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Sample records for acid equivalent antioxidant

  1. Vitamin C equivalent antioxidant capacity (VCEAC) of phenolic phytochemicals.

    PubMed

    Kim, Dae-Ok; Lee, Ki Won; Lee, Hyong Joo; Lee, Chang Yong

    2002-06-19

    To express the antioxidant capacity of plant foods in a more familiar and easily understood manner (equivalent to vitamin C mg/100 g), two stable radical species, ABTS(*)(-) and DPPH(*), commonly used for antioxidant activity measurements, were employed independently to evaluate their efficacies using apple polyphenolic extracts and seven polyphenolic standards including synthetic Trolox. Their antioxidant activities were expressed as vitamin C equivalent antioxidant capacity (VCEAC) in mg/100 g apple or mg/100 mL of the reference chemical compounds in 10 and 30 min using the ABTS(*)(-) and DPPH(*) scavenging assays, respectively. The antioxidant capacity of Gala apples and seven phenolic standards, determined by both ABTS(*)(-) and DPPH(*) scavenging assays, showed a dose-response of the first-order. Fresh Gala apples had a VCEAC of 205.4 +/- 5.6 mg/100 g using the ABTS assay, and the relative VCEACs of phenolic standards were as follows: gallic acid > quercetin > epicatechin > catechin > vitamin C > rutin > chlorogenic acid > Trolox. With the DPPH radical assay, the VCEAC of fresh Gala apples was 136.0 +/- 6.6 mg/100 g, and the relative VCEACs of seven phenolic standards were, in decreasing order, as follows: gallic acid > quercetin > epicatechin > catechin > or = vitamin C > Trolox > rutin > chlorogenic acid. Because the ABTS assay can be used in both organic and aqueous solvent systems, employs a specific absorbance at a wavelength remote from the visible region, and requires a short reaction time, it is a more desirable method than the DPPH assay. Therefore, it is recommended that antioxidant capacity be expressed as vitamin C mg/100 g equivalent (VCEAC) using the ABTS assay.

  2. An alternative standard for Trolox-equivalent antioxidant-capacity estimation based on thiol antioxidants. Comparative 2,2'-azinobis[3-ethylbenzothiazoline-6-sulfonic acid] decolorization and rotational viscometry study regarding hyaluronan degradation.

    PubMed

    Hrabárová, Eva; Valachová, Katarína; Rapta, Peter; Soltés, Ladislav

    2010-09-01

    Comparison of the effectiveness of antioxidant activity of three thiol compounds, D-penicillamine, reduced L-glutathione, and 1,4-dithioerythritol, expressed as a radical-scavenging capacity based on the two independent methods, namely a decolorization 2,2'-azinobis[3-ethylbenzothiazoline-6-sulfonic acid] assay and a rotational viscometry, is reported. Particular concern was focused on the testing of potential free-radical scavenging effects of thiols against hyaluronan degradation, induced by hydroxyl radicals. A promising, solvent-independent, antioxidative function of 1,4-dithioerythritol, comparable to that of a standard compound, Trolox(®), was confirmed by the 2,2'-azinobis[3-ethylbenzothiazoline-6-sulfonic acid] assay. The new potential antioxidant 1,4-dithioerythritol exhibited very good solubility in a variety of solvents (e.g., H(2)O, EtOH, and DMSO) and could be widely accepted and used as an effective antioxidant standard instead of a routinely used Trolox(®) on 2,2'-azinobis[3-ethylbenzothiazoline-6-sulfonic acid] assay.

  3. Equivalent weight of humic acid from peat

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Pommer, A.M.; Breger, I.A.

    1960-01-01

    By means of discontinuous titration, the equivalent weight of humic acid isolated from a peat was found to increase from 144 to 183 between the third and fifty-second day after the humic acid was dissolved. Infra-red studies showed that the material had probably condensed with loss of carbonyl groups. ?? 1960.

  4. Composition of antioxidants and amino acids in Stevia leaf infusions.

    PubMed

    Periche, Angela; Koutsidis, Georgios; Escriche, Isabel

    2014-03-01

    Stevia, a non-caloric natural sweetener with beneficial properties and considerable antioxidants and amino acids, is increasingly consumed as an infusion. This work evaluates the influence of the conditions (temperature: 50, 70 or 90 °C and time: 1, 5, 20 or 40 min) applied to obtain Stevia infusions, on antioxidants (total phenols, flavonoids and antioxidant activity) and amino acids. The total concentration of the eleven amino acids found was 11.70 mg/g in dried leaves and from 6.84 to 9.11 mg/g per gram of Stevia in infusions. However, infusions showed higher levels of certain amino acids (alanine, asparagine, leucine and proline), and greater values of the three antioxidant parameters in comparison with dry leaves. Temperature had more influence (minimum values at 50 °C and maximum at 90 °C) than time in the case of antioxidants. At 90 °C there were no important increases in the extraction of antioxidant compounds after 5 min; each gram of Stevia had 117 mg trolox (total antioxidant activity), 90 mg gallic acid (total phenols) and 56 mg catechin equivalents (flavonoids). Varying the temperature and time conditions no notable differences were observed in the concentrations of the majority of amino acids. However, the infusion treatment at 90 °C for 5 min was the best, as it gave the highest yield of 8 of the 11 amino acids. Therefore, with respect to the compounds analyzed in this study, the best way to obtain Stevia leaf infusions is the same as the domestic process, almost boiling water for a short time.

  5. Hydroxycinnamic acid antioxidants: an electrochemical overview.

    PubMed

    Teixeira, José; Gaspar, Alexandra; Garrido, E Manuela; Garrido, Jorge; Borges, Fernanda

    2013-01-01

    Hydroxycinnamic acids (such as ferulic, caffeic, sinapic, and p-coumaric acids) are a group of compounds highly abundant in food that may account for about one-third of the phenolic compounds in our diet. Hydroxycinnamic acids have gained an increasing interest in health because they are known to be potent antioxidants. These compounds have been described as chain-breaking antioxidants acting through radical scavenging activity, that is related to their hydrogen or electron donating capacity and to the ability to delocalize/stabilize the resulting phenoxyl radical within their structure. The free radical scavenger ability of antioxidants can be predicted from standard one-electron potentials. Thus, voltammetric methods have often been applied to characterize a diversity of natural and synthetic antioxidants essentially to get an insight into their mechanism and also as an important tool for the rational design of new and potent antioxidants. The structure-property-activity relationships (SPARs) correlations already established for this type of compounds suggest that redox potentials could be considered a good measure of antioxidant activity and an accurate guideline on the drug discovery and development process. Due to its magnitude in the antioxidant field, the electrochemistry of hydroxycinnamic acid-based antioxidants is reviewed highlighting the structure-property-activity relationships (SPARs) obtained so far.

  6. Amino acids as antioxidants for frying oil

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Amino acids, proteins and hydrolysates of proteins have been known to protect edible oils from oxidation. While amino acids and related materials have high potential as antioxidants for frying oil, effectiveness of each amino acid and mechanisms of their activities are not well understood yet. Propo...

  7. Antioxidant Activity of Selected Thyme (Thymus L.) Species and Study of the Equivalence of Different Measuring Methodologies.

    PubMed

    Orłowska, Marta; Kowalska, Teresa; Sajewicz, Mieczysław; Pytlakowska, Katarzyna; Bartoszek, Mariola; Polak, Justyna; Waksmundzka-Hajnos, Monika

    2015-01-01

    This study presents the results of comparative evaluation of the antioxidant activity of the phenolic fraction exhaustively extracted with aqueous methanol from 18 different thyme (Thymus L.) specimens and species. This evaluation is made with use of the same free radical source (DPPH• radical), three different free radical scavenging models (gallic acid, ascorbic acid, and Trolox), and three different measuring techniques (the dot blot test, UV-Vis spectrophotometry, and electron paramagnetic resonance spectroscopy, EPR). A comparison of the equivalence of these three different measuring techniques (performed with use of hierarchical clustering with Euclidean distance as a similarity measure and Ward's linkage) is particularly important in view of the fact that different laboratories use different antioxidant activity measuring techniques, which makes any interlaboratory comparison hardly possible. The results obtained confirm a semiquantitative equivalence among the three compared methodologies, and a proposal is made of a simple and cost-effective dot blot test that uses the DPPH• radical and provides differentiation of antioxidant activity of herbal matter comparable with the results of the UV-Vis spectrophotometry and EPR.

  8. Potentiometric titration and equivalent weight of humic acid

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Pommer, A.M.; Breger, I.A.

    1960-01-01

    The "acid nature" of humic acid has been controversial for many years. Some investigators claim that humic acid is a true weak acid, while others feel that its behaviour during potentiometric titration can be accounted for by colloidal adsorption of hydrogen ions. The acid character of humic acid has been reinvestigated using newly-derived relationships for the titration of weak acids with strong base. Re-interpreting the potentiometric titration data published by Thiele and Kettner in 1953, it was found that Merck humic acid behaves as a weak polyelectrolytic acid having an equivalent weight of 150, a pKa of 6.8 to 7.0, and a titration exponent of about 4.8. Interdretation of similar data pertaining to the titration of phenol-formaldehyde and pyrogallol-formaldehyde resins, considered to be analogs for humic acid by Thiele and Kettner, leads to the conclusion that it is not possible to differentiate between adsorption and acid-base reaction for these substances. ?? 1960.

  9. Is the yin-yang nature of Chinese herbal medicine equivalent to antioxidation-oxidation?

    PubMed

    Szeto, Yim-Tong; Benzie, Iris F F

    2006-12-06

    It has been suggested that yin-yang theory described in traditional Chinese medicine is somewhat equivalent to the modern theory of antioxidant-oxidant balance. Some yin-tonic Chinese herbal medicines possess antioxidant properties. In this context, the DNA protective effect of 12 yin-tonic and 13 yang-tonic herbs were tested using the single cell gel electrophoresis (comet) assay. Lymphocytes from three healthy subjects were pre-incubated with aqueous herb extract, and the comet assay was performed on treated, untreated, challenged and unchallenged cells in parallel, oxidant challenge being induced by 5 min exposure to hydrogen peroxide. Results using this ex vivo cellular assay showed protection by some herbs. Seven out of 12 yin-tonic Chinese herbs demonstrated decreased DNA damage after treatment while 10 out of 13 yang-tonic herbs showed protection. Among 25 herbs tested, rhizome of Ligusticum sinensis Oliv. and aerial part of Artemisia annua L. demonstrated greatest DNA protective effect. Results indicated that the yin nature of herbs may not be necessarily associated with superior antioxidative effect to yang-tonic herbs, at least in terms of DNA protection against oxidant challenge.

  10. Nondairy creamer, but not milk, delays the appearance of coffee phenolic acid equivalents in human plasma.

    PubMed

    Renouf, Mathieu; Marmet, Cynthia; Guy, Philippe; Fraering, Anne-Lise; Longet, Karin; Moulin, Julie; Enslen, Marc; Barron, Denis; Cavin, Christophe; Dionisi, Fabiola; Rezzi, Serge; Kochhar, Sunil; Steiling, Heike; Williamson, Gary

    2010-02-01

    Chlorogenic acids (CGA) are antioxidants found in coffee. They are becoming of interest for their health-promoting effects, but bioavailability in humans is not well understood. We hypothesized that adding whole milk or sugar and nondairy creamer to instant coffee might modulate the bioavailability of coffee phenolics. Nine healthy participants were asked to randomly drink, in a crossover design, instant coffee (Coffee); instant coffee and 10% whole milk (Milk); or instant coffee, sugar, and nondairy creamer already premixed (Sugar/NDC). All 3 treatments provided the same amount of total CGA (332 mg). Blood was collected for 12 h after ingestion and plasma samples treated using a liquid-liquid extraction method that included a full enzymatic cleavage to hydrolyze all CGA and conjugates into phenolic acid equivalents. Hence, we focused our liquid chromatography-Electrospray ionization-tandem MS detection and quantification on caffeic acid (CA), ferulic acid (FA), and isoferulic acid (iFA) equivalents. Compared with a regular black instant coffee, the addition of milk did not significantly alter the area under the curve (AUC), maximum plasma concentration (C(max)), or the time needed to reach C(max) (T(max)). The C(max) of CA and iFA were significantly lower and the T(max) of FA and iFA significantly longer for the Sugar/NDC group than for the Coffee group. However, the AUC did not significantly differ. As a conclusion, adding whole milk did not alter the overall bioavailability of coffee phenolic acids, whereas sugar and nondairy creamer affected the T(max) and C(max) but not the appearance of coffee phenolics in plasma.

  11. Secretion of acid and base equivalents by intact distal airways.

    PubMed

    Inglis, S K; Wilson, S M; Olver, R E

    2003-05-01

    Secretion of HCO(3)(-) by airway submucosal glands is essential for normal liquid and mucus secretion. Because the liquid bathing the airway surface (ASL) is acidic, it has been proposed that the surface epithelium may acidify HCO(3)(-)-rich glandular fluid. The aim of this study was to investigate the mechanisms by which intact distal bronchi, which contain both surface and glandular epithelium, modify pH of luminal fluid. Distal bronchi were isolated from pig lungs, cannulated in a bath containing HCO(3)(-)-buffered solution, and perfused continually with an aliquot of similar, lightly buffered solution (LBS) in which NaCl replaced NaHCO(3)(-) (pH 7 with NaOH). The pH of this circulating LBS initially acidified (by 0.053 +/- 0.0053 pH units) and transepithelial potential difference (PD) depolarized. The magnitude of acidification was increased when pH(LBS) was higher. This acidification was unaffected by luminal dimethylamiloride (DMA, 100 microM) but was inhibited by 100 nM bafilomycin A(1) (by 76 +/- 13%), suggesting involvement of vacuolar-H(+) ATPase. Addition of ACh (10 microM) evoked alkalinization of luminal LBS and hyperpolarization of transepithelial PD. The alkalinization was inhibited in HCO(3)(-)-free solutions containing acetazolamide (1 mM) and by DMA and was enhanced by bumetanide (100 microM), an inhibitor of Cl(-) secretion. The hyperpolarization was unaffected by these maneuvers. The anion channel blocker 5-nitro-2-(3-phenylpropylamino)benzoate (300 microM) and combined treatment with DMA and bumetanide blocked both the alkalinization and hyperpolarization responses to ACh. These results are consistent with earlier studies showing that ACh evokes glandular secretion of HCO(3)(-) and Cl(-). Isolated distal airways thus secrete both acid and base equivalents.

  12. Antioxidant activities and fatty acid composition of wild grown myrtle (Myrtus communis L.) fruits.

    PubMed

    Serce, Sedat; Ercisli, Sezai; Sengul, Memnune; Gunduz, Kazim; Orhan, Emine

    2010-01-01

    The fruits of eight myrtles, Myrtus communis L. accessions from the Mediterranean region of Turkey were evaluated for their antioxidant activities and fatty acid contents. The antioxidant activities of the fruit extracts were determined by using 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) and beta-carotene-linoleic acid assays. The fatty acid contents of fruits were determined by using gas chromatography. The methanol extracts of fruits exhibited a high level of free radical scavenging activity. There was a wide range (74.51-91.65%) of antioxidant activity among the accessions in the beta-carotene-linoleic acid assay. The amount of total phenolics (TP) was determined to be between 44.41-74.44 mug Gallic acid equivalent (GAE)/mg, on a dry weight basis. Oleic acid was the dominant fatty acid (67.07%), followed by palmitic (10.24%), and stearic acid (8.19%), respectively. These results suggest the future utilization of myrtle fruit extracts as food additives or in chemoprevention studies.

  13. Comparison of antioxidant effectiveness of lipoic acid and dihydrolipoic acid.

    PubMed

    Zhao, Feng; Liu, Zai-Qun

    2011-01-01

    The abilities of dihydrolipoic acid (DHLA) to scavenge peroxynitrite (ONOO(-) ), galvinoxyl radical, 2,2'-azinobis(3-ethylbenzothiazoline-6-sulfonate) cation radical (ABTS(+•) ), and 2,2'-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl radical (DPPH) were higher than those of lipoic acid (LA). The effectiveness of DHLA to protect methyl linoleate against 2,2'-azobis(2-amidinopropane hydrochloride) (AAPH)-induced oxidation was about 2.2-fold higher than that of LA, and DHLA can retard the autoxidation of linoleic acid (LH) in the β-carotene-bleaching test. DHLA can also trap ∼0.6 radicals in AAPH-induced oxidation of LH. Moreover, DHLA can scavenge ∼2.0 radicals in AAPH-induced oxidation of DNA and AAPH-induced hemolysis of erythrocytes, whereas LA can scavenge ∼1.5 radicals at the same experimental conditions. DHLA can protect erythrocytes against hemin-induced hemolysis, but accelerate the degradation of DNA in the presence of Cu(2+) . Therefore, the antioxidant capacity of -SH in DHLA is higher than S-S in LA.

  14. HPLC Quantification of Phenolic Acids from Vetiveria zizanioides (L.) Nash and Its Antioxidant and Antimicrobial Activity

    PubMed Central

    Prajna, Jha; Richa, Jindal; Dipjyoti, Chakraborty

    2013-01-01

    Extraction procedure was standardized and for the soluble, glycoside, and wall-bound fractions of phenolic acids from Vetiveria zizanioides. The water soluble alkaline extract which represents the cell wall-bound fraction contained the highest amount of phenolic acids (2.62 ± 1.2 μM/g fwt GA equivalents). Increased phenolic content in the cell wall indicates more lignin deposition which has an important role in plant defense and stress mitigation. Antioxidant property expressed as percentage TEAC value obtained by ABTS assay was correlated with the amount of phenolic acids and showed a Pearson's coefficient 0.988 (significant at 0.01 level). The compounds p-coumaric acid, p-dihydroxybenzoic acid, and ferulic acid were detected in the acidic extracts by HPLC analysis. The plant extracts exhibited considerable antimicrobial activity against tested bacterial and fungal strains. PMID:26555971

  15. The antioxidant, cytotoxic, and antigenotoxic effects of galangin, puerarin, and ursolic acid in mammalian cells.

    PubMed

    Bacanlı, Merve; Başaran, A Ahmet; Başaran, Nurşen

    2016-07-27

    Phenolic compounds not only contribute to the sensory qualities of fruits and vegetables but also exhibit several health protective properties. Galangin, puerarin, and ursolic acid are commonly used plant phenolics in folk medicine. In this study, the antioxidant capacities of galangin, puerarin, and ursolic acid by the trolox equivalent antioxidant capacity (TEAC) assay and the cytotoxic effects by 3-(4,5-dimethylthiazol-2-yl)-2,5-diphenyltetrazolium bromide (MTT) assay in V79 cells were investigated. The genotoxic potentials of galangin, puerarin, and ursolic acid were evaluated by micronucleus (MN) and alkaline COMET assays in human lymphocytes and in V79 cells. Galangin, puerarin, and ursolic acid (10, 100, 500, 1000, 2000, 5000, 10 000, and 20 000 μM) were found to have antioxidant activities at the studied concentrations. IC50 values of galangin, puerarin, and ursolic acid in V79 cells were found to be 275.48 μM, 2503.712 μM, and 224.85 μM, respectively. Galangin, puerarin, and ursolic acid, at the all concentrations, have not exerted genotoxic effects and galangin, puerarin, and ursolic acid revealed a reduction in the frequency of MN and DNA damage induced by H2O2.

  16. Nanoencapsulation improves the in vitro antioxidant activity of lipoic acid.

    PubMed

    Külkamp, Irene C; Rabelo, Bruna D; Berlitz, Simone J; Isoppo, Mateus; Bianchin, Mariana D; Schaffazick, Scheila R; Pohlmann, Adriana R; Guterres, Sílvia S

    2011-08-01

    Lipoic acid is a widely studied substance, whose therapeutic effects are related to its antioxidant activity. Our objective was to develop lipoic acid-loaded lipid-core nanocapsules and evaluate their in vitro antioxidant effect against lipid peroxidation induced by ascorbyl free radicals, using soybean lecithin liposomes as the substrate. The nanocapsule suspensions were prepared by interfacial deposition of poly(epsilon-caprolactone) and characterized by particle size and polydispersion index (photon correlation spectroscopy), zeta potencial (eletrophoretic mobility), drug content and encapsulation efficiency (HPLC). The extent of lipid peroxidation was determined (TBARS). The nanostrucutures presented mean diameters of between 191 and 349 nm, zeta potential values from -14.1 +/- 4.5 to -10.4 +/- 0.6, and high lipoic acid encapsulation. A significant increase in the antioxidant activity of lipoic acid was achieved through nanoencapsulation or by increasing its concentration in the formulation. The protection results ranged from 48.9 +/- 3.4 to 57.4 +/- 9.1% for lipoic acid-loaded lipid-core nanocapsules. The lipoic acid release from nanostrucutures significantly decreased with increasing polymer concentration. Also, it was observed an increasing in the antioxidant activity as the lipoic acid release time decreased. The co-encapsulation of lipoic acid with melatonin in lipid-core nanocapsules did not improve the protection against lipid peroxidation. The results obtained demonstrate the optimal concentrations of polymer and lipoic acid in the formulations in terms of enhancing the antioxidant activity. Furthermore, by the strategy applied, it was verified that nanoencapsulation is an efficient alternative to increase the antioxidant effect of lipoic acid, representing a potential approach for therapeutic applications.

  17. Spectroscopic studies on the antioxidant activity of ellagic acid

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kilic, Ismail; Yeşiloğlu, Yeşim; Bayrak, Yüksel

    2014-09-01

    Ellagic acid (EA, C14H6O8) is a natural dietary polyphenol whose benefits in a variety of diseases shown in epidemiological and experimental studies involve anti-inflammation, anti-proliferation, anti-angiogenesis, anticarcinogenesis and anti-oxidation properties. In vitro radical scavenging and antioxidant capacity of EA were clarified using different analytical methodologies such as total antioxidant activity determination by ferric thiocyanate, hydrogen peroxide scavenging, 1,1-diphenyl-2-picryl-hydrazyl free radical (DPPH) scavenging, 2,2‧-azino-bis(3-ethylbenzthiazoline-6-sulfonic acid) (ABTS) radical scavenging activity and superoxide anion radical scavenging, ferrous ions (Fe2+) chelating activity and ferric ions (Fe3+) reducing ability. EA inhibited 71.2% lipid peroxidation of a linoleic acid emulsion at 45 μg/mL concentration. On the other hand, butylated hydroxytoluene (BHT), butylated hydroxyanisole (BHA), α-tocopherol and ascorbic acid displayed 69.8%, 66.8%, 64.5% and 59.7% inhibition on the peroxidation of linoleic acid emulsion at the same concentration, respectively. In addition, EA had an effective DPPH• scavenging, ABTSrad + scavenging, superoxide anion radical scavenging, hydrogen peroxide scavenging, ferric ions (Fe3+) reducing power and ferrous ions (Fe2+) chelating activities. Also, those various antioxidant activities were compared to BHA, BHT, α-tocopherol and ascorbic acid as references antioxidant compounds. These results suggested that EA can be used in the pharmacological, food industry and medicine because of these properties.

  18. Spectroscopic studies on the antioxidant activity of ellagic acid.

    PubMed

    Kilic, Ismail; Yeşiloğlu, Yeşim; Bayrak, Yüksel

    2014-09-15

    Ellagic acid (EA, C14H6O8) is a natural dietary polyphenol whose benefits in a variety of diseases shown in epidemiological and experimental studies involve anti-inflammation, anti-proliferation, anti-angiogenesis, anticarcinogenesis and anti-oxidation properties. In vitro radical scavenging and antioxidant capacity of EA were clarified using different analytical methodologies such as total antioxidant activity determination by ferric thiocyanate, hydrogen peroxide scavenging, 1,1-diphenyl-2-picryl-hydrazyl free radical (DPPH) scavenging, 2,2'-azino-bis(3-ethylbenzthiazoline-6-sulfonic acid) (ABTS) radical scavenging activity and superoxide anion radical scavenging, ferrous ions (Fe2+) chelating activity and ferric ions (Fe3+) reducing ability. EA inhibited 71.2% lipid peroxidation of a linoleic acid emulsion at 45 μg/mL concentration. On the other hand, butylated hydroxytoluene (BHT), butylated hydroxyanisole (BHA), α-tocopherol and ascorbic acid displayed 69.8%, 66.8%, 64.5% and 59.7% inhibition on the peroxidation of linoleic acid emulsion at the same concentration, respectively. In addition, EA had an effective DPPH• scavenging, ABTS+ scavenging, superoxide anion radical scavenging, hydrogen peroxide scavenging, ferric ions (Fe3+) reducing power and ferrous ions (Fe2+) chelating activities. Also, those various antioxidant activities were compared to BHA, BHT, α-tocopherol and ascorbic acid as references antioxidant compounds. These results suggested that EA can be used in the pharmacological, food industry and medicine because of these properties.

  19. Trolox equivalent antioxidant capacity of different geometrical isomers of alpha-carotene, beta-carotene, lycopene, and zeaxanthin.

    PubMed

    Böhm, Volker; Puspitasari-Nienaber, Ni Luh; Ferruzzi, Mario G; Schwartz, Steven J

    2002-01-02

    Isomerization of carotenoids, which is often encountered in food processing under the influence of temperature and light, may play a role in the observed protective effects of this group of secondary plant products. Investigation of in vitro antioxidant activity of prominent carotenoid geometrical isomers was undertaken in light of recent reports illustrating a large percentage of carotenoid (Z)-isomers in biological fluids and tissues. Alpha-carotene, beta-carotene, lycopene, and zeaxanthin were isolated from foods or supplements and subsequently photoisomerized with iodine as a catalyst. Major Z-isomers of each carotenoid were fractionated by semipreparative C(30) HPLC. In vitro antioxidant activity of all isomers collected was measured photometrically using the Trolox equivalent antioxidant capacity (TEAC) assay. TEAC values of 17 geometrical isomers investigated ranged from 0.5 to 3.1 mmol/L. Three unidentified (Z)-isomers of lycopene showed the highest antioxidant activity, being significantly higher than the result for (all-E)-lycopene, which had approximately two times the activity of (all-E)-beta-carotene. On the other hand, (9Z)-zeaxanthin had a more than 80% lower TEAC value compared to that of (all-E)-lycopene. These results allow for the in vivo relevance of (Z)-isomers of carotenoids to be considered.

  20. Evaluation of antioxidant properties of monoaromatic derivatives of pulvinic acids.

    PubMed

    Habrant, Damien; Poigny, Stéphane; Ségur-Derai, Muriel; Brunel, Yves; Heurtaux, Benoît; Le Gall, Thierry; Strehle, Axelle; Saladin, Régis; Meunier, Stéphane; Mioskowski, Charles; Wagner, Alain

    2009-04-23

    The natural mushroom pigment Norbadione A and three other pulvinic acids were shown by our group to display very efficient antioxidant properties by comparison with a collection of potent molecules including catechols, flavonoids, stilbenes, or coumarins. Despite numerous publications on robust and straightforward synthetic access to pulvinic acids by us and others, no report has been made to unravel the structure-activity relationships that govern the striking antioxidant activity. Herein is presented the synthesis of 18 diverse pulvinic acid derivatives and the study of their radical scavenging capacities by four different assays. The influence of each of the two phenyl rings, of their substituents and of the lateral chain on the antioxidant properties, was explored to reveal a simplified structure of excellent activity. These results, along with the absence of cytotoxicity, make the synthesized compounds interesting to evaluate for several biological activities and especially for anti-inflammatory effects and skin protection against UV induced oxidative stress.

  1. Stoichiometry of Reducing Equivalents and Splitting of Water in the Citric Acid Cycle.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Madeira, Vitor M. C.

    1988-01-01

    Presents a solution to the problem of finding the source of extra reducing equivalents, and accomplishing the stoichiometry of glucose oxidation reactions. Discusses the citric acid cycle and glycolysis. (CW)

  2. Antioxidant capacity and phenolic acids of virgin coconut oil.

    PubMed

    Marina, A M; Man, Y B Che; Nazimah, S A H; Amin, I

    2009-01-01

    The antioxidant properties of virgin coconut oil produced through chilling and fermentation were investigated and compared with refined, bleached and deodorized coconut oil. Virgin coconut oil showed better antioxidant capacity than refined, bleached and deodorized coconut oil. The virgin coconut oil produced through the fermentation method had the strongest scavenging effect on 1,1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl and the highest antioxidant activity based on the beta-carotene-linoleate bleaching method. However, virgin coconut oil obtained through the chilling method had the highest reducing power. The major phenolic acids detected were ferulic acid and p-coumaric acid. Very high correlations were found between the total phenolic content and scavenging activity (r=0.91), and between the total phenolic content and reducing power (r=0.96). There was also a high correlation between total phenolic acids and beta-carotene bleaching activity. The study indicated that the contribution of antioxidant capacity in virgin coconut oil could be due to phenolic compounds.

  3. Isoniazid cocrystals with anti-oxidant hydroxy benzoic acids

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mashhadi, Syed Muddassir Ali; Yunus, Uzma; Bhatti, Moazzam Hussain; Tahir, Muhammad Nawaz

    2014-11-01

    Isoniazid is the primary constituent of “triple therapy” used to effectively treat tuberculosis. In tuberculosis and other diseases, tissue inflammation and free radical burst from macrophages results in oxidative stress. These free radicals cause pulmonary inflammation if not countered by anti-oxidants. Therefore, in the present study cocrystals of isoniazid with four anti-oxidant hydroxy benzoic acids have been reported. Gallic acid, 2,3-dihydroxybenzoic acid, 3,5-dihydroxybenzoic acid, and 3-hydroxybenzoic acid resulted in the formation of cocrystals when reacted with isoniazid. Cocrystal structure analysis confirmed the existence of pyridine-carboxylic acid synthon in the cocrystals of isoniazid with Gallic acid, 2,3-dihydroxybenzoic acid and 3-hydroxybenzoic acid. While cocrystal of 3,5-dihydroxybenzoic acid formed the pyridine-hydroxy group synthon. Other synthons of different graph sets are formed between hydrazide group of isoniazid and coformers involving Nsbnd H⋯O and Osbnd H⋯N bonds. All the cocrystals were in 1:1 stoichiometric ratio.

  4. Inherently antioxidant and antimicrobial tannic acid release from poly(tannic acid) nanoparticles with controllable degradability.

    PubMed

    Sahiner, Nurettin; Sagbas, Selin; Aktas, Nahit; Silan, Coskun

    2016-06-01

    From a natural polyphenol, Tannic acid (TA), poly(TA) nanoparticles were readily prepared using a single step approach with three different biocompatible crosslinkers; trimethylolpropane triglycidyl ether (TMPGDE), poly(ethylene glycol) diglycidyl ether (PEGGE), and trisodium trimetaphosphate (STMP). P(TA) particles were obtained with controllable diameters between 400 to 800nm with -25mV surface charge. The effect of synthesis conditions, such as the emulsion medium, pH values of TA solution, and the type of crosslinker, on the shape, size, dispersity, yield, and degradability of poly(Tannic Acid) (p(TA)) nanoparticles was systematically investigated. The hydrolytic degradation amount in physiological pH conditions of 5.4, 7.4, and 9.0 at 37.5°C were found to be in the order TMPGDEequivalent antioxidant capacity was found to be 2027±104mM trolox equivalent g(-1). Moreover, p(TA) nanoparticles demonstrated strong antimicrobial effects against common bacterial strains. More interestingly, with a higher concentration of p(TA) particles, higher blood clotting indices were obtained.

  5. Sacha inchi (Plukenetia volubilis): a seed source of polyunsaturated fatty acids, tocopherols, phytosterols, phenolic compounds and antioxidant capacity.

    PubMed

    Chirinos, Rosana; Zuloeta, Gledy; Pedreschi, Romina; Mignolet, Eric; Larondelle, Yvan; Campos, David

    2013-12-01

    Fatty acids (FA), phytosterols, tocopherols, phenolic compounds, total carotenoids and hydrophilic and lipophilic ORAC antioxidant capacities were evaluated in 16 cultivars of Sacha inchi (SI) seeds with the aim to valorise them and offer more information on the functional properties of SI seeds. A high α linolenic (α-Ln) fatty acid content was found in all cultivars (ω3, 12.8-16.0 g/100 g seed), followed by linoleic (L) fatty acid (ω6, 12.4-14.1g/100g seed). The ratio ω6/ω3 was within the 0.83-1.09 range. γ- and δ-tocopherols were the most important tocopherols, whereas the most representative phytosterols were β-sitosterol and stigmasterol. Contents of total phenolics, total carotenoids and hydrophilic and lipophilic antioxidant capacities ranged from 64.6 to 80 mg of gallic acid equivalent/100g seed; from 0.07 to 0.09 mg of β-carotene equivalent/100g of seed; from 4.3 to 7.3 and, from 1.0 to 2.8 μmol of Trolox equivalent/g of seed, respectively, among the evaluated SI cultivars. Results showed significant differences (p<0.05) among the evaluated SI cultivars in the contents of ω3, ω6, antioxidant capacities and other evaluated phytochemicals. SI seeds should be considered as an important dietary source of health promoting phytochemicals.

  6. Antioxidant activity, anti-proliferative activity, and amino acid profiles of ethanolic extracts of edible mushrooms.

    PubMed

    Panthong, S; Boonsathorn, N; Chuchawankul, S

    2016-10-17

    Biological activities of various mushrooms have recently been discovered, particularly, immunomodulatory and antitumor activities. Herein, three edible mushrooms, Auricularia auricula-judae (AA), Pleurotus abalonus (PA) and Pleurotus sajor-caju (PS) extracted using Soxhlet ethanol extraction were evaluated for their antioxidative, anti-proliferative effects on leukemia cells. Using the Folin-Ciocalteau method and Trolox equivalent antioxidant capacity assay, phenolics and antioxidant activity were found in all sample mushrooms. Additionally, anti-proliferative activity of mushroom extracts against U937 leukemia cells was determined using a viability assay based on mitochondrial activity. PA (0.5 mg/mL) and AA (0.25-0.5 mg/mL) significantly reduced cell viability. Interestingly, PS caused a hormetic-like biphasic dose-response. Low doses (0-0.25 mg/L) of PS promoted cell proliferation up to 140% relative to control, whereas higher doses (0.50 mg/mL) inhibited cell proliferation. Against U937 cells, AA IC50 was 0.28 ± 0.04 mg/mL, which was lower than PS or PA IC50 (0.45 ± 0.01 and 0.49 ± 0.001 mg/mL, respectively). Furthermore, lactate dehydrogenase (LDH) leakage conferred cytotoxicity. PS and PA were not toxic to U937 cells at any tested concentration; AA (0.50 mg/mL) showed high LDH levels and caused 50% cytotoxicity. Additionally, UPLC-HRMS data indicated several phytochemicals known to support functional activities as either antioxidant or anti-proliferative. Glutamic acid was uniquely found in ethanolic extracts of AA, and was considered an anti-cancer amino acid with potent anti-proliferative effects on U937 cells. Collectively, all mushroom extracts exhibited antioxidant effects, but their anti-proliferative effects were dose-dependent. Nevertheless, the AA extract, with highest potency, is a promising candidate for future applications.

  7. Rice antioxidants: phenolic acids, flavonoids, anthocyanins, proanthocyanidins, tocopherols, tocotrienols, γ-oryzanol, and phytic acid.

    PubMed

    Goufo, Piebiep; Trindade, Henrique

    2014-03-01

    Epidemiological studies suggested that the low incidence of certain chronic diseases in rice-consuming regions of the world might be associated with the antioxidant compound contents of rice. The molecules with antioxidant activity contained in rice include phenolic acids, flavonoids, anthocyanins, proanthocyanidins, tocopherols, tocotrienols, γ-oryzanol, and phytic acid. This review provides information on the contents of these compounds in rice using a food composition database built from compiling data from 316 papers. The database provides access to information that would have otherwise remained hidden in the literature. For example, among the four types of rice ranked by color, black rice varieties emerged as those exhibiting the highest antioxidant activities, followed by purple, red, and brown rice varieties. Furthermore, insoluble compounds appear to constitute the major fraction of phenolic acids and proanthocyanidins in rice, but not of flavonoids and anthocyanins. It is clear that to maximize the intake of antioxidant compounds, rice should be preferentially consumed in the form of bran or as whole grain. With respect to breeding, japonica rice varieties were found to be richer in antioxidant compounds compared with indica rice varieties. Overall, rice grain fractions appear to be rich sources of antioxidant compounds. However, on a whole grain basis and with the exception of γ-oryzanol and anthocyanins, the contents of antioxidants in other cereals appear to be higher than those in rice.

  8. In vivo antioxidant activity of deacetylasperulosidic Acid in noni.

    PubMed

    Ma, De-Lu; Chen, Mai; Su, Chen X; West, Brett J

    2013-01-01

    Deacetylasperulosidic acid (DAA) is a major phytochemical constituent of Morinda citrifolia (noni) fruit. Noni juice has demonstrated antioxidant activity in vivo and in human trials. To evaluate the role of DAA in this antioxidant activity, Wistar rats were fed 0 (control group), 15, 30, or 60 mg/kg body weight per day for 7 days. Afterwards, serum malondialdehyde concentration and superoxide dismutase and glutathione peroxidase activities were measured and compared among groups. A dose-dependent reduction in malondialdehyde was evident as well as a dose-dependent increase in superoxide dismutase activity. DAA ingestion did not influence serum glutathione peroxidase activity. These results suggest that DAA contributes to the antioxidant activity of noni juice by increasing superoxide dismutase activity. The fact that malondialdehyde concentrations declined with increased DAA dose, despite the lack of glutathione peroxidase-inducing activity, suggests that DAA may also increase catalase activity. It has been previously reported that noni juice increases catalase activity in vivo but additional research is required to confirm the effect of DAA on catalase. Even so, the current findings do explain a possible mechanism of action for the antioxidant properties of noni juice that have been observed in human clinical trials.

  9. Derivatives of xanthic acid are novel antioxidants: application to synaptosomes.

    PubMed

    Lauderback, Christopher M; Drake, Jennifer; Zhou, Daohong; Hackett, Janna M; Castegna, Alessandra; Kanski, Jaroslaw; Tsoras, Maria; Varadarajan, Sridhar; Butterfield, D Allan

    2003-04-01

    Xanthic acids have long been known to act as reducing agents. Recently, D609, a tricyclodecanol derivative of xanthic acid, has been reported to have anti-apoptotic and anti-inflammatory properties that are attributed to specific inhibition of phosphatidyl choline phospholipase C (PC-PLC). However, because oxidative stress is involved in both of these cellular responses, the possibility that xanthates may act as antioxidants was investigated in the current study. Finding that xanthates efficiently scavenge hydroxyl radicals, the mechanism by which D609 and other xanthate derivatives may protect against oxidative damage was further examined. The xanthates studied, especially D609, mimic glutathione (GSH). Xanthates scavenge hydroxyl radicals and hydrogen peroxide, form disulfide bonds (dixanthogens), and react with electrophilic products of lipid oxidation (acrolein) in a manner similar to GSH. Further, upon disulfide formation, dixanthogens are reduced by glutathione reductase to a redox active xanthate. Supporting its role as an antioxidant, D609 significantly (p < 0.01) reduces free radical-induced changes in synaptosomal lipid peroxidation (TBARs), protein oxidation (protein carbonyls), and protein conformation. Thus, in addition to inhibitory effects on PC-PLC, D609 may prevent cellular apoptotic and inflammatory cascades by acting as antioxidants and novel GSH mimics. These results are discussed with reference to potential therapeutic application of D609 in oxidative stress conditions.

  10. Production of starch with antioxidative activity by baking starch with organic acids.

    PubMed

    Miwa, Shoji; Nakamura, Megumi; Okuno, Michiko; Miyazaki, Hisako; Watanabe, Jun; Ishikawa-Takano, Yuko; Miura, Makoto; Takase, Nao; Hayakawa, Sachio; Kobayashi, Shoichi

    2011-01-01

    A starch ingredient with antioxidative activity, as measured by the DPPH method, was produced by baking corn starch with an organic acid; it has been named ANOX sugar (antioxidative sugar). The baking temperature and time were fixed at 170 °C and 60 min, and the organic acid used was selected from preliminary trials of various kinds of acid. The phytic acid ANOX sugar preparation showed the highest antioxidative activity, but the color of the preparation was almost black; we therefore selected L-tartaric acid which had the second highest antioxidative activity. The antioxidative activity of the L-tartaric acid ANOX sugar preparation was stable against temperature, light, and enzyme treatments (α-amylase and glucoamylase). However, the activity was not stable against variations in water content and pH value. The antioxidative activity of ANOX sugar was stabilized by treating with boiled water or nitrogen gas, or by pH adjustment.

  11. Genotoxic effect of ethacrynic acid and impact of antioxidants.

    PubMed

    Ward, William M; Hoffman, Jared D; Loo, George

    2015-07-01

    It is known that ethacrynic acid (EA) decreases the intracellular levels of glutathione. Whether the anticipated oxidative stress affects the structural integrity of DNA is unknown. Therefore, DNA damage was assessed in EA-treated HCT116 cells, and the impact of several antioxidants was also determined. EA caused both concentration-dependent and time-dependent DNA damage that eventually resulted in cell death. Unexpectedly, the DNA damage caused by EA was intensified by either ascorbic acid or trolox. In contrast, EA-induced DNA damage was reduced by N-acetylcysteine and by the iron chelator, deferoxamine. In elucidating the DNA damage, it was determined that EA increased the production of reactive oxygen species, which was inhibited by N-acetylcysteine and deferoxamine but not by ascorbic acid and trolox. Also, EA decreased glutathione levels, which were inhibited by N-acetylcysteine. But, ascorbic acid, trolox, and deferoxamine neither inhibited nor enhanced the capacity of EA to decrease glutathione. Interestingly, the glutathione synthesis inhibitor, buthionine sulfoxime, lowered glutathione to a similar degree as EA, but no noticeable DNA damage was found. Nevertheless, buthionine sulfoxime potentiated the glutathione-lowering effect of EA and intensified the DNA damage caused by EA. Additionally, in examining redox-sensitive stress gene expression, it was found that EA increased HO-1, GADD153, and p21mRNA expression, in association with increased nuclear localization of Nrf-2 and p53 proteins. In contrast to ascorbic acid, trolox, and deferoxamine, N-acetylcysteine suppressed the EA-induced upregulation of GADD153, although not of HO-1. Overall, it is concluded that EA has genotoxic properties that can be amplified by certain antioxidants.

  12. Genotoxic effect of ethacrynic acid and impact of antioxidants

    SciTech Connect

    Ward, William M.; Hoffman, Jared D.; Loo, George

    2015-07-01

    It is known that ethacrynic acid (EA) decreases the intracellular levels of glutathione. Whether the anticipated oxidative stress affects the structural integrity of DNA is unknown. Therefore, DNA damage was assessed in EA-treated HCT116 cells, and the impact of several antioxidants was also determined. EA caused both concentration-dependent and time-dependent DNA damage that eventually resulted in cell death. Unexpectedly, the DNA damage caused by EA was intensified by either ascorbic acid or trolox. In contrast, EA-induced DNA damage was reduced by N-acetylcysteine and by the iron chelator, deferoxamine. In elucidating the DNA damage, it was determined that EA increased the production of reactive oxygen species, which was inhibited by N-acetylcysteine and deferoxamine but not by ascorbic acid and trolox. Also, EA decreased glutathione levels, which were inhibited by N-acetylcysteine. But, ascorbic acid, trolox, and deferoxamine neither inhibited nor enhanced the capacity of EA to decrease glutathione. Interestingly, the glutathione synthesis inhibitor, buthionine sulfoxime, lowered glutathione to a similar degree as EA, but no noticeable DNA damage was found. Nevertheless, buthionine sulfoxime potentiated the glutathione-lowering effect of EA and intensified the DNA damage caused by EA. Additionally, in examining redox-sensitive stress gene expression, it was found that EA increased HO-1, GADD153, and p21mRNA expression, in association with increased nuclear localization of Nrf-2 and p53 proteins. In contrast to ascorbic acid, trolox, and deferoxamine, N-acetylcysteine suppressed the EA-induced upregulation of GADD153, although not of HO-1. Overall, it is concluded that EA has genotoxic properties that can be amplified by certain antioxidants. - Highlights: • Ethacrynic acid (EA) caused cellular DNA damage. • EA-induced DNA damage was potentiated by ascorbic acid or trolox. • EA increased ROS production, not inhibited by ascorbic acid or trolox. • EA

  13. Environmental comparison of biobased chemicals from glutamic acid with their petrochemical equivalents.

    PubMed

    Lammens, Tijs M; Potting, José; Sanders, Johan P M; De Boer, Imke J M

    2011-10-01

    Glutamic acid is an important constituent of waste streams from biofuels production. It is an interesting starting material for the synthesis of biobased chemicals, thereby decreasing the dependency on fossil fuels. The objective of this paper was to compare the environmental impact of four biobased chemicals from glutamic acid with their petrochemical equivalents, that is, N-methylpyrrolidone (NMP), N-vinylpyrrolidone (NVP), acrylonitrile (ACN), and succinonitrile (SCN). A consequential life cycle assessment was performed, wherein glutamic acid was obtained from sugar beet vinasse. The removed glutamic acid was substituted with cane molasses and ureum. The comparison between the four biobased and petrochemical products showed that for NMP and NVP the biobased version had less impact on the environment, while for ACN and SCN the petrochemical version had less impact on the environment. For the latter two an optimized scenario was computed, which showed that the process for SCN can be improved to a level at which it can compete with the petrochemical process. For biobased ACN large improvements are required to make it competitive with its petrochemical equivalent. The results of this LCA and the research preceding it also show that glutamic acid can be a building block for a variety of molecules that are currently produced from petrochemical resources. Currently, most methods to produce biobased products are biotechnological processes based on sugar, but this paper demonstrates that the use of amino acids from low-value byproducts can certainly be a method as well.

  14. Taurine and ellagic acid: two differently-acting natural antioxidants.

    PubMed

    Cozzi, R; Ricordy, R; Bartolini, F; Ramadori, L; Perticone, P; De Salvia, R

    1995-01-01

    Naturally occurring antimutagenic compounds are extensively analyzed for their capacity to protect cells from induced damage. We selected two agents, taurine and ellagic acid, treated in the literature as antioxidants, but whose activity is insufficiently known. This paper reports on the ability of these agents to act against damage induced by mitomycin-C and hydrogen peroxide in Chinese hamster ovary cells cultivated in vitro. Cytogenetic and cytofluorimetric analyses were performed. Ellagic acid proved to have more than one mechanism of action, probably as a scavenger of oxygen species produced by H2O2 treatment, and as a protector of the DNA double helix from alkylating agent injury. In our experimental conditions, taurine seems able to scavenge oxygen species.

  15. Gas and liquid phase acidity of natural antioxidants.

    PubMed

    Leopoldini, Monica; Russo, Nino; Toscano, Marirosa

    2006-04-19

    The gas phase and in solution absolute and relative acidities of nine natural systems contained in red and white wines were determined through theoretical B3LYP/6-311++G** calculations. The aim was to correlate these thermodynamic quantities to the ability that some of these compounds show in chelating metals ions to carry out an antioxidant action following a mechanism recently reported in the literature. Results indicated that both absolute and relative values are affected by molecular features such as electronic delocalization and conjugation and intramolecular hydrogen bonds. Polyphenols characterized by the ortho-dihydroxy functionality were found to be good candidates to act as metal cation chelating ligands. Some differences in absolute acidities values were encountered in going from vacuum to water solution.

  16. Biocompatible and biodegradable poly(Tannic Acid) hydrogel with antimicrobial and antioxidant properties.

    PubMed

    Sahiner, Nurettin; Sagbas, Selin; Sahiner, Mehtap; Silan, Coskun; Aktas, Nahit; Turk, Mustafa

    2016-01-01

    A novel resourceful bulk poly(Tannic Acid) (p(TA)) hydrogel was prepared by crosslinking TA molecules with an epoxy crosslinker, trimethylolpropane triglycidyl ether (TMPGDE), in an autoclave at 90°C for 2h. The obtained p(TA) hydrogels were in disk form and have highly porous morphology. The swelling characteristics of p(TA) hydrogels were investigated in wound healing pH conditions of pH 5.4, 7.4, and 9 at 37.5°C, and the hydrogels showed good swelling and moisture content behavior. Especially, p(TA) hydrogels were found to be sensitive to pH 9 with 1669% maximum swelling. P(TA) hydrogels were completely degraded at pH 9 hydrolytically in 9 days. Total phenol contents and the effects of scavenging ABTS(+) radicals of degraded p(TA) hydrogels at pH 5.4, 7.4, and 9 were evaluated and calculated in terms of gallic acid equivalent and trolox equivalent antioxidant capacity, respectively, and found to be very effective. Moreover, degraded p(TA) hydrogels display strong antimicrobial behavior against gram positive Staphylococcus aureus, Bacillus subtilis, gram negative Pseudomonas aeruginosa bacteria strains and Candida albicans fungus strain. The WST-1 results indicated that bulk p(TA) hydrogels have no cyctotoxicity to the L929 fibroblast cell line in vitro.

  17. Comparison of phenolic acids profile and antioxidant potential of six varieties of spelt (Triticum spelta L.).

    PubMed

    Gawlik-Dziki, Urszula; Świeca, Michał; Dziki, Dariusz

    2012-05-09

    Phenolic acids profile and antioxidant activity of six diverse varieties of spelt are reported. Antioxidant activity was assessed using eight methods based on different mechanism of action. Phenolic acids composition of spelt differed significantly between varieties and ranged from 506.6 to 1257.4 μg/g DW. Ferulic and sinapinic acids were the predominant phenolic acids found in spelt. Total ferulic acid content ranged from 144.2 to 691.5 μg/g DW. All analyzed spelt varieties possessed high antioxidant potential. In spite of the fact that bound phenolic acids possessed higher antioxidant activities, analysis of antioxidant potential and their relationship with phenolic acid content showed that free phenolics were more effective. Eight antioxidant methods were integrated to obtain a total antioxidant capacity index that may be used for comparison of total antioxidant capacity of spelt varieties. Total antioxidant potential of spelt cultivars were ordered as follows: Ceralio > Spelt INZ ≈ Ostro > Oberkulmer Rotkorn > Schwabenspelz > Schwabenkorn.

  18. Simultaneous determination of equivalence volumes and acid dissociation constants from potentiometric titration data.

    PubMed

    Papanastasiou, G; Ziogas, I

    1995-06-01

    New iterative methods for analysis of potentiometric titration data of (a) mixtures of weak monoprotic acids with their conjugate bases, (b) solutions of polyprotic (di- and triprotic) acids, and (c) mixtures of two diprotic acids are presented. These methods, using data exclusively resulting from the acidic region of the titration curve permits the accurate determination of the analytical concentration of one or more acids even if the titration is stopped well before the end point of the titration. For the titration of a solution containing a conjugate acid/base pair, the proposed procedure enables the extraction of the initial composition of the mixture, as well as the dissociation constant of the concerned acid. Thus, it is possible by this type of analysis to distinguish whether a weak acid has been contaminated by a strong base and define the extent of the contamination. On the other hand, for the titration of polyprotic acids, the proposed approach enables the extraction of the accurate values of the equivalence volume and the dissociation constants K(i) even when the ionization stages overlap. Finally, for the titration of a mixture of two diprotic acids the proposed procedure enables the determination of the composition of the mixture even if the sum of the concentrations of the acids is not known. This method can be used in the analysis of solutions containing two diastereoisomeric forms of a weak diprotic acid. The test of the proposed procedures by means of ideal and Monte Carlo simulated data revealed that these methods are fairly applicable even when the titration data are considerably obscured by 'noise' or contain an important systematic error. The proposed procedures were also successfully applied to experimental titration data.

  19. Oxalic acid is available as a natural antioxidant in some systems.

    PubMed

    Kayashima, Tomoko; Katayama, Tetsuyuki

    2002-10-10

    Oxalic acid is found in a wide variety of plants. This study showed that oxalic acid suppressed in vitro lipid peroxidation in a concentration-dependent manner. Furthermore, oxalic acid reduced the rate of ascorbic acid oxidation in the presence of hydrogen peroxide and Cu(2+). These results suggest that oxalic acid is available as a natural antioxidant.

  20. [Comparative assessment of antioxidant activity of para-aminobenzoic acid and emoxipin in retina].

    PubMed

    Akberova, S I; Musaev Galbinur, P I; Magomedov, N M; Babaev, Kh F; Gakhramanov, Kh M; Stroeva, O G

    1998-01-01

    Effect of para-aminobenzoic acid (PABA) on lipid peroxidation (LPO) in rat and guinea pig retina exposed to hypoxic hypoxia is studied. PABA was injected intraperitoneally and parabulbarly before and after hypoxic exposure. Antioxidant activities of PABA and emoxipin were compared. An intraperitoneal injection of PABA in a dose of 10 mg/kg 24 h before hypoxia virtually completely prevented accumulation of lipid peroxides and preserved catalase activity in the retina. Parabulbar injection of 0.01% PABA solution 1 h before hypoxia prevented LPO intensification, stabilized catalase activity in hypoxia, and protected the retina starting from the moment immediately after hypoxic exposure. The efficacy of 0.01% PABA is comparable with that of 1% emoxipin, and a 0.01% solution of emoxipin is less effective than PABA in the same concentration. PABA exerts an antioxidant effect after hypoxia by decreasing the abnormally high level of lipid peroxides and reducing catalase activity in the retina after parabulbar injection of the drug. All the studied concentrations of the drug (from 0.007 to 0.08%) are active, but the optimal dose for the retina is 0.04%. By its efficacy this concentration is equivalent to 1% emoxipin.

  1. Equivalence-point electromigration acid-base titration via moving neutralization boundary electrophoresis.

    PubMed

    Yang, Qing; Fan, Liu-Yin; Huang, Shan-Sheng; Zhang, Wei; Cao, Cheng-Xi

    2011-04-01

    In this paper, we developed a novel method of acid-base titration, viz. the electromigration acid-base titration (EABT), via a moving neutralization boundary (MNR). With HCl and NaOH as the model strong acid and base, respectively, we conducted the experiments on the EABT via the method of moving neutralization boundary for the first time. The experiments revealed that (i) the concentration of agarose gel, the voltage used and the content of background electrolyte (KCl) had evident influence on the boundary movement; (ii) the movement length was a function of the running time under the constant acid and base concentrations; and (iii) there was a good linearity between the length and natural logarithmic concentration of HCl under the optimized conditions, and the linearity could be used to detect the concentration of acid. The experiments further manifested that (i) the RSD values of intra-day and inter-day runs were less than 1.59 and 3.76%, respectively, indicating similar precision and stability in capillary electrophoresis or HPLC; (ii) the indicators with different pK(a) values had no obvious effect on EABT, distinguishing strong influence on the judgment of equivalence-point titration in the classic one; and (iii) the constant equivalence-point titration always existed in the EABT, rather than the classic volumetric analysis. Additionally, the EABT could be put to good use for the determination of actual acid concentrations. The experimental results achieved herein showed a new general guidance for the development of classic volumetric analysis and element (e.g. nitrogen) content analysis in protein chemistry.

  2. ω-3 fatty acids, γ-linolenic acid, and antioxidants: immunomodulators or inert dietary supplements?

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Expanded abstract Citation Rice TW, Wheeler AP, Thompson BT, deBoisblanc BP, Steingrub J, Rock, P. Enteral Omega-3 Fatty Acid, γ-Linolenic Acid, and Antioxidant Supplementation in Acute Lung Injury. JAMA. 2011; 306(14):1574-1581. PubMed PMID: 21976613. Background The omega-3 (n-3) fatty acids docosahexaenoic acid and eicosapentaenoic acid, along with γ-linolenic acid and antioxidants, may modulate systemic inflammatory response and improve oxygenation and outcomes in patients with acute lung injury. Methods Objective: To determine if dietary supplementation of these substances to patients with acute lung injury would increase ventilator-free days to study day 28. Design: The OMEGA study, a randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled, multicenter trial conducted from January 2, 2008, through February 21, 2009. All participants had complete follow-up. Setting: This trial occurred at 44 hospitals in the National Heart, Lung, and Blood Institute ARDS Clinical Trials Network. Subjects: Participants were 272 adults within 48 hours of developing acute lung injury requiring mechanical ventilation whose physicians intended to start enteral nutrition. Intervention: Twice-daily enteral supplementation of n-3 fatty acids, γ -linolenic acid, and antioxidants compared with an isocaloric control. Enteral nutrition, directed by a protocol, was delivered separately from the study supplement. Outcomes: Ventilator-free days to study day 28. Results The study was stopped early for futility after 143 and 129 patients were enrolled in the n-3 and control groups. Despite an 8-fold increase in plasma eicosapentaenoic acid levels, patients receiving the n-3 supplement had fewer ventilator-free days (14.0 vs 17.2; P=.02) (difference, −3.2 [95% CI, −5.8 to −0.7]) and intensive care unit-free days (14.0 vs 16.7; P=.04). Patients in the n-3 group also had fewer nonpulmonary organ failure-free days (12.3 vs 15.5; P=.02). Sixty-day hospital mortality was 26.6% in the n 3 group vs 16

  3. Antioxidants

    MedlinePlus

    Antioxidants are man-made or natural substances that may prevent or delay some types of cell damage. Antioxidants are found in many foods, including fruits and ... are also available as dietary supplements. Examples of antioxidants include Beta-carotene Lutein Lycopene Selenium Vitamin A ...

  4. Use of Gallic Acid to Enhance the Antioxidant and Mechanical Properties of Active Fish Gelatin Film.

    PubMed

    Limpisophon, Kanokrat; Schleining, Gerhard

    2017-01-01

    This study explores the potential roles of gallic acid in fish gelatin film for improving mechanical properties, UV barrier, and providing antioxidant activities. Glycerol, a common used plasticizer, also impacts on mechanical properties of the film. A factorial design was used to investigate the effects of gallic acid and glycerol concentrations on antioxidant activities and mechanical properties of fish gelatin film. Increasing the amount of gallic acid increased the antioxidant capacities of the film measured by radical scavenging assay and the ferric reducing ability of plasma assay. The released antioxidant power of gallic acid from the film was not reduced by glycerol. The presence of gallic acid not only increased the antioxidant capacity of the film, but also increased the tensile strength, elongation at break, and reduced UV absorption due to interaction between gallic acid and protein by hydrogen bonding. Glycerol did not affect the antioxidant capacities of the film, but increased the elasticity of the films. Overall, this study revealed that gallic acid entrapped in the fish gelatin film provided antioxidant activities and improved film characteristics, namely UV barrier, strength, and elasticity of the film.

  5. Phenolic acid-based poly(anhydride-esters) as antioxidant biomaterialsa

    PubMed Central

    Prudencio, Almudena; Faig, Jonathan J.; Song, MinJung

    2015-01-01

    Poly(anhydride-esters) comprised of naturally occurring, non-toxic phenolic acids, namely syringic and vanillic acid, with antioxidant properties were prepared via solution polymerization methods. Polymer and polymer precursor physiochemical properties were characterized, including polymer molecular weight and thermal properties. In vitro release studies illustrated that polymer hydrolytic degradation was influenced by relative hydrophobicity and degree of methoxy substitution of the phenolic acids. Further, the released phenolic acids were found to maintain antioxidant potency relative to free phenolic acid controls as determined by a 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl assay. Polymer cytotoxicity was assessed with L929 fibroblasts in polymer-containing media; appropriate cell morphology and high fibroblast proliferation were obtained for the polymers at the lower concentrations. These polymers deliver non-cytotoxic levels of naturally occurring antioxidants, which could be efficacious in topical delivery of antioxidant therapies. PMID:26425923

  6. Wheat germ oil enrichment in broiler feed with α-lipoic acid to enhance the antioxidant potential and lipid stability of meat

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Lipid peroxidation is the cause of declining the meat quality. Natural antioxidants plays a vital role in enhancing the stability and quality of meat. The supplementation of natural antioxidants in feed decreases lipid peroxidation and improves the stability of meat. Methods The present research was conducted to determine the effect of α-lipoic acid, α-tocopherol and wheat germ oil on the status of antioxidants, quality and lipid stability of broiler meat. One day old male broilers were fed with different feeds containing antioxidants i.e. natural (wheat germ oil) and synthetic α-tocopherol and α-lipoic acid during the two experimental years. Results The feed treatments have significant variation on the body weight and feed conversion ratio (FCR) while having no influence on the feed intake. The broilers fed on wheat germ oil (natural α-tocopherol) gained maximum body weight (2451.97 g & 2466.07 g) in the experimental years 2010–11 & 2011–12, respectively. The higher total phenolic contents were found in the broilers fed on wheat germ oil plus α-lipoic acid in breast (162.73±4.8 mg Gallic acid equivalent/100 g & 162.18±4.5 mg Gallic acid equivalent/100 g) and leg (149.67±3.3 mg Gallic acid equivalent/100 g & 146.07±3.2 mg Gallic acid equivalent/100 g) meat during both experimental years. Similar trend was observed for the 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) and ferric reducing antioxidant power assay (FRAP). The production of malondialdehydes in the breast and leg meat increased with progressive increase in the time period. The deposition of α-tocopherol (AT) and α-lipoic acid (ALA) contents were found to be higher in the broilers fed on wheat germ oil plus α-lipoic acid in breast and leg meat during the both experimental years. Conclusion In conclusion, the combination of wheat germ oil and α-lipoic acid has more beneficial for stability and the quality of the broiler meat and more work should be needed in future for the bio

  7. Higher Intakes of Antioxidants and Unsaturated Fatty Acid Reduce the Cardiac Autonomic Effects of Particles

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Higher intakes of antioxidants (vitamins C and E, carotene) found in foods such as cruciferous vegetables, and unsaturated fatty acids, including omega-3 from fish and monounsaturated fats from nuts and seeds, may prevent cardiovascular disease. We examined whether higher intake of such antioxidants...

  8. Salicylic acid and ascorbic acid retrieve activity of antioxidative enzymes and structure of Caralluma tuberculata calli on PEG stress.

    PubMed

    Rehman, Riaz U; Zia, Muhammad; Chaudhary, Muhammad F

    2017-02-02

    Biochemical adaptations and morphological changes are cellular aptitude originated on biotic and abiotic stresses. Polyethylene glycol (PEG) induces drought stress in the nutrient solution. In the present investigation, Caralluma tuberculata calli is exposed to PEG and antioxidative molecules. By increasing the level of antioxidative enzymes (SOD, POD, CAT, APX, and GR), the PEG-stressed calli falls off upon exposure to non-enzymatic antioxidants (ascorbic acid and salicylic acid). Under PEG-stress, several cellular and sub-cellular changes such as alteration in plasma membrane thickness, change in nucleus shape, increase in nucleoli, deformation of thylakoid membranes, and increase in plastoglobuli are observed through electron microscopic images. From our results we conclude that application of PEG (a drought causative agent) leads to an increase in the level of antioxidative enzymes and also deformation of cellular organelles. However, application of ascorbic acid and salicylic acid eradicate drought effect induced by PEG.

  9. Role of degradation products of chlorogenic acid in the antioxidant activity of roasted coffee.

    PubMed

    Kamiyama, Masumi; Moon, Joon-Kwan; Jang, Hae Won; Shibamoto, Takayuki

    2015-02-25

    Antioxidant activities of brewed coffees prepared from six commercial brands ranged from 63.13 ± 1.01 to 96.80 ± 1.68% at the highest levels tested. Generally, the degree of antioxidant activity of the brewed coffee was inversely proportional to the total chlorogenic acid concentration. A sample obtained from the major chlorogenic acid, 5-caffeoylquinic acid (5-CQA), heated at 250 °C exhibited potent antioxidant activity (79.12 ± 2.49%) at the level of 10 μg/mL, whereas unheated 5-CQA showed only moderate antioxidant activity (44.41 ± 0.27%) at the level of 100 μg/mL. Heat produced relatively high levels of pyrocatechol (2,809.3 μg/g) and 2-methoxy-4-vinylphenol (46.4 μg/g) from 5-CQA, and their antioxidant activity levels were 76.57 ± 3.00 and 98.63 ± 0.01%, respectively. The results of the present study suggest that roasting degrades chlorogenic acids to form potent antioxidants and thus plays an important role in the preparation of high-antioxidant low-acid coffee.

  10. Spectroscopic studies on the antioxidant activity of p-coumaric acid.

    PubMed

    Kiliç, Ismail; Yeşiloğlu, Yeşim

    2013-11-01

    p-coumaric acid (4-hydroxycinnamic acid), a phenolic acid, is a hydroxyl derivative of cinnamic acid. It decreases low density lipoprotein (LDL) peroxidation and reduces the risk of stomach cancer. In vitro radical scavenging and antioxidant capacity of p-coumaric acid were clarified using different analytical methodologies such as total antioxidant activity determination by ferric thiocyanate, hydrogen peroxide scavenging, 1,1-diphenyl-2-picryl-hydrazyl free radical (DPPH) scavenging, 2,2'-azino-bis(3-ethylbenzthiazoline-6-sulphonic acid) (ABTS) radical scavenging activity and superoxide anion radical scavenging, ferrous ions (Fe(2+)) chelating activity and ferric ions (Fe(3+)) reducing ability. p-Coumaric acid inhibited 71.2% lipid peroxidation of a linoleic acid emulsion at 45μg/mL concentration. On the other hand, butylated hydroxyanisole (BHA), butylated hydroxytoluene (BHT), α-tocopherol and ascorbic acid displayed 66.8%, 69.8%, 64.5% and 59.7% inhibition on the peroxidation of linoleic acid emulsion at the same concentration, respectively. In addition, p-coumaric acid had an effective DPPH scavenging, ABTS(+) scavenging, superoxide anion radical scavenging, hydrogen peroxide scavenging, ferric ions (Fe(3+)) reducing power and ferrous ions (Fe(2+)) chelating activities. Also, those various antioxidant activities were compared to BHA, BHT, α-tocopherol and ascorbic acid as references antioxidant compounds. These results suggested that p-coumaric acid can be used in the pharmacological and food industry because of these properties.

  11. Spectroscopic studies on the antioxidant activity of p-coumaric acid

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kiliç, Ismail; Yeşiloğlu, Yeşim

    2013-11-01

    p-coumaric acid (4-hydroxycinnamic acid), a phenolic acid, is a hydroxyl derivative of cinnamic acid. It decreases low density lipoprotein (LDL) peroxidation and reduces the risk of stomach cancer. In vitro radical scavenging and antioxidant capacity of p-coumaric acid were clarified using different analytical methodologies such as total antioxidant activity determination by ferric thiocyanate, hydrogen peroxide scavenging, 1,1-diphenyl-2-picryl-hydrazyl free radical (DPPH) scavenging, 2,2‧-azino-bis(3-ethylbenzthiazoline-6-sulphonic acid) (ABTS) radical scavenging activity and superoxide anion radical scavenging, ferrous ions (Fe2+) chelating activity and ferric ions (Fe3+) reducing ability. p-Coumaric acid inhibited 71.2% lipid peroxidation of a linoleic acid emulsion at 45 μg/mL concentration. On the other hand, butylated hydroxyanisole (BHA), butylated hydroxytoluene (BHT), α-tocopherol and ascorbic acid displayed 66.8%, 69.8%, 64.5% and 59.7% inhibition on the peroxidation of linoleic acid emulsion at the same concentration, respectively. In addition, p-coumaric acid had an effective DPPHrad scavenging, ABTSrad + scavenging, superoxide anion radical scavenging, hydrogen peroxide scavenging, ferric ions (Fe3+) reducing power and ferrous ions (Fe2+) chelating activities. Also, those various antioxidant activities were compared to BHA, BHT, α-tocopherol and ascorbic acid as references antioxidant compounds. These results suggested that p-coumaric acid can be used in the pharmacological and food industry because of these properties.

  12. Influence of the interactions between tea (Camellia sinensis) extracts and ascorbic acid on their antioxidant activity: analysis with interaction indexes and isobolograms.

    PubMed

    Enko, Jolanta; Gliszczyńska-Świgło, Anna

    2015-01-01

    Products containing natural additives, including antioxidants, are usually perceived by consumers as safer than those with synthetic ones. Natural antioxidants, besides having a preservative activity, may exert beneficial health effects. Interactions between antioxidants may significantly change their antioxidant activity, thus in designing functional foods or food/cosmetic ingredients knowledge about the type of interactions could be useful. In the present study, the interactions between ascorbic acid (AA; vitamin C) and different black and green tea extracts and the influence on their antioxidant activities were investigated. The antioxidant activities of tea extracts and their mixtures with AA prepared in several different weight ratios were measured using the trolox equivalent antioxidant capacity (TEAC), 1,1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH), and ferric-reducing antioxidant power (FRAP) methods. The type of interaction was determined by interaction indexes and isobolograms. It was found that the weight ratio of extracts to AA significantly influenced the antioxidant activity of a mixture and the type of interaction between these components. The weight ratio of tea extract to AA can cause the change of interaction, e.g. from antagonism to additivism or from additivism to synergism. The observed differences in the type of interactions were probably also a result of different extracts' polyphenol composition and content. The type of interaction may also be affected by the medium in which extracts and AA interact, especially its pH and the solvent used. To obtain the best antioxidant effect, all these factors should be taken into account during the design of a tea extract-AA mixture.

  13. Digallic acid from Pistascia lentiscus fruits induces apoptosis and enhances antioxidant activities.

    PubMed

    Bhouri, Wissem; Skandrani, Ines; Sghair, Mohamed Ben; Franca, Marie-Geneviève Djoux; Ghedira, Kamel; Ghedira, Leila Chekir

    2012-03-01

    The antioxidant and apoptotic activities of digallic acid, isolated from the fruits of Pistascia lentiscus, were investigated. The study demonstrated that digallic acid possessed pro-apoptotic effects, as shown by provoking DNA fragmentation of K562 cells. It also revealed a significant antioxidant potential and effective scavenging activity against 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhdrazyl (DPPH·) and O₂·⁻ radicals, and reduced cupric ions. We conclude that this integrated approach to apoptotic and antioxidant assessment may be useful to maximize the beneficial effects associated with using P. lentiscus derivatives as medicinal and dietary compounds.

  14. Acidic Potassium Permanganate Chemiluminescence for the Determination of Antioxidant Potential in Three Cultivars of Ocimum basilicum.

    PubMed

    Srivastava, Shivani; Adholeya, Alok; Conlan, Xavier A; Cahill, David M

    2016-03-01

    Ocimum basilicum, a member of the family Lamiaceae, is a rich source of polyphenolics that have antioxidant properties. The present study describes the development and application of an online HPLC-coupled acidic potassium permanganate chemiluminescence assay for the qualitative and quantitative assessment of antioxidants in three cultivars of O. basilicum grown under greenhouse conditions. The chemiluminescence based assay was found to be a sensitive and efficient method for assessment of total and individual compound antioxidant potential. Leaves, flowers and roots were found to be rich reserves of the antioxidant compounds which showed intense chemiluminescence signals. The polyphenolics such as rosmarinic, chicoric, caffeic, p-coumaric, m-coumaric and ferulic acids showed antioxidant activity. Further, rosmarinic acid was found to be the major antioxidant component in water-ethanol extracts. The highest levels of rosmarinic acid was found in the leaves and roots of cultivars "holy green" (14.37; 11.52 mM/100 g DW respectively) followed by "red rubin" (10.02; 10.75 mM/100 g DW respectively) and "subja" (6.59; 4.97 mM/100 g DW respectively). The sensitivity, efficiency and ease of use of the chemiluminescence based assay should now be considered for its use as a primary method for the identification and quantification of antioxidants in plant extracts.

  15. Antioxidant activity of amino acids in soybean oil at frying temperature: structural effects and synergism with tocopherols

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The purpose of this study was to evaluate amino acids as natural antioxidants for frying. Twenty amino acids were added to soybean oil heated to 180 ºC, and the effects of amino acid structure on the antioxidant activity were investigated. Amino acids containing a thiol, a thioether, or an extra ami...

  16. In Vitro Antioxidant-Activity Evaluation of Gallic-Acid-Grafted Chitosan Conjugate Synthesized by Free-Radical-Induced Grafting Method.

    PubMed

    Hu, Qiaobin; Wang, Taoran; Zhou, Mingyong; Xue, Jingyi; Luo, Yangchao

    2016-07-27

    The major objective of this work was to develop a green and facile process to prepare gallic acid-chitosan conjugate and comprehensively evaluate the physicochemical properties and biological activities of an as-prepared water-soluble chitosan derivative. A free-radical-induced grafting approach using an ascorbic acid-hydrogen peroxide redox pair was adopted. The obtained conjugate was characterized by Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy, UV-vis, X-ray diffraction, and pKa analysis. The antioxidant activities were evaluated by 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH), 2,2'-azino-bis(3-ethylbenzothiazoline-6)-sulphonic acid (ABTS), reducing power, and oxygen-radical antioxidant-capacity assays. The results showed that the mass ratio of gallic acid to chitosan played a vital role in determining the grafting degree and ζ potential of the conjugates, with the ratio of 0.5:1 being the optimal ratio that resulted in the highest grafting degree. The antioxidant assays demonstrated that conjugation significantly improved the antioxidant activities, being dramatically higher than that of free chitosan. It was notable that the DPPH- and ABTS-scavenging activities of conjugate at 0.4 mg/mL reached the same level as the free gallic acid at the equivalent concentration. Our study demonstrated a green and facile synthesis approach to preparing a novel water-soluble chitosan derivative that may have promising potentials in the food industry.

  17. Effect of chlorogenic acid on antioxidant activity of Flos Lonicerae extracts*

    PubMed Central

    Wu, Lan

    2007-01-01

    Flos Lonicerae is a medically useful traditional Chinese medicine herb. However, little is known about the antioxidant properties of Flos Lonicerae extracts. Here the antioxidant capacity of water, methanolic and ethanolic extracts prepared from Flos Lonicerae to scavenge 1,1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) radical and reduce Fe3+ to Fe2+ is examined. Chlorogenic acid, a major component of Flos Lonicerae, is identified and further purified from 70% ethanolic extract with high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) and its antioxidant capacity is characterized. The total phenolic compounds and chlorogenic acid contents in Flos Lonicerae are determined. The present results demonstrate that the Flos Lonicerae extracts exhibit antioxidant activity and chlorogenic acid is a major contributor to this activity. PMID:17726749

  18. Equivalent absorption and in vivo kinetics of tritiated folic acid and 5-formyl-tetrahydrofolic acid in rats

    SciTech Connect

    Bhandari, S.D.; Gregory, J.F. )

    1990-02-26

    The intestinal absorption and in vivo turnover kinetics of ({sup 3}H)folic acid (FA) and (6S)-5-formyl-({sup 3}H)tetrahydrofolate (5-CHO-THF) were examined to determine whether differences exist in the inherent bioavailability of these forms of the vitamin. Following oral administration of 2 {mu}Ci/100 g body weight (in 50 mM sodium ascorbate, pH 7), a biphasic pattern of urinary tritium excretion was observed for each labeled folate. The following kinetic results were obtained (n=9). Little tritium was found in the GI tract after 8 hours, which indicated nearly complete absorption of each folate. HPLC analysis of urine revealed similar excretory patterns over 0-8 days post-dose for each folate administered, and the patterns of hepatic ({sup 3}H)folates were equivalent when examined after 8 hours and 4 days post-dose. These findings indicate that the bioavailability FA and 5-formyl-THF is equivalent.

  19. Ellagic acid inhibits PKC signaling by improving antioxidant defense system in murine T cell lymphoma.

    PubMed

    Mishra, Sudha; Vinayak, Manjula

    2014-07-01

    Antioxidants protect the cells from the damaging effects of reactive oxygen species (ROS). Production of ROS during cellular metabolism is balanced by their removal by antioxidants. Any condition leading to increased levels of ROS results in oxidative stress, which participates in multistage carcinogenesis by causing oxidative DNA damage, mutations in the proto-oncogenes and tumor suppressor genes. Antioxidant defense system is required to overcome the process of carcinogenesis generated by ROS. Antioxidant enzymes are major contributors to endogenous antioxidant defense system. Protein kinase C (PKC) is generally involved in cell proliferation and its over expression leads to abnormal tumor growth. Out of three classes of PKC, classical PKC is mainly involved in cell proliferation and tumor growth. Classical PKC initiates signaling pathway and leads to activation of a number of downstream protein via activation of NF-κB. Therefore any agent which can promotes the endogenous antioxidant defense system should be able to down regulate PKC and NF-κB activation and thus may be useful in reducing cancer progression. To investigate this hypothesis we have tested the effect of antioxidant ellagic acid on antioxidant enzymes and PKC signaling in Dalton's lymphoma bearing (DL) mice. DL mice were treated with three different doses of ellagic acid. The treatment significantly increases the activity and expression of antioxidant enzymes and down regulates the expression of classical isozymes of PKC as well as the activation of NF-κB, indicating that ellagic acid improves antioxidant defense system and PKC signaling via NF-κB which may contribute to its cancer preventive role.

  20. Phenolic acids and antioxidant activities in husk of different Thai rice varieties.

    PubMed

    Butsat, S; Siriamornpun, S

    2010-08-01

    This study was designed to investigate the free and bound phenolic acids as well as their antioxidant activities in husk of 12 Thai rice varieties consisting of pigmented rice and normal rice. The pigmented rice husk gave higher free total phenolic contents than normal rice husk. However, there was no significant difference in bound total phenolic contents between pigmented rice and normal rice husks. Ferulic and p-coumaric acids were the major phenolic acids in the free fraction of pigmented rice husks, whereas vanillic acid was the dominant phenolic acid in the free fraction of normal rice husks. On the other hand, p-coumaric acid was highly found in bound form of both pigmented and normal rice husks. The antioxidant activity of husk extracts was positively correlated with the total free phenolics content and individual of phenolic acids especially ferulic acid. On the basis of this study, it is suggested that the rice husk could be a potential phenolic acid source and may therefore offer an effective source of natural antioxidant. Our findings provide valuable information on phenolic acids composition and antioxidant activity of husk for further food application.

  1. Antioxidant activities of rosemary (Rosmarinus Officinalis L.) extract, blackseed (Nigella sativa L.) essential oil, carnosic acid, rosmarinic acid and sesamol.

    PubMed

    Erkan, Naciye; Ayranci, Guler; Ayranci, Erol

    2008-09-01

    Antioxidant activities of three pure compounds: carnosic acid, rosmarinic acid and sesamol, as well as two plant extracts: rosemary extract and blackseed essential oil, were examined by applying DPPH and ABTS(+) radical-scavenging assays and the ferric thiocyanate test. All three test methods proved that rosemary extract had a higher antioxidant activity than blackseed essential oil. The order of antioxidant activity of pure compounds showed variations in different tests. This was attributed to structural factors of individual compounds. Phenolic contents of blackseed essential oil and rosemary extract were also determined. Rosemary extract was found to have a higher phenolic content than blackseed essential oil. This fact was utilised in explaining the higher antioxidant activity of rosemary extract.

  2. Antioxidant activity, ascorbic acid and total phenol of exotic fruits occurring in Brazil.

    PubMed

    de Assis, Sandra Aparecida; Vellosa, José Carlos Rebuglio; Brunetti, Iguatemy Lourenço; Khalil, Najeh Maissar; Leite, Kátia Maria da Silva Cerqueira; Martins, Antonio Baldo Geraldo; Oliveira, Olga Maria Mascarenhas de Faria

    2009-08-01

    The antioxidant activity, ascorbic acid and phenolic content were studied in 10 exotic fruits from Brazil: abiu, acerola, wax jambu, cashew, mamey sapote, carambola or star fruit, Surinam cherry, longan, sapodilla and jaboticaba. The ascorbic acid was determined by 2,6-dichloroindophenol titrimetic methods and total phenols were measured colorimetrically using the Folin-Ciocalteu reagent. The antioxidant activity was investigated with three different methods: hypochlorous acid scavenging activity, 2,2-azinobis(3-ethylbenzothiazoline-6-sulfonic acid) radical cation decolorization assay, and 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl radical scavenging method. The highest content of vitamin C (1,525.00 mg/100 g pulp) occurred in acerola. The total phenol content was higher in abiu, acerola, Surinam cherry and sapodilla. In relation to antioxidant activity, acerola has showed the great values in all three different methods tested. It was found that the fruits have a significant antioxidant effect when tested by each method, respectively, and these antioxidant capacities are promising. The sample concentration also influenced its antioxidant power.

  3. Antioxidant activities of fucoidan degraded by gamma irradiation and acidic hydrolysis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lim, Sangyong; Choi, Jong-il; Park, Hyun

    2015-04-01

    Low molecular weight fucoidan, prepared by radical degradation using gamma ray was investigated for its antioxidant activities with different assay methods. As the molecular weight of fucoidan decreased with a higher absorbed dose, ferric-reducing antioxidant power values increased, but β-carotene bleaching inhibition did not change significantly. The antioxidant activity of acid-degraded fucoidan was also examined to investigate the effect of different degradation methods. At the same molecular weight, fucoidan degraded by gamma irradiation showed higher 1,1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl radical scavenging activity than that observed with the acidic method. This result reveals that in addition to molecular weight, the degradation method affects the antioxidant activity of fucoidan.

  4. Increased presence of monounsaturated fatty acids in the stratum corneum of human skin equivalents.

    PubMed

    Thakoersing, Varsha S; van Smeden, Jeroen; Mulder, Aat A; Vreeken, Rob J; El Ghalbzouri, Abdoelwaheb; Bouwstra, Joke A

    2013-01-01

    Previous results showed that our in-house human skin equivalents (HSEs) differ in their stratum corneum (SC) lipid organization compared with human SC. To elucidate the cause of the altered SC lipid organization in the HSEs, a recently developed liquid chromatography/mass spectrometry method was used to study the free fatty acid (FFA) and ceramide composition in detail. In addition, the SC lipid composition of the HSEs and human skin was examined quantitatively with high-performance thin-layer chromatography. Our results reveal that all our HSEs have an increased presence of monounsaturated FFAs compared with human SC. Moreover, the HSEs display the presence of ceramide species with a monounsaturated acyl chain, which are not detected in human SC. All HSEs also exhibit an altered expression of stearoyl-CoA desaturase, the enzyme that converts saturated FFAs to monounsaturated FFAs. Furthermore, the HSEs show the presence of 12 ceramide subclasses, similar to native human SC. However, the HSEs have increased levels of ceramides EOS and EOH and ceramide species with short total carbon chains and a reduced FFA level compared with human SC. The presence of unsaturated lipid chains in HSE offers new opportunities to mimic the lipid properties of human SC more closely.

  5. Antioxidant properties of ascorbic acid in bulk oils at different relative humidity.

    PubMed

    Kim, Ji Young; Kim, Mi-Ja; Yi, Bora; Oh, Sumi; Lee, JaeHwan

    2015-06-01

    The effects of relative humidity (RH) on the antioxidant properties of ascorbic acid (10, 20, 42, and 84ppm) were investigated in stripped corn oils stored at 60°C. The degree of oxidation in oils was determined by analysing headspace oxygen content and conjugated dienoic acids. The oxidative stability of bulk oils without addition of ascorbic acid was significantly different depending on the RH. As the concentration of ascorbic acid increased from 10 to 84ppm, oxidative stability increased significantly irrespective of RH (p<0.05). Generally, oils containing ascorbic acid at low RH had higher oxidative stability after storage at 60°C than those at high RH. The antioxidant properties of ascorbic acid were greatly influenced by both the moisture content in the oil and the ascorbic acid concentration.

  6. Phenolic Acids (Gallic and Tannic Acids) Modulate Antioxidant Status and Cisplatin Induced Nephrotoxicity in Rats.

    PubMed

    Akomolafe, Seun F; Akinyemi, Ayodele J; Anadozie, Scholarstical O

    2014-01-01

    Cisplatin (cis-diamminedichloroplatinum (II) or CDDP), used in the treatment of many solid-tissue cancers, has its chief side-effect in nephrotoxicity. Hence, this study sought to investigate and compare the protective effect of gallic acid (GA) and tannic acid (TA) against cisplatin induced nephrotoxicity in rats. The rats were given a prophylactic treatment of GA and TA orally at a dose of 20 and 40 mg/kg body weight for 7 consecutive days before the administration of a single intraperitoneal (i.p.) injection of cisplatin (CP) at 7.5 mg/kg bwt. The protective effects of both GA and TA on CP induced nephrotoxicity were investigated by assaying renal function, oxidative stress biomarkers, and histopathological examination of kidney architecture. A single dose of cisplatin (7.5 mg/kg bwt) injected i.p. caused a significant increase in some biomarkers of renal function (creatinine, uric acid, and urea levels), with a marked elevation in malondialdehyde (MDA) content accompanied by a significant (P < 0.05) decrease in reduced glutathione (GSH) content (103.27%) of kidney tissue as compared to control group. Furthermore, a significant (P < 0.05) reduction in kidney antioxidant enzymes (SOD, catalase, GPx, and GST) activity was observed. However, pretreatment with oral administration of tannic acid and gallic acid at a dose of 20 and 40 mg/kg body weight, respectively, for 7 days prior to cisplatin administration reduced histological renal damage and suppressed the generation of ROS, lipid peroxidation, and oxidative stress in kidney tissues. These results indicate that both gallic and tannic acids could serve as a preventive strategy against cisplatin induced nephrotoxicity.

  7. Antioxidative activities of soymilk fermented with lactic acid bacteria and bifidobacteria.

    PubMed

    Wang, Yi-Chieh; Yu, Roch-Chui; Chou, Cheng-Chun

    2006-04-01

    To further the goal of developing a probiotic dietary adjunct using soymilk, soymilk is fermented with lactic acid bacteria (Lactobacillus acidophilus CCRC 14079 or Streptococcus thermophilus CCRC 14085) and bifidobacteria (Bifidobacterium infantis CCRC 14633 or Bifidobacterium longum B6) individually, and in conjunction. We investigate several antioxidative activities including the inhibition of ascorbate autoxidation, the scavenging effect of superoxide anion radicals and hydrogen peroxide, and the reducing activity exerted by different varieties of fermented soymilks. In addition, the effect of spray-drying and freeze-drying on changes in antioxidative activity is examined. We find that in fermented soymilk both the inhibition of ascorbate autoxidation, and the reducing activity and scavenging effect of superoxide anion radicals varied with the starters used, but nevertheless are significantly higher than those found in unfermented soymilk. In general, antioxidative activity in soymilk fermented with lactic acid bacteria and bifidobacteria simultaneously is significantly higher (P < 0.05) than that fermented with either individually. Moreover, antioxidative activity increases as the fermentation period is extended. However, unfermented soymilk shows an H2O2-scavenging effect, while there is no scavenging effect except for the accumulation of H2O2 in fermented soymilk. Finally, we find that freeze-drying causes a significantly lesser (P < 0.05) reduction in the antioxidative activity of soymilk than does spray-drying. Irrespective of the drying method and the starters used for fermentation. The antioxidative activity of fermented soymilk reduces after drying yet remains higher than that of dried unfermented soymilk.

  8. Antioxidant properties of sterilized yacon (Smallanthus sonchifolius) tuber flour.

    PubMed

    Sousa, Sérgio; Pinto, Jorge; Rodrigues, César; Gião, Maria; Pereira, Claúdia; Tavaria, Freni; Malcata, F Xavier; Gomes, Ana; Bertoldo Pacheco, M T; Pintado, Manuela

    2015-12-01

    The objective of this research work was to investigate the antioxidant properties of sterilized yacon tuber flour. The results revealed for the first time the high antioxidant activity of sterilized yacon flour. The best extract obtained by boiling 8.9% (w/v) of yacon flour in deionised water for 10 min exhibited a total antioxidant capacity of 222±2 mg (ascorbic acid equivalent)/100 g DW and a total polyphenol content of 275±3 mg (gallic acid equivalent)/100 g DW associated to the presence of four main phenolic compounds: chlorogenic acid, caffeic acid, coumaric acid and protocatechuic acid, as well as the amino acid tryptophan. The most abundant was chlorogenic acid, followed by caffeic acid. Biological assays revealed that the extract had indeed antioxidant protection, and no pro-oxidant activity. In conclusion, sterilized yacon tuber flour has the potential to be used in the food industry as a food ingredient to produce functional food products.

  9. Antioxidant properties of pyroligneous acid obtained by thermochemical conversion of Schisandra chinensis Baill.

    PubMed

    Ma, Chunhui; Li, Wei; Zu, Yuangang; Yang, Lei; Li, Jian

    2014-12-12

    Sustainable development of renewable resources is a major challenge globally. Biomass is an important renewable energy source and an alternative to fossil fuels. Pyrolysis of biomass is a promising method for simultaneous production of biochar, bio-oil, pyroligneous acid (PA), and gaseous fuels. The purpose of this study was to investigate the pyrolysis process and products yields of Schisandra chinensis fruits with different pyrolysis powers. The obtained PA was extracted with organic solvents, including ethyl formate, dichloromethane, methanol and tetrahydrofuran. The antioxidant activities, including the free radical scavenging activity and ferric reducing power, of the PA extracts were investigated. The synthetic antioxidants butylated hydroxyanisole and butylated hydroxytoluene were used as positive controls. A dichloromethane extract of PA showed excellent antioxidant properties compared to the other extracts. The chemical compositions of the PA extracts were determined by GC-MS, and further proved that the dichloromethane extract had the best antioxidant characteristics among the extracts tested.

  10. Interactions between major chlorogenic acid isomers and chemical changes in coffee brew that affect antioxidant activities.

    PubMed

    Liang, Ningjian; Xue, Wei; Kennepohl, Pierre; Kitts, David D

    2016-12-15

    Coffee bean source and roasting conditions significantly (p<0.05) affected the content of chlorogenic acid (CGA) isomers, several indices of browning and subsequent antioxidant values. Principal component analysis was used to interpret the correlations between physiochemical and antioxidant parameters of coffee. CGA isomer content was positively correlated (p<0.001) to capacity of coffee to reduce nitric oxide and scavenge Frémy's salt. Indices of browning in roasted coffee were positively correlated (p<0.001) to ABTS and TEMPO radical scavenging capacity, respectively. Only the CGA content of coffee corresponded to intracellular antioxidant capacity measured in Caco-2 intestinal cells. This study concluded that the intracellular antioxidant capacity that best describes potential health benefits of coffee positively corresponds best with CGA content.

  11. Changes in antioxidant activity and phenolic acid composition of tarhana with steel-cut oats.

    PubMed

    Kilci, A; Gocmen, D

    2014-02-15

    Steel-cut oats (SCO) was used to replace wheat flour in the tarhana formulation (control) at the levels of 10%, 20%, 30% and 40% (w/w). Control sample included no SCO. Substitution of wheat flour in tarhana formulation with SCO affected the mineral contents positively. SCO additions also increased phenolic acid contents of tarhana samples. The most abundant phenolic acids were ferulic and vanillic acids, followed by syringic acid in the samples with SCO. Tarhana samples with SCO also showed higher antioxidant activities than the control. Compared with the control, the total phenolic content increased when the level of SCO addition was increased. SCO addition did not have a deteriorative effect on sensory properties of tarhana samples and resulted in acceptable soup properties in terms of overall acceptability. SCO addition improved the nutritional and functional properties of tarhana by causing increases in antioxidant activity, phenolic content and phenolic acids.

  12. Impact of phytic acid on nutrient bioaccessibility and antioxidant properties of dehusked rice.

    PubMed

    Lee, H H; Loh, S P; Bong, C F J; Sarbini, S R; Yiu, P H

    2015-12-01

    Whole grains consumption promotes health benefits, but demonstrates controversial impacts from phytic acid in meeting requirements of good health. Therefore, this study was aimed to determine the nutrient bioaccessibility and antioxidant properties of rice cultivars named "Adan" or "Bario" and deduce the nutritional impact of phytic acid. Majority of the dehusked rice in the collection showed an acceptable level of in-vitro starch digestibility and in-vitro protein digestibility, but were poor in antioxidant properties and bioaccessibility of minerals (Ca, Fe and Zn). The drawbacks identified in the rice cultivars were due to relatively high phytic acid content (2420.6 ± 94.6 mg/100 g) and low phenolic content (152.39 ± 18.84 μg GAE/g). The relationship between phytic acid content and mineral bioaccessibility was strongest in calcium (r = 0.60), followed by iron (r = 0.40) and zinc (r = 0.27). Phytic acid content did not significantly correlate with in-vitro starch digestibility and in-vitro protein digestibility but showed a weak relationship with antioxidant properties. These suggest that phytic acid could significantly impair the mineral bioaccessibility of dehusked rice, and also act as an important antioxidant in non-pigmented rice. Bario rice cultivars offered dehusked rice with wide range of in-vitro digestibility of starch and protein, and also pigmented rice as a good source of antioxidants. However, there is a need to reduce phytic acid content in dehusked rice for improved mineral bioaccessibility among Bario rice cultivars.

  13. Pericarp browning and quality management of litchi fruit by antioxidants and salicylic acid during ambient storage.

    PubMed

    Kumar, Deepak; Mishra, Daya Shankar; Chakraborty, Binayak; Kumar, Prabhat

    2013-08-01

    Different antioxidants and salicylic acid were tested to overcome pericarp browning and to maintain the postharvest quality of the litchi fruits at ambient storage. It was found that 0.5% salicylic acid, 1% isoascorbic acid and 1% N-acetyl cysteine performed better over sulphur dioxide (SO2) fumigation for most of the parameters under study. Application of 0.5% salicylic acid found superior to reduce the pericarp browning, relative leakage rate, and decay percentage. It was effective in reduction of polyphenol oxidase activity and improvement of anthocyanin pigments of the fruit pericarp over other treatments. Total soluble solid, titratable acidity and ascorbic acid of the litchi fruits were recorded highest with the application of 1% isoascorbic acid followed by 0.5% salicylic acid treatment. Therefore, 0.5% salicylic acid and 1% isoascorbic could be used as an alternative of SO2 fumigation for quality retention of litchi fruits.

  14. Housefly larvae hydrolysate: orthogonal optimization of hydrolysis, antioxidant activity, amino acid composition and functional properties

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    C- 4°C and room temperature during the first 6 months of storage. Essential amino acids in the hydrolysate accounted for 43% of the total amino acids. Conclusions The results suggesting that hydrolysate could be added to food oils as an efficient antioxidant. It might be useful for food additives, diet nutrients and pharmaceutical agents. PMID:23683361

  15. The effect of tea fermentation on rosmarinic acid and antioxidant properties using selected in vitro sprout culture of Orthosiphon aristatus as a model study.

    PubMed

    Hunaefi, Dase; Smetanska, Iryna

    2013-12-01

    Orthosiphon aristatus, an Indonesian medicinal plant, is normally used as a traditional herbal tea. Recently, this plant has begun to attract attention due to its antioxidant properties. However, little is known about tea fermentation effect on antioxidant properties of this plant. Thus, to extend the tea fermentation study, in vitro sprout culture of this plant was established as a new feature model. This model plant was selected based on three reasons. Firstly, as a native tropical plant, to grow this plant in sub-tropic area is considered difficult. Secondly, the in vitro sprout culture is more genetically stable compared to other types of in vitro cultures. Thirdly, results showed that this in vitro sprout culture grew faster and produced higher biomass than in vitro tissue culture. Both characteristics are important in producing tea leaves. Accordingly, the aim of the current study was twofold. First was to establish high rosmarinic acid line of in vitro sprout culture of Orthosiphon aristatus by elicitation. Second was to evaluate the effect of tea fermentation on antioxidant properties of this plant. Results showed that yeast extract (5 g/L) elicitation resulted in the highest production of rosmarinic acid. This elicited plant was subjected to partial and full tea fermentation. Results revealed that both tea fermentations decreased the level of rosmarinic acid, total phenolic compounds, flavonoids, and flavonols. These decreases were concomitant with reduced antioxidant activities as measured by 1,1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) scavenging activity, Trolox equivalent antioxidant capacity (TEAC), and Superoxide dismutase (SOD)-like activity assays. HPLC results showed that the longer the tea fermentation was, the greater reduction rosmarinic acid was found. High correlation value of 0.922 between rosmarinic acid and antioxidant activities was also observed. These results indicated that rosmarinic acid is the major contributor to the antioxidant activities

  16. Antioxidant glucosylated caffeoylquinic acid derivatives in the invasive tropical soda apple, Solanum viarum

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The eggplant (Solanum melongena) and other species within the “spiny solanums” (Solanum subgenus Leptostemonum) contain diverse and abundant antioxidant caffeoylquinic acid (CQA) derivatives. The fruit of an aggressive invasive species in the spiny solanums, Solanum viarum, contain numerous CQA deri...

  17. Phenolic acids and antioxidant capacity of distillers dried grains with solubles (DDGS) as compared with corn

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Three sets of ground corn and the corresponding distillers dried grains with solubles (DDGS) were collected from three commercial plants and analyzed for individual phenolic acids by high performance liquid chromatography coupled with diode array and/or mass spectrometry and for antioxidant capacity...

  18. Phenolic acids and antioxidant activity of distillers dried grains with solubles (DDGS) as compared with corn

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Sample sets of ground corn and the corresponding distillers dried grains with solubles (DDGS) were collected from three commercial plants in Iowa. Phenolic acids were analyzed by high performance liquid chromatography coupled with diode array and/or mass spectrometry. The antioxidant activity was ...

  19. Selected Lactic Acid Bacteria Synthesize Antioxidant Peptides during Sourdough Fermentation of Cereal Flours

    PubMed Central

    Coda, Rossana; Pinto, Daniela; Gobbetti, Marco

    2012-01-01

    A pool of selected lactic acid bacteria was used for the sourdough fermentation of various cereal flours with the aim of synthesizing antioxidant peptides. The radical-scavenging activity of water/salt-soluble extracts (WSE) from sourdoughs was significantly (P < 0.05) higher than that of chemically acidified doughs. The highest activity was found for whole wheat, spelt, rye, and kamut sourdoughs. Almost the same results were found for the inhibition of linoleic acid autoxidation. WSE were subjected to reverse-phase fast protein liquid chromatography. Thirty-seven fractions were collected and assayed in vitro. The most active fractions were resistant to further hydrolysis by digestive enzymes. Twenty-five peptides of 8 to 57 amino acid residues were identified by nano-liquid chromatography-electrospray ionization-tandem mass spectrometry. Almost all of the sequences shared compositional features which are typical of antioxidant peptides. All of the purified fractions showed ex vivo antioxidant activity on mouse fibroblasts artificially subjected to oxidative stress. This study demonstrates the capacity of sourdough lactic acid bacteria to release peptides with antioxidant activity through the proteolysis of native cereal proteins. PMID:22156436

  20. Improving the antioxidant properties of quinoa flour through fermentation with selected autochthonous lactic acid bacteria.

    PubMed

    Rizzello, Carlo Giuseppe; Lorusso, Anna; Russo, Vito; Pinto, Daniela; Marzani, Barbara; Gobbetti, Marco

    2017-01-16

    Lactic acid bacteria strains, previously isolated from the same matrix, were used to ferment quinoa flour aiming at exploiting the antioxidant potential. As in vitro determined on DPPH and ABTS radicals, the scavenging activity of water/salt-soluble extracts (WSE) from fermented doughs was significantly (P<0.05) higher than that of non-inoculated doughs. The highest inhibition of linoleic acid autoxidation was found for the quinoa dough fermented with Lactobacillus plantarum T0A10. The corresponding WSE was subjected to Reverse Phase Fast Protein Liquid Chromatography, and 32 fractions were collected and subjected to in vitro assays. The most active fraction was resistant to further hydrolysis by digestive enzymes. Five peptides, having sizes from 5 to 9 amino acid residues, were identified by nano-Liquid Chromatography-Electrospray Ionisation-Mass Spectra/Mass Spectra. The sequences shared compositional features which are typical of antioxidant peptides. As shown by determining cell viability and radical scavenging activity (MTT and DCFH-DA assays, respectively), the purified fraction showed antioxidant activity on human keratinocytes NCTC 2544 artificially subjected to oxidative stress. This study demonstrated the capacity of autochthonous lactic acid bacteria to release peptides with antioxidant activity through proteolysis of native quinoa proteins. Fermentation of the quinoa flour with a selected starter might be considered suitable for novel applications as functional food ingredient, dietary supplement or pharmaceutical preparations.

  1. Characterization of nutrients, amino acids, polyphenols and antioxidant activity of Ridge gourd (Luffa acutangula) peel.

    PubMed

    Swetha, M P; Muthukumar, S P

    2016-07-01

    Ridge gourd (Luffa acutangula) is consumed as a vegetable after peeling off the skin which is a domestic waste. Luffa acutangula peel (LAP) was observed to be a good source of fiber (20.6 %) and minerals (7.7 %). Amino acid analysis revealed presence of the highest content of Carnosine followed by aspartic acid and aminoadipic acid. Antioxidant activity of different extracts showed that ethyl acetate extract was more potent when compared to other solvent extractions. It exhibited a significant amount of phenolic acids like p-coumaric acid (68.64 mg/100 g of dry weight) followed by gallic acid (34.98 mg/100 g of dry weight), protocatechuic acid (30.52 mg/100 g of dry weight) in free form and ferulic acid (13.04 mg/100 g of dry weight) in bound form.

  2. Enhanced oral bioavailability and in vivo antioxidant activity of chlorogenic acid via liposomal formulation.

    PubMed

    Feng, Yingshu; Sun, Congyong; Yuan, Yangyang; Zhu, Yuan; Wan, Jinyi; Firempong, Caleb Kesse; Omari-Siaw, Emmanuel; Xu, Yang; Pu, Zunqin; Yu, Jiangnan; Xu, Ximing

    2016-03-30

    In the present study, a formulation system consisting of cholesterol and phosphatidyl choline was used to prepare an effective chlorogenic acid-loaded liposome (CAL) with an improved oral bioavailability and an increased antioxidant activity. The developed liposomal formulation produced regular, spherical and multilamellar-shaped distribution nanoparticles. The pharmacokinetic analysis of CAL compared with chlorogenic acid (CA), showed a higher value of Cmax(6.42 ± 1.49 min versus 3.97 ± 0.39 min) and a delayed Tmax(15 min versus 10 min), with 1.29-fold increase in relative oral bioavailability. The tissue distribution in mice also demonstrated that CAL predominantly accumulated in the liver which indicated hepatic targeting potential of the drug. The increased activities of antioxidant enzymes (Total Superoxide Dismutase (T-SOD) and Glutathione Peroxidase (GSH-Px)) and total antioxidant capacity (T-AOC), in addition to decreased level of malondialdehyde (MDA) in CCl4-induced hepatotoxicity study further revealed that CAL exhibited significant hepatoprotective and antioxidant effects. Collectively, these findings present a liposomal formulation with significantly improved oral bioavailability and an increased in vivo antioxidant activity of CA.

  3. Ferulic acid chronic treatment exerts antidepressant-like effect: role of antioxidant defense system.

    PubMed

    Lenzi, Juliana; Rodrigues, Andre Felipe; Rós, Adriana de Sousa; de Castro, Amanda Blanski; de Castro, Bianca Blanski; de Lima, Daniela Delwing; Magro, Débora Delwing Dal; Zeni, Ana Lúcia Bertarello

    2015-12-01

    Oxidative stress has been claimed a place in pathophysiology of depression; however, the details of the neurobiology of this condition remains incompletely understood. Recently, treatments employing antioxidants have been thoroughly researched. Ferulic acid (FA) is a phenolic compound with antioxidant and antidepressant-like effects. Herein, we investigated the involvement of the antioxidant activity of chronic oral FA treatment in its antidepressant-like effect using the tail suspension test (TST) and the forced swimming test (FST) in mice. The modulation of antioxidant system in blood, hippocampus and cerebral cortex was assessed after stress induction through TST and FST. Our results show that FA at the dose of 1 mg/kg has antidepressant-like effect without affecting locomotor activity. The stress induced by despair tests was able to decrease significantly the activities of superoxide dismutase (SOD) in the blood, catalase (CAT) in the blood and cerebral cortex and glutathione peroxidase (GSH-Px) in the cerebral cortex. Thiobarbituric acid-reactive substances (TBA-RS) levels were increased significantly in the cerebral cortex. Furthermore, the results show that FA was capable to increase SOD, CAT and GSH-Px activities and decrease TBA-RS levels in the blood, hippocampus and cerebral cortex. These findings demonstrated that FA treatment in low doses is capable to exert antidepressant-like effect with the involvement of the antioxidant defense system modulation.

  4. Antioxidant Activity of Caffeic Acid against Iron-Induced Free Radical Generation—A Chemical Approach

    PubMed Central

    Genaro-Mattos, Thiago C.; Maurício, Ângelo Q.; Rettori, Daniel; Alonso, Antonio; Hermes-Lima, Marcelo

    2015-01-01

    Caffeic acid (CA) is a phenolic compound widely found in coffee beans with known beneficial effects in vivo. Many studies showed that CA has anti-inflammatory, anti-mutagenic, antibacterial and anti-carcinogenic properties, which could be linked to its antioxidant activity. Taking in consideration the reported in vitro antioxidant mechanism of other polyphenols, our working hypothesis was that the CA antioxidant activity could be related to its metal-chelating property. With that in mind, we sought to investigate the chemical antioxidant mechanism of CA against in vitro iron-induced oxidative damage under different assay conditions. CA was able to prevent hydroxyl radical formation promoted by the classical Fenton reaction, as determined by 2-deoxyribose (2-DR) oxidative degradation and DMPO hydroxylation. In addition to its ability to prevent hydroxyl radical formation, CA had a great inhibition of membrane lipid peroxidation. In the lipid peroxidation assays CA acted as both metal-chelator and as hydrogen donor, preventing the deleterious action promoted by lipid-derived peroxyl and alkoxyl radicals. Our results indicate that the observed antioxidant effects were mostly due to the formation of iron-CA complexes, which are able to prevent 2-DR oxidation and DMPO hydroxylation. Noteworthy, the formation of iron-CA complexes and prevention of oxidative damage was directly related to the pH of the medium, showing better antioxidant activity at higher pH values. Moreover, in the presence of lipid membranes the antioxidant potency of CA was much higher, indicating its enhanced effectiveness in a hydrophobic environment. Overall, our results show that CA acts as an antioxidant through an iron chelating mechanism, preventing the formation of free hydroxyl radicals and, therefore, inhibiting Fenton-induced oxidative damage. The chemical properties of CA described here—in association with its reported signaling effects—could be an explanation to its beneficial effects

  5. Antioxidant activity of propolis: role of caffeic acid phenethyl ester and galangin.

    PubMed

    Russo, A; Longo, R; Vanella, A

    2002-11-01

    Propolis, a natural product produced by the honeybee, has been used for thousands of years in folk medicine for several purposes. The extract contains amino acids, phenolic acids, phenolic acid esters, flavonoids, cinnamic acid, terpenes and caffeic acid. It possesses several biological activities such as antiinflammatory, immunostimulatory, antiviral and antibacterial. The exact mode of physiological or biochemical mechanisms responsible for the medical effects, however, is yet to be determined. In this work, we have investigated the antioxidant activity of a propolis extract deprived of caffeic acid phenethyl ester (CAPE). In addition, the activity of CAPE and galangin was also examined. Propolis extract (with and without CAPE) and its active components showed a dose-dependent free radical scavenging effect, a significant inhibition of xanthine oxidase activity, and an antilipoperoxidative capacity. Propolis extract with CAPE was more active than propolis extract without CAPE. CAPE, used alone, exhibited a strong antioxidant activity, higher than galangin. The experimental evidence, therefore, suggests that CAPE plays an important role in the antioxidant activity of propolis.

  6. Synthesis and antioxidant activity of star-shape phenolic antioxidants catalyzed by acidic nanocatalyst based on reduced graphene oxide.

    PubMed

    Golestanzadeh, Mohsen; Naeimi, Hossein; Zahraie, Zohreh

    2017-02-01

    Phenolic antioxidants play important role in prevention of oxidation in different industrials. The research objective in the current study was synthesis and evaluate of antioxidant activity of star-shape phenolic antioxidants. The synthetic compounds were prepared in the presence of sulfonated reduced graphene oxide. The antioxidant activity of synthesized compounds was investigated by spectrophotometrically method according to the DPPH assay. Overall, these compounds are potentially important antioxidant and also to limit activity of reactive oxygen species.

  7. Antioxidant activity of amino acids in soybean oil at frying temperature: Structural effects and synergism with tocopherols.

    PubMed

    Hwang, Hong-Sik; Winkler-Moser, Jill K

    2017-04-15

    The purpose of this study was to evaluate amino acids as natural antioxidants for frying. Twenty amino acids were added to soybean oil heated to 180°C, and the effects of amino acid structure on the antioxidant activity were investigated. Amino acids containing a thiol, a thioether, or an extra amine group such as arginine, cysteine, lysine, methionine, and tryptophan had the strongest antioxidant activities. At 5.5mM, these amino acids had stronger antioxidant activities than 0.02% (1.1mM) tert-butylhydroquinone (TBHQ). A functional group such as an amide, carboxylic acid, imidazole, or phenol appeared to negatively affect amino acid antioxidant activity. Synergism between amino acids and tocopherols was demonstrated, and we found that this synergistic interaction may be mostly responsible for the antioxidant activity that was observed. In a frying study with potato cubes, 5.5mM l-methionine had significantly stronger antioxidant activity than 0.02% TBHQ.

  8. [Antioxidant activity of vegetable oils with various omega-6/omega-3 fatty acids ratio].

    PubMed

    Guseva, D A; Prozorovskaia, N N; Shironin, A V; Sanzhakov, M A; Evteeva, N M; Rusina, I F; Kasaikina, O T

    2010-01-01

    Antioxidant activity and the oxidative stability were investigated in flax, sesame, silybum oils and oils with different omega-6/omega-3 fatty acid ratio. The content of antioxidants (AO) in crude oils and their reactivity towards peroxyl radicals were studied using kinetic method for addition of oil in a model reaction of cumol oxidation. There were correlations between PUFA/omega-9 and thermal stability (50 degrees C); between gamma-tocopherol content and resistantance to oxidative changes after storage at (10 +/- 2) degrees C for 6 months.

  9. Protective Mechanisms of Nitrone Antioxidants in Kanic Acid Induced Neurodegeneration

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2004-01-01

    L., Hong, J.S. (1996) Expression of) FosB in the rat hippocampus and striatum after systemic administration of kainic acid. Neurosci. Abstr. 22...gene expression in the hippocampus . Immunohistochemical methods and electromobility gel shift assays (EMSAs) demonstrate the concerted activation of...acid-induced neurodegenerative diseases. The major focus will be on the pathophysiological changes in the hippocampus . Special attention will be given

  10. Antioxidant protective effect of flavonoids on linoleic acid peroxidation induced by copper(II)/ascorbic acid system.

    PubMed

    Beker, Bilge Yıldoğan; Bakır, Temelkan; Sönmezoğlu, Inci; Imer, Filiz; Apak, Reşat

    2011-11-01

    Antioxidants are compounds that can delay or inhibit lipid oxidation. The peroxidation of linoleic acid (LA) in the absence and presence of Cu(II) ion-ascorbate combinations was investigated in aerated and incubated emulsions at 37°C and pH 7. LA peroxidation induced by copper(II)-ascorbic acid system followed first order kinetics with respect to hydroperoxides concentration. The extent of copper-initiated peroxide production in a LA system assayed by ferric thiocyanate method was used to determine possible antioxidant and prooxidant activities of the added flavonoids. The effects of three different flavonoids of similar structure, i.e. quercetin (QR), morin (MR) and catechin (CT), as potential antioxidant protectors were studied in the selected peroxidation system. The inhibitive order of flavonoids in the protection of LA peroxidation was: morin>catechin≥quercetin, i.e. agreeing with that of formal reduction potentials versus NHE at pH 7, i.e. 0.60, 0.57 and 0.33V for MR, CT, and QR, respectively. Morin showed antioxidant effect at all concentrations whereas catechin and quercetin showed both antioxidant and prooxidant effects depending on their concentrations. The structural requirements for antioxidant activity in flavonoids interestingly coincide with those for Cu(II)-induced prooxidant activity, because as the reducing power of a flavonoid increases, Cu(II)-Cu(I) reduction is facilitated that may end up with the production of reactive species. The findings of this study were evaluated in the light of structure-activity relationships of flavonoids, and the results are believed to be useful to better understand the actual conditions where flavonoids may act as prooxidants in the preservation of heterogeneous food samples containing traces of transition metal ions.

  11. Chemical composition, fatty acid content and antioxidant potential of meat from goats supplemented with Moringa (Moringa oleifera) leaves, sunflower cake and grass hay.

    PubMed

    Qwele, K; Hugo, A; Oyedemi, S O; Moyo, B; Masika, P J; Muchenje, V

    2013-03-01

    The present study determined the chemical composition, fatty acid (FA) content and antioxidant capacity of meat from goats supplemented with Moringa oleifera leaves (MOL) or sunflower cake (SC) or grass hay (GH). The meat from goat supplemented with MOL had higher concentrations of total phenolic content (10.62±0.27 mg tannic acid equivalent E/g). The MOL significantly scavenged 2,2'-azino-bis-3-ethylbenzothiazoline-6-sulfonic-acid (ABTS) radical to 93.51±0.19% (93.51±0.19%) and 1,1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) radical to 58.95±0.3% than other supplements. The antioxidative effect of MOL supplemented meat on catalase (CAT), reduced glutathione (GSH), superoxide dismutase (SOD) and lipid oxidation (LO) was significantly (P<0.05) higher than other meat from goat feed on grass hay or those supplemented with sunflower seed cake. The present study indicated that the anti-oxidative potential of MOL may play a role in improving meat quality (chemical composition, colour and lipid stability).

  12. Effect of salicylic acid treatment on postharvest quality, antioxidant activities, and free polyamines of asparagus.

    PubMed

    Wei, Yunxiao; Liu, Zhenfeng; Su, Yujing; Liu, Donghong; Ye, Xingqian

    2011-03-01

    The effects of salicylic acid (SA) on the quality and antioxidant activity of asparagus stored at 18 ± 2 °C were investigated by analyzing the color, chlorophyll, shear force, and the activity of antioxidant compounds such as ascorbic acid, phenolics, flavonoids, 1,1-Diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) radical scavenging activity ferric reducing antioxidant power (FRAP), and polyamines (PAs). The results showed that SA improved the color and maintained the chlorophyll, phenolic, flavonoid, and ascorbic acid content of asparagus. High concentrations of SA caused a deterioration in asparagus would harm to color and had no effect on shear force within 6 d. SA induced the maximum concentration of phenolics in postharvest asparagus, promoted the increase in total flavonoids before 6 to 9 d, affected the antioxidant activity positively as indicated by the resultant increase in FRAP concentration; however, SA was only active with regard to DPPH scavenging activity within 6 d of treatment. Spermidine (Spd) is the most common form of PA in asparagus, and free putrescine (Put) contents increased over the first 3 d following harvest and then decreased. Spd and Spm concentrations evolved in a similar way and decreased during storage. Higher Spd and Spm contents in the SA pre-treatment Put was inhabited and its peaks appeared later.

  13. Antioxidative properties of hydroxycinnamic acid derivatives and a phenylpropanoid glycoside. A pulse radiolysis study

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lin, Weizhen; Navaratnam, Suppiah; Yao, Side; Lin, Nianyun

    1998-10-01

    Spectral and redox properties of the phenoxyl radicals from hydroxycinnamic acid derivatives and one selected component of phenylpropanoid glycosides, verbascoside, were studied using pulse radiolysis techniques. On the basis of the pH dependence of phenoxyl radical absorptions, the p Ka values for deprotonation of sinapic acid radical and ferulic acid radical are 4.9 and 5.2. The rate constants of one electron oxidation of those antioxidants by azide radical and bromide radical ion were determined at pH 7. The redox potentials of those antioxidants were determined as 0.59-0.71 V vs NHE at pH 7 with reference standard 4-methoxyphenol and resorcinol.

  14. Caffeic acid phenethyl ester (CAPE): correlation of structure and antioxidant properties.

    PubMed

    Göçer, Hülya; Gülçin, Ilhami

    2011-12-01

    Caffeic acid phenethyl ester (CAPE), a plant polyphenolic concentrated in honeybee propolis, has been found to be biologically active in a variety of pathways. The aim of this study was to determine the antioxidant activity of CAPE using different methods such as total antioxidant activity by the thiocyanate method, 2,2'-azino-bis(3-ethylbenzthiazoline-6-sulphonic acid radicals, 1,1-diphenyl-2-picryl-hydrazyl free radicals, N,N-dimethyl-p-phenylenediamine dihydrochloride radicals and superoxide anion radicals scavenging activities, reducing power and ferrous ions (Fe(2+)) chelating activities. CAPE showed 97.9% inhibition on lipid peroxidation of linoleic acid emulsion. On the other hand, butylated hydroxyanisole, butylated hydroxytoluene, α-tocopherol and trolox indicated an inhibition of 87.3, 97.6, 75.3 and 90.3% on peroxidation in the same system, respectively.

  15. Rheological and molecular weight comparisons of approved hyaluronic acid products - preliminary standards for establishing class III medical device equivalence.

    PubMed

    Braithwaite, Gavin J C; Daley, Michael J; Toledo-Velasquez, David

    2016-01-01

    Hyaluronic acid of various molecular weights has been in use for the treatment of osteoarthritis knee pain for decades. Worldwide, these products are regulated as either as drugs or devices and in some countries as both. In the US, this class of products is regulated as Class III medical devices, which places specific regulatory requirements on developers of these materials under a Pre-Market Approval process, typically requiring data from prospective randomized controlled clinical studies. In 1984 pharmaceutical manufacturers became able to file an Abbreviated New Drug Application for approval of a generic drug, thus establishing standards for demonstrating equivalence to an existing chemical entity. Recently, the first biosimilar, or 'generic biologic', was approved. Biosimilars are biological products that are approved by the FDA because they are 'highly similar' to a reference product, and have been shown to have no clinically meaningful differences from the reference product. For devices, Class II medical devices have a pathway for declaring equivalence to an existing product by filing a 510 k application for FDA clearance. However, until recently no equivalent regulatory pathway was available to Class III devices. In this paper, we consider the critical mechanical performance parameters for intra-articular hyaluronic products to demonstrate indistinguishable characteristics. Analogous to the aforementioned pathways that allow for a demonstration of equivalence, we examine these parameters for an existing, marketed device and compare molecular weight and rheological properties of multiple batches of a similar product. We propose that this establishes a scientific rationale for establishing Class III medical device equivalence.

  16. The cysteine releasing pattern of some antioxidant thiazolidine-4-carboxylic acids.

    PubMed

    Önen Bayram, F Esra; Sipahi, Hande; Acar, Ebru Türköz; Kahveci Ulugöl, Reyhan; Buran, Kerem; Akgün, Hülya

    2016-05-23

    Oxidative stress that corresponds to a significant increase in free radical concentration in cells can cause considerable damage to crucial biological macromolecules if not prevented by cellular defense mechanisms. The low-molecular-weight thiol glutathione (GSH) constitutes one of the main intracellular antioxidants. It is synthesized via cysteine, an amino acid found only in limited amounts in cells because of its neurotoxicity. Thus, to ensure an efficient GSH synthesis in case of an oxidative stress, cysteine should be provided extracellularly. Yet, given its nucleophilic properties and its rapid conversion into cystine, its corresponding disulfide, cysteine presents some toxicity and therefore is usually supplemented in a prodrug approach. Here, some thiazolidine-4-carboxylic acids were synthesized and evaluated for their antioxidant properties via the DDPH and CUPRAC assays. Then, the cysteine releasing capacity of the obtained compounds was investigated in aqueous and organic medium in order to correlate the relevant antioxidant properties of the molecules with their cysteine releasing pattern. As a result, the structures' antioxidative properties were not only attributed to cysteine release but also to the thiazolidine cycle itself.

  17. Salicylic acid enhances antioxidant system in Brassica juncea grown under different levels of manganese.

    PubMed

    Parashar, Akshaya; Yusuf, Mohammad; Fariduddin, Qazi; Ahmad, Aqil

    2014-09-01

    The aim was to explore the responses of varied doses of manganese in mustard plants and also to test the proposition that salicylic acid induced up-regulation of antioxidant system which protect photosynthetic apparatus. Seeds were sown in pots and allowed to germinate under natural environmental conditions. At 10 days stage, soils in the pots were enriched with different levels (0, 3, 6, or 9 mM) of Mn for three days and allowed to grow till 30 day stage. At 31st day, foliage of plants was sprayed with 10 μM of salicylic acid (SA) and then allowed to grow till 45 days. Then plants were harvested to assess various growth, leaf gas exchange traits and biochemical parameters. Mn-treated plants had diminished growth, water relations and photosynthetic attributes along with carbonic anhydrase activity whereas; the level of lipid peroxidation, electrolyte leakage, accumulation of H2O2 along with proline accumulation and antioxidant enzymes increased in a concentration dependent manner. Follow-up application of SA to the Mn-stressed plants improved growth, water relations and photosynthetic traits, accelerated the activity of antioxidant enzymes and also the accumulation of proline. SA mediated tolerance to Mn-stressed plants could have due to up-regulation of antioxidant enzymes and proline accumulation.

  18. Enhancing the antioxidant characteristics of phenolic acids by their conversion into cholinium salts

    PubMed Central

    Sintra, Tânia E.; Luís, Andreia; Rocha, Samuel N.; Lobo Ferreira, Ana I. M. C.; Gonçalves, Fernando; Santos, Luís M. N. B. F.; Neves, Bruno M.; Freire, Mara G.; Ventura, Sónia P. M.; Coutinho, João A. P.

    2017-01-01

    Due to the close relation between oxidative stress and a plethora of inflammatory diseases, antioxidants have received an increased attention for incorporation into dermatological products. Their use and absorption is however limited by their low solubility in water-rich formulations. Herein, a set of novel cholinium-based salts, namely dicholinium ellagate and cholinium caffeate, syringate, vanillate, gallate and salicylate were synthetized and characterized. Their melting and decomposition temperatures, water solubility, and toxicological, antioxidant, cytotoxicity and pro-/anti-inflammatory activities were addressed. These new salts, exclusively composed of ions derived from natural sources, display a high thermal stability – up to 150 ºC. The synthesized compounds are significantly more soluble in water (in average, 3 orders of magnitude higher) than the corresponding phenolic acids. Furthermore, they present not only similar but even higher antioxidant and anti-inflammatory activities, as well as comparable cytotoxicity and lower ecotoxicity profiles than their acidic precursors. Amongst all the investigated salts, dicholinium ellagate is the most promising synthesized salt when considering the respective antioxidant and anti-inflammatory activities. Since all the synthesized salts are based on the cholinium cation, they can further be envisaged as essential nutrients to be used in oral drugs. PMID:28255528

  19. Divalent Amino-Acid-Based Amphiphilic Antioxidants: Synthesis, Self-Assembling Properties, and Biological Evaluation.

    PubMed

    Rosselin, Marie; Meyer, Grégory; Guillet, Pierre; Cheviet, Thomas; Walther, Guillaume; Meister, Annette; Hadjipavlou-Litina, Dimitra; Durand, Grégory

    2016-03-16

    We report herein the synthesis of a divalent amphiphilic carrier onto which α-phenyl-N-tert-butyl nitrone (PBN) and 6-hydroxy-2,5,7,8-tetramethylchroman-2-carboxylic acid (Trolox) antioxidants were grafted to give the divalent derivative called FATxPBN. The divalent carrier consists of two lysine amino acids as a scaffold upon which the antioxidant moieties are grafted, a perfluorinated chain that supplies hydrophobicity, and a sugar-based polar headgroup that ensures water solubility. For the sake of comparison, a divalent PBN derivative called FADiPBN was also synthesized. The self-aggregation properties of FATxPBN and FADiPBN were studied by means of surface tension, dynamic light scattering, and transmission electron microscopy methods, and showed they form small micelles (i.e., 12 and 6 nm diameter, respectively) at submillimolar concentrations (i.e., 0.01 and 0.05 mM, respectively), in agreement with partition coefficient values. The superior antioxidant properties of FATxPBN over FADiPBN and the parent compounds PBN and Trolox were demonstrated using in vitro ABTS(•+) reduction (98%) and soybean lipoxygenase inhibition (94%) assays. Finally, FATxPBN was found to significantly inhibit hyperglycemia-induced toxicity on an ex-vivo rat model, demonstrating its potency as a bioactive antioxidant against oxidative stress-induced damage.

  20. Hormetins, antioxidants and prooxidants: defining quercetin-, caffeic acid- and rosmarinic acid-mediated life extension in C. elegans.

    PubMed

    Pietsch, Kerstin; Saul, Nadine; Chakrabarti, Shumon; Stürzenbaum, Stephen R; Menzel, Ralph; Steinberg, Christian E W

    2011-08-01

    Quercetin, Caffeic- and Rosmarinic acid exposure extend lifespan in Caenorhabditis elegans. This comparative study uncovers basic common and contrasting underlying mechanisms: For all three compounds, life extension was characterized by hormetic dose response curves, but hsp-level expression was variable. Quercetin and Rosmarinic acid both suppressed bacterial growth; however, antibacterial properties were not the dominant reason for life extension. Exposure to Quercetin, Caffeic- and Rosmarinic acid resulted in reduced body size, altered lipid-metabolism and a tendency towards a delay in reproductive timing; however the total number of offspring was not affected. An indirect dietary restriction effect, provoked by either chemo-repulsion or diminished pharyngeal pumping was rejected. Quercetin and Caffeic acid were shown to increase the antioxidative capacity in vivo and, by means of a lipofuscin assay, reduce the oxidative damage in the nematodes. Finally, it was possible to demonstrate that the life and thermotolerance enhancing properties of Caffeic- and Rosmarinic acid both rely on osr-1, sek-1, sir-2.1 and unc-43 plus daf-16 in the case of Caffeic acid. Taken together, hormesis, in vivo antioxidative/prooxidative properties, modulation of genetic players, as well as the re-allocation of energy all contribute (to some extent and dependent on the polyphenol) to life extension.

  1. Phenolic acid induced growth of gold nanoshells precursor composites and their application in antioxidant capacity assay.

    PubMed

    Ma, Xiaoyuan; Qian, Weiping

    2010-11-15

    In the present work, the gold nanoshells (GNSs) precursor composites were preadsorbed onto the surface of ITO substrates. With the treatment of modified electrodes immersed in the gold nanoparticles (GNPs) growth solution containing different phenolic acids, the GNSs precursor composites were enlarged to varying degrees. Phenolic acids with one or more phenolic hydroxyl groups served as reductants for the growth of GNPs. The enlargement conditions varied with the different reducing capacity of phenolic acids, exhibiting specific morphologies differ from the complete GNSs. Consequently, the UV-vis-NIR spectra and cyclic voltammetry curves for the phenolic acid-treated ITO electrode were gradually changed. Results showed that the higher reducing capacity for phenolic acid to reduce AuCl(4)(-) to Au(0) resulted in the intensified localized surface plasmon resonance features and reduced cathodic currents. The spectral wavelength peaks red shifted hundreds of nanometers across the visible region. Moreover, the antioxidant capacity of phenolic acids correlates well with their reducing activity, both of which reflect their tendency to donate electrons. Thus, the optical and electrochemical results could be used to evaluate the antioxidant capacity of phenolic acids by utilizing GNSs precursor composites as nanoprobes. The method is simple, rapid and could be used in visual analysis to a certain extent.

  2. In Silico Discovery of Novel Potent Antioxidants on the Basis of Pulvinic Acid and Coumarine Derivatives and Their Experimental Evaluation

    PubMed Central

    Martinčič, Rok; Mravljak, Janez; Švajger, Urban; Perdih, Andrej; Anderluh, Marko; Novič, Marjana

    2015-01-01

    A pigment from the edible mushroom Xerocomus badius norbadione A, which is a natural derivative of pulvinic acid, was found to possess antioxidant properties. Since the pulvinic acid represents a novel antioxidant scaffold, several other derivatives were recently synthetized and evaluated experimentally, along with some structurally related coumarine derivatives. The obtained data formed the basis for the construction of several quantitative structure-activity and pharmacophore models, which were employed in the virtual screening experiments of compound libraries and for the prediction of their antioxidant activity, with the goal of discovering novel compounds possessing antioxidant properties. A final prioritization list of 21 novel compounds alongside 8 established antioxidant compounds was created for their experimental evaluation, consisting of the DPPH assay, 2-deoxyribose assay, β-carotene bleaching assay and the cellular antioxidant activity assay. Ten novel compounds from the tetronic acid and barbituric acid chemical classes displayed promising antioxidant activity in at least one of the used assays, that is comparable to or even better than some standard antioxidants. Compounds 5, 7 and 9 displayed good activity in all the assays, and were furthermore effective preventers of oxidative stress in human peripheral blood mononuclear cells, which are promising features for the potential therapeutic use of such compounds. PMID:26474393

  3. Synthesis of a Functionalized Benzofuran as a Synthon for Salvianolic Acid C Analogues as Potential LDL Antioxidants.

    PubMed

    López-Frías, Gabriela; Camacho-Dávila, Alejandro A; Chávez-Flores, David; Zaragoza-Galán, Gerardo; Ramos-Sánchez, Víctor H

    2015-05-14

    A palladium mediated synthesis of a common synthon for the syntheses of antioxidant analogues of naturally occurring salvianolic acids is presented. The synthetic route may be used to obtain analogues with a balanced lipophilicity/hydrophilicity which may result in potentially interesting LDL antioxidants for the prevention of cardiovascular diseases.

  4. Antioxidant response of soybean seedlings to joint stress of lanthanum and acid rain.

    PubMed

    Liang, Chanjuan; Wang, Weimin

    2013-11-01

    Excess of rare earth elements in soil can be a serious environmental stress on plants, in particular when acid rain coexists. To understand how such a stress affects plants, we studied antioxidant response of soybean leaves and roots exposed to lanthanum (0.06, 0.18, and 0.85 mmol L(-1)) under acid rain conditions (pH 4.5 and 3.0). We found that low concentration of La3+ (0.06 mmol L(-1)) did not affect the activity of antioxidant enzymes (catalase and peroxidase) whereas high concentration of La3+ (≥0.18 mmol L(-1)) did. Compared to treatment with acid rain (pH 4.5 and pH 3.0) or La3+ alone, joint stress of La3+ and acid rain affected more severely the activity of catalase and peroxidase, and induced more H2O2 accumulation and lipid peroxidation. When treated with high level of La3+ (0.85 mmol L(-1)) alone or with acid rain (pH 4.5 and 3.0), roots were more affected than leaves regarding the inhibition of antioxidant enzymes, physiological function, and growth. The severity of oxidative damage and inhibition of growth caused by the joint stress associated positively with La3+ concentration and soil acidity. These results will help us understand plant response to joint stress, recognize the adverse environmental impact of rare earth elements in acidic soil, and develop measures to eliminate damage caused by such joint stress.

  5. Antioxidant, antimicrobial activities and fatty acid components of flower, leaf, stem and seed of Hypericum scabrum.

    PubMed

    Shafaghat, Ali

    2011-11-01

    The hexane extracts of flower, leaf, stem, and seed of Hypericum scabrum, which were collected from northwestern Iran, were obtained by extraction in a Soxhlet apparatus. The fatty acids were converted to methyl esters and determined by gas chromatography/flame ionization detector (GC/FID) and gas chromatography/mass spectrometry (GC/MS) systems. The hexane extract from the flower, leaf, stem, and seed contained 39.1%, 43.2%, 29.0%, and 37.6% of omega-3 fatty acids, respectively. The other main components of the flower extract were tetracosane (12.2%) and palmitic acid (9.3%), and that of the leaf extract was palmitic acid (7.4%). The stem and seed extracts contained bis(2-ethylhexyl)phthalate (18.7% and 35.7%), nonacosane (11.7% and 3.9%) and linoleic acid (6.5% and 6.9%) as major components. The hexane extracts of different parts from H. scabrum represent an important source of omega-3 fatty acids in several Hypericum species. The antioxidant activity of all hexane extracts was evaluated by the 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) radical scavenging method. The results indicate that hexane extracts from different parts of H. scabrum possess considerable antioxidant activity. The highest radical scavenging activity was detected in seed, which had an IC50 = 165 microg/mL. The antimicrobial activity of the extracts of those samples were determined against seven Gram-positive and Gram-negative bacteria (Bacillus subtilis, Enterococcus faecalis, Staphylococcus aureus, S. epidermidis, Escherichia coli, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, and Klebsiella pneumoniae), as well as three fungi (Candida albicans, Saccharomyces cerevisiae, and Aspergillus niger). The bioassay showed that the oil exhibited moderate antimicrobial activity. This study reveals that the all parts of this plant are attractive sources of fatty acid components, especially the essential ones, as well as of effective natural antioxidants.

  6. Quality and antioxidant properties on sweet cherries as affected by preharvest salicylic and acetylsalicylic acids treatments.

    PubMed

    Giménez, María José; Valverde, Juan Miguel; Valero, Daniel; Guillén, Fabián; Martínez-Romero, Domingo; Serrano, María; Castillo, Salvador

    2014-10-01

    The effects of salicylic acid (SA) or acetylsalicylic acid (ASA) treatments during on-tree cherry growth and ripening on fruit quality attributes, especially those related with the content on bioactive compounds and antioxidant activity were analysed in this research. For this purpose, two sweet cherry cultivars, 'Sweet Heart' and 'Sweet Late', were used and SA or ASA treatments, at 0.5, 1.0 and 2.0mM concentrations, were applied at three key points of fruit development (pit hardening, initial colour changes and onset of ripening). These treatments increased fruit weight and ameliorated quality attributes at commercial harvest, and led to cherries with higher concentration in total phenolics and in total anthocyanins, as well as higher antioxidant activity, in both hydrophilic and lipophilic fractions. Thus, preharvest treatments with SA or ASA could be promising tools to improve sweet cherry quality and health beneficial effects for consumers.

  7. Antioxidative effect of lipophilized caffeic acid in fish oil enriched mayonnaise and milk.

    PubMed

    Alemán, Mercedes; Bou, Ricard; Guardiola, Francesc; Durand, Erwann; Villeneuve, Pierre; Jacobsen, Charlotte; Sørensen, Ann-Dorit Moltke

    2015-01-15

    The antioxidative effect of lipophilized caffeic acid was assessed in two different fish oil enriched food products: mayonnaise and milk. In both emulsion systems, caffeic acid esterified with fatty alcohols of different chain lengths (C1-C20) were better antioxidants than the original phenolic compound. The optimal chain length with respect to protection against oxidation was, however, different for the two food systems. Fish oil enriched mayonnaise with caffeates of medium alkyl chain length (butyl, octyl and dodecyl) added resulted in a better oxidative stability than caffeates with shorter (methyl) or longer (octadecyl) alkyl chains. Whereas in fish oil enriched milk emulsions the most effective caffeates were those with shorter alkyl chains (methyl and butyl) rather than the ones with medium and long chains (octyl, dodecyl, hexadecyl and eicosyl). These results demonstrate that there might be an optimum alkyl chain length for each phenolipid in each type of emulsion systems.

  8. The role of cyclodextrins in ORAC-fluorescence assays. antioxidant capacity of tyrosol and caffeic acid with hydroxypropyl-β-cyclodextrin.

    PubMed

    García-Padial, Marcos; Martínez-Ohárriz, María Cristina; Navarro-Blasco, Iñigo; Zornoza, Arantza

    2013-12-18

    Tyrosol and caffeic acid are biophenols that contribute to the beneficial properties of virgin olive oil. The influence of hydroxypropyl-β-cyclodextrin (HPβ-CD) on their respective antioxidant capacities was analyzed. The ORAC antioxidant activity of tyrosol (expressed as μM Trolox equivalents/μM Tyrosol) was 0.83 ± 0.03 and it increased up to 1.20 ± 0.11 in the presence of 0.8 mM HPβ-CD. However, the ORAC antioxidant activity of caffeic acid experienced no change. The different effect of HPβ-CD on each compound was discussed. In addition, the effect of increasing concentrations of different cyclodextrins in the development of ORAC-fluorescence (ORAC-FL) assays was studied. The ORAC signal was higher for HPβ-CD, followed by Mβ-CD, β-CD, γ-CD and finally α-CD. These results could be explained by the formation of inclusion complexes with fluorescein.

  9. Fatty acids, sterols, and antioxidant activity in minimally processed avocados during refrigerated storage.

    PubMed

    Plaza, Lucía; Sánchez-Moreno, Concepción; de Pascual-Teresa, Sonia; de Ancos, Begoña; Cano, M Pilar

    2009-04-22

    Avocado ( Persea americana Mill.) is a good source of bioactive compounds such as monounsaturated fatty acids and sterols. The impact of minimal processing on its health-promoting attributes was investigated. Avocados cut into slices or halves were packaged in plastic bags under nitrogen, air, or vacuum and stored at 8 degrees C for 13 days. The stabilities of fatty acids and sterols as well as the effect on antioxidant activity were evaluated. The main fatty acid identified and quantified in avocado was oleic acid (about 57% of total content), whereas beta-sitosterol was found to be the major sterol (about 89% of total content). In general, after refrigerated storage, a significant decrease in fatty acid content was observed. Vacuum/halves and air/slices were the samples that maintained better this content. With regard to phytosterols, there were no significant changes during storage. Antioxidant activity showed a slight positive correlation against stearic acid content. At the end of refrigerated storage, a significant increase in antiradical efficiency (AE) was found for vacuum samples. AE values were quite similar among treatments. Hence, minimal processing can be a useful tool to preserve health-related properties of avocado fruit.

  10. Effect of modification of the kilning regimen on levels of free ferulic acid and antioxidant activity in malt.

    PubMed

    Inns, Elizabeth L; Buggey, Lesley A; Booer, Christopher; Nursten, Harry E; Ames, Jennifer M

    2011-09-14

    Barley phenolic antioxidants change in response to the kilning regimen used to prepare malt. Green malt was kilned using four different regimens. There were no major differences among the finished malts in parameters routinely used by the malting industry, including, moisture, color, and diastatic activity. Ferulic acid esterase activity and free ferulic acid were higher in malts subjected to the coolest kilning regimen, but malt ethyl acetate extracts (containing ferulic acid) contributed only ∼5% of the total malt antioxidant activity. Finished malt from the hottest kilning regimen possessed the highest antioxidant activity, attributed to higher levels of Maillard reaction products. Modifying kilning conditions leads to changes in release of bound ferulic acid and antioxidant activity with potential beneficial effects on flavor stability in malt and beer.

  11. Phenolic acid contents, essential oil compositions and antioxidant activities of two varieties of Salvia euphratica from Turkey.

    PubMed

    Yumrutas, Onder; Sokmen, Atalay; Akpulat, H Askın; Ozturk, Nilgun; Daferera, Dimitra; Sokmen, Munevver; Tepe, Bektas

    2012-01-01

    This study was designed to evaluate the in vitro antioxidant activities of n-hexane (Hex), dichloromethane (DCM), methanol (MeOH) and essential oils (EO) extracts obtained from Salvia euphratica var. euphratica and Salvia euphratica var. leiocalycina and to determine their essential oil and phenolic acid compositions. The samples were screened for their antioxidant activity by using DPPH and β-carotene/linoleic acid assays. Methanol extracts of both varieties exhibited strong antioxidant activities. Our results showed that rosmarinic acid was dominant phenolic acid of MeOH extracts (39.4 and 55.8 µg mg⁻¹, respectively). The chemical compositions of essential oils of two varieties were analysed and their main components were determined as eucalyptol (18.4%) and trans-pinocarvyl acetate (24.9%), respectively. It can be said that these varieties could be used as natural antioxidant.

  12. Assessment of rosmarinic acid content in six Lamiaceae species extracts and their antioxidant and antimicrobial potential.

    PubMed

    Benedec, Daniela; Hanganu, Daniela; Oniga, Ilioara; Tiperciuc, Brindusa; Olah, Neli-Kinga; Raita, Oana; Bischin, Cristina; Silaghi-Dumitrescu, Radu; Vlase, Laurian

    2015-11-01

    In the present study, six indigenous species of Lamiaceae family (Origanum vulgare L., Melissa officinalis L., Rosmarinus officinalis L., Ocimum basilicum L., Salvia officinalis L. and Hyssopus officinalis L.), have been analyzed to assess the rosmarinic acid, phenyl propane derivatives and polyphenolic contents and their antioxidant and antimicrobial potential. HPLC-MS method has been used for the analysis ofrosmarinicacid. The phenyl propane derivatives and total phenolic contents were determined using spectrophotometric method. The ethanolic extracts were screened for antioxidant activities by DPPH radical scavenging, HAPX (hemoglobin ascorbate per oxidase activity inhibition), and EPR (electron paramagnetic resonance) methods. The ethanolic extracts revealed the presence of rosmarinic acid in the largest amount in O. vulgare (12.40mg/g) and in the lowest in R. officinalis (1.33 mg/g). O. vulgare extracts exhibited the highest antioxidant capacity, in line with the rosmarinic acid and polyphenolic contents. The antimicrobial testing showed a significant activity against L. monocytogenes, S. aureus and C. albicans for all six extracts.

  13. Betalain, Acid ascorbic, phenolic contents and antioxidant properties of purple, red, yellow and white cactus pears.

    PubMed

    Sumaya-Martínez, María Teresa; Cruz-Jaime, Sandra; Madrigal-Santillán, Eduardo; García-Paredes, Juan Diego; Cariño-Cortés, Raquel; Cruz-Cansino, Nelly; Valadez-Vega, Carmen; Martinez-Cardenas, Leonardo; Alanís-García, Ernesto

    2011-01-01

    Commercialization of cactus pears based on their antioxidant properties can generate competitive advantages, and these can turn into business opportunities and the development of new products and a high-value ingredient for the food industry. This work evaluated the antioxidant activities (1,1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl radical-scavenging, protection against oxidation of a β-carotene-linoleic acid emulsion, and iron (II) chelation), the content of total phenolic compounds, ascorbic acid, betacyanin, betaxanthin and the stability of betacyanin pigments in presence of Cu (II)-dependent hydroxyl radicals (OH•), in 18 cultivars of purple, red, yellow and white cactus pear from six Mexican states. Our results indicated that the antiradical activities from yellow and white cactus pear cultivars were not significantly different (p < 0.05) and were lower than the average antiradical activities in red and purple cultivars. The red cactus pear from the state of Zacatecas showed the highest antioxidant activity. The free radical scavenging activity for red cactus pears was significantly correlated (p < 0.05) to the concentration of total phenolic compounds (R(2) = 0.90) and ascorbic acid (R(2) = 0.86). All 18 cultivars of cactus pears studied showed significant chelating activity of ferrous ions. The red and purple cactus pears showed a great stability when exposed to OH•.

  14. Betalain, Acid Ascorbic, Phenolic Contents and Antioxidant Properties of Purple, Red, Yellow and White Cactus Pears

    PubMed Central

    Sumaya-Martínez, María Teresa; Cruz-Jaime, Sandra; Madrigal-Santillán, Eduardo; García-Paredes, Juan Diego; Cariño-Cortés, Raquel; Cruz-Cansino, Nelly; Valadez-Vega, Carmen; Martinez-Cardenas, Leonardo; Alanís-García, Ernesto

    2011-01-01

    Commercialization of cactus pears based on their antioxidant properties can generate competitive advantages, and these can turn into business opportunities and the development of new products and a high-value ingredient for the food industry. This work evaluated the antioxidant activities (1,1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl radical-scavenging, protection against oxidation of a β-carotene-linoleic acid emulsion, and iron (II) chelation), the content of total phenolic compounds, ascorbic acid, betacyanin, betaxanthin and the stability of betacyanin pigments in presence of Cu (II)-dependent hydroxyl radicals (OH•), in 18 cultivars of purple, red, yellow and white cactus pear from six Mexican states. Our results indicated that the antiradical activities from yellow and white cactus pear cultivars were not significantly different (p < 0.05) and were lower than the average antiradical activities in red and purple cultivars. The red cactus pear from the state of Zacatecas showed the highest antioxidant activity. The free radical scavenging activity for red cactus pears was significantly correlated (p < 0.05) to the concentration of total phenolic compounds (R2 = 0.90) and ascorbic acid (R2 = 0.86). All 18 cultivars of cactus pears studied showed significant chelating activity of ferrous ions. The red and purple cactus pears showed a great stability when exposed to OH•. PMID:22072899

  15. Skin penetration and antioxidant effect of cosmeto-textiles with gallic acid.

    PubMed

    Alonso, C; Martí, M; Barba, C; Lis, M; Rubio, L; Coderch, L

    2016-03-01

    In this work, the antioxidant gallic acid (GA) has been encapsulated in microspheres prepared with poly-ε-caprolactone (PCL) and incorporated into polyamide (PA) obtaining the cosmeto-textile. The topical application of the cosmeto-textile provides a reservoir effect in the skin delivery of GA. The close contact of the cosmeto-textile, containing microsphere-encapsulated GA (ME-GA), with the skin and their corresponding occlusion, may be the main reasons that explain the crossing of active principle (GA) through the skin barrier, located in the stratum corneum, and its penetration into the different compartments of the skin, epidermis and dermis. An ex vivo assessment was performed to evaluate the antioxidant effect of the ME-GA on the stratum corneum (SC) using the thiobarbituric acid-reactive species (TBARS) test. The test is based on a non-invasive ex vivo methodology that evaluates lipid peroxides formed in the outermost layers of the SC from human volunteers after UV radiation to determine the effectiveness of an antioxidant. In this case, a ME-GA cosmeto-textile or ME-GA formulation were applied to the skin in vivo and lipid peroxidation (LPO) in the horny layer were determined after UV irradiation. This methodology may be used as a quality control tool to determine ex vivo the percentage of LPO inhibition on human SC for a variety of antioxidants that are topically applied, in this case GA. Results show that LPO formation was inhibited in human SC when GA was applied directly or embedded in the cosmeto-textile, demonstrating the effectiveness of both applications. The percentage of LPO inhibition obtained after both topical applications was approximately 10% for the cosmeto-textile and 41% for the direct application of microspheres containing GA. This methodology could be used to determine the effectiveness of topically applied antioxidants encapsulated in cosmeto-textiles on human SC.

  16. Conformational analysis: a tool for the elucidation of the antioxidant properties of ferulic acid derivatives in membrane models.

    PubMed

    Anselmi, Cecilia; Centini, Marisanna; Andreassi, Marco; Buonocore, Anna; La Rosa, Caterina; Facino, Roberto Maffei; Sega, Alessandro; Tsuno, Fumi

    2004-09-03

    With the aim to search and design more effective and safe antioxidant molecules to be used as functional ingredients in cosmetic formulations for UV protection, we evaluated the antioxidant/radical scavenging activities of ferulic acid and of some alkyl ferulates in both acellular and cellular systems. Ferulic acid esters, equipotent as antioxidant in homogeneous phase, showed when tested in membranous systems (rat liver microsomes, rat erythrocytes) marked differences in antioxidant potency. The n-C(12) derivative was the most potent, followed by n-C(8), n-C(16) and branched C(8), and then by ferulic acid. A conformational study carried out by NMR and modelling, indicates that the different antioxidant activity of ferulates in membrane models is due to the different spatial conformation and arrangement of the side chain of the molecule, which governs the access and binding to the phospholipid bilayer, the modality of orientation of the scavenging/quenching nucleus (phenol moiety), and hence the overall antioxidant potency of the derivative. These results emphasize the need of analytical studies (NMR and molecular modelling) addressed to the knowledge of the conformational parameters in combination with conventional antioxidant testings for understanding the antioxidant behaviour of a molecule in a biological membrane/system.

  17. Study of genotoxic, antigenotoxic and antioxidant activities of the digallic acid isolated from Pistacia lentiscus fruits.

    PubMed

    Bhouri, Wissem; Derbel, Safa; Skandrani, Ines; Boubaker, Jihed; Bouhlel, Ines; Sghaier, Mohamed B; Kilani, Soumaya; Mariotte, Anne M; Dijoux-Franca, Marie G; Ghedira, Kamel; Chekir-Ghedira, Leila

    2010-03-01

    The digallic acid obtained from the fruit Pistacia lentiscus exhibits an inhibitory activity against nitrofurantoine and B[a]P induced genotoxicity when tested by the SOS chromotest bacterial assay system in the presence of Escherichia coli PQ37 strain. The antioxidant activity of the tested compound was determined by its ability to scavenge the free radical ABTS(+), to inhibit the xanthine oxidase, involved in the generation of free radicals, and to inhibit the lipid peroxidation induced by H(2)O(2) in the K562 cell line. Our results revealed that digallic acid shows an important free radical scavenging activity towards the ABTS(+) radical (99%) and protection against lipid peroxidation (68%).

  18. Roasted coffees high in lipophilic antioxidants and chlorogenic acid lactones are more neuroprotective than green coffees.

    PubMed

    Chu, Yi-Fang; Brown, Peter H; Lyle, Barbara J; Chen, Yumin; Black, Richard M; Williams, Claire E; Lin, Yi-Ching; Hsu, Chih-Wei; Cheng, Irene H

    2009-10-28

    Oxidative stress is involved in many neurodegenerative processes leading to age-related cognitive decline. Coffee, a widely consumed beverage, is rich in many bioactive components, including polyphenols with antioxidant potential. In this study, regular and decaffeinated samples of both roasted and green coffee all showed high hydrophilic antioxidant activity in vitro, whereas lipophilic antioxidant activities were on average 30-fold higher in roasted than in green coffee samples. In primary neuronal cell culture, pretreatment with green and roasted coffees (regular and decaffeinated) protected against subsequent H(2)O(2)-induced oxidative stress and improved neuronal cell survival (green coffees increased neuron survival by 78%, compared to 203% by roasted coffees). All coffee extracts inhibited ERK1/2 activation, indicating a potential attenuating effect in stress-induced neuronal cell death. Interestingly, only roasted coffee extracts inhibited JNK activation, evidencing a distinctive neuroprotective benefit. Analysis of coffee phenolic compounds revealed that roasted coffees contained high levels of chlorogenic acid lactones (CGLs); a significant correlation between CGLs and neuroprotective efficacy was observed (R(2) = 0.98). In conclusion, this study showed that roasted coffees are high in lipophilic antioxidants and CGLs, can protect neuronal cells against oxidative stress, and may do so by modulation of the ERK1/2 and JNK signaling pathways.

  19. Improving the antioxidant activity and enriching salvianolic acids by the fermentation of Salvia miltiorrhizae with Geomyces luteus *

    PubMed Central

    Xing, Yun; Cai, Le; Yin, Tian-peng; Chen, Yang; Yu, Jing; Wang, Ya-rong; Ding, Zhong-tao

    2016-01-01

    The antioxidant activities and total phenolic content of fermented Salvia miltiorrhiza with fungus Geomyces luteus were investigated. The results revealed that G. luteus fermentation could significantly improve the antioxidant activity and total phenolic content of S. miltiorrhiza. The main antioxidant constituents were characterized by spectroscopic analysis as salvianolic acids. High-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) quantification also showed the enhanced content of salvianolic acid B after fermentation. The present study suggests that G. luteus fermentations are effective in the S. miltiorrhiza salvianolic acids’ enrichment process. PMID:27143267

  20. Effects of ensiling processes and antioxidants on fatty acid concentrations and compositions in corn silages

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Corn silage is the main dietary component used for ruminant breeding in China and is an important dietary source of fatty acids for these animals. However, little is known regarding effective means to protect the fatty acid (FA) contents in silages. In this study, we examined the changes in FA contents and compositions during corn ensiling and screened several antioxidants for their inhibition of lipid oxidation during corn ensiling. Methods We conducted two different experiments. In Experiment 1, corn was ensiled in 30 polyethylene bottles (bottle volume: 1 L, silage density: 600 g/dm3) and three bottles were opened at 0.5 d, 1 d, 1.5 d, 2 d, 2.5 d, 3 d, 5 d, 7 d, 14 d, and 28 d after ensiling. In Experiment 2, corn was treated with various antioxidants: (1) No additives (CK); (2) BHA (Butylated hydroxyanisole); (3) TBHQ (Tertiary butyl hydroquinone); (4) TPP (Tea polyphenols); and (5) VE (Vitamin E). These treatments were applied at 50 mg/kg and 100 mg/kg of fresh weight with each treatment replicated 3 times. Results During ensiling in Experiment 1, saturated fatty acids (SFA; C16:0 and C18:0) and malondialdehyde (MDA) contents tended to increase, whereas unsaturated fatty acids (UFA; C18:1, C18:2 and C18:3) tended to decrease. However, these changes were only significant on the first 2 days of ensiling. In Experiment 2, all of the antioxidants tested affected the total FA contents and those of unsaturated fatty acids (C18:1, C18:2 and C18:3) and MDA. The effects of TBHQ and TPP were greater than those of the other antioxidants. Conclusions The reduced total FA contents in corn silages were due to unsaturated fatty acids’ oxidation during the early stages of ensiling. Adding an antioxidant could prevent fatty acids’ oxidation in corn silages. PMID:24304647

  1. Effect of folic acid and zinc sulphate on endocrine parameters and seminal antioxidant level after varicocelectomy.

    PubMed

    Nematollahi-Mahani, S N; Azizollahi, G H; Baneshi, M R; Safari, Z; Azizollahi, S

    2014-04-01

    Varicocele is among the most common problems which may lead to male infertility. Spermatogenesis is impaired as a consequence of this vascular defect, through mechanisms that are not well described. This study aimed to evaluate serum hormonal level (inhibin B, FSH and testosterone) and seminal plasma antioxidant defence levels after folic acid and zinc sulphate administration in varicocelectomised patients. Participants were randomly allocated to four experimental groups. Our randomisation schedule was as follows: zinc sulphate/folic acid, folic acid, zinc sulphate and placebo. The patients underwent varicocelectomy, before which a blood and semen sample were obtained and also three and six months after varicocelectomy for evaluation of blood hormonal level (FSH, testosterone, inhibin B) and seminal oxidative stress status (nitric oxide, superoxide dismutase, total antioxidant capacity). Patients in different groups took orally one capsule per day after dinner following varicocelectomy for 6 months. A significant rise in peripheral blood inhibin B and seminal plasma activity was detected in the zinc sulphate/folic acid group after 6 months. The present clinical trial indicates a change in the hormonal status of varicocelectomised patients following long-term administration of zinc sulphate and folic acid.

  2. Effects of bleomycin and antioxidants on the fatty acid profile of testicular cancer cell membranes.

    PubMed

    Cort, A; Ozben, T; Melchiorre, M; Chatgilialoglu, C; Ferreri, C; Sansone, A

    2016-02-01

    Bleomycin is used in chemotherapy regimens for the treatment of patients having testicular germ-cell tumor (TGCT). There is no study in the literature investigating the effects of bleomycin on membrane lipid profile in testicular cancer cells. We investigated membrane fatty acid (FA) profiles isolated, derivatized and analyzed by gas chromatography of NTera-2 testicular cancer cells incubated with bleomycin (Bleo) for 24 h in the absence and presence of N-Acetyl-L-Cysteine (NAC) and curcumin (Cur) as commonly used antioxidant adjuvants. At the same time the MAPK pathway and EGFR levels were followed up. Bleomycin treatment increased significantly saturated fatty acids (SFA) of phospholipids at the expense of monounsaturated (MUFA) and polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFA). Bleomycin also led to a significant increase in the trans lipid isomers of oleic and arachidonic acids due to its free radical producing effect. Incubation with bleomycin increased the p38 MAPK and JNK levels and downregulated EGFR pathway. Coincubation of bleomycin with NAC reversed effects caused by bleomycin. Our results highlight the important role of membrane fatty acid remodeling occurring during the use of bleomycin and its concurrent use with antioxidants which can adjuvate the cytotoxic effects of the chemotherapeutic agents.

  3. Enzymatic synthesis of cocoa butter equivalent from olive oil and palmitic-stearic fatty acid mixture.

    PubMed

    Mohamed, Ibrahim O

    2015-01-01

    The main goal of the present research is to restructure olive oil triacylglycerol (TAG) using enzymatic acidolysis reaction to produce structured lipids that is close to cocoa butter in terms of TAG structure and melting characteristics. Lipase-catalyzed acidolysis of refined olive oil with a mixture of palmitic-stearic acids at different substrate ratios was performed in an agitated batch reactor maintained at constant temperature and agitation speed. The reaction attained steady-state conversion in about 5 h with an overall conversion of 92.6 % for the olive oil major triacylglycerol 1-palmitoy-2,3-dioleoyl glycerol (POO). The five major TAGs of the structured lipids produced with substrate mass ratio of 1:3 (olive oil/palmitic-stearic fatty acid mixture) were close to that of the cocoa butter with melting temperature between 32.6 and 37.7 °C. The proposed kinetics model used fits the experimental data very well.

  4. Foliar and Seed Application of Amino Acids Affects the Antioxidant Metabolism of the Soybean Crop

    PubMed Central

    Teixeira, Walquíria F.; Fagan, Evandro B.; Soares, Luís H.; Umburanas, Renan C.; Reichardt, Klaus; Neto, Durval D.

    2017-01-01

    In recent years, the application of natural substances on crops has been intensified in order to increase the resistance and yield of the soybean crop. Among these products are included plant biostimulants that may contain algae extracts, amino acids, and plant regulators in their composition. However, there is little information on the isolated effect of each of these constituents. The objective of this research was to evaluate the effect of the application of isolated amino acids on the antioxidant metabolism of the soybean crop. Experiments were carried out in a greenhouse and in the field with the application of the amino acids glutamate, phenylalanine, cysteine, glycine in seed treatment, and foliar application at V4 growth stage. Antioxidant metabolism constituents evaluated were superoxide dismutase, catalase, peroxidase, hydrogen peroxide content, proline, and lipid peroxidation. In addition, resistance enzymes as polyphenol oxidase and phenylalanine ammonia-lyase (PAL) were evaluated. In both experiments, the use of cysteine, only in seed treatment and in both seed treatment and foliar application increased the activity of the enzyme PAL and catalase. Also in both experiments, the use of phenylalanine increased the activity of the enzyme PAL when the application was carried out as foliar application or both in seed treatment and foliar application. In the field experiment, the application of glutamate led to an increase in the activity of the catalase and PAL enzymes for seed treatment and foliar application. The use of the set of amino acids was only efficient in foliar application, which led to a greater activity of the enzymes peroxidase, PAL, and polyphenol oxidase. The other enzymes as well as lipid peroxidation and hydrogen peroxide presented different results according to the experiment. Therefore, glutamate, cysteine, phenylalanine, and glycine can act as signaling amino acids in soybean plants, since small doses are enough to increase the activity

  5. Rapid determination of the equivalence volume in potentiometric acid-base titrations to a preset pH-II Standardizing a solution of a strong base, graphic location of equivalence volume, determination of stability constants of acids and titration of a mixture of two weak acids.

    PubMed

    Ivaska, A

    1974-06-01

    A newly proposed method of titrating weak acids with strong bases is applied to standardize a solution of a strong base, to graphic determination of equivalence volume of acetic acid with an error of 0.2%, to calculate the stability constants of hydroxylammonium ion, boric acid and hydrogen ascorbate ion and to analyse a mixture of acetic acid and ammonium ion with an error of 0.2-0.7%.

  6. Effect of Putrescine Treatment on Chilling Injury, Fatty Acid Composition and Antioxidant System in Kiwifruit

    PubMed Central

    Yang, Qingzhen; Wang, Feng; Rao, Jingping

    2016-01-01

    We investigated the effects of different concentrations (0, 1, 2 and 4 mM) of putrescine on chilling injury, fruit quality, ethylene production rate, fatty acid composition and the antioxidant system of cold-stored kiwifruit (Actinidia chinensis Planch. var. chinensis ‘Hongyang’). We achieved a significant decrease in ethylene production, maintained fruit quality and alleviated chilling injury during storage via treatment with 2 mM putrescine. Furthermore, putrescine treatment inhibited increases in superoxide anion production rate and H2O2 concentration, while maintaining higher membrane lipid unsaturation as well as increased activities of superoxide dismutase and catalase. In addition, putrescine treatment enhanced the activities of antioxidant enzymes related to the ascorbate–glutathione cycle while causing higher levels of ascorbic acid and reduced glutathione. Our results suggest that induced tolerance against chilling injury via putrescine treatment in cold-stored kiwifruit may be due to enhanced antioxidant activity, increased unsaturation of membrane lipids, and inhibited ethylene production. PMID:27607076

  7. The mechanism of patulin's cytotoxicity and the antioxidant activity of indole tetramic acids

    SciTech Connect

    Riley, R.T.; Showker, J.L. )

    1991-06-01

    In LLC-PK1 cells exposed to patulin (50 microM), lipid peroxidation, abrupt calcium influx, extensive blebbing, and total LDH release appeared to be serially connected events with each representing a step in the loss of structural integrity of the plasma membrane. The aforementioned patulin-induced events were prevented by concurrent incubation with butylated hydroxytoluene, deferoxamine, and cyclopiazonic acid, a fungal metabolite. Patulin also caused depletion of nonprotein sulfhydryls, increased 86Rb+ efflux, dome collapse, and eventually the loss of cell viability. These events were not prevented by antioxidants, results consistent with the hypothesis that they were also serially connected but occurring parallel to those previously mentioned. The earliest events observed in patulin-treated cells were the decrease in nonprotein sulfhydryls and increase in 86Rb+ efflux (5 min) which occurred before statistically significant alterations in protein-bound sulfhydryls. The increased potassium efflux (86Rb+ efflux) occurred via a pathway distinct from BaCl2, quinine, or tetraethylammonium sensitive potassium channels. This is the first published report of the antioxidant activity of indole tetramic acids (cyclopiazonic acid and cyclopiazonic acid imine). The protective effect of tetramic acids in LLC-PK1 cells was restricted to indole tetramic acids, and their prevention of lipid peroxidation did not involve iron chelation. The results of this study demonstrate that cyclopiazonic acid is a potent inhibitor of azide-insensitive, ATP-dependent, a23187-sensitive calcium uptake by the lysate of LLC-PK1 cells. This result is consistent with the hypothesis that the endoplasmic reticulum calcium transport ATPase is a sensitive target for cyclopiazonic acid in LLC-PK1 cells.

  8. Changes in the flavonoid and phenolic acid contents and antioxidant activity of red leaf lettuce (Lollo Rosso) due to cultivation under plastic films varying in ultraviolet transparency.

    PubMed

    García-Macías, Paulina; Ordidge, Matthew; Vysini, Eleni; Waroonphan, Saran; Battey, Nicholas H; Gordon, Michael H; Hadley, Paul; John, Philip; Lovegrove, Julie A; Wagstaffe, Alexandra

    2007-12-12

    Red leaf lettuce (Lollo Rosso) was grown under three types of plastic films that varied in transparency to UV radiation (designated as UV block, UV low, and UV window). Flavonoid composition was determined by high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC), total phenolics by the Folin-Ciocalteu assay, and antioxidant capacity by the oxygen radical absorbance capacity (ORAC) assay. Exposure to increased levels of UV radiation during cultivation caused the leaves to redden and increased concentrations of total phenols and the main flavonoids, quercetin and cyanidin glycosides, as well as luteolin conjugates and phenolic acids. The total phenol content increased from 1.6 mg of gallic acid equivalents (GAE)/g of fresh weight (FW) for lettuce grown under UV block film to 2.9 and 3.5 mg of GAE/g of FW for lettuce grown under the UV low and UV window films. The antioxidant activity was also higher in lettuce exposed to higher levels of UV radiation with ORAC values of 25.4 and 55.1 micromol of Trolox equivalents/g of FW for lettuce grown under the UV block and UV window films, respectively. The content of phenolic acids, quantified as caffeic acid, was also different, ranging from 6.2 to 11.1 micromol/g of FW for lettuce cultivated under the lowest and highest UV exposure plastic films, respectively. Higher concentrations of the flavonoid glycosides were observed with increased exposure to UV radiation, as demonstrated by the concentrations of aglycones after hydrolysis, which were cyanidin (ranging from 165 to 793 microg/g), quercetin (ranging from 196 to 880 microg/g), and luteolin (ranging from 19 to 152 microg/g). The results demonstrate the potential of the use of UV-transparent plastic as a means of increasing beneficial flavonoid content of red leaf lettuce when the crop is grown in polytunnels.

  9. Impact of Altitudes and Habitats on Valerenic Acid, Total Phenolics, Flavonoids, Tannins, and Antioxidant Activity of Valeriana jatamansi.

    PubMed

    Jugran, Arun K; Bahukhandi, Amit; Dhyani, Praveen; Bhatt, Indra D; Rawal, Ranbeer S; Nandi, Shyamal K

    2016-07-01

    The changes in total phenolics, flavonoids, tannins, valerenic acid, and antioxidant activity were assessed in 25 populations of Valeriana jatamansi sampled from 1200 to 2775 m asl and four habitat types of Uttarakhand, West Himalaya. Significant (p < 0.05) variations in total phenolics, flavonoids, valerenic acid, and antioxidant activity in aerial and root portions and across the populations were observed. Antioxidant activity measured by three in vitro antioxidant assays, i.e., 2,2'-azino-bis(3-ethylbenzothiazoline-6-sulphonic) (ABTS) radical scavenging, 2,2'-diphenyl-1-picryylhydrazyl (DPPH) free radical scavenging, and ferric-reducing antioxidant power (FRAP) assays, showed significant (p < 0.05) differences across the populations. However, no clear pattern was found in phytochemicals across the altitudinal range. Among habitat types, (pine, oak, mixed forest, and grassy land), variation in phytochemical content and antioxidant activity were observed. Equal class ranking, neighbor-joining cluster analysis, and principal component analysis (PCA) identified Talwari, Jaberkhet, Manjkhali, and Khirshu populations as promising sources with higher phytochemicals and antioxidant activity. The results recommended that the identified populations with higher value of phytochemicals and antioxidants can be utilized for mass multiplication and breeding program to meet the domestic as well as commercial demand.

  10. Synthesis of conjugated bile acids/azastilbenes as potential antioxidant and photoprotective agents.

    PubMed

    dos Santos, Juliana Alves; Polonini, Hudson Caetano; Suzuki, Érika Yoko; Raposo, Nádia R B; da Silva, Adilson David

    2015-06-01

    A series of 14 bile acids/azastilbenes conjugates (1a-g and 2a-g) was prepared through the condensation of bile amides (1 and 2) and aromatic aldehydes. The newly synthesized conjugates were evaluated in vitro for their antioxidant and photoprotective activities. Six compounds (1, 1a, 1b, 2, 2a and 2b) showed promising antioxidant activity with IC50 values of 19.60-31.83 μg mL(-1). The synthesized compounds presented a varied photoprotection profile, with the SPF ranging from 2 to 9. Among the 16 compounds tested for the protection against UVB sunrays, 3 compounds (2c, 2e and 2g) presented more significant protection than resveratrol and the free azastilbene 3; while the UVAPF increased from 2 in resveratrol and 5 in 3 to 5-11 in the majority of the conjugates.

  11. Antioxidant Activity and α-Glucosidase Inhibitory Activities of the Polycondensate of Catechin with Glyoxylic Acid

    PubMed Central

    Ma, Hanjun; Liu, Benguo

    2016-01-01

    In order to investigate polymeric flavonoids, the polycondensate of catechin with glyoxylic acid (PCG) was prepared and its chemically antioxidant, cellular antioxidant (CAA) and α-glucosidase inhibitory activities were evaluated. The DPPH and ABTS radical scavenging activities and antiproliferative effect of PCG were lower than those of catechin, while PCG had higher CAA activity than catechin. In addition, PCG had very high α-glucosidase inhibitory activities (IC50 value, 2.59 μg/mL) in comparison to catechin (IC50 value, 239.27 μg/mL). Inhibition kinetics suggested that both PCG and catechin demonstrated a mixture of noncompetitive and anticompetitive inhibition. The enhanced CAA and α-glucosidase inhibitor activities of PCG could be due to catechin polymerization enhancing the binding capacity to the cellular membrane and enzymes. PMID:26960205

  12. Antioxidant Activity and α-Glucosidase Inhibitory Activities of the Polycondensate of Catechin with Glyoxylic Acid.

    PubMed

    Geng, Sheng; Shan, Sharui; Ma, Hanjun; Liu, Benguo

    2016-01-01

    In order to investigate polymeric flavonoids, the polycondensate of catechin with glyoxylic acid (PCG) was prepared and its chemically antioxidant, cellular antioxidant (CAA) and α-glucosidase inhibitory activities were evaluated. The DPPH and ABTS radical scavenging activities and antiproliferative effect of PCG were lower than those of catechin, while PCG had higher CAA activity than catechin. In addition, PCG had very high α-glucosidase inhibitory activities (IC50 value, 2.59 μg/mL) in comparison to catechin (IC50 value, 239.27 μg/mL). Inhibition kinetics suggested that both PCG and catechin demonstrated a mixture of noncompetitive and anticompetitive inhibition. The enhanced CAA and α-glucosidase inhibitor activities of PCG could be due to catechin polymerization enhancing the binding capacity to the cellular membrane and enzymes.

  13. Antioxidant properties of 2-O-beta-D-glucopyranosyl-L-ascorbic acid.

    PubMed

    Takebayashi, Jun; Yagi, Yasuyuki; Ishii, Rie; Abe, Shigeki; Yamada, Kazuhiko; Tai, Akihiro

    2008-06-01

    The antioxidant activity of a provitamin C agent, 2-O-beta-D-glucopyranosyl-L-ascorbic acid (AA-2betaG), was compared to that of 2-O-alpha-D-glucopyranosyl-L-ascorbic acid (AA-2G) and ascorbic acid (AA) using four in vitro methods, 1,1-diphenyl-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) radical-scavenging assay, 2,2'-azinobis(3-ethylbenzothiazoline-6-sulfonic acid) radical cation (ABTS(*+))-scavenging assay, oxygen radical absorbance capacity (ORAC) assay, and 2,2'-azobis(2-amidinopropane) dihydrochloride (AAPH)-induced erythrocyte hemolysis inhibition assay. AA-2betaG slowly and continuously scavenged DPPH radicals and ABTS(*+) in roughly the same reaction profiles as AA-2G, whereas AA quenched these radicals immediately. In the ORAC assay and the hemolysis inhibition assay, AA-2betaG showed similar overall activities to AA-2G and to AA, although the reactivity of AA-2betaG against the peroxyl radical generated in both assays was lower than that of AA-2G and AA. These data indicate that AA-2betaG had roughly the same radical-scavenging properties as AA-2G, and a comprehensive in vitro antioxidant activity of AA-2betaG appeared to be comparable not only to that of AA-2G but also to that of AA.

  14. Synthesis and evaluation of antioxidant and antifungal activities of novel ricinoleate-based lipoconjugates of phenolic acids.

    PubMed

    Reddy, Kunduru Konda; Ravinder, Thumu; Kanjilal, Sanjit

    2012-10-15

    Syntheses of four castor oil fatty acid-based novel lipoconjugates of phenolic acids were carried out following Mitsunobu methodology. The lipid part consists of methyl ricinoleate and its saturated analogue, methyl-12-hydroxystearate and the phenolic moieties are ferulic and vanillic acid. Synthesised compounds are evaluated for antioxidant activity using three in vitro assays (DPPH radical scavenging assay, DSC studies for oxidative induction temperature of linoleic acid and autoxidation of linoleic acid in Tween 20 micellar medium) and compared with three widely used antioxidants in the food industry, BHT, α-tocopherol, and dodecyl gallate. Synthesised compounds are found to exhibit good antiradical activity. These compounds also exhibited very good antifungal activity against studied fungal strains. All these results suggested the applicability of the synthesised compounds as potent lipophilic antioxidants for combating oxidative stress.

  15. Combined Effects of Lanthanum (III) and Acid Rain on Antioxidant Enzyme System in Soybean Roots.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Xuanbo; Du, Yuping; Wang, Lihong; Zhou, Qing; Huang, Xiaohua; Sun, Zhaoguo

    2015-01-01

    Rare earth element pollution (REEs) and acid rain (AR) pollution simultaneously occur in many regions, which resulted in a new environmental issue, the combined pollution of REEs and AR. The effects of the combined pollution on the antioxidant enzyme system of plant roots have not been reported. Here, the combined effects of lanthanum ion (La3+), one type of REE, and AR on the antioxidant enzyme system of soybean roots were investigated. In the combined treatment of La3+ (0.08 mM) and AR, the cell membrane permeability and the peroxidation of cell membrane lipid of soybean roots increased, and the superoxide dismutase, catalase, peroxidase and reduced ascorbic acid served as scavengers of reactive oxygen species. In other combined treatments of La3+ (0.40 mM, 1.20 mM) and AR, the membrane permeability, malonyldialdehyde content, superoxide dismutase activity, peroxidase activity and reduced ascorbic acid content increased, while the catalase activity decreased. The increased superoxide dismutase activity, peroxidase activity and reduced ascorbic acid content were inadequate to scavenge the excess hydrogen peroxide and superoxide, leading to the damage of the cell membrane, which was aggravated with the increase in the concentration of La3+ and the level of AR. The deleterious effects of the combined treatment of La3+ and AR were stronger than those of the single treatment of La3+ or AR. Moreover, the activity of antioxidant enzyme system in the combined treatment group was affected directly and indirectly by mineral element content in soybean plants.

  16. Combined Effects of Lanthanum (III) and Acid Rain on Antioxidant Enzyme System in Soybean Roots

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Xuanbo; Du, Yuping; Wang, Lihong; Zhou, Qing; Huang, Xiaohua; Sun, Zhaoguo

    2015-01-01

    Rare earth element pollution (REEs) and acid rain (AR) pollution simultaneously occur in many regions, which resulted in a new environmental issue, the combined pollution of REEs and AR. The effects of the combined pollution on the antioxidant enzyme system of plant roots have not been reported. Here, the combined effects of lanthanum ion (La3+), one type of REE, and AR on the antioxidant enzyme system of soybean roots were investigated. In the combined treatment of La3+ (0.08 mM) and AR, the cell membrane permeability and the peroxidation of cell membrane lipid of soybean roots increased, and the superoxide dismutase, catalase, peroxidase and reduced ascorbic acid served as scavengers of reactive oxygen species. In other combined treatments of La3+ (0.40 mM, 1.20 mM) and AR, the membrane permeability, malonyldialdehyde content, superoxide dismutase activity, peroxidase activity and reduced ascorbic acid content increased, while the catalase activity decreased. The increased superoxide dismutase activity, peroxidase activity and reduced ascorbic acid content were inadequate to scavenge the excess hydrogen peroxide and superoxide, leading to the damage of the cell membrane, which was aggravated with the increase in the concentration of La3+ and the level of AR. The deleterious effects of the combined treatment of La3+ and AR were stronger than those of the single treatment of La3+ or AR. Moreover, the activity of antioxidant enzyme system in the combined treatment group was affected directly and indirectly by mineral element content in soybean plants. PMID:26230263

  17. Ferulic acid dehydrodimers from wheat bran: isolation, purification and antioxidant properties of 8-O-4-diferulic acid.

    PubMed

    Garcia-Conesa, M T; Plumb, G W; Waldron, K W; Ralph, J; Williamson, G

    1997-01-01

    Wheat bran contains several ester-linked dehydrodimers of ferulic acid, which were detected and quantified after sequential alkaline hydrolysis. The major dimers released were: trans-5-[(E)-2-carboxyvinyl]-2-(4-hydroxy-3-methoxy-phenyl)-7-methoxy-2, 3- dihydrobenzofuran-3-carboxylic acid (5-8-BendiFA), (Z)-beta-[4-[(E)-2-carboxyvinyl]-2-methoxyphenoxy]-4-hydroxy-3-methox ycinnamic acid (8-O-4-diFA) and (E,E)-4,4'-dihydroxy-5,5'-dimethoxy-3,3'-bicinnamic acid (5-5-diFA). trans-7-hydroxy-1-(4-hydroxy-3methoxyphenyl)-6-methoxy-1,2-dihydro - naphthalene-2,3-dicarboxylic acid (8-8-diFA cyclic form) and 4,4'-dihydroxy-3,3'-dimethoxy-beta,beta'-bicinnamic acid (8-8-diFA non cyclic form) were not detected. One of the most abundant dimers, 8-O-4-diFA, was purified from de-starched wheat bran after alkaline hydrolysis and preparative HPLC. The resultant product was identical to the chemically synthesised 8-O-4-dimer by TLC and HPLC as confirmed by 1H-NMR and mass spectrometry. The absorption maxima and absorption coefficients for the synthetic compound in ethanol were: lambda max: 323 nm, lambda min: 258 nm, epsilon lambda max (M-1 cm-1): 24,800 +/- 2100 and epsilon 280 (M-1 cm-1): 19,700 +/- 1100. The antioxidant properties of 8-O-4-diFA were assessed using: (a) inhibition of ascorbate/iron-induced peroxidation of phosphatidylcholine liposomes and; (b) scavenging of the radical cation of 2,2'-azinobis (3-ethyl-benzothiazoline-6-sulphonate) (ABTS) relative to the water-soluble vitamin E analogue, Trolox C. The 8-O-4-diFA was a better antioxidant than ferulic acid in both lipid and aqueous phases. This is the first report of the antioxidant activity of a natural diferulate obtained from a plant.

  18. Relevance of carnosic acid, carnosol, and rosmarinic acid concentrations in the in vitro antioxidant and antimicrobial activities of Rosmarinus officinalis (L.) methanolic extracts.

    PubMed

    Jordán, Maria J; Lax, Vanesa; Rota, Maria C; Lorán, Susana; Sotomayor, José A

    2012-09-26

    The importance of the diterpenic and rosmarinic acid content in the biological activities of rosemary extracts has been studied previously, but how the relationship between the concentration of these components affects their antioxidant and antibacterial activities has received little attention. Accordingly, from a total of 150 plants, 27 methanolic extracts were selected, for their similar diterpene contents but different ratios between carnosic acid and carnosol concentrations. In extracts with similar rosmarinic acid contents but differing proportions between carnosic acid and carnosol, the two diterpenes were seen to equally affect the in vitro antioxidant activity; however, and related with the antibacterial efficiency, this biological activity improved when carnosol was the major diterpene component.

  19. Phytochemical Analysis, Antioxidant Activity, Fatty Acids Composition, and Functional Group Analysis of Heliotropium bacciferum

    PubMed Central

    Ahmad, Sohail; Ahmad, Shabir; Bibi, Ahtaram; Ishaq, Muhammad Saqib; Afridi, Muhammad Siddique; Kanwal, Farina; Zakir, Muhammad; Fatima, Farid

    2014-01-01

    Heliotropium bacciferum is paramount in medicinal perspective and belongs to Boraginaceae family. The crude and numerous fractions of leaves, stem, and roots of the plant were investigated for phytochemical analysis and DPPH radical scavenging activity. Phytochemical analysis of crude and fractions of the plant revealed the presence of alkaloids, saponins, tannins, steroids, terpenoids, flavonoids, glycosides, and phenols. The antioxidant (free radical scavenging) activity of various extracts of the Heliotropium bacciferum was resolute against 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) radical with the avail of UV spectrophotometer at 517 nm. The stock solution (1000 mg/mL) and then several dilutions (50, 100, 150, 200, and 250 mg/mL) of the crude and fractions were prepared. Ascorbic acid was used as a standard. The plant leaves (52.59 ± 0.84 to 90.74 ± 1.00), stem (50.19 ± 0.92 to 89.42 ± 1.10), and roots extracts (49.19 ± 0.52 to 90.01 ± 1.02) divulged magnificent antioxidant activities. For the ascertainment of the fatty acid constituents a gas chromatograph hyphenated to mass spectrometer was used. The essential fatty acids for growth maintenance such as linoleic acid (65.70%), eicosadienoic acid (15.12%), oleic acid (8.72%), and palmitic acid (8.14%) were found in high percentage. The infrared spectra of all extracts of the plant were recorded by IR Prestige-21 FTIR model. PMID:25489605

  20. Studies on antioxidant activity, volatile compound and fatty acid composition of different parts of Glycyrrhiza echinata L.

    PubMed Central

    Çakmak, Yavuz Selim; Aktumsek, Abdurrahman; Duran, Ahmet

    2012-01-01

    The essential oil compound, fatty acid composition and the in vitro antioxidant activity of the root and aerial of Glycyrrhiza echinata L., a medicinal plant growing in Turkey, have been studied. The antioxidant capacity tests were designed to evaluate the antioxidant activities of methanol extracts. Total phenolic and flavonoid concentrations of each extract were also determined by using both Folin-Ciocalteu reagent and aluminum chloride. The aerial part was found to possess the highest total phenolic content (146.30 ± 4.58 mg GAE/g) and total antioxidant capacity (175.33 ± 3.98 mg AE/g). The essential oil from root and aerial parts was analyzed by gas chromatography mass spectroscopy (GC-MS) systems. The major components identified were n-hexadecanoic acid, hexahydro farnesyl acetone, α-caryophyllen, hexanal and phytol. In fatty acid profiles of plant, palmitic, stearic, oleic and linoleic acid were detected as the main components. The results of this study have shown that the extracts G. echinata are suitable as a natural antioxidant and food supplement source for pharmacological and food industries due to their beneficial chemical composition and antioxidant capacity. PMID:27418901

  1. Effect of citric acid deamidation on in vitro digestibility and antioxidant properties of wheat gluten.

    PubMed

    Qiu, Chaoying; Sun, Weizheng; Cui, Chun; Zhao, Mouming

    2013-12-01

    The effects of citric acid deamidation on the physiochemical properties of wheat gluten were investigated. In vitro digestion was carried out to determine changes of molecular weight distribution, amino acids composition and antioxidant efficacy of wheat gluten hydrolysates. Results indicated that citric acid deamidation significantly increased gluten solubility and surface hydrophobicity, at a neutral pH. Deamidation induced molecular weight distribution change of gluten with little proteolysis. Results from FTIR indicated that the α-helix and β-turn of deamidated gluten increased accompanied by a decrease of the β-sheet structure. After deamidation, in vitro pepsin digestibility of wheat gluten decreased, while in vitro pancreatin digestibility increased. The oxygen radical absorbance capacity (ORAC) activity of the in vitro digests decreased with increase of deamidation time. The high Lys and total essential AAs amounts in the final digests suggested that the nutritional values of wheat gluten after deamidation might be enhanced.

  2. Risk assessment of genetically modified lactic acid bacteria using the concept of substantial equivalence.

    PubMed

    LeBlanc, Jean Guy; Van Sinderen, Douwe; Hugenholtz, Jeroen; Piard, Jean-Christophe; Sesma, Fernando; de Giori, Graciela Savoy

    2010-12-01

    The use of food-grade microorganisms such as lactic acid bacteria (LAB) is one of the most promising methods for delivering health promoting compounds. Since it is not always possible to obtain strains that have the ability to produce specific compounds naturally or that produce them in sufficient quantities to obtain physiological responses, genetic modifications can be performed to improve their output. The objective of this study was to evaluate if previously studied genetically modified LAB (GM-LAB), with proven in vivo beneficial effects, are just as safe as the progenitor strain from which they were derived. Mice received an elevated concentration of different GM-LAB or the native parental strain from which they were derived during a prolonged period of time, and different health parameters were evaluated. Similar growth rates, hematological values, and other physiological parameters were obtained in the animals that received the GM-LAB compared to those that were fed with the native strain. These results demonstrate that the GM-LAB used in this study are just as safe as the native strains from which they were derived and thus merit further studies to include them into the food chain.

  3. Effects of exogenous abscisic acid on yield, antioxidant capacities, and phytochemical contents of greenhouse grown lettuces.

    PubMed

    Li, Zheng; Zhao, Xin; Sandhu, Amandeep K; Gu, Liwei

    2010-05-26

    Antioxidants and phytochemicals in vegetables are known to provide health benefits. Strategies that enhance these properties are expected to increase the nutritional values of vegetables. The objective of this research is to assess the effects of exogenous abscisic acid (ABA) on yield, antioxidant capacities, and phytochemical content of lettuces grown in a greenhouse. Red loose leaf lettuce (cv. Galactic) and green loose leaf lettuce (cv. Simpson Elite) were cultivated using a randomized complete block design. Three concentrations of ABA in water [0 (control), 150, 300 ppm] were sprayed on the 30th and 39th days after sowing, and lettuces were harvested on the 46th day. Exogenous ABA significantly decreased yield of green and red lettuces. Total phenolic and total anthocyanin contents in red lettuce treated with ABA were significantly higher than in controls, whereas no significant differences were observed in green lettuce. ABA significantly induced the accumulation of chlorophyll b and total carotenoids in lettuces. The phenolic compounds identified and quantified in red and green lettuces included caffeoyltartaric acid, 5-O-caffeoylquinic acid, dicaffeoyltartaric acid, 3,5-dicaffeoylquinic acid, and quercetin 3-(6''-malonyl)-glucoside. Additionally, cyanidin 3-glucoside, cyanidin 3-(3''-malonoyl)-glucoside, and cyanidin 3-(6''-malonoyl)-glucoside in red lettuces were quantified. No significant effects of ABA on these individual phytochemicals were observed in green lettuces, whereas ABA significantly elevated the content of individual phytochemicals in red lettuces except for 5-O-caffeoylquinic acid. Differences among red lettuces with or without exogenous ABA were visualized on the score plots of principal component analyses. Loading plot indicated that multiple phenolic compounds contributed to the observed differences in red lettuces.

  4. Fatty acid, amino acid, mineral and antioxidant contents of acha (Digitaria exilis) grown on the Jos Plateau, Nigeria

    PubMed Central

    Glew, Robert H.; Laabes, Emmanuel P.; Presley, Jack M.; Schulze, John; Andrews, Ronnee; Wang, Yuan-Chen; Chang, Yu-Chen; Chuang, Lu-Te

    2015-01-01

    Digitaria exilis (Kippist) Stapf (also known as acha, hungry rice) has been cultivated for millennia in the dry savannahs of West Africa, but much remains to be learned about its nutritional properties. Acha was collected in four villages in Northern Nigeria and analyzed for fatty acids, minerals, amino acids and antioxidant content. Fatty acids accounted for 1.91% of the dry weight, with 47.4% linoleic acid and 30.5% oleic acid. The content of the essential minerals, copper, magnesium, molybdenum, zinc and calcium averaged 4.88, 1060, 0.23, 23.0 and 172 μg/g, respectively. The protein content was 6.53% and the essential amino acid pattern, except for lysine, compared favorably to a World Health Organization (WHO) reference protein. The total polyphenolic content of methanolic extracts of acha matched that of common cereals (for example, maize, rice, wheat) and the extracts contained substantial amounts of free-radical scavenging substances. Thus, acha is a source of many nutrients critical to human health. PMID:26635994

  5. Effects of ascorbic acid and antioxidants on color, lipid oxidation and volatiles of irradiated ground beef

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ahn, D. U.; Nam, K. C.

    2004-09-01

    Beef loins with 3 different aging times after slaughter were ground, added with none, 0.1% ascorbic acid, 0.01% sesamol+0.01% α-tocopherol, or 0.1% ascorbic acid+0.01% sesamol+0.01% tocopherol. The meats were packaged in oxygen-permeable bags, irradiated at 2.5 kGy, and color, oxidation-reduction potential (ORP), lipid oxidation and volatile profiles were determined. Irradiation decreased the redness of ground beef, and visible color of beef changed from a bright red to a green/brown depending on the age of meat. Addition of ascorbic acid prevented color changes in irradiated beef, and the effect of ascorbic acid became greater as the age of meat or storage time after irradiation increased. The ground beef added with ascorbic acid had lower ORP than control, and the low ORP of meat helped maintaining the heme pigments in reduced form. During aerobic storage, S-volatiles disappeared while volatile aldehydes significantly increased in irradiated beef. Addition of ascorbic acid at 0.1% or sesamol+α-tocopherol at each 0.01% level to ground beef prior to irradiation were effective in reducing lipid oxidation and S-volatiles. As storage time increased, however, the antioxidant effect of sesamol+tocopherol in irradiated ground beef was superior to that of ascorbic acid.

  6. Synthesis and in vitro antioxidant and antimicrobial studies of novel structured phosphatidylcholines with phenolic acids.

    PubMed

    Balakrishna, Marrapu; Kaki, Shiva Shanker; Karuna, Mallampalli S L; Sarada, Sripada; Kumar, C Ganesh; Prasad, R B N

    2017-04-15

    Novel phenoylated phosphatidylcholines were synthesized from 1,2-dipalmitoyl phosphatidylcholine/egg 1,2-diacyl phosphatidylcholine and phenolic acids such as ferulic, sinapic, vanillic and syringic acids. The structures of phenoylated phosphatidylcholines were confirmed by spectral analysis. 2-acyl-1-lyso phosphatidylcholine was synthesized from phosphatidylcholine via regioselective enzymatic hydrolysis and was reacted with hydroxyl protected phenolic acids to produce corresponding phenoylated phosphatidylcholines in 48-56% yields. Deprotection of protected phenoylated phosphatidylcholines resulted in phenoylated phosphatidylcholines in 87-94% yields. The prepared compounds were evaluated for their preliminary in vitro antimicrobial and antioxidant activities. Among the active derivatives, compound 1-(4-hydroxy-3,5-dimethoxy) cinnamoyl-2-acyl-sn-glycero-3-phosphocholine exhibited excellent antioxidant activity with EC50 value of 16.43μg/mL. Compounds 1-(4-hydroxy-3-methoxy) cinnamoyl-2-acyl-sn-glycero-3-phosphocholine and 1-(4-hydroxy-3,5-dimethoxy) cinnamoyl-2-palmitoyl-sn-glycero-3-phosphocholine exhibited good antioxidant activity with EC50 values of 36.05 and 33.35μg/mL respectively. Compound 1-(4-hydroxy-3-methoxy) cinnamoyl-2-palmitoyl-sn-glycero-3-phosphocholine exhibited good antibacterial activity against Klebsiella planticola with MIC of 15.6μg/mL and compound 1-(4-hydroxy-3-methoxy) benzoyl-2-acyl-sn-glycero-3-phosphocholine exhibited good antifungal activity against Candida albicans with MIC of 15.6μg/mL.

  7. Structural, physicochemical, antioxidant and antitumor property of an acidic polysaccharide from Polygonum multiflorum.

    PubMed

    Zhu, Weili; Xue, Xiaoping; Zhang, Zhanjun

    2017-03-01

    In this study, the structural characterization, physicochemical property, antioxidant and antitumor activity of an acidic polysaccharide (APS) from Polygonum multiflorum were investigated. Monosaccharide composition analysis showed APS was composed of arabinose, rhamnose, galactose and galacturonic acid in the molar ratio of 1.23:1.32:1.48:1.00. The presence of uronic acid was also confirmed by the bands at 1740, 1645 and 1425cm(-1) on Fourier transform-infrared spectroscopy. Methylation and nuclear magnetic resonance analyses showed APS was mainly composed by the residues of →5)-α-l-Araf-(1→, →3)-β-d-Galp-(1→, →3,6)-β-d-Galp-(1→, →4)-α-d-GalAp-(1→ and →2)-α-l-Rhap-(1→ in the backbone. The non-reducing terminal α-l-Araf-(1→ was probably attached to the O-6 position of →3,6)-β-d-Galp-(1→ residues. Besides, APS exhibited rod-like and flaky shapes with rough surface. The initial decomposition of APS occurred at 172°C, and the rapidest weight loss rate of APS appeared at 320°C. Antioxidant activity assay showed the DPPH radical scavenging activity of APS was 67.5% at 1mg/mL. At the concentration of 400μg/mL, the antiproliferation activities of APS against HepG-2 and BGC-823 cells were 65.28% and 51.57%, respectively. Our results suggested APS could be a potential antioxidant and antitumor agent.

  8. Anti-inflammatory, analgesic and antioxidant activities of 3,4-oxo-isopropylidene-shikimic acid.

    PubMed

    Sun, Jin-Yao; You, Cui-Yu; Dong, Kai; You, Hai-Sheng; Xing, Jian-Feng

    2016-10-01

    Context 3,4-Oxo-isopropylidene-shikimic acid (ISA) is an analog of shikimic acid (SA). SA is extracted from the dry fruit of Illicium verum Hook. f. (Magnoliaceae), which has been used for treating stomachaches, skin inflammation and rheumatic pain. Objective To investigate the anti-inflammatory, analgesic and antioxidant activities of ISA. Materials and methods Analgesic and anti-inflammatory activities of ISA were evaluated using writhing, hot plate, xylene-induced ear oedema, carrageenan-induced paw oedema and cotton pellets-induced granuloma test, meanwhile the prostaglandin E2 (PGE2) and malondialdehyde (MDA) levels were assessed in the oedema paw tissue. ISA (60, 120 and 240 mg/kg in mice model and 50, 120 and 200 mg/kg in rat model) was administered orally, 30 min before induction of inflammation/pain. Additionally, ISA was administered for 12 d in rats from the day of cotton pellet implantation. The active oxygen species scavenging potencies of ISA (10(-3)-10(-5) M) were evaluated by the electron spin resonance spin-trapping technique. Results ISA caused a reduction of inflammation induced by xylene (18.1-31.4%), carrageenan (7.8-51.0%) and cotton pellets (11.4-24.0%). Furthermore, ISA decreased the production of PGE2 and MDA in the rat paw tissue by 1.0-15.6% and 6.3-27.6%, respectively. ISA also reduced pain induced by acetic acid (15.6-48.9%) and hot plate (10.5-28.5%). Finally, ISA exhibited moderate antioxidant activity by scavenging the superoxide radical and hydroxyl radical with IC50 values of 0.214 and 0.450 μg/mL, respectively. Discussion and conclusion Our findings confirmed the anti-inflammatory, analgesic and antioxidant activities of ISA.

  9. Effect of acoustically assisted treatments on vitamins, antioxidant activity, organic acids and drying kinetics of pineapple.

    PubMed

    Rodríguez, Óscar; Gomes, Wesley; Rodrigues, Sueli; Fernandes, Fabiano A N

    2017-03-01

    The effects of the application of an acoustically assisted treatment on the vitamins (C, B1, B2, B3, and B5), the antioxidant activity (DPPH, FRAP), the polyphenol and flavonoid contents, the organic acid contents (citric and malic) and drying kinetics of pineapple (Ananas comosus var. Perola) have been studied. Treatments were carried out using two different soaking media: distilled water and pineapple juice at 30°C during 10, 20 and 30min without and with acoustic assistance (23.2W/L). After treatment, samples were dried at 60°C and 0.5m/s during 8h. The quality parameters were determined in untreated, treated, and treated-dried samples. The acoustic assistance promoted an increment of vitamins B1, B2, B3 and B5, total flavonoid and malic acid contents, and a reduction of vitamin C, total polyphenol content, antioxidant activity and citric acid content in treated samples. However, in all treated-dried samples the final content of those quality parameters was higher than the observed in the untreated dried sample.

  10. Chlorogenic acid content, essential oil compositions, and in vitro antioxidant activities of Chromolaena odorata leaves

    PubMed Central

    Pitakpawasutthi, Yamon; Thitikornpong, Worathat; Palanuvej, Chanida; Ruangrungsi, Nijsiri

    2016-01-01

    Chromolaena odorata (L.) R. M. King and H. Rob. is a Thai medicinal plant used for the treatment of wounds, rashes, diabetes, and insect repellent. The leaves of C. odorata were collected from 10 different sources throughout Thailand. The chemical constituents of essential oils were hydro-distilled from the leaves and were analyzed by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry. Chlorogenic acid contents were determined by thin-layer chromatography (TLC) - densitometry with winCATS software and TLC image analysis with ImageJ software. The TLC plate was developed in the mobile phase that consisted of ethyl acetate:water:formic acid (17:3:2). Antioxidant activities were examined by 1,1-diphenyl-2-picryl hydrazyl (DPPH) radical scavenging and β-carotene bleaching assays. C. odorata essential oil has shown the major components of pregeijerene, dauca-5, 8-diene, (E)-caryophyllene, β-pinene, and α-pinene. The chlorogenic acid content of C. odorata leaves was determined by TLC-densitometry and TLC image analysis. Results have shown that TLC-densitometry and TLC image analysis method were not statistically significantly different. DPPH radical scavenging and β-carotene bleaching assays of ethanolic extract of C. odorata leaves showed its antioxidant potential. PMID:27144150

  11. Vitamins, fatty acids, and antioxidant capacity stability during storage of freeze-dried human milk.

    PubMed

    Lozano, Blanca; Castellote, Ana Isabel; Montes, Rosa; López-Sabater, M Carmen

    2014-09-01

    Although freezing is the most common method used to preserve human milk, nutritional and immunological components may be lost during storage. Freeze-drying could increase the shelf life of human milk, while preserving its original characteristics. Seventy-two samples of freeze-dried human milk were stored for different periods of time, up to a maximum of 3 months, at 4 °C or 40 °C. Vitamin C, tocopherols, antioxidant capacity, and fatty acids composition were analyzed. A new HILIC-UHPLC method improving vitamin C determination was also validated. Ascorbic acid and total vitamin C concentrations significantly decreased at both temperatures, while antioxidant capacity only decreased at 40 °C. Fatty acids composition and both γ-tocopherol and δ-tocopherol contents remained unaltered. The stability after storage of freeze-dried milk was higher than that reported for frozen or fresh milk indicating that freeze-drying is a promising option to improve the preservation of human milk in banks.

  12. Chlorogenic acid content, essential oil compositions, and in vitro antioxidant activities of Chromolaena odorata leaves.

    PubMed

    Pitakpawasutthi, Yamon; Thitikornpong, Worathat; Palanuvej, Chanida; Ruangrungsi, Nijsiri

    2016-01-01

    Chromolaena odorata (L.) R. M. King and H. Rob. is a Thai medicinal plant used for the treatment of wounds, rashes, diabetes, and insect repellent. The leaves of C. odorata were collected from 10 different sources throughout Thailand. The chemical constituents of essential oils were hydro-distilled from the leaves and were analyzed by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry. Chlorogenic acid contents were determined by thin-layer chromatography (TLC) - densitometry with winCATS software and TLC image analysis with ImageJ software. The TLC plate was developed in the mobile phase that consisted of ethyl acetate:water:formic acid (17:3:2). Antioxidant activities were examined by 1,1-diphenyl-2-picryl hydrazyl (DPPH) radical scavenging and β-carotene bleaching assays. C. odorata essential oil has shown the major components of pregeijerene, dauca-5, 8-diene, (E)-caryophyllene, β-pinene, and α-pinene. The chlorogenic acid content of C. odorata leaves was determined by TLC-densitometry and TLC image analysis. Results have shown that TLC-densitometry and TLC image analysis method were not statistically significantly different. DPPH radical scavenging and β-carotene bleaching assays of ethanolic extract of C. odorata leaves showed its antioxidant potential.

  13. Anti-HIV activities of natural antioxidant caffeic acid derivatives: toward an antiviral supplementation diet.

    PubMed

    Bailly, Fabrice; Cotelle, Philippe

    2005-01-01

    Since 1996, highly active antiretroviral therapy (HAART) was designed to rapidly control HIV replication. It has had a significant impact on patient health and progression of AIDS in developed countries, but its success has not been complete. HAART strategy still suffers from issues of patient compliance, cost, deleterious side effects and emerging drug resistance. Therefore, expansion of novel anti-HIV drugs and targets will be critical in the coming years. In this context, discovering anti-HIV agents from natural sources and particularly from plants, may highlight the principle of a nutritional antioxidant antiretroviral diet. In this paper, we review the putative anti-HIV activity of simple caffeic acid derivatives, together with their antioxidant properties. Toxicity, metabolism and bioavailability, when known, will also be detailed. Well-known caffeic acid derivatives, such as chicoric, rosmarinic and lithospermic acids, may be designed as future leads multi-target anti-HIV compounds and the plants and vegetables containing them as potent nutritional therapeutic supplementation source. They are not expected to replace the actual antiretroviral therapy, but more likely, to complete and perhaps lighten it by adapted diet.

  14. Antioxidant activities of a polyglucuronic acid sodium salt obtained from TEMPO-mediated oxidation of xanthan.

    PubMed

    Delattre, C; Pierre, G; Gardarin, C; Traikia, M; Elboutachfaiti, R; Isogai, A; Michaud, P

    2015-02-13

    A xanthouronic acid sodium salt called xanthouronan was produced from xanthan by regioselective oxidation with NaOCl/NaBr using 2,2,6,6-tetramethylpiperidine-1-oxy radical (TEMPO) as catalyst. The efficiency of the one pot TEMPO-mediated oxidation was confirmed by HPAEC-PAD, (13)C NMR, and FT-IR. The oxidation degree was close to 98% and the mass yield of this new polyglucuronic acid was higher than 90% (w/w). The macromolecular characterization of xanthouronan using SEC-MALLS showed a molecular size reduced by a third due to the oxidation treatment and the degree of polymerization (DP) of the xanthouronan form was about 665. The evaluation of the enzymatic degradation of this C-6 carboxylated xanthan by various polysaccharide hydrolases and one polysaccharide lyase showed its high resistant to biodegradation. The antioxidant activity of xanthouronan was also tested by using the 2,2'-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyle (DPPH) and hydroxyl radical procedures. At 1 g/L, xanthouronan presented 75% of the ascorbic acid antioxidant activity.

  15. A novel azulenyl nitrone antioxidant protects against MPTP and 3-nitropropionic acid neurotoxicities.

    PubMed

    Yang, Lichuan; Calingasan, Noel Y; Chen, Junyu; Ley, James J; Becker, David A; Beal, M Flint

    2005-01-01

    Oxidative stress plays an important role in neuronal death in neurodegenerative disorders such as Parkinson's disease (PD) and Huntington's disease (HD). Animal models of PD or HD, produced by administration of the mitochondrial toxins 1-methyl-4-phenyl-1,2,3,6-tetrahydropyridine (MPTP) or 3-nitropropionic acid (3NP), respectively, show increased free radical generation. Free radicals generated in biological systems can react with spin-trapping compounds, such as nitrones, to form stable adducts. In recent years, the utility of nitrones has moved beyond analytical applications and into the realm of neuroprotection as antioxidants in both brain ischemia and models of neurodegenerative diseases. In the present study, we administered a new nitrone antioxidant, stilbazulenyl nitrone (STAZN), with either MPTP or 3NP. STAZN attenuated MPTP-induced striatal dopamine depletion by 40% and showed a tendency to dose-dependent neuroprotection. STAZN dose-dependently protected against loss of tyrosine hydroxylase immunoreactive neurons in the substantia nigra pars compacta. STAZN reduced the striatal lesion volume caused by systemic 3NP administration from 44 +/- 9 to 20 +/- 6 mm(3). The lipid peroxidation marker, malondialdehyde(MDA), was significantly increased in the striatum, cortex, and cerebellum of rats after administration of 3NP. These increases were blocked by co-injection of STAZN. Our data provide further evidence that STAZN is a neuroprotective free radical spin trap, and suggest that the development of new antioxidants will broaden our therapeutic strategies for neurodegenerative diseases.

  16. Phenolic acids of the two major blueberry species in the US Market and their antioxidant and anti-inflammatory activities.

    PubMed

    Kang, Jie; Thakali, Keshari M; Jensen, Gitte S; Wu, Xianli

    2015-03-01

    Highbush (cultivated) and lowbush (wild) are the two major blueberry species in the US market. Eight phenolic acids were detected and quantified from these two species by HPLC-MS. Chlorogenic acid was found to be the predominant phenolic acid in both species, with 0.44 mg/g fresh weight in lowbush blueberries and 0.13 mg/g fresh weight in highbush blueberries. Total phenolic content in lowbush blueberries is over three times higher than that of highbush blueberries. The phenolic acid mixtures representing those in the two species were prepared by using authentic standards to assess their contribution to total antioxidant and anti-inflammatory activities of the whole berries. Neither lowbush nor highbush blueberry phenolic acid mixture contributed significantly to the total antioxidant capacity of their relevant whole berries measured by oxygen radical absorbance capacity (ORAC). Both phenolic acid mixtures were able to enter the cell and showed in cell antioxidant activities from the cell based antioxidant protection of erythrocytes (CAP-e) assay. Lowbush blueberry phenolic acid mixture was found to show anti-inflammatory activities by inhibiting the nuclear factor-κB (NF-κB) activation and the production of inflammatory cytokines (TNF-α and IL-6) at the high dose.

  17. Decapeptides as effective agonists from L-amino acids biologically equivalent to the luteinizing hormone-releasing hormone.

    PubMed Central

    Folkers, K; Bowers, C Y; Tang, P F; Kubota, M

    1986-01-01

    Apparently, no agonist has been found that is comparable in potency to the luteinizing hormone-releasing hormone (LHRH) for release of LH and follicle-stimulating hormone (FSH) without substitutions with unnatural or D forms of natural amino acids. Of 139 known "agonist analogs" of LHRH, two were active in the range of 65%. The four LHRHs known to occur in nature involve a total of six amino acids (Tyr, His, Leu, Trp, Arg, Gln) in positions 5, 7, and 8. There are 16 possible peptides with these six amino acids in positions 5, 7, and 8, of which 4 are the known LHRHs, and 2 more were synthesized. We have synthesized the 10 new peptides and assayed 11 in vivo and in vitro, and we found not only 1 but a total of 5 that have activity equivalent to or greater than that of LHRH for the release of LH and/or FSH under at least one assay condition. These five are as follows: [His5,Trp7,Gln8]LHRH; [His5,Trp7,Leu8]LHRH; [His5,Trp7]LHRH; [Trp7]LHRH; [His5]LHRH. Two of these five agonists variably released relatively more FSH than LH. One or more of these five agonists may occur in nature and one may be follicle-stimulating hormone-releasing hormone. The two peptides with Gln8 and Leu8, if occurring in nature, may have different receptors according to radioreceptor assays and to the ratio of LH/FSH release in vivo. These structures are a basis for the design of antagonists without Arg8 toward avoiding histamine release. Complete inhibition of LH and FSH release in vivo may be induced by joint use of Arg8 and Gln8 or Leu8 antagonists. These potent agonists, related to LHRH, may be therapeutically useful in disorders of reproduction, the central nervous system, and for the control of hormone-dependent carcinomas. PMID:3081889

  18. Decapeptides as effective agonists from L-amino acids biologically equivalent to the luteinizing hormone-releasing hormone

    SciTech Connect

    Folkers, K.; Bowers, C.Y.; Tang, P.L.; Kubota, M.

    1986-02-01

    Apparently, no agonist has been found that is comparable in potency to the luteinizing hormone-releasing hormone (LHRH) for release of LH and follicle-stimulating hormone (FSH) without substitutions with unnatural or D forms of natural amino acids. Of 139 known agonist analogs of LHRH, two were active in the range of 65%. The four LHRHs known to occur in nature involve a total of six amino acids (Tyr, His, Leu, Trp, Arg, Gln) in positions 5, 7, and 8. There are 16 possible peptides with these six amino acids in positions 5, 7, and 8, of which 4 are the known LHRHs, and 2 more were synthesized. The authors have synthesized the 10 new peptides and assayed 11 in vivo and in vitro, and they found not only 1 but a total of 5 that have activity equivalent to or greater than that of LHRH for the release of LH and/or FSH under at least one assay condition. These five are as follows: (HisV,TrpX,GlnY)LHRH; (HisV,TrpX,LeuY)LHRH; (HisV,TrpX)LHRH; (TrpX)LHRH; (HisV)LHRH. These structures are a basis for the design of antagonists without ArgY toward avoiding histamine release. Complete inhibition of LH and FSH release in vivo may be induced by joint use of ArgY and GlnY or LeuY antagonists. These potent agonists, related to LHRH, may be therapeutically useful in disorders of reproduction, the central nervous system, and for the control of hormone-dependent carcinomas. Radioreceptor assays and radioimmunoassays were utilized.

  19. Antioxidant activity and sensory evaluation of a rosmarinic acid-enriched extract of Salvia officinalis.

    PubMed

    Bakota, Erica L; Winkler-Moser, Jill K; Berhow, Mark A; Eller, Fred J; Vaughn, Steven F

    2015-04-01

    An extract of Salvia officinalis (garden sage) was prepared using supercritical carbon dioxide (SC-CO2 ) extraction, followed by hot water extraction. The resulting extract was enriched in polyphenols, including rosmarinic acid (RA), which has shown promising health benefits in animals. The extract contained RA at a concentration of 28.4 mg/g, representing a significant enrichment from the RA content in sage leaves. This extract was incorporated into oil-in-water emulsions as a source of lipid antioxidants and compared to emulsions containing pure rosmarinic acid. Both treatments were effective in suppressing lipid oxidation. The extract was evaluated by a trained sensory panel in a tea formulation. While the panel could discriminate among extract-treated and control samples, panelists demonstrated high acceptability of the sage extract in a tea.

  20. Effect of heat treatment on the antioxidant activity, color, and free phenolic acid profile of malt.

    PubMed

    Inns, Elizabeth L; Buggey, Lesley A; Booer, Christopher; Nursten, Harry E; Ames, Jennifer M

    2007-08-08

    Green malt was kilned at 95 degrees C following two regimens: a standard regimen (SKR) and a rapid regimen (RKR). Both resulting malts were treated further in a tray dryer heated to 120 degrees C, as was green malt previously dried to 65 degrees C (TDR). Each regimen was monitored by determining the color, antioxidant activity (by both ABTS(.+) and FRAP methods), and polyphenolic profile. SKR and RKR malts exhibited decreased L* and increased b* values above approximately 80 degrees C. TDR malts changed significantly less, and color did not develop until 110 degrees C, implying that different chemical reactions lead to color in those malts. Antioxidant activity increased progressively with each regimen, although with TDR malts this became significant only at 110-120 degrees C. The RKR malt ABTS(.+) values were higher than those of the SKR malt. The main phenolics, that is, ferulic, p-coumaric, and vanillic acids, were monitored throughout heating. Ferulic acid levels increased upon heating to 80 degrees C for SKR and to 70 degrees C for RKR, with subsequent decreases. However, the levels for TDR malts did not increase significantly. The increase in free phenolics early in kilning could be due to enzymatic release of bound phenolics and/or easier extractability due to changes in the matrix. The differences between the kilning regimens used suggest that further modification of the regimens could lead to greater release of bound phenolics with consequent beneficial effects on flavor stability in beer and, more generally, on human health.

  1. Rosmarinic acid and antioxidant enzyme activities in Lavandula vera MM cell suspension culture: a comparative study.

    PubMed

    Georgiev, Milen; Abrashev, Radoslav; Krumova, Ekaterina; Demirevska, Klimentina; Ilieva, Mladenka; Angelova, Maria

    2009-11-01

    The growth and intracellular protein content of lavender (Lavandula vera MM) cell suspension culture was followed along with some antioxidant defense system members-non-enzymatic (rosmarinic acid) and enzymatic [superoxide dismutase (EC 1.15.1.1) and catalase (EC 1.11.1.6)]. It was found that the media content and the cultivation mode strongly influenced the production of plant defense compounds as well as the ratio between non-enzymatic and enzymatic ones. The bioreactor culture contains about two times more rosmarinic acid, superoxide dismutase, and catalase compared to the shake-flask cultivation. These findings are discussed with respect to the relative stress levels and plant antioxidant orchestra system. It was concluded that investigated defense system components (enzymatic and non-enzymatic) were closely associated in a complex balance. The three isoenzyme forms of SOD (Cu/ZnSOD, FeSOD, and MnSOD) in the cells of Lavandula vera were revealed by polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis analysis, and the FeSOD isoform exhibited highest activity.

  2. Salicylic acid promotes seed germination under high salinity by modulating antioxidant activity in Arabidopsis.

    PubMed

    Lee, Sangmin; Kim, Sang-Gyu; Park, Chung-Mo

    2010-10-01

    • Findings regarding the role of salicylic acid (SA) in seed germination are somewhat variable, depending on the plant genotypes and experimental conditions used, and thus the molecular mechanisms underlying SA regulation of germination are still unclear. Here, we report that physiological concentrations of SA promote germination under high salinity by modulating antioxidant activity in Arabidopsis. • Germination of SA induction deficient 2 (sid2) seeds was hypersensitive to high salinity. While the inhibitory effect of high salinity was exaggerated in the presence of higher concentrations of SA (> 100 μM), it was significantly reduced in the presence of lower concentrations of SA (< 50 μM). Under high salinity, the endogenous contents of H(2) O(2) were elevated in wild-type and sid2 seeds but reduced to original concentrations after treatment with 1 μM SA. • Germination of NahG transgenic plants was influenced to a lesser degree by high salinity (NahG is a bacterial gene encoding salicylate hydroxylase that converts salicylic acid to catechol). We found that catechol, an SA degradation product accumulated in the transgenic plants, acts as an antioxidant that compromises the inhibitory effects of high salinity. • Our observations indicate that, although SA is not essential for germination under normal growth conditions, it plays a promotive role in seed germination under high salinity by reducing oxidative damage.

  3. Comparative evaluation of volatiles, phenolics, sugars, organic acids and antioxidant properties of Sel-42 and Tainung papaya varieties.

    PubMed

    Kelebek, Hasim; Selli, Serkan; Gubbuk, Hamide; Gunes, Esma

    2015-04-15

    The present study was designed to determine the phenolic compounds, organic acids, sugars, aroma profiles and antioxidant properties of Sel-42 and Tainung papayas grown in Turkey. High-performance liquid chromatography/electrospray ionisation tandem mass spectrometry (HPLC-ESI-MS/MS) method was used for the phenolic compounds analysis. Twelve phenolic compounds were identified and quantified in the samples. The total phenolic content of Sel-42 was clearly higher than that of Tainung. Protocatechuic acid-hexoside, gallic acid-deoxyhexoside, ferulic acid and chlorogenic acids were the most abundant phenolics in both cultivars. Aroma composition of papaya was analysed by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS). A total of 46 and 42 aroma compounds, including esters, alcohols, terpenes, lactones, acids, carbonyl compounds, and volatile phenols were identified in the Sel-42 and Tainung, respectively. The significant linear correlation was confirmed between the values for the total phenolic content and antioxidant activity of papaya extracts.

  4. Isolation of Lactic Acid Bacteria Showing Antioxidative and Probiotic Activities from Kimchi and Infant Feces.

    PubMed

    Ji, Keunho; Jang, Na Young; Kim, Young Tae

    2015-09-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate lactic acid bacteria with antioxidative and probiotic activities isolated from Korean healthy infant feces and kimchi. Isolates A1, A2, S1, S2, and S3 were assigned to Lactobacillus sp. and isolates A3, A4, E1, E2, E3, and E4 were assigned to Leuconostoc sp. on the basis of their physiological properties and 16S ribosomal DNA sequence analysis. Most strains were confirmed as safe bioresources through nonhemolytic activities and non-production of harmful enzymes such as β-glucosidase, β- glucuronidase and tryptophanase. The 11 isolates showed different resistance to acid and bile acids. In addition, they exhibited antibacterial activity against foodborne bacteria, especially Bacillus cereus, Listeria monocytogenes, and Escherichia coli. Furthermore, all strains showed significantly high levels of hydrophobicity. The antioxidant effects of culture filtrates of the 11 strains included 2,2-diphenyl-1-picryl-hydrazyl (DPPH) radical scavenging capacity, 2.2'- azino-bis (2-ethylbenzthiazoline-6-sulfonic acid) (ABTS) radical cation scavenging activity, and superoxide dismutase activity. The results revealed that most of the culture filtrates have effective scavenging activity for DPPH and ABTS radicals. All strains appeared to have effective superoxide dismutase activity. In conclusion, the isolated strains A1, A3, S1, and S3 have significant probiotic activities applicable to the development of functional foods and health-related products. These strains might also contribute to preventing and controlling several diseases associated with oxidative stress, when used as probiotics.

  5. Antioxidant supplementation can reduce the survival costs of excess amino acid intake in honeybees.

    PubMed

    Archer, C Ruth; Köhler, Angela; Pirk, Christian W W; Oosthuizen, Vinette; Apostolides, Zeno; Nicolson, Susan W

    2014-12-01

    Over-consuming amino acids is associated with reduced survival in many species, including honeybees. The mechanisms responsible for this are unclear but one possibility is that excessive intake of amino acids increases oxidative damage. If this is the case, antioxidant supplementation may help reduce the survival costs of high amino acid intake. We tested this hypothesis in African honeybees (Apis mellifera scutellata) using the major antioxidant in green tea, epigallocatechin-3-gallate (EGCG). We first determined the dose-range of EGCG that improved survival of caged honeybees fed sucrose solution. We then provided bees with eight diets that differed in their ratio of essential amino acids (EAA) to carbohydrate (C) (0:1, 1:250, 1:100, 1:75, 1:50, 1:25, 1:10, 1:5 EAA:C) and also in their EGCG dose (0.0 or 0.4 mM). We found that bees fed sucrose only solution survived better than bees fed EAA diets. Despite this, bees preferred a diet that contained intermediate ratios of EAA:C (ca. 1:25), which may represent the high demands for nitrogen of developing nurse bees. EGCG supplementation improved honeybee survival but only at an intermediate dose (0.3-0.5 mM) and in bees fed low EAA diets (1:250, 1:100 EAA:C). That EGCG counteracted the lifespan reducing effects of eating low EAA diets suggests that oxidative damage may be involved in the association between EAAs and lifespan in honeybees. However, that EGCG had no effect on survival in bees fed high EAA diets suggests that there are other physiological costs of over-consuming EAAs in honeybees.

  6. Effect of high hydrostatic pressure on phenolic compounds, ascorbic acid and antioxidant activity in cashew apple juice

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Queiroz, C.; Moreira, C. F. F.; Lavinas, F. C.; Lopes, M. L. M.; Fialho, E.; Valente-Mesquita, V. L.

    2010-12-01

    The cashew apple is native to Brazil, but there is insufficient information regarding the nutritional properties of this fruit. The objective of this study was to evaluate the impact of high pressure processing (HPP) at room temperature (25 °C) on phenolic compound and ascorbic acid contents and antioxidant capacity of cashew apple juice. This study showed that HPP at 250 or 400 MPa for 3, 5 and 7 min did not change pH, acidity, total soluble solids, ascorbic acid or hydrolysable polyphenol contents. However, juice pressurized for 3 and 5 min showed higher soluble polyphenol contents. Antioxidant capacity, measured by the ferric-reducing antioxidant power method, was not altered by HPP, but when treated at 250 MPa for 3 min, it resulted in an increased value when 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl was used. These data demonstrate that HPP can be used in the food industry for the generation of products with higher nutritional quality.

  7. A novel method for the determination of ascorbic acid and antioxidant capacity in Opuntia ficus indica using in vivo microdialysis.

    PubMed

    Pretti, L; Bazzu, G; Serra, P A; Nieddu, G

    2014-03-15

    A simple and rapid method was developed for in vivo simultaneous determination of ascorbic-acid and antioxidant capacity in microdialysates from cladodes of Opuntia ficus-indica (L.) Miller. The method is verified in water-stressed plants, as compared with a well-watered test controls. The microdialysis probe construction and insertion procedure was specifically developed to minimise the tissue trauma of the plant and to obtain optimal dialysis performance. Microdialysis was performed using a flow rate of 3 μL/min and the samples were analysed by HPLC coupled to electrochemical detection of ascorbic-acid and DPPH-determined antioxidant capacity. Our data indicate exponential decay of the concentrations of the analysed compounds as a function of microdialysis sampling time. Water-stressed Opuntia show decreased ascorbic acid levels and increased the others antioxidants.

  8. Characteristic of phenolic compound and antioxidant activity of fermented broccoli (Brassica oleracea L. ssp.) beverage by lactic acid bacteria (LAB)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Maryati, Yati; Susilowati, Agustine; Melanie, Hakiki; Lotulung, Puspa D.

    2017-01-01

    Broccoli (Brassica oleracea L. ssp.) has a relatively high nutrient content, especially as a source of vitamins, minerals and fiber and contain bioactive compounds that act as antioxidants. In order to increase the nutritional value and innovate new products, fermentation process involving rich-antioxidants lactic acid bacteria (LAB) was done. The aim of this study is to determine the content of bioactive components, such as total polyphenols, total acid and antioxidant activity of the mixed culture of LAB (L. bulgaricus, S. thermophulus, L. acidophilus, Bd. bifidum)-fermented broccoli extracts. Ratio of fermented broccoli extract and concentration of starter cultureLAB was varied in the range of 5, 10, 15 and 20% (v/v), and the alterations of characteristics of the fermented broccoli extract, before and after fermentation (0 and 24 hours), were evaluated. The results showed that fermentation functional beverage broccoli with different concentrations of LAB cultures affect the antioxidant activity, total polyphenols, total acid and total cell of LAB generated. The optimum conditions obtained for the highest antioxidant activity of 6.74%, at aculture concentration of 20% during fermentation time of 24 h with a pH value of 4.29, total sugar of 10.89%, total acids of 0.97%, total polyphenols of 0.076%, and total LAB of 13.02 + 0.05 log cfu /ml.

  9. A Study of the Antioxidant Effect of Alpha Lipoic Acids on Sperm Quality

    PubMed Central

    Ibrahim, Siti Fatimah; Osman, Khairul; Das, Srijit; Othman, Abas Mazni; Majid, Norzaiti Abdul; Rahman, Mohd Padzil Abdul

    2008-01-01

    OBJECTIVE Assisted reproductive techniques are useful in helping infertile couples achieve successful conception. Initial studies have shown that sperm cryopreservation, one step in assisted reproduction, causes a dramatic reduction in sperm quality. This has been attributed to, among other things, free radical activities. The aim of the present study was to minimize this oxidative attack by adding an antioxidant into the sperm microenvironment. Alpha lipoic acids were selected for this purpose for their efficient free radical scavenging properties and solubility in lipid and aqueous phases. METHODS For this investigation, semen from six Boer bucks was pooled. Seminal analysis of the baseline prior to incubation of samples with different concentrations of Alpha lipoic acids (0.00625, 0.0125, 0.025, 0.05, 0.1 mmol/ml) was performed, and post-seminal analysis was conducted after a one-hour incubation. The comet assay was used to observe the effect of Alpha lipoic acids on sperm DNA integrity. Statistical analysis using an unpaired t-test with a significance level of p<0.05 was then performed. RESULTS Our results indicate that the sperm motility rate was improved after incubation with Alpha lipoic acids at a concentration of 0.02 mmol/ml. This concentration was also capable of reducing DNA damage. CONCLUSION In conclusion, Alpha lipoic acids renders cryoprotection to sperm, thereby improving sperm quality. PMID:18719769

  10. Effects of salicylic acid and putrescine on storability, quality attributes and antioxidant activity of plum cv. 'Santa Rosa'.

    PubMed

    Davarynejad, Gholam Hossein; Zarei, Mehdi; Nasrabadi, Mohamad Ebrahim; Ardakani, Elham

    2015-04-01

    Plum fruit has a short shelf life with a rapid deterioration in quality after harvest. The primary goal of this study is to investigate and compare the effect of putrescine and salicylic acid on quality properties and antioxidant activity of plum during storage. The plum fruits (cv. 'Santa Rosa') were harvested at the mature ripe stage, and dipped in different concentrations of putrescine (1, 2, 3 and 4 mmol/L) and salicylic acid (1, 2, 3 and 4 mmol/L), as well as distilled water (control) for 5 min. The fruits were then packed in boxes with polyethylene covers and stored at 4 °C with 95 % relative humidity for 25 days. A factorial trial based on completely randomized block design with 4 replications was carried out. The weight loss, fruit firmness, total soluble solids, titratable acidity, pH, maturity index, ascorbic acid, total phenolics and antioxidant activity at 0, 5, 10, 15, 20 and 25 days after harvest were recorded. During the storage period, the weight loss, total soluble solids, pH and maturity index increased significantly while the fruit firmness, titratable acidity, ascorbic acid, total phenolics and antioxidant activity decreased significantly (P < 0.05) for all treatments. Statistically significant differences were observed between different treatments (putrescine, salicylic acid and control) in all measured parameters. The data showed that the weight loss and softening of the plum fruits were decreased significantly by the use of putrescine and salicylic acid. Also, exogenous treatments of putrescine and salicylic acid are found to be effective in maintaining titratable acidity, ascorbic acid, total phenolics and antioxidant activity in plum fruits during storage at 4 °C. It was concluded that postharvest treatment of plum fruit with putrescine and salicylic acid were effective on delaying the ripening processes and can be used commercially to extend the shelf life of plum fruit with acceptable fruit quality.

  11. Antioxidant activity of phenolic compounds added to a functional emulsion containing omega-3 fatty acids and plant sterol esters.

    PubMed

    Espinosa, Raquel Rainho; Inchingolo, Raffaella; Alencar, Severino Matias; Rodriguez-Estrada, Maria Teresa; Castro, Inar Alves

    2015-09-01

    The effect of eleven compounds extracted from red propolis on the oxidative stability of a functional emulsion was evaluated. Emulsions prepared with Echium oil as omega 3 (ω-3 FA) source, containing 1.63 g/100mL of α-linolenic acid (ALA), 0.73 g/100 mL of stearidonic acid (SDA) and 0.65 g/100mL of plant sterol esters (PSE) were prepared without or with phenolic compounds (vanillic acid, caffeic acid, trans-cinnamic acid, 2,4-dihydroxycinnamic acid, p-coumaric acid, quercetin, trans-ferulic acid, trans,trans-farnesol, rutin, gallic acid or sinapic acid). tert-Butylhydroquinone and a mixture containing ascorbic acid and FeSO4 were applied as negative and positive controls of the oxidation. Hydroperoxide, thiobarbituric acid reactive substances (TBARS), malondialdehyde and phytosterol oxidation products (POPs) were evaluated as oxidative markers. Based on hydroperoxide and TBARS analysis, sinapic acid and rutin (200 ppm) showed the same antioxidant activity than TBHQ, representing a potential alternative as natural antioxidant to be applied in a functional emulsion containing ω-3 FA and PSE.

  12. Effects of rest time on discharge response and equivalent circuit model for a lead-acid battery

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Devarakonda, Lalitha; Hu, Tingshu

    2015-05-01

    This work carries out a detailed investigation on the effects of rest time on the discharge response and the parameters of the Thevenin's equivalent circuit model for a lead acid battery. Traditional methods for battery modeling require a long rest time before a discharging test so that a steady state is reached for the open circuit voltage. In a recent work, we developed an algebraic method for parameter identification of circuit models for batteries by applying discharging tests after variable and possibly very short rest time. This new method opens a door to the understanding of the effects of rest time on battery behavior, which may be used for better simulation, analysis and design of battery powered systems for improved battery efficiency and state of health. As we used the new method to extract circuit parameters after different rest times, we observed some unexpected results on the relationship between the rest time and circuit parameters. The initial voltages on the capacitors can be negative and becomes more negative as the rest time is increased. We also observed that the time constants increase with rest time. Relationships between rest time and other parameters are also reported in this paper.

  13. Polylactic acid (PLA)/Silver-NP/VitaminE bionanocomposite electrospun nanofibers with antibacterial and antioxidant activity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Munteanu, Bogdanel Silvestru; Aytac, Zeynep; Pricope, Gina M.; Uyar, Tamer; Vasile, Cornelia

    2014-10-01

    The antibacterial property of silver nanoparticles (Ag-NPs) and the antioxidant activity of Vitamin E have been combined by incorporation of these two active components within polylactic acid (PLA) nanofibers via electrospinning (PLA/Ag-NP/VitaminE nanofibers). The morphological and structural characterizations of PLA/Ag-NP/VitaminE nanofibers were performed by Scanning Electron Microscopy (SEM), Transmission Electron Microscopy and X-ray diffraction. The average fiber diameter was 140 ± 60 nm, and the size of the Ag-NP was 2.7 ± 1.5 nm. PLA/Ag-NP/VitaminE nanofibers inhibited growth of Escherichia coli, Listeria monocytogenes and Salmonella typhymurium up to 100 %. The amount of released Ag ions from the nanofibers immersed in aqueous solution was determined by Inductively Coupled Plasma Mass Spectrometry, and it has been observed that the release of Ag ions was kept approximately constant after 10 days of immersion. The antioxidant activity of PLA/Ag-NP/VitaminE nanofibers was evaluated according to DPPH (2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl) method and determined as 94 %. The results of the tests on fresh apple and apple juice indicated that the PLA/Ag/VitaminE nanofiber membrane actively reduced the polyphenol oxidase activity. The multifunctional electrospun PLA nanofibers incorporating Ag-NP and Vitamin E may be quite applicable in food packaging due to the extremely large surface area of nanofibers along with antibacterial and antioxidant activities. These materials could find application in food industry as a potential preservative packaging for fruits and juices.

  14. Effect of Plasma Uric Acid on Antioxidant Capacity, Oxidative Stress, and Insulin Sensitivity in Obese Subjects

    PubMed Central

    Fabbrini, Elisa; Serafini, Mauro; Colic Baric, Irena; Hazen, Stanley L.; Klein, Samuel

    2014-01-01

    Oxidative stress is purported to be involved in the pathogenesis of obesity-associated insulin resistance. We evaluated whether alterations in levels of circulating uric acid (UA), a systemic antioxidant, affects the following: 1) systemic (plasma and saliva) nonenzymatic antioxidant capacity (NEAC); 2) markers of systemic (urinary 8-iso-prostaglandin-F2α) and muscle (carbonylated protein content) oxidative stress; and 3) whole-body insulin sensitivity (percentage increase in glucose uptake during a hyperinsulinemic-euglycemic clamp procedure). Thirty-one obese subjects (BMI 37.1 ± 0.7 kg/m2) with either high serum UA (HUA; 7.1 ± 0.4 mg/dL; n = 15) or normal serum UA (NUA; 4.5 ± 0.2 mg/dL; n = 16) levels were studied; 13 subjects with HUA levels were studied again after reduction of serum UA levels to 0 by infusing a recombinant urate oxidase. HUA subjects had 20–90% greater NEAC, but lower insulin sensitivity (40%) and levels of markers of oxidative stress (30%) than subjects in the NUA group (all P < 0.05). Acute UA reduction caused a 45–95% decrease in NEAC and a 25–40% increase in levels of systemic and muscle markers of oxidative stress (all P < 0.05), but did not affect insulin sensitivity (from 168 ± 25% to 156 ± 17%, P = NS). These results demonstrate that circulating UA is a major antioxidant and might help protect against free-radical oxidative damage. However, oxidative stress is not a major determinant of insulin action in vivo. PMID:24353177

  15. Arsenate and arsenite exposure modulate antioxidants and amino acids in contrasting arsenic accumulating rice (Oryza sativa L.) genotypes.

    PubMed

    Dave, Richa; Tripathi, Rudra Deo; Dwivedi, Sanjay; Tripathi, Preeti; Dixit, Garima; Sharma, Yogesh Kumar; Trivedi, Prabodh Kumar; Corpas, Francisco J; Barroso, Juan B; Chakrabarty, Debasis

    2013-11-15

    Carcinogenic arsenic (As) concentrations are found in rice due to irrigation with contaminated groundwater in South-East Asia. The present study evaluates comparative antioxidant property and specific amino acid accumulation in contrasting rice genotypes corresponding to differential As accumulation during arsenate (As(V)) and arsenite (As(III)) exposures. The study was conducted on two contrasting As accumulating rice genotypes selected from 303 genotype accessions, in hydroponic conditions. Maximum As accumulation was up to 1181 μg g(-1) dw in the roots of high As accumulating genotype (HARG), and 89 μg g(-1) dw in low As accumulating genotype (LARG) under As(III) exposures. The inorganic As was correlated more significantly upon exposures to As(III) than As(V). In the presence of As(V) various antioxidant enzymes guiacol peroxidase (GPX), ascorbate peroxidase (APX) and superoxide dismutase (SOD) were highly stimulated in HARG. The stress responsive amino acids proline, cysteine, glycine, glutamic acid and methionine showed higher accumulation in HARG than LARG. A clear correlation was found between stress responsive amino acids, As accumulation and antioxidative response. The comparisons between the contrasting genotypes helped to determine the significance of antioxidants and specific amino acid response to As stress.

  16. Total antioxidant and ascorbic acid content of fresh fruits and vegetables: implications for dietary planning and food preservation.

    PubMed

    Szeto, Yim Tong; Tomlinson, Brian; Benzie, Iris F F

    2002-01-01

    Epidemiological evidence links high intake of ascorbic acid (AA) and other antioxidant micronutrients to health promotion. It would be useful to know the overall, or 'total' antioxidant capacity of foods, to establish the contribution of AA to this, and to assess how this information may translate into dietary intakes to meet the new US daily reference intake for AA. In this study, the total antioxidant capacity, as the ferric reducing-antioxidant power (FRAP) value, and AA content of thirty-four types of fruits and vegetables were measured using a modified version of the FRAP assay, known as FRASC. This measures AA (reduced form only) simultaneously with the FRAP value. Results covered a wide range: 880-15940 micromol/kg fresh wet weight and <20-540 mg/kg fresh wet weight respectively, for FRAP and AA, which comprised < 1-73 % and < 1-59 % total antioxidant capacity of fruits and vegetables respectively. We estimate that 100 mg AA is contained in one orange, a few strawberries, one kiwi fruit, 1-2 slices of pineapple, several florets of raw cauliflower or a handful of uncooked spinach leaves. Apples, bananas, pears and plums, the most commonly consumed fruits in the UK, contain very little AA. Results indicate also that the antioxidant capacity of vegetables decreases rapidly and significantly after fragmentation. Results of this, and future studies, using FRASC as a biomonitoring tool will be useful in food production, preparation, preservation, and aid dietary choices to increase antioxidant and AA intake. Furthermore, FRASC will facilitate bioavailability studies of antioxidants from different foods of known antioxidant capacity and AA content.

  17. The Lipophilic Vitamin C Derivative, 6-O-Palmitoylascorbate Protects Human Keratinocytes and 3D-Human Skin Equivalents Against X-Ray-Induced Oxidative Stress and Apoptosis More Markedly Than L-Ascorbic Acid.

    PubMed

    Xiao, Li; Miwa, Nobuhiko

    2017-02-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate preventive effects of the lipophilic vitamin C derivative, 6-O-palmitoylascorbate (PlmtVC) against X-ray radiation-induced harmful events. Free radical scavenging activity tests showed that both fresh and old (being kept at 37°C for 72 h) solutions of PlmtVC showed significantly higher abilities for scavenging both DPPH and peroxyl radical (ROO·) radicals than L-ascorbic acid (L-AA) under the same conditions, suggesting that PlmtVC is an antioxidant more efficient and stable than L-AA. Irradiation with X-ray (15 Gy) increased intracellular ROS production, lipid peroxidation and protein carbonylation, in human keratinocytes HaCaT, all of which were repressed, especially for intracellular ROS more markedly, by PlmtVC than by L-AA. After X-ray (15 Gy)-irradiation, caspase 3/7 activation and TUNEL-detected DNA-strand-breakages characteristic of apoptosis obviously increased in HaCaT cells or 3D-skin tissue equivalents, respectively, both of which were prevented more appreciably by PlmtVC than by L-AA. PlmtVC also noticeably prevented cumene hydroperoxide-induced generation of cellular ROS in epidermis parts of 3D-skin equivalents. Thus, PlmtVC prevents X-ray-induced diverse harmful effects, through its antioxidant activity and the palmitoyl moiety-based lipophilicity, more efficiently than L-AA. J. Cell. Biochem. 118: 318-329, 2017. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  18. Antioxidant defense and apoptotic effectors in ascorbic acid and β-glycerophosphate-induced osteoblastic differentiation.

    PubMed

    Chaves Neto, Antonio Hernandes; Machado, Daisy; Yano, Cláudia Lumy; Ferreira, Carmen Veríssima

    2011-01-01

    MC3T3-E1 cells grown in the presence of ascorbic acid and β-glycerophosphate (AA/β-GP) express alkaline phosphatase and produce an extensive collagenous extracellular matrix. Differentiated MC3T3-E1 cells are more sensitive to hydrogen peroxide-induced oxidative stress than undifferentiated cells. In this study, we compared the profile of antioxidant enzymes and molecular markers of apoptosis in undifferentiated and differentiated MC3T3-E1 cells (cell differentiation was induced by treatment with AA/β-GP). Differentiated osteoblasts showed lower expression and activity of catalase, glutathione S-transferase and glutathione peroxidase. The total superoxide dismutase activity and the expression of Cu/Zn superoxide dismutase were also lower, while the expression of Mn superoxide dismutase was higher in differentiated osteoblasts. The level of malondialdehyde, a widely used marker for oxidative stress, was lower in the AA/β-GP group compared with control cells, but this difference was not significant. Western blotting showed that treatment with AA/β-GP increased the Bax/Bcl-2 ratio used as an index of cellular vulnerability to apoptosis. In addition, the activities of caspases 3, 8 and 9 and cleaved poly (ADP) ribose polymerase were significantly higher in differentiated cells. These findings provide new insights into how changes in the activities of major antioxidant enzymes and in the signaling pathways associated with apoptosis may influence the susceptibility of bone cells to oxidative stress.

  19. Mycosporine-Like Amino Acids and Their Derivatives as Natural Antioxidants

    PubMed Central

    Wada, Naoki; Sakamoto, Toshio; Matsugo, Seiichi

    2015-01-01

    Mycosporine-like amino acids (MAAs) are water-soluble molecules that absorb UV-A and UV-B radiation and disperse the energy as heat. MAAs show great diversity in their molecular structures, which exhibit a range of molecular weights spanning 188 to 1050 Daltons. MAAs are utilized in a wide variety of organisms including prokaryotes and eukaryotic micro-organisms that inhabit aquatic, terrestrial, and marine environments. These features suggest that MAAs are stable and fundamental molecules that allow these organisms to live under UV irradiation. MAAs are thought to have been greatly important to ancient forms of life on Earth, functioning as a primary sunscreen to reduce short-wavelength light. Structurally different MAAs might have been developed in MAA-producing organisms during their environmental adaptation. Harmful irradiation directly damages biomolecules, including lipids, proteins and DNA, and induces oxidative stress through radical-propagating processes. Thus, MAAs are expected to play an additional role in the antioxidant system. This review focuses on MAAs with radical scavenging activities. To cover all the reported MAAs known thus far, we surveyed the CAS database and have summarized the structures and the chemical and physical properties of these MAAs, including their antioxidant activities. PMID:26783847

  20. Lactic Acid Bacterial Starter Culture with Antioxidant and γ-Aminobutyric Acid Biosynthetic Activities Isolated from Flatfish-Sikhae Fermentation.

    PubMed

    Won, Yeong Geol; Yu, Hyun-Hee; Chang, Young-Hyo; Hwang, Han-Joon

    2015-12-01

    The aim of this study is to select a lactic acid bacterial strain as a starter culture for flatfish-Sikhae fermentation and to evaluate its suitability for application in a food system. Four strains of lactic acid bacteria isolated from commercial flatfish-Sikhae were identified and selected as starter culture candidates through investigation of growth rates, salt tolerance, food safety, and functional properties such as antioxidative and antimicrobial activities. The fermentation properties of the starter candidates were also examined in food systems prepared with these strains (candidate batch) in comparison with a spontaneous fermentation process without starter culture (control batch) at 15°C. The results showed that the candidate YG331 batch had better fermentation properties such as viable cell count, pH, and acidity than the other experimental batches, including the control batch. The results are expressed according to selection criteria based on a preliminary sensory evaluation and physiochemical investigation. Also, only a small amount of histamine was detected with the candidate YG331 batch. The radical scavenging activity of the candidate batches was better compared with the control batch, and especially candidate YG331 batch showed the best radical scavenging activity. Also, we isolated another starter candidate (identified as Lactobacillus brevis PM03) with γ-aminobutyric acid (GABA)-producing activity from commercial flatfish-Sikhae products. The sensory scores of the candidate YG331 batch were better than those of the other experimental batches in terms of flavor, color, and overall acceptance. In this study, we established selection criteria for the lactic acid bacterial starter for the flatfish-Sikhae production and finally selected candidate YG331 as the most suitable starter.

  1. Evaluation of antioxidant activity, polyphenolic compounds, amino acids and mineral elements of representative genotypes of Lonicera edulis.

    PubMed

    Sochor, Jiri; Jurikova, Tunde; Pohanka, Miroslav; Skutkova, Helena; Baron, Mojmir; Tomaskova, Lenka; Balla, Stefan; Klejdus, Borivoj; Pokluda, Robert; Mlcek, Jiri; Trojakova, Zuzana; Saloun, Jan

    2014-05-21

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the bioactive substances in 19 berry cultivars of edible honeysuckle (Lonicera edulis). A statistical evaluation was used to determine the relationship between the content of selected bioactive substances and individual cultivars. Regarding mineral elements, the content of sodium was measured using potentiometry and spectrophotometry. The content of selected polyphenolic compounds with high antioxidant activity was determined by a HPLC-UV/ED method. The total amount of polyphenols was determined by the Folin-Ciocalteu method. The antioxidant activity was determined using five methods (DPPH, FRAP, ABTS, FR and DMPD) that differ in their principles. The content of 13 amino acids was determined by ion-exchange chromatography. The experimental results obtained for the different cultivars were evaluated and compared by statistical and bioinformatic methods. A unique feature of this study lies in the exhaustive analysis of the chosen parameters (amino acids, mineral elements, polyphenolic compounds and antioxidant activity) during one growing season.

  2. Biomonitoring Data for 2,4-Dichlorophenoxyacetic Acid in the United States and Canada: Interpretation in a Public Health Risk Assessment Context Using Biomonitoring Equivalents

    EPA Science Inventory

    Several extensive studies of exposure to 2,4-dichlorophenoxyacetic acid (2,4-D) using urinary concentrations in samples from the general population, farm applicators, and farm family members are now available. Reference doses (RfDs) exist for 2,4-D, and Biomonitoring Equivalents ...

  3. Evidence for the association of peroxidases with the antioxidant effect of p-coumaric acid in endothelial cells exposed to high glucose plus arachidonic acid.

    PubMed

    Lee, Seung Jin; Mun, Gyeong In; An, Sang Mi; Boo, Yong Chool

    2009-09-30

    Although many plant-derived phenolic compounds display antioxidant effects in biological systems, their mechanism of action remains controversial. In this study, the mechanism by which p-coumaric acid (p-CA) performs its antioxidant action was investigated in bovine aortic endothelial cells under oxidative stress due to high levels of glucose (HG) and arachidonic acid (AA), a free fatty acid. p-CA prevented lipid peroxidation and cell death due to HG+AA without affecting the production of reactive oxygen species. The antioxidant effect of p-CA was not decreased by buthionine-(S,R)-sulfoximine, an inhibitor of cellular GSH synthesis. In contrast, pretreatment with p-CA caused the induction of peroxidases that decomposed t-butyl hydroperoxide in a p-CA-dependent manner. Furthermore, the antioxidant effect of p-CA was significantly mitigated by methimazole, which was shown to inhibit the catalytic activity of 'p-CA peroxidases' in vitro. Therefore, it is suggested that the induction of these previously unidentified 'p-CA peroxidases' is responsible for the antioxidant effect of p-CA. [BMB reports 2009; 42(9): 561-567].

  4. Effect of abscisic acid and hydrogen peroxide on antioxidant enzymes in Syzygium cumini plant.

    PubMed

    Choudhary, Ramkishan; Saroha, Ajaya Eesha; Swarnkar, P L

    2012-10-01

    The present study was undertaken to study the effect of abscisic acid and hydrogen peroxide on the activities of antioxidant enzymes namely superoxide dismutase (SOD; E.C. 1.15.1.1), catalase (CAT; E.C. 1.11.1.6) and ascorbate peroxidase (APX; E.C. 1.11.1.11) in Syzygium cumini plant. The varying concentrations of ABA (2-8 mM/l) and H2O2 (2-8 mM/l) modulated enzyme activities differently. In general, some concentrations of the ABA and H2O2 stimulated the activities of all the three enzymes except that there was a dose dependent reduction in catalase activity in the plants treated with ABA.

  5. Phenolic compounds, organic acids and antioxidant activity of grape juices produced in industrial scale by different processes of maceration.

    PubMed

    Lima, Marcos dos Santos; da Conceição Prudêncio Dutra, Maria; Toaldo, Isabela Maia; Corrêa, Luiz Claudio; Pereira, Giuliano Elias; de Oliveira, Débora; Bordignon-Luiz, Marilde Terezinha; Ninow, Jorge Luiz

    2015-12-01

    The effect of maceration process on the profile of phenolic compounds, organic acids composition and antioxidant activity of grape juices from new varieties of Vitis labrusca L. obtained in industrial scale was investigated. The extraction process presented a high yield without pressing the grapes. The use of a commercial pectinase resulted in an increase on extraction yield and procyanidins B1 and B2 concentrations and a decrease on turbidity and concentration of catechins. The combination of 60 °C and 3.0 mL 100 kg(-1) of enzyme resulted in the highest extraction of phenolic compounds, reducing the content of acetic acid. The juices presented high antioxidant activity, related to the great concentration of malvidin, cyanidin, catechin and caffeic, cinnamic and gallic acids. Among the bioactive compounds, the juices presented high concentration of procyanidin B1, caffeic acid and trans-resveratrol, with higher levels compared to those reported in the literature.

  6. Chemical compositions, free amino acid contents and antioxidant activities of Hanwoo (Bos taurus coreanae) beef by cut

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The objective of this study was to evaluate chemical compositions, free amino acid contents, and antioxidant activities of different cuts of Hanwoo (Bos taurus coreanae) beef. Beef preferences and prices in the Korean market depend on cut. Therefore, comparisons were made between high-preference (gr...

  7. Quantitative HPLC Analysis of Rosmarinic Acid in Extracts of "Melissa officinalis" and Spectrophotometric Measurement of Their Antioxidant Activities

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Canelas, Vera; da Costa, Cristina Teixeira

    2007-01-01

    The students prepare tea samples using different quantities of lemon balm leaves ("Melissa officinalis") and measure the rosmarinic acid contents by an HPLC-DAD method. The antioxidant properties of the tea samples are evaluated by a spectrophotometric method using a radical-scavenging assay with DPPH. (2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl). Finally the…

  8. Highly unsaturated fatty acid might act as an antioxidant in emulsion system oxidized by azo compound.

    PubMed

    Gotoh, Naohiro; Noguchi, Yosuke; Ishihara, Akiko; Yamaguchi, Kaita; Mizobe, Hoyo; Nagai, Toshiharu; Otake, Ikuko; Ichioka, Kenji; Wada, Shun

    2010-01-01

    Now it is recognized that DHA is oxidatively stable fatty acid compared with linoleic acid (LA) in emulsified system, although DHA is oxidatively unstable in a bulk system. In fact, an emulsified mixture of DHA and LA behaves as in a bulk system, namely the oxidative stability of DHA becomes lower than that of LA. Therefore, in this study, tridocosahexaenoate (DDD) and glycerol trilinoleate (LLL) were separately emulsified using TritonX-100 as an emulsifier and DDD emulsion was mixed with the oxidizing LLL emulsion using a water-soluble radical initiator, 2,2'-azobis(2-aminopropane) dihydrochloride. As a result, DHA suppressed the oxidation of LA, while DHA was not significantly oxidized. This suppression ability was examined using glycerol trieicosapentaenoate, glycerol trilinolenate, or glycerol trioleate instead of DDD and it was found that this activity was increased with the increasing number of double bonds in the structure. Furthermore, the same type of experiment was carried out using a lipid-soluble radical initiator, 2,2'-azobisisobutyronitrile and the similar result was obtained. These results indicated that a highly polyunsaturated fatty acid might act as an antioxidant in an emulsion system oxidized by an azo compound.

  9. Phenolic acids, antioxidant and antiproliferative activities of Naviglio® extracts from Schizogyne sericea (Asteraceae).

    PubMed

    Caprioli, Giovanni; Iannarelli, Romilde; Sagratini, Gianni; Vittori, Sauro; Zorzetto, Christian; Sánchez-Mateo, Candelaria C; Rabanal, Rosa M; Quassinti, Luana; Bramucci, Massimo; Vitali, Luca A; Petrelli, Dezemona; Lupidi, Giulio; Venditti, Alessandro; Maggi, Filippo

    2017-03-01

    Schizogyne sericea, well-known as 'salado', is a halophytic shrub widespread on coastal rocks of Tenerife (Canary Islands). This plant is used traditionally as analgesic, astringent, anti-inflammatory and vulnerary agent. In the present work, we have analysed the aqueous and ethanolic extracts of S. sericea for the content of phenolic acids by HPLC-DAD. The dynamic solid-liquid Naviglio® extractor was used to extract the flowering aerial parts. Aqueous extracts showed higher levels of phenolics than ethanolic extracts. S. sericea extracts were rich in chlorogenic and isochlorogenic acids. The Naviglio® extracts obtained were assayed for in vitro biological activities, namely antioxidant, antimicrobial and cytotoxicity on tumour cells by DPPH, ABTS, FRAP, agar disc-diffusion and MTT methods, respectively. Results showed that aqueous extracts, being richer in phenolic acids, are endowed with relevant radical scavenging activity (TEAC values in the range 208-960 μmol TE/g) while ethanolic extracts exhibited noteworthy antiproliferative effects on tumour cells.

  10. Selection of grapevine leaf varieties for culinary process based on phytochemical composition and antioxidant properties.

    PubMed

    Lima, Adriano; Bento, Albino; Baraldi, Ilton; Malheiro, Ricardo

    2016-12-01

    Grapevine leaves are an abundant sub-product of vineyards which is devalued in many regions. The objective of this work is to study the antioxidant activity and phytochemical composition of ten grapevine leaf varieties (four red varieties: Tinta Amarela, Tinta Roriz, Touriga Franca, and Touriga Nacional; and six white varieties: Côdega do Larinho, Fernão Pires, Gouveio, Malvasia Fina, Rabigato, and Viosinho) to select varieties to be used as food ingredients. White grapevine leaves revealed higher antioxidant potential. Malvasia Fina reported better antioxidant properties contrasting with Touriga Franca. Phenolic content varied between 112 and 150mgGAEg(-1) of extract (gallic acid equivalents), hydroxycinnamic acid derivatives and flavonols varied between 76 and 108mgCAEg(-1) of extract (caffeic acid equivalents) and 39 and 54mgQEg(-1) of extract (quercetin equivalents). Malvasia Fina is a good candidate for culinary treatment due to its antioxidant properties and composition in bioactive compounds.

  11. Effect of rosmarinic acid on sertoli cells apoptosis and serum antioxidant levels in rats after exposure to electromagnetic fields.

    PubMed

    Hajhosseini, Laleh; Khaki, Arash; Merat, Ehsan; Ainehchi, Nava

    2013-01-01

    Rosmarinic acid belongs to the group of polyphenols; it has antioxidant, anti-inflammatory and antimicrobial activities and help to prevent cell damage caused by free radicals. The objective was to study the effect of Rosmarinic acid on sertolli cells apoptosis and serum antioxidant levels in rats after they were exposed to electromagnetic fields. Male Wistar rats (n=40) were allocated into three groups: control group (n=10) that received 5 cc normal saline (0.9% NaCl) daily by gavage method, Rosmarinic acid group that received 5mg/rat (gavage) (n=10), electromagnetic fields (EMF) group that had exposure with 50 hz (n=20) which was subdivided to two groups of 10; EMF group and treatment group. Treatment group received 5mg/rat (gavage) Rosmarinic acid daily for 6 weeks, respectively. However, the control group just received an equal volume of distilled water daily (gavage). On the 42nd day of research, 5 cc blood was collected to measure testosterone hormones, total antioxidant capacity (TAC), levels from whole group's analysis. Level of malondialdehyde (MDA) levels and sertoli cells apoptosis significantly decreased in the group that received 5mg/rat of Rosmarinic acid (P<0.05) in comparison with experimental groups. Level of testosterone, total antioxidant capacity (TAC), significantly increased in groups that received Rosmarinic acid (P<0.05). Since in our study 5mg/rat of Rosmarinic acid showed significantly preventive effect on cell damages especial sertoli cells apoptosis that caused with EMF, it seems that using Rosmarinic acid as food additive can be effective for supporting people living under EMF environmental pollution.

  12. Antioxidative Peptides Derived from Enzyme Hydrolysis of Bone Collagen after Microwave Assisted Acid Pre-Treatment and Nitrogen Protection

    PubMed Central

    Lin, Yun-Jian; Le, Guo-Wei; Wang, Jie-Yun; Li, Ya-Xin; Shi, Yong-Hui; Sun, Jin

    2010-01-01

    This study focused on the preparation method of antioxidant peptides by enzymatic hydrolysis of bone collagen after microwave assisted acid pre-treatment and nitrogen protection. Phosphoric acid showed the highest ability of hydrolysis among the four other acids tested (hydrochloric acid, sulfuric acid and/or citric acid). The highest degree of hydrolysis (DH) was 9.5% using 4 mol/L phosphoric acid with a ratio of 1:6 under a microwave intensity of 510 W for 240 s. Neutral proteinase gave higher DH among the four protease tested (Acid protease, neutral protease, Alcalase and papain), with an optimum condition of: (1) ratio of enzyme and substrate, 4760 U/g; (2) concentration of substrate, 4%; (3) reaction temperature, 55 °C and (4) pH 7.0. At 4 h, DH increased significantly (P < 0.01) under nitrogen protection compared with normal microwave assisted acid pre-treatment hydrolysis conditions. The antioxidant ability of the hydrolysate increased and reached its maximum value at 3 h; however DH decreased dramatically after 3 h. Microwave assisted acid pre-treatment and nitrogen protection could be a quick preparatory method for hydrolyzing bone collagen. PMID:21151439

  13. Synthesis and evaluation of anti-oxidant and cytotoxic activities of novel 10-undecenoic acid methyl ester based lipoconjugates of phenolic acids

    PubMed Central

    Narra, Naganna; Prasad, Rachapudi Badari Narayana; Misra, Sunil; Dhevendar, Koude; Kontham, Venkateshwarlu

    2017-01-01

    The synthesis of five novel methyl 10-undecenoate-based lipoconjugates of phenolic acids from undecenoic acid was carried out. Undecenoic acid was methylated to methyl 10-undecenoate which was subjected to a thiol–ene reaction with cysteamine hydrochloride. Further amidation of the amine was carried out with different phenolic acids such as caffeic, ferulic, sinapic, coumaric and cinnamic acid. All synthesized compounds were fully characterized and their structures were confirmed by spectral data. The anti-oxidant activity of the synthesized lipoconjugates of phenolic acids was studied by the 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) radical scavenging assay and also by the inhibition of linoleic acid oxidation in micellar medium by differential scanning calorimetry (DSC). The prepared compounds were also screened for their cytotoxic activity against five cell lines. It was observed that the lipoconjugates of caffeic acid, sinapic acid, ferulic acid, and coumaric acid displayed anticancer and anti-oxidant properties. The anticancer properties of these derivatives have been assessed by their IC50 inhibitory values in the proliferation of MDA-MB231, SKOV3, MCF7, DU 145 and HepG2 cancer cell lines. PMID:28179945

  14. Differentiation between stoichiometric and anticatalytic antioxidant properties of benzoic acid analogues: a structure/redox potential relationship study.

    PubMed

    Franck, Thierry; Mouithys-Mickalad, Ange; Robert, Thierry; Ghitti, Gianangelo; Deby-Dupont, Ginette; Neven, Philippe; Serteyn, Didier

    2013-11-25

    We investigated the antioxidant activities of some phenolic acid derivatives on a cell free system and on cellular and enzymatic models involved in inflammation. The stoichiometric antioxidant activities of phenolic acid derivatives were studied by measuring their capacity to scavenge the radical cation 2,2'-azino-bis(3-ethylbenzothiazoline-6-sulphonic acid) (ABTS(+)) and reactive oxygen species (ROS) produced by stimulated neutrophils. The anticatalytic antioxidant capacity of the molecules was evaluated on the activity of myeloperoxidase (MPO), an oxidant enzyme present in and released by the primary granules of neutrophils. The ROS produced by PMA-stimulated neutrophils were measured by lucigenin-enhanced chemiluminescence (CL) and the potential interaction of the molecules with MPO was investigated without interferences due to medium by Specific Immuno-Extraction Followed by Enzyme Detection (SIEFED). The antioxidant activities of the phenolic compounds were correlated to their redox potentials measured by differential pulse voltammetry (DPV), and discussed in relation to their molecular structure. The ability of the phenolic molecules to scavenge ABTS radicals and ROS derived from neutrophils was inversely correlated to their increased redox potential. The number of hydroxyl groups (three) and their position (catechol) were essential for their efficacy as stoichiometric antioxidants or scavengers. On MPO activity, the inhibitory capacity of the molecules was not really correlated with their redox potential. Likewise, for the inhibition of MPO activity the number of OH groups and mainly the elongation of the carboxylic group were essential, probably by facilitating the interaction with the active site or the structure of the enzyme. The redox potential measurement, combined with ABTS and CL techniques, seems to be a good technique to select stoichiometric antioxidants but not anticatalytic ones, as seen for MPO, what rather involves a direct interaction with

  15. Surface-active properties of lipophilic antioxidants tyrosol and hydroxytyrosol fatty acid esters: a potential explanation for the nonlinear hypothesis of the antioxidant activity in oil-in-water emulsions.

    PubMed

    Lucas, Ricardo; Comelles, Francisco; Alcántara, David; Maldonado, Olivia S; Curcuroze, Melanie; Parra, Jose L; Morales, Juan C

    2010-07-14

    Our group has recently observed a nonlinear tendency in antioxidant capacity of different hydroxytyrosol fatty acid esters in fish oil-in-water emulsions, where a maximum of antioxidant efficiency appeared for hydroxytyrosol octanoate. These results appear to disagree with the antioxidant polar paradox. Because the physical location of the antioxidants in an oil-water interface has been postulated as an important factor in explaining this behavior, we have prepared a series of tyrosol and hydroxytyrosol fatty acid esters with different chain length and studied their surface-active properties in water, because these physicochemical parameters could be directly related to the preferential placement at the interface. We have found that tyrosol and hydroxytyrosol fatty acid esters are relevant surfactants when the right hydrophilic-lipophilic balance (HLB) is attained and, in some cases, as efficient as emulsifiers commonly used in industry, such as Brij 30 or Tween 20. Moreover, a nonlinear dependency of surfactant effectiveness is observed with the increase in chain length of the lipophilic antioxidants. This tendency seems to fit quite well with the reported antioxidant activity in emulsions, and the best antioxidant of the series (hydroxytyrosol octanoate) is also a very effective surfactant. This potential explanation of the nonlinear hypothesis will help in the rational design of antioxidants used in oil-in-water emulsions.

  16. Total phenolics, phenolic acids, isoflavones, and anthocyanins and antioxidant properties of yellow and black soybeans as affected by thermal processing.

    PubMed

    Xu, Baojun; Chang, Sam K C

    2008-08-27

    The effects of boiling and steaming processes on the phenolic components and antioxidant activities of whole yellow (with yellow seed coat and yellow cotyledon) and black (with black seed coat and green cotyledon) soybeans were investigated. As compared to the raw soybeans, all processing methods caused significant (p < 0.05) decreases in total phenolic content (TPC), total flavonoid content (TFC), condensed tannin content (CTC), monomeric anthocyanin content (MAC), DPPH free radical scavenging activity (DPPH), ferric reducing antioxidant power (FRAP), and oxygen radical absorbing capacity (ORAC) in black soybeans. Pressure steaming caused significant (p < 0.05) increases in TPC, CTC, DPPH, FRAP, and ORAC in yellow soybeans. The steaming resulted in a greater retention of TPC, DPPH, FRAP, and ORAC values in both yellow and black soybeans as compared to the boiling treatments. To further investigate the effect of processing on phenolic compounds and elucidate the contribution of these compounds to changes of antioxidant activities, phenolic acids, isoflavones, and anthocyanins were quantitatively determined by HPLC. The pressure steaming treatments caused significant (p < 0.05) increases in gallic acid and 2,3,4-trihydroxybenzoic acid, whereas all treatments caused significant (p < 0.05) decreases in two predominant phenolic acids (chlorogenic acid and trans-cinnamic acid), and total phenolic acids for both yellow and black soybeans. All thermal processing caused significant (p < 0.05) increases in aglucones and beta-glucosides of isoflavones, but caused significant (p < 0.05) decreases in malonylglucosides of isoflavones for both yellow and black soybeans. All thermal processing caused significant (p < 0.05) decreases of cyanidin-3-glucoside and peonidin-3-glucoside in black soybeans. Significant correlations existed between selected phenolic compositions, isoflavone and anthocyanin contents, and antioxidant properties of cooked soybeans.

  17. Caffeoylquinic acid derived free radicals identified during antioxidant reactions of bitter tea (Ilex latifolia and Ilex kudincha).

    PubMed

    Pirker, Katharina Franziska; Goodman, Bernard Albert

    2010-12-01

    In order to provide some insight into the chemical basis for the antioxidant behaviour of bitter tea, the Chinese medicinal beverage derived from leaves of Ilex kudincha or Ilex latifolia, free radicals generated during the oxidation of aqueous extracts of dried leaves have been investigated by electron paramagnetic resonance (EPR) spectroscopy. With both beverages, the major components in the EPR spectra after accelerated autoxidation under alkaline conditions or oxidation with the superoxide anion radical were comparable to those derived from reactions of caffeoylquinic acids. Thus these reaction products have sufficient stability for biological activity, and the present results suggest that such molecules contribute appreciably to the antioxidant chemistry of these beverages.

  18. Salvianolic acid B, an antioxidant from Salvia miltiorrhiza, prevents 6-hydroxydopamine induced apoptosis in SH-SY5Y cells.

    PubMed

    Tian, Lin-Lin; Wang, Xue-Jun; Sun, Yu-Ning; Li, Chun-Rong; Xing, Ya-Ling; Zhao, Hai-Bao; Duan, Ming; Zhou, Zhe; Wang, Sheng-Qi

    2008-01-01

    Oxidative stress caused by dopamine may play an important role in the pathogenesis of Parkinson's disease. Salvianolic acid B is an antioxidant derived from the Chinese herb, Salvia miltiorrhiza. In this study, we investigated the neuroprotective effect of salvianolic acid B against 6-hydroxydopamine-induced cell death in human neuroblastoma SH-SY5Y cells. Pretreatment of SH-SY5Y cells with salvianolic acid B significantly reduced 6-hydroxydopamine-induced generation of reactive oxygen species, and prevented 6-hydroxydopamine-induced increases in intracellular calcium. Our data demonstrated that 6-hydroxydopamine-induced apoptosis was reversed by salvianolic acid B treatment. Salvianolic acid B reduced the 6-hydroxydopamine-induced increase of caspase-3 activity, and reduced cytochrome C translocation into the cytosol from mitochondria. The 6-hydroxydopamine-induced decrease in the Bcl-x/Bax ratio was prevented by salvianolic acid B. Additionally, salvianolic acid B decreased the activation of extracellular signal-regulated kinase and induced the activation of 6-hydroxydopamine-suppressed protein kinase C. These results indicate that the protective function of salvianolic acid B is dependent upon its antioxidative potential. Our results strongly suggest that salvianolic acid B may be effective in treating neurodegenerative diseases associated with oxidative stress.

  19. Long Chain Fatty Acid Acylated Derivatives of Quercetin-3-O-Glucoside as Antioxidants to Prevent Lipid Oxidation

    PubMed Central

    Warnakulasuriya, Sumudu N.; Ziaullah; Rupasinghe, H.P. Vasantha

    2014-01-01

    Flavonoids have shown promise as natural plant-based antioxidants for protecting lipids from oxidation. It was hypothesized that their applications in lipophilic food systems can be further enhanced by esterification of flavonoids with fatty acids. Quercetin-3-O-glucoside (Q3G) was esterified individually with six selected long chain fatty acids: stearic acid (STA), oleic acid (OLA), linoleic acid (LNA), α-linolenic acid (ALA), eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA) and decosahexaenoic acid (DHA), using Candida antarctica B lipase as the biocatalyst. The antioxidant activity of esterified flavonoids was evaluated using lipid oxidation model systems of poly-unsaturated fatty acids-rich fish oil and human low density lipoprotein (LDL), in vitro. In the oil-in-water emulsion, Q3G esters exhibited 50% to 100% inhibition in primary oxidation and 30% to 75% inhibition in secondary oxidation. In bulk oil, Q3G esters did not provide considerable protection from lipid oxidation; however, Q3G demonstrated more than 50% inhibition in primary oxidation. EPA, DHA and ALA esters of Q3G showed significantly higher inhibition in Cu2+- and peroxyl radical-induced LDL oxidation in comparison to Q3G. PMID:25384198

  20. Bioprospecting the Curculigoside-Cinnamic Acid-Rich Fraction from Molineria latifolia Rhizome as a Potential Antioxidant Therapeutic Agent.

    PubMed

    Ooi, Der Jiun; Chan, Kim Wei; Sarega, Nadarajan; Alitheen, Noorjahan Banu; Ithnin, Hairuszah; Ismail, Maznah

    2016-06-17

    Increasing evidence from both experimental and clinical studies depicts the involvement of oxidative stress in the pathogenesis of various diseases. Specifically, disruption of homeostatic redox balance in accumulated body fat mass leads to obesity-associated metabolic syndrome. Strategies for the restoration of redox balance, potentially by exploring potent plant bioactives, have thus become the focus of therapeutic intervention. The present study aimed to bioprospect the potential use of the curculigoside-cinnamic acid-rich fraction from Molineria latifolia rhizome as an antioxidant therapeutic agent. The ethyl acetate fraction (EAF) isolated from M. latifolia rhizome methanolic extract (RME) contained the highest amount of phenolic compounds, particularly curculigoside and cinnamic acid. EAF demonstrated glycation inhibitory activities in both glucose- and fructose-mediated glycation models. In addition, in vitro chemical-based and cellular-based antioxidant assays showed that EAF exhibited high antioxidant activities and a protective effect against oxidative damage in 3T3-L1 preadipocytes. Although the efficacies of individual phenolics differed depending on the structure and concentration, a correlational study revealed strong correlations between total phenolic contents and antioxidant capacities. The results concluded that enriched phenolic contents in EAF (curculigoside-cinnamic acid-rich fraction) contributed to the overall better reactivity. Our data suggest that this bioactive-rich fraction warrants therapeutic potential against oxidative stress-related disorders.

  1. Effect of Dietary n − 3 Polyunsaturated Fatty Acids on Oxidant/Antioxidant Status in Macrosomic Offspring of Diabetic Rats

    PubMed Central

    Guermouche, B.; Soulimane-Mokhtari, N. A.; Bouanane, S.; Merzouk, H.; Merzouk, S.; Narce, M.

    2014-01-01

    The aim of this work was to determine the effect of dietary n − 3 PUFA on oxidant/antioxidant status, in vitro very low and low density lipoprotein (VLDL-LDL), and VLDL-LDL-fatty acid composition in macrosomic pups of diabetic mothers. We hypothesized that n − 3 PUFA would improve oxidative stress in macrosomia. Diabetes was induced in female Wistar rats fed with the ISIO diet (control) or with the EPAX diet (enriched in n − 3 PUFAs), by streptozotocin. The macrosomic pups were killed at birth (day 0) and at adulthood (day 90). Lipid parameters and VLDL-LDL-fatty acid composition were investigated. The oxidant/antioxidant status was determined by measuring plasma oxygen radical absorbance capacity (ORAC), hydroperoxides, carbonyl proteins, and VLDL-LDL oxidation. Macrosomic rats of ISIO fed diabetic mothers showed an increase in plasma and VLDL-LDL-triglycerides and VLDL-LDL-cholesterol levels and altered VLDL-LDL-fatty acid composition. Plasma ORAC was low with high hydroperoxide and carbonyl protein levels. The in vitro oxidizability of VLDL-LDL was enhanced in these macrosomic rats. The EPAX diet corrected lipid parameters and improved oxidant/antioxidant status but increased VLDL-LDL susceptibility to oxidation. Macrosomia is associated with lipid abnormalities and oxidative stress. n − 3 PUFA exerts favorable effects on lipid metabolism and on the oxidant/antioxidant status of macrosomic rats. However, there are no evident effects on VLDL-LDL oxidation. PMID:24987679

  2. Antioxidant and antimicrobial properties of some lichens and their constituents.

    PubMed

    Kosanić, Marijana; Ranković, Branislav

    2011-12-01

    The aim of this study is to examine the in vitro antioxidant and antimicrobial activities of the acetone, methanol, and aqueous extracts of the lichens Cladonia furcata (many-forked Cladonia), Hypogymnia physodes (puffed lichen), and Umbilicaria polyphylla (manyleaf navel lichen) and the antimicrobial activity of fumarprotocetraric acid, gyrophoric acid, and physodic acid isolated from the respective lichen species. Antioxidant activity was evaluated by five different methods: free radical scavenging, superoxide anion radical scavenging, reducing power, determination of total phenolic compounds, and determination of total flavonoid content. U. polyphyla exhibited more powerful antioxidant activities than the other lichen species examined: methanol extracts of U. polyphyla showed 90.08% free radical scavenging activities (the ratio was greater than those of standard antioxidants). Moreover, the extracts tested had effective reducing power and superoxide anion radical scavenging. Total contents of phenol and flavonoid in extracts were determined as pyrocatechol equivalents and as rutin equivalents, respectively. A significant strong relationship between total phenolic and flavonoid contents and their antioxidative activities was observed. The antimicrobial activity was estimated by determination of the minimal inhibitory concentration by the broth microdilution method against six species of bacteria and 10 species of fungi. In general, the lichen extracts tested and their respective acids had relatively strong antimicrobial activity against the microorganisms tested. The present study shows that the lichen species tested demonstrated strong antioxidant and antimicrobial activities. The results suggest that lichens may be used as good sources of natural antioxidants and for pharmaceutical purposes in treating various diseases.

  3. Copper blocks quinolinic acid neurotoxicity in rats: contribution of antioxidant systems.

    PubMed

    Santamaría, Abel; Flores-Escartín, Abigail; Martínez, Juan Carlos; Osorio, Laura; Galván-Arzate, Sonia; Pedraza-Chaverrí, José; Chaverrí, José Pedraza; Maldonado, Perla D; Medina-Campos, Omar N; Jiménez-Capdeville, María E; Manjarrez, Joaquín; Ríos, Camilo

    2003-08-15

    Reactive oxygen species and oxidative stress are involved in quinolinic acid (QUIN)-induced neurotoxicity. QUIN, a N-methyl-D-aspartate receptor (NMDAr) agonist and prooxidant molecule, produces NMDAr overactivation, excitotoxic events, and direct reactive oxygen species formation. Copper is an essential metal exhibiting both modulatory effects on neuronal excitatory activity and antioxidant properties. To investigate whether this metal is able to counteract the neurotoxic and oxidative actions of QUIN, we administered copper (as CuSO(4)) intraperitoneally to rats (2.5, 5.0, 7.5, and 10.0 mg/kg) 30 min before the striatal infusion of 1 microliter of QUIN (240 nmol). A 5.0 mg/kg CuSO(4) dose significantly increased the copper content in the striatum, reduced the neurotoxicity measured both as circling behavior and striatal gamma-aminobutyric acid (GABA) depletion, and blocked the oxidative injury evaluated as striatal lipid peroxidation (LP). In addition, copper reduced the QUIN-induced decreased striatal activity of Cu,Zn-dependent superoxide dismutase, and increased the ferroxidase activity of ceruloplasmin in cerebrospinal fluid from QUIN-treated rats. However, copper also produced significant increases of plasma lactate dehydrogenase activity and mortality at the highest doses employed (7.5 and 10.0 mg/kg). These results show that at low doses, copper exerts a protective effect on in vivo QUIN neurotoxicity.

  4. Antioxidant activity of ferulic acid alkyl esters in a heterophasic system: a mechanistic insight.

    PubMed

    Anselmi, Cecilia; Centini, Marisanna; Granata, Paola; Sega, Alessandro; Buonocore, Anna; Bernini, Andrea; Facino, Roberto Maffei

    2004-10-20

    The antioxidant activity of some esters of ferulic acid with the linear fatty alcohols C7, C8 (branched and linear), C9, C11, C12, C13, C15, C16, and C18 has been studied in homogeneous and heterogeneous phases. Whereas in homogeneous phase all of the alkyl ferulates possessed similar radical-scavenging abilities, in rat liver microsomes they showed striking differences, the more effective being C12 (7) (IC50 = 11.03 M), linear C8 (3) (IC50 = 12.40 microM), C13 (8) (IC50 = 18.60 microM), and C9 (5) (IC50 = 19.74 microM), followed by C7 (2), C15 (9), C11 (6), branched C8 (4), C16 (10), and C18 (11) (ferulic acid was the less active, IC50 = 243.84 microM). All of the molecules showed similar partition coefficients in an octanol-buffer system. Three-dimensional studies (NMR in solution, modeling in vacuo) indicate that this behavior might be due to a different anchorage of the molecules with the ester side chain to the microsomal phospholipid bilayer and to a consequent different orientation/positioning of the scavenging phenoxy group outside the membrane surface against the flux of oxy radicals.

  5. Myricetin, rosmarinic and carnosic acids as superior natural antioxidant alternatives to α-tocopherol for the preservation of omega-3 oils.

    PubMed

    Guitard, Romain; Paul, Jean-François; Nardello-Rataj, Véronique; Aubry, Jean-Marie

    2016-12-15

    22 natural polyphenols are compared to 7 synthetic antioxidants including BHT, BHA, TBHQ and PG with regard to their ability to protect omega-3 oils from autoxidation. The antioxidant efficiency of phenols is assessed using the DPPH test and the measurement of oxygen consumption during the autoxidation of oils rich in omega-3 fatty acids. Also, the bond dissociation enthalpies (BDE) of the Ar-OH bonds are calculated and excellent correlations between thermodynamic, kinetic and oxidation data are obtained. It is shown that kinetic rates of hydrogen transfer, number of radicals scavenged per antioxidant molecule, BDE and formation of antioxidant dimers from the primary radicals play an important role regarding the antioxidant activity of phenols. Based on this, it is finally shown that myricetin, rosmarinic and carnosic acids are more efficient than α-tocopherol and synthetic antioxidants for the preservation of omega-3 oils.

  6. Comparison of the Effects of Eicosapentaenoic Acid and Docosahexaenoic Acid on the Eradication of Helicobacter pylori Infection, Serum Inflammatory Factors and Total Antioxidant Capacity.

    PubMed

    Khandouzi, Nafiseh; Shidfar, Farzad; Agah, Shahram; Hosseini, Agha Fatemeh; Dehnad, Afsaneh

    2015-01-01

    Helicobacter pylori infection, the most common chronic bacterial infection in the world, and an important cause of gastrointestinal disorders, may be involved in the pathogenesis of some extra-gastrointestinal disturbances, as well as an increase in blood levels of certain inflammatory markers. Anti-bacterial activity against Helicobacter pylori and anti-inflammatory properties of omega-3 fatty acids have been studied in several research studies. The purpose of the present study was the comparison of the effects of Eicosapentaenoic Acid and Docosahexaenoic Acid supplementation on Helicobacter pylori eradication, serum levels of some inflammatory markers and total antioxidant capacity. In a randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled clinical trial, 97 Helicobacter pylori positive patients (64 patients in the two intervention groups and 33 in the control group), received 2 grams daily of Eicosapentaenoic Acid, Docosahexaenoic Acid or Medium Chain Triglyceride oil as placebo, along with conventional tetra-drug Helicobacter pylori eradication regimen, for 12 weeks. Helicobacter pylori eradication test and measurement of concentration of interleukine-6, interleukine-8, high-sensitivity C-reactive protein and total antioxidant capacity were performed after the intervention. There was no significant difference in eradication rate of the infection, levels of interleukine-6 and total antioxidant capacity among the three groups, while the levels of interleukine-8 and high-sensitivity C-reactive protein were statistically different. Eicosapentaenoic Acid or Docosahexaenoic Acid supplementation had no significant differential impact on the eradication of Helicobacter pylori infection, and serum levels of interleukine-6 and total antioxidant capacity. However, it had a desirable effect on the levels of interleukine-8 and high-sensitivity C-reactive protein in Helicobacter pylori positive patients.

  7. Comparison of the Effects of Eicosapentaenoic Acid and Docosahexaenoic Acid on the Eradication of Helicobacter pylori Infection, Serum Inflammatory Factors and Total Antioxidant Capacity

    PubMed Central

    Khandouzi, Nafiseh; Shidfar, Farzad; Agah, Shahram; Hosseini, Agha Fatemeh; Dehnad, Afsaneh

    2015-01-01

    Helicobacter pylori infection, the most common chronic bacterial infection in the world, and an important cause of gastrointestinal disorders, may be involved in the pathogenesis of some extra-gastrointestinal disturbances, as well as an increase in blood levels of certain inflammatory markers. Anti-bacterial activity against Helicobacter pylori and anti-inflammatory properties of omega-3 fatty acids have been studied in several research studies. The purpose of the present study was the comparison of the effects of Eicosapentaenoic Acid and Docosahexaenoic Acid supplementation on Helicobacter pylori eradication, serum levels of some inflammatory markers and total antioxidant capacity. In a randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled clinical trial, 97 Helicobacter pylori positive patients (64 patients in the two intervention groups and 33 in the control group), received 2 grams daily of Eicosapentaenoic Acid, Docosahexaenoic Acid or Medium Chain Triglyceride oil as placebo, along with conventional tetra-drug Helicobacter pylori eradication regimen, for 12 weeks. Helicobacter pylori eradication test and measurement of concentration of interleukine-6, interleukine-8, high-sensitivity C-reactive protein and total antioxidant capacity were performed after the intervention. There was no significant difference in eradication rate of the infection, levels of interleukine-6 and total antioxidant capacity among the three groups, while the levels of interleukine-8 and high-sensitivity C-reactive protein were statistically different. Eicosapentaenoic Acid or Docosahexaenoic Acid supplementation had no significant differential impact on the eradication of Helicobacter pylori infection, and serum levels of interleukine-6 and total antioxidant capacity. However, it had a desirable effect on the levels of interleukine-8 and high-sensitivity C-reactive protein in Helicobacter pylori positive patients. PMID:25561921

  8. Antioxidant effect of mogrosides against oxidative stress induced by palmitic acid in mouse insulinoma NIT-1 cells.

    PubMed

    Xu, Q; Chen, S Y; Deng, L D; Feng, L P; Huang, L Z; Yu, R R

    2013-11-18

    Excessive oxidative stress in pancreatic β cells, caused by glucose and fatty acids, is associated with the pathogenesis of type 2 diabetes. Mogrosides have shown antioxidant and antidiabetic activities in animal models of diabetes, but the underlying mechanisms remain unclear. This study evaluated the antioxidant effect of mogrosides on insulinoma cells under oxidative stress caused by palmitic acid, and investigated the underlying molecular mechanisms. Mouse insulinoma NIT-1 cells were cultured in medium containing 0.75 mM palmitic acid, mimicking oxidative stress. The effects of 1 mM mogrosides were determined with the dichlorodihydrofluorescein diacetate assay for intracellular reactive oxygen species (ROS) and FITC-Annexin V/PI assay for cell apoptosis. Expression of glucose transporter-2 (GLUT2) and pyruvate kinase was determined by semi-quantitative reverse-transcription polymerase chain reaction. Palmitic acid significantly increased intracellular ROS concentration 2-fold (P<0.05), and decreased expression of GLUT2 (by 60%, P<0.05) and pyruvate kinase (by 80%, P<0.05) mRNAs in NIT-1 cells. Compared with palmitic acid, co-treatment with 1 mM mogrosides for 48 h significantly reduced intracellular ROS concentration and restored mRNA expression levels of GLUT2 and pyruvate kinase. However, mogrosides did not reverse palmitic acid-induced apoptosis in NIT-1 cells. Our results indicate that mogrosides might exert their antioxidant effect by reducing intracellular ROS and regulating expression of genes involved in glucose metabolism. Further research is needed to achieve a better understanding of the signaling pathway involved in the antioxidant effect of mogrosides.

  9. Docosahexaenoic acid and phosphatidylserine improves the antioxidant activities in vitro and in vivo and cognitive functions of the developing brain.

    PubMed

    Chaung, Hso-Chi; Chang, Chin-Dong; Chen, Pi-Hang; Chang, Chia-Jung; Liu, Shyh-Hwa; Chen, Chih-Cheng

    2013-05-01

    Fish oil during early postnatal period may modulate the impact of oxidative stress in the developing brain and thus improve memory and cognitive behaviour. This study investigated the impacts of docosahexaenoic acid (DHA, C22:6, n-3) and/or phosphatidylserine (PS) on antioxidant activities in vitro, and the beneficial effects of feeding with DHA and/or PS on antioxidant activities in brain and liver tissues and on the cognitive functions of the developing brain. Results indicated that DHA and/or PS significantly enhanced antioxidant activities and increased cell viabilities in vitro. Feeding with DHA and/or PS supplementation not only significantly improved escape latency of animals, but it also improved the oxidative parameters in the brain, enhanced glutathione peroxidase activity as well as reduced nitric mono-oxide levels in the liver. DHA and PS may serve to protect cells from oxidative stress and further improve learning and memory ability in vivo.

  10. Combined Effect of Pressure-Assisted Thermal Processing and Antioxidants on the Retention of Conjugated Linoleic Acid in Milk

    PubMed Central

    Martinez-Monteagudo, Sergio I.; Saldaña, Marleny D.A.

    2015-01-01

    The effect of pressure-assisted thermal processing (PATP) in combination with seven synthetic antioxidants was evaluated on the retention of conjugated linoleic acid (CLA) in enriched milk. Milk rich in CLA was first saturated with oxygen, followed by the addition of either catechin, cysteine, ascorbic acid, tannic acid, gallic acid, caffeic acid or p-coumaric acid (500 mg kg−1 untreated milk). Samples were treated at 600 MPa and 120 °C up to 15 min of holding time. During PATP, CLA not only oxidized at a slower rate, but also less oxygen was consumed compared to the control (0.1 MPa and 120 °C). In addition, phenolic antioxidants were able to quench dissolved oxygen in samples treated with PATP. For those samples added with gallic acid and catechin, 85% and 75% of the CLA was retained after 15 min of holding time at 600 MPa and 120 °C, respectively. The retention of CLA was enhanced by the application of PATP in combination with gallic acid. PMID:28231190

  11. Combined Effect of Pressure-Assisted Thermal Processing and Antioxidants on the Retention of Conjugated Linoleic Acid in Milk.

    PubMed

    Martinez-Monteagudo, Sergio I; Saldaña, Marleny D A

    2015-04-14

    The effect of pressure-assisted thermal processing (PATP) in combination with seven synthetic antioxidants was evaluated on the retention of conjugated linoleic acid (CLA) in enriched milk. Milk rich in CLA was first saturated with oxygen, followed by the addition of either catechin, cysteine, ascorbic acid, tannic acid, gallic acid, caffeic acid or p-coumaric acid (500 mg kg(-)¹ untreated milk). Samples were treated at 600 MPa and 120 °C up to 15 min of holding time. During PATP, CLA not only oxidized at a slower rate, but also less oxygen was consumed compared to the control (0.1 MPa and 120 °C). In addition, phenolic antioxidants were able to quench dissolved oxygen in samples treated with PATP. For those samples added with gallic acid and catechin, 85% and 75% of the CLA was retained after 15 min of holding time at 600 MPa and 120 °C, respectively. The retention of CLA was enhanced by the application of PATP in combination with gallic acid.

  12. In vitro antioxidant and antibacterial properties of hydrolysed proteins of delimed tannery fleshings: comparison of acid hydrolysis and fermentation methods.

    PubMed

    Balakrishnan, Bijinu; Prasad, Binod; Rai, Amit Kumar; Velappan, Suresh Puthanveetil; Subbanna, Mahendrakar Namadev; Narayan, Bhaskar

    2011-04-01

    Proteins in delimed tannery fleshings were fermentatively hydrolysed using Enterococcus faecium NCIM5335 and also hydrolysed using mild organic acids (formic acid and propionic acid). The liquor portion containing hydrolysed proteins was spray dried, in both the cases, to obtain a powder. The spray dried powder was evaluated for in vitro antioxidant activities with respect to scavenging different free radicals and antibacterial properties against nine different pathogens. Fermentation and acid hydrolysates scavenged 83 and 75.3% of 2,2-azino-bis-3-ethyl-benzthiazoline-6-sulphonic acid (ABTS) radicals, respectively, at a protein concentration of 0.25 mg. Further, fermentation hydrolysate showed higher 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl radical scavenging activity of 59% as compared to 56% scavenging by acid hydrolysate at a protein concentration of 5 mg. Acid hydrolysate exhibited lesser (82.3%) peroxy radical scavenging compared to hydrolysate from fermentation (88.2%) at a protein concentration of 10 mg. However, acid hydrolysate exhibited higher (89.2%) superoxide anion scavenging while its fermentation counterpart showed lower activity (85.4%) at 2.5 mg hydrolysate protein. Well as superoxide anion scavenging properties. All the in vitro antioxidant properties exhibited dose dependency. Fermentation hydrolysate exhibited maximum antagonistic activity against Salmonella typhi FB231, from among host of pathogens evaluated. Both the hydrolysates have potential to be ingredients in animal feeds and can help reduce oxidative stress in the animals.

  13. Physical and Flavor Characteristics, Fatty Acid Profile, Antioxidant Status and Nrf2-Dependent Antioxidant Enzyme Gene Expression Changes in Young Grass Carp (Ctenopharyngodon idella) Fillets Fed Dietary Valine

    PubMed Central

    Jiang, Wei-Dan; Liu, Yang; Wu, Pei; Jiang, Jun; Kuang, Sheng-Yao; Tang, Ling; Tang, Wu-Neng; Zhang, Yong-An; Zhou, Xiao-Qiu

    2017-01-01

    This study was conducted to examine the effects of dietary valine on the physical and flavor characteristics, fatty acid (FA) profile, antioxidant status and Nrf2-dependent antioxidant enzyme gene expression in the muscle of young grass carp (Ctenopharyngodon idella) fed increasing levels of valine (4.3, 8.0, 10.6, 13.1, 16.9 and 19.1 g/kg) for 8 weeks. Compared with the control group, the group fed valine showed improved physical characteristics of fish fillets (increased relative shear force, hydroxyproline, protein and lipid levels and decreased cathepsin B and L activities, as well as cooking loss, were observed). Moreover, valine improved the flavor of young grass carp fillets by increasing the amino acid (AA) concentration in fish muscle (increased aspartic acid, threonine, glutamine, cystine, methionine, leucine, tyrosine, phenylalanine, lysine, histidine, arginine and valine concentrations were observed). Additionally, optimal valine supplementation increased the potential health benefits to humans by decreasing the saturated FA (C15:0 and C16:0) concentration and increasing the unsaturated FA (monounsaturated FAs (MUFAs), such as C16:1, C18:1c+t and C20:1, and polyunsaturated FAs (PUFAs), such as C18:3n-3, C20:2 and C22:6) concentration. In addition, the reduced glutathione (GSH) content and the activities of Cu/Zn superoxide dismutase (SOD1), catalase (CAT) and Selenium-dependent glutathione peroxydase (Se-GPx) increased under valine supplementation (P < 0.05). Furthermore, the SOD1, CAT and Se-GPx mRNA levels increased with dietary valine levels, possibly due to the up-regulation of NF-E2-related factor 2 (Nrf2), target of rapamycin (TOR) and ribosomal protein S6 kinase 1 (S6K1) and the down-regulation of Kelch-like-ECH-associated protein 1 (Keap1) in muscle (P < 0.05). In conclusion, valine improved the physical and flavor characteristics, FA profile, and antioxidant status and regulated the expression of the antioxidant enzyme genes Nrf2, Keap1, TOR

  14. Antioxidant effects of resveratrol and its analogues against the free-radical-induced peroxidation of linoleic acid in micelles.

    PubMed

    Fang, Jian-Guo; Lu, Man; Chen, Zhi-Hua; Zhu, Hui-He; Li, Yan; Yang, Li; Wu, Long-Min; Liu, Zhong-Li

    2002-09-16

    The antioxidant effect of resveratrol (3,4',5-trihydroxy-trans-stilbene) and its analogues, that is, 4-hydroxy-trans-stilbene (4-HS), 3,5-dihydroxy-trans-stilbene (3,5-DHS), 4,4'-dihydroxy-trans-stilbene (4,4'-DHS), 3,4-dihydroxy-trans-stilbene (3,4-DHS), 3,4,5-trihydroxy-trans-stilbene (3,4,5-THS) and 3,4,4'-trihydroxy-trans-stilbene (3,4,4'-THS), against the peroxidation of linoleic acid has been studied in sodium dodecyl sulfate (SDS) and cetyltrimethyl ammonium bromide (CTAB) micelles. The peroxidation was initiated thermally by a water-soluble azo initiator 2,2'-azobis(2-methylpropionamidine) dihydrochloride (AAPH), and the reaction kinetics were studied by monitoring the formation of linoleic acid hydroperoxides. The synergistic antioxidant effect of these compounds with alpha-tocopherol (vitamin E) was also studied by following the decay kinetics of alpha-tocopherol and the reaction intermediate, the alpha-tocopheroxyl radical. Kinetic analysis of the antioxidant process demonstrates that these compounds are effective antioxidants in micelles used either alone or in combination with alpha-tocopherol. The antioxidative action involves trapping the propagating lipid peroxyl radical and reducing the alpha-tocopheroxyl radical to regenerate alpha-tocopherol. It was found that the antioxidant activity of resveratrol analogues depends significantly on the position of the hydroxyl groups, the oxidation potential of the molecule and the reaction medium. Molecules with ortho-dihydroxyl and/or para-hydroxyl functionalities possess high activity.

  15. Possible ameliorative effects of antioxidants on propionic acid / clindamycin - induced neurotoxicity in Syrian hamsters

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Propionic acid (PA) found in some foods and formed as a metabolic product of gut bacteria has been reported to mimic/mediate the effects of autism. The present study was undertaken to compare the effect of orally administered PA with that of clindamycin-induced PA-microbial producers in inducing persistent biochemical autistic features in hamsters. The neuroprotective potency of carnosine and carnitine supplements against PA toxicity was also investigated. Methods The following groups were studied. 1. Control group, which received phosphate buffered saline orally, 2. Propionic acid treated group which were given PA at a dose of 250 mg/kg body weight/day for 3 days orally, 3. Clindamycin treated group which received a single dose of the antibiotic orogastrically at a dose of 30 mg/kg on the day of the experiment, 4. Carnosine-treated group which were given carnosine at a dose of 10 mg/kg body weight/day orally for one week, 5. Carnitine treated group given 50 mg/kg body weight/day carnitine orally daily for one week. Group 6. Carnosine followed by PA, Group 7. Carnitine followed by PA. Dopamine, adrenaline and noradrenaline, serotonin and Gamma amino-butyric acid (GABA) were measured in the cortex and medulla of the nine studied groups. Results PA administration caused significant decrease in the neurotransmitters in the brains of treated hamsters while clindamycin caused a significant decrease only in dopamine in hamster brains (cortex and medulla) and GABA in the cerebral cortex of the treated hamsters. Administration of carnosine and carnitine which are known antioxidants caused no significant changes in the levels of neurotransmitters when administered alone to hamsters. However when administered with PA both carnosine and carnitine restored the altered neurotransmitters to near normal levels. Conclusion Carnosine and carnitine may be used as supplements to protect against PA neurotoxicity. PMID:24188374

  16. Modulation of antioxidant and detoxifying capacity in fish Cyprinus carpio (Cyprinidae) after treatment with nanocapsules containing lipoic acid.

    PubMed

    Longaray-Garcia, Márcia; Flores, Juliana Artigas; Külkamp-Guerreiro, Irene Clemes; Guterres, Sílvia Stanisçuaski; Pereira, Talita Carneiro Brandão; Bogo, Maurício Reis; Monserrat, José Maria

    2013-08-01

    Lipoic acid (LA) is a water- and lipid-soluble molecule with capacity to pass through cell membranes and with several antioxidant properties. Previous studies have shown that polymeric nanocapsules with LA favor the protection of this antioxidant, increasing their physical and chemical stability compared to formulations containing free LA. The aim of this study was to evaluate and compare the effect of free LA and LA-nanocapsules on antioxidant enzymes, the concentration of reduced glutathione (GSH) and a by-product of lipid peroxidation (malondialdehyde), as well as the expression of gene coding for different forms of glutathione-S-transferase (GST) in model fish. For this, carp Cyprinus carpio (Cyprinidae) were exposed (i.p.) to different forms of LA (free and in nanocapsules) for different times (48h, 96h and 1week) and the brain, liver and muscle were analyzed. Results indicated that the organs respond differently depending on the time and form in which LA was delivered. After 96h and 1week, a better antioxidant response was found generally in the formulation with nanocapsules. The nanocapsule composition showed to be a factor to be considered in future studies, because in some organs and exposure times empty nanocapsules promoted an antioxidant effect and in others a pro-oxidant effect.

  17. Pro-oxidant/antioxidant behaviours of ascorbic acid, tocopherol, and plant extracts in n-3 highly unsaturated fatty acid rich oil-in-water emulsions.

    PubMed

    Jayasinghe, Chamila; Gotoh, Naohiro; Wada, Shun

    2013-12-01

    This study investigated the oxidative stability of n-3 highly unsaturated fatty acid (n-3 HUFA) rich (35% n-3 HUFA) oil-in-water emulsions (10 wt% oil) with commercial antioxidants and natural plant extracts. Ascorbic acid, α-tocopherol, and the extracts of Indian gooseberry fruit (Emblica officinalis) (IGFE) and sweet basil leaves (Ocimum basilicum L.) (SBLE) were used for the study as antioxidants. The progress of oxidation in the systems was evaluated at 35 °C over 120 h against a control (without antioxidant) by monitoring the formation of primary (conjugated dienes) and secondary (volatile carbonyl compounds) oxidation products. Volatile carbonyl compounds were trapped as derivatives of pentafluorophenyl hydrazine and quantified by headspace solid-phase microextraction analysis. About 40 volatile carbonyls were successfully identified by this method. trans,trans-2,4-Heptadienal, trans,cis-2,4-heptadienal, 3,5-octadien-2-one, and 1-penten-3-ol were predominant. The volatile carbonyl compounds and conjugated dienes were formed at low rates in emulsion systems in which α-tocopherol and natural plant extracts had been introduced, compared to the control. Emulsion systems containing ascorbic acid showed low stability, as indicated by the oxidation products that were formed at high rates compared to the control. These results indicated that ascorbic acid activated the oxidation reactions in n-3 HUFA rich water emulsions, while natural plant extracts that were rich in polyphenols and α-tocopherol were active as antioxidants. The present study further demonstrated the applicability of the polar paradox theory in the determination of stability for n-3 HUFA rich water emulsions with commercial antioxidants and natural plant extracts.

  18. Indole-3-acetic acid/diol based pH-sensitive biological macromolecule for antibacterial, antifungal and antioxidant applications.

    PubMed

    G, Chitra; D S, Franklin; S, Sudarsan; M, Sakthivel; S, Guhanathan

    2017-02-01

    Indole-3-acetic acid (IAA)/diol based pH-sensitive biopolymeric hydrogels with tunable biological properties (cytotoxicity, anti-oxidant and anti-fungal) have been synthesized via condensation polymerization. The present study focused on the synthesis of heterocyclic hydrogel using citric acid (CA), indole-3-acetic acid (IAA) and diethylene glycol (DEG) by condensation polymerization. The hydrogels revealed a pH-sensitive swelling behaviour, with increased swelling in acidic media, then turns to decreased the swelling in the basic media. The hydrogel samples were tested for antifungal activity against Aspergillus fumigates, Rhizopusoryzae and Candida albicans at different concentrations using ketoconazole as positive control and DMSO as negative control for antifungal activity. Antioxidant activity increasing nature in DPPH than NO radical compared with rutin and confirmed non toxic property using cytotoxicity analysis. The biopolymeric hydrogels were characterized by Fourier transform infrared (FT-IR) spectroscopy, (1)H NMR,(13)C NMR, TGA, DSC followed by scanning electron microscopy (SEM). Such hydrogels with antioxidant properties is recommended for medical applications such as bandages, catheters, drains and tubes to prevent infection.

  19. Stability, cutaneous delivery and antioxidant potential of a lipoic acid and α-tocopherol co-drug incorporated in microemulsions

    PubMed Central

    Thomas, Siji; Vieira, Camila S.; Hass, Martha A.; Lopes, Luciana B.

    2014-01-01

    The aim of this study was to assess the skin penetration, stability and antioxidant effects of a α-tocopherol-lipoic acid co-drug. To enhance penetration, we evaluated three microemulsions varying in water content and composition of the oil phase (isopropyl myristate with either monocaprylin or oleic acid). The co-drug was incorporated at 1% (w/w). Co-drug hydrolysis in the microemulsion increased with increases in time (up to 48 h) and formulation water content (10–30%, w/w). Microemulsions increased the co-drug delivery into viable layers of porcine ear skin by 2.9–7.8–fold compared to a control formulation (20% monocaprylin in isopropyl myristate) after 24 h. Penetration enhancement was influenced by the oil phase, with the formulation containing monocaprylin displaying the most pronounced effect. Antioxidant activity, assessed in skin bioequivalents using the thiobarbituric acid-reactive substances (TBARS) assay, demonstrated that TBARS levels decreased by 39% after treatment with the co-drug-containing microemulsion compared to the unloaded formulation. In addition to the co-drug, tocopherol (8.2 ± 0.6 μg/cm2) was detected in the viable bioequivalent tissues, suggesting that the co-drug was partly hydrolyzed after 12 h. Taken together, these results support the potential of nanodispersed formulations containing a tocopherol-lipoic acid co-drug to improve skin antioxidant activity. PMID:24961388

  20. Quality Control of Gamma Irradiated Dwarf Mallow (Malva neglecta Wallr.) Based on Color, Organic Acids, Total Phenolics and Antioxidant Parameters.

    PubMed

    Pinela, José; Barros, Lillian; Antonio, Amilcar L; Carvalho, Ana Maria; Oliveira, M Beatriz P P; Ferreira, Isabel C F R

    2016-04-08

    This study addresses the effects of gamma irradiation (1, 5 and 8 kGy) on color, organic acids, total phenolics, total flavonoids, and antioxidant activity of dwarf mallow (Malva neglecta Wallr.). Organic acids were analyzed by ultra fast liquid chromatography (UFLC) coupled to a photodiode array (PDA) detector. Total phenolics and flavonoids were measured by the Folin-Ciocalteu and aluminium chloride colorimetric methods, respectively. The antioxidant activity was evaluated based on the DPPH(•) scavenging activity, reducing power, β-carotene bleaching inhibition and thiobarbituric acid reactive substances (TBARS) formation inhibition. Analyses were performed in the non-irradiated and irradiated plant material, as well as in decoctions obtained from the same samples. The total amounts of organic acids and phenolics recorded in decocted extracts were always higher than those found in the plant material or hydromethanolic extracts, respectively. The DPPH(•) scavenging activity and reducing power were also higher in decocted extracts. The assayed irradiation doses affected differently the organic acids profile. The levels of total phenolics and flavonoids were lower in the hydromethanolic extracts prepared from samples irradiated at 1 kGy (dose that induced color changes) and in decocted extracts prepared from those irradiated at 8 kGy. The last samples also showed a lower antioxidant activity. In turn, irradiation at 5 kGy favored the amounts of total phenolics and flavonoids. Overall, this study contributes to the understanding of the effects of irradiation in indicators of dwarf mallow quality, and highlighted the decoctions for its antioxidant properties.

  1. Antioxidant activity of rosmarinic acid and its principal metabolites in chemical and cellular systems: Importance of physico-chemical characteristics.

    PubMed

    Adomako-Bonsu, Amma G; Chan, Sue Lf; Pratten, Margaret; Fry, Jeffrey R

    2017-04-01

    Persistent accumulation of reactive oxygen species causes cellular oxidative stress which contributes strongly towards the induction and progression of various diseases. Therapeutic focus has therefore shifted towards the use of antioxidants, with recent interest in those of plant origin. In the current study, rosmarinic acid (RA) and its key metabolites were evaluated in non-cellular and cellular antioxidant assays, using quercetin (Q) as a positive control. The non-cellular assay was performed as scavenging of DPPH radical, whilst the cellular assay was performed as protection from an oxidant stress. Radical-scavenging activity of RA and two of its primary metabolites, CA and DHPLA, were comparable to that of Q, whilst FA was of lower potency and m-CoA was inactive. In the cellular assay, RA and CA were markedly less potent than Q, with DHPLA, FA and m-CoA being inactive, this being true in short-term (5-h) or long-term (20-h) exposure conditions. However, antioxidant potency of Q and methyl rosmarinate, a non-ionisable ester of RA, was similar in the non-cellular and short-term cellular assays. It is proposed that marked ionisation of organic acids such as RA and its metabolites at physiological pH greatly limits their intracellular accumulation, and so attenuates intrinsic antioxidant ability demonstrated in the non-cellular assay. This study demonstrates some of the factors that prevent well-known phytochemicals from progressing further along the drug discovery chain.

  2. Effects of feeding omega-3-fatty acids on fatty acid composition and quality of bovine sperm and on antioxidative capacity of bovine seminal plasma.

    PubMed

    Gürler, Hakan; Calisici, Oguz; Calisici, Duygu; Bollwein, Heinrich

    2015-09-01

    The aim of the present study was to examine the effects of feeding alpha-linolenic (ALA) acid on fatty acid composition and quality of bovine sperm and on antioxidative capacity of seminal plasma. Nine bulls (ALA bulls) were fed with 800 g rumen-resistant linseed oil with a content of 50% linolenic acid and eight bulls with 400 g palmitic acid (PA bulls). Sperm quality was evaluated for plasma membrane and acrosome intact sperm (PMAI), the amount of membrane lipid peroxidation (LPO), and the percentage of sperm with a high DNA fragmentation index (DFI). Fatty acid content of sperm was determined using gas chromatography. Total antioxidant capacity, glutathione peroxidase, and superoxide dismutase activity were determined in seminal plasma. Feeding ALA increased (P < 0.05) the docosahexaenoic acid (DHA) content in bulls whereas in PA bulls did not change. PMAI increased after cryopreservation in ALA bulls as well as in PA bulls during the experiment period (P < 0.005). LPO of sperm directly after thawing did not change during the study period in ALA group, but decreased in PA group (P < 0.006). After 3h of incubation LPO increased in the ALA group (P < 0.02), while LPO did not differ between phases within groups. In conclusion, feeding of neither saturated nor polyunsaturated fatty acids affect the antioxidant levels in seminal plasma. Both saturated as well as polyunsaturated fatty acids had positive effects on quality of cryopreserved bovine sperm, although the content of docosahexaenoic acid in sperm membranes increased only in ALA bulls.

  3. Antioxidant enzyme activities and mitochondrial fatty acids in pulmonary hypertension syndrome (PHS) in broilers.

    PubMed

    Iqbal, M; Cawthon, D; Beers, K; Wideman, R F; Bottje, W G

    2002-02-01

    Major objectives of this study were to assess antioxidant protection and fatty acid profile in lung mitochondria and whole liver in broilers with pulmonary hypertension syndrome [(PHS; with and without high dietary vitamin E (VE)] (Experiment 1) and in broilers that did not develop PHS but were genetically selected (S) or not selected (NS) for resistance to PHS (Experiment 2). In Experiment 1, lung mitochondrial glutathione peroxidase (GSH-Px) activity was elevated in broilers with PHS compared to controls, broilers fed high VE, and broilers fed high VE with PHS (VE-PHS), but there were no differences in GSH reductase (GSH-Rd) among groups. In liver tissue, GSH-Px was also elevated by PHS but was lower in VE and VE-PHS groups than in controls. There were no differences in liver GSH-Rd, superoxide dismutase (SOD), or gamma-glutamylcysteine synthetase (gamma-GCS) activities with the exception that gamma-GCS was higher in the VE-PHS group than in the other groups. In Experiment 2, S lung mitochondria exhibited lower GSH-Px and higher GSH-Rd compared to NS broilers. In the liver, there were no differences in GSH-Px, GSH-Rd, or gamma-GCS, but SOD was lower in S compared to the NS broilers. High VE increased the percentage of saturated fatty acids and decreased the percentage of unsaturated fatty acids in lung mitochondria in Experiment 1; there were no differences in fatty acid content between S and NS mitochondria in Experiment 2. Thus, it appears that GSH recycling enzyme activities are affected by PHS and high VE presumably in response to differences in oxidative stress and that genetic resistance to PHS is associated with an inherently better capability to metabolize oxidants in lung mitochondria. The increase in saturation of lung mitochondrial fatty acids with high dietary VE would presumably make them more resistant to oxidative stress and, thus, reduce the level of PHS-induced oxidative stress.

  4. Antiulcerogenic Effect of Gallic Acid in Rats and its Effect on Oxidant and Antioxidant Parameters in Stomach Tissue

    PubMed Central

    Sen, S.; Asokkumar, K.; Umamaheswari, M.; Sivashanmugam, A. T.; Subhadradevi, V.

    2013-01-01

    In the present study, we investigate the antiulcerogenic effect of gallic acid against aspirin plus pyrolus ligation-induced gastric ulcer in rats. Rats were treated with gallic acid (100 and 200 mg/kg) and famotidine (20 mg/kg) for 1 week, followed by induction of gastric ulcer using the aspirin plus pyrolus ligation model. At the end of 4 h after ligation, the rats were sacrificed and ulcer index, gastric juice volume, pH and other biochemical parameter of gastric juice were evaluated. Stomachs of rats were evaluated biochemically to determine oxidant and antioxidant parameters. Pretreatment with gallic acid significantly decreased ulcer index, gastric juice volume, free and total acidity, total protein, DNA content and increased pH and carbohydrates concentration. Gallic acid at a dose of 100 and 200 mg/kg exerted 69.7 and 78.9% ulcer inhibition, respectively. The levels of superoxide dismutase, catalase, reduced glutathione, glutathione reductase, glutathione peroxidise, glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase were increased while reduction in myeloperoxidase and lipid peroxidation were observed in the stomach tissues of the drug treated rats. The histopathological studies further confirmed the antiulcer activity of gallic acid. We conclude that the gallic acid possesses antiulcer effect and that these occur by a mechanism that involves attenuation of offensive factors, improvement of mucosal defensive with activation of antioxidant parameters and inhibition of some toxic oxidant parameters. PMID:24019562

  5. The Chinese hamster Alu-equivalent sequence: a conserved highly repetitious, interspersed deoxyribonucleic acid sequence in mammals has a structure suggestive of a transposable element.

    PubMed Central

    Haynes, S R; Toomey, T P; Leinwand, L; Jelinek, W R

    1981-01-01

    A consensus sequence has been determined for a major interspersed deoxyribonucleic acid repeat in the genome of Chinese hamster ovary cells (CHO cells). This sequence is extensively homologous to (i) the human Alu sequence (P. L. Deininger et al., J. Mol. Biol., in press), (ii) the mouse B1 interspersed repetitious sequence (Krayev et al., Nucleic Acids Res. 8:1201-1215, 1980) (iii) an interspersed repetitious sequence from African green monkey deoxyribonucleic acid (Dhruva et al., Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. 77:4514-4518, 1980) and (iv) the CHO and mouse 4.5S ribonucleic acid (this report; F. Harada and N. Kato, Nucleic Acids Res. 8:1273-1285, 1980). Because the CHO consensus sequence shows significant homology to the human Alu sequence it is termed the CHO Alu-equivalent sequence. A conserved structure surrounding CHO Alu-equivalent family members can be recognized. It is similar to that surrounding the human Alu and the mouse B1 sequences, and is represented as follows: direct repeat-CHO-Alu-A-rich sequence-direct repeat. A composite interspersed repetitious sequence has been identified. Its structure is represented as follows: direct repeat-residue 47 to 107 of CHO-Alu-non-Alu repetitious sequence-A-rich sequence-direct repeat. Because the Alu flanking sequences resemble those that flank known transposable elements, we think it likely that the Alu sequence dispersed throughout the mammalian genome by transposition. Images PMID:9279371

  6. Hydroxybenzoic Acids Are Significant Contributors to the Antioxidant Effect of Borututu Bark, Cochlospermum angolensis Welw. ex Oliv.

    PubMed Central

    Abourashed, Ehab A.; Fu, Hao Wen

    2017-01-01

    Borututu (Cochlospermum angolensis) is an African tree whose bark has recently emerged as a herbal dietary supplement with claims for antioxidant activity. In order to substantiate the claimed activity of borututu supplements, we performed an activity-guided fractionation of the total extract utilizing a 1,1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) free radical scavenging assay. Subsequent flash and centrifugal chromatography resulted in the isolation of gallic acid (1) and protocatechuic acid (2) as the main antioxidant constituents. Two apocarotenoids and one flavonoid were also isolated from the chloroform fraction and were identified as cochloxanthin (3), dihydrocochloxanthin (4), and 7,4′-dimethyltaxifolin (5), respectively. A High-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) method was also developed for fingerprinting borututu samples, with Compounds 1–4 suggested as chemical markers for quality control purposes. PMID:28134834

  7. Dietary implications on mechanisms of sarcopenia: roles of protein, amino acids and antioxidants.

    PubMed

    Kim, Jeong-Su; Wilson, Jacob M; Lee, Sang-Rok

    2010-01-01

    Sarcopenia, the age-related loss of muscle mass and strength, is a fundamental cause of frailty, functional decline and disability. In the year 2000, $18.5 billion in health care costs were directly attributable to sarcopenia. This economic burden will increase dramatically as the elderly population grows over the next decade. The primary causes of sarcopenia include a sedentary lifestyle and malnutrition. While resistance training appears to be a promising intervention, older individuals exhibit a blunted hypertrophic response to exercise stimuli. It has been posited that this decrement in regenerative capacity may be due to the loss of postprandial anabolism as well as an increase in reactive oxygen species. As such, a combination of resistance training and nutritional interventions may be a promising candidate in combating sarcopenia. Nevertheless, the mechanisms by which the manipulation of dietary variables may improve the sarcopenic condition are not well understood. To address this gap in extant knowledge, this review will examine the effects of protein, amino acid and/or antioxidant intake on sarcopenia both at rest and following resistance training exercise.

  8. Boswellic Acid Improves Cognitive Function in a Rat Model Through Its Antioxidant Activity

    PubMed Central

    Ebrahimpour, Saeedeh; Fazeli, Mehdi; Mehri, Soghra; Taherianfard, Mahnaz; Hosseinzadeh, Hossein

    2017-01-01

    Objectives: Boswellic acid (BA), a compound isolated from the gum-resin of Boswellia carterii, is a pentacyclic terpenoid that is active against many inflammatory diseases, including cancer, arthritis, chronic colitis, ulcerative colitis, Crohn's disease, and memory impairment, but the mechanism is poorly understood. This study investigated the effects of boswellic acid on spatial learning and memory impairment induced by trimethyltin (TMT) in Wistar rats. Methods: Forty male Wistar rats were randomly divided into 5 groups: Normal group, TMT-administrated rats (8.0 mg/kg, Intraperitoneally, i.p.) and TMT + BA (40, 80 and 160 mg/kg, i.p.)-administrated rats. BA was used daily for 21 days. To evaluate the cognitive improving of BA, we performed the Morris water maze test. Moreover, to investigate the neuroprotective effect of BA, we determined the acetylcholinesterase (AchE) activity, the malondialdehyde (MDA) level as a marker of lipid peroxidation, and the glutathione (GSH) content in the cerebral cortex. Results: Treatment with TMT impaired learning and memory, and treatment with BA at a dose of 160 mg/kg produced a significant improvement in learning and memory abilities in the water maze tasks. Consistent with behavioral data, the activity of AChE was significantly increased in the TMT-injected rats compared to the control group (P < 0.01) whereas all groups treated with BA presented a more significant inhibitory effect against AChE than the TMT-injected animals. In addition, TMT reduced the GSH content and increased the MDA level in the cerebral cortex as compared to the control group) P < 0.01). On the other hand, treatment with BA at 160 mg/kg slightly increased the GSH content and reduced the MDA level in comparison to the TMT-administered group (P < 0.01). Conclusion: The above results suggest that the effect of BA in improving the cognitive function may be mediated through its antioxidant activity. PMID:28392957

  9. Thermotolerance and antioxidant systems in Agrostis stolonifera: involvement of salicylic acid, abscisic acid, calcium, hydrogen peroxide, and ethylene.

    PubMed

    Larkindale, Jane; Huang, Bingru

    2004-04-01

    This study investigated whether pre-treating plants with specific putative signaling components and heat acclimation would induce tolerance of a cool-season grass, creeping bentgrass (Agrostis stolonifera var. palustris), to subsequent heat stress and whether thermotolerance induction of those pretreatments was associated with the regulation of antioxidant regenerating enzymes. The treatments included foliar application of salicylic acid (SA), abscisic acid (ABA), calcium chloride (CaCl2), hydrogen peroxide (H2O2), 1-aminocyclopropane-1-carboxylic acid (ACC, a precursor of ethylene prior to the exposure of plants to heat stress (35 degrees C) in a growth chamber. Physiological measurements including turf quality, leaf photosynthetic rate, and levels of oxidative damage demonstrated that all treatments increased heat tolerance. The better heat tolerance for pre-treated plants as compared to controls was related to the protection of oxidative damage under heat stress. APX activity increased over the first 2 days and 5 days of heating for ACC and CaCl2 respectively, but for only 12 h for H2O2. SA and ABA pre-treatments had no effects on APX activity earlier, but maintained APX activity at a significantly higher level than in controls after 24 h of heating. SA and ABA pre-treatments had no effects on POX activity. ACC treatment significantly increased POX activity. Pre-treatment with CaCl2, H2O2, and HA reduced POX activity, particularly during the later phase of heating. Plants treated with SA, CaCl2, H2O2 and HA had lower CAT activity than their control plants prior to heating and within 48 h of heat stress. ABA and ACC pre-treatments maintained higher CAT activity than the controls after 48 h of heating. ACC, CaCl2, or HA pre-treatments increased SOD activity only before 5 days of heat stress. SA and ABA pre-treatments had less effect on APX activity earlier under heat stress. These results suggest that specific groups of potential signaling molecules may induce

  10. Characterization of antioxidants and change of antioxidant levels during storage of Manilkara zapota L.

    PubMed

    Shui, Guanghou; Wong, Shih Peng; Leong, Lai Peng

    2004-12-29

    Antioxidants found in fruits and vegetables play an important role via their protective effects against the onset of aging-related chronic diseases. Our previous research has indicated that unripe ciku fruits (Manilkara zapota L.) are an excellent source of antioxidants, with over 3000 mg of L-ascorbic acid equivalent antioxidant capacity (AEAC) per 100 g of fresh sample. In this study, 24 antioxidants in an extract of ciku king were characterized through a free radical spiking test. Their chemical structures were proposed using high-performance liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry (HPLC-MS) and tandem MS (HPLC/MSn). The antioxidant capacity of ciku king fruits was mainly attributed to polyphenolics with basic blocks of gallocatechin or catechin or both. The changes of total antioxidant capacity (TAC) and total phenolics content (TPC) of ciku king fruits with storage time were also investigated. It was found that the TAC and TPC decreased significantly as the fruits gradually changed from the unripe to the overripe stage. The best time for one to consume ciku king fruits at a flavorful stage with high amounts of antioxidants with AEAC values ranging from 600 to 1200 mg per 100 g fresh sample is suggested. The change of the content of major antioxidant peaks was also consistent with changes of antioxidant levels during storage.

  11. Ferulic Acid Orchestrates Anti-Oxidative Properties of Danggui Buxue Tang, an Ancient Herbal Decoction: Elucidation by Chemical Knock-Out Approach

    PubMed Central

    Gong, Amy G. W.; Huang, Vincent Y.; Wang, Huai Y.; Lin, Huang Q.; Dong, Tina T. X.; Tsim, Karl W. K.

    2016-01-01

    Ferulic acid, a phenolic acid derived mainly from a Chinese herb Angelica Sinensis Radix (ASR), was reported to reduce the formation of free radicals. Danggui Buxue Tang (DBT), a herbal decoction composing of Astragali Radix (AR) and ASR, has been utilized for more than 800 years in China having known anti-oxidative property. Ferulic acid is a major active ingredient in DBT; however, the role of ferulic acid within the herbal mixture has not been resolved. In order to elucidate the function of ferulic acid within this herbal decoction, a ferulic acid-depleted herbal decoction was created and named as DBTΔfa. The anti-oxidative properties of chemically modified DBT decoction were systemically compared in cultured H9C2 rat cardiomyoblast cell line. The application of DBT and DBTΔfa into the cultures showed functions in (i) decreasing the reactive oxygen species (ROS) formation, detected by laser confocal; (ii) increasing of the activation of Akt; (iii) increasing the transcriptional activity of anti-oxidant response element (ARE); and (iv) increasing the expressions of anti-oxidant enzymes, i.e. NQO1 and GCLM. In all scenario, the aforementioned anti-oxidative properties of DBTΔfa in H9C2 cells were significantly reduced, as compared to authentic DBT. Thus, ferulic acid could be an indispensable chemical in DBT to orchestrate multi-components of DBT as to achieve maximal anti-oxidative functions. PMID:27824860

  12. Evaluation of sanitizing efficacy of acetic acid on Piper betle leaves and its effect on antioxidant properties.

    PubMed

    Singla, Richu; Ganguli, Abhijit; Ghosh, Moushumi; Sohal, Sapna

    2009-01-01

    The sanitizing efficacy of acetic acid and its effect on health beneficial properties of Piper betle leaves were determined. Betel leaves artificially inoculated with Aeromonas, Salmonella and Yersinia were subjected to organic acid (citric acid, acetic acid and lactic acid) treatment. Pathogen populations reduced by 4 log upon individual inoculation and up to 2 log in a mixed cocktail following treatment with 2% acetic acid during storage up to 20 h at 28 degrees C, indicating a residual antimicrobial effect on pathogen during storage. Antioxidant potential ethanolic extracts of both raw and treated P. betle leaves were assayed for free radical scavenging activities against 2,2-diphenyl-1-picryhydrazyl. Polyphenols, flavonoids and the reducing power of treated and untreated P. betle were also compared. No significant (P>0.05) changes were observed in antioxidant status; flavonoids, polyphenols and reducing power of treated betel leaves. Results indicate the feasibility of a simple intervention strategy for inactivating pathogens in edible leaves of P. betle.

  13. Structure, spectra and antioxidant action of ascorbic acid studied by density functional theory, Raman spectroscopic and nuclear magnetic resonance techniques

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Singh, Gurpreet; Mohanty, B. P.; Saini, G. S. S.

    2016-02-01

    Structure, vibrational and nuclear magnetic resonance spectra, and antioxidant action of ascorbic acid towards hydroxyl radicals have been studied computationally and in vitro by ultraviolet-visible, nuclear magnetic resonance and vibrational spectroscopic techniques. Time dependant density functional theory calculations have been employed to specify various electronic transitions in ultraviolet-visible spectra. Observed chemical shifts and vibrational bands in nuclear magnetic resonance and vibrational spectra, respectively have been assigned with the help of calculations. Changes in the structure of ascorbic acid in aqueous phase have been examined computationally and experimentally by recording Raman spectra in aqueous medium. Theoretical calculations of the interaction between ascorbic acid molecule and hydroxyl radical predicted the formation of dehydroascorbic acid as first product, which has been confirmed by comparing its simulated spectra with the corresponding spectra of ascorbic acid in presence of hydrogen peroxide.

  14. Structure, spectra and antioxidant action of ascorbic acid studied by density functional theory, Raman spectroscopic and nuclear magnetic resonance techniques.

    PubMed

    Singh, Gurpreet; Mohanty, B P; Saini, G S S

    2016-02-15

    Structure, vibrational and nuclear magnetic resonance spectra, and antioxidant action of ascorbic acid towards hydroxyl radicals have been studied computationally and in vitro by ultraviolet-visible, nuclear magnetic resonance and vibrational spectroscopic techniques. Time dependant density functional theory calculations have been employed to specify various electronic transitions in ultraviolet-visible spectra. Observed chemical shifts and vibrational bands in nuclear magnetic resonance and vibrational spectra, respectively have been assigned with the help of calculations. Changes in the structure of ascorbic acid in aqueous phase have been examined computationally and experimentally by recording Raman spectra in aqueous medium. Theoretical calculations of the interaction between ascorbic acid molecule and hydroxyl radical predicted the formation of dehydroascorbic acid as first product, which has been confirmed by comparing its simulated spectra with the corresponding spectra of ascorbic acid in presence of hydrogen peroxide.

  15. Ferulic acid-coupled chitosan: thermal stability and utilization as an antioxidant for biodegradable active packaging film.

    PubMed

    Woranuch, Sarekha; Yoksan, Rangrong; Akashi, Mitsuru

    2015-01-22

    The aim of the present research was to study the thermal stability of ferulic acid after coupling onto chitosan, and the possibility of using ferulic acid-coupled chitosan (FA-CTS) as an antioxidant for biodegradable active packaging film. FA-CTS was incorporated into biodegradable film via a two-step process, i.e. compounding extrusion at temperatures up to 150°C followed by blown film extrusion at temperatures up to 175°C. Although incorporation of FA-CTS with a content of 0.02-0.16% (w/w) caused decreased water vapor barrier property and reduced extensibility, the biodegradable films possessed improved oxygen barrier property and antioxidant activity. Radical scavenging activity and reducing power of film containing FA-CTS were higher than those of film containing naked ferulic acid, by about 254% and 94%, respectively. Tensile strength and rigidity of the films were not significantly affected by the addition of FA-CTS with a content of 0.02-0.08% (w/w). The above results suggested that FA-CTS could potentially be used as an antioxidant for active packaging film.

  16. Role of cellular antioxidants (glutathione and ascorbic acid) in the growth and development of wild carrot suspension cultures

    SciTech Connect

    Earnshaw, B.A.

    1986-01-01

    Determinations of endogenous glutathione (GSH), glutathione disulfide (GSSG), ascorbic acid (AA) and dehydroascorbic acid (DHA) in proliferating and developing wild carrot cultures showed that lower levels of GSH and AA were associated with developing cultures. The GSSG and DHA levels did not account for the changes in the levels of antioxidants between proliferating and developing cultures. Studies were designed to test an observed auxin (2,4-Dichlorophenoxyacetic acid, 2,4-D)-antioxidant association. Two fractions (embryo and less developed) were obtained by screening developed cultures which were previously grown in the presence of /sup 14/C-2, 4-D. The embryo fraction had a lower concentration of /sup 14/C than the less developed fraction, supporting the association, since the two fractions showed this relationship with respect to GSH and AA concentrations. Determinations of GSH and AA levels of cells grown in various concentrations of 2,4-D showed the association, decreases in the 2,4-D concentration correlated with decreases in the GSH and AA concentrations. The existence of a respiratory pathway involving GSSG reductase, DHA reductase, and AA oxidase was investigated to test whether inhibition of AA oxidase by 2,4-D could explain the auxin-antioxidant association; however, AA oxidase activity was not detected.

  17. Aryl-acetic and cinnamic acids as lipoxygenase inhibitors with antioxidant, anti-inflammatory, and anticancer activity.

    PubMed

    Hadjipavlou-Litina, Dimitra; Pontiki, Eleni

    2015-01-01

    Cinnamic acids have been identified as interesting compounds with cytotoxic, anti-inflammatory, and antioxidant properties. Lipoxygenase pathway, catalyzing the first two steps of the transformation of arachidonic acid into leukotrienes is implicated in several processes such as cell differentiation, inflammation and carcinogenesis. Development of drugs that interfere with the formation or effects of these metabolites would be important for the treatment of various diseases like asthma, psoriasis, ulcerative colitis, rheumatoid arthritis, atherosclerosis, cancer, and blood vessel disorders. Till now, asthma consists of the only pathological case in which improvement has been shown by lipoxygenase LO inhibitors. Thus, the research has been directed towards the development of drugs that interfere with the formation of leukotrienes. In order to explore the anti-inflammatory and cytotoxic effects of antioxidant acrylic/cinnamic acids a series of derivatives bearing the appropriate moieties have been synthesized via the Knoevenagel condensation and evaluated for their biological activities. The compounds have shown important antioxidant activity, anti-inflammatory activity and very good inhibition of soybean lipoxygenase while some of them were tested for their anticancer activity.

  18. Fluctuations in phenolic content, ascorbic acid and total carotenoids and antioxidant activity of fruit beverages during storage.

    PubMed

    Castro-López, C; Sánchez-Alejo, E J; Saucedo-Pompa, S; Rojas, R; Aranda-Ruiz, J; Martínez-Avila, G C G

    2016-09-01

    Stability of the total phenolic content, ascorbic acid, total carotenoids and antioxidant activity in eight fruit beverages was analyzed. The influence of storage temperature (4, 8 and 11 °C) during the product shelf-life (20 days) was evaluated. Pomegranate Juice presented the highest values for antioxidant activity by DPPH• assay (552.93 ± 6.00 GAE μg mL(-1)), total carotenoids (3.18 ± 0.11 βCE μg mL(-1)), and total phenolic content (3967.07 ± 2.47 GAE μg mL(-1)); while Splash Blend recorded the highest levels of ascorbic acid (607.39 ± 2.13 AAE μg mL(-1)). The antioxidant capacity was stable at 4 and 8 °C for the first 8 days of storage; while carotenoids and ascorbic acid were slightly degraded through the storage time, possibly due to oxidation and/or reactions with other compounds. The results suggest that the observed variation during testing could be related to storage conditions of the final product.

  19. Synthesis, characterization, solubility and stability studies of hydrate cocrystal of antitubercular Isoniazid with antioxidant and anti-bacterial Protocatechuic acid

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mashhadi, Syed Muddassir Ali; Yunus, Uzma; Bhatti, Moazzam Hussain; Ahmed, Imtiaz; Tahir, Muhammad Nawaz

    2016-08-01

    Isoniazid is an important component used in "triple therapy" to combat tuberculosis. It has reduced Tabletting formulations stability. Anti-oxidants are obligatory to counter oxidative stress, pulmonary inflammation, and free radical burst from macrophages caused in tuberculosis and other diseases. In the present study a hydrate cocrystal of Isoniazid with anti-oxidant and anti-inflammatory and anti-bacterial Protocatechuic acid (3,4-dihydroxybenzoic acid) in 1:1 is reported. This Cocrystal may have improved tabletting stability and anti-oxidant properties. Cocrystal structure analysis confirmed the existence of pyridine-carboxylic acid synthon in the Cocrystal. Other synthons of different graph sets involving Nsbnd H···O and Osbnd H···N bonds are formed between hydrazide group of isoniazid and coformer. Solubility studies revealed that cocrystal is less soluble as compared to isoniazid in buffer at pH 7.4 at 22 °C while stability studies at 80 °C for 24 h period disclosed the fact that cocrystal has higher stability than that of isoniazid.

  20. Vegetable oils rich in alpha linolenic acid increment hepatic n-3 LCPUFA, modulating the fatty acid metabolism and antioxidant response in rats.

    PubMed

    Rincón-Cervera, Miguel Ángel; Valenzuela, Rodrigo; Hernandez-Rodas, María Catalina; Barrera, Cynthia; Espinosa, Alejandra; Marambio, Macarena; Valenzuela, Alfonso

    2016-08-01

    Alpha-linolenic acid (C18:3 n-3, ALA) is an essential fatty acid and the metabolic precursor of long-chain polyunsaturated fatty acids (LCPUFA) from the n-3 family with relevant physiological and metabolic roles: eicosapentaenoic acid (C20:5 n-3, EPA) and docosahexaenoic acid (C22:6 n-3, DHA). Western diet lacks of suitable intake of n-3 LCPUFA and there are recommendations to increase the dietary supply of such nutrients. Seed oils rich in ALA such as those from rosa mosqueta (Rosa rubiginosa), sacha inchi (Plukenetia volubis) and chia (Salvia hispanica) may constitute an alternative that merits research. This study evaluated hepatic and epididymal accretion and biosynthesis of n-3 LCPUFA, the activity and expression of Δ-5 and Δ-6 desaturase enzymes, the expression and DNA-binding activity of PPAR-α and SREBP-1c, oxidative stress parameters and the activity of antioxidative enzymes in rats fed sunflower oil (SFO, 1% ALA) as control group, canola oil (CO, 10% ALA), rosa mosqueta oil (RMO, 33% ALA), sacha inchi oil (SIO, 49% ALA) and chia oil (ChO, 64% ALA) as single lipid source. A larger supply of ALA increased the accretion of n-3 LCPUFA, the activity and expression of desaturases, the antioxidative status, the expression and DNA-binding of PPAR-α, the oxidation of fatty acids and the activity of antioxidant enzymes, whereas the expression and DNA-binding activity of SREBP-1c transcription factor and the biosynthetic activity of fatty acids declined. Results showed that oils rich in ALA such as SIO and ChO may trigger metabolic responses in rats such as those produced by n-3 PUFA.

  1. The Antioxidant Additive Approach for Alzheimer's Disease Therapy: New Ferulic (Lipoic) Acid Plus Melatonin Modified Tacrines as Cholinesterases Inhibitors, Direct Antioxidants, and Nuclear Factor (Erythroid-Derived 2)-Like 2 Activators.

    PubMed

    Benchekroun, Mohamed; Romero, Alejandro; Egea, Javier; León, Rafael; Michalska, Patrycja; Buendía, Izaskun; Jimeno, María Luisa; Jun, Daniel; Janockova, Jana; Sepsova, Vendula; Soukup, Ondrej; Bautista-Aguilera, Oscar M; Refouvelet, Bernard; Ouari, Olivier; Marco-Contelles, José; Ismaili, Lhassane

    2016-11-10

    Novel multifunctional tacrines for Alzheimer's disease were obtained by Ugi-reaction between ferulic (or lipoic acid), a melatonin-like isocyanide, formaldehyde, and tacrine derivatives, according to the antioxidant additive approach in order to modulate the oxidative stress as therapeutic strategy. Compound 5c has been identified as a promising permeable agent showing excellent antioxidant properties, strong cholinesterase inhibitory activity, less hepatotoxicity than tacrine, and the best neuroprotective capacity, being able to significantly activate the Nrf2 transcriptional pathway.

  2. Dietary antioxidant activities in different germplasms of Mucuna.

    PubMed

    Uma, Sundaram; Gurumoorthi, Parameswaran

    2013-07-01

    Mucuna pruriens, an underutilized native legume of South India has been reported to have high levels of L-Dopa, and used in the treatment of Parkinson's disease. Cellular damage arising from reactive oxygen and nitrogen species is said to cause neurodegenerative disorders. Antioxidants could assuage this oxidative damage of tissue directly and/or indirectly by enhancing natural defenses and also scavenging the free radicals. In this context, the antioxidative potential of different germplasm of Mucuna species was analyzed. Assays were performed to evaluate the enzymatic and nonenzymatic antioxidants in the extracts. Methanolic extracts of Mucuna (black germplasm) yielded high levels dietary antioxidants viz., flavonoids, alkaloids, saponins, steroids and phlobotannins qualitatively. Tannins, total phenols, flavanoids, and steroids accounted for 13.60±1.8 tannic acid equivalents, 58.47±3.19 gallic acid equivalents, 23.7±3.12 quercetin equivalents, and 20.3±1.0 mg per 100 mg β-sitosterol equivalents, respectively. Percentage of scavenging activity against hydroxyl, superoxide anion, nitric oxide, and hydrogen peroxide radicals were 39.12%; 57.1%; 41.26%, and 25.68%, respectively. Reducing capacity (17.74%) was seen to concurrently increase with extract concentration. Catalase, glutathione reductase, and polyphenol oxidase activities were found to be 30.15; 26.6 and 42.5 μmol/mg of protein, respectively. The methanolic extract yielded the most potent levels of dietary antioxidants and exhibited high free-radical-scavenging activity.

  3. Pulmonary antioxidants

    SciTech Connect

    Massaro, E.J.; Grose, E.C.; Hatch, G.E.; Slade, R.

    1987-05-01

    One of the most vital of the cellular defenses against pollution is an antioxidant armanentarium which consists of oxidant scavenging molecules such as vitamin E, glutathione, vitamin C, and uric acid as well as a number of enzymes (superoxide dismutase, semidehydroascorbate reductase, catalase, GSH synthetase, GSH peroxidase, GSH reductase, and GSH transferase) and appears to function in keeping oxidant forces under control. Pollutants can upset the oxidant/antioxidant balance of cells by inhibiting vital enzymes, by reacting with oxidant scavengers, or by forming free radical intermediates which initiate uncontrolled tissue reactions with molecular oxygen. The book chapter reviews possible interactions between pollutants and the oxidant/antioxidant balance.

  4. Myrtus communis berry color morphs: a comparative analysis of essential oils, fatty acids, phenolic compounds, and antioxidant activities.

    PubMed

    Messaoud, Chokri; Boussaid, Mohamed

    2011-02-01

    Extracts of mature dark blue and white berries from two Tunisian Myrtus communis morphs growing at the same site were assessed for their essential-oil and fatty-acid compositions, phenolic contents, and antioxidant activities. The GC and GC/MS analyses of the essential oils allowed the identification of 33 constituents. The oils from the dark blue fruits showed high percentages of α-pinene (11.1%), linalool (11.6%), α-terpineol (15.7%), methyl eugenol (6.2%), and geraniol (3.7%). Myrtenyl acetate (20.3%) was found to be the major compound in the oils from white berries. GC Analysis of the pericarp and seed fatty acids showed that the polyunsaturated fatty acids constituted the major fraction (54.3-78.1%). The highest percentages of linoleic acid (78.0%) and oleic acid (20.0%) were observed in the seeds and the pericarps of the white fruits, respectively. The total phenol, flavonoid, and flavonol contents and the concentration of the eight anthocyanins, identified by HPLC analysis, were significantly higher in the dark blue fruits. All extracts showed a substantial antioxidant activity, assessed by the free radical-scavenging activity and the ferric reducing power, with the dark blue fruit extracts being more effective.

  5. L-ascorbic acid and α tocopherol supplementation and antioxidant status in nickel- or lead-exposed rat brain tissue.

    PubMed

    Das, Kusal K; Saha, Sikha

    2010-01-01

    We evaluated the effect of L-ascorbic acid and alpha-tocopherol supplementation on plasma and whole brain nitric oxide level and antioxidant status in nickel sulfate- or lead acetate- treated male albino rats. Nitric oxide and lipid peroxide levels in whole brain tissue and plasma increased following nickel and lead treatment but significantly returned to near-normal values upon L-ascorbic acid or alpha-tocopherol supplementation. In brain tissue, antioxidant enzymes--superoxide dismutase, glutathione peroxidase, glutathione peroxidase, and catalase--along with the glutathione level decreased significantly after both treatments but significantly improved upon simultaneous supplementation with L-ascorbic acid or alpha-tocopherol. Lead-treated animals showed a greater improvement with alpha-tocopherol, whereas nickel-treated rats showed a greater improvement with L-ascorbic acid. In both groups, combined supplementation with L-ascorbic acid and alpha-tocopherol did not change the percentage improvement in comparison with supplementation with a single vitamin alone.

  6. Phenolic Compounds and Antioxidant Activity of Phalaenopsis Orchid Hybrids

    PubMed Central

    Minh, Truong Ngoc; Khang, Do Tan; Tuyen, Phung Thi; Minh, Luong The; Anh, La Hoang; Quan, Nguyen Van; Ha, Pham Thi Thu; Quan, Nguyen Thanh; Toan, Nguyen Phu; Elzaawely, Abdelnaser Abdelghany; Xuan, Tran Dang

    2016-01-01

    Phalaenopsis spp. is the most commercially and economically important orchid, but their plant parts are often left unused, which has caused environmental problems. To date, reports on phytochemical analyses were most available on endangered and medicinal orchids. The present study was conducted to determine the total phenolics, total flavonoids, and antioxidant activity of ethanol extracts prepared from leaves and roots of six commercial hybrid Phalaenopsis spp. Leaf extracts of “Chian Xen Queen” contained the highest total phenolics with a value of 11.52 ± 0.43 mg gallic acid equivalent per g dry weight and the highest total flavonoids (4.98 ± 0.27 mg rutin equivalent per g dry weight). The antioxidant activity of root extracts evaluated by DPPH (2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl) free radical scavenging assay and β-carotene bleaching method was higher than those of the leaf extracts. Eleven phenolic compounds were identified, namely, protocatechuic acid, p-hydroxybenzoic acid, vanillic acid, caffeic acid, syringic acid, vanillin, ferulic acid, sinapic acid, p-coumaric acid, benzoic acid, and ellagic acid. Ferulic, p-coumaric and sinapic acids were concentrated largely in the roots. The results suggested that the root extracts from hybrid Phalaenopsis spp. could be a potential source of natural antioxidants. This study also helps to reduce the amount of this orchid waste in industrial production, as its roots can be exploited for pharmaceutical purposes. PMID:27649250

  7. A single dose of emulsified versus capsular fish oils has equivalent effects on chylomicron fatty acids over 8 hours

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Long chain omega-3 fatty acids are important in nutrition and disease management. Flavored emulsified fish oil supplements provide an alternative to encapsulated fish oils. Oil in water emulsions may offer an advantage in bio-availability of the fatty acids. Chylomicrons transport triglyceride from...

  8. Free amino acids analysis by liquid chromatography with tandem mass spectrometry in several botanicals with antioxidant character.

    PubMed

    Moldoveanu, Serban C; Zhu, Jeff; Qian, Nancy

    2015-07-01

    A novel method based on liquid chromatography with tandem mass spectrometry for the analysis of 19 amino acids in plant materials is described. For the analysis, the plant material is extracted with 0.1 N hydrochloric acid with internal standards present in the extraction solution. The filtered extracts are injected using no clean-up into the liquid chromatographic system coupled with a triple-quadrupole tandem mass spectrometer with an electrospray ionization source. The analytes are separated using ion pair chromatography on a reversed-phase column. The detection is performed in multiple-reaction monitoring positive-ion mode. Quantitation is obtained using calibrations. The validated procedure has been applied for the analysis of amino acids in 18 samples of plant material including botanicals with antioxidant character. The analysis requires 16 min separation time, has excellent precision and accuracy allowing amino acid analysis in a wide range of concentrations.

  9. Fatty Acids Profile, Phenolic Compounds and Antioxidant Capacity in Elicited Callus of Thevetia peruviana (Pers.) K. Schum.

    PubMed

    Rincón-Pérez, Jack; Rodríguez-Hernández, Ludwi; Ruíz-Valdiviezo, Víctor Manuel; Abud-Archila, Miguel; Luján-Hidalgo, María Celina; Ruiz-Lau, Nancy; González-Mendoza, Daniel; Gutiérrez-Miceli, Federico Antonio

    2016-01-01

    The aim of this study was analyze the effect of jasmonic acid (JA) and abscisic acid (ABA) as elicitors on fatty acids profile (FAP), phenolic compounds (PC) and antioxidant capacity (AC) in callus of Thevetia peruviana. Schenk & Hildebrandt (SH) medium, supplemented with 2 mg/L 2, 4-dichlorophenoxyacetic (2, 4-D) and 0.5 mg/L kinetin (KIN) was used for callus induction. The effect of JA (50, 75 and 100 μM) and ABA (10, 55 and 100 μM) on FAP, PC and AC were analyzed using a response surface design. A maximum of 2.8 mg/g of TPC was obtained with 100 plus 10 µM JA and ABA, respectively, whereas AC maximum (2.17 μg/mL) was obtained with 75 plus 100 µM JA and ABA, respectively. The FAP was affected for JA but not for ABA. JA increased cis-9, cis-12-octadecadienoic acid and decreased dodecanoic acid. Eight fatty acids were identified by GC-MS analysis and cis-9-octadecenoic acid (18:1) was the principal fatty acid reaching 76 % in treatment with 50 μM JA plus 55 μM ABA. In conclusion, JA may be used in T. peruviana callus culture for obtain oil with different fatty acids profile.

  10. The effects of dietary boric acid and borax supplementation on lipid peroxidation, antioxidant activity, and DNA damage in rats.

    PubMed

    Ince, Sinan; Kucukkurt, Ismail; Cigerci, Ibrahim Hakki; Fatih Fidan, A; Eryavuz, Abdullah

    2010-07-01

    The aims of this study were to clarify the effects of high dietary supplementation with boric acid and borax, called boron (B) compounds, on lipid peroxidation (LPO), antioxidant activity, some vitamin levels, and DNA damage in rats. Thirty Sprague Dawley male rats were divided into three equal groups: the animals in the first group (control) were fed with a standard rodent diet containing 6.4 mg B/kg, and the animals in the experimental group were fed with a standard rodent diet added with a supra-nutritional amount of boric acid and borax (100 mg B/kg) throughout the experimental period of 28 days. The B compounds decreased malondialdehyde (MDA), DNA damage, the protein carbonyl content (PCO) level in blood, and glutathione (GSH) concentration in the liver, Cu-Zn superoxide dismutase (SOD), and catalase (CAT) activity in the kidney. The B compounds increased GSH concentration in blood and the vitamin C level in plasma. Consequently, our results demonstrate that B supplementation (100 mg/kg) in diet decreases LPO, and enhances the antioxidant defense mechanism and vitamin status. There are no differences in oxidant/antioxidant balance and biochemical parameters except for serum vitamin A and liver GSH concentration, between the boron compounds used in this study.

  11. Comparative Studies of Salivary and Blood Sialic Acid, Lipid Peroxidation and Antioxidative Status in Oral Squamous Cell Carcinoma (OSCC)

    PubMed Central

    Rasool, Mahmood; Khan, Saima Rubab; Malik, Arif; Khan, Khalid Mahmood; Zahid, Sara; Manan, Abdul; Qazi, Mahmood Husain; Naseer, Muhammad Imran

    2014-01-01

    Objective : Oral squamous cell carcinoma (OSCC) is considered to be a serious life threatening issue for almost two decades. The objective of this study was to evaluate the over production of lipid peroxidation (LPO) byproducts and disturbances in antioxidant defense system in the pathogenesis of oral cancer. Methods : Lipid peroxidation and antioxidant status in OSCC patients were estimated and compared the sensitivity and specificity of circulating biomarkers (MDA, Sialic acid, Catalase, SOD, GSH and Neuraminidase) with β-2 microglobulin (β-2MG) at different thresholds in blood and saliva using receiver operating characteristics (ROC) curve design. R esults : Our results showed that the levels of MDA and Sialic acid were significantly increased in plasma of OSCC patients as compared to healthy subjects whereas antioxidant level was significantly decreased. Conclusion : ROC analysis indicated that MDA in saliva is a better diagnostic tool as compared to MDA in blood and β-2MG in blood is better diagnostic marker as compared to β-2MG level in saliva. PMID:24948960

  12. Effects of polymannuronate on performance, antioxidant capacity, immune status, cecal microflora, and volatile fatty acids in broiler chickens.

    PubMed

    Zhu, Wenhui; Li, Defa; Wang, Jianhong; Wu, Hui; Xia, Xuan; Bi, Wanghua; Guan, Huashi; Zhang, Liying

    2015-03-01

    The aim of this study was to assess the effects of purified polymannuronate (PM) obtained from marine brown algae on the performance, antioxidant capacity, immune status, and cecal fermentation profile of broiler chickens. In a 42 d experiment, 540 (average BW 43.77±1.29 g) 1-d-old Arbor Acres male broilers were randomly divided into 5 treatments with 6 replicates of 18 chicks and fed a corn and soybean meal (SBM)-based diet supplemented with 0, 1, 2, 3, or 4 g/kg polymannuronate. Adding polymannuronate to the broiler chickens' diets resulted in a significantly increased ADG and improved feed conversion compared with the control treatment. From d 1 to 42, the ADG of broilers fed 1, 2, 3, or 4 g/kg of polymannuronate was increased by 2.58, 4.33, 4.20, and 3.47%, respectively. Furthermore, parameters related to immune status, antioxidant capacity, and composition of the cecal microflora in broiler chickens fed the polymannuronate-containing diets were altered compared with broiler chickens fed a diet without polymannuronate. Supplementation with polymannuronate significantly increased the concentrations of lactic acid and acetic acid in the cecum compared with the control group. The results indicate that polymannuronate has the potential to improve broiler chicken immune status, antioxidant capacity, and performance.

  13. Physicochemical characteristics, antioxidant activity, organic acid and sugar contents of 12 sweet cherry (Prunus avium L.) cultivars grown in Turkey.

    PubMed

    Hayaloglu, Ali Adnan; Demir, Nurullah

    2015-03-01

    Physical characteristics, antioxidant activity and chemical constituents of 12 cultivars (Prunus avium L.) of sweet cherry (Belge, Bing, Dalbasti, Durona di Cesena, Lambert, Merton Late, Starks Gold, Summit, Sweetheart, Van, Vista, and 0-900 Ziraat) were investigated. Significant differences (P < 0.05) were observed among tested cultivars for pH, total soluble solid, hardness, color parameters, antioxidant activities and pomological measurements (P < 0.05). The color parameters were important tools for the determination of fruit maturity and anthocyanin contents. Belge cultivar showed the highest levels of total phenolic and anthocyanin, while Starks Gold contained the lowest level of anthocyanins. The darker cultivars, measured by ABTS(+•) , DPPH(•) and FRAP, exhibited higher antioxidant activities than the lighter ones. Bing (42.78 g/kg) and Sweetheart (40.53 g/kg) cultivars contained higher levels of malic acid, which was the most intense organic acid in sweet cherries. Four different sugars were observed in the samples and their concentrations ordered as glucose > fructose > sucrose > xylose. Sugar alcohol in the cherries was represented by sorbitol (more than 90%) and its concentration varied between 13.93 and 27.12 g/kg. As a result significant differences were observed among the physical properties and chemical constituents of the cherry cultivars.

  14. Synergistic antioxidative effects of alkamides, caffeic acid derivatives, and polysaccharide fractions from Echinacea purpurea on in vitro oxidation of human low-density lipoproteins.

    PubMed

    Dalby-Brown, Lea; Barsett, Hilde; Landbo, Anne-Katrine R; Meyer, Anne S; Mølgaard, Per

    2005-11-30

    Preparations of Echinacea are widely used as alternative remedies to prevent the common cold and infections in the upper respiratory tract. After extraction, fractionation, and isolation, the antioxidant activity of three extracts, one alkamide fraction, four polysaccharide-containing fractions, and three caffeic acid derivatives from Echinacea purpurea root was evaluated by measuring their inhibition of in vitro Cu(II)-catalyzed oxidation of human low-density lipoprotein (LDL). The antioxidant activities of the isolated caffeic acid derivatives were compared to those of echinacoside, caffeic acid, and rosmarinic acid for reference. The order of antioxidant activity of the tested substances was cichoric acid > echinacoside > or = derivative II > or = caffeic acid > or = rosmarinic acid > derivative I. Among the extracts the 80% aqueous ethanolic extract exhibited a 10 times longer lag phase prolongation (LPP) than the 50% ethanolic extract, which in turn exhibited a longer LPP than the water extract. Following ion-exchange chromatography of the water extract, the majority of its antioxidant activity was found in the latest eluted fraction (H2O-acidic 3). The antioxidant activity of the tested Echinacea extracts, fractions, and isolated compounds was dose dependent. Synergistic antioxidant effects of Echinacea constituents were found when cichoric acid (major caffeic acid derivative in E. purpurea) or echinacoside (major caffeic acid derivative in Echinacea pallida and Echinacea angustifolia) were combined with a natural mixture of alkamides and/or a water extract containing the high molecular weight compounds. This contributes to the hypothesis that the physiologically beneficial effects of Echinacea are exerted by the multitude of constituents present in the preparations.

  15. On the antioxidant properties of kynurenic acid: free radical scavenging activity and inhibition of oxidative stress.

    PubMed

    Lugo-Huitrón, R; Blanco-Ayala, T; Ugalde-Muñiz, P; Carrillo-Mora, P; Pedraza-Chaverrí, J; Silva-Adaya, D; Maldonado, P D; Torres, I; Pinzón, E; Ortiz-Islas, E; López, T; García, E; Pineda, B; Torres-Ramos, M; Santamaría, A; La Cruz, V Pérez-De

    2011-01-01

    Kynurenic acid (KYNA) is an endogenous metabolite of the kynurenine pathway for tryptophan degradation and an antagonist of both N-methyl-D-aspartate (NMDA) and alpha-7 nicotinic acetylcholine (α7nACh) receptors. KYNA has also been shown to scavenge hydroxyl radicals (OH) under controlled conditions of free radical production. In this work we evaluated the ability of KYNA to scavenge superoxide anion (O(2)(-)) and peroxynitrite (ONOO(-)). The scavenging ability of KYNA (expressed as IC(50) values) was as follows: OH=O(2)(-)>ONOO(-). In parallel, the antiperoxidative and scavenging capacities of KYNA (0-150 μM) were tested in cerebellum and forebrain homogenates exposed to 5 μM FeSO(4) and 2.5 mM 3-nitropropionic acid (3-NPA). Both FeSO(4) and 3-NPA increased lipid peroxidation (LP) and ROS formation in a significant manner in these preparations, whereas KYNA significantly reduced these markers. Reactive oxygen species (ROS) formation were determined in the presence of FeSO(4) and/or KYNA (0-100 μM), both at intra and extracellular levels. An increase in ROS formation was induced by FeSO(4) in forebrain and cerebellum in a time-dependent manner, and KYNA reduced this effect in a concentration-dependent manner. To further know whether the effect of KYNA on oxidative stress is independent of NMDA and nicotinic receptors, we also tested KYNA (0-100 μM) in a biological preparation free of these receptors - defolliculated Xenopus laevis oocytes - incubated with FeSO(4) for 1 h. A 3-fold increase in LP and a 2-fold increase in ROS formation were seen after exposure to FeSO(4), whereas KYNA attenuated these effects in a concentration-dependent manner. In addition, the in vivo formation of OH evoked by an acute infusion of FeSO(4) (100 μM) in the rat striatum was estimated by microdialysis and challenged by a topic infusion of KYNA (1 μM). FeSO(4) increased the striatal OH production, while KYNA mitigated this effect. Altogether, these data strongly suggest that KYNA

  16. Influence of orange cultivar and mandarin postharvest storage on polyphenols, ascorbic acid and antioxidant activity during gastrointestinal digestion.

    PubMed

    De Ancos, Begoña; Cilla, Antonio; Barberá, Reyes; Sánchez-Moreno, Concepción; Cano, M Pilar

    2017-06-15

    Polyphenols, ascorbic acid content and antioxidant activity of two sweet oranges (Navel-N and Cara Cara-CC) and mandarin (Clementine-M) as well as their bioaccessibilities were evaluated in pulps and compared to those in fresh juice. Thus, pulps of oranges and mandarins displayed higher hesperidin (HES), narirutin (NAR), total flavonoids (TF), total phenols (TP) and antioxidant activity (AAC) than their corresponding juices. Also, CC products presented higher bioactive compounds content than N ones. Bioaccessibility of bioactive compounds and AAC were higher in pulps of both oranges and mandarin than in their corresponding juices. Oranges (N and CC) pulps and juices presented higher bioaccessibilities than mandarin ones. The postharvest storage of mandarin at 12°C during 5weeks not only produced a significant increase of the bioactive compounds but also an increase of their bioaccessibility. The bioaccessibility of Citrus bioactive compounds is necessary for calculating more accurately their daily intake amount.

  17. Quaternized chitosan/κ-carrageenan/caffeic acid-coated poly(3-hydroxybutyrate) fibrous materials: Preparation, antibacterial and antioxidant activity.

    PubMed

    Ignatova, Milena; Manolova, Nevena; Rashkov, Iliya; Markova, Nadya

    2016-11-20

    Novel fibrous materials with antioxidant and antibacterial properties from poly(3-hydroxybutyrate) (PHB), quaternized chitosan (QCh), κ-carrageenan (Car) and caffeic acid (CA) were obtained. These materials were prepared by applying electrospinning or electrospinning in conjunction with dip-coating and polyelectrolyte complex (PEC) formation. It was found that the CA release depended on the fiber composition. X-ray diffraction analysis (XRD) and differential scanning calorimetry (DSC) revealed that CA incorporated in the fibers was in the amorphous state, whereas CA included in the coating was in the crystalline state. In contrast to the neat PHB mats, the CA-containing mats and the PEC QCh/Car-coated mats were found to kill the Gram-positive bacteria S. aureus and the Gram-negative bacteria E. coli and were effective in suppressing the adhesion of pathogenic bacteria S. aureus. Enhancement of the antioxidant activity of the fibrous materials containing both CA and QCh/Car coating was observed.

  18. Nitrate, ascorbic acid, mineral and antioxidant activities of Cosmos caudatus in response to organic and mineral-based fertilizer rates.

    PubMed

    Hassan, Siti Aishah; Mijin, Salumiah; Yusoff, Umi Kalsom; Ding, Phebe; Wahab, Puteri Edaroyati Megat

    2012-06-28

    The source and quantity of nutrients available to plants can affect the quality of leafy herbs. A study was conducted to compare quality of Cosmos caudatus in response to rates of organic and mineral-based fertilizers. Organic based fertilizer GOBI (8% N:8% P₂O₅:8% K₂O) and inorganic fertilizer (15% N, 15% P₂O₅, 15% K₂O) were evaluated based on N element rates at 0, 30, 60, 90, 120 kg h⁻¹. Application of organic based fertilizer reduced nitrate, improved vitamin C, antioxidant activity as well as nitrogen and calcium nutrients content. Antioxidant activity and chlorophyll content were significantly higher with increased fertilizer application. Fertilization appeared to enhance vitamin C content, however for the maximum ascorbic acid content, regardless of fertilizer sources, plants did not require high amounts of fertilizer.

  19. Biodegradable Ferulic Acid-containing Poly(anhydride-ester): Degradation Products with Controlled Release and Sustained Antioxidant Activity

    PubMed Central

    Ouimet, Michelle A.; Griffin, Jeremy; Carbone-Howell, Ashley L.; Wu, Wen-Hsuan; Stebbins, Nicholas D.; Di, Rong; Uhrich, Kathryn E.

    2013-01-01

    Ferulic acid (FA) is an antioxidant and photoprotective agent used in biomedical and cosmetic formulations to prevent skin cancer and senescence. Although FA exhibits numerous health benefits, physicochemical instability leading to decomposition hinders its efficacy. To minimize inherent decomposition, a FA-containing biodegradable polymer was prepared via solution polymerization to chemically incorporate FA into a poly(anhydride-ester). The polymer was characterized using nuclear magnetic resonance and infrared spectroscopies. The molecular weight and thermal properties were also determined. In vitro studies demonstrated that the polymer was hydrolytically degradable, thus providing controlled release of the chemically incorporated bioactive with no detectable decomposition. The polymer degradation products were found to exhibit antioxidant and antibacterial activity comparable to free FA and in vitro cell viability studies demonstrated that the polymer is non-cytotoxic towards fibroblasts. This renders the polymer a potential candidate for use as a controlled release system for skin care formulations. PMID:23327626

  20. Biodegradable ferulic acid-containing poly(anhydride-ester): degradation products with controlled release and sustained antioxidant activity.

    PubMed

    Ouimet, Michelle A; Griffin, Jeremy; Carbone-Howell, Ashley L; Wu, Wen-Hsuan; Stebbins, Nicholas D; Di, Rong; Uhrich, Kathryn E

    2013-03-11

    Ferulic acid (FA) is an antioxidant and photoprotective agent used in biomedical and cosmetic formulations to prevent skin cancer and senescence. Although FA exhibits numerous health benefits, physicochemical instability leading to decomposition hinders its efficacy. To minimize inherent decomposition, a FA-containing biodegradable polymer was prepared via solution polymerization to chemically incorporate FA into a poly(anhydride-ester). The polymer was characterized using nuclear magnetic resonance and infrared spectroscopies. The molecular weight and thermal properties were also determined. In vitro studies demonstrated that the polymer was hydrolytically degradable, thus providing controlled release of the chemically incorporated bioactive with no detectable decomposition. The polymer degradation products were found to exhibit antioxidant and antibacterial activity comparable to that of free FA, and in vitro cell viability studies demonstrated that the polymer is noncytotoxic toward fibroblasts. This renders the polymer a potential candidate for use as a controlled release system for skin care formulations.

  1. Effects of dietary n-3 highly unsaturated fatty acids (HUFAs) on growth, fatty acid profiles, antioxidant capacity and immunity of sea cucumber Apostichopus japonicus (Selenka).

    PubMed

    Yu, Haibo; Gao, Qinfeng; Dong, Shuanglin; Zhou, Jishu; Ye, Zhi; Lan, Ying

    2016-07-01

    The present study was conducted to understand the effects of dietary n-3 highly unsaturated fatty acids (HUFAs) on growth, fatty acid profiles, antioxidant capacity and the immunity of sea cucumber Apostichopus japonicus (Selenka). Five experimental diets were prepared, containing graded levels of n-3 HUFAs (0.46%, 0.85%, 1.25%, 1.61% and 1.95%, respectively), and the 0.46% group was used as control group. The specific growth rates, fatty acid profiles, activities and gene expression of antioxidative enzymes and lysozyme of the sea cucumbers that were fed with the 5 experimental diets were determined. The results showed that the specific growth rate of sea cucumbers in all the treatment groups significantly increased compared to the control group (P < 0.05), indicating the positive effects of n-3 HUFAs on the growth of sea cucumbers. The contents of eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA; 20:5n-3) and docosahexaenoic acid (DHA; 22:6n-3) in the body wall of the sea cucumbers gradually increased with the increasing levels of n-3 HUFAs in the diets. The suitable supplement of n-3 HUFAs in diets improved the activities of superoxide dismutase (SOD) and catalase (CAT) of sea cucumbers by up-regulating the expression of SOD and CAT mRNA in sea cucumbers. However, excess n-3 HUFAs in diets caused lipid peroxidation, inhibited the expression of lysozyme (LSZ) mRNA and decreased the activities of LSZ in sea cucumbers. In summary, the suitable supplement levels of n-3 HUFAs in diets of sea cucumbers A. japonicus were estimated between 0.85% and 1.25% considering the growth performance, cost and the indicators of antioxidant capacity and immunity.

  2. Characterisation of fatty acid, carotenoid, tocopherol/tocotrienol compositions and antioxidant activities in seeds of three Chenopodium quinoa Willd. genotypes.

    PubMed

    Tang, Yao; Li, Xihong; Chen, Peter X; Zhang, Bing; Hernandez, Marta; Zhang, Hua; Marcone, Massimo F; Liu, Ronghua; Tsao, Rong

    2015-05-01

    Composition of fatty acids, tocopherols, tocotrienols, and carotenoids, and their contribution to antioxidant activities were investigated in seeds of three coloured quinoa cultivars (white, red and black). The major components and individual compounds were significantly different, and their concentrations were higher in darker seeds (p < 0.05). The oil yield was 6.58-7.17% which contained predominantly unsaturated fatty acids (89.42%). The ratio of omega-6/omega-3 fatty acid was ca. 6/1. The total tocopherol content ranged from 37.49 to 59.82 μg/g and mainly consisted of γ-tocopherol. Trace amount of α- and β-tocotrienols was also found. Black quinoa had the highest vitamin E followed by red and white quinoas. Carotenoids, mainly trans-lutein (84.7-85.6%) and zeaxanthin were confirmed for the first time in quinoa seeds, and the concentration was also the highest in black seeds. The antioxidant activities of lipophilic extracts were positively correlated with polyunsaturated fatty acids, total carotenoids and total tocopherols.

  3. Influences of harvest date and location on the levels of beta-carotene, ascorbic acid, total phenols, the in vitro antioxidant capacity, and phenolic profiles of five commercial varieties of mango (Mangifera indica L.).

    PubMed

    Manthey, John A; Perkins-Veazie, Penelope

    2009-11-25

    Mango (Mangifera indica L.) is a tropical fruit grown worldwide with excellent nutritional value and widely attributed health-promoting properties. Extensive studies have been made of the high concentrations of phenolic antioxidants in mango peels, seeds, and leaves, yet less is known about the phenolic antioxidants of mango fruit pulp. Five varieties of mangoes from four countries were evaluated with multiple harvests over 1 year to compare the beta-carotene, ascorbic acid, and total phenolic contents and antioxidant capacities of the fruit pulp and to compare the phenolic profiles of the individual varieties. To minimize ripeness variability, only soft fruit (0.5-1 N compression) with a minimum of 10% soluble solids were used for these measurements. Ascorbic acid ranged from 11 to 134 mg/100 g of pulp puree, and beta-carotene varied from 5 to 30 mg/kg among the five varieties. Total phenolic content ranged from 19.5 to 166.7 mg of gallic acid equivalents (GAE)/100 g of puree. The varieties Tommy Atkins, Kent, Keitt, and Haden had similar total phenolic contents, averaging 31.2+/-7.8 mg GAE/100 g of puree, whereas the variety Ataulfo contained substantially higher values. Similar trends were observed in the DPPH radical scavenging activities among the five varieties. In contrast, the country of origin and harvest dates had far less influence on these parameters. Ataulfo mangoes contained significantly higher amounts of mangiferin and ellagic acid than the other four varieties. Large fruit-to-fruit variations in the concentrations of these compounds occurred within sets of mangoes of the same cultivar with the same harvest location and date.

  4. Isolation and biological evaluation of novel Tetracosahexaene hexamethyl, an acyclic triterpenoids derivatives and antioxidant from Justicia adhatoda.

    PubMed

    Dhankhar, Sandeep; Dhankhar, Seema; Ruhil, Sonam; Balhara, Meenakshi; Malik, Vinay; Chhillar, Anil K

    2014-01-01

    Forty five extracts fraction of nine selected Indian medicinal plants, based on their use in traditional systems of medicine were analyzed for their antioxidant potential. All the extracts were investigated for phenol content value calculated in Gallic acid equivalents (% of GAE) and antioxidant potential. Moreover, total phenolic content (% dw equivalents to gallic acid) of all plant extracts were found in the range of 3.04 to 24.03, which correlated with antioxidant activity. The findings indicated a promising antioxidant activity of crude extracts fractions of three plants (Justicia adhatoda, Capparis aphylla and Aegle marmelos) and required the further exploration for their effective utilization. Results indicated that petroleum ether fraction of J. adhatoda out of three plants also possesses the admirable antioxidant abilities with high total phenolic content. Following, in vitro antioxidant activity-guided phytochemical separation procedures, twelve fractions of petroleum ether extract of J. adhatoda were isolated by silica gel column chromatography. One fraction (Rf value: 0.725) showed the noticeable antioxidant activity with ascorbic acid standard in hydroxyl radical scavenging assays. The molecular structures elucidations of purified antioxidant compound were carried out using spectroscopic studies ((1)H NMR, (13)C NMR and MS). This compound was reported from this species for the first time. The results imply that the J. adhatoda might be a potential source of natural antioxidants and 2,6,10,14,18,22-Tetracosahexaene, 2,6,10,15,19,23-hexamethyl is an antioxidant ingredient in J. adhatoda.

  5. Effects of dietary tannic acid on the growth, hepatic gene expression, and antioxidant enzyme activity in Brandt's voles (Microtus brandti).

    PubMed

    Ye, Man-Hong; Nan, Yan-Lei; Ding, Meng-Meng; Hu, Jun-Bang; Liu, Qian; Wei, Wan-Hong; Yang, Sheng-Mei

    2016-01-01

    This study was designed to investigate the physiological and biochemical responses of Brandt's voles to the persistent presence of dietary tannic acid. The diet for animals in the experimental group was supplemented with 3% dietary tannic acid for 5weeks. The control group received a commercial lab chow. No significant differences were detected in body weight, organ (heart, kidney, and liver) weights, and organ parameters between animals from two groups. However, voles in the experimental group had significantly higher daily food intake, increased contents of proline and histidine in saliva and feces after protein hydrolysis, and elevated hepatic expression of transferrin than the control. Our results suggested the existence of adaptive strategies developed in Brandt's voles to overcome the adverse effects of dietary tannic acid. (1) Food consumption was increased to satisfy their nutritional demands. (2) The secretion of tannic-acid-binding salivary proteins was promoted. (3) The absorption of iron was enhanced. These alterations contributed to neutralize the negative effects of tannic acid and maintain body mass in animals supplemented with tannic acid. As the result of the consumption of tannic acid, hepatic expression of 3-hydroxy-3-methylglutaryl coenzyme A reductase was significantly decreased, while the overall potential of the antioxidant system, characterized by increased hepatic enzymatic activities of catalase and glutathione peroxidase, was enhanced. Our results also implied the involvement of tannic acid in the regulation of lipid metabolism and oxidative stress in voles.

  6. Effects of roasting temperature and duration on fatty acid composition, phenolic composition, Maillard reaction degree and antioxidant attribute of almond (Prunus dulcis) kernel.

    PubMed

    Lin, Jau-Tien; Liu, Shih-Chun; Hu, Chao-Chin; Shyu, Yung-Shin; Hsu, Chia-Ying; Yang, Deng-Jye

    2016-01-01

    Roasting treatment increased levels of unsaturated fatty acids (linoleic, oleic and elaidic acids) as well as saturated fatty acids (palmitic and stearic acids) in almond (Prunus dulcis) kernel oils with temperature (150 or 180 °C) and duration (5, 10 or 20 min). Nonetheless, higher temperature (200 °C) and longer duration (10 or 20 min) roasting might result in breakdown of fatty acids especially for unsaturated fatty acids. Phenolic components (total phenols, flavonoids, condensed tannins and phenolic acids) of almond kernels substantially lost in the initial phase; afterward these components gradually increased with roasting temperature and duration. Similar results also observed for their antioxidant activities (scavenging DPPH and ABTS(+) radicals and ferric reducing power). The changes of phenolic acid and flavonoid compositions were also determined by HPLC. Maillard reaction products (estimated with non-enzymatic browning index) also increased with roasting temperature and duration; they might also contribute to enhancing the antioxidant attributes.

  7. Fruit antioxidant activity, ascorbic acid, total phenol, quercetin, and carotene of Irwin mango fruits stored at low temperature after high electric field pretreatment.

    PubMed

    Shivashankara, K S; Isobe, Seiichiro; Al-Haq, Muhammad Imran; Takenaka, Makiko; Shiina, Takeo

    2004-03-10

    Greenhouse-grown tree ripe (TR) and mature green (MG) mangoes (cv. Irwin) were exposed to high electric field treatment before 20 and 30 days of storage at 5 degrees C. MG fruits were allowed to ripen at room temperature after low-temperature storage. Fruit physical quality attributes, ascorbic acid, carotene, quercetin, total phenols, and antioxidant capacity were estimated before and after the storage period. Antioxidant capacity of fruit juice was estimated using the ferric reducing antioxidant power (FRAP) assay. Fruit firmness decreased significantly during storage. Titratable acidity decreased 20 days after storage. Total soluble solids did not change during storage. Antioxidant capacity of fruits remained unchanged up to 20 days of storage period and decreased thereafter. Total phenol and carotenes increased during storage. Antioxidant capacity of fruits was significantly correlated only to ascorbic acids. Peel color and carotenes were higher in TR fruits, whereas titratable acidity and firmness were higher in MG fruits. There was no significant difference in other parameters between the stages of picking. Electric field pretreatment affected the respiration and antioxidant capacity of TR fruits and did not have any significant affect on other parameters. TR mangoes of cv. Irwin are more suitable for low-temperature storage and can be successfully stored for up to 20 days at 5 degrees C without any significant losses in functional properties and quality attributes.

  8. [The experience of the application of ascorbinic acid as antioxidant after coronary artery surgery with use of cardiopulmonary bypass].

    PubMed

    Rebrova, T Iu; Shipulin, V M; Afanas'ev, S A; Vorob'eva, E V; Kiĭko, O G

    2012-01-01

    We have studied the role of oxidant stress in development of rhythm disturbances in early postoperative period after coronary artery bypass grafting and possibilities of their prevention with preparations of ascorbinic acid. It was shown that the use of β-adrenoblockers allows to prevent arrhythmia on first day after operation only in 80% of cases. Patients with developed disturbances of cardiac rhythm were characterized by high parameters of lipid peroxidation (LPO) and substantial changes of activity of antioxidant enzyme catalase. Administration of ascorbinic acid at the stage of preparation of patients to surgery and in first 24 hours after operation allowed to effectively prevent development of oxidative stress and disturbances of cardiac rhythm. A conclusion was made that inclusion of ascorbinic acid in drug therapy of patients with ischemic heart disease could be recommended for prevention of arrhythmia in postoperative period.

  9. Conversion of Squid Pen to Homogentisic Acid via Paenibacillus sp. TKU036 and the Antioxidant and Anti-Inflammatory Activities of Homogentisic Acid

    PubMed Central

    Wang, San-Lang; Li, Hsin-Ting; Zhang, Li-Jie; Lin, Zhi-Hu; Kuo, Yao-Haur

    2016-01-01

    The culture supernatant of Paenibacillus sp. TKU036, a bacterium isolated from Taiwanese soils, showed high antioxidant activity (85%) when cultured in a squid pen powder (SPP)-containing medium at 37 °C for three days. Homogentisic acid (2,5-dihydroxyphenylacetic acid, HGA) was isolated and found to be the major antioxidant in the culture supernatant of the SPP-containing medium fermented by Paenibacillus sp. TKU036. Tryptophan was also present in the culture supernatant. The results of high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) fingerprinting showed that HGA and tryptophan were produced via fermentation but did not pre-exist in the unfermented SPP-containing medium. Neither HGA nor tryptophan was found in the culture supernatants obtained from the fermentation of nutrient broth or other chitinous material, i.e., medium containing shrimp head powder, by Paenibacillus sp. TKU036. The production of HGA via microorganisms has rarely been reported. In this study, we found that squid pen was a potential carbon and nitrogen source for Paenibacillus sp. Tryptophan (105 mg/L) and HGA (60 mg/L) were recovered from the culture supernatant. The isolated HGA was found to have higher antioxidant activity (IC50 = 6.9 μg/mL) than α-tocopherol (IC50 = 17.6 μg/mL). The anti-inflammatory activity of the isolated HGA (IC50 = 10.14 μg/mL) was lower than that of quercetin (IC50 = 1.14 μg/mL). As a result, squid pen, a fishery processing byproduct, is a valuable material for the production of tryptophan and the antioxidant and anti-inflammatory HGA via microbial conversion. PMID:27754313

  10. Dietary intake, neutrophil fatty acid profile, serum antioxidant vitamins and oxygen radical absorbance capacity in patients with ulcerative colitis.

    PubMed

    Kawakami, Yuko; Okada, Hiroyuki; Murakami, Yasuko; Kawakami, Takayo; Ueda, Yukiko; Kunii, Daisuke; Sakamoto, Yachiyo; Shiratori, Yasushi; Okita, Misako

    2007-04-01

    Nutrition may play an important role in the pathogenesis and treatment of ulcerative colitis. Several studies suggest an association between dietary factors and the onset of ulcerative colitis; however, only few studies have examined the relationship between dietary intake and relapse of ulcerative colitis. The aim of this study was to assess the dietary intake and antioxidative capacity of ulcerative colitis patients and to elucidate the efficacy of dietary therapy for ulcerative colitis. Dietary intake, fatty acid composition of phospholipids in plasma and neutrophils, serum fat-soluble vitamin levels, and oxygen radical absorbance capacity were analyzed in 29 ulcerative colitis patients (7 males and 22 females), who were treated at the Department of Gastroenterology, Okayama University Hospital. Total fat intake, fat energy ratio and linoleic acid intake were significantly lower, while protein and carbohydrate intakes were significantly higher, in the patients than age- and sex-matched controls. In the neutrophil phospholipids of ulcerative colitis patients, significantly higher levels of linoleic aicd and arachidonic acid and a lower level of eicosapentaenoic acid were observed. The concentrations of serum retinol and beta-carotene but not alpha-tocopherol were significantly lower and serum oxygen radical absorbance capacity was also lower than in the controls. Significant correlations between serum oxygen radical absorbance capacity and retinol (r = 0.567, p = 0.0031), alpha-tocopherol (r = 0.560, p = 0.0036) and beta-carotene (r = 0.440, p = 0.0279) concentrations were observed in the ulcerative colitis patients. A diet restricting the intake of linoleic acid and supplemented with eicosapentaenoic acid and antioxidative vitamins may be recommendable for the nutritional management of ulcerative colitis patients.

  11. Influence of technological processes on phenolic compounds, organic acids, furanic derivatives, and antioxidant activity of whole-lemon powder.

    PubMed

    García-Salas, Patricia; Gómez-Caravaca, Ana María; Arráez-Román, David; Segura-Carretero, Antonio; Guerra-Hernández, Eduardo; García-Villanova, Belén; Fernández-Gutiérrez, Alberto

    2013-11-15

    The healthy properties of citrus fruits have been attributed to ascorbic acid and phenolic compounds, mainly to flavonoids. Flavonoids are important phytonutrients because they have a wide range of biological effects that provide health-related properties. In this context, this study seeks to characterise the phenolic compounds in lemon and their stability in different drying processes (freeze-drying and vacuum-drying) and storage conditions (-18 and 50°C for 1 and 3months). A powerful high-performance liquid chromatography coupled to DAD and electrospray-ionization time-of-flight mass spectrometry (HPLC-ESI-TOF-MS) method has been applied for the separation, identification, and quantification of 19 phenolic compounds and 4 organic acids. To our knowledge, two hydroxycinnamic acids have been identified for the first time in lemon. Folin-Ciocalteu was applied to determine total phenolic compounds and TEAC, FRAP, and ORAC were applied to determine the antioxidant capacity of lemon. Total phenolic content significantly differed in the samples analysed, vacuum-dried lemon showing the highest phenolic content, followed by freeze-dried lemon and, finally, vacuum-dried lemon stored at 50°C for 1 and 3months. The content in furanic compounds was determined to evaluate the heat damage in lemon and it was showed an increase with the thermal treatment because of the triggering of Maillard reaction. As exception of ORAC, antioxidant-capacity assays were not correlated to phenolic content by HPLC due to the formation of antioxidant compounds during Maillard reaction.

  12. Preharvest treatments with malic, oxalic, and acetylsalicylic acids affect the phenolic composition and antioxidant capacity of coriander, dill and parsley.

    PubMed

    El-Zaeddi, Hussein; Calín-Sánchez, Ángel; Nowicka, Paulina; Martínez-Tomé, Juan; Noguera-Artiaga, Luis; Burló, Francisco; Wojdyło, Aneta; Carbonell-Barrachina, Ángel A

    2017-07-01

    The effects of a preharvest treatment with malic (MA), oxalic (OA), or acetylsalicylic (ASA) acid at three concentrations (1, 2 and 3mM) on the bioactivity and antioxidant capacity of coriander, dill, and parsley were investigated. The antioxidant capacity of the herbs extracts was assayed by spectrophotometric methods by using three different analytical methods: ORAC, FRAP, and ABTS; the effects of treatments were very positive in coriander, produced intermediate results in dill, and no effects were found in parsley plants. Polyphenol compounds were identified by LC-MS-QTof and quantified by UPLC-PDA-FL. Thirty phenolic compounds were identified in these three herbs. The major compounds were (i) coriander: dimethoxycinnamoyl hexoside and quercetin-3-O-rutinoside, (ii) dill: neochlorogenic acid and quercetin glucuronide, and (iii) parsley: apigenin-7-apiosylglucoside (apiin) and isorhamnetin-3-O-hexoside. The application of these three organic acids favored the accumulation of phenolic compounds in coriander plants, but had no significant positive effects on dill and parsley. The treatments leading to the best results in all three plants were the application of MA or OA at 1mM.

  13. Plasma HDL reduces nonesterified fatty acid hydroperoxides originating from oxidized LDL: a mechanism for its antioxidant ability.

    PubMed

    Kotosai, Mari; Shimada, Sachiko; Kanda, Mai; Matsuda, Namiko; Sekido, Keiko; Shimizu, Yoshibumi; Tokumura, Akira; Nakamura, Toshiyuki; Murota, Kaeko; Kawai, Yoshichika; Terao, Junji

    2013-06-01

    The antioxidant property of plasma high-density lipoprotein (HDL) is thought to be involved in potential anti-atherogenic effects but the exact mechanism is not known. We aimed to reveal the contribution of HDL on the elimination of lipid hydroperoxides (LOOH) derived from oxidized low-density lipoprotein (LDL). Oxidized LDL prepared by copper ion-induced oxidation contained nonesterified fatty acid hydroperoxides (FFA-OOH) and lysophosphatidylcholine (lysoPtdCho), in addition to cholesteryl ester hydroperoxides (CE-OOH) and phosphatidylcholine hydroperoxides (PtdCho-OOH). A platelet-activating factor-acetylhydrolase (PAF-AH) inhibitor suppressed formation of FFA-OOH and lysoPtdCho in oxidized LDL. Among LOOH species, FFA-OOH was preferentially reduced by incubating oxidized LDL with HDL. HDL exhibited selective FFA-OOH reducing ability if it was mixed with a liposomal solution containing FFA-OOH, CE-OOH and PtdCho-OOH. Two-electron reduction of the hydroperoxy group to the hydroxy group was confirmed by the formation of 13-hydroxyoctadecadienoic acid from 13-hydroperoxyoctadecadienoic acid in HPLC analyses. This reducing effect was also found in apolipoprotein A-1 (apoA-1). FFA-OOH released from PtdCho-OOH due to PAF-AH activity in oxidized LDL undergo two-electron reduction by the reducing ability of apoA1 in HDL. This preferential reduction of FFA-OOH may participate in the mechanism of the antioxidant property of HDL.

  14. Post-harvest induced production of salvianolic acids and significant promotion of antioxidant properties in roots of Salvia miltiorrhiza (Danshen).

    PubMed

    Zhou, Guo-Jun; Wang, Wei; Xie, Xiao-Mei; Qin, Min-Jian; Kuai, Ben-Ke; Zhou, Tong-Shui

    2014-05-30

    Danshen, the dried roots of Salvia miltiorrhiza, is an extremely valued Traditional Chinese Medicine. Previously, we have demonstrated that salvianolic acid B (SaB), the important bioactive ingredient in this herb, was a post-harvest product. Here, we further reported that all salvianolic acids (SAs) in the roots were post-harvest products of the drying process. In addition, the results of various radical scavenging activity assays, including lipid peroxidation (1), DPPH (2), hydroxyl (3) and superoxide (4), were significantly increased along with the accumulation of total salvianolic acids in the process. The contents of chemical targets and antioxidant activities both reached the highest value under thermal treatment at 130 °C for 80 min. In this dehydration period, contents of SaB, and sum of nine SAs increased from 0.01% to 5.51%, and 0.20% to 6.61%; and IC50 of antioxidant activity decreased from 4.85 to 2.69 (1); 7.75 to 0.43 (2); 2.57 to 1.13 (3) and 17.25 to 1.10 mg/mL. These results further supported the hypothesis that the newly harvested plant roots were still physiologically active and the secondary metabolites might be produced due to dehydration stress after harvest. Our findings supplied an important and useful theoretical basis for promoting the quality of Danshen and other medicinal plant materials.

  15. Potential cytoprotection: antioxidant defence by caffeic acid phenethyl ester against free radical-induced damage of lipids, DNA, and proteins.

    PubMed

    Wang, Ting; Chen, Lixiang; Wu, Weimin; Long, Yuan; Wang, Rui

    2008-05-01

    Oxidative stress is considered to be a major cause of cellular injuries in a variety of chronic health problems, such as carcinogenesis and neurodegenerative disorders. Caffeic acid phenethyl ester (CAPE), derived from the propolis of honeybee hives, possesses a variety of biological and pharmacological properties including antioxidant and anticancer activity. In the present study, we focused on the diverse antioxidative functionalities of CAPE and its related polyphenolic acid esters on cellular macromolecules in vitro. The effects on human erythrocyte membrane ghost lipid peroxidation, plasmid pBR322 DNA, and protein damage initiated by the water-soluble initiator 2,2'-azobis(2-amidinopropane) hydrochloride (AAPH) and hydrogen peroxide (H(2)O(2)) were monitored by formation of hydroperoxides and by DNA nicking assay, single-cell alkaline electrophoresis, and SDS-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis. Our results showed that CAPE and its related polyphenolic acid esters elicited remarkable inhibitory effects on erythrocyte membrane lipid peroxidation, cellular DNA strand breakage, and protein fragmentation. The results suggest that CAPE is a potent exogenous cytoprotective and antigenotoxic agent against cell oxidative damage that could be used as a template for designing novel drugs to combat diseases induced by oxidative stress components, such as various types of cancer.

  16. Preharvest application of oxalic acid increased fruit size, bioactive compounds, and antioxidant capacity in sweet cherry cultivars (Prunus avium L.).

    PubMed

    Martínez-Esplá, Alejandra; Zapata, Pedro Javier; Valero, Daniel; García-Viguera, Cristina; Castillo, Salvador; Serrano, María

    2014-04-16

    Trees of 'Sweet Heart' and 'Sweet Late' sweet cherry cultivars (Prunus avium L.) were treated with oxalic acid (OA) at 0.5, 1.0, and 2.0 mM at 98, 112, and 126 days after full blossom. Results showed that all treatments increased fruit size at harvest, manifested by higher fruit volume and weight in cherries from treated trees than from controls, the higher effect being found with 2.0 mM OA (18 and 30% higher weight for 'Sweet Heart' and 'Sweet Late', respectively). Other quality parameters, such as color and firmness, were also increased by OA treatments, although no significant differences were found in total soluble solids or total acidity, showing that OA treatments did not affect the on-tree ripening process of sweet cherry. However, the increases in total anthocyanins, total phenolics, and antioxidant activity associated with the ripening process were higher in treated than in control cherries, leading to fruit with high bioactive compounds and antioxidant potential at commercial harvest (≅45% more anthocyanins and ≅20% more total phenolics). In addition, individual anthocyanins, flavonols, and chlorogenic acid derivatives were also increased by OA treatment. Thus, OA preharvest treatments could be an efficient and natural way to increase the quality and functional properties of sweet cherries.

  17. The effect of dietary Digestarom® herbal supplementation on rabbit meat fatty acid profile, lipid oxidation and antioxidant content.

    PubMed

    Mattioli, S; Dal Bosco, A; Szendrő, Zs; Cullere, M; Gerencsér, Zs; Matics, Zs; Castellini, C; Dalle Zotte, A

    2016-11-01

    The experiment tested the effect of Digestarom® herbal supplementation on the antioxidant content, lipid oxidation and fatty acid profile of rabbit meat. At kindling, rabbit does and litters were divided into two dietary groups (N=162 kits/dietary group) and fed either a control diet (C) or the C diet supplemented with Digestarom® (D: 300mg/kg). At weaning (35days) four experimental fattening groups (54 rabbits each) were considered: CC, CD, DC and DD. After slaughtering (12weeks of age), Longissimus thoracis et lumborum muscles were dissected from 20 rabbits/group and analyzed. Rabbit meat of DD group was enriched in essential C18:3 n-3 fatty acid and in other long-chain PUFA of n-3 series. Despite meat of DD group displayed the highest peroxidability index, TBARs value was the lowest. Meat antioxidant content followed the rank order: DD>CD>DC>CC. Digestarom® improved fatty acid composition and oxidative status of rabbit meat, particularly when administered from weaning throughout the growing period.

  18. Antioxidant activity of wine pigments derived from anthocyanins: hydrogen transfer reactions to the dpph radical and inhibition of the heme-induced peroxidation of linoleic acid.

    PubMed

    Goupy, Pascale; Bautista-Ortin, Ana-Belen; Fulcrand, Helene; Dangles, Olivier

    2009-07-08

    The consumption of red wine can provide substantial concentrations of antioxidant polyphenols, in particular grape anthocyanins (e.g., malvidin-3-O-beta-d-glucoside (1)) and specific red wine pigments formed by reaction between anthocyanins and other wine components such as catechin (3), ethanol, and hydroxycinnamic acids. In this work, the antioxidant properties of red wine pigments (RWPs) are evaluated by the DPPH assay and by inhibition of the heme-induced peroxidation of linoleic acid in acidic conditions (a model of antioxidant action in the gastric compartment). RWPs having a 1 and 3 moieties linked via a CH(3)-CH bridge appear more potent than the pigment with a direct 1-3 linkage. Pyranoanthocyanins derived from 1 reduce more DPPH radicals than 1 irrespective of the substitution of their additional aromatic ring. Pyranoanthocyanins are also efficient inhibitors of the heme-induced lipid peroxidation, although the highly hydrophilic pigment derived from pyruvic acid appears less active.

  19. Analysis of the antioxidant activity of 4-(5-chloro-2-hydroxyphenylamino)-4-oxobut-2-enoic acid derivatives using quantum-chemistry descriptors and molecular docking.

    PubMed

    Ardjani, Ahmed Taki Eddine; Mekelleche, Sidi Mohamed

    2016-12-01

    In the present work, the molecular structure and the antioxidant activity of 4-(5-chloro-2-hydroxyphenylamino)-4-oxobut-2-enoic acid (A) and its derivatives (B-E) have been studied at the B3LYP/6-31++G(2d,2p) computational level. The obtained results indicate that the hydrogen atom transfer (HAT mechanism) is thermodynamically more favored in gas phase; whereas, the sequential proton loss-electron transfer (SPLET mechanism) is more preferred in polar solvents. The antioxidant activity of compounds A-E is also analyzed by the calculation of atomic spin densities, chemical hardnesses, dipole moments, and lipophilicity indexes. It turns out that compound E (R = t-Bu) is predicted to be more antioxidant than ascorbic acid and other derivatives A-D in both gas phase and polar solvents. The high antioxidant activity of compound E compared to other derivatives A-D is also rationalized using the molecular docking technique.

  20. Lipoic acid and haloperidol-induced vacuous chewing movements: Implications for prophylactic antioxidant use in tardive dyskinesia.

    PubMed

    Lister, Joshua; Andreazza, Ana C; Navaid, Bushra; Wilson, Virginia S; Teo, Celine; Nesarajah, Yasika; Wilson, Alan A; Nobrega, José N; Fletcher, Paul J; Remington, Gary

    2017-01-04

    Tardive dyskinesia (TD), a potentially irreversible antipsychotic (AP)-related movement disorder, is a risk with all currently available antipsychotics. AP-induced vacuous chewing movements (VCMs) in rats, a preclinical model of TD, can be attenuated by antioxidant-based treatments although there is a shortage of well-designed studies. Lipoic acid (LA) represents a candidate antioxidant for the treatment of oxidative stress-related nervous system disorders; accordingly, its effects on AP-induced VCMs and striatal oxidative stress were examined. Rats treated with haloperidol decanoate (HAL; 21mg/kg every 3weeks, IM) for 12weeks were concurrently treated with LA (10 or 20mg/kg, PO). VCMs were assessed weekly by a blinded rater, and locomotor activity was evaluated as were striatal lipid peroxidation markers and serum HAL levels. VCMs were decreased by the lower dose (nonsignificant), whereas a significant increase was recorded with the higher dose of LA. HAL decreased locomotor activity and this was unaffected by LA. Striatal malondialdehyde (MDA) levels in HAL-treated rats were reduced by both LA doses, while 4-hydroxynonenal (4-HNE) levels were predictive of final VCM scores (averaged across weeks 10-12). Study limitations include differences between antipsychotics in terms of oxidative stress, LA dosing, choice of biomarkers for lipid peroxidation, and generalizability to TD in humans. Collectively, current preclinical evidence does not support a "protective" role for antioxidants in preventing TD or its progression, although clinical evidence offers limited evidence supporting such an approach.

  1. A comparative study on the antioxidant effects of hesperidin and ellagic acid against skeletal muscle ischemia/reperfusion injury.

    PubMed

    Ekinci Akdemir, Fazile Nur; Gülçin, İlhami; Karagöz, Berna; Soslu, Recep; Alwasel, Saleh H

    2016-01-01

    The antioxidant effects of ellagic acid (EA) and hesperidin (HES) against skeletal muscle ischemia/reperfusion injury (I/R) were performed. Hindlimb ischemia has been induced by tourniquet occlusion for 2 h on left hindlimb. At the end of ischemia, the tourniquate has been removed and initiated reperfusion for 2 h. EA (100 mg/kg) has been applied orally before ischemia/reperfusion in the EA + I/R group. HES (100 mg/kg) has been given orally in the HES + I/R group. The left gastrocnemius muscle has been harvested and stored immediately at -80 °C until assessed for the levels of MDA and antioxidant enzymes activities. MDA level has statistically increased in I/R group (p < 0.05) compared to other groups. The muscle tissue antioxidant enzymes activities were lower than the other groups in the I/R group (p < 0.05). EA and HES treatments significantly reversed the damage level in I/R, also activity of tissue SOD increased in the EA + I/R and HES + I/R groups.

  2. Structure-Activity Relationships in the Cytoprotective Effect of Caffeic Acid Phenethyl Ester (CAPE) and Fluorinated Derivatives: Effects on Heme Oxygenase-1 Induction and Antioxidant Activities

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2010-03-09

    fluorinated derivatives: Effects on heme oxygenase-1 induction and antioxidant activities Xinyu Wang a,b, Salomon Stavchansky a, Sean M. Kerwin c, Phillip D...February 2010 Available online 9 March 2010 Keywords: Caffeic acid phenethyl ester Fluorinated derivative Cytoprotection Oxidative stress Human...acid phenethyl ester (CAPE) as a cytoprotective agent, six catechol ring fluorinated CAPE derivatives were evaluated for their cytoprotective

  3. Measuring antioxidant efficiency of wort, malt, and hops against the 2,2'-azobis(2-amidinopropane) dihydrochloride-induced oxidation of an aqueous dispersion of linoleic acid.

    PubMed

    Liégeois, C; Lermusieau, G; Collin, S

    2000-04-01

    This paper presents a simple, convenient method for determining the efficiency of antioxidants in aqueous systems. Production of conjugated diene hydroperoxide by oxidation of linoleic acid in an aqueous dispersion is monitored at 234 nm. 2, 2'-Azobis(2-amidinopropane) dihydrochloride is used as a free radical initiator. Among 12 antioxidants tested, phenolic compounds proved to be the most efficient, both kinetically and in terms of the inhibition time (T(inh)). Applied to wort, malt, and hops, the method confirmed a significant antioxidant activity in such products, especially hops. This assay can be used to follow oxidative changes throughout the brewing process and to understand the contribution of each raw material.

  4. Encapsulation of gallic acid/cyclodextrin inclusion complex in electrospun polylactic acid nanofibers: Release behavior and antioxidant activity of gallic acid.

    PubMed

    Aytac, Zeynep; Kusku, Semran Ipek; Durgun, Engin; Uyar, Tamer

    2016-06-01

    Cyclodextrin-inclusion complexes (CD-ICs) possess great prominence in food and pharmaceutical industries due to their enhanced ability for stabilization of active compounds during processing, storage and usage. Here, CD-IC of gallic acid (GA) with hydroxypropyl-beta-cyclodextrin (GA/HPβCD-IC) was prepared and then incorporated into polylactic acid (PLA) nanofibers (PLA/GA/HPβCD-IC-NF) using electrospinning technique to observe the effect of CD-ICs in the release behavior of GA into three different mediums (water, 10% ethanol and 95% ethanol). The GA incorporated PLA nanofibers (PLA/GA-NFs) were served as control. Phase solubility studies showed an enhanced solubility of GA with increasing amount of HPβCD. The detailed characterization techniques (XRD, TGA and (1)H-NMR) confirmed the formation of inclusion complex between GA and HPβCD. Computational modeling studies indicated that the GA made an efficient complex with HPβCD at 1:1 either in vacuum or aqueous system. SEM images revealed the bead-free and uniform morphology of PLA/GA/HPβCD-IC-NF. The release studies of GA from PLA/GA/HPβCD-IC-NF and PLA/GA-NF were carried out in water, 10% ethanol and 95% ethanol, and the findings revealed that PLA/GA/HPβCD-IC-NF has released much more amount of GA in water and 10% ethanol system when compared to PLA/GA-NF. In addition, GA was released slowly from PLA/GA/HPβCD-IC-NF into 95% ethanol when compared to PLA/GA-NF. It was also observed that electrospinning process had no negative effect on the antioxidant activity of GA when GA was incorporated in PLA nanofibers.

  5. Phenolic acids, anthocyanins, and antioxidant capacity in rice (Oryza sativa L.) grains at four stages of development after flowering.

    PubMed

    Shao, Yafang; Xu, Feifei; Sun, Xiao; Bao, Jinsong; Beta, Trust

    2014-01-15

    This study investigated differences in total phenolic content (TPC), antioxidant capacity, and phenolic acids in free, conjugated and bound fractions of white (unpolished), red and black rice at 1-, 2-, and 3-weeks of grain development after flowering and at maturity. Unlike the TPC (mg/100g) of white rice (14.6-33.4) and red rice (66.8-422.2) which was significantly higher at 1-week than at later stages, the TPC of black rice (56.5-82.0) was highest at maturity. The antioxidant capacity measured by DPPH radical scavenging and ORAC methods generally followed a similar trend as TPC. Only black rice had detectable anthocyanins (26.5-174.7mg/100g). Cyanidin-3-glucoside (C3G) and peonidin-3-glucoside (P3G) were the main anthocyanins in black rice showing significantly higher levels at 2- and 3-weeks than at 1-week development and at maturity. At all stages, the phenolic acids existed mainly in the bound form as detected by HPLC and confirmed by LC-MS/MS. Black rice (20.1-31.7mg/100g) had higher total bound phenolic acids than white rice and red rice (7.0-11.8mg/100g). Protocatechuic acid was detected in red rice and black rice with relatively high levels at 1-week development (1.41mg/100g) and at maturity (4.48mg/100g), respectively. Vanillic acid (2.4-5.4mg/100g) was detected only in black rice where it peaked at maturity. p-Coumaric acid (<3.5mg/100g) did not differ significantly at most stages with somewhat high levels at 1-week for red and black rice. Ferulic acid (4.0-17.9mg/100g), the most abundant bound phenolic acid, had an inconsistent trend with higher levels being observed in black rice where it peaked at maturity. Isoferulic acid levels (0.8-1.6mg/100g) were generally low with slightly elevated values being observed at maturity. Overall black rice had higher total bound phenolic acids than white and red rice while white rice at all stages of development after flowering.

  6. Modification of Caffeic Acid with Pyrrolidine Enhances Antioxidant Ability by Activating AKT/HO-1 Pathway in Heart

    PubMed Central

    Ku, Hui-Chun; Lee, Shih-Yi; Yang, Kai-Chien; Kuo, Yueh-Hsiung; Su, Ming-Jai

    2016-01-01

    Overproduction of free radicals during ischemia/reperfusion (I/R) injury leads to an interest in using antioxidant therapy. Activating an endogenous antioxidant signaling pathway is more important due to the fact that the free radical scavenging behavior in vitro does not always correlate with a cytoprotection effect in vivo. Caffeic acid (CA), an antioxidant, is a major phenolic constituent in nature. Pyrrolidinyl caffeamide (PLCA), a derivative of CA, was compared with CA for their antioxidant and cytoprotective effects. Our results indicate that CA and PLCA exert the same ability to scavenge DPPH in vitro. In response to myocardial I/R stress, PLCA was shown to attenuate lipid peroxydation and troponin release more than CA. These responses were accompanied with a prominent elevation in AKT and HO-1 expression and a preservation of mnSOD expression and catalase activity. PLCA also improved cell viability and alleviated the intracellular ROS level more than CA in cardiomyocytes exposed to H2O2. When inhibiting the AKT or HO-1 pathways, PLCA lost its ability to recover mnSOD expression and catalase activity to counteract with oxidative stress, suggesting AKT/HO-1 pathway activation by PLCA plays an important role. In addition, inhibition of AKT signaling further abolished HO-1 activity, while inhibition of HO-1 signaling attenuated AKT expression, indicating cross-talk between the AKT and HO-1 pathways. These protective effects may contribute to the cardiac function improvement by PLCA. These findings provide new insight into therapeutic approaches using a modified natural compound against oxidative stress from myocardial injuries. PMID:26845693

  7. Abscisic acid activates a Ca2+-calmodulin-stimulated protein kinase involved in antioxidant defense in maize leaves.

    PubMed

    Xu, Shucheng

    2010-09-01

    The role of a calcium-dependent and calmodulin (CaM)-stimulated protein kinase in abscisic acid (ABA)-induced antioxidant defense was determined in leaves of maize (Zea mays). In-gel kinase assays showed that treatments with ABA or H(2)O(2) induced the activation of a 49-kDa protein kinase and a 52-kDa protein kinase significantly. Furthermore, we showed that the 52-kDa protein kinase has the characteristics of CaM-stimulating activity and is sensitive to calcium-CaM-dependent protein kinase II (CaMK II) inhibitor KN-93 or CaM antagonist W-7. Treatments with ABA or H(2)O(2) not only induced the activation of the 52-kDa protein kinase, but also enhanced the total activities of the antioxidant enzymes, including catalase, ascorbate peroxidase, glutathione reductase, and superoxide dismutase. Such enhancements were blocked by pretreatment with a CaMK inhibitor and a reactive oxygen species (ROS) inhibitor or scavenger. Pretreatment with the CaMK inhibitor also substantially arrested the ABA-induced H(2)O(2) production. Kinase activity enhancements induced by ABA were attenuated by pretreatment with an ROS inhibitor or scavenger. These results suggest that the 52-kDa CaMK is involved in ABA-induced antioxidant defense and that cross-talk between CaMK and H(2)O(2) plays a pivotal role in ABA signaling. We infer that CaMK acts both upstream and downstream of H(2)O(2), but mainly acts between ABA and H(2)O(2) in ABA-induced antioxidant-defensive signaling.

  8. Stress relaxant and antioxidant activities of acid glycoside from Spondias mangifera fruit against physically and chemically challenged albino mice

    PubMed Central

    Arif, Muhammad; Fareed, Sheeba; Rahman, Md. Azizur

    2016-01-01

    Aim: Stress relaxant and antioxidant activities of ethanolic extract of fruit Spondias mangifera (EEFSM) and its isolated compound (Sm-01) were evaluated. The structure of Sm-01 was also elucidated. Materials and Methods: EEFSM at two different doses of 100 and 200 mg/kg (bw)/day and Sm-01 at dose of 10 mg/kg (bw)/day were screened for in vivo stress relaxant activity using anoxia stress tolerance, swimming endurance and cyclophosphamide-induced immune suppression model and in vitro antioxidant activity using 1,1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) model. The levels of Hb, red blood cell (RBC) and white blood cell (WBC) along with organ and body weights suppressed by cyclophosphamide were estimated. The structure of Sm-01 was elucidated by spectroscopy (ultraviolet, infrared, 1H-nuclear magnetic resonance [NMR],13 C-NMR and mass spectrometry) and chemical analyses. Results: Sm-01 was structurally elucidated as propan-1,2-dioic acid-3-carboxyl-β-D-glucopyranosyl-(6’→1”)-β-D-glucofuranoside. It was found that EEFSM and Sm-01 significantly increased the anoxia stress tolerance, swimming endurance and duration of stay on rotarod and normalized the levels of Hb, RBC, and WBC along with altered organ and body weights suppressed by cyclophosphamide. EEFSM and Sm-01 also exhibited significant antioxidant activity against DPPH free radical at the concentrations of 0.05, 0.5, and 1.0 mg/mL with obtained IC50 of 0.32 and 0.15 mg/mL, respectively. Conclusions: These findings demonstrated that extract and Sm-01 both possess significant stress relaxant and antioxidant activities favoring its use as adaptogens. The activities of the extract may be due to the Sm-01. PMID:26957871

  9. Antioxidant effects of maslinic acid in livers, hearts and kidneys of streptozotocin-induced diabetic rats: effects on kidney function.

    PubMed

    Mkhwanazi, Blessing N; Serumula, Metse R; Myburg, Rene B; Van Heerden, Fanie R; Musabayane, Cephas T

    2014-04-01

    Studies indicate that hyperglycemia-induced oxidative stress triggers the development of microvascular and macrovascular complications in diabetes. Accordingly, we hypothesized that maslinic acid (MA) prevents these complications due to its antioxidant properties. We, therefore, investigated the effects of 5-week MA treatment of streptozotocin (STZ)-induced diabetic rats on anti-oxidative status of cardiac, hepatic and renal tissues as well as on kidney function. Proximal tubular effects of MA were studied in anesthetized rats challenged with hypotonic saline after a 3.5 h equilibration for 4 h of 1 h control, 1.5 h treatment and 1.5 h recovery periods using lithium clearance. MA was added to the infusate during the treatment period. Oral glucose tolerance responses to MA were monitored in rats given a glucose load after an 18 h fast. Compared with untreated diabetic rats, MA-treated diabetic animals exhibited significantly low malondialdehyde (MDA, a marker of lipid peroxidation) and increased the activity of antioxidant enzymes; superoxide dismutase and glutathione peroxidase in hepatic, cardiac and renal tissues. The expressions of gastrocnemius muscle GLUT4 and kidney GLUT1 and GLUT2 were assessed to elucidate the mechanism of the hypoglycemic effects of MA. MA-treatment diminished the expression of GLUT1 and GLUT2 in diabetic kidney and reduced glycemia values of diabetic rats. MA administration increased urinary Na+ outputs and additionally the FENa indicating that at least part of the overall reduction in Na+ reabsorption occurred in the proximal tubules. These results suggest antioxidant effects of MA can ameliorate oxidative stress and improve kidney function in diabetes mellitus.

  10. Effect of dehulling, germination and cooking on nutrients, anti-nutrients, fatty acid composition and antioxidant properties in lentil (Lens culinaris).

    PubMed

    Pal, R S; Bhartiya, Anuradha; Yadav, Pradhuman; Kant, Lakshmi; Mishra, K K; Aditya, J P; Pattanayak, A

    2017-03-01

    The changes in chemical composition, antioxidant activity and fatty acid composition of lentil flour after dehulling, germination and cooking of seeds were investigated. Dehulling showed no significant effect on protein content, however, protein content decreased in most of the varieties after germination and cooking. Total soluble sugars (TSS) content increased significantly after dehulling (2.0-41.64 %) and cooking (2.08-31.07 %) whereas, germination had no significant effect on TSS content. Total lipids increased significantly after dehulling (21.56-42.86 %) whereas, it decreased significantly after germination (2.97-26.52 %) and cooking (23.05-58.63 %). Cooking was more effective than other methods in reducing trypsin inhibitors (80.51-85.41 %). Dehulling was most effective in reducing tannins (89.46-92.99 %) and phytic acid (52.63-60.00 %) content over raw seed. Myristic, palmitic, stearic, oleic and linoleic acid content decreased while linolenic acid content increased after dehulling. Dehulling, germination and cooking decreased the content of antioxidant metabolite (gallic acid, catechin and quercetin) and also antioxidant activities. Raw samples followed by germinated samples showed the highest concentrations of phytochemicals responsible for antioxidant activity and also the antioxidant capacities. Present study showed germination and cooking would be useful in formulation and development of lentil based functional foods for human health benefits.

  11. Supercritical carbon dioxide extraction of seed oil from winter melon (Benincasa hispida) and its antioxidant activity and fatty acid composition.

    PubMed

    Bimakr, Mandana; Rahman, Russly Abdul; Taip, Farah Saleena; Adzahan, Noranizan Mohd; Sarker, Md Zaidul Islam; Ganjloo, Ali

    2013-01-15

    In the present study, supercritical carbon dioxide (SC-CO(2)) extraction of seed oil from winter melon (Benincasa hispida) was investigated. The effects of process variables namely pressure (150-300 bar), temperature (40-50 °C) and dynamic extraction time (60-120 min) on crude extraction yield (CEY) were studied through response surface methodology (RSM). The SC-CO(2) extraction process was modified using ethanol (99.9%) as co-solvent. Perturbation plot revealed the significant effect of all process variables on the CEY. A central composite design (CCD) was used to optimize the process conditions to achieve maximum CEY. The optimum conditions were 244 bar pressure, 46 °C temperature and 97 min dynamic extraction time. Under these optimal conditions, the CEY was predicted to be 176.30 mg-extract/g-dried sample. The validation experiment results agreed with the predicted value. The antioxidant activity and fatty acid composition of crude oil obtained under optimized conditions were determined and compared with published results using Soxhlet extraction (SE) and ultrasound assisted extraction (UAE). It was found that the antioxidant activity of the extract obtained by SC-CO(2) extraction was strongly higher than those obtained by SE and UAE. Identification of fatty acid composition using gas chromatography (GC) showed that all the extracts were rich in unsaturated fatty acids with the most being linoleic acid. In contrast, the amount of saturated fatty acids extracted by SE was higher than that extracted under optimized SC-CO(2) extraction conditions.

  12. Metabolism of flavone C-glucosides and p-coumaric acid from antioxidant of bamboo leaves (AOB) in rats.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Yu; Tie, Xiaowei; Bao, Bili; Wu, Xiaoqin; Zhang, Ying

    2007-03-01

    The metabolism of flavone C-glucosides and p-coumaric acid from antioxidant of bamboo leaves (AOB) in rats is discussed systematically in the present study. Following single oral administration of AOB, p-coumaric acid was detected in plasma but not in gastrointestinal tract extracts and faeces, and the corresponding absorption pharmacokinetic curve at different time points showed a prolonged elimination phase with p-coumaric acid being detected in the kidneys and excreted as its original form (1 x 80 (sd 0 x 24) % and 1 x 90 (sd 0 x 26) % at 12 and 24 h, respectively). However, the four flavone C-glucosides orientin, homoorientin, vitexin and isovitexin were poorly absorbed in the gastrointestinal tract. More than 50 % recovery of flavone C-glucosides was determined at 12 h and faeces containing these four analytes (21 x 23 (sd 1 x 92) %) were excreted at 24 h. These data suggested that the effective time these compounds were in the colon was long enough so that they could exert their antioxidant activity and scavenge free radicals. Besides the excretion of the original forms, moieties of the flavone C-glucosides were hydrolysed by deglycosylation and the opening of the heterocyclic C ring. Some small molecules such as phloroglucinol (PG), hydrocaffeic acid (HCA) and phloretic acid (PA) were detected and identified as metabolites of the flavone C-glucosides. In the present work, we compared the metabolic fate of flavone C-glucosides to that of flavone O-glucosides in rats, and evaluated the absorption, tissue distribution and excretion of flavone C-glucosides in AOB on their metabolism for the first time.

  13. [Combined effects of copper and simulated acid rain on copper accumulation, growth, and antioxidant enzyme activities of Rumex acetosa].

    PubMed

    He, Shan-Ying; Gao, Yong-Jie; Shentu, Jia-Li; Chen, Kun-Bai

    2011-02-01

    A pot experiment was conducted to study the combined effects of Cu (0-1500 mg x kg(-1)) and simulated acid rain (pH 2.5-5.6) on the copper accumulation, growth, and antioxidant enzyme activities of Rumex acetosa. With the increasing concentration of soil Cu, the Cu accumulation in R. acetosa increased, being higher in root than in stem and leaf. The exposure to low pH acid rain promoted the Cu uptake by R. acetosa. With the increase of soil Cu concentration and/or of acid rain acidity, the biomass of R. acetosa decreased, leaf and root MDA contents increased and had good correlation with soil Cu concentration, and the SOD and POD activities in leaf and root displayed a decreasing trend after an initial increase. This study showed that R. acetosa had a strong adaptive ability to Cu and acid rain stress, exhibiting a high application potential in the remediation of Cu-contaminated soil in acid rain areas.

  14. Performance of Different Natural Antioxidant Compounds
in Frying Oil

    PubMed Central

    Aydenız, Buket

    2016-01-01

    Summary In this study, the natural green tea extract, purified lycopene, purified resveratrol and purified γ-oryzanol were added into peanut oil and their antioxidant performances were evaluated during frying. Moreover, the sensory properties of fried dough were evaluated to determine the consumption feasibility. All natural antioxidants led to significant increase in the stability of the oil samples. The ranges of measurements in the treatment groups were as follows: free acidity 0.1–2.9 g of oleic acid per 100 g of oil, conjugated dienes 0.01–0.40 g per 100 g of oil, total polar material 8.8–73.8 g per 100 g of oil, total phenolics 0.1–4.2 mg of gallic acid equivalents per 100 g of oil, and antioxidant capacity 0.5–11.0 mM of Trolox equivalents per 100 g of oil. The fatty acid and sterol compositions indicated that antioxidant supplementation could slow the oxidative degradation of unsaturated fatty acids and reduce trans-acid formation. Frying oil enriched with purified γ-oryzanol had higher sterol levels than the other enriched oil samples. The obtained quality of oil protection was in descending order: purified γ-oryzanol, green tea extract and purified lycopene. PMID:27904389

  15. Antioxidant capacity and stability of liposomes containing a triglyceride derivative of lipoic acid

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The multi-functional nutritional agent lipoic acid offers numerous beneficial effects to oxidatively stressed tissues. Lipoic acid was enzymatically incorporated into a triglyceride in conjunction with oleic acid, creating lipoyl dioleoylglycerol, and then chemically reduced to form dihydrolipoyl d...

  16. Saponification equivalent of dasamula taila.

    PubMed

    Saxena, R B

    1994-07-01

    Saponification equivalent values of Dasamula taila are very useful for the technical and analytical work. It gives the mean molecular weight of the glycerides and acids present in Dasamula Taila. Saponification equivalent values of Dasamula taila are reported in different packings.

  17. Antioxidative effects of glycosyl-ascorbic acids synthesized by maltogenic amylase to reduce lipid oxidation and volatiles production in cooked chicken meat.

    PubMed

    Lee, Soo-Bok; Nam, Ki-chang; Lee, Sung-Joon; Lee, Jong-Ho; Inouye, Kuniyo; Park, Kwan-Hwa

    2004-01-01

    Glycosylated ascorbic acids were synthesized by using the transglycosylation activity of Bacillus stearothermophilus maltogenic amylase with maltotriose to show effective antioxidative activity with enhanced oxidative stability. The modified ascorbic acids comprised mono- and di-glycosyl transfer products with an alpha-(1,6)-glycosidic linkage. The antioxidative effects of the glycosyl derivatives of ascorbic acid on the lipid oxidation of cooked chicken breast meat patties were compared, and the synergistic effect when combined with alpha-tocopherol was determined in terms of thiobarbituric acid-reactive substances (TBARS) and volatiles production during storage. The results indicate that the glycosylated ascorbic acids had very effective antioxidative activity in preventing lipid oxidation, and were better in their synergistic effect in comparison to authentic ascorbic acid, with maltosyl-ascorbic acid being the most effective. Volatiles production was highly correlated with the TBARS values in the lipid oxidation of cooked meat. The antioxidative effect preventing the production of volatiles was particularly strong on pentanal, fairly strong on propanal and butanal, and not at all on ethanal. Propanal, pentanal, and the total volatiles thus provided a good representation of the lipid oxidation status of cooked chicken meat.

  18. Curcuminoids and ω-3 fatty acids with anti-oxidants potentiate cytotoxicity of natural killer cells against pancreatic ductal adenocarcinoma cells and inhibit interferon γ production.

    PubMed

    Halder, Ramesh C; Almasi, Anasheh; Sagong, Bien; Leung, Jessica; Jewett, Anahid; Fiala, Milan

    2015-01-01

    Pancreatic cancer has a poor prognosis attributed in part to immune suppression and deactivation of natural killer (NK) cells. Curcuminoids have a potential for improving the therapy of pancreatic cancer given promising results in cancer models and a clinical trial, but their oral absorption is limited. Our objective in this study is to show curcuminoid anti-oncogenic effects alone and together with human NK cells. We tested curcuminoids in an emulsion of ω-3 fatty acids and anti-oxidants ("Smartfish") regarding their direct cytocidal effect and enhancement of the cytocidal activity of NK cells in pancreatic ductal adenocarcinoma (PDAC) cells (Mia Paca 2 and L3.6). Curcuminoids (at ≥10 μM) with ω-3 fatty acids and anti-oxidants or with the lipidic mediator resolvin D1 (RvD1) (26 nM) induced high caspase-3 activity in PDAC cells. Importantly, curcuminoids with ω-3 fatty acids and anti-oxidants or with RvD1 significantly potentiated NK cell cytocidal function and protected them against degradation. In a co-culture of cancer cells with NK cells, interferon-γ (IFN-γ) production by NK cells was not altered by ω-3 fatty acids with anti-oxidants or by RvD1 but was inhibited by curcuminoids. The inhibition was not eliminated by ω-3 fatty acids or RvD1 but was relieved by removing curcuminoids after adding NK cells. In conclusion, curcuminoids with ω-3 fatty acids and anti-oxidants or with RvD1 have increased cytotoxic activity on PDAC cells alone and with NK cells. The effects of curcuminoids with ω-3 fatty acids and anti-oxidants on pancreatic cancer will be investigated in a mouse model with humanized immune system.

  19. Folic acid supplemented goat milk has beneficial effects on hepatic physiology, haematological status and antioxidant defence during chronic Fe repletion.

    PubMed

    Alférez, María J M; Rivas, Emilio; Díaz-Castro, Javier; Hijano, Silvia; Nestares, Teresa; Moreno, Miguel; Campos, Margarita S; Serrano-Reina, Jose A; López-Aliaga, Inmaculada

    2015-02-01

    The aim of the current study was to asses the effect of goat or cow milk-based diets, either normal or Fe-overloaded and folic acid supplement on some aspects of hepatic physiology, enzymatic antioxidant defence and lipid peroxidation in liver, brain and erythrocyte of control and anaemic rats after chronic Fe repletion. 160 male Wistar rats were placed on 40 d in two groups, a control group receiving normal-Fe diet and the Fe-deficient group receiving low Fe diet. Lately, the rats were fed with goat and cow milk-based diets during 30 d, with normal-Fe content or Fe-overload and either with normal folic or folic acid supplemented. Fe-overload increased plasma alanine transaminase and aspartate transaminase levels when cow milk was supplied. Dietary folate supplementation reduced plasma transaminases levels in animals fed goat milk with chronic Fe overload. A remarkable increase in the superoxide dismutase activity was observed in the animals fed cow milk. Dietary folate supplement lead to a decrease on the activity of this enzyme in all the tissues studied with both milk-based diets. A concomitant increment in catalase was also observed. The increase in lipid peroxidation products levels in rats fed cow milk with Fe-overload, suggest an imbalance in the functioning of the enzymatic antioxidant defence. In conclusion, dietary folate-supplemented goat milk reduces both plasma transaminases levels, suggesting a hepatoprotective effect and has beneficial effects in situation of Fe-overload, improving the antioxidant enzymes activities and reducing lipid peroxidation.

  20. Phenolic compounds and antioxidant capacities of 10 common edible flowers from China.

    PubMed

    Xiong, Lina; Yang, Jiajia; Jiang, Yirong; Lu, Baiyi; Hu, Yinzhou; Zhou, Fei; Mao, Shuqin; Shen, Canxi

    2014-04-01

    The free and bound phenolic compounds in 10 common Chinese edible flowers were investigated using reversed phase high-performance liquid chromatography. Their antioxidant capacities were evaluated using 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) radical-scavenging activity, 2,2'-azino-bis(3-ethylbenzothiazoline-6-sulphonic acid) (ABTS) radical-scavenging activity, oxygen radical absorption capacity (ORAC), ferric reducing antioxidant power (FRAP), and cellular antioxidant activity (CAA). Free factions were more prominent in phenolic content and antioxidant capacity than bound fractions. Paeonia suffruticosa and Flos lonicerae showed the highest total phenolic content (TPC) 235.5 mg chlorogenic acid equivalents/g of dry weight and total flavonoid content 89.38 mg rutin equivalents/g of dry weight. The major phenolic compounds identified were gallic acid, chlorogenic acid, and rutin. P. suffruticosa had the highest antioxidant capacity in the DPPH, ABTS, and ORAC assays, which were 1028, 2065, 990 μmol Trolox equivalents/g of dry weight, respectively, whereas Rosa chinensis had the highest FRAP value (2645 μmol Fe(2+) equivalents /g of dry weight). The P. suffruticosa soluble phenolics had the highest CAA, with the median effective dose (EC50 ) 26.7 and 153 μmol quercetin equivalents/100 g of dry weight in the phosphate buffered saline (PBS) and no PBS wash protocol, respectively. TPC was strongly correlated with antioxidant capacity (R = 0.8443 to 0.9978, P < 0.01), which indicated that phenolics were the major contributors to the antioxidant activity of the selected edible flowers.

  1. Multifunctional PLGA particles containing poly(l-glutamic acid)-capped silver nanoparticles and ascorbic acid with simultaneous antioxidative and prolonged antimicrobial activity.

    PubMed

    Stevanović, Magdalena; Bračko, Ines; Milenković, Marina; Filipović, Nenad; Nunić, Jana; Filipič, Metka; Uskoković, Dragan P

    2014-01-01

    A water-soluble antioxidant (ascorbic acid, vitamin C) was encapsulated together with poly(l-glutamic acid)-capped silver nanoparticles (AgNpPGA) within a poly(lactide-co-glycolide) (PLGA) polymeric matrix and their synergistic effects were studied. The PLGA/AgNpPGA/ascorbic acid particles synthesized by a physicochemical method with solvent/non-solvent systems are spherical, have a mean diameter of 775 nm and a narrow size distribution with a polydispersity index of 0.158. The encapsulation efficiency of AgNpPGA/ascorbic acid within PLGA was determined to be >90%. The entire amount of encapsulated ascorbic acid was released in 68 days, and the entire amount of AgNpPGAs was released in 87 days of degradation. The influence of PLGA/AgNpPGA/ascorbic acid on cell viability, generation of reactive oxygen species (ROS) in HepG2 cells, as well as antimicrobial activity against seven different pathogens was investigated. The 3-(4,5-dimethylthiazol-2-yl)-2,5-diphenyltetrazolium bromide assay indicated good biocompatibility of these PLGA/AgNpPGA/ascorbic acid particles. We measured the kinetics of ROS formation in HepG2 cells by a DCFH-DA assay, and found that PLGA/AgNpPGA/ascorbic acid caused a significant decrease in DCF fluorescence intensity, which was 2-fold lower than that in control cells after a 5h exposure. This indicates that the PLGA/AgNpPGA/ascorbic acid microspheres either act as scavengers of intracellular ROS and/or reduce their formation. Also, the results of antimicrobial activity of PLGA/AgNpPGA/ascorbic acid obtained by the broth microdilution method showed superior and extended activity of these particles. The samples were characterized using Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy, field-emission scanning electron microscopy, transmission electron microscopy, zeta potential and particle size analysis. This paper presents a new approach to the treatment of infection that at the same time offers a very pronounced antioxidant effect.

  2. Effects of α-lipoic acid and L-carnosine supplementation on antioxidant activities and lipid profiles in rats

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Mi Young; Kim, Eun Jin; Kim, Young-Nam; Choi, Changsun

    2011-01-01

    α-Lipoic acid and L-carnosine are powerful antioxidants and are often used as a health supplement and as an ergogenic aid. The objective of this study was to investigate the effects of α-lipoic acid and/or L-carnosine supplementation on antioxidant activity in serum, skin, and liver of rats and blood lipid profiles for 6 weeks. Four treatment groups received diets containing regular rat chow diet (control, CON), 0.5% α-lipoic acid (ALA), 0.25% α-lipoic acid + 0.25% L-carnosine (ALA + LC), or 0.5% L-carnosine (LC). Superoxide dismutase (SOD) and glutathione peroxidase (GSH-Px) and lipid peroxidation products, malondialdehyde (MDA) concentrations, were analyzed in serum, skin, and liver. Blood lipid profiles were measured, including triglycerides (TG), total cholesterol (TC), high density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-C), and low density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C). Skin and liver SOD activities of the ALA and LC groups were higher than those of the CON group (P < 0.05), but serum SOD activity was higher only in the LC group compared to that in the CON group (P < 0.05). Additionally, only liver GSH-Px activity in the LC group was higher than that of the CON and the other groups. Serum and skin MDA levels in the ALA and LC groups were lower than those in the CON group (P < 0.05). Serum TG and TC in the ALA and ALA + LC groups were lower than those in the CON and LC groups (P < 0.05). The HDL-C level in the LC group was higher than that in any other group (P < 0.05). LDL-C level was lower in the ALA + LC and LC groups than that in the CON group (P < 0.05). Thus, α-lipoic acid and L-carnosine supplementation increased antioxidant activity, decreased lipid peroxidation in the serum, liver, and skin of rats and positively modified blood lipid profiles. PMID:22125679

  3. Modulation of Antioxidant Enzymatic Activities by Certain Antiepileptic Drugs (Valproic Acid, Oxcarbazepine, and Topiramate): Evidence in Humans and Experimental Models

    PubMed Central

    Cárdenas-Rodríguez, Noemí; Coballase-Urrutia, Elvia; Rivera-Espinosa, Liliana; Romero-Toledo, Arantxa; Sampieri, Aristides III; Ortega-Cuellar, Daniel; Montesinos-Correa, Hortencia; Floriano-Sánchez, Esaú; Carmona-Aparicio, Liliana

    2013-01-01

    It is estimated that at least 100 million people worldwide will suffer from epilepsy at some point in their lives. This neurological disorder induces brain death due to the excessive liberation of glutamate, which activates the postsynaptic N-methyl-D-aspartic acid (NMDA) receptors, which in turn cause the reuptake of intracellular calcium (excitotoxicity). This excitotoxicity elicits a series of events leading to nitric oxide synthase (NOS) activation and the generation of reactive oxygen species (ROS). Several studies in experimental models and in humans have demonstrated that certain antiepileptic drugs (AEDs) exhibit antioxidant effects by modulating the activity of various enzymes associated with this type of stress. Considering the above-mentioned data, we aimed to compile evidence elucidating how AEDs such as valproic acid (VPA), oxcarbazepine (OXC), and topiramate (TPM) modulate oxidative stress. PMID:24454986

  4. Modulation of antioxidant enzymatic activities by certain antiepileptic drugs (valproic acid, oxcarbazepine, and topiramate): evidence in humans and experimental models.

    PubMed

    Cárdenas-Rodríguez, Noemí; Coballase-Urrutia, Elvia; Rivera-Espinosa, Liliana; Romero-Toledo, Arantxa; Sampieri, Aristides; Ortega-Cuellar, Daniel; Montesinos-Correa, Hortencia; Floriano-Sánchez, Esaú; Carmona-Aparicio, Liliana

    2013-01-01

    It is estimated that at least 100 million people worldwide will suffer from epilepsy at some point in their lives. This neurological disorder induces brain death due to the excessive liberation of glutamate, which activates the postsynaptic N-methyl-D-aspartic acid (NMDA) receptors, which in turn cause the reuptake of intracellular calcium (excitotoxicity). This excitotoxicity elicits a series of events leading to nitric oxide synthase (NOS) activation and the generation of reactive oxygen species (ROS). Several studies in experimental models and in humans have demonstrated that certain antiepileptic drugs (AEDs) exhibit antioxidant effects by modulating the activity of various enzymes associated with this type of stress. Considering the above-mentioned data, we aimed to compile evidence elucidating how AEDs such as valproic acid (VPA), oxcarbazepine (OXC), and topiramate (TPM) modulate oxidative stress.

  5. Identification, stress tolerance, and antioxidant activity of lactic acid bacteria isolated from tropically grown fruits and leaves.

    PubMed

    Fessard, Amandine; Bourdon, Emmanuel; Payet, Bertrand; Remize, Fabienne

    2016-07-01

    From 6 samples of tropically grown fruits and leaves, 10 lactic acid bacteria belonging Leuconostoc, Weissella, and Lactobacillus species were isolated and identified by 16S rRNA gene sequencing and (GTG)5 fingerprinting. Acidification kinetics determined from BHI broth cultures showed genus-related patterns. In particular, Weissella cibaria appeared to act as a potent acidifier. Tolerance of isolates to acid, oxidative, or salt stress was highly variable and strain dependent. Isolate S14 (Leuconostoc pseudomesenteroides) growth was not affected by the presence of 0.05% H2O2, while Lactobacillus spp. isolates (S17 and S29) were the most tolerant to pH 4.5. The growth of 4 isolates, S5 (Leuconostoc mesenteroides), S14 and S10 (Leuconostoc pseudomesenteroides), and S27 (W. cibaria), was not affected by 5% NaCl. Nutritional beneficial properties were examined through measurement of antioxidant activities of short-term fermented pineapple juice, such as LDL oxidation and polyphenol content, and through exopolysaccharide formation from sucrose. Two isolates, S14 and S27, increased the antioxidant capacity of pineapple juice. The robust capacity of W. cibaria and of Leuconostoc pseudomesenteroides for vegetable lactic fermentation aimed to ameliorate food nutritional and functional quality was highlighted.

  6. Fatty acid, carotenoid and tocopherol compositions of 20 Canadian lentil cultivars and synergistic contribution to antioxidant activities.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Bing; Deng, Zeyuan; Tang, Yao; Chen, Peter; Liu, Ronghua; Ramdath, D Dan; Liu, Qiang; Hernandez, Marta; Tsao, Rong

    2014-10-15

    Understanding the profile of lipophilic phytochemicals in lentils is necessary to better understand the health benefits of lentils. The fatty acid, carotenoid and tocopherol compositions and antioxidant activities of the lipophilic extracts of 20 lentil cultivars (10 red and 10 green) were therefore examined. Lentils contained 1.52-2.95% lipids, of which 77.5-81.7% were unsaturated essential fatty acids. Total tocopherols ranged from 37 to 64μg/g DW, predominantly γ-tocopherol (96-98% of the tocopherol content), followed by δ- and α-tocopherol. trans-Lutein was the primary and major carotenoid (64-78%) followed by trans-zeaxanthin (5-13%). Carotenoids and tocopherols showed weak correlation with 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) activity (r=0.4893 and 0.3259, respectively), but good correlation when combined (r=0.6688), suggesting they may act synergistically. Carotenoids were found to contribute the most to the strong antioxidant activity measured by photochemiluminescence (PCL) assay. Results from this study contribute to the development of lentil cultivars and related functional foods with increased health benefits.

  7. Fatty Acid Composition and Antioxidant Activity of Tea (Camellia sinensis L.) Seed Oil Extracted by Optimized Supercritical Carbon Dioxide

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Yuefei; Sun, Da; Chen, Hao; Qian, Lisheng; Xu, Ping

    2011-01-01

    Seeds are another product in addition to leaves (raw materials for teas) of tea (Camellia sinensis L.) plant. The great increase of tea consumption in recent years raises the challenge of finding commercial applications for tea seeds. In the present study, supercritical carbon dioxide (SC-CO2) extraction edible oil from tea seed was carried out, response surface methodology (RSM) was used to optimize processing parameters including time (20–90 min), temperature (35–45 °C) and pressure (50–90 MPa). The fatty acid composition and antioxidant activity of the extracted oil was also investigated. The highest yield of oil (29.2 ± 0.6%) was obtained under optimal SC-CO2 extraction conditions (45 °C, 89.7 min and 32 MPa, respectively), which was significantly higher (p < 0.05) than that (25.3 ± 1.0%) given by Soxhlet extraction. Meanwhile, tea seed oil extracted by SC-CO2 contained approximately 80% unsaturated fatty acids and showed a much stronger scavenging ability on the DPPH radical than that extracted by Soxhlet. SC-CO2 is a promising alternative for efficient extraction of edible oil from tea seed. Moreover, tea seed oil extracted by SC-CO2 is highly edible and has good antioxidant activity, and therefore may play a potential role as a health-promoting food resource in human diets. PMID:22174626

  8. Delivery of vanillin by poly(lactic-acid) nanoparticles: Development, characterization and in vitro evaluation of antioxidant activity.

    PubMed

    Dalmolin, Luciana Facco; Khalil, Najeh Maissar; Mainardes, Rubiana Mara

    2016-05-01

    Poly(lactic acid) (PLA) nanoparticles containing vanillin were prepared using an emulsion-solvent evaporation technique and were characterized and assessed for their in vitro antioxidant potential. Physicochemical properties of the nanoparticles were characterized by size, polydispersity index, zeta potential, encapsulation efficiency and stability. Solid state and thermal properties were assessed using X-ray diffraction and differential scanning calorimetry, while in vitro drug release profile was also evaluated. Results showed PLA nanoparticles having a characteristic amorphous structure, sizes in the range of 240 nm with high homogeneity in size distribution, zeta potential of -22 mV and vanillin encapsulation efficiency of 41%. In vitro release study showed a slow and sustained release of vanillin governed by diffusion. Nanoparticles were stable over a period of three months. Antioxidant ability of the vanillin-loaded PLA nanoparticles in scavenging the radical 2,2-azinobis (3-ethylbenzothiazoline-6-sulfonic acid) (ABTS) was inferior to free vanillin and due to its prolonged release showed a profile that was both time and concentration dependent, while free vanillin showed concentration-dependent activity. The study concluded that PLA nanoparticles are potential carriers for vanillin delivery.

  9. A metabolomic approach to dry eye disorders. The role of oral supplements with antioxidants and omega 3 fatty acids

    PubMed Central

    Galbis-Estrada, Carmen; Martínez-Castillo, Sebastián; Morales, José M.; Monleón, Daniel; Zanon-Moreno, Vicente

    2015-01-01

    Purpose We used nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy of hydrogen-1 nuclei (1H NMR S) to analyze the metabolic profile of reflex tears from patients with dry eye disorders. Methods We performed a prospective case-control study involving 90 participants: 55 patients diagnosed with dry eye syndrome (DESG) and 35 healthy subjects (control group, CG). From the DESG, two subgroups were formed: mild DES (n=22) and moderate DES (n=33). Participants were prescribed an oral nutraceutic supplementation containing antioxidants and essential polyunsaturated fatty acids to be taken as three capsules per day for 3 months. Reflex tears (20–30 µl) were collected from the tear meniscus of both eyes of each subject with a microglass pipette. Nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) spectra were acquired with a standard one-dimensional pulse sequence with water suppression; 256 free induction decays were collected into 64,000 data points with 14 ppm spectral width. Results Basal tears showed a differential metabolomic profile between groups. Almost 50 metabolites were identified by H cholesterol, N-acetylglucosamine, glutamate, amino-n-butyrate, choline, glucose, and formate were detected before supplementation and choline/acetylcholine after supplementation. The metabolic profile of the tears was statistically different between groups, as well as before and after supplementation. Conclusions Our data indicate that DES induces changes in the tear metabolic profile that can be modified with appropriate oral supplementation with antioxidants and essential polyunsaturated fatty acids. PMID:25999682

  10. Cupric ion reducing antioxidant capacity assay for antioxidants in human serum and for hydroxyl radical scavengers.

    PubMed

    Apak, Reşat; Güçlü, Kubilay; Ozyürek, Mustafa; Bektaşoğlu, Burcu; Bener, Mustafa

    2010-01-01

    Tests measuring the combined antioxidant effect of the nonenzymatic defenses in biological fluids may be useful in providing an index of the organism's capability to counteract reactive species known as pro-oxidants, resist oxidative damage, and combat oxidative stress-related diseases. The selected chromogenic redox reagent for the assay of human serum should be easily accessible, stable, selective, and respond to all types of biologically important antioxidants such as ascorbic acid, alpha-tocopherol, beta-carotene, reduced glutathione (GSH), uric acid, and bilirubin, regardless of chemical type or hydrophilicity. Our recently developed cupric reducing antioxidant capacity (CUPRAC) spectrophotometric method for a number of polyphenols and flavonoids using the copper(II)-neocuproine reagent in ammonium acetate buffer is now applied to a complete series of plasma antioxidants for the assay of total antioxidant capacity of serum, and the resulting absorbance at 450 nm is recorded either directly (e.g., for ascorbic acid, alpha-tocopherol, and glutathione) or after incubation at 50 degrees C for 20 min (e.g., for uric acid, bilirubin, and albumin), quantitation being made by means of a calibration curve. The lipophilic antioxidants, alpha-tocopherol and beta-carotene, are assayed in dichloromethane. Lipophilic antioxidants of serum are extracted with n-hexane from an ethanolic solution of serum subjected to centrifugation. Hydrophilic antioxidants of serum are assayed in the centrifugate after perchloric acid precipitation of proteins. The CUPRAC molar absorptivities, linear ranges, and TEAC (trolox equivalent antioxidant capacity) coefficients of the serum antioxidants are established, and the results are evaluated in comparison with the findings of the ABTS/TEAC reference method. The intra- and inter-assay coefficients of variation (CVs) are 0.7 and 1.5%, respectively, for serum. The CUPRAC assay proved to be efficient for glutathione and thiol-type antioxidants

  11. Comparison of natural antioxidants and their effects on omega-3 fatty acid oxidation in fish oil

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFA), such as the omega-3 fatty acids eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA) and docosahexaenoic acid (DHA), have been found to offer a variety of health benefits including cardiovascular protection, anti-inflammatory effect and human development. It is known that fish and algae o...

  12. Interactive effects of phosphorus and Pseudomonas putida on chickpea (Cicer arietinum L.) growth, nutrient uptake, antioxidant enzymes and organic acids exudation.

    PubMed

    Israr, Dania; Mustafa, Ghulam; Khan, Khalid Saifullah; Shahzad, Muhammad; Ahmad, Niaz; Masood, Sajid

    2016-11-01

    Phosphorus (P) availability in alkaline soils of arid and semi-arid regions is a major constraint for decreased crop productivity. Use of plant growth promoting rhizobacteria (PGPR) may enhance plant growth through the increased plant antioxidation activity. Additionally, PGPR may increase nutrient uptake by plants as a result of induced root exudation and rhizosphere acidification. The current study was aimed to investigate combined effects of P and Pesudomonas putida (PGPR) on chickpea growth with reference to antioxidative enzymatic activity and root exudation mediated plant nutrient uptake, particularly P. Half of the seeds were soaked in PGPR solution, whereas others in sterile water and latter sown in soils. Plants were harvested 8 weeks after onset of experiment and analyzed for leaf nutrient contents, antioxidant enzymes activities and organic acids concentrations. Without PGPR, P application (+P) increased various plant growth attributes, plant uptake of P and Ca, soil pH, citric acid and oxalic acid concentrations, whereas decreased the leaf POD enzymatic activity as compared to the P-deficiency. PGPR supply both under -P and +P improved the plant growth, plant uptake of N, P, and K, antioxidative activity of SOD and POD enzymes and concentrations of organic acids, whereas reduced the rhizosphere soil pH. Growth enhancement by PGPR supply was related to higher plant antioxidation activity as well as nutrient uptake of chickpea including P as a result of root exudation mediated rhizosphere acidification.

  13. Lipase-catalyzed acidolysis of palm mid fraction oil with palmitic and stearic Fatty Acid mixture for production of cocoa butter equivalent.

    PubMed

    Mohamed, Ibrahim O

    2013-10-01

    Cocoa butter equivalent (CBE) was prepared by enzymatic acidolysis reaction of substrate consisting of refined palm mid fraction oil and palmitic-stearic fatty acid mixture. The reactions were performed in a batch reactor at a temperature of 60 °C in an orbital shaker operated at 160 RPM. Different mass ratios of substrates were explored, and the composition of the five major triacylglycerols (TAGs) of the structured lipids was identified and quantified using cocoa butter certified reference material IRMM-801. The reaction resulted in production of cocoa butter equivalent with the TAGs' composition (1,3-dipalmitoyl-2-oleoyl-glycerol 30.7%, 1-palmitoyl-2-oleoyl-3-stearoyl-rac-glycerol 40.1%, 1-palmitoy-2,3- dioleoyl glycerol 9.0%, 1,3-distearoyl-2-oleoyl-glycerol 14.5 %, and 1-stearoyl-2,3-dioleoyl glycerol 5.7%) and with onset melting temperature of 31.6 °C and peak temperature of 40.4 °C which are close to those of cocoa butter. The proposed kinetics model for the acidolysis reaction presented the experimental data very well. The results of this research showed that palm mid fraction oil TAGs could be restructured to produce value added product such as CBE.

  14. Lipase-catalyzed synthesis of cocoa butter equivalent from palm olein and saturated fatty acid distillate from palm oil physical refinery.

    PubMed

    Mohamed, Ibrahim O

    2012-11-01

    Cocoa butter equivalent was prepared by enzymatic acidolysis reaction of substrate consisting of refined palm olein oil and palmitic-stearic fatty acid mixture. The reactions were performed in a batch reactor at a temperature of 60 °C in an orbital shaker operated at 160 RPM. Different mass ratios of substrates were explored and the compositions of the five major triacylglycerol (TAG) of the structured lipids were identified and quantified using cocoa butter-certified reference material IRMM-801. The reaction resulted in production of cococa butter equivent with TAG compostion (POP 26.6 %, POS 42.1, POO 7.5, SOS 18.0 %, and SOO 5.8 %) and melting temperature between 34.7 and 39.6 °C which is close to that of the cocoa butter. The result of this research demonstrated the potential use of saturated fatty acid distillate (palmitic and stearic fatty acids) obtained from palm oil physical refining process into a value-added product.

  15. Total Phenolic Content and Antioxidant Capacity of Polish Apple Ciders

    PubMed Central

    Kowalczyk, A.; Ruszkiewicz, M.; Biskup, I.

    2015-01-01

    The total phenolic content and antioxidant capacity of three apple ciders produced in Poland were examined. The total phenolic content was determined by the Folin-Ciocalteau method and results were expressed in gallic acid equivalents with range from 0.21±0.003 to 0.30±0.004 mg/ml and Trolox equivalents ranging 0.88±0.012 to 1.24±0.015 mg/ml. The antioxidant activity was estimated by two methods: 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl radical scavenging assay with results expressed as EC50(ml/assay) and 2,2’-azino-bis(3-ethylbenzothiazoline-6-sulfonic acid method with results expressed as Trolox equivalent antioxidant capacity. The antioxidant properties of tested ciders were correlated with total phenolic content. Additionally, the correlation between 2,2’-azino-bis(3-ethylbenzothiazoline-6-sulfonic acid and 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl radical scavenging methods was estimated. PMID:26798183

  16. Total Phenolic Content and Antioxidant Capacity of Polish Apple Ciders.

    PubMed

    Kowalczyk, A; Ruszkiewicz, M; Biskup, I

    2015-01-01

    The total phenolic content and antioxidant capacity of three apple ciders produced in Poland were examined. The total phenolic content was determined by the Folin-Ciocalteau method and results were expressed in gallic acid equivalents with range from 0.21±0.003 to 0.30±0.004 mg/ml and Trolox equivalents ranging 0.88±0.012 to 1.24±0.015 mg/ml. The antioxidant activity was estimated by two methods: 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl radical scavenging assay with results expressed as EC50(ml/assay) and 2,2'-azino-bis(3-ethylbenzothiazoline-6-sulfonic acid method with results expressed as Trolox equivalent antioxidant capacity. The antioxidant properties of tested ciders were correlated with total phenolic content. Additionally, the correlation between 2,2'-azino-bis(3-ethylbenzothiazoline-6-sulfonic acid and 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl radical scavenging methods was estimated.

  17. Antioxidant activity of the aqueous extracts of spicy food additives--evaluation and comparison with ascorbic acid in in-vitro systems.

    PubMed

    Satyanarayana, S; Sushruta, K; Sarma, G S; Srinivas, N; Subba Raju, G V

    2004-01-01

    The antioxidant activity of the aqueous extracts of five umbelliferous fruits--caraway (Carum carvi), coriander (Coriandrum sativum), cumin (Cuminum cyminum), dill (Anethum graveolens) and fennel (Foeniculum vulgare)--were investigated in comparison with the known antioxidant ascorbic acid in in vitro studies. The amount of aqueous extract of these five umbelliferous fruits and ascorbic acid needed for 50% scavenging of superoxide radicals was found to be 105 microg (caraway), 370 microg (coriander), 220 microg (cumin), 190 microg (dill), 205 microg (fennel) and 260 microg (ascorbic acid). The amount needed for 50% inhibition of lipid peroxide was 2100 microg (caraway), 4500 microg (coriander), 4300 microg (cumin), 3100 microg (dill), 4600 microg (fennel) and 5000 microg (ascorbic acid). The quantity needed for 50% inhibition of hydroxyl radicals was 1150 microg (caraway), 1250 microg (coriander), 470 microg (cumin), 575 microg (dill), 700 microg (fennel) and 4500 microg (ascorbic acid). The daily use of the above fruits in various forms is very common in India and the present study revealed strong antioxidant activity of their extracts that was superior to known antioxidant ascorbic acid and indicate their intake may be beneficial as food additives.

  18. HPLC-Analysis of Polyphenolic Compounds in Gardenia jasminoides and Determination of Antioxidant Activity by Using Free Radical Scavenging Assays

    PubMed Central

    Uddin, Riaz; Saha, Moni Rani; Subhan, Nusrat; Hossain, Hemayet; Jahan, Ismet Ara; Akter, Raushanara; Alam, Ashraful

    2014-01-01

    Purpose: Gardenia jasminoides is a traditional medicinal plant rich in anti-inflammatory flavonoids and phenolic compounds and used for the treatment of inflammatory diseases and pain. In this present study, antioxidant potential of Gardenia jasminoides leaves extract was evaluated by using various antioxidant assays. Methods: Various antioxidant assays such as 1, 1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) radical scavenging assay, reducing power and total antioxidant capacity expressed as equivalent to ascorbic acid were employed. Moreover, phenolic compounds were detected by high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) coupled with diode-array detection. Results: The methanol extract showed significant free radical scavenging activities in DPPH radical scavenging antioxidant assays compared to the reference antioxidant ascorbic acid. Total antioxidant activity was increased in a dose dependent manner. The extract also showed strong reducing power. The total phenolic content was determined as 190.97 mg/g of gallic acid equivalent. HPLC coupled with diode-array detection was used to identify and quantify the phenolic compounds in the extracts. Gallic acid, (+)-catechin, rutin hydrate and quercetin have been identified in the plant extracts. Among the phenolic compounds, catechin and rutin hydrate are present predominantly in the extract. The accuracy and precision of the presented method were corroborated by low intra- and inter-day variations in quantitative results in leaves extract. Conclusion: These results suggest that phenolic compounds and flavonoids might contribute to high antioxidant activities of Gardenia jasminoides leaves. PMID:24754012

  19. Antioxidant property and [Formula: see text]-glucosidase, [Formula: see text]-amylase and lipase inhibiting activities of Flacourtia inermis fruits: characterization of malic acid as an inhibitor of the enzymes.

    PubMed

    Alakolanga, A G A W; Kumar, N Savitri; Jayasinghe, Lalith; Fujimoto, Yoshinori

    2015-12-01

    Flacourtia inermis Roxb. (Flacourtiaceae), is a moderate sized tree cultivated in Sri Lanka for its fruits known as Lovi. The current study was undertaken to study the biological activity of extracts of the fruits in an attempt to increase the value of the under exploited fruit crops. Fruits of F. inermis were found to be rich in phenolics and anthocyanins. Polyphenol content of the fruits was determined to be 1.28 g gallic acid equivalents per 100 g of fresh fruit and anthocyanin content was estimated as 108 mg cyanidin-3-glucoside equivalents per 100 g of fresh fruits. The EtOAc extract showed moderate antioxidant activity in the DPPH radical scavenging assay with IC50 value of 66.2 ppm. The EtOAc and MeOH extracts of the fruits also exhibited inhibitory activities toward α-glucosidase, α-amylase and lipase enzymes with IC50values ranging from 549 to 710 ppm, 1021 to 1949 ppm and 1290 to 2096 ppm, respectively. The active principle for the enzyme inhibition was isolated through activity-guided fractionation and was characterized as (S)-malic acid. The results of this study indicate that F. inermis fruits have the potential to be used in health foods and in nutritional supplements.

  20. Lycopene content, antioxidant capacity and colour attributes of selected watermelon (Citrullus lanatus (Thunb.) Mansfeld) cultivars grown in India.

    PubMed

    Nagal, Shweta; Kaur, Charanjit; Choudhary, Harshawardhan; Singh, Jashbir; Bhushan Singh, Braj; Singh, K N

    2012-12-01

    The present investigation reports variability in lycopene, ascorbic acid, total phenolics, antioxidant capacity and colour attributes of 12 watermelon cultivars grown in India. Antioxidant capacity was evaluated using four in vitro assays, namely ferric reducing antioxidant power, cupric reducing antioxidant capacity, Trolox equivalent antioxidant capacity and 2,2-diphenyl-1-picryl hydrazyl. Among watermelon cultivars, significant differences (p < 0.05) were found with respect to lycopene content and antioxidant capacity. Lycopene content ranged from 03.46 to 8.00 mg/100 g fresh weight. Colour of watermelon flesh was described by an optimized colour index (CI). Cultivars 'PWM25-4', 'Arun', 'Kiran' and 'Kareena' were found to be the most promising ones with highest lycopene content, antioxidant capacity and CI. Results indicate that watermelon is a good source of dietary lycopene and there exists significant variation that can be exploited to produce high-quality cultivars.

  1. Mushrooms as Possible Antioxidant and Antimicrobial Agents

    PubMed Central

    Kosanić, Marijana; Ranković, Branislav; Dašić, Marko

    2012-01-01

    The aim of the study is to examine in-vitro antioxidant and antimicrobial activity of the acetonic and methanolic extracts of the mushrooms Boletus aestivalis, Boletus edulis and Leccinum carpini. Antioxidant activity was evaluated by using free radical scavenging activity and reducing power. In addition, total content of phenol and flavonoid in extracts were determined as pyrocatechol equivalent, and as rutin equivalent, respectively. As a result of the study acetonic extracts from Boletus edulis was more powerful antioxidant activity with IC50 value of 4.72 μg/mL which was similar or greater than the standard antioxidants, ascorbic acid (IC50 = 4.22 μg/mL), BHA (IC50 = 6.42 μg/mL) and α-tocopherol (IC50 = 62.43 μg/mL). Moreover, the tested extracts had effective reducing power. A significant relationship between total phenolic and flavonoid contents and their antioxidative activities was significantly observed. The antimicrobial activity of each extract was estimated by determination of the minimum inhibitory concentration by using microdilution plate method against five species of bacteria and five species of fungi. Generally, the tested mushroom extracts had relatively strong antimicrobial activity against the tested microorganisms. The minimum inhibitory concentration for both extracts related to the tested bacteria and fungi were 1.25 - 10 mg/ mL. The present study shows that tested mushroom species demonstrated a strong antioxidant and antimicrobial activity. It suggests that mushroom may be used as good sources of natural antioxidants and for pharmaceutical purposes in treating of various deseases. PMID:24250542

  2. Effects of Gallic Acid and Cyclosporine A on Antioxidant Capacity and Cardiac Markers of Rat Isolated Heart After Ischemia/Reperfusion

    PubMed Central

    Badavi, Mohammad; Sadeghi, Najmeh; Dianat, Mahin; Samarbafzadeh, Alireza

    2014-01-01

    Background: Myocardial infarction is one of the important causes of death during old ages. Gallic acid as an antioxidant or cyclosporine A (CsA) as inhibitor of mitochondrial permeability transition pore (mPTP) alone could prevent these complications to some extent, but their combination effect has not been investigated. Objectives: The aim of this study was to determine the combined effect of gallic acid and CsA on antioxidant capacity of isolated heart tissues during ischemia reperfusion. Materials and Methods: Eighty male Wistar rats were randomly assigned to different groups: sham, control (Ca, received saline, 1 mL/kg); 3 groups were pretreated with gallic acid (G1a: 7.5, G2a: 15, G3a: 30 mg/kg) for 10 days, and the other 3 groups were pretreated with gallic acid and received CsA (0.2 µM) for 10 minutes before induction of ischemia and during the first 10 minutes of reperfusion (G1b, G2b and G3b) and the last group received CsA alone (Cb). After 10 days of pretreatment, the heart was isolated and transferred to the Langendorff apparatus and exposed to 30 minutes ischemia followed by 60 minutes of reperfusion. After that cardiac markers and antioxidant enzymes were assessed in cardiac tissues. Results: Lactate dehydrogenase (LDH), Superoxide dismutase (SOD), catalase (CAT) and glutathione peroxidase (GPX) activity increased and malondialdehyde (MDA) decreased in animals pretreated with gallic acid significantly. However, pretreatment with gallic acid followed by CsA during reperfusion improved the antioxidant capacity and cardiac marker enzymes and restored the lipid peroxidation more effective than gallic acid or CsA alone. Nevertheless, CsA did not change the cardiac marker enzymes significantly. Conclusions: Gallic acid and CsA combination improved antioxidant capacity and cell membrane integrity more than each one alone. Therefore, it can be a therapeutic approach to reduce the I/R injury. PMID:25068044

  3. Antioxidant activity of hydrophilic and lipophilic extracts of Brazilian blueberries.

    PubMed

    Pertuzatti, Paula Becker; Barcia, Milene Teixeira; Rodrigues, Daniele; da Cruz, Pollyanna Nogueira; Hermosín-Gutiérrez, Isidro; Smith, Robert; Godoy, Helena Teixeira

    2014-12-01

    Hydrophilic and lipophilic extracts of ten cultivars of Highbush and Rabbiteye Brazilian blueberries (Vaccinium corymbosum L. and Vacciniumashei Reade, respectively) that are used for commercial production were analysed for antioxidant activity by the FRAP, ORAC, ABTS and β-carotene-linoleate methods. Results were correlated to the amounts of carotenoids, total phenolics and anthocyanins. Brazilian blueberries had relatively high concentration of total phenolics (1,622-3,457 mg gallic acid equivalents per 100 g DW) and total anthocyanins (140-318 mg cyanidin-3-glucoside equivalents per 100 g DW), as well as being a good source of carotenoids. There was a higher positive correlation between the amounts of these compounds and the antioxidant activity of hydrophilic compared to lipophilic extracts. There were also significant differences in the level of bioactive compounds and antioxidant activities between different cultivars, production location and year of cultivation.

  4. The effects of conjugated linoleic acid on growth performance, carcass traits, meat quality, antioxidant capacity, and fatty acid composition of broilers fed corn dried distillers grains with solubles.

    PubMed

    Jiang, Wen; Nie, Shaoping; Qu, Zhe; Bi, Chongpeng; Shan, Anshan

    2014-05-01

    This study investigated the effects of dietary supplementation with conjugated linoleic acid (CLA) on the growth performance, carcass traits, meat quality, antioxidant capacity, and fatty acid composition of broilers fed corn dried distillers grains with solubles (DDGS). Four hundred eighty 1-d-old broilers were randomly assigned to 4 groups, consisting of 6 replicates with 20 broilers each. Broilers were allocated 1 of 4 diets and fed for 49 d in a 2 × 2 factorial design. The dietary treatments consisted of 2 levels of DDGS (0 or 15%) and 2 levels of CLA (0 or 1%). The results of growth performance analyses showed that dietary supplementation with 1% CLA, 15% DDGS, or both in broilers had no significant effects on ADG, ADFI, and feed/gain (P > 0.05). Dietary supplementation with 15% DDGS did not significantly affect meat color values, drip loss percentage, pH value at 15 min, crude fat content, or shear force value (P > 0.05). Diets supplemented with 15% DDGS decreased the proportions of saturated fatty acids (P < 0.05) and monounsaturated fatty acids but increased the proportion of polyunsaturated fatty acids of the thigh meat (P < 0.05). Diets supplemented with 1% CLA significantly decreased the abdominal fat percentage (P < 0.05). Supplementation with 1% CLA increased the crude fat content and decreased the color (b*) value and shear force value of the breast meat (P < 0.05). Diets supplemented with 1% CLA increased the total superoxide dismutase activity of the serum, breast meat, and liver, and decreased the malondialdehyde content of the serum and breast meat (P < 0.05). Supplementation with 1% CLA decreased the proportion of monounsaturated fatty acids and increased the proportion of saturated fatty acids (P < 0.05). Accumulation of CLA in the thigh meat was significantly increased (P < 0.05) with increasing CLA level in the diet. In conclusion, dietary supplementation with 1% CLA had positive effects on meat quality, antioxidant capacity, and fatty acid

  5. Portable ceria nanoparticle-based assay for rapid detection of food antioxidants (NanoCerac)

    PubMed Central

    Sharpe, Erica; Frasco, Thalia; Andreescu, Daniel; Andreescu, Silvana

    2012-01-01

    With increased awareness of nutrition and the advocacy for healthier food choices, there exists a great demand for a simple, easy-to-use test that can reliably measure the antioxidant capacity of dietary products. We report development and characterization of a portable nanoparticle based-assay, similar to a small sensor patch, for rapid and sensitive detection of food antioxidants. The assay is based on the use of immobilized ceria nanoparticles, which change color after interaction with antioxidants by means of redox and surface chemistry reactions. Monitoring corresponding optical changes enables sensitive detection of antioxidants in which the nanoceria provides an optical ‘signature’ of antioxidant power, while the antioxidants act as reducing agents. The sensor has been tested for the detection of common antioxidant compounds including ascorbic acid, gallic acid, vanilic acid, quercetin, caffeic acid, and epigallocatechin gallate and its function has been successfully applied for the assessment of antioxidant activity in real samples (teas and medicinal mushrooms). The colorimetric response was concentration dependent, with detection limits ranging from 20–400 μM depending on the antioxidant involved. Steady-state color intensity was achieved within seconds upon addition of antioxidants. The results are presented in terms of Gallic Acid Equivalents (GAE). The sensor performed favorably when compared with commonly used antioxidant detection methods. This assay is particularly appealing for remote sensing applications, where specialized equipment is not available, and also for high throughput analysis of a large number of samples. Potential applications for antioxidant detection in remote locations are envisioned. PMID:23139929

  6. Antioxidant and type 2 diabetes related functional properties of phytic acid extract from Kenyan local food ingredients: effects of traditional processing methods.

    PubMed

    Kunyanga, Catherine N; Imungi, Jasper K; Okoth, Michael W; Biesalski, Hans K; Vadivel, Vellingiri

    2011-01-01

    Emerging scientific evidences reveal that phytic acid has several positive effects on human health. The antioxidant and type 2 diabetes related enzyme inhibition properties of phytic acid extract prepared from raw and traditionally processed local grains and vegetables collected from Kenya were evaluated. Phytic acid content of raw grains and vegetables ranged between 2.81-3.01 and 0.29-3.23 g/100 g DM, respectively. The phytic acid extract from raw samples revealed 59%-89% of DPPH radical scavenging capacity, 27-3,526 mmol Fe(II)/g extract of reducing power, 20%-72% of α-amylase inhibition activity and 8%-91% of α-glucosidase inhibition activity. Cooking and roasting improved the antioxidant and health relevant functionality of phytic acid extracts obtained from Kenyan local vegetables and grains, respectively.

  7. A review of fatty acid profiles and antioxidant content in grass-fed and grain-fed beef

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    Growing consumer interest in grass-fed beef products has raised a number of questions with regard to the perceived differences in nutritional quality between grass-fed and grain-fed cattle. Research spanning three decades suggests that grass-based diets can significantly improve the fatty acid (FA) composition and antioxidant content of beef, albeit with variable impacts on overall palatability. Grass-based diets have been shown to enhance total conjugated linoleic acid (CLA) (C18:2) isomers, trans vaccenic acid (TVA) (C18:1 t11), a precursor to CLA, and omega-3 (n-3) FAs on a g/g fat basis. While the overall concentration of total SFAs is not different between feeding regimens, grass-finished beef tends toward a higher proportion of cholesterol neutral stearic FA (C18:0), and less cholesterol-elevating SFAs such as myristic (C14:0) and palmitic (C16:0) FAs. Several studies suggest that grass-based diets elevate precursors for Vitamin A and E, as well as cancer fighting antioxidants such as glutathione (GT) and superoxide dismutase (SOD) activity as compared to grain-fed contemporaries. Fat conscious consumers will also prefer the overall lower fat content of a grass-fed beef product. However, consumers should be aware that the differences in FA content will also give grass-fed beef a distinct grass flavor and unique cooking qualities that should be considered when making the transition from grain-fed beef. In addition, the fat from grass-finished beef may have a yellowish appearance from the elevated carotenoid content (precursor to Vitamin A). It is also noted that grain-fed beef consumers may achieve similar intakes of both n-3 and CLA through the consumption of higher fat grain-fed portions. PMID:20219103

  8. Antioxidant contents and antioxidative properties of traditional rye breads.

    PubMed

    Michalska, Anna; Ceglinska, Alicja; Amarowicz, Ryszard; Piskula, Mariusz Konrad; Szawara-Nowak, Dorota; Zielinski, Henryk

    2007-02-07

    The purpose of this research was to find out the effect of flour extraction rate on the antioxidative properties of traditional rye bread and then to compare the bioactive compounds content and antioxidant properties of rye breads with commercial wheat roll. Four types of rye flour with different extraction rates of 100 (whole meal dark flour), 95 (brown flour), 90 (brown flour), and 70% (light flour) originated from Warko rye cultivar were used for traditional bread baking with sourdough fermentation. Four types of the respective rye breads were analyzed for their potentially beneficial components, including tocopherols and tocotrienols, total phenolics and flavonoids, reduced glutathione, and inositol hexaphosphates. Moreover, the phenolic acids profile was provided. The Trolox equivalent antioxidant capacity (TEAC) of the breads was evaluated using free radical scavenging activities of 80% methanol extracts against ABTS*+ radical cation (ABTS radical cation decolorization method) whereas radical scavenging activity (RSA) was determined against 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl radical (DPPH*). The superoxide dismutase-like activity (SOD-like activity) was evaluated as free radical scavenging activities of PBS extracts against superoxide anion radicals (O2*-). The results were compared to whole meal rye bread as well as to wheat roll taken as representative example of wheat based bakery product. The studies showed that flour extraction rates strongly affected the content of bioactive compounds and antioxidative properties of traditionally baked rye breads. The incorporation of the rye flours with extraction rates from 100 down to 70% in the formulation caused decrease in tocopherol (T), tocotrienol (T3), inositol hexaphosphate (IP6), and phenolic compound (TPC) contents in rye breads. No changes in reduced glutathione (GSH) contents were noted between each type of rye bread. A significant decrease in Trolox equivalent antioxidant capacity and radical DDPH scavenging

  9. Purslane Weed (Portulaca oleracea): A Prospective Plant Source of Nutrition, Omega-3 Fatty Acid, and Antioxidant Attributes

    PubMed Central

    Uddin, Md. Kamal; Juraimi, Abdul Shukor; Hossain, Md Sabir; Nahar, Most. Altaf Un; Ali, Md. Eaqub; Rahman, M. M.

    2014-01-01

    Purslane (Portulaca oleracea L.) is an important plant naturally found as a weed in field crops and lawns. Purslane is widely distributed around the globe and is popular as a potherb in many areas of Europe, Asia, and the Mediterranean region. This plant possesses mucilaginous substances which are of medicinal importance. It is a rich source of potassium (494 mg/100 g) followed by magnesium (68 mg/100 g) and calcium (65 mg/100 g) and possesses the potential to be used as vegetable source of omega-3 fatty acid. It is very good source of alpha-linolenic acid (ALA) and gamma-linolenic acid (LNA, 18 : 3 w3) (4 mg/g fresh weight) of any green leafy vegetable. It contained the highest amount (22.2 mg and 130 mg per 100 g of fresh and dry weight, resp.) of alpha-tocopherol and ascorbic acid (26.6 mg and 506 mg per 100 g of fresh and dry weight, resp.). The oxalate content of purslane leaves was reported as 671–869 mg/100 g fresh weight. The antioxidant content and nutritional value of purslane are important for human consumption. It revealed tremendous nutritional potential and has indicated the potential use of this herb for the future. PMID:24683365

  10. Major phenolic acids and total antioxidant activity in mamaki leaves, Pipturus albidus

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Three phenolic acids, (+) catechins, chlorogenic acid, and rutin, were identified and quantified in mamaki leaves (Pipturus albidus) using a liquid chromatograph-mass spectrometer technique. Concentrations of (+) catechins, chlorogenic acid, and rutin varied from 1.1 mg to 5.0 mg per gram of mamaki...

  11. Effect of maceration duration on physicochemical characteristics, organic acid, phenolic compounds and antioxidant activity of red wine from Vitis vinifera L. Karaoglan.

    PubMed

    Kocabey, N; Yilmaztekin, M; Hayaloglu, A A

    2016-09-01

    Effects of different maceration times (5, 10 and 15 days) on composition, phenolic compounds and antioxidant activities of red wines made from the Vitis vinifera L. Karaoglan grown in Malatya were investigated. Maceration duration changed some chemical constituents and color of Karaoglan red wines. A linear relationship was observed between antioxidant activity of wine and maceration duration. Major organic acid was tartaric acid which was at the highest concentration in wine macerated for 10 days. A total of 25 phenolic compounds was determined in wine samples. Within these phenolics; procyanidin B2, trans-caftaric acid, gallic acid, trans-caffeic acid, (+) catechin, (-) epicatechin and quercetin-3-O-glucoside were the most abundant phenolics regardless of maceration duration. In general, extended maceration duration resulted in increase in the concentration of phenolic compounds, reflecting the antioxidant activities of wine. In conclusion, the highest concentrations of total and individual phenolic compounds as well as antioxidant activities were found in wines macerated for 15 days.

  12. Effect of natural antioxidants in Spanish salchichón elaborated with encapsulated n-3 long chain fatty acids in konjac glucomannan matrix.

    PubMed

    Munekata, P E S; Domínguez, R; Franco, D; Bermúdez, R; Trindade, M A; Lorenzo, Jose M

    2017-02-01

    The effect of natural antioxidants on physicochemical properties, lipid and protein oxidation, volatile compounds and free fatty acids (FFA) were determined in Spanish salchichón enriched with n-3 fatty acids encapsulated and stabilized in konjac matrix. Phenolic compounds of beer residue extract (BRE), chestnut leaves extract (CLE) and peanut skin extract (PSE) were also identified and quantified. Five batches of salchichón were prepared: control (CON, without antioxidants), butylated hydroxytoluene (BHT), BRE, CLE and PSE. The main phenolic compounds were catechin and benzoic acid for BRE, gallic acid and catechin for CLE and catechin and protocatechuic acid for PSE. Statistical analysis did not show significant differences on chemical composition among treatments. Reductions in luminosity (P<0.05) and pH (P<0.001) were observed with the CLE batch, whereas the other colour parameters were not affected by the addition of natural antioxidants. Finally, the inclusion of antioxidants (P<0.001) decreased the hexanal content, whereas the FFA content increased by the addition of natural extracts.

  13. Antioxidant and Antimicrobial Potential, and HPLC Analysis of Stictic and Usnic Acids of Three Usnea Species from Uludag Mountain (Bursa, Turkey)

    PubMed Central

    Oran, Seyhan; Sahin, Saliha; Sahinturk, Pinar; Ozturk, Sule; Demir, Cevdet

    2016-01-01

    In this study, antioxidant and antimicrobial potentials of Usnea intermedia, U. filipendula, and U. fulvoreagens and their stictic and usnic acid contents were investigated. Antioxidant activity and total phenolic contents were evaluated in acetone, ethanol, and methanol extracts of these three species. Antioxidant activity was measured by ABTS [2,2'-azino-bis(3-ethylbenzothiazoline-6-sulphonic acid)] method and total phenolic contents were measured by Folin-Ciocalteu method. High-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) was used for the determination of lichen acids. It can be concluded from stictic and usnic acids contents that the order of solvent efficiency is acetone > ethanol > methanol and acetone > methanol > ethanol, respectively. Broth microdilution method was performed to determine the minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) of the methanol extracts of three Usnea species. The MIC values of all the extracts ranged from 64 µg/mL to 512 µg/mL for all the bacterial strains that were tested in this study, and all the Fluoro quinolone-resistant Escherichia coli isolates (except for E101) were sensitive to the methanol extracts of the three Usnea species. This paper is the first study to determine the stictic acid content in U. intermedia and U. filipendula. Our findings indicate that these three Usnea species could be used as antioxidant and antimicrobial agents. PMID:27642324

  14. Supplementing antioxidants to pigs fed diets high in oxidants: II. Effects on carcass characteristics, meat quality, and fatty acid profile.

    PubMed

    Lu, T; Harper, A F; Dibner, J J; Scheffler, J M; Corl, B A; Estienne, M J; Zhao, J; Dalloul, R A

    2014-12-01

    The study was conducted to determine effects of dietary supplementation with a blend of antioxidants (ethoxyquin and propyl gallate) on carcass characteristics, meat quality, and fatty acid profile in finishing pigs fed a diet high in oxidants. A total of 100 crossbred barrows (10.9±1.4 kg BW, 36±2 d of age) were randomly allotted to 5 diet treatments (5 replicate pens per treatment, 4 pigs per pen). Treatments included: 1) HO: high oxidant diet containing 5% oxidized soy oil and 10% PUFA source which contributed 5.56% crude fat and 2.05% docosahexanoic acid (DHA) to the diet; 2) VE: the HO diet with 11 IU/kg of added vitamin E; 3) AOX: the HO diet with antioxidant blend (135 mg/kg); 4) VE+AOX: the HO diet with both vitamin E and antioxidant blend; and 5) SC: a standard corn-soy control diet with nonoxidized oil and no PUFA source. The trial lasted for 118 d; on d 83, the HO diet pigs were switched to the SC diet due to very poor health. From that point, the VE pigs displayed the poorest performance. On d 118, 2 pigs from each pen were harvested for sampling. Compared to pigs fed SC diet, the HO and VE pigs (P<0.05) showed lighter carcass weight, less back fat, less lean body mass, and smaller loin eye area. In addition, the VE pigs had decreased dressing percentage than the AOX and VE+AOX pigs (65.7 vs. 75.3 and 74.2%). Compared to the SC pigs, greater moisture percentage (74.7 vs. 77.4%) and less extractable lipid content (2.43 vs. 0.95%) were found in VE fed pigs (P<0.05). Drip loss of loin muscle in VE pigs was less than SC pigs (0.46 vs. 3.98%, P=0.02), which was associated with a trend for a greater 24-h muscle pH (5.74 vs. 5.54, P=0.07). The antioxidant blend addition in the high oxidant diet attenuated all of these effects to levels similar to SC (P>0.05), except a* value (redness) and belly firmness. Visible yellow coloration of backfat and lipofuscin in HO and VE pigs was observed at harvest at d 118. The high oxidant diet resulted in greater

  15. Citrus Pulp as a Dietary Source of Antioxidants for Lactating Holstein Cows Fed Highly Polyunsaturated Fatty Acid Diets

    PubMed Central

    Santos, G. T.; Lima, L. S.; Schogor, A. L. B.; Romero, J. V.; De Marchi, F. E.; Grande, P. A.; Santos, N. W.; Santos, F. S.; Kazama, R.

    2014-01-01

    The effects of feeding pelleted citrus pulp (PCP) as a natural antioxidant source on the performance and milk quality of dairy cows fed highly polyunsaturated fatty acid (FA) diets were evaluated. Four lactating Holstein cows were assigned to a 4×4 Latin-square. Treatments, on a dry matter (DM) basis, were i) control diet; ii) 3% soybean oil; iii) 3% soybean oil and 9% PCP and; iv) 3% soybean oil and 18% PCP. When cows fed on citrus pulp, the DM intake tended to decrease. The total tract apparent digestibility of DM and ether extract decreased when cows fed on the control diet compared to other diets. Cows fed PCP had higher polyphenols and flavonoids content and higher total ferric reducing antioxidant power (FRAP) in milk compared to those fed no pelleted citrus pulp. Cows fed 18% PCP showed higher monounsaturated FA and lower saturated FA in milk fat compared with cows fed the other diets. The lowest n-6 FA proportion was in milk fat from cows fed control. The present study suggests that pelleted citrus pulp added to 9% to 18% DM increases total polyphenols and flavonoids concentration, and the FRAP in milk. PMID:25083104

  16. Development of novel nano-biocomposite antioxidant films based on poly (lactic acid) and thymol for active packaging.

    PubMed

    Ramos, Marina; Jiménez, Alfonso; Peltzer, Mercedes; Garrigós, María C

    2014-11-01

    Novel nano-biocomposite films based on poly (lactic acid) (PLA) were prepared by incorporating thymol, as the active additive, and modified montmorillonite (D43B) at two different concentrations. A complete thermal, structural, mechanical and functional characterization of all nano-biocomposites was carried out. Thermal stability was not significantly affected by the addition of thymol, but the incorporation of D43B improved mechanical properties and reduced the oxygen transmission rate by the formation of intercalated structures, as suggested by wide angle X-ray scattering patterns and transmission electron microscopy images. The addition of thymol decreased the PLA glass transition temperature, as the result of the polymer plasticization, and led to modification of the elastic modulus and elongation at break. Finally, the amount of thymol remaining in these formulations was determined by liquid chromatography (HPLC-UV) and the antioxidant activity by the DPPH spectroscopic method, suggesting that the formulated nano-biocomposites could be considered a promising antioxidant active packaging material.

  17. The effect of the antioxidant on the properties of thiolated poly(aspartic acid) polymers in aqueous ocular formulations.

    PubMed

    Budai-Szűcs, Mária; Horvát, Gabriella; Gyarmati, Benjámin; Szilágyi, Barnabás Áron; Szilágyi, András; Berkó, Szilvia; Ambrus, Rita; Szabó-Révész, Piroska; Sandri, Giuseppina; Bonferoni, Maria Cristina; Caramella, Carla; Csányi, Erzsébet

    2017-04-01

    Thiolated polymers are a promising new group of excipients, but their stability against atmospheric oxidation has not been investigated in detail, and only a few efforts have been made to improve their stability. The oxidation of the thiol groups in solutions of thiolated polymers may result in a decrease of mucoadhesion and unpredictable in situ gelation. The aims of our work were to study the stability of aqueous solutions of thiolated polymers and the effects of stabilizing agents. We investigated thiolated poly(aspartic acid) polymers stabilized with dithiothreitol, glutathione or acetylcysteine. The effects of these antioxidants on the gel structure, mucoadhesion and drug release were determined by means of scanning electron microscopy, swelling, rheology, adhesion and drug release tests. It was concluded that the stability of polymer solutions containing antioxidants is sufficient for one day. Polymers stabilized with dithiotreitol demonstrated fast swelling and drug release, but weaker mucoadhesion as compared with the other samples. Polymers stabilized with glutathione displayed the weakest cohesive properties, resulting in fast and uncontrolled drug release and moderate mucoadhesion. Acetylcysteine-stabilized polymers exhibited an optimum cross-linked structure, with free thiol groups ensuring polymer-mucin interactions, resulting in the best mucoadhesive properties.

  18. Two new antioxidant malonated caffeoylquinic acid isomers in fruits of wild eggplant relatives.

    PubMed

    Ma, Chunhui; Dastmalchi, Keyvan; Whitaker, Bruce D; Kennelly, Edward J

    2011-09-14

    Fruits of the cultivated eggplant species Solanum melongena and its wild relative Solanum incanum have a high content of hydroxycinnamic acid conjugates, which are implicated in the human health benefits of various fruits and vegetables. Monocaffeoylquinic acid esters, in particular 5-O-(E)-caffeoylquinic acid, are usually predominant in solanaceous fruits and tubers. Two closely related caffeoylquinic acid derivatives with longer C(18) HPLC retention times than those of monocaffeoylquinic acids are minor constituents in cultivated eggplant fruit. In a prior study, the two compounds were tentatively identified as 3-O-acetyl- and 4-O-acetyl-5-O-(E)-caffeoylquinic acids and composed ≤2% of the total hydroxycinnamic acid conjugates in fruit of most S. melongena accessions. It was recently found that the pair of these caffeoylquinic acid derivatives can compose 15-25% of the total hydroxycinnamic acid conjugates in fruits of S. incanum and wild S. melongena. This facilitated C(18) HPLC isolation and structural elucidation using (1)H and (13)C NMR techniques and HR-ToF-MS. The isomeric compounds were identified as 3-O-malonyl-5-O-(E)-caffeoylquinic acid (isomer 1) and 4-O-(E)-caffeoyl-5-O-malonylquinic acid (isomer 2). Both exhibited free radical scavenging activity, albeit about 4-fold lower than that of the flavonol quercetin dihydrate. By contrast, the iron chelation activities of isomers 1 and 2, respectively, were about 3- and 6-fold greater than that of quercetin dihydrate. Reports of malonylhydroxycinnamoylquinic acids are rare, and only a few of these compounds have been structurally elucidated using both NMR and MS techniques. To the authors' knowledge, these two malonylcaffeoylquinic acid isomers have not previously been reported.

  19. Pretreatment with anti-oxidants sensitizes oxidatively stressed human cancer cells to growth inhibitory effect of suberoylanilide hydroxamic acid (SAHA)

    PubMed Central

    Mahlum, Amy; Mehraein-Ghomi, Farideh; Kegel, Stacy J.; Guo, Song; Peters, Noel R.; Wilding, George

    2013-01-01

    Purpose Most prostate, colon and breast cancer cells are resistant to growth inhibitory effects of suberoylanilide hydroxamic acid (SAHA). We have examined whether the high oxidative stress in these cells causes a loss of SAHA activity and if so, whether pretreatment with an anti-oxidant can sensitize these cells to SAHA. Methods A DNA-Hoechst dye fluorescence measured cell growth and dichlorfluorescein-diacetate (DCF-DA) dye fluorescence measured reactive oxygen species (ROS). Growth inhibitory and ROS-generating activities of SAHA in androgen-treated or untreated LNCaP cells and PC-3 prostate cancer cells, HT-29 and HCT-115 colon cancer cells, MDA-MB231 breast cancer cells and A549 and NCI-H460 lung cancer cells with or without pretreatment with an anti-oxidant Vitamin E was determined. SAHA activity against LNCaP cells treated with another anti-oxidant N-acetyl cysteine (NAC) was also determined. Liquid chromatography–mass spectrometry (LC–MS) was used to determine intracellular SAHA level. Results SAHA treatment markedly inhibits LNCaP cell growth, when the cells are at a low ROS level. SAHA is, however, inactive against the same cell line, when the cells are at a high ROS level. A significant decrease in SAHA level was observed in LNCaP cells with high ROS after 24-and 72-h treatment when compared to cells with low ROS. Vitamin E pretreatment that reduces cellular ROS, synergistically sensitizes oxidatively stressed LNCaP, PC-3, HT-29, HCT-115 and MDA-MB231 cells, but not the A-549 and NCI-H460 cells with low ROS to SAHA. NAC treatment also sensitized androgen-treated LNCaP cells to the growth inhibitory effects of SAHA. Conclusion Response to SAHA could be improved by combining anti-oxidants such as Vitamin E with SAHA for the treatment of oxidatively stressed human malignancies that are otherwise resistant to SAHA. PMID:20512578

  20. Nitric oxide-activated calcium/calmodulin-dependent protein kinase regulates the abscisic acid-induced antioxidant defence in maize.

    PubMed

    Ma, Fangfang; Lu, Rui; Liu, Huiying; Shi, Ben; Zhang, Jianhua; Tan, Mingpu; Zhang, Aying; Jiang, Mingyi

    2012-08-01

    Nitric oxide (NO), hydrogen peroxide (H2O2), and calcium (Ca2+)/calmodulin (CaM) are all required for abscisic acid (ABA)-induced antioxidant defence. Ca2+/CaM-dependent protein kinase (CCaMK) is a strong candidate for the decoder of Ca2+ signals. However, whether CCaMK is involved in ABA-induced antioxidant defence is unknown. The results of the present study show that exogenous and endogenous ABA induced increases in the activity of ZmCCaMK and the expression of ZmCCaMK in leaves of maize. Subcellular localization analysis showed that ZmCCaMK is located in the nucleus, the cytoplasm, and the plasma membrane. The transient expression of ZmCCaMK and the RNA interference (RNAi) silencing of ZmCCaMK analysis in maize protoplasts revealed that ZmCCaMK is required for ABA-induced antioxidant defence. Moreover, treatment with the NO donor sodium nitroprusside (SNP) induced the activation of ZmCCaMK and the expression of ZmCCaMK. Pre-treatments with an NO scavenger and inhibitor blocked the ABA-induced increases in the activity and the transcript level of ZmCCaMK. Conversely, RNAi silencing of ZmCCaMK in maize protoplasts did not affect the ABA-induced NO production, which was further confirmed using a mutant of OsCCaMK, the homologous gene of ZmCCaMK in rice. Moreover, H2O2 was also required for the ABA activation of ZmCCaMK, and pre-treatments with an NO scavenger and inhibitor inhibited the H2O2-induced increase in the activity of ZmCCaMK. Taken together, the data clearly suggest that ZmCCaMK is required for ABA-induced antioxidant defence, and H2O2-dependent NO production plays an important role in the ABA-induced activation of ZmCCaMK.

  1. Nitric oxide-activated calcium/calmodulin-dependent protein kinase regulates the abscisic acid-induced antioxidant defence in maize

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Aying; Jiang, Mingyi

    2012-01-01

    Nitric oxide (NO), hydrogen peroxide (H2O2), and calcium (Ca2+)/calmodulin (CaM) are all required for abscisic acid (ABA)-induced antioxidant defence. Ca2+/CaM-dependent protein kinase (CCaMK) is a strong candidate for the decoder of Ca2+ signals. However, whether CCaMK is involved in ABA-induced antioxidant defence is unknown. The results of the present study show that exogenous and endogenous ABA induced increases in the activity of ZmCCaMK and the expression of ZmCCaMK in leaves of maize. Subcellular localization analysis showed that ZmCCaMK is located in the nucleus, the cytoplasm, and the plasma membrane. The transient expression of ZmCCaMK and the RNA interference (RNAi) silencing of ZmCCaMK analysis in maize protoplasts revealed that ZmCCaMK is required for ABA-induced antioxidant defence. Moreover, treatment with the NO donor sodium nitroprusside (SNP) induced the activation of ZmCCaMK and the expression of ZmCCaMK. Pre-treatments with an NO scavenger and inhibitor blocked the ABA-induced increases in the activity and the transcript level of ZmCCaMK. Conversely, RNAi silencing of ZmCCaMK in maize protoplasts did not affect the ABA-induced NO production, which was further confirmed using a mutant of OsCCaMK, the homologous gene of ZmCCaMK in rice. Moreover, H2O2 was also required for the ABA activation of ZmCCaMK, and pre-treatments with an NO scavenger and inhibitor inhibited the H2O2-induced increase in the activity of ZmCCaMK. Taken together, the data clearly suggest that ZmCCaMK is required for ABA-induced antioxidant defence, and H2O2-dependent NO production plays an important role in the ABA-induced activation of ZmCCaMK. PMID:22865912

  2. Total antioxidant and antiproliferative activities of twenty-four Vitis vinifera grapes

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The phytochemical profiles of 24 Vitis vinifera grape cultivars, including total phenolics, total flavonoids, total antioxidant activity and antiproliferative activity, were determined. Total phenolic contents in the cultivars ranged from 95.3 to 686.5 mg of gallic acid equivalents/100 g FW, and to...

  3. [Oxidative stress in blood leukocytes, pro/antioxidant status and fatty acids composition of pancreas lipids at experimental acute pancreatitis in rats].

    PubMed

    Pryvrots'ka, I B; Kuchmerovs'ka, T M

    2013-01-01

    In an experimental model of acute pancreatitis (AP) in rats no alteration in leukocyte's viability was found by flow cytometry as compared to control. After 1 day of AP production of reactive oxygen forms in granulocytes was increased more than 5 times, but after 3 days their level was decreased. Alterations of pro/antioxidant status and specific changes in the fatty acid composition in the pancreas were established. With the development of AP, the processes of lipids peroxidation were intensified while antioxidant system was altered, that was evidenced by inflammation in the pancreas. In these conditions, the increase of phospholipase A2 activity was accompanied by significant changes of fatty acid composition of the total lipids in the pancreas. This increased relative total content of saturated fatty acids, in particular myristic, palmitic and stearic acid increased, while the total content of polyunsaturated essential fatty acids omega-3 (linolenic, eicosapentaenoic, dokozapentayenoic, docosahexaenoic) decreased. The preparation containing omega-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids partially normalized the lipid and fatty acids composition as well as prooxidant-antioxidant system.

  4. Synthesis and antioxidant activity evaluation of a syringic hydrazones family.

    PubMed

    Belkheiri, Nadji; Bouguerne, Benaissa; Bedos-Belval, Florence; Duran, Hubert; Bernis, Corinne; Salvayre, Robert; Nègre-Salvayre, Anne; Baltas, Michel

    2010-07-01

    A novel series of hydrazones derived from syringaldehyde and their antioxidant properties have been explored. Several employed methods such as scavenging effect on 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) radical and 2,2'-azinobis(3-ethylbenzthiazoline-6-sulfonic acid) (ABTS(+)) radical cation expressed as Trolox equivalent antioxidant capacity (TEAC), inhibition of superoxide anion (O(2)(-)) generation and of human cell-mediated low-density lipoprotein oxidation (monitored by the formation of TBARS) exhibited their potent antioxidant properties. The carbonyl scavenger efficacy was also evaluated by measuring the ability to decrease the protein carbonyl content in cells challenged with oxidized LDL. In this report, we discuss about the synthesis of hydrazones and their dual biological role, antioxidant and carbonyl scavenger for further application in atherosclerosis.

  5. Effect of long-term salinity on cellular antioxidants, compatible solute and fatty acid profile of Sweet Annie (Artemisia annua L.).

    PubMed

    Qureshi, M Irfan; Abdin, Malik Zainul; Ahmad, Javed; Iqbal, Muhammad

    2013-11-01

    Impact of long-term salinity and subsequent oxidative stress was studied on cellular antioxidants, proline accumulation and lipid profile of Artemisia annua L. (Sweet Annie or Qinghao) which yields artemisinin (Qinghaosu), effective against cerebral malaria-causing strains of Plasmodium falciparum. Under salinity (0.0-160 mM NaCl), in A. annua, proline accumulation, contents of ascorbate and glutathione and activities of superoxide dismutase (SOD), ascorbate peroxidase (APX), glutathione reductase (GR) and catalase (CAT) increased, but the contents of reduced forms of glutathione (GSH) and ascorbate declined. The fatty-acid profiling revealed a major salinity-induced shift towards long-chain and mono-saturated fatty acids. Myristic acid (14:0), palmitoleic acid (16:1), linoleic acid (18:2) and erucic acid (22:1) increased by 141%, 186%, 34% and 908%, respectively, in comparison with the control. Contents of oleic acid (18:1), linolenic acid (18:3), arachidonic acid (22:0) and lignoceric acid (24:0) decreased by 50%, 17%, 44% and 78%, respectively. Thus, in A. annua, salinity declines ascorbate and GSH contents. However, increased levels of proline and total glutathione (GSH+GSSG), and activities of antioxidant enzymes might provide a certain level of tolerance. Modification in fatty-acid composition might be a membrane adaptation to long-term salinity and oxidative stress.

  6. Influence of Amino Acid Compositions and Peptide Profiles on Antioxidant Capacities of Two Protein Hydrolysates from Skipjack Tuna (Katsuwonus pelamis) Dark Muscle

    PubMed Central

    Chi, Chang-Feng; Hu, Fa-Yuan; Wang, Bin; Li, Zhong-Rui; Luo, Hong-Yu

    2015-01-01

    Influence of amino acid compositions and peptide profiles on antioxidant capacities of two protein hydrolysates from skipjack tuna (Katsuwonus pelamis) dark muscle was investigated. Dark muscles from skipjack tuna were hydrolyzed using five separate proteases, including pepsin, trypsin, Neutrase, papain and Alcalase. Two hydrolysates, ATH and NTH, prepared using Alcalase and Neutrase, respectively, showed the strongest antioxidant capacities and were further fractionated using ultrafiltration and gel filtration chromatography. Two fractions, Fr.A3 and Fr.B2, isolated from ATH and NTH, respectively, showed strong radical scavenging activities toward 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl radicals (EC50 1.08% ± 0.08% and 0.98% ± 0.07%), hydroxyl radicals (EC50 0.22% ± 0.03% and 0.48% ± 0.05%), and superoxide anion radicals (EC50 1.31% ± 0.11% and 1.56% ± 1.03%) and effectively inhibited lipid peroxidation. Eighteen peptides from Fr.A3 and 13 peptides from Fr.B2 were isolated by reversed-phase high performance liquid chromatography, and their amino acid sequences were determined. The elevated antioxidant activity of Fr.A3 might be due to its high content of hydrophobic and aromatic amino acid residues (181.1 and 469.9 residues/1000 residues, respectively), small molecular sizes (3–6 peptides), low molecular weights (524.78 kDa), and amino acid sequences (antioxidant score 6.11). This study confirmed that a smaller molecular size, the presence of hydrophobic and aromatic amino acid residues, and the amino acid sequences were the key factors that determined the antioxidant activities of the proteins, hydrolysates and peptides. The results also demonstrated that the derived hydrolysates and fractions from skipjack tuna (K. pelamis) dark muscles could prevent oxidative reactions and might be useful for food preservation and medicinal purposes. PMID:25923316

  7. Investigation into the antioxidant activity and chemical composition of alcoholic extracts from defatted marigold (Tagetes erecta L.) residue.

    PubMed

    Gong, Ying; Liu, Xuan; He, Wen-Hao; Xu, Hong-Gao; Yuan, Fang; Gao, Yan-Xiang

    2012-04-01

    The influence of various solvents on the yield of polyphenols from defatted marigold residue, the antioxidant activity of the extracts and the composition of antioxidant compounds in the extracts were investigated. The content of total phenolics and flavonoids in the extracts was significantly varied with different solvents (P<0.05) and the extract by ethyl alcohol (EtOH)/water (7:3, v/v) has the highest content of total phenolics and flavonoids, 62.33 mg gallic acid equivalents (GAE)/g and 97.00 mg rutin equivalent (RE)/g, respectively. The antioxidant activity of the extracts was evaluated by radical (2,2'-azino-bis-(3-ethylbenzothiazoline-6-sulfonic acid) (ABTS), 1,1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH)) scavenging and ferric reducing antioxidant power (FRAP) assays. The results of the correlation analysis showed that the antioxidant activity was well correlated with the content of total phenolics and flavonoids (R²>0.900). Antioxidant components in the extracts were identified by combined on-line HPLC-ABTS·+ post-column assay and HPLC-DAD-MS method. Gallic acid, gallicin, quercetagetin, 6-hydroxykaempferol-O-hexoside, patuletin-O-hexoside and quercetin were the dominant antioxidant compounds in the extracts, and quercetagetin was identified as the strongest antioxidant capacity.

  8. Bioprospecting traditional Pakistani medicinal plants for potent antioxidants.

    PubMed

    Inayatullah, Samia; Prenzler, Paul D; Obied, Hassan K; Rehman, Ata-Ur; Mirza, Bushra

    2012-05-01

    Antioxidant potential of four methanol extracts from three selected plant species, namely Salvia nubicola (Lamiaceae), Acer oblongifolium (Aceraceae) and Hedera nepalensis (Araliaceae) was measured using assays in aqueous and lipid systems. Antioxidant activities were investigated in aqueous systems by using DPPH radical-scavenging assay, ABTS radical-scavenging assay and DNA protection assay, while antioxidant activity in a lipid system was determined by using the thiobarbituric acid-reactive substances (TBARS) assay. Additionally, the Folin-Ciocalteu method was used to measure total phenolic content. Methanol extracts of leaves and flowers of S. nubicola showed the highest Trolox equivalent (TE) values in the case of the DPPH assay, 2484±4.9mmol TE/g extract, as well as total phenolic content, 139±0.2mg gallic acid equivalents/g extract. Three fractions (A-C) of the methanol extract of S. nubicola leaves and flowers were produced by semi-preparative HPLC. Fraction B was found to be the most active in the DPPH radical-scavenging assay and had the highest total phenol content. HPLC-DAD and LC-MS revealed rosmarinic acid in S. nubicola extracts and chlorogenic acid and rutin in H. nepalensis extracts as the main phenolic antioxidants.

  9. Inhibition of UVA-mediated melanogenesis by ascorbic acid through modulation of antioxidant defense and nitric oxide system.

    PubMed

    Panich, Uraiwan; Tangsupa-a-nan, Vanida; Onkoksoong, Tasanee; Kongtaphan, Kamolratana; Kasetsinsombat, Kanda; Akarasereenont, Pravit; Wongkajornsilp, Adisak

    2011-05-01

    Ascorbic acid (AA) has been well known as a skin whitening agent, although attempts have been made to evaluate its protective role against ultraviolet (UV)-induced skin hyperpigmentation or increased melanin production. While melanogenesis is a defense mechanism of the skin against UV irradiation, melanin overproduction may also contribute to melanoma initiation. UVA might play a role in melanogenesis through promoting oxidative stress, which occurs as the result of increased formation of oxidants and/or reactive nitrogen species (RNS) including nitric oxide (NO). Therefore, we investigated the antimelanogenic effect of AA (7.5-120 μM) in association with its inhibitory effect on UVA-induced oxidant formation, NO production through endothelial and inducible NO synthases (eNOS and iNOS) activation and impairment of antioxidant defense using G361 human melanoma cells. Our study demonstrated a comparable ability of AA with that of kojic acid, a well-known tyrosinase inhibitor in inhibiting mushroom tyrosinase. Melanin content was reduced by AA, but neither tyrosinase activity nor mRNA levels were reduced by AA at non-cytotoxic concentrations in UVA-irradiated G361 cells. AA was shown to inhibit UVA-mediated catalase (CAT) inactivation, glutathione (GSH) depletion, oxidant formation and NO production through suppression of eNOS and iNOS mRNA. We report herein that AA can protect against UVA-dependent melanogenesis possibly through the improvement of antioxidant defense capacity and inhibition of NO production through down-regulation of eNOS and iNOS mRNA.

  10. Paraoxonase-1 (PON1) inhibition by tienilic acid produces hepatic injury: Antioxidant protection by fennel extract and whey protein concentrate.

    PubMed

    Abdel-Wahhab, Khaled G; Fawzi, Heba; Mannaa, Fathia A

    2016-03-01

    This study evaluated the effect of whey protein concentrate (WPC) or fennel seed extract (FSE) on paraoxonase-1 activity (PON1) and oxidative stress in liver of tienilic acid (TA) treated rats. Six groups of rats were treated for six weeks as follows: control; WPC (0.5g/kg/day); FSE (200mg/ kg/day); TA (1g/kg/twice a week); TA (1g/kg/twice a week) plus WPC (0.5g/kg/day); TA (1g/kg/twice a week) plus FSE (200mg/kg/day). TA administration significantly increased ALT and AST besides to total- and direct bilirubin levels. Also, serum tumor necrosis factor-α and nitric oxide levels were significantly increased. Furthermore, serum PON1, and hepatic reduced glutathione, glutathione-S-transferase and Na(+)/K(+)-ATPase values were diminished matched with a significant rise in the level of hepatic lipid peroxidation. Also, triglycerides, total- and LDL-cholesterol levels were significantly elevated while HDL-cholesterol was unchanged. The administration of either WPC or FSE to TA-treated animals significantly protected the liver against the injurious effects of tienilic acid. This appeared from the improvement of hepatic functions, atherogenic markers, Na(+)/K(+) ATPase activity, endogenous antioxidants and hepatic lipid peroxidation level; where WPC showed the strongest protection effect. In conclusion, the present study indicated that WPC and FSE improve PON1 activity and attenuate liver dysfunction induced by TA. This may be attributed to the high content of antioxidant compounds in WPC and fennel extract.

  11. Application of Attenuated Total Reflectance-Fourier Transformed Infrared (ATR-FTIR) Spectroscopy To Determine the Chlorogenic Acid Isomer Profile and Antioxidant Capacity of Coffee Beans.

    PubMed

    Liang, Ningjian; Lu, Xiaonan; Hu, Yaxi; Kitts, David D

    2016-01-27

    The chlorogenic acid isomer profile and antioxidant activity of both green and roasted coffee beans are reported herein using ATR-FTIR spectroscopy combined with chemometric analyses. High-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) quantified different chlorogenic acid isomer contents for reference, whereas ORAC, ABTS, and DPPH were used to determine the antioxidant activity of the same coffee bean extracts. FTIR spectral data and reference data of 42 coffee bean samples were processed to build optimized PLSR models, and 18 samples were used for external validation of constructed PLSR models. In total, six PLSR models were constructed for six chlorogenic acid isomers to predict content, with three PLSR models constructed to forecast the free radical scavenging activities, obtained using different chemical assays. In conclusion, FTIR spectroscopy, coupled with PLSR, serves as a reliable, nondestructive, and rapid analytical method to quantify chlorogenic acids and to assess different free radical-scavenging capacities in coffee beans.

  12. Simultaneous determination of 19 fatty acids in Antrodia camphorata by derivatized GC-MS and evaluation of antioxidant activity of Antrodia camphorata crude oil.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Fengsu; Cai, Hao; Liu, Xunhong; Chen, Fei; Yang, Nianyun; Hou, Ya; Ma, Yang; Luo, Yiyuan; Liu, Juanxiu

    2015-02-04

    To analyze the components of the fatty oil extracted from Antrodia camphorata fungus powder and to evaluate the antioxidant activity of A. camphorata crude oil. A derivatized gas chromatography mass spectrometry (GC-MS) was developed for the quantification of 19 fatty acids in extracts of A. camphorata obtained by supercritical carbon dioxide (SC-CO2). Good separation was obtained under the optimized chromatographic conditions and 19 target compounds after methyl-esterification were identified by GC-MS on a HP-VOC capillary column (60 m × 320 μm × 1.8 μm) with an initial temperature set at 80 °C. The validity of the established method was examined experimentally with good linearity, intra-assay precisions, repeatability, stability and recovery. The antioxidant activity of A. camphorata crude oil was evaluated by 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) radical-scavenging assay. Nineteen fatty acids showed good linearity over the tested ranges (r > 0.9956) and the recovery ranged from 93.47 to 104.89 %. The crude oil extracted from A. camphorata fungus powder also revealed its antioxidant activity. It was the report about simultaneous determination of 19 fatty acids in A. camphorata and antioxidant activity of its crude oil for the first time. The established method might also be utilized for the investigation of edible plant materials and agricultural products containing fatty acids.

  13. Phenolic acids profiling and antioxidant potential of mulberry (Morus laevigata W., Morus nigra L., Morus alba L.) leaves and fruits grown in Pakistan

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Mulberry trees are distributed throughout Pakistan. Besides the use of mulberry in forage and food for animals, it is also used as herbal medicine. The ojbective of this study was to determine phenolic acids profile, sugar content, and the antioxidant activity of the leaves and fruits of three mulb...

  14. Ferulic acid ethyl ester diminished Complete Freund's Adjuvant-induced incapacitation through antioxidant and anti-inflammatory activity.

    PubMed

    Cunha, Francisco Valmor Macedo; Gomes, Bruno de Sousa; Neto, Benedito de Sousa; Ferreira, Alana Rodrigues; de Sousa, Damião Pergentino; de Carvalho e Martins, Maria do Carmo; Oliveira, Francisco de Assis

    2016-01-01

    Ferulic acid ethyl ester (FAEE) is a derivate from ferulic acid which reportedly has antioxidant effect; however, its role on inflammation was unknown. In this study, we investigated the orally administered FAEE anti-inflammatory activity on experimental inflammation models and Complete Freund's Adjuvant (CFA)-induced arthritis in rats. CFA-induced arthritis has been evaluated by incapacitation model and radiographic knee joint records at different observation time. FAEE (po) reduced carrageenan-induced paw edema (p < 0.001) within the 1st to 5th hours at 50 and 100 mg/kg doses. FAEE 50 and 100 mg/kg, po inhibited leukocyte migration into air pouch model (p < 0.001), and myeloperoxidase, superoxide dismutase, and catalase activities (p < 0.001) increased total thiol concentration and decreased the TNF-α and IL-1β concentrations, NO, and thiobarbituric acid reactive species. In the CFA-induced arthritis, FAEE 50 and 100 mg/kg significantly reduced the edema and the elevation paw time, a joint disability parameter, since second hour after arthritis induction (p < 0.001). FAEE presented rat joint protective activity in radiographic records (p < 0.001). The data suggest that the FAEE exerts anti-inflammatory activity by inhibiting leukocyte migration, oxidative stress reduction, and pro-inflammatory cytokines.

  15. Structure-Thermodynamics-Antioxidant Activity Relationships of Selected Natural Phenolic Acids and Derivatives: An Experimental and Theoretical Evaluation

    PubMed Central

    Zheng, Jie; Liang, Guizhao

    2015-01-01

    Phenolic acids and derivatives have potential biological functions, however, little is known about the structure-activity relationships and the underlying action mechanisms of these phenolic acids to date. Herein we investigate the structure-thermodynamics-antioxidant relationships of 20 natural phenolic acids and derivatives using DPPH• scavenging assay, density functional theory calculations at the B3LYP/6-311++G(d,p) levels of theory, and quantitative structure-activity relationship (QSAR) modeling. Three main working mechanisms (HAT, SETPT and SPLET) are explored in four micro-environments (gas-phase, benzene, water and ethanol). Computed thermodynamics parameters (BDE, IP, PDE, PA and ETE) are compared with the experimental radical scavenging activities against DPPH•. Available theoretical and experimental investigations have demonstrated that the extended delocalization and intra-molecular hydrogen bonds are the two main contributions to the stability of the radicals. The C = O or C = C in COOH, COOR, C = CCOOH and C = CCOOR groups, and orthodiphenolic functionalities are shown to favorably stabilize the specific radical species to enhance the radical scavenging activities, while the presence of the single OH in the ortho position of the COOH group disfavors the activities. HAT is the thermodynamically preferred mechanism in the gas phase and benzene, whereas SPLET in water and ethanol. Furthermore, our QSAR models robustly represent the structure-activity relationships of these explored compounds in polar media. PMID:25803685

  16. Structure-thermodynamics-antioxidant activity relationships of selected natural phenolic acids and derivatives: an experimental and theoretical evaluation.

    PubMed

    Chen, Yuzhen; Xiao, Huizhi; Zheng, Jie; Liang, Guizhao

    2015-01-01

    Phenolic acids and derivatives have potential biological functions, however, little is known about the structure-activity relationships and the underlying action mechanisms of these phenolic acids to date. Herein we investigate the structure-thermodynamics-antioxidant relationships of 20 natural phenolic acids and derivatives using DPPH• scavenging assay, density functional theory calculations at the B3LYP/6-311++G(d,p) levels of theory, and quantitative structure-activity relationship (QSAR) modeling. Three main working mechanisms (HAT, SETPT and SPLET) are explored in four micro-environments (gas-phase, benzene, water and ethanol). Computed thermodynamics parameters (BDE, IP, PDE, PA and ETE) are compared with the experimental radical scavenging activities against DPPH•. Available theoretical and experimental investigations have demonstrated that the extended delocalization and intra-molecular hydrogen bonds are the two main contributions to the stability of the radicals. The C = O or C = C in COOH, COOR, C = CCOOH and C = CCOOR groups, and orthodiphenolic functionalities are shown to favorably stabilize the specific radical species to enhance the radical scavenging activities, while the presence of the single OH in the ortho position of the COOH group disfavors the activities. HAT is the thermodynamically preferred mechanism in the gas phase and benzene, whereas SPLET in water and ethanol. Furthermore, our QSAR models robustly represent the structure-activity relationships of these explored compounds in polar media.

  17. [Comparative evaluation of the antioxidant activity of para-aminobenzoic acid and emoxipin in the cornea and crystalline lens (an experimental study)].

    PubMed

    Akberova, S I; Musaev Galbinur, P I; Stroeva, O G; Magomedov, N M; Babaev, N F; Galbinur, A P

    2001-01-01

    Antioxidant effect of paraaminobenzoic acid (PABA) in the retina upon different routes of its administration has been revealed previously. In this study we investigated the antioxidant effect of PABA in the cornea and lens of rats after its parabulbar injection. Antioxidant activity of PABA was compared to that of emoxipin. One hour after hypoxic hypoxia the animals were parabulbarly injected with PABA solutions (0.007-0.08%) and 1% emoxipin. The eyes of intact animals and rats exposed to hypoxia alone served as the control. The levels of lipid peroxidation products (hydroperoxide, malonic dialdehyde) and catalase activity in the cornea and lens were measured 1, 3, 6, and 11 h after injections. PABA in all studied concentrations essentially decreased the elevated levels of hydroperoxides and malonic dialdehyde and normalized catalase activity. The level of lipid peroxidation products and catalase activity normalized 24-28 h after hypoxia, while after PABA it normalized within 2-11 h. Antioxidant activity of emoxipin in the lens and cornea was the same as that of optimal antioxidant concentrations of PABA (0.02% for the cornea and 0.06% for the lens). Hence, PABA in a wide range of concentrations (0.007-0.06%) is characterized by sufficiently high antioxidant activity in tissues of the anterior segment of the eye (cornea and lens) upon local administration.

  18. Antioxidative and Anticholinesterase Activity of Cyphomandra betacea Fruit

    PubMed Central

    Ali Hassan, Siti Hawa; Abu Bakar, Mohd Fadzelly

    2013-01-01

    Cyphomandra betacea is one of the underutilized fruits which can be found in tropical and subtropical countries. This study was conducted to determine the antioxidant activity and phytochemical contents in different parts (i.e., flesh and peel) of the fruits. Antioxidants were analyzed using DPPH and ABTS free radical scavenging assays as well as FRAP assay. Anticholinesterase activity was determined using enzymatic assay using acetyl cholinesterase enzyme. For 80% methanol extract, the peel of the fruit displayed higher antioxidant activity in both FRAP and ABTS free radical scavenging assays while the flesh displayed higher antioxidant activity in the DPPH assay. Total phenolic and total flavonoid content were higher in the peel with the values of 4.89 ± 0.04 mg gallic acid equivalent (GAE)/g and 3.36 ± 0.01 mg rutin equivalent (RU)/g, respectively. Total anthocyanin and carotenoid content were higher in the flesh of the fruit with the values of 4.15 ± 0.04 mg/100 g and 25.13 ± 0.35 mg/100 g. The anticholinesterase was also higher in the peel of C. betacea. The same trends of phytochemicals, antioxidant, and anticholinesterase were also observed in the distilled water extracts. These findings suggested that C. betacea has a potential as natural antioxidant-rich nutraceutical products. PMID:24298210

  19. Determination of antioxidant constituents in cactus pear fruits.

    PubMed

    Fernández-López, José A; Almela, Luís; Obón, José M; Castellar, Rosario

    2010-09-01

    An analytical study was carried out on the presence of antioxidant constituents and the in vitro antioxidant capacity in the extracts of three species of Spanish red-skinned cactus pear fruits (Opuntia ficus-indica, Opuntia undulata and Opuntia stricta). The cactus pear fruit extracts were analyzed for determined constituents: ascorbic acid, flavonoids (quercetin, isorhamnetin, myricetin, kaempferol and luteolin), betalains, taurine, total carotenoids and total phenolics. The antioxidant capacity was assessed by means of two different methods: the 2,2'-azinobis(3-ethylbenzothiazoline-6-sulfonic acid) (Trolox equivalent antioxidant capacity) method and the 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl radical method. Opuntia ficus-indica fruit extract had the strongest antioxidant capacity and taurine content. O. stricta fruits were the richest in ascorbic acid and total phenolics, whereas O. undulata fruits showed the highest carotenoid content. Quercetin and isorhamnetin were the main flavonoids detected. This study provides basic information on the presence of bioactive compounds and antioxidant capacity in extracts of cactus pear fruits, in order to consider these extracts as ingredient for the production of health-promoting food.

  20. Fatty acid profiles, tocopherol contents, and antioxidant activities of heartnut (Juglans ailanthifolia Var. cordiformis) and Persian walnut (Juglans regia L.).

    PubMed

    Li, Li; Tsao, Rong; Yang, Raymond; Kramer, John K G; Hernandez, Marta

    2007-02-21

    The fatty acid and tocopherol compositions of three heartnut (Juglans ailanthifolia var. cordiformis) varieties (Imshu, Campbell CW1, and Campbell CW3) were examined and compared with those of two Persian walnut (Juglans regia L.) varieties (Combe and Lake). The major fatty acids found in heartnuts and walnuts were identified by gas chromatography as linoleic (18:2n-6), alpha-linolenic (18:3n-3), oleic (18:1n-9), palmitic (16:0), and stearic acid (18:0). Polyunsaturated fatty acids were the main group of fatty acids found in both heartnut and walnut, ranging from 73.07 to 80.98%, and were significantly higher in heartnut than in Persian walnuts (P < 0.001). In addition, heartnuts had significantly higher levels of 18:2n-6 and lower levels of 18:3n-3 compared to the Persian walnuts. gamma-Tocopherol was the main tocopherol homologue present in both types of nuts, followed by delta- and alpha-tocopherol. The highest concentration of gamma-tocopherol was found in Combe Persian walnut at 267.87 mug/g, followed by Lake Persian walnut and Imshu, Campbell CW1, and CW3 heartnut at 205.45, 187.33, 161.84, and 126.46 mug/g, respectively. Tocopherols, particularly the gamma-tocopherol, were found to contribute the most to the strong total antioxidant activities of both walnut and heartnut oils using either the free radical 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl assay or the photochemiluminescence method.

  1. Pro-oxidative vs antioxidative properties of ascorbic acid in chromium(VI)-induced damage: an in vivo and in vitro approach.

    PubMed

    Poljsak, B; Gazdag, Z; Jenko-Brinovec, S; Fujs, S; Pesti, M; Bélagyi, J; Plesnicar, S; Raspor, P

    2005-01-01

    The effect of antioxidant ascorbic acid (vitamin C) pretreatment on chromium(VI)-induced damage was investigated using the yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae as a model organism. The objective of this study was to pretreat yeast cells with the antioxidant ascorbic acid in an effort to increase cell tolerance against reactive chromium intermediates and reactive oxygen species formed during chromium(VI) reduction. Intracellular oxidation was estimated using the fluorescence indicators dihidro-2,7-dichlorofluorescein, dihydroethidium and dihydrorhodamine 123. The role of ascorbic acid pretreatment on chromium(VI) toxicity was determined by measuring mitotic gene conversion, reverse mutations, 8-OHdG, hydroxyl radical, superoxide anion and chromium(V) formation. The chromium content in the biomass was determined by flame atomic absorption spectrometry. In the absence of chromium, ascorbic acid effectively protected the cells against endogenous reactive oxygen species formed during normal cellular metabolism. In vitro measurements employing EPR and the results of supercoiled DNA cleavage revealed that the pro-oxidative action of ascorbic acid during Cr(VI) reduction was concentration-dependent and that harmful hydroxyl radical and Cr(V) had formed following Cr(VI) reduction. However, the in vivo results highlighted the important role of increased cytosol reduction capacity related to modification of Cr(V) formation, increased chromium accumulation, better scavenging ability of superoxide anions and hydrogen peroxide, and consequently decreased cytotoxicity and genotoxicity in ascorbic acid pretreated cells. Ascorbic acid influenced Cr(VI) toxicity both as a reducing agent, by decreasing Cr(V) persistence, and as an antioxidant, by decreasing intracellular superoxide anion and hydrogen peroxide formation and by quenching free radicals formed during Cr(VI) to Cr(III) reduction. Increased 8-OHdG and decreased reduced glutathione in ascorbic acid-treated cells might induce an

  2. Prophylactic Antioxidant Potential of Gallic Acid in Murine Model of Sepsis

    PubMed Central

    Maurya, Harikesh; Mangal, Vaishali; Gandhi, Sanjay; Prabhu, Kathiresan; Ponnudurai, Kathiresan

    2014-01-01

    Present study is to investigate the effect of Gallic acid pretreatment on survival of septic animals and oxidative stress in different organs like lungs, liver, kidney, spleen, and vascular dysfunction of mice. Sepsis was induced by cecal ligation and puncture (CLP) in healthy adult male albino mice (25–30 g) and was divided into 3 groups each consisting of 6 animals, that is, sham-operated (SO group (Group I), SO + sepsis (Group II), and Gallic acid + sepsis (Group III)). Group III animals were pretreated with Gallic acid at the dose rate of 20 mg/kg body weight for 2 days before induction of sepsis. Animals were sacrificed on 8th day and the tissue samples were obtained for further investigation on lipid peroxidation (LPO), malondialdehyde (MDA), superoxide dismutase (SOD), catalase (CAT), and glutathione reductase (GSH). Gallic acid pretreatment significant (P < 0.05) reduces kidney, spleen, liver, and lungs' malondialdehyde level in septic mice. However, it fails to improve reduced glutathione level in all given organs, while, Gallic acid pretreated mice showed significant improvement in SOD activity of kidney and spleen when compared to septic mice. Finally, the beneficial effects of Gallic acid pretreatment in sepsis are evident from the observations that Gallic acid partially restored SOD and catalase activity and completely reversed lipid peroxidation. Further studies are required to find out the possible mechanisms underlying the beneficial effects of Gallic acid on large population. PMID:25018890

  3. Two new antioxidant malonated caffeoylquinic acid isomers in fruits of wild eggplant relatives

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Fruits of both the cultivated eggplant species Solanum melongena and its wild relative Solanum incanum have a high content of hydroxycinnamic acid conjugates, which along with other phenylpropanoids are implicated in the human health benefits of various fruits and vegetables. Monocaffeoylquinic acid...

  4. Acute consumption of organic and conventional tropical grape juices (Vitis labrusca L.) increases antioxidants in plasma and erythrocytes, but not glucose and uric acid levels, in healthy individuals.

    PubMed

    Toaldo, Isabela Maia; Cruz, Fernanda Alves; da Silva, Edson Luiz; Bordignon-Luiz, Marilde T

    2016-08-01

    Bioactive polyphenols in grapes are influenced by grape variety and cultivation conditions. The Vitis labrusca L. varieties are cultivated in tropical regions and used for grape juice production. We hypothesized that polyphenols from tropical grape juices would beneficially affect redox homeostasis in humans. Therefore, the effects of acute consumption of organic and conventional grape juices from V labrusca L. on antioxidants biomarkers were investigated in healthy individuals. In a controlled, randomized, crossover, intervention trial, 24 individuals were assigned to drink 400 mL of conventional juice, organic juice, or water. Each intervention was followed by a 14-day washout period. Blood samples were obtained before and 1 hour after acute intake and analyzed for erythrocyte reduced glutathione, serum total antioxidant capacity, antioxidant enzymes in erythrocytes, and glucose and uric acid in serum. The ingestion of both grape juices resulted in elevated levels of reduced glutathione (P< .001) and serum total antioxidant capacity (P< .05) and increased activity of catalase (P< .001), superoxide dismutase (P< .001), and glutathione peroxidase (P< .05) compared with the control intervention, with no significant differences between grape juices (P< .05). The intake of juices did not affect significantly the concentrations of glucose or uric acid. Grape juice polyphenols were associated with increased antioxidants, and the chemical differences between organic and conventional juices were not predictive of the observed responses. The results suggest a bioactive potential of V labrusca L. juices to improve redox homeostasis, which is involved in defense against oxidative stress in humans.

  5. Oxidative stress and antioxidant status in beta-thalassemia heterozygotes

    PubMed Central

    Ondei, Luciana de Souza; Estevão, Isabeth da Fonseca; Rocha, Marina Ibelli Pereira; Percário, Sandro; Souza, Dorotéia Rossi Silva; Pinhel, Marcela Augusta de Souza; Bonini-Domingos, Claudia Regina

    2013-01-01

    Background Several studies have evaluated the oxidant and antioxidant status of thalassemia patients but most focused mainly on the severe and intermediate states of the disease. Moreover, the oxidative status has not been evaluated for the different beta-thalassemia mutations. Objective To evaluate lipid peroxidation and Trolox equivalent antioxidant capacity in relation to serum iron and ferritin in beta thalassemia resulting from two different mutations (CD39 and IVS-I-110) compared to individuals without beta-thalassemia. Methods One hundred and thirty subjects were studied, including 49 who were heterozygous for beta-thalassemia and 81 controls. Blood samples were subjected to screening tests for hemoglobin. Allele-specific polymerase chain reaction was used to confirm mutations for beta-thalassemia, an analysis of thiobarbituric acid reactive species was used to determine lipid peroxidation, and Trolox equivalent antioxidant capacity evaluations were performed. The heterozygous beta-thalassemia group was also evaluated for serum iron and ferritin status. Results Thiobarbituric acid reactive species (486.24 ± 119.64 ng/mL) and Trolox equivalent antioxidant capacity values (2.23 ± 0.11 mM/L) were higher in beta-thalassemia heterozygotes compared to controls (260.86 ± 92.40 ng/mL and 2.12 ± 0.10 mM/L, respectively; p-value < 0.01). Increased thiobarbituric acid reactive species values were observed in subjects with the CD39 mutation compared with those with the IVS-I-110 mutation (529.94 ± 115.60 ng/mL and 453.39 ± 121.10 ng/mL, respectively; p-value = 0.04). However, average Trolox equivalent antioxidant capacity values were similar for both mutations (2.20 ± 0.08 mM/L and 2.23 ± 0.12 mM/L, respectively; p-value = 0.39). There was no influence of serum iron and ferritin levels on thiobarbituric acid reactive species and Trolox equivalent antioxidant capacity values. Conclusion This study shows an increase of oxidative stress and antioxidant capacity in

  6. Antioxidant activities of ficus glomerata (moraceae) leaf gall extracts

    PubMed Central

    Eshwarappa, Ravi Shankara Birur; Iyer, Shanthi; Subaramaihha, Sundara Rajan; Richard, S Austin; Dhananjaya, Bhadrapura Lakkappa

    2015-01-01

    An excess production or decreased scavenging of reactive oxygen species (ROS) has been implicated in the pathogenesis of diverse metabolic disorders such as diabetes, cancer, atherosclerosis and neurodegeneration. Hence the antioxidant therapy has gained an utmost importance in the treatment of such diseases linked to free radicals. The medicinal properties of plants have been investigated and explored for their potent antioxidant activities to counteract metabolic disorders. This research highlights the chemical composition and antioxidant potential of leaf gall extracts (aqueous and methanol) of Ficus glomerata (F. glomerata), which is extensively used in the preparation of traditional medications to treat various metabolic diseases. The presences of phenolics, flavonoids, phytosterols, terpenoids and reducing sugars were identified in both the extracts. In comparison to the aqueous extract, the methanol extract had the highest total phenolic and flavonoid content at 370 ± 3.2 mg of gallic acid equivalent per gram of dry weight (mg GAE/g dw) and 155 ± 3.2 mg of quercetin equivalent per gram of dry weight (mg QUE/g dw), respectively. The antioxidant activities of leaf gall extracts were examined using diphenylpicrylhydrazyl (DPPH), Nitric oxide scavenging, hydroxyl scavenging and ferric reducing power (FRAP) methods. In all the methods, the methanolic extract showed higher antioxidant potential than the aqueous extract. A higher content of both total phenolics and flavonoids were found in the methanolic extract and the significantly high antioxidant activity can be positively correlated to the high content of total polyphenols/flavonoids of the methanol extract. The results of this study confirm the folklore use of F. glomerata leaf gall extracts as a natural antioxidant and justify its ethnobotanical use. Further, the results of antioxidant properties encourage the use of F. glomerata leaf gall extracts for medicinal health, functional food and nutraceuticals

  7. Effects of two antioxidants; α-lipoic acid and fisetin against diabetic cataract in mice.

    PubMed

    Kan, Emrah; Kiliçkan, Elif; Ayar, Ahmet; Çolak, Ramis

    2015-02-01

    The purpose of this study was to determine whether α-lipoic acid and fisetin have protective effects against cataract in a streptozotocin-induced experimental cataract model. Twenty-eight male BALB/C mice were made diabetic by the intraperitoneal administration of streptozotocin (200 mg/kg). Three weeks after induction of diabetes, mice were divided randomly into 4 groups in which each group contained 7 mice; fisetin-treated group (group 1), α-lipoic acid-treated group (group 2), fisetin placebo group (group 3), α-lipoic acid placebo group (group 4). Fisetin and α-lipoic acid were administered intraperitoneally weekly for 5 weeks. Cataract development was assessed at the end of 8 weeks by slit lamp examination, and cataract formation was graded using a scale. All groups developed at least grade 1 cataract formation. In the fisetin-treated group, the cataract stages were significantly lower than in the placebo group (p = 0.02). In the α-lipoic acid-treated group, the cataract stages were lower than in the placebo group but it did not reach to a significant value. Both fisetin and α-lipoic acid had a protective effect on cataract development in a streptozotocin-induced experimental cataract model. The protective effect of fisetin appears as though more effective than α-lipoic acid.

  8. Antioxidant capacities of phenolic compounds and tocopherols from Tunisian pomegranate (Punica granatum) fruits.

    PubMed

    Elfalleh, Walid; Tlili, Nizar; Nasri, Nizar; Yahia, Yassine; Hannachi, Hédia; Chaira, Nizar; Ying, Ma; Ferchichi, Ali

    2011-01-01

    This article aims to determine the phenolic, tocopherol contents, and antioxidant capacities from fruits (juices, peels, and seed oils) of 6 Tunisian pomegranate ecotypes. Total anthocyanins were determined by a differential pH method. Hydrolyzable tannins were determined with potassium iodate. The tocopherol (α-tocopherol, γ-tocopherol, and δ-tocopherol) contents were, respectively, 165.77, 107.38, and 27.29 mg/100 g from dry seed. Four phenolic compounds were identified and quantified in pomegranate peel and pulp using the high-performance liquid chromatography/ultraviolet method: 2 hydroxybenzoic acids (gallic and ellagic acids) and 2 hydroxycinnamic acids (caffeic and p-coumaric acids). Juice, peel, and seed oil antioxidants were confirmed by ferric reducing antioxidant power (FRAP) and oxygen radical absorbance capacity (ORAC) methods. The highest values were recorded in peels with 25.63 mmol trolox equivalent/100 g and 22.08 mmol TE/100 g for FRAP and ORAC assay, respectively. Results showed that the antioxidant potency of pomegranate extracts was correlated with their phenolic compound content. In particular, the highest correlation was reported in peels. High correlations were also found between peel hydroxybenzoic acids and FRAP ORAC antioxidant capacities. Identified tocopherols seem to contribute in major part to the antioxidant activity of seed oil. The results implied that bioactive compounds from the peel might be potential resources for the development of antioxidant function dietary food.

  9. Quality parameters, bioactive compounds and their correlation with antioxidant capacity of commercial fruit-based baby foods.

    PubMed

    Carbonell-Capella, Juana M; Barba, Francisco J; Esteve, María J; Frígola, Ana

    2014-10-01

    Comprehensive research is required to achieve the optimization of the antioxidant protection through baby foods, in particular, the commercially available fruit-based baby foods. This study investigated the physicochemical properties, ascorbic acid (AA), total carotenoids (TC), total phenolic content (TPC), trolox equivalent antioxidant capacity (TEAC) and oxygen radical absorbance capacity (ORAC) of 23 different commercially available fruit-based baby foods. The main contribution to the total antioxidant capacity (trolox equivalent antioxidant capacity and oxygen radical absorbance capacity) was provided by ascorbic acid, followed by phenolic compounds, in accordance with a mathematical equation obtained from the data: TEAC = 245.906 + 7.727 × (AA) + 1.988 × (TPC) - 0.008 × (TC) and ORAC = 318.662 + 2.775 × (AA) - 0.531 × (TPC) - 0.073 × (TC). Moreover, a positive correlation (r = 0.346, p < 0.05) was found for oxygen radical absorbance capacity and trolox equivalent antioxidant capacity methods. Baby foods with different kind of fruits used as ingredients showed higher antioxidant capacity. Among the commercial baby foods analysed in this work, that treated by gentle steam cooking process had high levels of bioactive compounds and antioxidant capacity.

  10. [Fluorescein transport and antioxidant systems in the yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae under acid stress].

    PubMed

    Abrat, O B; Semchyshyn, H M; Miedzobrodski, J; Lushchak, V I

    2008-01-01

    The influence of acetic acid induced stress on the activity of fluorescein extrusion system and cell survival in the yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae has been studied. It was shown that acetic acid caused the inhibition of fluorescein efflux from the cells of both parental strain and its derivative defective in the transcriptional factor War1 which regulates the system of acetate efflux from the cell. The stress induced by 200 mM CH3COOH decreased almost 10 times the survival of strains deficient in the regulatory proteins War1 and Yap1 as compared with respective wild strains. However, pretreatment of the yeast by sublethal concentrations of hydrogen peroxide resulted in the increased resistance to acid stress. Thus it may be supposed that several systems exist which are responsible for acetate extrusion from the yeast cells. Regulatory proteins War1 and Yap1 are involved in the yeast adaptation to the stress induced by acetic acid.

  11. Chilean prosopis mesocarp flour: phenolic profiling and antioxidant activity.

    PubMed

    Schmeda-Hirschmann, Guillermo; Quispe, Cristina; Soriano, Maria Del Pilar C; Theoduloz, Cristina; Jiménez-Aspée, Felipe; Pérez, Maria Jorgelina; Cuello, Ana Soledad; Isla, Maria Inés

    2015-04-17

    In South America, the mesocarp flour of Prosopis species plays a prominent role as a food resource in arid areas. The aim of this work was the characterization of the phenolic antioxidants occurring in the pod mesocarp flour of Chilean Prosopis. Samples were collected in the Copiapo, Huasco and Elqui valleys from the north of Chile. The samples of P. chilensis flour exhibited a total phenolic content ranging between 0.82-2.57 g gallic acid equivalents/100 g fresh flour weight. The highest antioxidant activity, measured by the DPPH assay, was observed for samples from the Huasco valley. HPLC-MS/MS analysis allowed the tentative identification of eight anthocyanins and 13 phenolic compounds including flavonol glycosides, C-glycosyl flavones and ellagic acid derivatives. The antioxidant activity and the phenolic composition in the flour suggest that this ancient South American resource may have potential as a functional food.

  12. Test for antioxidant ability by scavenging long-lived mutagenic radicals in mammalian cells and by blood test with intentional radicals: an application of gallic acid

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kumagai, Jun; Kawaura, Tomoko; Miyazaki, Tetsuo; Prost, Michel; Prost, Emmanuelle; Watanabe, Masami; Quetin-Leclercq, Joëlle

    2003-01-01

    Antioxidant ability of gallic acid (GA) are determined both by electron spin resonance measurement of long-lived radicals produced in γ-ray irradiated Syrian golden hamster embryo cells with GA and by hemolysis measurement with GA when blood cells are submitted to radicals. Scavenging properties of GA are determined by the reaction rate constant with long-lived mutagenic radicals in the cells while the blood test allows to analyze the global effects of this compound: radical scavenger+metal ion chelator+regeneration of intra- and extra-cellular antioxidant.

  13. Derivation of a drinking water equivalent level (DWEL) related to the maximum contaminant level goal for perfluorooctanoic acid (PFOA), a persistent water soluble compound.

    PubMed

    Tardiff, Robert G; Carson, M Leigh; Sweeney, Lisa M; Kirman, Christopher R; Tan, Yu-Mei; Andersen, Melvin; Bevan, Christopher; Gargas, Michael L

    2009-10-01

    Water soluble compounds persistent in humans and the environment pose a challenge for estimating safe levels in tap water. A viable approach to estimate a drinking water equivalent level (DWEL) for perfluorooctanoic acid (PFOA) was applied to its extensive relevant information from human and laboratory animal studies. PFOA has been identified at 3.5 microg/L (mean) in tap water in proximity to a manufacturing facility; however, in most supplies, the levels were below 7.5 ng/L (usual limit of detection). PFOA has an average half-life in humans of 3.5years. From animal studies, PFOA is considered a possible hepatotoxicant and developmental toxicant for humans. Based on two chronic studies, PFOA was judged to be a possible human carcinogen, whose mode-of-action was likely to be related to receptor activation but not genotoxicity. The Benchmark Dose-Uncertainty Factor approach was selected for dose-response for noncancer and cancer. Based on internal dose of PFOA, the DWEL protective against cancer is 7.7 microgPFOA/L tap water, and the noncancer DWELs range from 0.88 to 2.4 microg/L. These DWELs can be considered a reliable, albeit conservative, basis to set a Maximum Concentration Level Goal under the US Safe Drinking Water Act.

  14. Effect of manipulation of incubation temperature on fatty acid profiles and antioxidant enzyme activities in meat-type chicken embryos.

    PubMed

    Yalçin, S; Bağdatlioğlu, N; Yenisey, Ç; Siegel, P B; Özkan, S; Akşit, M

    2012-12-01

    Eggs (n = 1,800) obtained from Ross broiler breeders at 32 and 48 wk of age were incubated at either a constant temperature of 37.6°C throughout (T1), or the temperature was reduced for 6 h to 36.6°C each day during embryonic age (EA) 10 to 18 (T2). Yolk sac, liver, and brain fatty acid profiles and oxidant and antioxidant status of liver and brain were measured at EA 14, 19, and day of hatch (DOH). Fatty acid profiles of yolk sac, liver, and brain were influenced by age of breeder with significant breeder hen age × incubation temperature interactions. At EA 14, higher levels of 20:4n-6 and 22:6n-3 had been transferred from the yolk sac to T2 embryos from younger than older breeders, whereas for T1 and T2 embryos, yolk sac 20:4n-6 and 22.6n-3 values were similar for older breeders. Accumulation of 20:4n-6 and 22:6n-3 fatty acids in the liver of T1 and T2 embryos from younger breeders was similar; however, T2 embryos from older breeders had higher liver levels of 20:4n-6 and 22:6n-3 than T1 embryos. At EA 19, liver nitric oxide levels were higher for T2 embryos from younger breeders than those from breeders incubated at T1. Brain catalase levels of T2 embryos from younger breeders were higher than those from older breeders at DOH. Thus, changes in fatty acid profiles and catalase and nitric oxide production of brain and liver tissues resulting from 1°C lower incubation temperature from EA 10 to 18 reflect adaptive changes.

  15. Involvement of Nitrogen on Flavonoids, Glutathione, Anthocyanin, Ascorbic Acid and Antioxidant Activities of Malaysian Medicinal Plant Labisia pumila Blume (Kacip Fatimah)

    PubMed Central

    Ibrahim, Mohd Hafiz; Jaafar, Hawa Z. E.; Rahmat, Asmah; Rahman, Zaharah Abdul

    2012-01-01

    A split plot 3 by 4 experiment was designed to characterize the relationship between production of gluthatione (GSH), oxidized gluthatione (GSSG), total flavonoid, anthocyanin, ascorbic acid and antioxidant activities (FRAP and DPPH) in three varieties of Labisia pumila Blume, namely the varieties alata, pumila and lanceolata, under four levels of nitrogen fertilization (0, 90, 180 and 270 kg N/ha) for 15 weeks. The treatment effects were solely contributed by nitrogen application; there was neither varietal nor interaction effects observed. As the nitrogen levels decreased from 270 to 0 kg N/ha, the production of GSH and GSSG, anthocyanin, total flavonoid and ascorbic acid increased steadily. At the highest nitrogen treatment level, L. pumila exhibited significantly lower antioxidant activities (DPPH and FRAP) than those exposed to limited nitrogen growing conditions. Significant positive correlation was obtained between antioxidant activities (DPPH and FRAP), total flavonoid, GSH, GSSG, anthocyanin and ascorbic acid suggesting that an increase in the antioxidative activities in L. pumila under low nitrogen fertilization could be attributed to higher contents of these compounds. From this observation, it could be concluded that in order to avoid negative effects on the quality of L. pumila, it is advisable to avoid excessive application of nitrogen fertilizer when cultivating the herb for its medicinal use. PMID:22312260

  16. Evaluation of antioxidant potential and reduction capacity of some plant extracts in silver nanoparticles' synthesis

    PubMed Central

    Goodarzi, Vahid; Zamani, Hajar; Bajuli, Leila; Moradshahi, Ali

    2014-01-01

    The green synthesis of metallic nanoparticles is an active research area in nanotechnology. In the present study, antioxidant potential, total reducing capacity and silver nanoparticles' (Ag NPs) synthetic potential of methanolic leaf extracts of seven plant species were evaluated and compared. Antioxidant capacity, expressed as µmol Trolox equivalents g-1 DW (µmol TE g-1 DW), ranged from 116.0 to 1.80. The plants Rosmarinus sp. and Zataria Multiflora showed highest antioxidant capacities with IC50 of 1.07 and 1.22 mg ml-1, respectively. Total reducing capacity ranged from 7.6 to 0.17 mg gallic acid equivalent to g-1 DW (mg GAE g-1 DW). Plants with high antioxidant potentials also showed higher total reducing capacity. In fact, the order of the plants' reducing capacity was similar to that of their antioxidant potential. The same two plant species, i.e., Zataria Multiflora and Rosmarinus sp, with high reducing capacities, showed higher potentials for Ag NPs synthesis. It is concluded that reducing substances in the extracts contribute significantly to the antioxidant potential of the tested plant species, and plants with a high reducing capacity are excellent sources for the green synthesis of metallic nanoparticles. In addition, synthetic antioxidants have adverse effects on human health; therefore, to benefit more from the health promoting properties of plant species, evaluating their novel natural antioxidants is recommended. PMID:27843980

  17. Meat texture and antioxidant status are improved when carnosic acid is included in the diet of fattening lambs.

    PubMed

    Morán, Lara; Andrés, Sonia; Bodas, Raúl; Prieto, Nuria; Giráldez, F Javier

    2012-08-01

    Thirty-two Merino lambs fed barley straw and a concentrate alone (CONTROL group) or enriched with carnosic acid [0.6 g kg(-1) dry matter (DM), CARN006 group; 1.2 g kg(-1) DM, CARN012 group] or vitamin E (0.6 g kg(-1) DM, VITE006 group) were used to assess the effect of these antioxidant compounds on meat quality. After being fed the experimental diets for at least 5 weeks, the animals were slaughtered with the 25 kg intended body weight and the different muscles (longissimus lumborum; LL, gluteus medius; GM) were sliced and kept refrigerated under modified atmosphere packaging during 0, 7 and 14 days. The results indicate that carnosic acid seemed to be useful to delay lipid peroxidation in a medium colour-stable muscle such as GM, but this effect was lower than that observed when vitamin E was supplemented to fattening lambs. On the contrary, meat texture and protection against cholesterol oxidation were equally improved with both compounds.

  18. Alleviation of alcoholic liver injury by betaine involves an enhancement of antioxidant defense via regulation of sulfur amino acid metabolism.

    PubMed

    Jung, Young Suk; Kim, Sun Ju; Kwon, Do Young; Ahn, Chul Won; Kim, Young Soon; Choi, Dal Woong; Kim, Young Chul

    2013-12-01

    Previous studies suggested that the hepatoprotective activity of betaine is associated with its effects on sulfur amino acid metabolism. We examined the mechanism by which betaine prevents the progression of alcoholic liver injury and its therapeutic potential. Rats received a liquid ethanol diet for 6 wk. Ethanol consumption elevated serum triglyceride and TNFα levels, alanine aminotransferase and aspartate aminotransferase activities, and lipid accumulation in liver. The oxyradical scavenging capacity of liver was reduced, and expression of CD14, TNFα, COX-2, and iNOS mRNAs was induced markedly. These ethanol-induced changes were all inhibited effectively by betaine supplementation. Hepatic S-adenosylmethionine, cysteine, and glutathione levels, reduced in the ethanol-fed rats, were increased by betaine supplementation. Methionine adenosyltransferase and cystathionine γ-lyase were induced, but cysteine dioxygenase was down-regulated, which appeared to account for the increment in cysteine availability for glutathione synthesis in the rats supplemented with betaine. Betaine supplementation for the final 2 wk of ethanol intake resulted in a similar degree of hepatoprotection, revealing its potential therapeutic value in alcoholic liver. It is concluded that the protective effects of betaine against alcoholic liver injury may be attributed to the fortification of antioxidant defense via improvement of impaired sulfur amino acid metabolism.

  19. In vitro antioxidant, anticholinesterase and antimicrobial activity studies on three Agaricus species with fatty acid compositions and iron contents: a comparative study on the three most edible mushrooms.

    PubMed

    Öztürk, Mehmet; Duru, Mehmet Emin; Kivrak, Seyda; Mercan-Doğan, Nazime; Türkoglu, Aziz; Özler, Mehmet Ali

    2011-06-01

    The fatty acids of Agaricus essettei, Agaricus bitorquis and Agaricus bisporus were investigated by using GC and GC-MS. The dominant fatty acids were found to be linoleic (61.82-67.29%) and palmitic (12.67-14.71%) acids among the 13 fatty acids detected in the oils. Total unsaturation for the oils was calculated as 77.50%, 77.44%, and 79.72%, respectively. In vitro antioxidant, anticholinesterase and antimicrobial activities were also studied. The ethyl acetate extract of Agaricus bitorquis showed the highest activity in β-carotene-linoleic acid, DPPH(·) and ABTS(·)(+) assays, while the hexane extract of Agaricus bisporus exhibited the best metal chelating activity. The ethyl acetate and hexane extract of Agaricus bitorquis and the hexane extract of Agaricus essettei showed meaningful butyrylcholinesterase activity being close to that of galantamine. The extracts were found to be effective on Gram (+) bacteria, especially against Micrococcus luteus, Micrococcus flavus, Bacillus subtilis and Bacillus cereus. In conclusion, Agaricus bitorquis and Agaricus essettei demonstrated higher iron content, and better antioxidant, anticholinesterase and antimicrobial activities than those of Agaricus bisporus commonly consumed mushroom. Hence, Agaricus species, particularly Agaricus bitorquis might be useful as antioxidant agents and moderate anticholinesterase agents, and their extracts will probably be used for development of dietary foods, food products and additives.

  20. Comparative analysis of caffeoylquinic acids and lignans in roots and seeds among various burdock (Arctium lappa) genotypes with high antioxidant activity.

    PubMed

    Liu, Jingyi; Cai, Yi-Zhong; Wong, Ricky Ngok Shun; Lee, Calvin Kai-Fai; Tang, Sydney Chi Wai; Sze, Stephen Cho Wing; Tong, Yao; Zhang, Yanbo

    2012-04-25

    Caffeoylquinic acids and lignans in the crude extracts of both roots and seeds from different burdock ( Arctium lappa L.) genotypes were simultaneously characterized and systematically compared by LC-MS and matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization quadrupole ion trap time-of-flight mass spectrometry (MALDI-QIT-TOF MS), and their antioxidant activities were also investigated. A total of 14 lignans were identified in burdock seeds and 12 caffeoylquinic acids in burdock roots. High levels of caffeoylquinic acids were also detected in burdock seeds, but only trace amounts of lignans were found in burdock roots. Burdock seeds contained higher concentrations of lignans and caffeoylquinic acids than burdock roots. Quantitative analysis of caffeoylquinic acids and lignans in roots and seeds of various burdock genotypes was reported for the first time. Great variations in contents of both individual and total phenolic compounds as well as antioxidant activities were found among different genotypes. Burdock as a root vegetable or medicinal plants possessed considerably stronger antioxidant activity than common vegetables and fruits.

  1. Impaired oxidant/antioxidant status and LDL-fatty acid composition are associated with increased susceptibility to peroxidation of LDL in diabetic patients.

    PubMed

    Merzouk, S; Hichami, A; Sari, A; Madani, S; Merzouk, H; Yahia Berrouiguet, A; Lenoir-Rousseaux, J J; Chabane-Sari, N; Khan, N A

    2004-12-01

    This study was carried out to determine the relationships between oxidant/antioxidant status, in vitro LDL oxidizability and LDL-fatty acid composition in diabetes mellitus. Plasma total antioxidant capacity (oxygen radical absorbance capacity, ORAC) and LDL-cholesteryl ester fatty acids were investigated in type 1 and type 2 diabetic subjects with and without complications. The degree of LDL oxidation was determined by the measurement of hydroperoxide levels before and after in vitro peroxidative stress with CuSO4. ORAC values were decreased in diabetic subjects who showed high basal hydroperoxide levels. Oxidizability of LDL in these subjects was higher than in control subjects and it was unrelated to LDL-fatty acid composition. However, in type 2 diabetic subjects with complications, alterations in LDL-fatty acid composition were associated with their enhanced oxidative susceptibility. LDL-fatty acid alterations might be an additional factor that influences LDL oxidizability especially in type 2 diabetes. In conclusion, diabetes mellitus is associated with enhanced oxidative stress and defective antioxidant/oxidant balance regardless the type of diabetes and presence of complications.

  2. Jasmonic Acid Modulates the Physio-Biochemical Attributes, Antioxidant Enzyme Activity, and Gene Expression in Glycine max under Nickel Toxicity

    PubMed Central

    Sirhindi, Geetika; Mir, Mudaser Ahmad; Abd-Allah, Elsayed Fathi; Ahmad, Parvaiz; Gucel, Salih

    2016-01-01

    In present study, we evaluated the effects of Jasmonic acid (JA) on physio-biochemical attributes, antioxidant enzyme activity, and gene expression in soybean (Glycine max L.) plants subjected to nickel (Ni) stress. Ni stress decreases the shoot and root length and chlorophyll content by 37.23, 38.31, and 39.21%, respectively, over the control. However, application of JA was found to improve the chlorophyll content and length of shoot and root of Ni-fed seedlings. Plants supplemented with JA restores the chlorophyll fluorescence, which was disturbed by Ni stress. The present study demonstrated increase in proline, glycinebetaine, total protein, and total soluble sugar (TSS) by 33.09, 51.26, 22.58, and 49.15%, respectively, under Ni toxicity over the control. Addition of JA to Ni stressed plants further enhanced the above parameters. Ni stress increases hydrogen peroxide (H2O2) by 68.49%, lipid peroxidation (MDA) by 50.57% and NADPH oxidase by 50.92% over the control. Supplementation of JA minimizes the accumulation of H2O2, MDA, and NADPH oxidase, which helps in stabilization of biomolecules. The activities of superoxide dismutase (SOD), peroxidase (POD), catalase (CAT), and ascorbate peroxidase (APX) increases by 40.04, 28.22, 48.53, and 56.79%, respectively, over the control in Ni treated seedlings and further enhancement in the antioxidant activity was observed by the application of JA. Ni treated soybean seedlings showed increase in expression of Fe-SOD by 77.62, CAT by 15.25, POD by 58.33, and APX by 80.58% over the control. Nevertheless, application of JA further enhanced the expression of the above genes in the present study. Our results signified that Ni stress caused negative impacts on soybean seedlings, but, co-application of JA facilitate the seedlings to combat the detrimental effects of Ni through enhanced osmolytes, activity of antioxidant enzymes and gene expression. PMID:27242811

  3. High conjugated linoleic acid enriched ghee (clarified butter) increases the antioxidant and antiatherogenic potency in female Wistar rats

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Hypercholesterolemia and oxidative stress are the main stimulating factors responsible for coronary artery disease and progression of atherosclerosis. Dairy food products are rich in conjugated linoleic acid (CLA) which is considered as an important component due to its potential health benefits such as anticarcinogenic, antiatherogenic, antidiabetic and antiadipogenic properties. In the present study, the effect of CLA enriched ghee on the antioxidant enzyme system and antiatherogenic properties in Wistar rats has been studied. Methods Female Wistar rats of 21 days were taken for the study and fed with soybean diet (Control diet), low CLA diet and high CLA ghee diet (treatments) for thirty five days for studying antioxidative enzymes and sixteen weeks in case of antiatherogenic studies. Results Feeding of high CLA enhanced ghee during pubescent period in rats lead to an increase in catalase (CAT) and superoxide dismutase (SOD) enzyme activities in blood and increased CAT, SOD and glutathione transferase (GST) enzymes activities in liver by 27, 130 and 168 percent, respectively. Plasma nitrate concentration and Haemoglobin levels remained the same in all the treatments. Feeding of high CLA ghee resulted in lower (P < 0.01) plasma cholesterol & triglyceride level (52.17 and 30.27%), and higher high density lipoproteins (33.26%) than feeding of soybean oil (control group) and thus manifested in decreased (P < 0.05) atherogenic index (from 0.472 to 0.244). Lesser cholesterol and triglyceride levels were observed in the liver and aorta of high CLA fed rats than in those of the other groups. Histopathological studies of liver showed normal hepatic cords with portal triad in the high CLA ghee fed rats whereas fatty degeneration of hepatocytes containing fat vacuoles was observed in the liver of the other groups. Conclusion This paper is the first report of the antioxidant and antiatherogenic properties of the high CLA enriched ghee suggesting that

  4. Sulforaphane Ameliorates Okadaic Acid-Induced Memory Impairment in Rats by Activating the Nrf2/HO-1 Antioxidant Pathway.

    PubMed

    Dwivedi, Subhash; Rajasekar, N; Hanif, Kashif; Nath, Chandishwar; Shukla, Rakesh

    2016-10-01

    Okadaic acid (OKA) causes memory impairment and attenuates nuclear factor erythroid 2-related factor 2 (Nrf2) along with oxidative stress and neuroinflammation in rats. Sulforaphane (dietary isothiocyanate compound), an activator of Nrf2 signaling, exhibits neuroprotective effects. However, the protective effect of sulforaphane in OKA-induced neurotoxicity remains uninvestigated. Therefore, in the present study, the role of sulforaphane in OKA-induced memory impairment in rats was explored. A significant increased Nrf2 expression in the hippocampus and cerebral cortex was observed in trained (Morris water maze) rats, and a significant decreased Nrf2 expression in memory-impaired (OKA, 200 ng icv) rats indicated its involvement in memory function. Sulforaphane administration (5 and 10 mg/kg, ip, days 1 and 2) ameliorates OKA-induced memory impairment in rats. The treatment also restored Nrf2 and its downstream antioxidant protein expression (GCLC, HO-1) and attenuated oxidative stress (ROS, nitrite, GSH), neuroinflammation (NF-κB, TNF-α, IL-10), and neuronal apoptosis in the cerebral cortex and hippocampus of OKA-treated rats. Further, to determine whether modulation of Nrf2 signaling is responsible for the protective effect of sulforaphane, in vitro, Nrf2 siRNA and its downstream HO-1 inhibition studies were carried out in a rat astrocytoma cell line (C6). The protective effects of sulforaphane were abolished with Nrf2 siRNA and HO-1 inhibition in astrocytes. The results suggest that Nrf2-dependent activation of cellular antioxidant machinery results in sulforaphane-mediated protection against OKA-induced memory impairment in rats. Graphical Abstract ᅟ.

  5. Salicylic acid mediates antioxidant defense system and ABA pathway related gene expression in Oryza sativa against quinclorac toxicity.

    PubMed

    Wang, Jian; Lv, Mengting; Islam, Faisal; Gill, Rafaqat A; Yang, Chong; Ali, Basharat; Yan, Guijun; Zhou, Weijun

    2016-11-01

    The auxin herbicide quinclorac is widely used for controlling weeds in transplanted and direct-seeded rice fields. However, its phytotoxic responses on rice are still unknown. Therefore, in the present investigation we studied the effects of different concentrations (0, 0.1 and 0.5g/L) of quinclorac herbicide on the physiological and biochemical changes of two rice cultivars (XS 134 and ZJ 88) and further analyzed the ameliorating role of salicylic acid (SA) on quinclorac toxicity in rice plants. The results revealed that exogenous application of SA significantly increased plant biomass and total chlorophyll contents in herbicide stressed plants. The lipid peroxidation and ROS (H2O2, O2(-.), (-)OH) production were significantly increased in roots and leaves of both rice cultivars under quinclorac stress, demonstrating an oxidative burst in rice plants. Whereas, application of SA significantly lowered ROS contents under quinclorac stress. Further, exogenous SA treatment significantly modulated antioxidant enzymes and enhanced GSH concentration in stress plants. Anatomical observations of leaf and root revealed that herbicide affected internal structures, while SA played a vital role in protection from toxic effects. Expression analysis of stress hormone ABA genes (OsABA8oxs, OsNCEDs) revealed that quinclorac application enhanced stress condition in cultivar ZJ 88, while SA treatment downregulated ABA genes more in cultivar XS 134, which correlated with the enhanced tolerance to quinclorac induced oxidative stress in this cultivar. The present study delineated that SA played a critical role under quinclorac stress in both rice cultivars by regulating antioxidant defense system, reducing ROS formation and preventing the degradation of internal cell organelles.

  6. Nuclear-localized AtHSPR links abscisic acid-dependent salt tolerance and antioxidant defense in Arabidopsis.

    PubMed

    Yang, Tao; Zhang, Liang; Hao, Hongyan; Zhang, Peng; Zhu, Haowei; Cheng, Wei; Wang, Yongli; Wang, Xinyu; Wang, Chongying

    2015-12-01

    Salt stress from soil or irrigation water limits plant growth. A T-DNA insertion mutant in C24, named athspr (Arabidopsis thaliana heat shock protein-related), showed several phenotypes, including reduced organ size and enhanced sensitivity to environmental cues. The athspr mutant is severely impaired under salinity levels at which wild-type (WT) plants grow normally. AtHSPR encodes a nuclear-localized protein with ATPase activity, and its expression was enhanced by high salinity and abscisic acid (ABA). Overexpression (OE) of AtHSPR significantly enhanced tolerance to salt stress by increasing the activities of the antioxidant system and by maintaining K(+) /Na(+) homeostasis. Quantitative RT-PCR analyses showed that OE of AtHSPR increased the expression of ABA/stress-responsive, salt overly sensitive (SOS)-related and antioxidant-related genes. In addition, ABA content was reduced in athspr plants with or without salt stress, and exogenous ABA restored WT-like salt tolerance to athspr plants. athspr exhibited increased leaf stomatal density and stomatal index, slower ABA-induced stomatal closure and reduced drought tolerance relative to the WT. AtHSPR OE enhanced drought tolerance by reducing leaf water loss and stomatal aperture. Transcript profiling in athspr showed a differential salt-stress response for genes involved in accumulation of reactive oxygen species (ROS), ABA signaling, cell death, stress response and photosynthesis. Taken together, our results suggested that AtHSPR is involved in salt tolerance in Arabidopsis through modulation of ROS levels, ABA-dependent stomatal closure, photosynthesis and K(+) /Na(+) homeostasis.

  7. Nitric Oxide Mediates 5-Aminolevulinic Acid-Induced Antioxidant Defense in Leaves of Elymus nutans Griseb. Exposed to Chilling Stress.

    PubMed

    Fu, Juanjuan; Chu, Xitong; Sun, Yongfang; Miao, Yanjun; Xu, Yuefei; Hu, Tianming

    2015-01-01

    Nitric oxide (NO) and 5-aminolevulinic acid (ALA) are both extremely important signalling molecules employed by plants to control many aspects of physiology. In the present study, the role of NO in ALA-induced antioxidant defense in leaves of two sources of Elymus nutans Griseb. (Damxung, DX and Zhengdao, ZD) was investigated. Chilling stress enhanced electrolyte leakage, accumulation of malondialdehyde (MDA), hydrogen peroxide (H2O2) and superoxide radical in two E. nutans, which were substantially alleviated by exogenous ALA and NO application. Pretreatment with NO scavenger PTIO or NOS inhibitor L-NNA alone and in combination with ALA induced enhancements in electrolyte leakage and the accumulation of MDA, H2O2 and superoxide radical in leaves of DX and ZD exposed to chilling stress, indicating that the inhibition of NO biosynthesis reduced the chilling resistance of E. nutans and the ALA-enhanced chilling resistance. Further analyses showed that ALA and NO enhanced antioxidant defense and activated plasma membrane (PM) H+-ATPase and decreased the accumulation of ROS induced by chilling stress. A pronounced increase in nitric oxide synthase (NOS) activity and NO release by exogenous ALA treatment was found in chilling-resistant DX plants exposed to chilling stress, while only a little increase was observed in chilling-sensitive ZD. Furthermore, inhibition of NO accumulation by PTIO or L-NNA blocked the protective effect of exogenous ALA, while both exogenous NO treatment and inhibition of endogenous NO accumulation did not induce ALA production. These results suggested that NO might be a downstream signal mediating ALA-induced chilling resistance in E. nutans.

  8. Synthesis, structural elucidation, biological, antioxidant and nuclease activities of some 5-Fluorouracil-amino acid mixed ligand complexes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shobana, Sutha; Subramaniam, Perumal; Mitu, Liviu; Dharmaraja, Jeyaprakash; Arvind Narayan, Sundaram

    2015-01-01

    Some biologically active mixed ligand complexes (1-9) have been synthesized from 5-Fluorouracil (5-FU; A) and amino acids (B) such as glycine (gly), L-alanine (ala) and L-valine (val) with Ni(II), Cu(II) and Zn(II) ions. The synthesized mixed ligand complexes (1-9) were characterized by various physico-chemical, spectral, thermal and morphological studies. 5-Fluorouracil and its mixed ligand complexes have been tested for their in vitro biological activities against some pathogenic bacterial and fungal species by the agar well diffusion method. The in vitro antioxidant activities of 5-Fluorouracil and its complexes have also been investigated by using the DPPH assay method. The results demonstrate that Cu(II) mixed ligand complexes (4-6) exhibit potent biological as well as antioxidant activities compared to 5-Fluorouracil and Ni(II) (1-3) and Zn(II) (7-9) mixed ligand complexes. Further, the cleaving activities of CT DNA under aerobic conditions show moderate activity with the synthesized Cu(II) and Ni(II) mixed ligand complexes (1-6) while no activity is seen with Zn(II) complexes (7-9). Binding studies of CT DNA with these complexes show a decrease in intensity of the charge transfer band to the extent of 5-15% along with a minor red shift. The free energy change values (Δ‡G) calculated from intrinsic binding constants indicate that the interaction between mixed ligand complex and DNA is spontaneous.

  9. Synthesis, structural elucidation, biological, antioxidant and nuclease activities of some 5-Fluorouracil-amino acid mixed ligand complexes.

    PubMed

    Shobana, Sutha; Subramaniam, Perumal; Mitu, Liviu; Dharmaraja, Jeyaprakash; Arvind Narayan, Sundaram

    2015-01-05

    Some biologically active mixed ligand complexes (1-9) have been synthesized from 5-Fluorouracil (5-FU; A) and amino acids (B) such as glycine (gly), L-alanine (ala) and L-valine (val) with Ni(II), Cu(II) and Zn(II) ions. The synthesized mixed ligand complexes (1-9) were characterized by various physico-chemical, spectral, thermal and morphological studies. 5-Fluorouracil and its mixed ligand complexes have been tested for their in vitro biological activities against some pathogenic bacterial and fungal species by the agar well diffusion method. The in vitro antioxidant activities of 5-Fluorouracil and its complexes have also been investigated by using the DPPH assay method. The results demonstrate that Cu(II) mixed ligand complexes (4-6) exhibit potent biological as well as antioxidant activities compared to 5-Fluorouracil and Ni(II) (1-3) and Zn(II) (7-9) mixed ligand complexes. Further, the cleaving activities of CT DNA under aerobic conditions show moderate activity with the synthesized Cu(II) and Ni(II) mixed ligand complexes (1-6) while no activity is seen with Zn(II) complexes (7-9). Binding studies of CT DNA with these complexes show a decrease in intensity of the charge transfer band to the extent of 5-15% along with a minor red shift. The free energy change values (Δ(‡)G) calculated from intrinsic binding constants indicate that the interaction between mixed ligand complex and DNA is spontaneous.

  10. Amaranth dye in the evaluation of bleaching of cerium (IV) by antioxidants: application in food and medicinal plants.

    PubMed

    Nagaraja, Padmarajaiah; Aradhana, Narayanan; Suma, Anandamurthy; Chamaraja, Nelligere Arkeswaraiah; Shivakumar, Anantharaman; Ramya, Kolar Venkatachala

    2012-09-01

    A simple, low-cost, sensitive, and diversely applicable spectrophotometric method for the determination of total antioxidant capacity of several medicinal plants and food has been developed. The method is based on the bleaching of cerium (IV) by antioxidants and dye in slightly acid medium at room temperature. The unbleached dye, imparting pink color to the solution, is measured at λ(max) 530 nm which is directly proportional to the antioxidant concentration. The method is reproducible, and the trolox equivalent antioxidant capacities (TEAC coefficients) of the tested antioxidant compounds were correlated with those found by reference method such as ABTS. The recommended method was applied for the determination of total antioxidant capacity of medicinal and food samples. The performance of the recommended method was evaluated in terms of Student's t-test and variance ratio F-test, which indicated the significance of proposed method over the reference method.

  11. Amaranth dye in the evaluation of bleaching of cerium (IV) by antioxidants: Application in food and medicinal plants

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nagaraja, Padmarajaiah; Aradhana, Narayanan; Suma, Anandamurthy; Chamaraja, Nelligere Arkeswaraiah; Shivakumar, Anantharaman; Ramya, Kolar Venkatachala

    A simple, low-cost, sensitive, and diversely applicable spectrophotometric method for the determination of total antioxidant capacity of several medicinal plants and food has been developed. The method is based on the bleaching of cerium (IV) by antioxidants and dye in slightly acid medium at room temperature. The unbleached dye, imparting pink color to the solution, is measured at λmax 530 nm which is directly proportional to the antioxidant concentration. The method is reproducible, and the trolox equivalent antioxidant capacities (TEAC coefficients) of the tested antioxidant compounds were correlated with those found by reference method such as ABTS. The recommended method was applied for the determination of total antioxidant capacity of medicinal and food samples. The performance of the recommended method was evaluated in terms of Student's t-test and variance ratio F-test, which indicated the significance of proposed method over the reference method.

  12. Fatty acids and sterols composition, and antioxidant activity of oils extracted from plant seeds.

    PubMed

    Kozłowska, Mariola; Gruczyńska, Eliza; Ścibisz, Iwona; Rudzińska, Magdalena

    2016-12-15

    This study determined and compared the contents of bioactive components in plant seed oils extracted with n-hexane (Soxhlet method) and chloroform/methanol (Folch method) from coriander, caraway, anise, nutmeg and white mustard seeds. Oleic acid dominated among unsaturated fatty acids in nutmeg and anise seed oils while petroselinic acid was present in coriander and caraway oils. Concerning sterols, β-sitosterol was the main component in seed oils extracted with both methods. The content of total phenolics in nutmeg, white mustard and coriander seed oils extracted with chloroform/methanol was higher than in their counterparts prepared with n-hexane. The seed oil samples extracted according to the Folch method exhibited a higher ability to scavenge DPPH radicals compared to the oil samples prepared with the Soxhlet method. DPPH values of the methanolic extracts derived from oils produced with the Folch method were also higher than in the oils extracted with n-hexane.

  13. A trimethoxyellagic acid glucuronide from Conocarpus erectus leaves: isolation, characterization and assay of antioxidant capacity.

    PubMed

    Ayoub, Nahla A

    2010-03-01

    The new trimethoxy-ellagic glycoside, 3,3',4'-tri-O-methylellagic acid 4-O-beta-glucupyranuronide and twelve known phenolics were isolated from the leaves of Conocarpus erectus L. (Combretaceae). Structures of all compounds were determined on the basis of spectroscopic methods and chemical degradation. The new compound, together with four of the isolated known constituents and the plant extract itself, showed potent inhibitory effect against reactive oxygen species attack on salicylic acid in a dose-dependent manner adopting xanthine/hypoxanthine oxidase assay.

  14. Long-chain omega 3 fatty acids: molecular bases of potential antioxidant actions.

    PubMed

    Giordano, Elena; Visioli, Francesco

    2014-01-01

    Several lines of investigation are being developed to assess the impact of polyunsaturated fatty acids, namely those of the omega 3 series, intake on oxidative stress. Keeping in mind that there might be a dose-response relation, in vivo and in vitro data strongly suggest that omega 3 fatty acids might act as anti- rather than pro-oxidant in several cells such as vascular cells, hence diminishing inflammation, oxidative stress, and, in turn, the risk of atherosclerosis and degenerative disorders such as cardiovascular disease.

  15. Assessment of antioxidant activity by using different in vitro methods.

    PubMed

    Schlesier, K; Harwat, M; Böhm, V; Bitsch, R

    2002-02-01

    In this study, six common tests for measuring antioxidant activity were evaluated by comparing four antioxidants and applying them to beverages (tea and juices): Trolox equivalent antioxidant capacity assay (TEAC I-III assay), Total radical-trapping antioxidant parameter assay (TRAP assay), 2,2-diphenyl-l-picrylhydrazyl assay (DPPH assay), N,N-dimethyl-p-phenylendiamine assay (DMPD assay), Photochemiluminescence assay (PCL assay) and Ferric reducing ability of plasma assay (FRAP assay). The antioxidants included gallic acid representing the group of polyphenols, uric acid as the main antioxidant in human plasma, ascorbic acid as a vitamin widely spread in fruits and Trolox as water soluble vitamin E analogue. The six methods presented can be divided into two groups depending on the oxidising reagent. Five methods use organic radical producers (TEAC I-III, TRAP, DPPH, DMPD, PCL) and one method works with metal ions for oxidation (FRAP). Another difference between these tests is the reaction procedure. Three assays use the delay in oxidation and determine the lag phase as parameter for the antioxidant activity (TEAC I, TRAP, PCL). They determine the delay of radical generation as well as the ability to scavenge the radical. In contrast, the assays TEAC II and III, DPPH, DMPD and FRAP analyse the ability to reduce the radical cation (TEAC II and III, DPPH, DMPD) or the ferric ion (FRAP). The three tests acting by radical reduction use preformed radicals and determine the decrease in absorbance while the FRAP assay measures the formed ferrous ions by increased absorbance. Gallic acid was the strongest antioxidant in all tests with exception of the DMPD assay. In contrast, uric acid and ascorbic acid showed low activity in some assays. Most of the assays determine the antioxidant activity in the micromolar range needing minutes to hours. Only one assay (PCL) is able to analyse the antioxidant activity in the nanomolar range. Black currant juice showed highest

  16. Effect of fatty acid profile in vegetable oils and antioxidant supplementation on dairy cattle performance and milk fat depression.

    PubMed

    He, M; Armentano, L E

    2011-05-01

    This study was conducted to evaluate the effect of dietary supplementation of unprotected vegetable oils differing in fatty acid profiles with or without a commercial antioxidant (Agrado Plus, Novus International, St. Charles, MO) on dairy cattle performance, milk fatty acid profiles, and milk fat depression. Twenty-four multiparous Holstein cows were blocked by production (high and low) and assigned to Agrado Plus or no Agrado Plus diets as the main plot in this experiment. The 6 cows in each of the fixed effect groups (high with and without Agrado, low with and without Agrado) were then assigned to a 6 × 6 Latin square as a split plot with 21-d periods. The 6 dietary treatments in the split-plot Latin square were no added oil (control), or 5% DM as oil from palm (PO), high-oleic safflower (OSAF), high-linoleic safflower (LSAF), linseed (LNSD), or corn (CO). Added oil replaced corn starch in the total mixed ration. Diets were formulated to have similar crude protein and neutral detergent fiber, and consisted of 41.2% alfalfa silage, 18.3% corn silage, and 40.5% concentrate mix (dry matter basis). Feeding Agrado Plus did not affect milk, milk fat, or milk protein production or milk fatty acid composition in this study. No significant differences were found between oil feeding versus control for dry matter intake, milk yield, and milk protein yield, but oils other than PO significantly decreased milk fat concentration and proportion and yield of milk short- and medium-chain fatty acids (C(<16)). Feeding PO effectively maintained milk fat yield (1.18 kg/d) and concentration (3.44%), whereas the oils rich in linoleic acid (CO and LSAF) significantly decreased milk fat yield (0.98 and 0.86 vs. 1.14 kg/d) and concentration (3.05 and 2.83 vs. 3.41%) compared with control. Similar lactation performance between OSAF and LNSD suggests that oleic and linolenic acids are roughly equal in potency of milk fat depression.

  17. Antioxidant activity and sensory evaluation of a rosmarinic acid-enriched extract of Salvia officinalis

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    An extract of S. officinalis (garden sage) was developed using supercritical fluid extraction, followed by hot water extraction. The resulting extract was enriched in polyphenols, including rosmarinic acid (RA), which has shown promising health benefits in animals. The extract contained RA at a conc...

  18. Antioxidant activity and sensory assessment of a rosmarinic acid-enriched extract of Salvia officinalis

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    An extract of S. officinalis (garden sage) was prepared using supercritical carbon dioxide (SC-CO2) extraction, followed by a Soxhlet hot water extraction. The resulting extract was enriched in polyphenols, including rosmarinic acid (RA), which has shown promising health benefits in animals. The ext...

  19. Hemolysis of human erythrocytes by hypochlorous acid is modulated by amino acids, antioxidants, oxidants, membrane-perforating agents and by divalent metals.

    PubMed

    Ginsburg, Isaac; Sadovnic, Milu; Yedgar, Shaul; Kohen, Ron; Hrbac, Jan

    2002-06-01

    The optimal conditions under which hypochlorous acid (NaOCl) either hemolyzes human RBC or kills monkey kidney epithelial cells (BGM) in culture had been investigated. While in Hank's balanced salt solution (HBSS), micromolar amounts of NaOCl caused full hemolysis and also killed BGM cells, in D-MEM or RPMI media rich in amino acids, 25-40 mM of hypochlorite were needed to induce cell injury. Cells exposed to high amounts of NaOCl became highly refractory to strong detergents. Hemolysis by NaOCl was strongly inhibited by a large variety of antioxidants. RBC treated by subtoxic concentrations either of peroxide, peroxyl radical, NO, cholesterol, PLA2, PLC as well as by N2, argon or by mixture of CO2 (10%) and O2 (90%) became much more susceptible to lysis by NaOCl. On the other hand, while RBC treated by Fe2+, Co2+, and V2+ and to a lesser extent with Cu2+ became highly resistant to NaOCl hemolysis presumably due to NaOCl decomposition, no such effect was found either with Co2+ or by Mn2+. RBC treated by azide to destroy catalase and then incubated with peroxide and with NaOCl failed to undergo hemolysis due to the ability of peroxide to decompose NaOCl. The inhibitory effects of the divalent metals on NaOCl-induced hemolysis were also substantiated by measuring the decrease in pH and by cyclic voltammetry. The findings that like peroxide, NaOCl also synergizes with membrane-perforating agents and with a protease to kill epithelial cells further implicate such "cocktails" in cell injury in inflammatory conditions. Taken together, because of the capacity of many agents to scavenge NaOCl, tissue damage by NaOCl-generated neutrophils can take place primarily if activated neutrophils closely adhere to target cells to avoid the scavenging effects of amino acids and of antioxidants. Therefore, the significance of the data which had tested the cytotoxic effects of NaOCl using cells suspended only in salt solutions, should be reconsidered.

  20. Evaluation of γ- aminobutyric acid, phytate and antioxidant activity of tempeh-like fermented oats (Avena sativa L.) prepared with different filamentous fungi.

    PubMed

    Cai, Shengbao; Gao, Fengyi; Zhang, Xudong; Wang, Ou; Wu, Wei; Zhu, Songjie; Zhang, Di; Zhou, Feng; Ji, Baoping

    2014-10-01

    Tempeh is a popular traditional fermented food in Asia. Many tempeh-like foods are made from cereal grains. However, the information of γ-aminobutyric acid (GABA) accumulation in those tempeh-like cereal grains during fermentation is lacking. Meanwhile, little information is available on the anti-nutrient contents and antioxidant activity of tempeh-like fermented oats. The aim of the present work was to study the changes of GABA, phytate, natural antioxidants and antioxidant activity of tempeh-like fermented oats. As fermentation time progressed, the GABA, total phenolics content (TPC) and flavonoids increased rapidly. The Aspergillus oryzae-fermented oats had the highest GABA, whereas Rhizopus oryzae-fermented oats had the highest TPC. Phytate, an anti-nutrient component, was dramatically reduced in the fermented oats, especially those by A. oryzae (reduced by about 63 %). The antioxidant activities of fermented oats were also significantly enhanced after 72 h fermentation (p < 0.05). This study demonstrated that oats fermented by generally recognized as safe (GRAS) fungi can be recommended as tempeh-like functional foods with higher GABA, more natural antioxidants and lower phytate compared with native oats.

  1. Phosphorylation of a NAC Transcription Factor by a Calcium/Calmodulin-Dependent Protein Kinase Regulates Abscisic Acid-Induced Antioxidant Defense in Maize.

    PubMed

    Zhu, Yuan; Yan, Jingwei; Liu, Weijuan; Liu, Lei; Sheng, Yu; Sun, Yue; Li, Yanyun; Scheller, Henrik Vibe; Jiang, Mingyi; Hou, Xilin; Ni, Lan; Zhang, Aying

    2016-07-01

    Calcium/calmodulin-dependent protein kinase (CCaMK) has been shown to play an important role in abscisic acid (ABA)-induced antioxidant defense and enhance the tolerance of plants to drought stress. However, its downstream molecular events are poorly understood. Here, we identify a NAC transcription factor, ZmNAC84, in maize (Zea mays), which physically interacts with ZmCCaMK in vitro and in vivo. ZmNAC84 displays a partially overlapping expression pattern with ZmCCaMK after ABA treatment, and H2O2 is required for ABA-induced ZmNAC84 expression. Functional analysis reveals that ZmNAC84 is essential for ABA-induced antioxidant defense in a ZmCCaMK-dependent manner. Furthermore, ZmCCaMK directly phosphorylates Ser-113 of ZmNAC84 in vitro, and Ser-113 is essential for the ABA-induced stimulation of antioxidant defense by ZmCCaMK. Moreover, overexpression of ZmNAC84 in tobacco (Nicotiana tabacum) can improve drought tolerance and alleviate drought-induced oxidative damage of transgenic plants. These results define a mechanism for ZmCCaMK function in ABA-induced antioxidant defense, where ABA-produced H2O2 first induces expression of ZmCCaMK and ZmNAC84 and activates ZmCCaMK. Subsequently, the activated ZmCCaMK phosphorylates ZmNAC84 at Ser-113, thereby inducing antioxidant defense by activating downstream genes.

  2. Abscisic acid-regulated responses of aba2-1 under osmotic stress: the abscisic acid-inducible antioxidant defence system and reactive oxygen species production.

    PubMed

    Ozfidan, C; Turkan, I; Sekmen, A H; Seckin, B

    2012-03-01

    We investigated the interaction among abscisic acid (ABA), reactive oxygen species (ROS) and antioxidant defence system in the transduction of osmotic stress signalling using Arabidopsis thaliana WT (Columbia ecotype, WT) and an ABA-deficient mutant (aba2-1). For this, 50 μm ABA and osmotic stress, induced with 40% (w/v) polyethylene glycol (PEG8000; -0.7 MPa), were applied to WT and aba2-1 for 6, 12 or 24 h. Time course analysis was undertaken for determination of total/isoenzyme activity of the antioxidant enzymes, superoxide dismutase (SOD; EC 1.15.1.1), catalase (CAT; EC 1.11.1.6), ascorbate peroxidase (APX; EC 1.11.1.11), NADPH oxidase (NOX; EC 1.6.3.1) activity; scavenging activity of the hydroxyl radical (OH˙), hydrogen peroxide (H(2) O(2) ); endogenous ABA and malondialdehyde (MDA). The highest H(2) O(2) and MDA content was found in PEG-treated groups of both genotypes, but with more in aba2-1. ABA treatment under stress reduced the accumulation of H(2) O(2) and MDA, while it promoted activity of SOD, CAT and APX. APX activity was higher than CAT activity in ABA-treated WT and aba2-1, indicating a protective role of APX rather than CAT during osmotic stress-induced oxidative damage. Treatment with ABA also significantly induced increased NOX activity. Oxidative damage was lower in ABA-treated seedlings of both genotypes, which was associated with greater activity of SOD (Mn-SOD1 and 2 and Fe-SOD isoenzymes), CAT and APX in these seedlings after 24 h of stress. These results suggest that osmotic stress effects were overcome by ABA treatment because of increased SOD, CAT, APX and NOX.

  3. Protein glycation inhibitory activity and antioxidant capacity of clove extract.

    PubMed

    Suantawee, Tanyawan; Wesarachanon, Krittaporn; Anantsuphasak, Kanokphat; Daenphetploy, Tanuch; Thien-Ngern, Sroshin; Thilavech, Thavaree; Pasukamonset, Porntip; Ngamukote, Sathaporn; Adisakwattana, Sirichai

    2015-06-01

    Syzygium aromaticum (L.) (clove) is one of the most widely cultivated spices in many tropical countries. The aim of this study was to determine the phytochemical content, the antioxidant properties and the antiglycation properties of aqueous extract of clove against fructose-mediated protein glycation and oxidation. The result showed that the content of total phenolics and flavonoids in clove extract was 239.58 ± 0.70 mg gallic acid equivalents/g dried extract and 65.67 ± 0.01 mg catechin equivalents/g dried extract, respectively. In addition, clove exhibited antioxidant properties including DPPH radical scavenging activity (IC50 = 0.29 ± 0.01 mg/ml), Trolox equivalent antioxidant capacity (4.69 ± 0.03 μmol Trolox equivalents/mg dried extract), ferric reducing antioxidant power (20.55 ± 0.11 μmol ascorbic acid equivalents/mg dried extract), Oxygen radical absorbance capacity (31.12 ± 0.21 μmol Trolox equivalents/mg dried extract), hydroxyl radical scavenging activity (0.15 ± 0.04 mg Trolox equivalents/mg dried extract), and superoxide radical scavenging activity (18.82 ± 0.50 mg Trolox equivalents/mg dried extract). The aqueous extract of clove (0.25-1.00 mg/ml) significantly inhibited the formation of fluorescent advanced glycation end products (AGEs) and non-fluorescent AGEs (N(ɛ)-(carboxymethyl) lysine (CML)) in glycated BSA during 4 weeks of incubation. The extract also markedly prevented oxidation-induced protein damage by decreasing protein carbonyl formation and protecting against the loss of protein thiol group. These results clearly demonstrated that a polyphenol enriched clove extract, owing to its antioxidant, was capable to inhibit the formation of AGEs and protein glycation. The findings might lead to the possibility of using the clove extract for targeting diabetic complications.

  4. Effect of mixed flavonoids, n-3 fatty acids, and vitamin C on oxidative stress and antioxidant capacity before and after intense cycling.

    PubMed

    McAnulty, Steven R; Nieman, David C; McAnulty, Lisa S; Lynch, Worley S; Jin, Fuxia; Henson, Dru A

    2011-08-01

    Consumption of plant flavonoids, antioxidants, and n-3 fatty acids is proposed to have many potential health benefits derived primarily through antioxidant and anti-inflammatory activities. This study examined the effects of 1,000 mg quercetin + 1,000 mg vitamin C (QC); 1,000 mg quercetin, 1,000 mg vitamin C, 400 mg isoquercetin, 30 mg epigallocatechin gallate, and 400 mg n-3 fatty acids (QFO); or placebo (P), taken each day for 2 wk before and during 3 d of cycling at 57% W(max) for 3 hr, on plasma antioxidant capacity (ferricreducing ability of plasma [FRAP], oxygen-radical absorbance capacity [ORAC]), plasma oxidative stress (F(2)-isoprostanes), and plasma quercetin and vitamin C levels. Thirty-nine athletes were recruited and randomized to QC, QFO, or P. Blood was collected at baseline, after 2 wk supplementation, immediately postexercise, and 14 hr postexercise. Statistical design used a 3 (groups) × 4 (times) repeated-measures ANOVA with post hoc analyses. Plasma quercetin was significantly elevated in QC and QFO compared with P. Plasma F(2)-isoprostanes, FRAP, and vitamin C were significantly elevated and ORAC significantly decreased immediately postexercise, but no difference was noted in the overall pattern of change. Post hoc analyses revealed that the QC and QFO groups did not exhibit a significant increase in F(2)-isoprostanes from baseline to immediately postexercise compared with P. This study indicates that combining flavonoids and antioxidants with n-3 fatty acids is effective in reducing the immediate postexercise increase in F(2)-isoprostanes. Moreover, this effect occurs independently of changes in plasma antioxidant capacity.

  5. Effect of storage and packaging on fatty acid composition and oxidation in dry fermented sausages made with added olive oil and antioxidants.

    PubMed

    Ansorena, Diana; Astiasarán, Iciar

    2004-06-01

    Dry fermented sausages produced by a partial substitution of pork backfat with pre-emulsified olive oil were manufactured and stored (2 and 5 months) using different packaging conditions (aerobic/vacuum piece/vacuum slices) in order to evaluate the intensity of the oxidation process. Also the effect of the addition of butylhydroxytoluene (BHT) and butylhydroxyanisole (BHA) to one of the modified batches was studied. Addition of olive oil, especially with antioxidants, was more effective than using vacuum storing methods in avoiding lipid oxidation during storage. After 5 months of storage at 4 °C, the combination of the increase in oleic acid and the preservation of PUFA by the antioxidant activity of the olive oil emulsion and antioxidants (when added), lead to better MUFA+PUFA/SFA ratios in olive oil containing sausages (1.90-1.98 g/100 g fatty acids) and particularly in antioxidants containing sausages (2.02-2.16 g/100 g) than in control ones (1.72 g/100 g). Vacuum packaging of the piece was the best method to minimise formation of lipid oxidation volatile compounds.

  6. Effect of domestic cooking on carotenoids, tocopherols, fatty acids, phenolics, and antioxidant activities of lentils (Lens culinaris).

    PubMed

    Zhang, Bing; Deng, Zeyuan; Tang, Yao; Chen, Peter X; Liu, Ronghua; Ramdath, D Dan; Liu, Qiang; Hernandez, Marta; Tsao, Rong

    2014-12-31

    The phytochemicals and antioxidant activity in lipophilic and hydrophilic (extractable and bound) fractions of lentils before and after domestic cooking were investigated. The hydrophilic fractions in lentils contributed much more to the antioxidant activity than the lipophilic fraction. The phenolic content of lentils was mainly composed of extractable compounds. Significant changes (P < 0.05) in carotenoid, tocopherol, total phenolic, and condensed tannin contents of both extractable and bound phenolics fractions, as well as in antioxidant activities, were found in lentils before and after cooking. More specifically, cooking was found to favor the release of carotenoids and tocopherols and flavonols (kaempferol glycosides), but led to losses of flavanols (monomeric and condensed tannin). Whereas reduced flavanols and other phenolic compounds may have negatively affected the antioxidant activity, other components, especially the lipophilic antioxidants, were increased. The present study suggests that incorporation of cooked lentils into the diet will not cause significant loss to the phytochemical antioxidants and thus will retain the potential health benefits.

  7. Augmentation of cholinesterases and ATPase activities in the cerebellum and pons-medulla oblongata, by a combination of antioxidants (resveratrol, ascorbic acid, alpha-lipoic acid and vitamin E), in acutely lindane intoxicated mice.

    PubMed

    Bist, Renu; Bhatt, Devendra Kumar

    2010-09-15

    In the present investigation neurotoxic effects of lindane and the protective potential of a combination of antioxidants against lindane-induced toxicity were evaluated in Swiss mice. The investigation was carried out on acetylcholinesterase (AChE), butyrylcholinesterase (BChE) and adenosine triphosphatase (ATPase) activities of the cerebellum and pons-medulla oblongata. Healthy mice, 7-8 weeks old were administered acute dose of lindane (40 mg/kg b.w.), antioxidants, both lindane and antioxidants, and vehicle in four separate groups, subcutaneously. Resveratrol (Res), ascorbic acid (C), alpha-lipoic acid (ALA) and vitamin E (E) were used in the combination for neuroprotection at the concentration of 5 mg/kg b.w., 50 mg/kg b.w., 20 mg/kg b.w. and 50 mg/kg b.w. respectively. Enzymatic activities were used as biochemical marker for manifestation of lindane-induced acute toxicity. Protective effects of antioxidants were also evaluated using the same parameters. Treatment of lindane to normal control animals resulted in a significant decrease in AChE, BChE and ATPase levels in crude homogenates of cerebellum and pons-medulla. Antioxidants treatment significantly increased the levels of enzymes. Critical difference (CD) of AChE, BChE and ATPase levels in various groups was found significant at 1% in cerebellum and pons-medulla both (i.e. P<0.01).

  8. Total antioxidant capacity of feces of mammalian herbivores and carnivores.

    PubMed

    Saletnik, Bogdan; Bartosz, Grzegorz; Markowski, Janusz; Sadowska-Bartosz, Izabela

    2014-01-01

    The total antioxidant capacities (TAC) of feces of mammalian herbivores and carnivores were compared. TAC were estimated using three different methods: 2,2'-azino-bis(3-ethylbenzothiazoline-6-sulfonic acid) radical (ABTS*) reduction, 1,1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl radical (DPPH*) reduction, and ferric reducing antioxidant power (FRAP). TAC of 18 herbivorous species were generally higher with respect to 16 carnivorous species [(14.21 +/- 6.72) vs. (9.45 +/- 7.32) mmol Trolox equivalents/kg feces; P < 0.05] in the FRAP assay. The ABTS* reduction assay indicated that the TAC originating from "fast" reacting antioxidants were higher in the herbivores than in carnivores [(17.92 +/- 7.18) vs. (12.22 +/- 8.5) mmol Trolox equivalents/kg feces; P < 0.05], while a reverse trend was observed for TAC originating from "slowly" reacting antioxidants [(20.68 +/- 4.85) vs. (24.68 +/- 6.87) mmol Trolox equivalents/kg feces].

  9. HPLC Evaluation of Phenolic Profile, Nutritive Content, and Antioxidant Capacity of Extracts Obtained from Punica granatum Fruit Peel

    PubMed Central

    Middha, Sushil Kumar; Usha, Talambedu; Pande, Veena

    2013-01-01

    This study revealed polyphenolic content, nutritive content, antioxidant activity, and phenolic profile of methanol and aqueous extracts of Punica granatum peel extract. For this, extracts were screened for possible antioxidant activities by free radical scavenging activity (DPPH), hydrogen peroxide scavenging activity and ferric-reducing antioxidant power (FRAP) assays. The total phenolics and flavonoid recovered by methanolic (MPE) and the water extract (AQPE) were ranged from 185 ± 12.45 to 298.00 ± 24.86 mg GAE (gallic acid equivalents)/gm and 23.05 ± 1.54 to 49.8 ± 2.14 quercetin (QE) mg/g, respectively. The EC50 of herbal extracts ranged from 100 µg/ml (0.38 quercetin equivalents), for AQPE, 168 µg/ml (0.80 quercetin equivalents), for MPE. The phenolic profile in the methanolic extracts was investigated by chromatographic (HPLC) method. About 5 different flavonoids, phenolic acids, and their derivatives including quercetin (1), rutin (2), gallic acid (3), ellagic acid (4), and punicalagin as a major ellagitannin (5) have been identified. Among both extracts, methanolic extract was the most effective. This report may be the first to show nutritive content and correlation analysis to suggest that phenols and flavonoids might contribute the high antioxidant activity of this fruit peel and establish it as a valuable natural antioxidant source applicable in the health food industry. PMID:23983682

  10. Phytochemical Composition and Antioxidant Capacity of Three Malian Medicinal Plant Parts

    PubMed Central

    Muanda, François; Koné, Donatien; Dicko, Amadou; Soulimani, Rachid; Younos, Chafique

    2011-01-01

    This study evaluates the levels of total polyphenolic compounds in three Malian medicinal plants and determines their antioxidant potential. Quantitative and qualitative analysis of polyphenolics contained in plants extracts were carried out by RP-C18 RP–HPLC using UV detector. The antioxidant activity was determined by three tests. They are phosphomolybdenum, DPPH (2,2-diphenyl-1 picrylhydrazyl) and ABTS [2,2′-azino-bis(3-ethylbenzothiazoline-6-sulfonic)] tests. The total phenolic and the total flavonoid contents varied from 200 to 7600 mg 100 g−1 dry weight (dw), expressed as gallic acid equivalents and from 680 to 12 300 mg 100 g−1 dw expressed as catechin equivalents, respectively. The total anthocyanin concentrations expressed as cyanin-3-glycoside equivalent varied from 1670 to 28 388 mg 100 g−1 dw. The antioxidant capacity was measured by determining concentration of a polyphenolic (in mg ml−1) required to quench the free radicals by 50% (IC50) and expressed as vitamin C equivalent antioxidant capacity. The IC50 values were ranked between 2.68 and 8.80 μg ml−1 of a solution of 50% (v/v) methanol in water. The uses of plants are rationalized on the basis of their antioxidant capacity. PMID:19736222

  11. Phytochemical composition and antioxidant capacity of three malian medicinal plant parts.

    PubMed

    Muanda, François; Koné, Donatien; Dicko, Amadou; Soulimani, Rachid; Younos, Chafique

    2011-01-01

    This study evaluates the levels of total polyphenolic compounds in three Malian medicinal plants and determines their antioxidant potential. Quantitative and qualitative analysis of polyphenolics contained in plants extracts were carried out by RP-C18 RP-HPLC using UV detector. The antioxidant activity was determined by three tests. They are phosphomolybdenum, DPPH (2,2-diphenyl-1 picrylhydrazyl) and ABTS [2,2'-azino-bis(3-ethylbenzothiazoline-6-sulfonic)] tests. The total phenolic and the total flavonoid contents varied from 200 to 7600 mg 100 g(-1) dry weight (dw), expressed as gallic acid equivalents and from 680 to 12 300 mg 100 g(-1) dw expressed as catechin equivalents, respectively. The total anthocyanin concentrations expressed as cyanin-3-glycoside equivalent varied from 1670 to 28 388 mg 100 g(-1) dw. The antioxidant capacity was measured by determining concentration of a polyphenolic (in mg ml(-1)) required to quench the free radicals by 50% (IC(50)) and expressed as vitamin C equivalent antioxidant capacity. The IC(50) values were ranked between 2.68 and 8.80 μg ml(-1) of a solution of 50% (v/v) methanol in water. The uses of plants are rationalized on the basis of their antioxidant capacity.

  12. Antioxidant potential of Coriandrum sativum L. seed extract.

    PubMed

    Deepa, B; Anuradha, C V

    2011-01-01

    The seeds of C. sativum are used as a traditional drug for the treatment of diabetes. The antioxidant and free-radical-scavenging property of seeds in vitro was studied and also investigated whether the administration of seeds curtails oxidative stress in the kidney of streptozotocin-induced diabetic rats. Incorporation of seed powder in the diet led to marked lowering of blood glucose and a rise in the levels of insulin in diabetic rats. A parallel beneficial effect was observed on oxidant -antioxidant balance in the kidney. Addition of coriander seed powder not only inhibited the process of peroxidative damage but also significantly reactivated the antioxidant enzymes and antioxidant levels in diabetic rats. The total polyphenolic content of the seeds was found to be 12.2 gallic acid equivalents (GAE)/g while total flavanoid content was found to be 12.6 quercetin equivalents/g. The seeds also showed scavenging activity against superoxides and hydroxyl radicals in a concentration-dependent manner. Maximum free radical-scavenging action and free radical reducing power of coriander seed extract was observed at a concentration of 50 microg GAE. Islet histology structures showed degeneration of pancreatic islets in diabetic rats which was also reduced in diabetic rats treated with seed powder. These results show that C. sativum seeds not only possess antihyperglycemic properties but antioxidative properties also. Increased dietary intake of coriander seeds decrease the oxidative burden in diabetes mellitus.

  13. Tolerability in the elderly population of high-dose alpha lipoic acid: a potential antioxidant therapy for the eye

    PubMed Central

    Sarezky, Daniel; Raquib, Aaishah R; Dunaief, Joshua L; Kim, Benjamin J

    2016-01-01

    Purpose Alpha lipoic acid (ALA) is an antioxidant and iron-chelating supplement that has potential benefits for geographic atrophy in dry age-related macular degeneration as well as other eye diseases. The purpose of this study was to determine the tolerability of ALA in the elderly population. Patients and methods Fifteen subjects, age ≥65 years, took sequential ALA doses of 600, 800, and 1,200 mg. Each dose was taken once daily with a meal for 5 days. After each dose was taken by the subjects for 5 days, the subjects were contacted by phone, a review of systems was performed, and they were asked if they thought they could tolerate taking that dose of ALA for an extended period of time. Results The 600 mg dose was well tolerated. At the 800 mg dose, one subject had an intolerable flushing sensation. At the 1,200 mg dose, two subjects had intolerable upper gastrointestinal side effects and one subject had an intolerable flushing sensation. Subjects taking gastrointestinal prophylaxis medications had no upper gastrointestinal side effects. Conclusion High-dose ALA is not completely tolerated by the elderly. These preliminary data suggest that gastrointestinal prophylaxis may improve tolerability. (ClinicalTrials.gov, NCT02613572). PMID:27729766

  14. Syntheses, crystal structures and antioxidant study of Zn(II) complexes with morin-5'-sulfonic acid (MSA).

    PubMed

    Pieniążek, Elżbieta; Kalembkiewicz, Jan; Dranka, Maciej; Woźnicka, Elżbieta

    2014-12-01

    The study of modified synthetic procedure of water soluble morin-5'-sulfonic acid sodium salt (NaMSA) involving less aggressive chemicals and carried out at mild conditions was described. The NaMSA salt is a convenient source of anionic morin-5'-sulfonic ligand (MSA) in ion exchange reactions. The coordination ability of MSA ligand towards the zinc cations was investigated in aqueous solution and in solid state. Novel zinc complexes of morin-5'-sulfonate were obtained by a reaction of Zn(NO3)2 with morin-5'-sulfonate in water. Resulting compounds were characterized by single-crystal X-ray diffraction analysis, as well as spectral and thermal methods. The coordination interaction, hydrogen bond and π-π stacking lead to the formation of a 1D chain or 3D coordination polymers. The antioxidant activity of the Zn(II)-MSA complexes was evaluated by means of 1,1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) radical scavenging method. In this work, we have shown that the studied compounds are more effective free radical scavengers than the natural flavonoids like plain morin.

  15. Structural features of an immunostimulating and antioxidant acidic polysaccharide from the seeds of Cuscuta chinensis.

    PubMed

    Bao, Xingfeng; Wang, Zhan; Fang, Jinian; Li, Xiaoyu

    2002-03-01

    Three crude polysaccharide fractions, named CS-A, CS-B and CS-C, were prepared from the seeds of Cuscuta chinensis by hot water extraction and diluted alkali extraction subsequently, then EtOH precipitation, and tested for lymphocyte proliferation activity. CS-A showed a stimulating effect on concanavalin A or lipopolysaccharide induced mitogenic activity of lymphocytes. An acidic polysaccharide (CS-A-3beta) was purified from CS-A by anion exchange and gel filtration chromatography. The polysaccharide showed potent stimulating effects on lymphocyte proliferation and antibody production, but did not significantly influence the serum IgG level. Its structural features were elucidated by methylation analysis, partial acid hydrolysis, 1D and 2D NMR and ESI-mass spectroscopy. The data obtained indicated that CS-A-3beta had a backbone consisting of alpha-D-1,4-linked GalpA residues and beta-L-1,2-linked Rhap residues with branches at C-4 of Rhap residues and C-3 of GalpA residues, composed of arabinogalactan and glucobiose. This structure is typical for a pectic polysaccharide of the rhamnogalacturonan type. In addition, the effect of CS-A, CS-B, CS-C and CS-A-3beta on hydrogen peroxide induced cell lesion in rat pheochromocytoma line PC 12 was investigated. The results indicated that, besides its immunostimulating activity, CS-A-3beta had a protective effect against free radical-induced cell toxicity.

  16. Prevention of Alzheimer's disease: Omega-3 fatty acid and phenolic anti-oxidant interventions.

    PubMed

    Cole, Greg M; Lim, Giselle P; Yang, Fusheng; Teter, Bruce; Begum, Aynun; Ma, Qiulan; Harris-White, Marni E; Frautschy, Sally A

    2005-12-01

    Alzheimer's disease (AD) and cardiovascular disease (CVD) are syndromes of aging that share analogous lesions and risk factors, involving lipoproteins, oxidative damage and inflammation. Unlike in CVD, in AD, sensitive biomarkers are unknown, and high-risk groups are understudied. To identify potential prevention strategies in AD, we have focused on pre-clinical models (transgenic and amyloid infusion models), testing dietary/lifestyle factors strongly implicated in reducing risk in epidemiological studies. Initially, we reported the impact of non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs), notably ibuprofen, which reduced amyloid accumulation, but suppressed few inflammatory markers and without reducing oxidative damage. Safety concerns with chronic NSAIDs led to a screen of alternative NSAIDs and identification of the phenolic anti-inflammatory/anti-oxidant compound curcumin, the yellow pigment in turmeric that we found targeted multiple AD pathogenic cascades. The dietary omega-3 fatty acid, docosahexaenoic acid (DHA), also limited amyloid, oxidative damage and synaptic and cognitive deficits in a transgenic mouse model. Both DHA and curcumin have favorable safety profiles, epidemiology and efficacy, and may exert general anti-aging benefits (anti-cancer and cardioprotective.).

  17. Fatty acids, essential oil and phenolics composition of Silybum marianum seeds and their antioxidant activities.

    PubMed

    Mhamdi, Baya; Abbassi, Feten; Smaoui, Abderrazak; Abdelly, Chedly; Marzouk, Brahim

    2016-05-01

    The presentstudydescribes the biochemical evaluation of Silybum marianum seed. The analysis of essential oil composition of Silybum marianum seed by Gas Chromatography-Mass Spectrometry GC-MS showed the presence of14 volatile components with the predominance of γ-cadinene (49.8%) and α-pinene (24.5%). Whereas, the analysis of fatty acids composition, showed the predominance of linoleic (50.5%) and oleic (30.2%) acids. Silybum marainum presented also an important polyphenol contents with 29mgGAE/g DW, a good antiradical activity (CI(50)=39μg/ml) but a lower reducing power ability. Flavonoid and condensed tannin contents were about 3.39mg EC/g DW and 1.8mg EC/gDW, respectively. The main phenolic compounds identified by RP-HPLC, were silybin A (12.2%), silybin B (17.67%), isosilybin A (21.9%), isosilybin B (12.8%), silychristin (7.9%) andsilydianin (7.5%).

  18. In vitro and in vivo antioxidant activity of ethanolic extract of white button mushroom (Agaricus bisporus).

    PubMed

    Liu, Jun; Jia, Liang; Kan, Juan; Jin, Chang-Hai

    2013-01-01

    The antioxidant activities of ethanolic extract from edible mushroom Agaricus bisporus (A. bisporus) were evaluated by various methods in vitro and in vivo. In antioxidant assays in vitro, ethanolic extract of A. bisporus was found to have strong reducing power, superoxide radical, hydroxyl radical and 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl radical scavenging activity, and moderate hydrogen peroxide scavenging activity. In antioxidant assays in vivo, mice were administered with ethanolic extract of A. bisporus via gavage for 30 consecutive days. As a result, administration of ethanolic extract significantly enhanced the activities of antioxidant enzymes in serums, livers and hearts of mice. In addition, the total phenolic content in the extract determined by Folin-Ciocalteu method was 6.18mg of gallic acid equivalents per gram of dry weight. The main phenolic compounds in ethanolic extract analyzed by ultra-high performance liquid chromatography tandem mass spectrometry were determined as gallic acid, protocatechuic acid, catechin, caffeic acid, ferulic acid and myricetin. These results suggested that ethanolic extract of A. bisporus had potent antioxidant activity and could be explored as a novel natural antioxidant.

  19. Antioxidant and antiradical activities in extracts of hazelnut kernel (Corylus avellana L.) and hazelnut green leafy cover.

    PubMed

    Alasalvar, Cesarettin; Karamać, Magdalena; Amarowicz, Ryszard; Shahidi, Fereidoon

    2006-06-28

    Phenolic compounds in the aqueous systems were extracted, from hazelnut kernel (HK) and hazelnut green leafy cover (HGLC), with 80% (v/v) ethanol (HKe and HGLCe) or 80% (v/v) acetone (HKa and HGLCa). The extracts were examined for their phenolic and condensed tannin contents and phenolic acid profiles (free and esterified fractions) as well as antioxidant and antiradical activities by total antioxidant activity (TAA), antioxidant activity in a beta-carotene-linoleate model system, scavenging of DPPH (2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl) radical, and reducing power. Significant differences (p < 0.05) in the contents of total phenolics, condensed tannins, and TAA existed among the extracts that were examined. HGLCa extract had the highest content of total phenolics (201 mg of catechin equivalents/g of extract), condensed tannins (542 mg of catechin equivalents/g of extract), and TAA (1.29 mmol of Trolox equivalents/g of extract) followed by HGLCe, HKa, and HKe extracts, respectively. Five phenolic acids (gallic acid, caffeic acid, p-coumaric acid, ferulic acid, and sinapic acid) were tentatively identified and quantified, among which gallic acid was the most abundant in both free and esterified forms. The order of antioxidant activity in a beta-carotene-linoleate model system, the scavenging effect on DPPH radical, and the reducing power in all extracts were in the following order: HGLCa > HGLCe > HKa > HKe. These results suggest that both 80% ethanol and acetone are capable of extracting phenolics, but 80% acetone was a more effective solvent for the extraction process. HGLC exhibited stronger antioxidant and antiradical activities than HK itself in both extracts and could potentially be considered as an inexpensive source of natural antioxidants.

  20. Antioxidant capacity of different broccoli (Brassica oleracea) genotypes using the oxygen radical absorbance capacity (ORAC) assay.

    PubMed

    Kurilich, Anne C; Jeffery, Elizabeth H; Juvik, John A; Wallig, Matthew A; Klein, Barbara P

    2002-08-28

    Antioxidant capacity of hydrophilic and lipophilic extracts from eight broccoli genotypes was compared using the oxygen radical absorbance capacity (ORAC) assay. Each genotype was analyzed for carotenoid, tocopherol, ascorbic acid, and flavonoid content. Results indicate that the antioxidant capacity of hydrophilic extracts ranged from 65.8 to 121.6 micromol trolox equivalents (TE)/g of tissue, and the capacity of lipophilic extracts ranged from 3.9 to 17.5 micromol TE/g. Ascorbic acid and flavonoid content of the hydrophilic extracts did not explain the total variation in antioxidant capacity of those extracts, suggesting either the presence of other antioxidant components that have yet to be identified or that the known antioxidants are producing synergistic effects. The carotenoids did correlate with antioxidant capacity of the lipophilic extracts and accounted for the majority of the variability in that fraction. The variability in hydrophilic and lipophilic antioxidant capacity found among these genotypes suggests that potential efficacy from antioxidants will vary considerably from genotype to genotype.

  1. Antioxidant activity evaluation of new dosage forms as vehicles for dehydrated vegetables.

    PubMed

    Romero-de Soto, María Dolores; García-Salas, Patricia; Fernández-Arroyo, Salvador; Segura-Carretero, Antonio; Fernández-Campos, Francisco; Clares-Naveros, Beatriz

    2013-06-01

    A dehydrated vegetables mixture loaded in four pharmaceutical dosage forms as powder, effervescent granulate, sugar granulate and gumdrops were investigated for their antioxidant capacity using 2,2'-azino-bis(3-ethylbenzothiazoline-6-sulphonic acid) radical scavenging capacity assay, oxygen radical absorbance capacity assay and ferric reducing antioxidant potential assay. Total phenolic content of dehydrated vegetables powder mixture was also measured by the Folin-Ciocalteu method, so as to evaluate its contribution to their total antioxidant function. The effect of different temperatures on stability of these systems after 90 days storage was also evaluated. These formulations presented strong antioxidant properties and high phenolic content (279 mg gallic acid equivalent/g of sample) and thus could be potential rich sources of natural antioxidants. Antioxidant properties differed significantly among selected formulations (p < 0.05). Generally, the losses were lower in samples stored under refrigeration. To interpret the antioxidant properties a kinetic approach was performed. Degradation kinetics for the phenolic content and antioxidant capacity followed a zero-order function. Effervescent granulate was the formulation which underwent faster degradation. Contrary, sugar granulate and gumdrops were much more slowly. Time required to halve the initial amount of phenolic compounds was 589 ± 45 days for samples stored at 4 º C, and 312 ± 16 days for samples stored at room temperature. These developed dosage forms are new and innovative approach for vegetable intakes in population with special requirements providing an improvement in the administration of vegetables and fruits.

  2. Prestorage oxalic acid treatment maintained visual quality, bioactive compounds, and antioxidant potential of pomegranate after long-term storage at 2 degrees C.

    PubMed

    Sayyari, Mohammad; Valero, Daniel; Babalar, Mesbah; Kalantari, Siamak; Zapata, Pedro J; Serrano, María

    2010-06-09

    Oxalic acid at three concentrations (2, 4, and 6 mM) was applied by dipping to pomegranate fruits of cv. Mollar de Elche, which were then stored for 84 days at 2 degrees C. Pomegranate is a chilling-sensitive fruit and, thus, control fruits exhibited chilling injury (CI) symptoms after long-term storage at 2 degrees C that were accompanied by increased respiration rate, weight loss, and electrolyte leakage (EL). The CI symptoms were significantly reduced by oxalic acid treatment, especially for the 6 mM concentration. In addition, control pomegranates showed significant reduction in the content of total phenolics and ascorbic acid as well as in total antioxidant activity (TAA), in both hydrophilic (H-TAA) and lipophilic (L-TAA) fractions. The application of oxalic acid led to lower losses of total phenolics and significant increase in both ascorbic acid content and H-TAA, whereas L-TAA remained unaffected. Thus, oxalic acid could be a promising postharvest treatment to alleviate CI and increase antioxidant potential.

  3. Antioxidative Activities of Both Oleic Acid and Camellia tenuifolia Seed Oil Are Regulated by the Transcription Factor DAF-16/FOXO in Caenorhabditis elegans

    PubMed Central

    Wei, Chia-Cheng; Yen, Pei-Ling; Chang, Shang-Tzen; Cheng, Pei-Ling; Lo, Yi-Chen; Liao, Vivian Hsiu-Chuan

    2016-01-01

    Background Tea seed oil is a high quality edible oil, yet lacking sufficient scientific evidences to support the nutritional and medical purposes. We identified major and minor components in Camellia tenuifolia seed oil and investigated the antioxidative activity and its underlying mechanisms in Caenorhabditis elegans. Principal Findings The results showed that the major constitutes in C. tenuifolia seed oil were unsaturated fatty acids (~78.4%). Moreover, two minor compounds, β-amyrin and β-sitosterol, were identified and their antioxidative activity was examined. We found that oleic acid was the major constitute in C. tenuifolia seed oil and plays a key role in the antioxidative activity of C. tenuifolia seed oil in C. elegans. Conclusions This study found evidences that the transcription factor DAF-16/FOXO was involved in both oleic acid- and C. tenuifolia seed oil-mediated oxidative stress resistance in C. elegans. This study suggests the potential of C. tenuifolia seed oil as nutrient or functional foods. PMID:27275864

  4. Antioxidant activities of hot water extracts from various spices.

    PubMed

    Kim, Il-Suk; Yang, Mi-Ra; Lee, Ok-Hwan; Kang, Suk-Nam

    2011-01-01

    Recently, the natural spices and herbs such as rosemary, oregano, and caraway have been used for the processing of meat products. This study investigates the antioxidant activity of 13 spices commonly used in meat processing plants. The hot water extracts were then used for evaluation of total phenolic content, total flavonoids content and antioxidant activities. Our results show that the hot water extract of oregano gave the highest extraction yield (41.33%) whereas mace (7.64%) gave the lowest. The DPPH radical scavenging ability of the spice extracts can be ranked against ascorbic acid in the order ascorbic acid > clove > thyme > rosemary > savory > oregano. The values for superoxide anion radical scavenging activities were in the order of marjoram > rosemary > oregano > cumin > savory > basil > thyme > fennel > coriander > ascorbic acid. When compared to ascorbic acid (48.72%), the hydroxyl radical scavenging activities of turmeric and mace were found to be higher (p < 0.001). Clove had the highest total phenolic content (108.28 μg catechin equivalent (CE)/g). The total flavonoid content of the spices varied from 324.08 μg quercetin equivalent (QE)/g for thyme to 3.38 μg QE/g for coriander. Our results indicate that hot water extract of several spices had a high antioxidant activity which is partly due to the phenolic and flavonoid compounds. This provides basic data, having implications for further development of processed food products.

  5. Metabolomic characterization of a low phytic acid and high anti-oxidative cultivar of turmeric.

    PubMed

    Tanaka, Ken; Arita, Masanori; Li, Donghan; Ono, Naoaki; Tezuka, Yasuhiro; Kanaya, Shigehiko

    2015-02-01

    Turmeric, the rhizome of Curcuma longa, has a long history of use as a spice and also as a traditional medicine in many Asian countries. To reveal unique morphological features of a newly registered Curcuma cultivar, C. longa cv. Okinawa Ougon (Ougon), non-targeted LC-MS and GC-MS analyses were conducted. The analysis revealed its distinctive chemical properties: lower amount of phytic acid and inorganic metals such as Fe, Mn, and Al, as well as higher concentrations of reduced derivatives of curcuminoids, such as dihydrobisdemethoxycurcumin, tetrahydrobisdemethoxycurcumin, dihydrodemethoxycurcumin, and tetrahydrodemethoxycurcumin. In addition, germacrane-type sesquiterpenes were almost absent although α-humulene and β-caryophyllene, generated by the same biosynthetic route, were present. Presumably the alternation of the metal ion content, serving as a cofactor of sesquiterpene synthase, modulates the resulting variation of the sesquiterpenes. In summary, the cultivar Ougon is considered a promising candidate for functional food additives.

  6. Phytochemical profile of main antioxidants in different fractions of purple and blue wheat, and black barley.

    PubMed

    Siebenhandl, Susanne; Grausgruber, Heinrich; Pellegrini, Nicoletta; Del Rio, Daniele; Fogliano, Vincenzo; Pernice, Rita; Berghofer, Emmerich

    2007-10-17

    Two pigmented wheat genotypes (blue and purple) and two black barley genotypes were fractionated in bran and flour fractions, examined, and compared for their free radical scavenging properties against 2,2'-azinobis(3-ethylbenzothiazoline-6-sulfonic acid) diammonium salt radical cation (Trolox equivalent antioxidant capacity, TEAC), ferric reducing antioxidant power (FRAP), total phenolic content (TPC), phenolic acid composition, carotenoid composition, and total anthocyanin content. The results showed that fractionation has a significant influence on the antioxidant properties, TPC, anthocyanin and carotenoid contents, and phenolic acid composition. Bran fractions had the greatest antioxidant activities (1.9-2.3 mmol TEAC/100 g) in all four grain genotypes and were 3-5-fold higher than the respective flour fractions (0.4-0.7 mmol TEAC/100 g). Ferulic acid was the predominant phenolic acid in wheat genotypes (bran fractions) while p-coumaric acid was the predominant phenolic acid in the bran fractions of barley genotypes. High-performance liquid chromatography analysis detected the presence of lutein and zeaxanthin in all fractions with different distribution patterns within the genotypes. The highest contents of anthocyanins were found in the middlings of black barley genotypes or in the shorts of blue and purple wheat. These data suggest the possibility to improve the antioxidant release from cereal-based food through selection of postharvest treatments.

  7. Determination of equivalent weight of amines

    SciTech Connect

    Selig, W.S.

    1987-01-08

    A procedure for the determination of equivalent weight of amines is described. This procedure is based on an acid-base reaction performed in glacial acetic acid. The sum of primary, secondary, and tertiary amines are determined by titration with standard perchloric acid in glacial acetic acid. 1 ref.

  8. Comparison of total phenolic content and antioxidant activity of Kappaphycus alvarezii from Langkawi and Semporna

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mohamed, Norhidayu; Abdullah, Aminah

    2016-11-01

    The total phenolic content and antioxidant activity of Kappaphycus alvarezii obtained from Langkawi, Kedah and Semporna, Sabah were evaluated. The total phenolic content (TPC) of the extracts were determined according to the Folin Ciocalteau method and results were expressed as gallic acid equivalents. The antioxidant activities of the extracts were determined by three methods namely Free Radical Scavenging Activity (DPPH), Ferric Reducing Antioxidant Power (FRAP) and Trolox Equivalent Antioxidant Capacity (TEAC). Both of the TPC and FRAP assays showed that seaweed from Semporna, Sabah significantly (p<0.05) had higher antioxidant activities compared to Langkawi, Kedah one (Semporna's seaweed: 73.25 mg GAE/100g and 16.94 µmol TE/100g, Langkawi's seaweed: 54.35 mg GAE/100g and 10.01 µmol TE/100 g). However, the seaweed from Langkawi (60.93 µmol TE/100g) show higher TEAC value compared to seaweed from Semporna (36.36 µmol TE/100g) but for DPPH assay there was no significant difference (p>0.05) between the samples. Pearson coefficient correlation test, showed that there was a positive correlation (p<0.01) between TPC and antioxidant activity (FRAP assay) (r=0.980) and thus it can be concluded that the phenolic compounds was a contributor of the antioxidant activity in Kappaphycus alvarezii.

  9. Antioxidant activity of a Mediterranean food product: "fig syrup".

    PubMed

    Puoci, Francesco; Iemma, Francesca; Spizzirri, Umile G; Restuccia, Donatella; Pezzi, Vincenzo; Sirianni, Rosa; Manganaro, Lillo; Curcio, Manuela; Parisi, Ortensia I; Cirillo, Giuseppe; Picci, Nevio

    2011-03-01

    In this work, the efficacy of fig syrup, a Mediterranean fig derivative, as a nutraceutical supplement, was demonstrated. Fig syrup is a fruit concentrate used as a common ingredient in the preparation of typical foods, and particularly in cakes. In vitro assays were performed to determine the amount of nutraceutical ingredients, such as phenolic compounds (3.92 mg equivalent of gallic acid per g) and flavonoids (0.35 mg equivalent of catechin per g), while HPLC analyses provided specific information about the composition of antioxidants in the syrup. Furthermore, total antioxidant activity, scavenging properties against DPPH and peroxyl radicals, and the anticholinesterase activity, clearly showed the efficacy of the syrup in preventing damage induced by free radicals and, thus, the applicability of this food derivative as a nutraceutical supplement.

  10. Evaluation of Antioxidant Properties of Phaulopsis fascisepala C.B.Cl. (Acanthaceae).

    PubMed

    Adesegun, S A; Fajana, A; Orabueze, C I; Coker, H A B

    2009-06-01

    The antioxidant activities of crude extract of Phaulopsis fascisepala leaf were evaluated and compared with alpha-tocopherol and BHT as synthetic antioxidants and ascorbic acid as natural-based antioxidant. In vitro, we studied its antioxidative activities, radical-scavenging effects, Fe(2+)-chelating ability and reducing power. The total phenolic content was determined and expressed in gallic acid equivalent. The extract showed variable activities in all of these in vitro tests. The antioxidant effect of P. fascisepala was strongly dose dependent, increased with increasing leaf extract dose and then leveled off with further increase in extract dose. Compared to other antioxidants used in the study, alpha-Tocopherol, ascorbic acid and BHT, P. fascisepala leaf extract showed less scavenging effect on alpha,alpha,-diphenyl-beta-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) radical and less reducing power on Fe(3+)/ferricyanide complex but better Fe(2+)-chelating ability. These results revealed the in vitro antioxidant activity of P. fascisepala. Further investigations are necessary to verify these activities in vivo.

  11. Isolation and Antimicrobial and Antioxidant Evaluation of Bio-Active Compounds from Eriobotrya Japonica Stems

    PubMed Central

    Rashed, Khaled Nabih; Butnariu, Monica

    2014-01-01

    Purpose: The present study was carried out to evaluate antimicrobial and antioxidant activities from Eriobotrya japonica stems as well investigation of its chemical composition. Methods: Methanol 80% extract of Eriobotrya japonica stems was tested for antimicrobial activity against bacterial and fungal strains and for antioxidant activity using oxygen radical absorbance capacity (ORAC) and the trolox equivalent antioxidant capacity (TEAC) assays and also total content of polyphenols with phytochemical analysis of the extract were determined. Results: The results showed that the extract has a significant antimicrobial activity, it inhibited significantly the growth of Candida albicans suggesting that it can be used in the treatment of fungal infections, and it showed no effect on the other bacterial and fungal strains, the extract has a good antioxidant activity, it has shown high values of oxygen radical absorbance capacity and trolox equivalent antioxidant capacity, while it showed a low value of polyphenol content. Phytochemical analysis of the extract showed the presence of carbohydrates, terpenes, tannins and flavonoids, further phytochemical analysis resulted in the isolation and identification of three triterpenic acids, oleanolic, ursolic and corosolic acids and four flavonoids, naringenin, quercetin, kaempferol 3-O-β-glucoside and quercetin 3-O-α-rhamnoside. Conclusion: These results may help to discover new chemical classes of natural antimicrobial antioxidant substances. PMID:24409413

  12. Synthesis, structures, electrochemical studies and antioxidant activity of 5-aryl-4-oxo-3,4,5,8-tetrahydropyrido[2,3-d]pyrimidine-7-carboxylic acids

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Quiroga, Jairo; Romo, Pablo E.; Ortiz, Alejandro; Isaza, José Hipólito; Insuasty, Braulio; Abonia, Rodrigo; Nogueras, Manuel; Cobo, Justo

    2016-09-01

    The synthesis of 5-aryl-4-oxo-3,4,5,8-tetrahydropyrido[2,3-d]pyrimidine-7-carboxylic acids 3 from the reaction of 6-aminopyrimidines 1 with arylidene derivatives of pyruvic acid 2 under microwave and ultrasound irradiation is described. The orientation of cyclization process was determined by NMR measurements. The methodology provides advantages such as high yields and friendly to the environment without the use of solvents. The antioxidant properties, DPPH free radical scavenging, ORAC, and anodic potential oxidation of the new pyridopyrimidines were studied.

  13. Antioxidant effect of vitamin E and 5-aminosalicylic acid on acrylamide induced kidney injury in rats

    PubMed Central

    Rajeh, Nisreen A.; Al-Dhaheri, Najlaa M.

    2017-01-01

    Objectives: To explore renal toxicity caused by sub-acute exposure of acrylamide and to study the protective effect of 5-Aminosalicylic acid (5-ASA) and Vitamin E (vit-E)on Acrylamide (ACR) induced renal toxicity. Methods: This study was conducted at King Fahad Medical Research Centre, King Abdulaziz University, Jeddah, Kingdom of Saudi Arabia, between August and November 2015. A total of 49 adult Wistar rats (250 ± 20g) aged 60 days were kept in a controlled environment and used in the present study. The rats were divided into 7 groups (control, ACR alone, ACR+5-ASA, ACR+vit-E, ACR+ASA+vit-E, vit-E alone, and ASA alone). After 5 days of ACR oral gavage treatment, the rats were observed for 24 hours then killed. Histopathology for the kidney and lactate dehydrogenase assay were carried out. Results: Acrylamide produced significant pathological changes in the kidney with acute tubular necrosis in the distal tubules that could be reversed by concomitant injection of rat with 5-ASA. Together with vitamin E, 5-ASA, showed maximum renal protection. No statistically significant difference was observed in either body weights or lactate dehydrogenase activity of ACR treated rats. Conclusion: Acrylamide exposure leads to adverse clinical pathologies of renal tubules, which were reversed by a concomitant treatment with 5-ASA and vitamin-E PMID:28133684

  14. Photosynthetic and antioxidant responses of Liquidambar formosana and Schima superba seedlings to sulfuric-rich and nitric-rich simulated acid rain.

    PubMed

    Chen, Juan; Wang, Wen-Hua; Liu, Ting-Wu; Wu, Fei-Hua; Zheng, Hai-Lei

    2013-03-01

    To study whether differential responses occur in photosynthesis and antioxidant system for seedlings of Liquidambar formosana, an acid rain (AR)-sensitive tree species and Schima superba, an AR-tolerant tree species treated with three types of pH 3.0 simulated AR (SiAR) including sulfuric-rich (S-SiAR), nitric-rich (N-SiAR), sulfate and nitrate mixed (SN-SiAR), we investigated the changes of leaf necrosis, chlorophyll content, soluble protein and proline content, photosynthesis and chlorophyll fluorescence characteristics, reactive oxygen species production, membrane lipid peroxidation, small molecular antioxidant content, antioxidant enzyme activities and related protein expressions. Our results showed that SiAR significantly caused leaf necrosis, inhibited photosynthesis, induced superoxide radical and hydrogen peroxide generation, aggravated membrane lipid peroxidation, changed antioxidant enzyme activities, modified related protein expressions such as Cu/Zn superoxide dismutase (SOD), l-ascorbate peroxidase (APX, EC 1. 11. 1. 11), glutathione S transferase (GST, EC 2. 5. 1. 18) and Rubisco large subunit (RuBISCO LSU), altered non-protein thiols (NPT) and glutathione (GSH) content in leaves of L. formosana and S. superba. Taken together, we concluded that the damages caused by SiAR in L. formosana were more severe and suffered from more negative impacts than in S. superba. S-SiAR induced more serious damages for the plants than did SN-SiAR and N-SiAR.

  15. Nrf2-Mediated HO-1 Induction Coupled with the ERK Signaling Pathway Contributes to Indirect Antioxidant Capacity of Caffeic Acid Phenethyl Ester in HepG2 Cells

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Jin-Kyoung; Jang, Hae-Dong

    2014-01-01

    The objective of this study is to investigate the contributing effect of the nuclear transcription factor-erythroid 2-related factor 2 (Nrf2)-mediated signaling pathway on the indirect antioxidant capacity of caffeic acid phenethyl ester (CAPE) against oxidative stress in HepG2 cells. The result of an antioxidant response element (ARE)-luciferase assay showed that CAPE stimulated ARE promoter activity resulting in increased transcriptional and translational activities of heme oxygenase-1 (HO-1). In addition, CAPE treatment enhanced Nrf2 accumulation in the nucleus and the post-translational phosphorylation level of extracellular signal-regulated kinase (ERK) among several protein kinases tested. Treatment with ERK inhibitor U126 completely suppressed CAPE-induced ERK phosphorylation and HO-1 expression, but it only partly inhibited CAPE-induced Nrf2 accumulation and ARE promoter. Using the 2',7'-dichlorofluorescein-diacetate (DCFH-DA) method, the cellular antioxidant capacity of CAPE against 2,2'-azobis (2-amidinopropane) dihydrochloride (AAPH)- or H2O2-induced oxidative stress also was shown to be partially suppressed by the ERK inhibitor. From the overall results it is proposed that the indirect antioxidant activity of CAPE against oxidative stress in HepG2 cells is partially attributed to induction of HO-1, which is regulated by Kelch-like erythroid-cell-derived protein with CNC homology (ECH)-associated protein 1 (Keap1)-independent Nrf2 activation relying on post-translational phosphorylation of ERK. PMID:25007817

  16. Delayed uric Acid accumulation in plasma provides additional anti-oxidant protection against iron-triggered oxidative stress after a wingate test.

    PubMed

    Souza-Junior, Tp; Lorenço-Lima, L; Ganini, D; Vardaris, Cv; Polotow, Tg; Barros, Mp

    2014-12-01

    Reactive oxygen species are produced during anaerobic exercise mostly by Fe ions released into plasma and endothelial/muscle xanthine oxidase activation that generates uric acid (UA) as the endpoint metabolite. Paradoxically, UA is considered a major antioxidant by virtue of being able to chelate pro-oxidative iron ions. This work aimed to evaluate the relationship between UA and plasma markers of oxidative stress following the exhaustive Wingate test. Plasma samples of 17 male undergraduate students were collected before, 5 and 60 min after maximal anaerobic effort for the measurement of total iron, haem iron, UA, ferric-reducing antioxidant activity in plasma (FRAP), and malondialdehyde (MDA, biomarker of lipoperoxidation). Iron and FRAP showed similar kinetics in plasma, demonstrating an adequate pro-/antioxidant balance immediately after exercise and during the recovery period (5-60 min). Slight variations of haem iron concentrations did not support a relevant contribution of rhabdomyolysis or haemolysis for iron overload following exercise. UA concentration did not vary immediately after exercise but rather increased 29% during the recovery period. Unaltered MDA levels were concomitantly measured. We propose that delayed UA accumulation in plasma is an auxiliary antioxidant response to post-exercise (iron-mediated) oxidative stress, and the high correlation between total UA and FRAP in plasma (R-Square = 0.636; p = 0.00582) supports this hypothesis.

  17. Caffeic acid phenethyl ester up-regulates antioxidant levels in hepatic stellate cell line T6 via an Nrf2-mediated mitogen activated protein kinases pathway

    PubMed Central

    Yang, Ning; Shi, Juan-Juan; Wu, Feng-Ping; Li, Mei; Zhang, Xin; Li, Ya-Ping; Zhai, Song; Jia, Xiao-Li; Dang, Shuang-Suo

    2017-01-01

    AIM To investigate the antioxidant effect of caffeic acid phenethyl ester (CAPE) in hepatic stellate cell-T6 (HSC-T6) cells cultured in vitro and the potential mechanisms. METHODS HSC-T6 cells were cultured in vitro and treated with various concentrations of CAPE for 24, 48 and 72 h, respectively. Cell proliferation was investigated using the MTT assay, and cell ultrastructural alterations were observed by transmission electron microscopy. Flow cytometry was employed to investigate the effects of CAPE on apoptosis and the levels of reactive oxygen species in HSC-T6 cells cultured in vitro. An enzyme immunoassay instrument was used to evaluate antioxidant enzyme expression. The effect on α-smooth muscle actin was shown using immunofluorescence. Gene and protein levels of Nrf2, related factors, and mitogen activated protein kinases (MAPKs), in HSC-T6 cells were detected using RT-PCR and Western blot, respectively. RESULTS CAPE inhibited the proliferation and activation of HSC-T6 cells cultured in vitro. CAPE increased the antioxidant levels and the translocation of Nrf2 from the cytoplasm to the nucleus in HSC-T6 cells. Moreover, the phosphorylation of MAPKs in cells decreased in response to CAPE. Interestingly, CAPE-induced oxidative stress in the cells was significantly attenuated by pretreatment with MAPKs inhibitors. CONCLUSION CAPE inhibits cell proliferation and up-regulates the antioxidant levels in HSC-T6 cells partly through the Nrf2-MAPKs signaling pathway. PMID:28275300

  18. DELAYED URIC ACID ACCUMULATION IN PLASMA PROVIDES ADDITIONAL ANTI-OXIDANT PROTECTION AGAINST IRON-TRIGGERED OXIDATIVE STRESS AFTER A WINGATE TEST

    PubMed Central

    Souza-Junior, TP; Lorenço-Lima, L; Ganini, D; Vardaris, CV; Polotow, TG

    2014-01-01

    Reactive oxygen species are produced during anaerobic exercise mostly by Fe ions released into plasma and endothelial/muscle xanthine oxidase activation that generates uric acid (UA) as the endpoint metabolite. Paradoxically, UA is considered a major antioxidant by virtue of being able to chelate pro-oxidative iron ions. This work aimed to evaluate the relationship between UA and plasma markers of oxidative stress following the exhaustive Wingate test. Plasma samples of 17 male undergraduate students were collected before, 5 and 60 min after maximal anaerobic effort for the measurement of total iron, haem iron, UA, ferric-reducing antioxidant activity in plasma (FRAP), and malondialdehyde (MDA, biomarker of lipoperoxidation). Iron and FRAP showed similar kinetics in plasma, demonstrating an adequate pro-/antioxidant balance immediately after exercise and during the recovery period (5–60 min). Slight variations of haem iron concentrations did not support a relevant contribution of rhabdomyolysis or haemolysis for iron overload following exercise. UA concentration did not vary immediately after exercise but rather increased 29% during the recovery period. Unaltered MDA levels were concomitantly measured. We propose that delayed UA accumulation in plasma is an auxiliary antioxidant response to post-exercise (iron-mediated) oxidative stress, and the high correlation between total UA and FRAP in plasma (R-Square = 0.636; p = 0.00582) supports this hypothesis. PMID:25435669

  19. Synergistic ameliorative effects of sesame oil and alpha-lipoic acid against subacute diazinon toxicity in rats: hematological, biochemical, and antioxidant studies.

    PubMed

    Abdel-Daim, Mohamed M; Taha, Ramadan; Ghazy, Emad W; El-Sayed, Yasser S

    2016-01-01

    Diazinon (DZN) is a common organophosphorus insecticide extensively used for agriculture and veterinary purposes. DZN toxicity is not limited to insects; it also induces harmful effects in mammals and birds. Our experiment evaluated the protective and antioxidant potential of sesame oil (SO) and (or) alpha-lipoic acid (ALA) against DZN toxicity in male Wistar albino rats. DZN-treated animals exhibited macrocytic hypochromic anemia and significant increases in serum biochemical parameters related to liver injury, including aspartate aminotransferase (AST), alanine aminotransferase (ALT), alkaline phosphatase (ALP), γ-glutamyl transferase (γGT), cholesterol, and triglycerides. They also had elevated levels of markers related to cardiac injury, such as lactate dehydrogenase (LDH) and creatine phosphokinase (CPK), and increased biomarkers of renal injury, urea and creatinine. DZN also increased hepatic, renal, and cardiac lipid peroxidation and decreased antioxidant biomarker levels. SO and (or) ALA supplementation ameliorated the deleterious effects of DZN intoxication. Treatment improved hematology and serum parameters, enhanced endogenous antioxidant status, and reduced lipid peroxidation. Importantly, they exerted synergistic hepatoprotective, nephroprotective, and cardioprotective effects. Our findings demonstrate that SO and (or) ALA supplementation can alleviate the toxic effects of DZN via their potent antioxidant and free radical-scavenging activities.

  20. Blood redox status is associated with the likelihood of nonalcoholic fatty liver disease irrespectively of diet's total antioxidant capacity.

    PubMed

    Georgoulis, Michael; Fragopoulou, Elisabeth; Kontogianni, Meropi D; Margariti, Aikaterini; Boulamatsi, Olga; Detopoulou, Paraskeui; Tiniakos, Dina; Zafiropoulou, Rodessa; Papatheodoridis, George

    2015-01-01

    It is well established that oxidative stress is implicated in nonalcoholic fatty liver disease pathogenesis, whereas the dietary intake of antioxidants has been reported to be low in patients with the disease. We hypothesized that blood redox status measurements would be associated with nonalcoholic fatty liver disease presence and severity, and that diet's total antioxidant capacity could moderate the aforementioned association. The study sample consisted of 73 patients with nonalcoholic fatty liver disease, of which 58 were matched by age, sex, and body mass index with 58 controls. Diet's total antioxidant capacity was estimated through the ferric-reducing antioxidant power, the total radical-trapping antioxidant parameter, and the Trolox equivalent antioxidant capacity scores, whereas blood redox status was assessed by measuring thiobarbituric acid reactive substances levels, the enzymatic activity of glutathione peroxidase, and serum resistance to oxidation. Diet's total antioxidant capacity scores and glutathione peroxidase activity were not significantly associated with the disease presence or severity. Both thiobarbituric acid reactive substances and serum resistance to oxidation were significantly associated with the likelihood of nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (odds ratios [ORs], 7.769 [P= .007] and 0.936 [P= .033], respectively), independently of abdominal fat level, degree of insulin resistance, blood lipid levels, markers of subclinical inflammation, and diet's total antioxidant capacity, but not with the disease histologic severity or stage. Our results support the association between blood redox status and the likelihood of nonalcoholic fatty liver disease regardless of diet's total antioxidant capacity.

  1. Yucca schidigera bark: phenolic constituents and antioxidant activity.

    PubMed

    Piacente, Sonia; Montoro, Paola; Oleszek, Wieslaw; Pizza, Cosimo

    2004-05-01

    Two new phenolic constituents with unusual spirostructures, named yuccaols D (1) and E (2), were isolated from the MeOH extract of Yucca schidigera bark. Their structures were established by spectroscopic (ESIMS and NMR) analysis. The new yuccaols D and E, along with resveratrol (3), trans-3,3',5,5'-tetrahydroxy-4'-methoxystilbene (4), yuccaols A-C (5-7), yuccaone A (8), larixinol (9), the MeOH extract of Yucca schidigera bark, and the phenolic portion of this extract, were assayed for antioxidant activity by measuring the free radical scavenging effects using two different assays, namely, the Trolox Equivalent Antioxidant Capacity (TEAC) assay and the coupled oxidation of beta-carotene and linoleic acid (autoxidation assay). The significant activities exhibited by the phenolic fraction and its constituents in both tests show the potential use of Y. schidigera as a source of antioxidant principles.

  2. Post-Stroke Depression Modulation and in Vivo Antioxidant Activity of Gallic Acid and Its Synthetic Derivatives in a Murine Model System

    PubMed Central

    Nabavi, Seyed Fazel; Habtemariam, Solomon; Di Lorenzo, Arianna; Sureda, Antoni; Khanjani, Sedigheh; Nabavi, Seyed Mohammad; Daglia, Maria

    2016-01-01

    Gallic acid (3,4,5-trihydroxybenzoic acid, GA) is a plant secondary metabolite, which shows antioxidant activity and is commonly found in many plant-based foods and beverages. Recent evidence suggests that oxidative stress contributes to the development of many human chronic diseases, including cardiovascular and neurodegenerative pathologies, metabolic syndrome, type 2 diabetes and cancer. GA and its derivative, methyl-3-O-methyl gallate (M3OMG), possess physiological and pharmacological activities closely related to their antioxidant properties. This paper describes the antidepressive-like effects of intraperitoneal administration of GA and two synthetic analogues, M3OMG and P3OMG (propyl-3-O-methylgallate), in balb/c mice with post-stroke depression, a secondary form of depression that could be due to oxidative stress occurring during cerebral ischemia and the following reperfusion. Moreover, this study determined the in vivo antioxidant activity of these compounds through the evaluation of superoxide dismutase (SOD) and catalase (Cat) activity, thiobarbituric acid-reactive substances (TBARS) and reduced glutathione (GSH) levels in mouse brain. GA and its synthetic analogues were found to be active (at doses of 25 and 50 mg/kg) in the modulation of depressive symptoms and the reduction of oxidative stress, restoring normal behavior and, at least in part, antioxidant endogenous defenses, with M3OMG being the most active of these compounds. SOD, TBARS, and GSH all showed strong correlation with behavioral parameters, suggesting that oxidative stress is tightly linked to the pathological processes involved in stroke and PSD. As a whole, the obtained results show that the administration of GA, M3OMG and P3OMG induce a reduction in depressive symptoms and oxidative stress. PMID:27136579

  3. Omega-3 polyunsaturated fatty acid has an anti-oxidant effect via the Nrf-2/HO-1 pathway in 3T3-L1 adipocytes

    SciTech Connect

    Kusunoki, Chisato; Yang, Liu; Yoshizaki, Takeshi; Nakagawa, Fumiyuki; Ishikado, Atsushi; Kondo, Motoyuki; Morino, Katsutaro; Sekine, Osamu; Ugi, Satoshi; Nishio, Yoshihiko; Kashiwagi, Atsunori; Maegawa, Hiroshi

    2013-01-04

    Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Omega-3 PUFA has a direct anti-oxidant effect in adipocytes. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer EPA and DHA induce HO-1 expression in 3T3-L1 adipocytes. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Omega-3 PUFA and its end-product, 4-HHE, activates the Nrf-2/HO-1 pathway. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Omega-3 PUFA protects against oxidative stress-induced cytotoxicity. -- Abstract: Oxidative stress is produced in adipose tissue of obese subjects and has been associated with obesity-related disorders. Recent studies have shown that omega-3 polyunsaturated fatty acid ({omega}3-PUFA) has beneficial effects in preventing atherosclerotic diseases and insulin resistance in adipose tissue. However, the role of {omega}3-PUFA on adipocytes has not been elucidated. In this study, 3T3-L1 adipocytes were treated with {omega}3-PUFA and its metabolites, eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA), docosahexaenoic acid (DHA), or 4-hydroxy hexenal (4-HHE). {omega}3-PUFA and its metabolites dose-dependently increased mRNA and protein levels of the anti-oxidative enzyme, heme oxygenase-1 (HO-1); whereas no changes in the well-known anti-oxidant molecules, superoxide dismutase, catalase, and glutathione peroxidase, were observed. Knockdown of nuclear factor erythroid 2-related factor 2 (Nrf-2) significantly reduced EPA, DHA or 4-HHE-induced HO-1 mRNA and protein expression. Also, pretreatment with {omega}3-PUFA prevented H{sub 2}O{sub 2}-induced cytotoxicity in a HO-1 dependent manner. In conclusion, treatment with EPA and DHA induced HO-1 through the activation of Nrf-2 and prevented oxidative stress in 3T3-L1 adipocytes. This anti-oxidant defense may be of high therapeutic value for clinical conditions associated with systemic oxidative stress.

  4. Water-deficit impact on fatty acid and essential oil composition and antioxidant activities of cumin (Cuminum cyminum L.) aerial parts.

    PubMed

    Bettaieb, Iness; Knioua, Sana; Hamrouni, Ibtissem; Limam, Ferid; Marzouk, Brahim

    2011-01-12

    This study is designed to examine the effect of water deficit on growth, fatty acid and essential oil composition, and antioxidant activities of Cuminum cyminum aerial part extracts. Plants were treated with different levels of water deficit: control (C), moderate water deficit (MWD), and severe water deficit (SWD). Plant growth (height, fresh and dry matter weights) as well as yield components were significantly increased under moderate water deficit and conversely reduced at severe level. Total fatty acid content decreased significantly with severity of constraint. Drought reduced considerably the proportions of major fatty acids and the unsaturated to saturated fatty acid ratio. The essential oil yield was 0.14% (based on the dry weight); it increased by 2.21-fold at MWD but decreased by 42.8% under SWD in comparison to the control. Drought results in the modification of the essential oil chemotype from 1-phenyl-1-butanol to 1-phenyl-1,2-ethanediol. Antioxidant activities of the acetone extracts were determined by two complementary test systems, namely, DPPH and β-carotene/linoleic acid. The highest activity was exhibited by moderately stressed plants and was reduced significantly under SWD. In control plants, the total phenolic amount was 10.23 mg GAE/g DW, which increased by 1.5-fold under MWD and decreased by 42% under SWD.

  5. Effects of in vitro UVA irradiation and PUVA treatment on membrane fatty acids and activities of antioxidant enzymes in human keratinocytes

    SciTech Connect

    Punnonen, K.; Jansen, C.T.; Puntala, A.; Ahotupa, M. )

    1991-02-01

    Human Keratinocytes (NCTC 2544) in culture were exposed to either plain ultraviolet A (UVA) irradiation or to 8-methoxypsoralen plus UVA (PUVA) treatment. Lipid peroxidation, activities of antioxidant enzymes, and percentage amounts of 14C-arachidonic acid in various cellular lipid subclasses and in the culture medium were measured. Both UVA irradiation and PUVA treatment induced significant changes in the distribution of arachidonic acid and increased the liberation of arachidonic acid from membrane phospholipids. At 24 h after either UVA irradiation or PUVA treatment the formation of thiobarbituric acid reactive material was significantly increased, whereas the amount of conjugated dienes was unaffected. The activities of the antioxidant enzymes, catalase and superoxide dismutase, were already significantly decreased at 0.5 h after UVA irradiation or PUVA treatment. The enzyme activities were partially restored during the following 24 h incubation. From the present study, we suggest that in keratinocytes both plain UVA irradiation and PUVA treatment induce changes in the distribution of membrane fatty acids and cause an impairment in the enzymic defense system against oxidative stress.

  6. Rhizophagus irregularis as an elicitor of rosmarinic acid and antioxidant production by transformed roots of Ocimum basilicum in an in vitro co-culture system.

    PubMed

    Srivastava, Shivani; Conlan, Xavier A; Cahill, David M; Adholeya, Alok

    2016-11-01

    Arbuscular mycorrhiza is a symbiotic association formed between plant roots and soil borne fungi that alter and at times improve the production of secondary metabolites. Detailed information is available on mycorrhizal development and its influence on plants grown under various edapho-climatic conditions, however, very little is known about their influence on transformed roots that are rich reserves of secondary metabolites. This raises the question of how mycorrhizal colonization progresses in transformed roots grown in vitro and whether the mycorrhizal fungus presence influences the production of secondary metabolites. To fully understand mycorrhizal ontogenesis and its effect on root morphology, root biomass, total phenolics, rosmarinic acid, caffeic acid and antioxidant production under in vitro conditions, a co-culture was developed between three Agrobacterium rhizogenes-derived, elite-transformed root lines of Ocimum basilicum and Rhizophagus irregularis. We found that mycorrhizal ontogenesis in transformed roots was similar to mycorrhizal roots obtained from an in planta system. Mycorrhizal establishment was also found to be transformed root line-specific. Colonization of transformed roots increased the concentration of rosmarinic acid, caffeic acid and antioxidant production while no effect was observed on root morphological traits and biomass. Enhancement of total phenolics and rosmarinic acid in the three mycorrhizal transformed root lines was found to be transformed root line-specific and age dependent. We reveal the potential of R. irregularis as a biotic elicitor in vitro and propose its incorporation into commercial in vitro secondary metabolite production via transformed roots.

  7. Comparative assessment on in vitro antioxidant activities of ethanol extracts of Averrhoa bilimbi, Gymnema sylvestre and Capsicum frutescens

    PubMed Central

    Rahman, Md. Mominur; Habib, Md. Razibul; Hasan, Md. Anayet; Al Amin, Mohammad; Saha, Ayan; Mannan, Adnan

    2014-01-01

    Background: Averrhoa bilimbi, Gymnema sylvestre and Capsicum frutescens are medicinal plants commonly used as traditional medicine for the treatment of various diseases. The present study was designed to investigate the antioxidant activities of Ethanolic extract of A. bilimbi, G. sylvestre and C. frutescens. Materials and Methods: The antioxidant activity of the extracts were evaluated using total phenolic and flavonoid contents, ferric reducing power and the free radical scavenging activity against 1,1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH). Results: Total phenolic and flavonoid contents were higher in G. sylvestre (53.63636 ± 0.454545 mg/g gallic acid equivalent) and C. frutescens (26.66667 ± 2.081666 mg/g quercetin equivalent) respectively. Reducing power of the crude ethanol extracts increased with the concentrations of the extracts and all the extracts showed moderate free radical scavenging activity against DPPH. The plant extract displayed moderate phenolic and flavonoid contents compared to gallic acid and quercetin equivalent respectively, whereas also exhibited significant scavenging of DPPH radical and reducing power compared with ascorbic acid as standard. Conclusion: Our study suggests that G. sylvestre has significant antioxidant activity. The antioxidant compound of this plant might be a therapeutic candidate against oxidative stress related diseases. Different sub-fraction of A. bilimbi and C. frutescens should be studied further to assess the effect. Further study is necessary for isolation and characterization of the active antioxidant agents for better treatment. PMID:24497740

  8. Epibrassinolide ameliorates Cr (VI) stress via influencing the levels of indole-3-acetic acid, abscisic acid, polyamines and antioxidant system of radish seedlings.

    PubMed

    Choudhary, Sikander Pal; Kanwar, Mukesh; Bhardwaj, Renu; Gupta, B D; Gupta, R K

    2011-07-01

    The present investigation determined the effects of epibrassinolide (EBL) on the levels of indole-3-acetic acid (IAA), abscisic acid (ABA), and polyamine (PA) and antioxidant potential of 7-d old Raphanus sativus L. cv. 'Pusa chetki' seedlings grown under Cr (VI) metal stress. Reduced titers of free (0.767 μg g(-1) FW) and bound (0.545 μg g(-1) FW) IAA in Cr (VI) stressed seedlings were observed over untreated control. Supplementations of EBL to Cr (VI) stressed seedlings were able to enhance both free (2.14-5.68 μg g(-1) FW) and bound IAA (2.45-7.78 μg g(-1) FW) concentrations in comparison to Cr (VI) metal treatment alone. Significant rise in free (13.49 μg g(-1) FW) and bound (12.17 μg g(-1) FW) ABA contents were noticed for Cr (VI) stressed seedlings when compared to untreated control. No significant increase in ABA contents were recorded for Cr (VI) stressed seedlings upon supplementation with EBL over Cr (VI) treatment alone. A significant increase in Put (18.40 μg g(-1) FW) and Cad (9.08 μg g(-1) FW) contents were found for 10(-9)M EBL plus Cr (VI) metal treatments when compared to Cr (VI) treatment alone. Spermidine (Spd) contents were found to decline significantly for EBL treatment alone or when supplemented with Cr (VI) treatments over untreated controls and Cr (VI) treatment alone. Antioxidant levels were found to enhance, with glutathione (57.98 mg g(-1) FW), proline (4.97 mg g(-1) FW), glycinebetaine (39.01 μmol mL(-1)), ascorbic acid (3.17 mg g(-1) FW) and phytochelatins (65.69 μmol g(-1) FW) contents noted for EBL supplemented to Cr (VI) metal solution over Cr (VI) treatment alone. Reduced activities of guaiacol peroxidase (0.391 U mg(-1) protein) and catalase (0.221 U mg(-1) protein) and enhanced activities of glutathione reductase (7.14 U mg(-1) protein), superoxide dismutase (15.20 U mg(-1) protein) and ascorbate peroxidase (4.31 U mg(-1) protein) were observed in seedlings treated with EBL plus Cr (VI) over Cr metal treatment alone

  9. Effects of overnight captivity on antioxidant capacity and clinical chemistry of wild southern hairy-nosed wombats (Lasiorhinus latifrons).

    PubMed

    Debrincat, Steven; Taggart, David; Rich, Brian; Beveridge, Ian; Boardman, Wayne; Dibben, Ron

    2014-09-01

    An animal's antioxidant capacity is measured by its ability to quench reactive oxygen species (ROS). During everyday metabolism, antioxidants and ROS are in equilibrium with one another. In times of stress, an animal produces more ROS and therefore uses its antioxidant capacity more readily in order to maintain this equilibrium. When the production of ROS exceeds the antioxidant capacity, an animal will experience extensive oxidative stress, which can ultimately affect that animal's health. During experimental study of wild animals, it is often necessary to capture them for a short period of time. In order to obtain a measurement of the effects of short-term captivity on oxidative capacity in wild animals, a population of southern hairy-nosed wombats (Lasiorhinus latifrons) in Swan Reach, South Australia (34.57 degrees S, 139.60 degrees E), was studied. To assess the variation in antioxidant capacity, two assays, the ferric reducing ability of plasma and the trolox equivalent antioxidant capacity, were performed. A third assay, thiobarbituric acid reactive substances, was used to measure the effects of ROS. Measurements of the specific antioxidants uric acid, ascorbic acid, retinol, alpha-tocopherol, and superoxide dismutase were also performed. The biochemical parameters albumin, total protein, cholinesterase, creatinine, and urea were measured as indicators for health. Results showed a significant reduction in antioxidant capacity during the overnight period of captivity.

  10. Effect of stevia and citric acid on the stability of phenolic compounds and in vitro antioxidant and antidiabetic capacity of a roselle (Hibiscus sabdariffa L.) beverage.

    PubMed

    Pérez-Ramírez, Iza F; Castaño-Tostado, Eduardo; Ramírez-de León, José A; Rocha-Guzmán, Nuria E; Reynoso-Camacho, Rosalía

    2015-04-01

    Plant infusions are consumed due to their beneficial effects on health, which is attributed to their bioactive compounds content. However, these compounds are susceptible to degradation during processing and storage. The objective of this research was to evaluate the effect of stevia and citric acid on the stability of phenolic compounds, antioxidant capacity and carbohydrate-hydrolysing enzyme inhibitory activity of roselle beverages during storage. The optimum extraction conditions of roselle polyphenolic compounds was of 95 °C/60 min, which was obtained by a second order experimental design. The incorporation of stevia increased the stability of colour and some polyphenols, such as quercetin, gallic acid and rosmarinic acid, during storage. In addition, stevia decreased the loss of ABTS, DPPH scavenging activity and α-amylase inhibitory capacity, whereas the incorporation of citric acid showed no effect. These results may contribute to the improvement of technological processes for the elaboration of hypocaloric and functional beverages.