waters with metals derived from the oxidation of sulfide minerals like pyrite is a global environmental problem. However, the metal loading pathways and transport mechanisms associated with acid rock drainage reactions are often difficult to characterize using bulk chemical data alone. In this study, we evaluated the use of zinc (Zn) isotopes to complement traditional geochemical tools in the investigation of contaminated waters at the former Waldorf mining site in the Rocky Mountains, Colorado, U.S.A. Geochemical signatures and statistical analysis helped in identifying two primary metal loading pathways at the Waldorf site. The first was characterized by a circumneutral pH, high alkalinity, and high Zn/Cd ratios. The second was characterized by acidic pHs and low Zn/Cd ratios. Zinc isotope signatures in surface water samples collected across the site were remarkably similar (the δ(66)Zn, relative to JMC 3-0749-L, for most samples ranged from 0.20 to 0.30‰±0.09‰ 2σ). This probably suggests that the ultimate source of Zn is consistent across the Waldorf site, regardless of the metal loading pathway. The δ(66)Zn of pore water samples collected within a nearby metal-impacted wetland area, however, were more variable, ranging from 0.20 to 0.80‰±0.09‰ 2σ. Here the Zn isotopes seemed to reflect differences in groundwater flow pathways. However, a host of secondary processes might also have impacted Zn isotopes, including adsorption of Zn onto soil components, complexation of Zn with dissolved organic matter, uptake of Zn into plants, and the precipitation of Zn during the formation of reduced sulfur species. Zinc isotope analysis proved useful in this study; however, the utility of this isotopic tool would improve considerably with the addition of a comprehensive experimental foundation for interpreting the complex isotopic relationships found in soil pore waters. PMID:22326318

  11. Stratification of Metal and Sulphate Loads in Acid Mine Drainage Receiving Water Dams - Variables Regionalization by Cluster Analysis.

    PubMed

    Grande, J A; de la Torre, M L; Valente, T; Fernández, J P; Borrego, J; Santisteban, M; Cerón, J C; Sánchez-Rodas, D

    2015-07-01

    The Sancho Reservoir (Iberian Pyrite Belt, SW Spain) is nourished by the waters of the river Meca, which is affected by acid mine drainage (AMD) processes from the abandoned Tharsis mine. The aim of the present work is to study the hydrochemical variations in this reservoir, in order to define potential stratification processes in metal load and sulphates. A stratified sampling from the surface, with one meter deep intervals to the bottom of the dam, was performed. The results show a clear stratification of temperature, pH, electric conductivity, dissolved oxygen, metal and sulphate loads associated with depth. There is an increase of metal loads at the bottom of the reservoir, though previous studies only detect iron. The proximity between pH and aluminium suggests that water chemistry is strongly influenced by aluminium precipitation processes. This indicates the buffer effect that aluminium exercises, which precipitates as amorphous or low crystalline phases, introducing hydrogen ions to the system, while alkalinity input tends to raise pH. PMID:26163498

  12. High-frequency, long-duration water sampling in acid mine drainage studies: a short review of current methods and recent advances in automated water samplers

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Chapin, Thomas

    2015-01-01

    Hand-collected grab samples are the most common water sampling method but using grab sampling to monitor temporally variable aquatic processes such as diel metal cycling or episodic events is rarely feasible or cost-effective. Currently available automated samplers are a proven, widely used technology and typically collect up to 24 samples during a deployment. However, these automated samplers are not well suited for long-term sampling in remote areas or in freezing conditions. There is a critical need for low-cost, long-duration, high-frequency water sampling technology to improve our understanding of the geochemical response to temporally variable processes. This review article will examine recent developments in automated water sampler technology and utilize selected field data from acid mine drainage studies to illustrate the utility of high-frequency, long-duration water sampling.

  13. Relative acute toxicity of acid mine drainage water column and sediments to Daphnia magna in the Puckett's Creek Watershed, Virginia, USA.

    PubMed

    Soucek, D J; Cherry, D S; Trent, G C

    2000-04-01

    Acid mine drainage (AMD) is produced when pyrite (FeS(2)) is oxidized on exposure to oxygen and water to form ferric hydroxides and sulfuric acid. If produced in sufficient quantity, iron precipitate, heavy metals (depending on soil mineralogy), and sulfuric acid may contaminate surface and ground water. A previous study of an AMD impacted watershed (Puckett's Creek, Powell River drainage, southwestern Virginia, USA) conducted by these researchers indicated that both water column and sediment toxicity were significantly correlated with benthic macroinvertebrate community impacts. Sites that had toxic water or sediment samples had significantly reduced macroinvertebrate taxon richness. The present study was designed to investigate the relative acute toxicity of acid mine drainage (AMD) water column and sediments to a single test organism (Daphnia magna) and to determine which abiotic factors were the best indicators of toxicity in this system. Nine sampling stations were selected based on proximity to major AMD inputs in the watershed. In 48-h exposures, sediment samples from three stations were acutely toxic to D. magna, causing 64-100% mortality, whereas water samples from five stations caused 100% mortality of test organisms. Forty-eight-hour LC50 values ranged from 35 to 63% for sediment samples and 27 to 69% for water column samples. Sediment iron concentration and several water chemistry parameters were the best predictors of sediment toxicity, and water column pH was the best predictor of water toxicity. Based on these correlations and on the fact that toxic sediments had high percent water content, water chemistry appears to be a more important adverse influence in this system than sediment chemistry. PMID:10667927

  14. Applications of multi-season hyperspectral remote sensing for acid mine water characterization and mapping of secondary iron minerals associated with acid mine drainage

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Davies, Gwendolyn E.

    Acid mine drainage (AMD) resulting from the oxidation of sulfides in mine waste is a major environmental issue facing the mining industry today. Open pit mines, tailings ponds, ore stockpiles, and waste rock dumps can all be significant sources of pollution, primarily heavy metals. These large mining-induced footprints are often located across vast geographic expanses and are difficult to access. With the continuing advancement of imaging satellites, remote sensing may provide a useful monitoring tool for pit lake water quality and the rapid assessment of abandoned mine sites. This study explored the applications of laboratory spectroscopy and multi-season hyperspectral remote sensing for environmental monitoring of mine waste environments. Laboratory spectral experiments were first performed on acid mine waters and synthetic ferric iron solutions to identify and isolate the unique spectral properties of mine waters. These spectral characterizations were then applied to airborne hyperspectral imagery for identification of poor water quality in AMD ponds at the Leviathan Mine Superfund site, CA. Finally, imagery varying in temporal and spatial resolutions were used to identify changes in mineralogy over weathering overburden piles and on dry AMD pond liner surfaces at the Leviathan Mine. Results show the utility of hyperspectral remote sensing for monitoring a diverse range of surfaces associated with AMD.

  15. Chemical abatement of acid mine drainage formation

    SciTech Connect

    Steven, J.

    1987-01-01

    Chemical and thermodynamic data were used to develop a unified model of hydroxo-, sulfato-, and bisulfato-iron complexes and their stability constants in iron-sulfate solutions. Free energy of formation for each ligand series species was hypothesized to be linear in ligand number because of supporting evidence from the literature. Laboratory tests on the inhibition of acid mine drainage bacteria were conducted. Benzoic acid, sorbic acid, and sodium lauryl sulfate at low concentrations (5 to 10 mg/liter) each effectively inhibited oxidation of ferrous iron in batch cultures of Thiobacillus ferrooxidans. The rate of chemical oxidation of ferrous iron in low-pH, sterile batch reactors was not substantially affected at the tested concentrations (5 to 50 mg/liter) of any of the compounds. Low-pH cultures of Thiobacillus thioxidans significantly increased zinc sulfide dissolution rates relative to sterile controls. Sodium lauryl sulfate, benzoic acid, and sorbic acid at concentrations of 10, 25, and 50 mg/liter, respectively, in identical low-pH, batch cultures of Thiobacillus thiooxidans, were sufficient for complete inhibition of bacterial zinc sulfide dissolution. Pilot-scale experiments on the abatement of acid mine drainage formation in both fresh and weathered pyritic coal refuse were also conducted. At doses of 0.5 g/kg and 5.0 g/kg in fresh and weathered refuse, respectively, sodium benzoate, potassium sorbate, and most significantly, sodium lauryl surface, reduced the rate of iron, sulfate, and acidity production in water-leached barrels of coal refuse material.

  16. Bibliography for acid-rock drainage and selected acid-mine drainage issues related to acid-rock drainage from transportation activities

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Bradley, Michael W.; Worland, Scott C.

    2015-01-01

    Acid-rock drainage occurs through the interaction of rainfall on pyrite-bearing formations. When pyrite (FeS2) is exposed to oxygen and water in mine workings or roadcuts, the mineral decomposes and sulfur may react to form sulfuric acid, which often results in environmental problems and potential damage to the transportation infrastructure. The accelerated oxidation of pyrite and other sulfidic minerals generates low pH water with potentially high concentrations of trace metals. Much attention has been given to contamination arising from acid mine drainage, but studies related to acid-rock drainage from road construction are relatively limited. The U.S. Geological Survey, in cooperation with the Tennessee Department of Transportation, is conducting an investigation to evaluate the occurrence and processes controlling acid-rock drainage and contaminant transport from roadcuts in Tennessee. The basic components of acid-rock drainage resulting from transportation activities are described and a bibliography, organized by relevant categories (remediation, geochemical, microbial, biological impact, and secondary mineralization) is presented.

  17. Donnan membrane speciation of Al, Fe, trace metals and REEs in coastal lowland acid sulfate soil-impacted drainage waters.

    PubMed

    Jones, Adele M; Xue, Youjia; Kinsela, Andrew S; Wilcken, Klaus M; Collins, Richard N

    2016-03-15

    Donnan dialysis has been applied to forty filtered drainage waters collected from five coastal lowland acid sulfate soil (CLASS) catchments across north-eastern NSW, Australia. Despite having average pH values<3.9, 78 and 58% of Al and total Fe, respectively, were present as neutral or negatively-charged species. Complementary isotope dilution experiments with (55)Fe and (26)Al demonstrated that only soluble (i.e. no colloidal) species were present. Trivalent rare earth elements (REEs) were also mainly present (>70%) as negatively-charged complexes. In contrast, the speciation of the divalent trace metals Co, Mn, Ni and Zn was dominated by positively-charged complexes and was strongly correlated with the alkaline earth metals Ca and Mg. Thermodynamic equilibrium speciation calculations indicated that natural organic matter (NOM) complexes dominated Fe(III) speciation in agreement with that obtained by Donnan dialysis. In the case of Fe(II), however, the free cation was predicted to dominate under thermodynamic equilibrium, whilst our results indicated that Fe(II) was mainly present as neutral or negatively-charged complexes (most likely with sulfate). For all other divalent metals thermodynamic equilibrium speciation calculations agreed well with the Donnan dialysis results. The proportion of Al and REEs predicted to be negatively-charged was also grossly underestimated, relative to the experimental results, highlighting possible inaccuracies in the stability constants developed for these trivalent Me(SO4)2(-) and/or Me-NOM complexes and difficulties in modeling complex environmental samples. These results will help improve metal mobility and toxicity models developed for CLASS-affected environments, and also demonstrate that Australian CLASS environments can discharge REEs at concentrations an order of magnitude greater than previously reported. PMID:26780135

  18. Drainage Water Management for the Midwest

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Subsurface tile drainage is an essential water management practice on many highly productive fields in the Midwest. However, nitrate carried in drainage water can lead to local water quality problems and contribute to hypoxia in the Gulf of Mexico, so strategies are needed to reduce the nitrate load...

  19. Illinois drainage water management demonstration project

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Pitts, D.J.; Cooke, R.; Terrio, P.J.

    2004-01-01

    Due to naturally high water tables and flat topography, there are approximately 4 million ha (10 million ac) of farmland artificially drained with subsurface (tile) systems in Illinois. Subsurface drainage is practiced to insure trafficable field conditions for farm equipment and to reduce crop stress from excess water within the root zone. Although drainage is essential for economic crop production, there have been some significant environmental costs. Tile drainage systems tend to intercept nutrient (nitrate) rich soil-water and shunt it to surface water. Data from numerous monitoring studies have shown that a significant amount of the total nitrate load in Illinois is being delivered to surface water from tile drainage systems. In Illinois, these drainage systems are typically installed without control mechanisms and allow the soil to drain whenever the water table is above the elevation of the tile outlet. An assessment of water quality in the tile drained areas of Illinois showed that approximately 50 percent of the nitrate load was being delivered through the tile systems during the fallow period when there was no production need for drainage to occur. In 1998, a demonstration project to introduce drainage water management to producers in Illinois was initiated by NRCS4 An initial aspect of the project was to identify producers that were willing to manage their drainage system to create a raised water table during the fallow (November-March) period. Financial assistance from two federal programs was used to assist producers in retrofitting the existing drainage systems with control structures. Growers were also provided guidance on the management of the structures for both water quality and production benefits. Some of the retrofitted systems were monitored to determine the effect of the practice on water quality. This paper provides background on the water quality impacts of tile drainage in Illinois, the status of the demonstration project, preliminary

  20. Water quality changes in acid mine drainage streams in Gangneung, Korea, 10 years after treatment with limestone

    SciTech Connect

    Shim, Moo Joon; Choi, Byoung Young; Lee, Giehyeon; Hwang, Yun Ho; Yang, Jung-Seok; O'Loughlin, Edward J.; Kwon, Man Jae

    2015-12-01

    To determine the long-term effectiveness of the limestone treatment for acid mine drainage (AMD) in Gangneung, Korea, we investigated the elemental distribution in streams impacted by AMD and compared the results of previous studies before and approximately 10 years after the addition of limestone. Addition of limestone in 1999 leads to a pH increase in 2008, and with the exception of Ca, the elemental concentrations (e.g., Fe, Mn, Mg, Sr, Ni, Zn, S) in the streams decreased. The pH was 2.5–3 before the addition of limestone and remained stable at around 4.5–5 from 2008 to 2011, suggesting the reactivity of the added limestone was diminished and that an alternative approach is needed to increase the pH up to circumneutral range and maintain effective long-term treatment. To identify the processes causing the decrease in the elemental concentrations, we also examined the spatial (approximately 7 km) distribution over three different types of streams affected by the AMD. The elemental distribution was mainly controlled by physicochemical processes including redox reactions, dilution on mixing, and co-precipitation/adsorption with Fe (hydr)oxides.

  1. Copper isotope fractionation in acid mine drainage

    SciTech Connect

    Kimball, Bryn E; Mathur, Ryan; Dohnalkova, Alice; Wall, A J; Runkel, R L; Brantley, Susan L

    2009-03-01

    We surveyed the Cu isotopic composition of primary minerals and stream water affected by acid mine drainage in a mineralized watershed located in southwestern Colorado, USA. The δ65Cu values (based on 65Cu/63Cu) of local enargite (δ65Cu = -0.01 ± 0.10‰; 2σ) and chalcopyrite (δ65Cu = 0.16 ± 0.10‰) are within the general range of previously reported values for terrestrial primary Cu sulfides (-1‰ < δ65Cu < 1). These mineral samples show lower δ65Cu values than stream waters65Cu = 1.36 - 1.74 ± 0.10‰), with an average isotopic fractionation (quantified as Δaq-mino = δ65Cuaq – δ65Cu min, where Cuaq is leached Cu and Cu mino is the original mineral) of 1.60 ± 0.14‰ and 1.43 ± 0.14‰ for enargite and chalcopyrite, respectively.

  2. Copper isotope fractionation in acid mine drainage

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kimball, B. E.; Mathur, R.; Dohnalkova, A. C.; Wall, A. J.; Runkel, R. L.; Brantley, S. L.

    2009-03-01

    We measured the Cu isotopic composition of primary minerals and stream water affected by acid mine drainage in a mineralized watershed (Colorado, USA). The δ 65Cu values (based on 65Cu/ 63Cu) of enargite (δ 65Cu = -0.01 ± 0.10‰; 2 σ) and chalcopyrite (δ 65Cu = 0.16 ± 0.10‰) are within the range of reported values for terrestrial primary Cu sulfides (-1‰ < δ 65Cu < 1‰). These mineral samples show lower δ 65Cu values than stream waters (1.38‰ ⩽ δ 65Cu ⩽ 1.69‰). The average isotopic fractionation (Δ aq-min = δ 65Cu aq - δ 65Cu min, where the latter is measured on mineral samples from the field system), equals 1.43 ± 0.14‰ and 1.60 ± 0.14‰ for chalcopyrite and enargite, respectively. To interpret this field survey, we leached chalcopyrite and enargite in batch experiments and found that, as in the field, the leachate is enriched in 65Cu relative to chalcopyrite (1.37 ± 0.14‰) and enargite (0.98 ± 0.14‰) when microorganisms are absent. Leaching of minerals in the presence of Acidithiobacillus ferrooxidans results in smaller average fractionation in the opposite direction for chalcopyrite ( Δ=-0.57±0.14‰, where min o refers to the starting mineral) and no apparent fractionation for enargite ( Δ=0.14±0.14‰). Abiotic fractionation is attributed to preferential oxidation of 65Cu + at the interface of the isotopically homogeneous mineral and the surface oxidized layer, followed by solubilization. When microorganisms are present, the abiotic fractionation is most likely not seen due to preferential association of 65Cu aq with A. ferrooxidans cells and related precipitates. In the biotic experiments, Cu was observed under TEM to occur in precipitates around bacteria and in intracellular polyphosphate granules. Thus, the values of δ 65Cu in the field and laboratory systems are presumably determined by the balance of Cu released abiotically and Cu that interacts with cells and related precipitates. Such isotopic signatures

  3. Copper isotope fractionation in acid mine drainage

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Kimball, B.E.; Mathur, R.; Dohnalkova, A.C.; Wall, A.J.; Runkel, R.L.; Brantley, S.L.

    2009-01-01

    We measured the Cu isotopic composition of primary minerals and stream water affected by acid mine drainage in a mineralized watershed (Colorado, USA). The ??65Cu values (based on 65Cu/63Cu) of enargite (??65Cu = -0.01 ?? 0.10???; 2??) and chalcopyrite (??65Cu = 0.16 ?? 0.10???) are within the range of reported values for terrestrial primary Cu sulfides (-1??? < ??65Cu < 1???). These mineral samples show lower ??65Cu values than stream waters (1.38??? ??? ??65Cu ??? 1.69???). The average isotopic fractionation (??aq-min = ??65Cuaq - ??65Cumin, where the latter is measured on mineral samples from the field system), equals 1.43 ?? 0.14??? and 1.60 ?? 0.14??? for chalcopyrite and enargite, respectively. To interpret this field survey, we leached chalcopyrite and enargite in batch experiments and found that, as in the field, the leachate is enriched in 65Cu relative to chalcopyrite (1.37 ?? 0.14???) and enargite (0.98 ?? 0.14???) when microorganisms are absent. Leaching of minerals in the presence of Acidithiobacillus ferrooxidans results in smaller average fractionation in the opposite direction for chalcopyrite (??aq-mino = - 0.57 ?? 0.14 ???, where mino refers to the starting mineral) and no apparent fractionation for enargite (??aq-mino = 0.14 ?? 0.14 ???). Abiotic fractionation is attributed to preferential oxidation of 65Cu+ at the interface of the isotopically homogeneous mineral and the surface oxidized layer, followed by solubilization. When microorganisms are present, the abiotic fractionation is most likely not seen due to preferential association of 65Cuaq with A. ferrooxidans cells and related precipitates. In the biotic experiments, Cu was observed under TEM to occur in precipitates around bacteria and in intracellular polyphosphate granules. Thus, the values of ??65Cu in the field and laboratory systems are presumably determined by the balance of Cu released abiotically and Cu that interacts with cells and related precipitates. Such isotopic signatures

  4. Acid mine drainage. January 1977-January 1989 (Citations from the Selected Water Resources Abstracts data base). Report for January 1977-January 1989

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1989-12-01

    This bibliography contains citations concerning the control and treatment of acid mine drainage. Techniques discussed for treating wastes with heavy metals include precipitation, cementation, ion exchange, charge membrane, ultrafiltration, ozonation, solvent extraction, and electrodialysis. The environmental impacts of acid mine drainage on rivers, streams, and lakes are also discussed. (This updated bibliography contains 344 citations, none of which are new entries to the previous edition.)

  5. Acid mine drainage. February 1989-December 1989 (Citations from the Selected Water Resources Abstracts data base). Report for February 1989-December 1989

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1989-12-01

    This bibliography contains citations concerning the control and treatment of acid mine drainage. Techniques discussed for treating wastes with heavy metals include precipitation, cementation, ion exchange, charge membrane, ultrafiltration, ozonation, solvent extraction, and electrodialysis. The environmental impacts of acid mine drainage on rivers, streams, and lakes are also discussed. (This updated bibliography contains 54 citations, all of which are new entries to the previous edition.)

  6. Acid mine drainage. January 1977-January 1989 (Citations from the Selected Water Resources Abstracts data base). Report for January 1977-January 1989

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1989-01-01

    This bibliography contains citations concerning the control and treatment of acid mine drainage. Techniques discussed for treating wastes with heavy metals include precipitation, cementation, ion exchange, charge membrane, ultrafiltration, ozonation, solvent extraction, and electrodialysis. The environmental impacts of acid mine drainage on rivers, streams, and lakes are also discussed. (This updated bibliography contains 344 citations, 78 of which are new entries to the previous edition.)

  7. Effect of Remediation in the Chemical Evolution of Waters and Sediments Along Three Streams Impacted by Acid Mine Drainage in Southeast Ohio

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lopez, D. L.

    2005-12-01

    The chemical evolution of water and sediment along three streams impacted by acid mine drainage in southeast Ohio have been investigated (Sulphur Run in the Federal Creek watershed, Rock Run in the Monday Creek watershed, and Buffer Run in the Raccoon Creek watershed). Sulphur Run neutralizes acidic inputs naturally due to abundant carbonate lithology surrounding the stream. Rock Run and Buffer Run have been anthropogenically remediated using successive alkalinity producing wetlands (SAPS), open limestone channels, and alkaline capping of adjacent coal refuse piles. Sulphur Run has neutral to alkaline pH (which increases away from the AMD source), relatively low acidity and dissolved metals. It has the best overall water quality. However, sediment quality is poor due to mineral precipitation. At Rock Run and Buffer Run, water quality is poorer and pH is lower. Precipitation of metals is occurring at the SAPS and at the stream channel, but it is less significant due to higher solubility of metals at lower pH. Accumulation of metals in the sediments downstream of the SAPS suggests that metal-based compounds precipitated in the SAPS can be transported from there to the stream. In general, a constant supply of alkaline material (such as in watersheds rich in carbonates) may be more effective at improving water quality than passive treatment methods (e.g. SAPS), but without a means of retaining precipitates, sediment quality will be degraded by accumulation of metals in both, anthropogenically remediated AMD streams as well as in naturally remediated streams.

  8. Mineralogical transformations controlling acid mine drainage chemistry

    SciTech Connect

    Peretyazhko, Tetyana; Zachara, John M.; Boily, Jean F.; Xia, Yuanxian; Gassman, Paul L.; Arey, Bruce W.; Burgos, William D.

    2009-05-30

    The role of Fe(III) minerals in controlling acid mine drainage (AMD) chemistry was studied using samples from two AMD sites [Gum Boot (GB) and Fridays-2 (FR)] located in northern Pennsylvania. Chemical extractions, X-ray diffraction (XRD), scanning electron microscopy (SEM), and Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR) were used to identify and characterize Fe(III) phases. The mineralogical analysis revealed that schwertmannite and goethite were the principal Fe(III) phases in the sediments. Schwertmannite transformation occurred at the GB site where poorly-crystallized goethite rich in surface-bound sulfate was initially formed. In contrast, no schwertmannite transformation occurred at the FR site. The goethite in GB sediments had spherical morphology due to preservation of schwertmannite structure by adsorbed sulfate. Results of chemical extractions showed that poorly-crystallized goethite was subject to further crystallization accompanied by sulfate desorption. Changes in sulfate speciation preceded its desorption, with a conversion of bidentate- to monodentate-bound sulfate surface complexes. Laboratory sediment incubation experiments were conducted to evaluate the effect of mineral transformation on water chemistry. Incubation experiments were carried out with schwertmannite-containing sediments and AMD waters with different pH and chemical composition. The pH decreased to 1.9-2.2 in all suspensions and the concentrations of dissolved Fe and S increased significantly. Regardless of differences in the initial water composition, pH, Fe and S were similar in suspensions of the same sediment. XRD measurements revealed that schwertmannite transformed into goethite in GB and FR sediments during laboratory incubation. The incubation experiment demonstrated that schwertmannite transformation controlled AMD water chemistry during “closed system” laboratory contact.

  9. Alfalfa production using saline drainage water

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    A three year study investigated the use of saline (< 6 dS/m) drainage water for irrigation of salt tolerant alfalfa in the presence of shallow saline groundwater. The irrigation treatments included; irrigating twice between cuttings with non-saline water, 2) irrigating with moderately saline water...

  10. Fractionation of Cu and Zn isotopes during adsorption onto amorphous Fe(III) oxyhydroxide: Experimental mixing of acid rock drainage and ambient river water

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Balistrieri, Laurie S.; Borrok, David M.; Wanty, Richard B.; Ridley, W. Ian

    2008-01-01

    Fractionation of Cu and Zn isotopes during adsorption onto amorphous ferric oxyhydroxide is examined in experimental mixtures of metal-rich acid rock drainage and relatively pure river water and during batch adsorption experiments using synthetic ferrihydrite. A diverse set of Cu- and Zn-bearing solutions was examined, including natural waters, complex synthetic acid rock drainage, and simple NaNO3 electrolyte. Metal adsorption data are combined with isotopic measurements of dissolved Cu (65Cu/63Cu) and Zn (66Zn/64Zn) in each of the experiments. Fractionation of Cu and Zn isotopes occurs during adsorption of the metal onto amorphous ferric oxyhydroxide. The adsorption data are modeled successfully using the diffuse double layer model in PHREEQC. The isotopic data are best described by a closed system, equilibrium exchange model. The fractionation factors (αsoln-solid) are 0.99927 ± 0.00008 for Cu and 0.99948 ± 0.00004 for Zn or, alternately, the separation factors (Δsoln-solid) are -0.73 ± 0.08‰ for Cu and -0.52 ± 0.04‰ for Zn. These factors indicate that the heavier isotope preferentially adsorbs onto the oxyhydroxide surface, which is consistent with shorter metal-oxygen bonds and lower coordination number for the metal at the surface relative to the aqueous ion. Fractionation of Cu isotopes also is greater than that for Zn isotopes. Limited isotopic data for adsorption of Cu, Fe(II), and Zn onto amorphous ferric oxyhydroxide suggest that isotopic fractionation is related to the intrinsic equilibrium constants that define aqueous metal interactions with oxyhydroxide surface sites. Greater isotopic fractionation occurs with stronger metal binding by the oxyhydroxide with Cu > Zn > Fe(II).

  11. Fractionation of Cu and Zn isotopes during adsorption onto amorphous Fe(III) oxyhydroxide: Experimental mixing of acid rock drainage and ambient river water

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Balistrieri, L.S.; Borrok, D.M.; Wanty, R.B.; Ridley, W.I.

    2008-01-01

    Fractionation of Cu and Zn isotopes during adsorption onto amorphous ferric oxyhydroxide is examined in experimental mixtures of metal-rich acid rock drainage and relatively pure river water and during batch adsorption experiments using synthetic ferrihydrite. A diverse set of Cu- and Zn-bearing solutions was examined, including natural waters, complex synthetic acid rock drainage, and simple NaNO3 electrolyte. Metal adsorption data are combined with isotopic measurements of dissolved Cu (65Cu/63Cu) and Zn (66Zn/64Zn) in each of the experiments. Fractionation of Cu and Zn isotopes occurs during adsorption of the metal onto amorphous ferric oxyhydroxide. The adsorption data are modeled successfully using the diffuse double layer model in PHREEQC. The isotopic data are best described by a closed system, equilibrium exchange model. The fractionation factors (??soln-solid) are 0.99927 ?? 0.00008 for Cu and 0.99948 ?? 0.00004 for Zn or, alternately, the separation factors (??soln-solid) are -0.73 ?? 0.08??? for Cu and -0.52 ?? 0.04??? for Zn. These factors indicate that the heavier isotope preferentially adsorbs onto the oxyhydroxide surface, which is consistent with shorter metal-oxygen bonds and lower coordination number for the metal at the surface relative to the aqueous ion. Fractionation of Cu isotopes also is greater than that for Zn isotopes. Limited isotopic data for adsorption of Cu, Fe(II), and Zn onto amorphous ferric oxyhydroxide suggest that isotopic fractionation is related to the intrinsic equilibrium constants that define aqueous metal interactions with oxyhydroxide surface sites. Greater isotopic fractionation occurs with stronger metal binding by the oxyhydroxide with Cu > Zn > Fe(II).

  12. The role of ground-water recharge processes in the formation of natural acid-rock drainage in mineralized mountain watersheds

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Manning, A. H.; Bove, D. J.; Verplanck, P. L.

    2009-12-01

    An understanding of the natural production of low-pH and metal-rich ground and surface water (acid-rock drainage, or ARD) in mineralized watersheds is important for establishing pre-mining conditions in mined locations and for evaluating the potential environmental impacts of future mining in unmined locations. The significance of hydrothermal alteration type and lithology and in ARD production is well established, but the role played by climatic factors remains poorly understood. Ground-water recharge processes (e.g., water table depth, seasonal recharge fluctuations, and unsaturated zone residence time) could exert a major influence because they control features of the unsaturated zone that should in turn directly control the oxidation of sulfide minerals in the subsurface. We are exploring the relative importance of different aspects of ground-water recharge in ARD production by performing a series of numerical geochemical modeling experiments with PHREEQC and examining recently collected geochemical and hydrologic data from Handcart Gulch, a mineralized mountain watershed in the Colorado Front Range. Preliminary results suggest that ground-water residence time in the unsaturated zone is of primary importance. However, sulfide oxidation is probably oxygen-limited in deeper unsaturated zones under mountain ridges, meaning that ARD production may be commonly limited by rates of downward oxygen diffusion. Results of this study should assist in predicting possible future changes in ARD production in mountain watersheds under anticipated climate change scenarios.

  13. Treatment and prevention systems for acid mine drainage and halogenated contaminants

    SciTech Connect

    Jin, Song; Fallgren, Paul H.; Morris, Jeffrey M.

    2012-01-31

    Embodiments include treatments for acid mine drainage generation sources (10 perhaps by injection of at least one substrate (11) and biologically constructing a protective biofilm (13) on acid mine drainage generation source materials (14). Further embodiments include treatments for degradation of contaminated water environments (17) with substrates such as returned milk and the like.

  14. The impact of acid mine drainage on the methylmercury cycling at the sediment-water interface in Aha Reservoir, Guizhou, China.

    PubMed

    He, Tianrong; Zhu, Yuzhen; Yin, Deliang; Luo, Guangjun; An, Yanlin; Yan, HaiYu; Qian, Xiaoli

    2015-04-01

    The methylmercury (MeHg) cycling at water-sediment interface in an acid mine drainage (AMD)-polluted reservoir (Aha Reservoir) and a reference site (Hongfeng Reservoir) were investigated and compared. Both reservoirs are seasonal anoxic and alkaline. The concentrations of sulfate, sulfide, iron, and manganese in Aha Reservoir were enriched compared to the reference levels in Hongfeng reservoir due to the AMD input. It was found that the MeHg accumulation layer in Aha Reservoir transitioned from the top sediment layer in winter to the water-sediment interface in spring and then to the overlying water above sediment in summer. It supported the assumption that spring methylation activity may start in sediments and migrate into the water column with seasonal variation. The weaker methylation in sediment during spring and summer was caused by the excessive sulfide (∼15-20 μM) that reduced the bioavailability of mercury, while sulfate reduction potential was in the optimal range for the methylation in the overlying water. This led to a transport flux of MeHg from water to sediment in spring and summer. In contrast, such inversion of MeHg accumulation layer did not occur in Hongfeng Reservoir. The sulfate reduction potential was in the optimal range for the methylation in top sediment, and dissolved MeHg was positively related to sulfide in pore water of Hongfeng Reservoir (r = 0.67, p < 0.001). This result suggested that accumulation of MeHg in lake water and cycling of MeHg at sediment-water interface associate with some sensitive environmental factors, such as sulfur. PMID:25483970

  15. Use of Water Fluxmeters to Measure Drainage

    SciTech Connect

    Gee, Glendon W.; Ward, Andy L.; Zhang, Z. F.; Anandacoomaraswamy, A.

    2004-03-24

    Water supplies throughout the world are rapidly diminishing in quantity and quality. Efforts over the next decade must focus on methods which use water more efficiently for agriculture, industry, and recreational purposes, and at the same time reduce the potential for groundwater pollution. To assist in this effort, we have developed an improved method to simultaneously measure drainage quantity and quality using a water fluxmeter. Our water fluxmeter is a wick-lysimeter fitted with a small tipping-spoon and a solution-collection system. The only moving part is the tipping spoon. We have tested our fluxmeters under a range of conditions, from non-vegetated desert settings in Washington State USA, to irrigated tea plantations in Sri Lanka. Conditions of over-irrigation have been documented with our fluxmeters. When 4200 mm of water was applied to sandy soil via drip irrigation, at the Washington State site, over 3100 mm of drainage occurred. In contrast, at the same site, in the absence of both irrigation and vegetation, drainage was found to range from 0 mm/yr for a 1-m-deep silt loam soil to more than 100 mm/yr for a coarse-gravel surface. Solute transport, related to nitrate leaching can also be analyzed using water fluxmeters. Water fluxmeters have provided a reliable and inexpensive method to assess both quantity and quality of drainage waters over a wide range of environmental conditions.

  16. Geochemical characterization of water, sediment, and biota affected by mercury contamination and acidic drainage from historical gold mining, Greenhorn Creek, Nevada County, California, 1999-2001

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Alpers, Charles N.; Hunerlach, Michael P.; May, Jason T.; Hothem, Roger L.; Taylor, Howard E.; Antweiler, Ronald C.; De Wild, John F.; Lawler, David A.

    2005-01-01

    In 1999, the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) initiated studies of mercury and methylmercury occurrence, transformation, and transport in the Bear River and Yuba River watersheds of the northwestern Sierra Nevada. Because these watersheds were affected by large-scale, historical gold extraction using mercury amalgamation beginning in the 1850s, they were selected for a pilot study of mercury transport by the USGS and other cooperating agencies. This report presents data on methylmercury (MeHg) and total mercury (THg) concentrations in water, bed sediment, invertebrates, and frogs collected at 40 stations during 1999-2001 in the Greenhorn Creek drainage, a major tributary to Bear River. Results document several mercury contamination ?hot spots? that represent potential targets for ongoing and future remediation efforts at abandoned mine sites in the study area. Water-quality samples were collected one or more times at each of 29 stations. The concentrations of total mercury in 45 unfiltered water samples ranged from 0.80 to 153,000 nanograms per liter (ng/L); the median was 9.6 ng/L. Total mercury concentrations in filtered water (41 samples) ranged from less than 0.3 to 8,000 ng/L; the median was 2.7 ng/L. Concentrations of methylmercury in the unfiltered water (40 samples) ranged from less than 0.04 to 9.1 ng/L; the median was 0.07 ng/L. Methylmercury in filtered water (13 samples) ranged from less than 0.04 to 0.27 ng/L; the median was 0.04 ng/L. Acidic drainage with pH values as low as 3.4 was encountered in some of the mined areas. Elevated concentrations of aluminum, cadmium, copper, iron, manganese, nickel, and zinc were found at several stations, especially in the more acidic water samples. Total mercury concentrations in sediment were determined by laboratory and field methods. Total mercury concentrations (determined by laboratory methods) in ten samples from eight stations ranged from about 0.0044 to 12 ?g/g (microgram per gram, equivalent to parts per

  17. Mine Drainage and Oil Sand Water.

    PubMed

    Wei, Xinchao; Wolfe, F Andrew; Li, Yanjun

    2015-10-01

    Mine drainage from the mining of mineral resources (coal, metals, oil sand, or industrial minerals) remains as a persistent environmental problem. This review summarizes the scientific literature published in 2014 on the technical issues related to mine drainage or mine water in active and abandoned coal/hard rock mining sites or waste spoil piles. Also included in this review is the water from oil sand operations. This review is divided into the four sections: 1) mine drainage characterization, 2) prediction and environmental impact, 3) treatment technologies, 4) oil sand water. Many papers presented in this review address more than one aspect and different sections should not be regarded as being mutuallyexclusive or all-inclusive. PMID:26420092

  18. Bioreactor for acid mine drainage control

    DOEpatents

    Zaluski, Marek H.; Manchester, Kenneth R.

    2001-01-01

    A bioreactor for reacting an aqueous heavy metal and sulfate containing mine drainage solution with sulfate reducing bacteria to produce heavy metal sulfides and reduce the sulfuric acid content of the solution. The reactor is an elongated, horizontal trough defining an inlet section and a reaction section. An inlet manifold adjacent the inlet section distributes aqueous mine drainage solution into the inlet section for flow through the inlet section and reaction section. A sulfate reducing bacteria and bacteria nutrient composition in the inlet section provides sulfate reducing bacteria that with the sulfuric acid and heavy metals in the solution to form solid metal sulfides. The sulfate reducing bacteria and bacteria nutrient composition is retained in the cells of a honeycomb structure formed of cellular honeycomb panels mounted in the reactor inlet section. The honeycomb panels extend upwardly in the inlet section at an acute angle with respect to the horizontal. The cells defined in each panel are thereby offset with respect to the honeycomb cells in each adjacent panel in order to define a tortuous path for the flow of the aqueous solution.

  19. Assessment, water-quality trends, and options for remediation of acidic drainage from abandoned coal mines near Huntsville, Missouri, 2003-2004

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Christensen, Eric D.

    2005-01-01

    Water from abandoned underground coal mines acidifies receiving streams in the Sugar Creek Basin and Mitchell Mine Basin near Huntsville, Missouri. A 4.35-kilometer (2.7-mile) reach of Sugar Creek has been classified as impaired based on Missouri's Water Quality Standards because of small pH values [< (less than) 6.5]. Samples collected from Sugar Creek from July 2003 to June 2004 did not have pH values outside of the specified range of 6.5 to 9.0. However, large concentrations of iron [416 to 2,320 mg/L (milligrams per liter)], manganese (8.36 to 33.5 mg/L), aluminum (0.870 to 428 mg/L), and sulfate (2,990 to 13,700 mg/L) in acidic mine drainage (AMD) from two mine springs as well as small and diffuse seeps were observed to have an effect on water quality in Sugar Creek. Metal and sulfate loads increased and pH decreased immediately downstream from Sugar Creek's confluence with the Calfee Slope and Huntsville Gob drainages that discharge AMD into Sugar Creek. Similar effects were observed in the Mitchell Mine drainage that receives AMD from a large mine spring. Comparisons of water-quality samples from this study and two previous studies by the U.S. Geological Survey in 1987-1988 and the Missouri Department of Natural Resources in 2000-2002 indicate that AMD generation in the Sugar Creek Basin and Mitchell Mine Basin is declining, but the data are insufficient to quantify any trends or time frame. AMD samples from the largest mine spring in the Calfee Slope subbasin indicated a modest but significant increase in median pH from 4.8 to 5.2 using the Wilcoxan rank-sum test (p <0.05) and a decrease in median specific conductance from 5,000 to 3,540 ?S/cm (microsiemens per centimeter at 25 degrees Celsius) during a 17-year period. AMD samples from the largest mine spring in the Mitchell Mine Basin indicated an increase in median pH values from 5.6 to 6.0 and a decrease in median specific conductance from 3,050 to 2,450 ?S/cm during the same period. Remediation of AMD

  20. Hydrogeology and geochemistry of acid mine drainage in ground water in the vicinity of Penn Mine and Camanche Reservoir, Calaveras County, California; first-year summary

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Hamlin, S.N.; Alpers, C.N.

    1995-01-01

    Acid drainage from the Penn Mine in Calaveras County, California, has caused contamination of ground water between Mine Run Dam and Camanche Reservoir. The Penn Mine was first developed in the 1860's primarily for copper and later produced lesser amounts of zinc, lead, silver, and gold from steeply dipping massive sulfide lenses in metamorphic rocks. Surface disposal of sulfidic waste rock and tailings from mine operations has produced acidic drainage with pH values between 2.3 and 2.7 and elevated concentrations of sulfate and metals, including copper, zinc, cadmium, iron, and aluminum. During the mine's operation and after its subsequent abandonment in the late 1950's, acid mine drainage flowed down Mine Run into the Mokelumne River. Construction of Camanche Dam in 1963 flooded part of the Mokelumne River adjacent to Penn Mine. Surface-water diversions and unlined impoundments were constructed at Penn Mine in 1979 to reduce runoff from the mine, collect contaminated surface water, and enhance evaporation. Some of the contaminated surface water infiltrates the ground water and flows toward Camanche Reservoir. Ground- water flow in the study area is controlled by the local hydraulic gradient and the hydraulic characteristics of two principal rock types, a Jurassic metavolcanic unit and the underlying Salt Spring slate. The hydraulic gradient is west from Mine Run impoundment toward Camanche Reservoir. The median hydraulic conductivity was about 10 to 50 times higher in the metavolcanic rock (0.1 foot per day) than in the slate (0.002 to 0.01 foot per day); most flow occurs in the metavolcanic rock where hydraulic conductivity is as high as 50 feet per day in two locations. The contact between the two rock units is a fault plane that strikes N20?W, dips 20?NE, and is a likely conduit for ground-water flow, based on down-hole measurements with a heatpulse flowmeter. Analyses of water samples collected during April 1992 provide a comprehensive characterization of

  1. Impact of climate change on acid mine drainage generation and contaminant transport in water ecosystems of semi-arid and arid mining areas

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Anawar, Hossain Md.

    Disposal of untreated and treated mining wastes and tailings exerts a significant threat and hazard for environmental contamination including groundwater, surface water, wetlands, land, food chain and animals. In order to facilitate remediation techniques, it is important to understand the oxidation of sulfidic minerals, and the hydrolysis of the oxidation products that result in production of acid mine drainage (AMD), toxic metals, low pH, SO42- and Fe. This review has summarized the impacts of climate change on geochemical reactions, AMD generation, and water quality in semi-arid/arid mining environments. Besides this, the study included the effects of hydrological, seasonal and climate change on composition of AMD, contaminant transport in watersheds and restoration of mining sites. Different models have different types of limitations and benefits that control their adaptability and suitability of application in various mining environments. This review has made a comparative discussion of a few most potential and widely used reactive transport models that can be applied to simulate the effect of climate change on sulfide oxidation and AMD production from mining waste, and contaminant transport in surface and groundwater systems.

  2. Remediation of acid mine drainage with sulfate reducing bacteria

    SciTech Connect

    Hauri, J.F.; Schaider, L.A.

    2009-02-15

    Sulfate reducing bacteria have been shown to be effective at treating acid mine drainage through sulfide production and subsequent precipitation of metal sulfides. In this laboratory experiment for undergraduate environmental chemistry courses, students design and implement a set of bioreactors to remediate acid mine drainage and explain observed changes in dissolved metal concentrations and pH. Using synthetic acid mine drainage and combinations of inputs, students monitor their bioreactors for decreases in dissolved copper and iron concentrations.

  3. Recognition of a Biofilm at the Sediment-Water Interface of AN Acid Mine Drainage-Contaminated Stream, and its Role in Controlling Iron Flux

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Boult, Stephen; Johnson, Nicholas; Curtis, Charles

    1997-03-01

    Material collected over a month on plates attached to the bed of the Afon Goch, Anglesey, a stream highly contaminated by acid mine drainage (AMD), was either examined intact by electron microscopy or suspended and cultured to reveal the presence of microbiota. Certain of the aerobic microbiota were identified, the genus Pseudomonas formed the commonest isolate and cultures of Serratia plymuthica were grown in order to compare the biofilms formed with the material collected in the Afon Goch. The material at the sediment-water interface of the Afon Goch was of similar underlying morphology to that of the cultured biofilms. However, the former had a superficial granular coating of equidimensional (60-100 nm) and evenly spaced iron rich particles (determined by X-ray microanalysis). The sediment-water interface of this AMD-contaminated stream is therefore best described as a highly contaminated biofilm. Evidence from previous work suggests that the streambed is active in iron removal from the water column. The intimate association of iron with microbiota at the streambed, therefore, implies that iron flux prediction may not be possible from physical and chemical data alone but requires knowledge of biofilm physiology and ecology.Microbially mediated metal precipitation, both by single bacteria and by biofilms, has been reported elsewhere but mass balance considerations suggest that this explanation cannot hold good for the large amounts of iron hydroxide depositing from waters of the prevalent pH and redox status. Filtered stream water analyses indicate the presence of colloidal iron hydroxide and also its removal downstream where ochreous (iron hydroxide rich) material accumulates. The process of iron immobilization is likely to be the attraction and physical trapping of colloidal iron hydroxide by extracellular polymeric substances (EPS) which constitute the matrix of biofilms.

  4. Assessing the concentration, speciation, and toxicity of dissolved metals during mixing of acid-mine drainage and ambient river water downstream of the Elizabeth Copper Mine, Vermont, USA

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Balistrieri, L.S.; Seal, R.R., II; Piatak, N.M.; Paul, B.

    2007-01-01

    , which is consistent with the DGT results. Although the DGT method indicates that the majority of aqueous Cu species are inorganic, BLM calculations indicate that dissolved Cu is inorganic at pH 5.5. Integrated dissolved labile concentrations of Cd, Cu and Zn in the mixing and reaction zone are compared to calculated acute toxicity concentrations (LC50 values) for fathead minnows (Pimephales promelas) (Cd, Cu and Zn) and water fleas (Ceriodaphnia dubia) (Cd and Cu) using the BLM, and to national recommended water quality criteria [i.e., criteria maximum concentration (CMC) and criterion continuous concentration (CCC)]. Observed labile concentrations of Cd and Zn are below LC50 values and CMC for Cd, but above CCC and CMC for Zn at sites <30 m downstream of the confluence. In contrast, labile Cu concentrations exceed LC50 values for the organisms as well as CCC and CMC at sites <30 m downstream of the confluence. These results suggest that environmental conditions at sites closest to the confluence of the river and acid-mine drainage should not support healthy aquatic organisms. ?? 2007 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. Major and trace-element analyses of acid mine waters in the Leviathan Mine drainage basin, California/Nevada; October, 1981 to October, 1982

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Ball, J.W.; Nordstrom, D.K.

    1985-01-01

    Water issuing from the inactive Leviathan open-pit sulfur mine has caused serious degradation of the water quality in the Leviathan/Bryant Creek drainage basin which drains into the East Fork of the Carson River. As part of a pollution abatement project of the California Regional Water Quality Control Board, the U.S. Geological Survey collected hydrologic and water quality data for the basin during 1981-82. During this period a comprehensive sampling survey was completed to provide information on trace metal attenuation during downstream transport and to provide data for interpreting geochemical processes. This report presents the analytical results from this sampling survey. Sixty-seven water samples were filtered and preserved on-site at 45 locations and at 3 different times. Temperature, discharge, pH, and Eh and specific conductance were measured on-site. Concentrations of 37 major and trace constituents were determined later in the laboratory on preserved samples. The quality of the analyses was checked by using two or more techniques to determine the concentrations including d.c.-argon plasma emission spectrometry (DCP), flame and flameless atomic absorption spectrophotometry, UV-visible spectrophotometry, hydride-generation atomic absorption spectrophotometry and ion chromatography. Additional quality control was obtained by comparing measured to calculated conductance, comparing measured to calculated Eh (from Fe-2 +/Fe-3+ determinations), charge balance calculations and mass balance calculations for conservative constituents at confluence points. Leviathan acid mine waters contain mg/L concentrations of As, Cr, Co, Cu, Mn, Ni, T1, V and Zn, and hundreds to thousands of mg/L concentrations of Al, Fe, and sulfate at pH values as low as 1.8. Other elements including Ba, B, Be, Bi, Cd , Mo, Sb, Se and Te are elevated above normal background concentrations and fall in the microgram/L range. The chemical and 34 S/32 S isotopic analyses demonstrate that these

  6. Aluminium (Al) fractionation and speciation; getting closer to describing the factors influencing Al(3+) in water impacted by acid mine drainage.

    PubMed

    Chamier, Jessica; Wicht, Merrill; Cyster, Lilburne; Ndindi, Nosintu P

    2015-07-01

    Acid mine drainage (AMD) severely impacts the water chemistry of a receiving resource, changing the occurrence, speciation and toxicity of metals such as Aluminium (Al). The toxicity of Al is determined by its speciation represented by the labile monomer Al fraction or Al(3+). The purpose of the study was to combine fractionation and Visual MINTEQ speciation to calculate the effect of AMD altered water chemistry on Al speciation and Al(3+) concentration. Water in rivers impacted by AMD presented with monomeric Al (Almon) concentrations between 0.35 and 15.37mgL(-)(1) which existed almost exclusively in the toxic labile form (98%). For the reference site, Almon was less than 2% (10μgL(-1)), suggesting significantly lower Al toxicity. Principal component analysis plots illustrated that labile Al was directly related to the total Al and iron concentrations and strongly influenced by parameters such as pH, electrical conductivity, sulphate and dissolved organic carbon. Visual MINTEQ modelling was used to determine the primary Al species distribution. The dominant form of Al in AMD impacted water was AlSO4(+), which increased proportionally with the sulphate and Al(3+) concentration. Heavily impacted areas, presented with an average of 1mgmL(-)(1) Al(3+), which poses a potential human health risk. A novel centrifugal ultrafiltration method was investigated as an alternative to determining Almon to simplify the speciation of Al. Monomeric and centrifugal ultrafiltrated (<10kD) Al fractions were significantly similar (p=0.74), suggesting that ultrafiltration may present a time, energy and cost saving alternative to organic extraction of Almon. PMID:25747302

  7. Benthic metal fluxes and sediment diagenesis in a water reservoir affected by acid mine drainage: A laboratory experiment and reactive transport modeling

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Torres, E.; Ayora, C.; Jiménez-Arias, J. L.; García-Robledo, E.; Papaspyrou, S.; Corzo, A.

    2014-08-01

    Reservoirs are one of the primary water supply sources. Knowledge of the metal fluxes at the water-sediment interfaces of reservoirs is essential for predicting their ecological quality. Redox oscillations in the water column are promoted by stratification; turnover events may significantly alter metal cycling, especially in reservoirs impacted by acid mine drainage (AMD). To study this phenomenon, an experiment was performed under controlled laboratory conditions. Sediment cores from an AMD-affected reservoir were maintained in a tank with reservoir water for approximately two months and subjected to alternating oxic-hypoxic conditions. A detailed metal speciation in solid phases of the sediment was initially performed by sequential extraction, and pore water was analyzed at the end of each redox period. Tank water metals concentrations were systematically monitored throughout the experiment. The experimental results were then used to calibrate a diffusion-reaction model and quantify the reaction rates and sediment-water fluxes. Under oxic conditions, pH, Fe and As concentrations decreased in the tank due to schwertmannite precipitation, whereas the concentrations of Al, Zn, Cu, Ni, and Co increased due to Al(OH)3 and sulfide dissolution. The reverse trends occurred under hypoxic conditions. Under oxic conditions, the fluxes calculated by applying Fick’s first law to experimental concentration gradients contradicted the fluxes expected based on the evolution of the tank water. According to the reactive transport calculations, this discrepancy can be attributed to the coarse resolution of sediment sampling. The one-cm-thick slices failed to capture effectively the notably narrow (1-2 mm) concentration peaks of several elements in the shallow pore water resulting from sulfide and Al(OH)3 dissolution. The diffusion-reaction model, extended to the complete year, computed that between 25% and 50% of the trace metals and less than 10% of the Al that precipitated under

  8. Thiomonas sp. CB2 is able to degrade urea and promote toxic metal precipitation in acid mine drainage waters supplemented with urea

    PubMed Central

    Farasin, Julien; Andres, Jérémy; Casiot, Corinne; Barbe, Valérie; Faerber, Jacques; Halter, David; Heintz, Dimitri; Koechler, Sandrine; Lièvremont, Didier; Lugan, Raphael; Marchal, Marie; Plewniak, Frédéric; Seby, Fabienne; Bertin, Philippe N.; Arsène-Ploetze, Florence

    2015-01-01

    The acid mine drainage (AMD) in Carnoulès (France) is characterized by the presence of toxic metals such as arsenic. Several bacterial strains belonging to the Thiomonas genus, which were isolated from this AMD, are able to withstand these conditions. Their genomes carry several genomic islands (GEIs), which are known to be potentially advantageous in some particular ecological niches. This study focused on the role of the “urea island” present in the Thiomonas CB2 strain, which carry the genes involved in urea degradation processes. First, genomic comparisons showed that the genome of Thiomonas sp. CB2, which is able to degrade urea, contains a urea genomic island which is incomplete in the genome of other strains showing no urease activity. The urease activity of Thiomonas sp. CB2 enabled this bacterium to maintain a neutral pH in cell cultures in vitro and prevented the occurrence of cell death during the growth of the bacterium in a chemically defined medium. In AMD water supplemented with urea, the degradation of urea promotes iron, aluminum and arsenic precipitation. Our data show that ureC was expressed in situ, which suggests that the ability to degrade urea may be expressed in some Thiomonas strains in AMD, and that this urease activity may contribute to their survival in contaminated environments. PMID:26441922

  9. Inhibition of bacterial activity in acid mine drainage

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Singh, Gurdeep; Bhatnagar, Miss Mridula

    1988-12-01

    Acid mine drainage water give rise to rapid growth and activity of an iron- and sulphur- oxidizing bacterium Thiobacillus ferrooxidians which greatly accelerate acid producing reactions by oxidation of pyrite material associated with coal and adjoining strata. The role of this bacterium in production of acid mine drainage is described. This study presents the data which demonstrate the inhibitory effect of certain organic acids, sodium benzoate, sodium lauryl sulphate, quarternary ammonium compounds on the growth of the acidophilic aerobic autotroph Thiobacillus ferrooxidians. In each experiment, 10 milli-litres of laboratory developed culture of Thiobacillus ferrooxidians was added to 250 milli-litres Erlenmeyer flask containing 90 milli-litres of 9-k media supplemented with FeSO4 7H2O and organic compounds at various concentrations. Control experiments were also carried out. The treated and untreated (control) samples analysed at various time intervals for Ferrous Iron and pH levels. Results from this investigation showed that some organic acids, sodium benzoate, sodium lauryl sulphate and quarternary ammonium compounds at low concentration (10-2 M, 10-50 ppm concentration levels) are effective bactericides and able to inhibit and reduce the Ferrous Iron oxidation and acidity formation by inhibiting the growth of Thiobacillus ferrooxidians is also discussed and presented

  10. BIORECOVERY OF METALS FROM ACID MINE DRAINAGE

    EPA Science Inventory

    Acid mine water is an acidic, metal-bearing wastewater generated by the oxidation of metallic sulfides by certain bacteria in both active and abandoned mining operations. The wastewaters contain substantial quantities of dissolved solids with the particular pollutants dependant u...

  11. Subsurface drainage volume reduction with drainage water management: Case studies in Ohio, USA

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    One of the main contributors to poor water quality in the Mississippi River and aeral increase in the hypoxic zone in the Gulf of Mexico is intensive drainage of the cropland within the watershed. Controlled drainage has been demonstrated as an approach to curb totla drainage outflow and nutrient di...

  12. Remediation of Acid Mine Drainage with Sulfate Reducing Bacteria

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hauri, James F.; Schaider, Laurel A.

    2009-01-01

    Sulfate reducing bacteria have been shown to be effective at treating acid mine drainage through sulfide production and subsequent precipitation of metal sulfides. In this laboratory experiment for undergraduate environmental chemistry courses, students design and implement a set of bioreactors to remediate acid mine drainage and explain observed…

  13. Transcriptional effects of metal-rich acid drainage water from the abandoned Løkken Mine on Atlantic salmon (Salmo salar) smolt.

    PubMed

    Olsvik, Pål A; Ulvund, John B; Teien, Hans C; Urke, Henning A; Lie, Kai K; Kristensen, Torstein

    2016-01-01

    Runoff of metals represents one of the major environmental challenges related to historic and ongoing mining activity. In this study, transcriptomics (direct RNA sequencing [RNA-seq] and reverse-transcription quantitative polymerase chain reaction [RT-qPCR]) was used to predict toxicity of metal-rich acid mine drainage (AMD) water collected in the abandoned copper (Cu) mine called Løkken Mine on Atlantic salmon liver and kidney, the main target organs of Cu-induced toxicity in fish. Smolts were exposed to control and diluted AMD water, which contains a mixture of metals but is especially enriched with Cu, at 4 concentrations in freshwater (FW) for 96 h, and then were transferred to and kept in seawater (SW) for another 24 h. Significant accumulation of Cu was observed in the gills, but not liver and kidney tissues, after 96 h of exposure. Short-term exposure to metal-rich ADM (high exposure group) significantly upregulated 3201 transcripts and downregulated 3782 transcripts in liver. The strongest effect attributed to exposure was observed on the KEGG pathway "protein processing in endoplasmic reticulum," followed by "steroid biosynthesis." Gene ontology (GO) analysis suggested that exposure predominantly affected "protein folding," possibly by disrupting disulfide bonds as a result of endoplasmic-reticulum-generated stress, and "sterol biosynthetic processes." Transfer to uncontaminated SW for 24 h amended the transcription of several genes, suggesting a transient effect of treatment on some mechanisms. In conclusion, the data show that trace metals in AMD from abandoned pyrite mines might disturb molecular mechanisms linked to protein folding in Atlantic salmon smolt endoplasmic reticulum. PMID:27484142

  14. Microbial communities in acid mine drainage.

    PubMed

    Baker, Brett J; Banfield, Jillian F

    2003-05-01

    The dissolution of sulfide minerals such as pyrite (FeS2), arsenopyrite (FeAsS), chalcopyrite (CuFeS2), sphalerite (ZnS), and marcasite (FeS2) yields hot, sulfuric acid-rich solutions that contain high concentrations of toxic metals. In locations where access of oxidants to sulfide mineral surfaces is increased by mining, the resulting acid mine drainage (AMD) may contaminate surrounding ecosystems. Communities of autotrophic and heterotrophic archaea and bacteria catalyze iron and sulfur oxidation, thus may ultimately determine the rate of release of metals and sulfur to the environment. AMD communities contain fewer prokaryotic lineages than many other environments. However, it is notable that at least two archaeal and eight bacterial divisions have representatives able to thrive under the extreme conditions typical of AMD. AMD communities are characterized by a very limited number of distinct species, probably due to the small number of metabolically beneficial reactions available. The metabolisms that underpin these communities include organoheterotrophy and autotrophic iron and sulfur oxidation. Other metabolic activity is based on anaerobic sulfur oxidation and ferric iron reduction. Evidence for physiological synergy in iron, sulfur, and carbon flow in these communities is reviewed. The microbial and geochemical simplicity of these systems makes them ideal targets for quantitative, genomic-based analyses of microbial ecology and evolution and community function. PMID:19719632

  15. Equations for drainage component of the field water balance

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Accurate estimates of the drainage component of the field water balance are needed to achieve improved management of drainage in irrigated crop production systems and obtain improved estimates of evapotranspiration (ET) from soil water measurements. Estimating drainage for numerous soil and field co...

  16. Penn State researches acid mine drainage

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1984-08-27

    A brief news item reports that work is being carried out at Penn State University on the effectiveness of sphagnum moss and other marsh-type plants in removing iron from acid mine water. A sphagnum moss bog has been established in a greenhouse at the University and field work is also being undertaken in a natural environment in Clearfield County.

  17. LABORATORY EVALUATION OF ZERO-VALENT IRON TO TREAT GROUNDWATER IMPACTED BY ACID MINE DRAINAGE

    EPA Science Inventory

    The generation and release of acidic, metal-rich water from mine wastes continues to be an intractable environmental problem. Although the effects of acid mine drainage (AMD) are most evident in surface waters, there is an obvious need for developing cost-effective approaches fo...

  18. LIMESTONE AND LIME NEUTRALIZATION OF FERROUS IRON ACID MINE DRAINAGE

    EPA Science Inventory

    The U.S. Environmental Protection Agency conducted a 2-yr study on hydrated lime and rock-dust limestone neutralization of acid mine drainage containing ferrous iron at the EPA Crown Mine Drainage Control Field Site near Rivesville, West Virginia. The study investigated optimizat...

  19. LIME TREATMENT LAGOONS TECHNOLOGY FOR TREATING ACID MINE DRAINAGE

    EPA Science Inventory

    Active and inactive mines can produce runoff and drainage that are among the most environmentally damaging processes affecting land in the United States. Acid mine drainage (AMD) from mining sites across the country requires treatment because of high metal concentrations that exc...

  20. FEASIBILITY OF ELK CREEK ACID MINE DRAINAGE ABATEMENT PROJECT

    EPA Science Inventory

    A study was conducted within the Elk Creek Watershed, West Virginia to determine the technical and economic feasibility of three acid mine drainage abatement techniques. Alkaline regarding and slurry trench construction were established as technically and economically viable abat...

  1. Microbial communities, processes and functions in acid mine drainage ecosystems.

    PubMed

    Chen, Lin-Xing; Huang, Li-Nan; Méndez-García, Celia; Kuang, Jia-Liang; Hua, Zheng-Shuang; Liu, Jun; Shu, Wen-Sheng

    2016-04-01

    Acid mine drainage (AMD) is generated from the oxidative dissolution of metal sulfides when water and oxygen are available largely due to human mining activities. This process can be accelerated by indigenous microorganisms. In the last several decades, culture-dependent researches have uncovered and validated the roles of AMD microorganisms in metal sulfides oxidation and acid generation processes, and culture-independent studies have largely revealed the diversity and metabolic potentials and activities of AMD communities, leading towards a full understanding of the microbial diversity, functions and interactions in AMD ecosystems. This review describes the diversity of microorganisms and their functions in AMD ecosystems, and discusses their biotechnological applications in biomining and AMD bioremediation according to their capabilities. PMID:26921733

  2. DESIGN MANUAL: NEUTRALIZATION OF ACID MINE DRAINAGE

    EPA Science Inventory

    This manual was prepared to assist designers and operators of mine drainage treatment plants in the selection of processes, equipment, and procedures. Included is a review of the most popular neutralizing agents and the methods used to handle, prepare, and feed these alkalies. Al...

  3. Major hydrogeochemical processes in an acid mine drainage affected estuary.

    PubMed

    Asta, Maria P; Calleja, Maria Ll; Pérez-López, Rafael; Auqué, Luis F

    2015-02-15

    This study provides geochemical data with the aim of identifying and quantifying the main processes occurring in an Acid Mine Drainage (AMD) affected estuary. With that purpose, water samples of the Huelva estuary were collected during a tidal half-cycle and ion-ion plots and geochemical modeling were performed to obtain a general conceptual model. Modeling results indicated that the main processes responsible for the hydrochemical evolution of the waters are: (i) the mixing of acid fluvial water with alkaline ocean water; (ii) precipitation of Fe oxyhydroxysulfates (schwertmannite) and hydroxides (ferrihydrite); (iii) precipitation of Al hydroxysulfates (jurbanite) and hydroxides (amorphous Al(OH)3); (iv) dissolution of calcite; and (v) dissolution of gypsum. All these processes, thermodynamically feasible in the light of their calculated saturation states, were quantified by mass-balance calculations and validated by reaction-path calculations. In addition, sorption processes were deduced by the non-conservative behavior of some elements (e.g., Cu and Zn). PMID:25530015

  4. Airborne remote sensing of coal waste and acid mine drainage

    SciTech Connect

    Kim, K.E.; Lee, T.S.

    1996-07-01

    High resolution airborne remote sensing data, spatial resolution of 2m X 2m, were used to study the stream quality degradation due to the coal mines in Taebaek city, one of the major coalfields in Korea. In order to circumvent the severe topographic effect and small scale of the water stream, principal components with the least variances were utilized. They showed the subtle details in the image that were obscured by higher contrast due to the topographic effect. Through maximum likelihood classification of those components, yellowboy and mine waste could be effectively identified. Areas affected by acid mine drainage and mine waste could be also located by identifying areas of dead or dying vegetation using vegetation index map.

  5. ON-FARM DISPOSAL OF SALINE DRAINAGE WATER

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Disposal of saline drainage water from irrigated agriculture is a significant world-wide problem. Researchers in the San Joaquin Valley (SJV) of California developed an integrated on farm drainage water management system (IFDM) that can be used to solve this problem in an environmentally sound metho...

  6. Removal of phosphorus from agricultural wastewaters using adsorption media prepared from acid mine drainage sludge

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Sibrell, Philip L.; Montgomery, Gary A.; Ritenour, Kelsey L.; Tucker, Travis W.

    2009-01-01

    Excess phosphorus in wastewaters promotes eutrophication in receiving waterways. A??cost-effective method for the removal of phosphorus from water would significantly reduce the impact of such wastewaters on the environment. Acid mine drainage sludge is a waste product produced by the neutralization of acid mine drainage, and consists mainly of the same metal hydroxides used in traditional wastewater treatment for the removal of phosphorus. In this paper, we describe a method for the drying and pelletization of acid mine drainage sludge that results in a particulate media, which we have termed Ferroxysorb, for the removal of phosphorus from wastewater in an efficient packed bed contactor. Adsorption capacities are high, and kinetics rapid, such that a contact time of less than 5 min is sufficient for removal of 60-90% of the phosphorus, depending on the feed concentration and time in service. In addition, the adsorption capacity of the Ferroxysorb media was increased dramatically by using two columns in an alternating sequence so that each sludge bed receives alternating rest and adsorption cycles. A stripping procedure based on treatment with dilute sodium hydroxide was also developed that allows for recovery of the P from the media, with the possibility of generating a marketable fertilizer product. These results indicate that acid mine drainage sludges - hitherto thought of as undesirable wastes - can be used to remove phosphorus from wastewater, thus offsetting a portion of acid mine drainage treatment costs while at the same time improving water quality in sensitive watersheds.

  7. Acid mine drainage and subsidence: effects of increased coal utilization.

    PubMed Central

    Hill, R D; Bates, E R

    1979-01-01

    The increases above 1975 levels for acid mine drainage and subsidence for the years 1985 and 2000 based on projections of current mining trends and the National Energy Plan are presented. No increases are projected for acid mine drainage from surface mines or waste since enforcement under present laws should control this problem. The increase in acid mine drainage from underground mines is projected to be 16 percent by 1985 and 10 percent by 2000. The smaller increase in 2000 over 1985 reflects the impact of the PL 95-87 abandoned mine program. Mine subsidence is projected to increase by 34 and 115 percent respectively for 1985 and 2000. This estimate assumes that subsidence will parallel the rate of underground coal production and that no new subsidence control measures are adopted to mitigate subsidence occurrence. PMID:540617

  8. An analytical model for predicting water table dynamics during drainage and evaporation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cook, F. J.; Rassam, D. W.

    2002-06-01

    Water table dynamics in tile-drained fields have been thoroughly investigated by numerous researchers. Recent studies have highlighted the importance of incorporating the effects of evaporation into the design of such drainage systems. In tropical areas, evaporation plays a particularly crucial role in lowering the water table in finely textured soils. In this paper, water table dynamics are investigated for the case of coupled drainage and evaporation. A simple analytical model that determines the relative contribution of the drainage component to the draw down of the water table is proposed. The model's estimates compare reasonably well to field data, as well as those derived from numerical simulations conducted for various evaporation rates and soil types. When presented in a non-dimensional form, the model's results can provide a quick estimate of the relative contribution of drainage to lowering the water table, which is highly relevant to the hydrology of acid sulphate soils.

  9. Control of acid drainage from fresh coal refuse: food preservatives as economical alternatives to detergents

    SciTech Connect

    Onysko, S.J.; Erickson, P.M.; Kleinmann, R.L.P.; Hood, M.

    1984-12-01

    Water soluble detergents such as sodium lauryl sulfate (SLS), which can sorb to pyritic materials, have been successfully used by the mining industry for acid drainage prevention in coal refuse. Detergent control of acid drainage from refuse may be uneconomical, however, at sites where extensive rainfall or groundwater movement results in rapid SLS washout. In this study, the performance of two alternative acid control chemicals, sodium benzoate and potassium sorbate, was compared with the performance of SLS in pilot-scale experiments with extensively leached, fresh coal refuse. Chemical cost information is presented that indicates low benzoate and sorbate doses were more economical than comparable SLS doses under the experimental conditions of the study. The unique environmental compatibility of benzoate and sorbate, which are used in food and beverages in concentrations greater than those reported in this study for acid drainage suppression, is also discussed.

  10. Sulfate reduction in freshwater sediments receiving Acid mine drainage.

    PubMed

    Herlihy, A T; Mills, A L

    1985-01-01

    One arm of Lake Anna, Va., receives acid mine drainage (AMD) from Contrary Creek (SO(4) concentration = 2 to 20 mM, pH = 2.5 to 3.5). Acid-volatile sulfide concentrations, SO(4) reduction rates, and interstitial SO(4) concentrations were measured at various depths in the sediment at four stations in four seasons to assess the effects of the AMD-added SO(4) on bacterial SO(4) reduction. Acid-volatile sulfide concentrations were always an order of magnitude higher at the stations receiving AMD than at a control station in another arm of the lake that received no AMD. Summer SO(4) reduction rates were also an order of magnitude higher at stations that received AMD than at the control station (226 versus 13.5 mmol m day), but winter values were inconclusive, probably due to low sediment temperature (6 degrees C). Profiles of interstitial SO(4) concentrations at the AMD stations showed a rapid decrease with depth (from 1,270 to 6 muM in the top 6 cm) due to rapid SO(4) reduction. Bottom-water SO(4) concentrations in the AMD-receiving arm were highest in winter and lowest in summer. These data support the conclusion that there is a significant enhancement of SO(4) reduction in sediments receiving high SO(4) inputs from AMD. PMID:16346696

  11. Sulfate Reduction in Freshwater Sediments Receiving Acid Mine Drainage

    PubMed Central

    Herlihy, Alan T.; Mills, Aaron L.

    1985-01-01

    One arm of Lake Anna, Va., receives acid mine drainage (AMD) from Contrary Creek (SO42− concentration = 2 to 20 mM, pH = 2.5 to 3.5). Acid-volatile sulfide concentrations, SO42− reduction rates, and interstitial SO42− concentrations were measured at various depths in the sediment at four stations in four seasons to assess the effects of the AMD-added SO42− on bacterial SO42− reduction. Acid-volatile sulfide concentrations were always an order of magnitude higher at the stations receiving AMD than at a control station in another arm of the lake that received no AMD. Summer SO42− reduction rates were also an order of magnitude higher at stations that received AMD than at the control station (226 versus 13.5 mmol m−2 day−1), but winter values were inconclusive, probably due to low sediment temperature (6°C). Profiles of interstitial SO42− concentrations at the AMD stations showed a rapid decrease with depth (from 1,270 to 6 μM in the top 6 cm) due to rapid SO42− reduction. Bottom-water SO42− concentrations in the AMD-receiving arm were highest in winter and lowest in summer. These data support the conclusion that there is a significant enhancement of SO42− reduction in sediments receiving high SO42− inputs from AMD. PMID:16346696

  12. Oxycline formation induced by Fe(II) oxidation in a water reservoir affected by acid mine drainage modeled using a 2D hydrodynamic and water quality model - CE-QUAL-W2.

    PubMed

    Torres, Ester; Galván, Laura; Cánovas, Carlos Ruiz; Soria-Píriz, Sara; Arbat-Bofill, Marina; Nardi, Albert; Papaspyrou, Sokratis; Ayora, Carlos

    2016-08-15

    The Sancho reservoir is an acid mine drainage (AMD)-contaminated reservoir located in the Huelva province (SW Spain) with a pH close to 3.5. The water is only used for a refrigeration system of a paper mill. The Sancho reservoir is holomictic with one mixing period per year in the winter. During this mixing period, oxygenated water reaches the sediment, while under stratified conditions (the rest of the year) hypoxic conditions develop at the hypolimnion. A CE-QUAL-W2 model was calibrated for the Sancho Reservoir to predict the thermocline and oxycline formation, as well as the salinity, ammonium, nitrate, phosphorous, algal, chlorophyll-a, and iron concentrations. The version 3.7 of the model does not allow simulating the oxidation of Fe(II) in the water column, which limits the oxygen consumption of the organic matter oxidation. However, to evaluate the impact of Fe(II) oxidation on the oxycline formation, Fe(II) has been introduced into the model based on its relationship with labile dissolved organic matter (LDOM). The results show that Fe oxidation is the main factor responsible for the oxygen depletion in the hypolimnion of the Sancho Reservoir. The limiting factors for green algal growth have also been studied. The model predicted that ammonium, nitrate, and phosphate were not limiting factors for green algal growth. Light appeared to be one of the limiting factors for algal growth, while chlorophyll-a and dissolved oxygen concentrations could not be fully described. We hypothesize that dissolved CO2 is one of the limiting nutrients due to losses by the high acidity of the water column. The sensitivity tests carried out support this hypothesis. Two different remediation scenarios have been tested with the calibrated model: 1) an AMD passive treatment plant installed at the river, which removes completely Fe, and 2) different depth water extractions. If no Fe was introduced into the reservoir, water quality would significantly improve in only two years

  13. Sequestration of phosphorus by acid mine drainage floc

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Adler, P.R.; Sibrell, P.L.

    2003-01-01

    Solubilization and transport of phosphorus (P) to the water environment is a critical environmental issue. Flocs resulting from neutralizing acid mine drainage (AMD) were tested as a possible lowcost amendment to reduce the loss of soluble P from agricultural fields and animal wastewater. Flocs were prepared by neutralizing natural and synthetic solutions of AMD with limestone, lime, ammonium hydroxide, and sodium hydroxide. Phosphorus sequestration was tested in three distinct environments: water, soil, and manure storage basins. In water, flocs prepared from AMD adsorbed 10 to 20 g P kg-1 dry floc in equilibrium with 1 mg L-1 soluble P. Similar results were observed for both Fe-based and A1-based synthetic flocs. A local soil sample adsorbed about 0.1 g P kg-1, about two orders of magnitude less. The AMD-derived flocs were mixed with a highP soil at 5 to 80 g floc kg-1 soil, followed by water and acid (Mehlich1) extractions. All flocs performed similarly. About 70% of the waterextractable P was sequestered by the floc when applied at a rate of 20 g floc kg-1 soil, whereas plant-available P only decreased by about 30%. Under anaerobic conditions simulating manure storage basins, all AMD flocs reduced soluble P by greater than 95% at a rate of 0.2 g floc g-1 rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss) manure. These findings indicate that AMD flocs could be an effective agent for preventing soluble P losses from soil and manure to the water environment, while at the same time decreasing the costs associated with AMD treatment.

  14. Current approaches for mitigating acid mine drainage.

    PubMed

    Sahoo, Prafulla Kumar; Kim, Kangjoo; Equeenuddin, Sk Md; Powell, Michael A

    2013-01-01

    AMD is one of the critical environmental problems that causes acidification and metal contamination of surface and ground water bodies when mine materials and/or over burden-containing metal sulfides are exposed to oxidizing conditions. The best option to limit AMD is early avoidance of sulfide oxidation. Several techniques are available to achieve this. In this paper, we review all of the major methods now used to limit sulfide oxidation. These fall into five categories: (1) physical barriers,(2) bacterial inhibition, (3) chemical passivation, ( 4) electrochemical, and (5) desulfurization.We describe the processes underlying each method by category and then address aspects relating to effectiveness, cost, and environmental impact. This paper may help researchers and environmental engineers to select suitable methods for addressing site-specific AMD problems.Irrespective of the mechanism by which each method works, all share one common feature, i.e., they delay or prevent oxidation. In addition, all have limitations.Physical barriers such as wet or dry cover have retarded sulfide oxidation in several studies; however, both wet and dry barriers exhibit only short-term effectiveness.Wet cover is suitable at specific sites where complete inundation is established, but this approach requires high maintenance costs. When employing dry cover, plastic liners are expensive and rarely used for large volumes of waste. Bactericides can suppress oxidation, but are only effective on fresh tailings and short-lived, and do not serve as a permanent solution to AMD. In addition, application of bactericides may be toxic to aquatic organisms.Encapsulation or passivation of sulfide surfaces (applying organic and/or inorganic coatings) is simple and effective in preventing AMD. Among inorganic coatings,silica is the most promising, stable, acid-resistant and long lasting, as compared to phosphate and other inorganic coatings. Permanganate passivation is also promising because it

  15. Acid rock drainage and climate change

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Nordstrom, D.K.

    2009-01-01

    Rainfall events cause both increases and decreases in acid and metals concentrations and their loadings from mine wastes, and unmined mineralized areas, into receiving streams based on data from 3 mines sites in the United States and other sites outside the US. Gradual increases in concentrations occur during long dry spells and sudden large increases are observed during the rising limb of the discharge following dry spells (first flush). By the time the discharge peak has occurred, concentrations are usually decreased, often to levels below those of pre-storm conditions and then they slowly rise again during the next dry spell. These dynamic changes in concentrations and loadings are related to the dissolution of soluble salts and the flushing out of waters that were concentrated by evaporation. The underlying processes, pyrite oxidation and host rock dissolution, do not end until the pyrite is fully weathered, which can take hundreds to thousands of years. These observations can be generalized to predict future conditions caused by droughts related to El Ni??o and climate change associated with global warming. Already, the time period for dry summers is lengthening in the western US and rainstorms are further apart and more intense when they happen. Consequently, flushing of inactive or active mine sites and mineralized but unmined sites will cause larger sudden increases in concentrations that will be an ever increasing danger to aquatic life with climate change. Higher average concentrations will be observed during longer low-flow periods. Remediation efforts will have to increase the capacity of engineered designs to deal with more extreme conditions, not average conditions of previous years.

  16. TREATMENT OF ACID MINE DRAINAGE BY THE ALUMINA-LIME-SODA PROCESS

    EPA Science Inventory

    The alumina-lime-soda process is a chemical desalination process for waters in which the principal sources of salinity are sulfate salts and has been field tested at the Commonwealth of Pennsylvania's Acid Mine Drainage Research Facility, Hollywood, Pennsylvania, as a method to r...

  17. RECOVERY OF METALS FROM ACID MINE DRAINAGE: JOURNAL ARTICLE

    EPA Science Inventory

    NRMRL-CIN-1349A Scharp*, R.A., Kawahara*, F.K., Burckle, J.O., Allen J., and Govind, R. "Recovery of Metals from Acid Mine Drainage." In: Bioremediation of Inorganic Compounds, In Situ and On-Site Bioremediation Sixth International Symposium, San Diego, CA, 6/4-7/2001. Andrea Le...

  18. REMOVAL OF TRACE ELEMENTS FROM ACID MINE DRAINAGE

    EPA Science Inventory

    Lime neutralization, reverse osmosis, and ion exchange were studied for their effectiveness in removing mg/l levels of ten specific trace elements from spiked acid mine drainage under typical operating conditions. The specified toxic materials were arsenic, boron, cadmium, chromi...

  19. HANDBOOK FOR CONSTRUCTED WETLANDS RECEIVING ACID MINE DRAINAGE

    EPA Science Inventory

    In the summer of 1987, a pilot constructed wetland was built at the Big Five Tunnel in Idaho Springs, Colorado. This report details the theory, design and construction of wetlands receiving acid mine drainages, based on the second and third year of operation of this wetland, whic...

  20. DEVELOPMENT OF SRB TREATMENT SYSTEMS FOR ACID MINE DRAINAGE

    EPA Science Inventory

    Over the past decade, significant advances have been made in the development of sulfate- reducing bacteria (SRB) technology to treat acid mine drainage (AMD), Bench-scale testing, field demonstrations, and engineered applications of SRBs for the treatment of AMD will be presented...

  1. MODULAR FIELD-BIOREACTOR FOR ACID MINE DRAINAGE TREATMENT

    EPA Science Inventory

    The presentation focuses on the improvements to engineered features of a passive technology that has been used for remediation of acid rock drainage (ARD). This passive remedial technology, a sulfate-reducing bacteria (SRB) bioreactor, takes advantage of the ability of SRB that,...

  2. HANDBOOK FOR CONSTRUCTED WETLANDS RECEIVING ACID MINE DRAINAGE

    EPA Science Inventory

    In the summer of 1987, a pilot constructed wetland was built at the Big Five Tunnel in Idaho Springs, Colorado. his report details the theory, design and construction of wetlands receiving acid mine drainages, based on the second and third year of operation of this wetland, which...

  3. 7th international conference on acid rock drainage

    SciTech Connect

    Barnhisel, R.I.

    2006-07-01

    This meeting also serves as the 23rd annual meeting of the American Society of Mining and Reclamation. The papers discussed various aspects of acid mine drainage including its impact, sustainability issues, case studies, lessons learned, characterization, closure/land use issues, emerging technologies, forestry/ecology, abandoned mine lands, modelling, pit lakes/backfill, soils and overburden, and treatment.

  4. Ditch Drainage Management for Water Quality Improvement: Ditch Drainage Treatment Structures

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Agricultural productivity is often dependent on drainage ditches to remove excessive water from fields. Although such ditches can act to transport nutrients and other contaminants directly to surface waters, they also represent a potential interaction point in which runoff from non-point areas are ...

  5. Conceptual models of the formation of acid-rock drainage at road cuts in Tennessee

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Bradley, Michael W.; Worland, Scott; Byl, Tom

    2015-01-01

    Pyrite and other minerals containing sulfur and trace metals occur in several rock formations throughout Middle and East Tennessee. Pyrite (FeS2) weathers in the presence of oxygen and water to form iron hydroxides and sulfuric acid. The weathering and interaction of the acid on the rocks and other minerals at road cuts can result in drainage with low pH (< 4) and high concentrations of trace metals. Acid-rock drainage can cause environmental problems and damage transportation infrastructure. The formation and remediation of acid-drainage from roads cuts has not been researched as thoroughly as acid-mine drainage. The U.S Geological Survey, in cooperation with the Tennessee Department of Transportation, is conducting an investigation to better understand the geologic, hydrologic, and biogeochemical factors that control acid formation at road cuts. Road cuts with the potential for acid-rock drainage were identifed and evaluated in Middle and East Tennessee. The pyrite-bearing formations evaluated were the Chattanooga Shale (Devonian black shale), the Fentress Formation (coal-bearing), and the Precambrian Anakeesta Formation and similar Precambrian rocks. Conceptual models of the formation and transport of acid-rock drainage (ARD) from road cuts were developed based on the results of a literature review, site reconnaissance, and the initial rock and water sampling. The formation of ARD requires a combination of hydrologic, geochemical, and microbial interactions which affect drainage from the site, acidity of the water, and trace metal concentrations. The basic modes of ARD formation from road cuts are; 1 - seeps and springs from pyrite-bearing formations and 2 - runoff over the face of a road cut in a pyrite-bearing formation. Depending on site conditions at road cuts, the basic modes of ARD formation can be altered and the additional modes of ARD formation are; 3 - runoff over and through piles of pyrite-bearing material, either from construction or breakdown

  6. Maxi-Acid{trademark}: In-situ amelioration of acid mine drainage problems. Topical report, February 1, 1995--February 1, 1996

    SciTech Connect

    1997-08-01

    The development of technologies to ameliorate acid mine drainage problems has had few successes. Most often, once acid mine drainage exists, the company responsible develops treatment programs to make sure that water resources and land are not contaminated by the acid mine drainage. These treatments usually result in significant costs and do not result in a cure to the problem. Much effort and money has been spent on the problems associated with acid mine drainage. However, it appears that most of the meaningful breakthroughs have come in the area of treatment of the results of the problem (i.e. water treatment). There have been few breakthroughs in the prevention of acid formation. Most of the work associated with the prevention of acid formation has dealt with the prevention of oxidation using grouting to seal mines, removing oxygen from the system or preventing water flow into the mines, using bactericides to eliminate the catalytic effect of Thiobacillus ferrooxidans, and modifying the mining methods. The Maxi-Acid{trademark} technology takes a different approach to the problem. A site treated using Maxi-Acid won`t be expected to generate acid mine drainage for a number of years, if ever. The application of Maxi-Acid is expected to eliminate continuous treatment of acid waters discharged from applicable mine sites. The work accomplished to date includes characterization of overburden materials that contain large quantities of potential acidity, and preliminary evaluations of the acid-generating capabilities of materials containing high levels of potential acidity (pyritic materials) using humidity cells. This research effort is in the preliminary stages. To date, a number of interesting findings have been made that could be used to contribute to the elimination of acid mine drainage. However, the concepts that are expected to have the most significant impact on the formation of acid mine drainage have not yet been substantiated.

  7. Sulfate reduction in freshwater sediments receiving acid mine drainage

    SciTech Connect

    Herlihy, A.T.; Mills, A.L.

    1985-01-01

    One arm of Lake Anna, Va., receives acid mine drainage (AMD) from Contrary Creek (SO/sub 4//sup 2 -/ concentration = 2 to 20 mM, pH = 2.5 to 3.5). Acid-volatile sulfide concentrations, SO/sub 4//sup 2 -/ reduction rates, and interstitial SO/sub 4//sup 2 -/ concentrations were measured at various depths in the sediment at four stations in four seasons to assess the effects of the AMD-added SO/sub 4//sup 2 -/ on bacterial SO/sub 4//sup 2 -/ reduction. Acid-volatile sulfide concentrations were always an order of magnitude higher at the stations receiving AMD than at a control station in another arm of the lake that received no AMD. Summer SO/sub 4//sup 2 -/ reduction rates were also an order of magnitude higher at stations that received AMD than at the control station (226 versus 13.5 mmol m/sup -2/ day/sup -1/), but winter values were inconclusive, probably due to low sediment temperature (6/sup 0/C). Profiles of interstitial SO/sub 4//sup 2 -/ concentrations at the AMD stations showed a rapid decrease with depth (from 1270 to 6 ..mu..M in the top 6 cm) due to rapid SO/sub 4//sup 2 -/ reduction. Bottom-water SO/sub 4//sup 2 -/ concentrations in the AMD-receiving arm were highest in winter and lowest in summer. These data support the conclusion that there is a significant enhancement of SO/sub 4//sup 2 -/ reduction in sediments receiving high SO/sub 4//sup 2 -/ inputs from AMD.

  8. A Sustainable Approach for Acid Rock Drainage Treatment using Clinoptilolite

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, L. Y.; Xu, W.; Grace, J. R.

    2009-04-01

    Problems related to acid rock drainage (ARD) occur along many highways of British Columbia. The ARD problem at Pennask Creek along Highway 97C in the Thompson-Okanagan region is an ideal site for pilot study to investigate a possible remediation solution. The highway was opened in 1991. An ARD problem was identified in 1997. Both sides of Highway 97C are producing acidified runoff from both cut rock surface and a fractured ditch. This runoff eventually enters Pennask Creek, the largest spawning source of rainbow trout in British Columbia. The current remediation technique using limestone for ARD treatment appears to be unnecessarily expensive, to generate additional solid waste and to not be optimally effective. A soil mineral natural zeolite - clinoptilolite - which is inexpensive and locally available, has a high metal adsorption capacity and a significant buffering capacity. Moreover, the clinoptilolite materials could be back-flushed and reused on site. An earlier batch adsorption study from our laboratory demonstrated that clinoptilolite has a high adsorption capacity for Cu, Zn, Al, with adsorption concentrations 131, 158 and 215 mg/kg clinoptilolite, respectively, from ARD of pH 3.3. Removal of metals from the loaded clinoptilolite by back-flushing was found to depend on the pH, with an optimum pH range for extraction of 2.5 to 4.0 for a contact time of one hour. The rank of desorption effectiveness was EDTA > NaCl > NaNO3 > NaOAC > NaHCO3 > Na2CO3 > NaOH > Ca(OH)2. A novel process involving cyclic adsorption on clinoptilolite followed by regeneration of the sorbent by desorption is examined for the removal of heavy metals from acid rock drainage. Experimental results show that the adsorption of zinc and copper depends on the pH and on external mass transfer. Desorption is assisted by adding NaCl to the water. A slurry bubble column was able to significantly reduce the time required for both adsorption and desorption in batch tests. XRD analysis indicated

  9. Sulfur dynamics in an impoundment receiving acid mine drainage

    SciTech Connect

    Herlihy, A.T.

    1987-01-01

    To quantify the importance of bacterial sulfate reduction (SR) in an acidified system, a sulfate influx-efflux budget was constructed for Lake Anna, an impoundment receiving acid mine drainage. Forty eight percent of the entering sulfate was removed from the water column within the 2 km arm of the lake that receives the pollution. Directly measured SR equaled 200% of the sulfate removal calculated in the budget. Thus, sulfide oxidation must be an important process in these sediments. The calculated alkalinity generated by sulfate removal was more than twice that necessary to account for the observed pH increase in the impoundment. Inorganic sulfur concentrations in the sediments of the impacted arm of Lake Anna were significantly greater than those in unpolluted sections of the lake. Label experiments showed that FeS and elemental sulfur (S{degree}) were the major products of SR in the impacted sediments. Inorganic sulfur (FeS, S{degree}, and pyrite) made up to 60% to 100% of the total sediment sulfur concentration. Pyrite concentrations were high and decreased exponentially with distance from the AMD source, indicating that the pyrite is stream detrius. FeS and S{degree} concentrations were highest at a station 1 km away from the AMD inflow, indicating in situ formation. There was no evidence for the formation of organic sulfur species.

  10. 40 CFR 434.30 - Applicability; description of the acid or ferruginous mine drainage subcategory.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... BPT, BAT, BCT LIMITATIONS AND NEW SOURCE PERFORMANCE STANDARDS Acid or Ferruginous Mine Drainage § 434.30 Applicability; description of the acid or ferruginous mine drainage subcategory. The provisions of this subpart are applicable to acid or ferruginous mine drainage from an active mining area...

  11. 40 CFR 434.30 - Applicability; description of the acid or ferruginous mine drainage subcategory.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... SOURCE CATEGORY BPT, BAT, BCT LIMITATIONS AND NEW SOURCE PERFORMANCE STANDARDS Acid or Ferruginous Mine Drainage § 434.30 Applicability; description of the acid or ferruginous mine drainage subcategory. The provisions of this subpart are applicable to acid or ferruginous mine drainage from an active mining...

  12. 40 CFR 434.30 - Applicability; description of the acid or ferruginous mine drainage subcategory.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... SOURCE CATEGORY BPT, BAT, BCT LIMITATIONS AND NEW SOURCE PERFORMANCE STANDARDS Acid or Ferruginous Mine Drainage § 434.30 Applicability; description of the acid or ferruginous mine drainage subcategory. The provisions of this subpart are applicable to acid or ferruginous mine drainage from an active mining...

  13. 40 CFR 434.30 - Applicability; description of the acid or ferruginous mine drainage subcategory.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... SOURCE CATEGORY BPT, BAT, BCT LIMITATIONS AND NEW SOURCE PERFORMANCE STANDARDS Acid or Ferruginous Mine Drainage § 434.30 Applicability; description of the acid or ferruginous mine drainage subcategory. The provisions of this subpart are applicable to acid or ferruginous mine drainage from an active mining...

  14. Denitrification of agricultural drainage line water via immobilized denitrification sludge

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Nonpoint source nitrogen is recognized as a significant water pollutant worldwide. One of the major contributors is agricultural drainage line water. One potential method of reducing this nitrogen discharge to water bodies is the use of immobilized denitrifying sludge (IDS). Our objectives were to 1...

  15. The results of the electrochemical clearning of drainage waters

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kabannik, Vasilina; Saeva, Olga

    2010-05-01

    There is a problem of industrial drains clearing in various branches, but especially sharply in a metal manufacture that is caused by great volumes of the wastewater containing high residual concentration of heavy metals. It is necessary to pay attention to solids in wastes. In a long-term interaction with oxygen of air and natural deposits the acid drainage is often formed and takes out a number of elements with different classes of toxicity to superficial and underground waters. Therefore search of an extraction possibilities for toxic components for a eliminate of their further migration is the big deal. Belov Zink Plant located in the Kemerovo region. During sixty years the factory stably made up to 10 000 tons of zinc annually and in passing up to 30 000 tons H2SO4 processing a blende concentrate. Now the factory has stopped the activity, however, in territory have remained uncontrolledly stored about one million tons of the wastes, presented by slags and ashes. Visually clinker represent coarse-grained sands of the typical slag containing 0.7-15% Zn, 0.3-8.5% Cu, 0.03-0.7% Pb and 2-400 g/t Cd. Besides in tailings the sub-standard sulfuric acid [Bortnikova, etc., 2006] are merged. Acid (рН=3.5) and highsaline waters of a drainage stream with significant concentration sulfate-ion (up to 20 g/l), copper (up to 6 g/l) and zinc (up to 4 g/l), that allows to consider as macrocomponents. A wide number of microcells in drains exceeds maximum concentration limit (MPC) of chemical substances in objects of drinking and community use. The basic chemical forms of present metals (Al, Mn, Zn, Fe, Co, Ni, Pb, Cu) are aquo-ions and sulphatic complexes. Earlier in our laboratory searching of a way of a toxic components concentration downturn in drains of Belov plant - sorptive clearing by natural clays [Gaskova, Kabannik, 2009] and sedimentation of toxic elements on carbonate barrier [Yurkevich, etc., 2008] were done, however the desirable result by virtue of that this

  16. Phosphorus removal performance of acid mine drainage from wastewater.

    PubMed

    Ruihua, Li; Lin, Zhu; Tao, Tao; Bo, Liu

    2011-06-15

    Acid mine drainage (AMD) in Yunfu iron sulfide mine contain Fe(2+), Fe(3+), and Al(3+) up to 8000, 1700 and 1200 mg/L, respectively. Phosphorus removal from synthetic wastewater with 10mg/L of total phosphorus (TP) concentration and second municipal effluent with 3.5-4.0mg/L of TP concentration were conducted with the AMD by jar tests. Dosage of the AMD and initial pH of water are the two most important parameters affecting the performance of phosphorus removal of the AMD. The optimal phosphorus removal efficiency and residual iron ions (TFe) concentration are 97.0% and 3.0mg/L, respectively, at 1.61 Fe/P molar ratio and pH 8.03 for synthetic wastewater, and 92.1% and 0.32 mg/L, respectively, for second municipal effluent at 1.41 Fe/P molar ratio and pH 7.3. Resultant heavy metal concentration in effluents and precipitate was very low, and the risk of resultant heavy metal contamination was very small. The phosphorus removal performance of the AMD was much similar to that of ferric sulfate (FS) and polyferric sulfate (PFS), and better than that of FeSO(4). And residual TFe concentration in treated water arising from utilization of the AMD was similar to that of FeSO(4), and higher than that of FS and PFS. The AMD could be used as coagulant for phosphorus removal from wastewater directly due to the presence of Fe(2+), Fe(3+), and Al(3+) largely. PMID:21514994

  17. Managing agricultural drainage ditches for water quality protection

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Agricultural drainage ditches are essential for the removal of surface and ground water to allow for crop production in poorly drained agricultural landscapes. Ditches also mediate the flow of pollutants from agroecosystems to downstream water bodies. This paper provides an overview of the science, ...

  18. The capacity of biochar made from common reeds to neutralise pH and remove dissolved metals in acid drainage.

    PubMed

    Mosley, Luke M; Willson, Philip; Hamilton, Benjamin; Butler, Greg; Seaman, Russell

    2015-10-01

    We tested the capacity of biochar (made at 450 °C from a common reed species) to neutralise pH and remove metals in two acid drainage waters (pH 2.6 and 4.6) using column leaching and batch mixing experiments. In the column experiments, the acid drainage water was neutralised upon passage through the biochar with substantial increases (4-5 pH units) in the leachate pH. In the batch experiments, the leachate pH remained above 6.5 when the drainage:biochar ratio was less than approximately 700:1 (L acid drainage:kg biochar) and 20:1 for the pH 4.6 and pH 2.6 drainage waters, respectively. Dissolved metal concentrations were reduced by 89-98 % (Fe ≈ Al > Ni ≈ Zn > Mn) in the leachate from the biochar. A key mechanism of pH neutralisation appears to be solid carbonate dissolution as calcite (CaCO3) was identified (via X-ray diffraction) in the biochar prior to contact with acid drainage, and dissolved alkalinity and Ca was observed in the leachate. Proton and metal removal by cation exchange, direct binding to oxygen-containing functional groups, and metal oxide precipitation also appears important. Further evaluation of the treatment capacity of other biochars and field trials are warranted. PMID:26004563

  19. Electrocoagulation treatment of peat bog drainage water containing humic substances.

    PubMed

    Kuokkanen, V; Kuokkanen, T; Rämö, J; Lassi, U

    2015-08-01

    Electrocoagulation (EC) treatment of 100 mg/L synthetic wastewater (SWW) containing humic acids was optimized (achieving 90% CODMn and 80% DOC removal efficiencies), after which real peat bog drainage waters (PBDWs) from three northern Finnish peat bogs were also treated. High pollutant removal efficiencies were achieved: Ptot, TS, and color could be removed completely, while Ntot, CODMn, and DOC/TOC removal efficiencies were in the range of 33-41%, 75-90%, and 62-75%, respectively. Al and Fe performed similarly as the anode material. Large scale experiments (1 m(3)) using cold (T = 10-11 °C) PBDWs were also conducted successfully, with optimal treatment times of 60-120 min (applying current densities of 60-75 A/m(2)). Residual values of Al and Fe (complete removal) were lower than their initial values in the EC-treated PBDWs. Electricity consumption and operational costs in optimum conditions were found to be low and similar for all the waters studied: 0.94 kWh/m(3) and 0.15 €/m(3) for SWW and 0.35-0.70 kWh/m(3) and 0.06-0.12 €/m(3) for the PBDWs (large-scale). Thus, e.g. solar cells could be considered as a power source for this EC application. In conclusion, EC treatment of PBDW containing humic substances was shown to be feasible. PMID:25973580

  20. Chemical evolution of coal mine drainage in a non-acid producing environment, Wasatch Plateau, Utah, USA

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mayo, A. L.; Petersen, E. C.; Kravits, C.

    2000-09-01

    The causes and problems of coal mine drainage, particularly acid mine drainage, in the Eastern and Interior Coal Provinces of the United States are well documented. West of the Mississippi River, where coal mines account for about 45% of total US coal production and where acid mine drainage is rare, the chemical evolution of coal mine drainage is less well documented and understood. In this investigation, we have used solute and isotopic compositions of non-evolved inflow groundwater and evolved mine discharge water to quantify the chemical evolution of mine discharge water in a western underground coal mine. Water enters the mine from fractures and roof bolt holes, which intercept groundwater in the overlying rock. Carbon-14, and 3H data indicate that these waters recharged between 12,000 and 19,500 years ago. The TDS and solute compositions of roof drip waters are spatially zoned and TDS concentrations range from about 300 to 550 mg l -1. After the water encounters minerals and other substances in the mine, the chemical differences between various mine regions become more pronounced and the TDS of mine drainage water increases to about 850 mg l -1. The TDS of mine drainage is related to water-rock ratios. Mine drainage issuing from the older mined areas, where water-rock ratios are low, has the greatest TDS. Geochemical and isotopic mass balance calculations were performed to quantify chemical reactions in the mine, and to identify sources contributing to the TDS of mine drainage. Chemical reaction pathways evaluated include pyrite oxidation, dissolution of native and rock dust gypsum, dissolution of calcite and dolomite, precipitation of calcite, ion exchange, precipitation of iron hydroxide, and organic decomposition of mining machine emulsion fluid. Solute and isotopic mass transfer reaction calculations demonstrate that the oxidation of pyrite triggers a series of cascading in-mine chemical reactions that are the primary cause of the elevated TDS of mine

  1. Water quality issues associated with agricultural drainage in semiarid regions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sylvester, Marc A.

    High incidences of mortality, birth defects, and reproductive failure in waterfowl using Kesterson Reservoir in the San Joaquin Valley, Calif., have occurred because of the bioaccumulation of selenium from irrigation drainage. These circumstances have prompted concern about the quality of agriculture drainage and its potential effects on human health, fish and wildlife, and beneficial uses of water. The U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) and Lawrence Berkeley Laboratory, University of California (Berkeley, Calif.) organized a 1-day session at the 1986 AGU Fall Meeting in San Francisco, Calif., to provide an interdisciplinary forum for hydrologists, geochemists, and aquatic chemists to discuss the processes controlling the distribution, mobilization, transport, and fate of trace elements in source rocks, soils, water, and biota in semiarid regions in which irrigated agriculture occurs. The focus of t h e session was the presentation of research results on the source, distribution, movement, and fate of selenium in agricultural drainage.

  2. The Effects of Acid Rock Drainage (ARD) on Fluorescent Dissolved Organic Matter (DOM)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lee, R. H.; Gabor, R. S.; SanClements, M.; McKnight, D. M.

    2011-12-01

    Located in the Rocky Mountains of central Colorado, the catchments drained by the headwaters of the Snake River are dominated by metal- and sulfide-rich bedrock. The breakdown of these minerals results in acidic metal-rich waters in the Snake (pH ~3) that persist until the confluence with Deer Creek (pH ~7). Previous research has been conducted examining the interactions of acid-rock drainage (ARD) and dissolved organic matter (DOM), but the effects of ARD on DOM production is not as well understood. In a synoptic study, samples of creek water were collected at evenly spaced intervals along the length of a tributary to the Snake River which drains an area with ARD. At each sampling location, water samples were collected and pH, conductivity, and temperature were measured. Water samples were analyzed for metal chemistry, and the DOM was analyzed with UV-Vis and fluorescence spectroscopy. The character of the DOM was described using PARAFAC and index calculations. This work demonstrates that the introduction of acid and dissolved metal species has notable effects on DOM composition. Preliminary data suggests that the introduction of acid drainage is responsible for the formation of a fluorophore not accounted for in the Cory and McKnight PARAFAC model. Both high concentrations of heavy metals (e.g. zinc) and the novel fluorophore are present downstream from a mining site, which indicates it as a possible source of both species. The data suggest a link between the introduction of fluorophores in acidic waters and acidophile populations at the source of the acid rock drainage.

  3. Handbook for constructed wetlands receiving acid mine drainage

    SciTech Connect

    Wildeman, T.; Dietz, J.; Gusek, J.; Morea, S.

    1993-09-01

    In the summer of 1987, a pilot constructed wetland was built at the Big Five Tunnel in Idaho Springs, Colorado. The report details the theory, design and construction of wetlands receiving acid mine drainages, based on the second and third year of operation of this wetland, which was funded by the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency under the SITE Emerging Technologies Program. The text is divided into two broad sections: Part A - Theoretical Development, and Part B - Design Consideration. In the latter sections of Part A and through all of Part B the focus is on removal of metals by precipitation of sulfides through the activity of sulfate reducing bacteria.

  4. A multi-isotope approach to characterize acid mine drainage in a hardrock alpine mine, Chaffe Co,Colorado.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cordalis, D.; Williams, M. W.; Wireman, M.; Michel, R. L.; Manning, A.

    2004-12-01

    Here we present information from an innovative suite of stable, radiogenic, and cosmogenic isotopes to better understand groundwater flowpaths and groundwater-surface water interactions in an applied acid mine drainage system. Stable water isotopes, tritium, helium-tritium, sulfur-35, and uranium 234/238 ratios were analyzed from precipitation, groundwater wells, interior mine drainages, and surface waters at the Mary Murphy Mine in Colorado to determine hydrologic transport mechanisms responsible for contaminated zinc releases. Hydrometric measurements suggested a snowmelt-driven pulse of elevated zinc in adit outflow. However, mixing models using stable water isotopes showed a regional groundwater signal in the adit outflow. Tritium values of 11 to 13 TU showed a slight enrichment of bomb spike water compared to snow values of about 9 TU, suggesting an older water source as well. Helium/tritium ratios on a subset of groundwater wells suggested that average residence times of alluvial wells ranged from 2.5 to 8 years. The combination of stable water isotopes and sulfur-35 (half-life of 87 days), showed that zinc-rich waters within the mine derived from infiltrating snowmelt more than a year old. However, measurement of sulfur-35 using low-level scintillation counts was compromised at times by the presence of uranium. We were able to remove the uranium through wet chemistry procedures, improving the accuracy of S-35 measurements. The U234/U238 ratio shows promise in discriminating between acid mine drainage and acid rock drainage. Acid rock drainage shows an unaltered ratio of 1:1, while acid mine drainage is enriched relative to the 1:1 equilibrium ratio. The combination of cosmogenic and stable isotopes within and near the Mary Murphy Mine may provide a useful tool for studying interactions between groundwater and surfacewater in a fractured rock setting. Remediation techniques can be directed more appropriately, and cost effectively, by the characterization of

  5. Phosphorus in drainage waters of the Atlantic Coastal Plain

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The Atlantic Coastal Plain region has had a long history of experimental and applied efforts to exclude phosphorus (P) from drainage waters. Early research focusing upon the chemical controls of soil and sediment P has given way to field studies aimed at refining our understanding of hydrologic path...

  6. Managing Delmarva Agricultural Drainage Ditches for Water Quality Protection

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Agricultural drainage ditches are essential for draining storm and subsurface water from farmland on the Delmarva Peninsula. Ditches are unique ecosystems, having the features of both streams and wetlands. Ditches often provide the only wetland and aquatic habitats on farmland. Ditches carry, store,...

  7. Laboratory evaluation of porous iron composite for drainage water treatment

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The removal of excess soil water with a subsurface drainage pipe system is a common agricultural practice employed to improve crop yields, especially in the Midwest U.S. However, fertilizer nutrients (nitrate and phosphate) and pesticides applied on farm fields will frequently leach downwards throug...

  8. Integrated irrigation and drainage water management

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Results from several research projects conducted in the 1990's are summarized in this manuscript. The first projects are irrigation studies that evaluated the impact of pre-plant irrigation water on crop water use and deep percolation losses. The results showed significant losses with pre-plant ir...

  9. Separation of drainage runoff during rainfall-runoff episodes using the stable isotope method and drainage water temperature

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zajíček, Antonín; Kvítek, Tomáš; Pomije, Tomáš

    2014-05-01

    Stabile isotopes of 2H 18O and drainage water temperature were used as natural tracers for separation rainfall-runoff event hydrograph on several tile drained catchments located in Bohemian-Moravian Highland, Czech Republic. Small agricultural catchments with drainage systems built in slopes are typical for foothill areas in the Czech and Moravian highland. Often without permanent surface runoff, the drainage systems represent an important portion of runoff and nitrogen leaching out of the catchment. The knowledge of the drainage runoff formation and the origin of its components are prerequisites for formulation of measures leading to improvement of the drainage water quality and reduction of nutrient leaching from the drained catchments. The results have proved presence of event water in the drainage runoff during rainfall-runoff events. The proportion of event water observed in the drainage runoff varied between 15 - 60 % in the summer events and 0 - 50 % in winter events, while the sudden water temperature change was between 0,1 - 4,2 °C (2 - 35 %). The comparison of isotope separation of the drainage runoff and monitoring the drainage water temperature have demonstrated that in all cases of event water detected in the runoff, a rapid change in the drainage water temperature was observed as well. The portion of event water in the runoff grows with the growing change in water temperature. Using component mixing model, it was demonstrated that water temperature can be successfully used at least as a qualitative and with some degree of inaccuracy as a quantitative tracer as well. The drawback of the non-conservative character of this tracer is compensated by both its economic and technical accessibility. The separation results also resemble results of separations at small streams. Together with a similarly high speed of the discharge reaction to beginning of precipitation, it is obvious that the mechanism of surface runoff formation and drainage runoff formation

  10. Geochemical study of acid mine drainage of the Big Lick Tunnel area, Williamstown, PA

    SciTech Connect

    Tollin, S. . Dept. of Geosciences)

    1993-03-01

    Acid mine drainage in the anthracite region of Pennsylvania continues to be a significant environmental problem. This study examines the acid mine outflow from the Big Lick Tunnel, north of Williamstown, Dauphin County, Pennsylvania. The tunnel drains abandoned mines on the north side of the Big Lick Mountain. Mining ceased in the area circa 1940, and the tunnel has been in operation since that time. The water, soil and stream bed sediment geochemistry has been studied to determine their changes in chemistry over distance. The pH, TDS and metal concentrations were the primary focus. Metal concentrations were determined using an ICP unit. Data indicates the pH of the outflow to range between 6.7 and 7.3 Fe and Mn concentrations are as high as 9.7 ppb. Extensive metal precipitation ( yellow boy'') occurs within the tunnel and for several hundred meters from the mouth of the tunnel. The combination of near neutral pH and high metal concentration suggest that the drainage is in contact with highly alkaline materials prior to discharge from the tunnel. The geology of the area does not suggest bedrock as the possible source of alkaline material. One hypothesis is that the acidic water is reacting with the concrete tunnel and being neutralized. Data also suggests that the Fe precipitates much quicker than the Mn, resulting in a zonation between Fe-rich and Mn-rich sediments along the length of the drainage.

  11. Integrated acid mine drainage management using fly ash.

    PubMed

    Vadapalli, Viswanath R K; Gitari, Mugera W; Petrik, Leslie F; Etchebers, Olivier; Ellendt, Annabelle

    2012-01-01

    Fly Ash (FA) from a power station in South Africa was investigated to neutralise and remove contaminants from Acid Mine Drainage (AMD). After this primary treatment the insoluble FA residue namely solid residue (SR) was investigated as a suitable mine backfill material by means of strength testing. Moreover, SR was used to synthesise zeolite-P using a two-step synthesis procedure. Furthermore, the zeolite-P was investigated to polish process water from the primary FA-AMD reaction. The main objective of this series of investigations is to achieve zero waste and to propose an integrated AMD management using FA. Fly Ash was mixed with AMD at various predetermined FA-AMD ratios until the mixtures achieved circumneutral pH or higher. The supernatants were then analyzed using Inductively Coupled Plasma Mass Spectrometry (ICP-MS) and Ion Chromatography (IC) for cations and anions respectively. The physical strength testing of SR was carried out by mixing it with 3% Ordinary Portland Cement (OPC) and curing for 410 days. Synthesis of zeolite-P using SR was carried out by two step synthesis procedure: ageing for 24 hours followed by a mild hydrothermal synthesis at 100°C for 4 days. The polishing of process water from primary AMD treatment using FA was ascertained by mixing the process water with zeolite at a liquid to solid ratio of 100:1 for 1 hour. The results indicated that FA can be successfully used to ameliorate AMD. High removal of major AMD contaminants Fe, Al, Mg, Mn and sulphate was achieved with the ash treatment and trace elements such as Zn, Ni, Cu and Pb were also removed by the FA. Strength testing over 410 days indicated that the material gained strength over the testing period. The maximum unconfined compressive strength and elastic modulus was observed to be approximately 0.3 MPa and 150 Mpa respectively. The X-ray diffraction (XRD) analysis of the synthesized product indicated that SR was successfully converted into zeolite-P with some mullite phase

  12. Mine drainage and rock type influences on eastern Ohio stream water quality

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Helsel, D.R.

    1983-01-01

    Stream water during fair weather (base flow) is largely ground water discharge, which has been in contact with minerals of the underlying aquifer. Base flow water quality should therefore reflect aquifer mineralogy as well as upstream land use. Three upstream mining categories (unmined lands, abandoned coal mines, and reclaimed coal mines) differed in pH, specific conductance, sulfate, iron, aluminum, and alkalinity for 122 streams in eastern Ohio. Aquifer rock type influenced pH, specific conductance, sulfate, iron, and alkalinity. Reclamation returned many components of acid mine drainage to near unmined levels, although sulfate and specific conductance were not improved. Acid mine drainage problems were less severe in watersheds underlain by the calcareous Monongahela Formation. These results should apply to other Appalachian coal regions having similar rock units. Refs.

  13. Interaction of trace elements in acid mine drainage solution with humic acid.

    PubMed

    Suteerapataranon, Siripat; Bouby, Muriel; Geckeis, Horst; Fanghänel, Thomas; Grudpan, Kate

    2006-06-01

    The release of metal ions from a coal mining tailing area, Lamphun, Northern Thailand, is studied by leaching tests. Considerable amounts of Mn, Fe, Al, Ni and Co are dissolved in both simulated rain water (pH 4) and 10 mg L(-1) humic acid (HA) solution (Aldrich humic acid, pH 7). Due to the presence of oxidizing pyrite and sulfide minerals, the pH in both leachates decreases down to approximately 3 combined with high sulfate concentrations typical to acid mine drainage (AMD) water composition. Interaction of the acidic leachates upon mixing with ground- and surface water containing natural organic matter is simulated by subsequent dilution (1:100; 1:200; 1:300; 1:500) with a 10 mg L(-1) HA solution (ionic strength: 10(-3) mol L(-1)). Combining asymmetric flow field-flow fractionation (AsFlFFF) with UV/Vis and ICP-MS detection allows for the investigation of metal ion interaction with HA colloid and colloid size evolution. Formation of colloid aggregates is observed by filtration and AsFlFFF depending on the degree of the dilution. While the average HA size is initially found to be 2 nm, metal-HA complexes are always found to be larger. Such observation is attributed to a metal induced HA agglomeration, which is found even at low coverage of HA functional groups with metal ions. Increasing the metal ion to HA ratio, the HA bound metal ions and the HA entities are growing in size from <3 to >450 nm. At high metal ion to HA ratios, precipitation of FeOOH phases and HA agglomeration due to colloid charge neutralization by complete saturation of HA complexing sites are responsible for the fact that most of Fe and Al precipitate and are found in a size fraction >450 nm. In the more diluted solutions, HA is more relevant as a carrier for metal ion mobilization. PMID:16631855

  14. Metal release from fly ash upon leaching with sulfuric acid or acid mine drainage

    SciTech Connect

    Skousen, J.; Bhumbla, D.K.

    1998-12-31

    Generation of electricity by coal-fired power plants produces large quantities of bottom ash and fly ash. New power plants commonly use fluidized bed combustion (FBC) boilers, which create ashes with high neutralization potential (NP). These ashes, due to their alkaline nature, are often used in surface mine reclamation to neutralize acidity and reduce hydraulic conductivity of disturbed overburdens. Conventional fly ashes from older power plants exhibit a range of pH and NP, with some ashes having neutral or acidic pH and low NP values, and may not be good candidates for supplying alkalinity in reclamation projects. In this study, the authors used two acidic solutions to leach a low NP fly ash (LNP ash) and two FBC ashes (FBC1 and FBC2). After passing 78 pore volumes of sulfuric acid and 129 pore volumes of acid mine drainage (AMD) through these ash materials several trace elements were found at high levels in the leachates. LNP fly ash leachates had high arsenic and selenium concentrations with sulfuric acid leaching, but showed low arsenic and selenium concentrations after leaching with AMD. Leaching with AMD caused the iron and aluminum inherent in AMD to complex these elements and make them unavailable for leaching. Lead, cadmium, and barium concentrations in fly ash leachates were not high enough to cause water pollution problems with either leaching solution. For both leaching solutions, manganese was released from LNP ash at a constant level, FBC1 ash did not release manganese, and FBC2 ash released manganese only after the NP had been exhausted by >60 pore volumes of leaching.

  15. Isotope composition of sulphate in acid mine drainage as measure of bacterial oxidation

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Taylor, B.E.; Wheeler, M.C.; Nordstrom, D.K.

    1984-01-01

    The formation of acid waters by oxidation of pyrite-bearing ore deposits, mine tailing piles, and coal measures is a complex biogeochemical process and is a serious environmental problem. We have studied the oxygen and sulphur isotope geochemistry of sulphides, sulphur, sulphate and water in the field and in experiments to identify sources of oxygen and reaction mechanisms of sulphate formation. Here we report that the oxygen isotope composition of sulphate in acid mine drainage shows a large variation due to differing proportions of atmospheric- and water-derived oxygen from both chemical and bacterially-mediated oxidation. 18O-enrichment of sulphate results from pyrite oxidation facilitated by Thiobacillus ferrooxidans in aerated environments. Oxygen isotope analysis may therefore be useful in monitoring the effectiveness of abatement programmes designed to inhibit bacterial oxidation. Sulphur isotopes show no significant fractionation between pyrite and sulphate, indicating the quantitative insignificance of intermediate oxidation states of sulphur under acid conditions. ?? 1984 Nature Publishing Group.

  16. Denitrification of agricultural drainage line water via immobilized denitrification sludge.

    PubMed

    Hunt, Patrick G; Matheny, Terry A; Ro, Kyoung S; Stone, Kenneth C; Vanotti, Matias B

    2008-07-15

    Nonpoint source nitrogen is recognized as a significant water pollutant worldwide. One of the major contributors is agricultural drainage line water. A potential method of reducing this nitrogen discharge to water bodies is the use of immobilized denitrifying sludge (IDS). Our objectives were to (1) produce an effective IDS, (2) determine the IDS reaction kinetics in laboratory column bioreactors, and (3) test a field bioreactor for nitrogen removal from agricultural drainage line water. We developed a mixed liquor suspended solid (MLSS) denitrifying sludge using inoculant from an overland flow treatment system. It had a specific denitrification rate of 11.4 mg NO(3)-N g(-1) MLSS h(-1). We used polyvinyl alcohol (PVA) to immobilize this sludge and form IDS pellets. When placed in a 3.8-L column bioreactor, the IDS had a maximum removal rate (K(MAX)) of 3.64 mg NO(3)-N g(-1) pellet d(-1). In a field test with drainage water containing 7.8 mg NO(3)-N L(-1), 50% nitrogen removal was obtained with a 1 hr hydraulic retention time. Expressed as a 1 m(3) cubically-shaped bioreactor, the nitrogen removal rate would be 94 g NO(3)-N m(-2)d(-1), which is dramatically higher than treatment wetlands or passive carbonaceous bioreactors. IDS bioreactors offer potential for reducing nitrogen discharge from agricultural drainage lines. More research is needed to develop the bioreactors for agricultural use and to devise effective strategies for their implementation with other emerging technologies for improved water quality on both watershed and basin scales. PMID:18569323

  17. Precipitation of heavy metals from acid mine drainage and their geochemical modeling

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Petrilakova, Aneta; Balintova, Magdalena; Holub, Marian

    2014-06-01

    Geochemical modeling plays an increasingly vital role in a number of areas of geoscience, ranging from groundwater and surface water hydrology to environmental preservation and remediation. Geochemical modeling is also used to model the interaction processes at the water - sediment interface in acid mine drainage (AMD). AMD contains high concentrations of sulfate and dissolved metals and it is a serious environmental problem in eastern Slovakia. The paper is focused on comparing the results of laboratory precipitation of metal ions from AMD (the Smolnik creek, Slovakia) with the results obtained by geochemical modeling software Visual Minteq 3.0.

  18. APPLICATION OF WATER FLOW AND GEOCHEMICAL MODELS TO SUPPORT THE REMEDIATION OF ACID ROCK DRAINAGE FROM THE URANIUM MINING SITE OF POCOS DE CALDAS, BRAZIL

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    This paper discusses the use of two numerical models (HYDRUS-2D and STEADQL-v4) for simulating water flow and relevant geochemical processes in one of the waste rock piles of the first uranium mine in Brazil, in order to facilitate the selection of appropriate remediation strategies. The long time s...

  19. Application of water flow and geochemical models to support the remediation of acid rock drainage from the uranium mining site of Pocos de Caldas, Brazil

    SciTech Connect

    Franklin, Mariza; Fernandes, Horst; Van Genuchten, Martinus Th.; Vargas, Euripedes Jr.; Azevedo, Jose Paulo

    2007-07-01

    Available in abstract form only. Full text of publication follows: This paper discusses the use of two numerical models (HYDRUS-2D and STEADQL-v4) for simulating water flow and relevant geochemical processes in one of the waste rock piles of the first uranium mine in Brazil, in order to facilitate the selection of appropriate remediation strategies. The long time scale required for the oxidation of sulfidic wastes (at least 600 years) implies the need to implement permanent remediation actions. The best remediation scheme should depend on the water flow regime inside the waste pile and on the geochemical processes that occur as a result of the interactions between water and the waste (especially oxidative dissolution of pyrite). Accurate modeling of the waste site, which contains a wide range of grain and rock sizes at different degrees of water saturation and is subject to reactive multicomponent transport, entails considerable physical, mathematical and numerical challenges. This paper describes the approach used to obtain a detailed representation of the system involving both unsaturated/ saturated flow (most of the physical properties of the waste were estimated from measured data) and the geochemical network reactions (including equilibrium and kinetics reactions). (authors)

  20. Acid neutralization within limestone sand reactors receiving coal mine drainage

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Watten, B.J.; Sibrell, P.L.; Schwartz, M.F.

    2005-01-01

    Pulsed bed treatment of acid mine drainage (AMD) uses CO2 to accelerate limestone dissolution and intermittent fluidization to abrade and carry away metal hydrolysis products. Tests conducted with a prototype of 60 L/min capacity showed effective removal of H+ acidity over the range 196-584 mg/L (CaCO3) while concurrently generating surplus acid neutralization capacity. Effluent alkalinity (mg/L CaCO3) rose with increases in CO2 (DC, mg/L) according to the model Alkalinity = 31.22 + 2.97(DC)0.5, where DC was varied from 11-726 mg/L. Altering fluidization and contraction periods from 30 s/30 s to 10 s/50 s did not influence alkalinity but did increase energy dissipation and bed expansion ratios. Field trials with three AMD sources demonstrated the process is capable of raising AMD pH above that required for hydrolysis and precipitation of Fe3+ and Al3+ but not Fe2+ and Mn2+. Numerical modeling showed CO2 requirements are reduced as AMD acidity increases and when DC is recycled from system effluent. ?? 2005 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. Comparison of Blood Loss between Neutral Drainage with Tranexamic Acid and Negative Pressure Drainage without Tranexamic Acid Following Primary Total Knee Arthroplasty

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Gwang Chul; Lee, Sang Hong; Pak, Chi-Hyoung; Park, Sang Ha; Jung, Sung

    2016-01-01

    Purpose There are many methods to reduce massive bleeding during total knee arthroplasty (TKA). In our study, tranexamic acid and neutral drainage were used to decrease total blood loss. Materials and Methods The study was performed on 97 TKA patients from March 2012 to January 2013. In the study group, tranexamic acid was administered and neutral drainage was applied. The study group had group I (unilateral, n=29) and group III (bilateral, n=17). The control group had group II (unilateral, n=35) and group IV (bilateral, n=16). Results In group I, the drainage volume on the 1st and 2nd postoperative days and the total drainage decreased with statistical significance (p<0.05). Between group III and group IV, group III had less drainage volume. In group III, the drainage volume on the 1st postoperative day and total drainage volume decreased statistically significantly (p<0.05). Between groups I and II, total blood loss showed no statistically significant difference, whereas between groups III and IV, the value was significantly different. Conclusions Intravenous administration of tranexamic acid with neutral drainage for 3 postoperative hours is a recommendable method because it can be helpful in reducing total blood loss in bilateral TKA. PMID:27595072

  2. Natural factors and mining activity bearings on the water quality of the Choapa basin, North Central Chile: insights on the role of mafic volcanic rocks in the buffering of the acid drainage process.

    PubMed

    Parra, Amparo; Oyarzún, Jorge; Maturana, Hugo; Kretschmer, Nicole; Meza, Francisco; Oyarzún, Ricardo

    2011-10-01

    This contribution analyzes water chemical data for the Choapa basin, North Central Chile, for the period 1980-2004. The parameters considered are As, Cu Fe, pH, EC, SO₄⁻², Cl⁻¹, and HCO[Formula: see text], from samples taken in nine monitoring stations throughout the basin. Results show rather moderate contents of As, Cu, and Fe, with the exception of the Cuncumén River and the Aucó creek, explained by the influence of the huge porphyry copper deposit of Los Pelambres and by the presence of mining operations, respectively. When compared against results obtained in previous researches at the neighboring Elqui river basin, which host the El Indio Au-Cu-As district, a much reduced grade of pollution is recognized for the Choapa basin. Considering the effect of acid rock drainage (ARD)-related Cu contents on the fine fraction of the sediments of both river basins, the differences recorded are even more striking. Although the Los Pelambres porphyry copper deposit, on the headwaters of the Choapa river basin, is between one and two orders of magnitude bigger than El Indio, stream water and sediments of the former exhibit significantly lower copper contents than those of the latter. A main factor which may explain these results is the smaller degree of H( + )-metasomatism on the host rocks of the Los Pelambres deposit, where mafic andesitic volcanic rocks presenting propylitic hydrothermal alteration are dominant. This fact contrast with the highly altered host rocks of El Indio district, where most of them have lost their potential to neutralize ARD. PMID:21170583

  3. Acid mine drainage biogeochemistry at Iron Mountain, California

    PubMed Central

    Druschel, Gregory K; Baker, Brett J; Gihring, Thomas M; Banfield, Jillian F

    2004-01-01

    The Richmond Mine at Iron Mountain, Shasta County, California, USA provides an excellent opportunity to study the chemical and biological controls on acid mine drainage (AMD) generation in situ, and to identify key factors controlling solution chemistry. Here we integrate four years of field-based geochemical data with 16S rRNA gene clone libraries and rRNA probe-based studies of microbial population structure, cultivation-based metabolic experiments, arsenopyrite surface colonization experiments, and results of intermediate sulfur species kinetics experiments to describe the Richmond Mine AMD system. Extremely acidic effluent (pH between 0.5 and 0.9) resulting from oxidation of approximately 1 × 105 to 2 × 105 moles pyrite/day contains up to 24 g/1 Fe, several g/1 Zn and hundreds of mg/l Cu. Geochemical conditions change markedly over time, and are reflected in changes in microbial populations. Molecular analyses of 232 small subunit ribosomal RNA (16S rRNA) gene sequences from six sites during a sampling time when lower temperature (<32°C), higher pH (>0.8) conditions predominated show the dominance of Fe-oxidizing prokaryotes such as Ferroplasma and Leptospirillum in the primary drainage communities. Leptospirillum group III accounts for the majority of Leptospirillum sequences, which we attribute to anomalous physical and geochemical regimes at that time. A couple of sites peripheral to the main drainage, "Red Pool" and a pyrite "Slump," were even higher in pH (>1) and the community compositions reflected this change in geochemical conditions. Several novel lineages were identified within the archaeal Thermoplasmatales order associated with the pyrite slump, and the Red Pool (pH 1.4) contained the only population of Acidithiobacillus. Relatively small populations of Sulfobacillus spp. and Acidithiobacillus caldus may metabolize elemental sulfur as an intermediate species in the oxidation of pyritic sulfide to sulfate. Experiments show that elemental sulfur

  4. Geochemistry of rare earth elements in a passive treatment system built for acid mine drainage remediation.

    PubMed

    Prudêncio, Maria Isabel; Valente, Teresa; Marques, Rosa; Sequeira Braga, Maria Amália; Pamplona, Jorge

    2015-11-01

    Rare earth elements (REE) were used to assess attenuation processes in a passive system for acid mine drainage treatment (Jales, Portugal). Hydrochemical parameters and REE contents in water, soils and sediments were obtained along the treatment system, after summer and winter. A decrease of REE contents in the water resulting from the interaction with limestone after summer occurs; in the wetlands REE are significantly released by the soil particles to the water. After winter, a higher water dynamics favors the AMD treatment effectiveness and performance since REE contents decrease along the system; La and Ce are preferentially sequestered by ochre sludge but released to the water in the wetlands, influencing the REE pattern of the creek water. Thus, REE fractionation occurs in the passive treatment systems and can be used as tracer to follow up and understand the geochemical processes that promote the remediation of AMD. PMID:26247412

  5. Bioremediation of acid mine drainage coupled with domestic wastewater treatment.

    PubMed

    Sánchez-Andrea, Irene; Triana, David; Sanz, Jose L

    2012-01-01

    Acid mine drainage (AMD) - characterized by high acidity and elevated sulfate and metal concentrations - represents a big environmental concern. Biological sulfate reduction has become an alternative to the classical physicochemical methods. In this study, domestic wastewater (DW) was tested as a cost-effective carbon-source for the remediation of AMD. Sediments from Tinto River, an extreme acidic environment with an elevated concentration of metals, were used as inoculum. Three anaerobic bioreactors with different microbial supports were fed with a 1:10 (v:v) mixture of synthetic AMD:DW. Around 50% of the organic matter present in the DW co-precipitated with the metals from the AMD previous to feeding the reactor. Therefore, the reactors had to be supplemented with an extra carbon-source (acetate) to achieve higher S elimination. Elevated removal efficiencies of chemical oxygen demand (COD) (>88%), sulfate (>75%), Fe (>85%) and other dissolved metals (>99% except for Mn) were achieved. Bacterial communities were examined through denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis and scanning electron microscopy. Higher biodiversity was found in the bioreactors compared with that of the inoculum. Dominant species belong to two metabolic groups: fermentative (Clostridium spp., Delftia spp., Paludibacter spp. and Pelotomaculum spp.) and sulfate-reducing bacteria (Desulfomonile spp., Desulfovibrio spp., Desulfosporosinus spp. and Desulfotomaculum spp.). PMID:23032774

  6. Acid mine drainage. (Latest citations from the NTIS data base). Published Search

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1992-04-01

    The bibliography contains citations concerning laboratory and field analyses of acid mine drainage. Topics include site investigations and characterization, remediation and monitoring programs, contaminant treatment research, and control and abatement studies. Chemical analyses of affected areas, and evaluation of terrestrial and aquatic ecosystem responses to acid drainage are also discussed. (Contains 250 citations and includes a subject term index and title list.)

  7. 40 CFR Appendix A to Part 434 - Alternate Storm Limitations for Acid or Ferruginous Mine Drainage

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 30 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Alternate Storm Limitations for Acid or Ferruginous Mine Drainage A Appendix A to Part 434 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL... Storm Limitations for Acid or Ferruginous Mine Drainage EC01MY92.113...

  8. 40 CFR Appendix A to Part 434 - Alternate Storm Limitations for Acid or Ferruginous Mine Drainage

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 31 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Alternate Storm Limitations for Acid or Ferruginous Mine Drainage A Appendix A to Part 434 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL...—Alternate Storm Limitations for Acid or Ferruginous Mine Drainage EC01MY92.113...

  9. 40 CFR Appendix A to Part 434 - Alternate Storm Limitations for Acid or Ferruginous Mine Drainage

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 31 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Alternate Storm Limitations for Acid or Ferruginous Mine Drainage A Appendix A to Part 434 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL...—Alternate Storm Limitations for Acid or Ferruginous Mine Drainage EC01MY92.113...

  10. Recrystallization and stability of Zn and Pb minerals on their migration to groundwater in soils affected by Acid Mine Drainage under CO2 rich atmospheric waters.

    PubMed

    Goienaga, N; Carrero, J A; Zuazagoitia, D; Baceta, J I; Murelaga, X; Fernández, L A; Madariaga, J M

    2015-01-01

    The extent of vertical contamination is intimately related to the soil solution and surface chemistry of the soil matrix with reference to the metal and waste matrix in question. The present research demonstrated the impact that the dissolved CO2 of the meteoric waters, which acidify the environment with pH values below 4, has in the increase of the metal mobility. Although under the given conditions the Zn remains mainly dissolved, the initial PbS and ZnS have evolved into newly formed secondary carbonates and sulphates (i.e., hydrozincite, gunningite, hydrocerussite) that can be found in the efflorescences. The chemical simulation done on the weathering of the original sulphide ores for the formation of these secondary minerals has proved the transient storage mainly of Pb. Nonetheless, many of the minerals formed inside the galleries will be easily dissolved in the next rains and release in an ionic form to the groundwater. The analytical procedure exposed has been proved to be useful not only for the characterization of AMD but also for the prediction of the mobility of metals. PMID:25180824

  11. Algal-bacterial treatment facility removes selenium from drainage water

    SciTech Connect

    Quinn, Nigel W.T.; Lundquist, Tryg J.; Green, F. Bailey; Zarate, Max A.; Oswald, William J.; Leighton, Terrance

    2000-01-25

    A demonstration algal-bacterial selenium removal (ABSR) facility has been treating agricultural drainage water in the Panoche Drainage District on the west side of the San Joaquin Valley since 1997. The project goals are to demonstrate the effectiveness of the ABSR technology for selenium removal, to investigate potential wildlife exposure to selenium at full-scale facilities, and to develop an operational plant configuration that will minimize the life-cycle cost for each pound of selenium removed. The facility consists of a series of ponds designed to promote native microorganisms that remove nitrate and selenium. Previous treatment research efforts sought to reduce selenium concentrations to less than 5 mu g/L, but the ABSR Facility demonstration focuses on providing affordable reduction of the selenium load that is discharged to the San Joaquin River. During 1997 and 1998, the best-performing ABSR plant configuration reduced nitrate by more than 95 percent and reduced total soluble selenium mass by 80 percent. Ongoing investigations focus on optimizing operational parameters and determining operational costs and scale-up engineering requirements. The preliminary total cost estimate for a 10-acre-foot per day ABSR facility is less than $200 per acre-foot of treated drainage water.

  12. Impacts of drainage water management on subsurface drain flow, nitrate concentration, and nitrate loads in Indiana

    EPA Science Inventory

    Drainage water management is a conservation practice that has the potential to reduce drainage outflow and nitrate (NO3) loss from agricultural fields while maintaining or improving crop yields. The goal of this study was to quantify the impact of drainage water management on dra...

  13. SIMULATING LONG-TERM PERFORMANCE OF DRAINAGE WATER MANAGEMENT ACROSS THE MIDWESTERN UNITED STATES

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Under conventional drainage (CVD), excess soil water in agricultural fields is allowed to drain freely through artificial subsurface drainage lines. In contrast, drainage water management (DWM) utilizes a control structure at the end of the lines to regulate drain flow by varying the depth of the d...

  14. The control of acid mine drainage at the Summitville Mine Superfund Site

    SciTech Connect

    Ketellapper, V.L.; Williams, L.O.

    1996-11-01

    The Summitville Mine Superfund Site is located about 25 miles south of Del Norte, Colorado, in Rio Grande County. Occurring at an average elevation of 11,500 feet in the San Juan Mountain Range, the mine site is located two miles east of the Continental Divide. Mining at Summitville has occurred since 1870. The mine was most recently operated by Summitville Consolidated Mining Company, Inc. (SCMCI) as an open pit gold mine with extraction by means of a cyanide leaching process. In December of 1992, SCMCI declared bankruptcy and vacated the mine site. At that time, the US Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) took over operations of the water treatment facilities to prevent a catastrophic release of cyanide and metal-laden water from the mine site. Due to high operational costs of water treatment (approximately $50,000 per day), EPA established a goal to minimize active water treatment by reducing or eliminating acid mine drainage (AMD). All of the sources of AMD generation on the mine site were evaluated and prioritized. Of the twelve areas identified as sources of AMD, the Cropsy Waste Pile, the Summitville Dam Impoundment, the Beaver Mud Dump, the Reynolds and Chandler adits, and the Mine Pits were consider to be the most significant contributors to the generation of metal-laden acidic (low pH) water. A two part plan was developed to control AMD from the most significant sources. The first part was initiated immediately to control AMD being released from the Site. This part focused on improving the efficiency of the water treatment facilities and controlling the AMD discharges from the mine drainage adits. The second part of the plan was aimed at reducing the AMD generated in groundwater and surface water runoff from the mine wastes. A lined and capped repository located in the mine pits for acid generating mining waste and water treatment plant sludge was found to be the most feasible alternative.

  15. Water Drainage from Unsaturated Soils in a Centrifuge Permeameter

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ornelas, G.; McCartney, J.; Zhang, M.

    2013-12-01

    This study involves an analysis of water drainage from an initially saturated silt layer in a centrifuge permeameter to evaluate the hydraulic properties of the soil layer in unsaturated conditions up to the point where the water phase becomes discontinuous. These properties include the soil water retention curve (SWRC) and the hydraulic conductivity function (HCF). The hydraulic properties of unsaturated silt are used in soil-atmosphere interaction models that take into account the role of infiltration and evaporation of water from soils due to atmospheric interaction. These models are often applied in slope stability analyses, landfill cover design, aquifer recharge analyses, and agricultural engineering. The hydraulic properties are also relevant to recent research concerning geothermal heating and cooling, as they can be used to assess the insulating effects of soil around underground heat exchangers. This study employs a high-speed geotechnical centrifuge to increase the self-weight of a compacted silt specimen atop a filter plate. Under a centrifuge acceleration of N times earth's gravity, the concept of geometric similitude indicates that the water flow process in a small-scale soil layer will be similar to those in a soil layer in the field that is N times thicker. The centrifuge acceleration also results in an increase in the hydraulic gradient across the silt specimen, which causes water to flow out of the pores following Darcy's law. The drainage test was performed until the rate of liquid water flow out of the soil layer slowed to a negligible level, which corresponds to the transition point at which further water flow can only occur due to water vapor diffusion following Fick's law. The data from the drainage test in the centrifuge were used to determine the SWRC and HCF at different depths in the silt specimen, which compared well with similar properties defined using other laboratory tests. The transition point at which liquid water flow stopped (and

  16. Phycomicrobial ecology of acid mine drainage in the Piedmont of Virginia

    SciTech Connect

    Krishnaswamy, R.; Hanger, R.A.

    1998-12-31

    Acid mine drainage encompasses 18 km{sup 2} of Louisa County, Virginia. Heavy metal laden acidic leachate flows from abandoned mines along the Piedmont`s Gold-Pyrite Belt. The oxidation of pyrite, sphalerite, chalcopyrite and other sulfide minerals that are disseminated throughout the mine tailings release H{sub 2}SO{sub 4}, Fe, Cu, Zn, Ni, Cd, As, Pb and other heavy metals into the Contrary Creek watershed and beyond, into Lake Anna. Downstream of these abandoned pyrite mines, high levels of acidity and heavy metals have made this a severely stressed environment incapable of supporting a healthy creek ecosystem. In an effort to assess in-situ, bioaccumulatory remediation of acid mine drainage by phycomicrobial mats, surveys have been conducted for 11 months in Contrary Creek; several extremophiles that are tolerant of acid mine systems have been found. Twelve to thirteen genera of algae and a few cocci and bacilli have been identified in surface waters. Predominant genera include Ulothrix, Pinnularia and Oscillatoria. Preliminary results demonstrate that the phycomicrobial communities found in this acid mine system maintain density and species diversity independent of pH and heavy metal fluctuations. These extremophiles also demonstrate high potential for heavy metal sorption. Phycomicrobial mats bioaccumulate 60--70% more heavy metals than concentrations found in surface waters and the creek. To date, remediatory attempts to restore Contrary Creek have not been successful. Results suggest that the extremophile ecology found in this system will facilitate the remediation process of other, similar acid mine affected ecosystems.

  17. Metabolically Active Eukaryotic Communities in Extremely Acidic Mine Drainage

    PubMed Central

    Baker, Brett J.; Lutz, Michelle A.; Dawson, Scott C.; Bond, Philip L.; Banfield, Jillian F.

    2004-01-01

    Acid mine drainage (AMD) microbial communities contain microbial eukaryotes (both fungi and protists) that confer a biofilm structure and impact the abundance of bacteria and archaea and the community composition via grazing and other mechanisms. Since prokaryotes impact iron oxidation rates and thus regulate AMD generation rates, it is important to analyze the fungal and protistan populations. We utilized 18S rRNA and beta-tubulin gene phylogenies and fluorescent rRNA-specific probes to characterize the eukaryotic diversity and distribution in extremely acidic (pHs 0.8 to 1.38), warm (30 to 50°C), metal-rich (up to 269 mM Fe2+, 16.8 mM Zn, 8.5 mM As, and 4.1 mM Cu) AMD solutions from the Richmond Mine at Iron Mountain, Calif. A Rhodophyta (red algae) lineage and organisms from the Vahlkampfiidae family were identified. The fungal 18S rRNA and tubulin gene sequences formed two distinct phylogenetic groups associated with the classes Dothideomycetes and Eurotiomycetes. Three fungal isolates that were closely related to the Dothideomycetes clones were obtained. We suggest the name “Acidomyces richmondensis” for these isolates. Since these ascomycete fungi were morphologically indistinguishable, rRNA-specific oligonucleotide probes were designed to target the Dothideomycetes and Eurotiomycetes via fluorescent in situ hybridization (FISH). FISH analyses indicated that Eurotiomycetes are generally more abundant than Dothideomycetes in all of the seven locations studied within the Richmond Mine system. This is the first study to combine the culture-independent detection of fungi with in situ detection and a demonstration of activity in an acidic environment. The results expand our understanding of the subsurface AMD microbial community structure. PMID:15466574

  18. Metals and Colloids in the Hyporheic Zone of an Acid Mine Drainage-Contaminated Stream

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Norvell, A. S.; Ryan, J. N.; McKnight, D. M.; Ren, J.

    2009-12-01

    A key component of human and ecological risk assessments of acid mine drainage is predicting the fate and transport of metals in receiving streams. In order to learn more about the processes that control metal removal in the stream, we studied the role of colloids and the exchange of stream water with the hyporheic zone in Lefthand Creek, a stream contaminated by acid mine drainage in northwestern Boulder County, Colorado. We installed a set of mini-piezometers in the streambed and sampled the hyporheic pore waters along a 90 m reach of the creek for metals, colloids, and other geochemical parameters in the water and sediments. We conducted tracer dilution tests to determine the extent and time scale of hyporheic exchange. The results of these investigations showed that hyporheic exchange is a significant process in the attenuation of metals. The conservative tracer (bromide) concentration reached plateaus of up to 80 % of the surface concentration at depths of 40 cm and up to only 5% at depths of 100 cm. Hydraulic residence times in the upper 40 cm range from 20 minutes at 5 cm depths to under 3 hours at 40 cm depths. Colloidal transport of some metals is significant; large fractions of lead and copper were associated with colloids composed primarily of iron and aluminum, while zinc was not significantly associated with colloids. Sequential extractions of the sediments showed that trace metals were incorporated in iron and manganese oxide coatings found on the streambed sediments.

  19. Nitrogen surface water retention in the Baltic Sea drainage basin

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stålnacke, P.; Pengerud, A.; Vassiljev, A.; Smedberg, E.; Mörth, C.-M.; Hägg, H. E.; Humborg, C.; Andersen, H. E.

    2015-02-01

    In this paper, we estimate the surface water retention of nitrogen (N) in all the 117 drainage basins to the Baltic Sea with the use of a statistical model (MESAW) for source apportionment of riverine loads of pollutants. Our results show that the MESAW model was able to estimate the N load at the river mouth of 88 Baltic Sea rivers, for which we had observed data, with a sufficient degree of precision and accuracy. The estimated retention parameters were also statistically significant. Our results show that around 380 000 t of N are annually retained in surface waters draining to the Baltic Sea. The total annual riverine load from the 117 basins to the Baltic Sea was estimated at 570 000 t of N, giving a total surface water N retention of around 40%. In terms of absolute retention values, three major river basins account for 50% of the total retention in the 117 basins; i.e. around 104 000 t of N are retained in Neva, 55 000 t in Vistula and 32 000 t in Oder. The largest retention was found in river basins with a high percentage of lakes as indicated by a strong relationship between N retention (%) and share of lake area in the river drainage areas. For example in Göta älv, we estimated a total N retention of 72%, whereof 67% of the retention occurred in the lakes of that drainage area (Lake Vänern primarily). The obtained results will hopefully enable the Helsinki Commission (HELCOM) to refine the nutrient load targets in the Baltic Sea Action Plan (BSAP), as well as to better identify cost-efficient measures to reduce nutrient loadings to the Baltic Sea.

  20. Inter-species interconnections in acid mine drainage microbial communities

    PubMed Central

    Comolli, Luis R.; Banfield, Jill F.

    2014-01-01

    Metagenomic studies are revolutionizing our understanding of microbes in the biosphere. They have uncovered numerous proteins of unknown function in tens of essentially unstudied lineages that lack cultivated representatives. Notably, few of these microorganisms have been visualized, and even fewer have been described ultra-structurally in their essentially intact, physiologically relevant states. Here, we present cryogenic transmission electron microscope (cryo-TEM) 2D images and 3D tomographic datasets for archaeal species from natural acid mine drainage (AMD) microbial communities. Ultrastructural findings indicate the importance of microbial interconnectedness via a range of mechanisms, including direct cytoplasmic bridges and pervasive pili. The data also suggest a variety of biological structures associated with cell-cell interfaces that lack explanation. Some may play roles in inter-species interactions. Interdependences amongst the archaea may have confounded prior isolation efforts. Overall, the findings underline knowledge gaps related to archaeal cell components and highlight the likely importance of co-evolution in shaping microbial lineages. PMID:25120533

  1. Microbial diversity and metabolic networks in acid mine drainage habitats

    PubMed Central

    Méndez-García, Celia; Peláez, Ana I.; Mesa, Victoria; Sánchez, Jesús; Golyshina, Olga V.; Ferrer, Manuel

    2015-01-01

    Acid mine drainage (AMD) emplacements are low-complexity natural systems. Low-pH conditions appear to be the main factor underlying the limited diversity of the microbial populations thriving in these environments, although temperature, ionic composition, total organic carbon, and dissolved oxygen are also considered to significantly influence their microbial life. This natural reduction in diversity driven by extreme conditions was reflected in several studies on the microbial populations inhabiting the various micro-environments present in such ecosystems. Early studies based on the physiology of the autochthonous microbiota and the growing success of omics-based methodologies have enabled a better understanding of microbial ecology and function in low-pH mine outflows; however, complementary omics-derived data should be included to completely describe their microbial ecology. Furthermore, recent updates on the distribution of eukaryotes and archaea recovered through sterile filtering (herein referred to as filterable fraction) in these environments demand their inclusion in the microbial characterization of AMD systems. In this review, we present a complete overview of the bacterial, archaeal (including filterable fraction), and eukaryotic diversity in these ecosystems, and include a thorough depiction of the metabolism and element cycling in AMD habitats. We also review different metabolic network structures at the organismal level, which is necessary to disentangle the role of each member of the AMD communities described thus far. PMID:26074887

  2. Potential of fly ash for neutralisation of acid mine drainage.

    PubMed

    Qureshi, Asif; Jia, Yu; Maurice, Christian; Öhlander, Björn

    2016-09-01

    Lignite (PK), bituminous (FI) and biomass (SE) fly ashes (FAs) were mineralogically and geochemically characterised, and their element leachability was studied with batch leaching tests. The potential for acid neutralisation (ANP) was quantified by their buffering capacity, reflecting their potential for neutralisation of acid mine drainage. Quartz was the common mineral in FAs detected by XRD with iron oxide, anhydrite, and magnesioferrite in PK, mullite and lime in FI, and calcite and anorthite in SE. All the FAs had high contents of major elements such as Fe, Si, Al and Ca. The Ca content in SE was six and eight times higher compared to PK and FI, respectively. Sulphur content in PK and SE was one magnitude higher than FI. Iron concentrations were higher in PK. The trace element concentrations varied between the FAs. SE had the highest ANP (corresponding to 275 kg CaCO3 tonne(-1)) which was 15 and 10 times higher than PK and FI, respectively. The concentrations of Ca(2+), SO4 (2-), Na(+) and Cl(-) in the leachates were much higher compared to other elements from all FA samples. Iron, Cu and Hg were not detected in any of the FA leachates because of their mild to strong alkaline nature with pH ranging from 9 to 13. Potassium leached in much higher quantity from SE than from the other ashes. Arsenic, Mn and Ni leached from PK only, while Co and Pb from SE only. The concentrations of Zn were higher in the leachates from SE. The FAs used in this study have strong potential for the neutralisation of AMD due to their alkaline nature. However, on the other hand, FAs must be further investigated, with scaled-up experiments before full-scale application, because they might leach pronounced concentrations of elements of concern with decreasing pH while neutralising AMD. PMID:27209637

  3. Hydrogeochemical characteristics of streams with and without acid mine drainage impacts: A paired catchment study in karst geology, SW China

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sun, Jing; Tang, Changyuan; Wu, Pan; Strosnider, William H. J.; Han, Zhiwei

    2013-11-01

    A paired catchment study was used to assess karst hydrogeochemistry of two streams.Chemistry of streams with and without acid mine drainage (AMD) was very different.The observation was supported by PHREEQC modeling of equilibrium conditions.Ionic fluxes of AMD-impacted water were higher than that of non-AMD-impacted water.The higher ionic fluxes were predominantly controlled by the oxidation of pyrite.

  4. Transformation Of Arsenic In Agricultural Drainage Water Disposed Into An Evaporation Basin In California, USA.

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Evaporation basins have been widely used for the disposal of agricultural drainage in areas requiring subsurface drainage in the San Joaquin Valley of California, a high agricultural production area in USA. The irrigation drainage water contains elevated concentrations of trace elements, including S...

  5. LIME TREATMENT LAGOONS TECHNOLOGY FOR TREATING ACID MINE DRAINAGE FROM TWO MINING SITES

    EPA Science Inventory

    Runoff and drainage from active and inactive mines are someof the most environmentally damaging land uses i the US. Acid Mine drainage (AMD) from mining sites across the country requires treatment because of high metal concentrations that exceed regulatory standards for safe disc...

  6. Acid mine drainage in the Iberian Pyrite Belt: 2. Lessons learned from recent passive remediation experiences.

    PubMed

    Ayora, Carlos; Caraballo, Manuel A; Macias, Francisco; Rötting, Tobias S; Carrera, Jesús; Nieto, Jose-Miguel

    2013-11-01

    The Iberian Pyrite Belt (IPB), SW Spain and Portugal, contains about 100 abandoned mine wastes and galleries that release acid mine drainages (AMD) to the Tinto and Odiel rivers. In situ passive remediation technologies are especially suitable to remediate the drainages of these orphan sites. However, traditional remediation systems, designed for coal mines, have been demonstrated inefficient to treat the IPB mine waters. Due to their high acidity and metal loads, large amount of solids precipitate and fast clogging of porosity or passivation (coating) of the reactive grains occurs. To overcome these problems, the dispersed alkaline substrate (DAS) a mixture of fine-grained limestone sand and a coarse inert matrix (e.g., wood shavings) was developed. The small grains provide a large reactive surface and dissolve almost completely before the growing layer of precipitates passivates the substrate. The high porosity retards clogging. However, calcite dissolution only raises pH to values around 6.5, at which the hydroxides of trivalent metals (Al and Fe) precipitate, but it is not high enough to remove divalent metals. Caustic magnesia (MgO) buffers the solution pH between 8.5 and 10. A DAS system replacing limestone with caustic magnesia has been tested to be very efficient to remove divalent metals (Zn, Cd, Mn, Cu, Co, Ni, and Pb) from the water previously treated with calcite. PMID:23508532

  7. Odiel River, acid mine drainage and current characterisation by means of univariate analysis.

    PubMed

    Sainz, A; Grande, J A; de la Torre, M L

    2003-04-01

    Water pollution caused by sulfide oxidation responds to two geochemical processes: a natural one of temporal patterns, and the 'acid mine drainage', an accelerated process derived from the extractive activity. The Odiel River is located in Southwestern Spain; it flows to the south and into the Atlantic Ocean after joining the Tinto River near its mouth, forming a common estuary. There are three kinds of metallic mining in the Odiel River Basin: manganese, gold and silver, and pyrite mining, the latter being the most important in this basin, which is the object of this study. The main objective of the present study is centred in the characterisation of the sources responsible for the 'acid mine drainage' processes in the Odiel River Basin, through the sampling and subsequent chemical and statistical analyses of water samples collected in three types of sources: mine dumps, active mines and abandoned mines. The main conclusion is that mean pH values in the target area are remarkably lower than those in other active and abandoned mines outside of the study zone. On the contrary, mean values for heavy metal sulfates are much higher. Regarding mine dumps, mean values for pH, sulfates and heavy metals are within a similar range to those data known for areas outside the study zone. PMID:12605937

  8. Reduction of acid rock drainage using steel slag in cover systems over sulfide rock waste piles.

    PubMed

    de Almeida, Rodrigo Pereira; Leite, Adilson do Lago; Borghetti Soares, Anderson

    2015-04-01

    The extraction of gold, coal, nickel, uranium, copper and other earth-moving activities almost always leads to environmental damage. In metal and coal extraction, exposure of sulfide minerals to the atmosphere leads to generation of acid rock drainage (ARD) and in underground mining to acid mine drainage (AMD) due to contamination of infiltrating groundwater. This study proposes to develop a reactive cover system that inhibits infiltration of oxygen and also releases alkalinity to increase the pH of generated ARD and attenuate metal contaminants at the same time. The reactive cover system is constructed using steel slag, a waste product generated from steel industries. This study shows that this type of cover system has the potential to reduce some of the adverse effects of sulfide mine waste disposal on land. Geochemical and geotechnical characterization tests were carried out. Different proportions of sulfide mine waste and steel slag were studied in leachate extraction tests. The best proportion was 33% of steel slag in dry weight. Other tests were conducted as follows: soil consolidation, saturated permeability and soil water characteristic curve. The cover system was numerically modeled through unsaturated flux analysis using Vadose/w. The solution proposed is an oxygen transport barrier that allows rain water percolation to treat the ARD in the waste rock pile. The results showed that the waste pile slope is an important factor and the cover system must have 5 m thickness to achieve an acceptable effectiveness. PMID:25750056

  9. Passive treatment of acid mine drainage in down-flow limestone systems

    SciTech Connect

    Watzlaf, G.R.

    1997-12-31

    Passive down-flow systems, consisting of compost and/or limestone layers, may be well suited for treatment of acidic mine drainage containing ferric iron and/or aluminum. Two columns were constructed and operated in the laboratory. The first column simulated a downward, vertical-flow anaerobic wetland, also referred to as successive alkalinity-producing systems (SAPS), and has received mine drainage for 97 weeks. The 0.16-m diameter column was vertically oriented and (from bottom to top) consisted of a 0.30-m thick layer of limestone, a 0.76-m thick layer of spent mushroom compost, and 0.91 m of free standing water. Water flowed vertically downward through the system. A second column, filled with only limestone, received water from the same source as the first column. This limestone column contained a 1.06-m thick layer of limestone and 0.91 m of free standing water and has received water for 55 weeks. Actual acid mine drainage (pH = 3.1, acidity = 200 mg/L (as CaCO{sub 3}), SO{sub 4}{sup 2-} = 600 mg/L, Total Fe = 10 mg/L, Mn = 14 mg/L, and Al = 18 mg/L) was collected every two weeks from a nearby abandoned deep mine and applied to these columns at a rate of 3.8 mL/min. For the compost/limestone column, effluent pH remained above 6.2 (6.2-7.9); however, pH at a depth of 0.38 m in the compost (halfway) dropped to < 4 after 28 weeks (net acidic). At the bottom of the compost pH remained > 4.5 for all 97 weeks. Alkalinity was generated by a combination of limestone dissolution and sulfate reduction. Over the 97 week period, the column generated an average of 330 mg/L of alkalinity, mostly due to limestone dissolution. Bacterial sulfate reduction displayed an ever decreasing trend, initially accounting for more than 200 mg/L of alkalinity and after 40 weeks only accounting for about 50 mg/L.

  10. Laboratory comparison of four iron-based filter materials for drainage water phosphate treatment

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Phosphate released with agricultural subsurface drainage water can cause environmental degradation of downstream water bodies. On-site filter treatment with iron-based filter materials could potentially remove phosphate from drainage waters before these waters are discharged into local streams. Th...

  11. Three years of crop yields using drainage water management at eight sites in Ohio

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Drainage water management (NRCS-Practice Code 554) is an important water management practice for dealing with nitrate-loading across the Midwest US. A multi-year study is being conducted in Ohio to evaluate the effects of drainage water management on crop yield and water quality. We have installed w...

  12. Humic substances increase survival of freshwater shrimp Caridina sp. D to acid mine drainage.

    PubMed

    Holland, Aleicia; Duivenvoorden, Leo J; Kinnear, Susan H W

    2013-02-01

    Humic substances (HS) are known to decrease the toxicity of heavy metals to aquatic organisms, and it has been suggested that they can provide buffering protection in low pH conditions. Despite this, little is known about the ability for HS to increase survival to acid mine drainage (AMD). In this study, the ability of HS to increase survival of the freshwater shrimp (Caridina sp. D sensu Page et al. in Biol Lett 1:139-142, 2005) to acid mine drainage was investigated using test waters collected from the Mount Morgan open pit in Central Queensland with the addition of Aldrich humic acid (AHA). The AMD water from the Mount Morgan open pit is highly acidic (pH 2.67) as well as contaminated with heavy metals (1780 mg/L aluminum, 101 mg/L copper [Cu], 173 mg/L manganese, 51.8 mg/L zinc [Zn], and 51.8 mg/L iron). Freshwater shrimp were exposed to dilutions in the range of 0.5 % to 5 % AMD water with and without the addition of 10 or 20 mg/L AHA. In the absence of HS, all shrimp died in the 2.5 % AMD treatment. In contrast, addition of HS increased survival in the 2.5 % AMD treatment by ≤66 % as well as significantly decreased the concentration of dissolved Cu, cobalt, cadmium, and Zn. The decreased toxicity of AMD in the presence of HS is likely to be due to complexation and precipitation of heavy metals with the HS; it is also possible that HS caused changes to the physiological condition of the shrimp, thus increasing their survival. These results are valuable in contributing to an improved understanding of potential role of HS in ameliorating the toxicity of AMD environments. PMID:23135152

  13. Potential Water Quality Impact of Drainage Water Management in the Midwest Cornbelt

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Drainage water management (DWM) is being investigated as a possible management option for reducing nitrate leaching to surface waters from the artificially drained Midwest cornbelt. This work builds on earlier modeling studies where a calibrated Root Zone Water Quality Model was used to predict the...

  14. Acid mine drainage: An economic total resource recovery solution

    SciTech Connect

    Clarke, R.L.; Clarke, S.R.; Brackenbury, D.R.

    1995-12-31

    A common feature of abandoned hard rock mines and subterranean coal mines is the creation of toxic and acidic solution often containing iron, copper, zinc, lead, cadmium, manganese and alkaline earth and alkali metals. A process is described which sequentially removes heavy metals using electrochemical ion exchange and rotating cylinder electrodes. Studies summarized indicate recovery of copper, zinc, iron, and aluminum oxide; selective stripping of arsenic, cadmium, chromium, and lead; and recovery of water acceptable for drinking after removal of heavy metals.

  15. Use of natural and applied tracers to guide targeted remediation efforts in an acid mine drainage system, Colorado Rockies, USA

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Cowie, Rory; Williams, Mark W.; Wireman, Mike; Runkel, Robert L.

    2014-01-01

    Stream water quality in areas of the western United States continues to be degraded by acid mine drainage (AMD), a legacy of hard-rock mining. The Rico-Argentine Mine in southwestern Colorado consists of complex multiple-level mine workings connected to a drainage tunnel discharging AMD to passive treatment ponds that discharge to the Dolores River. The mine workings are excavated into the hillslope on either side of a tributary stream with workings passing directly under the stream channel. There is a need to define hydrologic connections between surface water, groundwater, and mine workings to understand the source of both water and contaminants in the drainage tunnel discharge. Source identification will allow targeted remediation strategies to be developed. To identify hydrologic connections we employed a combination of natural and applied tracers including isotopes, ionic tracers, and fluorescent dyes. Stable water isotopes (δ18O/δD) show a well-mixed hydrological system, while tritium levels in mine waters indicate a fast flow-through system with mean residence times of years not decades or longer. Addition of multiple independent tracers indicated that water is traveling through mine workings with minimal obstructions. The results from a simultaneous salt and dye tracer application demonstrated that both tracer types can be successfully used in acidic mine water conditions.

  16. Operational Lessons Leaned During bioreactor Demonstrations for Acid Rock Drainage Treatment

    EPA Science Inventory

    The U.S. Environmental Protection Agency's Mine Waste Technology Program (MWTP) has emphasized the development of biologically-based treatment technologies for acid rock drainage (ARD). Progressively evolving technology demonstrations have resulted in significant advances in sulf...

  17. Operational Lessons Learned During Bioreactor Demonstrations for Acid Rock Drainage Treatment

    EPA Science Inventory

    The U.S. Environmental Protection Agency’s Mine Waste Technology Program (MWTP) has emphasized the development of biologically-based treatment technologies for acid rock drainage (ARD). Progressively evolving technology demonstrations have resulted in significant advances in sul...

  18. Acid-rock drainage at Skytop, Centre County, Pennsylvania, 2004

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Hammarstrom, Jane M.; Brady, Keith; Cravotta, Charles A., III

    2005-01-01

    Recent construction for Interstate Highway 99 (I?99) exposed pyrite and associated Zn-Pb sulfide minerals beneath a >10-m thick gossan to oxidative weathering along a 40-60-m deep roadcut through a 270-m long section of the Ordovician Bald Eagle Formation at Skytop, near State College, Centre County, Pennsylvania. Nearby Zn-Pb deposits hosted in associated sandstone and limestone in Blair and Centre Counties were prospected in the past; however, these deposits generally were not viable as commercial mines. The pyritic sandstone from the roadcut was crushed and used locally as road base and fill for adjoining segments of I?99. Within months, acidic (pH1,000 mg/L), seep waters at the base of the cut contain >100 mg/L dissolved Zn and >1 mg/L As, Co, Cu, and Ni. Lead is relatively immobile (<10 ?g/L in seep waters). The salts sequester metals and acidity between rainfall events. Episodic salt dissolution then contributes pulses of contamination including acid to surface runoff and ground water. The Skytop experience highlights the need to understand dynamic interactions of mineralogy and hydrology in order to avoid potentially negative environmental impacts associated with excavation in sulfidic rocks.

  19. Geochemical processes controlling fate and transport of arsenic in acid mine drainage (AMD) and natural systems.

    PubMed

    Cheng, Hefa; Hu, Yuanan; Luo, Jian; Xu, Bin; Zhao, Jianfu

    2009-06-15

    Acid mine drainage (AMD) is often accompanied with elevated concentrations of arsenic, in the forms of arsenite, As(III), and/or arsenate, As(V), due to the high affinity of arsenic for sulfide mineral ores. This review summarizes the major geochemical processes controlling the release, speciation, fate, and distribution of inorganic arsenic in mine drainage and natural systems. Arsenic speciation depends highly on redox potential and pH of the solution, and arsenite can be oxidized to the less toxic arsenate form. Homogeneous oxidation of arsenite occurs rather slowly while its heterogeneous oxidation on mineral surfaces can greatly enhance the reaction rates. Little evidence suggests that precipitation reaction limits the concentrations of arsenic in natural water, while co-precipitation may lead to rapid arsenic removal when large amount of iron hydroxides precipitate out of the aqueous phase upon neutralization of the mine drainage. Both arsenate and arsenite adsorb on common metal oxides and clay minerals through formation of inner-sphere and/or outer-sphere complexes, controlling arsenic concentration in natural water bodies. Arsenite adsorbs less strongly than arsenate in the typical pH range of natural water and is more mobile. Part of the adsorbed arsenic species can be exchanged by common anions (e.g., PO(4)(3-) and SO(4)(2-)), especially phosphate, which leads to their re-mobilization. Understanding the geochemistry of arsenic is helpful for predicting its mobility and fate in AMD and natural systems, and for designing of cost-effective remediation/treatment strategies to reduce the occurrence and risk of arsenic contamination. PMID:19070955

  20. Mixing-controlled uncertainty in long-term predictions of acid rock drainage from heterogeneous waste-rock piles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pedretti, D.; Beckie, R. D.; Mayer, K. U.

    2015-12-01

    The chemistry of drainage from waste-rock piles at mine sites is difficult to predict because of a number of uncertainties including heterogeneous reactive mineral content, distribution of minerals, weathering rates and physical flow properties. In this presentation, we examine the effects of mixing on drainage chemistry over timescales of 100s of years. We use a 1-D streamtube conceptualization of flow in waste rocks and multicomponent reactive transport modeling. We simplify the reactive system to consist of acid-producing sulfide minerals and acid-neutralizing carbonate minerals and secondary sulfate and iron oxide minerals. We create multiple realizations of waste-rock piles with distinct distributions of reactive minerals along each flow path and examine the uncertainty of drainage geochemistry through time. The limited mixing of streamtubes that is characteristic of the vertical unsaturated flow in many waste-rock piles, allows individual flowpaths to sustain acid or neutral conditions to the base of the pile, where the streamtubes mix. Consequently, mixing and the acidity/alkalinity balance of the streamtube waters, and not the overall acid- and base-producing mineral contents, control the instantaneous discharge chemistry. Our results show that the limited mixing implied by preferential flow and the heterogeneous distribution of mineral contents lead to large uncertainty in drainage chemistry over short and medium time scales. However, over longer timescales when one of either the acid-producing or neutralizing primary phases is depleted, the drainage chemistry becomes less controlled by mixing and in turn less uncertain. A correct understanding of the temporal variability of uncertainty is key to make informed long-term decisions in mining settings regarding the management of waste material.

  1. Acid mine drainage. (Latest citations from the NTIS bibliographic database). Published Search

    SciTech Connect

    1997-06-01

    The bibliography contains citations concerning laboratory and field analyses of acid mine drainage. Topics include site investigations and characterization, remediation and monitoring programs, contaminant treatment research, and control and abatement studies. Chemical analyses of affected areas, and evaluation of terrestrial and aquatic ecosystem responses to acid drainage are also discussed. (Contains 50-250 citations and includes a subject term index and title list.) (Copyright NERAC, Inc. 1995)

  2. Acid mine drainage. (Latest citations from the NTIS bibliographic database). Published Search

    SciTech Connect

    1996-04-01

    The bibliography contains citations concerning laboratory and field analyses of acid mine drainage. Topics include site investigations and characterization, remediation and monitoring programs, contaminant treatment research, and control and abatement studies. Chemical analyses of affected areas, and evaluation of terrestrial and aquatic ecosystem responses to acid drainage are also discussed. (Contains 50-250 citations and includes a subject term index and title list.) (Copyright NERAC, Inc. 1995)

  3. Sources of alkalinity and acidity along an acid mine drainage remediated stream in SE Ohio: Hewett Fork

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schleich, K. L.; Lopez, D. A.; Bowman, J. R.; Kruse, N. A.; Mackey, A. L.; VanDervort, D.; Korenowsky, R.

    2013-12-01

    In the remediation of acid mine drainage impacted streams, it is important to locate and quantify the sources of acidity and alkalinity inputs. These parameters affect the long-term recovery of the stream habitat. Previous studies have focused on treating the remediation of AMD as point source pollution, targeting the main acid seep for remediation. However, in the interest of biological and chemical recovery, it is important to understand how sources of alkalinity and acidity, throughout the stream, affect water and sediment quality. The Hewett Fork watershed in Southeastern Ohio is impacted by AMD from the AS-14 mine complex in Carbondale, Ohio. In attempts to remediate the stream, the water is being treated with a continuous alkaline input from a calcium oxide doser. While the section of watershed furthest downstream from the doser is showing signs of recovery, the water chemistry and aquatic life near the doser are still impacted. The objective of this study is to examine and model the chemistry of the tributaries of Hewett Fork to see how they contribute to the alkalinity and acidity budgets of the main stem of the stream. By examining the inputs of tributaries into the main stem, this project aims to understand processes occurring during remediation throughout the entire stream. Discharge was measured during a dry period in October, 2012 and at a high flow in May, 2013. Field parameters such as pH, TDS, DO, alkalinity and acidity were also determined. Low flow data collected during fall sampling shows variable flow along the stream path, the stream gains water from ground water at some points while it loses water at others, potentially due to variable elevation of the water table. Flow data collected during spring sampling shows that Hewett Fork is a gaining stream during that period with inputs from groundwater contributing to increasing flow downstream. When using this data to calculate the net alkalinity load along the stream, there are areas with alkaline

  4. Water flux and drainage from soil measured with automated passive capillary wick samplers

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Various soil water samplers are used to monitor measure and estimate drainage water, fluxes and solute transport in the soil vadose zone. Passive capillary samplers (PCAPs) have shown potential to provide better measurements and estimates of soil water drainage and fluxes than other lysimeters.Twelv...

  5. Changes in yield and nitrate losses from using drainage water management in Central Iowa, USA

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Drainage water management (DWM) is a potentially valuable management practice for reducing nitrate losses to surface waters in areas of artificial drainage. But the practice is essentially untested in Midwest US conditions and its water quality and crop yield benefits unknown. This paper reports res...

  6. Inhibition of acidic mine drainage using anti-bacterial substances. Technical report (Final)

    SciTech Connect

    Sherrard, J.H.; Kavanaugh, R.G.; Stroebel, P.S.; Stallard, M.L.

    1990-04-01

    Laboratory experiments were carried out to evaluate the effectiveness of antibacterial substances and antibiotics against Thiobacillus ferrooxidans, the organism responsible for bacterial mediated acidic mine drainage. Twenty-two antibiotics and two antibacterial substances were evaluated. The most promising compound, N-Serve, was evaluated further in column studies. A column study was completed using coal mine waste and hard rock mine waste spoils. Eight columns containing 7 kg of each spoil were established using varying concentrations of N-Serve applied to the spoils. The columns were leached once a week with one inch of rain (distilled water). Effluent was collected and monitored for water quality parameters. Only the highest N-Serve dose produced column leachates significantly better in quality than that of the control columns.

  7. Treatment of acid mine drainage with fly ash: Removal of major contaminants and trace elements

    SciTech Connect

    Gitari, M.W.; Petrik, L.F.; Etchebers, O.; Key, D.L.; Iwuoha, E.; Okujeni, C.

    2006-08-15

    Acid mine drainage (AMD) has been reacted with two South African fly ashes in a batch setup in an attempt to evaluate their neutralization and major, trace elements removal capacity. Different fly ash:acid mine drainage ratios (FA:AMD) were stirred in a beaker for a set time and the process water analyzed for major, trace elements and sulphate content. The three factors that finally dictated the nature of the final solution in these neutralization reactions were the FA:AMD ratio, the contact time of the reaction and the chemistry of the AMD. Efficiency of the elements removal was directly linked to the amount of FA in the reaction mixture and to the final pH attained. Most elements attained approximate to 100% removal only when the pH of minimum solubility of their hydroxides was achieved (i.e., Mg = 10.49 - 11.0, Cu{sup 2+} = 6, Pb{sup 2+} = 6 - 7). Dissolution of CaO and subsequent precipitation of gypsum and formation of Al, Fe oxyhydroxysulphates, Fe oxyhydroxides with subsequent adsorption of sulphate contributed to the sulphate attenuation. Significant leaching of B, Sr, Ba and Mo was observed as the reaction progressed and was observed to increase with quantity of fly ash in the reaction mixture. However B was observed to decrease at high FA:AMD ratios probably as result of co-precipitation with CaCO{sub 3}(s).

  8. Colloid Transport and Surface-Subsurface Exchange in an Acid Mine Drainage-Impacted Stream

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Norvell, A. S.; Ryan, J. N.; Ren, J.; McKnight, D. M.

    2010-12-01

    Colloidal particles may provide an important control on the mobility of contaminants of concern; e.g., metals introduced into a stream from an acid mine drainage. In order to examine colloidal transport and surface-subsurface exchange, we injected synthesized ferrihydrite colloids along with a conservative tracer, bromide, into Lefthand Creek, a stream contaminated by acid mine drainage in northwestern Boulder County, Colorado. The ferrihydrite colloids were co-precipitated with yttrium to form yttrium-labelled colloids so that we could differentiate them from environmental colloids. Yttrium was measured in samples collected from the surface water and the hyporheic zone. The hyporheic zone samples were collected from a series of mini-piezometers embedded up to 1 m in depth and over a 61 m reach of the stream. A one-dimensional transient storage model (OTIS-P) was used to quantify parameters describing the transport of the conservative tracer and the colloids. Approximately 20% of the colloidal mass was lost over the 61 m reach. The loss of colloids is attributed to deposition in the shallow hyporheic zone. Laboratory column experiments demonstrated that the stream bed sediments effectively remove colloids from suspension at the pH, ionic strength, and dissolved organic matter concentration conditions occurring in Lefthand Creek.

  9. Electrochemical treatment of acidic aqueous ferrous sulfate and copper sulfate as models for acid mine drainage.

    PubMed

    Bunce, N J; Chartrand, M; Keech, P

    2001-12-01

    Acid mine drainage (AMD) is a serious environmental problem in the mining industry. The present work describes electrolytic reduction of solutions of synthetic AMD, comprising FeSO4/H2SO4 and CuSO4/H2SO4, in flow-through cells whose anode and cathode compartments were separated using ion exchange membranes. In the case of FeSO4/H2SO4 at constant flow rate, the pH of the effluent from the catholyte increased progressively with current at a variety of cathodes, due to electrolytic reduction of H+ ions to elemental hydrogen. Near-quantitative removal of iron was achieved by sparging air into the catholyte effluent, thereby precipitating iron outside the electrochemical cell, and avoiding fouling of the electrodes. The anode reaction was the oxidation of water to O2, a proton-releasing process. Using cation exchange membranes and sodium sulfate as the supporting electrolyte in the anode compartment, the efficiency of the process was compromised at high currents by transport of H+ competitively with Na+ from the anode to the cathode compartments. Higher efficiencies were obtained when anion exchange membranes were used, and in this case no additional supporting electrolyte other than dilute H2SO4 was needed, the net reaction being the electrochemically driven transfer of the elements of H2SO4 from the cathode to the anode compartments. Current efficiencies approximately 50% were achieved, the loss of efficiency being accounted for by ohmic heating of the solutions. In the case of CuSO4/H2SO4 and anion exchange membranes at high currents, reduction of Cu2+ and H+ ions and transport of SO4(2-) ions out of the catholyte caused unacceptably high potentials to be generated. PMID:11763043

  10. Natural Versus Anthropogenic Remediation of Streams Impacted by Acid Mine Drainage in Southeast Ohio

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Clinton, T.; Lopez, D. L.

    2004-12-01

    Three streams that have been affected by acid mine drainage in southeast Ohio have been investigated (Sulphur Run in the Federal Creek watershed, Rock Run in the Monday Creek watershed, and Buffer Run in the Raccoon Creek watershed). Sulphur Run neutralizes acidic inputs naturally due to its strong buffering capacity acquired from water-rock interactions with the abundant carbonate lithology surrounding the stream. Rock Run and Buffer Run have been anthropogenically remediated using successive alkalinity producing wetlands, open limestone channels, and alkaline capping of adjacent coal refuse piles. The objective of this study is to compare the water quality evolution of the three streams. For this purpose, water and sediment samples were collected for chemical analysis and in-situ flow rate, alkalinity, acidity, pH, dissolved oxygen, and conductivity were measured. Preliminary results reveal that the pH of Sulphur Run, which never drops below 6.7, increases steadily along the flow path. Downstream of the remediation sites, the pH of Rock Run and Buffer Run is always below 4 and declines along the flow path, possibly due to a combination of additional acidic inputs downstream from the main source and the oxidation of metals, leading to hydrolysis reactions that produce additional hydrogen protons. The net alkalinity of Sulphur Run increases steadily downstream, reflecting the effectiveness of a continuous supply of alkaline material at neutralizing acidic inputs. Both Buffer Run and Rock Run are net acidic, suggesting that armoring of the open limestone channels by metal precipitates is impeding the recovery of water quality. The early results indicate that remediation schemes that do not mimic nature by providing a long term, steady supply of alkaline material appear to be ineffective.

  11. Old carbon efflux from tropical peat swamp drainage waters

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vihermaa, Leena; Waldron, Susan; Evers, Stephanie; Garnett, Mark; Newton, Jason

    2014-05-01

    Tropical peatlands constitute ~12% of the global peatland carbon pool, and of this 10% is in Malaysia1. Due to rising demand for food and biofuels, large areas of peat swamp forest ecosystems have been converted to plantation in Southeast Asia and are being subjected to degradation, drainage and fire, changing their carbon fluxes eg.2,3. Dissolved organic carbon (DOC) lost from disturbed tropical peat can be derived from deep within the peat column and be aged from centuries to millennia4 contributing to aquatic release and cycling of old carbon. Here we present the results of a field campaign to the Raja Musa Peat Swamp Forest Reserve in N. Selangor Malaysia, which has been selectively logged for 80 years before being granted timber reserve status. We measured CO2 and CH4efflux rates from drainage systems with different treatment history, and radiocarbon dated the evasion CO2 and associated [DOC]. We also collected water chemistry and stable isotope data from the sites. During our sampling in the dry season CO2 efflux rates ranged from 0.8 - 13.6 μmol m-2 s-1. Sediments in the channel bottom contained CH4 that appeared to be primarily lost by ebullition, leading to sporadic CH4 efflux. However, dissolved CH4 was also observed in water samples collected from these systems. The CO2 efflux was aged up to 582±37 years BP (0 BP = AD 1950) with the associated DOC aged 495±35 years BP. Both DOC and evasion CO2 were most 14C-enriched (i.e. younger) at the least disturbed site, and implied a substantial component of recently fixed carbon. In contrast, CO2 and DOC from the other sites had older 14C ages, indicating disturbance as the trigger for the loss of old carbon. 1Page et al., 2010 2Hooijer et al., 2010 3Kimberly et al., 2012 4Moore et al., 2013

  12. Analysis of Biogeochemistry of Acid-Mine Drainage at Rowe, Massachusetts

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ahlfeld, D. P.; Yuretich, R.; Ergas, S.; Nusslein, K.; Feldman, A.

    2003-12-01

    Acid waters rich in iron and sulfate can support a wide variety of microorganisms that catalyze the oxidation-reduction reactions of these bioactive elements, exemplified by acid-mine drainage (AMD). In order to study the biogeochemistry of natural attenuation a field site has been established at Davis Mine, an abandoned pyrite mine in rural Rowe Massachusetts. This site is of particular interest because of the apparent dynamic equilibrium that has restricted the extent of the AMD in this area since the mine was closed nearly 100 years ago. Initial evidence suggests that sulfate reduction is occurring at the fringes of the site. Multi-level monitoring wells and surface water sampling points have been installed. Soil samples collected from the drilled wells are being used to provide inoculums for cultivating bacteria and identifying DNA. Preliminary data indicate a restricted lens of impacted groundwater that moves rapidly through the mine tailings and shallow bedrock fractures, but is contained by ambient groundwater from uncontaminated recharge areas. Sulfate reduction has been documented at the margins of the acid-generating area, and this has been reproduced in laboratory experiments. Current research is now examining the processes of Fe(III) and SO4 reduction and the roles of acidophilic and acid-tolerant anaerobic microorganisms. K12 teachers are part of the research teams and the effects of research experiences on their higher-level understanding of science are being evaluated.

  13. Using AVIRIS In The NASA BAA Project To Evaluate The Impact Of Natural Acid Drainage On Colorado Watersheds

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hauff, Phoebe L.; Coulter, David W.; Peters, Douglas C.; Sares, Matthew A.; Prosh, Eric C.; Henderson, Frederick B., III; Bird, David

    2004-01-01

    The Colorado Geological Survey and the co-authors of this paper were awarded one of 15 NASA Broad Agency Announcement (BAA) grants in 2001. The project focuses on the use of hyperspectral remote sensing to map acid-generating minerals that affect water quality within a watershed, and to identify the relative contributions of natural and anthropogenic sources to that drainage. A further objective is to define the most cost-effective remote sensing instrument configuration for this application.

  14. Chemical stability of acid rock drainage treatment sludge and implications for sludge management

    SciTech Connect

    Danny M. McDonald; John A. Webb; Jeff Taylor

    2006-03-15

    To assess the chemical stability of sludges generated by neutralizing acid rock drainage (ARD) with alkaline reagents, synthetic ARD was treated with hydrated lime (batch and high-density sludge process), limestone, and two proprietary reagents (KB-1 and Bauxsol). The amorphous metal hydroxide sludge produced was leached using deionized water, U.S. EPA methods (toxicity characteristic leaching procedure, synthetic precipitation leaching procedure), and the new strong acid leach test (SALT), which leaches the sludge with a series of sulfuric acid extractant solutions; the pH decreases by {approximately} 1 pH unit with each test, until the final pH is {approximately}2. Sludges precipitated by all reagents had very similar leachabilities except for KB-1 and Bauxsol, which released more aluminum. SALT showed that lowering the pH of the leaching solution mobilized more metals from the sludges. Iron, aluminum, copper, and zinc began to leach at pH 2.5-3, {approximately}4.5, {approximately}5.5, and 6-6.5, respectively. The leachability of ARD treatment sludges is determined by the final pH of the leachate. A higher neutralization potential (e.g., a greater content of unreacted neutralizing agent) makes sludges inherently more chemically stable. Thus, when ARD or any acidic metalliferous wastewater is treated, a choice must be made between efficient reagent use and resistance to acid attack. 26 refs., 5 figs., 2 tabs.

  15. Chemical stability of acid rock drainage treatment sludge and implications for sludge management.

    PubMed

    McDonald, Danny M; Webb, John A; Taylor, Jeff

    2006-03-15

    To assess the chemical stability of sludges generated by neutralizing acid rock drainage (ARD) with alkaline reagents, synthetic ARD was treated with hydrated lime (batch and high-density sludge process), limestone, and two proprietary reagents (KB-1 and Bauxsol). The amorphous metal hydroxide sludge produced was leached using deionized water, U.S. EPA methods (toxicity characteristic leaching procedure, synthetic precipitation leaching procedure), and the new strong acid leach test (SALT), which leaches the sludge with a series of sulfuric acid extractant solutions; the pH decreases by approximately 1 pH unit with each test, until the final pH is approximately 2. Sludges precipitated by all reagents had very similar leachabilities except for KB-1 and Bauxsol, which released more aluminum. SALT showed that lowering the pH of the leaching solution mobilized more metals from the sludges. Iron, aluminum, copper, and zinc began to leach at pH 2.5-3, approximately 4.5, approximately 5.5, and 6-6.5, respectively. The leachability of ARD treatment sludges is determined by the final pH of the leachate. A higher neutralization potential (e.g., a greater content of unreacted neutralizing agent) makes sludges inherently more chemically stable. Thus, when ARD or any acidic metalliferous wastewater is treated, a choice must be made between efficient reagent use and resistance to acid attack. PMID:16570625

  16. TREATMENT OF ACID MINE DRAINAGE USING FISHBONE APATITE IITM

    SciTech Connect

    Neal A. Yancey

    2006-10-01

    ABSTRACT. In 2000, a reactive barrier was installed on the East Fork of Ninemile Creek near Wallace, Idaho to treat acid mine discharge. The barrier was filled with fishbone derived Apatite IITM to remove the contaminants of concern (Zn, Pb, and Cd) and raise the pH of the acidic mine discharge. Metal removal has been achieved by a combination of chemical, biological, and physical precipitation. Flow for the water ranges from 5 to 35 gallons per minute. The water is successfully being treated, but the system experienced varying degrees of plugging. In 2002, gravel was mixed with the Apatite IITM to help control plugging. In 2003 the Idaho National Laboratory was ask to provide technical support to the Coeur d’Alene Basin Commission to help identify a remedy to the plugging issue. Air sparging was employed to treat the plugging issues. Plastic packing rings were added in the fall of 2005, which have increased the void space in the media and increased flows during the 10 months of operation since the improvements were made.

  17. Inorganic Nitrogen Cycling in an Extreme Acid Mine Drainage Site

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kalnejais, L. H.; Smith, R. L.; Nordstrom, D. K.; Banfield, J. F.

    2006-12-01

    Weathering of the massive sulfide ore body at Iron Mountain, northern California has generated sulfuric acid solutions with pH values ranging from 0.5 to 1, temperatures up to 50°C and high concentrations of toxic metals. Communities of microorganisms catalyze the oxidation of iron and sulfur that generates this extreme environment. The nitrogen requirements of these organisms and the nitrogen cycling within these waters are not understood. By adapting the chemiluminescence detection method of Baeseman (2004) we have constrained the stability of nitrate and nitrite species in acidic, high ferrous iron solutions and have measured a time series of the nitrate concentrations at sites within Iron Mountain. The half-life of nitrite is less than an hour due to reactions with ferrous ions, while nitrate is found at concentrations of up to 10 μM within the mine. By coupling this information with geochemical and microbial community information at each site together with culture enrichment studies using various nitrogen sources we hope to gain insight into the pathways of nitrogen utilization in this extreme environment. References Baeseman, J.L. (2004) Denitrification in acid-impacted mountain stream sediments. Ph.D. Dissertation, University of Colorado, Department of Civil, Environmental, and Architectural Engineering.

  18. Acid mine drainage and its impact in the Black Creek watershed, Virginia

    SciTech Connect

    Yeager, J.L.; Cherry, D.S.; Bidwell, J.R.

    1995-12-31

    A one-year study was conducted to determine the impacts of acid min drainage (AMD) on the Black Creek watershed in Wise County, Virginia. Water quality, metal content of sediment and water column, soil pH, macroinvertebrate assemblages, habitat assessment and toxicity testing were used to assess the impact in the watershed. A total of 22 sites in the creek and surrounding watershed were actively monitored. This included six primary sources of AMD. Conductivity measurements > 1,000 {micro}hmos/cm were found at eight sites and pH was consistently below 6.0 at seven. Of six metals analyzed, magnesium was highest in the water column, ranging from 16.5 mg/L to 130 mg/L. Aluminum and iron were both elevated in the sediment with iron concentrations as high as 176,000 mg/kg. An increase in sediment metal concentrations was noted when progressing downstream in the creek. Of nine high wall and spoils areas sampled, soil pH was acidic in eight sites, ranging from 5.5 to 3.1. Macroinvertebrate assemblages and habitat assessment indicate that much of the creek is impacted by AMD or heavy siltation. Laboratory bioassays with Daphnia magna and Chironomus tentans have indicated both acute and chronic toxicity of water and sediment samples from selected sites within the creek. Potential recovery of the system is being addressed through a sediment purging study. Restoration options will be considered once the degree of impact is fully characterized.

  19. Drainage water management effects on tile discharge and water quality

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Nitrogen (N) fluxes from tile drained watersheds have been implicated in water quality studies of the Mississippi River Basin, but the contribution of tile drains to N export in headwater watersheds is not well understood. The objective of this study was to ascertain seasonal and annual contribution...

  20. EVALUATION OF A METHOD USING COLLOIDAL GAS APHRONS TO REMEDIATE METALS-CONTAMINATED MINE DRAINAGE WATERS

    SciTech Connect

    R. Williams Grimes

    2002-06-01

    Experiments were conducted in which three selected metals-contaminated mine drainage water samples were treated by chemical precipitation followed by flotation using colloidal gas aphrons (CGAs) to concentrate the precipitates. Drainage water samples used in the experiments were collected from an abandoned turn-of-the-century copper mine in south-central Wyoming, an inactive gold mine in Colorado's historic Clear Creek mining district, and a relatively modern gold mine near Rapid City, South Dakota. The copper mine drainage sample was nearly neutral (pH 6.5) while the two gold mine samples were quite acidic (pH {approx}2.5). Metals concentrations ranged from a few mg/L for the copper mine drainage to several thousand mg/L for the sample from South Dakota. CGAs are emulsions of micrometer-sized soap bubbles generated in a surfactant solution. In flotation processes the CGA microbubbles provide a huge interfacial surface area and cause minimal turbulence as they rise through the liquid. CGA flotation can provide an inexpensive alternative to dissolved air flotation (DAF). The CGA bubbles are similar in size to the bubbles typical of DAF. However, CGAs are generated at ambient pressure, eliminating the need for compressors and thus reducing energy, capital, and maintenance costs associated with DAF systems. The experiments involved precipitation of dissolved metals as either hydroxides or sulfides followed by flotation. The CGAs were prepared using a number of different surfactants. Chemical precipitation followed by CGA flotation reduced contaminant metals concentrations by more than 90% for the copper mine drainage and the Colorado gold mine drainage. Contaminant metals were concentrated into a filterable sludge, representing less than 10% of the original volume. CGA flotation of the highly contaminated drainage sample from South Dakota was ineffective. All of the various surfactants used in this study generated a large sludge volume and none provided a significant

  1. Gill lesions and death of bluegill in an acid mine drainage mixing zone

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Henry, T.B.; Irwin, E.R.; Grizzle, J.M.; Brumbaugh, W.G.; Wildhaber, M.L.

    2001-01-01

    The toxicity of an acid mine drainage (AMD) mixing zone was investigated by placing bluegill (Lepomis macrochirus) at the confluence of a stream contaminated by AMD and a stream having neutral pH. A mixing channel receiving water from both streams was assembled in the field, during July and October 1996, to determine the toxicity of freshly mixed and aged water (2.9-7.5 min). The AMD stream had elevated concentrations of Al and Fe, which precipitated upon mixing, and of Mn, which did not precipitate in the mixing zone. Fish exposed to freshly mixed water had higher mortality than fish exposed to water after aging. Precipitating Al, but not Fe, accumulated on the gills of bluegill, and accumulation was more rapid early during the mixing process than after aging. Fish exposed for 3.5 h to freshly mixed water had hypertrophy and hyperplasia of gill filament and lamellar epithelial cells. Similar lesions were observed after 6.0 h in fish exposed to water aged after mixing. Results demonstrated that Al was the predominant metal accumulating on the gills of fish in this AMD mixing zone, and that mixing zones can be more toxic than AMD streams in equilibrium.

  2. Sulfate reduction at low pH to remediate acid mine drainage.

    PubMed

    Sánchez-Andrea, Irene; Sanz, Jose Luis; Bijmans, Martijn F M; Stams, Alfons J M

    2014-03-30

    Industrial activities and the natural oxidation of metallic sulfide-ores produce sulfate-rich waters with low pH and high heavy metals content, generally termed acid mine drainage (AMD). This is of great environmental concern as some heavy metals are highly toxic. Within a number of possibilities, biological treatment applying sulfate-reducing bacteria (SRB) is an attractive option to treat AMD and to recover metals. The process produces alkalinity, neutralizing the AMD simultaneously. The sulfide that is produced reacts with the metal in solution and precipitates them as metal sulfides. Here, important factors for biotechnological application of SRB such as the inocula, the pH of the process, the substrates and the reactor design are discussed. Microbial communities of sulfidogenic reactors treating AMD which comprise fermentative-, acetogenic- and SRB as well as methanogenic archaea are reviewed. PMID:24444599

  3. Enhancing the natural removal of As in a reactive fluvial confluence receiving acid drainage

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Abarca, M. I.; Arce, G.; Montecinos, M.; Guerra, P. A.; Pasten, P.

    2014-12-01

    Fluvial confluences are natural reactors that can determine the fate of contaminants in watersheds receiving acid drainage. Hydrological, hydrodynamic and chemical factors determine distinct conditions for the formation of suspended particles of iron and aluminum oxyhydroxides. The chemical and physical properties of these particle assemblages (e.g. particle size, chemical composition) can vary according to inflow mixing ratios, hydrodynamic velocity profiles, and chemical composition of the flows mixing at the confluence. Due to their capacity to sorb metals, it is important to identify the optimal conditions for removing metals from the aqueous phase, particularly arsenic, a contaminant frequently found in acid drainage. We studied a river confluence in the Lluta watershed, located in the arid Chilean Altiplano. We performed field measurements and laboratory studies to find optimal mixing ratio for arsenic sorption onto oxyhydroxide particles at the confluence between the Azufre (pH=2, As=2 mg/L) and the Caracarani river (pH=8, As<0.1 mg/L). As the contribution of the acidic stream increased, the concentration of Fe and Al in the solid phase reached a peak at different pHs. Although the optimal pH for As sorption was ~3, the overall maximum removal of As at the confluence, ocurred for pH~4. This is produced because optimal As sorption does not occur necessarily for the highest concentrations of particles being formed. We propose that fluvial confluences could be engineered to enhance the natural attenuation of contaminants. An analogy between confluences and coagulation-flocculation-sedimentation drinking water plants could be used to engineer such intervention.Acknowledgements: Proyecto Fondecyt 1130936 and Proyecto CONICYT FONDAP 15110020

  4. Agricultural drainage water management: Potential impact and implementation strategies

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The unique soil and climate of the Upper Mississippi River Basin (and the Lake Erie Basin) area provide the resources for bountiful agricultural production. Agricultural drainage (both surface and subsurface drainage) is essential for achieving economically viable crop production and management. Dra...

  5. Coupling of hydrologic transport and chemical reactions in a stream affected by acid mine drainage

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Kimball, B.A.; Broshears, R.E.; Bencala, K.E.; McKnight, Diane M.

    1994-01-01

    Experiments in St. Kevin Gulch, an acid mine drainage stream, examined the coupling of hydrologic transport to chemical reactions affecting metal concentrations. Injection of LiCl as a conservative tracer was used to determine discharge and residence time along a 1497-m reach. Transport of metals downstream from inflows of acidic, metal-rich water was evaluated based on synoptic samples of metal concentrations and the hydrologic characteristics of the stream. Transport of SO4 and Mn was generally conservative, but in the subreaches most affected by acidic inflows, transport was reactive. Both 0.1-??m filtered and particulate Fe were reactive over most of the stream reach. Filtered Al partitioned to the particulate phase in response to high instream concentrations. Simulations that accounted for the removal of SO4, Mn, Fe, and Al with first-order reactions reproduced the steady-state profiles. The calculated rate constants for net removal used in the simulations embody several processes that occur on a stream-reach scale. The comparison between rates of hydrologie transport and chemical reactions indicates that reactions are only important over short distances in the stream near the acidic inflows, where reactions occur on a comparable time scale with hydrologic transport and thus affect metal concentrations.

  6. AMELIORATION OF ACID MINE DRAINAGE USING REACTIVE MIXTURES IN PERMEABLE REACTIVE BARRIERS

    EPA Science Inventory

    The generation and release of acidic drainage from mine wastes is an environmental problem of international scale. The use of zero-valent iron and/or iron mixtures in subsurface Permeable Reactive Barriers (PRB) presents a possible passive alternative for remediating acidic grou...

  7. Draft Genome Sequences of Two Novel Acidimicrobiaceae Members from an Acid Mine Drainage Biofilm Metagenome.

    PubMed

    Pinto, Ameet J; Sharp, Jonathan O; Yoder, Michael J; Almstrand, Robert

    2016-01-01

    Bacteria belonging to the family Acidimicrobiaceae are frequently encountered in heavy metal-contaminated acidic environments. However, their phylogenetic and metabolic diversity is poorly resolved. We present draft genome sequences of two novel and phylogenetically distinct Acidimicrobiaceae members assembled from an acid mine drainage biofilm metagenome. PMID:26769942

  8. Draft Genome Sequences of Two Novel Acidimicrobiaceae Members from an Acid Mine Drainage Biofilm Metagenome

    PubMed Central

    Pinto, Ameet J.; Sharp, Jonathan O.; Yoder, Michael J.

    2016-01-01

    Bacteria belonging to the family Acidimicrobiaceae are frequently encountered in heavy metal-contaminated acidic environments. However, their phylogenetic and metabolic diversity is poorly resolved. We present draft genome sequences of two novel and phylogenetically distinct Acidimicrobiaceae members assembled from an acid mine drainage biofilm metagenome. PMID:26769942

  9. Adsorption compared with sulfide precipitation as metal removal processes from acid mine drainage in a constructed wetland

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Machemer, Steven D.; Wildeman, Thomas R.

    1992-01-01

    Metal removal processes from acid mine drainage were studied in an experimental constructed wetland in the Idaho Springs-Central City mining district of Colorado. The wetland was designed to passively remove heavy metals from the mine drainage flowing from the Big Five Tunnel. Concurrent studies were performed in the field on the waters flowing from the wetland and in the laboratory on the wetland substrate. Both studies suggest that there is competition for organic adsorption sites among Fe, Cu, Zn and Mn. Iron and Cu appear to be more strongly adsorbed than Zn and Mn. The adsorption of metals varies with the fluctuation of pH in the outflow water. Also indicated by field and laboratory studies is the microbial reduction of sulfate with a corresponding increase in the sulfide concentration of the water. As sulfide is generated. Cu and Zn are completely removed. The field results suggest that upon start up of a constructed wetland, the adsorption of dissolved metals onto organic sites in the substrate material will be an important process. Over time, sulfide precipitation becomes the dominant process for metal removal from acid mine drainage.

  10. Acid mine water aeration and treatment system

    DOEpatents

    Ackman, Terry E.; Place, John M.

    1987-01-01

    An in-line system is provided for treating acid mine drainage which basically comprises the combination of a jet pump (or pumps) and a static mixer. The jet pump entrains air into the acid waste water using a Venturi effect so as to provide aeration of the waste water while further aeration is provided by the helical vanes of the static mixer. A neutralizing agent is injected into the suction chamber of the jet pump and the static mixer is formed by plural sections offset by 90 degrees.

  11. The reaction of acid mine drainage with fly ash from coal combustion

    SciTech Connect

    Kim, A.G.

    1999-07-01

    The placement of alkaline fly ash in abandoned, reclaimed or active surface coal mines is intended to reduce the amount of acid mine drainage (AMD) produced at such sites by neutralization, inhibition of acid forming bacteria, encapsulation of the pyrite or water diversion. A continuing concern with this application is the potential release of trace elements from the fly ash when it is placed in contact with AMD. To investigate the possible release of antimony, arsenic, barium, boron, cadmium, chromium, cobalt, copper, lead, nickel, selenium, and zinc from fly ash, a series of column leaching tests were conducted. A one kg fly ash sample, placed in a 5-cm by 1 m acrylic columns, was leached at a nominal rate of 250 mL/d for between 30 and 60 days. The leachant solutions were deionized water, and dilute solutions of sulfuric acid and ferric chloride. Leaching tests have been completed on 28 fly ash samples. leachate data, analyzed as the mass extracted with respect to the concentration in the solid, indicate that the release of trace elements is variable, with only barium and zinc extracted at greater than 50 pct of the amount present in the original sample. As a comparison, water quality changes have been monitored at three sites where fly ash grout was injected after reclamation to control AMD. When compared before and after grouting, small increases in pH and decreases in acidity at discharge points were observed. Concentrations of trace metals were found to be comparable in treated and untreated areas. When grouted and ungrouted areas were compared, the effect of the fly ash was shown to be localized in the areas of injection. These studies indicated that when fly ash is used as a reagent to control of AMD, the release of trace elements is relatively small.

  12. Capture and characterization of particulate phosphorus from farm drainage waters in the Everglades Agricultural Area

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bhadha, J. H.; Lang, T.; Daroub, S.

    2012-12-01

    The buildup of highly labile, organic, phosphorus (P)-enriched sediments in farms canals within the Everglades Agricultural Area (EAA) has been associated with the production of floating aquatic vegetation. During drainage events, these sediments are susceptible to transport and contribute to the overall P load. In order to evaluate the total P load exiting the farm canals, a settling tank experiment was conducted to capture the sediments during drainage events from eight farms. Drainage water was channelized through two 200L polypropylene collection tanks which allowed sediments to settle at the bottom based on its particle size. Water was carefully siphoned out of the tanks and the sediments collected for analyses. A five step P-fractionation process was used to distinguish organic (o) and inorganic (i) forms of P: KCl extractable P, NaOH extractable P, HCl extractable P, and residual P. The KCl-Pi fraction represents the labile Pi that is water soluble and exchangeable (loosely adsorbed); NaOH extractable P represents Fe- and Al- bound inorganic P (NaOH-Pi) and organic P associated with humic and fulvic acids (NaOH-Po). The HCl-Pi fraction includes Ca- and Mg- bound P, while Residue-P represents recalcitrant organic P compounds and P bound to minerals. The sediments were also used to conduct a P-flux study under both aerobic and anaerobic conditions. Our goal is to provide growers with vital information and insight into P loading that will help them in their efforts to reduce off-farm P loads in the EAA.

  13. Microbiological monitoring of acid mine drainage treatment systems and aquatic surroundings using real-time PCR.

    PubMed

    Han, J S; Kim, C G

    2009-01-01

    In general, acid mine drainage (AMD) causes low pH and high metal concentrations in mining areas and surroundings. The aim of this research was to achieve microbiological monitoring for AMD and to assess whether mine water outflows have any ecological effects on the aqueous ecosystem receiving effluents from different types of treatment system. The water quality of aquatic sample was analyzed and the molecular biological diversity of the samples was assessed using 16S rRNA methods, which were implemented to determine which bacteria existed throughout various unit processes for different AMD treatment systems and their receiving water environments. Acidiphilium cryptum, a heterotrophic acidophile, was found at the AMD sites, and Rhodoferax ferrireducens, which can reduce iron using insoluble Fe(III) as an electron acceptor, was detected at many AMD treatment facilities and downstream of the treatment processes. Subsequently, quantitative real-time PCR was conducted on specific genes of selected bacteria. Surprisingly, obvious trends were observed in the relative abundance of the various bacteria that corresponded to the water quality analytical results. The copy number of Desulfosporosinus orientus, a sulfate reducing bacteria, was also observed to decrease in response to decreases in metals according to the downstream flow of the AMD treatment system. PMID:19494446

  14. Acid mine drainage on public and private lands, the Walker Mine experience, Plumas County, California

    SciTech Connect

    Croyle, W.A.; Rosenbaum, S.E.

    1996-11-01

    A widespread environmental problem associated with abandoned mines and their tailings is acid mine drainage (AMD). AMID typically has low pH and elevated metal concentrations that are toxic to aquatic life. In Northern California, Iron Mountain and other mines in the Shasta mining districts are the largest sources of AMD. Additional sources lie to the south along a discontinuous belt of copper and zinc mineralization in the western Sierra foothills. Between these areas lies a remote group of copper mines in northeastern Plumas County including the Walker, Engels and Superior mines. Of this group, AMD from Walker Mine has caused the most severe water quality impairment. This paper describes the history and environmental setting of Walker Mine and the approaches used by the Central Valley Regional Water Quality Control Board, a state regulatory agency, to improve water quality at the site. Both the mine and its tailings contribute pollutants to the watershed. The mine has a portal discharge with depressed pH and high copper concentrations. The tailings add fine grained sediment to the creek and generate low but significant concentrations of dissolved copper. The mine is on private property and the tailings are on land managed by the U. S. Forest Service. Because of these differences in pollution problems and ownership, the methods employed by the Regional Board to improve conditions at the mine and tailings have been on different, but parallel tracks. Monitoring shows these efforts have significantly improved water quality in the watershed over the last 10 years.

  15. Stable isotope geochemistry of acid mine drainage: Experimental oxidation of pyrite

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Taylor, B.E.; Wheeler, M.C.; Nordstrom, D.K.

    1984-01-01

    Sulfate and water from experiments in which pyrite was oxidized at a pH of 2.0 were analyzed for sulfur and oxygen stable isotopes. Experiments were conducted under both aerobic and anaerobic sterile conditions, as well as under aerobic conditions in the presence of Thiobacillus ferrooxidans, to elucidate the pathways of oxidation. Oxygen isotope fractionation between SO2-4 and H2O varied from +4.0 %. (anaerobic, sterile) to + 18.0 %. (aerobic, with T. ferrooxidans.). The oxygen isotope composition of dissolved oxygen utilized in both chemical and microbially-mediated oxidation was also determined (+11.4 %., by T. ferrooxidans; +18.4 %., chemical). Contributions of water-derived oxygen and dissolved oxygen to the sulfate produced in the oxidation of pyrite could thus be estimated. Water-derived oxygen constituted from 23 to ~ 100 percent of the oxygen in the sulfate produced in the experiments, and this closely approximates the range of contribution in natural acid mine drainage. Oxidation of sulfides in anaerobic, water-saturated environments occurs primarily by chemical oxidation pathways, whereas oxidation of sulfides in well-aerated, unsaturated zone environments occurs dominantly by microbially mediated pathways. ?? 1984.

  16. Performance Evaluation of Automated Passive Capillary Sampler for Estimating Water Drainage in the Vadose Zone

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Passive capillary samplers (PCAPs) are widely used to monitor, measure and sample drainage water under saturated and unsaturated soil conditions in the vadose zone. The objective of this study was to evaluate the performance and accuracy of automated passive capillary sampler for estimating drainage...

  17. Hydrobiogeochemical interactions in 'anoxic' limestone drains for neutralization of acidic mine drainage

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Robbins, E.I.; Cravotta, C.A., III; Savela, C.E.; Nord, G.L., Jr.

    1999-01-01

    Processes affecting neutralization of acidic coal mine drainage were evaluated within 'anoxic' limestone drains (ALDs). Influents had pH???3.5 and dissolved oxygen <2 mg/l. Even though effluents were near neutral (pH 6 and alkalinity acidity), two of the four ALDs were failing due to clogging. Mineral-saturation indices indicated the potential for dissolution of calcite and gypsum, and precipitation of Al3+ and Fe3+ compounds. Cleavage mounts of calcite and gypsum that were suspended within the ALDs and later examined microscopically showed dissolution features despite coatings by numerous bacteria, biofilms, and Fe-Al-Si precipitates. In the drain exhibiting the greatest flow reduction, Al-hydroxysulfates had accumulated on limestone surfaces and calcite etch points, thus causing the decline in transmissivity and dissolution. Therefore, where Al loadings are high and flow rates are low, a pre-treatment step is indicated to promote Al removal before diverting acidic mine water into alkalinity-producing materials. ?? 1998 Elsevier Science Ltd.

  18. Combination of Successive Alkalinity Producing System (SAPS) and Aeration for Passive Treatment of Highly Acidic Mine Drainage

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Oh, C.; Ji, S.

    2015-12-01

    Passive treatment system has been widely used for remediation of mine drainage since its advantage of low installation and maintenance cost. The system, however, has also a disadvantage in assuring remediation and management efficiency if the drainage is highly acidic mine drainage. To remediate acid mine drainage (AMD) especially showing high acidity, passive treatment system which consists of successive alkalinity producing system (SAPS) and subsequent aeration pond was proposed and its mechanisms and efficiency was evaluated in this research. Target AMD was obtained from Waryong coal mine and showed typical characteristics of AMD having high metal concentration and low pH (acidity > 300 mg/L as CaCO3). Four experimental cases were conducted; untreated, treated with SAPS, treated with aeration, treated with SAPS and aeration to compare role and mechanism of each unit. Between organic matter and limestone layer which constitute SAPS, the former eliminated most of Fe(III) and Al in the AMD so that the latter was kept from being clogged by precipitates. Net acidity of the AMD rapidly decreased by supplement of alkalinity at the limestone layer. A primary function of SAPS, producing alkalinity constantly without clogging, was attained due to addition a portion of limestone particle into the organic matter layer. The discharge from SAPS had low ORP and DO values because of an anaerobic environment formed at the organic matter layer although its alkalinity was increased. This water quality was unfavorable for Fe(II) to be oxidized. Installation of aeration pond after SAPS, therefore, could be effective way of enhancing oxidation rate of Fe(II). Among the experimental cases, the combination of SAPS and aeration pond was only able to remediate the AMD. This concluded that to remediate highly acidic mine drainage with passive treatment system, three critical conditions were required; pre-precipitation of Fe(III) and Al at organic matter layer in SAPS, constant alkalinity

  19. Interaction of acid mine drainage with Ordinary Portland Cement blended solid residues generated from active treatment of acid mine drainage with coal fly ash.

    PubMed

    Gitari, Wilson M; Petrik, Leslie F; Key, David L; Okujeni, Charles

    2011-01-01

    Fly ash (FA) has been investigated as a possible treatment agent for Acid mine drainage (AMD) and established to be an alternative, cheap and economically viable agent compared to the conventional alkaline agents. However, this treatment option also leads to generation of solid residues (SR) that require disposal and one of the proposed disposal method is a backfill in coal mine voids. In this study, the interaction of the SR with AMD that is likely to be present in such backfill scenario was simulated by draining columns packed with SR and SR + 6% Ordinary Portland Cement (OPC) unsaturated with simulated AMD over a 6 month period. The evolving geochemistry of the liquid/solid (L/S) system was evaluated in-terms of the mineral phases likely or controlling contaminants attenuation at the different pH regimes generated. Stepwise acidification of the percolates was observed as the drainage progressed. Two pH buffer zones were observed (7.5-9 and 3-4) for SR and (11.2-11.3 and 3.5-4) for SR + 6% OPC. The solid residue cores (SR) appeared to have a significant buffering capacity, maintaining a neutral to slightly alkaline pH in the leachates for an extended period of time (97 days: L/S 4.3) while SR + 6% OPC reduced this neutralization capacity to 22 days (L/S 1.9). Interaction of AMD with SR or SR + 6% OPC generated alkaline conditions that favored precipitation of Fe, Al, Mn-(oxy) hydroxides, Fe and Ca-Al hydroxysulphates that greatly contributed to the contaminants removal. However, precipitation of these phases was restricted to the pH of the leachates remaining at neutral to circum-neutral levels. Backfill of mine voids with SR promises to be a feasible technology for the disposal of the SR but its success will greatly depend on the disposal scenario, AMD generated and the alkalinity generating potential of the SR. A disadvantage would be the possible re-dissolution of the precipitated phases at pH < 4 that would release the contaminants back to the water column

  20. Acid rock drainage and rock weathering in Antarctica: important sources for iron cycling in the Southern Ocean.

    PubMed

    Dold, B; Gonzalez-Toril, E; Aguilera, A; Lopez-Pamo, E; Cisternas, M E; Bucchi, F; Amils, R

    2013-06-18

    Here we describe biogeochemical processes that lead to the generation of acid rock drainage (ARD) and rock weathering on the Antarctic landmass and describe why they are important sources of iron into the Antarctic Ocean. During three expeditions, 2009-2011, we examined three sites on the South Shetland Islands in Antarctica. Two of them displayed intensive sulfide mineralization and generated acidic (pH 3.2-4.5), iron-rich drainage waters (up to 1.78 mM Fe), which infiltrated as groundwater (as Fe(2+)) and as superficial runoff (as Fe(3+)) into the sea, the latter with the formation of schwertmannite in the sea-ice. The formation of ARD in the Antarctic was catalyzed by acid mine drainage microorganisms found in cold climates, including Acidithiobacillus ferrivorans and Thiobacillus plumbophilus. The dissolved iron (DFe) flux from rock weathering (nonmineralized control site) was calculated to be 0.45 × 10(9) g DFe yr(-1) for the nowadays 5468 km of ice-free Antarctic rock coastline which is of the same order of magnitude as glacial or aeolian input to the Southern Ocean. Additionally, the two ARD sites alone liberate 0.026 and 0.057 × 10(9) g DFe yr(-1) as point sources to the sea. The increased iron input correlates with increased phytoplankton production close to the source. This might even be enhanced in the future by a global warming scenario, and could be a process counterbalancing global warming. PMID:23682976

  1. Comparative analysis of the outflow water quality of two sustainable linear drainage systems.

    PubMed

    Andrés-Valeri, V C; Castro-Fresno, D; Sañudo-Fontaneda, L A; Rodriguez-Hernandez, J

    2014-01-01

    Three different drainage systems were built in a roadside car park located on the outskirts of Oviedo (Spain): two sustainable urban drainage systems (SUDS), a swale and a filter drain; and one conventional drainage system, a concrete ditch, which is representative of the most frequently used roadside drainage system in Spain. The concentrations of pollutants were analyzed in the outflow of all three systems in order to compare their capacity to improve water quality. Physicochemical water quality parameters such as dissolved oxygen, total suspended solids, pH, electrical conductivity, turbidity and total petroleum hydrocarbons were monitored and analyzed for 25 months. Results are presented in detail showing significantly smaller amounts of outflow pollutants in SUDS than in conventional drainage systems, especially in the filter drain which provided the best performance. PMID:25353938

  2. Biogenic catalysis in sulphide minerals' weathering processes and acid mine drainage genesis.

    PubMed

    Kušnierová, Mária; Praščáková, Mária; Nowak, Anna K; Gorazda, Katarzyna; Wzorek, Zbigniew

    2014-01-01

    Bioleaching and biogenesis are the main outputs from a large group of environmental processes participating in the natural material cycle, used in raw materials processing. Bio-oxidation reactions are the main basis for bioleaching procedures, often participating in parallel leaching processes. During the leaching processes of polycomponent sulphide substrates, the factor of process selection also plays an important role, being in direct relation to the electric properties and galvanic effect occurring between the individual components of the leaching substrate. This work gives a summary of the results of a research focused on the possibilities of using biotechnological procedures for treatment of Slovak sulphide ores. The object of the research is extraction of valuable metals, undesirable admixtures and degradation of crystal lattice of sulphides for subsequent chemical leaching processing of precious metals. The results of experiments on the existence of biogenic processes in situ on waste dumps from exploitation containing residual sulphides are also presented. The processes result in acid mine drainage water generation. These waters are strongly mineralised (over 48 g/L) and of low pH; that is why they are very caustic. The arsenic content (2.558 mg/L) in outflowing waters from old mines is high and over the limits set by the law. PMID:24445359

  3. Laboratory methods for determining the effects of bactericides on acid mine drainage

    SciTech Connect

    Shellhorn, M.A.; Rastogi, V.

    1984-12-01

    Chemolithotrophic bacteria, particularly Thiobacillus ferrooxidans, can accelerate the oxidation of iron sulfide minerals. Materials toxic to these bacteria can be used to control acid mine drainage. For practical application, it is necessary to evaluate bactericides by determining the concentration at which they are effective for the spoil or refuse on which they are to be used. Two laboratory methods have been developed. In the batch method, ten-gram aliquots of ground refuse powder treated with water or bactericide solutions were incubated in centrifuge bottles for specified periods of time in a humidity chamber. Analyses were done by extracting the samples into a measured volume of water and assaying. In the column leach method, glass columns were used containing one-kilogram samples of refuse of controlled particle size distribution to ensure uniform flow characteristics in all columns. A system for metering water or bactericide solutions into the columns at pre-determined rates was used. Column effluents were assayed weekly. In both methods, comparisons with controls were used to determine the effects of bactericide treatments. Test protocol, versatility and limitations are described using sodium lauryl sulfate as the bactericide.

  4. An analysis of the effectiveness of a constructed wetland treating acid mine drainage

    SciTech Connect

    Huddleston, G.M. III; Grant, A.J.; Ramey, B.A.

    1994-12-31

    Acid mine drainage (AMD) from an abandoned coal mine in southcentral Kentucky had pH levels as low as 2.3 and iron concentrations as high as 641 mg/L. In the summer of 1992, the US Soil Conservation Service constructed a wetland system to treat the AMD that incorporated both physical and biological treatments. The AMD was initially fed into three anoxic limestone beds followed by an aeration pond and four cattail cells. A polishing pond served as the final stage of treatment. Flow of AMD was initiated in the fall of 1992, and treatment effectiveness was monitored for the next year. Chemical analysis and the cladoceran (Ceriodaphnia dubia) survival and reproduction test were performed on water samples collected along the flow path. Water chemistry analysis and determination of toxic levels indicated a substantial increase in pH and removal of metals prior to entering the cattail cells. Water quality in the cattail cells and polishing pond varied throughout the seasons, but had improved substantially by the end of the one-year monitoring period. The use of the wetland system by macroinvertebrates also was evaluated. Results indicated that a limited number of species were found in the cattail cells, while larger numbers were recovered from the polishing pond.

  5. Study of natural wetlands associated with acid mine drainage. Final research report Jul 87-Dec 90

    SciTech Connect

    Stark, L.R.

    1990-12-01

    Thirty-five natural wetlands impacted by acid mine drainage (mostly in western PA) were surveyed for abiotic and biotic parameters in relation to water quality. Using treatment efficiency and area-adjusted mass retention as wetland performance indices, correlation analyses and multiple regression techniques were employed to evaluate the influence of the wetland parameters on the mitigation of pH, Fe, Mn, and Al. Elevation of pH was correlated with large, broad, low-flow wetlands with shallow, non-channelized surface water, inlet alkalinity, and dense populations of vascular plants and bryophytes. Moderate and high iron concentrations interfered with the mitigation of pH. High Fe treatment efficiencies were correlated to low flows, large areas, broad shapes, non-channelized flows, exposed locations, a diverse and dense vegetative cover, and inlet alkalinity. Large wetlands having lush vascular plant cover and receiving alkaline waters low in total iron concentrations were implicated in significant Mn treatment. Outlet Fe concentrations were usually in compliance in wetlands that significantly lowered Mn concentrations. Algae tolerate manganese but probably do not play an active role in its elimination. Reliable indices of wetland performance include area-adjusted mass retention (for pH) and treatment efficiency (for metals).

  6. Pathways of acid mine drainage to Clear Lake: implications for mercury cycling.

    PubMed

    Shipp, William G; Zierenberg, Robert A

    2008-12-01

    Pore fluids from Clear Lake sediments collected near the abandoned Sulphur Bank Mercury Mine have low pH (locally <4) and elevated sulfate (> or =197 mmol/L), aluminum (> or =52 mmol/L), and iron (> or =28 mmol/L) contents derived from oxidation of sulfide minerals at the mine site. Acid mine drainage (AMD) is entering Clear Lake by advective subsurface flow nearest the mine and by diffusion at greater distances. Oxygen and hydrogen isotope ratios, combined with pore fluid compositions, constrain the sources and pathways of contaminated fluids. Sediment cores taken nearest the mine have the highest concentrations of dissolved sulfate, aluminum, and iron, which are contributed by direct subsurface flow of AMD from sulfide-bearing waste rock. Sediment cores as far as 100 m west of the Clear Lake shoreline show the presence of AMD that originated in the acidic lake that occupies the abandoned Herman Pit at the mine site. High sulfate content in the AMD has the potential to promote the activity of sulfate-reducing bacteria in the organic-rich lake sediments, which leads to methylation of Hg+2, making it both more toxic and bioavailable. Quantitative depletion of pore water sulfate at depth and sulfur isotope values of diagenetic pyrite near 0 per thousand indicate that sulfate availability limits the extent of sulfate reduction in the lake sediments away from the mine. Profiles of pore water sulfate in the sediments near the mine show that excess sulfate is available to support the activity of sulfate-reducing bacteria near the mine site. Enriched isotope values of dissolved sulfate (as high as 17.1 per thousand) and highly depleted isotope values for diagenetic pyrite (as low as -22.6 per thousand) indicate active bacterial sulfate reduction in the AMD-contaminated sediments. Sulfate- and iron-rich acid mine drainage entering Clear Lake by shallow subsurface flow likely needs to be controlled in order to lower the environmental impacts of Hg in the Clear Lake

  7. Assessment of drainage water quality in pre- and post-irrigation seasons for supplemental irrigation use.

    PubMed

    Alexakis, Dimitris; Gotsis, Dimitris; Giakoumakis, Spyros

    2012-08-01

    Knowledge on hydrochemistry is very important to assess the quality of water for effective management of water resources or drainage water reuse. On this basis, an assessment of water quality was conducted in the Agoulinitsa district in Peloponnese (western Greece). Both drainage and irrigation channel water samples have been collected, treated, and subjected to chemical analysis. A characterization has been carried out using the Piper-trilinear diagram. Assessment of the water samples from the point of view of sodium adsorption ratio, Na(+)%, and residual sodium carbonate indicated that 60.0% and 83.3% of the drainage water samples during pre- and post-irrigation season, respectively, as well as the irrigation channel water samples, are chemically suitable for irrigation use. Moreover, assessment of the water samples by comparing quality parameters with the Food and Agriculture Organization guidelines indicated that 20.0% and 44.4% of the drainage water samples collected during pre- and post-irrigation season, respectively, as well as the irrigation channel water samples could cause slight to moderate problems to the plants. On the other hand, 80.0% and 55.6% of the drainage water samples collected during pre- and post-irrigation season, respectively, could cause immediate development of severe problems to the plants growth. PMID:21915601

  8. Five year water and nitrogen balance for a constructed surface flow wetland treating agricultural drainage waters.

    PubMed

    Borin, Maurizio; Tocchetto, Davide

    2007-07-15

    The performance of a constructed surface flow wetland in reducing diffuse N pollution coming from croplands is being investigated in an ongoing experiment, begun in 1998 in NE Italy. The 0.32 ha wetland is vegetated with Phragmites australis (Cav.) Trin. and Typha latifolia (L.). It receives drainage water from 6 ha of land managed for an experiment on drainage systems, where maize, sugarbeet, winter wheat and soybean are cultivated. During the period 1998-2002, the wetland received from 4698 to 8412 mm of water per year (on average, about 9 times the environmental rainfall); its water regimen was discontinuous and flooding occurred on a variable number of days per year (from 13 to 126). Nitric nitrogen was the most important form of element load. Its concentration in the inflow water over time was rather discontinuous, with median values ranging from 0.2 (in 2001) to 4.5 (in 2000) mg L(-1). Inflow nitric N concentrations were occasionally in the 5-15 mg L(-1) range. Concentrations reduced passing through the wetland, with a more evident effect in the last year. Over 5 years, the wetland received slightly more than 2000 kg ha(-1) of nitrogen, 87% in nitric form mostly from farmland drainage. The remaining 13% of N was applied as organic slurry directly onto the wetland, with 5 distributions during 1998 to assess wetland performance in treating occasional organic loads. Field drainage loads had a discontinuous time pattern and occurred mostly during autumn-winter, with the exception of the 2001-2002 season which was a very dry. The wetland discharged 206 kg ha(-1) of N, over the 5-year period, with an apparent removal efficiency of about 90%. The disappearance was mostly due to plant uptake (1110 kg ha(-1)) and soil accumulation (570 kg ha(-1)), with the contribution of denitrification being estimated at around 7%. PMID:17270250

  9. NRMRL EVALUATES ACTIVE AND SEMI-PASSIVE TECHNOLOGIES FOR TREATING ACID MINE DRAINAGE

    EPA Science Inventory

    Two-page article describing three SITE demonstration projects underway on the Leviathan mine site in California. BiPhasic lime treatment, lime treatment lagoons and compost free BioReactors are being evaluated as innovative technologies for treating acid mine drainage.

  10. COMPOST-FREE BIOREACTOR TREATMENT OF ACID ROCK DRAINAGE LEVIATHAN MINE, CALIFORNIA INNOVATIVE TECHNOLOGY EVALUATION REPORT

    EPA Science Inventory

    As part of the Superfund Innovative Technology Evaluation (SITE) program, an evaluation of the compost-free bioreactor treatment of acid rock drainage (ARD) from the Aspen Seep was conducted at the Leviathan Mine Superfund site located in a remote, high altitude area of Alpine Co...

  11. COMPOST-FREE BIOLOGICAL TREATMENT OF ACID ROCK DRAINAGE, TECHNICAL EVALUATION BULLETIN

    EPA Science Inventory

    As part of the Superfund Innovative Technology Evaluation (SITE) program, an evaluation of the compost-free bioreactor treatment of acid rock drainage (ARD) from the Aspen Seep was conducted at the Leviathan Mine Superfund site located in a remote, high altitude area of Alpine Co...

  12. COMPOST-FREE BIOREACTOR TREATMENT OF ACID ROCK DRAINAGE - TECHNOLOGY CAPSULE

    EPA Science Inventory

    As part of the Superfund Innovative Technology Evaluation (SITE) program, an evaluation of the compost-free bioreactor treatment of acid rock drainage (ARD) from the Aspen Seep was conducted at the Leviathan Mine Superfund site located in a remote, high altitude area of Alpine Co...

  13. VALUING ACID MINE DRAINAGE REMEDIATION IN WEST VIRGINIA: A HEDONIC MODELING APPROACH

    EPA Science Inventory

    States with active and abandoned mines face large private and public costs to remediate damage to streams and rivers from acid mine drainage (AMD). Appalachian states have an especially large number of contaminated streams and rivers, and the USGS places AMD as the primary source...

  14. VALUING ACID MINE DRAINAGE REMEDIATION IN WEST VIRGINIA: A HEDONIC MODELING APPROACH INCORPORATING GEOGRAPHIC INFORMATION SYSTEMS

    EPA Science Inventory

    States with active and abandoned mines face large private and public costs to remediate damage to streams and rivers from acid mine drainage (AMD). Appalachian states have an especially large number of contaminated streams and rivers, and the USGS places AMD as the primary source...

  15. SYNROCK, AN INNOVATIVE TECHNOLOGY FOR PASSIVE TREATMENT OF ACID MINE DRAINAGE

    EPA Science Inventory

    Researchers have for decades tried to use natural alkaline rock, like limestone and dolomite, to treat acid mine drainage. The major problem has been the slow release of alkalinity and pH limitations. This project is working to develop a man-made rock-like material using cement a...

  16. 40 CFR Appendix A to Part 434 - Alternate Storm Limitations for Acid or Ferruginous Mine Drainage

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 30 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Alternate Storm Limitations for Acid or Ferruginous Mine Drainage A Appendix A to Part 434 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL... BPT, BAT, BCT LIMITATIONS AND NEW SOURCE PERFORMANCE STANDARDS Pt. 434, App. A Appendix A to Part...

  17. VALUING ACID MINE DRAINAGE REMEDIATION IN WEST VIRGINIA: BENEFIT TRANSFER WITH PREFERENCE CALIBRATION

    EPA Science Inventory

    Several thousand kilometers of West Virginia streams are degraded by acid mine drainage (AMD), and the estimates for cleanup range in the billions of dollars. Not enough money is available to restore all the affected streams, so some way to prioritize those streams is needed. Ben...

  18. 40 CFR 434.30 - Applicability; description of the acid or ferruginous mine drainage subcategory.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 30 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Applicability; description of the acid or ferruginous mine drainage subcategory. 434.30 Section 434.30 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) EFFLUENT GUIDELINES AND STANDARDS COAL MINING POINT SOURCE CATEGORY BPT, BAT, BCT LIMITATIONS AND NEW...

  19. 40 CFR Appendix A to Part 434 - Alternate Storm Limitations for Acid or Ferruginous Mine Drainage

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 29 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Alternate Storm Limitations for Acid or Ferruginous Mine Drainage A Appendix A to Part 434 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) EFFLUENT GUIDELINES AND STANDARDS COAL MINING POINT SOURCE CATEGORY BPT,...

  20. MECHANISMS OF HEAVY METAL REMOVAL FROM ACID MINE DRAINAGE USING CHITIN

    EPA Science Inventory

    Acid Mine Drainage (AMD) emanating from inactive or active mine sites contains elevated levels of toxic heavy metals, which can have an adverse impact to the surrounding environment. The major pathway involved in generation of AMD is weathering of pyritic mineral ores, where in s...

  1. SITE PROGRAM EVALUATION OF INNOVATIVE ACID MINE DRAINAGE TREATMENT TECHNOLOGIES AT THE LEVIATHAN MINE SITE, CA

    EPA Science Inventory

    The EPA SITE Program is conducting a detailed sampling and evaluation of several innovative acid mine drainage treatment technologies at the Leviathan Mine Superfund site in California. Technologies include BiPhasic Lime Treatment Plant, an alkaline lagoon, and an innovative bio...

  2. PHYSICAL SOLUTIONS FOR ACID ROCK DRAINAGE AT REMOTE SITES DEMONSTRATION PROJECT

    EPA Science Inventory

    This report summarizes the results of Mine Waste Technology Program, Activity III, Project 42, Physical Solutions for Acid Rock Drainage at Remote Sites, funded by the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) and jointly administered by EPA and the U.S. Department of Energy. A...

  3. MINE WASTE TECHNOLOGY PROGRAM PREVENTION OF ACID MINE DRAINAGE GENERATION FROM OPEN-PIT HIGHWALLS

    EPA Science Inventory

    This document summarizes the results of Mine Waste Technology Program Activity III, Project 26, Prevention of Acid Mine Drainage Generation from Open-Pit Highwalls. The intent of this project was to obtain performance data on the ability of four technologies to prevent the gener...

  4. VALUING ACID MINE DRAINAGE REMEDIATION OF IMPAIRED WATERWAYS IN WEST VIRGINIA: A HEDONIC MODELING APPROACH

    EPA Science Inventory

    States with active and abandoned mines face large private and public costs to remediate damage to streams and rivers from acid mine drainage (AMD), the metal rich runoff flowing primarily from abandoned mines and surface deposits of mine waste. AMD can lower stream and river pH ...

  5. PREVENTION OF ACID MINE DRAINAGE GENERATION FROM OPEN-PIT MINE HIGHWALLS

    EPA Science Inventory



    Exposed, open pit mine highwalls contribute significantly to the production of acid mine

    drainage (AMD) thus causing environmental concerns upon closure of an operating mine. Available information on the generation of AMD from open-pit mine highwalls is very limit...

  6. Preliminary Results: Release Of Metals From Acid-Mine Drainage Contaminated Streambed Sediments Under Anaerobic Conditions

    EPA Science Inventory

    Many miles of streams in the western U.S. are contaminated with acid-mine drainage (AMD) from abandoned metal mines. Treatment of these streams may include removal of the existing sediments, with subsequent burial (e.g., in a repository). Burial of previously aerobic sediments ma...

  7. CONSTRUCTION OF MODULAR FIELD-BIOREACTOR FOR ACID MINE DRAINAGE TREATMENT

    EPA Science Inventory

    The paper focuses on the improvements to engineered features of a passive technology that has been used for remediation of acid rock drainage (ARD). This passive remedial technology, a sulfate-reducing bacteria (SRB) bioreactor, takes advantage of the ability of SRB that, if sup...

  8. Effect of Phospholipid on Pyrite Oxidation and Microbial Communities under Simulated Acid Mine Drainage (AMD) Conditions.

    PubMed

    Pierre Louis, Andro-Marc; Yu, Hui; Shumlas, Samantha L; Van Aken, Benoit; Schoonen, Martin A A; Strongin, Daniel R

    2015-07-01

    The effect of phospholipid on the biogeochemistry of pyrite oxidation, which leads to acid mine drainage (AMD) chemistry in the environment, was investigated. Metagenomic analyses were carried out to understand how the microbial community structure, which developed during the oxidation of pyrite-containing coal mining overburden/waste rock (OWR), was affected by the presence of adsorbed phospholipid. Using columns packed with OWR (with and without lipid adsorption), the release of sulfate (SO4(2-)) and soluble iron (FeTot) was investigated. Exposure of lipid-free OWR to flowing pH-neutral water resulted in an acidic effluent with a pH range of 2-4.5 over a 3-year period. The average concentration of FeTot and SO4(2-) in the effluent was ≥20 and ≥30 mg/L, respectively. In contrast, in packed-column experiments where OWR was first treated with phospholipid, the effluent pH remained at ∼6.5 and the average concentrations of FeTot and SO4(2-) were ≤2 and l.6 mg/L, respectively. 16S rDNA metagenomic pyrosequencing analysis of the microbial communities associated with OWR samples revealed the development of AMD-like communities dominated by acidophilic sulfide-oxidizing bacteria on untreated OWR samples, but not on refuse pretreated with phospholipid. PMID:26018867

  9. Removal and recovery of metal ions from acid mine drainage using lignite--A low cost sorbent.

    PubMed

    Mohan, Dinesh; Chander, Subhash

    2006-10-11

    Acid mine drainage (AMD), has long been a significant environmental problem resulting from the microbial oxidation of iron pyrite in presence of water and air, affording an acidic solution that contains toxic metal ions. The main objective of this study was to remove and recover metal ions from acid mine drainage (AMD) by using lignite, a low cost sorbent. Lignite has been characterized and used for the AMD treatment. Sorption of ferrous, ferric, manganese, zinc and calcium in multi-component aqueous systems was investigated. Studies were performed at different pH to find optimum pH. To simulate industrial conditions for acid mine wastewater treatment, all the studies were performed using single and multi-columns setup in down flow mode. The empty bed contact time (EBCT) model was used for minimizing the sorbent usage. Recovery of the metal ions as well as regeneration of sorbent was achieved successfully using 0.1 M nitric acid without dismantling the columns. PMID:16784810

  10. Corrosion control when using passively treated abandoned mine drainage as alternative makeup water for cooling systems.

    PubMed

    Hsieh, Ming-Kai; Chien, Shih-Hsiang; Li, Heng; Monnell, Jason D; Dzombak, David A; Vidic, Radisav D

    2011-09-01

    Passively treated abandoned mine drainage (AMD) is a promising alternative to fresh water as power plant cooling water system makeup water in mining regions where such water is abundant. Passive treatment and reuse of AMD can avoid the contamination of surface water caused by discharge of abandoned mine water, which typically is acidic and contains high concentrations of metals, especially iron. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the feasibility of reusing passively treated AMD in cooling systems with respect to corrosion control through laboratory experiments and pilot-scale field testing. The results showed that, with the addition of the inhibitor mixture orthophosphate and tolyltriazole, mild steel and copper corrosion rates were reduced to acceptable levels (< 0.127 mm/y and < 0.0076 mm/y, respectively). Aluminum had pitting corrosion problems in every condition tested, while cupronickel showed that, even in the absence of any inhibitor and in the presence of the biocide monochloramine, its corrosion rate was still very low (0.018 mm/y). PMID:22073728

  11. Shallow Aquifer Connectivity and Early Season Water Supply of Seasonal Wetlands and Drainages Leading to Regional Drainage Systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    McCarten, N. F.; Harter, T.

    2009-12-01

    The Sacramento and San Joaquin Rivers in the Central Valley, California are recognized being seasonally supplied by early season direct surface water runoff and later season snow melt runoff from their tributaries. In addition, early season water supply to these rivers is derived from precipitation (PPT) that has infiltrated into soils underlain by a near surface aquitard, typically at less than 2 m depth. These shallow perched groundwater systems contribute a potentially substantial amount of water from more than 500,000 hectares of landforms associated with geomorphic terraces underlain by these aquitards. Early season water input to seasonal and perennial drainages is regulated by the hydraulic conductivity of the (clay-) loamy soils and by surface and aquitard slope of the local catchments associated with these old alluvial landforms. Research on these landforms and shallow aquifers has identified a complex PPT and evapotranspiration (ET) sensitive system that includes shallow depressions that seasonally produce water table derived wetlands (“vernal pools”). These wetlands have been recognized for a very high level of plant and invertebrate species diversity including endangered species. In addition, these seasonal wetlands provide migratory feeding areas of birds. Our work on these seasonal perched systems shows that as much as 80 percent of the soil column above the aquitard is saturated, during average to high rainfall years, for up to 90 to 120 days. Where the water table of this perched system intercepts the land surface, vernal pools develop. The perched groundwater drains into seasonal surface drainages that ultimately supply the Sacramento and San Joaquin rivers. At the end of the rainy season, both the vernal pools and the perched aquifer rapidly and synchronously disappear. Once the soil is unsaturated, water flow is vertically upward due to ET. Variably saturated modeling of this system was conducted using HYDRUS 2D/3D. Climate inputs were from

  12. The role of anaerobic bacteria in the neutralization of acid mine drainage. [Desulfovibrio

    SciTech Connect

    Bell, P.E.

    1988-01-01

    In contrast to the acidic water column, the sediments underlying Lake Anna, which receives acid mine drainage, are circumneutral and contain 1-4 meq alkalinity/L. Indirect fluorescent antibody counts of a methanogen (strain CA) and a sulfate reducer (Desulfovibrio strain SM) demonstrated that these organisms were present in the sediments at numbers of approximately 10{sup 6} bacteria/mL sediment. Anaerobic heterotrophs in the sediments underlying the acidified arm of the lake outnumbered anaerobic heterotrophs in a non-acidified arm of the lake. A major storm event resulted in the deposition of 11 cm of oxidized, acidic new sediment material over the older circumneutral sediments. The Eh in the new sediments decreased by 200 mV within one week after the storm event. The pH and alkalinity increased even in the 1-cm layer by two weeks after the storm and products of sulfate reduction (acid volatile sulfide) increased at three weeks after the storm. This suggests that biological processes other than sulfate reduction were responsible for the initial buffering of these sediments. Laboratory experiments using the sulfate reducer and two anaerobes (also isolated from the sediments) suggested that alkalinity production during sulfate reduction decreases with decreasing carbon concentration. Generation of alkalinity was found not to be a simple function of sulfate reduction or of iron reduction. The generation of alkalinity was found to be a function of the carbon source, and concentration, organisms present, and mineral phase formed. Iron reduction rates in the sediments of Contrary Creek ranged from 4.9-27.8 mM/m{sup 2}-sediment-day. Alkalinity was produced in the floc layer in the absence of sulfate reduction. Iron reduction could be responsible for the mineralization of 15-90% of the carbon input to this system.

  13. Radium and barium removal through blending hydraulic fracturing fluids with acid mine drainage.

    PubMed

    Kondash, Andrew J; Warner, Nathaniel R; Lahav, Ori; Vengosh, Avner

    2014-01-21

    Wastewaters generated during hydraulic fracturing of the Marcellus Shale typically contain high concentrations of salts, naturally occurring radioactive material (NORM), and metals, such as barium, that pose environmental and public health risks upon inadequate treatment and disposal. In addition, fresh water scarcity in dry regions or during periods of drought could limit shale gas development. This paper explores the possibility of using alternative water sources and their impact on NORM levels through blending acid mine drainage (AMD) effluent with recycled hydraulic fracturing flowback fluids (HFFFs). We conducted a series of laboratory experiments in which the chemistry and NORM of different mix proportions of AMD and HFFF were examined after reacting for 48 h. The experimental data combined with geochemical modeling and X-ray diffraction analysis suggest that several ions, including sulfate, iron, barium, strontium, and a large portion of radium (60-100%), precipitated into newly formed solids composed mainly of Sr barite within the first ∼ 10 h of mixing. The results imply that blending AMD and HFFF could be an effective management practice for both remediation of the high NORM in the Marcellus HFFF wastewater and beneficial utilization of AMD that is currently contaminating waterways in northeastern U.S.A. PMID:24367969

  14. Acid mine drainage from the Panasqueira mine and its influence on Zêzere river (Central Portugal)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Candeias, Carla; Ávila, Paula Freire; Ferreira da Silva, Eduardo; Ferreira, Adelaide; Salgueiro, Ana Rita; Teixeira, João Paulo

    2014-11-01

    The Panasqueira hydrothermal mineralization, located in central Portugal, is the biggest Sn-W deposit of the Western Europe. The main evidences of the mining exploitation and ore treatment operations are testified with huge tailings, mainly, in the Rio and Barroca Grande areas. The mining and beneficiation processes, at the site, produces metal rich mine wastes. Oxidation of sulfides tailings and flow from open impoundments are responsible for the mobilization and migration of metals from the mine wastes into the environment. Acid mine drainage (AMD) discharged from Rio tailing has a pH around 3 and high metal concentrations. In Zêzere river, Fe and As are the most rapidly depleted downstream from AMD once As adsorbs, coprecipitate and form compounds with iron oxyhydroxides. The Zêzere river waters are oversaturated with respect to kaolinite and goethite and ferrihydrite can precipitate on stream with a near-neutral pH. At sites having low pH the dissolved Fe species in the water, mainly, occur as sulfate complexes due to a high SO4 concentration. Melanterite (Fe2+(SO4)·7(H2O)) and minor amounts of rozenite (Fe2+(SO4)·4(H2O)) and szomolnokite (Fe2+(SO4)·(H2O)) were observed on Rio tailing basement.

  15. Mine drainage and surface mine reclamation. Volume I. Mine water and mine waste

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1988-01-01

    Mine waste and mine reclamation are topics of major interest to the mining industry, the government and the general public. This publication and its companion volume are the proceedings of a conference held in Pittsburgh, April 19-21, 1988. There were nine sessions (50 papers) that dealt with the geochemistry, hydrology and problems of mine waste and mine water, especially acid mine drainage. These comprise Volume 1. The nine sessions (43 papers) that dealt with reclamation and restoration of disturbed lands, as well as related policy issues, are included in volume 2. Volume 2 also contains the ten papers that pertained to control of subsidence and mine fires at abandoned mines. Poster session presentations are, in general, represented by abstracts; these have been placed in the back of both volumes.

  16. FGD gypsum filters remove soluble phosphorus from agricultural drainage waters

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Decades of chicken litter applications has led to phosphorus (P) levels up to ten times the agronomic optimum in soils of the Delmarva Peninsula. This legacy P is a major source of P entering drainage ditches that eventually empty into the Chesapeake Bay. A Flue Gas Desulfurization (FGD) gypsum ditc...

  17. Diversity and Distribution of Arsenic-Related Genes Along a Pollution Gradient in a River Affected by Acid Mine Drainage.

    PubMed

    Desoeuvre, Angélique; Casiot, Corinne; Héry, Marina

    2016-04-01

    Some microorganisms have the capacity to interact with arsenic through resistance or metabolic processes. Their activities contribute to the fate of arsenic in contaminated ecosystems. To investigate the genetic potential involved in these interactions in a zone of confluence between a pristine river and an arsenic-rich acid mine drainage, we explored the diversity of marker genes for arsenic resistance (arsB, acr3.1, acr3.2), methylation (arsM), and respiration (arrA) in waters characterized by contrasted concentrations of metallic elements (including arsenic) and pH. While arsB-carrying bacteria were representative of pristine waters, Acr3 proteins may confer to generalist bacteria the capacity to cope with an increase of contamination. arsM showed an unexpected wide distribution, suggesting biomethylation may impact arsenic fate in contaminated aquatic ecosystems. arrA gene survey suggested that only specialist microorganisms (adapted to moderately or extremely contaminated environments) have the capacity to respire arsenate. Their distribution, modulated by water chemistry, attested the specialist nature of the arsenate respirers. This is the first report of the impact of an acid mine drainage on the diversity and distribution of arsenic (As)-related genes in river waters. The fate of arsenic in this ecosystem is probably under the influence of the abundance and activity of specific microbial populations involved in different As biotransformations. PMID:26603631

  18. Investigating the Copper Isotope Composition of Red Mountain Creek: a Stream Affected by Acid Mine Drainage

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kimball, B. E.; Mathur, R.; Brantley, S. L.; Vervoort, J. D.

    2005-12-01

    Understanding the sources of metals and the processes that affect their transport in watersheds affected by acid mine drainage (AMD) is central to improving stream water quality. Using a new technique to address an old problem, we measured the 65Cu/63Cu ratios in filtered (pore size = 0.45μm or 0.22μm) and unfiltered samples of AMD-impacted streamwater collected during low-flow conditions from Red Mountain Creek near Silverton, Colorado. Red Mountain Creek is a small mountain stream receiving metal-rich, acidic drainage from acid-sulfate and quartz-sericite-pyrite alteration zones within dacitic-andesitic lavas and volcaniclastic sediments. We measured δ65Cu values [where δ65Cu = ((65Cu/63Cusample/65Cu/63Custandard) - 1) × 103] on a multi-collector inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometer; instrumental mass bias was corrected by doping with the Johnson-Mattey Zn solution and bracketing with the NIST976 standard. All samples are enriched in 65Cu, with δ65Cu values ranging from 1.03 ± 0.10‰ to 3.76 ± 0.10‰ (2σ). Higher values correspond to an inflow emanating from a mineshaft that shows the highest Cu concentration (10.4 mg/L). As Cu becomes less concentrated downstream, the δ65Cu values generally decrease. At two of the three sample locations, the filtered samples are more enriched in 65Cu than the unfiltered samples, which contain suspended precipitates. These results are consistent with previous batch-leach experiments showing that during dissolution of chalcopyrite (CuFeS2) and chalcocite (Cu2S) (with and without Acidithiobacillus ferrooxidans), Cu released into solution by leaching was enriched in 65Cu and Cu precipitates were depleted relative to the starting sulfide minerals. This fractionation may indicate that biotic (e.g., microbial metabolism) and/or abiotic processes (e.g., metal sorption and mineral precipitation) induce isotope effects during Cu partitioning. Future measurements of 65Cu/63Cu ratios in primary Cu-sulfide minerals and

  19. LIMESTONE-LIME TREATMENT OF ACID MINE DRAINAGE - FULL SCALE

    EPA Science Inventory

    The nation-wide problems related to acidic discharges from coal mining operations are well documented in both popular and technical literature. Neutralization is and will continue to be a necessary short-term measure in numerous instances, while long-range programs are being deve...

  20. Runoff and drainage losses of atrazine, metribuzin, and metolachlor in three water management systems.

    PubMed

    Gaynor, J D; Tan, C S; Drury, C F; Welacky, T W; Ng, H Y F; Reynolds, W D

    2002-01-01

    Rainfall can transport herbicides from agricultural land to surface waters, where they become an environmental concern. Tile drainage can benefit crop production by removing excess soil water but tile drainage may also aggravate herbicide and nutrient movement into surface waters. Water management of tile drains after planting may reduce tile drainage and thereby reduce herbicide losses to surface water. To test this hypothesis we calculated the loss of three herbicides from a field with three water management systems: free drainage (D), controlled drainage (CD), and controlled drainage with subsurface irrigation (CDS). The effect of water management systems on the dissipation of atrazine (6-chloro-N2-ethyl-N4-isopropyl-1,3,5-triazine-2,4-diamine), metribuzin [4-amino-6-(1,1-dimethylethyl)-3-(methylthio)-1,2,4-triazine-5(4H)-one), and metolachlor [2-chloro-N-(2-ethyl-6-methylphenyl)-N-(2-methoxy-1-methylethyl)acetamide] in soil was also monitored. Less herbicide was lost by surface runoff from the D and CD treatments than from CDS. The CDS treatment increased surface runoff, which transported more herbicide than that from D or CD treatments. In one year, the time for metribuzin residue to dissipate to half its initial value was shorter for CDS (33 d) than for D (43 d) and CD (46 d). The half-life of atrazine and metolachlor were not affected by water management. Controlled drainage with subsurface irrigation may increase herbicide loss through increased surface runoff when excessive rain is received soon after herbicide application. However, increasing soil water content in CDS may decrease herbicide persistence, resulting in less residual herbicide available for aqueous transport. PMID:11841063

  1. Impact of Acid Mine Drainage on the hydrogeological system at Sia, Cyprus

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ng, Stephen; Malpas, John

    2013-04-01

    Discontinued mining of the volcanogenic massive sulphide ore bodies of Cyprus has left significant environmental concerns including Acid Mine Drainage. Remnant sulphide ore and tailings in waste dumps react with oxygenated rainwater to produce sulphuric acid, a process which is multiplied when metal-loving acidophilic bacteria are present. Given that Cyprus has a Mediterranean climate, characterized by its warm and dry summers and cool and wet winters, the low pH effluent with high levels of trace elements, particularly metals, is leached out of the waste tips particularly during the wet season. The Sia site includes an open mine-pit lake, waste rock and tailings dumps, a river leading to a downstream dam-lake, and a localised groundwater system. The study intends to: identify the point source and nature of contamination; analyze the mechanism and results of local acid generation; and understand how the hydrogeological system responds to seasonal variations. During two sampling campaigns, in the wet and dry seasons of 2011, water samples were collected from the mine pit lake, from upstream of the adjacent river down to the dam catchment, and from various boreholes close to the sulphide mine. The concentration of ions in waters varies between wet and dry seasons but, in both, relative amounts are directly related to pH. In the mine-pit lake, Fe, Mn, Mg, Cu, Pb, Zn, Ni, Co and Cd are found in higher concentrations in the dry season, as a result of substantial evaporation of water. The Sia River runs continuously in the wet season, and waters collected close to the waste tips have pH as low as 2.5 and higher concentrations of Al, Cu, Fe and Zn. Further downstream there is a significant decrease in trace metal contents with a concomitant rise of pH. Al and Fe dominate total cation content when pH is lower than 4. Al is derived from the weathering of clay minerals, especially during the wet season. Fe is derived from the oxidation of pyrite. Once pH's exceed 4, a white

  2. Acid mine drainage prevention, control and treatment technology development for the Stockett/Sand Coulee area. Topical report, March 1, 1995--March 31, 1996

    SciTech Connect

    Brown, T.

    1996-12-31

    The project was initiated to assist the State of Montana to develop a methodology to ameliorate acid mine drainage problems associated with the abandoned mines located in the Stockett/Sand Coulee area near Great Falls, Montana. Extremely acidic water is continuously discharging from abandoned coal mines in the Stockett/Sand Coulee area at an estimated rate of greater than 600 acre-feet per year (about 350 to 400 gallons per minute). Due to its extreme acidity, the water is unusable and is contaminating other water supplies. Most of the local alluvial aquifers have been contaminated, and nearly 5% of the private wells that were tested in the area during the mid-1980`s showed some degree of contamination. Significant government money has been spent replacing water supplies due to the magnitude of this problem. In addition, millions of dollars have been spent trying to remediate acid mine drainage occurring in this coal field. To date, the techniques used have focused on the management and containment of mine waters, rather than designing technologies that would prevent the formation of acid mine drainage.

  3. The Importance of Sediment Sulfate Reduction to the Sulfate Budget of an Impoundment Receiving Acid Mine Drainage

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Herlihy, Alan T.; Mills, Aaron L.; Hornberger, George M.; Bruckner, Amy E.

    1987-02-01

    Alkalinity generation by bacterial sulfate reduction (SR) has been shown to be an important neutralizing agent for acid mine drainage and acid precipitation in lakes and reservoirs. In order to quantify the importance of SR in an acidified system, a sulfate influx-efflux budget was constructed for Lake Anna, an impoundment in central Virginia that receives acid mine drainage. For the 1983 and 1984 water years, 48% (namely, 8.0 × 105 kg) of the sulfate entering the impoundment was removed from the water column within the first 2 km of the arm of the lake receiving the pollution. SR rates measured using 35S-labeled sulfate were extrapolated across the surface area of this arm of the lake; this calculated amount of sulfate removed was equal to 200% of the sulfate removed from the lake as calculated in the budget. The calculated alkalinity generated by this sulfate removal was more than twice that necessary to account for the observed pH increase in the impoundment. The magnitude of the sulfate removal and alkalinity generation demonstrates the quantitative importance of SR as an ecosystem level buffering mechanism.

  4. Hydrogeochemical niches associated with hyporheic exchange beneath an acid mine drainage-contaminated stream

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Larson, Lance N.; Fitzgerald, Michael; Singha, Kamini; Gooseff, Michael N.; Macalady, Jennifer L.; Burgos, William

    2013-09-01

    Biological low-pH Fe(II)-oxidation creates terraced iron formations (TIFs) that remove Fe(III) from solution. TIFs can be used for remediation of acid mine drainage (AMD), however, as sediment depth increases, Fe(III)-reduction in anoxic subsurface areas may compromise treatment effectiveness. In this study we used near-surface electrical resistivity imaging (ERI) and in situ pore-water samplers to spatially resolve bulk conductivity changes within a TIF formed in a stream emanating from a large abandoned deep clay mine in Cambria County, Pennsylvania, USA. Because of the high fluid electrical conductivity of the emergent AMD (1860 μS), fresh water (42 μS) was added as a dilution tracer to visualize the spatial and temporal extent of hyporheic exchange and to characterize subsurface flow paths. Distinct hydrogeochemical niches were identified in the shallow subsurface beneath the stream by overlaying relative groundwater velocities (derived from ERI) with pore-water chemistry profiles. Niches were classified based on relatively “fast” versus “slow” rates of hyporheic exchange and oxic versus anoxic conditions. Pore-water concentrations and speciation of iron, pH, and redox potential differed between subsurface flow regimes. The greatest extent of hyporheic exchange was beneath the center of the stream, where a shallower (<10 cm) Fe(II)-oxidizing zone was observed. Meanwhile, less hyporheic exchange was observed near the channel banks, concurrent with a more pronounced, deeper (>70 cm) Fe(II)-oxidizing zone. At these locations, relatively slower groundwater exchange may promote biotic Fe(II)-oxidation and improve the long-term stability of Fe sequestered in TIFs.

  5. Preserving the distribution of inorganic arsenic species in groundwater and acid mine drainage samples.

    PubMed

    Bednar, A J; Garbarino, J R; Ranville, J F; Wildeman, T R

    2002-05-15

    The distribution of inorganic arsenic species must be preserved in the field to eliminate changes caused by metal oxyhydroxide precipitation, photochemical oxidation, and redox reactions. Arsenic species sorb to iron and manganese oxyhydroxide precipitates, and arsenite can be oxidized to arsenate by photolytically produced free radicals in many sample matrices. Several preservatives were evaluated to minimize metal oxyhydroxide precipitation, such as inorganic acids and ethylenediaminetetraacetic acid (EDTA). EDTA was found to work best for all sample matrices tested. Storing samples in opaque polyethylene bottles eliminated the effects of photochemical reactions. The preservation technique was tested on 71 groundwater and six acid mine drainage samples. Concentrations in groundwater samples reached 720 microg-As/L for arsenite and 1080 microg-As/L for arsenate, and acid mine drainage samples reached 13 000 microg-As/L for arsenite and 3700 microg-As/L for arsenate. The arsenic species distribution in the samples ranged from 0 to 90% arsenite. The stability of the preservation technique was established by comparing laboratory arsenic speciation results for samples preserved in the field to results for subsamples speciated onsite. Statistical analyses indicated that the difference between arsenite and arsenate concentrations for samples preserved with EDTA in opaque bottles and field speciation results were analytically insignificant. The percentage change in arsenite:arsenate ratios for a preserved acid mine drainage sample and groundwater sample during a 3-month period was -5 and +3%, respectively. PMID:12038832

  6. The chemistry of conventional and alternative treatment systems for the neutralization of acid mine drainage.

    PubMed

    Kalin, Margarete; Fyson, Andrew; Wheeler, William N

    2006-08-01

    The oxidation of pyritic mining waste is a self-perpetuating corrosive process which generates acid mine drainage (AMD) effluent for centuries or longer. The chemical neutralization of these complex, buffered effluents result in unstable, metal-laden sludges, which require disposal to minimize long-term environmental consequences. A variety of passive treatment systems for AMD, developed in the past two decades, combine limestone and organic substrates in constructed wetlands. These systems work well initially but over the longer term fail due to clogging with and the depletion of available organic carbon. However, some ecologically engineered systems, which exploit the activities of acid reducing microbes in the sediment, rely on photosynthesis in the water column as a source of organic matter. The primary productivity in the water column, which also generates some alkalinity, provides electron donors for the microbial reduction processes in the sediment. In its consideration of 'passive' systems, the literature has placed undue emphasis on sulphate reduction; thermodynamical iron reduction is equally important as is the need to prevent iron oxidation. Secondary precipitates of iron play a significant role in sediment-driven biomineralization processes, which affect the anaerobic degradation of organic matter and the stability of the resulting metal sulfides. One such passive system, which utilized a floating root mass as a source of organic carbon, is described. An extensive review of the literature and the chemical and biogeochemical reactions of AMD treatment systems, lead to the conclusion, that sediment based ecological systems offer the greatest potential for the sustainable treatment of AMD. PMID:16375949

  7. Colloidal precipitates related to Acid Mine Drainage: bacterial diversity and micro fungi-heavy metal interactions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lucchetti, G.; Carbone, C.; Consani, S.; Zotti, M.; Di Piazza, S.; Pozzolini, M.; Giovine, M.

    2015-12-01

    In Acid Mine Drainage (AMD) settings colloidal precipitates control the mobility of Potential Toxic Elements (PTEs). Mineral-contaminant relationships (i.e. adsorption, ion-exchange, desorption) are rarely pure abiotic processes. Microbes, mainly bacteria and microfungi, can catalyze several reactions modifying the element speciation, as well as the bioavailability of inorganic pollutants. Soil, sediments, and waters heavily polluted with PTEs through AMD processes are a potential reservoir of extremophile bacteria and fungi exploitable for biotechnological purposes. Two different AMD related colloids, an ochraceous precipitate (deposited in weakly acidic conditions, composed by nanocrystalline goethite) and a greenish-blue precipitate (deposited at near-neutral pH, composed by allophane + woodwardite) were sampled. The aims of this work were to a) characterize the mycobiota present in these colloidal minerals by evaluating the presence of alive fungal propagules and extracting bacteria DNA; b) verify the fungal strains tolerance, and bioaccumulation capability on greenish-blue and ZnSO4 enriched media; c) evaluate potential impact of bacteria in the system geochemistry. The preliminary results show an interesting and selected mycobiota able to survive under unfavourable environmental conditions. A significant number of fungal strains were isolated in pure culture. Among them, species belonging to Penicillium and Trichoderma genera were tested on both greenish-blue and ZnSO4 enriched media. The results show a significant tolerance and bioaccumulation capability to some PTEs. The same colloidal precipitates were processed to extract bacteria DNA by using a specific procedure developed for sediments. The results give a good yield of nucleic acids and a positive PCR amplification of 16S rDNA accomplished the first step for future metagenomic analyses.

  8. Evaluating remedial alternatives for an acid mine drainage stream: Application of a reactive transport model

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Runkel, R.L.; Kimball, B.A.

    2002-01-01

    A reactive transport model based on one-dimensional transport and equilibrium chemistry is applied to synoptic data from an acid mine drainage stream. Model inputs include streamflow estimates based on tracer dilution, inflow chemistry based on synoptic sampling, and equilibrium constants describing acid/base, complexation, precipitation/dissolution, and sorption reactions. The dominant features of observed spatial profiles in pH and metal concentration are reproduced along the 3.5-km study reach by simulating the precipitation of Fe(III) and Al solid phases and the sorption of Cu, As, and Pb onto freshly precipitated iron-(III) oxides. Given this quantitative description of existing conditions, additional simulations are conducted to estimate the streamwater quality that could result from two hypothetical remediation plans. Both remediation plans involve the addition of CaCO3 to raise the pH of a small, acidic inflow from ???2.4 to ???7.0. This pH increase results in a reduced metal load that is routed downstream by the reactive transport model, thereby providing an estimate of post-remediation water quality. The first remediation plan assumes a closed system wherein inflow Fe(II) is not oxidized by the treatment system; under the second remediation plan, an open system is assumed, and Fe(II) is oxidized within the treatment system. Both plans increase instream pH and substantially reduce total and dissolved concentrations of Al, As, Cu, and Fe(II+III) at the terminus of the study reach. Dissolved Pb concentrations are reduced by ???18% under the first remediation plan due to sorption onto iron-(III) oxides within the treatment system and stream channel. In contrast, iron(III) oxides are limiting under the second remediation plan, and removal of dissolved Pb occurs primarily within the treatment system. This limitation results in an increase in dissolved Pb concentrations over existing conditions as additional downstream sources of Pb are not attenuated by

  9. Saline Drainage and Waste Water Use and its Effects on Forages and Livestock

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Shallow saline water tables in the western San Joaquin Valley result from regional water management and irrigation. Since 1999, saline-sodic drainage and other waste waters (range: ECiw: 2-10 dS m-1) have been used to irrigate Bermuda grass (Cyanodon dactylon) grazed rotationally by cattle at a 30 ...

  10. Short-term sustainability of drainage water reuse: Spatio-temporal impacts on soil chemical properties

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Greater urban demand for finite water resources, increased frequency of drought resulting from erratic weather, and increased pressure to reduce drainage water volumes have intensified the scrutiny of water used for irrigated agriculture in arid zones throughout the world. A study was initiated in ...

  11. Time resolved analysis of water drainage in porous asphalt concrete using neutron radiography.

    PubMed

    Poulikakos, L D; Sedighi Gilani, M; Derome, D; Jerjen, I; Vontobel, P

    2013-07-01

    Porous asphalt as a road surface layer controls aquaplaning as rain water can drain through its highly porous structure. The process of water drainage through this permeable layer is studied using neutron radiography. Time-resolved water configuration and distribution within the porous structure are reported. It is shown that radiography depicts the process of liquid water transport within the complex geometry of porous asphalt, capturing water films, filled dead end pores and water islands. PMID:23500651

  12. ROTATING DISC BIOLOGICAL TREATMENT OF ACID MINE DRAINAGE

    EPA Science Inventory

    Pilot scale (0.5-m diameter) and prototype (2.0-m diameter) rotating biological contactors (RBC) were investigated for oxidation of ferrous Fe(II) iron contained in six heterogeneous mine waters located at three coal mining sites in Pennsylvania and West Virginia. Continuous biol...

  13. Passive treatment of acid mine drainage in systems containing compost and limestone: Laboratory and field results

    SciTech Connect

    Watzlaf, G.R.; Pappas, D.M.

    1996-12-31

    Passive, down-flow systems, consisting of compost and limestone layers, termed successive alkalinity producing systems (SAPS), may be well suited for treatment of mine drainage containing ferric iron and/or aluminum. A column, simulating a SAPS, has been operated in the laboratory for 52 weeks. The 0.16-m diameter column consisted of a 0.30-m thick layer of limestone, a 0.76-m thick layer of spent mushroom compost thick layer of limestone, a 0.76-m thick layer of spent mushroom compost and 0.91 m of free standing water. Actual AMD (pH = 3.02, acidity = 218 mg/L (as CaCO{sub 3}), SO{sub 4} = 600 mg/L, Fe = 16.0 mg/L, Mn = 12.1 mg/L, and Al = 17.1 mg/L) was applied to the column at a rate of 3.8 mL/min. Effluent pH has remained above 6.2 (6.2-7.9) in the column system. A SAPS located in Jefferson County, PA has been monitored for the past 4.5 years. The SAPS has an approximate area of 1000 m{sup 2} and contains a 0.4-m thick layer of limestone, a 0.2-m thick layer of spent mushroom compost, and 1.5 m of free standing water. Mine water (acidity = 335 mg/L (as CaCO{sub 3}), SO{sub 4} = 1270 mg/L, Fe = 246 mg/L, Mn = 38.4 mg/L, and Al = <0.2 mg/L) flowed into the SAPS at a rate of 140 L/min. Water samples from the field and laboratory systems have been collected at strategic locations on a regular basis and analyzed for pH, alkalinity, acidity, Fe{sup 2+}, total Fe, Mn, Al, SO{sub 4}, Ca, Mg, Na, Co, Ni, and Zn. Alkalinity has been generated in both field and laboratory systems by a combination of limestone dissolution and sulfate reduction. The column generated an average of 378 mg/L of alkalinity; 74% due to limestone dissolution and 26% due to bacterial reduction of sulfate. The field SAPS generated an average of 231 mg/L of alkalinity and exhibited seasonal trends.

  14. Recovery of Rare Earth Elements and Yttrium from Passive-Remediation Systems of Acid Mine Drainage.

    PubMed

    Ayora, Carlos; Macías, Francisco; Torres, Ester; Lozano, Alba; Carrero, Sergio; Nieto, José-Miguel; Pérez-López, Rafael; Fernández-Martínez, Alejandro; Castillo-Michel, Hiram

    2016-08-01

    Rare earth elements and yttrium (REY) are raw materials of increasing importance for modern technologies, and finding new sources has become a pressing need. Acid mine drainage (AMD) is commonly considered an environmental pollution issue. However, REY concentrations in AMD can be several orders of magnitude higher than in naturally occurring water bodies. With respect to shale standards, the REY distribution pattern in AMD is enriched in intermediate and valuable REY, such as Tb and Dy. The objective of the present work is to study the behavior of REY in AMD passive-remediation systems. Traditional AMD passive remediation systems are based on the reaction of AMD with calcite-based permeable substrates followed by decantation ponds. Experiments with two columns simulating AMD treatment demonstrate that schwertmannite does not accumulate REY, which, instead, are retained in the basaluminite residue. The same observation is made in two field-scale treatments from the Iberian Pyrite Belt (IPB, southwest Spain). On the basis of the amplitude of this process and on the extent of the IPB, our findings suggest that the proposed AMD remediation process can represent a modest but suitable REY source. In this sense, the IPB could function as a giant heap-leaching process of regional scale in which rain and oxygen act as natural driving forces with no energy investment. In addition to having environmental benefits of its treatment, AMD is expected to last for hundreds of years, and therefore, the total reserves are practically unlimited. PMID:27351211

  15. Metals removal from an acid mine drainage: The Argo Tunnel experience

    SciTech Connect

    Cevaal, J.N.; Abel, R.J.; Rogers, S.E.

    1996-12-31

    The abandoned Argo Tunnel, located approximately 30 miles west of Denver in Idaho Springs, Colorado, is part of the Clear Creek/Central City Superfund Site and was identified as the most significant source of metals contamination to Clear Creek. More than 740 pounds of metals (including iron, manganese, zinc, copper and aluminum) are discharged from the Argo each day. During the course of bench-scale testing and preliminary design of the chemical precipitation treatment facility for the Argo Tunnel acid mine drainage, three treatment processes: conventional chemical precipitation, {open_quotes}high density sludge{close_quotes} precipitation arid membrane separation; and four chemical reagents: hydrated lime, caustic, magnesium hydroxide, and lime plus soda ash were evaluated. The result was the prepurchase of a {open_quotes}high density sludge{close_quotes} precipitation process using caustic as the reagent. The process was sized to treat the design average flow rate from the tunnel with additional capacity for potential future groundwater flows and for most surge events. The treatment facility was sited at the Argo Tunnel portal and adjacent to the Argo Mill, which is listed on the National Register of Historic Places. The nearby historic designation and strong local mining heritage led to null styled superstructure encompassing indigenous mining architecture. Improvements to the water quality within the basin include removal of most of the 740 pounds of metals the tunnel currently discharges to Clear Creek and a significant reduction in instream metal concentrations, notably zinc, manganese and copper.

  16. Evaluating remedial alternatives for an acid mine drainage stream: a model post audit.

    PubMed

    Runkel, Robert L; Kimball, Briant A; Walton-Day, Katherine; Verplanck, Philip L; Broshears, Robert E

    2012-01-01

    A post audit for a reactive transport model used to evaluate acid mine drainage treatment systems is presented herein. The post audit is based on a paired synoptic approach in which hydrogeochemical data are collected at low (existing conditions) and elevated (following treatment) pH. Data obtained under existing, low-pH conditions are used for calibration, and the resultant model is used to predict metal concentrations observed following treatment. Predictions for Al, As, Fe, H(+), and Pb accurately reproduce the observed reduction in dissolved concentrations afforded by the treatment system, and the information provided in regard to standard attainment is also accurate (predictions correctly indicate attainment or nonattainment of water quality standards for 19 of 25 cases). Errors associated with Cd, Cu, and Zn are attributed to misspecification of sorbent mass (precipitated Fe). In addition to these specific results, the post audit provides insight in regard to calibration and sensitivity analysis that is contrary to conventional wisdom. Steps taken during the calibration process to improve simulations of As sorption were ultimately detrimental to the predictive results, for example, and the sensitivity analysis failed to bracket observed metal concentrations. PMID:22074087

  17. Selective recovery of Cu, Zn, and Ni from acid mine drainage.

    PubMed

    Park, Sang-Min; Yoo, Jong-Chan; Ji, Sang-Woo; Yang, Jung-Seok; Baek, Kitae

    2013-12-01

    In Korea, the heavy metal pollution from about 1,000 abandoned mines has been a serious environmental issue. Especially, the surface waters, groundwaters, and soils around mines have been contaminated by heavy metals originating from acid mine drainage (AMD) and mine tailings. So far, AMD was considered as a waste stream to be treated to prevent environmental pollutions; however, the stream contains mainly Fe and Al and valuable metals such as Ni, Zn, and Cu. In this study, Visual MINTEQ simulation was carried out to investigate the speciation of heavy metals as functions of pH and neutralizing agents. Based on the simulation, selective pH values were determined to form hydroxide or carbonate precipitates of Cu, Zn, and Ni. Experiments based on the simulation results show that the recovery yield of Zn and Cu were 91 and 94 %, respectively, in a binary mixture of Cu and Zn, while 95 % of Cu and 94 % of Ni were recovered in a binary mixture of Cu and Ni. However, the recovery yield and purity of Zn and Ni were very low because of similar characteristics of Zn and Ni. Therefore, the mixture of Cu and Zn or Cu and Ni could be recovered by selective precipitation via pH adjustment; however, it is impossible to recover selectively Zn and Ni in the mixture of them. PMID:23754100

  18. Evaluating remedial alternatives for an acid mine drainage stream: A model post audit

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Runkel, R.L.; Kimball, B.A.; Walton-Day, K.; Verplanck, P.L.; Broshears, R.E.

    2012-01-01

    A post audit for a reactive transport model used to evaluate acid mine drainage treatment systems is presented herein. The post audit is based on a paired synoptic approach in which hydrogeochemical data are collected at low (existing conditions) and elevated (following treatment) pH. Data obtained under existing, low-pH conditions are used for calibration, and the resultant model is used to predict metal concentrations observed following treatment. Predictions for Al, As, Fe, H +, and Pb accurately reproduce the observed reduction in dissolved concentrations afforded by the treatment system, and the information provided in regard to standard attainment is also accurate (predictions correctly indicate attainment or nonattainment of water quality standards for 19 of 25 cases). Errors associated with Cd, Cu, and Zn are attributed to misspecification of sorbent mass (precipitated Fe). In addition to these specific results, the post audit provides insight in regard to calibration and sensitivity analysis that is contrary to conventional wisdom. Steps taken during the calibration process to improve simulations of As sorption were ultimately detrimental to the predictive results, for example, and the sensitivity analysis failed to bracket observed metal concentrations.

  19. Evaluating remedial alternatives for an acid mine drainage stream: a model post audit

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Runkel, Robert L.; Kimball, Briant A.; Walton-Day, Katherine; Verplanck, Philip L.; Broshears, Robert E.

    2012-01-01

    A post audit for a reactive transport model used to evaluate acid mine drainage treatment systems is presented herein. The post audit is based on a paired synoptic approach in which hydrogeochemical data are collected at low (existing conditions) and elevated (following treatment) pH. Data obtained under existing, low-pH conditions are used for calibration, and the resultant model is used to predict metal concentrations observed following treatment. Predictions for Al, As, Fe, H+, and Pb accurately reproduce the observed reduction in dissolved concentrations afforded by the treatment system, and the information provided in regard to standard attainment is also accurate (predictions correctly indicate attainment or nonattainment of water quality standards for 19 of 25 cases). Errors associated with Cd, Cu, and Zn are attributed to misspecification of sorbent mass (precipitated Fe). In addition to these specific results, the post audit provides insight in regard to calibration and sensitivity analysis that is contrary to conventional wisdom. Steps taken during the calibration process to improve simulations of As sorption were ultimately detrimental to the predictive results, for example, and the sensitivity analysis failed to bracket observed metal concentrations.

  20. Wine wastes as carbon source for biological treatment of acid mine drainage.

    PubMed

    Costa, M C; Santos, E S; Barros, R J; Pires, C; Martins, M

    2009-05-01

    Possible use of wine wastes containing ethanol as carbon and energy source for sulphate-reducing bacteria (SRB) growth and activity in the treatment of acid mine drainage (AMD) is studied for the first time. The experiments were performed using anaerobic down-flow packed bed reactors in semi-continuous systems. The performance of two bioreactors fed with wine wastes or ethanol as carbon sources is compared in terms of sulphate reduction, metals removal and neutralization. The results show that efficient neutralization and high sulphate removal (>90%) were attained with the use of wine wastes as substrate allowing the production of effluents with concentrations below the required local legislation for irrigation waters. This is only possible provided that the AMD and wine wastes are contacted with calcite tailing, a waste material that neutralizes and provides buffer capacity to the medium. The removal of metals using wine wastes as carbon source was 61-91% for Fe and 97% for both Zn and Cu. The lower removal of iron, when wine waste is used instead of ethanol, may be due to the presence of iron-chelating compounds in the waste, which prevent the formation of iron sulphide, and partial unavailability of sulphide because of re-oxidation to elemental sulphur. However, that did not affect significantly the quality of the effluent for irrigation. This work demonstrates that wine wastes are a potential alternative to traditional SRB substrates. This finding has direct implication to sustainable operation of SRB bioreactors for AMD treatment. PMID:19201010

  1. Copper electrowinning from acid mine drainage: a case study from the closed mine "Cerovo".

    PubMed

    Gorgievski, M; Bozić, D; Stanković, V; Bogdanović, G

    2009-10-30

    Copper removal from acid mine drainage originating from closed copper mine "Cerovo" RTB Bor, Serbia and containing approximately 1.3 g dm(-3) of copper and a very small amount of Fe2+/Fe3+ ions, has been successfully performed by the direct electrowinning method using either a porous copper sheet or carbon felt as the cathode. A cell with a fluidised bed of inert turbulent promoters, also used in this study, may be considered as unacceptable for the purpose view, having a cell voltage between 12 and 14 V. The cells used in the electrowinning experiments were compared in terms of cell voltage, pH and copper concentration. The results showed that it is possible to remove copper successfully from the mine waters with a high degree of electrowinning--higher than 92% and with a satisfactorily average current efficiency (>60%). Depending on the process time and the applied current, a final copper concentration less than 0.1 g dm(-3) was achieved. The specific energy consumption was approximately 7 kWh kg(-1) of deposited copper. A dense copper deposit was obtained when a three-dimensional electrode was used. PMID:19493615

  2. Acid Mine Drainage and Metal Sulfate Minerals in the Shasta Mining District, California

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Livingston, J. D.; Murphy, W. M.; Miller, R. M.; Ayars, E. J.

    2005-12-01

    Metal sulfate minerals were collected at four surface water drainage sites during September and October of 2004 in the Shasta Mining District, southern Klamath Mountains, Shasta County, California and analyzed by X-ray fluorescence, atomic absorption spectroscopy, and X-ray diffraction to determine elements present, quantities of Fe, Cu, and Zn, and mineralogy. The Shasta Mining District produced major quantities of Cu, Zn, and pyrite (S) with minor amounts of Au, Ag, and Fe from massive sulfide bodies (Kinkel et al., 1956). Three study sites are located on Iron Mountain and one study site is at Bully Hill. Although mining occurred during a period of just over 100 years, it is estimated that acid mine drainage (AMD) will continue from Iron Mountain for over 3,200 years (Nordstrom and Alpers, 1998). AMD at the study sites produces blooms of metal sulfates during California's Mediterranean climate summer. The minerals readily dissolve in the "first flush" of seasonal rain creating runoff water of low pH with high amounts of dissolved metals (Bayless and Olyphant, 1993; Jambor et al., 2000). Data were examined for mineralogical changes in time and space and for zoning of minerals on a scale of centimeters. Sulfate mineral samples are complex with some samples composed of over a dozen different minerals. Site 1 is located on Spring Creek downstream from the Iron Mountain superfund remediation site, so levels of Fe, Cu, and Zn in the sulfates at this site are lower than at the other sites. Two site 1 samples from the same location taken a month apart show Ca, Fe, Cu, Sr, Y, and Sn, and the first sample also has detectable Br. The metal sulfates identified from the first visit are celestine, cesanite, chessexite, hectorfloresite, and ungemachite, and the mineralogy of the second visit is bilinite, epsomite, millosevichite, and anhydrite. The Fe bearing sulfate mineral during the first visit is ungemachite, but bilinite was the Fe bearing mineral at the time of the second

  3. Determination of commonly used polar herbicides in agricultural drainage waters in Australia by HPLC.

    PubMed

    Tran, Anh T K; Hyne, Ross V; Doble, Philip

    2007-03-01

    The present study describes the application of different extraction techniques for the preconcentration of ten commonly found acidic and non-acidic polar herbicides (2,4-D, atrazine, bensulfuron-methyl, clomazone, dicamba, diuron, MCPA, metolachlor, simazine and triclopyr) in the aqueous environment. Liquid-liquid extraction (LLE) with dichloromethane, solid-phase extraction (SPE) using Oasis HLB cartridges or SBD-XC Empore disks were compared for extraction efficiency of these herbicides in different matrices, especially water samples from contaminated agricultural drainage water containing high concentrations of particulate matter. Herbicides were separated and quantified by high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) with an ultraviolet detector. SPE using SDB-XC Empore disks was applied to determine target herbicides in the Murrumbidgee Irrigation Area (NSW, Australia) during a two-week survey from October 2005 to November 2005. The daily aqueous concentrations of herbicides from 24-h composite samples detected at two sites increased after run-off from a storm event and were in the range of: 0.1-17.8 microg l(-1), < 0.1-0.9 microg l(-1) and 0.2-17.8 microg l(-1) at site 1; < 0.1-3.5 microg l(-1), < 0.1-0.2 microg l(-1) and < 0.2-3.2 microg l(-1) at site 2 for simazine, atrazine and diuron, respectively. PMID:17184816

  4. Iron-mineral accretion from acid mine drainage and its application in passive treatment

    PubMed Central

    Florence, K.; Sapsford, D.J.; Johnson, D.B.; Kay, C.M.; Wolkersdorfer, C.

    2016-01-01

    ABSTRACT This study demonstrates substantial removal of iron (Fe) from acid mine drainage (pH ≈3) in a passive vertical flow reactor (VFR) with an equivalent footprint of 154 m2 per L/s mine water and residence times of >23 h. Average Fe removal rate was 67% with a high of 85% over the 10-month trial. The fraction of Fe passing a 0.22 µm filter (referred to here as Fe-filt) was seen to be removed in the VFR even when Fe(II) was absent, indicating that the contribution of microbial Fe(II) oxidation and precipitation was not the dominant removal mechanism in the VFR. Removal rates of Fe-filt in the VFR were up to 70% in residence times as low as 8 h compared with laboratory experiments where much smaller changes in Fe-filt were observed over 60 h. Centrifugation indicated that 80–90% of the influent Fe had particle sizes <35 nm. Together with analyses and geochemical modelling, this suggests that the Fe-filt fraction exists as either truly aqueous (but oversaturated) Fe(III) or nanoparticulate Fe(III) and that this metastability persists. When the water was contacted with VFR sludge, the Fe-filt fraction was destabilized, leading to an appreciably higher removal of this fraction. Heterogeneous precipitation and/or aggregation of nanoparticulate Fe(III) precipitates are considered predominant removal mechanisms. Microbial analyses of the mine water revealed the abundance of extracellular polymeric substance-generating Fe-oxidizing bacterium ‘Ferrovum myxofaciens’, which may aid the removal of iron and explain the unusual appearance and physical properties of the sludge. PMID:26675674

  5. Iron-mineral accretion from acid mine drainage and its application in passive treatment.

    PubMed

    Florence, K; Sapsford, D J; Johnson, D B; Kay, C M; Wolkersdorfer, C

    2016-06-01

    This study demonstrates substantial removal of iron (Fe) from acid mine drainage (pH ≈3) in a passive vertical flow reactor (VFR) with an equivalent footprint of 154 m(2) per L/s mine water and residence times of >23 h. Average Fe removal rate was 67% with a high of 85% over the 10-month trial. The fraction of Fe passing a 0.22 µm filter (referred to here as Fe-filt) was seen to be removed in the VFR even when Fe(II) was absent, indicating that the contribution of microbial Fe(II) oxidation and precipitation was not the dominant removal mechanism in the VFR. Removal rates of Fe-filt in the VFR were up to 70% in residence times as low as 8 h compared with laboratory experiments where much smaller changes in Fe-filt were observed over 60 h. Centrifugation indicated that 80-90% of the influent Fe had particle sizes <35 nm. Together with analyses and geochemical modelling, this suggests that the Fe-filt fraction exists as either truly aqueous (but oversaturated) Fe(III) or nanoparticulate Fe(III) and that this metastability persists. When the water was contacted with VFR sludge, the Fe-filt fraction was destabilized, leading to an appreciably higher removal of this fraction. Heterogeneous precipitation and/or aggregation of nanoparticulate Fe(III) precipitates are considered predominant removal mechanisms. Microbial analyses of the mine water revealed the abundance of extracellular polymeric substance-generating Fe-oxidizing bacterium 'Ferrovum myxofaciens', which may aid the removal of iron and explain the unusual appearance and physical properties of the sludge. PMID:26675674

  6. Ash utilization for elimination of acid mine drainage

    SciTech Connect

    Petzrick, P.

    1997-09-01

    Maryland is surrounded by states whose coal production exceeds its own, namely West Virginia, Pennsylvania, and Virginia. Because of the State`s relatively limited coal production, the distribution of Abandoned Mine Land (AML) funds mandated by law leaves the State at a disadvantage. In order to support maryland`s overall ash utilization program, the State solicits assistance from electric utilities and any other parties who may benefit from the development of a cost-effective technology to seal abandoned underground mines with CCB-based grouts, replacing the conventional use of more costly Portland cement for such applications. The development of these mine sealing techniques can be used to abate Maryland`s AMD discharges, because sealing prevents the exposure of sulfur-bearing minerals in coal seams to oxygen and water, which causes AMD. Ultimately, it is for this reason that Maryland`s overall ash utilization program was developed: to coordinate and encourage the large-scale utilization of CCBs to eliminate AMD in Maryland waters.

  7. Humic acid decreases acute toxicity and ventilation frequency in eastern rainbowfish (Melanotaenia splendida splendida) exposed to acid mine drainage.

    PubMed

    Holland, Aleicia; Duivenvoorden, Leo J; Kinnear, Susan H W

    2014-12-01

    Acid mine drainage (AMD) is a global problem leading to the acidification of freshwaters, as well as contamination by heavy metals. The ability of humic substances (HS) such as humic acid (HA) to decrease toxicity of heavy metals is widely known, whereas limited studies have examined the ability of HS to decrease toxicity linked with multiple stressors such as those associated with AMD. This study investigated the ability of HA to decrease acute toxicity defined as morbidity and ventilation frequency (measured via the time elapsed for ten operculum movements) in eastern rainbowfish (Melanotaenia splendida splendida) exposed to the multiple stressors of AMD-driven heavy metal concentrations, together with low pH. Water from the Mount Morgan open pit (a now closed gold and copper mine site), located at Mount Morgan, Central Queensland, Australia, was used as the AMD source. Fish were exposed to zero per cent (pH 7.3), two per cent (pH 6.7), three per cent (pH 5.7) and four per cent (pH 4.6) AMD in the presence of 0, 10 and 20mg/L Aldrich Humic Acid (AHA) over 96h. HA was shown to significantly decrease the acute toxicity of AMD and its adverse effects on ventilation frequency. These results are important in showing that HA can influence toxicity of metal mixtures and low pH, thus indicating a potential role for HA in decreasing toxicity of multiple environmental stressors more widely, and possible value as a rehabilitation aid. PMID:25173849

  8. Implementation of Drainage Water Management in Open Ditch Drainage Systems of the Mississippi Alluvial Valley

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Increased riverine nutrients linked to agricultural activities in the Mississippi River Basin have contributed to degraded surface waters within the basin as well as to the hypoxic zone along the Louisiana Gulf coast. In the Mississippi Alluvial Valley (MAV), these nutrients are transported from agr...

  9. Using a mass balance to understand the geology and geochemistry of a reservoir receiving and discharging acid mine drainage

    SciTech Connect

    Turney, D.C.; Edwards, K.

    1996-11-01

    Howard-Williams Lake is a 14.5 acre reservoir located in an abandoned coal mine in Perry County, Ohio. With a pH of 3.0 and acidity values of 300--400 mg/L, the reservoir has no plants or fish currently surviving in the lake. Reclamation of spoil piles adjacent to the lake to the north in the late 1980s was not successful in reducing the acidity of the lake. Currently, papermill sludge is being used on the reclaimed area to the north to promote vegetation, but the reservoir has shown no signs of improving. The goal of this project is to transform the lake into a fishable and swimmable one. The reservoir is receiving about 175 gallons per minute of acid mine drainage, not including seepage into the lake, from eight different sources. Three of the sources account for about 165 gallons per minute of the surface water that enters the lake. These inflows have relatively low acidity readings, which range from 66 mg/L to 568 mg/L. The other five sources of acid mine drainage have much lower flowrates, but have acidity values as high as 3,000 mg/L. Samples of all of the surface inflows and the outflow of the lake were taken and sent to a laboratory and tested for the following parameters: total acidity as CaCO{sub 3}, total alkalinity as CaCO{sub 2}, specific conductivity, total suspended solids, sulfate, chloride calcium, magnesium, sodium, potassium, total iron, total manganese, aluminum, and hardness. During sampling of the surface inflows, volumetric flowrates were measured for each inflow. Once the flowrates and the concentrations of the various parameters were known, a mass balance could be constructed which would show how much of each parameter was entering the lake each day. These data were then used to gain an understanding of the geochemistry and geology of the site.

  10. Heavy metals content in acid mine drainage at abandoned and active mining area

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hatar, Hazirah; Rahim, Sahibin Abd; Razi, Wan Mohd; Sahrani, Fathul Karim

    2013-11-01

    This study was conducted at former Barite Mine, Tasik Chini and former iron mine Sungai Lembing in Pahang, and also active gold mine at Lubuk Mandi, Terengganu. This study was conducted to determine heavy metals content in acid mine drainage (AMD) at the study areas. Fourteen water sampling stations within the study area were chosen for this purpose. In situ water characteristic determinations were carried out for pH, electrical conductivity (EC), redox potential (ORP) and total dissolved solid (TDS) using multi parameter YSI 556. Water samples were collected and analysed in the laboratory for sulfate, total acidity and heavy metals which follow the standard methods of APHA (1999) and HACH (2003). Heavy metals in the water samples were determined directly using Inductive Coupled Plasma Mass Spectrometry (ICP-MS). Data obtained showed a highly acidic mean of pH values with pH ranged from 2.6 ± 0.3 to 3.2 ± 0.2. Mean of electrical conductivity ranged from 0.57 ± 0.25 to 1.01 ± 0.70 mS/cm. Redox potential mean ranged from 487.40 ± 13.68 to 579.9 ± 80.46 mV. Mean of total dissolved solids (TDS) in AMD ranged from 306.50 ± 125.16 to 608.14 ± 411.64 mg/L. Mean of sulfate concentration in AMD ranged from 32.33 ± 1.41 to 207.08 ± 85.06 mg/L, whereas the mean of total acidity ranged from 69.17 ± 5.89 to 205.12 ± 170.83 mgCaCO3/L. Heavy metals content in AMD is dominated by Fe, Cu, Mn and Zn with mean concentrations range from 2.16 ± 1.61 to 36.31 ± 41.02 mg/L, 0.17 ± 0.13 to 11.06 ± 2.85 mg/L, 1.12 ± 0.65 to 7.17 ± 6.05 mg/L and 0.62 ± 0.21 to 6.56 ± 4.11 mg/L, respectively. Mean concentrations of Ni, Co, As, Cd and Pb were less than 0.21, 0.51, 0.24, 0.05 and 0.45 mg/L, respectively. Significant correlation occurred between Fe and Mn, Cu, Zn, Co and Cd. Water pH correlated negatively with all the heavy metals, whereas total acidity, sulfate, total dissolved solid, and redox potential correlated positively. The concentration of heavy metals in the AMD

  11. Remediation of acid mine drainage from the Santa Fe tin mine, Bolivia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Calvo, Daniel; Zamora Echenique, Gerardo; Alfonso, Pura; Casado, Jordi; Trujillo, Elvys; Jiménez-Franco, Abigail; Garcia-Valles, Maite

    2015-04-01

    The Santa Fe mine, department of Oruro, is located in the Andean Tin belt, is exploited for tin, zinc, lead and silver. This in an underground mine mined up to the -108 level. Today it is only mined up to the -50 level. Under this level the table water covers the mine. Water reaches the surface with a very acidic composition, with a high content in potentially toxic elements. This water drains directly to the Santa Fe River and contribute to the pollution present in this river that directly affect to the aquatic communities. In addition, population of this area have problems in the supply of drinking water, so remediation by obtaining cleaning water is a priority for this area. This study presents a neutralization-precipitation treatment with lime to the acid water inside the mine. The ore mineralogy of the Santa Fe mined deposit consists mainly in cassiterite, pyrite, sphalerite, galena, arsenopyrite argentite and sulphosalts. The host mineral is mainly quartz, with a minor content in feldspars and tourmaline. Alteration minerals as alunite, goethite and pumbojarosite are abundant and indicate the occurrence of reactions that lead to the formation of acid mine drainage. The mean pH of water drained from the Santa Fe mine is 2.2 and chemical analyses show high contents in potentially toxic elements: 27-295 ppm Zn, 0.05-0.2 ppm Pb, 0.06-0.09 ppm Cd, 04-0.12 ppm Cu, 113-165 ppm Fe, 4 ppm Mn and 564-664 ppm S. As and Sb were under 0.5 ppm. A settler tank inside the mine was designed by means of seal a selected gallery to clean the mine water. The function of this gallery is to sediment the sludge resulting from the neutralization - precipitation treatment process to obtain a clear water overflow continuously to the outside. The neutralization tests indicate that 0.65g/L of lime and 2ml of flocculant should be added to neutralize water up to pH 6-7. A flow rate of 80 L /s was considered. After a geotechnical study, a chamber located in the mine was selected to locate

  12. Influence of elevated temperature and acid mine drainage on mortality of the crayfish Cambarus bartonii

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Hartman, K.J.; Hom, C.D.; Mazik, P.M.

    2010-01-01

    Effects of elevated temperature and acid mine drainage (AMD) on crayfish mortality were investigated in the Stony River, Grant County, West Virginia. During summers 2003 and 2004, four-week in situ bioassays were performed along a thermal and AMD gradient with the native crayfish Cambarus bartonii. Crayfish mortality was analyzed in conjunction with temperature and AMD related variables (pH, specific conductivity). Mortality was significantly higher (48-88%) at sites with high temperatures during 2003 (max = 33.0??C), but no significant differences were observed in 2004 (max = 32.0??C). Temperatures were higher in 2003 than 2004 due to increased discharge from a cooling reservoir flowing into the river. Additionally, duration of high temperature was approximately four days in 2003 as compared with only one day in 2004. No significant relationship between acid mine drainage variables and crayfish mortality was apparent.

  13. Characterization of Acid Mine Drainage Sources Using Stable and Radiogenic Isotopes, Chalk Creek, Colorado

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cordalis, D.; Michel, R.; Williams, M.; Wireman, M.

    2003-12-01

    Acid mine drainage (AMD) affects many streams throughout the western United States. Understanding flow dynamics and sources within a fractured rock setting is necessary in outlining a potential remediation strategy for AMD. Radiogenic and stable isotopes of water were used in the Mary Murphy Mine, Chalk Creek, Colorado, in order to characterize flowpaths and sourcewaters. By delineating the sources of the mine water, groundwater, and event water, we may be able to target remediation techniques for individual contamination sources. Moreover, results from this research provide insights into groundwater flow systems in mountain environments of the Colorado Rockies. Tritium, a cosmogenic isotope of hydrogen, has a half-life 12.43y and is useful for studying hydrologic processes at the decadal time scale and can be used as an effective tracer when traditional chemical tracers are non-conservative. Hydrometric information showed that discharge from the mine adit exhibited a hydrograph characteristic of snowmelt runoff. However, mixing models using stable water isotopes (D and 18O) found less than 7% of the mine's peak discharge was from snowmelt, suggesting a regional groundwater dominated system. Mine interior samples fell into two characteristic groupings: either from the extreme north side of the drift which contained most of the zinc contamination, and all other locations. The waters from the north drift, MVN-3 and MVN-4, had lower 18O values, -17.62 per mil and -17.17 per mil, respectively, than did any of the other locations, suggesting a seasonal snowmelt input. However, the tritium values associated with MVN-3 and MVN-4 suggest at least some mixing, with values of 13.4 TU and 12.5 TU, respectively. Surface water samples from Chalk Creek show average tritium values of 11.1 TU, and 18O values of -14.87 per mil. Groundwater samples were captured using monitoring wells, and plotted according to the depth of screening. Alluvial wells carried a seasonal signal similar

  14. Innovative Approach to Prevent Acid Drainage from Uranium Mill Tailings Based on the Application of Na-Ferrate (VI)

    SciTech Connect

    Fernandes, H.M.; Reinhart, D.; Lettie, L.; Franklin, M.R.; Fernandes, H.M.; Franklin, M.R.; Daly, L.J.

    2006-07-01

    The operation of uranium mining and milling plants gives rise to huge amounts of wastes from both mining and milling operations. When pyrite is present in these materials, the generation of acid drainage can take place and result in the contamination of underground and surface waters through the leaching of heavy metals and radionuclides. To solve this problem, many studies have been conducted to find cost-effective solutions to manage acid mine drainage; however, no adequate strategy to deal with sulfide-ric h wastes is currently available. Ferrate (VI) is a powerful oxidizing agent in aqueous media. Under acidic conditions, the redox potential of the Ferrate (VI) ion is the highest of any other oxidant used in wastewater treatment processes. The standard half cell reduction potential of ferrate (VI) has been determined as +2.20 V to + 0.72 V in acidic and basic solutions, respectively. Ferrate (VI) exhibits a multitude of advantageous properties, including higher reactivity and selectivity than traditional oxidant alternatives, as well as disinfectant, flocculating, and coagulant properties. Despite numerous beneficial properties in environmental applications, ferrate (VI) has remained commercially unavailable. Starting in 1953, different methods for producing a high purity, powdered ferrate (VI) product were developed. However, producing this dry, stabilized ferrate (VI) product required numerous process steps which led to excessive synthesis costs (over $20/lb) thereby preventing bulk industrial use. Recently a novel synthesis method for the production of a liquid ferrate (VI) based on hypochlorite oxidation of ferric ion in strongly alkaline solutions has been discovered (USPTO 6,790,428; September 14, 2004). This on-site synthesis process dramatically reduces manufacturing cost for the production of ferrate (VI) by utilizing common commodity feedstocks. This breakthrough means that for the first time ferrate (VI) can be an economical alternative to treating

  15. Characterization and Localization of Iron-Oxidizing Proteins in Acid Mine Drainage Biofilms

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chan, C. S.; Thelen, M. P.; Hwang, M.; Banfield, J. F.

    2005-12-01

    As molecular geomicrobiologists, we are interested in the microbially-produced molecules that effect geochemical transformations, particularly proteins involved in lithotrophic energy generation. We have identified two such proteins produced by Leptospirillum group II microbes, which dominate biofilms floating on acidic waters in the Richmond Mine at Iron Mountain, CA. Leptospirillum generates energy by iron oxidation, producing the ferric iron catalyst responsible for pyrite oxidation, subsequent acid generation and toxic metal release. We have shown that a small (~16 kDa) soluble protein, cytochrome-579, extracted from environmental biofilm samples is capable of iron oxidation in vitro, consistent with prior studies on similar cytochromes from L. ferriphilum and ferrooxidans (Blake et al., 1993; Hart et al., 1991). The abundance of cyt579 and its ability to oxidize iron makes it a key link between microbial metabolism and acid mine drainage. Given the importance of cyt579 in biofilm sustenance as well as acid generation, we want to understand more about its distribution and also the architecture of the biofilm environment in which it functions. Using transmission electron microscopy (TEM) on ultrathin sections, we observe biofilms as thin as 15 microns with densely-packed cells in a matrix of polymers. To localize cyt579 in the biofilm, we purified the protein and developed antibodies for immunolabeling. The antibodies were shown to be highly specific for cyt579 using Western blots of whole biofilm lysate. Fluorescence- and gold-labeled secondary antibodies were used to visualize immunolabeled biofilms by confocal laser scanning microscopy and TEM, respectively. Preliminary results suggest that the cytochrome is on the bacterial cell surface or in the periplasm but not throughout the biofilm, as we had postulated due to the abundance of cytochrome in extracellular fractions of biofilm samples. These localization studies will be helpful in determining the

  16. Adsorption of copper, cadmium and zinc on suspended sediments in a stream contaminated by acid mine drainage: The effect of seasonal changes in dissolved organic carbon

    SciTech Connect

    Macalady, D.L.; Ranville, J.F.; Smith, K.S.; Daniel, S.R.

    1991-01-01

    The release of metal-rich, acidic waters from abandoned mining operations is a major problem in Colorado and throughout the Western United States. In Colorado, over 600 km of stream reach are estimated to be affected by such releases (Wentz, 1974). The metals released adversely affect stream biota, including fish. It is therefore important to understand the chemical processes which influence metal transport in these waters. The report details studies of the role of suspended sediments with respect to the transport of several important trace metals in a stream impacted by acid mine drainage. The role of streambed sediments was studied in the same system as part of an earlier project (Acid Mine Drainage: streambed sorption of copper, cadmium and zinc, PB--93-118263).

  17. Vegetation succession and impacts of biointrusion on covers used to limit acid mine drainage.

    PubMed

    Smirnova, Evgeniya; Bussière, Bruno; Tremblay, Francine; Bergeron, Yves

    2011-01-01

    A cover with capillary barrier effects (CCBE) was constructed in 1998 on the abandoned Lorraine mine tailings impoundment to limit the generation of acid mine drainage. The Ministry of Natural Resources and Fauna of Quebec (MRNF) is responsible for the site and for all restoration works on it, including CCBE construction. The CCBE is made up of three layers: a 0.3-m layer of sand used as a support and capillary break layer; a moisture-retaining layer with a thickness of 0.5 m (this layer is constructed of a nonplastic silt); and a 0.3-m sand and gravel layer on top. The main objective of the CCBE is to maintain one (or more) of the layers at a high degree of water saturation to impede oxygen migration and acid generation. Vegetation succession on the Lorraine CCBE results in an improvement in soil conditions, leading to the installation of deep-rooted species, which could represent a risk to CCBE long-term performance. Hence, the characterization of vegetation succession is an important aspect of the monitoring strategy for the Lorraine CCBE. Species occurrence was documented, and depth of tree roots was measured by excavation on a regular basis. Eight functional groups of plants were identified; herbaceous plants were the most abundant ecological plant groups. Tree ring counts confirmed that tree colonization started the year of CCBE construction (1999). Of the 11 tree species identified, the most abundant were poplar (Populus spp.), paper birch (Betula payrifera Marsh.), black spruce (Picea mariana Mill.), and willow (Salix spp.). Significant differences in occurrence related to environmental conditions were observed for most functional groups. Root excavation showed that tree roots exceeded the depth of the protective layer and started to reach the moisture-retaining layer; in 2008, root average depth was 0.4 m and the maximal root depth was 1.7 m. PMID:21488502

  18. Geochemical niches of iron-oxidizing acidophiles in acidic coal mine drainage.

    PubMed

    Jones, Daniel S; Kohl, Courtney; Grettenberger, Christen; Larson, Lance N; Burgos, William D; Macaladya, Jennifer L

    2015-02-01

    A legacy of coal mining in the Appalachians has provided a unique opportunity to study the ecological niches of iron-oxidizing microorganisms. Mine-impacted, anoxic groundwater with high dissolved-metal concentrations emerges at springs and seeps associated with iron oxide mounds and deposits. These deposits are colonized by iron-oxidizing microorganisms that in some cases efficiently remove most of the dissolved iron at low pH, making subsequent treatment of the polluted stream water less expensive. We used full-cycle rRNA methods to describe the composition of sediment communities at two geochemically similar acidic discharges, Upper and Lower Red Eyes in Somerset County, PA, USA. The dominant microorganisms at both discharges were acidophilic Gallionella-like organisms, “Ferrovum” spp., and Acidithiobacillus spp. Archaea and Leptospirillum spp. accounted for less than 2% of cells. The distribution of microorganisms at the two sites could be best explained by a combination of iron(II) concentration and pH. Populations of the Gallionella-like organisms were restricted to locations with pH>3 and iron(II) concentration of >4 mM, while Acidithiobacillus spp. were restricted to pH<3 and iron(II) concentration of <4 mM. Ferrovum spp. were present at low levels in most samples but dominated sediment communities at pH<3 and iron(II) concentration of >4 mM. Our findings offer a predictive framework that could prove useful for describing the distribution of microorganisms in acid mine drainage, based on readily accessible geochemical parameters. PMID:25501473

  19. Acid mine drainage treatment using by-products from quicklime manufacturing as neutralization chemicals.

    PubMed

    Tolonen, Emma-Tuulia; Sarpola, Arja; Hu, Tao; Rämö, Jaakko; Lassi, Ulla

    2014-12-01

    The aim of this research was to investigate whether by-products from quicklime manufacturing could be used instead of commercial quicklime (CaO) or hydrated lime (Ca(OH)2), which are traditionally used as neutralization chemicals in acid mine drainage treatment. Four by-products were studied and the results were compared with quicklime and hydrated lime. The studied by-products were partly burnt lime stored outdoors, partly burnt lime stored in a silo, kiln dust and a mixture of partly burnt lime stored outdoors and dolomite. Present application options for these by-products are limited and they are largely considered waste. Chemical precipitation experiments were performed with the jar test. All the studied by-products removed over 99% of Al, As, Cd, Co, Cu, Fe, Mn, Ni, Zn and approximately 60% of sulphate from acid mine drainage. However, the neutralization capacity of the by-products and thus the amount of by-product needed as well as the amount of sludge produced varied. The results indicated that two out of the four studied by-products could be used as an alternative to quicklime or hydrated lime for acid mine drainage treatment. PMID:25193795

  20. Impact of acid mine drainage on haematological, histopathological and genotoxic effects in golden mahaseer, Tor putitora.

    PubMed

    Shahi, Neetu; Sarma, Debaji; Pandey, Jyoti; Das, Partha; Sarma, Dandadhar; Mallik, Sumanta Kumar

    2016-07-01

    The present study was carried out to evaluate sub-lethal mechanism of acid mine drainage toxicity in fingerlings (9.5 ± 2.4 cm) of golden mahseer, Tor putitora. Exposed fingerlings showed significant reduction (P < 0.01) in blood erythrocytes, neutrophils, thrombocytes, lymphocytes and leukocytes in contrast to increase in number of immature circulating cells. Hyperplasia, degeneration of glomeruli, presence of inflammatory cells and increased number of melanomacrophage aggregates, vacuolization of cell cytoplasm, hepatocyte swelling were marked in kidney and liver of fish. Ladder in, an increment of 180-200 bp of hepatic and kidney DNA, by electrophoresis were consistent with DNA damage. 10 day exposure to acid mine drainage resulted in reduction of double stranded DNA to 46.0 and 48.0 in hepatocytes and kidney cells respectively. Significant increase (P < 0.01) in tail length and percent tail DNA was evident by comet assay. The results suggest that exposure to acid mine drainage might cause irreversible damage to immune cells, tissue and DNA of fish, and this model of DNA damage may contribute in identifying novel molecular mechanism of interest for bioremediation application. PMID:27498494

  1. Drainage water quality and end-member identification in La Violada irrigation district (Spain)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Isidoro, D.; Quílez, D.; Aragüés, R.

    2010-03-01

    SummaryThe identification of the different components in a water course is required to individualize and assess the actual contribution of irrigated agriculture to the pollution of the water course. This paper aimed at identifying and assessing the composition of the end-members in La Violada irrigation district (VID) and establishing a statistical procedure to reduce the sampling effort needed to establish drainage water quality. The quality of irrigation water, groundwater, and irrigated-land drainage water in VID was monitored during three hydrologic years to identify the components of flow in La Violada Gully, the natural exit course of VID. A network of sampling points in the secondary ditches and main drains of VID allowed identifying and separating those collecting irrigated-land drainage waters from those conveying high proportions of irrigation waters. Three end-member flows were identified in La Violada Gully during the irrigation season: (a) irrigation water arising from tail-waters, leakages and spills from the irrigation canals, very low in salts; (b) groundwater originating from the non-irrigated upper reaches of La Violada Gully watershed, high in Cl - and Na +; and (c) VID drainage water, high in SO42- and Ca 2+. The overall VID drainage water quality was accurately assessed through a simplified sampling scheme of only four sampling points that produced low errors of 0.1 dS/m for EC and 0.1 mmol c/L for Cl -. The separation of La Violada Gully flow in these three components is essential for estimating the actual contribution of irrigation in VID to the salt and nitrogen loads in La Violada Gully.

  2. Oil sands thickened froth treatment tailings exhibit acid rock drainage potential during evaporative drying.

    PubMed

    Kuznetsov, Petr; Kuznetsova, Alsu; Foght, Julia M; Siddique, Tariq

    2015-02-01

    Bitumen extraction from oil sands ores after surface mining produces different tailings waste streams: 'froth treatment tailings' are enriched in pyrite relative to other streams. Tailings treatment can include addition of organic polymers to produce thickened tailings (TT). TT may be further de-watered by deposition into geotechnical cells for evaporative drying to increase shear strength prior to reclamation. To examine the acid rock drainage (ARD) potential of TT, we performed predictive analyses and laboratory experiments on material from field trials of two types of thickened froth treatment tailings (TT1 and TT2). Acid-base accounting (ABA) of initial samples showed that both TT1 and TT2 initially had net acid-producing potential, with ABA values of -141 and -230 t CaCO₃ equiv. 1000 t(-1) of TT, respectively. In long-term kinetic experiments, duplicate ~2-kg samples of TT were incubated in shallow trays and intermittently irrigated under air flow for 459 days to simulate evaporative field drying. Leachates collected from both TT samples initially had pH~6.8 that began decreasing after ~50 days (TT2) or ~250 days (TT1), stabilizing at pH~2. Correspondingly, the redox potential of leachates increased from 100-200 mV to 500-580 mV and electrical conductivity increased from 2-5 dS m(-1) to 26 dS m(-1), indicating dissolution of minerals during ARD. The rapid onset and prolonged ARD observed with TT2 is attributed to its greater pyrite (13.4%) and lower carbonate (1.4%) contents versus the slower onset of ARD in TT1 (initially 6.0% pyrite and 2.5% carbonates). 16S rRNA gene pyrosequencing analysis revealed rapid shift in microbial community when conditions became strongly acidic (pH~2) favoring the enrichment of Acidithiobacillus and Sulfobacillus bacteria in TT. This is the first report showing ARD potential of TT and the results have significant implications for effective management of pyrite-enriched oil sands tailings streams/deposits. PMID:25306090

  3. Culture-independent Community Genomics Study of Microogranisms Associated with Acid Mine Drainage

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tyson, G. W.; Hugenholtz, P.; Detter, C.; Richardson, P. M.; Banfield, J. F.

    2002-12-01

    Acid mine drainage (AMD) is a serious environmental problem that occurs when pyrite (FeS2)-rich rocks are exposed to air, water, and oxidizing agents. Pyrite dissolution is exothermic, yielding hot, metal-rich, extremely acidic solutions. Despite the hostile nature of AMD environments, microbial communities thrive, and are believed to control the rates of pyrite dissolution and acid generation. Previous studies of microbial communities within the Richmond Mine at Iron Mt., Redding, CA, revealed low species-level diversity and established close connections between metabolism and geochemistry. Thus, these communities are ideal candidates for culture-independent genomics-enabled analyses. Samples collected from the Richmond Mine in March 2002 were screened using quantitative fluorescence in situ hybridization to choose the most suitable target community for a genomics-enabled ecological study. The community selected (a pink subaerial biofilm) has low species complexity but high phylogenetic diversity, containing ~75% Leptospirillum group II (closely related to Leptospirillum ferriphilum), ~10% Leptospirillum group III, and ~10% archaea that fall into three distinct groups within the Thermoplasmatales order (Ferroplasma sp., for which genome data is already available, A-plasma and D-plasma). High throughput sequencing of four 16S rDNA clone libraries confirmed the low species-level diversity in this community and suggested that the extent of microheterogeneity within each of the five populations was limited. 17 unique Leptospirillum group II 16S rDNA phylotypes (defined by one or more base change) were resolved, with ~85% belonging to one phylotype. The remaining ~15% were very similar in sequence identity, only diverging by 1.2% in total. Similarly, 14 unique Leptospirillum group III phylotypes formed a tight cluster with < 0.8% sequence divergence. The limited inter-species, and significant intra-species variation in the populations should allow determination of the

  4. Passive capillary sampler for measuring soil water drainage and flux in the vadose zone: Design, performance and enhancement

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Various soil water samplers are used to monitor, measure and estimate drainage water, fluxes and solute transport in the soil vadose zone. Passive capillary samplers (PCAPs) have shown potential to provide better measurements and estimates of soil water drainage and fluxes than other lysimeters and ...

  5. Acid Mine Drainage Passive Remediation: Potential Use of Alkaline Clay, Optimal Mixing Ratio and Long Term Impacts

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Plaza, F.; Liang, X.; Wen, Y.; Perone, H.

    2015-12-01

    Acid mine drainage (AMD) is one of the most adverse environmental problems of the mine industry. Surface water and ground water affected by this pollution are characterized by their acidity and the high content of sulfates and heavy metals. In this study, alkaline clay, an industrial waste with a high pH, which is utilized in the alumina refining process, was used as the remediation material to inhibit pyrite oxidation. Through a series of batch and column experiments, complemented with field measurements and geochemical modeling, three important issues associated with this passive and auto sustainable acid mine drainage remediation method were investigated: 1) the potential use of alkaline clay as an AMD remediation material, 2) the adequate alkaline clay/coal refuse mixing ratio (AC/CR) to ensure pH values near to neutral conditions, and, 3) the prediction of long term impacts, in terms of the trends of the main parameters involved in this process such as pH, concentrations of sulfate, iron and other dissolved contaminants. Both field measurements and the samples used for the experiments came from a coal waste site located in Mather, Pennsylvania. Alkaline clay proved to be an effective remediation material for AMD. It was found that 10% AC/CR is an adequate mixing ratio (i.e. the upper limit), which has been also indicated by field measurements. The concentrations of some contaminants such as iron, manganese or sulfate are significantly reduced with the remediation approach, compared to those representative concentrations found in mine tailings. Moreover, results suggest a very reliable long-term stability of the remediation (i.e. neutral pH conditions are maintained), thus enhancing the generation of iron precipitates that could produce pyrite grain coating and hardpan (i.e. cemented layer) on the surface. These processes also made the amended layer less porous, thus increasing water retention and hindering oxygen diffusion.

  6. Re-engineering the urban drainage system for resource recovery and protection of drinking water supplies.

    PubMed

    Gumbo, B

    2000-01-01

    The Harare metropolis in Zimbabwe, extending upstream from Manyame Dam in the Upper Manyame River Basin, consists of the City of Harare and its satellite towns: Chitungwiza, Norton, Epworth and Ruwa. The existing urban drainage system is typically a single-use-mixing system: water is used and discharged to "waste", excreta are flushed to sewers and eventually, after "treatment", the effluent is discharged to a drinking water supply source. Polluted urban storm water is evacuated as fast as possible. This system not only ignores the substantial value in "waste" materials, but it also exports problems to downstream communities and to vulnerable fresh-water sources. The question is how can the harare metropolis urban drainage system, which is complex and has evolved over time, be rearranged to achieve sustainability (i.e. water conservation, pollution prevention at source, protection of the vulnerable drinking water sources and recovery of valuable materials)? This paper reviews current concepts regarding the future development of the urban drainage system in line with the new vision of "Sustainable Cities of the Future". The Harare Metropolis in Zimbabwe is taken as a case, and philosophical options for re-engineering the drainage system are discussed. PMID:10842788

  7. Variability of Near-stream, Sub-surface Major-ion and Tracer Concentrations in an Acid Mine Drainage Environment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bencala, K. E.; Kimball, B. A.; Runkel, R. L.

    2006-12-01

    In acid mine drainage environments, tracer-injection and synoptic sampling approaches provide tools for making operational estimates of solute loading within a stream segment. Identifying sub-surface contaminant sources remains a challenge both for characterization of in-stream metal loading and hydrological process research. There is a need to quantitatively define the character and source of contaminants entering streams from ground-water pathways, as well as the potential for changes in water chemistry and contaminant concentrations along these flow paths crossing the sediment-water interface. Complicating the identification of inflows is the mixing of solute sources which may occur in the `near-stream' subsurface areas and specifically along hyporheic exchange flows (HEFs). In Mineral Creek (Silverton, Colorado), major-ion (SO42-, Cl-, Na+, Ca2+, Mg2+) meter-scale sampling shows that subsurface inflows and likely HEFs occur in a hydro- geochemical setting of significant, one order-of-magnitude, spatial variation in the solute concentrations. Transient Storage Models (TSMs) are a tool for interpreting the in-stream responses of solute transport in streams influenced by hyporheic exchange flows. Simulations using the USGS TSM code OTIS are interpreted as suggesting that in Mineral Creek the strong concentration `tailing' of bromide following the tracer injection occurred, at least in part, from HEFs in a hydro - solute transport setting of likely multiple, dispersed and mixed sources of water along a 64 m sub-reach of the nominally gaining stream. In acid mine drainage environments, the ability to distinguish between local and deep solute sources is critical in modeling reactive transport along the stream, as well as in identifying the geochemical evolution of dispersed, subsurface inflows thorough the catchment.

  8. Evaluating remedial alternatives for an acid mine drainage stream: application of a reactive transport model.

    PubMed

    Runkel, Robert L; Kimball, Briant A

    2002-03-01

    A reactive transport model based on one-dimensional transport and equilibrium chemistry is applied to synoptic data from an acid mine drainage stream. Model inputs include streamflow estimates based on tracer dilution, inflow chemistry based on synoptic sampling, and equilibrium constants describing acid/base, complexation, precipitation/dissolution, and sorption reactions. The dominant features of observed spatial profiles in pH and metal concentration are reproduced along the 3.5-km study reach by simulating the precipitation of Fe(III) and Al solid phases and the sorption of Cu, As, and Pb onto freshly precipitated iron(III) oxides. Given this quantitative description of existing conditions, additional simulations are conducted to estimate the streamwater quality that could result from two hypothetical remediation plans. Both remediation plans involve the addition of CaCO3 to raise the pH of a small, acidic inflow from approximately 2.4 to approximately 7.0. This pH increase results in a reduced metal load that is routed downstream by the reactive transport model, thereby providing an estimate of post-remediation water quality. The first remediation plan assumes a closed system wherein inflow Fe(II) is not oxidized by the treatment system; under the second remediation plan, an open system is assumed, and Fe(II) is oxidized within the treatment system. Both plans increase instream pH and substantially reduce total and dissolved concentrations of Al, As, Cu, and Fe(II+III) at the terminus of the study reach. Dissolved Pb concentrations are reduced by approximately 18% under the first remediation plan due to sorption onto iron(III) oxides within the treatment system and stream channel. In contrast, iron(III) oxides are limiting under the second remediation plan, and removal of dissolved Pb occurs primarily within the treatment system. This limitation results in an increase in dissolved Pb concentrations over existing conditions as additional downstream sources of

  9. An evaluation of trace element release associated with acid mine drainage

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sullivan, Patrick J.; Yelton, Jennifer L.

    1988-12-01

    The determination of trace element release from geologic materials, such as oil shale and coal overburden, is important for proper solid waste management planning. The objective of this study was to determine a correlation between trace element residency and concentration to trace element release using the following methods: (1) sequential selective dissolution for determining trace element residencies, (2) toxicity characteristic leaching procedure (TCLP), and (3) humidity cell weathering study simulating maximum trace element release. Two eastern oil shales were used, a New albany shale that contains 4.6 percent pyrite, and a Chattanooga shale that contains 1.5 percent pyrite. Each shale was analyzed for elemental concentrations by soluble, adsorbed, organic, carbonate, and sulfide phases. All leachates were analyzed to determine total trace element concentrations. The results of the selective dissolution studies show that each trace element has a unique distribution between the various phases. Thus, it is possible to predict trace element release based on trace element residency. The TCLP results show that this method is suitable for assessing soluble trace element release but does not realistically assess potential hazards. The results of the humidity cell studies do demonstrate a more reasonable method for predicting trace element release and potential water quality hazards. The humidity cell methods, however, require months to obtain the required data with a large number of analytical measurements. When the selective dissolution data are compared to the trace element concentrations in the TCLP and humidity cell leachates, it is shown that leachate concentrations are predicted by the selective dissolution data. Therefore, selective dissolution may represent a rapid method to assess trace element release associated with acid mine drainage.

  10. Development of drainage water quality from a landfill cover built with secondary construction materials.

    PubMed

    Travar, Igor; Andreas, Lale; Kumpiene, Jurate; Lagerkvist, Anders

    2015-01-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the drainage water quality from a landfill cover built with secondary construction materials (SCM), fly ash (FA), bottom ash (BA) sewage sludge, compost and its changes over time. Column tests, physical simulation models and a full scale field test were conducted. While the laboratory tests showed a clear trend for all studied constituents towards reduced concentrations over time, the concentrations in the field fluctuated considerably. The primary contaminants in the drainage water were Cl(-), N, dissolved organic matter and Cd, Cu, Ni, Zn with initial concentrations one to three orders of magnitude above the discharge values to the local recipient. Using a sludge/FA mixture in the protection layer resulted in less contaminated drainage water compared to a sludge/BA mixture. If the leaching conditions in the landfill cover change from reduced to oxidized, the release of trace elements from ashes is expected to last about one decade longer while the release of N and organic matter from the sludge can be shortened with about two-three decades. The observed concentration levels and their expected development over time require drainage water treatment for at least three to four decades before the water can be discharged directly to the recipient. PMID:25305684

  11. Isotopic composition of water from a mine drainage site in Creede County in south central Colorado

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Michel, R. L.; Williams, M. W.; Krupicka, A.; Wireman, M.; Graves, J.

    2011-12-01

    Creede County in South Central Colorado was an active area of silver mining beginning in the early 1890s. To relieve flooding in some of the mines, the Nelson Tunnel was built in the late 1890s. This tunnel still exists and acid mine drainage from the tunnel eventually flows into the Willow Creek Watershed which eventually flows into the Upper Rio Grande. The water coming out of the tunnel is high in toxic metals and the area has become part of an EPA Superfund site in an effort to find a suitable method to remediate the metal problems. Among the approaches used in the program is the use of isotopes of water and carbon to identify sources and estimate ages of the water in the drainage. Samples were collected for analysis of isotopic ratios and tritium concentrations at a series of sites within the tunnel complex from 2008-2010. In 2009 samples were also collected for analysis of isotopes in groundwater and surface water. In 2010 sampling was expanded to include four precipitation and one snow sample. Tritium concentrations in precipitation and snowfall in 2010 ranged from 3-6 tritium units with the lowest concentration found in the snow sample. The 18O isotopic ratios in precipitation for this site ranged from an average of -8.9 o/oo in summer to about -19 o/oo in winter. The six groundwater samples collected in 2009 had an average 18O isotopic concentration of -15 o/oo and tritium concentrations ranging from 7.4-9.3 TU. These results suggest that the groundwater sampled is composed largely of a mixture of summer and winter precipitation with the latter source being dominant. The tritium concentrations in groundwater exceed recent precipitation concentrations, suggesting the presence of water from the bomb-tritium transient and an age of a decade or more for the groundwater. Eight sites in the tunnel were sampled I from 2008-2010, although not all sites were sampled every year. The sampling sites included waters seeping into the tunnel as well as the outlet water

  12. Coupled modelling of the effect of overpressure on water discharge in a tile drainage system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Henine, H.; Nédélec, Y.; Ribstein, P.

    2014-04-01

    The effect of subsurface drainage on agricultural catchment outflow has been debated for quite some time. Concerning downstream peak flow, it is a complex task to predict the impact of agricultural drainage because different flow media are involved: the soil, pipe drainage networks and open channel networks. In France, drain pipes are designed to operate under a free-surface flow condition. Nevertheless, during intense rainfall events, some pipe sections may flow under pressurised conditions, so that a complex interaction between pipe networks and groundwater flows appears in the vicinity of these sections. In this paper, an integrated modelling strategy is considered in order to analyse these flow interactions. A 1D Saint-Venant network model is combined with a 2D Boussinesq shallow groundwater flow model by means of special internal boundary conditions which take into account the flow interactions. This study follows field experiments conducted in a small subsurface drained catchment, where drainage discharge and pressure heads were monitored in a buried pipe collector and water table profiles were monitored in the field. The simulation results of the coupled model are in good agreement with experimental observations. Moreover, it satisfactorily simulates the behaviour of the drainage system during the pressurisation stages. The model is also applied to a scenario addressing the effect of pressurisation, as compared to non-pressurisation, at the outlet. The coupled model reveals the relation existing between pipe pressurisation and hydrograph timing. Pipe pressurisation results in temporary storage of discharging water, which is released later when pressurisation stops.

  13. Assessment of the microbial community in a constructed wetland that receives acid coal mine drainage

    SciTech Connect

    Nicomrat, D.; Dick, W.A.; Tuovinen, O.H.

    2006-01-15

    Constructed wetlands are used to treat acid drainage from surface or underground coal mines. However, little is known about the microbial communities in the receiving wetland cells. The purpose of this work was to characterize the microbial population present in a wetland that was receiving acid coal mine drainage (AMD). Samples were collected from the oxic sediment zone of a constructed wetland cell in southeastern Ohio that was treating acid drainage from an underground coal mine seep. Samples comprised Fe(Ill) precipitates and were pretreated with ammonium oxalate to remove interfering iron, and the DNA was extracted and purified by agarose gel electrophoresis prior to amplification of portions of the 16S rRNA gene. Amplified products were separated by denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis and DNA from seven distinct bands was excised from the gel and sequenced. The sequences were matched to sequences in the GenBank bacterial 16S rDNA database. The DNA in two of the bands yielded matches with Acidithiobacillus ferrooxidans and the DNA in each of the remaining five bands was consistent with one of the following microorganisms: Acidithiobacillus thiooxidans, strain TRA3-20 (a eubacterium), strain BEN-4 (an arsenite-oxidizing bacterium), an Alcaligenes sp., and a Bordetella sp. Low bacterial diversity in these samples reflects the highly inorganic nature of the oxic sediment layer where high abundance of iron- and sulfur-oxidizing bacteria would be expected. The results we obtained by molecular methods supported our findings, obtained using culture methods, that the dominant microbial species in an acid receiving, oxic wetland are A. thiooxidans and A. ferrooxidans.

  14. Comparative metagenomic and metatranscriptomic analyses of microbial communities in acid mine drainage.

    PubMed

    Chen, Lin-xing; Hu, Min; Huang, Li-nan; Hua, Zheng-shuang; Kuang, Jia-liang; Li, Sheng-jin; Shu, Wen-sheng

    2015-07-01

    The microbial communities in acid mine drainage have been extensively studied to reveal their roles in acid generation and adaption to this environment. Lacking, however, are integrated community- and organism-wide comparative gene transcriptional analyses that could reveal the response and adaptation mechanisms of these extraordinary microorganisms to different environmental conditions. In this study, comparative metagenomics and metatranscriptomics were performed on microbial assemblages collected from four geochemically distinct acid mine drainage (AMD) sites. Taxonomic analysis uncovered unexpectedly high microbial biodiversity of these extremely acidophilic communities, and the abundant taxa of Acidithiobacillus, Leptospirillum and Acidiphilium exhibited high transcriptional activities. Community-wide comparative analyses clearly showed that the AMD microorganisms adapted to the different environmental conditions via regulating the expression of genes involved in multiple in situ functional activities, including low-pH adaptation, carbon, nitrogen and phosphate assimilation, energy generation, environmental stress resistance, and other functions. Organism-wide comparative analyses of the active taxa revealed environment-dependent gene transcriptional profiles, especially the distinct strategies used by Acidithiobacillus ferrivorans and Leptospirillum ferrodiazotrophum in nutrients assimilation and energy generation for survival under different conditions. Overall, these findings demonstrate that the gene transcriptional profiles of AMD microorganisms are closely related to the site physiochemical characteristics, providing clues into the microbial response and adaptation mechanisms in the oligotrophic, extremely acidic environments. PMID:25535937

  15. Comparative metagenomic and metatranscriptomic analyses of microbial communities in acid mine drainage

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Lin-xing; Hu, Min; Huang, Li-nan; Hua, Zheng-shuang; Kuang, Jia-liang; Li, Sheng-jin; Shu, Wen-sheng

    2015-01-01

    The microbial communities in acid mine drainage have been extensively studied to reveal their roles in acid generation and adaption to this environment. Lacking, however, are integrated community- and organism-wide comparative gene transcriptional analyses that could reveal the response and adaptation mechanisms of these extraordinary microorganisms to different environmental conditions. In this study, comparative metagenomics and metatranscriptomics were performed on microbial assemblages collected from four geochemically distinct acid mine drainage (AMD) sites. Taxonomic analysis uncovered unexpectedly high microbial biodiversity of these extremely acidophilic communities, and the abundant taxa of Acidithiobacillus, Leptospirillum and Acidiphilium exhibited high transcriptional activities. Community-wide comparative analyses clearly showed that the AMD microorganisms adapted to the different environmental conditions via regulating the expression of genes involved in multiple in situ functional activities, including low-pH adaptation, carbon, nitrogen and phosphate assimilation, energy generation, environmental stress resistance, and other functions. Organism-wide comparative analyses of the active taxa revealed environment-dependent gene transcriptional profiles, especially the distinct strategies used by Acidithiobacillus ferrivorans and Leptospirillum ferrodiazotrophum in nutrients assimilation and energy generation for survival under different conditions. Overall, these findings demonstrate that the gene transcriptional profiles of AMD microorganisms are closely related to the site physiochemical characteristics, providing clues into the microbial response and adaptation mechanisms in the oligotrophic, extremely acidic environments. PMID:25535937

  16. Metagenomic analysis reveals adaptations to a cold-adapted lifestyle in a low-temperature acid mine drainage stream.

    PubMed

    Liljeqvist, Maria; Ossandon, Francisco J; González, Carolina; Rajan, Sukithar; Stell, Adam; Valdes, Jorge; Holmes, David S; Dopson, Mark

    2015-04-01

    An acid mine drainage (pH 2.5-2.7) stream biofilm situated 250 m below ground in the low-temperature (6-10°C) Kristineberg mine, northern Sweden, contained a microbial community equipped for growth at low temperature and acidic pH. Metagenomic sequencing of the biofilm and planktonic fractions identified the most abundant microorganism to be similar to the psychrotolerant acidophile, Acidithiobacillus ferrivorans. In addition, metagenome contigs were most similar to other Acidithiobacillus species, an Acidobacteria-like species, and a Gallionellaceae-like species. Analyses of the metagenomes indicated functional characteristics previously characterized as related to growth at low temperature including cold-shock proteins, several pathways for the production of compatible solutes and an anti-freeze protein. In addition, genes were predicted to encode functions related to pH homeostasis and metal resistance related to growth in the acidic metal-containing mine water. Metagenome analyses identified microorganisms capable of nitrogen fixation and exhibiting a primarily autotrophic lifestyle driven by the oxidation of the ferrous iron and inorganic sulfur compounds contained in the sulfidic mine waters. The study identified a low diversity of abundant microorganisms adapted to a low-temperature acidic environment as well as identifying some of the strategies the microorganisms employ to grow in this extreme environment. PMID:25764459

  17. Polonium behaviour in reservoirs potentially affected by acid mine drainage (AMD) in the Iberian Pyrite Belt (SW of Spain).

    PubMed

    Blasco, M; Gázquez, M J; Pérez-Moreno, S M; Grande, J A; Valente, T; Santisteban, M; de la Torre, M L; Bolívar, J P

    2016-02-01

    The province of Huelva is one of the areas most affected by acid mine drainage (AMD) in the world, which can produce big enhancements and fractionations in the waters affected by AMD. There are very few studies on this issue, and none on polonium-210. Twenty-two water reservoirs were sampled, and the (210)Po was measured in both dissolution and particulate phases. The (210)Po concentrations in the waters were in the same order of magnitude to those ones for unperturbed systems, although the data published to particulate matter are very scarce. A mean value and standard uncertainty for (210)Po of 0.25 ± 0.03 mBq L(-1) in the dissolved matter, and 62 ± 9 mBq g(-1) in the particulate matter can be established as base line for the reservoirs of the Huelva area. The distribution coefficients (kd) range from 10(4) to 10(6) L kg(-1), in agreement to the found ones by other authors for the case of neutral waters, but being the lowest values for the more acidic reservoirs. It has been also found that (210)Po has a high tendency to be associated to the particulate matter for neutral-alkaline waters, however, under extreme acid conditions (pH < 3), increases the Po tendency to be associated to the dissolved phase. Therefore, the main conclusion obtained in this work is that AMD has no a significant influence on the total activity concentration of (210)Po in the waters of reservoirs, but the acidity has a clear influence on its distribution between both dissolved and the particulate phases. PMID:26650826

  18. Climate change and increased zinc concentrations in a Rocky Mountain acid rock drainage stream

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Crouch, C. M.; Todd, A. S.; McKnight, D. M.

    2009-12-01

    The Snake River Watershed in Colorado is impacted by acid rock drainage (ARD) originating from both natural sources and sources associated with the historic mining in the watershed. Downstream of mines, the high metal ion concentrations, low pH, and metal oxide deposition cause contamination which disrupts ecosystem functions, impairs biological diversity, and contaminates surface and groundwater drinking supplies. One obvious measure of the severity of this contamination is that the self-sustaining trout populations in the watershed are quite sparse. While elevated concentrations of numerous trace metals are present, dissolved zinc is used as an indicator of trout habitat water quality because the fish are so impacted by its presence. Water quality was monitored along the Snake River from 1980 to 1990 and since then less frequent sampling was conducted as part of research studies and efforts to designate portions of the watershed for mitigation. Metals concentrations during the seasonal low flows of September and October have been observed to increase significantly over that time. In particular, at a site in the headwaters well above the historic mining impacts, zinc concentrations, which were measured between 0.3 and 0.4 mg/L through the 1980s, have now exceeded 1.2 mg/L in the past several years. This four-fold increase in zinc concentrations is associated with an increase in sulfate concentrations, which indicates that these water quality changes are driven primarily by accelerated natural weathering of pyrite in the watershed. The observed increase in natural ARD - possibly the result of climate change - may have implications for mitigation. Currently, these trends are being evaluated by reanalyzing the archived samples to delineate the spatial and temporal changes in contamination. Processes which may be driving the accelerated natural weathering include the earlier occurrence of peak snowmelt due to climate change which causes lower stream flows and drier

  19. Transport of Salmonella spp. and indicator bacteria to drainage tile waters under cornfields receiving poultry manure

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    E. coli and enterococci are commonly used as pathogen indicators in surface water, however, the transport of these bacteria to drainage tiles from manure application fields and the correlation of these indicators to pathogens in this setting is poorly understood. Salmonella spp. is prevalent in poul...

  20. Assessment of Filter Materials for Removal of Contaminants From Agricultural Drainage Waters

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Fertilizer nutrients and pesticides applied on farm fields, especially in the Midwest U.S., are commonly intercepted by buried agricultural drainage pipes and then discharged into local streams and lakes, oftentimes resulting in an adverse environmental impact on these surface water bodies. Low cost...

  1. Effectiveness of oat and rye cover crops in reducing nitrate losses in drainage water

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    A significant portion of the NO3 from agricultural fields that contaminates surface waters in the Midwest Corn Belt is transported to streams or rivers by subsurface drainage systems or “tiles”. Previous research has shown that N fertilizer management alone is not sufficient for reducing NO3 concent...

  2. Drainmod-simulated performance of drainage water management across the U.S. Midwest

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Drainage water management (DWM) is currently being proposed as a BMP for reducing nutrient export from drained cropland in the U.S. Midwest to the Mississippi River and the Gulf of Mexico. The effectiveness of the practice in the Midwest has not been well documented. We conducted a simulation study ...

  3. Transport of tylosin and tylosin-resistance genes in subsurface drainage water from manured fields

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Animal agriculture appears to contribute to the spread of antibiotic resistance genes, but few studies have quantified gene transport in agricultural fields. The transport of tylosin, tylosin-resistance genes (erm B, F, A) and tylosin-resistant Enterococcus were measured in tile drainage water from ...

  4. Impact of Fertigation versus Slow Release Fertilizer Formulations on Nitrate Enrichment of Nursery Drainage Water

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Nitrate-nitrogen losses in surface drainage and runoff water from ornamental plant production areas can be significant. In nitrogen-limited watersheds discharge of nitrogen (N) from production areas can have significant, negative impacts on non-target aquatic systems. This study monitored nitrate-N...

  5. Automated Passive Capillary Lysimeters for Estimating Water Drainage in the Vadose Zone

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    In this study, we demonstrated and evaluated the performance and accuracy of an automated PCAP lysimeters that we designed for in-situ continuous measuring and estimating of drainage water below the rootzone of a sugarbeet-potato-barley rotation under two irrigation frequencies. Twelve automated PC...

  6. Using RZWQM-DSSAT to Stimulate Drainage Water Management Across the United States Corn Belt

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Increased concentrations of nitrate-nitrogen in the surface water bodies of the Mississippi River basin have resulted from the widespread practice of subsurface drainage in agricultural systems throughout the region. Also, hypoxia in the Gulf of Mexico has been linked directly to the transport of ni...

  7. Efficacy of passive capillary samplers for estimating soil water drainage in the vadose zone

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The efficacy and accuracy of PCAP samplers were evaluated for continuous estimating of soil water drainage and fluxes below the rootzone of a sugarbeet-potato-barley rotation under two irrigation frequencies. Twelve automated PCAPs with outside sampling surface dimensions of 91 cm length x 31 cm wid...

  8. Storm water management: Potential for lower cost & more benefits if farmers & municipalities cooperate on tile drainage

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    A common approach to protect communities from the ravages of stream flooding is to construct storm water retention basins upstream from the property to be protected. Retention basins are an expensive solution and often take valuable agricultural land out of production. Improved drainage of agricultu...

  9. Filtering Phosphorus and Heavy Metals from Ditch Drainage Water Using Byproducts

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    High phosphorus (P) concentrations in drainage from agricultural lands that flows to the Chesapeake Bay contribute to impairment of water quality. Byproducts that effectively sorb P have been applied to soils and animal manure to reduce dissolved P losses in runoff from agricultural soils. Such mate...

  10. ASSESSING MINE DRAINAGE WATER QUALITY FROM THE COLOR AND SPECTRAL REFLECTANCE OF CHEMICAL PRECIPITATES

    EPA Science Inventory


    The pH and dissolved sulfate concentrations of mine impacted waters were estimated on the basis of the spectral reflectance of resident sediments composed mostly of chemical precipitates. Mine drainage sediments were collected from sites in the Anthracite Region of eastern Pe...

  11. On-site denitrification beds could reduce indirect greenhouse gas emissions from agricultural drainage waters

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Nitrate (NO3-) laden agricultural drainage waters are non-point sources of indirect nitrous oxide (N2O) emissions, which represent a significant fraction of total N2O emissions in the USA. On-site denitrification beds filled with woodchips were used to reduce NO3- under carbon rich anaerobic conditi...

  12. Use of Industrial Byproducts and Natural Minerals to Filter Nutrients and Pesticides in Golf Green Drainage Water

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Tile drainage is an essential water management feature of managed turfgrass systems. Drainage water carries soluble nutrients and pesticides to streams. Identifying materials and testing the efficacy of those materials as filtering agents is one proposed solution to mitigate offsite transport. We co...

  13. Reuse/disposal of agricultural drainage water with high levels of salinity and toxic trace elements in central California.

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Agricultural drainage waters in the western San Joaquin Valley of Central California contain high levels of salts, boron (B) and selenium (Se). Discharge of the drainage water directly into the Kesterson Reservoir in 1980's was hazardous to plants and wildlife. To investigate the plausibility of usi...

  14. Laboratory evaluation of zero valent iron and sulfur modified iron filter materials for agricultural drainage water treatment

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    On site filter treatment systems have the potential to remove nutrients and pesticides from agricultural subsurface drainage waters. The effectiveness and efficiency of this type of drainage water treatment will depend on the actual filter materials utilized. Two promising filter materials that coul...

  15. Prairie stream water quality in sub-basins characterized by differing degrees of wetland drainage

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Brunet, N. N.; Westbrook, C. J.

    2010-12-01

    The prairie pothole region is dotted with millions of pothole wetlands. These wetlands provide important habitat for numerous wildlife species. Potholes are small, shallow marshes that typically lack surface water connections and have been shown to trap nutrients, ions, and bacteria from catchment runoff. Approximately 70% of the potholes located in the Canadian prairies have been drained since 1900 to increase agricultural production; recently there have been renewed efforts to drain potholes. Wetland drainage has been shown to increase stream discharge and is perceived to impact downstream water quality as previously isolated wetlands become connected to streams via drainage ditches. Our objective was to determine the extent to which stream water quality was influenced by wetland drainage. We compared time series of water quality for four sub-basins of Smith Creek watershed, southeastern Saskatchewan. The stream drains into the Assiniboine River and then Lake Winnipeg where excessive N and P loadings are causing eutrophication. Wetland distribution in the sub-basins was historically similar, but recently the sub-basins have been subject to differing degrees of drainage (extreme, high, moderately-high, and low). Stream water sampling and discharge measurement occurred daily during peak flow (spring runoff) and weekly during low flows in 2009 at the outlet of each sub-basin. Export coefficients for nutrients, DOC, salts and bacteria were compared among sub-basins. The sub-basin characterized by extreme drainage (81% wetland reduction) had the largest nutrient and DOC export coefficients while the low drainage sub-basin (23% wetland reduction) had the lowest. Concentrations of TP and ortho-P were greater in the moderately-high and high drainage sub-basins than in the low drainage sub-basin during the snowmelt period. TP concentrations exceeded the Saskatchewan Watershed Authority Lake Stewardship Program objective of 0.1 mg/L. N concentrations were greatest in the

  16. Acid Mine Drainage Research in Gauteng Highlighting Impacts on Infrastructure and Innovation of Concrete-Based Remedial Systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Diop, S.; Ekolu, S.; Azene, F.

    2013-12-01

    Acid mine drainage (AMD) is presently one of the most important environmental problems in in the densely populated Gauteng Province, South Africa. The threat of acid mine drainage has demanded short-term interventions (some of which are being implemented by government) but more importantly sustainable long-term innovative solutions. There have been moments of public apprehension with some media reports dubbing the current scenario as a future 'nightmare of biblical proportions' and 'South Africa's own Chernobyl' that could cause dissolving of concrete foundations of buildings and reinforcement steel, leading to collapse of structures. In response to the needs of local and provincial authorities, this research was conducted to (1) generate scientific understanding of the effects of AMD on infrastructure materials and structures, and (2) propose innovative long-term remedial systems based on cementitious materials for potential AMD treatment applications of engineering scale. Two AMD solutions from the goldfields and two others from the coalfields were used to conduct corrosion immersion tests on mild steel, stainless steel, mortars, pastes and concretes. Results show that AMD water from the gold mines is more corrosive than that from the coal mines, the corrosion rate of the former being about twice that of the latter. The functionality of metal components of mild steel can be expected to fail within one month of exposure to the mine water. The investigation has also led to development of a pervious concrete filter system of water-cement ratio = 0.27 and cement content = 360 kg/m3, to be used as a permeable reactive barrier for AMD treatment. Early results show that the system was effective in removing heavy metal contaminants with removal levels of 30% SO4, 99% Fe, 50-83% Mn, 85% Ca, and 30% TDS. Further work is on-going to improve and optimise the system prior to field demonstration studies.

  17. Microbial Ecology and Evolution in the Acid Mine Drainage Model System.

    PubMed

    Huang, Li-Nan; Kuang, Jia-Liang; Shu, Wen-Sheng

    2016-07-01

    Acid mine drainage (AMD) is a unique ecological niche for acid- and toxic-metals-adapted microorganisms. These low-complexity systems offer a special opportunity for the ecological and evolutionary analyses of natural microbial assemblages. The last decade has witnessed an unprecedented interest in the study of AMD communities using 16S rRNA high-throughput sequencing and community genomic and postgenomic methodologies, significantly advancing our understanding of microbial diversity, community function, and evolution in acidic environments. This review describes new data on AMD microbial ecology and evolution, especially dynamics of microbial diversity, community functions, and population genomes, and further identifies gaps in our current knowledge that future research, with integrated applications of meta-omics technologies, will fill. PMID:27050827

  18. A Novel Treatment for Acid Mine Drainage Utilizing Reclaimed Limestone Residual

    SciTech Connect

    Horace K. Moo-Young; Charles E. Ochola

    2004-08-31

    The viability of utilizing Reclaimed Limestone Residual (RLR) to remediate Acid Mine Drainage (AMD) was investigated. Physical and chemical characterization of RLR showed that it is composed of various minerals that contain significant quantities of limestone or calcium bearing compounds that can be exploited for acid neutralization. Acid Neutralization Potential (ANP) test results showed that RLR has a neutralization potential of approximately 83% as calcium carbonate (CaCO{sub 3}). Neutralization tests with most of the heavy metals associated with AMD showed removal efficiencies of over 99%. An unexpected benefit of utilizing RLR was the removal of hexavalent chromium Cr (VI) from the aqueous phase. Due to an elevation in pH by RLR most AMD heavy metals are removed from solution by precipitation as their metal hydroxides. Cr (VI) however is not removed by pH elevation and therefore subsequent ongoing tests to elucidate the mechanism responsible for this reaction were conducted.

  19. CCB-based encapsulation of pyrite for remediation of acid mine drainage.

    PubMed

    Bulusu, Sowmya; Aydilek, Ahmet H; Rustagi, Neha

    2007-05-17

    Acid mine drainage (AMD) from abandoned coal mines continues to be one of the most significant environmental problems. Remediation of AMD requires an addition of lime source to decrease the acidity, and grouting the entire mine and encapsulating the pyrite by calcium-rich additives is often employed. Utilization of alkaline coal combustion by-products (CCBs) has gained acceptance in such remediation applications because of their cost-effectiveness. A study was conducted to investigate the effectiveness of CCBs to abate acid mine drainage by encapsulation of pyrite. Geomechanical, hydraulic, and environmental tests were performed on grouts prepared with various ratios of CCBs as well as an alternative free lime source, lime kiln dust (LKD). The results indicated that the mechanical properties of grouts were dependent on their free lime contents. Hydraulic conductivities of pyrite-grout columns were relatively high due to the coating of the pyrite rock with the grout rather than the filling of all of the void spaces, as commonly experienced in field applications. The leaching tests indicated that the presence of high amounts of lime in a grout is not solely sufficient to improve the quality of AMD, since the rate of dissolution of a high lime content grout may be slow due to its rapid hardening. Therefore, it is recommended that grouts be selected with consideration of their hardening capacities, as well as the percentage of lime content present in the mixture. PMID:17303328

  20. Subglacial water drainage, storage, and piracy beneath the Greenland ice sheet

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lindbäck, K.; Pettersson, R.; Hubbard, A. L.; Doyle, S. H.; As, D.; Mikkelsen, A. B.; Fitzpatrick, A. A.

    2015-09-01

    Meltwater drainage across the surface of the Greenland ice sheet (GrIS) is well constrained by measurements and modeling, yet despite its critical role, knowledge of its transit through the subglacial environment remains limited. Here we present a subglacial hydrological analysis of a land-terminating sector of the GrIS at unprecedented resolution that predicts the routing of surface-derived meltwater once it has entered the basal drainage system. Our analysis indicates the probable existence of small subglacial lakes that remain undetectable by methods using surface elevation change or radar techniques. Furthermore, the analysis suggests transient behavior with rapid switching of subglacial drainage between competing catchments driven by seasonal changes in the basal water pressure. Our findings provide a cautionary note that should be considered in studies that attempt to relate and infer future response from surface temperature, melt, and runoff from point measurements and/or modeling with measurements of proglacial discharge and ice dynamics.

  1. Strontium isotope quantification of siderite, brine and acid mine drainage contributions to abandoned gas well discharges in the Appalachian Plateau

    SciTech Connect

    Chapman, Elizabeth C.; Capo, Rosemary C.; Stewart, Brian W.; Hedin, Robert S.; Weaver, Theodore J.; Edenborn, Harry M.

    2013-04-01

    Unplugged abandoned oil and gas wells in the Appalachian region can serve as conduits for the movement of waters impacted by fossil fuel extraction. Strontium isotope and geochemical analysis indicate that artesian discharges of water with high total dissolved solids (TDS) from a series of gas wells in western Pennsylvania result from the infiltration of acidic, low Fe (Fe < 10 mg/L) coal mine drainage (AMD) into shallow, siderite (iron carbonate)-cemented sandstone aquifers. The acidity from the AMD promotes dissolution of the carbonate, and metal- and sulfate-contaminated waters rise to the surface through compromised abandoned gas well casings. Strontium isotope mixing models suggest that neither upward migration of oil and gas brines from Devonian reservoirs associated with the wells nor dissolution of abundant nodular siderite present in the mine spoil through which recharge water percolates contribute significantly to the artesian gas well discharges. Natural Sr isotope composition can be a sensitive tool in the characterization of complex groundwater interactions and can be used to distinguish between inputs from deep and shallow contamination sources, as well as between groundwater and mineralogically similar but stratigraphically distinct rock units. This is of particular relevance to regions such as the Appalachian Basin, where a legacy of coal, oil and gas exploration is coupled with ongoing and future natural gas drilling into deep reservoirs.

  2. Removal of selenium from contaminated agricultural drainage water by nanofiltration membranes

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Kharaka, Y.K.; Ambats, G.; Presser, T.S.; Davis, R.A.

    1996-01-01

    Seleniferous agricultural drainage wastewater has become a new major source of pollution in the world. In the USA, large areas of farmland in 17 western states, generate contaminated salinized drainage with Se concentrations much higher than 5 ??g/l, the US Environmental Protection Agency water-quality criterion for the protection of aquatic life; Se values locally reach 4200 ??g/l in western San Joaquin Valley, California. Wetland habitats receiving this drainage have generally shown Se toxicosis in aquatic birds causing high rates of embryonic deformity and mortality, or have indicated potential ecological damage. Results of our laboratory flow experiments indicate that nanofiltration, the latest membrane separation technology, can selectively remove > 95% of Se and other multivalent anions from > 90% of highly contaminated water from the San Joaquin Valley, California. Such membranes yield greater water output and require lower pressures and less pretreatment, and therefore, are more cost effective than traditional reverse osmosis membranes. Nanofiltration membranes offer a potential breakthrough for the management of Se contaminated wastes not only from agricultural drainage, but from other sources also.

  3. Water and Heat Balance Model for Predicting Drainage Below the Plant Root Zone

    1989-11-01

    UNSAT-H Version 2.0 is a one-dimensional model that simulates the dynamic processes of infiltration, drainage, redistribution, surface evaporation, and the uptake of water from soil by plants. The model was developed for assessing the water dynamics of arid sites used or proposed for near-surface waste disposal. In particular, the model is used for simulating the water balance of cover systems over buried waste and for estimating the recharge rate (i.e., the drainage rate beneath themore » plant root zone when a sizable vadose zone is present). The mathematical base of the model are Richards'' equation for water flow, Ficks'' law for vapor diffusion, and Fouriers law for heat flow. The simulated profile can be homogeneous or layered. The boundary conditions can be controlled as either constant (potential or temperature) or flux conditions to reflect actual conditions at a given site.« less

  4. A method for estimating pore water drainage from marsh soils using rainfall and well records

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gardner, Leonard Robert; Gaines, Emily F.

    2008-08-01

    Rainfall events during low tide exposure cause the water table in marshes to rise. If one has long time series of both rain events and water levels in wells along transects from creek bank to marsh interior, one can correlate well response with rain amount. In cases examined so far the well response is found to be a linear function of rain amount. As it is reasonable to assume that the amount of tidal infiltration required to restore the water table to the elevation of the marsh surface is equal to the amount of rain that would be required to do so, one can estimate the annual drainage of pore water from a well site by dividing the mean drawdown of the water table at low tide by the slope of the response versus rain regression and then multiplying the result by the number of tidal drawdowns in a year. Integration of such results along the transect then gives an estimate of the total annual drainage. An example of the use of this method is given for two well transects in a Typha and a Spartina marsh at the Plum Island Estuary Long Term Ecological Research (PIE-LTER) site in Massachusetts, USA. Both transects yielded pore water drainage rates of about 160 m 3 year -1 per meter of channel length. Although the annual volume of pore water drainage is small compared to the annual volume of the tidal prism, its impact on nutrient budgets in the estuary could be large because of the high concentrations of nutrients in marsh pore waters. We also discuss the possible effects of the capillary fringe, air entrapment and tidal forcing during rain events on these results.

  5. Effects of acid rock drainage on stocked rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss): an in-situ, caged fish experiment.

    PubMed

    Todd, Andrew S; McKnight, Diane M; Jaros, Chris L; Marchitto, Thomas M

    2007-07-01

    In-situ caged rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss) studies reveal significant fish toxicity and fish stress in a river impacted by headwater acid rock drainage (ARD). Stocked trout survival and aqueous water chemistry were monitored for 10 days at 3 study sites in the Snake River watershed, Colorado, U.S.A. Trout mortality was positively correlated with concentrations of metals calculated to be approaching or exceeding conservative toxicity thresholds (Zn, Mn, Cu, Cd). Significant metal accumulation on the gills of fish stocked at ARD impacted study sites support an association between elevated metals and fish mortality. Observations of feeding behavior and significant differences in fish relative weights between study site and feeding treatment indicate feeding and metals-related fish stress. Together, these results demonstrate the utility of in-situ exposure studies for stream stakeholders in quantifying the relative role of aqueous contaminant exposures in limiting stocked fish survival. PMID:17180429

  6. Isotopic composition of Lake Agassiz-Ojibway water just prior to final drainage

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hillaire-Marcel, C.; Helie, J.; McKay, J.; Lalonde, A.

    2006-12-01

    Controversies persist with respect to the impact of the final drainage of Lake Agassiz-Ojibway on the thermohaline circulation of the North Atlantic, some 8.4 ka ago. The lack of response of planktic foraminifer isotope records, off Hudson Strait (i.e., at the outlet of the drainage channel) constitutes one of the most puzzling elements in this debate. However, data on the isotopic composition of drainage waters are needed to estimate the response of the 18-O-salinity relationship in NW Atlantic surface waters. In the literature, a large array of isotopic compositions have been suggested, notably for modeling experiment purposes. Scattered information about the isotopic composition of Lake Agassiz water does exist. It includes isotopic measurements of pore waters of lacustrine sediments [1], analyses of oxygen isotopes in cellulose from algal or plant remains [2], and stable isotope compositions of concretions from varves [3]. Whereas, relatively low oxygen isotope values (apx. -25 per mil vs. VSMOW) are inferred for Lake Agassiz waters during cold pulses of the deglaciation, most data suggest much higher values during the final stages of Lake Agassiz-Ojiway, just prior to its drainage. Calcareous concretions from Lake Ojibway varves (not necessarily contemporaneous to the lacustrine stage) yielded oxygen isotope compositions of about -10 per mil (vs. VPDB), suggesting values as high as -14 per mil (vs. VSMOW) for pore waters (assuming a 0-4 degrees C temperature range). Similar high values (as high as -8 per mil vs. VSMOW [1]) were also estimated from pore water analyses of contemporaneous Lake Agassiz sediments. Here, we used a core raised from Eastern Hudson Bay, off Great Whale River, to further document isotopic compositions of the lake waters prior to their drainage into the North Atlantic. The 7.40 m long core has an apx. 1.3 m-thick lacustrine layer at its base, including the drainage sub- layer. It is overlain by Tyrrell Sea clays. Scarce valves of Candona

  7. Drainage water phosphorus losses in the great lakes basin

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The great lakes are one of the most important fresh water resources on the planet. While forestry is a primary land use throughout much of the great lakes basin, there are portions of the basin, such as much of the land that drains directly to Lake Erie, that are primarily agricultural. The primary ...

  8. Monitoring Surface Drainage and Water Quality from Closed Depressions

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The USDA Agricultural Research Service (ARS), in conjunction with many other interested stakeholders, are taking part in the Source Water Protection Initiative (SWPI) and the Conservation Effects Assessment Project (CEAP) within the St Joseph River Watershed in northeastern Indiana. SWPI and CEAP ar...

  9. Effects of recharge from drainage wells on quality of water in the Floridan Aquifer in the Orlando area, central Florida

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Schiner, G.R.; German, E.R.

    1983-01-01

    Approximately 400 drainage wells in the Orlando area inject, by gravity, large quantities of stormwater runoff that may or may not be suitable for most purposes without treatment into the same freshwater zones of the Floridan aquifer tapped for public supply. The wells are used mostly to control lake levels and dispose of urban storm runoff. Recharge from drainage wells compensates for heavy withdrawals from the Floridan aquifer and helps maintain aquifer pressures that retard upward saltwater encroachment. Sixty-five supply wells and 21 drainage wells within a 16-mile radius of Orlando were sampled from September 1977 to June 1979. Most constituent concentrations were slightly higher in water from drainage wells than in water from supply wells. The most notable differences were in bacteria colony count and total nitrogen concentrations. With the exception of bacteria, water from drainage wells would generally meet the maximum contaminant levels established by the National Interim Primary and Proposed Secondary Drinking Water Regulations. (USGS)

  10. Full-scale field trials of a bactericidal treatment to control acid mine drainage

    SciTech Connect

    Kleinmann, R.L.P.; Erickson, P.M.

    1982-12-01

    Sodium lauryl sulfate (SLS) is one of several anionic detergents known to be effective in inhibiting the iron-oxidizing bacterium, Thiobacillus ferrooxidans. Since T. ferrooxidans plays a critical role in determining the rate of pyrite oxidation, the Bureau of Mines has investigated the use of SLS as a method to control the formation of acid mine drainage. In previously reported pilot-scale tests, the detergent successfully controlled T. ferrooxidans and thereby reduced acid production 60-90 pct. During the past year, the Bureau of Mines has conducted five full-scale field trials at active and abandoned surface mines and coal refuse piles. The first of these field tests was at a ten acre inactive refuse pile near Beckley, West Virginia. After a three month lag period, average acidity decreased from 900 mg/l to 350 mg/l and iron decreased from over 100 mg/l to 2 mg/l. An eight acre active section of a large refuse pile was treated similarly; acidity and sulfate decreased from over 4000 mg/l to less than 100 mg/l and iron decreased from 1000 mg/l to 2 mg/l or less. At both sites, a single application was effective for about 4 months. Our other field tests have been at active and abandoned surface mines in Ohio and East Virginia. At two of the sites, SLS was applied both as a solution and in slow release rubber pellets; the latter are an attempt to provide long term control of acid drainage from inactive sites where periodic reapplication would not be feasible.

  11. Efflorescent sulfates from Baia Sprie mining area (Romania)--Acid mine drainage and climatological approach.

    PubMed

    Buzatu, Andrei; Dill, Harald G; Buzgar, Nicolae; Damian, Gheorghe; Maftei, Andreea Elena; Apopei, Andrei Ionuț

    2016-01-15

    The Baia Sprie epithermal system, a well-known deposit for its impressive mineralogical associations, shows the proper conditions for acid mine drainage and can be considered a general example for affected mining areas around the globe. Efflorescent samples from the abandoned open pit Minei Hill have been analyzed by X-ray diffraction (XRD), scanning electron microscopy (SEM), Raman and near-infrared (NIR) spectrometry. The identified phases represent mostly iron sulfates with different hydration degrees (szomolnokite, rozenite, melanterite, coquimbite, ferricopiapite), Zn and Al sulfates (gunningite, alunogen, halotrichite). The samples were heated at different temperatures in order to establish the phase transformations among the studied sulfates. The dehydration temperatures and intermediate phases upon decomposition were successfully identified for each of mineral phases. Gunningite was the single sulfate that showed no transformations during the heating experiment. All the other sulfates started to dehydrate within the 30-90 °C temperature range. The acid mine drainage is the main cause for sulfates formation, triggered by pyrite oxidation as the major source for the abundant iron sulfates. Based on the dehydration temperatures, the climatological interpretation indicated that melanterite formation and long-term presence is related to continental and temperate climates. Coquimbite and rozenite are attributed also to the dry arid/semi-arid areas, in addition to the above mentioned ones. The more stable sulfates, alunogen, halotrichite, szomolnokite, ferricopiapite and gunningite, can form and persists in all climate regimes, from dry continental to even tropical humid. PMID:26544892

  12. Effect of silver oxide/trichloroisocyanuric acid antimicrobial urinary drainage system on catheter-associated bacteriuria.

    PubMed

    Schaeffer, A J; Story, K O; Johnson, S M

    1988-01-01

    We assessed the efficacy of silver oxide coating of the indwelling urethral catheter and catheter adapter, and instillation of trichloroisocyanuric acid into the urinary drainage bag in the prevention of catheter-associated bacteriuria in a prospective and randomized study of 74 patients. Bacteriuria was documented in 29 of the 74 patients (39 per cent). There was a significant difference between the attack rates, with 11 of 41 patients (27 per cent) in the test group and 18 of 33 (55 per cent) in the control group having bacteriuria (p equals 0.02) after a median time to bacteriuria of 36 and 8 days, respectively (p equals 0.01). Urethral meatal colonization was implicated as the source of bladder bacteriuria in 12 of 18 patients (67 per cent) in the control group and 5 of 11 (45 per cent) in the test group. Trichloroisocyanuric acid significantly reduced drainage bag contamination but bag contamination with the same microorganism responsible for bacteriuria preceded infection in only 2 of the 29 patients (7 per cent), 1 in each group. Patients who received systemic antimicrobial agents acquired bacteriuria less frequently than those who did not. The apparent protective effect of systemic antimicrobials was strongest during the first 4 days of catheterization. The data indicate that episodes of bacteriuria arising from the urethral meatus are common among catheterized patients and that the antimicrobial catheter is effective in reducing the incidence of catheter-associated bacteriuria. PMID:3336109

  13. Hydrological modeling of a watershed affected by acid mine drainage (Odiel River, SW Spain). Assessment of the pollutant contributing areas

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Galván, L.; Olías, M.; Cánovas, C. R.; Sarmiento, A. M.; Nieto, J. M.

    2016-09-01

    The Odiel watershed drains materials belonging to the Iberian Pyrite Belt, where significant massive sulfide deposits have been mined historically. As a result, a huge amount of sulfide-rich wastes are deposited in the watershed, which suffer from oxidation, releasing acidic lixiviates with high sulfate and metal concentrations. In order to reliably estimate the metal loadings along the watershed a complete series of discharge and hydrochemical data are essential. A hydrological model was performed with SWAT (Soil and Water Assessment Tool) to solve the scarcity of gauge stations along the watershed. The model was calibrated and validated from daily discharge data (from 1980 to 2010) at the outlet of the watershed, river inputs into an existent reservoir, and a flow gauge station close to the northern area of the watershed. Discharge data obtained from the hydrological model, together with analytical data, allowed the estimation of the dissolved pollutant load delivered annually by the Odiel River (e.g. 9140 t of Al, 2760 t of Zn). The pollutant load is influenced strongly by the rainfall regime, and can even double during extremely rainy years. Around 50% of total pollution comes from the Riotinto Mining District, so the treatment of Riotinto lixiviates reaching the Odiel watershed would reduce the AMD (Acid Mine Drainages) in a remarkable way, improving the water quality downstream, especially in the reservoir of Alcolea, currently under construction. The information obtained in this study will allow the optimization of remediation efforts in the watershed, in order to improve its water quality.

  14. Roles of Benthic Algae in the Structure, Function, and Assessment of Stream Ecosystems Affected by Acid Mine Drainage

    EPA Science Inventory

    Tens of thousands of stream kilometers around the world are degraded by a legacy of environmental impacts and acid mine drainage (AMD) caused by abandoned underground and surface mines, piles of discarded coal wastes, and tailings. Increased acidity, high concentrations of metals...

  15. ADVANCES IN BIOTREATMENT OF ACID MINE DRAINAGE AND BIORECOVERY OF METALS: 1. METAL PRECIPITATION FOR RECOVERY AND RECYCLE

    EPA Science Inventory

    Acid-mine drainage (AMD) is a severe pollution problem attributed to past mining activities. AMD is an acidic, metal-bearing wastewater generated by the oxidation of metal sulfides to sulfates by Thiobacillus bacteria in both active and abandoned mining operations. The wastewater...

  16. ADVANCES IN BIOTREATMENT OF ACID MINE DRAINAGE AND BIORECOVERY OF METALS: 2. MEMBRANE BIOREACTOR SYSTEM FOR SULFATE REDUCTION

    EPA Science Inventory

    Acid-mine drainage (AMD) is a severe pollution problem attributed to past mining activities. AMD is an acidic, metal-bearing wastewater generated by the oxidation of metal sulfides to sulfates by Thiobacillus bacteria in both the active and abandoned mining operations. The wastew...

  17. Using a hybrid model to predict solute transfer from initially saturated soil into surface runoff with controlled drainage water.

    PubMed

    Tong, Juxiu; Hu, Bill X; Yang, Jinzhong; Zhu, Yan

    2016-06-01

    The mixing layer theory is not suitable for predicting solute transfer from initially saturated soil to surface runoff water under controlled drainage conditions. By coupling the mixing layer theory model with the numerical model Hydrus-1D, a hybrid solute transfer model has been proposed to predict soil solute transfer from an initially saturated soil into surface water, under controlled drainage water conditions. The model can also consider the increasing ponding water conditions on soil surface before surface runoff. The data of solute concentration in surface runoff and drainage water from a sand experiment is used as the reference experiment. The parameters for the water flow and solute transfer model and mixing layer depth under controlled drainage water condition are identified. Based on these identified parameters, the model is applied to another initially saturated sand experiment with constant and time-increasing mixing layer depth after surface runoff, under the controlled drainage water condition with lower drainage height at the bottom. The simulation results agree well with the observed data. Study results suggest that the hybrid model can accurately simulate the solute transfer from initially saturated soil into surface runoff under controlled drainage water condition. And it has been found that the prediction with increasing mixing layer depth is better than that with the constant one in the experiment with lower drainage condition. Since lower drainage condition and deeper ponded water depth result in later runoff start time, more solute sources in the mixing layer are needed for the surface water, and larger change rate results in the increasing mixing layer depth. PMID:26983916

  18. On the neutralization of acid rock drainage by carbonate and silicate minerals

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sherlock, E. J.; Lawrence, R. W.; Poulin, R.

    1995-02-01

    The net result of acid-generating and-neutralizing reactions within mining wastes is termed acid rock drainage (ARD). The oxidation of sulfide minerals is the major contributor to acid generation. Dissolution and alteration of various minerals can contribute to the neutralization of acid. Definitions of alkalinity, acidity, and buffer capacity are reviewed, and a detailed discussion of the dissolution and neutralizing capacity of carbonate and silicate minerals related to equilibium conditions, dissolution mechanism, and kinetics is provided. Factors that determine neutralization rate by carbonate and silicate minerals include: pH, PCO 2, equilibrium conditions, temperature, mineral composition and structure, redox conditions, and the presence of “foreign” ions. Similar factors affect sulfide oxidation. Comparison of rates shows sulfides react fastest, followed by carbonates and silicates. The differences in the reaction mechanisms and kinetics of neutralization have important implications in the prediction, control, and regulation of ARD. Current static and kinetic prediction methods upon which mine permitting, ARD control, and mine closure plans are based do not consider sample mineralogy or the kinetics of the acid-generating and-neutralizing reactions. Erroneous test interpretations and predictions can result. The importance of considering mineralogy for site-specific interpretation is highlighted. Uncertainty in prediction leads to difficulties for the mine operator in developing satisfactory and cost-effective control and remediation measures. Thus, the application of regulations and guidelines for waste management planning need to beflexible.

  19. Evaluation of the toxic and genotoxic potential of acid mine drainage using physicochemical parameters and bioassays.

    PubMed

    Netto, E; Madeira, R A; Silveira, F Z; Fiori, M A; Angioleto, E; Pich, C T; Geremias, R

    2013-05-01

    Carboniferous activity generates acid mine drainage (AMD) which is capable of unleashing toxic effects on the exposed biota. The aim of this study was to evaluate the toxic and genotoxic potential of untreated-AMD and AMD treated with calcinated sediment, using physicochemical parameters and bioassays. Results revealed that untreated-AMD presented low pH values and elevated concentrations of the metals Fe, Al, Mn, Zn and Cu. High acute toxicity was observed in Artemia sp. and Daphnia magna, and sub-chronic toxicity and genotoxicity in Allium cepa L. as well as scission of plasmid DNA exposed to untreated-AMD. Treatment of AMD with calcinated sediment promoted the reduction of acidity and the removal of metals, as well as a reduction in toxic and genotoxic effects. In conclusion, the calcinated sediment can be used as an alternative AMD treatment. PMID:23518284

  20. Hyperspectral analysis for qualitative and quantitative features related to acid mine drainage at a remediated open-pit mine

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Davies, G.; Calvin, W. M.

    2015-12-01

    The exposure of pyrite to oxygen and water in mine waste environments is known to generate acidity and the accumulation of secondary iron minerals. Sulfates and secondary iron minerals associated with acid mine drainage (AMD) exhibit diverse spectral properties in the ultraviolet, visible and near-infrared regions of the electromagnetic spectrum. The use of hyperspectral imagery for identification of AMD mineralogy and contamination has been well studied. Fewer studies have examined the impacts of hydrologic variations on mapping AMD or the unique spectral signatures of mine waters. Open-pit mine lakes are an additional environmental hazard which have not been widely studied using imaging spectroscopy. A better understanding of AMD variation related to climate fluctuations and the spectral signatures of contaminated surface waters will aid future assessments of environmental contamination. This study examined the ability of multi-season airborne hyperspectral data to identify the geochemical evolution of substances and contaminant patterns at the Leviathan Mine Superfund site. The mine is located 24 miles southeast of Lake Tahoe and contains remnant tailings piles and several AMD collection ponds. The objectives were to 1) distinguish temporal changes in mineralogy at a the remediated open-pit sulfur mine, 2) identify the absorption features of mine affected waters, and 3) quantitatively link water spectra to known dissolved iron concentrations. Images from NASA's AVIRIS instrument were collected in the spring, summer, and fall seasons for two consecutive years at Leviathan (HyspIRI campaign). Images had a spatial resolution of 15 meters at nadir. Ground-based surveys using the ASD FieldSpecPro spectrometer and laboratory spectral and chemical analysis complemented the remote sensing data. Temporal changes in surface mineralogy were difficult to distinguish. However, seasonal changes in pond water quality were identified. Dissolved ferric iron and chlorophyll

  1. Bioremediation of Acidic and Metalliferous Drainage (AMD) through organic carbon amendment by municipal sewage and green waste.

    PubMed

    McCullough, Clint D; Lund, Mark A

    2011-10-01

    Pit lakes (abandoned flooded mine pits) represent a potentially valuable water resource in hot arid regions. However, pit lake water is often characterised by low pH with high dissolved metal concentrations resulting from Acidic and Metalliferous Drainage (AMD). Addition of organic matter to pit lakes to enhance microbial sulphate reduction is a potential cost effective remediation strategy. However, cost and availability of suitable organic substrates are often limiting. Nevertheless, large quantities of sewage and green waste (organic garden waste) are often available at mine sites from nearby service towns. We treated AMD pit lake water (pH 2.4) from tropical, North Queensland, Australia, with primary-treated sewage sludge, green waste, and a mixture of sewage and green waste (1:1) in a controlled microcosm experiment (4.5 L). Treatments were assessed at two different rates of organic loading of 16:1 and 32:1 pit water:organic matter by mass. Combined green waste and sewage treatment was the optimal treatment with water pH increased to 5.5 in only 145 days with decreases of dissolved metal concentrations. Results indicated that green waste was a key component in the pH increase and concomitant heavy metal removal. Water quality remediation was primarily due to microbially-mediated sulphate reduction. The net result of this process was removal of sulphate and metal solutes to sediment mainly as monosulfides. During the treatment process NH(3) and H(2)S gases were produced, albeit at below concentrations of concern. Total coliforms were abundant in all green waste-treatments, however, faecal coliforms were absent from all treatments. This study demonstrates addition of low-grade organic materials has promise for bioremediation of acidic waters and warrants further experimental investigation into feasibility at higher scales of application such as pit lakes. PMID:21616580

  2. Agricultural pesticides in six drainage basins used for public water supply in New Jersey, 1990

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Ivahnenko, Tamara; Buxton, D.E.

    1994-01-01

    A reconnaissance study of six drainage basins in New Jersey was conducted to evaluate the presence of pesticides from agricultural runoff in surface water. In the first phase of the study, surface-water public-supply drainage basins throughout New Jersey that could be affected by pesticide applications were identified by use of a Geographic Information System. Six basins--Lower Mine Hill Reservoir, South Branch of the Raritan River, Main Branch of the Raritan River, Millstone River, Manasquan River, and Matchaponix Brook--were selected as those most likely to be affected by pesticides on the basis of calculated pesticide-application rates and percentage of agricultural land. The second phase of the project was a short-term water-quality reconnaissance of the six drainage basins to determine whether pesticides were present in the surface waters. Twenty-eight surface-water samples (22 water-quality samples, 3 sequentially collected samples, and 3 trip blanks), and 6 samples from water-treatment facilities were collected. Excluding trip blanks, samples from water-treatment facilities, and sequentially collected samples, the pesticides detected in the samples and the percentage of samples in which they were detected, were as follows: atrazine and metolachlor, 86 percent; alachlor, 55 percent; simazine, 45 percent; diazinon, 27 percent; cyanazine and carbaryl, 23 percent; linuron and isophenfos, 9 percent; and chlorpyrifos, 5 percent.Diazinon, detected in one stormflow sample collected from Matchaponix Brook on August 6, 1990, was the only compound to exceed the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency's recommended Lifetime Health Advisory Limit. Correlation between ranked metolachlor concentrations and ranked flow rates was high, and 25 percent of the variance in metolachlor concentrations can be attributed to variations in flow rate. Pesticide residues were detected in samples of pretreated and treated water from water-treatment facilities. Concentrations of all

  3. Appraisal of ground water in the vicinity of the Leadville drainage tunnel, Lake County, Colorado

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Turk, John T.; Taylor, O. James

    1979-01-01

    Ground water in the Leadville mining district occurs in granite, quartzite, limestone, sandstone, porphyry dikes, and unconsolidated material. These rocks form a single aquifer system because the formations are hydraulically connected through contact, mine workings, faulting, and fracturing. The aquifer is recharged by precipitation and water moves toward California Gulch and probably toward Evans Gulch, in the drainage basin of the Arkansas River. The Leadville drainage tunnel was constructed from 1943 to 1945 and later extended during 1950 to 1952, in order to drain the mine workings. Discharge from the tunnel lowered water levels 30 to 96 feet in mine shafts from 1944 to 1951. Installation of an impervious plug in the tunnel has been proposed in order to reduce the discharge of water containing objectionable concentrations of trace metals into the East Fork Arkansas River. The proposed plug would reduce the discharge from the tunnel, cause water levels east of the town of Leadville to rise, flood some mine workings, and increase ground-water discharge to California Gulch. However, the proposed plug is not expected to cause water levels in Leadville to rise substantially, but more current and detailed data are needed to verify this. Discharge from the Leadville drainage tunnel is probably a mixture of water in equilibrium with carbonate aquifer materials from the mineralized zone, water acidified by the localized oxidation of pyrite from the mineralized zone, and water nearly saturated with calcite from the glacial mantle. Based on limited data, water from the carbonate mineral deposits has a pH of about 7.0 and concentrations of manganese of about 1,800 micrograms per liter and zinc concentrations of about 13,000 micrograms per liter. (USGS)

  4. Assessing the utility of mixed organic materials for removal of metals in mine drainage impacted waters

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Song, H.; Neculita, C.; Lee, G.; Jeong, J.; Cho, D.; Chang, S.

    2010-12-01

    The use of natural organic materials in bioreactors is one of the most sustainable technologies for treatment of metals in mine-impacted waters. Several natural organic substrates including mushroom compost, cow manure, sawdust, wood chips, and cut rice straw were characterized and used in combination for treating mine drainage with acidic (pH 3) and moderate pH (pH 6). Bench-scale batch experiments were performed for 35-day period to evaluate the performance of organic substrates in removing dissolved metals. Overall results indicated that mixtures of different substrates showed satisfactory performances in removing metals (Al > Fe > Mn) (up to 100%), generating alkalinity, and reducing sulfate at both pH conditions. The mixture of sawdust and cow manure was found as the most effective whereas the mixture containing 40% cut rice straw gave limited efficiency, suggesting organic carbon released from this substrate is not readily available for biodegradation under anaerobic conditions. The mushroom compost based bioreactors released significant amount of sulfate, which may raise a concern upon the start-up of field-scale bioreactors. Collectively, the substrate mixtures had comparable performances to the mushroom compost, the most commonly used material in field bioreactors, in terms of metal removal, pH neutralization, and sulfate reduction, except for the reactors containing rice straw. Especially, the mixture of sawdust and cow manure was the most efficient substrate for treatment of mine-impacted waters. The correlation between the extent of sulfate reduction and dissolved organic carbon/SO42- ratio was weak and this indicates the type of DOC plays more important role in sulfate reduction than the absolute concentration and that the ratio is not sensitive enough to properly describe the relative effectiveness of substrate mixtures.

  5. Biology of the caddisfly oligostomis ocelligera (Trichoptera: Phryganeidae) inhabiting acidic mine drainage in Pennsylvania

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Redell, L.A.; Gall, W.K.; Ross, R.M.; Dropkin, D.S.

    2009-01-01

    Oligostomis ocelligera (a phryganeid caddisfly) is reported for the first time from a degraded lotic systema first-order stream in north-central Pennsylvania that was severely impacted by acid mine drainage. Although uncommonly collected and poorly known, O. ocelligera maintained a substantial population in the mine discharge, free of competition from Plecoptera, Ephemeroptera, and other species of Trichoptera. It thrived under conditions of very low pH (2.583.13), high concentrations of sulfate (542 mg/L) and heavy metals (Fe 12 mg/L, Mn 14 mg/L, Al 16 mg/L), and a nearly uniform springbrook-like temperature regime. More than 350 larvae were collected from deposits of leaves and woody detritus in a pool 0.32 km downstream from the mine entrance over a two-year period. Measurement of head-capsule widths yielded a multimodal distribution with five peaks, corresponding to five instars, in conformity with Dyar's Law. Eighty-three egg masses were observed along the stream channel from 3 June to 12 November at a mean distance of 6.1 cm above the water surface in moist, protected locations such as under moss mats or in crevices of logs. Eggs began hatching by mid-summer, first-instar larvae were present in samples from AugustOctober, all five instars were represented in October, instars IIV were still present in December, but only instars IV and V were represented in samples collected from March to July. The extended periods of oviposition and larval recruitment, together with a remarkably protracted flight period of six months (29 April30 October), led to the conclusion that the population of O. ocelligera at the mine site exhibited an asynchronous univoltine life cycle. Measurement of the width of the anterior border of the frontoclypeal apotome confirmed Wiggins' proposal that this metric is useful for distinguishing final instar larvae of O. ocelligera from its only Nearctic congener, O. pardalis. Occupied pupal cases were found embedded in sodden logs from 8 April

  6. Effects of drainage on water, sediment and biota

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Engberg, Richard A.; Sylvester, Marc A.; Feltz, Herman R.

    1991-01-01

    The U.S. Department of the Interior started a program in 1985 to identify effects of irrigation-induced trace constituents in water, bottom sediment and biota. The program was developed in response to concerns that contamination similar to that found in 1983 at Kesterson Reservoir in California might exist elsewhere. Studies are complete or underway for 26 sites in 15 western States. Selenium is the trace constituent most often found at elevated concentrations in all media. Maximum selenium concentrations in fish from 9 of 20 areas exceeded the threshold concentration for adverse reproductive effects. Maximum selenium concentrations in bird livers from 11 areas exceeded the level at which embryonic deformities are likely; deformed birds were observed in 5 areas. Trace constituent problems may be anticipated if geologic sources such as marine shales occur in an irrigation project area. The potential for problems is increased if closed basins or sinks are present.

  7. Methods for estimation of long-term non-carbonate neutralisation of acid rock drainage.

    PubMed

    Miller, Stuart D; Stewart, Warwick S; Rusdinar, Yuni; Schumann, Russell E; Ciccarelli, Joseph M; Li, Jun; Smart, Roger St C

    2010-04-01

    In the long-term phase of an acid rock drainage (ARD) evolution profile, after any short-term neutralisation capacity provided by carbonate minerals is exhausted, the net acid release is a product of a declining acid generation rate (AGR) and a slower, long-term acid neutralisation rate mainly provided by gangue silicate minerals. At some point, the AGR and the non-carbonate acid neutralisation rate (ANRnc) will be similar. Matching of the AGR and ANRnc near 10mg H(2)SO(4)/kg/week is demonstrated in data from 10-year columns. This long-term neutralisation is not measured at present in any accepted assessment tests. Methods to estimate ANRnc, based on silicate mineralogy and solution assays from long-term column leach tests, are compared. Good agreement is demonstrated between rates measured from the solution assay data and those calculated from mineralogy using kinetic databases. More rigorous analysis of the leachate chemistry of selected long-term leach tests also suggests possible cover design criteria based on the maximum AGR that will maintain a pH>4 in leachate from ARD materials. The data show a distinct break at an AGR of 3mg H(2)SO(4)/kg/week, below which no leachate pH is less than 4. The results indicate that an AGR of 10t H(2)SO(4)/ha/year is conservative and a suitable cover design target for ARD control that would be matched by ANRnc. PMID:20097405

  8. Microbial Communities in Biofilms of an Acid Mine Drainage Site Determined by Phospholipid Analysis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Das Gupta, S.; Fang, J.

    2008-12-01

    Phospholipids were extracted to determine the microbial biomass and community structure of biofims from an acid mine drainage (AMD) at the Green Valley coal mine site (GVS) in western Indiana. The distribution of specific biomarkers indicated the presence of a variety of microorganisms. Phototrophic microeukaryotes, which include Euglena mutabilis, algae, and cyanobacteria were the most dominant organisms, as indicated by the presence of polyunsaturated fatty acids. The presence of terminally methyl branched fatty acids suggests the presence of Gram-positive bacteria, and the mid-methyl branched fatty acids indicates the presence of sulfate-reducing bacteria. Fungi appear to also be an important part of the AMD microbial communities as suggested by the presence of 18:2 fatty acid. The acidophilic microeukaryotes Euglena dominated the biofilm microbial communities. These microorganisms appear to play a prominent role in the formation and preservation of stromatolites and in releasing oxygen to the atmosphere by oxygenic photosynthesis. Thus, the AMD environment comprises a host of microorganisms spreading out within the phylogenetic tree of life. Novel insights on the roles of microbial consortia in the formation and preservation of stromatolites and the production of oxygen through photosynthesis in AMD systems may have significance in the understanding of the interaction of Precambrian microbial communities in environments that produced microbially-mediated sedimentary structures and that caused oxygenation of Earth's atmosphere.

  9. Prevention of acid drainage from stored coal. [Inhibition of bacterial action by treatment with a solution of sodium lauryl sulfate

    SciTech Connect

    Olem, H.; Bell, T.L.; Longaker, J.J.

    1983-06-01

    A method has been identified for controlling acid production and subsequent dissolution of toxic pollutants in drainage from coal storage piles. Results of laboratory and field experiments indicate that it may be possible to prevent, rather than treat, acid drainage by periodically applying an environmentally safe detergent formulation to the coal. These experiments showed that a mild solution of sodium lauryl sulfate (SLS) effectively blocks the activity of the bacteria that promote acid formation and chemical leaching. Drainage from coal treated once with 50 mg/L of SLS remained neutral for 60 days, about three times longer than the untreated control sample. An extrapolation of results to an industrial-scale application revealed that the cost of the SLS needed for a single application would likely be no more than $200 per acre of coal storage area ($500 per hectare ) or, expressed per unit weight of coal, $4,000 per million metric tons.

  10. Environmental assessment of drainage water impacts on water quality and eutrophication level of Lake Idku, Egypt.

    PubMed

    Ali, Elham M; Khairy, Hanan M

    2016-09-01

    Lake Idku, northern Egypt, receives large quantities of drainage water from four main discharging drains. Ecological and biological status of Lake Idku has been monitored during (autumn 2012 to summer 2013) to examine the lake water quality and eutrophication level in response to the quality as well as the source of the discharging water. Discrete water samples were collected from the lake body and the drains. Chemical analyses revealed an excessive nutrient load goes into the lake. A range of 1.4-10.6 mg nitrites/L was determined for drain waters, however a sudden increase was observed in lake and drain water samples of up to 84 and 74.5 mg/L, respectively. Reactive silicate ranged between 2.9 and 4.8 mg/L; while inorganic phosphate fluctuated between 0.2 and 0.43 mg/L. Transparency varied from 45 cm to 134 cm with better light conditions at drain sites. Biological results indicated a hyper-eutrophic status for the lake with a range of chlorophyll-a varied from a minimum of 39.9 μg/L (at Idku Drains) and a maximum of 104.2 μg/L (at El-Khairy drain). Phytoplankton community structure revealed higher abundance at lake sites compared with the drains. Maximum phytoplankton density was detected during summer with the dominance of Bacilariophyceae (e.g. Cyclotella meneghiniana, Cyclotella comate, Melosira varians) followed by Chlorophycean taxon (e.g. Scenedesmus dimorphus, S. bijuga and Crucigenia tetrapedia). Five indices were applied to evaluate the water quality of the lake. Diversity Index (DI) indicated slight to light pollution along all sites; while Sapropic Index (SI) indicated slight pollution with acceptable oxygen conditions and an availability of sensitive species. Palmer Index (PI) gave a strong evidence of high organic pollution at some sites in the lake, while Generic Diatom Index (GDI) revealed that levels of pollution varied from average to strong. Trophic Index (TI), suggest that there are an obvious signs of eutrophication in the lake. PMID

  11. Using environmental isotopes to characterize hydrologic processes of the Nelson Tunnel acid mine drainage site, West Willow Creek watershed, Creede, CO

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Krupicka, A.; Williams, M. W.

    2010-12-01

    Acid mine drainage continues to be a pressing ecological issue across the Mountain West. Traditional remediation strategies usually involve the installation of an expensive and unsightly “end-of-pipe” water treatment plant without a full understanding of the overall hydrology of the system. In this study we show how applying water chemistry techniques to investigate water sources, ages, flow paths and residence times in a watershed affected by acid mine drainage can lead to alternative, less expensive methods of reclamation. We use both radiogenic (3H and 14C) and stable (18O and D) environmental isotopes to age waters and characterize the level of surface and groundwater interaction. Tritium content for waters collected in the tunnel was largely found to be 0-3 TU, indicating an age of greater than 50 years. This was supported by 14C values of DIC in tunnel samples that indicated ages and a hydraulic residence time on the order of hundreds to thousands of years. Stable isotopes 18O and D plotted closely to the Global Meteoric Water Line (GMWL). Combined with the heavy faulting and dominant welded volcanic tuffs of the region, this all indicates a system with very little surface-ground water interaction and a long, deep, likely channelized flow path. A future up-gradient pumping test would help confirm these findings and further elucidate the location and mechanism of the system’s primary recharge to the mine workings.

  12. The effects of ferulic acid on the pharmacokinetics of warfarin in rats after biliary drainage

    PubMed Central

    Li, Haigang; Wang, Yang; Fan, Rong; Lv, Huiying; Sun, Hua; Xie, Haitang; Tang, Tao; Luo, Jiekun; Xia, Zian

    2016-01-01

    According to previous research studies, warfarin can be detected in human bile after oral administration. Ferulic acid (FA) is the main bioactive component of many Chinese herbs for the treatment of cardiovascular disease. To elucidate the effects of FA on the pharmacokinetics of warfarin in rats after biliary drainage is necessary. Twenty rats were randomly divided into four groups: Group 1 (WN): healthy rats after the administration of warfarin sodium, Group 2 (WO): a rat model of biliary drainage after the administration of warfarin sodium, Group 3 (WFN): healthy rats after the administration of warfarin sodium and FA, and Group 4 (WFO): a rat model of biliary drainage after the administration of warfarin sodium and FA. Blood samples were collected at different time points after administration. The concentrations of blood samples were determined by ultraperformance liquid chromatography–tandem mass spectrometry. Comparisons between groups were performed according to the main pharmacokinetic parameters calculated by the DAS 2.1.1 software. The pharmacokinetic parameters showed a significant difference between the WN and WO groups, the WO group showed a decrease of 51% and 41.6% in area under the curve from 0 to time (AUC0–t) and peak plasma concentration (Cmax), respectively, whereas time to Cmax (Tmax) was delayed 3.27 folds. There were significant differences between the WFO and WFN groups, the WFO group showed a decrease of 63.8% and 70% in AUC0–t and Cmax, respectively; the delay in Tmax between the WN and WFN groups (mean, from 132–432 minutes) was significantly different; the mean retention time from 0 to time (MRT0–t) between the WO and WFO groups (mean, from 718.31–606.13 minutes) also showed a significant difference. Enterohepatic circulation markedly influences the disposition of warfarin in rats, and FA significantly affected the warfarin disposition in rat plasma. PMID:27462142

  13. The effects of ferulic acid on the pharmacokinetics of warfarin in rats after biliary drainage.

    PubMed

    Li, Haigang; Wang, Yang; Fan, Rong; Lv, Huiying; Sun, Hua; Xie, Haitang; Tang, Tao; Luo, Jiekun; Xia, Zian

    2016-01-01

    According to previous research studies, warfarin can be detected in human bile after oral administration. Ferulic acid (FA) is the main bioactive component of many Chinese herbs for the treatment of cardiovascular disease. To elucidate the effects of FA on the pharmacokinetics of warfarin in rats after biliary drainage is necessary. Twenty rats were randomly divided into four groups: Group 1 (WN): healthy rats after the administration of warfarin sodium, Group 2 (WO): a rat model of biliary drainage after the administration of warfarin sodium, Group 3 (WFN): healthy rats after the administration of warfarin sodium and FA, and Group 4 (WFO): a rat model of biliary drainage after the administration of warfarin sodium and FA. Blood samples were collected at different time points after administration. The concentrations of blood samples were determined by ultraperformance liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry. Comparisons between groups were performed according to the main pharmacokinetic parameters calculated by the DAS 2.1.1 software. The pharmacokinetic parameters showed a significant difference between the WN and WO groups, the WO group showed a decrease of 51% and 41.6% in area under the curve from 0 to time (AUC0- t ) and peak plasma concentration (C max), respectively, whereas time to C max (T max) was delayed 3.27 folds. There were significant differences between the WFO and WFN groups, the WFO group showed a decrease of 63.8% and 70% in AUC0- t and C max, respectively; the delay in T max between the WN and WFN groups (mean, from 132-432 minutes) was significantly different; the mean retention time from 0 to time (MRT0- t ) between the WO and WFO groups (mean, from 718.31-606.13 minutes) also showed a significant difference. Enterohepatic circulation markedly influences the disposition of warfarin in rats, and FA significantly affected the warfarin disposition in rat plasma. PMID:27462142

  14. Conversion of coal mine drainage ochre to water treatment reagent: Production, characterisation and application for P and Zn removal.

    PubMed

    Sapsford, Devin; Santonastaso, Marco; Thorn, Peter; Kershaw, Steven

    2015-09-01

    Coal mine drainage ochre is a ferruginous precipitate that forms from mine water in impacted watercourses and during treatment. With thousands of tonnes per annum of such ochre arising from mine water treatment in the UK alone, management of these wastes is a substantive issue. This paper demonstrates that the ochre from both active and passive treatment of coal mine drainage can be transformed into an effective water treatment reagent by simple acid dissolution and that the reagent can be used for the removal of dissolved phosphorous from municipal wastewater and zinc from non-coal mine waters. Ochre is readily soluble in H2SO4 and HCl. Ochre is more soluble in HCl with solubilities of up to 100 g/L in 20% (w/w) HCl and 68 g/L in 10% (w/w) H2SO4. For four of the eight tested ochres solubility decreased in higher concentrations of H2SO4. Ochre compositional data demonstrate that the coal mine ochres tested are relatively free from problematic levels of elements seen by other authors from acid mine drainage-derived ochre. Comparison to British Standards for use of iron-based coagulants in drinking water treatment was used as an indicator of the acceptability of use of the ochre-derived reagents in terms of potentially problematic elements. The ochre-derived reagents were found to meet the 'Grade 3' specification, except for arsenic. Thus, for application in municipal wastewater and mine water treatment additional processing may not be required. There was little observed compositional difference between solutions prepared using H2SO4 or HCl. Ochre-derived reagents showed applicability for the removal of P and Zn with removals of up to 99% and 97% respectively measured for final pH 7-8, likely due to sorption/coprecipitation. Furthermore, the results demonstrate that applying a Fe dose in the form of liquid reagent leads to a better Fe:P and Fe:Zn removal ratio compared to ochre-based sorption media tested in the literature. PMID:26081304

  15. Quality of shallow groundwater and drainage water in irrigated agricultural lands in a Mediterranean coastal region of Turkey.

    PubMed

    Odemiş, Berkant; Bozkurt, Sefer; Ağca, Necat; Yalçin, Mehmet

    2006-04-01

    Spatial and seasonal differences in water quality of drainage water and unconfined shallow groundwater were related to irrigation in Samandağ, a Mediterranean coastal region. Eighteen wells, seven drainage points and Orontes River were monitored bimonthly for one year for analyses of electrical conductivity (EC), total dissolved solids (TDS), sodium adsorption ratio (SAR), cations (Na, K, Ca + Mg) and anions (CO(3), HCO(3), Cl and SO(4)). Agricultural irrigation using saline groundwater decreased water quality of Orontes River during the irrigation season (May to September) more than during the non-irrigation season (October to April). Seasonal fluctuations in water quality of shallow groundwater were greater during the irrigation season than the non-irrigation season in the study area. Excessive use of groundwater resulted in a decline in the water table levels in the irrigation season. Water table level rose up to the soil surface in areas where there was a lack of drainage or poor drainage, due to the impact of precipitation in the winter. SAR and pH values of drainage water increased in the irrigation season, while the other properties of drainage water decreased. Irrigation water quality of Orontes River was classified as C(3)S(1) in both seasons. Irrigation water quality of shallow groundwater and drainage water varied from C(2)S(1) to C(4)S(2) in one year. Drainage and well waters were found to be different on yearly basis in terms of Na, SAR (p<0.01) and Ca + Mg concentrations (p<0.001). Ca + Mg concentrations for both sources were different for all sampling dates (p<0.001). PMID:16614781

  16. Effect of an acid mine drainage effluent on phytoplankton biomass and primary production at Britannia Beach, Howe Sound, British Columbia.

    PubMed

    Levings, C D; Varela, D E; Mehlenbacher, N M; Barry, K L; Piercey, G E; Guo, M; Harrison, P J

    2005-12-01

    We investigated the effect of acid mine drainage (AMD) from an abandoned copper mine at Britannia Beach (Howe Sound, BC, Canada) on primary productivity and chlorophyll a levels in the receiving waters of Howe Sound before, during, and after freshet from the Squamish River. Elevated concentrations of copper (integrated average through the water column >0.050 mgl(-1)) in nearshore waters indicated that under some conditions a small gyre near the mouth of Britannia Creek may have retained the AMD from Britannia Creek and from a 30-m deep water outfall close to shore. Regression and correlation analyses indicated that copper negatively affected primary productivity during April (pre-freshet) and November (post-freshet). Negative effects of copper on primary productivity were not supported statistically for July (freshet), possibly because of additional effects such as turbidity from the Squamish River. Depth-integrated average and surface chlorophyll a were correlated to copper concentrations in April. During this short study we demonstrated that copper concentrations from the AMD discharge can negatively affect both primary productivity and the standing stock of primary producers in Howe Sound. PMID:16038945

  17. Acid Mine Drainage Treatment by Perlite Nanomineral, Batch and Continuous Systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shabani, Kumars Seifpanahi; Ardejani, Faramarz Doulati; Badii, Khshayar; Olya, Mohammad Ebrahim

    2014-03-01

    In this paper the adsorption activity of perlite nanoparticles for removal of Cu2+, Fe2+ and Mn2+ ions at Iran Sarcheshmeh copper acid mine drainage was discussed. Thus, raw perlite that provided from internal resource was modified and prepared via particles size reduction to nano scale and characterized by X-ray diffraction, X-ray fluorescence, scanning electron microscopy, transmission electron microscopy, Fourier transforms infrared and BET specific surface area analysis. The results of acid mine drainage show that pH of acid mine drainage is 5.1 and Cu2+, Fe2+ and Mn2+ ions are 10.5, 4.1 and 8.3 ppm, respectively. Firstly in the batch system the influence of adsorbent dose and temperature parameters were considered and then isothermal and kinetic models were investigated. According to the results the Langmuir isotherm and pseudo-second order kinetic model showed better correlation with the experimental data than other isotherm and kinetic models. Obtained thermodynamic parameters such as ΔG°, ΔH° and ΔS° show that the Cu2+, Fe2+ and Mn2+ ions adsorption from acid mine drainage is spontaneous and endothermic. Finally, perlite nanoparticles adsorbent was packed inside a glass column and used for the removal of heavy metals in 1, 3, 5 ml/min acid mine drainage flow rates, the breakthrough curves show that the column was saturated at 180, 240 and 315 min for different flow rates, respectively. According to the obtained results, this abundant, locally available and cheap silicate mineral showed a great efficiency for the removal of heavy metal pollutants from acid mine drainage and can be utilized for much volume of acid mine drainage or industrial scale. W pracy omówiono zdolności adsorpcyjne nano-cząsteczek perlitu wykorzystywanych o usuwania jonów Cu2+, Fe2+ i Mn2+ z kwaśnych wód kopalniach w kopalni miedzi w Sarcheshmeh w Iranie. Surowy perlit pozyskiwany ze źródeł własnych został zmodyfikowany i odpowiednio spreparowany poprzez zre-dukowanie cz

  18. Use of man-made impoundment in mitigating acid mine drainage in the North Branch Potomac River

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Diamond, Jerome M.; Bower, William; Gruber, David

    1993-03-01

    The US Department of the Army, Baltimore District Corps of Engineers, oversees a long-term monitoring study to assess and evaluate effects of the Jennings-Randolph reservoir on biota in the North Branch Potomac River. The reservoir was intended, in part, to mitigate effects of acid mine drainage originating in upstream and headwater areas. The present study assessed recovery of benthos and fish in this system, six years after completion of the reservoir. Higher pH and lower iron and sulfate concentrations were observed upstream of the reservoir compared to preimpoundment conditions, suggesting better overall water quality in the upper North Branch. Water quality improved slightly directly downstream of the reservoir. However, the reservoir itself was poorly colonized by macrophytes and benthic organisms, and plankton composition suggested either metal toxicity and/or nutrient limitation. One large tributary to the North Branch and the reservoir (Stony River) was shown to have high (and possibly toxic) levels of manganese, iron, zinc, and aluminum due to subsurface coal mine drainage. Macroinvertebrate diversity and number of taxa were higher in sites downstream of the reservoir in the present study. Compared with previous years, the present study suggested relatively rapid recovery in the lower North Branch due to colonization from two major unimpacted tributaries in this system: Savage River and South Branch Potomac. Abundance of certain mayfly species across sites provided the most clear evidence of longitudinal gradients in water quality parameters and geomorphology. Fish data were consistent with macroinvertebrate results, but site-to-site variation in species composition was greater. Data collected between 1982 and 1987 suggested that certain fish species have unsuccessfully attempted to colonize sites directly downstream of the reservoir despite the more neutral pH water there. Our results show that recovery of biota in the North Branch Potomac was attributed

  19. Enrichment of rare earth elements as environmental tracers of contamination by acid mine drainage in salt marshes: a new perspective.

    PubMed

    Delgado, Joaquín; Pérez-López, Rafael; Galván, Laura; Nieto, José Miguel; Boski, Tomasz

    2012-09-01

    Rare earth elements (REE) were analyzed in surface sediments from the Guadiana Estuary (SW Iberian Pyrite Belt). NASC (North American Shale Composite) normalized REE patterns show clearly convex curvatures in middle-REE (MREE) with respect to light- and heavy-REE, indicating acid-mixing processes between fluvial waters affected by acid mine drainage (AMD) and seawater. However, REE distributions in the mouth (closer to the coastal area) show slightly LREE-enriched and flat patterns, indicating saline-mixing processes typical of the coastal zone. NASC-normalized ratios (La/Gd and La/Yb) do not discriminate between both mixing processes in the estuary. Instead, a new parameter (E(MREE)) has been applied to measure the curvature in the MREE segment. The values of E(MREE)>0 are indicative of acid signatures and their spatial distribution reveal the existence of two decantation zones from flocculation processes related to drought periods and flood events. Studying REE fractionation through the E(MREE) may serve as a good proxy for AMD-pollution in estuarine environments in relation to the traditional methods. PMID:22748838

  20. Effects of macro-pores on water flow in coastal subsurface drainage systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xin, Pei; Yu, Xiayang; Lu, Chunhui; Li, Ling

    2016-01-01

    Leaching through subsurface drainage systems has been widely adopted to ameliorate saline soils. The application of this method to remove salt from reclaimed lands in the coastal zone, however, may be impacted by macro-pores such as crab burrows, which are commonly distributed in the soils. We developed a three-dimensional model to investigate water flow in subsurface drainage systems affected by macro-pores distributed deterministically and randomly through Monte Carlo simulations. The results showed that, for subsurface drainage systems under the condition of continuous surface ponding, macro-pores increased the hydraulic head in the deep soil, which in turn reduced the hydraulic gradient between the surface and deep soil. As a consequence, water infiltration across the soil surface was inhibited. Since salt transport in the soil is dominated by advection, the flow simulation results indicated that macro-pores decreased the efficiency of salt leaching by one order of magnitude, in terms of both the elapsed time and the amount of water required to remove salt over the designed soil leaching depth (0.6 m). The reduction of the leaching efficiency was even greater in drainage systems with a layered soil stratigraphy. Sensitivity analyses demonstrated that with an increased penetration depth or density of macro-pores, the leaching efficiency decreased further. The revealed impact of macro-pores on water flow represents a significant shortcoming of the salt leaching technique when applied to coastal saline soils. Future designs of soil amelioration schemes in the coastal zone should consider and aim to minimize the bypassing effect caused by macro-pores.

  1. Simulation-based optimization framework for reuse of agricultural drainage water in irrigation.

    PubMed

    Allam, A; Tawfik, A; Yoshimura, C; Fleifle, A

    2016-05-01

    A simulation-based optimization framework for agricultural drainage water (ADW) reuse has been developed through the integration of a water quality model (QUAL2Kw) and a genetic algorithm. This framework was applied to the Gharbia drain in the Nile Delta, Egypt, in summer and winter 2012. First, the water quantity and quality of the drain was simulated using the QUAL2Kw model. Second, uncertainty analysis and sensitivity analysis based on Monte Carlo simulation were performed to assess QUAL2Kw's performance and to identify the most critical variables for determination of water quality, respectively. Finally, a genetic algorithm was applied to maximize the total reuse quantity from seven reuse locations with the condition not to violate the standards for using mixed water in irrigation. The water quality simulations showed that organic matter concentrations are critical management variables in the Gharbia drain. The uncertainty analysis showed the reliability of QUAL2Kw to simulate water quality and quantity along the drain. Furthermore, the sensitivity analysis showed that the 5-day biochemical oxygen demand, chemical oxygen demand, total dissolved solids, total nitrogen and total phosphorous are highly sensitive to point source flow and quality. Additionally, the optimization results revealed that the reuse quantities of ADW can reach 36.3% and 40.4% of the available ADW in the drain during summer and winter, respectively. These quantities meet 30.8% and 29.1% of the drainage basin requirements for fresh irrigation water in the respective seasons. PMID:26921569

  2. The status of the passive treatment systems for acid mine drainage in South Korea

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ji, Sangwoo; Kim, Sunjoon; Ko, Juin

    2008-09-01

    This study was performed to investigate the operating status, evaluate the problems, and discuss possible improvement methods of passive treatment systems for acid mine drainage (AMD) in South Korea. Thirty-five passive treatment systems in 29 mines have been constructed from 1996 to 2002 using successive alkalinity producing systems (SAPS) as the main treatment process. We investigated 29 systems (two for metal mines), 19 of which revealed various problems. Overflows of drainage from SAPS, wetland, or oxidation ponds were caused by the flow rate exceeding the capacities of the facilities or by the reduced permeability of the organic substance layer. Leakages occurred at various parts of the systems. In some cases, clogged and broken pipes at the mouths of the mine adits made the whole system unusable. Some systems showed very low efficiencies without apparent leakage or overflow. Even though the systems showed fairly good efficiencies in metal removal ratios (mainly iron) and pH control; sulfate removal rates were very poor except in three systems, which may indicate very poor sulfate reductions with sulfate reducing bacteria (SRB) as a means.

  3. Fe biogeochemistry in reclaimed acid mine drainage precipitates--implications for phytoremediation.

    PubMed

    Rojas, Claudia; Martínez, Carmen Enid; Bruns, Mary Ann

    2014-01-01

    At a 50-year-old coal mine drainage barrens in central Pennsylvania, USA, we evaluated the biogeochemistry of acidic, Fe(III)oxy(hydr)oxide precipitates in reclaimed plots and compared them to untreated precipitates in control areas. Reclaimed plots supported successional vegetation that became established after a one-time compost and lime treatment in 2006, while control plots supported biological crusts. Precipitates were sampled from moist yet unsaturated surface layers in an area with lateral subsurface flow of mine drainage above a fragipan. Fe(II) concentrations were three- to five-fold higher in reclaimed than control precipitates. Organically bound Fe and amorphous iron oxides, as fractions of total Fe, were also higher in reclaimed than control precipitates. Estimates of Fe-reducing and Fe-oxidizing bacteria were four- to tenfold higher in root-adherent than both types of control precipitates. By scaling up measurements from experimental plots, total Fe losses during the 5-yr following reclamation were estimated at 45 t Fe ha(-1) yr(-1). PMID:24063953

  4. Treatment of acid mine drainage with anaerobic solid-substrate reactors

    SciTech Connect

    Drury, W.J.

    1999-10-01

    Anaerobic solid-substrate reactors were used in a laboratory study of acid mine drainage treatment. Parallel systems were run continuously for 23 months, both containing a solid substrate of 2:1 (weight) cow manure and sawdust. One system had cheese whey added with the mine drainage to provide an additional electron donor source to simulate sulfate-reducing bacteria activity. Effluent pH from the reactor with whey addition was relatively constant at 6.5. Effluent pH from the reactor without whey addition dropped over time from 6.7 to approximately 5.5. Whey addition increased effluent alkalinity [550 to 700 mg/L as calcium carbonate (CaCO{sub 3}) versus 50 to 300 mg/L as CaCO{sub 3}] and sulfate removal (98 to 80% versus 60 to 40%). Sulfate removal rate with whey addition decreased over time from 250 to 120 mmol/m{sup 3}{center{underscore}dot}d, whereas it decreased from 250 to 40 mmol/m{sup 3}{center{underscore}dot}d without whey addition. Whey addition increased removal of dissolved iron, dissolved manganese, and dissolved zinc in the second part of the experiment. Copper and cadmium removals were greater than 99%, and arsenic removal was 84% without whey addition and 89% with whey addition. Effluent sulfide concentrations were approximately 1 order of magnitude greater with whey addition. A 63-day period of excessive loading permanently decreased treatment efficiency without whey addition.

  5. Water retention and drainage in different brands of microcrystalline cellulose: effect of measuring conditions.

    PubMed

    Nikolakakis, Ioannis; Tsarvouli, Konstantina; Malamataris, Stavros

    2006-07-01

    Interaction between water and microcrystalline cellulose (MCC) measured as retention and cumulative drainage of water (WR% and CDW%) is investigated for unmilled and micronized standard (Avicel and Emcocel) and silicified (Prosolv) MCC brands. A centrifuge method was applied with increasing duration and different porosity and thickness of cylindrical powder beds (specimens), in order to establish optimal determination conditions and quantify alterations in interaction between water and different MCC brands. Also, changes of specimen thickness due to presence of water (swelling) were followed. It was found that the effect of specimen porosity and thickness on water drainage (CDW%) appears to be opposite to that on water retention (WR%), while two patterns of WR% and CDW% change with specimen porosity and thickness can be distinguished depending on the centrifugation time. Also, WR% and CDW% are affected by the MCC brand and the micronization. Unmilled silicified MCC brand (Prosolv) shows significantly lower retention and higher drainage of water compared to standard unmilled brands (Avicel and Emcocel), while differences between the unmilled standard Avicel and Emcocel brands are not easily distinguished. Micronization, in general, increases greatly the WR% and decreases CDW% for all the tested MCC brands, and enhances their differences even between Avicel and Emcocel. Swelling of specimen due to presence of water was observed, which was significantly reduced with the micronization, the specimen porosity, and centrifugation as well, but showed slight variation between the different MCC brands. Values of specimen porosity between 60% and 70%, thickness/diameter ratio between 0.75 and 1.0, and centrifugation time between 5 and 20 min provide optimal measuring settings for comparison of MCC brands. PMID:16527466

  6. Acid Drainage Generation and Associated Ca-Fe-SO4 Minerals Near Eagle Plains, Northern Yukon: an Analogue for Low Temperature Sulfate Formation on Mars

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lacelle, D.; Leveille, R.; Mader, M.

    2008-12-01

    Near Eagle Plains, northern Yukon, acidic Ca-Fe-Mg-SO4 waters are discharging year-long from disturbed permafrosted sandstone bedrock overlying pyritiferous shales. The acidic waters are also precipitating gypsum with minor amounts of jarosite-K (Na), schwertmannite and hematite, similar to the mineral sequence observed at Meridiani Planum, making this site a valuable analogue for low temperature sulfate geochemistry and mineral formations on Mars. Stable O-S isotope analysis of the acidic waters near Eagle Plains revealed that the oxygen in the dissolved sulfate was mostly derived from water, suggesting that the sulfide oxidation process could be in part biomediated (i.e., accelerated by Fe-oxidizing microorganisms). However, unlike the dissolved sulfate in the waters, the formation of the Ca-Fe sulfate minerals is abiotic. The stable O-S isotope composition of the sulfate minerals is well within the predicted equilibrium range, suggesting that they formed through physico-chemical processes (i.e., evaporation or freezing). Low temperature geochemical modeling with FREZCHEM and PHREEQC suggests that the mineral sequence at Eagle Plains formed through the freezing of Ca-Fe-Mg-SO4 waters, rather than through evaporation during the dry summer season. Although the later is still a valid process of sulfate mineral formation at Eagle Plains as the acidic stream nearly dries-up during the summer. Overall, the fact that acid drainage is presently active allows to directly observe the low temperature (bio)geochemical processes responsible for generating acid drainage and precipitation of gypsum, schwertmannite, jarosite-K, jarosite-Na, goethite and hematite.

  7. The fate of arsenic in sediments formed at a river confluence affected by acid mine drainage

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Guerra, P. A.; Pasten, P. A.; Pizarro, G.; Simonson, K.; Escauriaza, C. R.; Gonzalez, C.; Bonilla, C.

    2012-12-01

    Fluvial confluences receiving acid mine drainage may play a critical role in a watershed as a suite of interactions between chemistry and hydrodynamics occur, determining the fate of toxic contaminants like arsenic. Solid reactive phases of iron and/or aluminum oxi-hydroxides may form or transform, ranging from iron oxide nanoparticles that aggregate and form floccules that are transported in the suspended load up to gravel and arsenic-rich rock coatings. In order to further understand the role of reactive fluvial confluences, we have studied the mixing between the Caracarani River (flow=170-640 L/s, pH 8, conductivity 1.5 mS/cm, total As<0.1 mg/L and total Fe< 5 mg/L) and the Azufre River (flow=45-245 L/s, pH<2, conductivity > 10 mS/cm, total As>2 mg/L, total Fe=35-125 mg/L), located in the Lluta watershed in northern Chile. This site is an excellent natural laboratory located in a water-scarce area, where the future construction of a dam has prompted the attention of decision makers and scientists interested in weighing the risks derived by the accumulation of arsenic-rich sediments. Suspended sediments (> 0.45 μm), riverbed sediments, and coated rocks were collected upstream and downstream from the confluence. Suspended sediments >0.45 μm and riverbed sediments were analyzed by total reflection x-ray fluorescence for metals, while coated river bed rocks were analyzed by chemical extractions and a semi-quantitative approach through portable x-ray fluorescence. Water from the Caracarani and Azufre rivers were mixed in the laboratory at different ratios and mixing velocities aiming to characterize the effect of the chemical-hydrodynamic environment where arsenic solids were formed at different locations in the confluence. Despite a wide range of iron and arsenic concentrations in the suspended sediments from the field (As=1037 ± 1372 mg/kg, Fe=21.0 ± 24.5 g/kg), we found a rather narrow As/Fe ratio, increasing from 36.5 to 55.2 mgAs/kgFe when the bulk water p

  8. Recovery of calcium carbonate from steelmaking slag and utilization for acid mine drainage pre-treatment.

    PubMed

    Mulopo, J; Mashego, M; Zvimba, J N

    2012-01-01

    The conversion of steelmaking slag (a waste product of the steelmaking process) to calcium carbonate (CaCO(3)) was tested using hydrochloric acid, ammonium hydroxide and carbon dioxide via a pH-swing process. Batch reactors were used to assess the technical feasibility of calcium carbonate recovery and its use for pre-treatment of acid mine drainage (AMD) from coal mines. The effects of key process parameters, such as the amount of acid (HCl/calcium molar ratio), the pH and the CO(2) flow rate were considered. It was observed that calcium extraction from steelmaking slag significantly increased with an increase in the amount of hydrochloric acid. The CO(2) flow rate also had a positive effect on the carbonation reaction rate but did not affect the morphology of the calcium carbonate produced for values less than 2 L/min. The CaCO(3) recovered from the bench scale batch reactor demonstrated effective neutralization ability during AMD pre-treatment compared with the commercial laboratory grade CaCO(3). PMID:22643421

  9. Advances in biotreatment of acid mine drainage and biorecovery of metals: 1. Metal precipitation for recovery and recycle.

    PubMed

    Tabak, Henry H; Scharp, Richard; Burckle, John; Kawahara, Fred K; Govind, Rakesh

    2003-12-01

    Acid mine drainage (AMD), an acidic metal-bearing wastewater, poses a severe pollution problem attributed to post mining activities. The metals usually encountered in AMD and considered of concern for risk assessment are arsenic, cadmium, iron, lead, manganese, zinc, copper and sulfate. The pollution generated by abandoned mining activities in the area of Butte, Montana has resulted in the designation of the Silver Bow Creek-Butte Area as the largest Superfund (National Priorities List) site in the U.S. This paper reports the results of bench-scale studies conducted to develop a resource recovery based remediation process for the clean up of the Berkeley Pit. The process utilizes selective, sequential precipitation (SSP) of metals as hydroxides and sulfides, such as copper, zinc, aluminum, iron and manganese, from the Berkeley Pit AMD for their removal from the water in a form suitable for additional processing into marketable precipitates and pigments. The metal biorecovery and recycle process is based on complete separation of the biological sulfate reduction step and the metal precipitation step. Hydrogen sulfide produced in the SRB bioreactor systems is used in the precipitation step to form insoluble metal sulfides. The average metal recoveries using the SSP process were as follows: aluminum (as hydroxide) 99.8%, cadmium (as sulfide) 99.7%, cobalt (as sulfide) 99.1% copper (as sulfide) 99.8%, ferrous iron (sulfide) 97.1%, manganese (as sulfide) 87.4%, nickel (as sulfide) 47.8%, and zinc (as sulfide) 100%. The average precipitate purity for metals, copper sulfide, ferric hydroxide, zinc sulfide, aluminum hydroxide and manganese sulfide were: 92.4, 81.5, 97.8, 95.6, 92.1 and 75.0%, respectively. The final produced water contained only calcium and magnesium and both sulfate and sulfide concentrations were below usable water limits. Water quality of this agriculturally usable water met the EPA's gold standard criterion. PMID:14669873

  10. Assessment of Filter Materials for Removal of Contaminants From Agricultural Drainage Waters

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Allred, B. J.

    2007-12-01

    Fertilizer nutrients and pesticides applied on farm fields, especially in the Midwest U.S., are commonly intercepted by buried agricultural drainage pipes and then discharged into local streams and lakes, oftentimes resulting in an adverse environmental impact on these surface water bodies. Low cost filter materials have the potential to remove nutrient and pesticide contaminants from agricultural drainage waters before these waters are released from the farm site. Batch tests were conducted to find filter materials potentially capable of removing nutrient (nitrate and phosphate) and pesticide (atrazine) contaminants from subsurface drainage waters. For each batch test, stock solution (40 g) and filter material (5 g) were combined in 50 mL Teflon centrifuge tubes and mixed with a rotator for 24 hours. The stock solution contained 50 mg/L nitrate-N, 0.25 mg/L phosphate-P, 0.4 mg/L atrazine, 570 mg/L calcium sulfate, and 140 mg/L potassium chloride. Calcium sulfate and potassium chloride were added so that the stock solution would contain anions and cations normally found in agricultural drainage waters. There were six replicate batch tests for each filter material. At the completion of each test, solution was removed from the centrifuge tube and analyzed for nitrate-N, phosphate-P, and atrazine. A total of 38 filter materials were tested, which were divided into five classes; high carbon content substances, high iron content substances, high aluminum content substances, surfactant modified clay/zeolite, and coal combustion products. Batch test results generally indicate, that with regard to the five classes of filter materials; high carbon content substances adsorbed atrazine very effectively; high iron content substances worked especially well removing almost all of the phosphate present; high aluminum content substances lowered phosphate levels; surfactant modified clay/zeolite substantially reduced both nitrate and atrazine; and coal combustion products

  11. Activated sludge as substrate for sulfate-reducing bacteria in acid mine drainage treatment

    SciTech Connect

    Al-Ani, W.A.G.; Henry, J.G.; Prasad, D.

    1996-11-01

    Acid mine drainage (AMD), characterized by high concentrations of sulfates and heavy metals and low pH, presents a potential hazard to the environment.Several treatment processes (chemical precipitation, ion exchange, reverse osmosis, electrodialysis and electrolytic recovery) are available, but these are often too expensive. Biological treatment of AMD, mediated by sulfate-reducing bacteria (SRB), seems promising. The objective of this study was to use activated sludge as a carbon source for the SRB and determine the most effective COD/sulfate ratio and hydraulic retention time (HRT) for reducing sulfate. Such information would be useful for the application of the proposed two-stage system to AMD treatment. Since the aim of this study was to obtain sulfate reduction and to avoid methane production, it was decided to operate the digesters initially at low COD/SO{sub 4}{sup 2{minus}} ratios of 1.0, 1.5, and 2.0.

  12. Suspended culture of sulfate reducing bacteria for the remediation of acid mine drainage

    SciTech Connect

    Misken, K.A.; Figueroa, L.A.

    1993-12-31

    Acid mind drainages are characterized by low pH, and high sulfate and heavy metals concentrations. Conventional treatment technologies address these concerns with high chemical additions producing large volumes of sludge requiring disposal. An anaerobic suspended culture of sulfate reducing bacteria can reduce the metals and sulfate levels by reducing sulfate to sulfide levels by reducing sulfate to sulfate, which can then form precipates with the metal in solution, while increase pH and producing biocarbonate. Readily available and inexpensive organic carbon sources such as wastewater and waste beer were evaluated in serum bottles, and a bench scale sequencing batch reactor was operated using molasses as the organic source. Up to 90% sulfate removal was achieved while reducing iron concentrations to below detection limits. Increases in pH require production of stoichiometrically excess sulfide.

  13. Heavy metal removal from acid mine drainage by calcined eggshell and microalgae hybrid system.

    PubMed

    Choi, Hee-Jeong; Lee, Seung-Mok

    2015-09-01

    This study investigates the use of calcined eggshells and microalgae for the removal of heavy metals from acid mine drainage (AMD) and the simultaneous enhancement of biomass productivity. The experiment was conducted over a period of 6 days in a hybrid system containing calcined eggshells and the microalgae Chlorella vulgaris. The results show that the biomass productivity increased to ~8.04 times its initial concentration of 0.367 g/L as measured by an optical panel photobioreactor (OPPBR) and had a light transmittance of 95 % at a depth of 305 mm. On the other hand, the simultaneous percent removal of Fe, Cu, Zn, Mn, As, and Cd from the AMD effluent was found to be 99.47 to 100 %. These results indicate that the hybrid system with calcined eggshells and microalgae was highly effective for heavy metal removal in the AMD. PMID:25940497

  14. In-situ remediation of acid mine drainage using a permeable reactive barrier in Aznalcóllar (Sw Spain).

    PubMed

    Gibert, Oriol; Rötting, Tobias; Cortina, José Luis; de Pablo, Joan; Ayora, Carlos; Carrera, Jesús; Bolzicco, José

    2011-07-15

    Following on the accident occurred in Aznalcóllar in 1998, whereby a huge amount of acid mine drainage and heavy metal-bearing pyritic sludge was released to the Agrio river valley with the subsequent contamination of groundwater, a subsurface permeable reactive barrier (PRB) was installed to mitigate the long-term impacts by the spillage. The PRB material consisted of a mixture of limestone and vegetal compost. A particular characteristic of the Agrio aquifer is its high water flow velocity (0.5-1 m/d), which may pose difficulties in its remediation using PRB technology. The present study reports the 36-month performance of the PRB. Vertical differences in water velocity were observed within the PRB, with the deeper part being slower and more effective in neutralizing pH and removing heavy metals (Zn, Al, Cu). On the other hand, partial sulfate removal appeard to be restricted to the bottom of the PRB, but with no apparent influence on downgradient water quality. The results are finally compared with the other four reported existing PRBs for AMD worldwide. PMID:21601356

  15. DISPOSAL OF FLUIDIZED BED COMBUSTION ASH IN AN UNDERGROUND MINE TO CONTROL ACID MINE DRAINAGE AND SUBSIDENCE

    SciTech Connect

    Unknown

    1999-01-01

    This project will evaluate the technical, economic and environmental feasibility of filling abandoned underground mine voids with alkaline, advanced coal combustion wastes (Fluidized Bed Combustion-FBC ash). Success will be measured in terms of technical feasibility of the approach (i.e. % void filling), cost, environmental benefits (acid mine drainage and subsidence control) and environmental impacts (noxious ion release). This document reports on progress made during Phase III. The report is divided into four major sections. The first deals with the Hydraulic Injection component. This section of the report reports on progress and milestones associated with the grouting activities of the project. The Phase III tasks of Economic Analysis and Regulatory Analysis is covered under this section. The second component is Pneumatic Injection. This section reports on progress made towards completing the demonstration project. The Water Quality component involves background monitoring of water quality and precipitation at the Phase III (Longridge) mine site. The last component involves evaluating the migration of contaminants through the grouted mine. A computer model has been developed in earlier phases and will model the flow of water in and around the grouted Longridge mine.

  16. Agricultural Drainage Water Management in the Upper Mississippi River Basin: Potential Impact and Implementation Strategies

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The unique soil and climate of the Upper Mississippi River Basin area provide the resources for bountiful agricultural production. Agricultural drainage (both surface and subsurface drainage) is essential for achieving economically viable crop production and management. Drainage practices alter the ...

  17. Preliminary results from agricultural drainage water management CIG projects on Ohio

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Field demonstrations were monitored to compare the crop yields, drainage discharge, and nutrient loadings to streams from managed and unmanaged subsurface drainage systems. Paired drainage systems within the same field, under similar soil, area, cropping, and management conditions, were identified. ...

  18. Passive treatment of acid mine drainage with high metal concentrations using dispersed alkaline substrate.

    PubMed

    Rötting, Tobias S; Thomas, Robert C; Ayora, Carlos; Carrera, Jesús

    2008-01-01

    Passive treatment systems based on the dissolution of coarse calcite grains are widely used to remediate acid mine drainage (AMD). Unfortunately, they tolerate only low metal concentrations or acidity loads, because they are prone to passivation (loss of reactivity due to coating) and/or clogging (loss of permeability) by precipitates. To overcome these problems, a dispersed alkaline substrate (DAS) composed of a fine-grained alkaline reagent (calcite sand) mixed with a coarse inert matrix (wood chips) was developed. The small grains provide a large reactive surface and dissolve almost completely before the growing layer of precipitates passivates the substrate, whereas the dispersion of nuclei for precipitation on the inert surfaces retards clogging. Chemical and hydraulic performance of DAS was investigated in two laboratory columns fed at different flow rates with natural AMD of pH 2.3 to 3.5 and inflow net acidity 1350 to 2300 mg/L as CaCO(3). The DAS columns removed 900 to 1600 mg/L net acidity, 3 to 4.5 times more than conventional passive treatment systems. Regardless of the flow rate employed, Al, Fe(III), Cu, and Pb were virtually eliminated. Minor Zn, Ni, and Cd were removed at low flow rates. High acidity removal is possible because these metals accumulate intentionally in DAS, and their precipitation promotes further calcite dissolution. During 15 mo, DAS operated without clogging at 120 g acidity/m(2).d, four times the loading rate recommended for conventional passive systems; DAS may therefore be capable of treating AMD at sites where influent chemistry precludes the use of other passive systems. PMID:18689735

  19. Surface water drainage system. Environmental assessment and finding of no significant impact

    SciTech Connect

    1996-05-01

    This Environmental Assessment (EA) is written pursuant to the National Environmental Policy Act (NEPA). The document identifies and evaluates the action proposed to correct deficiencies in, and then to maintain, the surface water drainage system serving the Department of Energy`s Rocky Flats Environmental Technology Site (Site), located north of Golden, Colorado. Many of the activities proposed would not normally be subject to this level of NEPA documentation. However, in many cases, maintenance of the system has been deferred to the point that wetlands vegetation has become established in some ditches and culverts, creating wetlands. The proposed activities would damage or remove some of these wetlands in order to return the drainage system to the point that it would be able to fully serve its intended function - stormwater control. The Department of Energy (DOE) regulations require that activities affecting environmentally sensitive areas like wetlands be the subject of an EA. Most portions of the surface water drainage system are presently inadequate to convey the runoff from a 100-year storm event. As a result, such an event would cause flooding across much of the Site and possibly threaten the integrity of the dams at the terminal ponds. Severe flooding would not only cause damage to facilities and equipment, but could also facilitate the transport of contaminants from individual hazardous substance sites (IHSSs). Uncontrolled flow through the A- and B-series ponds could cause contaminated sediments to become suspended and carried downstream. Additionally, high velocity flood flows significantly increase erosion losses.

  20. Prevention of Acid Mine Drainage Through Complexation of Ferric Iron by Soluble Microbial Growth Products

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pandey, S.; Yacob, T. W.; Silverstein, J.; Rajaram, H.; Minchow, K.; Basta, J.

    2011-12-01

    Acid mine drainage (AMD) is a widespread environmental problem with deleterious impacts on water quality in streams and watersheds. AMD is generated largely by the oxidation of metal sulfides (i.e. pyrite) by ferric iron. This abiotic reaction is catalyzed by conversion of ferrous to ferric iron by iron and sulfur oxidizing microorganisms. Biostimulation is currently being investigated as an attempt to inhibit the oxidation of pyrite and growth of iron oxidizing bacteria through addition of organic carbon. This may stimulate growth of indigenous communities of acidophilic heterotrophic bacteria to compete for oxygen. The goal of this research is to investigate a secondary mechanism associated with carbon addition: complexation of free Fe(III) by soluble microbial growth products (SMPs) produced by microorganisms growing in waste rock. Exploratory research at the laboratory scale examined the effect of soluble microbial products (SMPs) on the kinetics of oxidation of pure pyrite during shaker flask experiments. The results confirmed a decrease in the rate of pyrite oxidation that was dependent upon the concentration of SMPs in solution. We are using these data to verify results from a pyrite oxidation model that accounts for SMPs. This reactor model involves differential-algebraic equations incorporating total component mass balances and mass action laws for equilibrium reactions. Species concentrations determined in each time step are applied to abiotic pyrite oxidation rate expressions from the literature to determine the evolution of total component concentrations. The model was embedded in a parameter estimation algorithm to determine the reactive surface area of pyrite in an abiotic control experiment, yielding an optimized value of 0.0037 m2. The optimized model exhibited similar behavior to the experiment for this case; the root mean squared of residuals for Fe(III) was calculated to be 7.58 x 10-4 M, which is several orders of magnitude less than the actual

  1. Laboratory Feasibility Evaluation of a New Modified Iron Product for Use as a Filter Material to Treat Agricultural Drainage Waters

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Allred, B. J.

    2010-12-01

    The removal of excess soil water with a subsurface drainage pipe system is a common agricultural practice employed to improve crop yields, especially in the Midwest U.S. However, fertilizer nutrients (nitrate and phosphate) and pesticides applied on farm fields will frequently leach downwards through the soil profile to be intercepted by the buried drainage pipes and then discharged with drainage water into neighboring streams and lakes, oftentimes producing adverse environmental impacts on local, regional, and national scales. On-site drainage water filter treatment systems can potentially be employed to prevent the release of agricultural nutrients/pesticides into adjacent waterways. A recently developed modified iron product may have promise as a filter material used within this type of drainage water treatment system. Therefore, a laboratory study was initiated to directly evaluate the feasibility of employing this new modified iron product as a filter material to treat drainage waters. Laboratory research included saturated falling-head hydraulic conductivity tests, contaminant (nutrient/pesticide) removal batch tests, and saturated solute transport column experiments. The saturated falling-head hydraulic conductivity tests indicate that the unaltered modified iron product by itself has a high enough hydraulic conductivity (> 1.0 x 10-3 cm/s) to normally allow sufficient water flow rates that are needed to make this material hydraulically practical for use in drainage water filter treatment systems. Modified iron hydraulic conductivity can be improved substantially (> 1 x 10-2 cm/s) by using only the portion of this material that is retained on a 100 mesh sieve (particle size > 0.15 mm). Batch test results carried out with spiked drainage water and either unaltered or 100 mesh sieved modified iron showed nitrate reductions of greater than 30% and 100% removal of the pesticide, atrazine. Saturated solute transport columns tests with spiked drainage water

  2. Mercury in peat and its drainage waters in eastern North Carolina. Project completion report

    SciTech Connect

    Evans, D.W.; DiGiulio, R.T.; Ryan, E.A.

    1984-09-01

    Mercury concentrations were measured by cold vapor atomic absorption spectrophometry in samples of peat and peatland drainage waters in both the western Pamlico-Albemarle Peninsula and Croatan National Forest of eastern North Carolina. Mercury concentrations were also measured in sediments, waters, and the benthic clam, Rangia cuneata, in the Pungo River which receives drainage from the former area. Total Hg concentrations measured ranged from 40 to 193 ng/g (dry weight) in peat, less than 2 to 20 ng/g dry weight in sediments, 25 to 32 ng/g wet weight in clams and less than 2 to 23 ng/l in water. These concentrations are all at the low end of the range of Hg concentrations in uncontaminated aquatic environments which indicates the absence of any identifiable Hg pollution under current conditions. The water concentrations, in particular, were all less than the current North Carolina water quality standard of 50 ng/L. Mercury in peat, sediments and water was largely associated with and strongly bound to organic matter which would restrict its biological availability to aquatic organisms.

  3. Performance and microbial community dynamics of a sulfate-reducing bioreactor treating coal generated acid mine drainage.

    PubMed

    Burns, Andrew S; Pugh, Charles W; Segid, Yosief T; Behum, Paul T; Lefticariu, Liliana; Bender, Kelly S

    2012-06-01

    The effectiveness of a passive flow sulfate-reducing bioreactor processing acid mine drainage (AMD) generated from an abandoned coal mine in Southern Illinois was evaluated using geochemical and microbial community analysis 10 months post bioreactor construction. The results indicated that the treatment system was successful in both raising the pH of the AMD from 3.09 to 6.56 and in lowering the total iron level by 95.9%. While sulfate levels did decrease by 67.4%, the level post treatment (1153 mg/l) remained above recommended drinking water levels. Stimulation of biological sulfate reduction was indicated by a +2.60‰ increase in δ(34)S content of the remaining sulfate in the water post-treatment. Bacterial community analysis targeting 16S rRNA and dsrAB genes indicated that the pre-treated samples were dominated by bacteria related to iron-oxidizing Betaproteobacteria, while the post-treated water directly from the reactor outflow was dominated by sequences related to sulfur-oxidizing Epsilonproteobacteria and complex carbon degrading Bacteroidetes and Firmicutes phylums. Analysis of the post-treated water, prior to environmental release, revealed that the community shifted back to predominantly iron-oxidizing Betaproteobacteria. DsrA analysis implied limited diversity in the sulfate-reducing population present in both the bioreactor outflow and oxidation pond samples. These results support the use of passive flow bioreactors to lower the acidity, metal, and sulfate levels present in the AMD at the Tab-Simco mine, but suggest modifications of the system are necessary to both stimulate sulfate-reducing bacteria and inhibit sulfur-oxidizing bacteria. PMID:22083105

  4. Exploring the diversity of arsenic resistance genes from acid mine drainage microorganisms.

    PubMed

    Morgante, Verónica; Mirete, Salvador; de Figueras, Carolina G; Postigo Cacho, Marina; González-Pastor, José E

    2015-06-01

    The microbial communities from the Tinto River, a natural acid mine drainage environment, were explored to search for novel genes involved in arsenic resistance using a functional metagenomic approach. Seven pentavalent arsenate resistance clones were selected and analysed to find the genes responsible for this phenotype. Insights about their possible mechanisms of resistance were obtained from sequence similarities and cellular arsenic concentration. A total of 19 individual open reading frames were analysed, and each one was individually cloned and assayed for its ability to confer arsenic resistance in Escherichia coli cells. A total of 13 functionally active genes involved in arsenic resistance were identified, and they could be classified into different global processes: transport, stress response, DNA damage repair, phospholipids biosynthesis, amino acid biosynthesis and RNA-modifying enzymes. Most genes (11) encode proteins not previously related to heavy metal resistance or hypothetical or unknown proteins. On the other hand, two genes were previously related to heavy metal resistance in microorganisms. In addition, the ClpB chaperone and the RNA-modifying enzymes retrieved in this work were shown to increase the cell survival under different stress conditions (heat shock, acid pH and UV radiation). Thus, these results reveal novel insights about unidentified mechanisms of arsenic resistance. PMID:24801164

  5. Sedimentation and chemical quality of surface water in the Heart River drainage basin, North Dakota

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Maderak, Marion L.

    1966-01-01

    The Heart River drainage basin of .southwestern North Dakota comprises an area of 3,365 square miles and lies within the Missouri Plateau of the Great Plains province. Streamflow of the Heart River and its tributaries during 1949-58 was directly proportional to .the drainage area. After the construction of Heart Butte Dam in 1949 and Dickinson Dam in 1950, the mean annual streamflow near Mandan was decreased an estimated 10 percent by irrigation, evaporation from the two reservoirs, and municipal use. Processes that contribute sediment to the Heart River are mass wasting, advancement of valley heads, and sheet, lateral stream, and gully erosion. In general, glacial deposits, terraces, and bars of Quaternary age are sources of sand and larger sediment, and the rocks of Tertiary age are sources of clay, silt. and sand. The average annual suspended-sediment discharges near Mandan were estimated to be 1,300,000 tons for 1945-49 and 710,000 tons for 1970-58. The percentage composition of ions in water of the Heart River, based on average concentrations in equivalents per million for selected ranges of streamflow, changes with flow and from station to station. During extremely low flows the water contains a large percentage of sodium and about equal percentages of bicarbonate and .sulfate, and during extremely high flows the water contains a large percentage of calcium plus magnesium and bicarbonate. The concentrations, in parts per million, of most of the ions vary inversely with flow. The water in the reservoirs--Edward Arthur Patterson Lake and Lake Tschida--during normal or above-normal runoff is of suitable quality for public use. Generally, because of medium or high salinity hazards, the successful long-term use of Heart River water for irrigation will depend on a moderate amount of leaching, ,adequate drainage, ,and the growing of crops that have moderate or good salt tolerance.

  6. Selenium stable isotope ratios in California agricultural drainage water management systems

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Herbel, M.J.; Johnson, T.M.; Tanji, K.K.; Gao, S.; Bullen, T.D.

    2002-01-01

    Selenium stable isotope ratios are known to shift in predictable ways during various microbial, chemical, and biological processes, and can be used to better understand Se cycling in contaminated environments. In this study we used Se stable isotopes to discern the mechanisms controlling the transformation of oxidized, aqueous forms of Se to reduced, insoluble forms in sediments of Se-affected environments. We measured 80Se/76Se in surface waters, shallow ground waters, evaporites, digested plants and sediments, and sequential extracts from several sites where agricultural drainage water is processed in the San Joaquin Valley of California. Selenium isotope analyses of samples obtained from the Tulare Lake Drainage District flow-through wetland reveal small isotopic contrasts (mean difference 0.7%o) between surface water and reduced Se species in the underlying sediments. Selenium in aquatic macrophytes was very similar isotopically to the NaOH and Na2SO3 sediment extracts designed to recover soluble organic Se and Se(O), respectively. For the integrated on-farm drainage management sites, evaporite salts were slightly (approximately 0.6%o) enriched in the heavier isotope relative to the inferred parent waters, whereas surface soils were slightly (approximately 1.4%o) depleted. Bacterial or chemical reduction of Se(VI) or Se(IV) may be occurring at these sites, but the small isotopic contrasts suggest that other, less isotopically fractionating mechanisms are responsible for accumulation of reduced forms in the sediments. These findings provide evidence that Se assimilation by plants and algae followed by deposition and mineralization is the dominant transformation pathway responsible for accumulation of reduced forms of Se in the wetland sediments.

  7. A water-resources data-network evaluation for Monterey County, California; Phase 3, Northern Salinas River drainage basin

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Templin, W.E.; Schluter, R.C.

    1990-01-01

    This report evaluates existing data collection networks and possible additional data collection to monitor quantity and quality of precipitation, surface water, and groundwater in the northern Salinas River drainage basin, California. Of the 34 precipitation stations identified, 20 were active and are concentrated in the northwestern part of the study area. No precipitation quality networks were identified, but possible data collection efforts include monitoring for acid rain and pesticides. Six of ten stream-gaging stations are active. Two surface water quality sites are sampled for suspended sediment, specific conductance, and chloride; one U.S. Geological Survey NASOAN site and one site operated by California Department of Water Resources make up the four active sampling locations; reactivation of 45 inactive surface water quality sites might help to achieve objectives described in the report. Three local networks measure water levels in 318 wells monthly, during peak irrigation, and at the end of the irrigation season. Water quality conditions are monitored in 379 wells; samples are collected in summer to monitor saltwater intrusion near Castroville and are also collected annually throughout the study area for analysis of chloride, specific conductance, and nitrate. An ideal baseline network would be an evenly spaced grid of index wells with a density of one per section. When baseline conditions are established, representative wells within the network could be monitored periodically according to specific data needs. (USGS)

  8. Incorporating Geochemical And Microbial Kinetics In Reactive Transport Models For Generation Of Acid Rock Drainage

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Andre, B. J.; Rajaram, H.; Silverstein, J.

    2010-12-01

    Acid mine drainage, AMD, results from the oxidation of metal sulfide minerals (e.g. pyrite), producing ferrous iron and sulfuric acid. Acidophilic autotrophic bacteria such as Acidithiobacillus ferrooxidans and Leptospirillum ferrooxidans obtain energy by oxidizing ferrous iron back to ferric iron, using oxygen as the electron acceptor. Most existing models of AMD do not account for microbial kinetics or iron geochemistry rigorously. Instead they assume that oxygen limitation controls pyrite oxidation and thus focus on oxygen transport. These models have been successfully used for simulating conditions where oxygen availability is a limiting factor (e.g. source prevention by capping), but have not been shown to effectively model acid generation and effluent chemistry under a wider range of conditions. The key reactions, oxidation of pyrite and oxidation of ferrous iron, are both slow kinetic processes. Despite being extensively studied for the last thirty years, there is still not a consensus in the literature about the basic mechanisms, limiting factors or rate expressions for microbially enhanced oxidation of metal sulfides. An indirect leaching mechanism (chemical oxidation of pyrite by ferric iron to produce ferrous iron, with regeneration of ferric iron by microbial oxidation of ferrous iron) is used as the foundation of a conceptual model for microbially enhanced oxidation of pyrite. Using literature data, a rate expression for microbial consumption of ferrous iron is developed that accounts for oxygen, ferrous iron and pH limitation. Reaction rate expressions for oxidation of pyrite and chemical oxidation of ferrous iron are selected from the literature. A completely mixed stirred tank reactor (CSTR) model is implemented coupling the kinetic rate expressions, speciation calculations and flow. The model simulates generation of AMD and effluent chemistry that qualitatively agrees with column reactor and single rock experiments. A one dimensional reaction

  9. TREATMENT OF ACID MINE DRAINAGE: I. EQUILIBRIUM BIOSORPTION OF ZINC AND COPPER ON NON-VIABLE ACTIVATED SLUDGE

    EPA Science Inventory

    Biosorption is potentially attractive technology for treament of acid mine drainage for separation/recovery of metal ions and mitigation of their toxicity to sulfate reducing bacteria. This study describes the equilibrium biosorptio of Zn(II) and CU(II) by nonviable activated slu...

  10. Remediation of acid mine drainage at the friendship hill national historic site with a pulsed limestone bed process

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Sibrell, P.L.; Watten, B.; Boone, T.

    2003-01-01

    A new process utilizing pulsed fluidized limestone beds was tested for the remediation of acid mine drainage at the Friendship Hill National Historic Site, in southwestern Pennsylvania. A 230 liter-per-minute treatment system was constructed and operated over a fourteen-month period from June 2000 through September 2001. Over this period of time, 50,000 metric tons of limestone were used to treat 50 million liters of water. The influent water pH was 2.5 and acidity was 1000 mg/L as CaCO3. Despite the high potential for armoring at the site, effluent pH during normal plant operation ranged from 5.7 to 7.8 and averaged 6.8. As a result of the high influent acidity, sufficient CO2 was generated and recycled to provide a net alkaline discharge with about 50 mg/L as CaCO3 alkalinity. Additions of commercial CO2 increased effluent alkalinity to as high as 300 mg/L, and could be a useful process management tool for transient high flows or acidities. Metal removal rates were 95% for aluminum (60 mg/L in influent), 50 to 90% for iron (Fe), depending on the ratio of ferrous to ferric iron, which varied seasonally (200 mg/L in influent), and <10% of manganese (Mn) (10 mg/L in influent). Ferrous iron and Mn removal was incomplete because of the high pH required for precipitation of these species. Iron removal could be improved by increased aeration following neutralization, and Mn removal could be effected by a post treatment passive settling/oxidation pond. Metal hydroxide sludges were settled in settling tanks, and then hauled from the site for aesthetic purposes. Over 450 metric tons of sludge were removed from the water over the life of the project. The dried sludge was tested by the Toxicity Characteristics Leaching Protocol (TCLP) and was found to be non-hazardous. Treatment costs were $43,000 per year and $1.08 per m 3, but could be decreased to $22,000 and $0.51 per m3 by decreasing labor use and by onsite sludge handling. These results confirm the utility of the new

  11. Implications for global climate change from microbially-produced acid mine drainage

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Norlund, K. L.; Hitchcock, A. P.; Warren, L. A.

    2009-05-01

    Microbial catalysis of sulphur cycling in acid mine drainage (AMD) environments is well known but the reaction pathways are poorly characterised. These reaction pathways involve both acid-consuming and acid- generating steps, with important consequences for overall AMD production as well as sulphur and carbon global biogeochemical cycles. Mining-associated sulphuric acid has been implicated in climate change through the weathering of carbonate minerals resulting in the release of 29 Tg C/year as carbon dioxide. Understanding of microbial AMD generation is based predominantly on studies of Acidithiobacillus ferrooxidans despite the knowledge that other environmentally common strains of bacteria are also active sulphur oxidizers and that microbial consortia are likely very important in environmental processes. Using an integrated experimental approach including geochemical experimentation, scanning transmission X-ray microscopy (STXM) and fluorescent in situ hybridization (FISH), we document a novel syntrophic sulphur metabolism involving two common mine bacteria: autotrophic sulphur oxidizing Acidithiobacillus ferrooxidans and heterotrophic Acidiphilium spp. The proposed sulphur geochemistry associated with this bacterial consortium produces 40-90% less acid than expected based on abiotic AMD models, with significant implications for both AMD mitigation and AMD carbon flux modelling. The two bacterial strains are specifically spatially segregated within a macrostructure of extracellular polymeric substance (EPS) that provides the necessary microgeochemical conditions for coupled sulphur oxidation and reduction reactions. STXM results identify multiple sulphur oxidation states associated with the pods, indicating that they are the sites of active sulphur disproportionation and recycling. Recent laboratory experimentation using type culture strains of the bacteria involved in pod-formation suggesting that this phenomenon is likely to be widespread in environments

  12. Natural wetlands are efficient at providing long-term metal remediation of freshwater systems polluted by acid mine drainage.

    PubMed

    Dean, Andrew P; Lynch, Sarah; Rowland, Paul; Toft, Benjamin D; Pittman, Jon K; White, Keith N

    2013-01-01

    This study describes the first long-term (14-year) evaluation of the efficacy of an established (>100 years) natural wetland to remediate highly acidic mine drainage (AMD). Although natural wetlands are highly valued for their biodiversity, this study demonstrates that they also provide important ecosystem service functions through their ability to consistently and reliably improve water quality by mitigating AMD. The Afon Goch river flows from Parys Mountain copper mine via a natural wetland, and was the major source of Zn and Cu contamination to the Irish Sea. Prior to 2003 the wetland received severe acidic metal contamination and retained a large proportion of the contamination (55, 64, and 37% in dissolved Fe, Zn, and Cu) leading to a greatly reduced metal flow to the Irish Sea. Reduced wetland loadings midway through the sampling period led to a reduction of metals by 83-94% and a pH increase from 2.7 to 5.5, resulting in long-term improvements in the downstream benthic invertebrate community. High root metal accumulation by the dominant wetland plant species and the association of acidophilic bacteria in the wetland rhizosphere indicate that multiple interacting processes provide an efficient and self-sustaining system to remediate AMD. PMID:24088022

  13. Removal of heavy metals from acid mine drainage (AMD) using coal fly ash, natural clinker and synthetic zeolites.

    PubMed

    Ríos, C A; Williams, C D; Roberts, C L

    2008-08-15

    Acid mine drainage (AMD) is a widespread environmental problem associated with both working and abandoned mining operations, resulting from the microbial oxidation of pyrite in presence of water and air, affording an acidic solution that contains toxic metal ions. The generation of AMD and release of dissolved heavy metals is an important concern facing the mining industry. The present study aimed at evaluating the use of low-cost sorbents like coal fly ash, natural clinker and synthetic zeolites to clean-up AMD generated at the Parys Mountain copper-lead-zinc deposit, Anglesey (North Wales), and to remove heavy metals and ammonium from AMD. pH played a very important role in the sorption/removal of the contaminants and a higher adsorbent ratio in the treatment of AMD promoted the increase of the pH, particularly using natural clinker-based faujasite (7.70-9.43) and the reduction of metal concentration. Na-phillipsite showed a lower efficiency as compared to that of faujasite. Selectivity of faujasite for metal removal was, in decreasing order, Fe>As>Pb>Zn>Cu>Ni>Cr. Based on these results, the use of these materials has the potential to provide improved methods for the treatment of AMD. PMID:18221835

  14. Occurrence of macrophyte monocultures in drainage ditches relates to phosphorus in both sediment and water.

    PubMed

    van Zuidam, Jeroen P; Peeters, Edwin Thm

    2013-01-01

    Monocultures of functional equivalent species often negatively affect nutrient cycling and overall biodiversity of aquatic ecosystems. The importance of water and sediment nutrients for the occurrence of monocultures was analysed using field data from drainage ditches. Ranges of nutrients were identified that best explained the occurrence of monocultures of Elodea nuttallii (Planch.) St. John (Waterweed type), monocultures of duckweed (Duckweed type) and the occurrence of a diverse submerged vegetation (Mixed type). Results indicated these three vegetation types occurred at distinctive ranges of phosphorus in water and sediment. Sediment phosphorus distinguished monocultures from the Mixed type, with the two monocultures occurring at two to four times higher concentrations. The Waterweed type occurred at higher sediment phosphorus levels than the mixed type, showed a higher degree of dominance and lower number of red list species. Phosphorus concentrations in water were four to six times higher in the Duckweed type compared to the Waterweed and Mixed type. The three vegetation types had comparable total biomass which was unexpected. This comparability was likely caused by duckweed only growing at the water surface at the highest nutrient levels and the limited space in drainage ditches for increased submerged biomass development at high nutrient availability. Possible measures to limit the occurrence of monocultures, and thereby increasing the ecological quality, are discussed with focus on lowering phosphorus concentrations in both water and sediment and on removal of plant species that develop into monocultures. PMID:24255858

  15. SOIL-SOILN simulations of water drainage and nitrate nitrogen transport from soil core lysimeters.

    PubMed

    Jabro, J D; Stout, W L; Fales, S L; Fox, R H

    2001-01-01

    Water resources protection from nitrate nitrogen (NO3-N) contamination is an important public concern and a major national environmental issue. The abilities of the SOIL-SOILN model to simulate water drainage and nitrate N fluxes from orchardgrass (Dactylis glomerata L.) were evaluated using data from a 3-yr field experiment. The soil is classified as a Hagerstown silt loam soil (fine, mixed, semiactive, mesic Typic Hapludalf). Nitrate losses below the 1-m depth from N-fertilized grazed orchardgrass were measured with intact soil core lysimeters. Five N-fertilizer treatments consisted of a control, urine application in the spring, urine application in the summer, urine application in the fall, and feces application in the summer. The SOIL-SOILN models were evaluated using water drainage and nitrate flux data for 1993-1994, 1994-1995, and 1995-1996. The N rate constants from a similar experiment with inorganic fertilizer and manure treatments under corn (Zea mays L.) were used to evaluate the SOILN model under orchardgrass sod. Results indicated that the SOIL model accurately simulated water drainage for all three years. The SOILN model adequately predicted nitrate losses for three urine treatments in each year and a control treatment in 1994-1995. However, it failed to produce accurate simulations for two control treatments in 1993-1994 and 1995-1996, and feces treatments in all three years. The inaccuracy in the simulation results for the control and feces treatments seems to be related to an inadequate modeling of N transformation processes. In general, the results demonstrate the potential of the SOILN model to predict NO3-N fluxes under pasture conditions using N transformation rate constants determined through the calibration process from corn fields on similar soils. PMID:11285920

  16. Use of industrial byproducts to filter phosphorus and pesticides in golf green drainage water.

    PubMed

    Agrawal, Sheela G; King, Kevin W; Moore, James F; Levison, Phil; McDonald, Jon

    2011-01-01

    Golf courses are vulnerable to phosphate (PO) and pesticide loss by infiltration of the sandy, porous grass rooting media used and through subsurface tile drainage. In this study, an effort was made to remove PO, chlorothalonil, mefenoxam, and propiconazole in a golf green's drainage water with a filter blend comprised of industrial byproducts, including granulated blast furnace slag, cement kiln dust, silica sand, coconut shell-activated carbon, and zeolite. To test this filter media, two 6-h storm events were simulated by repeat irrigation of the golf green after PO and pesticide application. Drainage flows ranged from 0.0034 to 0.6433 L s throughout the course of the simulations. A significant decrease in the chlorothalonil load for the experimental run (with filter media) was observed compared with the control (without filter media) ( < 0.05). In general, percent reductions in chlorothalonil were very high (>80%) near peak flows. In contrast, filter media was not effective in removing PO, mefenoxam, or propiconazole ( > 0.05). Instead, it appears that the filter blend added PO to the effluent above flow rates of 0.037 L s. Overall, flow rate, the amount of filter media used, and contaminant properties may have influenced the filter media's ability to remove contaminants. More research is needed to determine the optimal blend and configuration for the filter media to remove significant amounts of all contaminants investigated. PMID:21712597

  17. Activity of Microorganisms in Acid Mine Water I. Influence of Acid Water on Aerobic Heterotrophs of a Normal Stream

    PubMed Central

    Tuttle, Jon H.; Randles, C. I.; Dugan, P. R.

    1968-01-01

    Comparison of microbial content of acid-contaminated and nonacid-contaminated streams from the same geographical area indicated that nonacid streams contained relatively low numbers of acid-tolerant heterotrophic microorganisms. The acid-tolerant aerobes survived when acid entered the stream and actually increased in number to about 2 × 103 per ml until the pH approached 3.0. The organisms then represented the heterotrophic aerobic microflora of the streams comprised of a mixture of mine drainage and nonacid water. A stream which was entirely acid drainage did not have a similar microflora. Most gram-positive aerobic and anaerobic bacteria died out very rapidly in acidic water, and they comprised a very small percentage of the microbial population of the streams examined. Iron- and sulfur-oxidizing autotrophic bacteria were present wherever mine water entered a stream system. The sulfur-oxidizing bacteria predominated over iron oxidizers. Ecological data from the field were verified by laboratory experiments designed to simulate stream conditions. PMID:5650063

  18. Application of fracture-flow hydrogeology to acid-mine drainage at the Bunker Hill Mine, Kellogg, Idaho

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lachmar, Thomas E.

    1994-03-01

    The mechanics of groundwater flow through fractured rock has become an object of major research interest during recent years. This project has investigated the flow of groundwater through fractured Precambrian metaquartzite rocks in a portion of the Bunker Hill Mine near Kellogg, Idaho. Groundwater flow through these types of rocks is largely dependent upon the properties of fractures such as faults, joints and relict bedding planes. Groundwater that flows into the mine via the fractures is acidic and is contaminated by heavy metals, which results in a severe acid mine drainage problem. A more complete understanding of how the fractures influence the groundwater flow system is a prerequisite of the evaluation of reclamation alternatives to reduce acid drainage from the mine. Fracture mapping techniques were used to obtain detailed information on the fracture properties observed in the New East Reed drift of the Bunker Hill Mine. The information obtained includes fracture type, orientation, trace length, the number of visible terminations, roughness, waviness, infilling material, and a qualitative measure of the amount of water flowing through each fracture. The hydrogeologic field data collected include routine measurements of the discharge from four individual structural features and four areas where large quantities of water are discharging from vertical rock bolts, the depths to water in three piezometer nests at the ground surface, the pressure variations in four diamond drillholes, and constant discharge flow tests conducted on three of the diamond drillholes. The field data indicate that relict bedding planes are the primary conduits for groundwater flow, and suggest that the two major joint sets that are present connect water flowing through the discontinuous bedding planes. The three minor joint sets that are present do not seem to have a significant impact on groundwater flow, but along with the two major joint sets may store relatively large quantities of

  19. Contaminant Loading in Drainage and Fresh Water Used for Wetland Management at Stillwater National Wildlife Refuge

    PubMed

    Kilbride; Paveglio; Altstatt; Henry; Janik

    1998-08-01

    Throughout the western United States, studies have identified various detrimental effects of contaminants to aquatic biota from the use of agricultural drainage water for management of arid wetlands. However, little is known about the relative contributions of contaminant loading from pollutants dissolved in water compared with those carried by drifting material (e.g., detritus) associated with drainage water. Consequently, we determined loading rates for contaminants dissolved in water and those incorporated by drifting material for drainage (Diagonal Drain) as well as fresh (S-Line Canal) water used for wetland management at Stillwater National Wildlife Refuge (SNWR), Nevada during the early, middle, and late periods of the irrigation season (June through mid-November) in 1993. We found loading rates for trace elements throughout the irrigation season were almost entirely (> 98%) associated with contaminants dissolved in the water rather than incorporated by drift. Although drift contributed little to the total loading for trace elements to SNWR wetlands, contaminant concentrations were much greater in drift compared with those dissolved in water. Loading rates for dissolved As, B, Hg, and total dissolved solids (TDS) differed among periods for the Diagonal Drain. Along the Diagonal Drain, loading rates for dissolved As, B, Hg, Mo, unionized ammonia (NH3-N), TDS, and Zn differed among its three sampling sites. B was the only trace element with differences in loading rates for drift among periods from the Diagonal Drain. In contrast, loading rates for As, B, Cr, Cu, Hg, Se, and Zn in drift differed among periods for the S-Line Canal. Along Diagonal Drain, loading rates in drift for B (middle and late periods), Cr, Cu, and Zn differed among sites. Hg (x- >/= 12.0 ng/L) and NH3-N (x- >/= 0.985 mg/L) dissolved in water as well as B (x- >/= 97.4 µg/g DW) and Hg (x- >/= 0.461 µg/g DW) in drift from the Diagonal Drain and S-Line Canal exceeded screening levels (SLs

  20. Bioassessment of a combined chemical-biological treatment for synthetic acid mine drainage.

    PubMed

    Pagnanelli, F; De Michelis, I; Di Muzio, S; Ferella, F; Vegliò, F

    2008-11-30

    In this work, ecotoxicological characteristics of synthetic samples of acid mine drainage (AMD) before and after a combined chemical-biological treatment were investigated by using Lepidium sativum and Daphnia magna. AMD treatment was performed in a two-column apparatus consisting of chemical precipitation by limestone and biological refinement by sulphate reducing bacteria. Synthetic samples of AMD before treatment were toxic for both L. sativum (germination index, G, lower than 10%) and D. magna (100% immobility) due to acid pH and presence of copper and zinc. Chemical treatment (raising pH to 5-6 and eliminating copper) generated effluents with reduced toxicity for L. sativum (G=33%), while 100% immobility was still observed for D. magna. Dynamic trends of toxicity for the first and fifth outputs of the biological column denoted a gradual improvement leading to hormesis for Lepidium (after the initial release of organic excess), while a constant residual toxicity remained for Daphnia (probably due to H(2)S produced by sulphate reducing bacteria). PMID:18394799

  1. Contemporary environmental variation determines microbial diversity patterns in acid mine drainage

    PubMed Central

    Kuang, Jia-Liang; Huang, Li-Nan; Chen, Lin-Xing; Hua, Zheng-Shuang; Li, Sheng-Jin; Hu, Min; Li, Jin-Tian; Shu, Wen-Sheng

    2013-01-01

    A wide array of microorganisms survive and thrive in extreme environments. However, we know little about the patterns of, and controls over, their large-scale ecological distribution. To this end, we have applied a bar-coded 16S rRNA pyrosequencing technology to explore the phylogenetic differentiation among 59 microbial communities from physically and geochemically diverse acid mine drainage (AMD) sites across Southeast China, revealing for the first time environmental variation as the major factor explaining community differences in these harsh environments. Our data showed that overall microbial diversity estimates, including phylogenetic diversity, phylotype richness and pairwise UniFrac distance, were largely correlated with pH conditions. Furthermore, multivariate regression tree analysis also identified solution pH as a strong predictor of relative lineage abundance. Betaproteobacteria, mostly affiliated with the ‘Ferrovum' genus, were explicitly predominant in assemblages under moderate pH conditions, whereas Alphaproteobacteria, Euryarchaeota, Gammaproteobacteria and Nitrospira exhibited a strong adaptation to more acidic environments. Strikingly, such pH-dependent patterns could also be observed in a subsequent comprehensive analysis of the environmental distribution of acidophilic microorganisms based on 16S rRNA gene sequences previously retrieved from globally distributed AMD and associated environments, regardless of the long-distance isolation and the distinct substrate types. Collectively, our results suggest that microbial diversity patterns are better predicted by contemporary environmental variation rather than geographical distance in extreme AMD systems. PMID:23178673

  2. Preparation of metal-resistant immobilized sulfate reducing bacteria beads for acid mine drainage treatment.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Mingliang; Wang, Haixia; Han, Xuemei

    2016-07-01

    Novel immobilized sulfate-reducing bacteria (SRB) beads were prepared for the treatment of synthetic acid mine drainage (AMD) containing high concentrations of Fe, Cu, Cd and Zn using up-flow anaerobic packed-bed bioreactor. The tolerance of immobilized SRB beads to heavy metals was significantly enhanced compared with that of suspended SRB. High removal efficiencies of sulfate (61-88%) and heavy metals (>99.9%) as well as slightly alkaline effluent pH (7.3-7.8) were achieved when the bioreactor was fed with acidic influent (pH 2.7) containing high concentrations of multiple metals (Fe 469 mg/L, Cu 88 mg/L, Cd 92 mg/L and Zn 128 mg/L), which showed that the bioreactor filled with immobilized SRB beads had tolerance to AMD containing high concentrations of heavy metals. Partially decomposed maize straw was a carbon source and stabilizing agent in the initial phase of bioreactor operation but later had to be supplemented by a soluble carbon source such as sodium lactate. The microbial community in the bioreactor was characterized by denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis (DGGE) and sequencing of partial 16S rDNA genes. Synergistic interaction between SRB (Desulfovibrio desulfuricans) and co-existing fermentative bacteria could be the key factor for the utilization of complex organic substrate (maize straw) as carbon and nutrients source for sulfate reduction. PMID:27058913

  3. Treatment of acid rock drainage using a sulfate-reducing bioreactor with zero-valent iron.

    PubMed

    Ayala-Parra, Pedro; Sierra-Alvarez, Reyes; Field, James A

    2016-05-01

    This study assessed the bioremediation of acid rock drainage (ARD) in flow-through columns testing zero-valent iron (ZVI) for the first time as the sole exogenous electron donor to drive sulfate-reducing bacteria in permeable reactive barriers. Columns containing ZVI, limestone or a mixture of both materials were inoculated with an anaerobic mixed culture and fed a synthetic ARD containing sulfuric acid and heavy metals (initially copper, and later also cadmium and lead). ZVI significantly enhanced sulfate reduction and the heavy metals were extensively removed (>99.7%). Solid-phase analyses showed that heavy metals were precipitated with biogenic sulfide in the columns packed with ZVI. Excess sulfide was sequestered by iron, preventing the discharge of dissolved sulfide. In the absence of ZVI, heavy metals were also significantly removed (>99.8%) due to precipitation with hydroxide and carbonate ions released from the limestone. Vertical-profiles of heavy metals in the columns packing, at the end of the experiment, demonstrated that the ZVI columns still had excess capacity to remove heavy metals, while the capacity of the limestone control column was approaching saturation. The ZVI provided conditions that enhanced sulfate reduction and generated alkalinity. Collectively, the results demonstrate an innovative passive ARD remediation process using ZVI as sole electron-donor. PMID:26808248

  4. Novel nickel resistance genes from the rhizosphere metagenome of plants adapted to acid mine drainage.

    PubMed

    Mirete, Salvador; de Figueras, Carolina G; González-Pastor, Jose E

    2007-10-01

    Metal resistance determinants have traditionally been found in cultivated bacteria. To search for genes involved in nickel resistance, we analyzed the bacterial community of the rhizosphere of Erica andevalensis, an endemic heather which grows at the banks of the Tinto River, a naturally metal-enriched and extremely acidic environment in southwestern Spain. 16S rRNA gene sequence analysis of rhizosphere DNA revealed the presence of members of five phylogenetic groups of Bacteria and the two main groups of Archaea mostly associated with sites impacted by acid mine drainage (AMD). The diversity observed and the presence of heavy metals in the rhizosphere led us to construct and screen five different metagenomic libraries hosted in Escherichia coli for searching novel nickel resistance determinants. A total of 13 positive clones were detected and analyzed. Insights about their possible mechanisms of resistance were obtained from cellular nickel content and sequence similarities. Two clones encoded putative ABC transporter components, and a novel mechanism of metal efflux is suggested. In addition, a nickel hyperaccumulation mechanism is proposed for a clone encoding a serine O-acetyltransferase. Five clones encoded proteins similar to well-characterized proteins but not previously reported to be related to nickel resistance, and the remaining six clones encoded hypothetical or conserved hypothetical proteins of uncertain functions. This is the first report documenting nickel resistance genes recovered from the metagenome of an AMD environment. PMID:17675438

  5. Amylases without known homologues discovered in an acid mine drainage: significance and impact

    PubMed Central

    Delavat, François; Phalip, Vincent; Forster, Anne; Plewniak, Frédéric; Lett, Marie-Claire; Lièvremont, Didier

    2012-01-01

    Acid Mine Drainages (AMDs) are extreme environments characterized by acidic and oligotrophic conditions and by metal contaminations. A function-based screening of an AMD-derived metagenomic library led to the discovery and partial characterization of two non-homologous endo-acting amylases sharing no sequence similarity with any known amylase nor glycosidase. None carried known amylolytic domains, nor could be assigned to any GH-family. One amylase displayed no similarity with any known protein, whereas the second one was similar to TraC proteins involved in the bacterial type IV secretion system. According to the scarce similarities with known proteins, 3D-structure modelling using I-TASSER was unsuccessful. This study underlined the utility of a function-driven metagenomic approach to obtain a clearer image of the bacterial community enzymatic landscape. More generally, this work points out that screening for microorganisms or biomolecules in a priori incongruous environments could provide unconventional and new exciting ways for bioprospecting. PMID:22482035

  6. Field rates for natural attenuation of arsenic in Tinto Santa Rosa acid mine drainage (SW Spain).

    PubMed

    Asta, Maria P; Ayora, Carlos; Acero, Patricia; Cama, Jordi

    2010-05-15

    Reactive transport modelling of the main processes related to the arsenic natural attenuation observed in the acid mine drainage (AMD) impacted stream of Tinto Santa Rosa (SW Spain) was performed. Despite the simplicity of the kinetic expressions used to deal with arsenic attenuation processes, the model reproduced successfully the major chemical trends observed along the acid discharge. Results indicated that the rate of ferrous iron oxidation was similar to the one obtained in earlier field studies in which microbial catalysis is reported to occur. With regard to the scaled arsenic oxidation rate, it is one order of magnitude faster than the values obtained under laboratory conditions suggesting the existence of a catalytic agent in the natural system. Schwertmannite precipitation rate, which was represented by a simple kinetic expression relying on Fe(III) and pH, was in the range calculated for other AMD impacted sites. Finally, the obtained distribution coefficients used for representing arsenic sorption onto Fe(III) precipitates were lower than those deduced from reported laboratory data. This discrepancy is attributed to a decrease in the schwertmannite arsenate sorption capacity as sulphate increases in the solution. PMID:20153577

  7. Advances in biotreatment of acid mine drainage and biorecovery of metals: 2. Membrane bioreactor system for sulfate reduction.

    PubMed

    Tabak, Henry H; Govind, Rakesh

    2003-12-01

    Several biotreatmemt techniques for sulfate conversion by the sulfate reducing bacteria (SRB) have been proposed in the past, however few of them have been practically applied to treat sulfate containing acid mine drainage (AMD). This research deals with development of an innovative polypropylene hollow fiber membrane bioreactor system for the treatment of acid mine water from the Berkeley Pit, Butte, MT, using hydrogen consuming SRB biofilms. The advantages of using the membrane bioreactor over the conventional tall liquid phase sparged gas bioreactor systems are: large microporous membrane surface to the liquid phase; formation of hydrogen sulfide outside the membrane, preventing the mixing with the pressurized hydrogen gas inside the membrane; no requirement of gas recycle compressor; membrane surface is suitable for immobilization of active SRB, resulting in the formation of biofilms, thus preventing washout problems associated with suspended culture reactors; and lower operating costs in membrane bioreactors, eliminating gas recompression and gas recycle costs. Information is provided on sulfate reduction rate studies and on biokinetic tests with suspended SRB in anaerobic digester sludge and sediment master culture reactors and with SRB biofilms in bench-scale SRB membrane bioreactors. Biokinetic parameters have been determined using biokinetic models for the master culture and membrane bioreactor systems. Data are presented on the effect of acid mine water sulfate loading at 25, 50, 75 and 100 ml/min in scale-up SRB membrane units, under varied temperatures (25, 35 and 40 degrees C) to determine and optimize sulfate conversions for an effective AMD biotreatment. Pilot-scale studies have generated data on the effect of flow rates of acid mine water (MGD) and varied inlet sulfate concentrations in the influents on the resultant outlet sulfate concentration in the effluents and on the number of SRB membrane modules needed for the desired sulfate conversion in

  8. Filtering dissolved phosphorus from drainage waters using synthetic gypsum: water quality impacts

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Following decades of chicken litter applications to soils of the Delmarva Peninsula, legacy phosphorus (P) is a major source of soluble P entering drainage ditches that eventually empty into the Chesapeake Bay. In April, 2007, flue gas desulfurization (FGD) gypsum, also called synthetic gypsum, was ...

  9. Uncertainty quantification and integration of machine learning techniques for predicting acid rock drainage chemistry: a probability bounds approach.

    PubMed

    Betrie, Getnet D; Sadiq, Rehan; Morin, Kevin A; Tesfamariam, Solomon

    2014-08-15

    Acid rock drainage (ARD) is a major pollution problem globally that has adversely impacted the environment. Identification and quantification of uncertainties are integral parts of ARD assessment and risk mitigation, however previous studies on predicting ARD drainage chemistry have not fully addressed issues of uncertainties. In this study, artificial neural networks (ANN) and support vector machine (SVM) are used for the prediction of ARD drainage chemistry and their predictive uncertainties are quantified using probability bounds analysis. Furthermore, the predictions of ANN and SVM are integrated using four aggregation methods to improve their individual predictions. The results of this study showed that ANN performed better than SVM in enveloping the observed concentrations. In addition, integrating the prediction of ANN and SVM using the aggregation methods improved the predictions of individual techniques. PMID:24852616

  10. Effects of coal mine drainage on the water quality of small receiving streams in Washington, 1975-77

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Packard, F.A.; Skinner, E.L.; Fuste, L.A.

    1988-01-01

    Drainage from abandoned coal mines in western and central Washington has minimal environmental impact. Water quality characteristics that have the most significant environmental impact are suspended sediment and turbidity. Water quality data from 51 abandoned coal mines representing 11 major coal bearing areas indicate that less than 1% of the mine drainage has a pH of 4.5 or less. Fifty percent of the drainage is alkaline and has pH 7.0 and greater, and about 95% of the drainage has pH 6.0 and greater. Less than 2% is acidified to a pH of 5.6, a point where water and free (atmospheric) carbon dioxide are in equilibrium. The area where pH 5.6 or less is most likely to occur is in the Centralia/Chehalis mine district. No significant difference in diversity of benthic organisms was found between stations above and below the mine drainage. However, within the 50-ft downstream reach ostracods were more abundant than above the mine drainage and mayflies, stoneflies, and caddisflies were less abundant than at the control site. Correlations to water quality measurements show that these faunal changes are closely associated with iron and sulfate concentrations. (USGS)

  11. Questa baseline and pre-mining ground-water quality investigation. 5. Well installation, water-level data, and surface- and ground-water geochemistry in the Straight Creek drainage basin, Red River Valley, New Mexico, 2001-03

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Naus, Cheryl A.; McCleskey, R. Blaine; Nordstrom, D. Kirk; Donohoe, Lisa C.; Hunt, Andrew G.; Paillet, Frederick L.; Morin, Roger H.; Verplanck, Philip L.

    2005-01-01

    The U.S. Geological Survey, in cooperation with the New Mexico Environment Department, is investigating the pre-mining ground-water chemistry at the Molycorp molybdenum mine in the Red River Valley, northern New Mexico. The primary approach is to determine the processes controlling ground-water chemistry at an unmined, off-site, proximal analog. The Straight Creek drainage basin, chosen for this purpose, consists of the same quartz-sericite-pyrite altered andesitic and rhyolitic volcanic rock of Tertiary age as the mine site. The weathered and rugged volcanic bedrock surface is overlain by heterogeneous debris-flow deposits that interfinger with alluvial deposits near the confluence of Straight Creek and the Red River. Pyritized rock in the upper part of the drainage basin is the source of acid rock drainage (pH 2.8-3.3) that infiltrates debris-flow deposits containing acidic ground water (pH 3.0-4.0) and bedrock containing water of circumneutral pH values (5.6-7.7). Eleven observation wells were installed in the Straight Creek drainage basin. The wells were completed in debris-flow deposits, bedrock, and interfingering debris-flow and Red River alluvial deposits. Chemical analyses of ground water from these wells, combined with chemical analyses of surface water, water-level data, and lithologic and geophysical logs, provided information used to develop an understanding of the processes contributing to the chemistry of ground water in the Straight Creek drainage basin. Surface- and ground-water samples were routinely collected for determination of total major cations and selected trace metals; dissolved major cations, selected trace metals, and rare-earth elements; anions and alkalinity; and dissolved-iron species. Rare-earth elements were determined on selected samples only. Samples were collected for determination of dissolved organic carbon, mercury, sulfur isotopic composition (34S and 18O of sulfate), and water isotopic composition (2H and 18O) during

  12. Efficiency and detrimental side effects of denitrifying bioreactors for nitrate reduction in drainage water.

    PubMed

    Weigelhofer, Gabriele; Hein, Thomas

    2015-09-01

    A laboratory column experiment was conducted to test the efficiency of denitrifying bioreactors for the nitrate (NO3-N) removal in drainage waters at different flow rates and after desiccation. In addition, we investigated detrimental side effects in terms of the release of nitrite (NO2-N), ammonium (NH4-N), phosphate (PO4-P), dissolved organic carbon (DOC), methane (CH4), and dinitrogen oxide (N2O). The NO3-N removal efficiency decreased with increasing NO3-N concentrations, increasing flow rates, and after desiccation. Bioreactors with purely organic fillings showed higher NO3-N removal rates (42.6-55.7 g NO3-N m(-3) day(-1)) than those with organic and inorganic fillings (6.5-21.4 g NO3-N m(-3) day(-1)). The release of NO2-N and DOC was considerable and resulted in concentrations of up to 800 μg NO2-N L(-1)and 25 mg DOC L(-1) in the effluent water. N2O concentrations increased by 4.0 to 15.3 μg N2O-N L(-1) between the influent and the effluent, while CH4 production rates were low. Our study confirms the high potential of denitrifying bioreactors to mitigate NO3-N pollution in drainage waters, but highlights also the potential risks for the environment. PMID:25943519

  13. Tile Drainage Management Influences on Surface-Water and Groundwater Quality following Liquid Manure Application.

    PubMed

    Frey, Steven K; Topp, Ed; Ball, Bonnie R; Edwards, Mark; Gottschall, Natalie; Sunohara, Mark; Zoski, Erin; Lapen, David R

    2013-01-01

    This study investigated the potential for controlled tile drainage (CD) to reduce bacteria and nutrient loading to surface water and groundwater from fall-season liquid manure application (LMA) on four macroporous clay loam plots, of which two had CD and two had free-draining (FD) tiles. Rhodamine WT (RWT) was mixed into the manure and monitored in the tile water and groundwater following LMA. Tile water and groundwater quality were influenced by drainage management. Following LMA on the FD plots, RWT, nutrients, and bacteria moved rapidly via tiles to surface water; at the CD plots, tiles did not flow until the first post-LMA rainfall, so the immediate risk of LMA-induced contamination of surface water was abated. During the 36-d monitoring period, flow-weighted average specific conductance, redox potential, and turbidity, as well as total Kjeldahl N (TKN), total P (TP), NH-N, reactive P, and RWT concentrations, were higher in the CD tile effluent; however, because of lower tile discharge from the CD plots, there was no significant ( ≤ 0.05) difference in surface water nutrient and RWT loading between the CD and FD plots when all tiles were flowing. The TKN, TP, and RWT concentrations in groundwater also tended to be higher at the CD plots. Bacteria behaved differently than nutrients and RWT, with no significant difference in total coliform, , fecal coliform, fecal streptococcus, and concentrations between the CD and FD tile effluent; however, for all but , hourly loading was higher from the FD plots. Results indicate that CD has potential for mitigating bacteria movement to surface water. PMID:23673956

  14. Acid mine drainage simulated leaching behavior of goethite and cobalt substituted goethite

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Penprase, S. B.; Kimball, B. E.

    2015-12-01

    Though most modern day mining aims to eliminate the seepage of acid mine drainage (AMD) to the local watershed, historical mines regularly receive little to no remediation, and often release acidic, metal-rich drainage and particles to the environment. Treatment of AMD often includes neutralizing pH to facilitate the precipitation of Fe-oxides and dissolved trace metals, thereby forming Trace Metal Substituted (TMS) forms of known minerals, such as goethite (α-FeOOH). The stability of TMS precipitates is not fully understood. As a result, we conducted a 20 day leach experiment using laboratory synthesized pure (Gt) and cobalt-substituted (CoGt) goethites with a dilute ultrapure HCl solution (pH = 3.61) at T = 23.3±2.5ºC. Leached solids were characterized using X-ray diffraction (XRD) and scanning electron microscopy paired with energy dispersive spectroscopy (SEM-EDS). Leach solutions were sampled for pH and conductivity, and dissolved chemistry was determined with Inductively Coupled Plasma Mass Spectroscopy (ICP-MS). Preliminary results indicate Gt and CoGt filtered leach solutions experienced constant pH (Gt = 3.9 ± 0.1, CoGt = 6.8 ± 0.2) and conductivity (Gt = 69 ± 6.6 μS/cm, CoGt = 81 ± 16 μS/cm) for t = 0-20 days. Micro-focused XRD results indicate that leached solids did not change in mineralogy throughout the experiment, and SEM images show minor disintegration along mineral grain edges, but little overall change in shape. Preliminary ICP-MS results show lower dissolved Fe concentrations for CoGt (1.1 ± 1.1 ppb) compared to Gt (17 ± 8.9 ppb) over time. Dissolved Co concentrations ranged from 560 - 830 ppb and increased over time. Compared to leaching of pure Gt, leaching of CoGt generated significantly higher pH, slightly higher conductivity, and significantly less dissolved Fe. During the CoGt leach, Co was preferentially leached over Fe. The differences in leaching behavior between pure and TMS goethite in the laboratory have implications for

  15. Stress-Survival Gene Identification From an Acid Mine Drainage Algal Mat Community

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Urbina-Navarrete, J.; Fujishima, K.; Paulino-Lima, I. G.; Rothschild-Mancinelli, B.; Rothschild, L. J.

    2014-12-01

    Microbial communities from acid mine drainage environments are exposed to multiple stressors to include low pH, high dissolved metal loads, seasonal freezing, and desiccation. The microbial and algal communities that inhabit these niche environments have evolved strategies that allow for their ecological success. Metagenomic analyses are useful in identifying species diversity, however they do not elucidate the mechanisms that allow for the resilience of a community under these extreme conditions. Many known or predicted genes encode for protein products that are unknown, or similarly, many proteins cannot be traced to their gene of origin. This investigation seeks to identify genes that are active in an algal consortium during stress from living in an acid mine drainage environment. Our approach involves using the entire community transcriptome for a functional screen in an Escherichia coli host. This approach directly targets the genes involved in survival, without need for characterizing the members of the consortium.The consortium was harvested and stressed with conditions similar to the native environment it was collected from. Exposure to low pH (< 3.2), high metal load, desiccation, and deep freeze resulted in the expression of stress-induced genes that were transcribed into messenger RNA (mRNA). These mRNA transcripts were harvested to build complementary DNA (cDNA) libraries in E. coli. The transformed E. coli were exposed to the same stressors as the original algal consortium to select for surviving cells. Successful cells incorporated the transcripts that encode survival mechanisms, thus allowing for selection and identification of the gene(s) involved. Initial selection screens for freeze and desiccation tolerance have yielded E. coli that are 1 order of magnitude more resistant to freezing (0.01% survival of control with no transcript, 0.2% survival of E. coli with transcript) and 3 orders of magnitude more resistant to desiccation (0.005% survival of

  16. Co-treatment of acid mine drainage with municipal wastewater: performance evaluation.

    PubMed

    Hughes, Theresa A; Gray, Nicholas F

    2013-11-01

    Co-treatment of acid mine drainage (AMD) with municipal wastewater (MWW) using the activated sludge process is a novel treatment technology offering potential savings over alternative systems in materials, proprietary chemicals and energy inputs. The impacts of AMD on laboratory-scale activated sludge units (plug-flow and sequencing batch reactors) treating synthetic MWW were investigated. Synthetic AMD containing Al, Cu, Fe, Mn, Pb, Zn and SO4 at a range of concentrations and pH values was formulated to simulate three possible co-treatment processes, i.e., (1) adding raw AMD to the activated sludge aeration tank, (2) pre-treating AMD prior to adding to the aeration tank by mixing with digested sludge and (3) pre-treating AMD by mixing with screened MWW. Continuous AMD loading to the activated sludge reactors during co-treatment did not cause a significant decrease in chemical oxygen demand (COD), 5-day biochemical oxygen demand, or total organic carbon removal; average COD removal rates ranged from 87-93%. Enhanced phosphate removal was observed in reactors loaded with Fe- and Al-rich AMD, with final effluent TP concentrations<2 mg/L. Removal rates for dissolved Al, Cu, Fe and Pb were 52-84%, 47-61%, 74-86% and 100%, respectively, in both systems. Manganese and Zn removal were strongly linked to acidity; removal from net-acidic AMD was <10% for both metals, whereas removal from circum-neutral AMD averaged 93-95% for Mn and 58-90% for Zn. Pre-mixing with screened MWW was the best process option in terms of AMD neutralization and metal removal. However, significant MWW alkalinity was consumed, suggesting an alkali supplement may be necessary. PMID:23161500

  17. Acute toxicity of an acid mine drainage mixing zone to juvenile bluegill and largemouth bass

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Henry, T.B.; Irwin, E.R.; Grizzle, J.M.; Wildhaber, M.L.; Brumbaugh, W.G.

    1999-01-01

    The toxicity of an acid mixing zone produced at the confluence of a stream that was contaminated by acid mine drainage (AMD) and a pH-neutral stream was investigated in toxicity tests with juvenile bluegill Lepomis macrochirus and largemouth bass Micropterus salmoides. Fish mortalities in instream cages located in the mixing zone, below the mixing zone, and upstream in both tributaries were compared to determine relative toxicity at each site. In all tests and for both species, significantly higher mortality was observed in the mixing zone than at any other location, including the acid stream, which had lower pH (2.9-4.3). The mixing zone was defined chemically by rapid precipitation of dissolved aluminum and iron, which arrived from the low-pH stream, and by the presence of white precipitates, which were attached to the substratum and which extended below the confluence. Possible seasonal changes in mixing zone toxicity were investigated by conducting field tests with bluegill in June, July, and August 1996 and in January 1997 and by conducting field tests with largemouth bass in April and May 1997. Toxicity was not significantly different at the extremes of temperature, pH, and metal concentration that occurred in June and July, as compared with January. Toxicity was significantly lower in August; however, elevated stream discharge during the August test may have disturbed mixing zone characteristics. High toxicity in AMD mixing zones may lower the survival of fishes in streams, reduce available habitat, and impede movements of migratory fish.

  18. Denitrification potential in stream sediments impacted by acid mine drainage: effects of pH, various electron donors, and iron.

    PubMed

    Baeseman, J L; Smith, R L; Silverstein, J

    2006-02-01

    Acid mine drainage (AMD) contaminates thousands of kilometers of stream in the western United States. At the same time, nitrogen loading to many mountain watersheds is increasing because of atmospheric deposition of nitrate and increased human use. Relatively little is known about nitrogen cycling in acidic, heavy-metal-laden streams; however, it has been reported that one key process, denitrification, is inhibited under low pH conditions. The objective of this research was to investigate the capacity for denitrification in acidified streams. Denitrification potential was assessed in sediments from several Colorado AMD-impacted streams, ranging from pH 2.60 to 4.54, using microcosm incubations with fresh sediment. Added nitrate was immediately reduced to nitrogen gas without a lag period, indicating that denitrification enzymes were expressed and functional in these systems. First-order denitrification potential rate constants varied from 0.046 to 2.964 day(-1). The pH of the microcosm water increased between 0.23 and 1.49 pH units during denitrification. Additional microcosm studies were conducted to examine the effects of initial pH, various electron donors, and iron (added as ferrous and ferric iron). Decreasing initial pH decreased denitrification; however, increasing pH had little effect on denitrification rates. The addition of ferric and ferrous iron decreased observed denitrification potential rate constants. The addition of glucose and natural organic matter stimulated denitrification potential. The addition of hydrogen had little effect, however, and denitrification activity in the microcosms decreased after acetate addition. These results suggest that denitrification can occur in AMD streams, and if stimulated within the environment, denitrification might reduce acidity. PMID:16463131

  19. Denitrification potential in stream sediments impacted by acid mine drainage: Effects of pH, various electron donors, and iron

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Baeseman, J.L.; Smith, R.L.; Silverstein, J.

    2006-01-01

    Acid mine drainage (AMD) contaminates thousands of kilometers of stream in the western United States. At the same time, nitrogen loading to many mountain watersheds is increasing because of atmospheric deposition of nitrate and increased human use. Relatively little is known about nitrogen cycling in acidic, heavy-metal-laden streams; however, it has been reported that one key process, denitrification, is inhibited under low pH conditions. The objective of this research was to investigate the capacity for denitrification in acidified streams. Denitrification potential was assessed in sediments from several Colorado AMD-impacted streams, ranging from pH 2.60 to 4.54, using microcosm incubations with fresh sediment. Added nitrate was immediately reduced to nitrogen gas without a lag period, indicating that denitrification enzymes were expressed and functional in these systems. First-order denitrification potential rate constants varied from 0.046 to 2.964 day-1. The pH of the microcosm water increased between 0.23 and 1.49 pH units during denitrification. Additional microcosm studies were conducted to examine the effects of initial pH, various electron donors, and iron (added as ferrous and ferric iron). Decreasing initial pH decreased denitrification; however, increasing pH had little effect on denitrification rates. The addition of ferric and ferrous iron decreased observed denitrification potential rate constants. The addition of glucose and natural organic matter stimulated denitrification potential. The addition of hydrogen had little effect, however, and denitrification activity in the microcosms decreased after acetate addition. These results suggest that denitrification can occur in AMD streams, and if stimulated within the environment, denitrification might reduce acidity. ?? Springer Science+Business Media, Inc. 2006.

  20. Geochemistry of dissolved trace elements and heavy metals in the Dan River Drainage (China): distribution, sources, and water quality assessment.

    PubMed

    Meng, Qingpeng; Zhang, Jing; Zhang, Zhaoyu; Wu, Tairan

    2016-04-01

    Dissolved trace elements and heavy metals in the Dan River drainage basin, which is the drinking water source area of South-to-North Water Transfer Project (China), affect large numbers of people and should therefore be carefully monitored. To investigate the distribution, sources, and quality of river water, this study integrating catchment geology and multivariate statistical techniques was carried out in the Dan River drainage from 99 river water samples collected in 2013. The distribution of trace metal concentrations in the Dan River drainage was similar to that in the Danjiangkou Reservoir, indicating that the reservoir was significantly affected by the Dan River drainage. Moreover, our results suggested that As, Sb, Cd, Mn, and Ni were the major pollutants. We revealed extremely high concentrations of As and Sb in the Laoguan River, Cd in the Qingyou River, Mn, Ni, and Cd in the Yinhua River, As and Sb in the Laojun River, and Sb in the Dan River. According to the water quality index, water in the Dan River drainage was suitable for drinking; however, an exposure risk assessment model suggests that As and Sb in the Laojun and Laoguan rivers could pose a high risk to humans in terms of adverse health and potential non-carcinogenic effects. PMID:26782327

  1. Heavy metal geochemistry of the acid mine drainage discharged from the Hejiacun uranium mine in central Hunan, China

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Peng, Bo; Tang, Xiaoyan; Yu, Changxun; Xie, Shurong; Xiao, Meilian; Song, Zhi; Tu, Xianglin

    2009-03-01

    The acid mine drainage (AMD) discharged from the Hejiacun uranium mine in central Hunan (China) was sampled and analyzed using ICP-MS techniques. The analyzing results show that the AMD is characterized by the major ions FeTotal, Mn, Al and Si, and is concentrated with heavy metals and metalloids including Cd, Co, Ni, Zn, U, Cu, Pb, Tl, V, Cr, Se, As and Sb. During the AMD flowing downstream, the dissolved heavy metals were removed from the AMD waters through adsorption onto and co-precipitation with metal-oxhydroxides coated on the streambed. Among these metals, Cd, Co, Ni, Zn, U, Cu, Pb and Tl are negatively correlated to pH values, and positively correlated to major ions Fe, Al, Si, Mn, Mg, Ca and K. The metals/metalloids V, Cr, Se, As and Sb are conservative in the AMD solution, and negatively-correlated to major ions Na, Ca and Mg. Due to the above different behaviors of these chemical elements, the pH-negatively related metals (PM) and the conservative metals (CM) are identified; the PM metals include Cd, Co, Ni, Zn, U, Cu, Pb and Tl, and the CM metals V, Cr, Se, As and Sb. Based on understanding the geochemistry of PM and CM metals in the AMD waters, a new equation: EXT = (Acidity + PM)/pH + CM × pH, is proposed to estimate and evaluate extent of heavy-metal pollution (EXT) of AMD. The evaluation results show that the AMD and surface waters of the mine area have high EXT values, and they could be the potential source of heavy-metal contamination of the surrounding environment. Therefore, it is suggested that both the AMD and surface waters should be treated before they are drained out of the mine district, for which the traditional dilution and neutralization methods can be applied to remove the PM metals from the AMD waters, and new techniques through reducing the pH value of the downstream AMD waters should be developed for removal of the CM metals.

  2. Effect of imposed anaerobic conditions on metals release from acid-mine drainage contaminated streambed sediments.

    PubMed

    Butler, Barbara A

    2011-01-01

    Remediation of streams influenced by mine-drainage may require removal and burial of metal-containing bed sediments. Burial of aerobic sediments into an anaerobic environment may release metals, such as through reductive dissolution of metal oxyhydroxides. Mining-impacted aerobic streambed sediments collected from North Fork Clear Creek, Colorado were held under anaerobic conditions for four months. Eh, pH, and concentrations of Cd, Cu, Fe, Mn, and Zn (filtered at 1.5 μm, 0.45 μm, and 0.2 μm), sulfate, and dissolved organic carbon (DOC) were monitored in stream water/sediment slurries. Two sediment size fractions were examined (2 mm-63 μm and <63 μm). Sequential extractions evaluated the mineral phase with which metals were associated in the aerobic sediment. Released Cu was re-sequestered within 5 weeks, while Fe and Mn still were present at 16 weeks. Mn concentration was lower than in the initial stream water at and beyond 14 weeks for the smaller sized sediment. Cd was not released from either sediment size fraction. Zn was released at early times, but concentrations never exceeded those present in the initial stream water and all was re-sequestered over time. The greatest concentrations of Cu, Fe, Mn, and Zn were associated with the Fe/Mn reducible fraction. Sulfate and Fe were strongly correlated (r = 0.90), seeming to indicate anaerobic dissolution of iron oxy-hydroxy-sulfate minerals. DOC and sulfate were strongly correlated (r = 0.81), with iron having a moderately strong correlation with DOC (r = 0.71). Overall concentrations of DOC, sulfate, Cu, Fe, and Zn and pH were significantly higher (p < 0.05) in the water overlying the small sized sediment samples, while the concentrations of Mn released from the larger sized sediment samples were greater. PMID:20709348

  3. Effect of acidity and elevated PCO2 on acid. Neutralization within pulsed limestone bed reactors receiving coal mine drainage

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Watten, B.J.; Sibrell, P.L.; Schwartz, M.F.

    2004-01-01

    Limestone has potential for reducing reagent costs and sludge volume associated with the treatment of acid mine drainage (AMD), but its use has been restricted by slow dissolution rates and sensitivity to scale forming reactions that retard transport of H+ at the solid-liquid interface. We evaluated a pulsed limestone bed (PLB) remediation process designed to circumvent these problems through use of intermittently fluidized beds of granular limestone and elevated carbon dioxide pressure. PLB limestone dissolution (LD, mg/L), and effluent alkalinity (Alk, mg/L) were correlated with reactor pressure (PCO2, kPa), influent acidity (Acy, mg/L) and reactor bed height (H, cm) using a prototype capable of processing 10 L/min. The PLB process effectively neutralized sulfuric acid acidity over the range of 6-1033 mg/L (as CaCO3) while generating high concentrations of alkalinity (36-1086 mg/L) despite a hydraulic residence time of just 4.2-5.0 min. Alk and LD (mg/L CaCO3) rose with increases in influent acidity and PCO2 (p < 0.001) according to the models: Alk = 58 + 38.4 (PCO2)0.5 + 0.080 (Acy) - 0.0059(PCO2) 0.5 (Acy); LD = 55 + 38.3 (PCO2)0.5 + 1.08 (Acy) - 0.0059 (PCO2)0.5 (Acy). Alkalinity decreased at an increasing rate with reductions in H over the range of 27.3-77.5 cm (p < 0.001). Carbon dioxide requirements (Q(avg)CO2, L/min) increased with PCO2 (p < 0.001) following the model Q(avg)CO2 = 0.858 (PCO2)0.620, resulting in a greater degree of pH buffering (depression) within the reactors, a rise in limestone solubility and an increase in limestone dissolution related to carbonic acid attack. Corresponding elevated concentrations of effluent alkalinity allow for sidestream treatment with blending. Numerical modeling demonstrated that carbon dioxide requirements are reduced as influent acidity rises and when carbon dioxide is recovered from system effluent and recycled. Field trials demonstrated that the PLB process is capable of raising the pH of AMD above that

  4. The efficiency of combined CaO/electrochemical treatment in removal of acid mine drainage induced toxicity and genotoxicity.

    PubMed

    Radić, Sandra; Vujčić, Valerija; Cvetković, Želimira; Cvjetko, Petra; Oreščanin, Višnja

    2014-01-01

    Acid mine drainage (AMD) is a by-product of the mining industry that has a detrimental effect on aquatic plant and animal life due to high load of heavy metals and sulfates. In the present study, the toxic and genotoxic potential of AMD prior to and following combination of neutralization/electrocoagulation processes was evaluated using several bioassays and selected parameters. Regardless of pH correction of AMD prior to Daphnia bioassay, high acute toxicity was observed in Daphnia magna. The mine leachate also induced strong phyto-, cyto- and genotoxicity to Allium cepa roots. Short term exposure to AMD inhibited duckweed growth and chlorophyll a content and simultaneously promoted lipid peroxidation and DNA damage despite duckweed capability to upregulate antioxidative defense mechanisms. The results show that observed (geno)toxicity could be related to oxidative stress most probably induced by toxic metal action. However, influence of low pH as a contributing factor in the phytotoxicity of AMD cannot be excluded. The application of combined treatment eliminated genotoxicity and was highly efficient in reducing toxicity of AMD. Thus, the method seems to be suitable for treatment of AMD waters enabling their safe discharge to an aquatic environment. PMID:23895778

  5. DISPOSAL OF FLUIDIZED BED COMBUSTION ASH IN AN UNDERGROUND MINE TO CONTROL ACID MINE DRAINAGE AND SUBSIDENCE

    SciTech Connect

    Unknown

    1999-07-01

    This project will evaluate the technical, economic and environmental feasibility of filling abandoned underground mine voids with alkaline, advanced coal combustion wastes (Fluidized Bed Combustion-FBC ash). Success will be measured in terms of technical feasibility of the approach (i.e. % void filling), cost, environmental benefits (acid mine drainage and subsidence control) and environmental impacts (noxious ion release). This document reports on progress made during Phase III. The report is divided into three major sections. The first deals with the Hydraulic Injection component. This section of the report describes the progress and milestones associated with the grouting activities of the project. The Phase III tasks of Economic Analysis and Regulatory Analysis is covered under this section. The second component is Pneumatic Injection. This section reports on progress made towards completing the demonstration project. The last component involves evaluating the migration of contaminants through the grouted mine. A computer model has been developed in earlier phases and will model the flow of water in and around the grouted Longridge mine.

  6. DISPOSAL OF FLUIDIZED BED COMBUSTION ASH IN AN UNDERGROUND MINE TO CONTROL ACID MINE DRAINAGE AND SUBSIDENCE

    SciTech Connect

    Unknown

    1999-04-01

    This project will evaluate the technical, economic and environmental feasibility of filling abandoned underground mine voids with alkaline, advanced coal combustion wastes (Fluidized Bed Combustion-FBC ash). Success will be measured in terms of technical feasibility of the approach (i.e. % void filling), cost, environmental benefits (acid mine drainage and subsidence control) and environmental impacts (noxious ion release). This document reports on progress made during Phase III. The report is divided into three major sections. The first deals with the Hydraulic Injection component. This section of the report describes the progress and milestones associated with the grouting activities of the project. The Phase III tasks of Economic Analysis and Regulatory Analysis is covered under this section. The second component is Pneumatic Injection. This section reports on progress made towards completing the demonstration project. The last component involves evaluating the migration of contaminants through the grouted mine. A computer model has been developed in earlier phases and will model the flow of water in and around the grouted Longridge mine.

  7. DISPOSAL OF FLUIDIZED BED COMBUSTION ASH IN AN UNDERGROUND MINE TO CONTROL ACID MINE DRAINAGE AND SUBSIDENCE

    SciTech Connect

    Unknown

    2000-04-01

    This project will evaluate the technical, economic and environmental feasibility of filling abandoned underground mine voids with alkaline, advanced coal combustion wastes (Fluidized Bed Combustion-FBC ash). Success will be measured in terms of technical feasibility of the approach (i.e. % void filling), cost, environmental benefits (acid mine drainage and subsidence control) and environmental impacts (noxious ion release). This document reports on progress made during Phase III. The report is divided into three major sections. The first deals with the Hydraulic Injection component. This section of the report describes the progress and milestones associated with the grouting activities of the project. The Phase III tasks of Economic Analysis and Regulatory Analysis is covered under this section. The second component is Pneumatic Injection. This section reports on progress made towards completing the demonstration project. The last component involves evaluating the migration of contaminants through the grouted mine. A computer model has been developed in earlier phases and will model the flow of water in and around the grouted Longridge mine.

  8. DISPOSAL OF FLUIDIZED BED COMBUSTION ASH IN AN UNDERGROUND MINE TO CONTROL ACID MINE DRAINAGE AND SUBSIDENCE

    SciTech Connect

    Unknown

    2000-01-01

    This project will evaluate the technical, economic and environmental feasibility of filling abandoned underground mine voids with alkaline, advanced coal combustion wastes (Fluidized Bed Combustion-FBC ash). Success will be measured in terms of technical feasibility of the approach (i.e. % void filling), cost, environmental benefits (acid mine drainage and subsidence control) and environmental impacts (noxious ion release). This document reports on progress made during Phase III. The report is divided into three major sections. The first deals with the Hydraulic Injection component. This section of the report describes the progress and milestones associated with the grouting activities of the project. The Phase III tasks of Economic Analysis and Regulatory Analysis is covered under this section. The second component is Pneumatic Injection. This section reports on progress made towards completing the demonstration project. The last component involves evaluating the migration of contaminants through the grouted mine. A computer model has been developed in earlier phases and will model the flow of water in and around the grouted Longridge mine.

  9. Environmental assessment and management of metal-rich wastes generated in acid mine drainage passive remediation systems.

    PubMed

    Macías, Francisco; Caraballo, Manuel A; Nieto, José Miguel

    2012-08-30

    As acid mine drainage (AMD) remediation is increasingly faced by governments and mining industries worldwide, the generation of metal-rich solid residues from the treatments plants is concomitantly raising. A proper environmental management of these metal-rich wastes requires a detailed characterization of the metal mobility as well as an assessment of this new residues stability. The European standard leaching test EN 12457-2, the US EPA TCLP test and the BCR sequential extraction procedure were selected to address the environmental assessment of dispersed alkaline substrate (DAS) residues generated in AMD passive treatment systems. Significant discrepancies were observed in the hazardousness classification of the residues according to the TCLP or EN 12457-2 test. Furthermore, the absence of some important metals (like Fe or Al) in the regulatory limits employed in both leaching tests severely restricts their applicability for metal-rich wastes. The results obtained in the BCR sequential extraction suggest an important influence of the landfill environmental conditions on the metals released from the wastes. To ensure a complete stability of the pollutants in the studied DAS-wastes the contact with water or any other leaching solutions must be avoided and a dry environment needs to be provided in the landfill disposal selected. PMID:22717063

  10. Characterization of Fe(II) oxidizing bacterial activities and communities at two acidic Appalachian coalmine drainage-impacted sites

    SciTech Connect

    Senko, John M.; Wanjugi, Pauline; Lucas, Melanie; Bruns, Mary Ann; Burgos, William D.

    2008-06-12

    We characterized the microbiologically mediated oxidative precipitation of Fe(II) from coalminederived acidic mine drainage (AMD) along flow-paths at two sites in northern Pennsylvania. At the Gum Boot site, dissolved Fe(II) was efficiently removed from AMD whereas minimal Fe(II) removal occurred at the Fridays-2 site. Neither site received human intervention to treat the AMD. Culturable Fe(II) oxidizing bacteria were most abundant at sampling locations along the AMD flow path corresponding to greatest Fe(II) removal and where overlying water contained abundant dissolved O2. Rates of Fe(II) oxidation determined in laboratory-based sediment incubations were also greatest at these sampling locations. Ribosomal RNA intergenic spacer analysis and sequencing of partial 16S rRNA genes recovered from sediment bacterial communities revealed similarities among populations at points receiving regular inputs of Fe(II)-rich AMD and provided evidence for the presence of bacterial lineages capable of Fe(II) oxidation. A notable difference between bacterial communities at the two sites was the abundance of Chloroflexi-affiliated 16S rRNA gene sequences in clone libraries derived from the Gum Boot sediments. Our results suggest that inexpensive and reliable AMD treatment strategies can be implemented by mimicking the conditions present at the Gum Boot field site.

  11. Identification of Nitrogen-Fixing Genes and Gene Clusters from Metagenomic Library of Acid Mine Drainage

    PubMed Central

    Yin, Huaqun; Liang, Yili; Cong, Jing; Liu, Xueduan

    2014-01-01

    Biological nitrogen fixation is an essential function of acid mine drainage (AMD) microbial communities. However, most acidophiles in AMD environments are uncultured microorganisms and little is known about the diversity of nitrogen-fixing genes and structure of nif gene cluster in AMD microbial communities. In this study, we used metagenomic sequencing to isolate nif genes in the AMD microbial community from Dexing Copper Mine, China. Meanwhile, a metagenome microarray containing 7,776 large-insertion fosmids was constructed to screen novel nif gene clusters. Metagenomic analyses revealed that 742 sequences were identified as nif genes including structural subunit genes nifH, nifD, nifK and various additional genes. The AMD community is massively dominated by the genus Acidithiobacillus. However, the phylogenetic diversity of nitrogen-fixing microorganisms is much higher than previously thought in the AMD community. Furthermore, a 32.5-kb genomic sequence harboring nif, fix and associated genes was screened by metagenome microarray. Comparative genome analysis indicated that most nif genes in this cluster are most similar to those of Herbaspirillum seropedicae, but the organization of the nif gene cluster had significant differences from H. seropedicae. Sequence analysis and reverse transcription PCR also suggested that distinct transcription units of nif genes exist in this gene cluster. nifQ gene falls into the same transcription unit with fixABCX genes, which have not been reported in other diazotrophs before. All of these results indicated that more novel diazotrophs survive in the AMD community. PMID:24498417

  12. Diversity of acidophilic prokaryotes at two acid mine drainage sites in Turkey.

    PubMed

    Aytar, Pınar; Kay, Catherine Melanie; Mutlu, Mehmet Burçin; Çabuk, Ahmet; Johnson, David Barrie

    2015-04-01

    The biodiversity of acidophilic prokaryotes in two acidic (pH 2.8-3.05) mine drainage (AMD) sites (Balya and Çan) in Turkey was examined using a combined cultivation-based and cultivation-independent approach. The latter included analyzing microbial diversity using fluorescent in situ hybridization (FISH), terminal restriction enzyme fragment length polymorphism (`T-RFLP), and quantitative PCR (qPCR). Numbers of cultivatable heterotrophic acidophilic bacteria were over an order of magnitude greater than those of chemolithotrophic acidophiles in both AMD ponds examined. Isolates identified as strains of Acidithiobacillus ferrivorans, Acidiphilium organovorum, and Ferrimicrobium acidiphilum were isolated from the Balya AMD pond, and others identified as strains of Leptospirillum ferriphilum, Acidicapsa ligni, and Acidiphilium rubrum from Çan AMD. Other isolates were too distantly related (from analysis of their 16S rRNA genes) to be identified at the species level. Archaeal diversity in the two ponds appeared to be far more limited. T-RFLP and qPCR confirmed the presence of Ferroplasma-like prokaryotes, but no archaea were isolated from the two sites. qPCR generated semiquantitative data for genera of some of the iron-oxidizing acidophiles isolated and/or detected, suggesting the order of abundance was Leptospirillum > Ferroplasma > Acidithiobacillus (Balya AMD) and Ferroplasma > Leptospirillum > Acidithiobacillus (Çan AMD). PMID:25380633

  13. Macroscopic to microscopic studies of flue gas desulfurization byproducts for acid mine drainage mitigation

    SciTech Connect

    Robbins, E.I.; Kalyoncu, R.S.; Finkelman, R.B.; Matos, G.R.; Barsotti, A.F.; Haefner, R.J.; Rowe, G.L. Jr.; Savela, C.E.; Eddy, J.I.

    1996-12-31

    The use of flue gas desulfurization (FGD) systems to reduce SO{sub 2} emissions has resulted in the generation of large quantities of byproducts. These and other byproducts are being stockpiled at the very time that alkaline materials having high neutralization potential are needed to mitigate acid mine drainage (AMD). FGD byproducts are highly alkaline materials composed primarily of unreacted sorbents (lime or limestone and sulfates and sulfites of Ca). The American Coal Ash Association estimated that approximately 20 million tons of FGD material were generated by electric power utilities equipped with wet lime-limestone PGD systems in 1993. Less than 5% of this material has been put to beneficial use for agricultural soil amendments and for the production of wallboard and cement. Four USGS projects are examining FGD byproduct use to address these concerns. These projects involve (1) calculating the volume of flue gas desulfurization (FGD) byproduct generation and their geographic locations in relation to AMD, (2) determining byproduct chemistry and mineralogy, (3) evaluating hydrology and geochemistry of atmospheric fluidized bed combustion byproduct as soil amendment in Ohio, and (4) analyzing microbial degradation of gypsum in anoxic limestone drains in West Virginia.

  14. Biogeochemical processes governing natural pyrite oxidation and release of acid metalliferous drainage.

    PubMed

    Chen, Ya-ting; Li, Jin-tian; Chen, Lin-xing; Hua, Zheng-shuang; Huang, Li-nan; Liu, Jun; Xu, Bi-bo; Liao, Bin; Shu, Wen-sheng

    2014-05-20

    The oxidative dissolution of sulfide minerals (principally pyrite) is responsible for the majority of acid metalliferous drainage from mine sites, which represents a significant environmental problem worldwide. Understanding the complex biogeochemical processes governing natural pyrite oxidation is critical not only for solving this problem but also for understanding the industrial bioleaching of sulfide minerals. To this end, we conducted a simulated experiment of natural pyrite oxidative dissolution. Pyrosequencing analysis of the microbial community revealed a distinct succession across three stages. At the early stage, a newly proposed genus, Tumebacillus (which can use sodium thiosulfate and sulfite as the sole electron donors), dominated the microbial community. At the midstage, Alicyclobacillus (the fifth most abundant genus at the early stage) became the most dominant genus, whereas Tumebacillus was still ranked as the second most abundant. At the final stage, the microbial community was dominated by Ferroplasma (the tenth most abundant genus at the early stage). Our geochemical and mineralogical analyses indicated that exchangeable heavy metals increased as the oxidation progressed and that some secondary sulfate minerals (including jarosite and magnesiocopiapite) were formed at the final stage of the oxidation sequence. Additionally, we propose a comprehensive model of biogeochemical processes governing the oxidation of sulfide minerals. PMID:24730689

  15. Fungi contribute critical but spatially varying roles in nitrogen and carbon cycling in acid mine drainage

    DOE PAGESBeta

    Mosier, Annika C.; Miller, Christopher S.; Frischkorn, Kyle R.; Ohm, Robin A.; Li, Zhou; LaButti, Kurt; Lapidus, Alla; Lipzen, Anna; Chen, Cindy; Johnson, Jenifer; et al

    2016-03-03

    The ecosystem roles of fungi have been extensively studied by targeting one organism and/or biological process at a time, but the full metabolic potential of fungi has rarely been captured in an environmental context. We hypothesized that fungal genome sequences could be assembled directly from the environment using metagenomics and that transcriptomics and proteomics could simultaneously reveal metabolic differentiation across habitats. We reconstructed the near-complete 27 Mbp genome of a filamentous fungus, Acidomyces richmondensis, and evaluated transcript and protein expression in floating and streamer biofilms from an acid mine drainage (AMD) system. A. richmondensis transcripts involved in denitrification and inmore » the degradation of complex carbon sources (including cellulose) were up-regulated in floating biofilms, whereas central carbon metabolism and stress-related transcripts were significantly up-regulated in streamer biofilms. Finally, these findings suggest that the biofilm niches are distinguished by distinct carbon and nitrogen resource utilization, oxygen availability, and environmental challenges. An isolated A. richmondensis strain from this environment was used to validate the metagenomics-derived genome and confirm nitrous oxide production at pH 1. Overall, our analyses defined mechanisms of fungal adaptation and identified a functional shift related to different roles in carbon and nitrogen turnover for the same species of fungi growing in closely located but distinct biofilm niches.« less

  16. Fungi Contribute Critical but Spatially Varying Roles in Nitrogen and Carbon Cycling in Acid Mine Drainage

    PubMed Central

    Mosier, Annika C.; Miller, Christopher S.; Frischkorn, Kyle R.; Ohm, Robin A.; Li, Zhou; LaButti, Kurt; Lapidus, Alla; Lipzen, Anna; Chen, Cindy; Johnson, Jenifer; Lindquist, Erika A.; Pan, Chongle; Hettich, Robert L.; Grigoriev, Igor V.; Singer, Steven W.; Banfield, Jillian F.

    2016-01-01

    The ecosystem roles of fungi have been extensively studied by targeting one organism and/or biological process at a time, but the full metabolic potential of fungi has rarely been captured in an environmental context. We hypothesized that fungal genome sequences could be assembled directly from the environment using metagenomics and that transcriptomics and proteomics could simultaneously reveal metabolic differentiation across habitats. We reconstructed the near-complete 27 Mbp genome of a filamentous fungus, Acidomyces richmondensis, and evaluated transcript and protein expression in floating and streamer biofilms from an acid mine drainage (AMD) system. A. richmondensis transcripts involved in denitrification and in the degradation of complex carbon sources (including cellulose) were up-regulated in floating biofilms, whereas central carbon metabolism and stress-related transcripts were significantly up-regulated in streamer biofilms. These findings suggest that the biofilm niches are distinguished by distinct carbon and nitrogen resource utilization, oxygen availability, and environmental challenges. An isolated A. richmondensis strain from this environment was used to validate the metagenomics-derived genome and confirm nitrous oxide production at pH 1. Overall, our analyses defined mechanisms of fungal adaptation and identified a functional shift related to different roles in carbon and nitrogen turnover for the same species of fungi growing in closely located but distinct biofilm niches. PMID:26973616

  17. Fungi Contribute Critical but Spatially Varying Roles in Nitrogen and Carbon Cycling in Acid Mine Drainage.

    PubMed

    Mosier, Annika C; Miller, Christopher S; Frischkorn, Kyle R; Ohm, Robin A; Li, Zhou; LaButti, Kurt; Lapidus, Alla; Lipzen, Anna; Chen, Cindy; Johnson, Jenifer; Lindquist, Erika A; Pan, Chongle; Hettich, Robert L; Grigoriev, Igor V; Singer, Steven W; Banfield, Jillian F

    2016-01-01

    The ecosystem roles of fungi have been extensively studied by targeting one organism and/or biological process at a time, but the full metabolic potential of fungi has rarely been captured in an environmental context. We hypothesized that fungal genome sequences could be assembled directly from the environment using metagenomics and that transcriptomics and proteomics could simultaneously reveal metabolic differentiation across habitats. We reconstructed the near-complete 27 Mbp genome of a filamentous fungus, Acidomyces richmondensis, and evaluated transcript and protein expression in floating and streamer biofilms from an acid mine drainage (AMD) system. A. richmondensis transcripts involved in denitrification and in the degradation of complex carbon sources (including cellulose) were up-regulated in floating biofilms, whereas central carbon metabolism and stress-related transcripts were significantly up-regulated in streamer biofilms. These findings suggest that the biofilm niches are distinguished by distinct carbon and nitrogen resource utilization, oxygen availability, and environmental challenges. An isolated A. richmondensis strain from this environment was used to validate the metagenomics-derived genome and confirm nitrous oxide production at pH 1. Overall, our analyses defined mechanisms of fungal adaptation and identified a functional shift related to different roles in carbon and nitrogen turnover for the same species of fungi growing in closely located but distinct biofilm niches. PMID:26973616

  18. Selection of Clostridium spp. in biological sand filters neutralizing synthetic acid mine drainage.

    PubMed

    Ramond, Jean-Baptiste; Welz, Pamela J; Le Roes-Hill, Marilize; Tuffin, Marla I; Burton, Stephanie G; Cowan, Don A

    2014-03-01

    In this study, three biological sand filter (BSF) were contaminated with a synthetic iron- [1500 mg L⁻¹ Fe(II), 500 mg L⁻¹ Fe(III)] and sulphate-rich (6000 mg L⁻¹ SO₄²⁻) acid mine drainage (AMD) (pH = 2), for 24 days, to assess the remediation capacity and the evolution of autochthonous bacterial communities (monitored by T-RFLP and 16S rRNA gene clone libraries). To stimulate BSF bioremediation involving sulphate-reducing bacteria, a readily degradable carbon source (glucose, 8000 mg L⁻¹) was incorporated into the influent AMD. Complete neutralization and average removal efficiencies of 81.5 (±5.6)%, 95.8 (±1.2)% and 32.8 (±14.0)% for Fe(II), Fe(III) and sulphate were observed, respectively. Our results suggest that microbial iron reduction and sulphate reduction associated with iron precipitation were the main processes contributing to AMD neutralization. The effect of AMD on BSF sediment bacterial communities was highly reproducible. There was a decrease in diversity, and notably a single dominant operational taxonomic unit (OTU), closely related to Clostridium beijerinckii, which represented up to 65% of the total community at the end of the study period. PMID:24251832

  19. Influences of acid mine drainage and thermal enrichment on stream fish reproduction and larval survival

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Hafs, Andrew W.; Horn, C.D.; Mazik, P.M.; Hartman, K.J.

    2010-01-01

    Potential effects of acid mine drainage (AMD) and thermal enrichment on the reproduction of fishes were investigated through a larval-trapping survey in the Stony River watershed, Grant County, WV. Trapping was conducted at seven sites from 26 March to 2 July 2004. Overall larval catch was low (379 individuals in 220 hours of trapping). More larval White Suckers were captured than all other species. Vectors fitted to nonparametric multidimensional scaling ordinations suggested that temperature was highly correlated to fish communities captured at our sites. Survival of larval Fathead Minnows was examined in situ at six sites from 13 May to 11 June 2004 in the same system. Larval survival was lower, but not significantly different between sites directly downstream of AMD-impacted tributaries (40% survival) and non-AMD sites (52% survival). The lower survival was caused by a significant mortality event at one site that coincided with acute pH depression in an AMD tributary immediately upstream of the site. Results from a Cox proportional hazard test suggests that low pH is having a significant negative influence on larval fish survival in this system. The results from this research indicate that the combination of low pH events and elevated temperature are negatively influencing the larval fish populations of the Stony River watershed. Management actions that address these problems would have the potential to substantially increase both reproduction rates and larval survival, therefore greatly enhancing the fishery.

  20. Bioremediation of acid mine drainage: an introduction to the Wheal Jane wetlands project.

    PubMed

    Whitehead, P G; Prior, H

    2005-02-01

    Acid mine drainage (AMD) is a widespread environmental problem associated with both working and abandoned mining operations. As part of an overall strategy to determine a long-term treatment option for AMD, a pilot passive treatment plant was constructed in 1994 at Wheal Jane Mine in Cornwall, UK. The plant consists of three separate systems; each containing aerobic reed beds, anaerobic cell and rock filters, and represents the largest European experimental facility of its kind. The systems only differ by the type of pre-treatment utilised to increase the pH of the influent minewater (pH<4): lime-dosed (LD), anoxic limestone drain (ALD) and lime free (LF), which receives no form of pre-treatment. The Wheal Jane pilot plant offered a unique facility and a major research project was established to evaluate the pilot plant and study in detail the biological mechanisms and the geochemical and physical processes that control passive treatment systems. The project has led to data, knowledge, models and design criteria for the future design, planning and sustainable management of passive treatment systems. A multidisciplinary team of scientists and managers from the U.K. universities, the Environment Agency and the Mining Industry has been put together to obtain the maximum advantage from the excellent facilities facility at Wheal Jane. PMID:15680623

  1. Dealumination of clinoptilolite and its effect on zinc removal from acid rock drainage.

    PubMed

    Xu, Wanjing; Li, Loretta Y; Grace, John R

    2014-09-01

    Clinoptilolite, a natural zeolite, is capable of removing heavy metals from acid rock drainage (ARD). Previous studies have neglected the dealumination of clinoptilolite and its impact during remediation. This study observed the dealumination of clinoptilolite during ARD remediation in a slurry bubble column (SBC), and investigated its impact on the capture of zinc. Uptake tests were performed with natural ARD and various sorbent average particle diameters from 300 to 1400μm, superficial gas velocities from 0.08 to 0.23ms(-1), initial aqueous pH from 2 to 6, Zn concentrations from 15 to 215ppm and sorbent/solution mass ratios from 25 to 400gkg(-1) to test zinc uptake. Dealumination of clinoptilolite was sometimes observed during the uptake process. Increased Al in the aqueous phase led to co-precipitation of Zn-Al colloid, enhanced by abundant sulfate in solution. The unit zinc uptake of the Al colloid was found to be much higher than for the raw clinoptilolite. PMID:24997948

  2. Application of acid mine drainage for coagulation/flocculation of microalgal biomass.

    PubMed

    Salama, El-Sayed; Kim, Jung Rae; Ji, Min-Kyu; Cho, Dong-Wan; Abou-Shanab, Reda A I; Kabra, Akhil N; Jeon, Byong-Hun

    2015-06-01

    A novel application of acid mine drainage (AMD) for biomass recovery of two morphologically different microalgae species with respect to AMD dosage, microalgal cell density and pH of medium was investigated. Optimal flocculation of Scenedesmus obliquus and Chlorella vulgaris occurred with 10% dosage of AMD at an initial pH 9 for both 0.5 and 1.0 g/L cell density. The flocculation efficiency was 89% for S. obliquus and 93% for C. vulgaris. Zeta potential (ZP) was increased from -10.66 to 1.77 and -13.19 to 1.33 for S. obliquus and C. vulgaris, respectively. Scanning electron microscope with energy-dispersive X-ray of the microalgae floc confirmed the sweeping floc formation mechanism upon the addition of AMD. Application of AMD for the recovery of microalgae biomass is a cost-effective method, which might further allow reuse of flocculated medium for algal cultivation, thereby contributing to the economic production of biofuel from microalgal biomass. PMID:25817034

  3. Algae as an electron donor promoting sulfate reduction for the bioremediation of acid rock drainage.

    PubMed

    Ayala-Parra, Pedro; Sierra-Alvarez, Reyes; Field, Jim A

    2016-11-01

    This study assessed bioremediation of acid rock drainage in simulated permeable reactive barriers (PRB) using algae, Chlorella sorokiniana, as the sole electron donor for sulfate-reducing bacteria. Lipid extracted algae (LEA), the residues of biodiesel production, were compared with whole cell algae (WCA) as an electron donor to promote sulfate-reducing activity. Inoculated columns containing anaerobic granular sludge were fed a synthetic medium containing H2SO4 and Cu(2+). Sulfate, sulfide, Cu(2+) and pH were monitored throughout the experiment of 123d. Cu recovered in the column packing at the end of the experiment was evaluated using sequential extraction. Both WCA and LEA promoted 80% of sulfate removal (12.7mg SO4(2-) d(-1)) enabling near complete Cu removal (>99.5%) and alkalinity generation raising the effluent pH to 6.5. No noteworthy sulfate reduction, alkalinity formation and Cu(2+) removal were observed in the endogenous control. In algae amended-columns, Cu(2+) was precipitated with biogenic H2S produced by sulfate reduction. Formation of CuS was evidenced by sequential extraction and X-ray diffraction. LEA and WCA provided similar levels of electron donor based on the COD balance. The results demonstrate an innovative passive remediation system using residual algae biomass from the biodiesel industry. PMID:27318730

  4. Pilot test of pollution control and metal resource recovery for acid mine drainage.

    PubMed

    Yan, Bo; Mai, Ge; Chen, Tao; Lei, Chang; Xiao, Xianming

    2015-01-01

    The study was undertaken in order to recover the metal resources from acid mine drainage (AMD). A 300 m(3)/d continuous system was designed and fractional precipitation technology employed for the main metals Fe, Cu, Zn, and Mn recovery. The system was operated for six months using actual AMD in situ. The chemicals' input and also the retention time was optimized. Furthermore, the material balance was investigated. With the system, the heavy metals of the effluent after the Mn neutralization precipitation were below the threshold value of the Chinese integrated wastewater discharge limit. The precipitates generated contained 42%, 12%, 31%, and 18% for Fe, Cu, Zn, and Mn, respectively, and the recovery rates of Fe, Cu, Zn, and Mn were 82%, 79%, 83%, and 83%, respectively. The yield range of the precipitate had significant correlation with the influent metal content. Using the X-ray diffraction analysis, the refinement for Fe, Cu, and Zn could be achieved through the processes of roasting and floatation. Cost-benefit was also discussed; the benefit from the recycled metal was able to pay for the cost of chemical reagents used. Most important of all, through the use of this technology, the frustrating sludge problems were solved. PMID:26676020

  5. Effects of storm runoff on water quality in the Mill Creek drainage basin, Willingboro, New Jersey

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Schornick, James C., Jr.; Fishel, David K.

    1980-01-01

    The effect of storm runoff on the quality of water in streams receiving drainage from the 23.7-square-kilometer Mill Creek basin in Willingboro, NJ., was studied from October 1975 to September 1976. Stream discharge and 86 water-quality constituents were measured during base flow and storm runoff. Only 38 constitutents were detected in significant amounts under any streamflow condition. Constituent loads and concentrations in the runoff from the nonresidential part of the study area in the upstream part of the drainage basin affected stream quality more than runoff from the residential area. The nonresidential area contributed more of the nutrient load (nitrate, ammonia, organic nitrogen, and phosphorus), the common inorganics (sodium , potassium, magnesium, chloride, and sulfate), sediment, and organic carbon. The residential area contributed more calcium, nitrite, lead, iron, biochemical oxygen demand, and the pesticides, 2,4-D and silvex. With the exception of suspended iron, fecal coliform bacteria, suspended lead, and suspended phosphorus, all measured constituents met the recommended criteria set by the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency and the New Jersey Department of Environmental Protection, even during storms. (USGS)

  6. Water balance: case study of a constructed wetland as part of the bio-ecological drainage system (BIOECODS).

    PubMed

    Ayub, Khairul Rahmah; Zakaria, Nor Azazi; Abdullah, Rozi; Ramli, Rosmaliza

    2010-01-01

    The Bio-ecological Drainage System, or BIOECODS, is an urban drainage system located at the Engineering Campus, Universiti Sains Malaysia. It consists of a constructed wetland as a part of the urban drainage system to carry storm water in a closed system. In this closed system, the constructed wetland was designed particularly for further treatment of storm water. For the purpose of studying the water balance of the constructed wetland, data collection was carried out for two years (2007 and 2009). The results show that the constructed wetland has a consistent volume of water storage compared to the outflow for both years with correlation coefficients (R(2)) of 0.99 in 2007 and 0.86 in 2009. PMID:20962410

  7. Disposal of Fluidized Bed Combustion Ash in an Underground Mine to Control Acid Mine Drainage and Subsidence

    SciTech Connect

    1998-08-31

    This project will evaluate the technical, economic and environmental feasibility of filling abandoned underground mine voids with alkaline, advanced coal combustion wastes (Fluidized Bed Combustion (FBC) ash). Success will be measured in terms of technical feasibility of the approach (i.e. YO void filling), cost, environmental benefits (acid mine drainage and subsidence control) and environmental impacts (noxious ion release). During Phase Ill the majority of the activity involves completing two full scale demonstration projects. The eleven acre Longridge mine in Preston County will be filled with 53,000 cubic yards of grout during the spring of 1998 and monitored for following year. The second demonstration involves stowing 2000 tons of ash into an abandoned mine to demonstrate the newly redesigned Burnett Ejector. This demonstration is anticipated to take place during the winter of 1997. This document will report on progress made during Phase Ill. The report will be divided into four major sections. The first will be the Hydraulic Injection component. This section of the report will report on progress and milestones associated with the grouting activities of the project. The Phase Ill tasks of Economic Analysis and Regulatory Analysis will be covered under this section. The second component is Pneumatic Injection. This section reports on progress made towards completing the demonstration project. The Water Quality component involves background monitoring of water quality and precipitation at the Phase Ill (Longridge) mine site. The last component involves evaluating the migration of contaminants through the grouted mine. A computer model has been developed in earlier phases and will model the flow of water in and around the grouted Longridge mine.

  8. Comparison of acid mine drainage microbial communities in physically and geochemically distinct ecosystems.

    PubMed

    Bond, P L; Druschel, G K; Banfield, J F

    2000-11-01

    This study presents population analyses of microbial communities inhabiting a site of extreme acid mine drainage (AMD) production. The site is the inactive underground Richmond mine at Iron Mountain, Calif., where the weathering of a massive sulfide ore body (mostly pyrite) produces solutions with pHs of approximately 0.5 to approximately 1.0. Here we used a suite of oligonucleotide probes, designed from molecular data recently acquired from the site, to analyze a number of microbial environments by fluorescent in situ hybridization. Microbial-community analyses were correlated with geochemical and mineralogical data from those environments. The environments investigated were within the ore body and thus at the site of pyrite dissolution, as opposed to environments that occur downstream of the dissolution. Few organism types, as defined by the specificities of the oligonucleotide probes, dominated the microbial communities. The majority of the dominant organisms detected were newly discovered or organisms only recently associated with acid-leaching environments. "Ferroplasma" spp. were detected in many of the communities and were particularly dominant in environments of lowest pH and highest ionic strength. Leptospirillum spp. were also detected in many slime and pyrite-dominated environments. In samples of an unusual subaerial slime, a new uncultured Leptospirillum sp. dominated. Sulfobacillus spp. were detected as a prominent inhabitant in warmer ( approximately 43 degrees C) environments. The information gathered here is critical for determining organisms important to AMD production at Iron Mountain and for directing future studies of this process. The findings presented here also have relevance to the microbiology of industrial bioleaching and to the understanding of geochemical iron and sulfur cycles. PMID:11055950

  9. Aerobic bacterial pyrite oxidation and acid rock drainage during the Great Oxidation Event.

    PubMed

    Konhauser, Kurt O; Lalonde, Stefan V; Planavsky, Noah J; Pecoits, Ernesto; Lyons, Timothy W; Mojzsis, Stephen J; Rouxel, Olivier J; Barley, Mark E; Rosìere, Carlos; Fralick, Phillip W; Kump, Lee R; Bekker, Andrey

    2011-10-20

    The enrichment of redox-sensitive trace metals in ancient marine sedimentary rocks has been used to determine the timing of the oxidation of the Earth's land surface. Chromium (Cr) is among the emerging proxies for tracking the effects of atmospheric oxygenation on continental weathering; this is because its supply to the oceans is dominated by terrestrial processes that can be recorded in the Cr isotope composition of Precambrian iron formations. However, the factors controlling past and present seawater Cr isotope composition are poorly understood. Here we provide an independent and complementary record of marine Cr supply, in the form of Cr concentrations and authigenic enrichment in iron-rich sedimentary rocks. Our data suggest that Cr was largely immobile on land until around 2.48 Gyr ago, but within the 160 Myr that followed--and synchronous with independent evidence for oxygenation associated with the Great Oxidation Event (see, for example, refs 4-6)--marked excursions in Cr content and Cr/Ti ratios indicate that Cr was solubilized at a scale unrivalled in history. As Cr isotope fractionations at that time were muted, Cr must have been mobilized predominantly in reduced, Cr(III), form. We demonstrate that only the oxidation of an abundant and previously stable crustal pyrite reservoir by aerobic-respiring, chemolithoautotrophic bacteria could have generated the degree of acidity required to solubilize Cr(III) from ultramafic source rocks and residual soils. This profound shift in weathering regimes beginning at 2.48 Gyr ago constitutes the earliest known geochemical evidence for acidophilic aerobes and the resulting acid rock drainage, and accounts for independent evidence of an increased supply of dissolved sulphate and sulphide-hosted trace elements to the oceans around that time. Our model adds to amassing evidence that the Archaean-Palaeoproterozoic boundary was marked by a substantial shift in terrestrial geochemistry and biology. PMID:22012395

  10. Trace metal mobilization from oil sands froth treatment thickened tailings exhibiting acid rock drainage.

    PubMed

    Kuznetsova, Alsu; Kuznetsov, Petr; Foght, Julia M; Siddique, Tariq

    2016-11-15

    Froth treatment thickened tailings (TT) are a waste product of bitumen extraction from surface-mined oil sands ores. When incubated in a laboratory under simulated moist oxic environmental conditions for ~450d, two different types of TT (TT1 and TT2) exhibited the potential to generate acid rock drainage (ARD) by producing acid leachate after 250 and 50d, respectively. We report here the release of toxic metals from TT via ARD, which could pose an environmental threat if oil sands TT deposits are not properly managed. Trace metal concentrations in leachate samples collected periodically revealed that Mn and Sr were released immediately even before the onset of ARD. Spikes in Co and Ni concentrations were observed both pre-ARD and during active ARD, particularly in TT1. For most elements measured (Fe, Cr, V, As, Cu, Pb, Zn, Cd, and Se), leaching was associated with ARD production. Though equivalent acidification (pH2) was achieved in leachate from both TT types, greater metal release was observed from TT2 where concentrations reached 10,000ppb for Ni, 5000ppb for Co, 3000ppb for As, 2000ppb for V, and 1000ppb for Cr. Generally, metal concentrations decreased in leachate with time during ARD and became negligible by the end of incubation (~450d) despite appreciable metals remaining in the leached TT. These results suggest that using TT for land reclamation purposes or surface deposition for volume reduction may unfavorably impact the environment, and warrants application of appropriate strategies for management of pyrite-enriched oil sands tailings streams. PMID:27443453

  11. Application of a Depositional Facies Model to an Acid Mine Drainage Site▿ †

    PubMed Central

    Brown, Juliana F.; Jones, Daniel S.; Mills, Daniel B.; Macalady, Jennifer L.; Burgos, William D.

    2011-01-01

    Lower Red Eyes is an acid mine drainage site in Pennsylvania where low-pH Fe(II) oxidation has created a large, terraced iron mound downstream of an anoxic, acidic, metal-rich spring. Aqueous chemistry, mineral precipitates, microbial communities, and laboratory-based Fe(II) oxidation rates for this site were analyzed in the context of a depositional facies model. Depositional facies were defined as pools, terraces, or microterracettes based on cm-scale sediment morphology, irrespective of the distance downstream from the spring. The sediments were composed entirely of Fe precipitates and cemented organic matter. The Fe precipitates were identified as schwertmannite at all locations, regardless of facies. Microbial composition was studied with fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH) and transitioned from a microaerophilic, Euglena-dominated community at the spring, to a Betaproteobacteria (primarily Ferrovum spp.)-dominated community at the upstream end of the iron mound, to a Gammaproteobacteria (primarily Acidithiobacillus)-dominated community at the downstream end of the iron mound. Microbial community structure was more strongly correlated with pH and geochemical conditions than depositional facies. Intact pieces of terrace and pool sediments from upstream and downstream locations were used in flowthrough laboratory reactors to measure the rate and extent of low-pH Fe(II) oxidation. No change in Fe(II) concentration was observed with 60Co-irradiated sediments or with no-sediment controls, indicating that abiotic Fe(II) oxidation was negligible. Upstream sediments attained lower effluent Fe(II) concentrations compared to downstream sediments, regardless of depositional facies. PMID:21097582

  12. Predicting taxonomic and functional structure of microbial communities in acid mine drainage.

    PubMed

    Kuang, Jialiang; Huang, Linan; He, Zhili; Chen, Linxing; Hua, Zhengshuang; Jia, Pu; Li, Shengjin; Liu, Jun; Li, Jintian; Zhou, Jizhong; Shu, Wensheng

    2016-06-01

    Predicting the dynamics of community composition and functional attributes responding to environmental changes is an essential goal in community ecology but remains a major challenge, particularly in microbial ecology. Here, by targeting a model system with low species richness, we explore the spatial distribution of taxonomic and functional structure of 40 acid mine drainage (AMD) microbial communities across Southeast China profiled by 16S ribosomal RNA pyrosequencing and a comprehensive microarray (GeoChip). Similar environmentally dependent patterns of dominant microbial lineages and key functional genes were observed regardless of the large-scale geographical isolation. Functional and phylogenetic β-diversities were significantly correlated, whereas functional metabolic potentials were strongly influenced by environmental conditions and community taxonomic structure. Using advanced modeling approaches based on artificial neural networks, we successfully predicted the taxonomic and functional dynamics with significantly higher prediction accuracies of metabolic potentials (average Bray-Curtis similarity 87.8) as compared with relative microbial abundances (similarity 66.8), implying that natural AMD microbial assemblages may be better predicted at the functional genes level rather than at taxonomic level. Furthermore, relative metabolic potentials of genes involved in many key ecological functions (for example, nitrogen and phosphate utilization, metals resistance and stress response) were extrapolated to increase under more acidic and metal-rich conditions, indicating a critical strategy of stress adaptation in these extraordinary communities. Collectively, our findings indicate that natural selection rather than geographic distance has a more crucial role in shaping the taxonomic and functional patterns of AMD microbial community that readily predicted by modeling methods and suggest that the model-based approach is essential to better understand natural

  13. Geophysical mapping and subsurface injection for treatment of post-reclamation acid drainage

    SciTech Connect

    Plocus, V.G.; Rastogi, V.

    1997-12-31

    Post-reclamation acid discharge has haunted abandoned mine lands reclamation programs and the mining industry reclamation efforts. Many mine sites have been reclaimed, as mandated by regulations, but continue to generate acid. Such sites represent perpetual treatment problems for operators and, in the case of bond forfeitures or abandoned mine reclamation projects, they represent sources of perpetual surface and groundwater degradation. Post-reclamation discharge occurs when the Thiobacillus ferrooxidans bacteria, not destroyed prior to soil cover in the reclamation process, continue to thrive, even in a supposedly anaerobic environment. A post-reclamation remediation system utilizing subsurface injection of sodium hydroxide and an anionic surfactant offers a two phase integrated technologies approach. In Phase 1, the site is characterized by geophysical mapping with (1) electromagnetic terrain conductivity meters to determine locations of subsurface aquifers, and (2) proton processing magnetometers to delineate zones of pyritic oxidation in the subsurface environment. Infiltrometers are also used to determine permeability which influences pressure requirements and distance between wells. Site conditions and water analyses help quantify requirements for injection of sodium hydroxide and bactericide. Phase 2 involves drilling two sets of injection wells; the first into the acidified water table for injection of 20% sodium hydroxide solution to neutralize existing acid water, and the second into the acid producing material for injection of a 20% sodium hydroxide solution to neutralize existing acid salts, followed by a 2% solution of bactericide. The sodium hydroxide is injected to neutralize existing acid which prevents future acid generation. Results from a site in Pennsylvania, USA, which was treated in this manner are reported.

  14. Simulation of acid mine drainage generation around Küre VMS Deposits, Northern Turkey

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Demirel, Cansu; Kurt, Mehmet Ali; Çelik Balci, Nurgül

    2015-04-01

    This study investigated comparative leaching characteristics of acidophilic bacterial strains under shifting environmental conditions at proposed two stages as formation stage or post acidic mine drainage (AMD) generation. At the first stage, initial reactions associated with AMD generation was simulated in shaking flasks containing massive pyritic chalcopyrite ore by using a pure strain Acidithiobacillus ferrooxidans and a mixed culture of Acidithiobacillus sp. mostly dominated by A. ferrooxidans and A. thiooxidans at 26oC. At the second stage, long term bioleaching experiments were carried out with the same strains at 26oC and 40oC to investigate the leaching characteristics of pyritic chalcopyrite ore under elevated heavy metal and temperature conditions. During the experiments, physicochemical characteristics (e.i. Eh, pH, EC) metal (Fe, Co, Cu, Zn) and sulfate concentration of the experimental solution were monitored during 180 days. Significant acid generation and sulfate release were determined during bioleaching of the ore by mixed acidophilic cultures containing both iron and sulfur oxidizers. In the early stage of the experiments, heavy metal release from the ore was caused by generation of acid due to accelerated bacterial oxidation of the ore. Generally high concentrations of Co and Cu were released into the solution from the experiments conducted by pure cultures of Acidithiobacillus ferrooxidans whereas high Zn and Fe was released into the solution from the mixed culture experiments. In the later stage of AMD generation and post AMD, chemical oxidation is accelerated causing excessive amounts of contamination, even exceeding the amounts resulted from bacterial oxidation by mixed cultures. Acidithibacillus ferrooxidans was found to be more effective in leaching Cu, Fe and Co at higher temperatures in contrary to mixed acidophiles that are more prone to operate at optimal moderate conditions. Moreover, decreasing Fe values are noted in bioleaching

  15. Molecular analysis of benthic biofilms from acidic coal mine drainage, Pennsylvania, USA

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mills, D. B.; Jones, D. S.; Burgos, W. D.; Macalady, J. L.

    2010-12-01

    Acid mine drainage (AMD) is a common environmental problem in Pennsylvania that results from the oxidation of sulfide minerals exposed at abandoned coal mines. In these systems, acidophilic microorganisms catalyze the oxidation of ferrous (Fe2+) to ferric iron (Fe3+), which precipitates as iron-hydroxide minerals. To develop and improve low-pH bioremediation strategies, characterization of the microbiology of AMD systems is essential. An acidic (pH 2-4) AMD spring known as ‘Lower Red Eyes’ in Gallitzan State Forest, PA, is fed by anoxic groundwater with ferrous iron concentrations above 550 mg/L. More than half of the total iron is removed after the springwater flows downstream over 80 m of stagnant pools and iron-oxide terraces. We used fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH) and 16S rDNA cloning to characterize the microbial communities from orange sediments and green benthic biofilms. 16S rDNA sequences were extracted from a green biofilm found in a pH 3.5 pool 10 m downstream of the emergence. Based on chloroplast 16S rDNA sequences and morphological characteristics, we found that Euglena mutabilis was the dominant eukaryotic organism from this location. Euglena mutabilis is a photosynthetic protozoan common in acidic and heavy metal affected environments, and likely contributes to the precipitation of iron oxides through the production of molecular oxygen. Bacterial 16S rDNA sequences were cloned from iron-oxide sediments with orange cauliflower morphology 27 m downstream from the spring emergence. More than 60% of bacterial sequences retrieved from the orange sediment sample are related to the iron-oxidizing Betaproteobacterium Ferrovum myxofaciens. Other bacterial sequences include relatives of iron-oxidizing genera in the Gammaproteobacteria, Betaproteobacteria, and Actinobacteria. FISH analyses show that Betaproteobacteria-dominated communities are associated with Euglena in multiple upstream locations where pH is above 3.0. Using light microscopy

  16. Effects of storm runoff on acid-base accounting of mine drainage

    SciTech Connect

    Sjoegren, D.R.; Olyphant, G.A.; Harper, D.

    1997-12-31

    Pre-reclamation conditions were documented at an abandoned mine site in an upland area at the headwaters of a small perennial stream in southwestern Indiana. Stream discharge and chemistry were monitored from April to October 1995, in an effort to assess the total acid-base budget of outflows from the site. The chemistry of three lakes, a shallow aquifer, and flooded mine voids was also monitored. During the period of monitoring, thirty-five rainfall-runoff events occurred, producing a total storm discharge of approximately 6.12 x 10{sup 7} L. Baseflow during the monitoring period was approximately 1.10 x 10{sup 8} L and was characterized by water chemistry that was similar to that of a spring that issued from the flooded mine voids. Analysis of the discharge and chemistry associated with an isolated thunderstorm revealed fluctuations in acidity that were not congruent with fluctuations in the total discharge hydrograph. For example, acidity increased rapidly during the initial phase of hydrograph rise, but dropped significantly as the storm hydrograph peaked. A second, more subdued, rise in acidity occurred during a second rain pulse, and the acidity gradually decreased to pre-storm levels during hydrograph recession. The trends are interpreted to reflect different sources of storm runoff associated with various components of the total discharge hydrograph. Preliminary calculations indicate that the total quantity of acidity that is discharged during stormflow is about eight times higher than that which is discharged during a comparable period under baseflow conditions. While the lower acid concentrations generated during storm events are ecologically favorable, the increase in total quantities of acidity can have implications for the buffering capacities of receiving water bodies.

  17. Assessment of water resources in some drainage basins, northwestern coast, Egypt

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yousif, Mohamed; Abd, El Sayed El; Baraka, Ahmed

    2013-06-01

    The main objective of this research paper is to monitor the current situation of water resources in some of the drainage basins in the northwestern coast of Egypt and reach to a plan for the development of these resources. The selected basins were chosen for the present study according to their special conditions, where they have a shortage of water for human and agriculture proposes. However, the area of study has a population growth and agricultural activities, which require necessary development of groundwater. The study area has two aquifers: Pleistocene, and Middle Miocene aquifers. The recharge to these aquifers comes either from the direct infiltration of the rainfall, and/or from the surface runoff. The groundwater in the area of study is evaluated for drinking, domestic, livestock and agricultural purposes. The present study reaches out for some recommendations to develop the surface and groundwater in the study area.

  18. Automated reconstruction of drainage basins and water discharge to the sea through glacial cycles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wickert, Andrew

    2015-04-01

    Over glacial cycles, ice masses and their geophysical impacts on surface topography dramatically changed drainage patterns and river discharges. These changes impacted meltwater discharge to the ocean, geomorphology, and climate. As the river systems'the threads that tied the ice sheets to the sea'were stretched, severed, and rearranged during deglaciation, they also shrank and swelled with the pulse of meltwater inputs and proglacial lake dynamics. Here I present a general method to compute past river flow paths, drainage basin geometries, and river discharges. I automate these calculations within GRASS GIS to take advantage of rapid solution techniques for drainage networks in an open-source and compute-cluster-ready environment. I combine modern topography and bathymetry with ice sheet reconstructions from the last glacial cycle and a global glacial isostatic adjustment model to build digital elevation models of the past Earth surface. I then sum ice sheet mass balance with computed precipitation and evapotranspiration from a paleoclimate general circulation model to produce grids of water input. I combine these topographic and hydrologic inputs to compute past river networks and discharges through time. These paleodrainage reconstructions connect ice sheets, sea level, and climate models to fluvial systems, which in turn generate measurable terrace and sedimentary records as they carry physical, compositional, and isotopic signatures of ice sheet melt and landscape change through their channels and to the sea. Therefore, this work provides a self-consistent paleogeographic framework within which models and geologic records may be quantitatively compared to build new insights into past glacial systems.

  19. Use of the Multispecies Freshwater Biomonitor to assess behavioral changes of Poecilia reticulata (Cyprinodontiformes: Poeciliidae) and Macrobrachium lanchesteri (Decapoda: Palaemonidae) in response to acid mine drainage: laboratory exposure.

    PubMed

    Mohti, Azmah; Shuhaimi-Othman, Mohammad; Gerhardt, Almut

    2012-09-01

    The behavioral responses of guppy Poecilia reticulata (Poeciliidae) and prawn Macrobrachium lanchesteri (Palaemonidae) individuals exposed to acid mine drainage (AMD) were monitored online in the laboratory with a Multispecies Freshwater Biomonitor™ (MFB). These responses were compared to those to reference water acidified to the respective pH values (ACID). Test animals in the juvenile stage were used for both species and were exposed to AMD and ACID for 24 hours. The stress behaviors of both test animals consisted mainly of decreased activity in AMD and increased activity in ACID, indicating that the metals in the AMD played a role as a stress factor in addition to pH. The locomotor activity levels of guppies and prawns for the ACID treatment were higher than the locomotor activity levels for the AMD treatment with increasing pH value. For guppies, significant differences were observed when specimens were exposed to AMD and ACID at pH 5.0 and 6.0; the percentage activities were only 16% and 12%, respectively, for AMD treatment, whereas for ACID treatment, the percentage activities were 35% and 40%, respectively, similar to the value of 36% for the controls. Similar trends were also observed for prawns, for which the percentage activities were only 6% and 4%, respectively, for AMD treatment, whereas for ACID treatment, the percentage activities were 31% and 38%, respectively, compared to 44% in the controls. This study showed that both species are suitable for use as indicators for ecotoxicity testing with the MFB. PMID:22868673

  20. Reclaiming agricultural drainage water with nanofiltration membranes: Imperial Valley, California, USA

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Kharaka, Y.K.; Schroeder, R.A.; Setmire, J.G.

    2003-01-01

    We conducted pilot-scale field experiments using nanofiltration membranes to lower the salinity and remove Se, As and other toxic contaminants from saline agricultural wastewater in the Imperial Valley, California, USA. Farmlands in the desert climate (rainfall - 7.4 cm/a) of Imperial Valley cover -200,000 ha that are irrigated with water (-1.7 km3 annually) imported from the Colorado River. The salinity (-850 mg/L) and concentration of Se (-2.5 ??g/L) in the Colorado River water are high and evapotranpiration further concentrates salts in irrigation drainage water, reaching salinities of 3,000-15,000 mg/L TDS and a median Se value of -30 ??g/L. Experiments were conducted with two commercially available nanofiltration membranes, using drainage water of varying composition, and with or without the addition of organic precipitation inhibitors. Results show that these membranes selectively remove more than 95% of Se, SO4, Mo, U and DOC, and -30% of As from this wastewater. Low percentages of Cl, NO3 and HCO3, with enough cations to maintain electrical neutrality also were removed. The product water treated by these membranes comprised more than 90% of the wastewater tested. Results indicate that the treated product water from the Alamo River likely will have less than 0.2 ??g/L Se, salinity of 300-500 mg/L TDS and other chemical concentrations that meet the water quality criteria for irrigation and potable use. Because acceptability is a major issue for providing treated wastewater to urban centers, it may be prudent to use the reclaimed water for irrigation and creation of lower salinity wetlands near the Salton Sea; an equivalent volume of Colorado River water can then be diverted for the use of increasing populations of San Diego and other urban centers in southern California. Nanofiltration membranes yield greater reclaimed-water output and require lower pressure and less pretreatment, and therefore are generally more cost effective than traditional reverse

  1. Relative Contributions of Habitat and Water Quality to the Integrity of Fish Communities in Agricultural Drainage Ditches

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Management of agricultural drainage ditches focuses on removing water from agricultural fields and ignores the potential impacts of these hydrological and geomorphological modifications on the water quality and aquatic biota. There is a need to identify methods of incorporating environmental conside...

  2. Evaluation of layered and mixed passive treatment systems for acid mine drainage.

    PubMed

    Jeen, Sung-Wook; Mattson, Bruce

    2016-11-01

    Laboratory column tests for passive treatment systems for mine drainage from a waste rock storage area were conducted to evaluate suitable reactive mixture, system configuration, effects of influent water chemistry, and required residence time. Five columns containing straw, chicken manure, mushroom compost, and limestone (LS), in either layered or mixed configurations, were set up to simulate the treatment system. The results showed that all of the five columns removed metals of concern (i.e. Al, Cd, Co, Cu, Fe, Ni, and Zn) with a residence time of 15 h and greater. Reaction mechanisms responsible for the removal of metals may include sulfate reduction and subsequent sulfide precipitation, precipitation of secondary carbonates and hydroxides, co-precipitation, and sorption on organic substrates and secondary precipitates. The results suggest that the mixed systems containing organic materials and LS perform better than the layered systems, sequentially treated by organic and LS layers, due to the enhanced pH adjustment, which is beneficial to bacterial activity and precipitation of secondary minerals. The column tests provide a basis for the design of a field-scale passive treatment system, such as a reducing and alkalinity producing system or a permeable reactive barrier. PMID:26998668

  3. Cold air drainage and modeled nocturnal leaf water potential in complex forested terrain.

    PubMed

    Hubbart, Jason A; Kavanagh, Kathleen L; Pangle, Robert; Link, Tim; Schotzko, Alisa

    2007-04-01

    Spatial variation in microclimate caused by air temperature inversions plays an important role in determining the timing and rate of many physical and biophysical processes. Such phenomena are of particular interest in mountainous regions where complex physiographic terrain can greatly complicate these processes. Recent work has demonstrated that, in some plants, stomata do not close completely at night, resulting in nocturnal transpiration. The following work was undertaken to develop a better understanding of nocturnal cold air drainage and its subsequent impact on the reliability of predawn leaf water potential (Psi(pd)) as a surrogate for soil water potential (Psi(s)). Eight temperature data loggers were installed on a transect spanning a vertical distance of 155 m along a north facing slope in the Mica Creek Experimental Watershed (MCEW) in northern Idaho during July and August 2004. Results indicated strong nocturnal temperature inversions occurring from the low- to upper-mid-slope, typically spanning the lower 88 m of the vertical distance. Based on mean temperatures for both months, inversions resulted in lapse rates of 29.0, 27.0 and 25.0 degrees C km(-1) at 0000, 0400 and 2000 h, respectively. At this scale (i.e., < 1 km), the observed lapse rates resulted in highly variable nighttime vapor pressure deficits (D) over the length of the slope, with variable impacts on modeled disequilibrium between soil and leaf water potential. As a result of cold air drainage, modeled Psi(pd) became consistently more negative (up to -0.3 MPa) at higher elevations during the night based on mean temperatures. Nocturnal inversions on the lower- and mid-slopes resulted in leaf water potentials that were at least 30 and 50% more negative over the lower 88 m of the inversion layer, based on mean and maximum temperatures, respectively. However, on a cloudy night, with low D, the maximum decrease in Psi(pd) was -0.04 MPa. Our results indicate that, given persistent cold air

  4. Geologic and mineralogic controls on acid and metal-rich rock drainage in an alpine watershed, Handcart Gulch, Colorado

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Bove, Dana J.; Caine, Jonathan S.; Lowers, Heather

    2012-01-01

    The surface and subsurface geology, hydrothermal alteration, and mineralogy of the Handcart Gulch area was studied using map and drill core data as part of a multidisciplinary approach to understand the hydrology and affects of geology on acid-rock drainage in a mineralized alpine watershed. Handcart Gulch was the locus of intense hydrothermal alteration that affected an area of nearly 3 square kilometers. Hydrothermal alteration and accompanied weak mineralization are spatially and genetically associated with small dacite to low-silica rhyolite stocks and plugs emplaced about 37-36 Ma. Felsic lithologies are commonly altered to a quartz-sericite-pyrite mineral assemblage at the surface, but alteration is more variable in the subsurface, ranging from quartz-sericite-pyrite-dominant in upper core sections to a propylitic variant that is more typical in deeper drill core intervals. Late-stage, hydrothermal argillic alteration [kaolinite and(or) smectite] was superimposed over earlier-formed alteration assemblages in the felsic rocks. Smectite in this late stage assemblage is mostly neoformed resulting from dissolution of chlorite, plagioclase, and minor illite in more weakly altered rocks. Hydrothermally altered amphibolites are characterized by biotitic alteration of amphibole, and subsequent alteration of both primary and secondary biotite to chlorite. Whereas pyrite is present both as disseminations and in small veinlets in the felsic lithologies, it is mostly restricted to small veinlets in the amphibolites. Base-metal sulfides including molybdenite, chalcopyrite, sphalerite, and galena are present in minor to trace amounts in the altered rocks. However, geologic data in conjunction with water geochemical studies indicate that copper mineralization may be present in unknown abundance in two distinct areas. The altered rocks contain an average of 8 weight percent fine pyrite that is largely devoid of metals in the crystal structure, which can be a significant

  5. Integrated hydraulic modelling of water supply and urban drainage networks for assessment of decentralized options.

    PubMed

    Sitzenfrei, R; Rauch, W

    2014-01-01

    The impact of climate change, water scarcity, land use change, population growth and also population shrinking can only be predicted with uncertainties. Especially for assets with a long planning horizon this is a critical part for planning and design. One solution is to make centralized organized water infrastructure with a long-planning horizon resilient and adaptive. For existing centralized infrastructure such a transition would be to increasingly implement decentralized measures. But such a transition can cause severe impacts on existing centralized infrastructure. Low flow conditions in urban drainage systems can cause sediment deposition, and for