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Sample records for acid etching dental

  1. The effects of acid etching time on surface mechanical properties of dental hard tissues.

    PubMed

    Zafar, Muhammad Sohail; Ahmed, Naseer

    2015-01-01

    The objective of this study was to evaluate the effect of etching time on the surface properties of dental hard tissues including enamel and dentin. For this purpose, samples were prepared using extracted human teeth and treated with 37% phosphoric acid for various length of time using the set protocol. The effects of etching time on surface roughness were assessed using non-contact surface roughness profilometer and surface hardness was measured using nanoindentation technique. All results were analyzed statistically using SPSS computer software. Within the limitation of this study, it was concluded that etching time influences on the surface properties of dental hard tissues particularly the enamel. Enamel surface properties such as roughness and hardness can be altered remarkable as a matter of few seconds. Prolonged etching time than recommended is likely to increase the surface roughness and decrease surface hardness; compromising the bond strength of adhesive materials in clinical applications.

  2. Cell adhesion and in vivo osseointegration of sandblasted/acid etched/anodized dental implants.

    PubMed

    Kim, Mu-Hyon; Park, Kyeongsoon; Choi, Kyung-Hee; Kim, Soo-Hong; Kim, Se Eun; Jeong, Chang-Mo; Huh, Jung-Bo

    2015-05-06

    The authors describe a new type of titanium (Ti) implant as a Modi-anodized (ANO) Ti implant, the surface of which was treated by sandblasting, acid etching (SLA), and anodized techniques. The aim of the present study was to evaluate the adhesion of MG-63 cells to Modi-ANO surface treated Ti in vitro and to investigate its osseointegration characteristics in vivo. Four different types of Ti implants were examined, that is, machined Ti (control), SLA, anodized, and Modi-ANO Ti. In the cell adhesion study, Modi-ANO Ti showed higher initial MG-63 cell adhesion and induced greater filopodia growth than other groups. In vivo study in a beagle model revealed the bone-to-implant contact (BIC) of Modi-ANO Ti (74.20%±10.89%) was much greater than those of machined (33.58%±8.63%), SLA (58.47%±12.89), or ANO Ti (59.62%±18.30%). In conclusion, this study demonstrates that Modi-ANO Ti implants produced by sandblasting, acid etching, and anodizing improve cell adhesion and bone ongrowth as compared with machined, SLA, or ANO Ti implants. These findings suggest that the application of Modi-ANO surface treatment could improve the osseointegration of dental implant.

  3. From acid etching treatments to tribocorrosive properties of dental implants: do some experimental results on surface treatments have an influence on the tribocorrosion behaviour of dental implants?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Geringer, Jean; Demanget, Nicolas; Pellier, Julie

    2013-10-01

    Surface treatments of dental implants aim at promoting osseointegration, i.e. the anchorage of the metallic part. Titanium-, grade II-V, based material is used as a bulk material for dental implants. For promoting the anchorage of this metallic biomaterial in human jaw, some strategies have been applied for improving the surface state, i.e. roughness, topography and coatings. A case study, experimental study, is described with the method of acid etching on titanium grade 4, CpTi. The main goal is to find the right proportion in a mixture of two acids in order to obtain the best surface state. Finally, a pure theoretical prediction is quite impossible and some experimental investigations are necessary to improve the surface state. The described acid etching is compared with some other acid etching treatments and some coatings available on dental implants. Thus, the discussion is focused on the tribocorrosion behaviour of titanium-based materials. The purpose of the coating is that the lifetime under tribocorrosion is limited. Moreover, the surgery related to the implantation has a huge impact on the stability of dental implants. Thus, the performance of dental implants depends on factors related to surgery (implantation) that are difficult to predict from the biomaterial characteristics. From the tribocorrosion point of view, i.e. during the mastication step, the titanium material is submitted to some deleterious factors that cause the performance of dental implants to decrease.

  4. Comparison of bond strength and surface morphology of dental enamel for acid and Nd-YAG laser etching

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Parmeswearan, Diagaradjane; Ganesan, Singaravelu; Ratna, P.; Koteeswaran, D.

    1999-05-01

    Recently, laser pretreatment of dental enamel has emerged as a new technique in the field of orthodontics. However, the changes in the morphology of the enamel surface is very much dependent on the wavelength of laser, emission mode of the laser, energy density, exposure time and the nature of the substance absorbing the energy. Based on these, we made a comparative in vitro study on laser etching with acid etching with reference to their bond strength. Studies were conducted on 90 freshly extracted, non carious, human maxillary or mandibular anteriors and premolars. Out of 90, 60 were randomly selected for laser irradiation. The other 30 were used for conventional acid pretreatment. The group of 60 were subjected to Nd-YAG laser exposure (1060 nm, 10 Hz) at differetn fluences. The remaining 30 were acid pretreated with 30% orthophosphoric acid. Suitable Begg's brackets were selected and bound to the pretreated surface and the bond strength were tested using Instron testing machine. The bond strength achieved through acid pretreatment is found to be appreciably greater than the laser pretreated tooth. Though the bond strength achieved through the acid pretreated tooth is found to be significantly greater than the laser pretreated specimens, the laser pretreatement is found to be successful enough to produce a clinically acceptable bond strength of > 0.60 Kb/mm. Examination of the laser pre-treated tooth under SEM showed globule formation which may produce the mechanical interface required for the retention of the resin material.

  5. Surface Topographical Changes of a Failing Acid-Etched Long-Term in Function Retrieved Dental Implant.

    PubMed

    Monje, Alberto; González-García, Raúl; Fernández-Calderón, María Coronada; Hierro-Oliva, Margarita; González-Martín, María Luisa; Del Amo, Fernando Suarez-Lopez; Galindo-Moreno, Pablo; Wang, Hom-Lay; Monje, Florencio

    2016-02-01

    The aim of the present study was to report the main topographical and chemical changes of a failing 18-year in function retrieved acid-etching implant in the micro- and nanoscales. A partially edentulous 45 year old rehabilitated with a dental implant at 18 years of age exhibited mobility. After careful examination, a 3.25 × 13-mm press-fit dental implant was retrieved. Scanning electron microscope (SEM) analysis was carried out to study topographical changes of the retrieved implant compared with an unused implant with similar topographical characteristics. Moreover, X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) analysis was used to study the surface composition of the retrieved failing implant. Clear changes related to the dual dioxide layer are present as visible in ≥×500 magnification. In addition, it was found that, for the retrieved implant, the surface composition consisted mainly of Ti2p, O1s, C1s, and Al2p. Also, a meaningful decrease of N and C was noticed, whereas the peaks of Ti2p, Al2p, and O1s increased when analyzing deeper (up to ×2000s) in the sample. It was shown that the superficial surface of a retrieved press-fit dual acid-etched implant 18 years after placement is impaired. However, the causes and consequences for these changes cannot be determined.

  6. Pyruvic acid as an etching agent.

    PubMed

    Retief, D H; Bischoff, J; van der Merwe, E H

    1976-07-01

    Phosphoric acid at different concentrations has been extensively used as an etching agent to improve bonding of dental materials to enamel surfaces. Recently attention has been drawn to the possible use of polyfunctional organic acids as conditioning agents. The object of this investigation was to determine the optimal concentration of pyruvic acid as an etching agent. A commercial composite resin with an intermediary bonding system supplied with 37% H3PO4 as an etching agent was used as the control system. In addition, a comparative study was carried out to evaluate 37% H3PO4, 20% lactic acid and the optimal concentration of pyruvic acid as conditioning solutions. Etching enamel surfaces with 10% pyruvic acid resulted in the optimal tensile bond strength of the resin to etched enamel surfaces. The use of 10% pyruvic acid did not adversely affect the bond strength of the resin system when compared to enamel surfaces etched with 37% H3PO4 for the same time period. Significantly lower tensile bond strengths were recorded on enamel surfaces etched with 20% lactic acid. The rate and depth of etching obtained with 37% H3PO4 can be considerably reduced by using 10% pyruvic acid as the conditioning agent.

  7. The Effect of Hydrofluoric Acid Etching Duration on the Surface Micromorphology, Roughness, and Wettability of Dental Ceramics.

    PubMed

    Ramakrishnaiah, Ravikumar; Alkheraif, Abdulaziz A; Divakar, Darshan Devang; Matinlinna, Jukka P; Vallittu, Pekka K

    2016-05-27

    The current laboratory study is evaluating the effect of hydrofluoric acid etching duration on the surface characteristics of five silica-based glass ceramics. Changes in the pore pattern, crystal structure, roughness, and wettability were compared and evaluated. Seventy-five rectangularly shaped specimens were cut from each material (IPS e-max™, Dentsply Celtra™, Vita Suprinity™, Vita mark II™, and Vita Suprinity FC™); the sectioned samples were finished, polished, and ultrasonically cleaned. Specimens were randomly assigned into study groups: control (no etching) and four experimental groups (20, 40, 80 and 160 s of etching). The etched surfaces' microstructure including crystal structure, pore pattern, pore depth, and pore width was studied under a scanning electron microscope, and the surface roughness and wettability were analyzed using a non-contact surface profilometer and a contact angle measuring device, respectively. The results were statistically analyzed using one-way analysis of variance (ANOVA) and the post hoc Tukey's test. The results showed a significant change in the pore number, pore pattern, crystal structure, surface roughness, and wettability with increased etching duration. Etching for a short time resulted in small pores, and etching for longer times resulted in wider, irregular grooves. A significant increase in the surface roughness and wettability was observed with an increase in the etching duration. The findings also suggested a strong association between the surface roughness and wettability.

  8. The Effect of Hydrofluoric Acid Etching Duration on the Surface Micromorphology, Roughness, and Wettability of Dental Ceramics

    PubMed Central

    Ramakrishnaiah, Ravikumar; Alkheraif, Abdulaziz A.; Divakar, Darshan Devang; Matinlinna, Jukka P.; Vallittu, Pekka K.

    2016-01-01

    The current laboratory study is evaluating the effect of hydrofluoric acid etching duration on the surface characteristics of five silica-based glass ceramics. Changes in the pore pattern, crystal structure, roughness, and wettability were compared and evaluated. Seventy-five rectangularly shaped specimens were cut from each material (IPS e-max™, Dentsply Celtra™, Vita Suprinity™, Vita mark II™, and Vita Suprinity FC™); the sectioned samples were finished, polished, and ultrasonically cleaned. Specimens were randomly assigned into study groups: control (no etching) and four experimental groups (20, 40, 80 and 160 s of etching). The etched surfaces’ microstructure including crystal structure, pore pattern, pore depth, and pore width was studied under a scanning electron microscope, and the surface roughness and wettability were analyzed using a non-contact surface profilometer and a contact angle measuring device, respectively. The results were statistically analyzed using one-way analysis of variance (ANOVA) and the post hoc Tukey’s test. The results showed a significant change in the pore number, pore pattern, crystal structure, surface roughness, and wettability with increased etching duration. Etching for a short time resulted in small pores, and etching for longer times resulted in wider, irregular grooves. A significant increase in the surface roughness and wettability was observed with an increase in the etching duration. The findings also suggested a strong association between the surface roughness and wettability. PMID:27240353

  9. Ultrastructure of the surface of dental enamel with molar incisor hypomineralization (MIH) with and without acid etching.

    PubMed

    Bozal, Carola B; Kaplan, Andrea; Ortolani, Andrea; Cortese, Silvina G; Biondi, Ana M

    2015-01-01

    The aim of the present work was to analyze the ultrastructure and mineral composition of the surface of the enamel on a molar with MIH, with and without acid etching. A permanent tooth without clinical MIH lesions (control) and a tooth with clinical diagnosis of mild and moderate MIH, with indication for extraction, were processed with and without acid etching (H3PO4 37%, 20") for observation with scanning electron microscope (SEM) ZEISS (Supra 40) and mineral composition analysis with an EDS detector (Oxford Instruments). The control enamel showed normal prismatic surface and etching pattern. The clinically healthy enamel on the tooth with MIH revealed partial loss of prismatic pattern. The mild lesion was porous with occasional cracks. The moderate lesion was more porous, with larger cracks and many scales. The mineral composition of the affected surfaces had lower Ca and P content and higher O and C. On the tooth with MIH, even on normal looking enamel, the demineralization does not correspond to an etching pattern, and exhibits exposure of crystals with rods with rounded ends and less demineralization in the inter-prismatic spaces. Acid etching increased the presence of cracks and deep pores in the adamantine structure of the enamel with lesion. In moderate lesions, the mineral composition had higher content of Ca, P and Cl. Enamel with MIH, even on clinically intact adamantine surfaces, shows severe alterations in the ultrastructure and changes in ionic composition, which affect the acid etching pattern and may interfere with adhesion.

  10. Adult Stem Cells Properties in Terms of Commitment, Aging and Biological Safety of Grit-Blasted and Acid-Etched Ti Dental Implants Surfaces

    PubMed Central

    Gardin, Chiara; Ferroni, Letizia; Bressan, Eriberto; Calvo - Guirado, José L.; Degidi, Marco; Piattelli, Adriano; Zavan, Barbara

    2014-01-01

    Titanium (Ti) is one of the most widely used biomaterials for manufacturing dental implants. The implant surface properties strongly influence osseointegration. The aim of the present study was to in vitro investigate the characteristics of Ti dental implants in terms of mutagenicity, hemocompatibility, biocompatibility, osteoinductivity and biological safety. The Ames test was used to test the mutagenicity of the Ti dental implants, and the hemolysis assay for evaluating their hemocompatibility. Human adipose - derived stem cells (ADSCs) were then seeded onto these implants in order to evaluate their cytotoxicity. Gene expression analyzing with real-time PCR was carried out to investigate the osteoinductivity of the biomaterials. Finally, the genetic stability of the cells cultured onto dental implants was determined by karyotyping. Our results demonstrated that Ti dental implants are not mutagenic, do not cause hemolysis, and are biocompatible. The MTT assay revealed that ADSCs, seeded on Ti dental implants, proliferate up to 30 days in culture. Moreover, ADSCs loaded on Ti dental implants show a substantial expression of some osteoblast specific markers, such as COL1A1, OPN, ALPL, and RUNX2, as well as chromosomal stability after 30 days of culture in a medium without osteogenic factors. In conclusion, the grit-blasted and acid-etched treatment seems to favor the adhesion and proliferation of ADSCs and improve the osteoinductivity of Ti dental implant surfaces. PMID:25635249

  11. Photopolymerization of phosphoric acid ester-based self-etch dental adhesives

    PubMed Central

    ZHANG, Ying; WANG, Yong

    2014-01-01

    The objective of the study was to gain more understanding on the photopolymerization mechanism and the role of individual monomers in the polymerization behavior of a PAE-based self-etch adhesive system with the presence of HAp and water. The photo-polymerization process of the model adhesive system (2MP / HEMA) was monitored by using real-time attenuated total reflectance Fourier transform infrared (ATR/FT-IR) technique. The effect of monomer ratio, HAp incorporation, and water content were investigated. The degree of conversion (DC) and the polymerization rate (PR) of the adhesives were determined to evaluate the polymerization efficacy. The results showed that the DC and PR increased consistently as the 2MP content increased from 30% to 70%, while they declined drastically as the 2MP content was further elevated to 100%. The incorporation of HAp considerably increased the DC and PR; however, the increase in water content was found to have negative influence on the photopolymerization. PMID:23370865

  12. Microstructure, composition, and etching topography of dental ceramics.

    PubMed

    Della Bona, Alvaro; Anusavice, Kenneth J

    2002-01-01

    Topographic analysis of etched ceramics provides qualitative surface structure information that affects micromechanical retention mechanisms. This study tested the hypothesis that the etching mechanism changes according to the type of etchant and the ceramic microstructure and composition. Quantitative and qualitative analyses of 15 dental ceramics were performed using scanning electron microscopy, back-scattered imaging, X-ray diffraction, optical profilometry, and wavelength dispersive spectroscopy based on Phi-Rho-Z correction. All ceramic specimens were polished to 1 micron with diamond compound, and the following etchants and etching times were used: ammonium bifluoride (ABF) for 1 minute, 9.6% hydrofluoric acid (HF) for 2 minutes, and 4% acidulated phosphate fluoride (APF) for 2 minutes. HF produced an irregular etching pattern in which pores were the characteristic topographic feature. ABF-etched ceramic surfaces showed mostly grooves, and APF etchant caused a buildup of surface precipitate. Core ceramics showed less topographic change after etching because of their high alumina content and low chemical reactivity. The observations suggest that the etching mechanism is different for the three etchants, with HF producing the most prominent etching pattern on all dental ceramics examined.

  13. Femtosecond laser etching of dental enamel for bracket bonding.

    PubMed

    Kabas, Ayse Sena; Ersoy, Tansu; Gülsoy, Murat; Akturk, Selcuk

    2013-09-01

    The aim is to investigate femtosecond laser ablation as an alternative method for enamel etching used before bonding orthodontic brackets. A focused laser beam is scanned over enamel within the area of bonding in a saw tooth pattern with a varying number of lines. After patterning, ceramic brackets are bonded and bonding quality of the proposed technique is measured by a universal testing machine. The results are compared to the conventional acid etching method. Results show that bonding strength is a function of laser average power and the density of the ablated lines. Intrapulpal temperature changes are also recorded and observed minimal effects are observed. Enamel surface of the samples is investigated microscopically and no signs of damage or cracking are observed. In conclusion, femtosecond laser exposure on enamel surface yields controllable patterns that provide efficient bonding strength with less removal of dental tissue than conventional acid-etching technique.

  14. In vitro evaluation of microleakage under orthodontic brackets using two different laser etching, self etching and acid etching methods.

    PubMed

    Hamamci, Nihal; Akkurt, Atilim; Başaran, Güvenç

    2010-11-01

    This study evaluated the microleakage of brackets bonded by four different enamel etching techniques. Forty freshly extracted human premolars were divided randomly into four equal groups and received the following treatment: group 1, acid etching; group 2, self-etching primer (SEP); group 3, erbium:yttrium-aluminum-garnet (Er:YAG) laser etching; and group 4, erbium, chromium:yttrium-scandium-gallium-garnet (Er,Cr:YSGG) laser etching. After photopolymerization, the teeth were kept in distilled water for 1 month and then subjected to 500 thermal cycles. Then, the specimens were sealed with nail varnish, stained with 0.5% basic fuchsin for 24 h, sectioned, and examined under a stereomicroscope. In addition, they were scored for marginal microleakage at the adhesive-enamel and bracket-adhesive interfaces from the incisal and gingival margins. Statistical analyses consisted of the Kruskal-Wallis test and the Mann-Whitney U test with Bonferroni correction. Microleakage occurred between the adhesive-enamel and bracket-adhesive interfaces in all groups. For the adhesive-enamel surface, a significant difference was observed between group 1 and groups 2 (P = 0.011), 3 (P = 0.002), and 4 (P = 0.000) on the gingival side. Overall, significant differences were observed between group 1 and groups 3 (P = 0.003) and 4 (P = 0.000). In dental bonding procedures, acid etching was found to result in the least microleakage. Since etching with a laser decreases the risk of caries and is time-saving, it may serve as an alternative to acid etching.

  15. SEM ANALYSIS OF THE ACID-ETCHED ENAMEL PATTERNS PROMOTED BY ACIDIC MONOMERS AND PHOSPHORIC ACIDS

    PubMed Central

    Shinohara, Mirela Sanae; de Oliveira, Marcelo Tavares; Hipólito, Vinícius Di; Giannin, Marcelo; de Goes, Mario Fernando

    2006-01-01

    Objective: Although self-etching bonding systems (SES) are indicated to prepare dental enamel for bonding, concerns have been expressed regarding their effectiveness. The aim of this study was to analyze the etching pattern (EP) of nine SES in comparison with 35% and 34% phosphoric acid etchants (FA) on intact (IN) and ground (GR) enamel surface. Materials and Methods: Twenty-two human third molars were sectioned in mesial-distal and buccal-lingual directions, and four dental fragments were obtained from each tooth. Half of the fragments were ground using 600-grit SiC paper and the other half remained intact. The fragments were randomly assigned into 22 groups, according to the texture of enamel surface (IN and GR) and the technique to etch the enamel (34% FA, 35% FA, AdheSE primer; Brush & Bond; Clearfil Protect Bond primer; iBond; One-up Bond F; OptiBond Solo Plus primer; Tyrian SPE primer; Unifil Bond primer and Xeno III). Conditioners were applied to IN and GR enamel surfaces, according to the manufacturer's instructions. Specimens etched with phosphoric acids were washed with water, while the surfaces treated with SES were submitted to alternate rinsing with alcohol and acetone. The specimens were dried, sputter-coated and examined under a scanning electron microscope. Results: For both IN and GR enamel surfaces, the EP of 34 and 35% FA was deeper and more homogeneous in comparison to EP of SES, except for Tyrian SPE. The acidic monomer action of self-etching systems was more effective on GR enamel. Conclusion: Most of the SES are less aggressive than phosphoric acid etchants and their etching effects were reduced on intact enamel surfaces. Uniterms: Dental acid etching; Dental enamel; Electron microscopy. PMID:19089243

  16. Human dental implants with a sandblasted, acid-etched surface retrieved after 5 and 10 years: a light and scanning electron microscopy evaluation of two cases.

    PubMed

    Mangano, Carlo; Perrotti, Vittoria; Raspanti, Mario; Mangano, Francesco; Luongo, Giuseppe; Piattelli, Adriano; Iezzi, Giovanna

    2013-01-01

    The aim of the present study was a light and scanning electron microscopy (SEM) evaluation of the peri-implant tissues around sandblasted, acid-etched implants, retrieved from man, after a loading period of 5 and 10 years, respectively. Two implants (Leone Implant System) had been retrieved for a fracture of the prosthetic superstructure respectively after 5 and 10 years of loading. Both implants were stable before retrieval and had been retrieved using a 5-mm trephine bur. One implant was treated to obtain thin ground sections, while the other underwent evaluation under SEM. Compact, mature lamellar bone was present over most of the implant perimeter in close contact with the implant surface and with many remodeling areas. Under SEM, small concavities, completely filled by mineralized bone, were present on the implant surface. The present histologic results showed that these implants were well integrated over the long term, and the peri-implant bone was undergoing continuous remodeling at the interface.

  17. Effects of fluoride treatment on phosphoric acid-etching in primary teeth: an AFM observation.

    PubMed

    Choi, Samjin; Rhee, Yeri; Park, Jeong-Hoon; Lee, Gi-Ja; Kim, Kyung-Sook; Park, Jae-Hong; Park, Young-Guk; Park, Hun-Kuk

    2010-07-01

    The aim of this study was to examine the effect of fluoride application on 37% phosphoric acid-etching by atomic force microscopy (AFM) in primary tooth samples based on a clinical protocol used in a pediatric dental hospital. Enamel samples were prepared from 36 exfoliated and non-carious primary teeth. Primary tooth samples were randomly assigned to one of the four groups based on the timing of acid-etching with 37% phosphoric acid after an acidulated phosphate fluoride (APF) pre-treatment. Group 1 received no fluoride application, Group 2 was pre-treated with fluoride and then received acid-etching 2 weeks later. One week separated the fluoride treatment and the acid-etching in Group 3, while Group 4 received acid-etching immediately after the fluoride treatment. The vestibular enamel surfaces of each primary tooth sample were scanned in air at a resolution of 512 x 512 pixels and a scan speed of 0.8 line/s. On the enamel surfaces of the primary teeth after APF pre-treatment, debris were observed although the teeth were smoother than they were prior to APF. As a result, it was concluded that APF treatment is responsible for decreased primary tooth surface roughness. The enamel surfaces etched for 20s showed that acid-etching was effective not only in removing scratches and debris, but also for evaluating enamel rod characteristics. Primary tooth enamel surfaces after etching showed minute structures caused by the decreased hydroxyapatite nanoparticle space, compared to those before etching. Also, acid-etching showed significantly increased roughness effects (p<0.0001, n=9). Finally, as more time elapsed after APF pre-treatment, the roughness was decreased to a lesser degree (p=0.005, n=9). We suggest that primary teeth etching 2 weeks after APF pre-treatment used clinically in pediatric hospitals may be effective to obtain properly etched enamel surfaces.

  18. AFM and SEM study of the effects of etching on IPS-Empress 2 TM dental ceramic

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Luo, X.-P.; Silikas, N.; Allaf, M.; Wilson, N. H. F.; Watts, D. C.

    2001-10-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate the effects of increasing etching time on the surface of the new dental material, IPS-Empress 2 TM glass ceramic. Twenty one IPS-Empress 2 TM glass ceramic samples were made from IPS-Empress 2 TM ingots through lost-wax, hot-pressed ceramic fabrication technology. All samples were highly polished and cleaned ultrasonically for 5 min in acetone before and after etching with 9.6% hydrofluoric acid gel. The etching times were 0, 10, 20, 30, 60, 90 and 120 s respectively. Microstructure was analysed by scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and atomic force microscopy (AFM) was used to evaluate the surface roughness and topography. Observations with SEM showed that etching with hydrofluoric acid resulted in preferential dissolution of glass matrix, and that partially supported crystals within the glass matrix were lost with increasing etching time. AFM measurements indicated that etching increased the surface roughness of the glass-ceramic. A simple least-squares linear regression was used to establish a relationship between surface roughness parameters ( Ra, RMS), and etching time, for which r2>0.94. This study demonstrates the benefits of combining two microscopic methods for a better understanding of the surface. SEM showed the mode of action of hydrofluoric acid on the ceramic and AFM provided valuable data regarding the extent of surface degradation relative to etching time.

  19. The research on conformal acid etching process of glass ceramic

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Kepeng; Guo, Peiji

    2014-08-01

    A series of experiments have been done to explore the effect of different conditions on the hydrofluoric acid etching. The hydrofluoric acid was used to etch the glass ceramic called "ZERODUR", which is invented by SCHOTT in Germany. The glass ceramic was processed into cylindrical samples. The hydrofluoric acid etching was done in a plastic beaker. The concentration of hydrofluoric acid and the etching time were changed to measure the changes of geometric tolerance and I observed the surface using a microscope in order to find an appropriate condition of hydrofluoric acid etching.

  20. Atomic force microscopy observation of the enamel roughness and depth profile after phosphoric acid etching.

    PubMed

    Loyola-Rodriguez, Juan Pablo; Zavala-Alonso, Veronica; Reyes-Vela, Enrique; Patiño-Marin, Nuria; Ruiz, Facundo; Anusavice, Kenneth J

    2010-01-01

    The aim was to compare the enamel surface roughness (ESR) and absolute depth profile (ADP) (mean peak-to-valley height) by atomic force microscopy (AFM) before and after using four different phosphoric acids. A total of 160 enamel samples from 40 upper premolars were prepared. The inclusion criterion was that the teeth have healthy enamel. Exclusion criteria included any of the following conditions: facial restorations, caries lesions, enamel hypoplasia and dental fluorosis. Evaluations of the ESR and ADP were carried out by AFM. The Mann-Whitney U-test was used to compare continuous variables and the Wilcoxon test was used to analyze the differences between before and after etching. There were statistically significant differences (P acids in healthy enamel; Etch-37 and Scotchbond Etching Gel showed higher profiles after etching (P acids in healthy enamel. However, consistently Etch-37 and Scotchbond Etching Gel showed the highest increase regarding the ESR and ADP after etching healthy enamel. AFM was a useful tool to study site-specific structural topography changes in enamel after phosphoric acid etching.

  1. Effect of phosphoric acid etching on the shear bond strength of two self-etch adhesives.

    PubMed

    Sabatini, Camila

    2013-01-01

    To evaluate the effect of optional phosphoric acid etching on the shear bond strength (SBS) of two self-etch adhesives to enamel and dentin. Ninety-six bovine mandibular incisors were ground flat to obtain enamel and dentin substrates. A two-step self-etch adhesive (FL-Bond II) and a one-step self-etch adhesive (BeautiBond) were applied with and without a preliminary acid etching to both the enamel and dentin. The specimens were equally and randomly assigned to 4 groups per substrate (n=12) as follows: FL-Bond II etched; FL-Bond II un-etched; BeautiBond etched; BeautiBond un-etched. Composite cylinders (Filtek Z100) were bonded onto the treated tooth structure. The shear bond strength was evaluated after 24 hours of storage (37°C, 100% humidity) with a testing machine (Ultra-tester) at a speed of 1 mm/min. The data was analyzed using a two-way ANOVA and post-hoc Tukey's test with a significance level of p<0.05. A field emission scanning electron microscope was used for the failure mode analysis. Both adhesives evidenced a significant decrease in the dentin SBS with the use of an optional phosphoric acid-etching step (p<0.05). Preliminary phosphoric acid etching yielded significantly higher enamel SBS for FL-Bond II (p<0.05) only, but not for BeautiBond. FL-Bond II applied to un-etched dentin demonstrated the highest mean bond strength (37.7±3.2 MPa) and BeautiBond applied to etched dentin showed the lowest mean bond strength (18.3±6.7 MPa) among all tested groups (p<0.05). The use of a preliminary acid-etching step with 37.5% phosphoric acid had a significant adverse effect on the dentin bond strength of the self-etch adhesives evaluated while providing improvement on the enamel bond strength only for FL-Bond II. This suggests that the potential benefit that may be derived from an additional etching step with phosphoric acid does not justify the risk of adversely affecting the bond strength to dentin.

  2. A new generation of self-etching adhesives: comparison with traditional acid etch technique.

    PubMed

    Holzmeier, Marcus; Schaubmayr, Martin; Dasch, Walter; Hirschfelder, Ursula

    2008-03-01

    The aim of this study was to determine the shear bond strength (SBS), etching pattern and depth, and debonding performance of several market-leading, self-etching (SE) adhesives primarily used in restorative dentistry (iBond, Clearfil S(3) Bond, Clearfil Protect Bond, AdheSE, XenoIII), two experimental self-etching adhesives (exp. Bond 1, exp. Bond 2) and one experimental self-etching cement (SE Zement) used with and without prior phosphoric acid-etching, and to compare them to an orthodontic self-etching product (Transbond Plus SE Primer) and to traditional acid-etch technique (Transbond XT Primer, phosphoric acid) All adhesives were applied on pumiced and embedded bovine incisors following the manufacturers' instructions. Then one bracket each (coated with Transbond XT composite) was bonded (n = 20). Transbond XT was polymerized for 20 s from the incisal and gingival sides using a halogen device positioned at a constant 5 mm from and a 45 degrees angle to the specimen. The specimens were stored in distilled water for 24 h at 37 degrees C before measuring SBS. The ARI (adhesive remnant index) for all specimens was determined from the sheared-off brackets of each. After conditioning, the surface texture was morphologically evaluated from scanning electron microscope (SEM) images, while the etching depth was determined using a confocal laser-scanning microscope (CLSM). All groups were tested for normal distribution and analyzed by applying ANOVA, Kruskal-Wallis or the t test. In addition, a Bonferroni correction was used. The median values of the SBS tests were: SE Zement 3.0 MPa, SE Zement preceded by phosphoric acid etching 11.2 MPa, experimental bond 1: 7.4 MPa, experimental bond 2: 5.6 MPa, iBond 8.1 MPa, Clearfil S(3) Bond 14.1 MPa, Clearfil Protect Bond 16.6 MPa, Clearfil SE Bond 15.9 MPa, AdheSE 16.0 MPa, XenoIII 16.1 MPa, Transbond SE Primer 20.7 MPa, acid-etching+Transbond XT Primer 21.0 MPa. With the exception of iBond, we observed no significant

  3. Efficacy of standard (SLA) and modified sandblasted and acid-etched (SLActive) dental implants in promoting immediate and/or early occlusal loading protocols: a systematic review of prospective studies.

    PubMed

    Chambrone, Leandro; Shibli, Jamil Awad; Mercúrio, Carlos Eduardo; Cardoso, Bruna; Preshaw, Philip M

    2015-04-01

    To assess the survival percentage, clinical and radiographic outcomes of sandblasted and acid-etched (SLA) dental implants and its modified surface (SLActive) in protocols involving immediate and early occlusal loading. MEDLINE, EMBASE and the Cochrane Oral Health Group's Trials Register CENTRAL were searched in duplicate up to, and including, June 2013 to include randomised controlled trials (RCTs) and prospective observational studies of at least 6-month duration published in all languages. Studies limited to patients treated with SLA and/or SLActive implants involving a treatment protocol describing immediate and early loading of these implants were eligible for inclusion. Data on clinical and/or radiographic outcomes following implant placement were considered for inclusion. Of the 447 potentially eligible publications identified by the search strategy, seven RCTs comprising a total of 853 implants (8% titanium plasma-sprayed, 41.5% SLA and 50.5% SLActive) and 12 prospective observational studies including 1394 SLA and 145 SLActive implants were included in this review. According to the Cochrane Collaboration's tool for assessing risk of bias, one of the studies was considered to be at a low risk of bias, whereas the remaining studies were considered to be at an unclear risk. Regarding the observational studies, all of them presented a medium methodological quality based on the Modified Newcastle-Ottawa scale. There were no significant differences reported in the studies in relation to implant loss or clinical parameters between the immediate/early loading and delayed loading protocols. Overall, 95% of SLA and 97% of SLActive implants still survive at the end of follow-up. Despite of the positive findings achieved by the included studies, few RCTs were available for analysis for SLActive implants. Study heterogeneity, scarcity of data and the lack of pooled estimates represent a limitation between studies' comparisons and should be considered when interpreting

  4. Application of a dental adhesive using the self-etch and etch-and-rinse approaches: an 18-month clinical evaluation.

    PubMed

    Loguercio, Alessandro D; Reis, Alessandra

    2008-01-01

    Laboratory investigations have demonstrated that the application of multiple adhesive coats can increase adhesive infiltration, thereby increasing bond strength values. The authors conducted an 18-month, randomized, controlled prospective study to evaluate the clinical performance of a self-etch and an etch-and-rinse adhesive in noncarious cervical lesions. Twenty-nine patients with at least two pairs of similarly sized lesions participated in this study. The authors placed 116 restorations in one of four groups: OS2 (phosphoric acid and dental adhesive [One-Step Plus, Bisco, Schaumburg, Ill.], following the manufacturer's recommendation [two coats]); OS4 (phosphoric acid and One-Step Plus, with four coats); TY2 (Tyrian SPE [Bisco] and One-Step Plus, following the manufacturer's recommendation [two coats]); and TY4 (Tyrian SPE and One-Step Plus, with four coats). The authors evaluated the restorations at baseline and at six, 12 and 18 months, according to modified U.S. Public Health Service criteria. (Eight of the 116 restorations were unavailable for follow-up.) The retention rate for the TY2 group (55.5 percent) was statistically lower than that for the TY4 (77.8 percent) and OS4 (88.9 percent) groups. Only teeth in OS4 exhibited a retention rate at 18 months that was similar to that observed at baseline. Marginal discoloration occurred in all groups, and it was statistically significantly worse in TY2. Multiple adhesive coats significantly improved retention rates. Applying multiple coats of adhesive with the etch-and-rinse or self-etch approach can improve retention rates of Class V resin-based composite restorations, although not to the level of the American Dental Association's guidelines for dentin and adhesive materials.

  5. Surface characterization of alkali- and heat-treated Ti with or without prior acid etching

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    An, Sang-Hyun; Matsumoto, Takuya; Miyajima, Hiroyuki; Sasaki, Jun-Ichi; Narayanan, Ramaswamy; Kim, Kyo-Han

    2012-03-01

    Titanium and its alloys are used as implant materials in dental and orthopaedic applications. The material affinities to host bone tissue greatly concern with the recovery period and good prognosis. To obtain a material surface having excellent affinity to bone, acid etching prior to alkali- and heat-treatment of Ti was conducted. The surface characteristics of the prepared sample indicated that the roughness as well as the wettability increased by pre-etching. Bone-like apatite was formed on pre-etched, alkali- and heat-treated Ti surface in simulated body fluid (SBF) within 3 days, while it takes 5 days on the solely alkali- and heat-treated surface. Osteoblastic cells showed better compatibility on the per-etched surface compared to the pure Ti surface or alkali- and heat-treated surface. Moreover, the pre-etched surface showed better pull-off tensile adhesion strength against the deposited apatite. Thus, acid etching prior to alkali- and heat-treatment would be a promising method for enhancing the affinity of Ti to host bone tissue.

  6. Effects of phosphoric acid concentration and etch duration on enamel depth of etch: an in vitro study.

    PubMed

    Legler, L R; Retief, D H; Bradley, E L

    1990-08-01

    In a previous study we reported no significant differences among the shear bond strengths resulting from the application of an orthodontic bonding resin to enamel surfaces etched with three phosphoric acid (H3PO4) concentrations, each for three etch durations. The objective of the current study was to determine the depths of etch on ground enamel surfaces exposed to the nine etching procedures. The facial surfaces of 45 extracted human maxillary permanent central incisors were ground wet on 600-grit silicon carbide paper. Annular adhesive disks of 6 mm outer diameter and 3 mm inner diameter were positioned on the ground enamel surfaces and etched with 10 mm3 of 37%, 15%, and 5% H3PO4 for 60, 30, and 15 seconds, respectively. The calcium concentrations of the etching solutions were determined and the depths of etch calculated. The depths of etch were then measured with a surface profilometer. A stepwise decrease in the calculated depths of etch with decreasing acid concentration and duration of etching was obtained. The calculated etch depths ranged from 27.1 microns by etching with 37% H3PO4 for 60 seconds to 3.5 microns by etching with 5% H3PO4 for 15 seconds. The measured depths of etch followed a similar pattern. A highly significant correlation between calculated and measured depths of etch was obtained.

  7. Effect of acid-etching procedure on selected physical properties of mineral trioxide aggregate.

    PubMed

    Kayahan, M B; Nekoofar, M H; Kazandağ, M; Canpolat, C; Malkondu, O; Kaptan, F; Dummer, P M H

    2009-11-01

    To evaluate the effect of acid-etch procedures on the compressive strength and surface microhardness of tooth-coloured mineral trioxide aggregate (MTA). White ProRoot MTA (Dentsply Tulsa Dental) was mixed and packed into cylindrical tubes of 4 mm in diameter and 6 mm in height. Three groups, each of 15 specimens were subjected to an acid-etch procedure either 4, 24 or 96 h after mixing. The compressive strength was measured and compared with unetched control groups. Differences between groups were analysed using the Kruskall-Wallis test. A further batch of cylindrical specimens of 6 mm in diameter and 12 mm in height were prepared for testing surface microhardness. Three groups of 15 specimens were subjected to the acid-etch procedure at either 4, 24 or 96 h following mixing. Data were subjected to one-way anova. Changes in the surface microstructure before and after the acid-etch procedures were analysed using a scanning electron microscope (SEM). There was a general trend for the compressive strength and surface microhardness of specimens to increase with time. In terms of compressive strength, the increase was significant between 4 h and the other time periods for both experimental and control groups (P < 0.0001); however, there was no significant difference between 24 and 96 h. The increase in surface microhardness was significant between 4, 24 and 96 h (P < 0.0001). In addition, there was a significant difference between experimental and control groups at all time periods (P < 0.0001). SEM examination revealed morphological differences between the intact and the etched MTA surfaces. Acid-etch procedures affected the compressive strength and surface microhardness of ProRoot MTA. This indicates that it may be better to postpone restorative procedures for at least 96 h after mixing MTA. Etching created surface changes that might have the potential to enhance bonding of resinous materials.

  8. Comparison of Self-Etch Primers with Conventional Acid Etching System on Orthodontic Brackets.

    PubMed

    Zope, Amit; Zope-Khalekar, Yogita; Chitko, Shrikant S; Kerudi, Veerendra V; Patil, Harshal Ashok; Bonde, Prasad Vasudeo; Jaltare, Pratik; Dolas, Siddhesh G

    2016-12-01

    The self-etching primer system consists of etchant and primer dispersed in a single unit. The etching and priming are merged as a single step leading to fewer stages in bonding procedure and reduction in the number of steps that also reduces the chance of introduction of error, resulting in saving time for the clinician. It also results in smaller extent of enamel decalcification. To compare the Shear Bond Strength (SBS) of orthodontic bracket bonded with Self-Etch Primers (SEP) and conventional acid etching system and to study the surface appearance of teeth after debonding; etching with conventional acid etch and self-etch priming, using stereomicroscope. Five Groups (n=20) were created randomly from a total of 100 extracted premolars. In a control Group A, etching of enamel was done with 37% phosphoric acid and bonding of stainless steel brackets with Transbond XT (3M Unitek, Monrovia, California). Enamel conditioning in left over four Groups was done with self-etching primers and adhesives as follows: Group B-Transbond Plus (3M Unitek), Group C Xeno V+ (Dentsply), Group D-G-Bond (GC), Group E-One-Coat (Coltene). The Adhesive Remnant Index (ARI) score was also evaluated. Additionally, the surface roughness using profilometer were observed. Mean SBS of Group A was 18.26±7.5MPa, Group B was 10.93±4.02MPa, Group C was 6.88±2.91MPa while of Group D was 7.78±4.13MPa and Group E was 10.39±5.22MPa respectively. In conventional group ARI scores shows that over half of the adhesive was remaining on the surface of tooth (score 1 to 3). In self-etching primer groups ARI scores show that there was no or minor amount of adhesive remaining on the surface of tooth (score 4 and 5). SEP produces a lesser surface roughness on the enamel than conventional etching. However, statistical analysis shows significant correlation (p<0.001) of bond strength with surface roughness of enamel. All groups might show clinically useful SBS values and Transbond XT can be successfully used

  9. Comparison of Self-Etch Primers with Conventional Acid Etching System on Orthodontic Brackets

    PubMed Central

    Zope, Amit; Zope-Khalekar, Yogita; Chitko, Shrikant S.; Kerudi, Veerendra V.; Patil, Harshal Ashok; Jaltare, Pratik; Dolas, Siddhesh G

    2016-01-01

    Introduction The self-etching primer system consists of etchant and primer dispersed in a single unit. The etching and priming are merged as a single step leading to fewer stages in bonding procedure and reduction in the number of steps that also reduces the chance of introduction of error, resulting in saving time for the clinician. It also results in smaller extent of enamel decalcification. Aim To compare the Shear Bond Strength (SBS) of orthodontic bracket bonded with Self-Etch Primers (SEP) and conventional acid etching system and to study the surface appearance of teeth after debonding; etching with conventional acid etch and self-etch priming, using stereomicroscope. Materials and Methods Five Groups (n=20) were created randomly from a total of 100 extracted premolars. In a control Group A, etching of enamel was done with 37% phosphoric acid and bonding of stainless steel brackets with Transbond XT (3M Unitek, Monrovia, California). Enamel conditioning in left over four Groups was done with self-etching primers and adhesives as follows: Group B-Transbond Plus (3M Unitek), Group C Xeno V+ (Dentsply), Group D-G-Bond (GC), Group E-One-Coat (Coltene). The Adhesive Remnant Index (ARI) score was also evaluated. Additionally, the surface roughness using profilometer were observed. Results Mean SBS of Group A was 18.26±7.5MPa, Group B was 10.93±4.02MPa, Group C was 6.88±2.91MPa while of Group D was 7.78±4.13MPa and Group E was 10.39±5.22MPa respectively. In conventional group ARI scores shows that over half of the adhesive was remaining on the surface of tooth (score 1 to 3). In self-etching primer groups ARI scores show that there was no or minor amount of adhesive remaining on the surface of tooth (score 4 and 5). SEP produces a lesser surface roughness on the enamel than conventional etching. However, statistical analysis shows significant correlation (p<0.001) of bond strength with surface roughness of enamel. Conclusion All groups might show clinically

  10. Comparative Study of the Effect of Acid Etching on Enamel Surface Roughness between Pumiced and Non-pumiced Teeth.

    PubMed

    Abreu, Lucas Guimarães; Paiva, Saul Martins; Pretti, Henrique; Lages, Elizabeth Maria Bastos; Júnior, João Batista Novães; Ferreira, Ricardo Alberto Neto

    2015-09-01

    The objective was to perform a comparative analysis of the effect of acid etching on enamel roughness between pumiced and non-pumiced teeth. The sample was composed of 32 dental surfaces divided into two groups: Group 1-16 surfaces having received pumice prophylaxis; and Group 2-16 surfaces not having received pumice prophylaxis. The teeth were kept in saline until the first record of surface roughness prior to etching. For each surface, a roughness graph was obtained through trials using a surface roughness tester. This procedure was repeated two more times at different locations for a total of three readings which, later, were converted in a mean value. The teeth were then acid etched with a 37% phosphoric acid for 60 s, rinsed with water, air dried, and tested with the roughness tester again using the same protocol described for baseline. The Quantikov image analysis program was used to measure the length of the graphs. The average value of the lengths was recorded for each surface before and after etching. The increase in roughness caused by acid etching was calculated and compared between groups. The mean increase in roughness caused by the etching was 301 µm (11.37%) in Group 1 and 214 µm (8.33%) in Group 2. No statistically significant difference was found between samples with and without pumice prophylaxis (P = 0.283). The present study showed that the effect of acid etching on enamel roughness was not significantly affected by prior pumice prophylaxis.

  11. Crystal growth vs. conventional acid etching: a comparative evaluation of etch patterns, penetration depths, and bond strengths.

    PubMed

    Devanna, Raghu; Keluskar, K M

    2008-01-01

    The present study was undertaken to investigate the effect on enamel surface, penetration depth, and bond strength produced by 37% phosphoric acid and 20% sulfated polyacrylic acid as etching agents for direct bonding. Eighty teeth were used to study the efficacy of the etching agents on the enamel surface, penetration depth, and tensile bond strength. It was determined from the present study that a 30 sec application of 20% sulfated polyacrylic acid produced comparable etching topography with that of 37% phosphoric acid applied for 30 sec. The 37% phosphoric acid dissolves enamel to a greater extent than does the 20% sulfated polyacrylic acid. Instron Universal testing machine was used to evaluate the bond strengths of the two etching agents. Twenty percent sulfated polyacrylic acid provided adequate tensile bond strength. It was ascertained that crystal growth can be an alternative to conventional phosphoric acid etching as it dissolves lesser enamel and provides adequate tensile bond strength.

  12. The Effects of Acid Etching on the Nanomorphological Surface Characteristics and Activation Energy of Titanium Medical Materials.

    PubMed

    Hung, Kuo-Yung; Lin, Yi-Chih; Feng, Hui-Ping

    2017-10-11

    The purpose of this study was to characterize the etching mechanism, namely, the etching rate and the activation energy, of a titanium dental implant in concentrated acid and to construct the relation between the activation energy and the nanoscale surface topographies. A commercially-pure titanium (CP Ti) and Ti-6Al-4V ELI surface were tested by shot blasting (pressure, grain size, blasting distance, blasting angle, and time) and acid etching to study its topographical, weight loss, surface roughness, and activation energy. An Arrhenius equation was applied to derive the activation energy for the dissolution of CP Ti/Ti-6Al-4V ELI in sulfuric acid (H₂SO₄) and hydrochloric acid (HCl) at different temperatures. In addition, white-light interferometry was applied to measure the surface nanomorphology of the implant to obtain 2D or 3D roughness parameters (Sa, Sq, and St). The nanopore size that formed after etching was approximately 100-500 nm. The surface roughness of CP Ti and Ti-6Al-4V ELI decreased as the activation energy decreased but weight loss increased. Ti-6Al-4V ELI has a higher level of activation energy than Ti in HCl, which results in lower surface roughness after acid etching. This study also indicates that etching using a concentrated hydrochloric acid provided superior surface modification effects in titanium compared with H₂SO₄.

  13. In Vitro Evaluation of Microleakage Around Orthodontic Brackets Using Laser Etching and Acid Etching Methods

    PubMed Central

    Toodehzaeim, Mohammad Hossein; Yassaei, Sogra; Karandish, Maryam; Farzaneh, Sedigeh

    2014-01-01

    Objective: path of microleakage between the enamel and adhesive potentially allows microbial ingress that may consequently cause enamel decalcification. The aim of this study was to compare microleakage of brackets bonded either by laser or acid etching techniques. Materials and Method: The specimens were 33 extracted premolars that were divided into three groups as the acid etching group (group 1), laser etching with Er:YAG at 100 mJ and 15 Hz for 15s (group 2), and laser etching with Er:YAG at 140 mJ and 15 Hz for 15s (group 3). After photo polymerization, the teeth were subjected to 500 thermal cycles. Then the specimens were sealed with nail varnish, stained with 2% methylen blue for 24hs, sectioned, and examined under a stereomicroscope. They were scored for marginal microleakage that occurred between the adhesive-enamel and bracket-adhesive interfaces from the occlusal and gingival margins. Data were analyzed with the Kruskal- Wallis test. Results: For the adhesive-enamel and bracket-adhesive surfaces, significant differences were not observed between the three groups. Conclusion: According to this study, the Er:YAG laser with 1.5 and 2.1 watt settings may be used as an adjunctive for preparing the surface for orthodontic bracket bonding. PMID:25628661

  14. Influence of previous acid etching on interface morphology and bond strength of self-etching adhesive to cavosurface enamel

    PubMed Central

    Lima, Adriano Fonseca; da Silva, Vinícius Brito; Soares, Giulliana Panfiglio; Marchi, Giselle Maria; Baggio Aguiar, Flávio Henrique; Lovadino, José Roberto

    2012-01-01

    Objectives: The aim of this study was to evaluate the (1) bond strength of a etch-and-rinse and self-etching adhesive systems to cavosurface enamel, (2) influence of the previous acid etching with phosphoric acid 35% to the self-etching adhesive application on bond strength values, and (3) analysis of the cavosurface enamel morphology submitted to different types of conditioning, with the use of a scanning electronic microscope (SEM). Methods: Twenty four human third molars were sectioned on mesio-distal direction, resulting in two slices. The specimens were ground flat with 600-grit aluminum oxide papers, and were randomly divided into three groups: Group 1 (etch-and-rinse adhesive system (control group)), Group 2 (self-etching adhesive), and Group 3 (self-etching adhesive with previous 35% phosphoric acid-etching for 15 s). Four cylinders (0.75 mm of diameter, 1 mm height) were confectioned prior to the microshear test. Four samples for each group were prepared according the cavosurface enamel treatment and were analyzed in an SEM. Results: Group 3 had the highest values on bond strength to cavosurface enamel compared to the other two groups, which presented statistically similar values. The performance of acid etching before the application of the self-etching adhesive results in an etching pattern that is different than the other groups, favoring the adhesion to the cavosurface enamel. Conclusions: Acid etching increases the bond strength values of the self-etching adhesive to cavosurface enamel, promoting a conditioning pattern that favors the adhesion to this substrate. PMID:22229008

  15. Hydrogen content in titanium and a titanium-zirconium alloy after acid etching.

    PubMed

    Frank, Matthias J; Walter, Martin S; Lyngstadaas, S Petter; Wintermantel, Erich; Haugen, Håvard J

    2013-04-01

    Dental implant alloys made from titanium and zirconium are known for their high mechanical strength, fracture toughness and corrosion resistance in comparison with commercially pure titanium. The aim of the study was to investigate possible differences in the surface chemistry and/or surface topography of titanium and titanium-zirconium surfaces after sand blasting and acid etching. The two surfaces were compared by X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy, secondary ion mass spectroscopy, scanning electron microscopy and profilometry. The 1.9 times greater surface hydrogen concentration of titanium zirconium compared to titanium was found to be the major difference between the two materials. Zirconium appeared to enhance hydride formation on titanium alloys when etched in acid. Surface topography revealed significant differences on the micro and nanoscale. Surface roughness was increased significantly (p<0.01) on the titanium-zirconium alloy. High-resolution images showed nanostructures only present on titanium zirconium.

  16. Effective diffraction gratings via acidic etching of thermally poled glass

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kamenskii, A. N.; Reduto, I. V.; Petrikov, V. D.; Lipovskii, A. A.

    2016-12-01

    Relief diffraction gratings are formed via acidic chemical etching of a periodically poled soda-lime glass. The thermal poling under 1000 V DC is performed at 325 °C using a thermally stable glassy-carbon anodic electrode with periodic grooves, the depth of the grooves being of ∼650 nm. Poling-induced modification of the glass results in deepening the glass anodic surface in the regions under the ribs of the anodic electrode due to volume relaxation and in increasing chemical durability of these regions in acidic media comparatively to the virgin glass. Chemical etching of the poled glass in NH4F:8H2O solution allows additional to the thermal poling shaping of the glass surface via faster dissolution of unpoled/less poled glass regions. The morphology of the glass surface before and after the etching is characterized with atomic force and scanning electron microscopy. About 30 min etching provides the formation of ∼0.9 μm in height relief diffraction gratings with the diffraction efficiency close to the theoretically achievable ∼30% for multi-order diffraction. In vivo measuring of the diffraction efficiency in the course of the etching allows precise fabrication of the gratings.

  17. The effect of phosphoric acid pre-etching and thermocycling on self-etching adhesive enamel bonding.

    PubMed

    Sheets, James L; Wilcox, Charles W; Barkmeier, Wayne W; Nunn, Martha E

    2012-02-01

    When inserting a resin-bonded prosthesis, it is not known whether pumicing, rinsing, and using a self-etching primer (SE) on prepared surfaces is sufficient or whether the use of an additional conventional acid etchant is warranted due to the increased time and risk of contamination. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the effects of pre-etching with phosphoric acid (PA) and thermocycling (TC) on the enamel shear bond strength (SBS) of an autopolymerizing adhesive system on ground enamel. Human teeth were embedded in phenolic rings with methyl methacrylate resin, and their enamel surfaces were ground flat to a 600 grit surface. The teeth were then divided into 4 subsets (n=22): 1) PSN, PA pre-etch with SE, no TC; 2) PST, PA pre-etch with self-etching primer and TC; 3) SEN, self-etching primer alone, no TC; and 4) SET, self-etching primer and TC. A multifactorial study design was used to evaluate 2 factors (pre-etching with PA and TC) at 2 levels (presence or absence) by grouping different subsets. Pre-etch consisted of teeth being etched for 30 seconds with PA, rinsed, re-etched, and rinsed. Self-etching consisted of 60 seconds with ED Primer. Rods of Rexillium III, airborne-particle abraded with 50 μm aluminum oxide, were bonded to enamel surfaces with Panavia 21 OP under a 19.6 N load. Thermocycling consisted of alternating between water baths of 5 ± 2°C and 55 ± 2°C for 5000 cycles. Shear bond strength (SBS) was determined by loading the specimens to failure at a crosshead speed of 1 mm/min. Mean values were analyzed with a 2-way ANOVA (factors were surface treatment and TC) at α=.05. Pre-etching with phosphoric acid showed greater SBS to enamel (P=.028) than the self-etching primer alone. Thermocycling did not have a significant effect (P=.424). There was a significant difference in SBS between pre-etching enamel surfaces with phosphoric acid in addition to the self-etching primer and using the self-etching primer exclusively. Thermocycling did not

  18. Enamel roughness and depth profile after phosphoric acid etching of healthy and fluorotic enamel.

    PubMed

    Torres-Gallegos, I; Zavala-Alonso, V; Patiño-Marín, N; Martinez-Castañon, G A; Anusavice, K; Loyola-Rodríguez, J P

    2012-06-01

    Dental fluorosis requires aesthetic treatment to improve appearance and etching of enamel surfaces with phosphoric acid is a key step for adhesive restorations. The aim of this study was to evaluate surface roughness and a depth profile in healthy and fluorotic enamel before and after phosphoric acid etching at 15, 30 and 60 seconds. One hundred and sixty enamel samples from third molars with no fluorosis to severe fluorosis were evaluated by atomic force microscopy. Healthy enamel showed a statistically significant difference (p < 0.05) between mean surface roughness at 15 seconds (180.3 nm), 30 seconds (260.9 nm) and 60 seconds (346.5 nm); depth profiles revealed a significant difference for the 60 second treatment (4240.2 nm). For mild fluorosis, there was a statistically significant difference (p < 0.05) between mean surface roughness for 30 second (307.8 nm) and 60 second (346.6 nm) treatments; differences in depth profiles were statistically significant at 15 seconds (2546.7 nm), 30 seconds (3884.2 nm) and 60 seconds (3612.1 nm). For moderate fluorosis, a statistically significant difference (p < 0.05) was observed for surface roughness for 30 second (324.5 nm) and 60 second (396.6 nm) treatments. Surface roughness and depth profile analyses revealed that the best etching results were obtained at 15 seconds for the no fluorosis and mild fluorosis groups, and at 30 seconds for the moderate fluorosis group. Increasing the etching time for severe fluorosis decreased surface roughness and the depth profile, which suggests less micromechanical enamel retention for adhesive bonding applications. © 2012 Australian Dental Association.

  19. Improved Resin–Zirconia Bonding by Room Temperature Hydrofluoric Acid Etching

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Mun-Hwan; Son, Jun Sik; Kim, Kyo-Han; Kwon, Tae-Yub

    2015-01-01

    This in vitro study was conducted to evaluate the shear bond strength of “non-self-adhesive” resin to dental zirconia etched with hydrofluoric acid (HF) at room temperature and to compare it to that of air-abraded zirconia. Sintered zirconia plates were air-abraded (control) or etched with 10%, 20%, or 30% HF for either 5 or 30 min. After cleaning, the surfaces were characterized using various analytical techniques. Three resin cylinders (Duo-Link) were bonded to each treated plate. All bonded specimens were stored in water at 37 °C for 24 h, and then half of them were additionally thermocycled 5000 times prior to the shear bond-strength tests (n = 12). The formation of micro- and nano-porosities on the etched surfaces increased with increasing concentration and application time of the HF solution. The surface wettability of zirconia also increased with increasing surface roughness. Higher concentrations and longer application times of the HF solution produced higher bond-strength values. Infiltration of the resin into the micro- and nano-porosities was observed by scanning electron microscopy. This in vitro study suggests that HF slowly etches zirconia ceramic surfaces at room temperature, thereby improving the resin–zirconia bond strength by the formation of retentive sites. PMID:28787975

  20. [Response of dental pulp to self-etching adhesive systems used in indirect capping. A literature review].

    PubMed

    Nowicka, Alicja; Buczkowska-Radlińska, Jadwiga; Lipski, Mariusz; Lichota, Damian; Woźniak, Krzysztof; Góra, Monika; Kaczmarek, Wojciech; Sikorska-Bochińska, Jolanta

    2009-01-01

    To review the literature on dental pulp responses to self-etching adhesive systems used in indirect capping. Many studies in vitro and in vivo focused on biocompatibility of the self-etching adhesive system used in deep defects. Clinical and radiographic findings from animal and human studies are compared and discussed. Self-etching adhesive systems may be useful when applied to dentin. The results in animal studies cannot be extrapolated directly to humans. Many studies in vitro have shown that components of self-etching adhesive systems exhibit cytotoxic effects in contact with cell cultures. The reaction of dental pulp to self-etching bonding agents depends on the depth of defect, type of agent, and method of application.

  1. Nanostructure evaluation of healthy and fluorotic dentin by atomic force microscopy before and after phosphoric acid etching.

    PubMed

    Zavala-Alonso, Veronica; Aguilera-Flores, Rafael; Patiño-Marin, Nuria; Martinez-Castañon, Gabriel A; Anusavice, Kenneth J; Loyola-Rodriguez, Juan Pablo

    2011-01-01

    The aim was to characterize by atomic force microscopy (AFM) the nanostructure of human dentin surfaces affected by dental fluorosis (DF) before and after phosphoric acid etching. This study included 240 human dentin samples classified according to the severity of DF, which were divided into four groups using the Thylstrup-Fejerskov Index (TFI). Samples were analyzed by AFM before and after acid etching for 15, 30, and 60 s. The roughness (R(a)) for healthy dentin, and dentin with mild, moderate, and severe fluorosis were 440 nm, 442 nm, 445 nm, and 449 nm, respectively. After 15, 30, and 60 s of acid etching, all healthy and fluorotic dentin samples increased in roughness (p<0.05). The diameter of dentinal tubule orifices (D(t)) in healthy human dentin increased after acid etching for 60 s. We conclude that effective etching times are 15 s for healthy and mild dentin fluorosis, 30-s for moderately fluorosed dentin, and 45-60 s for severe fluorotic dentin.

  2. Comparative Study of the Effect of Acid Etching on Enamel Surface Roughness between Pumiced and Non-pumiced Teeth

    PubMed Central

    Abreu, Lucas Guimarães; Paiva, Saul Martins; Pretti, Henrique; Lages, Elizabeth Maria Bastos; Júnior, João Batista Novães; Ferreira, Ricardo Alberto Neto

    2015-01-01

    Background: The objective was to perform a comparative analysis of the effect of acid etching on enamel roughness between pumiced and non-pumiced teeth. Materials and Methods: The sample was composed of 32 dental surfaces divided into two groups: Group 1-16 surfaces having received pumice prophylaxis; and Group 2-16 surfaces not having received pumice prophylaxis. The teeth were kept in saline until the first record of surface roughness prior to etching. For each surface, a roughness graph was obtained through trials using a surface roughness tester. This procedure was repeated two more times at different locations for a total of three readings which, later, were converted in a mean value. The teeth were then acid etched with a 37% phosphoric acid for 60 s, rinsed with water, air dried, and tested with the roughness tester again using the same protocol described for baseline. The Quantikov image analysis program was used to measure the length of the graphs. The average value of the lengths was recorded for each surface before and after etching. The increase in roughness caused by acid etching was calculated and compared between groups. Results: The mean increase in roughness caused by the etching was 301 µm (11.37%) in Group 1 and 214 µm (8.33%) in Group 2. No statistically significant difference was found between samples with and without pumice prophylaxis (P = 0.283). Conclusion: The present study showed that the effect of acid etching on enamel roughness was not significantly affected by prior pumice prophylaxis. PMID:26435607

  3. The effect of topical fluorides, after acid etching of enamel, on the bond strength of directly bonded orthodontic brackets.

    PubMed

    Hirce, J D; Sather, A H; Chao, E Y

    1980-10-01

    This study tests the hypothesis that the beneficial effects of topical fluoride can be realized without reducing the bond strength of the resin adhesive. Twenty-eight groups of four teeth (third molars and premolars) were extracted from twenty-eight patients and stored in distilled water. Twin brackets on Ormesh pads were bonded to all teeth with Endur adhesive. One tooth from each group was bonded according to the manufacturer's instructions. These teeth, Subgroup I, served as controls. Subgroup II teeth were etched for 4 minutes with 50% phosphoric acid containing 2 percent sodium fluoride. Subgroup III teeth received a 3-minute application of a basic phosphate fluoride solution (10(-2)M NA3PO4, 10(3) ppm F) after 1 minute of etching with 50 percent phosphoric acid. Subgroup IV teeth received a 4-minute application of 8 percent stannous fluoride solution after 1 minute of etching with 50 percent phosphoric acid. Each tooth was mounted in a block of improved dental stone; guide wires were used to reproduce bracket orientation. The M.T.S. materials-testing apparatus was used to generate a torsional moment on the bracket at a rate of 1 degree per second. Fluoride uptake by enamel has been shown to be greater in an acid medium or after acid etching. The application of directly bonded orthodontic brackets and pit-and-fissure sealants requires acid etching of the enamel surface. This study supports the use of topical fluoride after acid etching, a procedure that achieves the benefits of increased fluoride uptake without changing the bond strength of the resin adhesive.

  4. An improved technique for dental alloy etching with a potentiostatic device.

    PubMed

    Hong, C Y

    1989-10-01

    Since a good retention of direct bonded retainers onto abutment teeth is the primary requirement for the fabrication of etched fixed partial dentures, successful formation of a micromechanical retentive architecture on the bonding surface is one of the most important procedures. For creating such a retentive dendritic pattern on nonprecious metal, a 2-electrode electrolytic method has been used. This equipment consists of a low-voltage DC power supply and two electrodes, namely, a working and a counter one. However, the current and voltage should be monitored during the entire processing time and the etching area must be pre-estimated. A potentiostat has been used to automatically stabilize the voltage across the working electrode and reference electrode by adjusting the current, as commonly employed in electro-chemical technology. A 3-electrode corrosion device originally developed for laboratory research was adapted for dental retainer etching in this study. The results revealed that the etching of dental nonprecious metal (Ni-Cr-Be alloy) could successfully be performed by using the system with a potentiostat. Moreover, the working potential was found to be approximately 1.3 volts by taking the midpoint between the breakdown and the critical potentials for passivation on the potentiostatic anode polarization curves. The optimal exposure time has been found to be in a range of 3 to 5 minutes and 4 minutes to be ideal as determined by SEM microphotographic observation which showed a uniform dendritic pattern with regular lattice form of alternating ridges and valleys.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS)

  5. Influence of pH, bleaching agents, and acid etching on surface wear of bovine enamel.

    PubMed

    Soares, Ana Flávia; Bombonatti, Juliana Fraga Soares; Alencar, Marina Studart; Consolmagno, Elaine Cristina; Honório, Heitor Marques; Mondelli, Rafael Francisco Lia

    2016-01-01

    Development of new materials for tooth bleaching justifies the need for studies to evaluate the changes in the enamel surface caused by different bleaching protocols. The aim of this study was to evaluate the bovine dental enamel wear in function of different bleaching gel protocols, acid etching and pH variation. Sixty fragments of bovine teeth were cut, obtaining a control and test areas. In the test area, one half received etching followed by a bleaching gel application, and the other half, only the bleaching gel. The fragments were randomly divided into six groups (n=10), each one received one bleaching session with five hydrogen peroxide gel applications of 8 min, activated with hybrid light, diode laser/blue LED (HL) or diode laser/violet LED (VHL) (experimental): Control (C); 35% Total Blanc Office (TBO35HL); 35% Lase Peroxide Sensy (LPS35HL); 25% Lase Peroxide Sensy II (LPS25HL); 15% Lase Peroxide Lite (LPL15HL); and 10% hydrogen peroxide (experimental) (EXP10VHL). pH values were determined by a pHmeter at the initial and final time periods. Specimens were stored, subjected to simulated brushing cycles, and the superficial wear was determined (μm). ANOVA and Tukey´s tests were applied (α=0.05). The pH showed a slight decrease, except for Group LPL15HL. Group LPS25HL showed the highest degree of wear, with and without etching. There was a decrease from the initial to the final pH. Different bleaching gels were able to increase the surface wear values after simulated brushing. Acid etching before bleaching increased surface wear values in all groups.

  6. Influence of pH, bleaching agents, and acid etching on surface wear of bovine enamel

    PubMed Central

    Soares, Ana Flávia; Bombonatti, Juliana Fraga Soares; Alencar, Marina Studart; Consolmagno, Elaine Cristina; Honório, Heitor Marques; Mondelli, Rafael Francisco Lia

    2016-01-01

    ABSTRACT Development of new materials for tooth bleaching justifies the need for studies to evaluate the changes in the enamel surface caused by different bleaching protocols. Objective The aim of this study was to evaluate the bovine dental enamel wear in function of different bleaching gel protocols, acid etching and pH variation. Material and Methods Sixty fragments of bovine teeth were cut, obtaining a control and test areas. In the test area, one half received etching followed by a bleaching gel application, and the other half, only the bleaching gel. The fragments were randomly divided into six groups (n=10), each one received one bleaching session with five hydrogen peroxide gel applications of 8 min, activated with hybrid light, diode laser/blue LED (HL) or diode laser/violet LED (VHL) (experimental): Control (C); 35% Total Blanc Office (TBO35HL); 35% Lase Peroxide Sensy (LPS35HL); 25% Lase Peroxide Sensy II (LPS25HL); 15% Lase Peroxide Lite (LPL15HL); and 10% hydrogen peroxide (experimental) (EXP10VHL). pH values were determined by a pHmeter at the initial and final time periods. Specimens were stored, subjected to simulated brushing cycles, and the superficial wear was determined (μm). ANOVA and Tukey´s tests were applied (α=0.05). Results The pH showed a slight decrease, except for Group LPL15HL. Group LPS25HL showed the highest degree of wear, with and without etching. Conclusion There was a decrease from the initial to the final pH. Different bleaching gels were able to increase the surface wear values after simulated brushing. Acid etching before bleaching increased surface wear values in all groups. PMID:27008254

  7. Influence of phosphoric acid pretreatment on self-etching bond strengths.

    PubMed

    Erhardt, Maria Carolina Guilherme; Cavalcante, Larissa Maria Assad; Pimenta, Luiz André Freire

    2004-01-01

    The purpose of this investigation was to evaluate the influence of phosphoric acid pretreatment on shear bond strength of two self-etching bonding systems to enamel and dentin. Forty-eight extracted third human molar teeth were mounted, embedded into polystyrene resin, polished with 600-grit aluminum oxide papers, and randomly divided into four groups (n = 12): group 1-Clearfil Liner Bond 2V (Kuraray Co. Ltd., Osaka, Japan); group 2-One Up Bond F (Tokuyama Corp., Tokyo, Japan); group 3-phosphoric acid (Condicionador Dental Gel, Dentsply Ind. Com. LTDA, Rio de Janeiro, Brazil) and Clearfil Liner Bond 2V; group 4-phosphoric acid and One Up Bond F. In groups 3 and 4 the substrate was pre-etched for 15 seconds with 37% phosphoric acid, rinsed, and dried with an air stream. In all groups adhesive systems were applied according to manufacturers' instructions and light cured; then a restorative composite resin (TPH Spectrum, Dentsply Ind. Com. LTDA) was placed in a polytef matrix and cured. The specimens were stored in humidity for 7 days at 37 degrees C. The shear bond strength test was performed in a universal test machine with a crosshead speed of 0.5 mm/min. All procedures were repeated for the dentin evaluation. Mean values were analyzed with two-way analysis of variance and Duncan tests (p < .05). The values obtained are listed in decreasing order: enamel-group 3 = 24.6 MPa, group 4 = 23.6 MPa, group 1 = 19.2 MPa, group 2 = 8.5 MPa; dentin-group 1 = 17.2 MPa, group 2 = 16.1 MPa, group 4 = 13.1 MPa, group 3 = 11.3 MPa. Under the conditions of this study, enamel etching with 37% phosphoric acid provided statistically significant higher shear bond strength values, regardless of the adhesive system. However, in dentin, for Clearfil Liner Bond 2V, phosphoric acid pretreatment negatively affected bond strength values. The use of self-etching systems in composite-to-enamel bonding restorative techniques still needs improvement when compared with the high bond strengths

  8. Focused electron beam induced etching of copper in sulfuric acid solutions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Boehme, Lindsay; Bresin, Matthew; Botman, Aurélien; Ranney, James; Hastings, J. Todd

    2015-12-01

    We show here that copper can be locally etched by an electron-beam induced reaction in a liquid. Aqueous sulfuric acid (H2SO4) is utilized as the etchant and all experiments are conducted in an environmental scanning electron microscope. The extent of etch increases with liquid thickness and dose, and etch resolution improves with H2SO4 concentration. This approach shows the feasibility of liquid phase etching for material selectivity and has the potential for circuit editing.

  9. Biomimetic remineralization of resin-bonded acid-etched dentin.

    PubMed

    Tay, F R; Pashley, D H

    2009-08-01

    Degradation of denuded collagen within adhesive resin-infiltrated dentin is a pertinent problem in dentin bonding. A biomimetic remineralization scheme that incorporates non-classic crystallization pathways of fluidic amorphous nanoprecursors and mesoscopic transformation has been successful in remineralizing resin-free, acid-etched dentin, with evidence of intrafibrillar and interfibrillar remineralization. This study tested the hypothesis that biomimetic remineralization provides a means for remineralizing incompletely infiltrated resin-dentin interfaces created by etch-and-rinse adhesives. The remineralization medium consists of a Portland cement/simulated body fluid that includes polyacrylic acid and polyvinylphosphonic acid biomimetic analogs for amorphous calcium phosphate dimension regulation and collagen targeting. Both interfibrillar and intrafibrillar apatites became readily discernible within the hybrid layers after 2-4 months. In addition, intra-resin apatite clusters were deposited within the porosities of the adhesive resin matrices. The biomimetic remineralization scheme provides a proof-of-concept for the adoption of nanotechnology as an alternative strategy to extend the longevity of resin-dentin bonds.

  10. A comparative study of shear bond strength of orthodontic bracket after acid-etched and Er:YAG treatment on enamel surface

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Leão, Juliana C.; Mota, Cláudia C. B. O.; Cassimiro-silva, Patricia F.; Gomes, Anderson S. L.

    2016-02-01

    This study aimed to evaluate the shear bond strength (SBS) of teeth prepared for orthodontic bracket bonding with 37% phosphoric acid and Er:YAG laser. Forty bovine incisors were divided into two groups. In Group I, the teeth were conditioned with 37% phosphoric acid and brackets were bonded with Transbond XT; in Group II, the teeth were irradiated with Er:YAG and bonding with Transbond XT. After SBS test, the adhesive remnant index was determined. Adhesion to dental hard tissues after Er:YAG laser etching was inferior to that obtained after acid etching but exceeded what is believed to be clinically sufficient strength, and therefore can be used in patients.

  11. Hydroxyapatite induces spontaneous polymerization of model self-etch dental adhesives.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Ying; Wu, Ningjing; Bai, Xinyan; Xu, Changqi; Liu, Yi; Wang, Yong

    2013-10-01

    The objective of this study is to report for the first time the spontaneous polymerization phenomenon of self-etch dental adhesives induced by hydroxylapatite (HAp). Model self-etch adhesives were prepared by using a monomer mixture of bis[2-(methacryloyloxy)ethyl] phosphate (2MP) with 2-hydroxyethyl methacrylate (HEMA). The initiator system consisted of camphorquinone (CQ, 0.022 mmol/g) and ethyl 4-dimethylaminobenzoate (4E, 0.022-0.088 mmol/g). HAp (2-8 wt.%) was added to the neat model adhesive. In a dark environment, the polymerization was monitored in-situ using ATR/FT-IR, and the mechanical properties of the polymerized adhesives were evaluated using nanoindentation technique. Results indicated that spontaneous polymerization was not observed in the absence of HAp. However, as different amounts of HAp were incorporated into the adhesives, spontaneous polymerization was induced. Higher HAp content led to higher degree of conversion (DC), higher rate of polymerization (RP) and shorter induction period (IP). In addition, higher 4E content also elevated DC and RP and reduced IP of the adhesives. Nanoindentation result suggested that the Young's modulus of the polymerized adhesives showed similar dependence on HAp and 4E contents. In summary, interaction with HAp could induce spontaneous polymerization of the model self-etch adhesives. This result provides important information for understanding the initiation mechanism of the self-etch adhesives, and may be of clinical significance to strengthen the adhesive/dentin interface based on the finding. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  12. [Microretention of plastic filling materials on acid etched enamel].

    PubMed

    Raadal, M

    1975-11-01

    In order to study the strength of the physical bond between composite materials and acid etched enamel, various commonly used composites were applied to the conditioned surface of extracted young permanent bicuspids. The specimens were stored in saline at 37 degrees C for one week and nine weeks and then subjected to tensile strength test. The following composites were tested: Restodent, Nuva Seal/Nuva Fil, Cosmic, Smile, Adaptic and Concise Enamel Bond. The latter was used in 4 different ways. The results of the study indicate that all the tested materials have a fairly good retention on the conditioned enamel. However, when using Concise Enamel Bond, care must be taken not to let the pure, liquid resin polymerize on the enamel before applying the composite, because this will give a poor bonding between the enamel and the filling. In addition to the tensile strength test, the materials were submitted to scanning electron microscop, to examine their penetration ability into conditioned enamel. The results of this study seem to indicate that the resin part of viscous composites (Cosmic and Concise pastes) was able to penetrate into the crevices of the etched enamel as well as the more fluid types (Restodent, Nuva Seal and diluted Concise).

  13. Effect of etching and airborne particle abrasion on the microstructure of different dental ceramics.

    PubMed

    Borges, Gilberto Antonio; Sophr, Ana Maria; de Goes, Mario Fernando; Sobrinho, Lourenço Correr; Chan, Daniel C N

    2003-05-01

    The ceramic composition and microstructure surface of all-ceramic restorations are important components of an effective bonding substrate. Both hydrofluoric acid etching and airborne aluminum oxide particle abrasion produce irregular surfaces necessary for micromechanical bonding. Although surface treatments of feldspathic and leucite porcelains have been studied previously, the high alumina-containing and lithium disilicate ceramics have not been fully investigated. The purpose of this study was to assess the surface topography of 6 different ceramics after treatment with either hydrofluoric acid etching or airborne aluminum oxide particle abrasion. Five copings each of IPS Empress, IPS Empress 2 (0.8 mm thick), Cergogold (0.7 mm thick), In-Ceram Alumina, In-Ceram Zirconia, and Procera (0.8 mm thick) were fabricated following the manufacturer's instructions. Each coping was longitudinally sectioned into 4 equal parts by a diamond disk. The resulting sections were then randomly divided into 3 groups depending on subsequent surface treatments: Group 1, specimens without additional surface treatments, as received from the laboratory (control); Group 2, specimens treated by use of airborne particle abrasion with 50-microm aluminum oxide; and Group 3, specimens treated with 10% hydrofluoric acid etching (20 seconds for IPS Empress 2; 60 seconds for IPS Empress and Cergogold; and 2 minutes for In-Ceram Alumina, In-Ceram Zirconia, and Procera). Airborne particle abrasion changed the morphologic surface of IPS Empress, IPS Empress 2, and Cergogold ceramics. The surface topography of these ceramics exhibited shallow irregularities not evident in the control group. For Procera, the 50-microm aluminum oxide airborne particle abrasion produced a flattened surface. Airborne particle abrasion of In-Ceram Alumina and In-Ceram Zirconia did not change the morphologic characteristics and the same shallows pits found in the control group remained. For IPS Empress 2, 10% hydrofluoric

  14. Effect of Hydrofluoric Acid Etching Time on Titanium Topography, Chemistry, Wettability, and Cell Adhesion

    PubMed Central

    Zahran, R.; Rosales Leal, J. I.; Rodríguez Valverde, M. A.; Cabrerizo Vílchez, M. A.

    2016-01-01

    Titanium implant surface etching has proven an effective method to enhance cell attachment. Despite the frequent use of hydrofluoric (HF) acid, many questions remain unresolved, including the optimal etching time and its effect on surface and biological properties. The objective of this study was to investigate the effect of HF acid etching time on Ti topography, surface chemistry, wettability, and cell adhesion. These data are useful to design improved acid treatment and obtain an improved cell response. The surface topography, chemistry, dynamic wetting, and cell adhesiveness of polished Ti surfaces were evaluated after treatment with HF acid solution for 0, 2; 3, 5, 7, or 10 min, revealing a time-dependent effect of HF acid on their topography, chemistry, and wetting. Roughness and wetting increased with longer etching time except at 10 min, when roughness increased but wetness decreased. Skewness became negative after etching and kurtosis tended to 3 with longer etching time. Highest cell adhesion was achieved after 5–7 min of etching time. Wetting and cell adhesion were reduced on the highly rough surfaces obtained after 10-min etching time. PMID:27824875

  15. A Comparison of Shear Bond Strengths of Metal and Ceramic Brackets using Conventional Acid Etching Technique and Er:YAG Laser Etching

    PubMed Central

    Yassaei, Sogra; Fekrazad, Reza; Shahraki, Neda; Goldani Moghadam, Mahdjoube

    2014-01-01

    Background and aims. The aim of this study was to compare shear bond strength (SBS) of metal and ceramic brackets bonded to enamel using acid versus Er:YAG laser etching. Materials and methods. Eighty premolars were divided into 4 groups: AM (acid etching/ metal brackets), AC (acid etching/ ceramic brackets), LM (laser etching/ metal brackets) and LC (laser etching/ ceramic brackets). Enamel condition-ing was done using acid in AC and AM and Er:YAG laser in LC and LM. Brackets were debonded with a Dartec machine and the SBSs were determined. Adhesive remnant index was evaluated under a stereomicroscope. Two additional teeth were conditioned with acid and laser for scanning electron microscopy examination. Comparisons of SBS value were done by ANOVA test. Results. statistical analyses showed that SBSs of acid groups were significantly higher than that of laser groups, but dif-ferences between SBS values of AC/ AM and LC/LM were not significant. SEM examination revealed different etching pattern. Conclusion. Low power Er:YAG laser etching offers clinically acceptable SBS which besides its other superiorities to acid etching can be an appropriate alternative for bonding of ceramic brackets. PMID:25024836

  16. Behavior of acid etching on titanium: topography, hydrophility and hydrogen concentration.

    PubMed

    Lin, Xi; Zhou, Lei; Li, Shaobing; Lu, Haibin; Ding, Xianglong

    2014-02-01

    Since acid etching is easily controlled and effective, it has become one of the most common methods of surface modification. However, the behavior of etching is seldom discussed. In this study, different surfaces of titanium were prepared by changing the etching temperature and time. Surface topography, roughness, contact angles, surface crystalline structure, hydrogen concentration and mechanical properties were observed. As a result, surface topography and roughness were more proportional to etching temperature; however, diffusion of hydrogen and tensile strength are more time-related to titanium hydride formation on the surface. Titanium becomes more hydrophilic after etching even though the micropits were not formed after etching. More and deeper cracks were found on the specimens with more hydrogen diffusion. Therefore, higher temperature and shorter time are an effective way to get a uniform surface and decrease the diffusion of hydrogen to prevent hydrogen embrittlement.

  17. Rolled-Up Nanotech: Illumination-Controlled Hydrofluoric Acid Etching of AlAs Sacrificial Layers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Costescu, Ruxandra M.; Deneke, Christoph; Thurmer, Dominic J.; Schmidt, Oliver G.

    2009-12-01

    The effect of illumination on the hydrofluoric acid etching of AlAs sacrificial layers with systematically varied thicknesses in order to release and roll up InGaAs/GaAs bilayers was studied. For thicknesses of AlAs below 10 nm, there were two etching regimes for the area under illumination: one at low illumination intensities, in which the etching and releasing proceeds as expected and one at higher intensities in which the etching and any releasing are completely suppressed. The “etch suppression” area is well defined by the illumination spot, a feature that can be used to create heterogeneously etched regions with a high degree of control, shown here on patterned samples. Together with the studied self-limitation effect, the technique offers a way to determine the position of rolled-up micro- and nanotubes independently from the predefined lithographic pattern.

  18. Bonding durability of single-step adhesives to previously acid-etched dentin.

    PubMed

    Ikeda, Masahiko; Tsubota, Keishi; Takamizawa, Toshiki; Yoshida, Takeshi; Miyazaki, Masashi; Platt, Jeffrey A

    2008-01-01

    This study investigated the effect of phosphoric acid etching on the dentin bond strength of five single-step self-etch adhesive systems; Absolute, Clearfil tri-S Bond, Fluoro Bond Shake One, G-Bond and One-Up Bond F Plus. Bovine mandibular incisors were mounted in self-curing resin and the facial surfaces were wet ground with #600 SiC paper. Adhesives were applied on the prepared dentin surfaces with and without prior phosphoric acid etching and light irradiated. Resin composite was condensed into a mold (ø4x2 mm), light irradiated and stored in water at 37 degrees C. Four groups (n=10) were made per adhesive system: with and without prior acid etching and with and without thermal cycling between 5 degrees C and 55 degrees C for 10,000 cycles. The specimens were tested in a shear mode at a crosshead speed of 1.0 mm/minute. Two-way ANOVA, Student t-test and Tukey HSD test at a level of 0.05 were done. For specimens without prior acid etching, the mean bond strengths to bovine dentin ranged from 12.8 to 17.1 MPa and ranged from 6.7 to 13.3 MPa for specimens with prior acid etching after 24 hours storage in water. When the specimens were subjected to thermal cycling, the mean bond strengths ranged from 10.7 to 24.8 MPa for the specimens without prior acid etching and 4.6 to 13.9 MPa for the specimens with prior acid etching. The changes in dentin bond strength were different among the adhesive systems tested. Failure modes were commonly adhesive failure associated with mixed failure for specimens with prior acid etching. For specimens without prior acid etching, failures in composite and dentin were increased. From the results of this in vitro study, prior acid etching might be not acceptable for increasing the dentin bond strengths of single-step self-etch adhesive systems.

  19. The effect of acid etching on vascular diameter of pulp-vessels in rat incisor (vitalmicroscopic study).

    PubMed

    Iványi, I; Kispélyi, B; Fazekas, A; Rosivall, L; Nyárasdy, I

    2001-01-01

    Conditioning agents used on dentin with composite materials are biologically active and may have deleterious effects on the pulpal microcirculation. No data are available on the immediate vascular effect of etching materials applied on a constant thin pulpal dentin. In this study the authors examined whether the application of 36% phosphoric acid (Conditioner 36, 15 seconds) or itakonic acid with 10% maleic acid (NRC Non-Rinse Conditioner, 20 seconds), as recommended by the manufacturers, alters the blood circulation in the pulp of the rat's lower incisors. The effect of prolonged etching time (60 seconds) was also assessed (Conditioner 36). The application of saline served as the untreated control. The technique of vitalmicroscopy was used on the first lower incisor of 40 (10-10 in each group) male Sprague-Dawley rats (weighing 350 +/- 8 g SE) to record the changes in vessel diameter prior to and at 5, 15, 30 and 60 minutes after the test materials were administered on the dentin. In the control rats, the vessel diameter was stable during the entire experiment. Acid conditioning as recommended by the manufacturers tended to cause vasodilatation, though these alterations were statistically not significant when compared to the control group (ANOVA, p > 0.05). After prolonged etching time (Conditioner 36, 60 seconds) significant vasoconstriction (-14.4 +/- 6.13; -10.59 +/- 4.2; -11.96 +/- 6.75; -5.49 +/- 5.78%) was observed (ANOVA, p < 0.05). In this group, stasis developed in pulpal blood circulation in 40% of rats (Cochran's-Q test, p < 0.05), gas-bubble formation was observed in 30% and the disappearance of the pulpal wall occurred in 20%. These results suggest that exposition time with acid is crucial to the pulpal microcirculation. That is, acid conditioning applied as indicated (for 15-20 seconds) onto a very thin layer of dentin only slightly affects the blood supply to the dental pulp; however, prolonged etching time (for 60 seconds) results in immediate

  20. Resin Adaptation of Radicular Dentin Tubules after Endodontic Instrumentation and Acid Etching.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1983-02-01

    the manuscript. DISCLAIMERS The statements, opinions, and advertisements in the Journal of Endodontics are solely those of the individual authors...I RD-Ai26 872 RESIN ADAPTATION OF RADICULAR DENTIN TUBULES AFTER / I ENDODONTIC INSTRUMENTATION AND ACID ETCHING(U) WALTER I REED ARMY INST OF...Adaptation to Radicular Dentin Tubules SbisoofpeAfter Endodontic Instrumentation and Acid Etching 1982-1983 6. PERFORMING ORG. REPORTNUMBER -, AUTHOR(a) S

  1. Effect of prior acid etching on bonding durability of single-step adhesives.

    PubMed

    Watanabe, Takayuki; Tsubota, Keishi; Takamizawa, Toshiki; Kurokawa, Hiroyasu; Rikuta, Akitomo; Ando, Susumu; Miyazaki, Masashi

    2008-01-01

    This study investigated the effect of prior phosphoric acid etching on the enamel bond strength of five single-step self-etch adhesive systems: Absolute, Clearfil tri-S Bond, Fluoro Bond Shake One, G-Bond and One-Up Bond F Plus. Bovine mandibular incisors were mounted in self-curing resin, and the facial surfaces were wet ground with #600 silicon carbide paper. Adhesives were applied to the enamel surfaces with or without prior phosphoric-acid etching and light irradiated. The resin composites were condensed into a mold and light irradiated. In total, 40 specimens were tested per adhesive system with and without prior acid etching and were further divided into two groups: those stored in water at 37 degrees C for 24 hours without cycling and those stored in water at 37 degrees C for 24 hours followed by thermal cycling between 5 degrees C and 55 degrees C with 10,000 repeats. After storage under each set of conditions, the specimens were tested in shear mode at a crosshead speed of 1.0 mm/minute. Two-way analysis of variance, the Student's t-test and the Tukey HSD test were used to analyze the data at a significance level of 0.05. For the specimens without prior acid etching, the mean bond strengths to enamel ranged from 11.0 to 14.6 MPa after 24-hour storage in water, while the corresponding values for specimens with prior acid etching ranged from 15.2 to 19.3 MPa. When these specimens were subjected to thermal cycling, the mean bond strengths ranged from 11.3 to 17.0 MPa without prior acid etching and from 12.3 to 23.2 MPa with prior acid etching. The changes in enamel bond strengths differed among the adhesive systems tested. After 24-hour storage in water, the most common failure modes were adhesive failure and mixed failure for specimens with and without prior acid etching, respectively. Thus, through a careful choice of adhesive system, prior acid etching can increase the bond strengths of single-step self-etch adhesive systems.

  2. Acid-etching effects in hypomineralized amelogenesis imperfecta. A microscopic and microanalytical study.

    PubMed

    Sánchez-Quevedo, Carmen; Ceballos, Gregorio; Rodríguez, Ismael Angel; García, José Manuel; Alaminos, Miguel

    2006-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to use quantitative x-ray microprobe analysis with scanning electron microscopy to define the morphostructural and calcification patterns in the enamel of teeth with the hypomineralized variant of amelogenesis imperfecta. We compared 5 fragments of permanent human canines from patients with clinically diagnosed hypomineralized amelogenesis imperfecta and 5 normal permanent canines from subjects without amelogenesis imperfecta. All specimens were etched with phosphoric acid for morphological and microanalytical examination. Two types of etching patterns were found; in addition, islets of pattern I were seen within areas of pattern II. Microanalysis detected no significant differences in calcium concentration between specimens with amelogenesis imperfecta and normal control specimens after acid etching. Pattern III was not observed. The changes and their distribution in the enamel structure after 30 s of acid etching are described in teeth with this rare disorder. Although these data seem to coincide with alterations in prism development, no alterations in calcium concentration were found.

  3. Shear bond strength of a resin composite to enamel etched with maleic or phosphoric acid.

    PubMed

    Hallett, K B; Garcia-Godoy, F; Trotter, A R

    1994-10-01

    The purpose of this study was to evaluate the effect of 10 per cent maleic and 37 per cent phosphoric acid on the shear bond strength of Z100 composite resin with Scotchbond Multi-Purpose adhesive to primary and permanent tooth enamel. Four groups of 20 teeth each were established: 1, permanent teeth, 10 per cent maleic acid etched for 15 seconds; 2, permanent teeth, 10 per cent maleic acid etched for 30 seconds; 3, permanent teeth, 37 per cent phosphoric acid etched for 15 seconds; 4, primary teeth, 10 per cent maleic acid etched for 15 seconds. Five teeth from each group were randomly assigned for SEM examination of the etched enamel surface. Scotchbond Multi-Purpose primer and adhesive were applied to the etched enamel surface of the remaining 15 teeth and cured following the manufacturer's instructions. Z100 composite resin was placed in a nylon cylinder and cured for two 40 second intervals. Following thermocycling, the specimens were sheared on an universal testing machine and debonded areas were examined visually with a stereo microscope and with SEM. The mean shear bond strengths in MPa were: 1, 17.00; 2, 14.58; 3, 14.66; 4, 11.18. ANOVA and Student-Newman-Keuls analyses revealed no statistically significant difference among the groups. SEM examination showed the majority of specimens fractured at the adhesive-resin interface.

  4. Hard machining, glaze firing and hydrofluoric acid etching: Do these procedures affect the flexural strength of a leucite glass-ceramic?

    PubMed

    Fraga, Sara; Valandro, Luiz F; Bottino, Marco A; May, Liliana G

    2015-07-01

    To evaluate the effects of hard machining, glaze firing and hydrofluoric acid etching on the biaxial flexural strength and roughness of a CAD/CAM leucite glass-ceramic; to investigate if ceramic post-machining surface roughness is influenced by the machining order and by the pair of burs used for it. A hundred forty four discs were machined by six nominally identical pairs of burs and divided into groups (n=24): (1) machining-M, (2) machining and glaze firing-MG, (3) machining and hydrofluoric acid etching-MA, (4) machining, glaze firing and hydrofluoric acid etching-MGA, (5) machining followed by polishing, as a control-MP, (6) machining, polishing and hydrofluoric acid etching-MPA. The roughness after each treatment (Ra and Rz) was measured. The discs were submitted to a piston-on-three ball flexure test (ISO 6872/2008) and strength data analyzed through Weibull statistics (95% CI). M resulted in lower characteristic strength (σ0) (128.2MPa) than MP (177.2MPa). The glaze firing reduced σ0 (109MPa), without affecting roughness. Hydrofluoric acid etching increased the roughness without affecting σ0. Spearman's coefficient (rs) indicated strong and significant correlation between machining order and roughness (rsRa=-0.66; rsRz=-0.73). The ceramic post-machining surface roughness differed significantly according to the pair of burs employed (p<0.05). hard machining and glaze firing reduced the leucite ceramic strength, while hydrofluoric acid etching did not affect the strength. Variability in the roughness might be expected after machining, since it was influenced by the machining order and by the bur pairing. Copyright © 2015 Academy of Dental Materials. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. In vitro comparison of the bond strength to the enamel of conventional and self-etching dental fissure sealants.

    PubMed

    Stellini, E; De Francesco, M; Avventi, M; Gracco, A; Berengo, M; Simionato, F; Mazzoleni, S

    2013-12-01

    Dental caries in pits and fissures of molars is still very common in young people, despite a gradual reduction in their incidence and prevalence. Prevention with the aid of dental fissure sealants can help to reduce the onset of decay. In vitro tests were conducted to compare the bond strength to enamel of self-etching sealants versus those applied using the conventional procedure. The lingual surface of 40 extracted, caries-free, mandibular third molars was milled to make them flat. The prepared teeth were randomly divided into two groups of 20 teeth each: those in Group A were treated with Clinpro (3M ESPE, St. Paul, MN, USA); those in Group B with Quick Seal (BJM Laboratories Ltd, Or-Yehuda, Israel). Cylinders of sealant were attached to the enamel of the flat surfaces of the samples using a polymerisation process treating the surfaces involved according to the type of material. All samples underwent load testing by means of a universal test machine. The results of the load testing, measured in MPa, were analysed using the Student's t-test for independent samples and the differences proved significant, indicating that the traditionally- applied sealant (mean strength 21.06 MPa) assured a significantly stronger bond (p <.05) than the self-etching sealant (mean strength 10.43 MPa) under our experimental conditions. CONCLUSION Conventional sealants generally provide a considerably higher bond strength than self-etching sealants.

  6. Effect of sulfuric acid etching of polyetheretherketone on the shear bond strength to resin cements.

    PubMed

    Sproesser, Oliver; Schmidlin, Patrick R; Uhrenbacher, Julia; Roos, Malgorzata; Gernet, Wolfgang; Stawarczyk, Bogna

    2014-10-01

    To examine the influence of etching duration on the bond strength of PEEK substrate in combination with different resin composite cements. In total, 448 PEEK specimens were fabricated, etched with sulfuric acid for 5, 15, 30, 60, 90, 120, and 300 s and then luted with two conventional resin cements (RelyX ARC and Variolink II) and one self-adhesive resin cement (Clearfil SA Cement) (n = 18/subgroup). Non-etched specimens served as the control group. Specimens were stored in distilled water for 28 days at 37°C and shear bond strengths were measured. Data were analyzed nonparametrically using Kruskal-Wallis-H (p < 0.05). Non-etched PEEK demonstrated no bond strength to resin composite cements. The optimal etching duration varied with the type of resin composite: 60 s for RelyX ARC (15.3 ± 7.2 MPa), 90 s for Variolink II (15.2 ± 7.2 MPa), and 120 s for Clearfil SA Cement (6.4 ± 5.9 MPa). Regardless of etching duration, however, the self-etching resin composite cement showed significantly lower shear bond strength values when compared to groups luted with the conventional resin composites. Although sulfuric acid seems to be suitable and effective for PEEK surface pre-treatment, further investigations are required to examine the effect of other adhesive systems and cements.

  7. Morphological categorization of acid-base resistant zones with self-etching primer adhesive systems.

    PubMed

    Inoue, Go; Nikaido, Toru; Sadr, Alireza; Tagami, Junji

    2012-01-01

    This study investigated the influence of the composition of self-etching primer adhesive systems on the morphology of acid-base resistant zones (ABRZs). One-step self-etching primer systems (Clearfil Tri-S Bond, G-Bond, and One-Up Bond F Plus) and two-step self-etching primer systems (Clearfil SE Bond, Clearfil Protect Bond, UniFil Bond, and Mac Bond II) were used in this study. Each adhesive was applied on prepared dentin disk surfaces, and a resin composite was placed between two dentin disks. All resin-bonded specimens were subjected to acid-base challenge. Observation under a scanning electron microscope (SEM) revealed the creation of an ABRZ adjacent to the hybrid layer for all the self-etch primer adhesive systems, even when non-fluoride releasing adhesives were used. The presence of fluoride in two-step self-etching adhesive significantly increased the thickness of ABRZ created. Results suggested that an ABRZ was created with the use of self-etching primer adhesive systems, but its morphology differed between one-and two-step self-etching primer adhesive systems and was influenced by fluoride release activity.

  8. Acid etching of human enamel in clinical applications: a systematic review.

    PubMed

    Zhu, Jia Jun; Tang, Alexander T H; Matinlinna, Jukka P; Hägg, Urban

    2014-08-01

    The laboratory-based enamel acid-etching doctrine with 30% to 50% phosphoric acid for 60 seconds to generate the maximum amount of Type 1 and/or Type 2 etch pattern has been established for more than 30 years. However, this recommendation may not be clinically relevant. The purpose of this systematic review was to compare clinically accepted protocols of enamel acid etching with the laboratory protocol. Studies were identified by searching 4 electronic databases: Medline, CINAHL Plus, Embase, and Cochrane Library. The final search was run on November 8, 2012. All clinical studies published in English that investigated enamel acid pretreatment methods on human permanent teeth were included. Additional publications were obtained from the reference lists of the included studies. The clinical evidence of all included studies was tabulated. Initially, 4543 publications were retrieved from the databases. A total of 4508 articles were excluded, including 2285 duplicates, 1805 publications according to exclusion criteria by their titles and abstracts, 368 laboratory articles, 49 reviews, and 1 pilot study. Only 1 study was added from reference lists of the included studies. Finally, 36 clinical publications were included. The included clinical studies provided different levels of clinical evidence on the efficacy of acid-etching protocols to enable successful enamel adhesion. Clinical protocols of enamel acid etching differ from the laboratory-generated doctrine, which may imply that maximization of the Type 1 and/or Type 2 etch pattern is not important in the clinical acid etching of human enamel. Copyright © 2014 Editorial Council for the Journal of Prosthetic Dentistry. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  9. Comparative Evaluation of the Etching Pattern of Er,Cr:YSGG & Acid Etching on Extracted Human Teeth-An ESEM Analysis

    PubMed Central

    Mazumdar, Dibyendu; Ranjan, Shashi; Krishna, Naveen Kumar; Kole, Ravindra; Singh, Priyankar; Lakiang, Deirimika; Jayam, Chiranjeevi

    2016-01-01

    Introduction Etching of enamel and dentin surfaces increases the surface area of the substrate for better bonding of the tooth colored restorative materials. Acid etching is the most commonly used method. Recently, hard tissue lasers have been used for this purpose. Aim The aim of the present study was to evaluate and compare the etching pattern of Er,Cr:YSGG and conventional etching on extracted human enamel and dentin specimens. Materials and Methods Total 40 extracted non-diseased teeth were selected, 20 anterior and 20 posterior teeth each for enamel and dentin specimens respectively. The sectioned samples were polished by 400 grit Silicon Carbide (SiC) paper to a thickness of 1.0 ± 0.5 mm. The enamel and dentin specimens were grouped as: GrE1 & GrD1 as control specimens, GrE2 & GrD2 were acid etched and GrE3 & GrD3 were lased. Acid etching was done using Conditioner 36 (37 % phosphoric acid) according to manufacturer instructions. Laser etching was done using Er,Cr:YSGG (Erbium, Chromium : Ytrium Scandium Gallium Garnet) at power settings of 3W, air 70% and water 20%. After surface treatment with assigned agents the specimens were analyzed under ESEM (Environmental Scanning Electron Microscope) at X1000 and X5000 magnification. Results Chi Square and Student “t” statistical analysis was used to compare smear layer removal and etching patterns between GrE2-GrE3. GrD2 and GrD3 were compared for smear layer removal and diameter of dentinal tubule opening using the same statistical analysis. Chi-square test for removal of smear layer in any of the treated surfaces i.e., GrE2-E3 and GrD2-D3 did not differ significantly (p>0.05). While GrE2 showed predominantly type I etching pattern (Chi-square=2.78, 0.05

    0.10) and GrE3 showed type III etching (Chi-square=4.50, p<0.05). The tubule diameters were measured using GSA (Gesellschaft fur Softwareentwicklung und Analytik, Germany) image analyzer and the ‘t’ value of student ‘t’ test was 18.10 which was a

  10. Bone growth enhancement in vivo on press-fit titanium alloy implants with acid etched microtexture

    PubMed Central

    Daugaard, Henrik; Elmengaard, Brian; Bechtold, Joan E.; Soballe, Kjeld

    2013-01-01

    Early bone ongrowth secures long-term fixation of primary implants inserted without cement. Implant surfaces roughened with a texture on the micrometer scale are known to be osseoconductive. The aim of this study was to evaluate the bone formation at the surface of acid etched implants modified on the micro-scale. We compared implants with a nonparticulate texture made by chemical milling (hydrofluoric acid, nitric acid) (control) with implants that had a dual acid etched (hydrofluoric acid, hydrochloric acid) microtexture surface superimposed on the primary chemically milled texture. We used an experimental joint replacement model with cylindrical titanium implants (Ti-6Al-4V) inserted paired and press-fit in cancellous tibia metaphyseal bone of eight canines for 4 weeks and evaluated by histomorphometric quantification. A significant twofold median increase was seen for bone ongrowth on the acid etched surface [median, 36.1% (interquartile range, 24.3–44.6%)] compared to the control [18.4% (15.6–20.4%)]. The percentage of fibrous tissue at the implant surface and adjacent bone was significantly less for dual acid textured implants compared with control implants. These results show that secondary roughening of titanium alloy implant surface by dual acid etching increases bone formation at the implant bone interface. PMID:18186059

  11. Evaluating EDTA as a substitute for phosphoric acid-etching of enamel and dentin.

    PubMed

    Imbery, Terence A; Kennedy, Matthew; Janus, Charles; Moon, Peter C

    2012-01-01

    Matrix metalloproteinases (MMPs) are proteolytic enzymes released when dentin is acid-etched. The enzymes are capable of destroying unprotected collagen fibrils that are not encapsulated by the dentin adhesive. Chlorhexidine applied after etching inhibits the activation of released MMPs, whereas neutral ethylenediamine tetra-acetic acid (EDTA) prevents the release of MMPs. The purpose of this study was to determine if conditioning enamel and dentin with EDTA can be a substitute for treating acid-etching enamel and dentin with chlorhexidine. A column of composite resin was bonded to enamel and dentin after conditioning. Shear bond strengths were evaluated after 48 hours and after accelerated aging for three hours in 12% sodium hypochlorite. Shear bond strengths ranged from 15.6 MP a for accelerated aged EDTA enamel specimens to 26.8 MPa for dentin conditioned with EDTA and tested after 48 hours. A three-way ANOVA and a Tukey HSD test found statistically significant differences among the eight groups and the three independent variables (P < 0.05). EDTA was successfully substituted for phosphoric acid-etched enamel and dentin treated with chlorhexidine. Interactions of conditioning agent and aging were significant for dentin but not for enamel. In an effort to reduce the detrimental effects of MMPs, conditioning enamel and dentin with EDTA is an alternative to treating acid-etched dentin and enamel with chlorhexidine.

  12. Comparison of shear bond strength of reattached incisor fragment using Er,Cr:YSGG laser etching and conventional acid etching: An in vitro study

    PubMed Central

    Kumar, Gyanendra; Goswami, Mridula; Dhillon, Jatinder Kaur

    2016-01-01

    Aim: The aim of this invitro study is to evaluate the shear bond strength of reattached fractured incisor fragments using Er,Cr:YSGG laser and conventional acid etching without additional tooth preparation. Materials and methods: Forty extracted human teeth were divided in two groups of 20 each (Groups A and B). In Group A, fractured surface was treated by an Er, Cr: YSGG laser system (Waterlase MD, Biolase Technology Inc., San Clemente, CA, USA) operating at a wavelength of 2,780 nm and frequency of 20 Hz. In Group B, fractured surface was etched using 37% phosphoric acid (Scotchbond, 3M). In both the groups, further subdivision with 10 sample each was made based on horizontal and oblique fracture. After laser or acid etching, all the samples were reattached using flowable composite resin and light cured. The samples were tested for shear bond strength. Results: Mean shear bond strength for Group A (94.70±39.158) was lower as compared to Group B (121.25±49.937), although the difference was not statistically significant(p value=0.121). Similarly no statistical significant difference was observed amongst the subgroups. (p>0.05) Conclusion: Er,Cr:YSGG laser etching in reattachment of fractured incisor fragment is a good alternative to conventional acid etching. Er,Cr:YSGG showed comparable efficiency in rebonding of fractured teeth fragment as acid etching. PMID:27721563

  13. Acid resistance of erbium-doped yttrium aluminum garnet laser-treated and phosphoric acid-etched enamels.

    PubMed

    Kim, Jung-Ho; Kwon, Oh-Won; Kim, Hyung-Il; Kwon, Yong Hoon

    2006-11-01

    To compare the effects of erbium-doped yttrium aluminum garnet (Er:YAG) laser ablation and of phosphoric acid etching on the in vitro acid resistance of bovine enamel. Teeth were polished to make the surface flat. The polished enamel was either etched with 37% phosphoric acid for 30 seconds or ablated with a single 33 J/cm2 pulse from an Er:YAG laser. The control specimens were free from acid etching and laser ablation. Changes in crystal structure, dissolved mineral (calcium [Ca] and phosphorus [P]) contents, and calcium distribution in the enamel subsurface after a pH-cycling process were evaluated. After laser treatment, poor crystal structures improved without forming any new phases, such as tricalcium phosphates. Among the tested enamels, dissolved mineral contents were significantly different (P < .05). Er:YAG laser-treated enamels had the lowest mineral dissolution (Ca, 13.78 ppm; P, 6.33 ppm), whereas phosphoric acid-etched enamels had the highest (Ca, 15.90 ppm; P, 7.33 ppm). The reduction rate and reduced depth of calcium content along the subsurface were lowest in Er:YAG laser-treated enamels. The Er:YAG laser-treated enamels are more acid resistant to acid attack than phosphoric acid-etched enamels.

  14. BOND STRENGTH AND MORPHOLOGY OF ENAMEL USING SELF-ETCHING ADHESIVE SYSTEMS WITH DIFFERENT ACIDITIES

    PubMed Central

    Moura, Sandra Kiss; Reis, Alessandra; Pelizzaro, Arlete; Dal-Bianco, Karen; Loguercio, Alessandro Dourado; Arana-Chavez, Victor Elias; Grande, Rosa Helena Miranda

    2009-01-01

    Objectives: To assess the bond strength and the morphology of enamel after application of self-etching adhesive systems with different acidities. The tested hypothesis was that the performance of the self-etching adhesive systems does not vary for the studied parameters. Material and methods: Composite resin (Filtek Z250) buildups were bonded to untreated (prophylaxis) and treated (burcut or SiC-paper) enamel surfaces of third molars after application of four self-etching and two etch-and-rinse adhesive systems (n=6/condition): Clearfil SE Bond (CSE); OptiBond Solo Plus Self-Etch (OP); AdheSe (AD); Tyrian Self Priming Etching (TY), Adper Scotchbond Multi-Purpose Plus (SBMP) and Adper Single Bond (SB). After storage in water (24 h/37°C), the bonded specimens were sectioned into sticks with 0.8 mm2 cross-sectional area and the microtensile bond strength was tested at a crosshead speed of 0.5 mm/min. The mean bond strength values (MPa) were subjected to two-way ANOVA and Tukey's test (α=0.05). The etching patterns of the adhesive systems were also observed with a scanning electron microscope. Results: The main factor adhesive system was statistically significant (p<0.05). The mean bond strength values (MPa) and standard deviations were: CSE (20.5±3.5), OP (11.3±2.3), AD (11.2±2.8), TY (11.1±3.0), SBMP (21.9±4.0) and SB (24.9±3.0). Different etching patterns were observed for the self-etching primers depending on the enamel treatment and the pH of the adhesive system. Conclusion: Although there is a tendency towards using adhesive systems with simplified application procedures, this may compromise the bonding performance of some systems to enamel, even when the prismless enamel is removed. PMID:19668991

  15. Grafting of acrylic acid on etched latent tracks induced by swift heavy ions on polypropylene films

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mazzei, R.; Fernández, A.; García Bermúdez, G.; Torres, A.; Gutierrez, M. C.; Magni, M.; Celma, G.; Tadey, D.

    2008-06-01

    In order to continue with a systematic study that include different polymers and monomers, the residual active sites produced by heavy ion beams, that remain after the etching process, were used to start the grafting process. To produce tracks, foils of polypropylene (PP) were irradiated with 208Pb of 25.62 MeV/n. Then, these were etched and grafted with acrylic acid (AA) monomers. Experimental curves of grafting yield as a function of grafting time with the etching time as a parameter were measured. Also, the grating yield as a function of the fluence and etching time was obtained. In addition, the permeation of solutions, with different pH, through PP grafted foils was measured.

  16. Self-etch and etch-and-rinse adhesive systems in clinical dentistry.

    PubMed

    Ozer, Fusun; Blatz, Markus B

    2013-01-01

    Current adhesive systems follow either an "etch-and-rinse" or "self-etch" approach, which differ in how they interact with natural tooth structures. Etch-and-rinse systems comprise phosphoric acid to pretreat the dental hard tissues before rinsing and subsequent application of an adhesive. Self-etch adhesives contain acidic monomers, which etch and prime the tooth simultaneously. Etch-and-rinse adhesives are offered as two- or three-step systems, depending on whether primer and bonding are separate or combined in a single bottle. Similarly, self-etch adhesives are available as one- or two-step systems. Both etch-and-rinse and self-etch systems form a hybrid layer as a result of resins impregnating the porous enamel or dentin. Despite current trends toward fewer and simpler clinical application steps, one-step dentin bonding systems exhibit bonding agent lower bond strengths and seem less predictable than multi-step etch-and-rinse and self-etch systems. The varying evidence available today suggests that the choice between etch-and-rinse and self-etch systems is often a matter of personal preference. In general, however, phosphoric acid creates a more pronounced and retentive etching pattern in enamel. Therefore, etch-and-rinse bonding systems are often preferred for indirect restorations and when large areas of enamel are still present. Conversely, self-etch adhesives provide superior and more predictable bond strength to dentin and are, consequently, recommended for direct composite resin restorations, especially when predominantly supported by dentin.

  17. Modifications of the organic and mineral fractions of dental tissues following conditioning by self-etching adhesives.

    PubMed

    Dieng-Sarr, Farimata; Sharrock, Patrick; Dabsie, Firas; Grégoire, Geneviève

    2011-02-01

    Our objective was to analyse the acid strengths and concentrations in contemporary self-etch adhesives and test whether the adhesion/decalcification concept functions the same way for all products. The self-etching adhesives were dissolved in a 50% water-ethanol solvent, these were reacted with biological apatite (HA) in the form of powder of human dentine in order to quantify calcium release and study the reaction products as a function of acid strengths and concentrations. The four self-etching adhesives investigated were AdheSE One (Ivoclar Vivadent, Schaan, Liechtenstein), Adper Easy Bond (3M ESPE, St Paul, MN, USA), Optibond All-In-One (KERR, Orange, CA, USA), Xeno V (Dentsply De Trey, Konstanz, Germany). Acid concentrations were found to span the range from 1 to 2 mmol/l, and the acid dissociation constants varied between apparent pKa values of 3.4 and 4.2. The pH values changed with time from values near 2.8 to 3.6, confirming the buffering action of HA. The stronger acids dissolved more calcium ions but left less organic matter attached to the tissue particles. Thermogravimetric and infrared analysis demonstrated that the weaker acids tended to bind to HA surfaces and increased significantly the organic to mineral ratios of the powders. Self-etching adhesives can be differentiated and classified in two types: weak acids attach to the mineral phase and leach little calcium; strong acids bind to the calcium ions, demineralize more and tend to debond from the dentinal hard tissues by forming more soluble calcium salts. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. Acids with an equivalent taste lead to different erosion of human dental enamel.

    PubMed

    Beyer, Markus; Reichert, Jörg; Bossert, Jörg; Sigusch, Bernd W; Watts, David C; Jandt, Klaus D

    2011-10-01

    The consumption of acidic soft drinks may lead to demineralization and softening of human dental enamel, known as dental erosion. The aims of this in vitro study were to determine: (i) if different acids with a similar sensorial acidic taste lead to different hardness loss of enamel and (ii) if the fruit acids tartaric, malic, lactic or ascorbic acid lead to less hardness loss of enamel than citric or phosphoric acid when their concentration in solution is based on an equivalent sensorial acidic taste. Enamel samples of non-erupted human third molars were treated with acidic solutions of tartaric (TA), malic (MA), lactic (LA), ascorbic (AA), phosphoric (PA) and citric (CA) acids with a concentration that gave an equivalent sensorial acidic taste. The acidic solutions were characterized by pH value and titratable acidity. Atomic force microscopy (AFM) based nanoindentation was used to study the nano mechanical properties and scanning electron microscopy (SEM) was used to study the morphology of the treated enamel samples and the untreated control areas, respectively. The investigated acids fell into two groups. The nano hardnesses of MA, TA and CA treated enamel samples (group I) were statistically significantly greater (p<0.05) than the nano hardnesses of PA, AA and LA treated enamel samples (group II). Within each group the nano hardness was not statistically significantly different (p>0.05). The SEM micrographs showed different etch prism morphologies depending on the acid used. In vitro, the acids investigated led to different erosion effects on human dental enamel, despite their equivalent sensorial acidic taste. This has not been reported previously. Copyright © 2011 Academy of Dental Materials. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. Changes in the surface of bone and acid-etched and sandblasted implants following implantation and removal

    PubMed Central

    Eroglu, Cennet Neslihan; Ertugrul, Abdullah Seckin; Eskitascioglu, Murat; Eskitascioglu, Gurcan

    2016-01-01

    Objective: The aim of this study was to determine whether there are any changes in the surface of bone or implant structures following the removal of a screwed dental implant. Materials and Methods: For this, six individual samples of acid-etched and sandblasted implants from three different manufacturers’ implant systems were used. They were screwed in a D1 bovine bone, and they were removed after primary stabilization. The bone and implant surfaces are evaluated with scanning electron microscope. Results: Through examination of the surfaces of the bone prior to implantation and of the used and unused implant surfaces, it was found that inhomogeneity in the implant surface can cause microcracking in the bone. Conclusions: This is attributed to the stress induced during the implantation of self-tapping implants and suggests that a tap drill may be required in some instances to protect the implant surface. PMID:27011744

  20. Effect of different monomer-based composites and acid etching pre-treatment of enamel on the microleakage using self-etch adhesives systems.

    PubMed

    Catelan, Anderson; Giorgi, Maria Cecília Caldas; Soares, Giulliana Panfiglio; Lima, Debora Alves Nunes Leite; Marchi, Giselle Maria; Aguiar, Flávio Henrique Baggio

    2014-11-01

    To evaluate quantitatively the marginal microleakage of restorations carried out with self-etching adhesives with or without prior phosphoric enamel acid etching of silorane or methacrylate resin-based composite restorations subjected to thermal cycling. Forty cavities were prepared at the proximal surface of bovine incisors and randomly divided according to the etching of the enamel and restorative system used. The groups were restored with methacrylate [Adper SE Plus adhesive (3M ESPE) + Filtek Z250 (3M ESPE)] or silorane [Filtek LS adhesive (3M ESPE) + Filtek LS composite (3M ESPE)] restorative systems, light-cured using a LED unit (Bluephase 16i, Vivadent). After restorative procedure and thermocycling (1000 cycles), the specimens were immersed in methylene blue for 2 h. The specimens were triturated and the powder was used for analysis in an absorbance spectrophotometer. Data were statistically analyzed by 2-way ANOVA (alpha = 0.05). No statistical difference between the restorative materials tested with or without previous acid etching of enamel in Class II marginal microleakage was observed (p > 0.05). The use of acid etching prior to self-etching adhesives did not interfere on the microleakage of methacrylate- or silorane-based restorations.

  1. Instrumentation With Ultrasonic Scalers Facilitates Cleaning of the Sandblasted and Acid-Etched Titanium Implants.

    PubMed

    Park, Jun-Beom; Lee, Sung-Hoon; Kim, NamRyang; Park, Seojin; Jin, Seong-Ho; Choi, Bong-Kyu; Kim, Kack-Kyun; Ko, Youngkyung

    2015-08-01

    Mechanical instrumentation is widely used to debride dental implants, but this may alter the surface properties of titanium, which in turn may influence bacterial adhesion and make it more difficult to remove the biofilm. This in vitro study was performed (1) to assess the amount of biofilm formation on a sand-blasted and acid-etched titanium fixture treated with ultrasonic scalers with metal, plastic, and carbon tips and (2) to evaluate how this treatment of titanium surfaces affects implant cleaning by brushing with dentifrice. The titanium fixtures were treated with various ultrasonic scaler tips, and surface roughness parameters were measured by confocal microscopy. Biofilm was formed on the treated fixtures by using pooled saliva from 10 subjects, and the quantity of the adherent bacteria was compared with crystal violet assay. The fixture surfaces with biofilm were brushed for total of 30 seconds with a toothbrush with dentifrice. The bacteria remaining on the brushed fixture surfaces were quantified by scanning electron microscopy. Surface changes were evident, and the changes of the surfaces were more discernible when metal tips were used. A statistically significant decrease in roughness value (arithmetic mean height of the surface) was seen in the 2 metal-tip groups and the single plastic-tip group. After brushing with dentifrice, the treated surfaces in all the treatment groups showed significantly fewer bacteria compared with the untreated surfaces in the control group, and the parts of the surfaces left untreated in the test groups. Within the limits of this study, treatment of titanium fixture surfaces with ultrasonic metal, plastic, or carbon tips significantly enhanced the bacterial removal efficacy of brushing. Thorough instrumentation that smooths the whole exposed surface may facilitate maintenance of the implants.

  2. Effect of hydrofluoric acid concentration and etching duration on select surface roughness parameters for zirconia.

    PubMed

    Smielak, Beata; Klimek, Leszek

    2015-06-01

    The surface of zirconia is resistant to chemical treatment. Roughening the surface of densely sintered zirconia still poses a challenge in dentistry. The purpose of the study was to examine the effects of hydrofluoric acid on the quality of surface roughening of zirconia. One hundred cylindrical disks made from zirconia (Ceramill Zi; Amann Girrbach AG) were divided into 4 groups. Three groups (n=30) were distinguished on the basis of hydrofluoric acid (HF) concentration: 40% HF, 9.5% HF, and 5% HF. The groups were then further divided into 3 groups of 10 specimens, each based on etch time (1, 5, or 15 minutes). The control group (n=10) consisted of specimens polished with SiC abrasive paper. The surface was examined with scanning electron microscopy, and the roughness was measured with a profilometer and confocal laser scanning microscope. The mean arithmetic profile deviation (Ra(mean)) and mean maximum height of profile (Rz(mean)) results for the etched surfaces in relationship to the baseline surfaces were compared with the Student t test for averaged data (α=.05). When etched with 40% HF concentration, the Ra(mean) and Rz(mean) results were statistically higher (P<.01) for the etched surfaces than for the baseline surfaces. When etched with 9.5% HF concentration, the higher Ra(mean) and Rz(mean) results were only statistically significant (P<.01) after 15 minutes. Etching with 5% HF concentration showed no significant differences (P>.05). Etching with a 5% HF solution should not be recommended as a method for roughening zirconia surfaces. Copyright © 2015 Editorial Council for the Journal of Prosthetic Dentistry. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  3. Effect of acid etching of glass ionomer cement surface on the microleakage of sandwich restorations.

    PubMed

    Bona, Alvaro Della; Pinzetta, Caroline; Rosa, Vinícius

    2007-06-01

    The purposes of this study were to evaluate the sealing ability of different glass ionomer cements (GICs) used for sandwich restorations and to assess the effect of acid etching of GIC on microleakage at GIC-resin composite interface. Forty cavities were prepared on the proximal surfaces of 20 permanent human premolars (2 cavities per tooth), assigned to 4 groups (n=10) and restored as follows: Group CIE - conventional GIC (CI) was applied onto the axial and cervical cavity walls, allowed setting for 5 min and acid etched (E) along the cavity margins with 35% phosphoric acid for 15 s, washed for 30 s and water was blotted; the adhesive system was applied and light cured for 10 s, completing the restoration with composite resin light cured for 40 s; Group CIN - same as Group CIE, except for acid etching of the CI surface; Group RME - same as CIE, but using a resin modified GIC (RMGIC); Group RMN - same as Group RME, except for acid etching of the RMGIC surface. Specimens were soaked in 1% methylene blue dye solution at 24 degrees C for 24 h, rinsed under running water for 1 h, bisected longitudinally and dye penetration was measured following the ISO/TS 11405-2003 standard. Results were statistically analyzed by Kruskal-Wallis and chi-square tests (a=0.05). Dye penetration scores were as follow: CIE - 2.5; CIN - 2.5; RME - 0.9; and RMN - 0.6. The results suggest that phosphoric acid etching of GIC prior to the placement of composite resin does not improve the sealing ability of sandwich restorations. The RMGIC was more effective in preventing dye penetration at the GIC-resin composite-dentin interfaces than CI.

  4. EFFECT OF ACID ETCHING OF GLASS IONOMER CEMENT SURFACE ON THE MICROLEAKAGE OF SANDWICH RESTORATIONS

    PubMed Central

    Bona, Álvaro Della; Pinzetta, Caroline; Rosa, Vinícius

    2007-01-01

    The purposes of this study were to evaluate the sealing ability of different glass ionomer cements (GICs) used for sandwich restorations and to assess the effect of acid etching of GIC on microleakage at GIC-resin composite interface. Forty cavities were prepared on the proximal surfaces of 20 permanent human premolars (2 cavities per tooth), assigned to 4 groups (n=10) and restored as follows: Group CIE – conventional GIC (CI) was applied onto the axial and cervical cavity walls, allowed setting for 5 min and acid etched (E) along the cavity margins with 35% phosphoric acid for 15 s, washed for 30 s and water was blotted; the adhesive system was applied and light cured for 10 s, completing the restoration with composite resin light cured for 40 s; Group CIN – same as Group CIE, except for acid etching of the CI surface; Group RME – same as CIE, but using a resin modified GIC (RMGIC); Group RMN – same as Group RME, except for acid etching of the RMGIC surface. Specimens were soaked in 1% methylene blue dye solution at 24°C for 24 h, rinsed under running water for 1 h, bisected longitudinally and dye penetration was measured following the ISO/TS 11405-2003 standard. Results were statistically analyzed by Kruskal-Wallis and chi-square tests (α=0.05). Dye penetration scores were as follow: CIE – 2.5; CIN – 2.5; RME – 0.9; and RMN – 0.6. The results suggest that phosphoric acid etching of GIC prior to the placement of composite resin does not improve the sealing ability of sandwich restorations. The RMGIC was more effective in preventing dye penetration at the GIC-resin composite- dentin interfaces than CI. PMID:19089135

  5. Bonding efficacy of new self-etching, self-adhesive dual-curing resin cements to dental enamel.

    PubMed

    Benetti, Paula; Fernandes, Virgílio Vilas; Torres, Carlos Rocha; Pagani, Clovis

    2011-06-01

    This study evaluated the efficacy of the union between two new self-etching self-adhesive resin cements and enamel using the microtensile bond strength test. Buccal enamel of 80 bovine teeth was submitted to finishing and polishing with metallographic paper to a refinement of #600, in order to obtain a 5-mm2 flat area. Blocks (2 x 4 x 4 mm) of laboratory composite resin were cemented to enamel according to different protocols: (1) untreated enamel + RelyX Unicem cement (RX group); (2) untreated enamel + Bifix SE cement (BF group); (3) enamel acid etching and application of resin adhesive Single Bond + RelyX Unicem (RXA group); (4) enamel acid etching and application of resin adhesive Solobond M + Bifix SE (BFA group). After 7 days of storage in distillated water at 37°C, the blocks were sectioned for obtaining microbar specimens with an adhesive area of 1 mm2 (n = 120). Specimens were submitted to the microtensile bond strength test at a crosshead speed of 0.5 mm/min. The results (in MPa) were analyzed statistically by ANOVA and Tukey's test. Enamel pre-treatment with phosphoric acid and resin adhesive (27.9 and 30.3 for RXA and BFA groups) significantly improved (p ≤ 0.05) the adhesion of both cements to enamel compared to the union achieved with as-polished enamel (9.9 and 6.0 for RX and BF). Enamel pre-treatment with acid etching and the application of resin adhesive significantly improved the bond efficacy of both luting agents compared to the union achieved with as-polished enamel.

  6. Acid etching of glass-infiltrated zirconia and its biological response.

    PubMed

    Vu, Van Thi; Oh, Gye-Jeong; Yun, Kwi-Dug; Lim, Hyun-Pil; Kim, Ji-Won; Nguyen, Thao Phuong Thi; Park, Sang-Won

    2017-04-01

    The purpose of this study was to evaluate the influence of acid etching treatment on surface characteristics and biological response of glass-infiltrated zirconia. A hundred zirconia specimens were divided into four groups depending on surface treatments: untreated zirconia (group Z); acid-etched zirconia (group ZE); glass-infiltrated zirconia (group ZG); and glass-infiltrated and acid-etched zirconia (group ZGE). Surface roughness, surface topography, surface morphology, and Vickers hardness of specimens were evaluated. For biological response test, MC3T3-E1 cell attachment and proliferation on surface of the specimens were examined. The data were statistically analyzed using one-way ANOVA and Tukey's HSD test at a significance level of 0.05. Group ZGE showed the highest surface roughness (Ra = 1.54 µm) compared with other groups (P < .05). Meanwhile, the hardness of group Z was significantly higher than those of other groups (P < .05). Cell attachment and cell proliferation were significantly higher in group ZGE (P < .05). We concluded that effective surface roughness on zirconia could be made by acid etching treatment after glass infiltration. This surface showed significantly enhanced osteoblast cell response.

  7. Acid etching and plasma sterilization fail to improve osseointegration of grit blasted titanium implants.

    PubMed

    Saksø, Mikkel; Jakobsen, Stig S; Saksø, Henrik; Baas, Jørgen; Jakobsen, Thomas; Søballe, Kjeld

    2012-01-01

    Interaction between implant surface and surrounding bone influences implant fixation. We attempted to improve the bone-implant interaction by 1) adding surface micro scale topography by acid etching, and 2) removing surface-adherent pro-inflammatory agents by plasma cleaning. Implant fixation was evaluated by implant osseointegration and biomechanical fixation.The study consisted of two paired animal sub-studies where 10 skeletally mature Labrador dogs were used. Grit blasted titanium alloy implants were inserted press fit in each proximal tibia. In the first study grit blasted implants were compared with acid etched grit blasted implants. In the second study grit blasted implants were compared with acid etched grit blasted implants that were further treated with plasma sterilization. Implant performance was evaluated by histomorphometrical investigation (tissue-to-implant contact, peri-implant tissue density) and mechanical push-out testing after four weeks observation time.Neither acid etching nor plasma sterilization of the grit blasted implants enhanced osseointegration or mechanical fixation in this press-fit canine implant model in a statistically significant manner.

  8. Acid Etching and Plasma Sterilization Fail to Improve Osseointegration of Grit Blasted Titanium Implants

    PubMed Central

    Saksø, Mikkel; Jakobsen, Stig S; Saksø, Henrik; Baas, Jørgen; Jakobsen, Thomas; Søballe, Kjeld

    2012-01-01

    Interaction between implant surface and surrounding bone influences implant fixation. We attempted to improve the bone-implant interaction by 1) adding surface micro scale topography by acid etching, and 2) removing surface-adherent pro-inflammatory agents by plasma cleaning. Implant fixation was evaluated by implant osseointegration and biomechanical fixation. The study consisted of two paired animal sub-studies where 10 skeletally mature Labrador dogs were used. Grit blasted titanium alloy implants were inserted press fit in each proximal tibia. In the first study grit blasted implants were compared with acid etched grit blasted implants. In the second study grit blasted implants were compared with acid etched grit blasted implants that were further treated with plasma sterilization. Implant performance was evaluated by histomorphometrical investigation (tissue-to-implant contact, peri-implant tissue density) and mechanical push-out testing after four weeks observation time. Neither acid etching nor plasma sterilization of the grit blasted implants enhanced osseointegration or mechanical fixation in this press-fit canine implant model in a statistically significant manner. PMID:22962567

  9. Cytotoxic Effects of One-step Self-etching Dental Adhesives on Human Periodontal Ligament Fibroblasts In Vitro.

    PubMed

    Sun, Fangfang; Mao, Peng; Wang, Cong; Shi, Chaowen; Nie, Rongrong; Han, Ningning; Han, Xiaodong

    2016-01-01

    To evaluate the potential cytotoxic effects of four one-step self-etching dental adhesives [Adper Easy One (AEO), iBond (IB), Clearfil S³ Bond (CSB), and G-Bond (GB)] on cultured human periodontal ligament fibroblasts. Cured adhesives were immersed in complete DMEM or deionized water and maintained at 37°C for 24 h, followed by sterilization. The deionized water-based extract was used for Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy analysis. The DMEM-based extract was diluted into various concentrations for cytotoxicity tests. The viability, integrity, and apoptosis of cultured human periodontal ligament fibroblasts upon treatment with the extracts were determined using the CCK-8 assay, microscopy, and flow cytometry. All of the four adhesives induced cell viability loss, cell morphology alteration, and cell death. GB showed the greatest cytotoxicity by inducing cell apoptosis and necrosis, while IB had the weakest cytotoxic effect on the cultured cells. All tested dental adhesives have significant adverse effects on cell viability. Therefore, precautions should be taken to protect the periodontal tissues when dental adhesives are applied in the clinic.

  10. Metal etching composition

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Otousa, Joseph E. (Inventor); Thomas, Clark S. (Inventor); Foster, Robert E. (Inventor)

    1991-01-01

    The present invention is directed to a chemical etching composition for etching metals or metallic alloys. The composition includes a solution of hydrochloric acid, phosphoric acid, ethylene glycol, and an oxidizing agent. The etching composition is particularly useful for etching metal surfaces in preparation for subsequent fluorescent penetrant inspection.

  11. Characterization of the porosity of human dental enamel and shear bond strength in vitro after variable etch times: initial findings using the BET method.

    PubMed

    Nguyen, Trang T; Miller, Arthur; Orellana, Maria F

    2011-07-01

    (1) To quantitatively characterize human enamel porosity and surface area in vitro before and after etching for variable etching times; and (2) to evaluate shear bond strength after variable etching times. Specifically, our goal was to identify the presence of any correlation between enamel porosity and shear bond strength. Pore surface area, pore volume, and pore size of enamel from extracted human teeth were analyzed by Brunauer-Emmett-Teller (BET) gas adsorption before and after etching for 15, 30, and 60 seconds with 37% phosphoric acid. Orthodontic brackets were bonded with Transbond to the samples with variable etch times and were subsequently applied to a single-plane lap shear testing system. Pore volume and surface area increased after etching for 15 and 30 seconds. At 60 seconds, this increase was less pronounced. On the contrary, pore size appears to decrease after etching. No correlation was found between variable etching times and shear strength. Samples etched for 15, 30, and 60 seconds all demonstrated clinically viable shear strength values. The BET adsorption method could be a valuable tool in enhancing our understanding of enamel characteristics. Our findings indicate that distinct quantitative changes in enamel pore architecture are evident after etching. Further testing with a larger sample size would have to be carried out for more definitive conclusions to be made.

  12. Miniature tapered photonic crystal fiber interferometer with enhanced sensitivity by acid microdroplets etching.

    PubMed

    Qiu, Sun-jie; Chen, Ye; Kou, Jun-long; Xu, Fei; Lu, Yan-qing

    2011-08-01

    We fabricate a miniature tapered photonic crystal fiber (PCF) interferometer with enhanced sensitivity by acid microdroplets etching. This method is very simple and cost effective, avoiding elongating the PCF, moving and refixing the device during etching, and measuring. The refractive index sensing properties with different PCF diameters are investigated both theoretically and experimentally. The tapering velocity can be controlled by the microdroplet size and position. The sensitivity greatly increases (five times, 750 nm/RIU) and the size decreases after slightly tapering the PCF. The device keeps low temperature dependence before and after tapering. More uniformly and thinly tapered PCFs can be realized with higher sensitivity (∼100 times) by optimizing the etching process.

  13. Influence of acid etching on hydrogen peroxide diffusion through human dentin.

    PubMed

    Camps, Jean; Pommel, Ludovic; Aubut, Virginie; About, Imad

    2010-06-01

    To evaluate the influence of dentin etching with phosphoric acid on hydrogen peroxide diffusion through human dentin in internal bleaching. 46 human premolars were extracted for orthodontic reasons from adolescents. The teeth were endodontically treated and a flat defect was created at the enamel-cementum junction. The teeth were divided into two groups: the access cavity was etched for 30 seconds with 35% H3PO4 in the first group and left intact in the second group. The teeth were filled with 20 microL of 35% hydrogen peroxide gel. The receiving medium on the other side was renewed at Day 1, Day 2 and Day 7 to quantify the diffusing hydrogen peroxide. An analysis of variance was performed to compare the diffusion between the two groups. This work demonstrated a higher hydrogen peroxide diffusion when the access cavity was etched (P < 0.01).

  14. Temperature Rise Induced by Light Curing Unit Can Shorten Enamel Acid-Etching Time

    PubMed Central

    Najafi Abrandabadi, Ahmad; Sheikh-Al-Eslamian, Seyedeh Mahsa; Panahandeh, Narges

    2015-01-01

    Objectives: The aim of this in-vitro study was to assess the thermal effect of light emitting diode (LED) light curing unit on the enamel etching time. Materials and Methods: Three treatment groups with 15 enamel specimens each were used in this study: G1: Fifteen seconds of etching, G2: Five seconds of etching, G3: Five seconds of etching plus LED light irradiation (simultaneously). The micro shear bond strength (μSBS) of composite resin to enamel was measured. Results: The mean μSBS values ± standard deviation were 51.28±2.35, 40.47±2.75 and 50.00±2.59 MPa in groups 1, 2 and 3, respectively. There was a significant difference between groups 1 and 2 (P=0.013) and between groups 2 and 3 (P=0.032) in this respect, while there was no difference between groups 1 and 3 (P=0.932). Conclusion: Simultaneous application of phosphoric acid gel over enamel surface and light irradiation using a LED light curing unit decreased enamel etching time to five seconds without compromising the μSBS. PMID:27559352

  15. Acid-etched microtexture for enhancement of bone growth into porous-coated implants.

    PubMed

    Hacking, S A; Harvey, E J; Tanzer, M; Krygier, J J; Bobyn, J D

    2003-11-01

    We designed an in vivo study to determine if the superimposition of a microtexture on the surface of sintered titanium beads affected the extent of bone ingrowth. Cylindrical titanium intramedullary implants were coated with titanium beads to form a porous finish using commercial sintering techniques. A control group of implants was left in the as-sintered condition. The test group was etched in a boiling acidic solution to create an irregular surface over the entire porous coating. Six experimental dogs underwent simultaneous bilateral femoral intramedullary implantation of a control implant and an acid etched implant. At 12 weeks, the implants were harvested in situ and the femora processed for undecalcified, histological examination. Eight transverse serial sections for each implant were analysed by backscattered electron microscopy and the extent of bone ingrowth was quantified by computer-aided image analysis. The extent of bone ingrowth into the control implants was 15.8% while the extent of bone ingrowth into the etched implants was 25.3%, a difference of 60% that was statistically significant. These results are consistent with other research that documents the positive effect of microtextured surfaces on bone formation at an implant surface. The acid etching process developed for this study represents a simple method for enhancing the potential of commonly available porous coatings for biological fixation.

  16. Evaluation of Mineral Content and Photon Interaction Parameters of Dental Enamel After Phosphoric Acid and Er:YAG Laser Treatment.

    PubMed

    Simsek, Huseyin; Gurbuz, Taskın; Buyuk, Suleyman Kutalmış; Ozdemir, Yuksel

    2017-05-01

    The purpose of this study was to evaluate the effects of laser and acid etching on the mineral content and photon interaction parameters of dental enamel in human teeth. The composition of dental enamel may vary, especially at the surface, depending on the reactions that occur during dental treatment. Forty maxillary premolars were divided randomly into 2 groups of 20 teeth. In the first group, half of teeth crowns were etched by using 37% phosphoric acid; in the second group, half of teeth crowns were etched by using an erbium:yttrium-aluminum-garnet (Er:YAG) laser. The remaining half crowns in each group were used as untreated controls. We characterized the calcium (Ca), phosphorus (P), magnesium (Mg), sodium (Na), and potassium (K) contents in each specimen by using wavelength dispersive X-ray fluorescence spectrometry. The total atomic cross-section ([Formula: see text]), effective atomic number ([Formula: see text]), and electron density (Ne) of the tooth samples were determined at photon energies of 22.1, 25, 59.5, and 88 keV by using a narrow beam transmission method. Data were analyzed statistically by using the Mann-Whitney U test. The mineral contents after Er:YAG laser and phosphoric acid etching did not differ significantly (p > 0.05), and no significant variation in [Formula: see text], [Formula: see text], or Ne was observed. Therefore, we conclude that the Er:YAG laser and phosphoric acid systems used in this study did not affect mineral composition or photon interaction parameters of dental enamel.

  17. Direct communication between osteocytes and acid-etched titanium implants with a sub-micron topography.

    PubMed

    Shah, Furqan A; Stenlund, Patrik; Martinelli, Anna; Thomsen, Peter; Palmquist, Anders

    2016-11-01

    The osteocyte network, through the numerous dendritic processes of osteocytes, is responsible for sensing mechanical loading and orchestrates adaptive bone remodelling by communicating with both the osteoclasts and the osteoblasts. The osteocyte network in the vicinity of implant surfaces provides insight into the bone healing process around metallic implants. Here, we investigate whether osteocytes are able to make an intimate contact with topologically modified, but micrometre smooth (S a < 0.5 µm) implant surfaces, and if sub-micron topography alters the composition of the interfacial tissue. Screw shaped, commercially pure (cp-Ti) titanium implants with (i) machined (S a = ~0.2 µm), and (ii) two-step acid-etched (HF/HNO3 and H2SO4/HCl; S a = ~0.5 µm) surfaces were inserted in Sprague Dawley rat tibia and followed for 28 days. Both surfaces showed similar bone area, while the bone-implant contact was 73 % higher for the acid-etched surface. By resin cast etching, osteocytes were observed to maintain a direct intimate contact with the acid-etched surface. Although well mineralised, the interfacial tissue showed lower Ca/P and apatite-to-collagen ratios at the acid-etched surface, while mineral crystallinity and the carbonate-to-phosphate ratios were comparable for both implant surfaces. The interfacial tissue composition may therefore vary with changes in implant surface topography, independently of the amount of bone formed. Implant surfaces that influence bone to have higher amounts of organic matrix without affecting the crystallinity or the carbonate content of the mineral phase presumably result in a more resilient interfacial tissue, better able to resist crack development during functional loading than densely mineralised bone.

  18. Ethanol-wet bonding technique may enhance the bonding performance of contemporary etch-and-rinse dental adhesives.

    PubMed

    Li, Fang; Liu, Xiao-Yang; Zhang, Ling; Kang, Jun-Jun; Chen, Ji-Hua

    2012-04-01

    To determine whether bonds of contemporary etch-and-rinse adhesives made with ethanol-wet bonding are stronger and more durable than those made with water-wet bonding, and to explore the possible reasons for the bonding results. Flat surfaces of midcoronal dentin were made in extracted human third molars. The dentin surfaces were randomized into 6 groups according to bonding techniques (water- vs ethanol-wet bonding) and dental adhesives [Single Bond 2 (SB), Prime Bond NT (PB), and Gluma Comfort Bond (GB)]. After etching and rinsing, dentin surfaces were either left water-moist or immersed in ethanol. Following adhesive application and composite buildups, the bonded teeth were sectioned into beams for microtensile bond strength evaluation with or without NaOCl challenge. The morphology of the hybrid layer was analyzed with SEM. The wettability of water- vs. ethanol-saturated dentin was evaluated. The concentrations of non-volatile ingredients in the adhesives were compared. Compared to water-wet bonding, ethanol-wet bonding yielded similar (p > 0.05 for PB and GB) or higher (p < 0.05 for SB) 24-h bond strength, displayed significantly higher bond strength after chemical challenge (p < 0.05, for all three adhesives), and produced more even hybrid layers. Moreover, ethanol-saturated dentin exhibited a lower contact angle than water-saturated specimens, and the concentrations of non-volatile ingredients of the adhesives decreased in the order of SB > GB > PB. Ethanol-wet bonding could improve the bonding efficacy of contemporary etch-and-rinse adhesives, probably due to the good wettability of ethanol-saturated dentin and the structure of the hybrid layer. Moreover, this positive effect of ethanol-wet bonding might be influenced by the composition of adhesives.

  19. Influence of particle abrasion or hydrofluoric acid etching on lithium disilicate flexural strength.

    PubMed

    Menees, Timothy S; Lawson, Nathaniel C; Beck, Preston R; Burgess, John O

    2014-11-01

    Lithium disilicate is a translucent, glass-containing material used for ceramic restorations. Clinicians frequently use alumina abrading or hydrofluoric acid etching to create micromechanical retention in the intaglio surface before bonding a lithium disilicate restoration to the tooth. Few studies have investigated how the etching or abrasion processes affect the flexural strength of lithium disilicate ceramics. The purpose of this study was to measure and compare the flexural strength of e.max CAD after alumina abrasion at differing pressures and acid etching at differing concentrations and times. Bars of e.max CAD (9 groups of 10; 22×2.5×2.5 mm) were prepared, polished sequentially with 180, 320, and 600 abrasive paper, and sintered according to the manufacturer's instructions. Four groups were particle abraded (30-μm alumina particles from 10 mm at 55, 100, 200, or 300 kPa for 10 seconds). Four groups were etched with either 5% hydrofluoric acid (20 seconds or 120 seconds) or 9.5% hydrofluoric acid (20 seconds or 120 seconds). The control was polished and fired only (no treatment). Specimens were placed onto an Instron (1 mm/min crosshead speed) and loaded to failure in a 3-point flexural test. One-way ANOVA and the Dunnett t test determined intergroup differences (α=.05). Compared with the control, the 100, 200, and 300 kPa alumina abraded groups produced significantly lower flexural strengths (P<.001); however, the flexural strength of the 55 kPa abraded group was not statistically different from the control (P=.080). The flexural strength of the 5% and the 9.5% hydrofluoric acid-etched groups also were not significantly different from the control (P>.050); however, the 9.5% hydrofluoric acid at 20 seconds group was nearly statistically significant (P=.051). Alumina particle abrasion at pressures of 100 kPa and higher significantly reduced flexural strength by creating stress risers in e.max CAD and should not be used. Hydrofluoric acid etching should be

  20. Effect of self-etching primer vs phosphoric acid etchant on bonding to bur-prepared dentin.

    PubMed

    Ogata, M; Harada, N; Yamaguchi, S; Nakajima, M; Tagami, J

    2002-01-01

    This study evaluated the effect of dentin conditioner on tensile bond strength to dentin prepared with different types of burs. A self-etching primer system, Mac-Bond II (MB, Tokuyama Dental) and a phosphoric acid etching system, Single Bond (SB, 3M) were used for conditioning. Twenty-four extracted intact human molars were ground flat to expose occlusal dentin. After the dentin surfaces were polished with #600 SiC paper, the teeth were randomly divided into a control group and three experimental groups according to the bur grits used: #600 SiC paper only as the control, fine cut steel bur (SB600), crosscut steel bur (SB703) and regular grit diamond bur (DB) mounted in a dental handpiece utilizing water cooling. The dentin surfaces were treated with one of two adhesive systems, then composite buildups were done with Clearfil AP-X (Kuraray Medical). After soaking the bond specimens for 24 hours in 37 degrees C water, multiple vertical serial sections (0.7 mm thick, 7-8 slices per one tooth) were made, trimmed to form an hour-glass shape with a 1.0 mm2 cross-section and tensile bond strengths were determined at a crosshead speed of 1 mm/minute. Statistical analysis was made using one and two-way ANOVA and Fisher's PLSD test (p<0.05). Six additional molars were used for SEM observations of the dentin surfaces of each group before and after treatment with the self-etching primer of MB, and another four teeth were used to observe the resin-dentin interface of each group of SB. Using MB, the DB group produced the lowest tensile bond strength (TBS) among the groups that received bur preparation, and there were no statistical differences among SB600, SB703 and the control. For SB, the TBS of SB703 was the highest, and there were no statistical differences among the other groups and the control. The influence of the method used to prepare dentin for micro-tensile bond strength testing was dependent on the adhesive system used.

  1. Synthesis of anatase titanium dioxide nanocaps via hydrofluoric acid etching towards enhanced photocatalysis

    SciTech Connect

    Ding, Kun; Wang, Dan; Yang, Ping; Cheng, Xin

    2016-02-15

    Graphical abstract: Anatase TiO{sub 2} nanocaps prepared by HF-assisted chemical etching method exhibit enhanced photocatalytic activity compared with commercial P25 because of HF served as an etching agent to remove doped impurities. - Highlights: • Anatase TiO{sub 2} nanocaps were synthesized by HF etching process. • The optimal conditions of experiment are 700 °C calcination and 0.2 mL HF solution. • The photocatalytic properties was studied upon UV and Visible irradiation. • The unique TiO{sub 2} nanocaps structure shows excellent photocatalytic activity. - Abstract: Anatase titanium dioxide (TiO{sub 2}) nanocaps were created via a four-step process including the preparation of SiO{sub 2} spheres, the deposition of a TiO{sub 2} layer to fabricate SiO{sub 2}@TiO{sub 2} composite spheres, the calcination for obtaining the crystal structure of anatase phase, and hydrofluoric acid (HF) etching to dissolve SiO{sub 2} cores. The SiO{sub 2}@TiO{sub 2} spheres calcined at 700 °C revealed fine photocatalytic activity. Interestingly, most of samples transformed into TiO{sub 2} nanocaps via HF etching, and TiO{sub 2} nanocaps prepared using optimal conditions exhibited quick degradation (k is 0.052 min{sup −1}) compared with commercial P25 (k is 0.030 min{sup −1}) and the TiO{sub 2} nanostructures etched by a NaOH solution. The excellent photocatalytic performance is attributed to its unique hollow hemispherical nanocaps structure, which is in favor of making full use of incident light. The photocatalysis phenomenon in visible light was also observed after depositing Au nanoparticles on anantase TiO{sub 2} nanocaps.

  2. Effect of EDTA and Phosphoric Acid Pretreatment on the Bonding Effectiveness of Self-Etch Adhesives to Ground Enamel

    PubMed Central

    Ibrahim, Ihab M.; Elkassas, Dina W.; Yousry, Mai M.

    2010-01-01

    Objectives: This in vitro study determined the effect of enamel pretreatment with phosphoric acid and ethylenediaminetetraacetic acid (EDTA) on the bond strength of strong, intermediary strong, and mild self-etching adhesive systems. Methods: Ninety sound human premolars were used. Resin composite cylinders were bonded to flat ground enamel surfaces using three self-etching adhesive systems: strong Adper Prompt L-Pop (pH=0.9–1.0), intermediary strong AdheSE (pH=1.6–1.7), and mild Frog (pH=2). Adhesive systems were applied either according to manufacturer instructions (control) or after pretreatment with either phosphoric acid or EDTA (n=10). After 24 hours, shear bond strength was tested using a universal testing machine at a cross-head speed of 0.5 mm/minute. Ultra-morphological characterization of the surface topography and resin/enamel interfaces as well as representative fractured enamel specimens were examined using scanning electron microscopy (SEM). Results: Neither surface pretreatment statistically increased the mean shear bond strength values of either the strong or the intermediary strong self-etching adhesive systems. However, phosphoric acid pretreatment significantly increased the mean shear bond strength values of the mild self-etching adhesive system. SEM examination of enamel surface topography showed that phosphoric acid pretreatment deepened the same etching pattern of the strong and intermediary strong adhesive systems but converted the irregular etching pattern of the mild self-etching adhesive system to a regular etching pattern. SEM examination of the resin/enamel interface revealed that deepening of the etching pattern was consistent with increase in the length of resin tags. EDTA pretreatment had a negligible effect on ultra-morphological features. Conclusions: Use of phosphoric acid pretreatment can be beneficial with mild self-etching adhesive systems for bonding to enamel. PMID:20922162

  3. Sealing effectiveness of etch-and-rinse vs self-etching adhesives after water aging: influence of acid etching and NaOCl dentin pretreatment.

    PubMed

    Monticelli, Francesca; Toledano, Manuel; Silva, Ana Simoes; Osorio, Estrella; Osorio, Raquel

    2008-06-01

    To determine the marginal leakage of Class V restorations bonded with etch-and-rinse and self-etching adhesives applied after different dentin pretreatments over a maximum storage time of 24 months. Standardized mixed Class V cavities (5 mm x 3 mm and 2 mm deep) were cut on the buccal and lingual surfaces of 180 human molars. Two self-etching adhesive systems, Adper Prompt L-Pop (3M ESPE) and Clearfil SE Bond (Kuraray), and one etch-and-rinse bonding agent (One Step, Bisco) were applied as follows: 1. according to manufacturers' instructions; 2. after 37% H3PO4 etching for 15 s; 3. after 37% H3PO4 etching for 15 s and 5% NaOCl aq application for 2 min. Teeth were stored for 24 h, 6, 12, and 24 months in saline solution at 37 degrees C before being stained in 0.5% solution of basic fuchsine. Dye penetration was scored on a 0 to 3 ordinal scale and analyzed with the Kruskal-Wallis H test (p < 0.05), Mann-Whitney U-test (p < 0.01), and Wilcoxon paired test (p < 0.05). Significant differences exist after using the tested adhesives at dentin and enamel margins. Adhesive type and substrate pretreatment had a significant effect on the long-term sealing of Class V restorations, and aging increased leakage overtime. The extent of leakage at the enamel margins was lower than that at dentin margins. One Step recorded the best results after 24 months. Optimal adhesion of restorative materials to enamel and dentin is hampered by a reduction in marginal seal over time. Alternative dentinal treatments (etching or collagen removal) might increase bonding efficacy, depending on the adhesive system used.

  4. In vitro short-term bonding performance of zirconia treated with hot acid etching and primer conditioning etching and primer conditioning.

    PubMed

    Xie, Haifeng; Chen, Chen; Dai, Wenyong; Chen, Gang; Zhang, Feimin

    2013-01-01

    This study aimed to investigate and compare the resin bond strengths of zirconia conditioned as follows: alumina sandblasting; alumina sandblasting+application of 10-MDP-containing primer; alumina sandblasting+application of Z-Prime Plus or Metal/Zirconia Primer (new zirconia primers); tribochemical silica coating+silanization; hot acid etching in three different combinations [H2SO4/(NH4)2SO4, HF/HNO3, H2SO4/HF/HNO3]+application of 10-MDP-containing primer. Shear bond strengths (SBS) after water storage for 24 h and 40 days were measured to assess resin bonding performance. Surface and chemical properties of conditioned zirconia surfaces and primers were characterized using scanning electron microscopy, energy dispersive X-ray spectrometry, Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy, and atomic force microscopy. Surface roughness ranked in descending order was: hot acid etching > tribochemical silica coating > alumina sandblasting. Combination of tribochemical silica coating and silanization showed the highest initial SBS (12.46±2.13 MPa) (P<0.01). Etching with H2SO4/(NH4)2SO4 (13.15±3.24 MPa) and HF/HNO3 (13.48±2.15 MPa) showed significantly better bond durability (P<0.01). Hot acid etching seemed to be a promising surface roughening treatment to improve resin-zirconia bonding.

  5. Effect of acid etching on bond strength of nanoionomer as an orthodontic bonding adhesive

    PubMed Central

    Khan, Saba; Verma, Sanjeev K.; Maheshwari, Sandhya

    2015-01-01

    Aims: A new Resin Modified Glass Ionomer Cement known as nanoionomer containing nanofillers of fluoroaluminosilicate glass and nanofiller 'clusters' has been introduced. An in-vitro study aimed at evaluating shear bond strength (SBS) and adhesive remnant index (ARI) of nanoionomer under etching/unetched condition for use as an orthodontic bonding agent. Material and Methods: A total of 75 extracted premolars were used, which were divided into three equal groups of 25 each: 1-Conventional adhesive (Enlight Light Cure, SDS, Ormco, CA, USA) was used after and etching with 37% phosphoric acid for 30 s, followed by Ortho Solo application 2-nanoionomer (Ketac™ N100, 3M, ESPE, St. Paul, MN, USA) was used after etching with 37% phosphoric acid for 30 s 3-nanoionomer was used without etching. The SBS testing was performed using a digital universal testing machine (UTM-G-410B, Shanta Engineering). Evaluation of ARI was done using scanning electron microscopy. The SBS were compared using ANOVA with post-hoc Tukey test for intergroup comparisons and ARI scores were compared with Chi-square test. Results: ANOVA (SBS, F = 104.75) and Chi-square (ARI, Chi-square = 30.71) tests revealed significant differences between groups (P < 0.01). The mean (SD) SBS achieved with conventional light cure adhesive was significantly higher (P < 0.05) (10.59 ± 2.03 Mpa, 95% CI, 9.74-11.41) than the nanoionomer groups (unetched 4.13 ± 0.88 Mpa, 95% CI, 3.79-4.47 and etched 9.32 ± 1.87 Mpa, 95% CI, 8.58-10.06). However, nanoionomer with etching, registered SBS in the clinically acceptable range of 5.9–7.8 MPa, as suggested by Reynolds (1975). The nanoionomer groups gave significantly lower ARI values than the conventional adhesive group. Conclusion: Based on this in-vitro study, nanoionomer with etching can be successfully used as an orthodontic bonding agent leaving less adhesive remnant on enamel surface, making cleaning easier. However, in-vivo studies are needed to confirm the validity

  6. Comparison of shear bond strength of composite resin to enamel surface with laser etching versus acid etching: An in vitro evaluation

    PubMed Central

    Hoshing, Upendra A; Patil, Suvarna; Medha, Ashish; Bandekar, Siddhesh Dattatray

    2014-01-01

    Introduction: The aim of the study is in vitro evaluation of the shear bond strength of composite resin bonded to enamel which is pretreated using acid etchant and Er,Cr:Ysgg. Materials and Methods: 40 extracted human teeth were divided in two groups of 20 each (Groups A and B). In Group A, prepared surface of enamel was etched using 37% phosphoric acid (Scotchbond, 3M). In Group B, enamel was surface treated by a an Er, Cr: YSGG laser system (Waterlase MD, Biolase Technology Inc., San Clemente, CA, USA) operating at a wavelength of 2,780 nm and having a pulse duration of 140-200 microsecond with a repetition rate of 20 Hz and 40 Hz. Bonding agent ((Scotchbond Multipurpose, 3M) was applied over the test areas on 20 samples of Groups A and B each, and light cured. Composite resin (Ceram X duo Nanoceramic restorative, Densply) was applied onto the test areas as a 3 × 3 mm diameter bid, and light cured. The samples were tested for shear bond strength. Results: Mean shear bond strength for acid-etched enamel (26.41 ± 0.66MPa, range 25.155 to 27.150 MPa) was significantly higher (P < 0.01) than for laser-etched enamel (16.23 ± 0.71MPa, range 15.233 to 17.334 MPa). Conclusions: For enamel surface, mean shear bond strength of bonded composite obtained after laser etching were significantly lower than those obtained after acid etching. PMID:25125842

  7. Aggressiveness of contemporary self-etching adhesives. Part II: etching effects on unground enamel.

    PubMed

    Pashley, D H; Tay, F R

    2001-09-01

    The aggressiveness of three self-etching adhesives on unground enamel was investigated. Ultrastructural features and microtensile bond strength were examined, first using these adhesives as both the etching and resin-infiltration components, and then examining their etching efficacy alone through substitution of the proprietary resins with the same control resins. For SEM examination, buccal, mid-coronal, unground enamel from human extracted bicuspids were etched with either Clearfil Mega Bond (Kuraray), Non-Rinse Conditioner (NRC; Dentsply DeTrey) or Prompt L-Pop (ESPE). Those in the control group were etched with 32% phosphoric acid (Bisco) for 15s. They were all rinsed off prior to examination of the etching efficacy. For TEM examination, the self-etching adhesives were used as recommended. Unground enamel treated with NRC were further bonded using Prime&Bond NT (Dentsply), while those in the etched, control group were bonded using All-Bond 2 (Bisco). Completely demineralized, resin replicas were embedded in epoxy resin for examination of the extent of resin infiltration. For microtensile bond strength evaluation, specimens were first etched and bonded using the self-etching adhesives. A second group of specimens were etched with the self-etching adhesives, rinsed but bonded using a control adhesive. Following restoration with Z100 (3M Dental Products), they were sectioned into beams of uniform cross-sectional areas and stressed to failure. Etching patterns of aprismatic enamel, as revealed by SEM, and the subsurface hybrid layer morphology, as revealed by TEM, varied according to the aggressiveness of the self-etching adhesives. Clearfil Mega Bond exhibited the mildest etching patterns, while Prompt L-Pop produced an etching effect that approached that of the total-etch control group. Microtensile bond strength of the three experimental groups were all significantly lower than the control group, but not different from one another. When the self-etching

  8. Effect of adhesive hydrophilicity and curing-time on the permeability of resins bonded to water vs. ethanol-saturated acid-etched dentin

    PubMed Central

    Cadenaro, Milena; Breschi, Lorenzo; Rueggeberg, Frederick A.; Agee, Kelli; Di Lenarda, Roberto; Carrilho, Marcela; Tay, Franklin R.; Pashley, David H.

    2009-01-01

    Objective This study examined the ability of five comonomer blends (R1-R5) of methacrylate-based experimental dental adhesives solvated with 10 mass% ethanol, at reducing the permeability of acid-etched dentin. The resins were light-cured for 20, 40 or 60 s. The acid-etched dentin was saturated with water or 100% ethanol. Method Human unerupted third molars were converted into crown segments by removing the occlusal enamel and roots. The resulting crown segments were attached to plastic plates connected to a fluid-filled system for quantifying fluid flow across smear layer-covered dentin, acid-etched dentin and resin-bonded dentin. The degree of conversion of the resins was measured using Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy. Result Application of the most hydrophobic comonomer blend (R1) to water-saturated dentin produced the smallest reductions in dentin permeability (31.9, 44.1 and 61.1% after light-curing for 20, 40 or 60 s respectively). Application of the same blend to ethanol-saturated dentin reduced permeability of 74.1, 78.4 and 81.2%, respectively (p<0.05). Although more hydrophilic resins produced larger reductions in permeability, the same trend of significantly greater reductions in ethanol-saturated dentin over that of water-saturated dentin remained. This result can be explained by the higher solubility of resins in ethanol vs. water. Significance The largest reductions in permeability produced by resins were equivalent but not superior, to those produced by smear layers. Resin sealing of dentin remains a technique-sensitive step in bonding etch-and-rinse adhesives to dentin. PMID:18571228

  9. Fabrication of high-aspect-ratio grooves in silicon using femtosecond laser irradiation and oxygen-dependent acid etching.

    PubMed

    Pan, An; Si, Jinhai; Chen, Tao; Ma, Yuncan; Chen, Feng; Hou, Xun

    2013-07-15

    We demonstrated a new method to fabricate micron-sized grooves with high aspect ratios in silicon wafers by combining femtosecond laser irradiation and oxygen-dependent acid etching. Femtosecond laser was employed to induce structure changes and incorporate oxygen into silicon, and then materials in oxygen-containing regions were etched by hydrofluoric acid (HF) solution to form grooves. The etching could be attributed to the reaction between HF and silicon oxides formed by femtosecond laser irradiation. The dependences of the aspect ratios of grooves on the laser fluence and the scanning velocity were also investigated.

  10. Effects of laser and acid etching and air abrasion on mineral content of dentin.

    PubMed

    Malkoc, Meral Arslan; Taşdemir, Serife Tuba; Ozturk, A Nilgun; Ozturk, Bora; Berk, Gizem

    2011-01-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the mineral content of dentin prepared using an Er,Cr:YSGG laser at four different power settings, acid etching, and air abrasion. The study teeth comprised 35 molars which were randomly divided into seven equal groups. The occlusal third of the crowns were cut with a slow-speed diamond saw. The groups were as follows: group A, control group; group B, dentin etched with 35% buffered phosphoric acid for 30 s; group C, dentin abraded at 60 psi with 50-µm aluminium oxide for 1 s; groups D-G, dentin irradiated with the Er,Cr:YSGG laser at 1.50 W (group D), 2.25 W (group E), 3.00 W (group F), and 3.50 W (group G). The levels of Mg, P, Ca, K and Na in each dentin slab were measured by inductively coupled plasma-atomic emission spectrometry (ICP-AES). Data were analysed by one way analysis of variance and Tukey HSD tests. There were no significant differences between the groups in the levels of Ca, P and Na, and the Ca/P ratio (p>0.05); however, there were significant differences in the levels of K (p<0.001) and Mg (p=0.13). In addition, the levels of Mg in the air abrasion group were higher than in the other groups (p<0.01). Etching with the Er,Cr:YSGG laser system, air abrasion and acid etching did not affect the levels of Ca, P and Na, or the Ca/P ratio, in the dentin surface.

  11. Shear Bond Strength of Self-etching Adhesives to Cavities Prepared by Diamond Bur or Er,Cr:YSGG Laser and Effect of Prior Acid Etching.

    PubMed

    Jhingan, Pulkit; Sachdev, Vinod; Sandhu, Meera; Sharma, Karan

    2015-12-01

    To compare and evaluate shear bond strength of self-etching adhesives bonded to cavities prepared by diamond bur or Er,Cr:YSGG laser and the effect of prior acid etching on shear bond strength. Ninety-six caries-free human premolars were selected and divided into 2 groups depending on mode of cavity preparation (48 teeth each). Cavities were prepared with Er,Cr:YSGG laser in group 1 and diamond burs in an air-turbine handpiece in group 2. Groups 1 and 2 were further subdivided into three subgroups of 8 teeth each, which were bonded with sixth- or seventh-generation adhesives with or without prior acid etching, followed by restoration of all samples with APX Flow. These samples were subjected to shear bond strength testing. In addition, the surface morphology of 24 samples each from groups 1 and 2 was evaluated using SEM. Data were analyzed using the Shapiro-Wilk test, one- and two-way ANOVA, the t-test, and the least significant difference test, which showed that the data were normally distributed (p > 0.05). The shear bond strength of adhesives in cavities prepared by Er,Cr:YSGG laser was significantly higher than in diamond bur-prepared cavities (p < 0.05). SEM analysis showed a smear-layer-free anfractuous surface on laser-ablated teeth, in contrast to conventional bur-prepared teeth. The Er,Cr:YSGG laser-ablated surface proved to be more receptive for adhesion than those prepared by diamond bur irrespective of the bonding agent used. Seventh-generation adhesives yielded higher shear bond strength than did sixth-generation adhesives. Prior acid etching decreased the shear bond strength of self-etching adhesives.

  12. Effect of acid etching time and technique on interfacial characteristics of the adhesive-dentin bond using differential staining.

    PubMed

    Wang, Yong; Spencer, Paulette

    2004-06-01

    Dentin bonding using the total-etch method has been claimed to be technique-sensitive. The aim of this study is to examine the effect of acid-etch variations on the dentin demineralization and interfacial structure of the adhesive-dentin bond using a differential staining technique. Single Bond adhesive with 35% phosphoric acid gel was used. The occlusal one-third of the crown was removed from 60 extracted, unerupted human third molars. Smear layers were created by abrading the dentin with 600 grit SiC under water for 30 s. The prepared teeth were randomly assigned to four groups according to etching time (Group 1, 10 s; Group 2, 15 s; Group 3, 30 s; Group 4, 60 s). In each group, the etching gel was: (i) applied and spread to the dentin surface and left to stand undisturbed; (ii) applied and gently agitated during etching; (iii) applied without using dispensing tips for the syringe and left for the same period as above. After rinsing, the etched dentin was then treated with the adhesive per manufacturers' instructions. 3-5 micro m thin sections of the adhesive/dentin (a/d) interface were cut with a microtome and stained with Goldner's trichrome. Stained, thin sections from each prepared tooth were imaged with light microscopy. The depth and extent of dentin demineralization, and the a/d interdiffusion zone were clearly visible by this differential staining microtechnique. The thickness of the interdiffusion zone increased as a function of etching time. However, the etchant gel application methods have a significant influence on dentin demineralization. Although agitating acid gel facilitates the penetration and etching into dentin, it should not be recommended, especially for longer etching time. These results indicated that the etching technique has a large effect on the profile of both dentin demineralization and interfacial structure.

  13. Investigation of acid-etched CO2 laser ablated enamel surfaces using polarization sensitive optical coherence tomography

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nahm, Byung J.; Kang, Hobin; Chan, Kenneth; Fried, Daniel

    2012-01-01

    A carbon dioxide laser operating at the highly absorbed wavelength of 9.3μm with a pulse duration of 10-15μs is ideally suited for caries removal and caries prevention. The enamel thermally modified by the laser has enhanced resistance to acid dissolution. This is an obvious advantage for caries prevention; however, it is often necessary to etch the enamel surface to increase adhesion to composite restorative materials and such surfaces may be more resistant to etching. The purpose of the study was to non-destructively measure the susceptibility of laser-ablated enamel surfaces to acid dissolution before and after acid-etching using Polarization Sensitive Optical Coherence Tomography (PS-OCT). PS-OCT was used to acquire images of bovine enamel surfaces after exposure to laser irradiation at ablative fluence, acid-etching, and a surface softened dissolution model. The integrated reflectivity from lesion and the lesion depth were measured using PS-OCT. Samples were also sectioned for examination by Polarized Light Microscopy (PLM). PS-OCT images showed that acid-etching greatly accelerated the formation of subsurface lesions on both laser-irradiated and non-irradiated surfaces (P<0.05). A 37.5% phosphoric acid etch removed the laser modified enamel layer after 5-10 seconds.

  14. [Nanoleakage at the resin-dental interface of four self-etching adhesives].

    PubMed

    Liao, Zhi-qing; Ouyang, Yong; Yang, Jian-zhen

    2011-09-01

    To evaluate the nanoleakage and ultramorphology of four self-etching adhesives. Sixteen freshly extracted, caries-free human third molars were selected. A flat dentin surface was exposed by removing occlusal enamel. All teeth were randomly divided into four groups acorrding to four different self-etch adhesive: Adper Prompt (A), iBond (B), Xeno III (C) and SE Bond (D). The dentin were bonded with dentin adhesive system according to manufacturer's directions. Composite layers were built up incrementally. The specimens were sectioned longitudinally across the resin-dentin interface into 4.0 mm×0.9 mm sticks and then traced with ammoniacal silver solution. Epoxy resin-embedded sections were prepared for transmission electron microscope (TEM) to observe nanoleakage. The images were qualitatively compared by NIH software, and data was analyzed by SPSS. Different thickness of hybrid layer and adhesives layer were observed for each adhesive. The hybrid layer of A, C was thicker than that of B, D, and adhesive layer of D was thicker than the others. The extent of nanoleakage varied among different adhesives: A (45.02 ± 9.49), B (43.97 ± 8.55), C (27.02 ± 10.86), D (12.94 ± 2.07). D presented significantly less silver deposition than any of the others did (P < 0.05). The thickness of hybrid layer and adhesive layer vary among the four adhesives. The shape and extent of nanoleakage of each adhesive are also different. Two-step system shows less nanoleakage than one-step systems do.

  15. Effect of acid-etching on remineralization of enamel white spot lesions.

    PubMed

    Al-Khateeb, S; Exterkate, R; Angmar-Månsson, B; ten Cate, J M; ten Cate, B

    2000-02-01

    This in vitro study aimed at investigating whether full remineralization would occur in white spot lesions when the surface porosity was increased by acid-etching. The effect of fluoride was also investigated. Enamel blocks with in vitro produced white spot lesions were used. Group A was exposed to a remineralizing solution only. In group B, the lesions were etched with 35% phosphoric acid for 30 s, then treated as in group A. Group C was treated as group A + daily treatment with a fluoride toothpaste slurry (1,000 ppm) for 5 min. Group D was treated as group B + the daily fluoride treatment of group C. The remineralization was measured weekly with Quantitative Light-induced Fluorescence during the experimental period. After 10 weeks of remineralization, mineral profiles were assessed with transverse microradiography. The enamel fluorescence was partly regained. There were significant differences in the lesion depth, mineral content at the surface layer, and integrated mineral loss between the groups. Addition of fluoride accelerated the remineralization only in the beginning; in later stages the process leveled out and even reached a plateau in all the groups. It was concluded that full remineralization was not achieved by etching, by the addition of fluoride, nor by the combination of both treatments in this in vitro study.

  16. Micro/nanofabrication of poly(L-lactic acid) using focused ion beam direct etching

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Oyama, Tomoko Gowa; Hinata, Toru; Nagasawa, Naotsugu; Oshima, Akihiro; Washio, Masakazu; Tagawa, Seiichi; Taguchi, Mitsumasa

    2013-10-01

    Micro/nanofabrication of biocompatible and biodegradable poly(L-lactic acid) (PLLA) using focused Ga ion beam direct etching was evaluated for future bio-device applications. The fabrication performance was determined with different ion fluences and fluxes (beam currents), and it was found that the etching speed and fabrication accuracy were affected by irradiation-induced heat. Focused ion beam (FIB)-irradiated surfaces were analyzed using micro-area X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy. Owing to reactions such as the physical sputtering of atoms and radiation-induced decomposition, PLLA was gradually carbonized with increasing C=C bonds. Controlled micro/nanostructures of PLLA were fabricated with C=C bond-rich surfaces expected to have good cell attachment properties.

  17. Nitric-phosphoric acid etching effects on the surface chemical composition of CdTe thin film.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Irfan, Irfan; Ding, Huanjun; Xia, Wei; Lin, Hao; Tang, Ching W.; Gao, Yongli

    2009-03-01

    Nitric-phosphoric (NP) acid etching has been regarded as one of the most successful methods for the formation of low resistance back contact with the metal electrode in CdTe based solar cells. We report back surface chemical composition for eight different durations of NP etching of CdTe polycrystalline thin film. We studied the surfaces with x-ray photoemission spectroscopy (XPS), ultraviolet photoemission spectroscopy (UPS), inverse photoemission spectroscopy (IEPS) and atomic force microscopy (AFM). Etching dependence on the back surface composition and electronic structure was observed. Valence and conduction band shifts relative to the Fermi level of the system with different etching duration were analyzed. The sample was left in open ambient condition for three weeks and XPS data were obtained again in order to study the difference in surface chemical composition with the pristine CdTe film. Unetched and highly etched part of the sample were sputtered and the depth profile analyzed.

  18. Shear bond strength and debonding characteristics of metal and ceramic brackets bonded with conventional acid-etch and self-etch primer systems: An in-vivo study

    PubMed Central

    Mirzakouchaki, Behnam; Sharghi, Reza; Shirazi, Samaneh; Moghimi, Mahsan; Shahrbaf, Shirin

    2016-01-01

    Background Different in-vitro studies have reported various results regarding shear bond strength (SBS) of orthodontic brackets when SEP technique is compared to conventional system. This in-vivo study was designed to compare the effect of conventional acid-etching and self-etching primer adhesive (SEP) systems on SBS and debonding characteristics of metal and ceramic orthodontic brackets. Material and Methods 120 intact first maxillary and mandibular premolars of 30 orthodontic patients were selected and bonded with metal and ceramic brackets using conventional acid-etch or self-etch primer system. The bonded brackets were incorporated into the wire during the study period to simulate the real orthodontic treatment condition. The teeth were extracted and debonded after 30 days. The SBS, debonding characteristics and adhesive remnant indices (ARI) were determined in all groups. Results The mean SBS of metal brackets was 10.63±1.42 MPa in conventional and 9.38±1.53 MPa in SEP system, (P=0.004). No statistically significant difference was noted between conventional and SEP systems in ceramic brackets. The frequency of 1, 2 and 3 ARI scores and debonding within the adhesive were the most common among all groups. No statistically significant difference was observed regarding ARI or failure mode of debonded specimens in different brackets or bonding systems. Conclusions The SBS of metal brackets bonded using conventional system was significantly higher than SEP system, although the SBS of SEP system was clinically acceptable. No significant difference was found between conventional and SEP systems used with ceramic brackets. Total SBS of metal brackets was significantly higher than ceramic brackets. Due to adequate SBS of SEP system in bonding the metal brackets, it can be used as an alternative for conventional system. Key words:Shear bond strength, Orthodontic brackets, Adhesive remnant index, self-etch. PMID:26855704

  19. Shear bond strength and debonding characteristics of metal and ceramic brackets bonded with conventional acid-etch and self-etch primer systems: An in-vivo study.

    PubMed

    Mirzakouchaki, Behnam; Shirazi, Sajjad; Sharghi, Reza; Shirazi, Samaneh; Moghimi, Mahsan; Shahrbaf, Shirin

    2016-02-01

    Different in-vitro studies have reported various results regarding shear bond strength (SBS) of orthodontic brackets when SEP technique is compared to conventional system. This in-vivo study was designed to compare the effect of conventional acid-etching and self-etching primer adhesive (SEP) systems on SBS and debonding characteristics of metal and ceramic orthodontic brackets. 120 intact first maxillary and mandibular premolars of 30 orthodontic patients were selected and bonded with metal and ceramic brackets using conventional acid-etch or self-etch primer system. The bonded brackets were incorporated into the wire during the study period to simulate the real orthodontic treatment condition. The teeth were extracted and debonded after 30 days. The SBS, debonding characteristics and adhesive remnant indices (ARI) were determined in all groups. The mean SBS of metal brackets was 10.63±1.42 MPa in conventional and 9.38±1.53 MPa in SEP system, (P=0.004). No statistically significant difference was noted between conventional and SEP systems in ceramic brackets. The frequency of 1, 2 and 3 ARI scores and debonding within the adhesive were the most common among all groups. No statistically significant difference was observed regarding ARI or failure mode of debonded specimens in different brackets or bonding systems. The SBS of metal brackets bonded using conventional system was significantly higher than SEP system, although the SBS of SEP system was clinically acceptable. No significant difference was found between conventional and SEP systems used with ceramic brackets. Total SBS of metal brackets was significantly higher than ceramic brackets. Due to adequate SBS of SEP system in bonding the metal brackets, it can be used as an alternative for conventional system. Shear bond strength, Orthodontic brackets, Adhesive remnant index, self-etch.

  20. Influence of previous acid etching on bond strength of universal adhesives to enamel and dentin.

    PubMed

    Torres, Carlos Rocha Gomes; Zanatta, Rayssa Ferreira; Silva, Tatiane Josefa; Huhtala, Maria Filomena Rocha Lima; Borges, Alessandra Bühler

    2017-01-01

    The objective of this study was to evaluate the effect of acid pretreatment on the bond strength of composite resin bonded to enamel and dentin with 2 different universal self-etching adhesives. The null hypothesis was that the acid treatment performed prior to adhesive application would not significantly change the bond strength to enamel or dentin for either universal adhesive tested. A sample of 112 bovine incisors were selected and embedded in acrylic resin. Half were ground until a flat enamel surface was obtained, and the other half were polished until a 6 × 6-mm area of dentin was exposed, resulting into 2 groups (n = 56). The enamel and dentin groups were divided into 2 subgroups according to the adhesive system applied: Futurabond U or Scotchbond Universal. Each of these subgroups was divided into 2 additional subgroups (n = 14); 1 subgroup received phosphoric acid pretreatment, and 1 subgroup did not. The bond strength was assessed with a microtensile test. Data from enamel and dentin specimens were analyzed separately using 1-way analysis of variance. The acid pretreatment did not significantly change the bond strength of the adhesives tested, either to enamel (P = 0.4161) or to dentin (P = 0.4857). The acid etching pretreatment did not affect the bond strength to dentin and enamel when the tested universal multipurpose adhesive systems were used.

  1. Oxidation and etching behaviors of the InAs surface in various acidic and basic chemical solutions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Na, Jihoon; Lee, Seunghyo; Lim, Sangwoo

    2017-04-01

    Indium arsenide (InAs) is the candidate of choice as a new channel material for application in future technologies beyond the Si-based electronic devices because it has a much higher electron mobility than silicon. In this study, the oxidation and etching behaviors of InAs (100) in various acidic and basic solutions, such as HF, HCl, H2SO4, NaOH, KOH, and NH4OH, were investigated. In addition, the effect of pH on the oxidation and etching reactions taking place on the InAs surface was studied using solutions with a pH ranging from 1 to 13. It was observed that the oxidation of the InAs surface was hindered in acidic solutions, which was attributed to the dissolution of the oxidized surface layer. In particular, the treatment of the InAs surface using a strongly acidic solution with a pH of less than 3 produced an oxide-free surface due to the predominant etching of the InAs surface. The addition of H2O2 to the acidic solutions greatly increased the etching rate of the InAs surface, which suggests that the oxidation process is the rate-limiting step in the sequence of reactions that occur during the etching of the InAs surface in acidic solutions. The etching of InAs was suppressed in neutral solutions, which resulted in the formation of a relatively thicker oxide layer on the surface, and mild etching of the InAs surface took place in basic solutions. However, in basic solutions, the addition of H2O2 did not significantly contribute to the increase of the oxidation state of the InAs surface; thus, its effect on the etching rate of InAs was smaller than in acidic solutions.

  2. Deep Wet Etching in Hydrofluoric Acid, Nitric Acid, and Acetic Acid of Cavities in a Silicon Wafer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yifan, Zhou; Sihai, Chen; Edmond, Samson; Bosseboeuf, Alain

    2013-07-01

    This paper reports an experimental investigation of deep isotropic etching in HF:HNO3:CH3COOH solution for the fabrication of large microcavities in a silicon wafer. The effects of different practical parameters, e.g., back protective layer, etch window diameter and agitation method, are evaluated experimentally and then discussed. Results show that, for the conditions used, the back protective layer has little influence on the etched depth. Experimental etched profiles are in agreement with the mathematical model of Kuiken's assuming a purely diffusion-controlled etching. Vertical anisotropy and asymmetry of etched profiles were observed. A 100 µm deep hemispherical microcavity was obtained for a 60 min etching with magnetic agitation at room temperature.

  3. Shear Bond Strength of an Etch-and-rinse Adhesive to Er:YAG Laser- and/or Phosphoric Acid-treated Dentin

    PubMed Central

    Davari, Abdolrahim; Sadeghi, Mostafa; Bakhshi, Hamid

    2013-01-01

    Background and aims. Er:YAG laser irradiation has been claimed to improve the adhesive properties of dentin; therefore, it has been proposed as an alternative to acid etching. The aim of this in vitro study was to investigate the shear bond strength of an etch-and-rinse adhesive system to dentin surfaces following Er:YAG laser and/or phosphoric acid etching. Materials and methods. The roots of 75 sound maxillary premolars were sectioned below the CEJ and the crowns were embedded in auto-polymerizing acrylic resin with the buccal surfaces facing up. The buccal surfaces were ground using a diamond bur and polished until the dentin was exposed; the samples were randomly divided into five groups (n=15) according to the surface treatment: (1) acid etching; (2) laser etching; (3) laser etching followed by acid etching; (4) acid etching followed by laser etching and (5) no acid etching and no laser etching (control group). Composite resin rods (Point 4, Kerr Co) were bonded to treated dentin surfaces with an etch-and-rise adhesive system (Optibond FL, Kerr Co) and light-cured.After storage for two weeks at 37°C and 100% humidity and then thermocycling, bond strength was measured with a Zwick Universal Testing Machine at a crosshead speed of 1 mm/min. Data was analyzed using parametric and non-parametric tests (P<0.05). Results. Mean shear bond strength for acid etching (20.1±1.8 MPa) and acid+laser (15.6±3.5 MPa) groups were significantly higher than those for laser+acid (15.6±3.5 MPa), laser etching (14.1±3.4 MPa) and control (8.1±2.1 MPa) groups. However, there were no significant differences between acid etching and acid+laser groups, and between laser+acid and laser groups. Conclusion. When the cavity is prepared by bur, it is not necessary to etch the dentin surface by Er:YAG laser following acid etching and acid etching after laser etching. PMID:23875083

  4. Influence of the number of cycles on shear fatigue strength of resin composite bonded to enamel and dentin using dental adhesives in self-etching mode.

    PubMed

    Tsujimoto, Akimasa; Barkmeier, Wayne W; Erickson, Robert L; Takamizawa, Toshiki; Latta, Mark A; Miyazaki, Masashi

    2017-09-28

    The influence of the number of cycles on shear fatigue strength to enamel and dentin using dental adhesives in self-etch mode was investigated. A two-step self-etch adhesive and two universal adhesives were used to bond to enamel and dentin in self-etch mode. Initial shear bond strength and shear fatigue strength to enamel and dentin using the adhesive in self-etch mode were determined. Fatigue testing was used with 20 Hz frequency and cycling periods of 50,000, 100,000 and 1,000,000 cycles, or until failure occurred. For each of the cycling periods, there was no significant difference in shear fatigue strength across the cycling periods for the individual adhesives. Differences in shear fatigue strength were found between the adhesives within the cycling periods. Regardless of the adhesive used in self-etch mode for bonding to enamel or dentin, shear fatigue strength was not influenced by the number of cycles used for shear fatigue strength testing.

  5. Effects of various etching protocols on the flexural properties and surface topography of fiber-reinforced composite dental posts.

    PubMed

    Aksornmuang, Juthatip; Chuenarrom, Chanya; Chittithaworn, Natjira

    2017-09-26

    The purpose of this study was to evaluate the flexural properties and surface topography of fiber posts surface-treated with various etching protocols. Seventy each of three types of fiber posts: RelyX Fiber Post, Tenax Fiber Trans, and D.T. Light-Post Illusion X-Ro, were randomly divided into 7 groups: no surface treatment, surface treated with hydrofluoric acid (HF) 4.5% for 60 s, HF 4.5% for 120 s, HF 9.6% for 15 s, HF 9.6% for 60 s, HF 9.6% for 120 s, and treated with H2O2 24% for 10 min. The specimens were then subjected to a three-point bending test. Surface topographies of the posts were observed using a SEM. The results indicate that fiber post surface pretreatments had no adverse effects on the flexural properties. However, the fiber posts treated with high HF concentrations or long etching times seemed to have more surface irregularities.

  6. Improvement of enamel bond strengths for conventional and resin-modified glass ionomers: acid-etching vs. conditioning*

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Ling; Tang, Tian; Zhang, Zhen-liang; Liang, Bing; Wang, Xiao-miao; Fu, Bai-ping

    2013-01-01

    Objective: This study deals with the effect of phosphoric acid etching and conditioning on enamel micro-tensile bond strengths (μTBSs) of conventional and resin-modified glass ionomer cements (GICs/RMGICs). Methods: Forty-eight bovine incisors were prepared into rectangular blocks. Highly-polished labial enamel surfaces were either acid-etched, conditioned with liquids of cements, or not further treated (control). Subsequently, two matching pre-treated enamel surfaces were cemented together with one of four cements [two GICs: Fuji I (GC), Ketac Cem Easymix (3M ESPE); two RMGICs: Fuji Plus (GC), RelyX Luting (3M ESPE)] in preparation for μTBS tests. Pre-treated enamel surfaces and cement-enamel interfaces were analyzed by scanning electron microscopy (SEM). Results: Phosphoric acid etching significantly increased the enamel μTBS of GICs/RMGICs. Conditioning with the liquids of the cements produced significantly weaker or equivalent enamel μTBS compared to the control. Regardless of etching, RMGICs yielded stronger enamel μTBS than GICs. A visible hybrid layer was found at certain enamel-cement interfaces of the etched enamels. Conclusions: Phosphoric acid etching significantly increased the enamel μTBSs of GICs/RMGICs. Phosphoric acid etching should be recommended to etch the enamel margins before the cementation of the prostheses such as inlays and onlays, using GICs/RMGICs to improve the bond strengths. RMGICs provided stronger enamel bond strength than GICs and conditioning did not increase enamel bond strength. PMID:24190447

  7. Effect of storage and acid etching on the tensile bond strength of composite resins to glass ionomer cement.

    PubMed

    Mesquita, M F; Domitti, S S; Consani, S; de Goes, M F

    1999-01-01

    This in vitro study evaluates the effect of storage time and acid etching on the tensile bond strength of glass ionomer cement to composite resins. The bonded assemblies were stored at 100% relative humidity and 37 degrees C for 1 hour, 1 day, 1 week, 1 month and 3 months. The test specimen was loaded at tension to failure on an Otto Wolpert-Werke testing instrument with a crosshead speed of 6 mm/min. The results showed a significant statistical difference for etched Vidrion F when compared to etched Ketac Bond at all storage periods. The unetched samples were statistically similar at 3 months, with the highest values for Vidrion F.

  8. Color Stability of Enamel following Different Acid Etching and Color Exposure Times

    PubMed Central

    Jahanbin, Arezoo; Basafa, Mohammad; Moazzami, Mostafa; Basafa, Behnoush; Eslami, Neda

    2014-01-01

    Background and aims. The aim of this study was to evaluate the effect of different etching times on enamel color stability after immediate versus delayed exposure to colored artificial saliva (CAS). Materials and methods. Human first premolars were divided into five groups of twenty. A colorimeter was used according to the CIE system on the mid-buccal and mid-lingual surfaces to evaluate initial tooth color. Samples in group A remained unetched. In groups B to E, buccal and lingual surfaces were initially etched with phosphoric acid for 15 and 60 seconds, respectively. Then, the samples in groups A and C were immersed in colored artificial saliva (cola+saliva). In group B, the teeth were immersed in simple artificial saliva (AS). Samples in groups D and E were immersed in AS for 24 and 72 hours, respectively before being immersed in colored AS. The teeth were immersed for one month in each solution before color measurement. During the test period, the teeth were retrieved from the staining solution and stored in AS for five minutes. This was repeated 60 times. Color changes of buccal and lingual surfaces were calculated. Kruskal-Wallis and Wilcoxon tests were used for statistical analysis (α ≤0.05). Results. There were no significant differences between the groups in term of ΔE of buccal (P = 0.148) and lingual surfaces (P = 0.73). Conclusion. Extended time of etching did not result in significant enamel color change. Immediate and delayed exposure of etched enamel to staining solutions did not result in clinically detectable tooth color changes. PMID:25093048

  9. Strength determination of periodontal splints fabricated from acid-etched retained materials.

    PubMed

    Compton, F H; Beagrie, G S; Chernecky, R

    1977-07-01

    Six systems (one polycarboxylate, one polymethyl methacrylate, one unfilled BIS-GMA resin, two combinations of methyl cyanoacrylate and polymethyl methacrylate, and one combination of unfilled BIS-GMA and filled composite resin) were evaluated for in vitro retention to acid-etched human enamel. Also tested were one unfilled-filled resin combination backed by perforated orthodontic band metal and another unfilled resin backed by stainless steel wire mesh. Significant differences in retention were found. Results show that retention depends pril surface and to resist subsequent chemical degradation.

  10. Bond strength of etch-and-rinse and self-etch adhesive systems to enamel and dentin irradiated with a novel CO2 9.3 μm short-pulsed laser for dental restorative procedures.

    PubMed

    Rechmann, Peter; Bartolome, N; Kinsel, R; Vaderhobli, R; Rechmann, B M T

    2017-08-15

    The objective of this study was to evaluate the influence of CO2 9.3 μm short-pulsed laser irradiation on the shear bond strength of composite resin to enamel and dentin. Two hundred enamel and 210 dentin samples were irradiated with a 9.3 µm carbon dioxide laser (Solea, Convergent Dental, Inc., Natick, MA) with energies which either enhanced caries resistance or were effective for ablation. OptiBond Solo Plus [OptiBondTE] (Kerr Corporation, Orange, CA) and Peak Universal Bond light-cured adhesive [PeakTE] (Ultradent Products, South Jordan, UT) were used. In addition, Scotchbond Universal [ScotchbondSE] (3M ESPE, St. Paul, MN) and Peak SE self-etching primer with Peak Universal Bond light-cured adhesive [PeakSE] (Ultradent Products) were tested. Clearfil APX (Kuraray, New York, NY) was bonded to the samples. After 24 h, a single plane shear bond test was performed. Using the caries preventive setting on enamel resulted in increased shear bond strength for all bonding agents except for self-etch PeakSE. The highest overall bond strength was seen with PeakTE (41.29 ± 6.04 MPa). Etch-and-rinse systems achieved higher bond strength values to ablated enamel than the self-etch systems did. PeakTE showed the highest shear bond strength with 35.22 ± 4.40 MPa. OptiBondTE reached 93.8% of its control value. The self-etch system PeakSE presented significantly lower bond strength. The shear bond strength to dentin ranged between 19.15 ± 3.49 MPa for OptiBondTE and 43.94 ± 6.47 MPa for PeakSE. Etch-and-rinse systems had consistently higher bond strength to CO2 9.3 µm laser-ablated enamel. Using the maximum recommended energy for dentin ablation, the self-etch system PeakSE reached the highest bond strength (43.9 ± 6.5 MPa).

  11. In situ chemical functionalization of gallium nitride with phosphonic acid derivatives during etching.

    PubMed

    Wilkins, Stewart J; Greenough, Michelle; Arellano, Consuelo; Paskova, Tania; Ivanisevic, Albena

    2014-03-04

    In situ functionalization of polar (c plane) and nonpolar (a plane) gallium nitride (GaN) was performed by adding (3-bromopropyl) phosphonic acid or propyl phosphonic acid to a phosphoric acid etch. The target was to modulate the emission properties and oxide formation of GaN, which was explored through surface characterization with atomic force microscopy, X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy, photoluminescence (PL), inductively coupled plasma-mass spectrometry, and water contact angle. The use of (3-bromopropyl) phosphonic acid and propyl phosphonic acid in phosphoric acid demonstrated lower amounts of gallium oxide formation and greater hydrophobicity for both sample sets, while also improving PL emission of polar GaN samples. In addition to crystal orientation, growth-related factors such as defect density in bulk GaN versus thin GaN films residing on sapphire substrates were investigated as well as their responses to in situ functionalization. Thin nonpolar GaN layers were the most sensitive to etching treatments due in part to higher defect densities (stacking faults and threading dislocations), which accounts for large surface depressions. High-quality GaN (both free-standing bulk polar and bulk nonpolar) demonstrated increased sensitivity to oxide formation. Room-temperature PL stands out as an excellent technique to identify nonradiative recombination as observed in the spectra of heteroepitaxially grown GaN samples. The chemical methods applied to tune optical and physical properties of GaN provide a quantitative framework for future novel chemical and biochemical sensor development.

  12. Effect of Lactic Acid Etching on Bonding Effectiveness of Orthodontic Bracket after Water Storage

    PubMed Central

    Alsulaimani, Fahad F.

    2014-01-01

    Objective. To determine the effect of lactic acid at various concentrations on the shear bond strength of orthodontic brackets bonded with the resin adhesive system before and after water storage. Materials and Methods. Hundred extracted human premolars were divided into 5 treatment groups and etched for 30 seconds with one of the following agents: lactic acid solution with (A) 10%, (B) 20%, (C) 30%, and (D) 50%; group E, 37% phosphoric acid (control). Metal brackets were bonded using a Transbond XT. Bonding effectiveness was assessed by shear bond strength after 24 hours and 6 months of water storage at 37°C. The data were analyzed with 2-way analysis of variance and Tukey's Honestly Significant Difference (HSD) test (α = .001). Results. Lactic acid concentration and water storage resulted in significant differences for brackets bond strength (P < .001). 20% lactic acid had significantly higher mean bond strength values (SD) for all conditions: 24 hours [12.2 (.7) MPa] and 6 months [10.1 (.6) MPa] of water storage. 37% phosphoric acid had intermediate bond strength values for all conditions: 24 hours [8.2 (.6) MPa] and 6 months [6.2 (.6) MPa] of water storage. Also, there were differences in bond strength between storage time, with a reduction in values from 24 hours and 6 months for all experimental groups (P < .001). Conclusion. Lactic acid could be used in place of phosphoric acid as an enamel etchant for bonding of orthodontic brackets. PMID:25006465

  13. Bond strengths of orthodontic bracket after acid-etched, Er:YAG laser-irradiated and combined treatment on enamel surface.

    PubMed

    Lee, Bor-Shiunn; Hsieh, Tseng-Ting; Lee, Yuan-Ling; Lan, Wan-Hong; Hsu, Yao-Jeng; Wen, Ping-Han; Lin, Chun-Pin

    2003-10-01

    Laser ablation has been proposed as an alternative method to acid etching: however, previous studies have obtained contrasting results. The purpose of this study was to compare the bond strengths after acid etching, laser ablation, acid etching followed by laser ablation, and laser ablation followed by acid etching. Forty specimens were randomly assigned to one of the four groups. Two more specimens in each group did not undergo bond test and were prepared for observation with scanning electron microscope (SEM) after the four kinds of surface treatment. After the bond test, all specimens were inspected under the digital stereomicroscope and SEM to record the bond failure mode. Student's t-test results showed that the mean bond strength (13.0 +/- 2.4 N) of the laser group was not significantly different from that of the acid-etched group (11.8 +/- 1.8 N) (P > .05). However, this strength was significantly higher than that of the acid-etched then laser-ablated group (10.4 +/- 1.4 N) or that of the laser-ablated then acid-etched group (9.1 +/- 1.8 N). The failure modes occurred predominantly at the bracket-resin interface. Er:YAG laser ablation consumed less time compared with the acid-etching technique. Therefore, Er:YAG laser ablation can be an alternative tool to conventional acid etching.

  14. In vitro remineralization of acid-etched human enamel with Ca 3SiO 5

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dong, Zhihong; Chang, Jiang; Deng, Yan; Joiner, Andrew

    2010-02-01

    Bioactive and inductive silicate-based bioceramics play an important role in hard tissue prosthetics such as bone and teeth. In the present study, a model was established to study the acid-etched enamel remineralization with tricalcium silicate (Ca 3SiO 5, C 3S) paste in vitro. After soaking in simulated oral fluid (SOF), Ca-P precipitation layer was formed on the enamel surface, with the prolonged soaking time, apatite layer turned into density and uniformity and thickness increasingly from 250 to 350 nm for 1 day to 1.7-1.9 μm for 7 days. Structure of apatite crystals was similar to that of hydroxyapatite (HAp). At the same time, surface smoothness of the remineralized layer is favorable for the oral hygiene. These results suggested that C 3S treated the acid-etched enamel can induce apatite formation, indicating the biomimic mineralization ability, and C 3S could be used as an agent of inductive biomineralization for the enamel prosthesis and protection.

  15. Enamel Deproteinization using Papacarie and 10% Papain Gel on Shear Bond Strength of Orthodontic Brackets Before and After Acid Etching.

    PubMed

    Agarwal, R M; Yeluri, R; Singh, C; Munshi, A K

    2015-01-01

    To suggest Papacarie(®) as a new deproteinizing agent in comparison with indigenously prepared 10% papain gel before and after acid etching that may enhance the quality of the bond between enamel surface and composite resin complex. One hundred and twenty five extracted human premolars were utilized and divided into five groups: In the group 1, enamel surface was etched and primer was applied. In group 2, treatment with papacarie(®) for 60 seconds followed by etching and primer application. In group 3, etching followed by treatment with papacarie(®) for 60 seconds and primer application. In group 4, treatment with 10% papain gel for 60 seconds followed by etching and primer application. In group 5, etching followed by treatment with 10% papain gel for 60 seconds and primer application . After bonding the brackets, the mechanical testing was performed using a Universal testing machine. The failure mode was analyzed using an adhesive remnant index. The etching patterns before and after application of papacarie(®) and 10% papain gel was also evaluated using SEM. The values obtained for shear bond strength were submitted to analysis of variance and Tukey test (p < 0.05). It was observed that group 2 and group 4 had the highest shear bond strength and was statistically significant from other groups (p=0.001). Regarding Adhesive remnant index no statistical difference was seen between the groups (p=0.538). Papacarie(®) or 10% papain gel can be used to deproteinize the enamel surface before acid etching to enhance the bond strength of orthodontic brackets.

  16. Corrosion of dental aluminium bronze in neutral saline and saline lactic acid.

    PubMed

    Tibballs, J E; Erimescu, Raluca

    2006-09-01

    To compare the corrosion behaviours of two aluminium bronze, dental casting alloys during a standard immersion test and for immersion in neutral saline. Cast specimens of aluminium bronzes with 1.4 wt% Fe (G) and 4 wt% Fe (N) were subject to progressively longer periods (up to in total 7 days) immersed in 0.1 M saline, 0.1 M lactic acid solutions and examined by scanning electron microscopy with EDX analysis. Immersion in 0.1M neutral saline was for 7 days. In the acidic solution, exposed interdendritic volumes in alloy N corroded completely away in 7 days with dissolution of Ni-enriched precipitate species as well as the copper-rich matrix. Alloy G begins to corrode more slowly but by a similar mechanism. The number density of an Fe-enriched species is insufficient to maintain a continuous galvanic potential to the copper matrix, and dissolution becomes imperceptible. In neutral saline solution, galvanic action alone caused pit-etching, without the dissolution of either precipitate species. The upper limit for the total dissolution of metallic ions in the standard immersion test can be set at 200 microg cm(-2). Aluminium bronze dental alloys can be expected to release both copper and nickel ions into an acidic oral environment.

  17. Effect of Acid Etching, Silane and Thermal Cycling on the Bond Strength of Metallic Brackets to Ceramic.

    PubMed

    Matos, Natália Regina Santos de; Costa, Ana Rosa; Valdrighi, Heloísa Cristina; Correr, Américo Bortolazzo; Vedovello, Silvia Amélia; Santamaria, Milton; Correr-Sobrinho, Lourenço

    2016-01-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the effect of silanes, thermal cycling and acid etching on the shear bond strength (SBS) of metallic brackets to feldspathic ceramic. Feldspathic ceramic cylinders (Groups 1, 2, 5 and 6) were etched for 60 s with 10% hydrofluoric acid and Groups 3, 4, 7 and 8, without acid etching. Two layers of silane Clearfil Ceramic Primer (CCP, Groups 1 to 4) and two layers of RelyX Ceramic Primer (RCP, groups 5 to 8) were applied and dried for 60 s. Brackets were bonded to the cylinders with Transbond XT and light-activated for 40 s with Bluephase G2. All specimens were stored in deionized water at 37 °C for 24 h, and the specimens of groups 1, 3, 5 and 7 were submitted to 7,000 thermal cycles (5 °C/55 °C). After storage, the SBS test was performed at a crosshead speed of 1 mm/min. Data were subjected to three-way ANOVA and Tukey's post hoc test (α=0.05). The adhesive remnant index (ARI) was evaluated at 8x magnification. The SBS of CCP was significantly greater than of RCP (p<0.05), with or without thermal cycling. Thermal cycling significantly reduced the SBS (p<0.05). The groups submitted to acid etching showed significantly higher SBS than those without acid etching (p<0.05). In conclusion, thermal cycling reduced SBS for all groups. The best ceramic surface treatment for bracket bonding was achieved by acid etching and CCP silane. The ARI results showed predominance of score 0 for all groups.

  18. Use of an electrochemically etched platinum microelectrode for ascorbic acid mapping in oranges.

    PubMed

    Paixão, Thiago R L C; Lowinsohn, Denise; Bertotti, Mauro

    2006-04-19

    A positionable platinum microelectrode fabricated by electrochemical etching was used to monitor the concentration of ascorbic acid in fruits and vegetables. Studies carried out with ascorbate oxidase confirmed the suitability of the amperometric sensor to measure selectively the ascorbic acid content. The results obtained with the proposed method for ascorbic acid determination in orange juices compared well with those found by iodimetry with coulometrically generated iodine. The standard deviation calculated by measuring limiting current values in voltammograms was found to be 3% (n = 150). The sensor allowed the evaluation of the spatial distribution of ascorbic acid concentration in oranges by in-situ measurements. Ascorbic acid concentration maps show that in a perpendicular cut the concentration is higher near the peel to the center of the fruit. In a parallel cut, the concentration increases with the distance to the stem. A correlation between the ripening stage and the ascorbic acid concentration was also observed from electrochemical measurements, the content being higher in mature fruits.

  19. Noble Gases and Nitrogen Released from a Lunar Soil Pyroxene Separate by Acid Etching

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rider, P. E.

    1993-07-01

    We report initial results from a series of experiments designed to measure recently implanted solar wind (SW) ions in lunar soil mineral grains [1]. An acid-etching technique similar to the CSSE method developed at ETH Zurich was used to make abundance and isotope measurements of the SW noble gas and nitrogen compositions. Among the samples examined was a pyroxene separate from soil 75081. It was first washed with H2O to remove contamination from the sample finger walls and grain surfaces. H2O also acted as a weak acid, releasing gases from near-surface sites. Treatment with H2SO3 followed the water washes. Acid pH (~1.8 to ~1.0) and temperature (~23 degrees C to ~90 degrees C) and duration of acid attack (several minutes to several days) were varied from step to step. Finally, the sample was pyrolyzed in several steps to remove the remaining gases, culminating with a high-temperature pyrolysis at 1200 degrees C. Measurements of the light noble gases were mostly consistent with those from previous CSSE experiments performed on pyroxene [2,3]. It should be noted, however, that the Zurich SEP component was not easily distinguishable in the steps where it was expected to be observed. We suspect our experimental protocol masked the SEP reservoir, preventing us from seeing its distinctive signature. The most interesting results from this sample are its Kr and Xe isotopic and elemental compositions. Pyroxene apparently retains heavy noble gases as well as ilmenite (and plagioclase [4]). The heavy noble gas element ratios from this sample along with those previously reported [5,6] are, however, considerably heavier than the theoretically determined "solar system" values [7,8]. Explanations for the difference include the possibility that the derivations are incorrect, that there is another component of lunar origin mixing with the solar component, or that some type of loss mechanism is altering the noble gas reservoirs of the grains. The Kr and Xe isotopic compositions for

  20. Effect of acid labile ether protecting groups on the oxide etch resistance and lithographic performance of 248-nm resists

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Varanasi, Pushkara R.; Cornett, Kathleen M.; Lawson, Margaret C.

    2000-06-01

    In our attempts to develop etch resistance 248 nm positive resists, we have designed and synthesized thermally stable and acid sensitive methylbenzyl ether (MBE) protected poly(hydroxystyrene) derivatives. Results presented in this paper clearly illustrate that the MBE protecting group provides superior etch resistance to conventional carbonate, ester and acetal/ketal based protecting groups. It is also shown that the MBE protecting group is thermally stable and undergoes acid catalyzed deprotection leading to preferential rearrangement products due to electrophilic ring substitution. Such a rearrangement is shown to provide a unique mechanism to reduce/eliminate resist shrinkage and improve lithographic performance.

  1. Comparative evaluation of retentive properties of acid etched resin bonded fixed partial dentures.

    PubMed

    Arora, Vimal; Sharma, M C; Dwivedi, Ravi

    2014-01-01

    Little consensus exist in suitable tooth preparation design and alloy pre-treatment methods for improving the retention of resin bonded fixed partial dentures (RBFPDs). An in-vitro experiment was done with four designs. Group A: standard form, B: wings and proximal slices, C: wings, proximal slice and grooves, D: wings, proximal slice, grooves and occlusal coverage. Alloys were subjected to pre-treatment procedures like Group I: control, II: sand blasting, III: electro etching, IV: tin plating. Debonding forces of the castings were recorded in a universal testing machine and results were analyzed by student's 't' test. Group B, C and D showed higher debonding forces compared to A. However, there were no significant differences in mean force values among Groups B, C and D. Group II, III and IV with different alloy pre-treatment methods demonstrated higher values against control. Inter group variations among Group II, III and IV were not significant. Tooth preparation with adequate surface extensions and pre-treatment procedures of casting alloys are two parameters that play important role in determining the retentive features of RBFPDs. Different types of tooth preparation designs and alloy pre-treatment methods exert almost similar influence in increasing the retention of acid etched RBFPDs.

  2. Comparative evaluation of retentive properties of acid etched resin bonded fixed partial dentures

    PubMed Central

    Arora, Vimal; Sharma, M.C.; Dwivedi, Ravi

    2013-01-01

    Background Little consensus exist in suitable tooth preparation design and alloy pre-treatment methods for improving the retention of resin bonded fixed partial dentures (RBFPDs). Methods An in-vitro experiment was done with four designs. Group A: standard form, B: wings and proximal slices, C: wings, proximal slice and grooves, D: wings, proximal slice, grooves and occlusal coverage. Alloys were subjected to pre-treatment procedures like Group I: control, II: sand blasting, III: electro etching, IV: tin plating. Debonding forces of the castings were recorded in a universal testing machine and results were analyzed by student's ‘t’ test. Results Group B, C and D showed higher debonding forces compared to A. However, there were no significant differences in mean force values among Groups B, C and D. Group II, III and IV with different alloy pre-treatment methods demonstrated higher values against control. Inter group variations among Group II, III and IV were not significant. Conclusion Tooth preparation with adequate surface extensions and pre-treatment procedures of casting alloys are two parameters that play important role in determining the retentive features of RBFPDs. Different types of tooth preparation designs and alloy pre-treatment methods exert almost similar influence in increasing the retention of acid etched RBFPDs. PMID:24623948

  3. Selective Acid Etching Improves the Bond Strength of Universal Adhesive to Sound and Demineralized Enamel of Primary Teeth.

    PubMed

    Antoniazzi, Bruna Feltrin; Nicoloso, Gabriel Ferreira; Lenzi, Tathiane Larissa; Soares, Fabio Zovico Maxnuck; Rocha, Rachel de Oliveira

    To evaluate the influence of enamel condition and etching strategy on bond strength of a universal adhesive in primary teeth. Thirty-six primary molars were randomly assigned to six groups (n = 6) according to the enamel condition (sound [S] and demineralized [DEM]/cariogenic challenge by pH cycling prior to restorative procedures) and adhesive system (Scotchbond Universal Adhesive [SBU]) used in either etch-and-rinse (ER) or selfetching (SE) mode, with Clearfil SE Bond as the self-etching control. The adhesives were applied to flat enamel surfaces and composite cylinders (0.72 mm2) were built up. After 24-h storage in water, specimens were subjected to the microshear test. Bond strength (MPa) data were analyzed using two-way ANOVA and Tukey's post-hoc tests (α = 0.05). Significant differences were found considering the factors adhesive system (p = 0.003) and enamel condition (p = 0.001). Demineralized enamel negatively affected the bond strength, with μSBS values approximately 50% lower than those obtained for sound enamel. SBU performed better in etch-and-rinse mode, and the bond strength found for SBU applied in self-etching mode was similar to that of CSE. Enamel etching with phosphoric acid improves the bond strength of a universal adhesive system to primary enamel. Demineralized primary enamel results in lower bond strength.

  4. Effects of titanium brush on machined and sand-blasted/acid-etched titanium disc using confocal microscopy and contact profilometry.

    PubMed

    Park, Jun-Beom; Jeon, Yongpyo; Ko, Youngkyung

    2015-02-01

    Mechanical techniques, including scaling with metal, plastic, or ultrasonic instruments, rubber cup polishing, air-powder abrasive system and brushing with a conventional or a rotating brush, have been used for the debridement of dental implants. Recently, rotating brushes with titanium bristles (titanium brush) have been introduced for the debridement of implant surface when peri-implant osseous defects occur. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the effects of a titanium brush on machined (MA) and sand-blasted and acid-etched (SA) titanium surfaces using scanning electron microscopy, confocal microscopy and profilometry. Moreover, correlations between the two quantitative evaluation methods (confocal microscopy and contact profilometry) were assessed. Both MA and SA discs were treated with rotating titanium brush at 300 rpm under irrigation for a total of 40 s. Roughness measurements were taken with confocal microscopy and surface profilometry. Then, the MA and SA surfaces were evaluated using scanning electron microscopy to determine the changes of the surface properties. Untreated MA surface demonstrated uniform roughness with circumferential machining marks, and scratch lines over the original surfaces were observed after treatment with the titanium brush. Similarly, the titanium brush produced noticeable changes on the SA titanium surfaces. However, this treatment with titanium brush did not significantly change the roughness parameters, including the arithmetic mean height of the surface (Sa) and the maximum height of the surface (Sz), in both MA and SA surfaces. Correlations between two evaluation methods showed a Pearson correlation coefficient of 0.98 with linear regression R(2) of 0.96. This study showed that the treatment with the titanium brush did not significantly change the roughness parameters, including Sa and Sz, in both MA and SA surfaces. Correlations between confocal microscopy and surface profilometry showed high correlation with a

  5. Fabrication of Alumina Nanowires from Porous Alumina Membranes by Etching in Phosphoric Acid Solution

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Xuehua; Li, Chengyong; Ma, Lianjiao; Cao, Hong; Zhang, Baohua

    Alumina nanowires (ANWs) with high aspect ratios were synthesized by the chemical etching of porous alumina membranes (PAMs) in phosphoric acid solution. The morphology and structure of ANWs were analyzed by SEM and XRD, respectively. The results showed that the typical features of ANWs are around 35 nm in diameter and around 20 μm in length, the crystalline structure of the ANWs was amorphous, which was in accordance with that of the PAMs. Furthermore, the morphology of the PAMs was characterized by AFM and SEM in detail. On the basis of AFM and SEM observations, a possible formation mechanism of ANWs was discussed, and the inhomogeneous of the dissolution between the triple points and the side walls was considered to be the essential factor deciding the formation of ANWs.

  6. Shear bond strength of resin cement to an acid etched and a laser irradiated ceramic surface

    PubMed Central

    Motro, Pelin Fatma Karagoz; Yurdaguven, Haktan

    2013-01-01

    PURPOSE To evaluate the effects of hydrofluoric acid etching and Er,Cr:YSGG laser irradiation on the shear bond strength of resin cement to lithium disilicate ceramic. MATERIALS AND METHODS Fifty-five ceramic blocks (5 mm × 5 mm × 2 mm) were fabricated and embedded in acrylic resin. Their surfaces were finished with 1000-grit silicon carbide paper. The blocks were assigned to five groups: 1) 9.5% hydrofluoric-acid etching for 60 s; 2-4), 1.5-, 2.5-, and 6-W Er,Cr:YSGG laser applications for 60 seconds, respectively; and 5) no treatment (control). One specimen from each group was examined using scanning electron microscopy. Ceramic primer (Rely X ceramic primer) and adhesive (Adper Single Bond) were applied to the ceramic surfaces, followed by resin cement to bond the composite cylinders, and light curing. Bonded specimens were stored in distilled water at 37℃ for 24 hours. Shear bond strengths were determined by a universal testing machine at 1 mm/min crosshead speed. Data were analyzed using Kruskal-Wallis and Mann-Whitney U-tests (α=0.05). RESULTS Adhesion was significantly stronger in Group 2 (3.88 ± 1.94 MPa) and Group 3 (3.65 ± 1.87 MPa) than in Control group (1.95 ± 1.06 MPa), in which bonding values were lowest (P<.01). No significant difference was observed between Group 4 (3.59 ± 1.19 MPa) and Control group. Shear bond strength was highest in Group 1 (8.42 ± 1.86 MPa; P<.01). CONCLUSION Er,Cr:YSGG laser irradiation at 1.5 and 2.5 W increased shear bond strengths between ceramic and resin cement compared with untreated ceramic surfaces. Irradiation at 6 W may not be an efficient ceramic surface treatment technique. PMID:23755333

  7. Acid Etching and Surface Coating of Glass-Fiber Posts: Bond Strength and Interface Analysis.

    PubMed

    Cecchin, Doglas; Farina, Ana Paula; Vitti, Rafael Pino; Moraes, Rafael Ratto; Bacchi, Ataís; Spazzin, Aloísio Oro

    2016-01-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the bond strength of a composite resin to glass-fiber post (GFP) treated or not with phosphoric acid, silane coupling agent, and unfilled resin. GFPs were etched or not with 37% phosphoric acid and different surface coating applied: silane coupling agent, unfilled resin, or both. Composite resin blocks were built around a 4-mm height on the GFP. Unfilled resin (20 s) and composite resin (40 s) were light activated by a light-emitting diode unit. The specimens were stored in distilled water at 37 °C for 24 h. Microtensile bond test was performed using a mechanical testing machine until failure (n=10). The data were analyzed using two-way ANOVA followed by Student-Newman-Keuls' test (p<0.05). Failure modes were classified as adhesive, mixed, or cohesive failures. Additional specimens (n=3) were made to analyze the bonded interfaces by scanning electron microscopy. The statistical analysis showed the factor 'surface coating' was significant (p<0.05), whereas the factor 'HP etching' (p=0.131) and interaction between the factors (p=0.171) were not significant. The highest bond strength was found for the silane and unfilled resin group (p<0.05). A predominance of adhesive and cohesive failures was found. Differences regarding the homogeneity and thickness of the unfilled resin layer formed by different GFP surface treatments were observed. The application of silane and unfilled resin can improve the bond strength between GFP and resin composite.

  8. The effect of thermocycling on the adhesion of self-etching adhesives on dental enamel and dentin.

    PubMed

    El-Araby, Alaa Morsy; Talic, Yousef F

    2007-02-01

    The aim of the present study was to investigate the effectiveness of one total-etch self-priming adhesive and two one-step self-etching adhesive systems on the adhesion of a resin composite to both dentin and enamel. The effect of thermocycling on the adhesion was also investigated. The null hypothesis tested was thermocycling would not affect bond strengths to enamel and dentin treated with self-etching adhesives or a total-etch adhesive. Two single-step self-etching adhesives [Xeno III (XE3) and Prompt L-Pop (PP)] and one two-step total-etch adhesive system (Prime & Bond NT) (P&B NT) were used in this study. Thirty caries-free unrestored human third molars were used to make specimens of enamel and dentin. Different adhesives were applied on enamel and dentin surfaces according to the manufacturer's instructions then hybrid composite restorative material was condensed on the surface using a mold. The bonded specimens were stored in distilled water at 37 masculineC for 24 hours before being tested. Half of the bonded specimens were tested for shear bond strength without thermocycling. The other half of the test specimens were thermocycled using a thermocycling apparatus in water baths held at 5 masculineC and 55 masculineC with a dwell time of one minute each for 10,000 cycles prior to shear testing. The mean shear bond strength before and after thermocycling was calculated, and the results were subjected to two-way analysis of variance (ANOVA) and repeated measure design to show the interaction between different materials and different times. The results showed shear bond strength on both enamel and dentin of the total-etch adhesive and the self-etching adhesives decreased after the specimens were subjected to thermocycling. The null hypothesis tested "thermocycling would not affect bond strengths treated with self-etching adhesives" was rejected. Furthermore, the study revealed the following: 1. The shear bond strength to both enamel and dentin of the total-etch

  9. Resin–dentin bonds to EDTA-treated vs. acid-etched dentin using ethanol wet-bonding

    PubMed Central

    Sauro, Salvatore; Toledano, Manuel; Aguilera, Fatima Sánchez; Mannocci, Francesco; Pashley, David H.; Tay, Franklin R.; Watson, Timothy F.; Osorio, Raquel

    2013-01-01

    Objective To compare resin–dentin bond strengths and the micropermeability of hydrophobic vs. hydrophilic resins bonded to acid-etched or EDTA-treated dentin, using the ethanol wet-bonding technique. Methods Flat dentin surfaces from extracted human third molars were conditioned before bonding with: 37% H3PO4 (15 s) or 0.1 M EDTA (60 s). Five experimental resin blends of different hydrophilicities and one commercial adhesive (SBMP: Scotchbond Multi-Purpose) were applied to ethanol wet-dentin (1 min) and light-cured (20 s). The solvated resins were used as primers (50% ethanol/50% comonomers) and their respective neat resins were used as the adhesive. The resin-bonded teeth were stored in distilled water (24 h) and sectioned in beams for microtensile bond strength testing. Modes of failure were examined by stereoscopic light microscopy and SEM. Confocal tandem scanning microscopy (TSM) interfacial characterization and micropermeability were also performed after filling the pulp chamber with 1 wt% aqueous rhodamine-B. Results The most hydrophobic resin 1 gave the lowest bond strength values to acid-etched dentin and all beams failed prematurely when the resin was applied to EDTA-treated dentin. Resins 2 and 3 gave intermediate bond strengths to both conditioned substrates. Resin 4, an acidic hydrophilic resin, gave the highest bond strengths to both EDTA-treated and acid-etched dentin. Resin 5 was the only hydrophilic resin showing poor resin infiltration when applied on acid-etched dentin. Significance The ethanol wet-bonding technique may improve the infiltration of most of the adhesives used in this study into dentin, especially when applied to EDTA-treated dentin. The chemical composition of the resin blends was a determining factor influencing the ability of adhesives to bond to EDTA-treated or 37% H3PO4 acid-etched dentin, when using the ethanol wet-bonding technique in a clinically relevant time period. PMID:20074787

  10. Comparative Evaluation of Tensile - Bond Strength of An Orthodontic Adhesive with and without Fluoride Application, After Acid Etching -An Invitro Study.

    PubMed

    Chandulal, J; Yugandhar, G; Ramana, I Venkata; Srinivas, K; Yadav, S Sarjeev Singh

    2015-04-01

    Fixed appliances hinder the effective control of plaque accumulation and white spot lesions may develop under the ill fitting bands or adjacent to the stainless steel brackets during orthodontic treatment particularly the etching process. Comparative study of tensile bond strength of an orthodontic adhesive with and without fluoride application after acid etching to know the effect of fluoride on bond strength. This study is carried out on 90 non carious human premolar teeth, and divided in 6 groups with each group of 15 specimens. In those Groups I and IV were control group acid etch treatment, Group II and V is 1.23% APF gel (acid etch plus APF gel treatment,) and group III and VI is 8% SnF2 (acid etch plus SnF2 treatment). Samples of Group I, II and III bond strength were tested after 24 h and groups IV, V and VI after one month on microtechtensometer machine. The scanning electron microscope (SEM) investigation was carried out for the 2 specimens for the control group after acid etch and 4 specimens after acid etch with fluoride application for fluoride groups. Control and SnF2 treated groups was found to be nearly similar to the control group whereas APF treated group showed less focal holes than the other 2 groups. Fluoride application after acid etching without having an adverse effect on bond strength but we can prevent the white spot lesions and caries.

  11. Comparative Evaluation of Tensile – Bond Strength of An Orthodontic Adhesive with and without Fluoride Application, After Acid Etching -An Invitro Study

    PubMed Central

    Yugandhar, G; Ramana, I Venkata; Srinivas, K; Yadav, S. Sarjeev Singh

    2015-01-01

    Background Fixed appliances hinder the effective control of plaque accumulation and white spot lesions may develop under the ill fitting bands or adjacent to the stainless steel brackets during orthodontic treatment particularly the etching process. Aims and Objectives Comparative study of tensile bond strength of an orthodontic adhesive with and without fluoride application after acid etching to know the effect of fluoride on bond strength. Materials and Methods This study is carried out on 90 non carious human premolar teeth, and divided in 6 groups with each group of 15 specimens. In those Groups I and IV were control group acid etch treatment, Group II and V is 1.23% APF gel (acid etch plus APF gel treatment,) and group III and VI is 8% SnF2 (acid etch plus SnF2 treatment). Samples of Group I, II and III bond strength were tested after 24 h and groups IV, V and VI after one month on microtechtensometer machine. The scanning electron microscope (SEM) investigation was carried out for the 2 specimens for the control group after acid etch and 4 specimens after acid etch with fluoride application for fluoride groups. Results Control and SnF2 treated groups was found to be nearly similar to the control group whereas APF treated group showed less focal holes than the other 2 groups. Conclusion Fluoride application after acid etching without having an adverse effect on bond strength but we can prevent the white spot lesions and caries. PMID:26023648

  12. Comparative evaluation of self-etching primers and phosphoric acid effectiveness on composite to enamel bond: an in vitro study.

    PubMed

    Patil, Basanagouda S; Rao, Bk Raghavendra; Sharathchandra, Sm; Hegde, Reshma; Kumar, G Vinay

    2013-09-01

    The aim of the present study was to investigate the effectiveness of the one total-etch self-priming adhesive, one two-step self-etching primer adhesive, and one 'all-in-one' self-etching adhesive system on the adhesion of a resin composite to enamel. Thirty-six freshly extracted human mandibular molars were selected for this study. A fat area about 5 mm in diameter was created on the exposed mesial surface of enamel of each tooth by moist grinding with 320, 420 and 600 grit silicon carbide paper. Twelve teeth were randomly assigned into three groups. In group 1, Adper Easy One (3M ESPE), a one step self-etching primer adhesive was applied and light curing unit for 10 seconds. In group 2, Adper SE Plus, a two-step self-etching primer with bottle A containing the aqueous primer and bottle B containing the acidic adhesive was applied and light cured for 10 seconds. Group 3 (control)-etchant 37% phosphoric acid is applied to the surface for 15 seconds and rinsed with water and air dried and adhesive (single bond 2) is applied to the surface and tube is placed and light cured for 20 seconds. Composite material (Z350) was placed in the tube and light cured for 40 seconds in all the groups. Bond strength testing was done using universal testing machine at the enamel-composite interface. The debonded enamel surface was evaluated in stereomicroscope to assess the cohesive, adhesive or mixed fracture. Data was statistically analyzed by one way analysis of variance (ANOVA). Group 1 performed least among all groups with a mean score of 19.46 MPa. Group 2 had a mean score of 25.67 MPa. Group 3 had a mean score of 27.16 MPa. Under the conditions of this in vitro study, the bond strength values of the two-step self-etching primer systems tested were similar to the total-etch. And, one step self-etching primers have lower bond strength compared to the total-etch.

  13. Mixed matrix membranes with HF acid etched ZSM-5 for ethanol/water separation: Preparation and pervaporation performance

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhan, Xia; Lu, Juan; Tan, Tingting; Li, Jiding

    2012-10-01

    The mixed matrix membranes (MMMs) were prepared from crosslinked PDMS incorporated with HF acid etched ZSM-5. ZSM-5 zeolite was etched with a series of HF aqueous-acetone solution and characterized by SEM, BET, XRD and FT-IR. It was found that HF etching process was very effective for removing organic impurities in zeolite and micro-pores were observed out of the surface of zeolite particles, which enhanced the hydrophobicity and surface roughness of ZSM-5 successfully. Both tensile strength and swelling resistance of ZSM-5/PDMS MMMs increased with the rising concentration of HF solution, which can mainly be attributed to the improved zeolite-PDMS interfacial adhesion resulted from the intrusion of PDMS into micro-pores out of the ZSM-5 surface. Subsequently, the sorption experiment was performed with the results suggesting preferential sorption of ethanol by MMMs. Moreover, the sorption selectivity of ZSM-5/PDMS MMMs increased notably as the concentration of HF solution increased. The pervaporation performance of ethanol/water mixtures using MMMs was also investigated in detail. The MMMs filled with etched ZSM-5 showed much better selectivity than that filled with non-etched ones, with a little expense of permeability. It was found that with the same zeolite loading, increasing the HF acid concentration in etching process enhanced the zeolite-PDMS interfacial adhesion which promoted the ethanol selectivity of MMMs, while depressed the total permeation flux a little. In addition, both ethanol permeation and the selectivity increased with an increase of the zeolite loading from 10% to 30%. Nevertheless, excessive zeolite loading or decreasing thickness of selective layer led to the poor selectivity to ethanol. A decline of the ethanol selectivity was also observed as the feed ethanol concentration as well as feed temperature increased.

  14. Acid and alkali etching of grit blasted zirconia: Impact on adhesion and osteogenic differentiation of MG63 cells in vitro.

    PubMed

    Gruber, Reinhard; Hedbom, Erik; Bosshardt, Dieter D; Heuberger, Roman; Buser, Daniel

    2012-01-01

    There is a need for evaluating zirconia surface modifications and their potential impact on the biological response of osteogenic cells. Grit blasted zirconia discs were either left untreated or underwent acid or alkaline etching. Adhesion and osteogenic differentiation of MG63 cells was determined after one week of culture. The macro-scaled roughness of the grit blasted zirconia discs, independent of the surface treatment, was within a narrow range and only slightly smoother than titanium discs. However, the alkaline- and acid-etching led to an increase of the micro-roughness of the surface. The surface modifications had no effect on cell spreading and did not cause significant change in the expression of differentiation markers. Thus, in this respective setting, morphologic changes observed upon treatment of grit blasted zirconia discs with acid or alkaline do not translate into changes in MG63 cell adhesion or differentiation and are comparable to findings with anodized titanium discs.

  15. Inactivation of Matrix-bound MMPs by Cross-linking Agents in Acid Etched Dentin

    PubMed Central

    Scheffel, Débora Lopes Salles; Hebling, Josimeri; Scheffel, Régis Henke; Agee, Kelly A.; Turco, Gianluca; de Souza Costa, Carlos Alberto; Pashley, David H.

    2014-01-01

    Objectives Published TEM analysis of in vivo resin-dentin bonds shows that in 44 months almost 70% of collagen fibrils from the hybrid layer disappear. Matrix metalloproteinases (MMPs) play an important role in that process and are thought to be the main factor responsible for the solubitization of dentin collagen. Therefore, this study aimed to evaluate the inactivation of matrix-bound MMPs by carbodiimide (EDC) or proanthocyanidin (PA) both cross-linking agents, or the MMP-inhibitor, chlorhexidine (CHX), on acid-etched dentin using a simplified MMP assay method. Methods Dentin beams (1×1×6mm) were obtained from mid-coronal dentin of sound third molars and randomly divided into 6 groups (G) according to the dentin treatment: G1: Deionized water (control), G2: 0.1M EDC, G3: 0.5M EDC, G4: 0.5M EDC+35% HEMA, G5: 5% Proanthocyanidin (PA) and G6: 2% CHX. The beams were etched for 15s with 37% phosphoric acid, rinsed and then immersed for 60s in one of the treatment solutions. The total MMP activity of dentin was analyzed for 1 h by colorimetric assay (Sensolyte). Data were submitted to Wilcoxon non-parametric test and Mann-Whitney tests (p>0.05). Results All experimental cross-linking solutions significantly reduced MMP activity compared to control, except 0.1M EDC (53.6% ±16.1). No difference was observed between cross-linking agents and 2% CHX 0.5M EDC + 35% HEMA (92.3% ±8.0) was similar to 0.5M EDC (89.1% ±6.4), 5% PA (100.8% ±10.9) and 2% CHX (83.4% ±10.9). Conclusion Dentin treatment with cross-linking agents is effective to significantly reduce MMP activity. Mixing 0.5M EDC and 35% HEMA did not influence EDC inhibitor potential. PMID:23786610

  16. In situ quantitative analysis of etching process of human teeth by atomic force microscopy.

    PubMed

    Watari, Fumio

    2005-06-01

    Etching is one of the most fundamental steps in the restoration of teeth by adhesion of composite resin in dental clinics. Atomic force microscope (AFM) was used for the in situ observation of the etching process of human enamel, dentin and synthetic hydroxyapatite in the three different acid agents, 2% phosphoric acid, 10% citric acid and 10% polyacrylic acid. To measure the absolute depth from the initial level before etching and to correlate the surface height between the changing AFM images obtained, the depth profiles were recorded with etching time by carrying out the line scan consecutively at the representative place of the observed area. These chronological series of depth profiles enabled us to perform quantitative analysis of etched amount in addition to the surface roughness obtained from relative depth profile within one image. The course of etching process from the dissolution of smear layer, appearance of enamel prizms or dentinal tubules to progress of demineralization could clearly be observed. The depth profile, surface roughness, etching amount, etching rate and smear layer thickness could then be evaluated. The different etching characteristics of three acid agents and the effect of surface roughness produced by different mechanical prepolish were compared and discussed.

  17. Effect of the application time of phosphoric acid and self-etch adhesive systems to sclerotic dentin

    PubMed Central

    MENA-SERRANO, Alexandra Patricia; GARCIA, Eugenio Jose; PEREZ, Miguel Muñoz; MARTINS, Gislaine Cristine; GRANDE, Rosa Helena Miranda; LOGUERCIO, Alessandro Dourado; REIS, Alessandra

    2013-01-01

    Objectives: To evaluate the effect of application time on the resin-dentin bond strength (µTBS) and etching pattern of adhesive systems applied on sclerotic dentine. Material and Methods: A total of forty-two bovine incisors had their roots removed. The 1-step self-etch GO (SDI), the 2-step self-etch Adper SE Bond (3MESPE) and the 35% phosphoric acid (3MESPE) from the 2-step etch-and-rinse Adper Single Bond 2 (3MESPE) were applied on the bovine incisal surfaces according to the manufacturer's instructions or duplicating the recommended conditioning time. After adhesive application, thirty teeth were restored with composite resin, stored for 24 h in distilled water at 37º C, and sectioned into resin-dentin bonded sticks (0.8 mm2) and tested according to the µTBS at 0.5 mm/min. The etching pattern of the remaining twelve teeth (n=4 for each material) was examined under scanning electron microscopy. Each tooth was divided into a buccal-to-lingual direction into three thirds, and each third randomly assigned to the groups: control (no treatment), according to the manufacturers' instructions and duplicating the recommended application time. The µTBS and the relative percentage of the tubule area opening were evaluated by two-way repeated measures ANOVA and Tukey's tests (α=0.05). Results: The duplication of the conditioning time favored only the GO adhesive (p<0.05). Both application methods significantly increased the tubule area opening (p<0.05) compared to the controls. Conclusions: The efficacy of duplicating the conditioning time was only effective for the 1-step self-etch adhesive system tested. PMID:23739856

  18. Histological and immunohistochemical evaluation of the peri-implant soft tissues around machined and acid-etched titanium healing abutments: a prospective randomised study.

    PubMed

    Degidi, Marco; Artese, Luciano; Piattelli, Adriano; Scarano, Antonio; Shibli, Jamil A; Piccirilli, Marcello; Perrotti, Vittoria; Iezzi, Giovanna

    2012-06-01

    A close spatial correlation has been described between the roughness of intraoral materials and the rate of bacterial colonisation. The aim of the present study in man was to conduct a comparative immunohistochemical evaluation of the inflammatory infiltrate, microvessel density, the nitric oxide synthases 1 and 3 and the vascular endothelial growth factor expression, the proliferative activity, and the B and T lymphocyte and histiocyte positivity in the peri-implant soft tissues around machined and acid-etched titanium healing caps. Ten patients participated in this study. The patients were enrolled consecutively. All patients received dental implants left to heal in a non-submerged mode. Healing caps were inserted in all implants. Half of the implants were supplied randomly with machined caps of titanium (control), while the other half were provided randomly with acid-etched titanium caps (test). After a 6-month healing period, a gingival biopsy was performed with a circular scalpel around the healing caps of both groups. The inflammatory infiltrate was mostly present in test specimens. Their extension was much larger than that of the control samples. A higher number of T and B lymphocytes were observed in test specimens. Higher values of microvessel density and a higher expression of vascular endothelial growth factor intensity were observed in the test samples. Furthermore, the Ki-67, NOS1 and NOS3 expression was significantly higher in the test specimens. All these results showed that the tissues around test healing caps underwent a higher rate of restorative processes, most probably correlated to the higher inflammation processes observed in these tissues.

  19. Effect of a fluoride-releasing self-etch acidic primer on the shear bond strength of orthodontic brackets.

    PubMed

    Bishara, Samir E; Ajlouni, Raed; Laffoon, John F; Warren, John J

    2002-06-01

    Conventional adhesive systems use three different agents--an enamel conditioner, a primer solution, and an adhesive resin--during the bonding of orthodontic brackets to enamel. A unique characteristic of some new bonding systems in operative dentistry is that they combine the conditioning and priming agents into a single application. Combining conditioning and priming saves time and should be more cost-effective to the clinician and indirectly to the patient. The purpose of this study was to assess and compare the effects of self-etching primers, including a fluoride-releasing primer, on the shear bond strength of orthodontic brackets. The brackets were bonded to extracted human teeth according to one of four protocols. In group 1 (control), teeth were etched with 37% phosphoric acid; after the sealant was applied, the brackets were bonded with Transbond XT (3M Unitek, Monrovia, Calif) and light cured for 20 seconds. In group 2, a self-etch acidic primer (3M ESPE, St Paul, Minn) was applied as suggested by the manufacturer, and the brackets were then bonded with Transbond XT as in the first group. In group 3, an experimental self-etch primer EXL #547 (3M ESPE) was applied to the teeth as suggested by the manufacturer, and the brackets were then bonded as in groups 1 and 2. In group 4, a fluoride-releasing self-etch primer, One-Up Bond F (J. Mortia, USA Inc. Irvine, Calif) that also has a novel dye-sensitized photo polymerization initiator system was applied as suggested by the manufacturer, and the brackets were then bonded as in the other groups. The present in vitro findings indicated that the shear bond strengths of the four groups were significantly different (P = .001). Duncan multiple range tests indicated that One-Up Bond F (mean +/- SD strength, 5.1+/-2.5 MPa) and Prompt L-Pop (strength, 7.1+/-4.4 MPa) had significantly lower shear bond strengths than both the EXL #547 self-etch primer (strength, 9.7+/-3.7 MPa) or the phosphoric acid etch and the

  20. An analysis of the shear strength of the bond between enamel and porcelain laminate veneers with different etching systems: acid and Er,Cr:YSGG laser separately and combined.

    PubMed

    Dundar, Berivan; Guzel, Kahraman Gündüz

    2011-11-01

    Conditioning of the enamel surface is now an accepted and widely applied technique used to improve retention in porcelain laminate veneer restorations. The aim of this study was to evaluate strength of the bond between porcelain laminate veneers and tooth surfaces etched with acid and laser, separately and together. The teeth studied comprised 60 incisors extracted for periodontal reasons. These were divided into four groups according to etching method: group 1, acid etching alone; group 2, acid etching followed by laser etching; group 3, laser etching followed by acid etching; group 4, laser etching alone. The teeth were etched with 37% phosphoric acid and a Er,Cr:YSGG laser system. In addition, 60 IPS Empress II cylindrical blocks 2 mm in height and 5 mm in diameter were also prepared for the etched tooth surface. These blocks were bonded to the teeth with dual cured resin cement and shear tests were then performed. After the shear tests, Scanning electron microscopy images of the tooth surfaces were obtained at a magnification of ×3,800. Etching with acid alone yielded the highest mean value of bond shear strength (15.4±3.8 MPa), while laser etching followed by acid etching gave the lowest mean value (11.5±4.6 MPa). The mean values of the bond shear strength for acid etching followed by laser etching and laser etching alone were 13.8±3.9 MPa and 12.8±4.6 MPa, respectively. Statistical analysis revealed no significant differences between the groups. The results suggest that laser etching is easy to apply and less time-consuming. They further suggest that the order in which the acid and laser are applied in combined treatments is important.

  1. Characterization and adsorption properties of diatomaceous earth modified by hydrofluoric acid etching.

    PubMed

    Tsai, Wen-Tien; Lai, Chi-Wei; Hsien, Kuo-Jong

    2006-05-15

    This work was a study of the chemical modification of diatomaceous earth (DE) using hydrofluoric acid (HF) solution. Under the experimental conditions investigated, it was found that HF under controlled conditions significantly etched inward into the interior of the existing pore structure in the clay mineral due to its high content of silica, leaving a framework possessing a larger BET surface area (ca. 10 m2 g(-1)) in comparison with that (ca. 4 m2 g(-1)) of its precursor (i.e., DE). Further, the results indicated that the HF concentration is a more determining factor in creating more open pores than other process parameters (temperature, holding time, and solid/liquid ratio). This observation was also in close agreement with the examinations by the silicon analysis, scanning electron microscopy, X-ray diffraction, and Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy. The adsorption kinetics and the adsorption isotherm of methylene blue onto the resulting clay adsorbent can be well described by a pseudo-second-order reaction model and the Freundlich model, respectively.

  2. Influence of Nd:YAG laser on the bond strength of self-etching and conventional adhesive systems to dental hard tissues.

    PubMed

    Marimoto, A K; Cunha, L A; Yui, K C K; Huhtala, M F R L; Barcellos, D C; Prakki, A; Gonçalves, S E P

    2013-01-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate the influence of Nd:YAG laser on the shear bond strength to enamel and dentin of total and self-etch adhesives when the laser was applied over the adhesives, before they were photopolymerized, in an attempt to create a new bonding layer by dentin-adhesive melting. One-hundred twenty bovine incisors were ground to obtain flat surfaces. Specimens were divided into two substrate groups (n=60): substrate E (enamel) and substrate D (dentin). Each substrate group was subdivided into four groups (n=15), according to the surface treatment accomplished: X (Xeno III self-etching adhesive, control), XL (Xeno III + laser Nd:YAG irradiation at 140 mJ/10 Hz for 60 seconds + photopolymerization, experimental), S (acid etching + Single Bond conventional adhesive, Control), and SL (acid etching + Single Bond + laser Nd:YAG at 140 mJ/10 Hz for 60 seconds + photopolymerization, experimental). The bonding area was delimited with 3-mm-diameter adhesive tape for the bonding procedures. Cylinders of composite were fabricated on the bonding area using a Teflon matrix. The teeth were stored in water at 37°C/48 h and submitted to shear testing at a crosshead speed of 0.5 mm/min in a universal testing machine. Results were analyzed with three-way analysis of variance (ANOVA; substrate, adhesive, and treatment) and Tukey tests (α=0.05). ANOVA revealed significant differences for the substrate, adhesive system, and type of treatment: lased or unlased (p<0.05). The mean shear bond strength values (MPa) for the enamel groups were X=20.2 ± 5.61, XL=23.6 ± 4.92, S=20.8 ± 4.55, SL=22.1 ± 5.14 and for the dentin groups were X=14.1 ± 7.51, XL=22.2 ± 6.45, S=11.2 ± 5.77, SL=15.9 ± 3.61. For dentin, Xeno III self-etch adhesive showed significantly higher shear bond strength compared with Single Bond total-etch adhesive; Nd:YAG laser irradiation showed significantly higher shear bond strength compared with control (unlased). Nd:YAG laser application

  3. Effect of acid etching duration on tensile bond strength of composite resin bonded to erbium:yttrium-aluminium-garnet laser-prepared dentine. Preliminary study.

    PubMed

    Chousterman, M; Heysselaer, D; Dridi, S M; Bayet, F; Misset, B; Lamard, L; Peremans, A; Nyssen-Behets, C; Nammour, S

    2010-11-01

    The purpose of this study was to compare the tensile bond strength of composite resin bonded to erbium:yttrium-aluminium-garnet (Er:YAG) laser-prepared dentine after different durations of acid etching. The occlusal third of 68 human third molars was removed in order to expose the dentine surface. The teeth were randomly divided into five groups: group B (control group), prepared with bur and total etch system with 15 s acid etching [37% orthophosphoric acid (H(3)PO(4))]; group L15, laser photo-ablated dentine (200 mJ) (laser irradiation conditions: pulse duration 100 micros, air-water spray, fluence 31.45 J/ cm(2), 10 Hz, non-contact hand pieces, beam spot size 0.9 mm, irradiation speed 3 mm/s, and total irradiation time 2 x 40 s); group L30, laser prepared, laser conditioned and 30 s acid etching; group L60, laser prepared, laser conditioned and 60 s acid etching; group L90, laser prepared, laser conditioned and 90 s acid etching. A plot of composite resin was bonded onto each exposed dentine and then tested for tensile bond strength. The values obtained were statistically analysed by analysis of variance (ANOVA) coupled with the Tukey-Kramer test at the 95% level. A 90 s acid etching before bonding showed the best bonding value (P < 0.05) when compared with all the other groups including the control group. There is no significance difference between other groups, nor within each group and the control group. There was a significant increase in tensile bond strength of the samples acid etched for 90 s.

  4. Effect of Fluoride on the Morphology of Calcium Phosphate Crystals Grown on Acid-Etched Human Enamel

    PubMed Central

    Fan, Y.; Sun, Z.; Moradian-Oldak, J.

    2009-01-01

    The aim of this study was to examine the effect of fluoride ion concentration on the morphology of calcium phosphate crystals grown on acid-etched enamel as a model for tooth enamel erosion. Samples were immersed in calcification solution for 16 h and changes in crystal morphology were monitored by field emission scanning electron microscopy. Without fluoride, plate-like octacalcium phosphate crystals (20 nm thick, 2–10 μm wide) were formed. With 1–10 mg/l fluoride, arrays of denser needle-like nanocrystals (20–30 nm wide, >500 nm in length) were formed. We conclude that there is a minimal fluoride concentration (1 mg/l) that dramatically affects the morphology of calcium phosphate crystals grown on etched enamel in vitro. PMID:19321991

  5. Micro/nanofabrication of poly({sub L}-lactic acid) using focused ion beam direct etching

    SciTech Connect

    Oyama, Tomoko Gowa; Nagasawa, Naotsugu; Taguchi, Mitsumasa; Hinata, Toru; Washio, Masakazu; Oshima, Akihiro; Tagawa, Seiichi

    2013-10-14

    Micro/nanofabrication of biocompatible and biodegradable poly({sub L}-lactic acid) (PLLA) using focused Ga ion beam direct etching was evaluated for future bio-device applications. The fabrication performance was determined with different ion fluences and fluxes (beam currents), and it was found that the etching speed and fabrication accuracy were affected by irradiation-induced heat. Focused ion beam (FIB)-irradiated surfaces were analyzed using micro-area X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy. Owing to reactions such as the physical sputtering of atoms and radiation-induced decomposition, PLLA was gradually carbonized with increasing C=C bonds. Controlled micro/nanostructures of PLLA were fabricated with C=C bond-rich surfaces expected to have good cell attachment properties.

  6. Effect of fluoride on the morphology of calcium phosphate crystals grown on acid-etched human enamel.

    PubMed

    Fan, Y; Sun, Z; Moradian-Oldak, J

    2009-01-01

    The aim of this study was to examine the effect of fluoride ion concentration on the morphology of calcium phosphate crystals grown on acid-etched enamel as a model for tooth enamel erosion. Samples were immersed in calcification solution for 16 h and changes in crystal morphology were monitored by field emission scanning electron microscopy. Without fluoride, plate-like octacalcium phosphate crystals (20 nm thick, 2-10 microm wide) were formed. With 1-10 mg/l fluoride, arrays of denser needle-like nanocrystals (20-30 nm wide, >500 nm in length) were formed. We conclude that there is a minimal fluoride concentration (1 mg/l) that dramatically affects the morphology of calcium phosphate crystals grown on etched enamel in vitro.

  7. Effect of a self-etching primer and phosphoric acid etching on the bond strength of 4-META/MMA-TBB resin to human enamel.

    PubMed

    Nogawa, Hiroshi; Koizumi, Hiroyasu; Saiki, Osamu; Hiraba, Haruto; Nakamura, Mitsuo; Matsumura, Hideo

    2015-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to evaluate the shear bond strength and durability of 4-META/MMA-TBB resin to human enamel. A self-etching primer that contained 4-META (Teeth Primer, TP) and 35-45% or 60-65% concentrations of phosphoric acid (K-Etchant Gel, KE, and Super Bond C&B Red Activator, RA) were used as the surface treatment agents. A methyl methacrylate (MMA)-based self-polymerizing resin (Super-Bond C&B) was used as a luting agent. The shear bond strength was determined both pre and post thermocycling. The results were statistically analyzed with a non-parametric procedure. The post-thermocycling shear bond strength of the TP group was significantly higher than that of other groups, and that of the KE group was significantly higher compared with the RA group. These results demonstrated that 4-META was effective. Furthermore, when the degree of tooth demineralization was compared, surface treatment with less demineralization using TP was the most effective treatment.

  8. Influence of duration of phosphoric acid pre-etching on bond durability of universal adhesives and surface free-energy characteristics of enamel.

    PubMed

    Tsujimoto, Akimasa; Barkmeier, Wayne W; Takamizawa, Toshiki; Watanabe, Hidehiko; Johnson, William W; Latta, Mark A; Miyazaki, Masashi

    2016-08-01

    The purpose of this study was to evaluate the influence of duration of phosphoric acid pre-etching on the bond durability of universal adhesives and the surface free-energy characteristics of enamel. Three universal adhesives and extracted human molars were used. Two no-pre-etching groups were prepared: ground enamel; and enamel after ultrasonic cleaning with distilled water for 30 s to remove the smear layer. Four pre-etching groups were prepared: enamel pre-etched with phosphoric acid for 3, 5, 10, and 15 s. Shear bond strength (SBS) values of universal adhesive after no thermal cycling and after 30,000 or 60,000 thermal cycles, and surface free-energy values of enamel surfaces, calculated from contact angle measurements, were determined. The specimens that had been pre-etched showed significantly higher SBS and surface free-energy values than the specimens that had not been pre-etched, regardless of the aging condition and adhesive type. The SBS and surface free-energy values did not increase for pre-etching times of longer than 3 s. There were no significant differences in SBS values and surface free-energy characteristics between the specimens with and without a smear layer. The results of this study suggest that phosphoric acid pre-etching of enamel improves the bond durability of universal adhesives and the surface free-energy characteristics of enamel, but these bonding properties do not increase for phosphoric acid pre-etching times of longer than 3 s.

  9. Effect of pretreatment with mildly acidic hypochlorous acid on adhesion to caries-affected dentin using a self-etch adhesive.

    PubMed

    Kunawarote, Sitthikorn; Nakajima, Masatoshi; Foxton, Richard M; Tagami, Junji

    2011-02-01

    Caries-affected dentin is covered with a thicker and organically enriched smear layer than normal dentin. This may affect the demineralization ability and the infiltration of self-etch adhesives, thus reducing the efficacy of bonding to caries-affected dentin. This study evaluated the adhesion of a two-step self-etching adhesive to normal and caries-affected dentin after pretreatment with mildly acidic hypochlorous acid (HOCl) solutions. We used a microtensile bond strength (μTBS) test to compare the μTBS of Clearfil SE Bond to either caries-affected dentin or to normal dentin, after pretreatment for 5 s with one of three solutions (806 mM NaOCl, or 0.95 or 1.91 mM HOCl). The μTBS of the self-etch adhesive was significantly lower to caries-affected dentin than to normal dentin. Pretreatment with 0.95 mM HOCl improved the μTBS of the self-etch adhesive to caries-affected dentin, but there was no significant difference compared with normal dentin. On the other hand, pretreatment with 806 mM NaOCl or 1.91 mM HOCl did not demonstrate a significant improvement in the μTBS to caries-affected dentin. None of the pretreatments demonstrated a negative effect on adhesion to normal dentin.

  10. Adhesion of a self-etching system to dental substrate prepared by Er:YAG laser or air abrasion.

    PubMed

    Souza-Zaroni, Wanessa C; Chinelatti, Michelle A; Delfino, Carina S; Pécora, Jesus D; Palma-Dibb, Regina G; Corona, Silmara A M

    2008-08-01

    The purpose of this study was to assess the microtensile bond strength of a self-etching adhesive system to enamel and dentin prepared by Er:YAG laser irradiation or air abrasion, as well as to evaluate the adhesive interfaces by scanning electron microscopy (SEM). For microtensile bond strength test, 80 third molars were randomly assigned to five groups: Group I, carbide bur, control (CB); II, air abrasion with standard tip (ST); III, air abrasion with supersonic tip (SP); IV, Er:YAG laser 250 mJ/4 Hz (L250); V, Er:YAG laser 300 mJ/4 Hz (L300). Each group was divided into two subgroups (n = 8) (enamel, E and dentin, D). E and D surfaces were treated with the self-etching system Adper Prompt L-Pop and composite buildups were done with Filtek Z-250. Sticks with a cross-sectional area of 0.8 mm(2) (+/-0.2 mm(2)) were obtained and the bond strength tests were performed. Data were submitted to ANOVA and Tukey's test. For morphological analysis, disks of 30 third molars were restored, sectioned and prepared for SEM. Dentin presented the highest values of adhesion, differing from enamel. Laser and air-abrasion preparations were similar to enamel. Dentin air-abrasion with standard tip group showed higher bond strength results than Er:YAG-laser groups, however, air-abrasion and Er:YAG laser groups were similar to control group. SEM micrographs revealed that, for both enamel and dentin, the air-abrasion and laser preparations presented irregular adhesive interfaces, different from the ones prepared by rotary instrument. It was concluded that cavity preparations accomplished by both Er:YAG laser energies and air abrasion tips did not positively influence the adhesion to enamel and dentin.

  11. Bond strength of composite to dentin: effect of acid etching and laser irradiation through an uncured self-etch adhesive system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Castro, F. L. A.; Carvalho, J. G.; Andrade, M. F.; Saad, J. R. C.; Hebling, J.; Lizarelli, R. F. Z.

    2014-08-01

    This study evaluated the effect on micro-tensile bond strength (µ-TBS) of laser irradiation of etched/unetched dentin through an uncured self-etching adhesive. Dentinal surfaces were treated with Clearfil SE Bond Adhesive (CSE) either according to the manufacturer’s instructions (CSE) or without applying the primer (CSE/NP). The dentin was irradiated through the uncured adhesive, using an Nd:YAG laser at 0.75 or 1 W power settings. The adhesive was cured, composite crowns were built up, and the teeth were sectioned into beams (0.49 mm2) to be stressed under tension. Data were analyzed using one-way ANOVA and Tukey statistics (α = 5%). Dentin of the fractured specimens and the interfaces of untested beams were observed under scanning electron microscopy (SEM). The results showed that non-etched irradiated surfaces presented higher µ-TBS than etched and irradiated surfaces (p < 0.05). Laser irradiation alone did not lead to differences in µ-TBS (p > 0.05). SEM showed solidification globules on the surfaces of the specimens. The interfaces were similar on irradiated and non-irradiated surfaces. Laser irradiation of dentin through the uncured adhesive did not lead to higher µ-TBS when compared to the suggested manufacturer’s technique. However, this treatment brought benefits when performed on unetched dentin, since bond strengths were higher when compared to etched dentin.

  12. Investigations of AlGaN/GaN HFETs utilizing post-metallization etching by nitric acid treatment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chou, Bo-Yi; Hsu, Wei-Chou; Lee, Ching-Sung; Liu, Han-Yin; Tsai, Chih-Ming; Ho, Chiu-Sheng

    2013-07-01

    This work investigates AlGaN/GaN heterostructure field-effect transistors (HFETs) processed by using a simple post-metallization etching (PME) treatment. Decreased gate length (LG) can be achieved by using nitric acid (HNO3) PME treatment owing to the high etching selectivity of HNO3 of Ni against the Au and GaN layer. Influences on LG, etched gate profiles and device characteristics with respect to different PME processing parameters by HNO3 treatment are systematically investigated. Optimum device performance is obtained as LG was reduced to 0.5 µm by using a 1 µm long gate mask by immersing the device into a 45% diluted HNO3 solution for 35 s. Improved device performances, including maximum drain-source current density (IDS, max: 657.6 mA mm-1 → 898.5 mA mm-1), drain-source saturation current density at zero gate bias (IDSS0: 448.3 mA mm-1 → 653.4 mA mm-1), maximum extrinsic transconductance (gm, max: 158.3 mS mm-1 → 219.2 mS mm-1), unity-gain cut-off frequency (fT: 12.35 GHz → 22.05 GHz), maximum oscillation frequency (fmax: 17.55 GHz → 29.4 GHz) and power-added efficiency (P.A.E.: 26.3% → 34.5%) compared to the untreated reference device, have been successfully achieved.

  13. Dental erosion in workers exposed to sulfuric acid in lead storage battery manufacturing facility.

    PubMed

    Suyama, Yuji; Takaku, Satoru; Okawa, Yoshikazu; Matsukubo, Takashi

    2010-01-01

    Dental erosion, and specifically its symptoms, has long been studied in Japan as an occupational dental disease. However, in recent years, few studies have investigated the development of this disease or labor hygiene management aimed at its prevention. As a result, interest in dental erosion is comparatively low, even among dental professionals. Our investigation at a lead storage battery factory in 1991 found that the work environmental sulfuric acid density was above the tolerable range (1.0mg/m(3)) and that longterm workers had dental erosion. Therefore, workers handling sulfuric acid were given an oral examination and rates of dental erosion by tooth type, rates of erosion by number of working years and rates of erosion by sulfuric acid density in the work environment investigated. Where dental erosion was diagnosed, degree of erosion was identified according to a diagnostic criterion. No development of dental erosion was detected in the maxillary teeth, and erosion was concentrated in the anterior mandibular teeth. Its prevalence was as high as 20%. Rates of dental erosion rose precipitously after 10 working years. The percentages of workers with dental erosion were 42.9% for 10-14 years, 57.1% for 15-19 years and 66.7% for over 20 years with 22.5% for total number of workers. The percentages of workers with dental erosion rose in proportion to work environmental sulfuric acid density: 17.9% at 0.5-1.0, 25.0% at 1.0-4.0 and 50.0% at 4.0-8.0mg/m(3). This suggests that it is necessary to evaluate not only years of exposure to sulfuric acid but also sulfuric acid density in the air in factory workers.

  14. Very deep fused silica etching

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Steingoetter, Ingo; Grosse, Axel; Fouckhardt, Henning

    2003-01-01

    Fabrication processes for wet chemical and dry etching of hollow capillary leaky optical waveguides in high-purity fused silica for extended path cells for improved optical detection in analytical chemistry are described. We focus on microstructures with etch depths on the order of 80 μm. Special attention is paid to the preparation of the etch masks for the two different etch technologies. The fused silica wet chemical etching technique uses buffered hydrofluoric acid with ultrasonic agitation achieving etch rates > 100 nm/min. We succeeded in developing an etch process based on a single-layer photoresist (AZ 5214E, Clariant Corp.) soft mask, which gives excellent results due to special adhesion promotion and a photoresist hardening cycle after the developing step. This procedure allows for the production of channels of nearly semi-cylindrical profiles with etch depths of up to 87 μm. For the dry etch process a ~10 μm thick Ni layer is used as a hard mask realized with electroplating and a thick photoresist. The etch process is performed in an ECR (Electron Cyclotron Resonance) chamber using CF4 gas. The resulting etch rate for fused silica is about 138 nm/min. Etch depths of (accidentally also) 87 μm are achieved.

  15. Relation between etch-pit morphology and step retreat velocity on a calcite surface in aspartic acid solution

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yoshino, Toru; Kagi, Hiroyuki; Kamiya, Natsumi; Kokawa, Ryohei

    2010-04-01

    Effects of L-aspartic acid ( L-Asp) on dissolution of calcite were investigated. The step retreat velocity and dissolution rate of calcite were measured simultaneously using an AFM flow-through system. The etch-pit morphology of calcite was observed using confocal laser scanning microscopy. Results show that the etch-pit morphologies changed drastically depending on the L-Asp concentration ([ L-Asp]) in the order of rhomboidal, pentagonal, and triangular (not perfectly, but retaining an extra step). The change in obtuse step directions and appearance of the [0 1 0] step triggered these morphological changes. Addition of L-Asp accelerated all step retreats at [ L-Asp]<0.01 M, which implied the effect of L-Asp on the diffusive barrier. In contrast, at [ L-Asp]>0.01 M, L-Asp inhibited the retreats of obtuse steps and [0 1 0] step, although the retreat velocities of acute steps were constant irrespective of [ L-Asp]. These results suggest that the directional changes and the inhibition of retreat velocities of obtuse steps were attributed to the generation of [ 4 1 1] and [4 5 1] steps caused by L-Asp. Moreover, we confirmed the preferential effects of L-Asp on the [4 8 1] + to [ 4 4 1] ± step edge, and proposed the preferential effects of L-Asp on the [ 4 1 1] to [4 5 1] step edge.

  16. Mesoporous iron oxide nanoparticles prepared by polyacrylic acid etching and their application in gene delivery to mesenchymal stem cells.

    PubMed

    Cao, Binrui; Qiu, Penghe; Mao, Chuanbin

    2013-09-01

    Novel monodisperse mesoporous iron oxide nanoparticles (m-IONPs) were synthesized by a postsynthesis etching approach and characterized by electron microscopy. In this approach, solid iron oxide nanoparticles (s-IONPs) were first prepared following a solvothermal method, and then etched anisotropically by polyacrylic acid to form the mesoporous nanostructures. MTT cytotoxicity assay demonstrated that the m-IONPs have good biocompatibility with mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs). Owing to their mesoporous structure and good biocompatibility, these monodisperse m-IONPs were used as a nonviral vector for the delivery of a gene of vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) tagged with a green fluorescence protein (GFP) into the hard-to-transfect stem cells. Successful gene delivery and transfection were verified by detecting the GFP fluorescence from MSCs using fluorescence microscopy. Our results illustrated that the m-IONPs synthesized in this work can serve as a potential nonviral carrier in gene therapy where stem cells should be first transfected and then implanted into disease sites for disease treatment. Copyright © 2013 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  17. Unintentional F doping of SrTiO3(001) etched in HF acid-structure and electronic properties

    SciTech Connect

    Chambers, Scott A.; Droubay, Timothy C.; Capan, Cigdem; Sun, Guangyuan

    2012-02-01

    We show that the HF acid etch commonly used to prepare SrTiO3(001) for heteroepitaxial growth of complex oxides results in a non-negligible level of F doping within the terminal surface layer of TiO2. Using a combination of x-ray photoelectron spectroscopy and scanned angle x-ray photoelectron diffraction, we determine that on average ~ 13% of the O anions in the surface layer are replaced by F, but that F does not occupy O sites in deeper layers. Despite this perturbation to the surface, the Fermi level remains unpinned, and the surface-state density, which determines the amount of band bending, is driven by factors other than F doping. The presence of F at the STO surface is expected to result in lower electron mobilities at complex oxide heterojunctions involving STO substrates because of impurity scattering. Unintentional F doping can be substantially reduced by replacing the HF-etch step with a boil in deionized water, which in conjunction with an oxygen tube furnace anneal, leaves the surface flat and TiO2 terminated.

  18. UV-induced graft polymerization of acrylic acid in the sub-micronchannels of oxidized PET track-etched membrane

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Korolkov, Ilya V.; Mashentseva, Anastassiya A.; Güven, Olgun; Taltenov, Abzal A.

    2015-12-01

    In this article, we report on functionalization of track-etched membrane based on poly(ethylene terephthalate) (PET TeMs) oxidized by advanced oxidation systems and by grafting of acrylic acid using photochemical initiation technique for the purpose of increasing functionality thus expanding its practical application. Among advanced oxidation processes (H2O2/UV) system had been chosen to introduce maximum concentration of carboxylic acid groups. Benzophenone (BP) photo-initiator was first immobilized on the surfaces of cylindrical pores which were later filled with aq. acrylic acid solution. UV-irradiation from both sides of PET TeMs has led to the formation of grafted poly(acrylic acid) (PAA) chains inside the membrane sub-micronchannels. Effect of oxygen-rich surface of PET TeMs on BP adsorption and subsequent process of photo-induced graft polymerization of acrylic acid (AA) were studied by ESR. The surface of oxidized and AA grafted PET TeMs was characterized by UV-vis, ATR-FTIR, XPS spectroscopies and by SEM.

  19. Comparison of shear bond strength and surface structure between conventional acid etching and air-abrasion of human enamel.

    PubMed

    Olsen, M E; Bishara, S E; Damon, P; Jakobsen, J R

    1997-11-01

    Recently, air-abrasion technology has been examined for potential applications within dentistry, including the field of orthodontics. The purpose of this study was to compare the traditional acid-etch technique with an air-abrasion surface preparation technique, with two different sizes of abrading particles. The following parameters were evaluated: (a) shear bond strength, (b) bond failure location, and (c) enamel surface preparation, as viewed through a scanning electron microscope. Sixty extracted human third molars were pumiced and divided into three groups of 20. The first group was etched with a 37% phosphoric acid gel for 30 seconds, rinsed for 30 seconds, and dried for 20 seconds. The second and third groups were air-abraded with (a) a 50 microm particle and (b) a 90 microm particle of aluminum oxide, with the Micro-etcher microabrasion machine (Danville Engineering Inc.). All three groups had molar stainless steel orthodontic brackets bonded to the buccal surface of each tooth with Transbond XT bonding system (3M Unitek). A Zwick Universal Testing Machine (Calitek Corp.) was used to determine shear bond strengths. The analysis of variance was used to compare the three groups. The Adhesive Remnant Index (ARI) was used to evaluate the residual adhesive on the enamel after bracket removal. The chi square test was used to evaluate differences in the ARI scores among the groups. The significance for all tests was predetermined at p < or = 0.05. The results indicated that there was a significant difference in shear bond strength among the three groups (p = 0.0001). The Duncan Multiple Range test showed a significant decrease in shear bond strength in the air-abraded groups. The chi square test revealed significant differences among the ARI scores of the acid-etched group and the air-abraded groups (chi(2) = 0.0001), indicating no adhesive remained on the enamel surface after debonding when air-abrasion was used. In conclusion, the current findings indicate that

  20. Dental unit waterlines disinfection using hypochlorous acid-based disinfectant

    PubMed Central

    Shajahan, Irfana Fathima; Kandaswamy, D; Srikanth, Padma; Narayana, L Lakshmi; Selvarajan, R

    2016-01-01

    Objective: The purpose of the study was to investigate the efficacy of a new disinfectant to disinfect the dental unit waterlines. Materials and Methods: New dental unit waterlines were installed in 13 dental chairs, and biofilm was allowed to grow for 10 days. Disinfection treatment procedure was carried out in the 12 units, and one unit was left untreated. The dental unit waterlines were removed and analyzed using the scanning electron microscope (SEM) (TESCAN VEGA3 SBU). Result: On examination, SEM images showed that there was no slime layer or bacterial cells seen in any of the 12 cut sections obtained from the treated dental waterlines which mean that there was no evident of biofilm formation. Untreated dental unit waterlines showed a microbial colonization with continuous filamentous organic matrix. There was significant biofilm formation in the control tube relative to the samples. Conclusion: The tested disinfectant was found to be effective in the removal of biofilm from the dental unit waterlines. PMID:27563184

  1. Bone reconstruction after surgical treatment of experimental peri-implantitis defects at a sandblasted/acid-etched hydroxyapatite-coated implant: an experimental study in the dog.

    PubMed

    Namgoong, Hee; Kim, Myung-duck; Ku, Young; Rhyu, In-Chul; Lee, Yong Moo; Seol, Yang Jo; Gu, Hee Jin; Susin, Cristiano; Wikesjö, Ulf M E; Koo, Ki-Tae

    2015-10-01

    The objective of this study was to evaluate bone formation/osseointegration following surgical treatment of experimental peri-implantitis at dental implants with different surface characteristics exposed to ligature-induced breakdown conditions. Ten turned (control), 10 sandblasted/acid-etched (SA), and 10 SA/hydroxyapatite nanocoated (HA) implants were installed into the edentulated posterior mandible in five Beagle dogs and allowed to osseointegrate for 12 weeks. Ligature-induced breakdown defects were then induced over 23 weeks using stainless steel wire ligatures. The ligatures were removed and soft tissues were allowed to heal for 3 weeks. Next, exposed implant surfaces were decontaminated followed by guided bone regeneration using a collagen membrane and submerged wound healing. The animals were euthanized for histometric analysis at 12 weeks post-surgery. The radiographic analysis showed vertical bone loss following ligature-induced breakdown without statistically significant differences among implant technologies. The histometric analysis showed significantly enhanced bone formation (height) at SA and SA/HA compared with turned implants (p = 0.028) following reconstructive surgery. Bone formation area was greater at SA/HA compared with turned implants, however the difference did not reach statistical significance. While ligature-induced defect progression does not appear implant surface dependent in this animal model, bone formation at the decontaminated implant surfaces appears more favourable at SA and SA/HA over turned implants following reconstructive surgery. © 2015 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  2. An In Vitro Comparison of the Bond Strength of Composite to Superficial and Deep Dentin, Treated With Er:YAG Laser Irradiation or Acid-Etching

    PubMed Central

    Alaghehmand, Homayoon; Nezhad Nasrollah, Fatemeh; Nokhbatolfoghahaei, Hanieh; Fekrazad, Reza

    2016-01-01

    Introduction: The aim of this study was to compare the micro-shear bond strength of composite resin on superficial and deep dentin after conditioning with phosphoric acid and Erbium-Doped Yttrium Aluminum Garnet (Er:YAG) laser. Methods: Thirty human molars were selected, roots were removed and crowns were bisected to provide a total of 60 half-crowns. Specimens were ground to expose superficial and deep dentin. Samples were assigned to six groups: (1) AS (acid etching of superficial dentin); (2) AD (acid etching of deep dentin); (3) LS (Er:YAG laser irradiation on superficial dentin); (4) LD (Er:YAG laser irradiation on deep dentin); (5) LAS (Er:YAG laser irradiation on superficial dentin followed by acid etching); (6) LAD (Er:YAG laser irradiation on deep dentin followed by acid etching) The adhesive protocol was performed. Samples were thermocycled and micro-shear bond strength was tested to failure. The data were submitted to statistical analysis with one-way analysis of variance (ANOVA) and Tukey post hoc test. Results: The AS group, demonstrated the greatest amount of micro-shear bond strength. Statistical analysis showed a decrease in bond strength in laser-treated groups which was more significant for deep dentin. Conclusion: Preparation of dentin with laser did not improve bonding to superficial and deep dentin. PMID:28144437

  3. An In Vitro Comparison of the Bond Strength of Composite to Superficial and Deep Dentin, Treated With Er:YAG Laser Irradiation or Acid-Etching.

    PubMed

    Alaghehmand, Homayoon; Nezhad Nasrollah, Fatemeh; Nokhbatolfoghahaei, Hanieh; Fekrazad, Reza

    2016-01-01

    Introduction: The aim of this study was to compare the micro-shear bond strength of composite resin on superficial and deep dentin after conditioning with phosphoric acid and Erbium-Doped Yttrium Aluminum Garnet (Er:YAG) laser. Methods: Thirty human molars were selected, roots were removed and crowns were bisected to provide a total of 60 half-crowns. Specimens were ground to expose superficial and deep dentin. Samples were assigned to six groups: (1) AS (acid etching of superficial dentin); (2) AD (acid etching of deep dentin); (3) LS (Er:YAG laser irradiation on superficial dentin); (4) LD (Er:YAG laser irradiation on deep dentin); (5) LAS (Er:YAG laser irradiation on superficial dentin followed by acid etching); (6) LAD (Er:YAG laser irradiation on deep dentin followed by acid etching) The adhesive protocol was performed. Samples were thermocycled and micro-shear bond strength was tested to failure. The data were submitted to statistical analysis with one-way analysis of variance (ANOVA) and Tukey post hoc test. Results: The AS group, demonstrated the greatest amount of micro-shear bond strength. Statistical analysis showed a decrease in bond strength in laser-treated groups which was more significant for deep dentin. Conclusion: Preparation of dentin with laser did not improve bonding to superficial and deep dentin.

  4. Effect of the association between citric acid and EDTA on root surface etching.

    PubMed

    Manzolli Leite, Fabio Renato; Nascimento, Gustavo Giacomelli; Manzolli Leite, Elza Regina; Leite, Amauri Antiquera; Cezar Sampaio, Josá Eduardo

    2013-09-01

    This study aims to compare the clot stabilization on root surfaces conditioned with citric acid and ethylenediamine-tetraacetic acid (EDTA). Scaled root samples (n = 100) were set in fve groups: group I-control group (saline solution); group II (24% EDTA); group III (25% citric acid); group IV (EDTA + citric acid); group V (citric acid + EDTA). Fifty samples were assessed using the root surface modifcation index (RSMI). The other 50 received a blood drop after conditioning. Clot formation was assessed using blood elements adhesion index (BEAI). A blind examiner evaluated photomicrographs. Statistical analysis considered p < 0.05. Groups-III and G-V attained the best results for RSMI and BEAI in comparison to control. The worst results for clot stabilization were seen in group-II. EDTA employment before citric acid (group-IV) reduced clot formation in comparison to citric acid use alone (group-III). Root conditioning with citric acid alone and before EDTA had the best results for smear layer removal and clot stabilization. EDTA inhibited clot stabilization on root surface and must have a residual activity once it has diminished clot adhesion to root even after citric acid conditioning. Thus, EDTA can be used to neutralize citric acid effects on periodontal cells without affecting clot stabilization. Clinical signifcance: To demonstrate that citric acid use on root surfaces previously affected by periodontal disease may favor clot stabilization and may have a benefcial effect on surgical outcomes. Also, EDTA can be used to neutralize citric acid effects on periodontal cells.

  5. Combinatorial localized dissolution analysis: Application to acid-induced dissolution of dental enamel and the effect of surface treatments.

    PubMed

    Parker, Alexander S; Al Botros, Rehab; Kinnear, Sophie L; Snowden, Michael E; McKelvey, Kim; Ashcroft, Alexander T; Carvell, Mel; Joiner, Andrew; Peruffo, Massimo; Philpotts, Carol; Unwin, Patrick R

    2016-08-15

    A combination of scanning electrochemical cell microscopy (SECCM) and atomic force microscopy (AFM) is used to quantitatively study the acid-induced dissolution of dental enamel. A micron-scale liquid meniscus formed at the end of a dual barrelled pipette, which constitutes the SECCM probe, is brought into contact with the enamel surface for a defined period. Dissolution occurs at the interface of the meniscus and the enamel surface, under conditions of well-defined mass transport, creating etch pits that are then analysed via AFM. This technique is applied to bovine dental enamel, and the effect of various treatments of the enamel surface on acid dissolution (1mM HNO3) is studied. The treatments investigated are zinc ions, fluoride ions and the two combined. A finite element method (FEM) simulation of SECCM mass transport and interfacial reactivity, allows the intrinsic rate constant for acid-induced dissolution to be quantitatively determined. The dissolution of enamel, in terms of Ca(2+) flux ( [Formula: see text] ), is first order with respect to the interfacial proton concentration and given by the following rate law: [Formula: see text] , with k0=0.099±0.008cms(-1). Treating the enamel with either fluoride or zinc ions slows the dissolution rate, although in this model system the partly protective barrier only extends around 10-20nm into the enamel surface, so that after a period of a few seconds dissolution of modified surfaces tends towards that of native enamel. A combination of both treatments exhibits the greatest protection to the enamel surface, but the effect is again transient. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  6. Redox buffered hydrofluoric acid etchant for the reduction of galvanic attack during release etching of MEMS devices having noble material films

    DOEpatents

    Hankins, Matthew G [Albuquerque, NM

    2009-10-06

    Etchant solutions comprising a redox buffer can be used during the release etch step to reduce damage to the structural layers of a MEMS device that has noble material films. A preferred redox buffer comprises a soluble thiophosphoric acid, ester, or salt that maintains the electrochemical potential of the etchant solution at a level that prevents oxidation of the structural material. Therefore, the redox buffer preferentially oxidizes in place of the structural material. The sacrificial redox buffer thereby protects the exposed structural layers while permitting the dissolution of sacrificial oxide layers during the release etch.

  7. Effects of different acids and etching times on the bond strength of glass fiber-reinforced composite root canal posts to composite core material.

    PubMed

    Güler, Ahmet Umut; Kurt, Murat; Duran, Ibrahim; Uludamar, Altay; Inan, Ozgur

    2012-01-01

    To investigate the effects of different acids and etching times on the bond strength of glass fiber-reinforced composite (FRC) posts to composite core material. Twenty-six FRC posts (FRC Postec Plus) were randomly divided into 13 groups (each n = 2). One group received no surface treatment (control). The posts in the other groups were acid etched with 35% phosphoric acid and 5% and 9.6% hydrofluoric acid gel for four different etching times (30, 60, 120, and 180 seconds). A cylindric polytetrafluoroethylene mold was placed around the treated posts and filled with dual-cure composite core material (MultiCore Flow). All samples were light cured for 60 seconds. After 24 hours of water storage, the specimens were sectioned perpendicularly to the bonded interface under water cooling to obtain 2-mm post-and-core specimens. Eight specimens were made from each group. Push-out tests were performed at a crosshead speed of 0.5 mm/min using a universal testing machine. Data were analyzed by one-way ANOVA followed by the Tukey honestly significant difference test (alpha = .05). The lowest bond strength was observed in the control group (12.51 megapascal [MPa]). No statistical significant difference was observed among group H5-120 (20.31 MPa), group H9-120 (20.55 MPa), or group P-180 (20.57 MPa) (P > .05). These groups demonstrated the highest bond strength values (P < .05). For the FRC posts, all acid-etching procedures tested showed significantly increased bond strength when compared with the control group. Acid-etching with 5% hydrofluoric acid and 9.6% hydrofluoric acid for 2 minutes and with 35% phosphoric acid for 3 minutes (groups H5-120, H9-120, and P-180, respectively) demonstrated the highest bond strength values between the FRC post and composite core material. Although the bond strength was increased by prolonged acid etching, the microstructure of the FRC posts might have been damaged.

  8. Sour sweets and acidic beverage consumption are risk indicators for dental erosion.

    PubMed

    Søvik, Jenny Bogstad; Skudutyte-Rysstad, Rasa; Tveit, Anne B; Sandvik, Leiv; Mulic, Aida

    2015-01-01

    This study aimed to investigate the association between dental erosive wear and potential background, behavioural and dietary risk indicators and to assess whether there is a dose-response relationship between the level of acidic beverage consumption and dental erosive wear among adolescents. Of 846 adolescents (aged 16-18 years) scheduled for dental recall examinations, 795 (94%) accepted to participate. All participants completed a self-administered questionnaire regarding their background (gender and age), tooth-brushing frequency and dietary habits (the amount and frequency of acidic food and beverage consumption as well as the chosen method and manner of consuming acidic drinks). The association between the presence of erosive lesions and the possible risk indicators was assessed by logistic regression analyses. Of all participants examined, 37% had ≥3 surfaces with dental erosions and were considered to be affected individuals. In the present study, multivariate logistic analyses revealed a significant association between the dental erosive wear and high consumption of sour sweets and sports drinks. The tooth-brushing frequency was not significantly associated with dental erosive wear. Additionally, to the best of our knowledge, the results are the first to indicate a dose-response relationship between the daily consumption of acidic drinks and dental erosive wear.

  9. Micro-shear bond strength and surface micromorphology of a feldspathic ceramic treated with different cleaning methods after hydrofluoric acid etching

    PubMed Central

    STEINHAUSER, Henrique Caballero; TURSSI, Cecília Pedroso; FRANÇA, Fabiana Mantovani Gomes; do AMARAL, Flávia Lucisano Botelho; BASTING, Roberta Tarkany

    2014-01-01

    Objective The aim of this study was to evaluate the effect of feldspathic ceramic surface cleaning on micro-shear bond strength and ceramic surface morphology. Material and Methods Forty discs of feldspathic ceramic were prepared and etched with 10% hydrofluoric acid for 2 minutes. The discs were randomly distributed into five groups (n=8): C: no treatment, S: water spray + air drying for 1 minute, US: immersion in ultrasonic bath for 5 minutes, F: etching with 37% phosphoric acid for 1 minute, followed by 1-minute rinse, F+US: etching with 37% phosphoric acid for 1 minute, 1-minute rinse and ultrasonic bath for 5 minutes. Composite cylinders were bonded to the discs following application of silane and hydrophobic adhesive for micro-shear bond strength testing in a universal testing machine at 0.5 mm/min crosshead speed until failure. Stereomicroscopy was used to classify failure type. Surface micromorphology of each treatment type was evaluated by scanning electron microscopy at 500 and 2,500 times magnification. Results One-way ANOVA test showed no significant difference between treatments (p=0.3197) and the most common failure types were cohesive resin cohesion followed by adhesive failure. Micro-shear bond strength of the feldspathic ceramic substrate to the adhesive system was not influenced by the different surface cleaning techniques. Absence of or less residue was observed after etching with hydrofluoric acid for the groups US and F+US. Conclusions Combining ceramic cleaning techniques with hydrofluoric acid etching did not affect ceramic bond strength, whereas, when cleaning was associated with ultrasound, less residue was observed. PMID:24676577

  10. High resolution SEM evaluation of dentin etched with maleic and citric acid.

    PubMed

    Breschi, Lorenzo; Gobbi, Pietro; Mazzotti, Giovanni; Falconi, Mirella; Ellis, Tom H; Stangel, Ivan

    2002-01-01

    This study evaluated the ultra-morphological effects of maleic and citric acid on human dentin by means of a field emission in-lens scanning electron microscope (FEISEM). Both acids were tested on human dentin at pH 0.7 and 1.4 in aqueous solutions. Each of 12 dentin disks were divided into four groups and exposed to either maleic acid at pH 0.7, maleic acid at pH 1.4, citric acid at pH 0.7 and citric acid at pH 1.4. All samples were then fixed and dehydrated in a critical point drying apparatus. Observations were carried out by means of a FEISEM (JEOL 890) after coating with a carbon-platinum film. Both acids removed smear layer and partially removed smear plugs. Details of fine structures measuring from 5 to 15 nm were shown on the intertubular demineralized dentin. Maleic acid at pH 0.7 showed the highest depth of demineralization of all the tested samples; citric acid, showed a higher depth of demineralization values when tested at pH 1.4 than at pH 0.7. The FEISEM reveals ultra-structural aspects of the demineralization process of the dentin tissue of the both acids tested. Differences related to the pH of the acids were found. Images obtained at high magnification clarify the dentin collagen structure of both peritubular and intertubular dentin. Small periodic structures associated with collagen fibrils were also imagined.

  11. Effect of argon protection on the biological activity of acid etched titanium surface.

    PubMed

    Zhao, Y-D; Gao, Y; Yue, J; Ding, X-L; Deng, Y; Du, B; Zhou, L

    2015-01-01

    As the contamination of implant surface seriously affects the early osseointegration of implants and reduces the survival rate of implants, it has attracted wide attention of researchers. The most oral titanium implants used in current clinical applications are stored in sealed packages. During the process of packaging, storage and usage, the implants inevitably contact air, which results in the surface contamination. As an inert gas, the argon has very inactive chemical properties and is routinely used as a protective gas to cut air pollution. In this study, we investigated whether argon protection can cut air pollution and maintain lasting surface biological activity of titanium implants. We prepared sandblasting etched titanium samples under air protection or under argon protection. The samples prepared under air protection were used as the control. With the scanning electron microscopy, the contact angle measurements and the X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy, we examined surface morphology, hydrophilicity, chemical structures and components of the implants prepared under two gas protections. By using beagles as the animal model, we assessed the bone guide of the implants prepared under argon protection and morphological changes of surrounding tissues. While compared with those implants prepared under air protection, the surface morphology of implants prepared under argon protection did not change, which had preferable hydrophilicity, and there were differences in percentage of surface chemical elements and chemical structure. After 4 weeks, the bone-implant contact (BIC) in argon protection group was twice of the control group and the difference was statistically significant (p < 0.01). The Implant Niuchu experiments also proved that under argon protection, the implants would have good integration with the surrounding bone tissues. This study revealed the implants prepared under argon can cut air pollution and have high bone guide property and biological

  12. Evaluation of the effectiveness of peracetic acid in the sterilization of dental equipment.

    PubMed

    Ceretta, R; Paula, M M S; Angioletto, Ev; Méier, M M; Mitellstädt, F G; Pich, C T; Junior, S A; Angioletto, E

    2008-01-01

    To evaluate the effectiveness of peracetic acid in the microbiological sterilisation of dental materials. Peracetic acid solution was evaluated at concentrations of 800, 1500 and 2500 ppm. At these concentrations, it was determined whether peracetic acid caused corrosion to dental instruments and induced cellular mutagenicity and cytotoxicity. In addition, the minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC), the minimum bactericidal concentration (MBC), agar diffusion and diffusion by well method, were also verified. The corrosion rate, calculated from potentiodynamic assays was 10(-6) cm/year, indicating that the product does not damage equipment. The sterilisation capacity of peracetic acid at 2500 ppm was the best. The comet assay indicated genotoxic activity at 2500 ppm. This study demonstrated the effectiveness of peracetic acid for sterilizing dental equipment, providing another alternative for the prevention of infections in clinics.

  13. Amino acid derivative-mediated detoxification and functionalization of dual cure dental restorative material for dental pulp cell mineralization.

    PubMed

    Minamikawa, Hajime; Yamada, Masahiro; Iwasa, Fuminori; Ueno, Takeshi; Deyama, Yoshiaki; Suzuki, Kuniaki; Yawaka, Yasutaka; Ogawa, Takahiro

    2010-10-01

    Current dental restorative materials are only used to fill the defect of hard tissues, such as dentin and enamel, because of their cytotoxicity. Therefore, exposed dental pulp tissues in deep cavities must be first covered by a pulp capping material like calcium hydroxide to form a layer of mineralized tissue. However, this tissue mineralization is based on pathological reaction and triggers long-lasting inflammation, often causing clinical problems. This study tested the ability of N-acetyl cysteine (NAC), amino acid derivative, to reduce cytotoxicity and induce mineralized tissue conductivity in resin-modified glass ionomer (RMGI), a widely used dental restorative material having dual cure mechanism. Rat dental pulp cells were cultured on untreated or NAC-supplemented RMGI. NAC supplementation substantially increased the percentage of viable cells from 46.7 to 73.3% after 24-h incubation. Cell attachment, spreading, proliferative activity, and odontoblast-related gene and protein expressions increased significantly on NAC-supplemented RMGI. The mineralization capability of cells, which was nearly suppressed on untreated RMGI, was induced on NAC-supplemented RMGI. These improved behaviors and functions of dental pulp cells on NAC-supplemented RMGI were associated with a considerable reduction in the production of intracellular reactive oxygen species and with the increased level of intracellular glutathione reserves. These results demonstrated that NAC could detoxify and functionalize RMGIs via two different mechanisms involving in situ material detoxification and antioxidant cell protection. We believe that this study provides a new approach for developing dental restorative materials that enables mineralized tissue regeneration.

  14. Comparison of Shear Bond Strength of Orthodontic Brackets Bonded to Enamel Prepared By Er:YAG Laser and Conventional Acid-Etching

    PubMed Central

    Hosseini, M.H.; Namvar, F.; Chalipa, J.; Saber, K.; Chiniforush, N.; Sarmadi, S.; Mirhashemi, A.H.

    2012-01-01

    Introduction: The purpose of this study was to compare shear bond strength (SBS) of orthodontic brackets bonded to enamel prepared by Er:YAG laser with two different powers and conventional acid-etching. Materials and Methods: Forty-five human premolars extracted for orthodontic purposes were randomly assigned to three groups based on conditioning method: Group 1- conventional etching with 37% phosphoric acid; Group 2- irradiation with Er:YAG laser at 1 W; and Group 3- irradiation with Er:YAG laser at 1.5 W. Metal brackets were bonded on prepared enamel using a light-cured composite. All groups were subjected to thermocycling process. Then, the specimens mounted in auto-cure acryle and shear bond strength were measured using a universal testing machine with a crosshead speed of 0.5 mm per second. After debonding, the amount of resin remaining on the teeth was determined using the adhesive remnant index (ARI) scored 1 to 5. One-way analysis of variance was used to compare shear bond strengths and the Kruskal-Wallis test was performed to evaluate differences in the ARI for different etching types. Results: The mean and standard deviation of conventional acid-etch group, 1W laser group and 1.5W laser group was 3.82 ± 1.16, 6.97 ± 3.64 and 6.93 ± 4.87, respectively. Conclusion: The mean SBS obtained with an Er:YAG laser operated at 1W or 1.5W is approximately similar to that of conventional etching. However, the high variability of values in bond strength of irradiated enamel should be considered to find the appropriate parameters for applying Er:YAG laser as a favorable alternative for surface conditioning. PMID:22924098

  15. Evaluation of modifying the bonding protocol of a new acid-etch primer on the shear bond strength of orthodontic brackets.

    PubMed

    Ajlouni, Raed; Bishara, Samir E; Oonsombat, Charuphan; Denehy, Gerald E

    2004-06-01

    The purpose of the study was to evaluate the shear bond strength of orthodontic brackets when light curing both the self-etch primer and the adhesive in one step. Fourty eight teeth were bonded with self-etch primer Angel I (3M/ESPE, St Paul, Minn) and divided into three groups. In group I (control), 16 teeth were stored in deionized water for 24 hours before debonding. In group II, 16 teeth were debonded within half-an-hour to simulate when the initial archwires were ligated. In group III, 16 additional teeth were bonded using exactly the same procedure as in groups I and II, but the light cure used for 10 seconds after applying the acid-etch primer was eliminated, and the light cure used for 20 seconds after the precoated bracket was placed over the tooth. This saved at least two minutes of the total time of the bonding procedure. The teeth in this group were also debonded within half-an-hour from the time of initial bonding. The teeth debonded after 24 hours of water storage at 37 degrees C had a mean shear bond strength of 6.0 +/- 3.5 MPa, the group that was debonded within half-an-hour of two light exposures had a mean shear bond strength of 5.9 +/- 2.7 MPa, and the mean for the group with only one light cure exposure was 4.3 +/- 2.6 MPa. Light curing the acid-etch primer together with the adhesive after placing the orthodontic bracket did not significantly diminish the shear bond strength as compared with light curing the acid-etch primer and the adhesive separately.

  16. Comparison between phosphoric acid and hydrochloric acid in microabrasion technique for the treatment of dental fluorosis.

    PubMed

    Bassir, Mahshid Mohammadi; Bagheri, Golnaz

    2013-01-01

    To compare the effectiveness of phosphoric acid (H(3)PO(4))-pumice compound with conventional hydrochloric acid (HCl)-pumice compound in treating different severities of dental fluorosis with the microabrasion technique. Sixty-seven anterior teeth from seven patients with different severities of dental fluorosis were treated. In each patient, half of the teeth were treated with HCl-pumice compound and the other half with H(3)PO(4)-pumice compound (split-mouth design). Both treatment compounds were applied for 30-second periods and treatment continued up to 10 minutes. Before and after treatment, standardized photographs were taken. The photographs were compared by two experienced observers unaware of the modality of treatment. Two indices of aesthetics, improvement in appearance (IA) and degree of stain removal (DSR), were determined according to a visual analog scale. The inter- and intra-correlation coefficients were made; then, statistical analyses were calculated using Mann-Whitney and t-test. There were no significant differences in interobserver evaluation. Improvements in aesthetic indices were observed in all fluorotic teeth by both compounds; however, the mean treatment time with HCl-pumice was significantly lower than H(3)PO(4)-pumice. The H(3)PO(4)-pumice compound improved aesthetic indices in fluorotic teeth similar to the HCl-pumice compound.

  17. Comparison between phosphoric acid and hydrochloric acid in microabrasion technique for the treatment of dental fluorosis

    PubMed Central

    Bassir, Mahshid Mohammadi; Bagheri, Golnaz

    2013-01-01

    Purpose: To compare the effectiveness of phosphoric acid (H3PO4)-pumice compound with conventional hydrochloric acid (HCl)-pumice compound in treating different severities of dental fluorosis with the microabrasion technique. Materials and Methods: Sixty-seven anterior teeth from seven patients with different severities of dental fluorosis were treated. In each patient, half of the teeth were treated with HCl-pumice compound and the other half with H3PO4-pumice compound (split-mouth design). Both treatment compounds were applied for 30-second periods and treatment continued up to 10 minutes. Before and after treatment, standardized photographs were taken. The photographs were compared by two experienced observers unaware of the modality of treatment. Two indices of aesthetics, improvement in appearance (IA) and degree of stain removal (DSR), were determined according to a visual analog scale. The inter- and intra-correlation coefficients were made; then, statistical analyses were calculated using Mann-Whitney and t-test. Results: There were no significant differences in interobserver evaluation. Improvements in aesthetic indices were observed in all fluorotic teeth by both compounds; however, the mean treatment time with HCl-pumice was significantly lower than H3PO4-pumice. Conclusion: The H3PO4-pumice compound improved aesthetic indices in fluorotic teeth similar to the HCl-pumice compound. PMID:23349575

  18. Effects of phosphoric acid concentration and etch duration on the shear bond strength of an orthodontic bonding resin to enamel. An in vitro study.

    PubMed

    Legler, L R; Retief, D H; Bradley, E L; Denys, F R; Sadowsky, P L

    1989-12-01

    The purpose of this in vitro study was to determine the effects of phosphoric acid (H3PO4) concentration and duration of etching on the shear bond strength of an orthodontic bonding resin to enamel. Nine bonding procedures, each involving 18 extracted human maxillary permanent canines, were used. Ground enamel surfaces were etched with a 37% H3PO4 solution, a 15% H3PO4 gel, or a 5% H3PO4 solution for 60, 30, and 15 seconds, respectively. Cylinders of an orthodontic bonding resin, Concise, were prepared in a special device. The test specimens were disassembled 15 minutes after preparation and stored in distilled water at 37 degrees C for 24 hours. A shear load was applied to the bonded cylinders at a crosshead speed of 0.02 in.min-1 in an Instron testing machine, and the shear bond strengths were calculated and expressed in MN.m-2. A two-factor analysis of the data showed that the H3PO4 concentration had no significant effect on the shear bond strength, but the duration of etching affected shear bond strength significantly. The enamel aspects of the fractured test specimens were examined microscopically and the percent failure within the bonding resin at the bonding sites estimated. The correlation between shear bond strength and percentage failure within the bonding resin was not significant. The effects of the nine etching procedures on ground and unground enamel surfaces were studied by scanning electron microscopy. The etching procedures produced well-defined etching patterns on both ground and unground enamel surfaces.

  19. Copper release from dental prosthetic crowns, dental materials, and human teeth into acetic acid.

    PubMed

    Kalicanin, Biljana M; Nikolić, Ruzica S

    2010-01-01

    This article examines the dilution of the ion of copper from human teeth and dental prosthetic crowns in 4% CH(3)COOH during a period of 24 hr at room temperature. The content of the diluted copper in an acetate extract, as well as the overall content of this metal in the samples, was determined by means of a potentiometric stripping analysis. The comparative measurements were carried out using the furnace atomic absorption spectrophotometry technique, which is recommended by the International Standards (ISO 6872:2008; ISO 24234:2004) as a method for quality control of dental-prosthetic material (dental ceramic, metal restorative materials, dental amalgams) in the process of checking for heavy metals. During a 24-hr period in 4% CH(3)COOH at a temperature of 25 degrees C, approximately 72% of the overall copper was released from the tooth. The percentage of the released copper from baby teeth is higher, ranging from 88 to 92%, which is probably a consequence of the bone tissue being in development, its infirmity, and inadequate stability. On these conditions, approximately 72% of the overall copper was released from the dental-ceramic prosthetic crowns.

  20. Neural response to sandblasted/acid-etched, TiO-blasted, polished, and mechanochemically polished/nanostructured titanium implant surfaces.

    PubMed

    Onur, Mehmet A; Sezgin, Aysun; Gürpinar, Aylin; Sommer, Andrei; Akça, Kivanç; Cehreli, Murat

    2006-10-01

    The purpose of this study was to explore morphologic, functional, and behavioral effects of rough (sandblasted-large grid/acid-etched (SLA) and TiO2 blasted), mechanically polished, and mechanochemically polished titanium implant surfaces on nerves. The compound action potentials (cAPs) of sciatic nerves of sacrificed Wistar rats (n=10) were quantified at the in vitro level, while contacting disk-shaped test specimens. The test specimens were also implanted directly on the sciatic nerves of another group of animals (n=33), hot-plate tests were undertaken for 10 consecutive days, and then the animals were sacrificed. Quantification of signal transduction speeds and cAPs of the nerves of these animals were undertaken at the in vitro level. Finally, the nerves were processed for histologic analysis. The signal transduction speeds and duration of cAPs of all groups were similar (P>0.05), whereas the amplitudes of cAPs of nerves contacting SLA implants were higher than those of TiO2 blasted and mechanochemically polished surfaces (P<0.05). Response latencies of nerves contacting mechanically polished specimens were slightly higher than the other groups (P>0.05). Histologic evaluations did not reveal any signs of adverse tissue response adjacent to specimens tested. Rough and polished titanium implant surfaces lead to similar neural response in vivo and in vitro that fall into physiologic limits.

  1. Correlation of film density and wet etch rate in hydrofluoric acid of plasma enhanced atomic layer deposited silicon nitride

    SciTech Connect

    Provine, J. Schindler, Peter; Kim, Yongmin; Walch, Steve P.; Kim, Hyo Jin; Kim, Ki-Hyun; Prinz, Fritz B.

    2016-06-15

    The continued scaling in transistors and memory elements has necessitated the development of atomic layer deposition (ALD) of silicon nitride (SiN{sub x}), particularly for use a low k dielectric spacer. One of the key material properties needed for SiN{sub x} films is a low wet etch rate (WER) in hydrofluoric (HF) acid. In this work, we report on the evaluation of multiple precursors for plasma enhanced atomic layer deposition (PEALD) of SiN{sub x} and evaluate the film’s WER in 100:1 dilutions of HF in H{sub 2}O. The remote plasma capability available in PEALD, enabled controlling the density of the SiN{sub x} film. Namely, prolonged plasma exposure made films denser which corresponded to lower WER in a systematic fashion. We determined that there is a strong correlation between WER and the density of the film that extends across multiple precursors, PEALD reactors, and a variety of process conditions. Limiting all steps in the deposition to a maximum temperature of 350 °C, it was shown to be possible to achieve a WER in PEALD SiN{sub x} of 6.1 Å/min, which is similar to WER of SiN{sub x} from LPCVD reactions at 850 °C.

  2. The Effect of Carbon Dioxide (CO2) Laser on Sandblasting with Large Grit and Acid Etching (SLA) Surface.

    PubMed

    Foroutan, Tahereh; Ayoubian, Nader

    2013-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate the effect of 6W power Carbon Dioxide Laser (CO2) on the biologic compatibility of the Sandblasting with large grit and acid etching (SLA) titanium discs through studying of the Sarcoma Osteogenic (SaOS-2) human osteoblast-like cells viability. Sterilized titanium discs were used together with SaOS-2 human osteoblast-like cells. 6 sterilized SLA titanium discs of the experimental group were exposed to irradiation by CO2 laser with a power of 6W and 10.600nm wavelength, at fixed frequency of 80Hz during 45 seconds in both pulse and non-contact settings. SaOS-2 human osteoblast-like cells were incubated under 37°C in humid atmosphere (95% weather, 5% CO2) for 72 hours. MTT test was performed to measure the ratio level of cellular proliferation. The results indicated that at 570nm wavelength, the 6W CO2 laser power have not affected the cellular viability. CO2 laser in 6w power has had no effect on the biologic compatibility of the SLA titanium surface.

  3. Effect of sodium sulfite, carboxylic monomer, and phosphoric acid etching on bonding of tri-n-butylborane initiated resin to human enamel.

    PubMed

    Nogawa, Hiroshi; Koizumi, Hiroyasu; Akazawa, Nobutaka; Hiraba, Haruto; Nakamura, Mitsuo; Matsumura, Hideo

    2015-03-01

    The purpose of the present study is evaluation of bonding durability of tri-n-butylborane (TBB) initiated resin without 4-methacryloyloxyethyl trimellitate anhydride (4-META) joined to human enamel. Ground human enamel was bonded with TBB resin under six surface conditions: 1) as ground, 2) primed with Teeth Primer, 3) sodium sulfite solution, 4) 4-META solution, 5) acetone-water, and 6) phosphoric acid etching. Pre- and post-thermocycling bond strengths and change in strength after thermocycling were compared. Etching enamel with 35-45% phosphoric acid enhanced bonding durability between enamel and TBB-initiated resin. Priming with Teeth Primer or 4-META solution improved bond strength between enamel and TBB-initiated resin. Sodium sulfite had little effect on enamel bonding in the present bonding systems.

  4. Chemical aspects of self-etching enamel-dentin adhesives: a systematic review.

    PubMed

    Moszner, Norbert; Salz, Ulrich; Zimmermann, Jörg

    2005-10-01

    The paper gives an overview on the components and the polymer chemical aspects of currently used self-etching enamel-dentin primers/adhesives. In addition, the contribution of new adhesives monomers and cross-linkers exhibiting enhanced hydrolytic stability than methacrylates to improve the performance of single-bottle adhesives is discussed. Information from original scientific papers or reviews about enamel-dentin adhesives, the patent literature concerning dental adhesives and manufacturer information of commercial self-etching adhesives were included in this review. The most efficient self-etching enamel-dentin adhesives are based on strongly acidic adhesive monomers, containing dihydrogenphosphate, phosphonic acids or carboxylic acid groups. Serious problems of single-bottle water-based, strongly acidic self-etching enamel-dentin adhesives arise both from the hydrolytic instability of the methacrylate monomers used and the side reaction of the applied initiator components. The stability of the self-etching enamel-dentin adhesives can be improved by using new acrylic ether phosphonic acids or mono- or difunctional acrylamides, while more stable and compatible components have to be developed in the future.

  5. Fabrication, characterization, and biological assessment of multilayer DNA coatings on sandblasted-dual acid etched titanium surface.

    PubMed

    Liu, Li; Song, Li-Na; Yang, Guo-Li; Zhao, Shi-Fang; He, Fu-Ming

    2011-06-01

    As local gene therapy has received attention, immobilizing functional gene onto irregular oral implant surface has become an advanced challenge. Electrostatic layer-by-layer (LBL) assembly technique could achieve this goal and allow local and efficient administration of genes to the target cells. In this study, multilayers of cationic lipid/plasmid DNA (pEGFP-C1) complex (LDc) and anionic hyaluronic acid were assembled onto sandblasted-dual acid etched titanium disks by the LBL technique. Surface characteristics of the coatings were performed by x-ray photospectroscopy (XPS), contact angle measurements, and scanning electron microscopy (SEM). The cell biological characteristics of the coatings were evaluated by in vitro experiments. SEM results demonstrated that the porous titanium surface was gradually flattened with the increase of the multilayer. The XPS survey indicated that the N element was found from the coating. The coating degradation and pEGFP-C1 releasing kinetics showed that the more assembled layer numbers were, the larger the amount of DNA released in the first 30 h. MC3T3-E1 cells were cultured directly on the DNA-loaded surface. Higher enhanced green fluorescent protein (EGFP) expression efficiency was achieved by increasing the number of layers when cells were cultured after 24 or 72 h. The MC3T3-E1 cell viability on the surface of multilayer DNA coatings was significantly higher than that on control porous titanium surface. It was concluded that the approach established by the LBL technique had great potential in immobilizing gene coatings onto the porous titanium surface and subsequently influenced the function of the cultured cell.

  6. Petrologic and experimental evidence for the etching of garnets by organic acids in the upper Jurassic Morrision Formation, northwestern New Mexico.

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Hansley, P.L.

    1987-01-01

    Etching of garnets and partial to complete dissolution of other aluminosilicate minerals were caused by high concentrations of organic acids generated during the maturation of epigenetic organic matter (predominantly type-III kerogen) in the Morrison Formation. The presence of authigenic phases that form near 100oC indicates that temperatures were high enough during diagenesis to cause the thermal degradation of kerogen.-from Author

  7. Nitrogen dioxide-dependent oxidation of uric acid in the human oral cavity under acidic conditions: implications for its occurrence in acidic dental plaque.

    PubMed

    Takahama, Umeo; Hirota, Sachiko

    2010-06-21

    The pH in dental plaque falls to below 5 after the ingestion of foods, and it may remain low if acid-tolerant bacteria grow in the plaque. Certain nitrate-reducing bacteria in the oral cavity can proliferate in dental plaque at low pH, and nitrite is detected in such plaque. In acidic dental plaque, NO(2) can be produced by self-decomposition of nitrous acid and also by peroxidase-catalyzed oxidation of nitrite, and it may oxidize uric acid, a major antioxidant in the oral cavity. Under experimental conditions that simulate oral cavity, the oxidation of uric acid by nitrite and by nitrite/peroxidase systems was much more rapid at pH 5 than at pH 7, suggesting the more rapid production of NO(2) in dental plaque at lower pH. We propose that if the pH of plaque developed in a dental crevice decreased, NO(2) and other nitrogen oxides produced in the plaque would diffuse into the adjoining gingival tissues. The results of this study seem to contribute to the understanding of the induction of periodontal diseases in the context of nitrite-dependent production of nitrogen oxides in acidic dental plaque.

  8. Effect of etching with cysteamine assisted phosphoric acid on gallium nitride surface oxide formation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wilkins, S. J.; Paskova, T.; Ivanisevic, A.

    2013-08-01

    In-situ functionalization of polar GaN was performed by adding cysteamine to a phosphoric acid etchant in order to study its effect on photoluminescence and oxide formation on the surfaces. The functionalization was characterized by atomic force microscopy, x-ray photoelectron spectroscopy, photoluminescence (PL), and water contact angle measurements. Two sets of polar GaN samples with different dislocation densities were evaluated, thin GaN layers residing on sapphire and thick free-standing GaN separated from sapphire substrate aiming to reveal the effect of material quality on in-situ functionalization. The addition of cysteamine to the phosphoric acid solution was found to result in: (i) decreased surface roughness, (ii) no change to hydrophobicity, (iii) decreased oxygen content especially at high-temperature treatments. The effect of the in-situ functionalization on the PL efficiency was more pronounced in the free-standing sample than in the film residing on the sapphire, which was attributed to a higher crystal quality free from strain.

  9. Ultrasonic recovery of copper and iron through the simultaneous utilization of Printed Circuit Boards (PCB) spent acid etching solution and PCB waste sludge.

    PubMed

    Huang, Zhiyuan; Xie, Fengchun; Ma, Yang

    2011-01-15

    A method was developed to recover the copper and iron from Printed Circuit Boards (PCB) manufacturing generated spent acid etching solution and waste sludge with ultrasonic energy at laboratory scale. It demonstrated that copper-containing PCB spent etching solution could be utilized as a leaching solution to leach copper from copper contained PCB waste sludge. It also indicated that lime could be used as an alkaline precipitating agent in this method to precipitate iron from the mixture of acidic PCB spent etching solution and waste sludge. This method provided an effective technique for the recovery of copper and iron through simultaneous use of PCB spent acid solution and waste sludge. The leaching rates of copper and iron enhanced with ultrasound energy were reached at 93.76% and 2.07% respectively and effectively separated copper from iron. Followed by applying lime to precipitate copper from the mixture of leachate and rinsing water produced by the copper and iron separation, about 99.99% and 1.29% of soluble copper and calcium were settled as the solids respectively. Furthermore the settled copper could be made as commercial rate copper. The process performance parameters studied were pH, ultrasonic power, and temperature. This method provided a simple and reliable technique to recover copper and iron from waste streams generated by PCB manufacturing, and would significantly reduce the cost of chemicals used in the recovery. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  10. No positive effect of Acid etching or plasma cleaning on osseointegration of titanium implants in a canine femoral condyle press-fit model.

    PubMed

    Saksø, H; Jakobsen, T; Saksø, M; Baas, J; Jakobsen, Ss; Soballe, K

    2013-01-01

    Implant surface treatments that improve early osseointegration may prove useful in long-term survival of uncemented implants. We investigated Acid Etching and Plasma Cleaning on titanium implants. In a randomized, paired animal study, four porous coated Ti implants were inserted into the femurs of each of ten dogs. PC (Porous Coating; control)PC+PSHA (Plasma Sprayed Hydroxyapatite; positive control)PC+ET (Acid Etch)PC+ET+PLCN (Plasma Cleaning) After four weeks mechanical fixation was evaluated by push-out test and osseointegration by histomorphometry. The PSHA-coated implants were better osseointegrated than the three other groups on outer surface implant porosity (p<0.05) while there was no statistical difference in deep surface implant porosity when compared with nontreated implant. Within the deep surface implant porosity, there was more newly formed bone in the control group compared to the ET and ET+PCLN groups (p<0.05). In all compared groups, there was no statistical difference in any biomechanical parameter. In terms of osseointegration on outer surface implant porosity PC+PSHA was superior to the other three groups. Neither the acid etching nor the plasma cleaning offered any advantage in terms of implant osseointegration. There was no statistical difference in any of the biomechanical parameters among all groups in the press-fit model at 4 weeks of evaluation time.

  11. Acid etching concentration as a strategy to improve the adhesive performance on Er:YAG laser and bur-prepared demineralized enamel.

    PubMed

    Guedes, Sarah F F; Melo, Mary Anne S; Lima, Juliana P M; Ely, Caroline; Rôla, Antero J S; Piva, Evandro; Rodrigues, Lidiany K A

    2014-07-01

    This study investigated the effect of phosphoric acid concentration on microshear bond strength (μSBS) of an etch-and-rinse adhesive system to demineralized irradiated enamel. Er:YAG laser irradiation may increase acid resistance of enamel; however, its use is associated with reduced bonding effectiveness. Three experimental etching agents and one bonding agent were fabricated. Enamel pretreatment was tested in two levels (bur and laser) and phosphoric acid was tested in four levels (control and at 35, 45, or 55%). Commercially available phosphoric acid and a bonding agent were used as control. Enamel samples were submitted to a pH-cycling model to induce demineralization. Half of the exposed demineralized enamel area was prepared with diamond bur and half was prepared with an Er:YAG laser (λ=2.94 μm, 300 mJ, 2 Hz). Specimens were randomly allocated to receive different acid etching concentrations and either the experimental or the commercial adhesive system. Microshear bond strength and the adhesive remnant index (ARI) scores were determined. μSBS's data were evaluated by two way analysis of variance (ANOVA) and Tukey's test. Kruskal-Wallis followed by Dunn's method and Mann-Whitney test were used for ARI comparisons (α=5%). For μSBS, no significant difference among the groups was found, either for phosphoric acid concentration or surface preparation. For ARI scores, statistically higher resin retention was found for lased groups (p<0.001). The increase of phosphoric acid concentration did not impair bond strength regardless of surface preparation; however, increased retention was found when demineralized enamel was prepared with laser.

  12. Self-etching adhesives: review of adhesion to tooth structure part II.

    PubMed

    Strydom, C

    2005-02-01

    Self-etching adhesives are steadily increasing in popularity among dental practitioners with their easy handling technique and their promise of no post-op sensitivity. As with any new bonding material, in vitro and in vivo investigations are required to assess the clinical efficacy of these systems. The current literature was reviewed to provide information on these systems, including the influence of their acidity and permeability on the quality of the bond, the role of water in long-term degradation of the bond in in vivo and in vitro studies, and the clinical efficacy of the self-etching adhesives in clinical research studies. Published abstracts, reviews, laboratory reports and clinical research papers in the dental literature. Very little information is available on self-etching systems pertaining to the long-term in vitro and in vivo durability of their bond and their medium- to long-term clinical outcome. Although post-op sensitivity seems to be something of the past, short-term clinical studies show that some self-etching adhesives do not perform as well as total-etch systems.

  13. Surface Properties and Osteoblastic Cytocompatibility of Two Blasted and Acid-Etched Titanium Implant Systems with Distinct Microtopography

    PubMed Central

    Mesquita, Pedro; Gomes, Pedro de Sousa; Sampaio, Paula; Juodzbalys, Gintaras; Afonso, Américo

    2012-01-01

    ABSTRACT Objectives The aim of this study is to compare two commercially available screw-type sandblasted and acid-etched (SLA) Ti implant systems from Eckermann Laboratorium S.L., with similar geometry and distinct microtopography, regarding surface properties and osteoblastic cytocompatibility. Material and Methods Implant I (referred as a conventional SLA system) and Implant II (a system patented as Eckcyte®) were characterized for macro and microtopograpphy, surface roughness and chemical composition. For the cytocompatibility studies, human bone marrow osteoblastic cells were seeded over the implants' surface, and the cell response was assessed for cell adhesion and proliferation, alkaline phosphatase (ALP) activity and matrix mineralization. Results Implant I presented a rough surface with irregularly shaped and sized cavities among flatter-appearing areas, whereas Implant II exhibited a homogeneous rough microporous surface. Compared to Implant I, Implant II presented higher Ra values (0.8 [SD 0.008] μm and 1.21 [SD 0.15] μm, respectively, P < 0.05) and also increased values of Rz, Rt and Rsm, a more negative value of Rsk, and similar RKu values. XPS showed the expected presence of Ti, O, C and N; Al, Si, F, P and Ca were detected in low concentrations. Implant II exhibited significantly lower Al levels. Both implants supported the adhesion, proliferation and differentiation of osteoblastic cells. Implant II showed a thicker fibrilar cell layer and an earlier onset and more abundant matrix mineralization. Conclusions The homogeneous rough and microporous surface of Implant II is most probably a main contributor for its improved cell response. PMID:24422006

  14. Surface properties and osteoblastic cytocompatibility of two blasted and Acid-etched titanium implant systems with distinct microtopography.

    PubMed

    Mesquita, Pedro; Gomes, Pedro de Sousa; Sampaio, Paula; Juodzbalys, Gintaras; Afonso, Américo; Fernandes, Maria Helena

    2012-01-01

    The aim of this study is to compare two commercially available screw-type sandblasted and acid-etched (SLA) Ti implant systems from Eckermann Laboratorium S.L., with similar geometry and distinct microtopography, regarding surface properties and osteoblastic cytocompatibility. Implant I (referred as a conventional SLA system) and Implant II (a system patented as Eckcyte(®)) were characterized for macro and microtopograpphy, surface roughness and chemical composition. For the cytocompatibility studies, human bone marrow osteoblastic cells were seeded over the implants' surface, and the cell response was assessed for cell adhesion and proliferation, alkaline phosphatase (ALP) activity and matrix mineralization. Implant I presented a rough surface with irregularly shaped and sized cavities among flatter-appearing areas, whereas Implant II exhibited a homogeneous rough microporous surface. Compared to Implant I, Implant II presented higher Ra values (0.8 [SD 0.008] μm and 1.21 [SD 0.15] μm, respectively, P < 0.05) and also increased values of Rz, Rt and Rsm, a more negative value of Rsk, and similar RKu values. XPS showed the expected presence of Ti, O, C and N; Al, Si, F, P and Ca were detected in low concentrations. Implant II exhibited significantly lower Al levels. Both implants supported the adhesion, proliferation and differentiation of osteoblastic cells. Implant II showed a thicker fibrilar cell layer and an earlier onset and more abundant matrix mineralization. The homogeneous rough and microporous surface of Implant II is most probably a main contributor for its improved cell response.

  15. Histomorphometric evaluation of bioceramic molecular impregnated and dual acid-etched implant surfaces in the human posterior maxilla.

    PubMed

    Shibli, Jamil Awad; Grassi, Sauro; Piattelli, Adriano; Pecora, Gabriele E; Ferrari, Daniel S; Onuma, Tatiana; d'Avila, Susana; Coelho, Paulo G; Barros, Raquel; Iezzi, Giovanna

    2010-12-01

    Physical and bioceramic incorporation surface treatments at the nanometer scale showed higher means of bone-to-implant contact (BIC) and torque values compared with surface topography at the micrometer scale; however, the literature concerning the effect of nanometer scale parameters is sparse. The aim of this study was to evaluate the influence of two different implant surfaces on the percentage bone-to-implant contact (BIC%) and bone osteocyte density in the human posterior maxilla after 2 months of unloaded healing. The implants utilized presented dual acid-etched (DAE) surface and a bioceramic molecular impregnated treatment (Ossean®, Intra-Lock International, Boca Raton, FL, USA) serving as control and test, respectively. Ten subjects (59 ± 9 years of age) received two implants (one of each surface) during conventional implant surgery in the posterior maxilla. After the non-loaded period of 2 months, the implants and the surrounding tissue were removed by means of a trephine and were non-decalcified processed for ground sectioning and analysis of BIC%, bone density in threaded area (BA%), and osteocyte index (Oi). Two DAE implants were found to be clinically unstable at time of retrieval. Histometric evaluation showed significantly higher BIC% and Oi for the test compared to the control surface (p < .05), and that BA% was not significantly different between groups. Wilcoxon matched pairs test was used to compare the differences of histomorphometric variables between implant surfaces. The significance test was conducted at a 5% level of significance. The histological data suggest that the bioceramic molecular impregnated surface-treated implants positively modulated bone healing at early implantation times compared to the DAE surface. © 2009, Copyright the Authors. Journal Compilation © 2010, Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  16. Modulated regeneration of acid-etched human tooth enamel by a functionalized dendrimer that is an analog of amelogenin.

    PubMed

    Chen, Mei; Yang, Jiaojiao; Li, Jiyao; Liang, Kunneng; He, Libang; Lin, Zaifu; Chen, Xingyu; Ren, Xiaokang; Li, Jianshu

    2014-10-01

    In the bioinspired repair process of tooth enamel, it is important to simultaneously mimic the organic-matrix-induced biomineralization and increase the binding strength at the remineralization interface. In this work, a fourth-generation polyamidoamine dendrimer (PAMAM) is modified by dimethyl phosphate to obtain phosphate-terminated dendrimer (PAMAM-PO3H2) since it has a similar dimensional scale and peripheral functionalities to that of amelogenin, which plays important role in the natural development process of enamel. Its phosphate group has stronger affinity for calcium ion than carboxyl group and can simultaneously provide strong hydroxyapatite (HA)-binding capability. The MTT assay demonstrates the low cytotoxicity of PAMAM-PO3H2. Adsorption tests indicate that PAMAM-PO3H2 can be tightly adsorbed on the human tooth enamel. Scanning electron microscopy and X-ray diffraction are used to analyze the remineralization process. After being incubated in artificial saliva for 3weeks, there is a newly generated HA layer of 11.23μm thickness on the acid-etched tooth enamel treated by PAMAM-PO3H2, while the thickness for the carboxyl-terminated one (PAMAM-COOH) is only 6.02μm. PAMAM-PO3H2 can regulate the remineralization process to form ordered new crystals oriented along the Z-axis and produce an enamel prism-like structure that is similar to that of natural tooth enamel. The animal experiment also demonstrates that PAMAM-PO3H2 can induce significant HA regeneration in the oral cavity of rats. Thus PAMAM-PO3H2 shows great potential as a biomimetic restorative material for human tooth enamel. Copyright © 2014 Acta Materialia Inc. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. Uniform nano-ripples on the sidewall of silicon carbide micro-hole fabricated by femtosecond laser irradiation and acid etching

    SciTech Connect

    Khuat, Vanthanh; Chen, Tao; Gao, Bo; Si, Jinhai Ma, Yuncan; Hou, Xun

    2014-06-16

    Uniform nano-ripples were observed on the sidewall of micro-holes in silicon carbide fabricated by 800-nm femtosecond laser and chemical selective etching. The morphology of the ripple was analyzed using scanning electronic microscopy. The formation mechanism of the micro-holes was attributed to the chemical reaction of the laser affected zone with mixed solution of hydrofluoric acid and nitric acid. The formation of nano-ripples on the sidewall of the holes could be attributed to the standing wave generated in z direction due to the interference between the incident wave and the reflected wave.

  18. Assessment of dental demineralization of yellow race based on fluorescence spectrum

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhan, Zhenlin; Chen, Chuanguo; Li, Xuwei; Zhang, Xianzeng; Xie, Shusen

    2014-11-01

    The goal of this study was to evaluate the demineralization status at different acid-etch time based on fluorescence spectrum. Human molars in vitro of yellow race were cut into tooth sections and then they were immersed in 0.3% citric acid to simulate the oral natural demineralization. According to the acid-etch time, samples were randomly divided into three groups: I:20 min, II:40 min, and III:60 min. The normal untreated specimen was set as control group. The fluorescence spectra before and after treatment were measured and analyzed. The result showed that fluorescence spectrum could be efficiently used to monitor the demineralization status of human dental tissue. The relative fluorescence intensities of dental tissue excited respectively with 260, 330 and 400 nm decreased with the increase of acid-etch time, though there was no new constituent formed after demineralization.

  19. Clinical performance of wide-body implants with a sandblasted and acid-etched (SLA) surface: results of a 3-year follow-up study in a referral clinic.

    PubMed

    Bornstein, Michael M; Harnisch, Hendrik; Lussi, Adrian; Buser, Daniel

    2007-01-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the 3-year success rates of wide-body implants with a regular- or wide-neck configuration and a sandblasted, large grit, acid-etched (SLA) surface. A total of 151 implants were consecutively placed in posterior sites of 116 partially edentulous patients in a referral clinic at the School of Dental Medicine, University of Bern. All implants were restored with cemented crowns or fixed partial dentures after a healing period of 6 to 8 weeks (for implants placed without simultaneous bone augmentation) or 10 to 14 weeks (for implants with simultaneous bone augmentation). All patients were recalled 36 months following implant placement for a clinical and radiographic examination. One implant failed to integrate during healing, and 11 implants were lost to follow-up and considered dropouts. The remaining 139 implants showed favorable clinical and radiographic findings and were considered successfully integrated at the 3-year examination. This resulted in a 3-year success rate of 99.3%. Radiographic evaluation of 134 implants indicated stability of the crestal bone levels: During the study period, the crestal bone level changed less than 0.5 mm for 129 implants. Successful tissue integration was achieved with wide-body implants with a regular or a wide-neck configuration and an SLA surface with high predictability. This successful tissue integration was well maintained for up to 3 years of follow-up.

  20. [Survival and success rate of dental implants treated with high intensity laser].

    PubMed

    Joób-Fancsaly, Arpád; Divinyi, Tamás; Karacs, Albert; Koncz, Szilvia; Pető, Gábor; Sulyok, Lili

    2015-09-01

    Clinical and radiological evaluations were conducted in patients with high energy Nd : glass laser-treated dental implants. These patients underwent dental implantation surgery between 1997 and 2006. Strict success criteria were used for the examination and analysis of implants. Based on clinical and radiological evaluation, success and survival rates of laser surface treated dental implants were similar to those of sandblasted, acid-etched surface implants frequently reported in the literature. Specific surface morphology and high degree of purity of laser surface treated dental implants ensure excellent osseointegration and a good clinical performance also on the long-term.

  1. Optical investigation of the intergrowth structure and accessibility of Brønsted acid sites in etched SSZ-13 zeolite crystals by confocal fluorescence microscopy.

    PubMed

    Sommer, Linn; Svelle, Stian; Lillerud, Karl Petter; Stöcker, Michael; Weckhuysen, Bert M; Olsbye, Unni

    2010-11-02

    Template decomposition followed by confocal fluorescence microscopy reveals a tetragonal-pyramidal intergrowth of subunits in micrometer-sized nearly cubic SSZ-13 zeolite crystals. In order to accentuate intergrowth boundaries and defect-rich areas within the individual large zeolite crystals, a treatment with an etching NaOH solution is applied. The defective areas are visualized by monitoring the spatial distribution of fluorescent tracer molecules within the individual SSZ-13 crystals by confocal fluorescence microscopy. These fluorescent tracer molecules are formed at the inner and outer crystal surfaces by utilizing the catalytic activity of the zeolite in the oligomerization reaction of styrene derivatives. This approach reveals various types of etching patterns that are an indication for the defectiveness of the studied crystals. We can show that specially one type of crystals, denoted as core-shell type, is highly accessible to the styrene molecules after etching. Despite the large crystal dimensions, the whole core-shell type SSZ-13 crystal is utilized for catalytic reaction. Furthermore, the confocal fluorescence microscopy measurements indicate a nonuniform distribution of the catalytically important Brønsted acid sites underlining the importance of space-resolved measurements.

  2. Effect of acid vapor etching on morphological and opto-electric properties of flat silicon and silicon nanowire arrays: A comparative study

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Amri, Chohdi; Ouertani, Rachid; Hamdi, Abderrahmen; Ezzaouia, Hatem

    2016-03-01

    In this paper, we report a comparative study between porous silicon (pSi) and porous silicon nanowires (pSiNWs). Acid Vapor Etching (AVE) treatment has been used to perform porous structure on flat Si and SiNWs array substrates respectively. SiNW structure is prepared by the widely used Silver catalyzed etching method. SEM and TEM images show that AVE treatment induces porous structure in the whole Si wafer and the SiNW sidewall. Comparatively to pSi, pSiNWs exhibit a low reflectivity in the whole spectral range which decreases with etching duration. However, the reflectivity of pSi changes with porous layer thickness. Both pSi and pSiNWs exhibit a significant PL peak situated at 2 eV. PL peaks are attributed to the quantum confinement effect in the silicon nanocrystallites (SiNCs). We discussed the significant enhancement in the peak intensities and a shift toward lower energy displayed in Raman spectra for both pSi and pSiNWs. We reported a correlative study of the AVE treatment effect on the minority carrier life time of flat silicon and SiNW arrays with the passivation effect of chemical induced silicon oxides highlighted by FTIR spectra.

  3. Effects of Dextrose and Lipopolysaccharide on the Corrosion Behavior of a Ti-6Al-4V Alloy with a Smooth Surface or Treated with Double-Acid-Etching

    PubMed Central

    Faverani, Leonardo P.; Assunção, Wirley G.; de Carvalho, Paulo Sérgio P.; Yuan, Judy Chia-Chun; Sukotjo, Cortino; Mathew, Mathew T.; Barao, Valentim A.

    2014-01-01

    Diabetes and infections are associated with a high risk of implant failure. However, the effects of such conditions on the electrochemical stability of titanium materials remain unclear. This study evaluated the corrosion behavior of a Ti-6Al-4V alloy, with a smooth surface or conditioned by double-acid-etching, in simulated body fluid with different concentrations of dextrose and lipopolysaccharide. For the electrochemical assay, the open-circuit-potential, electrochemical impedance spectroscopy, and potentiodynamic test were used. The disc surfaces were characterized by scanning electron microscopy and atomic force microscopy. Their surface roughness and Vickers microhardness were also tested. The quantitative data were analyzed by Pearson's correlation and independent t-tests (α = 0.05). In the corrosion parameters, there was a strong lipopolysaccharide correlation with the Ipass (passivation current density), Cdl (double-layer capacitance), and Rp (polarization resistance) values (p<0.05) for the Ti-6Al-4V alloy with surface treatment by double-acid-etching. The combination of dextrose and lipopolysaccharide was correlated with the Icorr (corrosion current density) and Ipass (p<0.05). The acid-treated groups showed a significant increase in Cdl values and reduced Rp values (p<0.05, t-test). According to the topography, there was an increase in surface roughness (R2 = 0.726, p<0.0001 for the smooth surface; R2 = 0.405, p = 0.036 for the double-acid-etching-treated surface). The microhardness of the smooth Ti-6Al-4V alloy decreased (p<0.05) and that of the treated Ti-6Al-4V alloy increased (p<0.0001). Atomic force microscopy showed changes in the microstructure of the Ti-6Al-4V alloy by increasing the surface thickness mainly in the group associated with dextrose and lipopolysaccharide. The combination of dextrose and lipopolysaccharide affected the corrosion behavior of the Ti-6Al-4V alloy surface treated with double-acid-etching. However, no

  4. Effects of dextrose and lipopolysaccharide on the corrosion behavior of a Ti-6Al-4V alloy with a smooth surface or treated with double-acid-etching.

    PubMed

    Faverani, Leonardo P; Assunção, Wirley G; de Carvalho, Paulo Sérgio P; Yuan, Judy Chia-Chun; Sukotjo, Cortino; Mathew, Mathew T; Barao, Valentim A

    2014-01-01

    Diabetes and infections are associated with a high risk of implant failure. However, the effects of such conditions on the electrochemical stability of titanium materials remain unclear. This study evaluated the corrosion behavior of a Ti-6Al-4V alloy, with a smooth surface or conditioned by double-acid-etching, in simulated body fluid with different concentrations of dextrose and lipopolysaccharide. For the electrochemical assay, the open-circuit-potential, electrochemical impedance spectroscopy, and potentiodynamic test were used. The disc surfaces were characterized by scanning electron microscopy and atomic force microscopy. Their surface roughness and Vickers microhardness were also tested. The quantitative data were analyzed by Pearson's correlation and independent t-tests (α = 0.05). In the corrosion parameters, there was a strong lipopolysaccharide correlation with the Ipass (passivation current density), Cdl (double-layer capacitance), and Rp (polarization resistance) values (p<0.05) for the Ti-6Al-4V alloy with surface treatment by double-acid-etching. The combination of dextrose and lipopolysaccharide was correlated with the Icorr (corrosion current density) and Ipass (p<0.05). The acid-treated groups showed a significant increase in Cdl values and reduced Rp values (p<0.05, t-test). According to the topography, there was an increase in surface roughness (R2 = 0.726, p<0.0001 for the smooth surface; R2 = 0.405, p = 0.036 for the double-acid-etching-treated surface). The microhardness of the smooth Ti-6Al-4V alloy decreased (p<0.05) and that of the treated Ti-6Al-4V alloy increased (p<0.0001). Atomic force microscopy showed changes in the microstructure of the Ti-6Al-4V alloy by increasing the surface thickness mainly in the group associated with dextrose and lipopolysaccharide. The combination of dextrose and lipopolysaccharide affected the corrosion behavior of the Ti-6Al-4V alloy surface treated with double-acid-etching. However, no

  5. Lactic acid jet test: in vitro erosion rates of glass ionomer dental cements containing radiopacifying elements.

    PubMed

    Williams, J A; Billington, R W; Pearson, G J

    1993-06-01

    The lactic acid jet test erosion rates were measured for 13 radiopaque glass ionomer dental materials obtained from a number of manufacturing sources. The erosion rate was compared with that found for the non-radiopaque restorative from the same manufacturer to determine whether the addition of an extra element had affected the resistance to erosion. Six materials were not significantly affected, six showed a significant increase in erosion rate. Only one material showed a reduced erosion rate. Materials containing a high proportion of any additive could show an increased erosion rate. Glass ionomer cements with or without radiopacifying elements had low erosion rates compared with other dental materials.

  6. Observations on dental structures when placed in contact with acids: experimental studies to aid identification processes.

    PubMed

    Mazza, Alessandra; Merlati, Giuseppe; Savio, Caterina; Fassina, Giovanni; Menghini, Paolo; Danesino, Paolo

    2005-03-01

    In a "mafia" crime case, a magistrate asked us whether it is possible to destroy a cadaver by immersing it in acids, and would it be possible to identify any residues. The aim of this study was to observe the behavior of teeth exposed to four kinds of acid solutions. The teeth were placed in plastic containers with 25 mL of acid and observed. The experiences showed that teeth are completely dissolved after 14 h of immersion in 37% solution of hydrochloric acid, while at 90h in 96% sulfuric acid, the destruction of the samples is still incomplete. In nitric acid the teeth undergo a complete dissolution in 12 h, and in 17 h in aqua regia (chloroazotic acid-hydrochloric/nitric acid 1:3). It was possible to recognize the characteristic morphological features of dental tissues and structures up until the advanced stages of degradation.

  7. Effect of acid etching on marginal adaptation of mineral trioxide aggregate to apical dentin: microcomputed tomography and scanning electron microscopy analysis.

    PubMed

    Al-Fouzan, Khalid; Al-Garawi, Ziad; Al-Hezaimi, Khalid; Javed, Fawad; Al-Shalan, Thakib; Rotstein, Ilan

    2012-12-01

    The present investigation assessed the effect of acid etching on marginal adaptation of white- and gray-colored mineral trioxide aggregate (MTA) to apical dentin using microcomputed tomography (micro-CT) and scanning electron microscopy (SEM). Sixty-four extracted single-rooted human maxillary teeth were used. Following root-end resection and apical preparation, the teeth were equally divided into four groups according to the following root end filling materials: (i) white-colored MTA (WMTA), (ii) etched WMTA (EWMTA), (iii) gray-colored MTA (GMTA) and (iv) etched GMTA (EGMTA). After 48 h, the interface between root-end filling materials and the dentinal walls was assessed using micro-CT and SEM. Data were statistically analyzed using the Kruskal-Wallis and Dunn tests. Micro-CT analysis revealed gap volumes between the apical cavity dentin walls and EGMTA, GMTA, EWMTA and WMTA of (0.007 1±0.004) mm(3), (0.053±0.002) mm(3), (0.003 6±0.001) mm(3) and (0.005 9±0.002) mm(3) respectively. SEM analysis revealed gap sizes for EGMTA, WMTA, EWMTA and GMTA to be (492.3±13.8) µm, (594.5±17.12) µm, (543.1±15.33) µm and (910.7±26.2) µm respectively. A significant difference in gap size between root end preparations filled with GMTA and EGMTA was found (P<0.05). No significance difference in gap size between WMTA and EWMTA were found in either SEM or micro-CT analysis. In conclusion, pre-etching of apical dentin can provide a better seal for GMTA but not for WMTA.

  8. Classification review of dental adhesive systems: from the IV generation to the universal type.

    PubMed

    Sofan, Eshrak; Sofan, Afrah; Palaia, Gaspare; Tenore, Gianluca; Romeo, Umberto; Migliau, Guido

    2017-01-01

    Adhesive dentistry has undergone great progress in the last decades. In light of minimal-invasive dentistry, this new approach promotes a more conservative cavity design, which relies on the effectiveness of current enamel-dentine adhesives. Adhesive dentistry began in 1955 by Buonocore on the benefits of acid etching. With changing technologies, dental adhesives have evolved from no-etch to total-etch (4(th) and 5(th) generation) to self-etch (6(th), 7(th) and 8(th) generation) systems. Currently, bonding to dental substrates is based on three different strategies: 1) etch-and-rinse, 2) self-etch and 3) resin-modified glass-ionomer approach as possessing the unique properties of self-adherence to the tooth tissue. More recently, a new family of dentin adhesives has been introduced (universal or multi-mode adhesives), which may be used either as etch-and-rinse or as self-etch adhesives. The purpose of this article is to review the literature on the current knowledge for each adhesive system according to their classification that have been advocated by many authorities in most operative/restorative procedures. As noted by several valuable studies that have contributed to understanding of bonding to various substrates helps clinicians to choose the appropriate dentin bonding agents for optimal clinical outcomes.

  9. Classification review of dental adhesive systems: from the IV generation to the universal type

    PubMed Central

    Sofan, Eshrak; Sofan, Afrah; Palaia, Gaspare; Tenore, Gianluca; Romeo, Umberto; Migliau, Guido

    2017-01-01

    Summary Adhesive dentistry has undergone great progress in the last decades. In light of minimal-invasive dentistry, this new approach promotes a more conservative cavity design, which relies on the effectiveness of current enamel-dentine adhesives. Adhesive dentistry began in 1955 by Buonocore on the benefits of acid etching. With changing technologies, dental adhesives have evolved from no-etch to total-etch (4th and 5th generation) to self-etch (6th, 7th and 8th generation) systems. Currently, bonding to dental substrates is based on three different strategies: 1) etch-and-rinse, 2) self-etch and 3) resin-modified glass-ionomer approach as possessing the unique properties of self-adherence to the tooth tissue. More recently, a new family of dentin adhesives has been introduced (universal or multi-mode adhesives), which may be used either as etch-and-rinse or as self-etch adhesives. The purpose of this article is to review the literature on the current knowledge for each adhesive system according to their classification that have been advocated by many authorities in most operative/restorative procedures. As noted by several valuable studies that have contributed to understanding of bonding to various substrates helps clinicians to choose the appropriate dentin bonding agents for optimal clinical outcomes. PMID:28736601

  10. Applications of total-etch adhesive bonding.

    PubMed

    Strassler, Howard E

    2003-06-01

    The concept of total-etch adhesion for enamel and dentin is well accepted. Although new techniques with self-etching adhesives have been introduced, there needs to be more reported clinical trials before making a complete switch to these systems. Currently, the only adhesive systems with long-term data to support confidence and success with their clinical use are total-etch systems. Applications for using a total-etch adhesive bonding technique include sealants, orthodontic brackets, anterior composite resins, posterior composite resins, bonded dental silver amalgam, resin cementation with posts, all-metal, porcelain-metal, composite resin, and ceramic restorations, splinting, core foundations, and conservative treatment of the worn dentition. This article will review the concepts for clinical success with total-etch adhesion for a wide range of clinical applications.

  11. Etching Integrated Circuits

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kennedy, B. W.

    1983-01-01

    20-page report reviews methods available for etching specific layers on wafers and discusses automation techniques and features on one particular automated system. Compares two major etching methods, chemical (wet) and plasma (dry), and discusses areas in need of development. Methods covered include "dip-and-dunk" manual method of chemical etching, automated chemical etching, and plasma etching.

  12. Dental and oropharyngeal lesions in rats with chronic acid reflux esophagitis.

    PubMed

    Shimazu, Rintaro; Yamamoto, Mihoko; Minesaki, Akimichi; Kuratomi, Yuichiro

    2017-09-04

    In this study, we evaluated pathological changes in the tooth and pharynx of GERD rats to elucidate the association between gastric acid reflux and oral and pharyngeal diseases. An experimental rat model of chronic acid reflux esophagitis was surgically created. The oral cavities were observed histologically every 2 weeks until 20 weeks after surgery. At 10 weeks after surgery, molar crown heights in GERD rats were shorter than that in control rats, and inflammatory cell infiltration by gastric acid reflux was found in the periodontal mucosa of GERD rats. Furthermore, dental erosion progressed in GERD rats at 20 weeks after surgery, and enamel erosion and dentin exposure were observed. During the same period, inflammatory cell infiltration was observed in the mucosa of the posterior part of the tongue. These findings suggest that gastric acid reflux may be one of the exacerbating factors of dental erosion, periodontitis and glossitis. We investigated oral changes in an experimental rat model of GERD and observed development of dental erosion, periodontitis and glossitis. Our findings suggested chronic gastric acid reflux may be involved in the pathogenesis of oral disease. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  13. Dental erosion protection by fermented shrimp paste in acidic food.

    PubMed

    Chuenarrom, C; Benjakul, P

    2010-01-01

    The aim of this study was to determine the extent to which fermented shrimp paste (which has a high calcium concentration) reduces dental erosion in vitro. In experiment 1, enamel specimens were exposed to various concentrations of shrimp paste in tamarind juice for 15 min, once a day, for a total of 29 days. In experiment 2, pre-softened enamel specimens were exposed to different concentrations of shrimp paste in water, using an exposure method similar to experiment 1. Profilometry and a microhardness test were used to assess changes in enamel loss and softening. The results showed that shrimp paste can reduce the erosive potential of tamarind juice and re-harden softened enamel. Copyright 2009 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  14. Postoperative sensitivity of self etch versus total etch adhesive.

    PubMed

    Yousaf, Ajmal; Aman, Nadia; Manzoor, Manzoor Ahmed; Shah, Jawad Ali; Dilrasheed

    2014-06-01

    To compare postoperative sensitivity following composite restoration placed in supra gingival class-V cavities using self etch adhesive and total etch adhesive. A randomized clinical trial. Operative Dentistry Department of Armed Forces Institute of Dentistry, Rawalpindi, from July to December 2009. A total of 70 patients having class-V supra gingival carious lesions were divided into two groups. Classes-V cavities not exceeding 3 mm were prepared. One treatment group was treated with self etch adhesive (adhe SE one Ivoclar) and the control group was treated with total-etch adhesive (Eco-Etch Ivoclar) after acid etching with 37% phosphoric acid. Light cured composite (Te-Econom Ivoclar) restoration was placed for both groups and evaluated for postoperative sensitivity immediately after restoration, after 24 hours and after one week. Data was recorded on visual analogue scale. Comparison of sensitivity between the two treatment groups on application cold stimulus after 24 hours of restoration showed significant difference; however, no statistically significant difference was observed at baseline, immediately after restoration and at 1 week follow-up with cold stimulus or compressed air application. Less postoperative sensitivity was observed at postoperative 24 hours assessment in restoration placed using SE adhesives compared to TE adhesives. Thus, the use of SE adhesives may be helpful in reducing postoperative sensitivity during 24 hours after restoration placement.

  15. An Investigation of Dental Luting Cement Solubility as a Function of the Marginal Gap.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1988-05-01

    be non-irritating to the dental pulp , and have low solubility. A critical property of luting cement is its solubility in oral fluids. If the cement...25 micron and 100 micron cement margins. In another investigation, hollow orthodontic tubing and the acid etch composite resin technique were used to...evaluate cement solubility. (lbbetson 1985) Hollow orthodontic tubing, with a 0.05 mm diameter, was filled with dental cement and attached to the

  16. Resin tag length of one-step and self-etching adhesives bonded to unground enamel.

    PubMed

    Sundfeld, Renato Herman; de Oliveira, Carlos Henrique; da Silva, Adriana Maria Jorge Dal'acqua; Briso, André Luiz Fraga; Sundfeld, Maria Lúcia Marçal Mazza

    2005-08-01

    Length of resin tags yielded by utilization of an one-step conventional adhesive system and self-etching adhesive system on unground enamel was observed. In study Groups I and III, the enamel surface was etched for 60 seconds with 35% phosphoric acid gel and adhesive systems PQ1 (Ultradent Products, Inc) and Adper Prompt L Pop (3M/ESPE) were applied. Adper Prompt L Pop (3M/ESPE) was also applied in Group II in accordance with the manufacturer's recommendations. After application of these adhesive systems to dental enamel, specimens were prepared for light microscopy analysis to ascertain degree of penetration (x400). The results were submitted to an analysis of variance at the 5% level; whenever there was significance, the Tukey test was applied at the 5% level. It was found that acid etching prior to application of conventional and self-etching adhesive materials provided higher penetration of the adhesive into the unground enamel surface compared to that achieved solely by application of self-etching adhesive.

  17. Acid-base properties of adhesive dental polymers.

    PubMed

    Morra, M

    1993-11-01

    The surface energetics of three resins (polymethylmethacrylate, polyhydroxyethylmethacrylate, and Bis-GMA/triethyleneglycoldimethacrylate) commonly used in adhesive interactions with tooth hard tissues were evaluated according to the Fowkes acid-base theory of interfacial interactions. From the measurement of the contact angle of test acidic and basic liquids on the sample surfaces, the acid-base contribution to the work of adhesion was evaluated. Results show that polyhydroxyethylmethacrylate is a comparatively strong Lewis base, a finding that can explain the important role played by this material in the formulation of dentin adhesive.

  18. Early bone healing around 2 different experimental, HA grit-blasted, and dual acid-etched titanium implant surfaces. A pilot study in rabbits.

    PubMed

    Gobbato, Luca; Arguello, Emilio; Martin, Ignacio Sanz; Hawley, Charles E; Griffin, Terrence J

    2012-12-01

    To compare early bone healing around different experimental titanium implant surfaces and to evaluate the role of a calcium phosphate-coated implant surface because it relates to bone-implant contact (BIC). An experimental hydroxyapatite (HA) grit-blasted and dual acid-etched titanium surface (BAE-1) was compared to an experimental HA grit-blasted and dual acid-etched surface treated with nanometer-scale crystals of HA (BAE-2). Both experimental implant surfaces were implanted onto the tibias of 4 New Zealand white rabbits. The animals were killed at 1,6, 21, and 90 days after the implant surgery. Descriptive histology was performed at the healing responses of both implant surfaces. Quantitative morphology assessment provided measurements of BIC, number of bone multicellular units (BMUs), average penetration of BMUs, and maximum penetration of BMUs that were manually made using imaging computer software. The overall BIC for the BAE-2 implant was higher than that for the BAE-1 implant at 21 days of healing. However, there was no significant difference at 90 days of healing. It is concluded from this animal pilot study that the bioactive BAE-2 implant surface provided a better BIC with healthy bone remodeling at 21 days of healing.

  19. Early bone response to sandblasted, dual acid-etched and H2O2/HCl treated titanium implants: an experimental study in the rabbit.

    PubMed

    He, F M; Yang, G L; Li, Y N; Wang, X X; Zhao, S F

    2009-06-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the influence of a roughened H(2)O(2)/HCl heat-treated titanium surface on peri-implant bone formation at an early stage in vivo. 24 Ti(6)Al(4)V alloy implants were used; half were treated by sandblasted and dual acid-etched treatments (control group), while the others were treated by sandblasted, dual acid-etched and H(2)O(2)/HCl heat treatments (test group). The morphology and roughness were analyzed by field emission SEM and atomic force microscopy. The implants were inserted into the femora of 12 adult white rabbits. After 2 and 4 weeks, femora block specimens were prepared for histological and histomorphometric analysis. SEM micrographs showed that multilevel and different sized pits were formed on both surfaces. New bone formation was observed on both implant surfaces. Test implants demonstrated a greater mean percentage of bone-implant contact as compared with controls at 2 (46.84 vs. 41.81, p=0.000) and 4 weeks (49.43 vs. 44.87, p=0.006) of healing. It is concluded that the H(2)O(2)/HCl heat-treated rough titanium surface promoted enhanced bone apposition during the early stages of new bone formation around the implant.

  20. Effects of Acid Treatment on Dental Zirconia: An In Vitro Study

    PubMed Central

    Xie, Haifeng; Shen, Shuping; Qian, Mengke; Zhang, Feimin; Chen, Chen; Tay, Franklin R.

    2015-01-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the effects of hydrofluoric (HF) acid, acetic acid, and citric acid treatments on the physical properties and structure of yttria-stabilized tetragonal zirconia polycrystal (Y-TZP) at ambient temperature. In total, 110 bar-shaped zirconia specimens were randomly assigned to 11 groups. The specimens in the control group (C) received no surface treatment, while those in the Cage group were hydrothermally aged at 134°C and 0.2 MPa for 20 h. Ten specimens each were immersed at ambient temperature in 5% and 40% HF acid for 2 h (40HF0), 1 day (5HF1, 40HF1), and 5 days (5HF5, 40HF5), while 10 each were immersed at ambient temperature in 10% acetic acid and 20% citric acid for 7 (AC7, CI7) and 14 days (AC14, CI14). X-ray diffraction (XRD) was used to quantitatively estimate the monoclinic phase. Furthermore, flexural strength, surface roughness, and surface Vickers hardness were measured after treatment. Scanning electron microscopy (SEM) was used to characterize the surface morphology. The Cage group specimens exhibited an increased monoclinic phase and flexural strength. Furthermore, 40% HF acid immersion decreased the flexural strength and surface hardness and deteriorated the surface finish, while 5% HF acid immersion only decreased the surface hardness. All the HF acid-immersed specimens showed an etched surface texture on SEM observations, while the other groups did not. These findings suggest that the treatment of Y-TZP with 40% HF acid at ambient temperature causes potential damage, while treatment with 5% HF acid, acetic acid, and citric acid is safe. PMID:26301413

  1. Morphology of resin-dentin interfaces after Er,Cr:YSGG laser and acid etching preparation and application of different bonding systems.

    PubMed

    Beer, Franziska; Buchmair, Alfred; Körpert, Wolfram; Marvastian, Leila; Wernisch, Johann; Moritz, Andreas

    2012-07-01

    The goal of this study was to show the modifications in the ultrastructure of the dentin surface morphology following different surface treatments. The stability of the adhesive compound with dentin after laser preparation compared with conventional preparation using different bonding agents was evaluated. An Er,Cr:YSGG laser and 36% phosphoric acid in combination with various bonding systems were used. A total of 100 caries-free human third molars were used in this study. Immediately after surgical removal teeth were cut using a band saw and 1-mm thick dentin slices were created starting at a distance of 4 mm from the cusp plane to ensure complete removal of the enamel. The discs were polished with silicon carbide paper into rectangular shapes to a size of 6 × 4 mm (±0,2 mm).The discs as well as the remaining teeth stumps were stored in 0.9% NaCl at room temperature. The specimens were divided into three main groups (group I laser group, group II etch group, group III laser and etch group) and each group was subdivided into three subgroups which were allocated to the different bonding systems (subgroup A Excite, subgroup B Scotchbond, subgroup C Syntac). Each disc and the corresponding tooth stump were treated in the same way. After preparation the bonding composite material was applied according to the manufacturers' guidelines in a hollow tube of 2 mm diameter to the disc as well as to the corresponding tooth stump. Shear bond strength testing and environmental scanning electron microscopy were used to assess the morphology and stability of the resin-dentin interface. The self-etching bonding system showed the highest and the most constant shear values in all three main groups, thus enabling etching with phosphoric acid after laser preparation to be avoided. Thus we conclude that laser preparation creates a surface texture that allows prediction of the quality of the restoration without the risk of negative influences during the following treatment steps. This

  2. Effect of low fluoride acidic dentifrices on dental remineralization.

    PubMed

    Brighenti, Fernanda Lourenção; Takeshita, Eliana Mitsue; Sant'ana, Camila de Oliveira; Buzalaf, Marília Afonso Rabelo; Delbem, Alberto Carlos Botazzo

    2013-01-01

    This study evaluated the capacity of fluoride acidic dentifrices (pH 4.5) to promote enamel remineralization using a pH cycling model, comparing them with a standard dentifrice (1,100 µgF/g). Enamel blocks had their surface polished and surface hardness determined (SH). Next, they were submitted to subsurface enamel demineralization and to post-demineralization surface hardness analysis. The blocks were divided into 6 experimental groups (n=10): placebo (without F, pH 4.5, negative control), 275, 412, 550, 1,100 µgF/g and a standard dentifrice (positive control). The blocks were submitted to pH cycling for 6 days and treatment with dentifrice slurries twice a day. After pH cycling, surface and cross-sectional hardness were assessed to obtain the percentage of surface hardness recovery (%SHR) and the integrated loss of subsurface hardness (ΔKHN). The results showed that %SHR was similar among acidic dentifrices with 412, 550, 1,100 µgF/g and to the positive control (Tukey's test; p>0.05). For ΔKHN, the acidic dentifrice with 550 µg F/g showed a better performance when compared with the positive control. It can be concluded that acidic dentifrice 550 µgF/g had similar remineralization capacity to that of positive control.

  3. Oral lactic acid bacteria related to the occurrence and/or progression of dental caries in Japanese preschool children.

    PubMed

    Shimada, Ayumi; Noda, Masafumi; Matoba, Yasuyuki; Kumagai, Takanori; Kozai, Katsuyuki; Sugiyama, Masanori

    2015-01-01

    Previous studies have demonstrated that the presence of lactic acid bacteria (LAB), especially those classified into the genus Lactobacillus, is associated with the progression of dental caries in preschool children. Nevertheless, the kinds of species of LAB and the characteristics that are important for dental caries have been unclear. The aims of this study were: (1) to investigate the distribution of oral LAB among Japanese preschool children with various prevalence levels of caries; and (2) to reveal the characteristics of these isolated LAB species. Seventy-four Japanese preschool children were examined for caries scores and caries progression, and their dental cavity samples were collected for LAB isolation and identification. The saliva-induced agglutination rate and the resistance to acidic environments of the identified strains were measured. Statistical analysis showed that preschool children carrying Lactobacillus (L.) salivarius or Streptococcus mutans have a significantly higher prevalence of dental caries, the growth ability in acidic environments correlates with the caries scores of individuals with L. salivarius, and the caries scores exhibit positive correlation with saliva-induced agglutination in L. salivarius. These results show that specific Lactobacillus species are associated with dental caries based on the level of carious lesion severity. The present study suggests that these specific Lactobacillus species, especially those with easily agglutinated properties and acid resistance, affect the dental caries scores of preschool children, and that these properties may provide useful information for research into the prevention of dental caries.

  4. [Enamel resistance to acid dissolution and its correlation with dental caries].

    PubMed

    Sánchez-Pérez, T L; Sáenz-Martínez, L P; Gómez-López, M E; Pérez-Quiroz, J

    1995-01-01

    Enamel resistance to acid dissolution is a factor which has an influence upon dental caries susceptibility. The objectives of this study were to determine enamel resistance to acid dissolution by applying the RM technique, and to correlate data obtained to the prevalence of dental caries. Two hundred and seventy one children between seven and nine years of age were chosen by non probabilistic sampling in two city districts, (six public schools in Mexico City). These children's central permanent incisives had already erupted. The DMF-T and dmf-t indexes were recorded, and the RM enamel resistance test was performed on them. A total of 56.4% of the subjects in the sample had very resistant enamel and 27.3%, less resistant enamel. A proportion of 57.9% was free of dental caries on the permanent dentition and 10% in the temporary dentition. The average obtained for the DMF-T index was 0.93 +/- 1.34 and that for dmf-t was 4.7 +/- 3.1. Data suggest that enamel resistance distribution is not homogeneous and this increases proportionally in relation to the eruption third (p < 0.05.) Spearman's correlation coefficient was found to be negative and statistically significant at p < 0.05. The RM technique showed the presence of individuals with different enamel resistance to acid dissolution.

  5. Characterization and analyses of acid-extractable and leached trace elements in dental cements.

    PubMed

    Camilleri, J; Kralj, P; Veber, M; Sinagra, E

    2012-08-01

    Determination of the elemental constitution and investigation of the total and leachable arsenic, chromium and lead in Portland cement, pure tricalcium silicate, Biodentine, Bioaggregate and mineral trioxide aggregate (MTA) Angelus. The chemical composition of Portland cement, MTA Angelus, tricalcium silicate cement, Biodentine and Bioaggregate was determined using X-ray fluorescence (XRF). Measurements of arsenic, lead and chromium were taken with inductively coupled plasma-mass spectrometry (ICP-MS), following acid digestion on the hydrated material and on leachates of cements soaked in Hank's balanced salt solution (HBSS). All the cements investigated had a similar oxide composition with the main oxide being calcium and silicon oxide. Both the Portland cement and MTA Angelus had an additional aluminium oxide. The dental cements included a radiopacifying material. All the materials tested had higher acid-extractable arsenic content than the level set by ISO 9917-1 (2007) and an acceptable level of lead. Regardless these high levels of trace elements present in the materials, the leaching in HBSS was minimal for all the dental material tested in contrast to the high levels displayed by Portland cement. Dental materials based on tricalcium silicate cement and MTA Angelus release minimal quantities of trace elements when in contact with simulated body fluids. The results of acid extraction could be affected by nonspecific matrix effects by the cement. © 2012 International Endodontic Journal.

  6. Effects of a newly designed HEMA-free, multi-purpose, single-bottle, self-etching adhesive on bonding to dental hard tissues, zirconia-based ceramics, and gold alloy.

    PubMed

    Ikemura, Kunio; Jogetsu, Yoshiyuki; Shinno, Kazuya; Nakatsuka, Toshiyuki; Endo, Takeshi; Kadoma, Yoshinori

    2011-01-01

    This study investigated the bonding effectiveness of newly designed self-etching adhesives to four types of adherends--enamel, dentin, zirconia, and gold (Au) alloy. Five experimental adhesives were prepared, which contained 3.0-5.0 wt% 6-methacryloyloxyhexyl phosphonoacetate (6-MHPA) or 6-methacryloyloxyhexyl 3-phosphonopropionate (6-MHPP), 3.0 wt% 4-acryloyloxyethoxycarbonylphthalic acid (4-AET) or 17.0 wt% 4-methacryloyloxyethoxycarbonylphthalic acid (4-MET), 0-0.5 wt% 6-methacryloyloxyhexyl 6,8-dithiooctanoate (6-MHDT) or 10-methacryloyloxydecyl 6,8-dithiooctanoate (10-MDDT), and varying contents of Bis-GMA, dimethacrylate monomers, water, acetone, and a photoinitiator system. After 2,000 times of thermal cycling, shear bond strengths (SBSs) between a resin composite (Beautifil II, Shofu Inc., Japan) and the four adherends, bonded using the experimental adhesives, were measured at 1.0 mm/min. No statistically significant differences in SBS for bonding to ground enamel, dentin, sandblasted zirconia and Au alloy (p>0.05) were found between experimental adhesives which contained 6-MHPA and/or 6-MHPP, 4-MET or 4-AET, 6-MHDT and/or 10-MDDT, Bis-GMA, and dimethacrylates. An adhesive layer of less than 5.0 µm thickness, by scanning electron microscopy observation, revealed strong adhesion to the four adherends. Therefore, the newly designed multi-purpose, self-etching adhesive strongly adhered to all the four adherend materials tested.

  7. Effect of the Acidic Dental Resin Monomer 10-methacryloyloxydecyl Dihydrogen Phosphate on Odontoblastic Differentiation of Human Dental Pulp Cells.

    PubMed

    Kim, Eun-Cheol; Park, Haejin; Lee, Sang-Im; Kim, Sun-Young

    2015-11-01

    Although 10-methacryloyloxydecyl dihydrogen phosphate (10-MDP) is frequently used as an acidic resin monomer in dental adhesives, its effect on dental pulp cells (DPCs) has been rarely reported. The purpose of this study was to examine the effects of 10-MDP on the inflammatory response and odontoblastic differentiation of DPCs at minimally toxic concentrations. We found that 10-MDP caused the release of inflammatory cytokines including NO, PGE2, iNOS, COX-2, TNF-α, IL-1β, IL-6 and IL-8 in a concentration-dependent manner. In addition, 10-MDP reduced alkaline phosphatase activity, mineralization nodule formation and mRNA expression of odontoblastic differentiation markers such as dentin sialophosphoprotein, dentin matrix protein-1, osterix and Runx2 in a concentration-dependent manner with low toxicity. In addition, 10-MDP induced activation of nuclear factor-E2-related factor 2 (Nrf2) and its target gene, haeme oxygenase-1 (HO-1). We evaluated whether the effect of 10-MDP was related to the induction of HO-1 and found that treatment with a selective inhibitor of HO-1 reversed the production of 10-MDP-mediated pro-inflammatory cytokines and the inhibition of differentiation markers. Pre-treatment with either a GSH synthesis inhibitor or antioxidants blocked 10-MDP-induced mitogen-activated protein kinases (MAPKs), Nrf2 and NF-κB pathways. Taken together, the results of this study showed that minimally toxic concentrations of 10-MDP promoted an inflammatory response and suppressed odontoblastic differentiation of DPCs by activating Nrf2-mediated HO-1 induction through MAPK and NF-κB signalling.

  8. Comparison of the shear bond strength of orthodontic brackets in bonding and rebonding: preparation with laser versus conventional acid etch technique.

    PubMed

    Oshagh, Morteza; Pakshir, Hamid Reza; Najafi, H Zarif; Naseri, Mohammad Mehdi; Nasrabadi, N Iraji; Torkan, Sepideh

    2013-08-01

    The purpose of this study was to compare the bond strength of orthodontic brackets using laser versus acid etching. Debonding of brackets is a common problem in orthodontic treatments. Eighty extracted premolar teeth were divided into two groups. The enamel of the teeth in group A and B were etched using CO2 laser and phosphoric acid, respectively. The brackets were bonded to the teeth using Transbond XT and then debonded from the teeth by Instron machine. The remaining composite on the tooth surface was removed by a tungsten carbide polishing bur. Both groups were divided into two subgroups (A1, A2 and B1, B2). The teeth were prepared again with laser in A1, B1 subgroups and with acid in A2, B2 subgroups. At each stage, the shear bond strength and residual adhesive index were measured. One way ANOVA and χ(2) tests were used to analyze data. The mean shear bond strength was significantly lower in group A and higher in group B compared with all other groups (p < 0.05). Most of the bond failures were degree 0 and 1 in groups A, A1, and B1, and degree 2 and 3 in groups B, A2, and B2. Primary preparation with acid has a higher bond strength value than does CO2 laser. Less adhesive residue remained on enamel after tooth preparation with laser following debonding. Secondary preparation of the enamel using laser has higher bond strength value than does primary preparation with laser, which can rationalize use of laser in rebonding of brackets.

  9. Adhesive dentistry: the development of immediate dentin sealing/selective etching bonding technique.

    PubMed

    Helvey, Gregg A

    2011-01-01

    A major objective of dental research over the past 60 years has been a search for the "dream-team" of dental adhesives. In fact, a recent Medline search produced more than 6,500 papers on dentin bonding and its techniques. Adhesive systems are designed to retain direct and indirect restorations, minimize leakage at the margin, and be simple to place while producing consistent results. The development of materials and techniques has an interesting history; some have recirculated from the past and are being used in some form today. Buonocore used the etchant phosphoric acid at the beginning of the adhesive revolution. Though not accepted for many years it eventually became the "gold standard" for etching enamel. Technique sensitivity moved it out of favor and, through the development of self-etching acidic primers, was eliminated from some adhesive systems. Although these primers may have successfully addressed postoperative sensitivity, adhesion was compromised. The bond strength of these systems has now been improved with the incorporation of phosphoric acid-etch to condition enamel prior to using the adhesive system. This article will trace the history of adhesive techniques and materials and how it has led to the creation of a new technique that combines two bonding methods.

  10. Light-Cured Self-Etch Adhesives Undergo Hydroxyapatite-Triggered Self-Cure.

    PubMed

    Liu, Y; Bai, X; Liu, Y W; Wang, Y

    2016-03-01

    Light cure is a popular mode of curing for dental adhesives. However, it suffers from inadequate light delivery when the restoration site is less accessible, in which case a self-cure mechanism is desirable to salvage any compromised polymerization. We previously reported a novel self-cure system mediated by ethyl 4-(dimethylamino)-benzoate (4E) and hydroxyapatite (HAp). The present work aims to investigate if such self-cure phenomenon takes place in adhesives that underwent prior inadequate light cure and to elucidate if HAp released from the dental etching process is sufficient to trigger it. Model self-etch adhesives were formulated with various components, including bis[2-methacryloyloxy)ethyl]-phosphate (2MP) as acidic monomer and trimethylbenzoyl-diphenylphosphine oxide (TPO) as photoinitiator. In vitro evolution of degree of conversion (DC) of HAp-incorporated adhesives was monitored by infrared spectroscopy during light irradiation and dark storage. Selected adhesives were allowed to etch and extract HAp from enamel, light-cured in situ, and stored in the dark, after which Raman line mapping was used to obtain spatially resolved DC across the enamel-resin interface. Results showed that TPO+4E adhesives reached DC similar to TPO-only counterparts upon completion of light irradiation but underwent another round of initiation that boosted DC to ~100% regardless of HAp level or prior light exposure. When applied to enamel, TPO-only adhesives had ~80% DC in resin, which gradually descended to ~50% in enamel, whereas TPO+4E adhesives consistently scored ~80% DC across the enamel-resin interface. These observations suggest that polymerization of adhesives that underwent insufficient light cure is salvaged by the novel self-cure mechanism, and such salvaging effect can be triggered by HAp released from dental substrate during the etching process. © International & American Associations for Dental Research 2015.

  11. Dental erosion due to abuse of illicit drugs and acidic carbonated beverages.

    PubMed

    Bassiouny, Mohamed A

    2013-01-01

    Consumption of illicit drugs and the abusive intake of acidic carbonated beverages (particularly soda) often are associated with similar types of damage to the human dentition, the most common of which is dental erosion. The dentitions of individuals who are addicted to methamphetamines or crack cocaine can be misdiagnosed as dental caries rather than generalized dental erosion, a condition that also is associated with chronic excessive consumption of soda. Failing to identify the causative etiology could lead to a wrongful diagnosis that could in turn adversely affect treatment planning and misdirect a specified prevention protocol. This article seeks to identify the unique clinical features of each one of these conditions, highlight the resemblances between them, and recognize the unambiguous differences in their fundamental characteristics. Three representative cases-involving a methamphetamine user, a crack cocaine addict, and an avid consumer of diet soda-are presented. In each case, the patient has admitted to the cause of their poor oral health. The dental, oral, and paraoral manifestations of each case are documented and differentiated from one another, and the factors that contributed to the associated disease process are discussed.

  12. Adhesion studies on dental enamel surfaces irradiated by a rapidly scanned carbon dioxide laser

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chang, Kwang K.; Staninec, Michal; Chan, Kenneth H.; Fried, Daniel

    2011-03-01

    In this study, we investigated the influence of different laser scanning patterns on the adhesive strength of laser irradiated enamel surfaces both with and without post ablation acid etching. Previous studies of dental enamel surfaces ablated by a rapidly scanned carbon dioxide laser indicated that the highly uniform smooth surfaces produced by the scanned laser beam yielded low bond strength and acid etching was required in order to attain a high bond strength. However, since the enamel surface after ablation by CO2 lasers is more resistant to acid dissolution it is desirable to avoid acid etching before bonding. The overlap between adjacent laser spots was varied to modify the effective surface roughness. In addition, small retention holes were drilled at higher laser intensity with varying spacing to increase the adhesive strength without acid etching. Varying the degree of overlap between adjacent laser spots did not significantly influence the bond strength with post ablation acid etching. The bond strength was significantly higher without acid etching with retention holes spaced 250-μm apart.

  13. Adhesion studies on dental enamel surfaces irradiated by a rapidly scanned carbon dioxide laser.

    PubMed

    Chang, Kwang K; Staninec, Michal; Chan, Kenneth H; Fried, Daniel

    2011-01-01

    In this study, we investigated the influence of different laser scanning patterns on the adhesive strength of laser irradiated enamel surfaces both with and without post ablation acid etching. Previous studies of dental enamel surfaces ablated by a rapidly scanned carbon dioxide laser indicated that the highly uniform smooth surfaces produced by the scanned laser beam yielded low bond strength and acid etching was required in order to attain a high bond strength. However, since the enamel surface after ablation by CO(2) lasers is more resistant to acid dissolution it is desirable to avoid acid etching before bonding. The overlap between adjacent laser spots was varied to modify the effective surface roughness. In addition, small retention holes were drilled at higher laser intensity with varying spacing to increase the adhesive strength without acid etching. Varying the degree of overlap between adjacent laser spots did not significantly influence the bond strength with post ablation acid etching. The bond strength was significantly higher without acid etching with retention holes spaced 250-µm apart.

  14. Review found little difference between sandblasted and acid-etched (SLA) dental implants and modified surface (SLActive) implants.

    PubMed

    Stafford, Gary L

    2014-09-01

    Medline, Embase, the Cochrane Oral Health Group's Trials Register and OpenGREY databases were searched together with the reference lists of identified articles. Randomised controlled trials (RCTs) and prospective cohort studies of at least six month duration were included. Studies/case series in which there was only one implant surface (SLA or SLActive) and one loading protocol (immediate or early) were also considered. Two reviewers screened, selected and abstracted data, independently. RCTs were assessed for quality using the Cochrane risk of bias approach and observational studies using the Newcastle-Ottawa scale (NOS). The primary outcomes were changes from baseline to follow-up of clinical attachment level (CAL), probing depth (PD) and radiographic changes in the peri-implant bone level and number of implants lost. Cumulative survival rates (%) of each included study were calculated. Twenty-three articles reporting 19 studies (seven RCTs; 12 prospective observational studies) were included. The seven RCTs included 407 patients with 853 implants (8% titanium plasma-sprayed, 41.5% SLA and 50.5% SLActive). Only one RCT was considered to be at low risk of bias, the others were considered to be at unclear risk. The 12 observational studies included 1394 SLA and 145 SLActive implants and were considered to be of medium methodological quality based on the NOS. A narrative summary of the studies was undertaken owing to marked heterogeneity of the loading periods, types of implants described and lack of occurrence of the outcome of interest. There were no significant differences reported in the studies in relation to implant loss or clinical parameters between the immediate/early loading and delayed loading protocols. Overall, 95% of SLA and 97% of SLActive implants still survive at the end of follow-up. Despite the positive findings achieved by the included studies, few RCTs were available for analysis for SLActive implants. Study heterogeneity, scarcity of data and the lack of pooled estimates represent a limitation between studies' comparisons and should be considered when interpreting the present findings.

  15. Efficiency in bracket bonding with the use of pretreatment methods to tooth enamel before acid etching: sodium hypochlorite vs. hydrogen peroxide techniques.

    PubMed

    Rivera-Prado, Hermann; Moyaho-Bernal, Ángeles; Andrade-Torres, Alejandro; Franco-Romero, Guillermo; Montiel-Jarquín, Álvaro; Mendoza-Pinto, Claudia; García-Cano, Eugenio; Hernández-Ruíz, Ana K

    2015-04-01

    Bond failures are produced by the existence of biofilm on the tooth surface. Because biofilm is impermeable, it prevents contact in many areas, reducing the etching effect which selectively dissolves calcified tissues but does not seem to eliminate biofilm from the tooth surface, and thus the bond between the tooth and the bracket is not strong enough. The aim of this study is to compare bracket bonding efficiency with two dental surface pretreatments: sodium hypochlorite vs. hydrogen peroxide techniques. This was a cross-sectional, comparative, in vitro study. Seventy-five premolars extracted for orthodontic purposes were evaluated. They were divided into three groups of 25 teeth and assigned randomly toone of the pretreatment techniques (5.25%sodium hypochlorite or 3.5% hydrogen peroxide) or to a control group. The most efficient pretreatment technique for bonding to brackets was sodium hypochlorite, with an average of 17.15 (kg/F). Significant differences were observed between groups (p=0.0001). The post hoc bond strength test showed statistically significant differences between the sodium hypochlorite technique and the control group (p=0.0001). The sodium hypochlorite technique improves bracket adhesion to tooth enamel.

  16. Dry etching of metallization

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bollinger, D.

    1983-01-01

    The production dry etch processes are reviewed from the perspective of microelectronic fabrication applications. The major dry etch processes used in the fabrication of microelectronic devices can be divided into two categories - plasma processes in which samples are directly exposed to an electrical discharge, and ion beam processes in which samples are etched by a beam of ions extracted from a discharge. The plasma etch processes can be distinguished by the degree to which ion bombardment contributes to the etch process. This, in turn is related to capability for anisotropic etching. Reactive Ion Etching (RIE) and Ion Beam Etching are of most interest for etching of thin film metals. RIE is generally considered the best process for large volume, anisotropic aluminum etching.

  17. Influence of different repair procedures on bond strength of adhesive filling materials to etched enamel in vitro.

    PubMed

    Hannig, Christian; Hahn, Petra; Thiele, Patrick-Philipp; Attin, Thomas

    2003-01-01

    Contamination of etched enamel with repair bond agents during repair of dental restorations may interfere with the bonding of composite to enamel. This study examined the bond strength of adhesive filling materials to etched bovine enamel after pre-treatment with the repair systems Monobond S, Silibond and Co-Jet. The materials Tetric Ceram, Dyract and Definite and their corresponding bonding agents (Syntac Single Comp, Prime & Bond NT, Etch and Prime) were tested in combination with the repair systems. One hundred and thirty-five enamel specimens were etched (37% phosphoric acid, 60 seconds) and equally distributed among three groups (A-C). In Group A, the repair materials were applied on etched enamel followed by applying the composite materials without using their respective bonding material. In Group B, the composite materials were placed on etched enamel after applying the repair materials and bonding agents. In control Group C, the composite materials and bonding agents were applied on etched enamel without using the repair systems. In each sub-group, every composite material was applied on 15 specimens. Samples were stored in artificial saliva for 14 days and thermocycled 1,000 times (5 degrees C/55 degrees C). The shear bond strength of the samples were then determined in a universal testing machine (ISO 10477). Applying Monobond or Silibond followed by the use of its respective bonding agents resulted in a bond strength that was not statistically different from the controls for all filling materials (Group C). The three composites that used Monobond and Silibond without applying the corresponding bonding agent resulted in bond strengths that were significantly lower than the controls. Utilizing the Co-Jet-System drastically reduced the bond strength of composites on etched enamel. Contamination of etched enamel with the repairing bonding agents Monobond and Silibond does not interfere with bond strength if the application of Monobond and Silibond is

  18. Influence of acid-base conditioning on the bond strength of five luting agents employing self-etching primer to enamel and dentin.

    PubMed

    Yokomichi, Rie; Taira, Yohsuke; Soeno, Kohyoh; Atsuta, Mitsuru

    2005-06-01

    The purpose of this study was to evaluate the effect of multi-step conditioning (PA-AD conditioning) with phosphoric acid and sodium hypochlorite on the bond strength of five luting materials to enamel and dentin. Three commercial self-etching/priming systems (Panavia, Linkmax, and Multibond) and two experimental systems (ED/Super-Bond and EDFe/Super-Bond) were used. The surfaces of bovine enamel or dentin were bonded to a stainless steel rod. Tensile bond strength was determined after 24-hour immersion in water. PA-AD conditioning significantly improved the bond strength between enamel and three of the systems (Panavia, ED/Super-Bond, and EDFe/Super-Bond), but did not have any effect on Linkmax and Multibond. Likewise, PA-AD conditioning did not significantly improve the bond strength of Panavia, Linkmax, Multibond, and ED/Super-Bond to dentin. Highest bond strength to dentin (19.7 MPa) was obtained when self-etching primer containing ferric chloride (EDFe/Super-Bond) was used, but additional PA-AD conditioning significantly weakened the bonding (12.6 MPa).

  19. Influence of different pre-etching times on fatigue strength of self-etch adhesives to dentin.

    PubMed

    Takamizawa, Toshiki; Barkmeier, Wayne W; Tsujimoto, Akimasa; Suzuki, Takayuki; Scheidel, Donal D; Erickson, Robert L; Latta, Mark A; Miyazaki, Masashi

    2016-04-01

    The purpose of this study was to use shear bond strength (SBS) and shear fatigue strength (SFS) testing to determine the influence on dentin bonding of phosphoric acid pre-etching times before the application of self-etch adhesives. Two single-step self-etch universal adhesives [Prime & Bond Elect (EL) and Scotchbond Universal (SU)], a conventional single-step self-etch adhesive [G-aenial Bond (GB)], and a two-step self-etch adhesive [OptiBond XTR (OX)] were used. The SBS and SFS values were obtained with phosphoric acid pre-etching times of 3, 10, or 15 s before application of the adhesives, and for a control without pre-etching. For groups with 3 s of pre-etching, SU and EL showed higher SBS values than control groups. No significant difference was observed for GB among the 3 s, 10 s, and control groups, but the 15 s pre-etching group showed significantly lower SBS and SFS values than the control group. No significant difference was found for OX among the pre-etching groups. Reducing phosphoric acid pre-etching time can minimize the adverse effect on dentin bonding durability for the conventional self-etch adhesives. Furthermore, a short phosphoric acid pre-etching time enhances the dentin bonding performance of universal adhesives. © 2016 Eur J Oral Sci.

  20. Antiseptic effect of slightly acidic electrolyzed water on dental unit water systems.

    PubMed

    Komachiya, Miho; Yamaguchi, Akira; Hirai, Kaname; Kikuchi, Yuichiro; Mizoue, Shinya; Takeda, Nao; Ito, Michio; Kato, Tetsuo; Ishihara, Kazuyuki; Yamashita, Shuichiro; Akihiro, Kuroiwa

    2014-01-01

    Biofilm formation in dental unit water systems (DUWSs) can contaminate water from three-in-one syringes, air rotors, and low-speed handpieces. This may serve as a potential source of infection for dentists, dental staff, and patients, so these systems must be sterilized. Because slightly acidic electrolyzed water (SAEW) is often used as a disinfectant for food, the aim of this study was to investigate the possibility of using SAEW as a DUWS disinfectant. Slightly acidic electrolyzed water was injected into a dental unit and its effects evaluated. Chemical properties such as chlorine ion and potential hydrogen in the SAEW were measured. Detection of both ordinary and heterotrophic bacteria from the DUWS was performed by culture, and biofilm formation of the bacteria in the DUWS evaluated. Polymerase chain reaction (PCR) was used to detected contamination by nosocomial pathogens. Almost all the chlorine ions in the SAEW were exhausted during the two-day trials, and the pH value of the SAEW fell from 5 to 4. No viable cells were detected in the SAEW collected. Biofilm formation in the water from the DUWS with SAEW was almost at a baseline level, whereas that without SAEW was 4 times higher. The PCR analysis showed that no nosocomial infecting pathogens were detected in the SAEW. The present study demonstrated the antiseptic effect of SAEW in DUWS.

  1. Process for etching mixed metal oxides

    DOEpatents

    Ashby, C.I.H.; Ginley, D.S.

    1994-10-18

    An etching process is described using dicarboxylic and tricarboxylic acids as chelating etchants for mixed metal oxide films such as high temperature superconductors and ferroelectric materials. Undesirable differential etching rates between different metal oxides are avoided by selection of the proper acid or combination of acids. Feature sizes below one micron, excellent quality vertical edges, and film thicknesses in the 100 Angstrom range may be achieved by this method. 1 fig.

  2. Process for etching mixed metal oxides

    DOEpatents

    Ashby, Carol I. H.; Ginley, David S.

    1994-01-01

    An etching process using dicarboxylic and tricarboxylic acids as chelating etchants for mixed metal oxide films such as high temperature superconductors and ferroelectric materials. Undesirable differential etching rates between different metal oxides are avoided by selection of the proper acid or combination of acids. Feature sizes below one micron, excellent quality vertical edges, and film thicknesses in the 100 Angstom range may be achieved by this method.

  3. Etched Terrain

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2003-01-01

    [figure removed for brevity, see original site]

    Released 17 June 2003

    This stunning THEMIS visible image was acquired in 'etched terrain' near the south pole of Mars. In several places in this image there are large areas with many dark spots. These spots have been noticed to appear and disappear as the seasons progress on Mars. As the southern hemisphere of Mars gets warmer, carbon dioxide frost present in this terrain sublimates, leaving behind the dark spots.

    Image information: VIS instrument. Latitude -73.5, Longitude 351.3 East (8.7 West). 19 meter/pixel resolution.

    Note: this THEMIS visual image has not been radiometrically nor geometrically calibrated for this preliminary release. An empirical correction has been performed to remove instrumental effects. A linear shift has been applied in the cross-track and down-track direction to approximate spacecraft and planetary motion. Fully calibrated and geometrically projected images will be released through the Planetary Data System in accordance with Project policies at a later time.

    NASA's Jet Propulsion Laboratory manages the 2001 Mars Odyssey mission for NASA's Office of Space Science, Washington, D.C. The Thermal Emission Imaging System (THEMIS) was developed by Arizona State University, Tempe, in collaboration with Raytheon Santa Barbara Remote Sensing. The THEMIS investigation is led by Dr. Philip Christensen at Arizona State University. Lockheed Martin Astronautics, Denver, is the prime contractor for the Odyssey project, and developed and built the orbiter. Mission operations are conducted jointly from Lockheed Martin and from JPL, a division of the California Institute of Technology in Pasadena.

  4. A review of the developments of self-etching primers and adhesives -Effects of acidic adhesive monomers and polymerization initiators on bonding to ground, smear layer-covered teeth.

    PubMed

    Ikemura, Kunio; Kadoma, Yoshinori; Endo, Takeshi

    2011-01-01

    This paper reviews the developments of self-etching primers and adhesives, with a special focus on the effect of acidic adhesive monomers and polymerization initiators on bonding to ground, smear layer-covered teeth. Ionized acidic adhesive monomers chemically interact with tooth substrates and facilitate good bonding to ground dentin. Polymerization initiators in self-etching primers further promote effective bonding to ground dentin. To promote bonding to both dentin and enamel, phosphonic acid monomers such as 6-methacryloyloxyhexyl phosphonoacetate (6-MHPA) were developed. These novel adhesive monomers also have a water-soluble nature and are hence endowed with sufficient demineralization capability. A new single-bottle, self-etching, 2-hydroxyethyl methacrylate (HEMA)-free adhesive comprising 6-MHPA and 4-acryloyloxyethoxycarbonylphthalic acid (4-AET) was developed. This novel adhesive enabled strong adhesion to both ground enamel and dentin, but its formulation stability was influenced by pH value of the adhesive. To develop hydrolytically stable, single-bottle, self-etching adhesives, hydrolytically stable, radical-polymerizable acidic monomers with amide or ether linkages have been developed.

  5. Copper-assisted, anti-reflection etching of silicon surfaces

    DOEpatents

    Toor, Fatima; Branz, Howard

    2014-08-26

    A method (300) for etching a silicon surface (116) to reduce reflectivity. The method (300) includes electroless deposition of copper nanoparticles about 20 nanometers in size on the silicon surface (116), with a particle-to-particle spacing of 3 to 8 nanometers. The method (300) includes positioning (310) the substrate (112) with a silicon surface (116) into a vessel (122). The vessel (122) is filled (340) with a volume of an etching solution (124) so as to cover the silicon surface (116). The etching solution (124) includes an oxidant-etchant solution (146), e.g., an aqueous solution of hydrofluoric acid and hydrogen peroxide. The silicon surface (116) is etched (350) by agitating the etching solution (124) with, for example, ultrasonic agitation, and the etching may include heating (360) the etching solution (124) and directing light (365) onto the silicon surface (116). During the etching, copper nanoparticles enhance or drive the etching process.

  6. BisGMA/TEGDMA dental nanocomposites containing glyoxylic acid modified high-aspect ratio hydroxyapatite nanofibers with enhanced dispersion

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Liang; Xu, Changqi; Wang, Yong; Shi, Jian; Yu, Qingsong

    2012-01-01

    The purpose of this research was to investigate the influence of the glyoxylic acid (GA) modification of hydroxyapatite (HAP) nanofibers on their dispersion in bisphenol A glycidyl methacrylate (BisGMA)/triethylene glycol dimethacrylate (TEGDMA) dental composites and also investigate the mechanical properties, water absorption, and water solubility of the resulting dental resins and composites. Scanning/Transmission electron microscopy (STEM) images showed that microsized HAP nanofiber bundles could be effectively broken down to individual HAP nanofibers with an average length of ~15 μm after the surface modification process. Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FT-IR), X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) and thermal gravimetric analysis (TGA) characterization confirmed glyoxylic acid was chemically grafted on the HAP nanofiber surface, hypothetically by reacting with the amine group on HAP nanofiber surface. The enhanced dispersion of HAP nanofibers in dental matrix led to increased biaxial flexural strength (BFS) compared with the corresponding dental resins and composites filled with untreated HAP nanofibers. In addition, impregnation of small mass fractions of the glyoxylic acid modified HAP nanofibers into the BisGMA/TEGDMA dental resins (5wt%, 10wt%) or composites (2wt%, 3wt%) could also substantially improve the BFS in comparison with the controls(pure resins or dental composites filled with silica particles alone). Larger mass fractions could not further increase the mechanical property or even degrade the BFS values. Water behavior testing results indicated that the addition of glyoxylic acid modified HAP nanofibers resulted in higher water absorption and water solubility values which is not preferred for clinical application. In summary, well dispersed HAP nanofibers and their dental composites with enhanced mechanical property have been successfully fabricated but the water absorption and water solubility of such dental composites need to be

  7. Effects of etching time on enamel bond strengths.

    PubMed

    Triolo, P T; Swift, E J; Mudgil, A; Levine, A

    1993-12-01

    This study evaluated the effects of etching time on bond strengths of composite to enamel. Proximal surfaces of extracted molars were etched with either a conventional etchant (35% phosphoric acid) or one of two dentin/enamel conditioners, 10% maleic acid (Scotchbond Multi-Purpose Etchant), or a solution of oxalic acid, aluminum nitrate, and glycine (Gluma 1 & 2 Conditioner). Each agent was applied for 15, 30, or 60 seconds. Specimens etched with 35% phosphoric acid had the highest mean bond strengths at each etching time. At the manufacturer's recommended application times, the other two agents gave significantly lower shear bond strengths than phosphoric acid.

  8. Effects of a Novel Dental Gel on Enamel Surface Recovery from Acid Challenge

    PubMed Central

    Lam, Tracie; Ho, Jessica; Anbarani, Afarin Golabgir; Liaw, Lih-Huei; Takesh, Thair; Wilder-Smith, Petra

    2017-01-01

    Background Objective was to evaluate the in vivo effects of a novel dental gel (Livionex gelR) vs. a comparison dental gel on the surfaces of pre-eroded enamel chips. Methods On days 1–5, after toothbrushing with dentifrice, nine subjects each wore 8 enamel chips mounted on a palatal appliance for 4 h. Enamel blocks were pre-demineralized daily. After 2 day washout, subjects repeated the protocol using fresh chips and the second toothpaste on days 8–12. Samples were evaluated using electron microscopy. Results Ten standardized enamel surface photomicrographs/sample (total 1440 images) were evaluated for signs of erosion visually and on a scale of 0–3 by 1 evaluator. No significant differences were found between the 2 groups (p>0.32, 95% C.I.). Minimal surface erosion on approx. 15% of sample area was visible in both groups. Conclusion The enamel surface appeared similar after usage of a test or control dentifrice. Based on this study, the test formulation did not affect enamel surface recovery from an erosive challenge. Practical implications Dentifrices can contribute to maintaining a healthy enamel surface. An all-natural dental gel formulation with novel anti-plaque mechanism achieved similar recovery from acid challenge to enamel as a control gel. PMID:28344856

  9. Clinical and Histologic Evaluations of SLA Dental Implants.

    PubMed

    Nevins, Myron; Parma-Benfenati, Stefano; Quinti, Franco; Galletti, Prima; Sava, Cosmin; Sava, Catalin; Kim, David M

    The goal of this investigation was to evaluate the efficacy of dental implants with a surface that was sandblasted with large grit and acid etched in a human model. Seven patients volunteered to allow the biopsy of a small implant in exchange for complete dental rehabilitation at no cost. All biopsy sites received soft and hard tissue reconstruction, and this report provides observation of successful bone-to-implant contact and successful prosthesis construction for the patient. The patients enthusiastically reported improved quality of life as a result of participation in this study. The surgeons’ confidence in this implant was reflected by the clinical and histologic result of the study.

  10. Tobacco etch virus infectivity in Capsicum spp. is determined by a maximum of three amino acids in the viral virulence determinant VPg.

    PubMed

    Perez, Kari; Yeam, Inhwa; Kang, Byoung-Cheorl; Ripoll, Daniel R; Kim, Jinhee; Murphy, John F; Jahn, Molly M

    2012-12-01

    Potyvirus resistance in Capsicum spp. has been attributed to amino acid substitutions at the pvr1 locus that cause conformational shifts in eukaryotic translation initiation factor eIF4E. The viral genome-linked protein (VPg) sequence was isolated and compared from three Tobacco etch virus (TEV) strains, highly aphid-transmissible (HAT), Mex21, and N, which differentially infect Capsicum genotypes encoding Pvr1(+), pvr1, and pvr1(2). Viral chimeras were synthesized using the TEV-HAT genome, replacing HAT VPg with Mex21 or N VPg. TEV HAT did not infect pepper plants homozygous for either the pvr1 or pvr1(2) allele. However, the novel chimeric TEV strains, TEVHAT(Mex21-VPg) and TEV-HAT(N-VPg), infected pvr1 and pvr1(2) pepper plants, respectively, demonstrating that VPg is the virulence determinant in this pathosystem. Three dimensional structural models predicted interaction between VPg and the susceptible eIF4E genotype in every case, while resistant genotypes were never predicted to interact. To determine whether there is a correlation between physical interaction of VPg with eIF4E and infectivity, the effects of amino acid variation within VPg were assessed. Interaction between pvr1(2) eIF4E and N VPg was detected in planta, implying that the six amino acid differences in N VPg relative to HAT VPg are responsible for restoring the physical interaction and infectivity.

  11. Dicalcium phosphate (CaHPO4·2H2O) precipitation through ortho- or meta-phosphoric acid-etching: effects on the durability and nanoleakage/ultra-morphology of resin-dentine interfaces.

    PubMed

    Feitosa, Victor Pinheiro; Bazzocchi, Maria Giulia; Putignano, Angelo; Orsini, Giovanna; Luzi, Arlinda Luzi; Sinhoreti, Mário Alexandre Coelho; Watson, Timothy F; Sauro, Salvatore

    2013-11-01

    To compare the effects of two etching procedures using meta-phosphoric (MPA) or ortho-phosphoric acid (OPA) on dentine demineralisation, resin-dentine bonds durability and interface nanoleakage/ultra-morphology. Middle-dentine specimens were etched using 37% OPA (15s) or 40% MPA (60s) and submitted to infrared spectroscopy (FTIR) or ultra-morphology dye-assisted (calcium-staining) confocal microscopy (Ca-CLSM). A three-step etch-and-rinse adhesive was formulated, applied onto dentine and light-cured for 30s before composite build-up. After 24h, the dentine-bonded specimens were cut into 1mm(2) beams; half were immediately submitted to microtensile bond strength (μTBS) and half stored in DW for six months. The μTBS results were analysed with repeated-measures ANOVA and Tukey's test (p<0.05). Further teeth were bonded and prepared for interface nanoleakage/ultra-morphology confocal evaluation. FTIR and Ca-CLSM analyses showed dicalcium phosphate dihydrate (Brushite) precipitation in MPA-etched dentine and on the bottom (front of demineralisation) of the OPA-etched dentine. Statistical analysis showed similar μTBS for both etching procedures after 24h. The μTBS of specimens in OPA-group dropped significantly (p<0.05) after six month; the specimens in the MPA group showed no statistically difference (p>0.05). CLSM depicted no evident sign of nanoleakage within the resin-dentine interface of the MPA-treated specimens, while the specimens in OPA-group presented intense nanoleakage and interface degradation. The use of MPA (60s) as an alternative dentine conditioning agent in etch-and-rinse bonding procedures may be a suitable strategy to create more durable resin-dentine bonds. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. Rapid formation of AgnX(X = S, Cl, PO4, C2O4) nanotubes via an acid-etching anion exchange reaction

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Jingjing; Yang, Wenlong; Ning, Jiqiang; Zhong, Yijun; Hu, Yong

    2014-05-01

    This work presents a rapid nanotube fabrication method for a series of silver compounds AgnX, such as Ag2S, AgCl, Ag3PO4, and Ag2C2O4, from pregrown Ag2CO3 nanorod templates. The anion exchange process involved takes place in non-aqueous solutions just at room temperature and completes within 10 minutes. An acid-etching anion exchange reaction mechanism has been proved underneath the transformation process from Ag2CO3 nanorods to AgnX nanotubes by the observation of an intermediate yolk-shell nanostructure. It has been found that the final structure of the products can be conveniently controlled by simply varying the concentration of HnX acids, and the organic solvents employed play a vital role in the formation of the nanotubes by effectively controlling the diffusion rates of different species of reacting ions. As a demonstration, the as-prepared AgCl and Ag3PO4 nanotubes exhibit enhanced photocatalytic activity and favorable recyclability for the photodegradation of rhodamine B (RhB) under visible-light irradiation.This work presents a rapid nanotube fabrication method for a series of silver compounds AgnX, such as Ag2S, AgCl, Ag3PO4, and Ag2C2O4, from pregrown Ag2CO3 nanorod templates. The anion exchange process involved takes place in non-aqueous solutions just at room temperature and completes within 10 minutes. An acid-etching anion exchange reaction mechanism has been proved underneath the transformation process from Ag2CO3 nanorods to AgnX nanotubes by the observation of an intermediate yolk-shell nanostructure. It has been found that the final structure of the products can be conveniently controlled by simply varying the concentration of HnX acids, and the organic solvents employed play a vital role in the formation of the nanotubes by effectively controlling the diffusion rates of different species of reacting ions. As a demonstration, the as-prepared AgCl and Ag3PO4 nanotubes exhibit enhanced photocatalytic activity and favorable recyclability for the

  13. New Etch Monitoring Technique

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kaiser, Christina; Adamcyk, Martin; Levy, Yuval; Tiedje, Tom; Young, Jeff F.; Kelson, Itzhak

    2000-05-01

    Plasma etching is an important tool for the development of various types of nanostructures. The development of specific plasma etching procedures is often time-consuming. We will describe an new technique for IN-SITU monitoring of the etch rate and sidewall profile of 1D GRATINGS in a remote plasma etcher. The technique involves monitoring the energy loss of alpha particles that propagate through the layer being etched. Samples to be etched are impregnated by a thin near-surface layer of 224Ra nuclei that decay by alpha particle emission. The energy spectrum of the alpha particles is acquired at intervals in the etch process. The etch rate on flat surfaces can be determined quite simply by measuring the change in the peak energy of the transmitted particles. By using a simple geometric model that employs the Bethe Bloch formula for energy loss of charges particles the etch profile of masked samples can also be inferred.

  14. Light-Cured Self-Etch Adhesives Undergo Hydroxyapatite-Triggered Self-Cure

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Y.; Bai, X.; Liu, Y.W.; Wang, Y.

    2015-01-01

    Light cure is a popular mode of curing for dental adhesives. However, it suffers from inadequate light delivery when the restoration site is less accessible, in which case a self-cure mechanism is desirable to salvage any compromised polymerization. We previously reported a novel self-cure system mediated by ethyl 4-(dimethylamino)-benzoate (4E) and hydroxyapatite (HAp). The present work aims to investigate if such self-cure phenomenon takes place in adhesives that underwent prior inadequate light cure and to elucidate if HAp released from the dental etching process is sufficient to trigger it. Model self-etch adhesives were formulated with various components, including bis[2-methacryloyloxy)ethyl]-phosphate (2MP) as acidic monomer and trimethylbenzoyl-diphenylphosphine oxide (TPO) as photoinitiator. In vitro evolution of degree of conversion (DC) of HAp-incorporated adhesives was monitored by infrared spectroscopy during light irradiation and dark storage. Selected adhesives were allowed to etch and extract HAp from enamel, light-cured in situ, and stored in the dark, after which Raman line mapping was used to obtain spatially resolved DC across the enamel-resin interface. Results showed that TPO+4E adhesives reached DC similar to TPO-only counterparts upon completion of light irradiation but underwent another round of initiation that boosted DC to ~100% regardless of HAp level or prior light exposure. When applied to enamel, TPO-only adhesives had ~80% DC in resin, which gradually descended to ~50% in enamel, whereas TPO+4E adhesives consistently scored ~80% DC across the enamel-resin interface. These observations suggest that polymerization of adhesives that underwent insufficient light cure is salvaged by the novel self-cure mechanism, and such salvaging effect can be triggered by HAp released from dental substrate during the etching process. PMID:26635279

  15. High-speed atomic force microscopy of dental enamel dissolution in citric acid.

    PubMed

    Pyne, Alice; Marks, Will; M Picco, Loren; G Dunton, Peter; Ulcinas, Arturas; E Barbour, Michele; B Jones, Siân; Gimzewski, James; J Miles, Mervyn

    2009-01-01

    High-speed atomic force microscopy (HS AFM) in 'contact' mode was used to image at video rate the surfaces of both calcium hydroxyapatite samples, often used as artificial dental enamel in such experiments, and polished actual bovine dental enamel in both neutral and acidic aqueous environments. The image in each frame of the video of the sample was a few micrometers square, and the high-speed scan window was panned across the sample in real time to examine larger areas. Conventional AFM images of the same regions of the sample were also recorded before and after high-speed imaging. The ability of HS AFM to follow processes occurring in liquid on the timescale of a few seconds was employed to study the dissolution process of both hydroxyapatite and bovine enamel under acidic conditions. Buffered citric acid at pH values between 3.0 and 4.0 was observed to dissolve the surface layers of these samples. The movies recorded showed rapid dissolution of the bovine enamel in particular, which proceeded until the relatively small amount of acid available had been exhausted. A comparison was made with enamel samples that had been treated in fluoride solution (1 h in 300 ppm NaF, pH 7) prior to addition of the acid; the speed of dissolution for these samples was much less than that of the untreated samples. The HS AFM used an in-house designed and constructed high-speed flexure scan stage employing a push-pull piezo actuator arrangement. The HS AFM is able to follow the large changes in height (on the micrometer scale) that occur during the dissolution process.

  16. Purposeful exposure of a polylactic acid barrier to achieve socket preservation for placement of dental implants: case series report.

    PubMed

    Rosen, Paul S; Rosen, Adam D

    2013-01-01

    This retrospective case series reports on the use of a polylactic acid barrier that was left exposed in the process of socket preparation for the placement of dental implants. A retrospective chart review found 43 patients with 48 extraction sockets that were treated in this manner. Teeth were removed and the sockets were thoroughly debrided, with 40 of them receiving a bone replacement graft covered by the polylactic acid barrier and the additional 8 receiving the membrane alone. Suturing left the barrier exposed, and the sites were re-entered on average at 23 weeks for the placement of a dental implant. All sites were able to receive a dental implant, demonstrating the ability to leave a polylactic acid barrier exposed and achieve successful guided bone regeneration (GBR) results. This ultimately helped avoid some of the negative sequelae of trying to achieve primary closure of the flaps at the time of tooth extraction.

  17. White spot lesions: Does etching really matter?

    PubMed

    Abufarwa, Moufida; Voorhees, Robert D; Varanasi, Venu G; Campbell, Phillip M; Buschang, Peter H

    2017-08-01

    The clinical significance of acid etching prior to orthodontic bonding is controversial. In the present study, we evaluated the effect of 15 seconds of acid etching on enamel demineralization. Twenty-seven human molars were sectioned and assigned to two groups. Under standardized conditions, the enamel surfaces were imaged using FluoreCam to obtain baseline data. Group 1 was etched using 37% phosphoric acid for 15 seconds, rinsed with water, and then imaged again; group 2 was only rinsed with water. Water rinse was collected for calcium chemical analysis using inductively-coupled plasma auger electron spectrometry. Both groups were subjected to 9 days of pH cycling, after which final FluoreCam images were obtained. Group 1 showed a significant increase in lesion area (P=.012), decrease in light intensity (P=.009), and decrease in impact (P=.007) after acid etching. The amount of calcium that leached out over the 15 seconds was 14 ppm ±2.4 (0.35 mmol/L±0.06). Following pH cycling, there was no statistically-significant between-group difference in overall enamel demineralization. Initial demineralization caused by 15 seconds of acid etching does not increase enamel susceptibility to further demineralization. This suggests that acid etching does not increase the risk of developing white spot lesions during orthodontics. © 2017 John Wiley & Sons Australia, Ltd.

  18. Relationship between surface properties (roughness, wettability and morphology) of titanium and dental implant removal torque.

    PubMed

    Elias, Carlos Nelson; Oshida, Yoshiki; Lima, José Henrique Cavalcanti; Muller, Carlos Alberto

    2008-07-01

    The biological properties of titanium depend on its surface oxide film. Several mechanical and chemical treatments have been used to modify the surface morphology and properties of titanium dental implants. One possible method of improving dental implant biocompatibility is to increase surface roughness and decrease the contact angle. In the present work, the biological properties of dental implants were investigated through in vivo and in vitro tests. The effects of surface roughness, contact angle and surface morphology on titanium dental implant removal torque were investigated. Machined dental implants and discs made with commercially pure titanium ASTM grade 4 were submitted to sandblasting treatments, acid etching and anodizing. The sample surface morphologies were characterized by SEM, the surface roughness parameters were quantified using a laser non-contact profilometer, and a contact angle measurement was taken. Dental implants were placed in the tibia of rabbits and removed 12 weeks after the surgery. It was found that: (i) acid etching homogenized the surface roughness parameters; (ii) the anodized surface presented the smallest contact angle; (iii) the in vivo test suggested that, in similar conditions, the surface treatment had a beneficial effect on the implant biocompatibility measured through removal torque; and (iv) the anodized dental implant presented the highest removal torque.

  19. Synthesis and evaluation of novel dental monomer with branched aromatic carboxylic acid group

    PubMed Central

    Park, Jonggu; Ye, Qiang; Singh, Viraj; Kieweg, Sarah L.; Misra, Anil; Spencer, Paulette

    2017-01-01

    A new glycerol-based dimethacrylate monomer with an aromatic carboxylic acid, 2-((1,3-bis(methacryloyloxy)propan-2-yloxy)carbonyl)benzoic acid (BMPB), was synthesized, characterized, and proposed as a possible dental co-monomer for dentin adhesives. Dentin adhesives containing 2-hydroxyethyl methacrylate (HEMA) and 2,2-bis[4-(2-hydroxy-3-methacryloxypropoxy) phenyl]propane (BisGMA) in addition to BMPB were formulated with water at 0, 5, 10, and 15 wt % to simulate wet, oral conditions, and photo-polymerized. Adhesives were characterized with regard to viscosity, real-time photopolymerization behavior, dynamic mechanical analysis, and microscale 3D internal morphologies and compared with HEMA/BisGMA controls. When formulated under wet conditions, the experimental adhesives showed lower viscosities (0.04–0.07 Pa s) as compared to the control (0.09–0.12 Pa s). The experimental adhesives showed higher glass transition temperature (146–157°C), degree of conversion (78–89%), and rubbery moduli (33–36 MPa), and improved water miscibility (no voids) as compared to the controls (123–135°C, 67–71%, 15–26 MPa, and voids, respectively). The enhanced properties of these adhesives suggest that BMPB with simple, straight-forward synthesis is a promising photocurable co-monomer for dental restorative materials. PMID:22114017

  20. Synthesis and evaluation of novel dental monomer with branched carboxyl acid group

    PubMed Central

    Song, Linyong; Ye, Qiang; Ge, Xueping; Misra, Anil; Laurence, Jennifer S.; Berrie, Cynthia L.; Spencer, Paulette

    2014-01-01

    To enhance the water miscibility and increase the mechanical properties of dentin adhesives, a new glycerol-based monomer with vinyl and carboxylic acid, 4-((1,3-bis(-methacryloyloxy)propan-2-yl)oxy)-2-methylene-4-oxobutanoic acid (BMPMOB), was synthesized and characterized. Dentin adhesive formulations containing 2-hydroxyethyl methacrylate (HEMA), 2,2-bis[4-(2-hydroxy-3-methacryloxypropoxy) phenyl]propane (BisGMA), and BMPMOB were characterized with regard to real-time photopolymerization behavior, water sorption, dynamic mechanical analysis, and microscale three-dimensional internal morphologies and compared with HEMA/BisGMA controls. The experimental adhesive copolymers showed higher glass transition temperature and rubbery moduli, as well as improved water miscibility compared to the controls. The enhanced properties of the adhesive copolymers indicated that BMPMOB is a promising comonomer for dental restorative materials. PMID:24596134

  1. Rapid formation of Ag(n)X(X = S, Cl, PO4, C2O4) nanotubes via an acid-etching anion exchange reaction.

    PubMed

    Li, Jingjing; Yang, Wenlong; Ning, Jiqiang; Zhong, Yijun; Hu, Yong

    2014-06-07

    This work presents a rapid nanotube fabrication method for a series of silver compounds AgnX, such as Ag2S, AgCl, Ag3PO4, and Ag2C2O4, from pregrown Ag2CO3 nanorod templates. The anion exchange process involved takes place in non-aqueous solutions just at room temperature and completes within 10 minutes. An acid-etching anion exchange reaction mechanism has been proved underneath the transformation process from Ag2CO3 nanorods to AgnX nanotubes by the observation of an intermediate yolk-shell nanostructure. It has been found that the final structure of the products can be conveniently controlled by simply varying the concentration of HnX acids, and the organic solvents employed play a vital role in the formation of the nanotubes by effectively controlling the diffusion rates of different species of reacting ions. As a demonstration, the as-prepared AgCl and Ag3PO4 nanotubes exhibit enhanced photocatalytic activity and favorable recyclability for the photodegradation of rhodamine B (RhB) under visible-light irradiation.

  2. Effect of cavity preparation method on microtensile bond strength of a self-etching primer vs phosphoric acid etchant to enamel.

    PubMed

    de Souza-Zaroni, Wanessa Christine; Delfino, Carina Sinclér; Ciccone-Nogueira, Juliane Cristina; Palma-Dibb, Regina Guenka; Corona, Silmara Aparecida Milori

    2007-10-01

    This study evaluated the effect of cavity preparation using air abrasion or carbide bur on bond strength to enamel treated with a self-etching primer (Tyrian SPE) or a phosphoric acid etchant. Twenty-four molars were divided into three groups: high-speed; standard handpiece (ST air abrasion) or supersonic handpiece (SP air abrasion) of the same air-abrasive system. The enamel surfaces were treated with one of the two etchants and the same adhesive agent One Step Plus, and then composite buildups were done with Filtek Z250. After 24 h at 37 degrees C, beams (0.8 mm2) were obtained and subjected to tensile stress in a universal testing machine (0.5 mm/min). The data were submitted to analysis of variance and Tukey's test (P < 0.05). For the conditioning agents, it was observed that the specimens conditioned with phosphoric acid presented superior results than the specimens that used Tyrian SPE. For the preparation techniques, it was verified that the SP air abrasion groups showed the highest bond strengths and carbide-bur groups presented the lowest bond strengths when the specimens were conditioned with Tyrian SPE. It can be concluded that the influence of the cavity preparation method was dependent on the conditioning system used, only when using carbide-bur preparation technique.

  3. A novel etching technique for surface treatment of zirconia ceramics to improve adhesion of resin-based luting cements

    PubMed Central

    Ruyter, Eystein Ivar; Vajeeston, Nalini; Knarvang, Torbjørn; Kvam, Ketil

    2017-01-01

    Abstract Objectives: Bonding of zirconia crowns and bridges to abutments is important, not only bonding of the thin resin layer to the abutment, but also bonding to the zirconia ceramic is crucial. Both mechanical and chemical adhesion are desired. Mechanical retention of dental porcelain achieved by etching with moderately concentrated hydrofluoric acid is not possible with zirconia ceramics. The purpose of this study was to show that etching is possible with relative low melting fluoride compounds such as ammonium hydrogen difluoride and potassium hydrogen difluoride. Materials and methods: Before melting, the fluorides can be introduced as powders or as aqueous slurries to the contact surfaces of the zirconia. After melting, the yttria-stabilized zirconia surface revealed a surface similar to an HF-etched dental feldspathic porcelain surface. Shear bond testing (n = 10) was performed with zirconia attached to zirconia with the Duo-Link composite luting cement (Bisco) after treatment of the etched zirconia surfaces with Bis-Silane (Bisco) and the Porcelain Bonding Resin (Bisco). Results: Values for adhesive strength (mean ± standard deviation) after melt etching of the surfaces with initially dry powders were for K[FHF], (31.2 ± 7.5) MPa and for NH4[FHF] (31.0 ± 11.8) MPa. When initially aqueous slurries were applied, the values were for K[FHF] (42.7 ± 12.7) MPa and for NH4[FHF] (40.3 ± 10.0) MPa. Conclusion: Good adhesion to zirconia can be achieved by a procedure including etching with selected melted fluoride compounds. PMID:28642930

  4. Alkaline etch system qualification

    SciTech Connect

    Goldammer, S.E.; Pemberton, S.E.; Tucker, D.R.

    1997-04-01

    Based on the data from this qualification activity, the Atotech etch system, even with minimum characterization, was capable of etching production printed circuit products as good as those from the Chemcut system. Further characterization of the Atotech system will improve its etching capability. In addition to the improved etch quality expected from further characterization, the Atotech etch system has additional features that help reduce waste and provide for better consistency in the etching process. The programmable logic controller and computer will allow operators to operate the system manually or from pre-established recipes. The evidence and capabilities of the Atotech system made it as good as or better than the Chemcut system for etching WR products. The Printed Wiring Board Engineering Department recommended that the Atotech system be released for production. In December 1995, the Atotech system was formerly qualified for production.

  5. Quantification of proteins using enhanced etching of Ag coated Au nanorods by the Cu2+/bicinchoninic acid pair with improved sensitivity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Wenqi; Hou, Shuai; Yan, Jiao; Zhang, Hui; Ji, Yinglu; Wu, Xiaochun

    2015-12-01

    Plasmonic nanosensors show great potential in ultrasensitive detection, especially with the plasmon peak position as the detection modality. Herein, a new sensitive but simple total protein quantification method termed the SPR-BCA assay is demonstrated by combining plasmonic nanosensors with protein oxidation by Cu2+. The easy tuning of localized surface plasmon resonance (LSPR) features of plasmonic nanostructures makes them ideal sensing platforms. We found that the Cu2+/bicinchoninic acid (BCA) pair exhibits accelerated etching of Au@Ag nanorods and results in the LSPR peak shift. A linear relationship between Cu2+ and the LSPR shift is found in a double logarithmic coordinate. Such double logarithm relationship is transferred to the concentration of proteins. Theoretical simulation shows that Au nanorods with large aspect ratios and small core sizes show high detection sensitivity. Via optimized sensor design, we achieved an increased sensitivity (the limit of detection was 3.4 ng ml-1) and a wide working range (0.5 to 1000 μg ml-1) compared with the traditional BCA assay. The universal applicability of our method to various proteins further proves its potential in practical applications.Plasmonic nanosensors show great potential in ultrasensitive detection, especially with the plasmon peak position as the detection modality. Herein, a new sensitive but simple total protein quantification method termed the SPR-BCA assay is demonstrated by combining plasmonic nanosensors with protein oxidation by Cu2+. The easy tuning of localized surface plasmon resonance (LSPR) features of plasmonic nanostructures makes them ideal sensing platforms. We found that the Cu2+/bicinchoninic acid (BCA) pair exhibits accelerated etching of Au@Ag nanorods and results in the LSPR peak shift. A linear relationship between Cu2+ and the LSPR shift is found in a double logarithmic coordinate. Such double logarithm relationship is transferred to the concentration of proteins. Theoretical

  6. Effect of beverages on bovine dental enamel subjected to erosive challenge with hydrochloric acid.

    PubMed

    Amoras, Dinah Ribeiro; Corona, Silmara Aparecida Milori; Rodrigues, Antonio Luiz; Serra, Mônica Campos

    2012-01-01

    This study evaluated by an in vitro model the effect of beverages on dental enamel previously subjected to erosive challenge with hydrochloric acid. The factor under study was the type of beverage, in five levels: Sprite® Zero Low-calorie Soda Lime (positive control), Parmalat® ultra high temperature (UHT) milk, Ades® Original soymilk, Leão® Ice Tea Zero ready-to-drink low-calorie peach-flavored black teaand Prata® natural mineral water (negative control). Seventy-five bovine enamel specimens were distributed among the five types of beverages (n=15), according to a randomized complete block design. For the formation of erosive wear lesions, the specimens were immersed in 10 mL aqueous solution of hydrochloric acid 0.01 M for 2 min. Subsequently, the specimens were immersed in 20 mL of the beverages for 1 min, twice daily for 2 days at room temperature. In between, the specimens were kept in 20 mL of artificial saliva at 37ºC. The response variable was the quantitative enamel microhardness. ANOVA and Tukey's test showed highly significant differences (p<0.00001) in the enamel exposed to hydrochloric acid and beverages. The soft drink caused a significantly higher decrease in microhardness compared with the other beverages. The black tea caused a significantly higher reduction in microhardness than the mineral water, UHT milk and soymilk, but lower than the soft drink. Among the analyzed beverages, the soft drink and the black tea caused the most deleterious effects on dental enamel microhardness.

  7. [A SEM observation of acid-resistant effect of lanthanum and cerium contained gel on dental root surface

    PubMed

    Gu, Y H; Zhang, B

    1999-06-01

    OBJECTIVE:The present study was to investigate the acid-resistant effect of lanthanum,cerium contained gel.METHODS:30 of enamel-cementum slabs were treated individually with 2000ppm lanthanum,cerium and fluoride-contained gel in a pH-cycle condition for 5 days and etched with acetic buffer gel for 24 hours.RESULTS:There were spherical grains coating layers on the surface of enamel or cementum surfaces treated with F/La and F/Ce groups.24-hour successive etching made the grains disappeared,and still showed the sound surfaces.However,there were obvious etching feature in control group,which showed the enlarged Tome's process pits as well as the dissolved crystals.CONCLUSION:Combined treatment procedure of 2000ppm F and La(Ce)-gel showed the strong acid-resistant ability,which suggested that La(Ce)-Ca-F compounds play an important role,and established the foundation the oretically and experimentally for the clinical application.

  8. Morphological changes produced by acid dissolution in Er:YAG laser irradiated dental enamel.

    PubMed

    Manuela Díaz-Monroy, Jennifer; Contreras-Bulnes, Rosalía; Fernando Olea-Mejía, Oscar; Emma Rodríguez-Vilchis, Laura; Sanchez-Flores, Ignacio

    2014-06-01

    Several scientific reports have shown the effects of Er:YAG laser irradiation on enamel morphology. However, there is lack of information regarding the morphological alterations produced by the acid attack on the irradiated surfaces. The aim of this study was to evaluate the morphological changes produced by acid dissolution in Er:YAG laser irradiated dental enamel. Forty-eight enamel samples were divided into four groups (n = 12). GI (control); Groups II, III, and IV were irradiated with Er:YAG at 100 mJ (12.7 J/cm(2) ), 200 mJ (25.5 J/cm(2) ), and 300 mJ (38.2 J/cm(2) ), respectively, at 10 Hz without water irrigation. Enamel morphology was evaluated before-irradiation, after-irradiation, and after-acid dissolution, by scanning electron microscopy (SEM). Sample coating was avoided and SEM analysis was performed in a low-vacuum mode. To facilitate the location of the assessment area, a reference point was marked. Morphological changes produced by acid dissolution of irradiated enamel were observed, specifically on laser-induced undesired effects. These morphological changes were from mild to severe, depending on the presence of after-irradiation undesired effects. © 2014 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  9. Acidic pH resistance of grafted chitosan on dental implant.

    PubMed

    Campos, Doris M; Toury, Bérengère; D'Almeida, Mélanie; Attik, Ghania N; Ferrand, Alice; Renoud, Pauline; Grosgogeat, Brigitte

    2015-05-01

    Over the last decade, access to dental care has increasingly become a service requested by the population, especially in the case of dental implants. However, the major cause of implant failure is an inflammatory disease: peri-implantitis. Currently, the adhesion strength of antibacterial coatings at implant surfaces remains a problem to solve. In order to propose a functionalized implant with a resistant antibacterial coating, a novel method of chitosan immobilization at implant surface has been investigated. Functionalization of the pre-active titanium (Ti) surface was performed using triethoxysilylpropyl succinic anhydride (TESPSA) as a coupling agent which forms a stable double peptide bond with chitosan. The chitosan presence and the chemical resistibility of the coating under acid pH solutions (pH 5 and pH 3) were confirmed by FTIR-ATR and XPS analyses. Furthermore, peel test results showed high adhesive resistance of the TESPSA/chitosan coating at the substrate. Cytocompatibility was evaluated by cell morphology with confocal imaging. Images showed healthy morphology of human gingival fibroblasts (HGF-1). Finally, the reported method for chitosan immobilization on Ti surface via peptide bindings allows for the improvement of its adhesive capacities and resistibility while maintaining its cytocompatibility. Surface functionalization using the TESPSA/chitosan coupling method is noncytotoxic and stable even in drastic environments as found in oral cavity, thus making it a valuable candidate for clinical implantology applications.

  10. Surface characteristic changes of dental ceramics after cyclic immersion in acidic agents and titratable acidity.

    PubMed

    Junpoom, Peerapong; Kukiattrakoon, Boonlert; Hengtrakool, Chanothai

    2010-12-01

    The potential erosive effect of acidic food, sour fruits and drinks on all-ceramic restorations used in dentistry has not been clearly documented. Surface characteristic changes have been evaluated and compared for disc-shaped specimens (diameter 12.0 mm and thickness 2.0 mm) of fluorapatite-leucite and fluorapatite ceramics using various storage agents (deionized water, citrate buffer solution, pineapple juice, green mango juice, cola soft drink and 4% acetic acid). Immersion in pineapple juice, green mango juice, cola soft drink and 4% acetic acid for 16 hours produce significant increases in surface roughness for both types of ceramics investigated.

  11. Radiation induced deposition of copper nanoparticles inside the nanochannels of poly(acrylic acid)-grafted poly(ethylene terephthalate) track-etched membranes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Korolkov, Ilya V.; Güven, Olgun; Mashentseva, Anastassiya A.; Atıcı, Ayse Bakar; Gorin, Yevgeniy G.; Zdorovets, Maxim V.; Taltenov, Abzal A.

    2017-01-01

    Poly(ethylene terephthalate) PET, track-etched membranes (TeMs) with 400 nm average pore size were UV-grafted with poly(acrylic acid) (PAA) after oxidation of inner surfaces by H2O2/UV system. Carboxylate groups of grafted PAA chains were easily complexed with Cu2+ ions in aqueous solutions. These ions were converted into metallic copper nanoparticles (NPs) by radiation-induced reduction of copper ions in aqueous-alcohol solution by gamma rays in the dose range of 46-250 kGy. Copper ions chelating with -COOH groups of PAA chains grafted on PET TeMs form polymer-metal ion complex that prevent the formation of agglomerates during reduction of copper ions to metallic nanoparticles. The detailed analysis by X-Ray diffraction technique (XRD), transmission electron microscopy (TEM), scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and energy-dispersive X-ray spectroscopy (EDX) confirmed the deposition of copper nanoparticles with the average size of 70 nm on the inner surface of nanochannels of PET TeMs. Samples were also investigated by FTIR, ESR spectroscopies to follow copper ion reduction.

  12. Quantification of proteins using enhanced etching of Ag coated Au nanorods by the Cu(2+)/bicinchoninic acid pair with improved sensitivity.

    PubMed

    Liu, Wenqi; Hou, Shuai; Yan, Jiao; Zhang, Hui; Ji, Yinglu; Wu, Xiaochun

    2016-01-14

    Plasmonic nanosensors show great potential in ultrasensitive detection, especially with the plasmon peak position as the detection modality. Herein, a new sensitive but simple total protein quantification method termed the SPR-BCA assay is demonstrated by combining plasmonic nanosensors with protein oxidation by Cu(2+). The easy tuning of localized surface plasmon resonance (LSPR) features of plasmonic nanostructures makes them ideal sensing platforms. We found that the Cu(2+)/bicinchoninic acid (BCA) pair exhibits accelerated etching of Au@Ag nanorods and results in the LSPR peak shift. A linear relationship between Cu(2+) and the LSPR shift is found in a double logarithmic coordinate. Such double logarithm relationship is transferred to the concentration of proteins. Theoretical simulation shows that Au nanorods with large aspect ratios and small core sizes show high detection sensitivity. Via optimized sensor design, we achieved an increased sensitivity (the limit of detection was 3.4 ng ml(-1)) and a wide working range (0.5 to 1000 μg ml(-1)) compared with the traditional BCA assay. The universal applicability of our method to various proteins further proves its potential in practical applications.

  13. Effects of rhBMP-2 on Sandblasted and Acid Etched Titanium Implant Surfaces on Bone Regeneration and Osseointegration: Spilt-Mouth Designed Pilot Study

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Nam-Ho; Lee, So-Hyoun; Ryu, Jae-Jun; Choi, Kyung-Hee; Huh, Jung-Bo

    2015-01-01

    This study was conducted to evaluate effects of rhBMP-2 applied at different concentrations to sandblasted and acid etched (SLA) implants on osseointegration and bone regeneration in a bone defect of beagle dogs as pilot study using split-mouth design. Methods. For experimental groups, SLA implants were coated with different concentrations of rhBMP-2 (0.1, 0.5, and 1 mg/mL). After assessment of surface characteristics and rhBMP-2 releasing profile, the experimental groups and untreated control groups (n = 6 in each group, two animals in each group) were placed in split-mouth designed animal models with buccal open defect. At 8 weeks after implant placement, implant stability quotients (ISQ) values were recorded and vertical bone height (VBH, mm), bone-to-implant contact ratio (BIC, %), and bone volume (BV, %) in the upper 3 mm defect areas were measured. Results. The ISQ values were highest in the 1.0 group. Mean values of VBH (mm), BIC (%), and BV (%) were greater in the 0.5 mg/mL and 1.0 mg/mL groups than those in 0.1 and control groups in buccal defect areas. Conclusion. In the open defect area surrounding the SLA implant, coating with 0.5 and 1.0 mg/mL concentrations of rhBMP-2 was more effective, compared with untreated group, in promoting bone regeneration and osseointegration. PMID:26504807

  14. From Hypo- to Hypersuppression: Effect of Amino Acid Substitutions on the RNA-Silencing Suppressor Activity of the Tobacco etch potyvirus HC-Pro

    PubMed Central

    Torres-Barceló, Clara; Martín, Susana; Daròs, José-Antonio; Elena, Santiago F.

    2008-01-01

    RNA silencing participates in several important functions: from the regulation of cell metabolism and organism development to sequence-specific antiviral defense. Most plant viruses have evolved proteins that suppress RNA silencing and that in many cases are multifunctional. Tobacco etch potyvirus (TEV) HC-Pro protein suppresses RNA silencing and participates in aphid-mediated transmission, polyprotein processing, and genome amplification. In this study, we have generated 28 HC-Pro amino acid substitution mutants and quantified their capacity as suppressors of RNA silencing in a transient expression assay. Most mutations either had no quantitative effect or completely abolished silencing suppression (10 in each class), 3 caused a significant decrease in the activity, and 5 significantly increased it, revealing an unexpected high frequency of mutations conferring hypersuppressor activity. A representative set of the mutant alleles, containing both hypo- and hypersuppressors, was further analyzed for their effect on TEV accumulation and the strength of induced symptoms. Whereas TEV variants with hyposuppressor mutants were far less virulent than wild-type TEV, those with hypersuppressor alleles induced symptoms that were not more severe than those characteristic of the wild-type virus, suggesting that there is not a perfect match between suppression and virulence. PMID:18780745

  15. Early bone response to machined, sandblasting acid etching (SLA) and novel surface-functionalization (SLAffinity) titanium implants: characterization, biomechanical analysis and histological evaluation in pigs.

    PubMed

    Chiang, Hsi-Jen; Hsu, Heng-Jui; Peng, Pei-Wen; Wu, Ching-Zong; Ou, Keng-Liang; Cheng, Han-Yi; Walinski, Christopher J; Sugiatno, Erwan

    2016-02-01

    The purpose of the present study was to examine early tissue response and osseointegration in the animal model. The surface morphologies of SLAffinity were characterized using scanning electron microscopy and atomic force microscopy. The microstructures were examined by X-ray diffraction, and hardness was measured by nanoindentation. Moreover, the safety and toxicity properties were evaluated using computer-aided programs and cell cytotoxicity assays. In the animal model, implants were installed in the mandibular canine-premolar area of 12 miniature pigs. Each pig received three implants: machine, sandblasted, large grit, acid-etched, and SLAffinity-treated implants. The results showed that surface treatment did affect bone-to-implant contact (BIC) significantly. At 3 weeks, the SLAffinity-treated implants were found to present significantly higher BIC values than the untreated implants. The SLAffinity treatments enhanced osseointegration significantly, especially at early stages of bone tissue healing. As described above, the results of the present study demonstrate that the SLAffinity treatment is a reliable surface modification method. © 2015 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  16. Influence of adhesive application methods and rebonding agent application on sealing effectiveness of all-in-one self-etching adhesives.

    PubMed

    Demirci, Mustafa; Tuncer, Safa; Tekçe, Neslihan; Erdilek, Dina; Uysal, Ömer

    2013-10-01

    The choice of adhesive application methods could affect the microleakage of self-etch adhesives. To evaluate the effect of acid-etching, doubling adhesive application time, doubling adhesive coating, and rebonding agent application on microleakage of self-etch adhesives in Class V cavities. Seventy human third molars with Class V cavities assigned to five groups according to different adhesive application protocols for the three dentin adhesives (Clearfil S3 Bond, Kuraray Medical, Okayama, Japan; Optibond All-in-One, Kerr Corporation Orange, CA, USA; G-Aenial Bond, GC Corporation, Tokyo, Japan): group 1, manufacturer's recommendations; group 2, prior acid-etching of cavities; group 3, double application time; group 4, two consecutive coats of the adhesives; group 5, rebonding application on restoration margins. After bonding, the cavities were filled with a resin composite (Filtek Supreme XT, 3M ESPE Dental Products, St. Paul, MN, USA). The teeth were thermocycled, and the specimens were examined for microleakage using methylene blue as a marker. For Clearfil S3 Bond and Optibond All-in-One, microleakage in groups 2 and 5 were significantly lower than other groups' enamel margins. In groups 1, 2, 4, and 5, Clearfil S3 Bond exhibited significantly more leakage than the other dentin bonding agents in dentin margins. Microleakage was significantly higher on dentinal margins compared with the enamel margins for Clearfil S3 Bond in all of the groups. Optibond All-in-One showed significantly lower microleakage in dentin margins in all groups except groups 2 and 5. Acid-etching usually promoted the reduction of microleakage in enamel margins. On the other hand, rebonding application usually contributed to the reduction of microleakage more than other methods in enamel and dentin margins. Acid-etching or rebonding application may contribute to reduction of microleakage of all-in-one self-etching adhesives. © 2013 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  17. Longevity of Self-etch Dentin Bonding Adhesives Compared to Etch-and-rinse Dentin Bonding Adhesives: A Systematic Review.

    PubMed

    Masarwa, Nader; Mohamed, Ahmed; Abou-Rabii, Iyad; Abu Zaghlan, Rawan; Steier, Liviu

    2016-06-01

    A systematic review and meta-analysis were performed to compare longevity of Self-Etch Dentin Bonding Adhesives to Etch-and-Rinse Dentin Bonding Adhesives. The following databases were searched for PubMed, MEDLINE, Web of Science, CINAHL, the Cochrane Library complemented by a manual search of the Journal of Adhesive Dentistry. The MESH keywords used were: "etch and rinse," "total etch," "self-etch," "dentin bonding agent," "bond durability," and "bond degradation." Included were in-vitro experimental studies performed on human dental tissues of sound tooth structure origin. The examined Self-Etch Bonds were of two subtypes; Two Steps and One Step Self-Etch Bonds, while Etch-and-Rinse Bonds were of two subtypes; Two Steps and Three Steps. The included studies measured micro tensile bond strength (μTBs) to evaluate bond strength and possible longevity of both types of dental adhesives at different times. The selected studies depended on water storage as the aging technique. Statistical analysis was performed for outcome measurements compared at 24 h, 3 months, 6 months and 12 months of water storage. After 24 hours (p-value = 0.051), 3 months (p-value = 0.756), 6 months (p-value=0.267), 12 months (p-value=0.785) of water storage self-etch adhesives showed lower μTBs when compared to the etch-and-rinse adhesives, but the comparisons were statistically insignificant. In this study, longevity of Dentin Bonds was related to the measured μTBs. Although Etch-and-Rinse bonds showed higher values at all times, the meta-analysis found no difference in longevity of the two types of bonds at the examined aging times. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  18. Effect of a low-viscosity adhesive resin on the adhesion of metal brackets to enamel etched with hydrochloric or phosphoric acid combined with conventional adhesives.

    PubMed

    Yetkiner, Enver; Ozcan, Mutlu; Wegehaupt, Florian Just; Wiegand, Annette; Eden, Ece; Attin, Thomas

    2013-12-01

    This study investigated the effect of a low-viscosity adhesive resin (Icon) applied after either hydrochloric (HCl) or phosphoric acid (H3PO4) on the adhesion of metal brackets to enamel. Failure types were analyzed. The crowns of bovine incisors (N = 20) were sectioned mesio-distally and inciso-gingivally, then randomly assigned to 4 groups according to the following protocols to receive mandibular incisor brackets: 1) H3PO4 (37%)+TransbondXT (3M UNITEK); 2) H3PO4 (37%)+Icon+TransbondXT; 3) HCl (15%)+Icon (DMG)+TransbondXT 4) HCl (15%)+Icon+Heliobond (Ivoclar Vivadent)+TransbondXT. Specimens were stored in distilled water at 37°C for 24 h and thermocycled (5000x, 5°C to 55°C). The shear bond strength (SBS) test was performed using a universal testing machine (1 mm/min). Failure types were classified according to the Adhesive Remnant Index (ARI). Contact angles of adhesive resins were measured (n = 5 per adhesive) on ceramic surfaces. No significant difference in SBS was observed, implying no difference between combinations of adhesive resins and etching agents (p = 0.712; ANOVA). The Weibull distribution presented significantly lower Weibull modulus (m) of group 3 (m = 2.97) compared to other groups (m = 5.2 to 6.6) (p < 0.05). The mean SBS results (MPa) in descending order were as follows: group 4 (46.7 ± 10.3) > group 1 (45.4 ± 7.9) > group 2 (44.2 ± 10.6) > group 3 (42.6 ± 15.5). While in groups 1, 3, and 4 exclusively an ARI score of 0 (no adhesive left on tooth) was observed, in group 2, only one specimen demonstrated score 1 (less than half of adhesive left on tooth). Contact angle measurements were as follows: Icon (25.86 ± 3.81 degrees), Heliobond (31.98 ± 3.17 degrees), TransbondXT (35 ± 2.21 degrees). Icon can be safely used with the conventional adhesives tested on surfaces etched with either HCl or H3PO4.

  19. Shear bond strength and SEM morphology evaluation of different dental adhesives to enamel prepared with ER:YAG laser.

    PubMed

    Pires, Patrícia T; Ferreira, João C; Oliveira, Sofia A; Azevedo, Alvaro F; Dias, Walter R; Melo, Paulo R

    2013-01-01

    Early observations of enamel surfaces prepared by erbium lasers motivated clinicians to use laser as an alternative to chemical etching. Evaluate shear bond strength (SBS) values of different dental adhesives on Erbium:Yttrium Aluminum Garnet (Er:YAG) laser prepared enamel and to evaluate possible etching patterns correlations between dental adhesives and SBS values. One hundred bovine incisors were randomly assigned to SBS tests on enamel (n = 15) and to enamel morphology analysis (n = 5) after Er:YAG laser preparation as follows: Group I - 37% phosphoric acid (PA)+ ExciTE(®); Group II - ExciTE(®); Group III - AdheSE(®) self-etching; Group IV - FuturaBond(®) no-rinse. NR; Group V - Xeno(®) V. Teeth were treated with the adhesive systems and subjected to thermal cycling. SBS were performed in a universal testing machine at 5 mm/min. One-way ANOVA and post-hoc tests (P < 0.05). For the morphology evaluation, specimens were immersed in Ethylenediamine tetraacetic acid (EDTA) and the etching pattern analyzed under Scanning Electron Microscope (SEM). Mean bond strengths were Group I - 47.17 ± 1.61 MPa (type I etching pattern); Group II - 32.56 ± 1.64 MPa, Group III - 29.10 ± 1.34 MPa, Group IV - 23.32 ± 1.53 MPa (type III etching pattern); Group V - 24.43 MPa ± 1.55 (type II etching pattern). Different adhesive systems yielded significantly different SBSs. Acid etching significantly increased the adhesion in laser treated enamel. No differences in SBS values were obtained between AdheSE(®) and ExciTE(®) without condition with PA. FuturaBond(®) NR and Xeno(®) V showed similar SBS, which was lower in comparison to the others adhesives. No correlation between enamel surface morphology and SBS values was observed, except when PA was used.

  20. Toxicity of a dental adhesive compared with ionizing radiation and zoledronic acid

    PubMed Central

    Alcaraz, Miguel; Olivares, Amparo; Achel, Daniel-Giyngiri; García-Cruz, Emilio; Fondevilla-Soler, Adriana; Canteras-Jordana, Manuel

    2015-01-01

    Background To determine the toxicity of aqueous dilutions of a universal self-priming dental adhesive (DA) and comparing these with those elicited by exposure to ionizing radiation (IR), Zoledronic acid (Z) treatment and the synergic effects of the combined treatment with IR+Z. Material and Methods The genotoxic effect of DA was determined by the increase in the frequency of micronuclei in cytokinesis-blocked in cultured human lymphocytes before and after exposure to 2Gy of X-rays. The cytotoxic effect was studied by using the MTT cell viability test in normal prostate cell lines (PNT2) after exposure to different X-ray doses (0Gy-20Gy). The cell lines divided into different groups and treated with different test substances: DA in presence of O2, DA in absence of O2, Z-treated and control. Results An in vitro dose-dependent and time-dependent cytotoxic effect of DA, Z and IR on PNT2 cells (p>0.001) was demonstrated. DA without-O2, following the recommendations of manufacturers, had a more pronounced effect of increasing cell death than DA with-O2 (p<0.001). In the genotoxicity assay, DA at 25% of its original concentration significantly increased chromosome damage (p<0.001). The samples studied were found to be toxic, and the samples photo-polymerized in absence of O2 showed a bigger cytotoxic effect comparable to the additive toxic effect showed by the combined treatment of IR+Z. Conclusions Additional effort should be carried out to develop adhesives, which would reduce the release of hazardous substances; since toxic effects are similar to that reported by other agents whose clinical use is controlled by the health authorities. Key words: Micronucleus, toxicity, dental adhesive, zolendronic acid, radiation effects. PMID:26034923

  1. New developments in dental adhesion.

    PubMed

    Perdigão, Jorge

    2007-04-01

    Numerous simplified adhesives have been introduced to the dental market within the last few years, sometimes without comprehensive testing to validate the performance claimed by the respective manufacturers. Mild self-etch adhesives are unable to etch enamel to provide adequate retention for bonded restorations. Although high early resin-dentin bond strength values can be achieved with some self-etch adhesives, their resistance to thermal and mechanical stresses over time is disappointing. In light of the current drawbacks attributed to all-in-one self-etch adhesives, etch-and-rinse adhesives are still the benchmark for dental adhesion in routine clinical use. This article summarizes current issues and factors related to the performance of adhesives.

  2. Comparison of alkaline phosphatase activity of MC3T3-E1 cells cultured on different Ti surfaces: modified sandblasted with large grit and acid-etched (MSLA), laser-treated, and laser and acid-treated Ti surfaces.

    PubMed

    Li, Lin-Jie; Kim, So-Nam; Cho, Sung-Am

    2016-06-01

    In this study, the aim of this study was to evaluate the effect of implant surface treatment on cell differentiation of osteoblast cells. For this purpose, three surfaces were compared: (1) a modified SLA (MSLA: sand-blasted with large grit, acid-etched, and immersed in 0.9% NaCl), (2) a laser treatment (LT: laser treatment) titanium surface and (3) a laser and acid-treated (LAT: laser treatment, acid-etched) titanium surface. The MSLA surfaces were considered as the control group, and LT and LAT surfaces as test groups. Alkaline phosphatase expression (ALP) was used to quantify osteoblastic differentiation of MC3T3-E1 cell. Surface roughness was evaluated by a contact profilometer (URFPAK-SV; Mitutoyo, Kawasaki, Japan) and characterized by two parameters: mean roughness (Ra) and maximum peak-to-valley height (Rt). Scanning electron microscope revealed that MSLA (control group) surface was not as rough as LT, LAT surface (test groups). Alkaline phosphatase expression, the measure of osteoblastic differentiation, and total ALP expression by surface-adherent cells were found to be highest at 21 days for all three surfaces tested (P<.05). Furthermore, ALP expression levels of MSLA and LAT surfaces were significantly higher than expression levels of LT surface-adherent cells at 7, 14, and 21 days, respectively (P<.05). However, ALP expression levels between MSLA and LAT surface were equal at 7, 14, and 21 days (P>.05). This study suggested that MSLA and LAT surfaces exhibited more favorable environment for osteoblast differentiation when compared with LT surface, the results that are important for implant surface modification studies.

  3. Comparison of alkaline phosphatase activity of MC3T3-E1 cells cultured on different Ti surfaces: modified sandblasted with large grit and acid-etched (MSLA), laser-treated, and laser and acid-treated Ti surfaces

    PubMed Central

    Li, Lin-Jie; Kim, So-Nam

    2016-01-01

    PURPOSE In this study, the aim of this study was to evaluate the effect of implant surface treatment on cell differentiation of osteoblast cells. For this purpose, three surfaces were compared: (1) a modified SLA (MSLA: sand-blasted with large grit, acid-etched, and immersed in 0.9% NaCl), (2) a laser treatment (LT: laser treatment) titanium surface and (3) a laser and acid-treated (LAT: laser treatment, acid-etched) titanium surface. MATERIALS AND METHODS The MSLA surfaces were considered as the control group, and LT and LAT surfaces as test groups. Alkaline phosphatase expression (ALP) was used to quantify osteoblastic differentiation of MC3T3-E1 cell. Surface roughness was evaluated by a contact profilometer (URFPAK-SV; Mitutoyo, Kawasaki, Japan) and characterized by two parameters: mean roughness (Ra) and maximum peak-to-valley height (Rt). RESULTS Scanning electron microscope revealed that MSLA (control group) surface was not as rough as LT, LAT surface (test groups). Alkaline phosphatase expression, the measure of osteoblastic differentiation, and total ALP expression by surface-adherent cells were found to be highest at 21 days for all three surfaces tested (P<.05). Furthermore, ALP expression levels of MSLA and LAT surfaces were significantly higher than expression levels of LT surface-adherent cells at 7, 14, and 21 days, respectively (P<.05). However, ALP expression levels between MSLA and LAT surface were equal at 7, 14, and 21 days (P>.05). CONCLUSION This study suggested that MSLA and LAT surfaces exhibited more favorable environment for osteoblast differentiation when compared with LT surface, the results that are important for implant surface modification studies. PMID:27350860

  4. New acid BisGMA analogs for dental adhesive applications with antimicrobial activity.

    PubMed

    Melinte, Violeta; Buruiana, Tinca; Chibac, Andreea; Mares, Mihai; Aldea, Horia; Buruiana, Emil C

    2016-12-01

    To achieve bisphenol A glycerolate dimethacrylate (BisGMA) analogs with reduced viscosity to be used in the formulation of dental adhesives containing biocidal components. A series of low-viscosity BisGMA derivatives (η: 39-12Pas) modified with 30, 60 and, respectively 80mol% carboxylic acid units were synthesized and characterized. Hydrogen bonding interactions in our monomers, the photopolymerization behavior and implicitly the conversion degree (DC) for some experimental adhesive formulations containing acid-modified BisGMA, commercial BisGMA (only in F1-F3), triethyleneglycol dimethacrylate and 2-hydroxyethyl methacrylate were examined by FTIR spectroscopy. The water effects on the photocrosslinked networks together with the flexural strength/modulus were also investigated. The adhesive penetration into the dentin surface was surveyed by SEM analysis, and the antimicrobial activity triggered by the incorporation of 0.5wt% AgNO3, 10wt% zinc methacrylate or 1wt% triclosan methacrylate in selected adhesive formulations on the growth of Streptococcus mutans and Candida albicans strains was evidenced. The contribution of the hydrogen bonding interactions was found to be lower in BisGMA derivatives than in non-modified BisGMA, and the DC varied between 56.5 (F6) and 83.7% (F1) compared with a control formulation based on BisGMA:TEGDMA (DC=58.2%). The flexural strength and flexural modulus varied in the range 33.7MPa (F6)-54.4MPa (F8)MPa and 0.64 (F6)-1.43 (F8)GPa, respectively. SEM observation of adhesive-dentin interface revealed the formation of resin tags for the carboxyl-containing adhesive, while for the control adhesive they are hardly formed. Also, the microorganism development was inhibited, the proposed materials displaying antimicrobial activity. The experimental formulations based on carboxyl-functionalized BisGMA exhibit a similar or even improved behavior over control sample, suggesting their potential applicability as antimicrobial dental adhesives

  5. Metal etching with reactive gas cluster ion beams using pickup cell

    SciTech Connect

    Toyoda, Noriaki; Yamada, Isao

    2012-11-06

    Mixed gas cluster ion beams were formed using pickup cell for metal etching. O{sub 2} neutral clusters pick up acetic acid and formed mixed cluster beam. By using O{sub 2}-GCIB with acetic acid, enhancement of Cu etching was observed. Because of dense energy deposition by GCIB, etching of Cu proceeds by CuO formation, enhancement of chemical reaction with acetic acid and desorption of etching products. Surface roughening was not observed on poly crystalline Cu because of the small dependence of etching rate on crystal orientation. Halogen free and low-temperature metal etching with GCIB using pickup cell is possible.

  6. Jaw osteonecrosis management around a dental implant inserted 2 years before starting treatment with zoledronic acid

    PubMed Central

    Marín-Fernández, Ana-Belén; García Medina, Blas; Aguilar-Salvatierra, Antonio; Jiménez-Burkhardt, Alberto

    2015-01-01

    Bisphosphonates (BP) are a type of drug known to inhibit bone resorption through complex interventions. Their primary mechanism of action is aimed at the cellular level, inhibiting osteoclast activity and so bone resorption. BPs are widely used, with many patients receiving continuous treatment for years. But it is well known that these drugs can produce osteonecrosis of the jaw (ONJ). Zoledronic acid (ZA) is an intravenous BP used in the treatment and prophylaxis of bone disease in patients with malignant tumors with bone implication. ZA is the most potent BP in clinical development. This report describes the case of a 62-year-old woman with breast cancer antecedents which relapsed, who had received a maxillary dental implant two years before the start of therapy with zoledronic acid. She later developed osteonecrosis of the jaw (ONJ), which began in the peri-implant area, and was treated for stage 3 ONJ by sub-total maxillectomy. Key words:Bisphosphonates, zoledronic acid, osteonecrosis of the jaw, peri-implantitis, maxillectomy. PMID:26330946

  7. Bond strength of self-etch adhesives to pre-etched enamel.

    PubMed

    Erickson, Robert L; Barkmeier, Wayne W; Kimmes, Nicole S

    2009-10-01

    Bond strengths of composite resin to enamel using four self-etch adhesive (SEA) systems were compared with the bond strength of an etch-and-rinse adhesive (ERA) system, for both polished enamel and enamel pre-etched with phosphoric acid. The objective was to determine if the pre-etching would increase the bond strengths of the SEA systems to match the ERA system. Ten specimens were used for each adhesive to determine 24-h resin composite to enamel shear bond strengths (SBS) to polished (4000 grit) human enamel and this was repeated for the SEA systems for enamel that was pre-etched with phosphoric acid for 15s. SEM analysis was made to assess the degree of etching and resin penetration into enamel for each of the adhesive systems. Data were analyzed by a two factor ANOVA with a Tukey HSD post hoc test. The SBS to polished enamel for all four SEA systems were statistically significantly lower (p<0.05) than the ERA control, but with pre-etched enamel there were no statistically significant differences (p>0.05) between any of the adhesive systems. All four of the SEA systems demonstrated statistically significant increases in bond strength between bonding to polished and pre-etched enamel, ranging from 27% to 86%. The results of SEM analysis showed no differences in the resin penetration patterns of any of the adhesives for enamel that was etched with phosphoric acid. Pre-etching enamel may enhance the bond strength of SEA systems to values comparable with those found with ERA adhesive systems, which may improve their overall performance in clinical use.

  8. Etch By-Products in Plasma Etching

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Radtke, Matthew T.; Coburn, J. W.; Graves, David B.

    2002-10-01

    Etch byproducts commonly play a major role in plasma composition, influencing etch rate, anisotropy, critical dimension control, and selectivity. Environmental implications associated with the etching process and subsequent chamber cleans are also a concern for new materials. In this work, experimental diagnostics were used to study silicon etch byproduct chemistry in Cl_2/O2 plasmas as a model case. We report studies using an inductively coupled plasma reactor equipped with a cooled, rf-biased chuck, a downstream FTIR spectrometer, a quartz crystal microbalance, a Langmuir probe, an ion flux wall probe, an ion mass spectrometer, a separate threshold ionization mass spectrometer for neutral radical detection, and an optical emission spectrometer . Neutral mass spectrometer measurements in pure SiCl4 were used to measure the SiCl4 electron impact direct ionization cross section and dissociative ionization thresholds for SiCl_x^+ ions. Ion and neutral mass spectrometry were used to measure plasma composition in order to demonstrate the relative importance of etch byproducts. Specie wall fluxes were then calculated and compared with in-situ wall deposition and ex-situ XPS measurements to study the wall deposition mechanism.

  9. Sputtered gold mask for deep chemical etching of silicon

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Pisciotta, B. P.; Gross, C.; Olive, R. S.

    1975-01-01

    Sputtered mask resists chemical attack from acid and has adherence to withstand prolonged submergence in etch solution without lifting from silicon surface. Even under prolonged etch conditions with significant undercutting, gold mask maintained excellent adhesion to silicon surface and imperviousness to acid.

  10. Novel Dental Cement to Combat Biofilms and Reduce Acids for Orthodontic Applications to Avoid Enamel Demineralization

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Ning; Melo, Mary Anne S.; Antonucci, Joseph M.; Lin, Nancy J.; Lin-Gibson, Sheng; Bai, Yuxing; Xu, Hockin H.K.

    2016-01-01

    Orthodontic treatments often lead to biofilm buildup and white spot lesions due to enamel demineralization. The objectives of this study were to develop a novel bioactive orthodontic cement to prevent white spot lesions, and to determine the effects of cement compositions on biofilm growth and acid production. 2-methacryloyloxyethyl phosphorylcholine (MPC), nanoparticles of silver (NAg), and dimethylaminohexadecyl methacrylate (DMAHDM) were incorporated into a resin-modified glass ionomer cement (RMGI). Enamel shear bond strength (SBS) was determined. Protein adsorption was determined using a micro bicinchoninic acid method. A dental plaque microcosm biofilm model with human saliva as inoculum was used to investigate metabolic activity, colony-forming units (CFU) and lactic acid production. Incorporating 3% of MPC, 1.5% of DMAHDM, and 0.1% of NAg into RMGI, and immersing in distilled water at 37 °C for 30 days, did not decrease the SBS, compared to control (p > 0.1). RMGI with 3% MPC + 1.5% DMAHDM + 0.1% NAg had protein amount that was 1/10 that of control. RMGI with triple agents (MPC + DMAHDM + NAg) had much stronger antibacterial property than using a single agent or double agents (p < 0.05). Biofilm CFU on RMGI with triple agents was reduced by more than 3 orders of magnitude, compared to commercial control. Biofilm metabolic activity and acid production were also greatly reduced. In conclusion, adding MPC + DMAHDM + NAg in RMGI substantially inhibited biofilm viability and acid production, without compromising the orthodontic bracket bond strength to enamel. The novel bioactive cement is promising for orthodontic applications to hinder biofilms and plaque buildup and enamel demineralization. PMID:28773534

  11. Nanoparticle-based etching of silicon surfaces

    DOEpatents

    Branz, Howard [Boulder, CO; Duda, Anna [Denver, CO; Ginley, David S [Evergreen, CO; Yost, Vernon [Littleton, CO; Meier, Daniel [Atlanta, GA; Ward, James S [Golden, CO

    2011-12-13

    A method (300) of texturing silicon surfaces (116) such to reduce reflectivity of a silicon wafer (110) for use in solar cells. The method (300) includes filling (330, 340) a vessel (122) with a volume of an etching solution (124) so as to cover the silicon surface 116) of a wafer or substrate (112). The etching solution (124) is made up of a catalytic nanomaterial (140) and an oxidant-etchant solution (146). The catalytic nanomaterial (140) may include gold or silver nanoparticles or noble metal nanoparticles, each of which may be a colloidal solution. The oxidant-etchant solution (146) includes an etching agent (142), such as hydrofluoric acid, and an oxidizing agent (144), such as hydrogen peroxide. Etching (350) is performed for a period of time including agitating or stirring the etching solution (124). The etch time may be selected such that the etched silicon surface (116) has a reflectivity of less than about 15 percent such as 1 to 10 percent in a 350 to 1000 nanometer wavelength range.

  12. The Effects of Using a Commercial Grade Plasma Etching Chamber to Etch Anodized Niobium Surfaces

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Epperson, Christiana; Drake, Dereth; Winska, Kalina

    2015-11-01

    Anodized niobium surfaces are used in particle accelerators for construction of the superconducting cavities. These surfaces must be cleaned regularly to remove containments and maintain the surface smoothness. The most common method used is that of chemically etching the surface using acid baths; however, this process can affect the smoothness of the layer and is extremely time consuming and hazardous. Plasma etching is one alternative that has shown great promise. We are using a commercial grade plasma etching chamber to clean anodized niobium samples that have varying oxide layer thicknesses. Spectral profiles of the surfaces of the samples are taken before and after etching. All measured results are compared to a simple theoretical model in order to determine the effects of the etching process on each surface.

  13. Dentin-smear remains at self-etch adhesive interface.

    PubMed

    Mine, Atsushi; De Munck, Jan; Cardoso, Marcio Vivan; Van Landuyt, Kirsten L; Poitevin, André; Van Ende, Annelies; Matsumoto, Mariko; Yoshida, Yasuhiro; Kuboki, Takuo; Yatani, Hirofumi; Van Meerbeek, Bart

    2014-10-01

    The bonding potential of 'mild' self-etch adhesives may be compromised due to smear interference, as they may not dissolve/penetrate the smear layer effectively due to their relatively low acidity. We observed that the thickness of the dentin smear layer differed depending on the surface-preparation methodology used. The interaction of an (ultra-)mild self-etch adhesive (Clearfil S3 Bond, Kuraray Noritake) with human dentin, prepared either using a medium-grit diamond bur ('thick', clinically relevant smear layer) or 600-grit SiC-paper ('thin' smear layer), or just fractured (smear-free), was evaluated using high-resolution transmission electron microscopy (TEM). Non-demineralized/demineralized 30-100nm interfacial cross-sections were prepared following common TEM-specimen processing and diamond-knife ultra-microtomy. The adhesive did not dissolve the bur-cut, nor the SiC-ground smear layer, but impregnated it. Within this 'resin-smear complex', hydroxyapatite was abundantly present. At fractured dentin, this complex was not present, while the actual layer of interaction of the adhesive was limited to about 100nm. Non-demineralized 'ultra-thin' (30-50nm) sections confirmed the interfacial ultra-structure to differ for the three surface-preparation methods. An electron dense band was consistently disclosed at the adhesive interface, most likely representing the documented chemical interaction of the functional monomer 10-MDP with Ca. The dentin surface-preparation method significantly affects the nature of the smear layer and the interaction with the ultra-mild self-etch adhesive. Copyright © 2014 Academy of Dental Materials. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. Autogenous bone graft combined with polylactic polyglycolic acid polymer for treatment of dehiscence around immediate dental implants.

    PubMed

    Hassan, Khalid S

    2009-11-01

    The use of composite bone grafts in dehiscence defects around immediate dental implants are aimed at improving the outcome of the regenerative process. The present study was designed to evaluate the efficacy of combinations of autogenous bone graft with a synthetic copolymer polylactic and polyglycolic acid (Fisiograft) on bone healing of buccal dehiscence defects around immediate dental implants. Sixteen adult male patients who each received an immediate implant for a single tooth replacement at a maxillary anterior or premolar site were included in this study. Patients were divided into 2 groups. One group received immediate dental implants augmented with autogenous bone graft combined with Fisiograft. The other group received immediate dental implants augmented with autogenous bone graft alone. The results revealed that both treatment modalities led to significant improvements for the primary outcome regarding bone fill as well as a significant reduction of probing pocket depth and gain of attachment level. Moreover, there were slightly statistically significant differences between the groups. In conclusion, the combination of autogenous bone graft and Fisiograft showed a slight superiority to autogenous bone graft alone, suggesting that it could be an optimum bone substitute for treatment of dehiscence around immediate dental implant.

  15. Mechanisms of action of fluoridated acidic liquid dentifrices against dental caries.

    PubMed

    Cardoso, Cristiane de Almeida Baldini; Lacerda, Bianca; Mangueira, Dayane Franco Barros; Charone, Senda; Olympio, Kelly Polido Kaneshiro; Magalhães, Ana Carolina; Pessan, Juliano Pelim; Vilhena, Fabiano Vieira; Sampaio, Fábio Correia; Buzalaf, Marília Afonso Rabelo

    2015-01-01

    This study attempted to clarify the mechanisms of action of fluoridated acidic liquid dentifrices against dental caries. In the in vitro leg, enamel specimens were submitted to a pH-cycling model, treated with distinct dentifrices (0, 550 μgF/g pH 4.5 and pH 7.0, 1100 or 5000 μgF/g pH 7.0) and analyzed using hardness. Alkali-soluble fluoride (F) deposition was quantified on pre-demineralized specimens treated with the dentifrices. In the clinical leg, 2-to-4-year-old children who had been using liquid dentifrices for 6 months (550 μgF/g pH 4.5 or pH 7.0 or 1100 μgF/g pH 7.0) had their plaque samples collected 5 and 60 min after the last brushing. Fluoride uptake in whole plaque was evaluated. The reduction of the pH had a partial preventive effect on subsurface hardness loss only. [F] had a significant influence on the deposition of fluoride, surface and subsurface hardness loss. In vivo, the reduction of the pH was able to significantly increase plaque F uptake, leading to similar levels as those found for the neutral dentifrice containing twice [F]. The results obtained from in vitro studies whose design does not include the presence of dental plaque should be interpreted with caution. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. Improved wet bonding of methyl methacrylate-tri-n-butylborane resin to dentin etched with ten percent phosphoric acid in the presence of ferric ions.

    PubMed

    Iwasaki, Yasuhiko; Toida, Tetsuya; Nakabayashi, Nobuo

    2004-03-01

    The objective of this study was to determine the influence of dissolved dentinal substances in demineralized dentin on the hybridization of resin for bonding to dentin. It was hypothesized that these substances, including polyelectrolytes, significantly change the substrates, which could then be assessed by the addition of Na(+), Ca(2+), or Fe(3+) in 10% phosphoric acid. Bovine dentin specimens were etched for 10 s with a solution of 10% phosphoric acid (control) or of 22.0 mM dissolved sodium chloride (10P-Na), calcium chloride (10P-Ca), or ferric chloride (10P-Fe). The specimens were then rinsed, blot-dried, and primed three times with 5% 4-methacryloyloxyethyl trimellitate anhydride in acetone for 60 s. Methyl methacrylate-tri-n-butylborane resin was then applied. The tensile bond strength of each of the dumbbell-shaped specimens was then measured. The fractured surfaces and modified cross-sections were examined by scanning electron microscopy. The cross-sections were soaked in 6N HCl for 10 s and then in 1% sodium hypochlorite for 30 min to determine the resin content in the hybridized specimens. Shrinkage of the demineralized dentins upon drying was assessed by atomic force microscopy. The tensile bond strengths were 10.8 +/- 4.5 (control), 15.0 +/- 7.0 (10P-Na), 19.3 +/- 5.5 (10P-Ca), and 27.8 +/- 8.1 (10P-Fe) MPa. The atomic force microscopy studies showed that Fe(3+) minimized the shrinkage by drying for 10 s but Ca(2+) and Na(+) did not decrease the shrinkage the same as the control. The results support the hypothesis that the monomer permeability of wet demineralized dentin is effectively improved by dissolving ferric ions in the phosphoric acid, resulting in a greater bond strength and higher resin content in the hybridized dentin. The dissolved dentinal substances, including the polyelectrolytes, had a significant influence on the characteristics of the demineralized dentin, changing the degree of hybridization and bonding.

  17. The effect of dynamic etching on surface quality and laser damage resistance for fused silica optics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Zhiqiang; Yan, Hongwei; Yuan, Xiaodong; Li, Yuan; Yang, Ke; Yan, Lianghong; Zhang, Lijuan; Liu, Taixiang; Li, Heyang

    2017-05-01

    Fused silica optics were treated by dynamic etching using buffered hydrofluoric acid (BHF) with different etching depths. The transmissivity of fused silica slightly increases in deep UV (DUV) range after dynamic etching. Surface qualities of fused silica were characterized in terms of surface roughness, surface profile and photoluminescence (PL) spectra. The results show that dynamic etching has a slight impact on surface RMS roughness.PL defects gradually reduces by dynamic etching, and laser damage resistance of fused silica continuously increases with etching depth extending. When removal depth increases to 12μm, the damage threshold is the double that of the unetched surface. However, surface profile continuously deteriorates with etching depth increasing. Appropriate etching amount is very important for improving damage resistance and mitigating surface profile deteriorating of fused silica during etching process simultaneously. The study is expected to contribute to the practical application of dynamic etching for mitigating laser induced degradation of fused silica optics under UV laser irradiation.

  18. One-bottle self-etching adhesives applied to dentine air-abraded using bioactive glasses containing polyacrylic acid: an in vitro microtensile bond strength and confocal microscopy study.

    PubMed

    Sauro, Salvatore; Watson, Timothy F; Thompson, Ian; Banerjee, Avijit

    2012-11-01

    The aim of this study was to test the microtensile bond strength (μTBS) of two "simplified" self-etching adhesives bonded to air-abraded dentine using experimental bioactive glass powders containing polyacrylic acid. Sound dentine specimens were air-abraded using a pure Bioglass 45S5 (Bioglass) powder or two Bioglass powders containing different concentration of polyacrylic acid (PAA: 15 wt% or 40 wt%). The bonding procedures were accomplished by the application of two self-etching adhesives (CS3: Clearfil S3 Bond; Kuraray, Osaka, Japan or GB: G Bond; GC Ltd. Tokyo, Japan). The resin-bonded specimens were cut in beams (0.9 mm(2)) and the μTBS testing was performed after 24h or 6months of phosphate buffer solution (PBS) storage. The results were statistically analysed by three-way ANOVA and Student-Newman-Keuls test used (α=0.05). Further bonded-dentine specimens were used for the confocal microscopy interfacial characterisation and micropermeability analysis. The CS3 adhesive system achieved higher μTBS than those attained in the specimens bonded with GB both after 24h and 6 months of PBS storage. The CLSM analysis performed after 6months of PBS storage indicated severe micropermeability within the bonded-dentine interfaces created using GB applied onto dentine air-abraded with Bioglass/PAA-15 and Bioglass/PAA-40. Conversely, CS3 exhibited no dye penetration (micropermeability) at the resin-dentine interface. It is possible to affirm that air-abrasion procedures performed using pure Bioglass or Bioglass containing 15 wt% PAA do not interfere with the immediate bonding performance of self-etching adhesives. However, the durability of the bonded-dentine interfaces created subsequent air-abrasion procedures using bioactive glasses will depend also upon the chemical composition of the self-etch adhesive systems. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. A hydrophilic dental implant surface exhibits thrombogenic properties in vitro.

    PubMed

    Hong, Jaan; Kurt, Seta; Thor, Andreas

    2013-02-01

    Surface modifications of dental implants have gained attention during several years and the thrombotic response from blood components with these materials has become more important during recent years. The aims of this study were to evaluate the thrombogenic response of whole blood, in contact with clinically used dental surfaces, Sandblasted Large grit Acid etched titanium (SLA) and Sandblasted Large grit Acid etched, and chemically modified titanium with hydrophilic properties (SLActive). An in vitro slide chamber model, furnished with heparin, was used in which whole blood came in contact with slides of the test surfaces. After incubation (60-minute rotation at 22 rpm in a 37°C water bath), blood was mixed with ethylenediaminetetraacetic acid (EDTA) or citrate, further centrifuged at +4°C. Finally, plasma was collected pending analysis. Whole blood in contact with surfaces resulted in significantly higher binding of platelets to the hydrophilic surface, accompanied by a significant increase of contact activation of the coagulation cascade. In addition, the platelet activation showed a similar pattern with a significant elevated release of β-TG from platelet granule. The conclusion that can be drawn from the results in our study is that the hydrophilic modification seems to augment the thrombogenic properties of titanium with implications for healing into bone of, that is titanium dental implants. © 2011 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  20. Characterization of Dentine to Assess Bond Strength of Dental Composites

    PubMed Central

    Liaqat, Saad; Aljabo, Anas; Khan, Muhammad Adnan; Ben Nuba, Hesham; Bozec, Laurent; Ashley, Paul; Young, Anne

    2015-01-01

    This study was performed to develop alternating dentine adhesion models that could help in the evaluation of a self-bonding dental composite. For this purpose dentine from human and ivory was characterized chemically and microscopically before and after acid etching using Raman and SEM. Mechanical properties of dentine were determined using 3 point bend test. Composite bonding to dentine, with and without use of acid pre-treatment and/or the adhesive, were assessed using a shear bond test. Furthermore, micro gap formation after restoration of 3 mm diameter cavities in dentine was assessed by SEM. Initial hydroxyapatite level in ivory was half that in human dentine. Surface hydroxyapatites decreased by approximately half with every 23 s of acid etch. The human dentine strength (56 MPa) was approximately double that of ivory, while the modulus was almost comparable to that of ivory. With adhesive use, average shear bond strengths were 30 and 26 MPa with and without acid etching. With no adhesive, average bond strength was 6 MPa for conventional composites. This, however, increased to 14 MPa with a commercial flowable “self–bonding” composite or upon addition of low levels of an acidic monomer to the experimental composite. The acidic monomer additionally reduced micro-gap formation with the experimental composite. Improved bonding and mechanical properties should reduce composite failures due to recurrent caries or fracture respectively.

  1. Simulation of Plasma Etching

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Moroz, Paul; Moroz, Daniel

    2016-09-01

    Plasma is an indispensable tool in materials processing. It provides chemically and physically active species and directional flows of energetic species enabling deep etching with good straight profiles required by the industry. At present time, the only feasible methods of simulating the resulting feature profiles are those which fall within the scope of feature-scale (FS) simulation methods, utilizing engineering-type of reactions of incoming species with solid materials. At the same time, the molecule dynamics (MD) methods are emerging as an important alternative approach to simulating extremely small features with sizes below of a few nanometers. In our presentation, we discuss both FS methods implemented into the FPS3D code and MD methods implemented into the MDSS code. We also discuss the ways of extracting information about the reactions and interactions used in FS codes from the MD simulations utilizing the approach of interatomic potentials. For this presentation, we selected two types of simulation cases for etching. The first type considers simulation of mostly etching and implantation, such as during Si etching by chlorine-argon plasma. The second type considers ALE (atomic layer etch) when etching is done by a cyclic process of surface passivation/activation with the following process of etching/removal of a single atomic layer per cycle or per a few cycles, allowing ultimate processing accuracy. The simulations are carried out with both FS and MD codes to provide the data for relation and comparison between those two very different approaches.

  2. Substantivity of hypochlorous acid-based disinfectant against biofilm formation in the dental unit waterlines

    PubMed Central

    Shajahan, Irfana Fathima; Kandaswamy, Deivanayagam; Lakshminarayanan, L.; Selvarajan, R.

    2017-01-01

    Objective: The purpose of the study was to examine the substantivity of a new disinfectant against biofilm formation in the dental unit waterlines. Materials and Methods: Twenty dental units were selected for the study and divided into two groups: Group A (dental unit waterlines treated with the disinfectant) and Group B (untreated dental unit waterlines). Biofilm formation was monitored in both groups by removing the one dental unit waterline from each group for the period of 10 days. One inch of the dental unit waterline tube was cut at random site, and the inner lumen of the cut sections was analyzed using the scanning electron microscope (SEM) (TESCAN VEGA3 SBU). Results: On examination, SEM images showed that there was no slime layer or bacterial cells seen in cut section for the period of 7 days in the treated dental waterlines, which means that there is no evident of biofilm formation. In the untreated dental unit waterline cut section, slime layer was observed from day 1. Conclusion: Disinfectant solution was proved to be effective for 7 days against biofilm formation. This technique could be used as a valid method for disinfection of dental unit waterlines. PMID:28761244

  3. Galvanic etching for sensor fabrication

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ashruf, C. M. A.; French, P. J.; Sarro, P. M.; Kazinczi, R.; Xia, X. H.; Kelly, J. J.

    2000-12-01

    This paper describes the application of a novel etch-stop technique, based on galvanic element formation, to the fabrication of micromechanical sensors. The theory of operation in tetramethyl ammonium hydroxide (TMAH) and hydrofluoric acid (HF) solutions is discussed, together with the main limitations. A number of devices are presented. These include a piezoresistive pressure sensor made with a galvanic etch stop in a 25% TMAH solution at 80 °C and the contactless fabrication in similar solutions of a vibration sensor based on free-standing crystalline silicon beams. The thickness definition and uniformity were found to be poorer with the cantilever than with the membrane type sensors. Oxygen in the solution was used to provide the cell current, which was therefore rather low. This resulted in a low package density of the sensor elements on the wafer. Free-standing thick polysilicon structures were also formed with a galvanic etch-stop technique in HF solutions. The selectivity of this process, and the thickness definition and uniformity were good. In these solutions, the cell current could be easily increased by adding other strong oxidizing agents, such as hydrogen peroxide. Therefore, high package densities could be achieved in these solutions.

  4. Acid demineralization susceptibility of dental enamel submitted to different bleaching techniques and fluoridation regimens.

    PubMed

    Salomão, Dlf; Santos, Dm; Nogueira, Rd; Palma-Dibb, Rg; Geraldo-Martins, Vr

    2014-01-01

    The aim of the current study was to assess the acid demineralization susceptibility of bleached dental enamel submitted to different fluoride regimens. One hundred bovine enamel blocks (6×6×3 mm) were randomly divided into 10 groups (n=10). Groups 1 and 2 received no bleaching. Groups 3 to 6 were submitted to an at-home bleaching technique using 6% hydrogen peroxide (HP; G3 and G4) or 10% carbamide peroxide (CP; G5 and G6). Groups 7 to 10 were submitted to an in-office bleaching technique using 35% HP (G7 and G8) or 35% CP (G9 and G10). During bleaching, a daily fluoridation regimen of 0.05% sodium fluoride (NaF) solution was performed on groups 3, 5, 7, and 9, while weekly fluoridation with a 2% NaF gel was performed on groups 4, 6, 8, and 10. The samples in groups 2 to 10 were pH cycled for 14 consecutive days. The samples from all groups were then assessed by cross-sectional Knoop microhardness at different depths from the outer enamel surface. The average Knoop hardness numbers (KHNs) were compared using one-way analysis of variance and Tukey tests (α=0.05). The comparison between groups 1 and 2 showed that the demineralization method was effective. The comparison among groups 2 to 6 showed the same susceptibility to acid demineralization, regardless of the fluoridation method used. However, the samples from groups 8 and 10 showed more susceptibility to acid demineralization when compared with group 2 (p<0.05). Groups 7 and 9 provided similar results to group 2, but the results of those groups were different when compared with groups 8 and 10. The use of 6% HP and 10% CP associated with daily or weekly fluoridation regimens did not increase the susceptibility of enamel to acid demineralization. However, the use of 35% HP and 35% CP must be associated with a daily fluoridation regimen, otherwise the in-office bleaching makes the bleached enamel more susceptible to acid demineralization.

  5. CPP-ACP: Effect on Dental Plaque Acidity after Water Rinsing Following Topical Fluoride Therapy.

    PubMed

    Fatemeh, Mazhari; Marjan, Sharifi; Homa, Noorollahian; Mahsa, Sharifi

    There is some evidence that water rinsing immediately after topical fluoride therapy has the potential to reduce the effectiveness of fluoride. The aim was to determine if covering fluoridated teeth with a layer of mousse containing CPP-ACP could prevent the adverse effect of rinsing on fluoride and consequently its buffering effect on dental plaque pH during cariogenic challenge. This randomized, controlled, crossover, in situ study was conducted on 25 participants. The participants were subjected to acidulated phosphate fluoride (APF) application followed by five treatment protocols: (1) water rinsing after 30 minutes (APF-30) or (2) immediate water rinsing (APF-0); (3) using CPP-ACP immediately before water rinsing (F-CPP-ACP); and two control groups: (4) no fluoride therapy (No-F) and (5) using CPP-ACP and immediate water rinsing (CPP-ACP-0). After 48 hours, teeth were rinsed with 10% sucrose solution and plaque pH was measured before and after 5, 10, 15, 20 and 30 minutes. The least pH changes, the lowest pH drop, and the quickest pH recovery were found in the APF-30 and F-CPP-ACP groups. APF-0 ranked in the middle and the highest values were in the control groups. The results show that in the case using CPP-ACP on fluoridated teeth, water rinsing immediately after topical fluoride therapy did not seem to influence the inhibitory effect of fluoride on plaque acidity.

  6. Compromised Osseous Healing of Dental Extraction Sites in Zoledronic Acid-Treated Dogs

    PubMed Central

    Allen, Matthew R.; Kubek, Daniel J.; Burr, David B.; Ruggiero, Salvatore L.; Chu, Tien-Min Gabriel

    2010-01-01

    PURPOSE The goal of this study was to document how treatment with a bisphosphonate affects the bone tissue following dental extraction. METHODS Skeletally mature female beagle dogs were either untreated controls (CON) or treated with intravenous zoledronic acid (ZOL). Following the extraction of the 4th premolars, healing was allowed for 4 or 8 weeks. Properties of the extraction site were assessed using micro-computed tomography (micro-CT) and dynamic histomorphometry. RESULTS The initial infilling of the extraction socket with bone was not affected by ZOL but subsequent removal of this bone was significantly suppressed compared to CON. After 8-weeks of healing, the alveolar cortical bone adjacent to the extraction socket had a remodeling rate of ~50%/year in CON animals while ZOL-treated animals had a rate of < 1%/year. One ZOL-treated animal developed exposed bone post-extraction which eventually led to the formation of a sequestrum. Assessment of the sequestrum with micro-CT and histology showed that it had features consistent with those reported in humans with osteonecrosis of the jaw. CONCLUSIONS These results, showing significantly compromised post-extraction osseous healing as well as presence of exposed bone and development of a sequestrum in one ZOL animal, provide a building block toward understanding the pathophysiology of osteonecrosis of the jaw. PMID:20458574

  7. Excimer Laser Etching

    SciTech Connect

    Boatner, Lynn A; Longmire, Hu Foster; Rouleau, Christopher M; Gray, Allison S

    2008-04-01

    Excimer laser radiation at a wavelength of = 248 nm represents a new etching method for the preparation of metallographic specimens. The method is shown to be particularly effective for enhancing the contrast between different phases in a multiphase metallographic specimen.

  8. Online Etching of a Neutron-Irradiated Acid-Resistant Residue of Allende — Clues to the Character and Origin of Phase Q?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Holinger, S.; Riebe, M.; Clay, P. L.; Gilmour, J. D.; Ruzie, L.; Kuga, M.; Maden, C.; Busemann, H.

    2015-07-01

    The online etching noble gas study of the n-irradiated HF/HCl-residue of Allende yields a late I-Xe age, little Q-gas and a delayed gas release compared to an unirradiated residue run. First data for a larger Vigarano residue might also be presented.

  9. Long-term results of a three arms prospective cohort study on implants in periodontally compromised patients: 10-year data around sandblasted and acid-etched (SLA) surface.

    PubMed

    Roccuzzo, Mario; Bonino, Luca; Dalmasso, Paola; Aglietta, Marco

    2014-10-01

    The aim of this study was to compare the long-term outcomes of sandblasted and acid-etched (SLA) implants in patients previously treated for periodontitis and in periodontally healthy patients (PHP). One hundred and forty-nine partially edentulous patients were consecutively enrolled in private specialist practice and divided into three groups according to their periodontal condition: PHP, moderately periodontally compromised patients (PCP) and severely PCP. Implants were placed to support fixed prostheses, after successful completion of initial periodontal therapy. At the end of active periodontal treatment (APT), patients were asked to follow an individualized supportive periodontal therapy (SPT) program. Diagnosis and treatment of peri-implant biological complications were performed according to cumulative interceptive supportive therapy (CIST). At 10 years, clinical and radiographic measures were recorded by two calibrated operators, blind to the initial patient classification, on 123 patients, as 26 were lost to follow up. The number of sites treated according to therapy modalities C and D (antibiotics and/or surgery) during the 10 years was registered. Six implants were removed for biological complications. The implant survival rate was 100% for PHP, 96.9% for moderate PCP and 97.1% for severe PCP. Antibiotic and/or surgical therapy was performed in 18.8% of cases in PHP, in 52.2% of cases in moderate PCP and in 66.7% cases in severe PCP, with a statistically significant differences between PHP and both PCP groups. At 10 years, the percentage of implants, with at least one site that presented a PD ≥ 6 mm, was, respectively, 0% for PHP, 9.4% for moderate PCP and 10.8% for severe PCP, with a statistically significant difference between PHP and both PCP groups. This study shows that SLA implants, placed under a strict periodontal control, offer predictable long-term results. Nevertheless, patients with a history of periodontitis, who did not fully adhere to

  10. Pre-etching vs. grinding in promotion of adhesion to intact enamel using self-etch adhesives.

    PubMed

    Nazari, Amir; Shimada, Yasushi; Sadr, Alireza; Tagami, Junji

    2012-01-01

    This study was aimed to determine the effectiveness of grinding and pre-etching in promotion of adhesion to human intact enamel using the self-etch adhesive (SEA) Adper Easy Bond (3M ESPE). Etch-and-rinse adhesive Adper Single Bond (3M ESPE) served as control. Composite cylinders (AP-X Kuraray) were built and after 24 h micro-shear bond strengths (MSBS) were measured. Bonding interfaces were evaluated under scanning electron microscope (SEM). For evaluation of average roughness (Ra) and morphological analysis, treated enamel surfaces were observed under SEM and confocal laser scanning microscope (CLSM) with 3D surface profiling. Highest bond strengths were obtained by pre-etching and grinding showed a less significant role. Phosphoric acid (PA) etching compare to grinding created significantly rougher surface (Ra: 0.72 and 0.43 µm respectively). Therefore, this study recommends pre-etching the intact enamel prior to application of the adhesive instead of grinding.

  11. Adhesion of Dental Materials to Tooth Structure

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mitra, Sumita B.

    2000-03-01

    The understanding and proper application of the principles of adhesion has brought forth a new paradigm in the realm of esthetic dentistry. Modern restorative tooth procedures can now conserve the remaining tooth-structure and also provide for the strengthening of the tooth. Adhesive restorative techniques call for the application and curing of the dental adhesive at the interface between the tooth tissue and the filling material. Hence the success of the restoration depends largely on the integrity of this interface. The mechanism of adhesion of the bonding materials to the dental hard tissue will be discussed in this paper. There are four main steps that occur during the application of the dental adhesive to the oral hard tissues: 1) The first step is the creation of a microstructure in the tooth enamel or dentin by means of an acidic material. This can be through the application of a separate etchant or can be accomplished in situ by the adhesive/primer. This agent has to be effective in removing or modifying the proteinaceous “smear” layer, which would otherwise act as a weak boundary layer on the surface to be bonded. 2) The primer/adhesive must then be able to wet and penetrate the microstructure created in the tooth. Since the surface energies of etched enamel and that of etched dentin are different finding one material to prime both types of dental tissues can be quite challenging. 3) The ionomer types of materials, particularly those that are carboxylate ion-containing, can chemically bond with the calcium ions of the hydroxyapatite mineral. 4) Polymerization in situ allows for micromechanical interlocking of the adhesive. The importance of having the right mechanical properties of the cured adhesive layer and its role in absorbing and dissipating stresses encountered by a restored tooth will also be discussed.

  12. Morphological Evaluation of the Adhesive/Enamel interfaces of Two-step Self-etching Adhesives and Multimode One-bottle Self-etching Adhesives.

    PubMed

    Sato, Takaaki; Takagaki, Tomohiro; Matsui, Naoko; Hamba, Hidenori; Sadr, Alireza; Nikaido, Toru; Tagami, Junji

    To evaluate the acid-base resistant zone (ABRZ) at the adhesive/enamel interface of self-etching adhesives with or without prior phosphoric acid etching. Four adhesives were used in 8 groups: Clearfil SE Bond (SEB), Optibond XTR (XTR), Scotchbond Universal Adhesive (SBU), and Clearfil BOND SE ONE (ONE) without prior phosphoric-acid etching, and each adhesive with phosphoric acid etching for 10 s (P-SEB, P-XTR, P-SBU and P-ONE, respectively). After application of self-etching adhesives on ground enamel surfaces of human teeth, a flowable composite was placed. For observation of the acid-base resistant zone (ABRZ), the bonded interface was exposed to demineralizing solution (pH 4.5) for 4.5 h, followed by 5% NaOCl with ultrasonication for 20 min. After the acid-base challenge, morphological attributes of the interface were observed using SEM. ABRZ formation was confirmed in all groups. The funnel-shaped erosion beneath the interface was present in SBU and ONE, where nearly 10 to 15 μm of enamel was dissolved. With phosphoric acid etching, the ABRZs were obviously thicker compared with no phosphoric acid etching. Enamel beneath the bonding interface was more susceptible to acid dissolution in SBU and ONE. In the case of the one-bottle self-etching adhesives and universal adhesives that intrinsically have higher pH values, enamel etching should be recommended to improve the interfacial quality.

  13. Structural and dynamical studies of acid-mediated conversion in amorphous-calcium-phosphate based dental composites.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Fan; Allen, Andrew J; Levine, Lyle E; Vaudin, Mark D; Skrtic, Drago; Antonucci, Joseph M; Hoffman, Kathleen M; Giuseppetti, Anthony A; Ilavsky, Jan

    2014-10-01

    To investigate the complex structural and dynamical conversion process of the amorphous-calcium-phosphate (ACP)-to-apatite transition in ACP based dental composite materials. Composite disks were prepared using zirconia hybridized ACP fillers (0.4 mass fraction) and photo-activated Bis-GMA/TEGDMA resin (0.6 mass fraction). We performed an investigation of the solution-mediated ACP-to-apatite conversion mechanism in controlled acidic aqueous environment with in situ ultra-small angle X-ray scattering based coherent X-ray photon correlation spectroscopy and ex situ X-ray diffraction, as well as other complementary techniques. We established that the ACP-to-apatite conversion in ACP composites is a two-step process, owing to the sensitivity to local structural changes provided by coherent X-rays. Initially, ACP undergoes a local microstructural rearrangement without losing its amorphous character. We established the catalytic role of the acid and found the time scale of this rearrangement strongly depends on the pH of the solution, which agrees with previous findings about ACP without the polymer matrix being present. In the second step, ACP is converted to an apatitic form with the crystallinity of the formed crystallites being poor. Separately, we also confirmed that in the regular Zr-modified ACP the rate of ACP conversion to hydroxyapatite is slowed significantly compared to unmodified ACP, which is beneficial for targeted slow release of functional calcium and phosphate ions from dental composite materials. For the first time, we were able to follow the complete solution-mediated transition process from ACP to apatite in this class of dental composites in a controlled aqueous environment. A two-step process, suggested previously, was conclusively identified. Copyright © 2014 Academy of Dental Materials. All rights reserved.

  14. Release of cetyl pyridinium chloride from fatty acid chelate temporary dental cement

    PubMed Central

    Hurt, Andrew; Coleman, Nichola J.; Tüzüner, Tamer; Bagis, Bora; Korkmaz, Fatih Mehmet; Nicholson, John W.

    2016-01-01

    Abstract Objective To determine whether the antimicrobial nature of a fatty acid chelate temporary dental cement can be enhanced by the addition of 5% cetyl pyridinium chloride (CPC). Materials and methods The temporary cement, Cavex Temporary was employed, and additions of CPC were made to either the base or the catalyst paste prior to mixing the cement. Release of CPC from set cement specimens was followed using reverse-phase HPLC for a period of up to 2 weeks following specimen preparation. Potential interactions between Cavex and CPC were examined by Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR) and antimicrobial effects were determined using zone of inhibition measurements after 24 h with disc-shaped specimens in cultured Streptococcus mutans. Results FTIR showed no interaction between CPC and the components of the cement. CPC release was found to follow a diffusion mechanism for the first 6 h or so, and to equilibrate after approximately 2 weeks, with no significant differences between release profiles when the additive was incorporated into the base or the catalyst paste. Diffusion was rapid, and had a diffusion coefficient of approximately 1 × 10−9 m2 s−1 in both cases. Total release was in the range 10–12% of the CPC loading. Zones of inhibition around discs containing CPC were significantly larger than those around the control discs of CPC-free cement. Conclusions The antimicrobial character of this temporary cement can be enhanced by the addition of CPC. Such enhancement is of potential clinical value, though further in vivo work is needed to confirm this. PMID:27335898

  15. Weaker dental enamel explains dental decay.

    PubMed

    Vieira, Alexandre R; Gibson, Carolyn W; Deeley, Kathleen; Xue, Hui; Li, Yong

    2015-01-01

    Dental caries continues to be the most prevalent bacteria-mediated non-contagious disease of humankind. Dental professionals assert the disease can be explained by poor oral hygiene and a diet rich in sugars but this does not account for caries free individuals exposed to the same risk factors. In order to test the hypothesis that amount of amelogenin during enamel development can influence caries susceptibility, we generated multiple strains of mice with varying levels of available amelogenin during dental development. Mechanical tests showed that dental enamel developed with less amelogenin is "weaker" while the dental enamel of animals over-expressing amelogenin appears to be more resistant to acid dissolution.

  16. Poly(acrylic acid) grafted montmorillonite as novel fillers for dental adhesives: synthesis, characterization and properties of the adhesive.

    PubMed

    Solhi, Laleh; Atai, Mohammad; Nodehi, Azizollah; Imani, Mohammad; Ghaemi, Azadeh; Khosravi, Kazem

    2012-04-01

    This work investigates the graft polymerization of acrylic acid onto nanoclay platelets to be utilized as reinforcing fillers in an experimental dental adhesive. Physical and mechanical properties of the adhesive and its shear bond strength to dentin are studied. The effect of the modification on the stability of the nanoparticle dispersion in the dilute adhesive is also investigated. Poly(acrylic acid) (PAA) was grafted onto the pristine Na-MMT nanoclay (Cloisite(®) Na(+)) through the free radical polymerization of acylic acid in an aqueous media. The resulting PAA-g-nanoclay was characterized using FTIR, TGA and X-ray diffraction (XRD). The modified nanoclays were added to an experimental dental adhesive in different concentrations and the morphology of the nanoclay layers in the photocured adhesive matrix was studied using TEM and XRD. Shear bond strength of the adhesives containing different filler contents was tested on the human premolar teeth. The stability of nanoclay dispersion in the dilute adhesive was also studied using a separation analyzer. The results were then statistically analyzed and compared. The results confirmed the grafting reaction and revealed a partially exfoliated structure for the PAA-g-nanoclay. Incorporation of 0.2 wt.% of the modified nanoclay into the experimental adhesive provided higher shear bond strength. The dispersion stability of the modified nanoparticles in the dilute adhesive was also enhanced more than 25 times. Incorporation of the modified particles as reinforcing fillers into the adhesive resulted in higher mechanical properties. The nanofiller containing bonding agent also showed higher shear bond strength due to the probable interaction of the carboxylic acid functional groups on the surface of the modified particles with hydroxyapatite of dentin. Copyright © 2011 Academy of Dental Materials. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. Silicon vertical microstructure fabrication by catalytic etching

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Huang, Mao-Jung; Yang, Chii-Rong; Chang, Chun-Ming; Chu, Nien-Nan; Shiao, Ming-Hua

    2012-08-01

    This study presents an effective, simple and inexpensive process for forming micro-scale vertical structures on a (1 0 0) silicon wafer. Several modified etchants and micro-patterns including rectangular, snake-like, circular and comb patterns were employed to determine the optimum etching process. We found that an etchant solution consisting of 4.6 M hydrofluoric acid, 0.44 M hydrogen peroxide and isopropyl alcohol produces microstructures at an etching rate of 0.47 µm min-1 and surface roughness of 17.4 nm. All the patterns were transferred faithfully to the silicon substrate.

  18. The effect of caries excavation methods on the bond strength of etch-and-rinse and self-etch adhesives to caries affected dentine.

    PubMed

    Aggarwal, V; Singla, M; Yadav, S; Yadav, H

    2013-12-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the influence of chemomechanical caries removal and conventional caries excavation on the microtensile bond strength of three different dentine adhesive systems. Thirty extracted human mandibular molars with radiographic signs of dental caries extending up to the middle third of dentine were sectioned longitudinally through the centre of the carious lesion in a buccolingual direction to yield two sections. One half of each tooth was excavated by tungsten carbide bur and the other half was chemomechanically treated with Carisolv(®) . Three dentine bonding systems: an etch-and-rinse single bottle adhesive (Single Bond, 3M ESPE); a two bottle, two-step self-etch bonding system (One Coat Self Etching Bond, Coltene Whaledent); and a single-step, single bottle self-etch adhesive (Adper Easy Bond Self-Etch Adhesive, 3M ESPE) were applied and composite build-up was done. The specimens were tested for microtensile bond strength. Data were analysed using two-way analysis of variance and pair-wise multiple comparisons were done using the Holm-Sidak method. The etch-and-rinse adhesive and two bottle self-etch system showed significantly higher bond strength than the single bottle self-etch system. Caries excavation method had no influence on bond strength values. Carisolv(®) did not affect the microtensile bond strength values of different adhesive systems tested to the caries affected dentine. © 2013 Australian Dental Association.

  19. Self-etching adhesives: review of adhesion to tooth structure part I.

    PubMed

    Strydom, C

    2004-11-01

    Self-etching adhesives with their easy handling technique and promise of no post-op sensitivity are increasingly popular among dental practitioners. As with any new bonding material, in vitro and in vivo investigations are required to assess the clinical efficacy of these systems. The current literature was reviewed to provide information about these systems in terms of: etching of and adhesion to prepared and unprepared enamel, primary enamel and sclerotic or caries-affected dentine. Published abstracts and research papers on laboratory studies, as well as reviews available in the dental literature. Although the etching aggressiveness of self-etching systems can be used to predict the depth of demineralisation of tooth structure and the ultra-structure and thickness of the hybrid layer, it cannot be correlated to the bond strengths obtained on enamel and dentine. A certain mild two-step self-etching system, for example, consistently provides similar or higher bond strengths than more aggressive self-etching systems in laboratory studies. Where either intact enamel or sclerotic or caries-affected dentine is involved, self-etching systems generally provide lower bond strengths than total-etch systems; therefore coarsening of tooth structure, extra etching time or an extra application of the primer is recommended.

  20. Ion beam sputter etching

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Banks, Bruce A.; Rutledge, Sharon K.

    1986-01-01

    An ion beam etching process which forms extremely high aspect ratio surface microstructures using thin sputter masks is utilized in the fabrication of integrated circuits. A carbon rich sputter mask together with unmasked portions of a substrate is bombarded with inert gas ions while simultaneous carbon deposition occurs. The arrival of the carbon deposit is adjusted to enable the sputter mask to have a near zero or even slightly positive increase in thickness with time while the unmasked portions have a high net sputter etch rate.

  1. Electrolytic etching process provides effective bonding surface on stainless steel

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1966-01-01

    Electrolytic etching process prepares surfaces of a stainless steel shell for reliable, high strength adhesive bonding to dielectric materials. The process uses a 25 percent aqueous solution of phosphoric acid.

  2. Chemical downstream etching of tungsten

    SciTech Connect

    Blain, M.G.; Jarecki, R.L.; Simonson, R.J.

    1998-07-01

    The downstream etching of tungsten and tungsten oxide has been investigated. Etching of chemical vapor deposited tungsten and e-beam deposited tungsten oxide samples was performed using atomic fluorine generated by a microwave discharge of argon and NF{sub 3}. Etching was found to be highly activated with activation energies approximated to be 6.0{plus_minus}0.5thinspkcal/mol and 5.4{plus_minus}0.4thinspkcal/mol for W and WO{sub 3}, respectively. In the case of F etching of tungsten, the addition of undischarged nitric oxide (NO) directly into the reaction chamber results in the competing effects of catalytic etch rate enhancement and the formation of a nearly stoichiometric WO{sub 3} passivating tungsten oxide film, which ultimately stops the etching process. For F etching of tungsten oxide, the introduction of downstream NO reduces the etch rate. {copyright} {ital 1998 American Vacuum Society.}

  3. Atomic force microscopy observation of enamel surfaces treated with self-etching primer.

    PubMed

    Hashimoto, Yusuke; Hashimoto, Yoshiya; Nishiura, Aki; Matsumoto, Naoyuki

    2013-01-01

    Orthodontists use a self-etching adhesive system when attaching brackets to enamel. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the erosion effects of common clinically used adhesive systems on human enamel surfaces by atomic force microscopy (AFM). Four commercially available adhesive systems (i. e., Kurasper F, Beauty Ortho Bond, Orthophia LC, and Transbond XT) were applied to ground enamel surfaces of extracted human teeth. Enamel surface roughness (ESR), absolute depth profile (ADP), and surface hardness were evaluated by AFM. The ESR and ADP were significantly higher after the pretreatment with the phosphoric acid-etching adhesive system than after the pretreatments with the three self-etching adhesive systems. The surface nanohardness decreased after the pretreatment with the phosphoric acid-etching adhesive system but increased after the pretreatments with the self-etching adhesive systems. These results suggest that the use of a self-etching primer for enamel conditioning might prevent decalcification caused by phosphoric acid etching.

  4. An In Vitro Evaluation of Leakage of Two Etch and Rinse and Two Self-Etch Adhesives after Thermocycling

    PubMed Central

    Geerts, Sabine; Bolette, Amandine; Seidel, Laurence; Guéders, Audrey

    2012-01-01

    Our experiment evaluated the microleakage in resin composite restorations bonded to dental tissues with different adhesive systems. 40 class V cavities were prepared on the facial and lingual surfaces of each tooth with coronal margins in enamel and apical margins in cementum (root dentin). The teeth were restored with Z100 resin composite bonded with different adhesive systems: Scotchbond Multipurpose (SBMP), a 3-step Etch and Rinse adhesive, Adper Scotchbond 1 XT (SB1), a 2-step Etch and Rinse adhesive, AdheSE One (ADSE-1), a 1-step Self-Etch adhesive, and AdheSE (ADSE), a 2-step Self-Etch adhesive. Teeth were thermocycled and immersed in 50% silver nitrate solution. When both interfaces were considered, SBMP has exhibited significantly less microleakage than other adhesive systems (resp., for SB1, ADSE-1 and ADSE, P = 0.0007, P < 0.0001 and P < 0.0001). When enamel and dentin interfaces were evaluated separately, (1) for the Self-Etch adhesives, microleakage was found greater at enamel than at dentin interfaces (for ADSE, P = 0.024 and for ADSE-1, P < 0.0001); (2) for the Etch and Rinse adhesive systems, there was no significant difference between enamel and dentin interfaces; (3) SBMP was found significantly better than other adhesives both at enamel and dentin interfaces. In our experiment Etch and Rinse adhesives remain better than Self-Etch adhesives at enamel interface. In addition, there was no statistical difference between 1-step (ADSE-1) and 2-step (ADSE) Self-Etch adhesives. PMID:22675358

  5. Effect of Ethylene diamine tetra acetic acid and sodium hypochlorite solution conditioning on microtensile bond strength of one-step self-etch adhesives

    PubMed Central

    Kasraei, Shahin; Azarsina, Mohadese; Khamverdi, Zahra

    2013-01-01

    Background: Attempts to improve bond strength of self-etch adhesives can enhance the durability of composite restorations. Aims: The aim of the present study was to evaluate the effect of collagen and smear layer removal with sodium hypochlorite solution (NaOCl) and EDTA on micro-tensile bond strength (μTBS) of self-etch adhesives to dentin. Settings and Design: It was an in-vitro study. Materials and Methods: Seventy-two teeth were divided into eight groups and their crowns were ground perpendicular to their long axis to expose dentin. The teeth were polished with silicon-carbide papers. The groups were treated as follows: No conditioning, 0.5-M EDTA conditioning, 2.5% NaOCl conditioning, NaOCl + EDTA conditioning. The surfaces were rinsed and blot-dried. Clearfil S3 and I-Bond were applied according to manufacturers’ instructions and restored with Z100 composite. After 500 cycles of thermo-cycling between 5°C and 55°C, the samples were sectioned and tested for μTBS. Statistical Analysis: Data were analyzed by two-way ANOVA and Tukey-HSD test. Results: The highest μTBS was recorded with Clearfil S3 + NaOCl + EDTA, and the lowest was recorded with I-Bond without conditioning. μTBS in EDTA-and EDTA + NaOCl-treated groups was significantly higher than the control and NaOCl-conditioned groups. Conclusions: Application of EDTA or EDTA + NaOCl before one-step self-etch adhesives increased μTBS. PMID:23833459

  6. Observation and Study of Dislocation Etch Pits in Molecular Beam Epitaxy Grown Gallium Nitride With the Use of Phosphoric Acid and Molten Potassium Hydroxide

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2007-06-01

    Burgers vector of 1/3 (11 2 0 ) , pure screw TDs with Burgers vector of >, and mixed type TDs with Burgers vectors of 1/3 (11 2 3) . Pure screw TDs...OMB control number. PLEASE DO NOT RETURN YOUR FORM TO THE ABOVE ADDRESS. 1. REPORT DATE (DD-MM-YYYY) June 2007 2 . REPORT TYPE Final 3. DATES...mixed dislocations. The densities of the mixed dislocations are almost ~3 x 108 cm– 2 . Observations were made about the three different types of etch

  7. Etching fission tracks in zircons.

    PubMed

    Naeser, C W

    1969-07-25

    A new technique has been developed whereby fission tracks can be etched in zircon with a solution of sodiuim hydroxide at 220 degrees C. Etching time varied between 15 minutes and 5 houtrs. Colored zircon required less etching time than the colorless varieties.

  8. Microstructure analysis of dental castings used in fixed dental prostheses--a simple method for quality control.

    PubMed

    Mehl, Christian; Lang, Björn; Kappert, Heinrich; Kern, Matthias

    2011-06-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the microstructural quality of noble alloy castings from commercial dental laboratories using the wiping-etching method as a simple method for quality control. In total, 240 castings from two noble alloys (AuAgCuPt and AuPtZn) were taken from a day's production of five different dental laboratories. The casting quality was evaluated by determining the grain size and by assessing the number and size of shrinkage cavities after acidic etching of the alloy surfaces. The AuAgCuPt alloy castings showed an acceptable quality in the microstructural analysis. The results of AuPtZn castings, however, were not satisfactory because 50.8% of the samples showed a remarkably poorer quality compared to the specifications made by the manufacturer. The proportion of the employed reclaimed alloy had no influence on the casting quality when AuAgCuPt alloy was used, but was influential when casting restorations with AuPtZn alloy. When determining the quantity and size of shrinkage cavities, none of the evaluated castings was of such a poor quality that a replacement of the castings had to be considered. The differences in grain size and quantity of shrinkage cavities were reflecting the individual laboratory process rather than the admixture of new/reclaimed alloy. The presented analysis can be used as a simple method for quality control of dental castings.

  9. Structural and dynamical studies of acid-mediated conversion in amorphous-calcium-phosphate based dental composites

    SciTech Connect

    Zhang, Fan; Allen, Andrew J.; Levine, Lyle E.; Vaudin, Mark D.; Skrtic, Drago; Antonucci, Joseph M.; Hoffman, Kathleen M.; Giuseppetti, Anthony A.; Ilavsky, Jan

    2014-07-28

    Our objective was to investigate the complex structural and dynamical conversion process of the amorphous-calcium-phosphate (ACP)-to-apatite transition in ACP based dental composite materials. Composite disks were prepared using zirconia hybridized ACP fillers (0.4 mass fraction) and photo-activated Bis-GMA/TEGDMA resin (0.6 mass fraction). We performed an investigation of the solution-mediated ACP-to-apatite conversion mechanism in controlled acidic aqueous environment with in situ ultra-small angle X-ray scattering based coherent X-ray photon correlation spectroscopy and ex situ X-ray diffraction, as well as other complementary techniques. We established that the ACP-to-apatite conversion in ACP composites is a two-step process, owing to the sensitivity to local structural changes provided by coherent X-rays. Initially, ACP undergoes a local microstructural rearrangement without losing its amorphous character. We established the catalytic role of the acid and found the time scale of this rearrangement strongly depends on the pH of the solution, which agrees with previous findings about ACP without the polymer matrix being present. In the second step, ACP is converted to an apatitic form with the crystallinity of the formed crystallites being poor. Separately, we also confirmed that in the regular Zr-modified ACP the rate of ACP conversion to hydroxyapatite is slowed significantly compared to unmodified ACP, which is beneficial for targeted slow release of functional calcium and phosphate ions from dental composite materials. Significantly, for the first time, we were able to follow the complete solution-mediated transition process from ACP to apatite in this class of dental composites in a controlled aqueous environment. A two-step process, suggested previously, was conclusively identified.

  10. Structural and dynamical studies of acid-mediated conversion in amorphous-calcium-phosphate based dental composites

    DOE PAGES

    Zhang, Fan; Allen, Andrew J.; Levine, Lyle E.; ...

    2014-07-28

    Our objective was to investigate the complex structural and dynamical conversion process of the amorphous-calcium-phosphate (ACP)-to-apatite transition in ACP based dental composite materials. Composite disks were prepared using zirconia hybridized ACP fillers (0.4 mass fraction) and photo-activated Bis-GMA/TEGDMA resin (0.6 mass fraction). We performed an investigation of the solution-mediated ACP-to-apatite conversion mechanism in controlled acidic aqueous environment with in situ ultra-small angle X-ray scattering based coherent X-ray photon correlation spectroscopy and ex situ X-ray diffraction, as well as other complementary techniques. We established that the ACP-to-apatite conversion in ACP composites is a two-step process, owing to the sensitivity to localmore » structural changes provided by coherent X-rays. Initially, ACP undergoes a local microstructural rearrangement without losing its amorphous character. We established the catalytic role of the acid and found the time scale of this rearrangement strongly depends on the pH of the solution, which agrees with previous findings about ACP without the polymer matrix being present. In the second step, ACP is converted to an apatitic form with the crystallinity of the formed crystallites being poor. Separately, we also confirmed that in the regular Zr-modified ACP the rate of ACP conversion to hydroxyapatite is slowed significantly compared to unmodified ACP, which is beneficial for targeted slow release of functional calcium and phosphate ions from dental composite materials. Significantly, for the first time, we were able to follow the complete solution-mediated transition process from ACP to apatite in this class of dental composites in a controlled aqueous environment. A two-step process, suggested previously, was conclusively identified.« less

  11. Some effects of sugar-flavored acid beverages on the biochemistry of human whole saliva and dental plaque.

    PubMed

    Tenovuo, J; Rekola, M

    1977-01-01

    An investigation was made of the effects on some biochemical characteristics of human whole saliva and dental plaque resulting from the daily consumption of three commercial, acid-containing beverages. The beverages tested were a cola beverage ("Coca-Cola"), a carbonated orange drink ("Jaffa") and single strength orange juice. Each of the three test beverages as well as non-fluoridated tap water as a control, were consumed during four two-week periods. The test group consisted of 39 dental students. The mean consumption frequency lay in the range from 5.3 to 5.7 times per day. Orange juice was found to stimulate the salivary secretion rate most. All test drinks decreased the salivary pH immediately after consumption, but the pH did not generally drotase-like activity in oral fluid. Changes were observed in calcium, phosphate and fluoride concentrations in oral fluid samples, but these were due to variations in salivary secretion rate. A significant decrease in redox potentials of whole saliva was, however, observed after consumption of the drinks. The present results indicate that in healthy persons with normal saliva flow rate and buffer capacity the moderate consumption of acidic beverages failed to induce any remarkable caries-promoting changes in oral cavity. However, in persons with low salivary flow rate erosion may be a consequence of regular consumption.

  12. Impact of Dental Implant Surface Modifications on Osseointegration

    PubMed Central

    Smeets, Ralf; Stadlinger, Bernd; Schwarz, Frank; Beck-Broichsitter, Benedicta; Jung, Ole; Precht, Clarissa; Kloss, Frank; Gröbe, Alexander; Heiland, Max

    2016-01-01

    Objective. The aim of this paper is to review different surface modifications of dental implants and their effect on osseointegration. Common marketed as well as experimental surface modifications are discussed. Discussion. The major challenge for contemporary dental implantologists is to provide oral rehabilitation to patients with healthy bone conditions asking for rapid loading protocols or to patients with quantitatively or qualitatively compromised bone. These charging conditions require advances in implant surface design. The elucidation of bone healing physiology has driven investigators to engineer implant surfaces that closely mimic natural bone characteristics. This paper provides a comprehensive overview of surface modifications that beneficially alter the topography, hydrophilicity, and outer coating of dental implants in order to enhance osseointegration in healthy as well as in compromised bone. In the first part, this paper discusses dental implants that have been successfully used for a number of years focusing on sandblasting, acid-etching, and hydrophilic surface textures. Hereafter, new techniques like Discrete Crystalline Deposition, laser ablation, and surface coatings with proteins, drugs, or growth factors are presented. Conclusion. Major advancements have been made in developing novel surfaces of dental implants. These innovations set the stage for rehabilitating patients with high success and predictable survival rates even in challenging conditions. PMID:27478833

  13. Photopolymerization study and adhesive properties of self-etch adhesives containing bis(acyl)phosphine oxide initiator.

    PubMed

    Besse, Vincent; Derbanne, Mathieu A; Pham, Thi-Nhàn; Cook, Wayne D; Le Pluart, Loïc

    2016-04-01

    This paper investigates the photo-co-polymerization behavior of a blend of a diacrylamide (DEBAAP) with a phosphonylated acidic monomer using either bis(acyl)phosphine oxide or camphorquinone/amine as photo-initiator and studies the effect of variation of the structure of the phosphonylated acidic monomer on the shear bond strength to human dentin. Photopolymerization kinetics has been assessed through the use of photo-DSC with either initiating system and with and without a phosphonic acid monomer, while the shear bond strengths (SBS) of dentin bonding agents formulated with several phosphonylated acidic monomers have been evaluated by macro SBS testing on human dentin. Photo-DSC results show that bis(acyl)phosphine oxide initiates a faster polymerization than camphorquinone/amine and that both photopolymerizations are accelerated by the phosphonic acid monomer. Similar results were obtained between adhesives based on camphorquinone/amine and a commercial adhesive (AdheSE, Ivoclar-Vivadent, Schaan, Liechtenstein). The best performances were obtained when BAPO was used as the initiator, in many cases far better than the commercial adhesive. Adhesive SEA6 based on difluoromethylphosphonic acid C demonstrated the best adhesion results of this study. Significance The bis(acyl)phosphine oxide photo-initiator causes faster photopolymerization of two-step self-etching dental adhesive, and its use could yield better bonding performance. Copyright © 2016 Academy of Dental Materials. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. Surface Modifications and Their Effects on Titanium Dental Implants

    PubMed Central

    Jemat, A.; Ghazali, M. J.; Razali, M.; Otsuka, Y.

    2015-01-01

    This review covers several basic methodologies of surface treatment and their effects on titanium (Ti) implants. The importance of each treatment and its effects will be discussed in detail in order to compare their effectiveness in promoting osseointegration. Published literature for the last 18 years was selected with the use of keywords like titanium dental implant, surface roughness, coating, and osseointegration. Significant surface roughness played an important role in providing effective surface for bone implant contact, cell proliferation, and removal torque, despite having good mechanical properties. Overall, published studies indicated that an acid etched surface-modified and a coating application on commercial pure titanium implant was most preferable in producing the good surface roughness. Thus, a combination of a good surface roughness and mechanical properties of titanium could lead to successful dental implants. PMID:26436097

  15. Surface Modifications and Their Effects on Titanium Dental Implants.

    PubMed

    Jemat, A; Ghazali, M J; Razali, M; Otsuka, Y

    2015-01-01

    This review covers several basic methodologies of surface treatment and their effects on titanium (Ti) implants. The importance of each treatment and its effects will be discussed in detail in order to compare their effectiveness in promoting osseointegration. Published literature for the last 18 years was selected with the use of keywords like titanium dental implant, surface roughness, coating, and osseointegration. Significant surface roughness played an important role in providing effective surface for bone implant contact, cell proliferation, and removal torque, despite having good mechanical properties. Overall, published studies indicated that an acid etched surface-modified and a coating application on commercial pure titanium implant was most preferable in producing the good surface roughness. Thus, a combination of a good surface roughness and mechanical properties of titanium could lead to successful dental implants.

  16. Orthodox etching of HVPE-grown GaN

    SciTech Connect

    Weyher, J.L.; Lazar, S.; Macht, L.; Liliental-Weber, Z.; Molnar,R.J.; Muller, S.; Nowak, G.; Grzegory, I.

    2006-08-10

    Orthodox etching of HVPE-grown GaN in molten eutectic of KOH + NaOH (E etch) and in hot sulfuric and phosphoric acids (HH etch) is discussed in detail. Three size grades of pits are formed by the preferential E etching at the outcrops of threading dislocations on the Ga-polar surface of GaN. Using transmission electron microscopy (TEM) as the calibration tool it is shown that the largest pits are formed on screw, intermediate on mixed and the smallest on edge dislocations. This sequence of size does not follow the sequence of the Burgers values (and thus the magnitude of the elastic energy) of corresponding dislocations. This discrepancy is explained taking into account the effect of decoration of dislocations, the degree of which is expected to be different depending on the lattice deformation around the dislocations, i.e. on the edge component of the Burgers vector. It is argued that the large scatter of optimal etching temperatures required for revealing all three types of dislocations in HVPE-grown samples from different sources also depends upon the energetic status of dislocations. The role of kinetics for reliability of etching in both etches is discussed and the way of optimization of the etching parameters is shown.

  17. Measurement of the efficacy of calcium silicate for the protection and repair of dental enamel.

    PubMed

    Parker, Alexander S; Patel, Anisha N; Al Botros, Rehab; Snowden, Michael E; McKelvey, Kim; Unwin, Patrick R; Ashcroft, Alexander T; Carvell, Mel; Joiner, Andrew; Peruffo, Massimo

    2014-06-01

    To investigate the formation of hydroxyapatite (HAP) from calcium silicate and the deposition of calcium silicate onto sound and acid eroded enamel surfaces in order to investigate its repair and protective properties. Calcium silicate was mixed with phosphate buffer for seven days and the resulting solids analysed for crystalline phases by Raman spectroscopy. Deposition studies were conducted on bovine enamel surfaces. Acid etched regions were produced on the enamel surfaces using scanning electrochemical cell microscopy (SECCM) with acid filled pipettes and varying contact times. Following treatment with calcium silicate, the deposition was visualised with FE-SEM and etch pit volumes were measured by AFM. A second set of bovine enamel specimens were pre-treated with calcium silicate and fluoride, before acid exposure with the SECCM. The volumes of the resultant acid etched pits were measured using AFM and the intrinsic rate constant for calcium loss was calculated. Raman spectroscopy confirmed that HAP was formed from calcium silicate. Deposition studies demonstrated greater delivery of calcium silicate to acid eroded than sound enamel and that the volume of acid etched enamel pits was significantly reduced following one treatment (p<0.05). In the protection study, the intrinsic rate constant for calcium loss from enamel was 0.092 ± 0.008 cm/s. This was significantly reduced, 0.056 ± 0.005 cm/s, for the calcium silicate treatments (p<0.0001). Calcium silicate can transform into HAP and can be deposited on acid eroded and sound enamel surfaces. Calcium silicate can provide significant protection of sound enamel from acid challenges. Calcium silicate is a material that has potential for a new approach to the repair of demineralised enamel and the protection of enamel from acid attacks, leading to significant dental hard tissue benefits. © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. Shear Bond Strength and Microleakage of a New Self-etching/Self-adhesive Pit and Fissure Sealant.

    PubMed

    Schuldt, Christoph; Birlbauer, Sebastian; Pitchika, Vinay; Crispin, Alexander; Hickel, Reinhard; Ilie, Nicoleta; Kühnisch, Jan

    2015-12-01

    To evaluate shear bond strength and microleakage of a new self-etching/self-adhesive fissure sealant on prismless enamel compared with conventional fissure sealing. A total of 90 extracted third molars were assigned to 3 main groups: group 1: self-etching/self-adhesive sealant, without acid etching; group 2: self-etching/self-adhesive sealant, with prior acid etching; group 3: conventional fissure sealing (control group). After specimen preparation, each group was divided into 3 subgroups according to storage time (1-day water storage, 3-month water storage, and 1-day water storage followed by 5000x thermocycling). The shear bond strength was determined with a universal testing machine, according to ISO standard 29022. Afterwards, the failure mode was analyzed. An additional 24 third molars were used for microleakage assessment. The fissure pattern was sealed in strict accordance with the manufacturers' instructions. After thermocycling, the dye penetration was examined. Data were analyzed using the Mann-Whitney U-Test at a significance level of 0.05. The shear bond strength of the self-etching/self-adhesive fissure sealant without prior acid etching was significantly lower (4.3 MPa) than that of the self-etching/self-adhesive fissure sealant with prior acid etching (17.1 MPa) and the conventional fissure sealing (19.1 MPa). Microleakage was significantly lower in the control group (1.1%) and in the group with the self-etching/self-adhesive sealant with prior acid etching (0.8%) compared to the group that used the self-etching/self-adhesive material alone (49.4%). The self-etching/self-adhesive fissure sealant can be recommended for clinical use when enamel is etched with phosphoric acid. The self-etching/self-adhesive sealant without prior acid etching showed significantly inferior results.

  19. Photoelectrochemical etching of gallium nitride surface by complexation dissolution mechanism

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Miao-Rong; Hou, Fei; Wang, Zu-Gang; Zhang, Shao-Hui; Pan, Ge-Bo

    2017-07-01

    Gallium nitride (GaN) surface was etched by 0.3 M ethylenediamine tetraacetic acid disodium (EDTA-2Na) via photoelectrochemical etching technique. SEM images reveal the etched GaN surface becomes rough and irregular. The pore density is up to 1.9 × 109 per square centimeter after simple acid post-treatment. The difference of XPS spectra of Ga 3d, N 1s and O 1s between the non-etched and freshly etched GaN surfaces can be attributed to the formation of Ga-EDTA complex at the etching interface between GaN and EDTA-2Na. The proposed complexation dissolution mechanism can be broadly applicable to almost all neutral etchants under the prerequisite of strong light and electric field. From the point of view of environment, safety and energy, EDTA-2Na has obvious advantages over conventionally corrosive etchants. Moreover, as the further and deeper study of such nearly neutral etchants, GaN etching technology has better application prospect in photoelectric micro-device fabrication.

  20. Influence of etching and annealing on evolution of surface structure of metallic glass

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ushakov, Ivan V.; Feodorov, Victor A.; Permyakova, Inga J.

    2004-04-01

    Evolution of surface structure of metallic glass subjected to etching was investigated. The changes of surface structure of metallic glass 82K3XCP after chemical etching and different modes of annealing were studied. Samples of metallic glass were etched in solutions of sulphurous acid with different concentration. Corrosion-resistance was determined. The dependence of corrosion rate on acid concentration was found. Characteristic concentric circumferences on the etching surface were investigated. Their formation mechanism is discussed. Crystallization on surface stimulated by both acid and annealing was examined. The formation of first dendrites on surface of annealed metallic glass and their evolution were investigated.

  1. Dental erosion, summary.

    PubMed

    ten Cate, J M; Imfeld, T

    1996-04-01

    Although reports on dental erosion have always appeared in the dental literature, there is currently a growing interest among researchers and clinicians. Potential risk factors for dental erosion are changed lifestyle and eating patterns, with increased consumption of acidic foods and beverages. Various gastrointestinal and eating disorders expose the dentition to frequent contacts with very acidic gastric content, which may lead to erosion. Whether these factors indeed lead, on a population scale, to a higher prevalence and incidence of erosion is yet to be established. This article summarizes the different aspects of the prevalence, pathology, etiology, assessment, prevention and treatment of dental erosion, and concludes with recommendations for future research.

  2. Self-etch adhesive systems: a literature review.

    PubMed

    Giannini, Marcelo; Makishi, Patrícia; Ayres, Ana Paula Almeida; Vermelho, Paulo Moreira; Fronza, Bruna Marin; Nikaido, Toru; Tagami, Junji

    2015-01-01

    This paper presents the state of the art of self-etch adhesive systems. Four topics are shown in this review and included: the historic of this category of bonding agents, bonding mechanism, characteristics/properties and the formation of acid-base resistant zone at enamel/dentin-adhesive interfaces. Also, advantages regarding etch-and-rinse systems and classifications of self-etch adhesive systems according to the number of steps and acidity are addressed. Finally, issues like the potential durability and clinical importance are discussed. Self-etch adhesive systems are promising materials because they are easy to use, bond chemically to tooth structure and maintain the dentin hydroxyapatite, which is important for the durability of the bonding.

  3. Administration of the bisphosphonate zoledronic acid during tooth development inhibits tooth eruption and formation and induces dental abnormalities in rats.

    PubMed

    Hiraga, Toru; Ninomiya, Tadashi; Hosoya, Akihiro; Nakamura, Hiroaki

    2010-06-01

    Bisphosphonates (BPs) are potent inhibitors of osteoclastic bone resorption and widely used for the treatment of osteoporosis and metastatic bone diseases. Recently, BPs have also been shown to benefit children with primary and secondary osteoporosis, including osteogenesis imperfecta; however, their long-term safety has not been established yet. Clinical and experimental studies have demonstrated that BPs delay or inhibit tooth eruption. The failure of tooth eruption causes several dental abnormalities. In this study, to determine the effects of BPs on tooth formation, the BP zoledronic acid (ZOL) was injected into 7- and 14-day-old rats, and the development of the mandibular teeth was examined. X-ray analysis demonstrated that ZOL inhibited the eruption of both incisors and molars and their formation, especially in the molar roots. Histological examination showed that, in ZOL-treated animals, alveolar bone remained unresorbed around tooth crowns, which injured ameloblasts and enamel matrix, leading to defects of the enamel. Furthermore, haphazard proliferation of odontogenic epithelium and mesenchyme associated with primitive tooth structures, which resembles human odontomas, was induced at the basal end of incisors but not around the molars. Tooth ankylosis to alveolar bone was occasionally observed in molars. These results suggest that administration of BPs during tooth development has the potential to inhibit tooth eruption and formation and to induce several types of dental abnormalities, which may be attributed to the altered osteoclastic activities.

  4. Fibrin adhesive implant in wound healing repair of dental sockets with topical application of epsilon aminocaproic acid: histological analysis.

    PubMed

    Padovan, Luis Eduardo M; Okamoto, Tetuo; Rezende, Maria Cristina Rossifini Alves; Curvêllo, Victor Prado; Nicolielo, Daniela; Matsumoto, Mariza Akemi

    2005-05-01

    The aim of the study was to evaluate wound healing repair of dental sockets after topical application of 5% epsilon-aminocaproic acid (EACA) and the use of fibrin adhesive implant in rats under anticoagulant therapy with warfarin. Sixty Albinus wistar rats were used, divided into three groups of 20. In Group I, the animals were given 0.1 mL/100 mg of 0.9% saline solution per day, beginning 6 days before dental extraction and continuing throughout the experimental period. In Group II, the animals received 0.03 mL of sodium warfarin daily, beginning 6 days before the surgery and continuing until the day of sacrifice; after tooth extractions, the sockets were filled with fibrin adhesive material. In Group III the animals were treated as in Group II, and after extractions, the sockets were irrigated with 5 mL of 5% EACA and filled with the same fibrin adhesive material. All groups presented biological phases of wound healing repair, the differences being evident only in the chronology. The results obtained in Group III were very similar to those of Group I in the last period of wound repair, whereas Group II presented a late chronology compared to the other groups.

  5. Inhibitory effect of sorbitol on sugar metabolism of Streptococcus mutans in vitro and on acid production in dental plaque in vivo.

    PubMed

    Takahashi-Abbe, S; Abbe, K; Takahashi, N; Tamazawa, Y; Yamada, T

    2001-04-01

    This study was conducted to find out whether sorbitol inhibits the sugar metabolism of Streptococcus mutans in vitro and the acid production in dental plaque in vivo. S. mutans NCIB 11723 was anaerobically grown in sorbitol-containing medium. The rate of acid production from sugars was estimated with a pH stat. The rate of acid production from glucose or sucrose was not changed at various concentrations of oxygen. By the addition of sorbitol to sugar, however, the acid production was decreased with increasing levels of oxygen. Intracellular NADH/NAD+ ratio and (dihydroxyacetone-phosphate+glyceraldehyde-phosphate)/3-phosphoglycerate ratio were high whenever the acid production was inhibited by sorbitol. Sorbitol also inhibited the acid production in dental plaque in vivo. These results suggest that the increased NADH/NAD+ ratio during sorbitol metabolism through the inactivation of pyruvate formate-lyase by oxygen inhibited glyceraldehyde-phosphate dehydrogenase and then the acid production of S. mutans and the one in dental plaque.

  6. A Comparative Evaluation of the Efficacy of Etching by the Total Etch and Self-etch Dentin Bonding Systems in the Primary Teeth: An in vitro Study

    PubMed Central

    Chaugule, Vishwas; Katge, Farhin; Poojari, Manohar; Pujari, Prashant; Pammi, Thejokrishna

    2015-01-01

    ABSTRACT Objective: Early childhood caries is now affecting the children in dangerous proportions. There is a wide spread loss of the tooth material irrespective of the type of the carious lesion. Restoration of such lesions with a strong permanent bond between the dental tissues and the restorative dental materials would be a highly desirable requisite. Ultramorphological characterizations show that the interfacial morphology and the chemical characterization of the bonding systems appear to be strongly associated with each other and, therefore, observing and understanding the interfacial phenomenon and its quality would be of great importance in the selection of a dental adhesive for its use in pediatric restorative dentistry. Study design: Human primary molars, which were indicated for extraction, for an array of reasons like caries, normal exfoliation, pathological root resorption, over-retained and serial extraction, were collected for the study purpose. Total number of teeth was then equally distributed into two subgroups, each namely A1 (Prime and Bond NT) and A2 (Xeno III). Results: The type of etching pattern that was observed in group A1 (Prime and Bond NT) of Silverstone’s type II compared to the Silverstone’s type III observed in group A2 (Xeno III). Conclusion: Results of this study indicate that the use of an etchant separately followed by the application of the bonding system–Prime and Bond NT–would provide a better quality of adhesion thus improving the quality and longevity of the restoration done within the limits of enamel in primary dentition. How to cite this article: Mithiborwala SH, Chaugule V, Katge F, Poojari M, Pujari P, Pammi T. A Comparative Evaluation of the Efficacy of Etching by the Total Etch and Self-etch Dentin Bonding Systems in the Primary Teeth: An in vitro Study. Int J Clin Pediatr Dent 2015;8(1):30-36. PMID:26124578

  7. Micromorphological characterization of adhesive interface of sound dentin and total-etch and self-etch adhesives.

    PubMed

    Drobac, Milan; Stojanac, Igor; Ramić, Bojana; Premović, Milica; Petrović, Ljubomir

    2015-01-01

    The ultimate goal in restorative dentistry has always been to achieve strong and permanent bond between the dental tissues and filling materials. It is not easy to achieve this task because the bonding process is different for enamel and dentin-dentin is more humid and more organic than enamel. It is moisture and organic nature of dentin that make this hard tissue very complex to achieve adhesive bond. One of the first and most widely used tools for examining the adhesive bond between hard dental tissues and composite restorative materials is scanning electron microscopy. The aim of this study was scanning electron microscopy analyzes the interfacial micro morphology of total-etch and self-etch adhesives. Micro morphological characteristics of interface between total-etch adhesive (Prime & Bond NT) in combination with the corresponding composite (Ceram X Mono) were compared with those of self-etching adhesive (AdheSE One) in, combination with the corresponding composite (Tetric EvoCeram). The specimens were observed under 1000 x magnification of scanning electron microscopy (JEOL, JSM-6460 Low Vacuum). Measurement of the thickness of the hybrid layer of the examined com posite systems was performed with the software of the device used (NIH Image Analyser). Micromorphological analysis of interface showed that the hybrid layer in sound dentin was well formed, its average thickness being 2.68 microm, with a large number of resin tags and a large amount of lateral branches for specimens with a composite system Prime & Bond NT-Ceram X Mono. However, the specimens' with composite systems Adhese One-Tetric EvoCeram did not show the presence of hybrid layer and the resin tags were poorly represented. The results of this study suggest that total-etch adhesives bond better with sound dentin than self-etch adhesive.

  8. Unveiling the wet chemical etching characteristics of polydimethylsiloxane film for soft micromachining applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kakati, A.; Maji, D.; Das, S.

    2017-01-01

    Micromachining of a polydimethylsiloxane (PDMS) microstructure by wet chemical etching is explored for microelectromechanical systems (MEMS) and microfluidic applications. A 100 µm thick PDMS film was patterned with different microstructure designs by wet chemical etching using a N-methyl-2-pyrrolidone (C16H36FN) and tetra-n-butylammonium fluoride (C5H9NO) mixture solution with 3:1 volume ratio after lithography for studying etching characteristics. The patterning parameters, such as etch rate, surface roughness, pH of etchant solution with time, were thoroughly investigated. A detailed study of surface morphology with etching time revealed nonlinear behaviour of the PDMS surface roughness and etch rate. A maximum rate of 1.45 µm min-1 for 10 min etching with surface roughness of 360 nm was achieved. A new approach of wet chemical etching with pH controlled doped etchant was introduced for lower surface roughness of etched microstructures, and a constant etch rate during etching. Variation of the etching rate and surface roughness by pH controlled etching was performed by doping 5-15 gm l-1 of silicic acid (SiO2x H2O) into the traditional etchant solution. PDMS etching by silicic acid doped etchant solution showed a reduction in surface roughness from 400 nm to 220 nm for the same 15 µm etching. This study is beneficial for micromachining of various MEMS and microfluidic structures such as micropillars, microchannels, and other PDMS microstructures.

  9. Observation of etch pits in Fe-36wt%Ni Invar alloy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lu, Dong-zhu; Wu, Min-jie

    2014-07-01

    To indirectly investigate the dislocation behavior of Fe-36wt%Ni Invar alloy by the etch pit method, polished Invar specimens were etched by a solution containing 4 g copper sulfate, 20 mL hydrochloric acid, and 20 mL deionized water for 2 min. Etch pits in the etched surfaces were observed. All the etch pits in one specific grain exhibited similar shapes, which are closely related to the grain orientations. These etch pits were characterized as dislocation etch pits. It was observed that etch pits arranged along grain boundaries, gathered at grain tips and strip-like etch pit clusters passed through a number of grains in the pure Invar specimens. After the addition of a small amount of alloying elements, the identification of a single dislocation etch pit is challenging compared with the pure Invar alloy. Thus, the observation of etch pits facilitates the investigation on the dislocation behavior of the pure Invar alloy. In addition, alloying elements may affect the densities and sizes of etch pits.

  10. Surface roughness and morphology evolution of optical glass with micro-cracks during chemical etching.

    PubMed

    Xiao, Huapan; Wang, Hairong; Fu, Guanglong; Chen, Zhi

    2017-01-20

    Chemical etching is usually utilized to measure, reduce, and remove the subsurface micro-cracks in optical components, which makes it significant to study the surface evolution of optical components during the etching process. Etching experiments were carried out for glass with artificial cracks and micro-cracks under different etching conditions. The etching rate was obtained, which is linear with the hydrofluoric acid (HF) concentration and greatly affected by etching temperature. By measuring the surface roughness (SR) and morphology of glasses after etching, it is found that the crack width always increases with etching time, while the crack depth remains unchanged after the crack is completely exposed. Meanwhile, the SR increases sharply at first, then increases slowly, and finally decreases with the increase of etching time. Considering the influence of HF concentration, etching temperature, and the diffusion coefficient on the etching rate, simulation models were established for etching trailing indent cracks (TICs) to further analyze the evolution of SR and morphology. The simulation results were compared with the experimental ones, also indicating that the maximum SR (Ra) increases greatly with the crack's aspect ratio and the model for analyzing the crack's morphology evolution is more reasonable.

  11. Low-temperature and damage-free transition metal and magnetic material etching using a new metallic complex reaction

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nozawa, Toshihisa; Miyama, Ryo; Kubota, Shinji; Moyama, Kazuki; Kubota, Tomihiro; Samukawa, Seiji

    2015-03-01

    A neutral beam etching process has been developed that achieves damage- free (chemically and physically) etching. Recently, it was found that transition metals could be etched using neutral beam etching through metallic complex reactions. In this process, a neutral beam is extracted from a plasma generation region into a reaction chamber. Complex reactant gases are injected into a reaction chamber which is screened from the plasma during neutral beam etching. In this paper, etching of Pt and CoFeB, candidate materials for MRAM structures by a neutral beam system is described. It was found that etch rate enhancement of Pt/CoFeB surfaces resulted from their exposure to a neutral beam from Ar/O2 plasma with simultaneous injection of EtOH /acetic acid into the reaction chamber. Etching damage was also evaluated and no magnetic hysteresis degradation has been observed. Neutral beam etching technology has the capability to make breakthrough for fabricating MRAM device.

  12. Catalytic activity of noble metals for metal-assisted chemical etching of silicon

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Metal-assisted chemical etching of silicon is an electroless method that can produce porous silicon by immersing metal-modified silicon in a hydrofluoric acid solution without electrical bias. We have been studying the metal-assisted hydrofluoric acid etching of silicon using dissolved oxygen as an oxidizing agent. Three major factors control the etching reaction and the porous silicon structure: photoillumination during etching, oxidizing agents, and metal particles. In this study, the influence of noble metal particles, silver, gold, platinum, and rhodium, on this etching is investigated under dark conditions: the absence of photogenerated charges in the silicon. The silicon dissolution is localized under the particles, and nanopores are formed whose diameters resemble the size of the metal nanoparticles. The etching rate of the silicon and the catalytic activity of the metals for the cathodic reduction of oxygen in the hydrofluoric acid solution increase in the order of silver, gold, platinum, and rhodium. PMID:22738277

  13. Dental Amalgam

    MedlinePlus

    ... Pin it Email Print Dental amalgam is a dental filling material which is used to fill cavities caused by ... tooth structure. Dental amalgam is one type of dental filling material used to repair tooth structure that has been ...

  14. Effect of Etching Condition on the Formation of Bioactive Surface of Hydroxyapatite-Glass-Titanium Composite

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ban, Seiji; Maruno, Shigeo; Hasegawa, Jiro

    1991-07-01

    X-ray diffraction study shows that an etching solution of 3% HF and 5% HNO3 is the most suitable solution for preparing a bioactive surface layer of HA-glass-titanium composite, since the glass is removed, a great number of HA particles are exposed, and little CaF2 is produced by the etching. Anodic polarization measurement demonstrates that the 3-min etching gives an electrochemically active surface of the composites. These results and SEM observations suggest that this solution provides an adequate surface of the composite for the dental and medical implants.

  15. In vitro bioactivity assessment of composite membrane containing antimicrobial lauric acid for guided bone regeneration in dental application

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Suleiman, Muhammad Jabir; Kalitheertha, Jamuna Thevi; Sabri, Siti Noorzidah

    2015-07-01

    The manuscript reflect research work in fabrication of a triple layered composite membrane and to perform an in vitro bioactivity evaluation on composite membrane containing antimicrobial lauric acid. Poly(lactic-co-glycolic acid) (PLGA) matrix was incorporated with various amounts of nanoapatite (NAp) and lauric acid (LA) to form a triple-layered composite membrane. This membrane was prepared using a single step fabrication technique comprising of solvent casting, thermally induced phase separation and solvent leaching processes. Apatite mineralization was detected on the composite membranes within 30 days of exposure to simulated body fluid (SBF) and showed increased apatite formation at 30-60wt% of NAp content in the PLGA matrix on layer 3 (L3), that has the highest amount of NAp compared with layer 1 (L1) and layer 2 (L2) of the membrane. However, apatite mineralization was not detected on pure PLGA membrane. In addition, incorporation of LA on L1 and L2 has no influence on apatite mineral formation as none detected on these surfaces. The presence of NAp determines the formation of apatite crystals on the composite membrane. These membranes with triple layered design and bioactive properties showed potential use for guided bone regeneration purposes in dental application.

  16. Formation of nanostructured silicon surfaces by stain etching.

    PubMed

    Ayat, Maha; Belhousse, Samia; Boarino, Luca; Gabouze, Noureddine; Boukherroub, Rabah; Kechouane, Mohamed

    2014-01-01

    In this work, we report the fabrication of ordered silicon structures by chemical etching of silicon in vanadium oxide (V2O5)/hydrofluoric acid (HF) solution. The effects of the different etching parameters including the solution concentration, temperature, and the presence of metal catalyst film deposition (Pd) on the morphologies and reflective properties of the etched Si surfaces were studied. Scanning electron microscopy (SEM) was carried out to explore the morphologies of the etched surfaces with and without the presence of catalyst. In this case, the attack on the surfaces with a palladium deposit begins by creating uniform circular pores on silicon in which we distinguish the formation of pyramidal structures of silicon. Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR) demonstrates that the surfaces are H-terminated. A UV-Vis-NIR spectrophotometer was used to study the reflectance of the structures obtained. A reflectance of 2.21% from the etched Si surfaces in the wavelength range of 400 to 1,000 nm was obtained after 120 min of etching while it is of 4.33% from the Pd/Si surfaces etched for 15 min.

  17. Formation of nanostructured silicon surfaces by stain etching

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    In this work, we report the fabrication of ordered silicon structures by chemical etching of silicon in vanadium oxide (V2O5)/hydrofluoric acid (HF) solution. The effects of the different etching parameters including the solution concentration, temperature, and the presence of metal catalyst film deposition (Pd) on the morphologies and reflective properties of the etched Si surfaces were studied. Scanning electron microscopy (SEM) was carried out to explore the morphologies of the etched surfaces with and without the presence of catalyst. In this case, the attack on the surfaces with a palladium deposit begins by creating uniform circular pores on silicon in which we distinguish the formation of pyramidal structures of silicon. Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR) demonstrates that the surfaces are H-terminated. A UV-Vis-NIR spectrophotometer was used to study the reflectance of the structures obtained. A reflectance of 2.21% from the etched Si surfaces in the wavelength range of 400 to 1,000 nm was obtained after 120 min of etching while it is of 4.33% from the Pd/Si surfaces etched for 15 min. PMID:25435830

  18. Shear bond strength and SEM morphology evaluation of different dental adhesives to enamel prepared with ER:YAG laser

    PubMed Central

    Pires, Patrícia T.; Ferreira, João C.; Oliveira, Sofia A.; Azevedo, Álvaro F.; Dias, Walter R.; Melo, Paulo R.

    2013-01-01

    Context: Early observations of enamel surfaces prepared by erbium lasers motivated clinicians to use laser as an alternative to chemical etching. Aims: Evaluate shear bond strength (SBS) values of different dental adhesives on Erbium:Yttrium Aluminum Garnet (Er:YAG) laser prepared enamel and to evaluate possible etching patterns correlations between dental adhesives and SBS values. Subjects and Methods: One hundred bovine incisors were randomly assigned to SBS tests on enamel (n = 15) and to enamel morphology analysis (n = 5) after Er:YAG laser preparation as follows: Group I – 37% phosphoric acid (PA)+ ExciTE®; Group II – ExciTE®; Group III – AdheSE® self-etching; Group IV – FuturaBond® no-rinse. NR; Group V – Xeno® V. Teeth were treated with the adhesive systems and subjected to thermal cycling. SBS were performed in a universal testing machine at 5 mm/min. Statistical Analysis Used: One-way ANOVA and post-hoc tests (P < 0.05). For the morphology evaluation, specimens were immersed in Ethylenediamine tetraacetic acid (EDTA) and the etching pattern analyzed under Scanning Electron Microscope (SEM). Results: Mean bond strengths were Group I – 47.17 ± 1.61 MPa (type I etching pattern); Group II – 32.56 ± 1.64 MPa, Group III – 29.10 ± 1.34 MPa, Group IV – 23.32 ± 1.53 MPa (type III etching pattern); Group V – 24.43 MPa ± 1.55 (type II etching pattern). Conclusions: Different adhesive systems yielded significantly different SBSs. Acid etching significantly increased the adhesion in laser treated enamel. No differences in SBS values were obtained between AdheSE® and ExciTE® without condition with PA. FuturaBond® NR and Xeno® V showed similar SBS, which was lower in comparison to the others adhesives. No correlation between enamel surface morphology and SBS values was observed, except when PA was used. PMID:23853447

  19. Nano-crystalline diamond-coated titanium dental implants - a histomorphometric study in adult domestic pigs.

    PubMed

    Metzler, Philipp; von Wilmowsky, Cornelius; Stadlinger, Bernd; Zemann, Wolfgang; Schlegel, Karl Andreas; Rosiwal, Stephan; Rupprecht, Stephan

    2013-09-01

    Promising biomaterial characteristics of diamond-coatings in biomedicine have been described in the literature. However, there is a lack of knowledge about implant osseointegration of this surface modification compared to the currently used sandblasted acid-etched Ti-Al6-V4 implants. The aim of this study was to investigate the osseointegration of microwave plasma-chemical-vapour deposition (MWP-CVD) diamond-coated Ti-Al6-V4 dental implants after healing periods of 2 and 5 months. Twenty-four MWP-CVD diamond-coated and 24 un-coated dental titanium-alloy implants (Ankylos(®)) were placed in the frontal skull of eight adult domestic pigs. To evaluate the effects of the nano-structured surfaces on bone formation, a histomorphometric analysis was performed after 2 and 5 months of implant healing. Histomorphometry analysed the bone-to-implant contact (BIC). No significant difference in BIC for the diamond-coated implants in comparison to reference implants could be observed for both healing periods. Scanning electron microscopy revealed an adequate interface between the bone and the diamond surface. No delamination or particle-dissociation due to shearing forces could be detected. In this study, diamond-coated dental titanium-alloy implants and sandblasted acid-etched implants showed a comparable degree of osseointegration.

  20. A wet etching technique for accurate etching of GaAs/AlAs distributed Bragg reflectors

    SciTech Connect

    Bacher, K.; Harris, J.S. Jr.

    1995-07-01

    The authors have demonstrated a wet etching technique capable of producing accurate and uniform etch depths in distributed Bragg reflectors (DBRs) and other GaAs/AlAs superlattice structures. The process utilizes two selective etchants, citric acid/hydrogen peroxide in a 4:1 ratio and phosphoric acid/hydrogen peroxide/water in a 3:1:50 ratio, to sequentially etch away each pair of superlattice layers. The authors have used this technique to expose a 680 {angstrom} thick conduction GaAs layer buried beneath a 15 period, 2.1 {micro}m thick, undoped GaAs/AlAs DBR mirror. Transmission line measurements pads were formed on the exposed layer to determine the contact and sheet resistance. Comparison with a similar layer on the surface of the wafer reveals that the exposed layer is easily contacted with only a slight increase in sheet resistance indicating less than 125 {angstrom} of overetching, 0.6% of the total etch depth.

  1. Bonding efficacy of 1-step self-etch adhesives: effect of additional enamel etching and hydrophobic layer application.

    PubMed

    Manuja, Naveen; Nagpal, Rajni; Chaudhary, Seema

    2012-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to analyze the effect of additional enamel etching and hydrophobic layer application on microleakage of 1-step self-etch adhesives. Class V cavities were made on the buccal surfaces of 80 extracted human premolars. The teeth were divided into 2 test groups according to the 1-step self-etch adhesive used: Clearfil S(3) Bond and Xeno III. Each test group was subdivided into 4 groups (n=10) according to application mode of the adhesive: (1) Group 1=adhesive applied following manufacturer's directions; (2) Group 2=enamel etching prior to adhesive application; (3) Group 3=same as Group 1, plus application of an additional coat of hydrophobic resin layer; (4) Group 4=same as Group 2, plus application of an additional coat of hydrophobic resin layer. The adhesives were light cured, and the cavities were filled with resin composite. Specimens were thermocycled and analyzed for leakage using Kruskal-Wallis and Mann-Whitney U test at a significance level of P=.05. Enamel etching significantly reduced leakage in both the adhesives. Hydrophobic resin layer application significantly reduced leakage in Xeno III. An additional acid etching step and hydrophobic resin layer application can improve the bonding of 1-step self-etched adhesives to enamel and dentin, respectively.

  2. Optimization of silver-assisted nano-pillar etching process in silicon

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Azhari, Ayu Wazira; Sopian, Kamaruzzaman; Desa, Mohd Khairunaz Mat; Zaidi, Saleem H.

    2015-12-01

    In this study, a respond surface methodology (RSM) model is developed using three-level Box-Behnken experimental design (BBD) technique. This model is developed to investigate the influence of metal-assisted chemical etching (MACE) process variables on the nanopillars profiles created in single crystalline silicon (Si) substrate. Design-Expert® software (version 7.1) is employed in formulating the RSM model based on five critical process variables: (A) concentration of silver (Ag), (B) concentration of hydrofluoric acid (HF), (C) concentration of hydrogen peroxide (H2O2), (D) deposition time, and (E) etching time. This model is supported by data from 46 experimental configurations. Etched profiles as a function of lateral etching rate, vertical etching rate, height, size and separation between the Si trenches and etching uniformity are characterized using field emission scanning electron microscope (FE-SEM). A quadratic regression model is developed to correlate critical process variables and is validated using the analysis of variance (ANOVA) methodology. The model exhibits near-linear dependence of lateral and vertical etching rates on both the H2O2 concentration and etching time. The predicted model is in good agreement with the experimental data where R2 is equal to 0.80 and 0.67 for the etching rate and lateral etching respectively. The optimized result shows minimum lateral etching with the average pore size of about 69 nm while the maximum etching rate is estimated at around 360 nm/min. The model demonstrates that the etching process uniformity is not influenced by either the etchant concentration or the etching time. This lack of uniformity could be attributed to the surface condition of the wafer. Optimization of the process parameters show adequate accuracy of the model with acceptable percentage errors of 6%, 59%, 1.8%, 38% and 61% for determination of the height, separation, size, the pore size and the etching rate respectively.

  3. Individualized Learning Package about Etching.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sauer, Michael J.

    An individualized learning package provides step-by-step instruction in the fundamentals of the etching process. Thirteen specific behavioral objectives are listed. A pretest, consisting of matching 15 etching terms with their definitions, is provided along with an answer key. The remainder of the learning package teaches the 13 steps of the…

  4. Ultrasonic metal etching for metallographic analysis

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Young, S. G.

    1971-01-01

    Ultrasonic etching delineates microstructural features not discernible in specimens prepared for metallographic analysis by standard chemical etching procedures. Cavitation bubbles in ultrasonically excited water produce preferential damage /etching/ of metallurgical phases or grain boundaries, depending on hardness of metal specimens.

  5. Plasma etching of cesium iodide

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yang, X.; Hopwood, J.; Tipnis, S.; Nagarkar, V.; Gaysinskiy, V.

    2002-01-01

    Thick films of cesium iodide (CsI) are often used to convert x-ray images into visible light. Spreading of the visible light within CsI, however, reduces the resolution of the resulting image. Anisotropic etching of the CsI film into an array of micropixels can improve the image resolution by confining light within each pixel. The etching process uses a high-density inductively coupled plasma to pattern CsI samples held by a heated, rf-biased chuck. Fluorine-containing gases such as CF4 are found to enhance the etch rate by an order of magnitude compared to Ar+ sputtering alone. Without inert-gas ion bombardment, however, the CF4 etch becomes self-limited within a few microns of depth due to the blanket deposition of a passivation layer. Using CF4+Ar continuously removes this layer from the lateral surfaces, but the formation of a thick passivation layer on the unbombarded sidewalls of etched features is observed by scanning electron microscopy. At a substrate temperature of 220 °C, the minimum ion-bombardment energy for etching is Ei~50 eV, and the rate depends on Ei1/2 above 65 eV. In dilute mixtures of CF4 and Ar, the etch rate is proportional to the gas-phase density of atomic fluorine. Above 50% CF4, however, the rate decreases, indicating the onset of net surface polymer deposition. These observations suggest that anisotropy is obtained through the ion-enhanced inhibitor etching mechanism. Etching exhibits an Arrhenius-type behavior in which the etch rate increases from ~40 nm/min at 40 °C to 380 nm/min at 330 °C. The temperature dependence corresponds to an activation energy of 0.13+/-0.01 eV. This activation energy is consistent with the electronic sputtering mechanism for alkali halides.

  6. Cariogenic bacteria degrade dental resin composites and adhesives.

    PubMed

    Bourbia, M; Ma, D; Cvitkovitch, D G; Santerre, J P; Finer, Y

    2013-11-01

    A major reason for dental resin composite restoration replacement is related to secondary caries promoted by acid production from bacteria including Streptococcus mutans (S. mutans). We hypothesized that S. mutans has esterase activities that degrade dental resin composites and adhesives. Standardized specimens of resin composite (Z250), total-etch (Scotchbond Multipurpose, SB), and self-etch (Easybond, EB) adhesives were incubated with S. mutans UA159 or uninoculated culture medium (control) for up to 30 days. Quantification of the BisGMA-derived biodegradation by-product, bishydroxy-propoxy-phenyl-propane (BisHPPP), was performed by high-performance liquid chromatography. Surface analysis of the specimens was performed by scanning electron microscopy (SEM). S. mutans was shown to have esterase activities in levels comparable with those found in human saliva. A trend of increasing BisHPPP release throughout the incubation period was observed for all materials and was more elevated in the presence of bacteria vs. control medium for EB and Z250, but not for SB (p < .05). SEM confirmed the increased degradation of all materials with S. mutans UA159 vs. control. S. mutans has esterase activities at levels that degrade resin composites and adhesives; degree of degradation was dependent on the material's chemical formulation. This finding suggests that the resin-dentin interface could be compromised by oral bacteria that contribute to the progression of secondary caries.

  7. Cariogenic Bacteria Degrade Dental Resin Composites and Adhesives

    PubMed Central

    Bourbia, M.; Ma, D.; Cvitkovitch, D.G.; Santerre, J.P.; Finer, Y.

    2013-01-01

    A major reason for dental resin composite restoration replacement is related to secondary caries promoted by acid production from bacteria including Streptococcus mutans (S. mutans). We hypothesized that S. mutans has esterase activities that degrade dental resin composites and adhesives. Standardized specimens of resin composite (Z250), total-etch (Scotchbond Multipurpose, SB), and self-etch (Easybond, EB) adhesives were incubated with S. mutans UA159 or uninoculated culture medium (control) for up to 30 days. Quantification of the BisGMA-derived biodegradation by-product, bishydroxy-propoxy-phenyl-propane (BisHPPP), was performed by high-performance liquid chromatography. Surface analysis of the specimens was performed by scanning electron microscopy (SEM). S. mutans was shown to have esterase activities in levels comparable with those found in human saliva. A trend of increasing BisHPPP release throughout the incubation period was observed for all materials and was more elevated in the presence of bacteria vs. control medium for EB and Z250, but not for SB (p < .05). SEM confirmed the increased degradation of all materials with S. mutans UA159 vs. control. S. mutans has esterase activities at levels that degrade resin composites and adhesives; degree of degradation was dependent on the material’s chemical formulation. This finding suggests that the resin-dentin interface could be compromised by oral bacteria that contribute to the progression of secondary caries. PMID:24026951

  8. Addition of Grape Seed Extract Renders Phosphoric Acid a Collagen-stabilizing Etchant.

    PubMed

    Liu, Y; Dusevich, V; Wang, Y

    2014-08-01

    Previous studies found that grape seed extract (GSE), which is rich in proanthocyanidins, could protect demineralized dentin collagen from collagenolytic activities following clinically relevant treatment. Because of proanthocyanidin's adverse interference to resin polymerization, it was believed that GSE should be applied and then rinsed off in a separate step, which in effect increases the complexity of the bonding procedure. The present study aimed to investigate the feasibility of combining GSE treatment with phosphoric acid etching to address the issue. It is also the first attempt to formulate collagen-cross-linking dental etchants. Based on Fourier-transformed infrared spectroscopy and digestion assay, it was established that in the presence of 20% to 5% phosphoric acid, 30 sec of GSE treatment rendered demineralized dentin collagen inert to bacterial collagenase digestion. Based on this positive result, the simultaneous dentin etching and collagen protecting of GSE-containing phosphoric acid was evaluated on the premise of a 30-second etching time. According to micro-Raman spectroscopy, the formulation containing 20% phosphoric acid was found to lead to overetching. Based on scanning and transmission electronic microscopy, this same formulation exhibited unsynchronized phosphoric acid and GSE penetration. Therefore, addition of GSE did render phosphoric acid a collagen-stabilizing etchant, but the preferable phosphoric acid concentration should be <20%. © International & American Associations for Dental Research.

  9. Weaker Dental Enamel Explains Dental Decay

    PubMed Central

    Vieira, Alexandre R.; Gibson, Carolyn W.; Deeley, Kathleen; Xue, Hui; Li, Yong

    2015-01-01

    Dental caries continues to be the most prevalent bacteria-mediated non-contagious disease of humankind. Dental professionals assert the disease can be explained by poor oral hygiene and a diet rich in sugars but this does not account for caries free individuals exposed to the same risk factors. In order to test the hypothesis that amount of amelogenin during enamel development can influence caries susceptibility, we generated multiple strains of mice with varying levels of available amelogenin during dental development. Mechanical tests showed that dental enamel developed with less amelogenin is “weaker” while the dental enamel of animals over-expressing amelogenin appears to be more resistant to acid dissolution. PMID:25885796

  10. Adhesion performance of new hydrolytically stable one-component self-etching enamel/dentin adhesives.

    PubMed

    Salz, Ulrich; Bock, Thorsten

    2010-02-01

    To demonstrate that hydrolytically stable methacrylamide monomers allow one-component self-etching adhesives with comparable adhesive properties and better storage stability than hitherto available methyacrylate-based adhesive formulations. The shear bond strength and storage stability of the new one-component self-etching, methacrylamide-based adhesive AdheSE One F (Ivoclar Vivadent) to enamel and dentin was compared to the methacrylate-based Clearfil S3 Bond (Kuraray), G-Bond (GC), Hybrid Bond (Sun Medical), iBond (Heraeus Kulzer), Optibond All In One (Sybron-Kerr), and the methacrylamide-based Xeno V (Dentsply). Hydrolytic stability and adhesive performance of these adhesives was evaluated by accelerated aging at 42 degrees C over 16 weeks and monthly assessment of shear bond strength to dentin. The null hypothesis was that the bond strength of one-bottle self-etching dental adhesives is independent of storage duration and that, disregarding their higher stability against hydrolysis, methacrylamide- based materials offer performance beyond shelf-life time, comparable to methacrylate-based adhesives. Statistical analysis included 1-way-ANOVA and the Tukey-B post-hoc test (p < 0.05). Shear bond strengths on enamel ranged from 32.7 MPa (AdheSE One F) to 16.6 MPa (iBond) and on dentin from 36.1 MPa (Optibond All In One) to 20.5 MPa (G-Bond). During accelerated aging, methacrylate-based adhesives with a pH < 2 exhibited decreasing bond strengths over time with material-dependent losses of up to 68% (Hybrid Bond, 8 weeks, 42 degrees C). Under the same conditions, the methacrylamide-based formulations AdheSE One F and Xeno V were stable for 16 weeks regarding shear bond strength to dentin. The shelf life of one-component self-etching adhesives is determined by their chemical composition. In conventional methacrylate-based adhesives, the inherently acidic environment of such formulations leads to monomer degradation due to hydrolysis. In contrast, methacrylamide

  11. Submicron patterned metal hole etching

    DOEpatents

    McCarthy, Anthony M.; Contolini, Robert J.; Liberman, Vladimir; Morse, Jeffrey

    2000-01-01

    A wet chemical process for etching submicron patterned holes in thin metal layers using electrochemical etching with the aid of a wetting agent. In this process, the processed wafer to be etched is immersed in a wetting agent, such as methanol, for a few seconds prior to inserting the processed wafer into an electrochemical etching setup, with the wafer maintained horizontal during transfer to maintain a film of methanol covering the patterned areas. The electrochemical etching setup includes a tube which seals the edges of the wafer preventing loss of the methanol. An electrolyte composed of 4:1 water: sulfuric is poured into the tube and the electrolyte replaces the wetting agent in the patterned holes. A working electrode is attached to a metal layer of the wafer, with reference and counter electrodes inserted in the electrolyte with all electrodes connected to a potentiostat. A single pulse on the counter electrode, such as a 100 ms pulse at +10.2 volts, is used to excite the electrochemical circuit and perform the etch. The process produces uniform etching of the patterned holes in the metal layers, such as chromium and molybdenum of the wafer without adversely effecting the patterned mask.

  12. The effect of antacid on salivary pH in patients with and without dental erosion after multiple acid challenges.

    PubMed

    Dhuhair, Sarah; Dennison, Joseph B; Yaman, Peter; Neiva, Gisele F

    2015-04-01

    To evaluate the effect of antacid swish in the salivary pH values and to monitor the pH changes in subjects with and without dental erosion after multiple acid challenge tests. 20 subjects with tooth erosion were matched in age and gender with 20 healthy controls according to specific inclusion/exclusion criteria. Baseline measures were taken of salivary pH, buffering capacity and salivary flow rate using the Saliva Check System. Subjects swished with Diet Pepsi three times at 10-minute intervals. Changes in pH were monitored using a digital pH meter at 0-, 5-, and 10- minute intervals and at every 5 minutes after the third swish until pH resumed baseline value or 45 minutes relapse. Swishing regimen was repeated on a second visit, followed by swishing with sugar-free liquid antacid (Mylanta Supreme). Recovery times were also recorded. Data was analyzed using independent t-tests, repeated measures ANOVA, and Fisher's exact test (α= 0.05). Baseline buffering capacity and flow rate were not significantly different between groups (P= 0.542; P= 0.2831, respectively). Baseline salivary pH values were similar between groups (P= 0.721). No significant differences in salivary pH values were found between erosion and non-erosion groups in response to multiple acid challenges (P= 0.695) or antacid neutralization (P= 0.861). Analysis of salivary pH recovery time revealed no significant differences between groups after acid challenges (P= 0.091) or after the use of antacid (P= 0.118). There was a highly significant difference in the survival curves of the two groups on Day 2, with the non-erosion group resolving significantly faster than the erosion group (P= 0.0086).

  13. Effects of surface treatment on bond strength between dental resin agent and zirconia ceramic.

    PubMed

    Moradabadi, Ashkan; Roudsari, Sareh Esmaeily Sabet; Yekta, Bijan Eftekhari; Rahbar, Nima

    2014-01-01

    This paper presents the results of an experimental study to understand the dominant mechanism in bond strength between dental resin agent and zirconia ceramic by investigating the effects of different surface treatments. Effects of two major mechanisms of chemical and micromechanical adhesion were evaluated on bond strength of zirconia to luting agent. Specimens of yttrium-oxide-partially-stabilized zirconia blocks were fabricated. Seven groups of specimens with different surface treatment were prepared. 1) zirconia specimens after airborne particle abrasion (SZ), 2) zirconia specimens after etching (ZH), 3) zirconia specimens after airborne particle abrasion and simultaneous etching (HSZ), 4) zirconia specimens coated with a layer of a Fluorapatite-Leucite glaze (GZ), 5) GZ specimens with additional acid etching (HGZ), 6) zirconia specimens coated with a layer of salt glaze (SGZ) and 7) SGZ specimens after etching with 2% HCl (HSGZ). Composite cylinders were bonded to airborne-particle-abraded surfaces of ZirkonZahn specimens with Panavia F2 resin luting agent. Failure modes were examined under 30× magnification and the effect of surface treatments was analyzed by scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and atomic force microscopy (AFM). SZ and HSZ groups had the highest and GZ and SGZ groups had the lowest mean shear bond strengths among all groups. Mean shear bond strengths were significantly decreased by applying a glaze layer on zirconia surfaces in GZ and SGZ groups. However, bond strengths were improved after etching process. Airborne particle abrasion resulted in higher shear bond strengths compared to etching treatment. Modes of failure varied among different groups. Finally, it is concluded that micromechanical adhesion was a more effective mechanism than chemical adhesion and airborne particle abrasion significantly increased mean shear bond strengths compared with another surface treatments. © 2013.

  14. An investigation using atomic force microscopy nanoindentation of dental enamel demineralization as a function of undissociated acid concentration and differential buffer capacity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Barbour, Michele E.; Shellis, R. Peter

    2007-02-01

    Acidic drinks and foodstuffs can demineralize dental hard tissues, leading to a pathological condition known as dental erosion, which is of increasing clinical concern. The first step in enamel dissolution is a demineralization of the outer few micrometres of tissue, which results in a softening of the structure. The primary determinant of dissolution rate is pH, but the concentration of undissociated acid, which is related to buffer capacity, also appears to be important. In this study, atomic force microscopy nanoindentation was used to measure the first initial demineralization (softening) induced within 1 min by exposure to solutions with a range of undissociated acid concentration and natural pH of 3.3 or with an undissociated acid concentration of 10 mmol l-1 and pH adjusted to 3.3. The results indicate that differential buffering capacity is a better determinant of softening than undissociated acid concentration. Under the conditions of these experiments, a buffer capacity of >3 mmol l-1 pH-1 does not have any further effect on dissolution rate. These results imply that differential buffering capacity should be used for preference over undissociated acid concentration or titratable acidity, which are more commonly employed in the literature.

  15. The Histone-Deacetylase-Inhibitor Suberoylanilide Hydroxamic Acid Promotes Dental Pulp Repair Mechanisms Through Modulation of Matrix Metalloproteinase-13 Activity.

    PubMed

    Duncan, Henry F; Smith, Anthony J; Fleming, Garry J P; Partridge, Nicola C; Shimizu, Emi; Moran, Gary P; Cooper, Paul R

    2016-04-01

    Direct application of histone-deacetylase-inhibitors (HDACis) to dental pulp cells (DPCs) induces chromatin changes, promoting gene expression and cellular-reparative events. We have previously demonstrated that HDACis (valproic acid, trichostatin A) increase mineralization in dental papillae-derived cell-lines and primary DPCs by stimulation of dentinogenic gene expression. Here, we investigated novel genes regulated by the HDACi, suberoylanilide hydroxamic acid (SAHA), to identify new pathways contributing to DPC differentiation. SAHA significantly compromised DPC viability only at relatively high concentrations (5 μM); while low concentrations (1 μM) SAHA did not increase apoptosis. HDACi-exposure for 24 h induced mineralization-per-cell dose-dependently after 2 weeks; however, constant 14d SAHA-exposure inhibited mineralization. Microarray analysis (24 h and 14 days) of SAHA exposed cultures highlighted that 764 transcripts showed a significant >2.0-fold change at 24 h, which reduced to 36 genes at 14 days. 59% of genes were down-regulated at 24 h and 36% at 14 days, respectively. Pathway analysis indicated SAHA increased expression of members of the matrix metalloproteinase (MMP) family. Furthermore, SAHA-supplementation increased MMP-13 protein expression (7 d, 14 days) and enzyme activity (48 h, 14 days). Selective MMP-13-inhibition (MMP-13i) dose-dependently accelerated mineralization in both SAHA-treated and non-treated cultures. MMP-13i-supplementation promoted expression of several mineralization-associated markers, however, HDACi-induced cell migration and wound healing were impaired. Data demonstrate that short-term low-dose SAHA-exposure promotes mineralization in DPCs by modulating gene pathways and tissue proteases. MMP-13i further increased mineralization-associated events, but decreased HDACi cell migration indicating a specific role for MMP-13 in pulpal repair processes. Pharmacological inhibition of HDAC and MMP may

  16. Improvement in etching rate for epilayer lift-off with surfactant

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wu, Fan-Lei; Horng, Ray-Hua; Lu, Jian-Heng; Chen, Chun-Li; Kao, Yu-Cheng

    2013-03-01

    In this study, the GaAs epilayer is quickly separated from GaAs substrate by epitaxial lift-off (ELO) process with mixture etchant solution. The HF solution mixes with surfactant as mixture etchant solution to etch AlAs sacrificial layer for the selective wet etching of AlAs sacrificial layer. Addiction surfactants etchant significantly enhance the etching rate in the hydrofluoric acid etching solution. It is because surfactant provides hydrophilicity to change the contact angle with enhances the fluid properties of the mixture etchant between GaAs epilayer and GaAs substrate. Arsine gas was released from the etchant solution because the critical reaction product in semiconductor etching is dissolved arsine gas. Arsine gas forms a bubble, which easily displaces the etchant solution, before the AlAs layer was undercut. The results showed that acetone and hydrofluoric acid ratio of about 1:1 for the fastest etching rate of 13.2 μm / min. The etching rate increases about 4 times compared with pure hydrofluoric acid, moreover can shorten the separation time about 70% of GaAs epilayer with GaAs substrate. The results indicate that etching ratio and stability are improved by mixture etchant solution. It is not only saving the epilayer and the etching solution exposure time, but also reducing the damage to the epilayer structure.

  17. ZERODUR: bending strength data for etched surfaces

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hartmann, Peter; Leys, Antoine; Carré, Antoine; Kerz, Franca; Westerhoff, Thomas

    2014-07-01

    In a continuous effort since 2007 a considerable amount of new data and information has been gathered on the bending strength of the extremely low thermal expansion glass ceramic ZERODUR®. By fitting a three parameter Weibull distribution to the data it could be shown that for homogenously ground surfaces minimum breakage stresses exist lying much higher than the previously applied design limits. In order to achieve even higher allowable stress values diamond grain ground surfaces have been acid etched, a procedure widely accepted as strength increasing measure. If surfaces are etched taking off layers with thickness which are comparable to the maximum micro crack depth of the preceding grinding process they also show statistical distributions compatible with a three parameter Weibull distribution. SCHOTT has performed additional measurement series with etch solutions with variable composition testing the applicability of this distribution and the possibility to achieve further increase of the minimum breakage stress. For long term loading applications strength change with time and environmental media are important. The parameter needed for prediction calculations which is combining these influences is the stress corrosion constant. Results from the past differ significantly from each other. On the basis of new investigations better information will be provided for choosing the best value for the given application conditions.

  18. Wet Etching Characterization of InSb for Thermal Imaging Applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chang, Kow‑Ming; Luo, Jiunn‑Jye; Chiang, Cheng‑Der; Liu, Kou‑Chen

    2006-03-01

    A citric acid/hydrogen peroxide-based chemical system has been reported for the first time to meet the requirements of continuously scaling down the pixel area for InSb high-density infrared camera applications. This chemical system with a reaction-rate-limited mechanism was concluded to have superior etching performance compared with the nitric acid-based solution. It is established that this etching mechanism has better control over device structure uniformity due to its linear proportionality to etching time and its nondependence on agitation and exposed etched area. Two different chemical systems have been studied to form the high-density mesa structures in this study. The wet etching characteristics corresponding to these chemical solutions were measured and analyzed. From atomic force microscopy (AFM), the results clearly indicate that the surface-reaction-rate-limited dominant-control mechanism for InSb mesa etching in citric acid/hydrogen peroxide produces a fairly smooth morphology near junction edges and well-controlled sidewall profiles. Good step coverage for dielectric deposition as shown by field-emission scanning electron microscopy and a highly uniformly distributed dark current of InSb pn junction arrays at 77 K have proven the feasibility of the citric acid/hydrogen peroxide wet etching process to bring superior etching performance compared with the nitric acid-based solution.

  19. Effect of acidity upon attrition-corrosion of human dental enamel.

    PubMed

    Wu, Yun-Qi; Arsecularatne, Joseph A; Hoffman, Mark

    2015-04-01

    Attrition-corrosion is a synthesized human enamel wear process combined mechanical effects (attrition) with corrosion. With the rising consumption of acidic food and beverages, attrition-corrosion is becoming increasingly common. Yet, research is limited and the underlying mechanism remains unclear. In this study, in vitro wear loss of human enamel was investigated and the attrition-corrosion process and wear mechanism were elucidated by the analysis of the wear scar and its subsurface using focused ion beam (FIB) sectioning and scanning electron microscopy (SEM). Human enamel flat-surface samples were prepared with enamel cusps as the wear antagonists. Reciprocating wear testing was undertaken under load of 5N at the speed of 66 cycle/min for 2250 cycles with lubricants including citric acid (at pH 3.2 and 5.5), acetic acid (at pH 3.2 and 5.5) and distilled water. All lubricants were used at 37°C. Similar human enamel flat-surface samples were also exposed to the same solutions as a control group. The substance loss of enamel during wear can be linked to the corrosion potential of a lubricant used. Using a lubricant with very low corrosion potential (such as distilled water), the wear mechanism was dominated by delamination with high wear loss. Conversely, the wear mechanism changed to shaving of the softened layer with less material loss in an environment with medium corrosion potential such as citric acid at pH 3.2 and 5.5 and acetic acid at pH 5.5. However, a highly corrosive environment (e.g., acetic acid at pH 3.2) caused the greatest loss of substance during wear.

  20. The role of etching in bonding to enamel: a comparison of self-etching and etch-and-rinse adhesive systems.

    PubMed

    Erickson, Robert L; Barkmeier, Wayne W; Latta, Mark A

    2009-11-01

    Etch and resin infiltration morphologies were compared for three self-etch adhesive (SEA) systems and eleven model etch-and-rinse (ERA) systems using various phosphoric acid (PA) concentrations with Adper Single Bond Plus (SB) adhesive. Matches for the morphologies were made between each SEA system and one of the PA/SB systems and bond strength measurements were made for all the systems. The hypothesis was that similar morphology would result in similar bond strength assuming micro-mechanical bonding is the mechanism of adhesion. Three specimens were prepared on polished (4000 grit) human enamel for each adhesive system to examine etch and resin infiltration morphology by SEM. For the latter, the adhesive systems were bonded using recommended methods and the enamel was dissolved in acid to reveal the resin. The etch patterns for the SEA systems were determined by rinsing off the material with water and acetone. Polished (4000 grit) human enamel was used with each adhesive system to determine 24-h resin composite to enamel shear bond strengths (SBS). A minimum of 10 specimens were used for each group. Data were analyzed by a one factor ANOVA and Fisher's PLSD post hoc test. The SBS to polished enamel for two of the three SEA systems were statistically significantly greater (p<0.05) than the PA/SB matched systems, indicating that chemical bonding might be partly responsible for the measured bond strength. All three SEA systems provided statistically lower (p<0.05) SBS values than the PA/SB systems with PA concentrations between 2.5% and 40%. Although chemical bonding may be present for some SEA systems it does not provide enough increase in bond strength to compete with the bond produced by ERA systems using phosphoric acid etching of enamel.

  1. Bond strength with various etching times on young permanent teeth

    SciTech Connect

    Wang, W.N.; Lu, T.C. )

    1991-07-01

    Tensile bond strengths of an orthodontic resin cement were compared for 15-, 30-, 60-, 90-, or 120-second etching times, with a 37% phosphoric acid solution on the enamel surfaces of young permanent teeth. Fifty extracted premolars from 9- to 16-year-old children were used for testing. An orthodontic composite resin was used to bond the bracket directly onto the buccal surface of the enamel. The tensile bond strengths were tested with an Instron machine. Bond failure interfaces between bracket bases and teeth surfaces were examined with a scanning electron microscope and calculated with mapping of energy-dispersive x-ray spectrometry. The results of tensile bond strength for 15-, 30-, 60-, or 90-second etching times were not statistically different. For the 120-second etching time, the decrease was significant. Of the bond failures, 43%-49% occurred between bracket and resin interface, 12% to 24% within the resin itself, 32%-40% between resin and tooth interface, and 0% to 4% contained enamel fragments. There was no statistical difference in percentage of bond failure interface distribution between bracket base and resin, resin and enamel, or the enamel detachment. Cohesive failure within the resin itself at the 120-second etching time was less than at other etching times, with a statistical significance. To achieve good retention, to decrease enamel loss, and to reduce moisture contamination in the clinic, as well as to save chairside time, a 15-second etching time is suggested for teenage orthodontic patients.

  2. Peri-implant endosseous healing properties of dual acid-etched mini-implants with a nanometer-sized deposition of CaP: a histological and histomorphometric human study.

    PubMed

    Telleman, Gerdien; Albrektsson, Tomas; Hoffman, Maria; Johansson, Carina B; Vissink, Arjan; Meijer, Henny J A; Raghoebar, Gerry M

    2010-06-01

    The aim of this histological and histomorphometric study was to compare the early peri-implant endosseous healing properties of a dual acid-etched (DAE) surface (Osseotite, Implant Innovations Inc., Palm Beach Gardens, FL, USA) with a DAE surface modified with nanometer-sized calcium phosphate (CaP) particles (NanoTite, Implant Innovations Inc.) in grafted and mature maxillary bone. Fifteen patients received two mini-implants, 1 with DAE surface (control) and 1 with a DAE + CaP surface (test), to fixate an iliac crest bone graft to the maxilla. A part of each mini-implant was in contact with the grafted bone and a part extended into the native maxillary bone. After a healing period of 3 months, the specimens were harvested and analyzed. Overall, a trend was seen for stronger bone response around the test mini-implants in the native bone of the maxilla. However, only the old bone particles measured by percentages of bone-to-implant contact and bone area were statistically significant (p = .025 and p = .042, respectively). The NanoTite surface increases the peri-implant endosseous healing properties in the native bone of the maxilla compared with the Osseotite surface, while this difference was not visible in the bone graft area. This might be a result of the lower remodeling process of the graft.

  3. Tranexamic acid mouthwash--a prospective randomized study of a 2-day regimen vs 5-day regimen to prevent postoperative bleeding in anticoagulated patients requiring dental extractions.

    PubMed

    Carter, G; Goss, A

    2003-10-01

    This prospective randomized study analyses the use of a prescribed 4.8% tranexamic acid post-operative mouthwash over 2 days vs 5 days to prevent bleeding in patients taking warfarin who require dental extractions. Eighty-five patients therapeutically anticoagulated with warfarin for various conditions, ranging in age from 21 to 86 years and requiring dental extractions, were randomly divided into two groups. Group A postoperatively received a 4.8% tranexamic acid mouthwash to be used over a 2-day period. Group B received the same mouthwash and instructions postoperatively, to be taken over 5 days. All procedures were performed on an ambulatory basis under local anaesthetic by the same surgeon. Patients were reviewed 1, 3, and 7 days postoperatively to assess bleeding. Eighty-two of the 85 patients encountered no postoperative problems. Two patients in group A and one in group B had minor postoperative bleeds that required minor ambulatory intervention to control. This study shows that a 2-day postoperative course of a 4.8% tranexamic acid mouthwash is as equally effective as a 5-day course in controlling haemostasis post-dental extractions in patient's anticoagulated with warfarin.

  4. [Development of dental quick casting with zircon-phosphoric acid investments].

    PubMed

    Fukumoto, R

    1990-03-01

    The application of zircon (ZrSiO4) that has high refractoriness, high thermal conductivity and a low coefficient of thermal expansion, to quick casting investment was studied. Various zircon powders and phosphoric acid solutions were tested with respect to the higher thermal shock resistance. The formulation and properties of zircon-phosphoric acid investment materials such as water/powder ratio, fluidity of slurry, setting time, setting expansion, thermal expansion, thermal analysis, green and fired compressive strength were measured. Formulation of zircon slurry for coating was zircon flower #600 30%, zircon flower #350 10%, and zircon sand CP 60%, and that for sanding was zircon flower #200. The mixing liquid was 15% phosphoric acid and liquid/powder ratio was 0.1. The slurry using phosphoric acid had good fluidity and good workability. The 24-hour green strength was 1 MPa, fired strength was 10 MPa, 24-hour setting expansion was -0.04% and the thermal expansion at 1000 degrees C was 0.31%. Immediately after coating with zircon slurry, the coating layer was dried, sintered and dewaxed by thermal shock. The thermal shock consisted of the following four-step manipulations. The first is hot air drying (50 degrees C, 5 minutes), the second is heat shock (900 degrees C, 3 seconds), the third is redrying (220 degrees C, 3 minutes) and the fourth is dewaxing (550 degrees C, 3 minutes). Small casting of pure titanium and K-metal could be done successfully by the quick casting method using the zircon-phosphoric acid investments. It was found that the total expansion of the secondary investments influenced the casting adapatability.

  5. Northern Arabia Etched Terrain

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2002-01-01

    (Released 23 May 2002) The Science Many places on Mars display scabby, eroded landscapes that commonly are referred to as etched terrain. These places have a ragged, tortured look that reveals a geologic history of intense deposition and erosion. This THEMIS image shows such a place. Here a 10 km diameter crater is superposed on the floor of a 40 km diameter crater, most of which is outside of the image but apparent in the MOLA context image. The rugged crater rim material intermingles with low, flat-topped mesas and layers with irregular outlines along with dune-like ridges on many of the flat surfaces. The horizontal layers that occur throughout the scene at different elevations are evidence of repeated episodes of deposition. The apparent ease with which these deposits have been eroded, most likely by wind, suggests that they are composed of poorly consolidated material. Air-fall sediments are the likely candidate for this material rather than lava flows. The dune-like ridges are probably inactive granule ripples produced from the interaction of wind and erosional debris. The large interior crater displays features that are the result of deposition and subsequent erosion. Its raised rim is barely discernable due to burial while piles and blocks of slumped material along the interior circumference attest to the action of erosion. Some of the blocks retain the same texture as the surrounding undisrupted surface. It appears as if the crater had been buried long enough for the overlying material to be eroded into the texture seen today. Then at some point this overburden foundered and collapsed into the crater. Continuing erosion has caused the upper layer to retreat back from what was probably the original rim of the crater, producing the noncircular appearance seen today. The length of time represented by this sequence of events as well as the conditions necessary to produce them are unknown. The Story Have you ever seen an ink etching, where the artistic cross

  6. Northern Arabia Etched Terrain

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2002-01-01

    (Released 23 May 2002) The Science Many places on Mars display scabby, eroded landscapes that commonly are referred to as etched terrain. These places have a ragged, tortured look that reveals a geologic history of intense deposition and erosion. This THEMIS image shows such a place. Here a 10 km diameter crater is superposed on the floor of a 40 km diameter crater, most of which is outside of the image but apparent in the MOLA context image. The rugged crater rim material intermingles with low, flat-topped mesas and layers with irregular outlines along with dune-like ridges on many of the flat surfaces. The horizontal layers that occur throughout the scene at different elevations are evidence of repeated episodes of deposition. The apparent ease with which these deposits have been eroded, most likely by wind, suggests that they are composed of poorly consolidated material. Air-fall sediments are the likely candidate for this material rather than lava flows. The dune-like ridges are probably inactive granule ripples produced from the interaction of wind and erosional debris. The large interior crater displays features that are the result of deposition and subsequent erosion. Its raised rim is barely discernable due to burial while piles and blocks of slumped material along the interior circumference attest to the action of erosion. Some of the blocks retain the same texture as the surrounding undisrupted surface. It appears as if the crater had been buried long enough for the overlying material to be eroded into the texture seen today. Then at some point this overburden foundered and collapsed into the crater. Continuing erosion has caused the upper layer to retreat back from what was probably the original rim of the crater, producing the noncircular appearance seen today. The length of time represented by this sequence of events as well as the conditions necessary to produce them are unknown. The Story Have you ever seen an ink etching, where the artistic cross

  7. Controlled in situ etch-back

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mattauch, R. J.; Seabaugh, A. C. (Inventor)

    1981-01-01

    A controlled in situ etch-back technique is disclosed in which an etch melt and a growth melt are first saturated by a source-seed crystal and thereafter etch-back of a substrate takes place by the slightly undersaturated etch melt, followed by LPE growth of a layer by the growth melt, which is slightly supersaturated.

  8. Etching and Growth of GaAs

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Seabaugh, A. C.; Mattauch, R., J.

    1983-01-01

    In-place process for etching and growth of gallium arsenide calls for presaturation of etch and growth melts by arsenic source crystal. Procedure allows precise control of thickness of etch and newly grown layer on substrate. Etching and deposition setup is expected to simplify processing and improve characteristics of gallium arsenide lasers, high-frequency amplifiers, and advanced integrated circuits.

  9. Etching and Growth of GaAs

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Seabaugh, A. C.; Mattauch, R., J.

    1983-01-01

    In-place process for etching and growth of gallium arsenide calls for presaturation of etch and growth melts by arsenic source crystal. Procedure allows precise control of thickness of etch and newly grown layer on substrate. Etching and deposition setup is expected to simplify processing and improve characteristics of gallium arsenide lasers, high-frequency amplifiers, and advanced integrated circuits.

  10. The effect of lysophosphatidic acid and Rho-associated kinase patterning on adhesion of dental pulp cells.

    PubMed

    Cheng, R; Shao, M-Y; Yang, H; Cheng, L; Wang, F-M; Zhou, X-D; Hu, T

    2011-01-01

    To investigate the effects of lysophosphatidic acid (LPA) and the Rho/Rho-associated kinase (ROCK) pathway on adhesion of dental pulp cells (DPCs). Human DPCs were cultured ex vivo. After treatment of LPA and Y-27632, a specific ROCK inhibitor, changes in focal contacts (FCs) were examined by immunofluorescent staining. Activation of FCs proteins was examined by measuring tyrosine 397 phosphorylation of focal adhesion kinase (FAK) and paxillin using immunoblotting. The data were analysed by Student's t-test. The immunofluorescent staining indicated LPA stimulation induced larger focal adhesion in the cell periphery, compared with the control. Inhibition of ROCK by Y-27632 decreased the formation of FCs markedly, even in the LPA-stimulated cells. LPA also increased the level of tyrosine phosphorylation of paxillin at 30min (P<0.05) and FAK at 5 and 30min (P<0.05). Furthermore, p-paxillin levels declined immediately after Y-27632 treatment and remained low at 5, 30, 60min. Y-27632 also suppressed the effects of LPA on p-paxillin and p-FAK at 5 and 30min (P<0.05). LPA activated Rho and then subsequently activated ROCK, suggesting that LPA influences the FCs of DPCs by modulating tyrosine phosphorylation of FAK and paxillin via the Rho/ROCK pathway. © 2010 International Endodontic Journal.

  11. Etching Of Semiconductor Wafer Edges

    DOEpatents

    Kardauskas, Michael J.; Piwczyk, Bernhard P.

    2003-12-09

    A novel method of etching a plurality of semiconductor wafers is provided which comprises assembling said plurality of wafers in a stack, and subjecting said stack of wafers to dry etching using a relatively high density plasma which is produced at atmospheric pressure. The plasma is focused magnetically and said stack is rotated so as to expose successive edge portions of said wafers to said plasma.

  12. Decontamination of metals using chemical etching

    DOEpatents

    Lerch, Ronald E.; Partridge, Jerry A.

    1980-01-01

    The invention relates to chemical etching process for reclaiming contaminated equipment wherein a reduction-oxidation system is included in a solution of nitric acid to contact the metal to be decontaminated and effect reduction of the reduction-oxidation system, and includes disposing a pair of electrodes in the reduced solution to permit passage of an electrical current between said electrodes and effect oxidation of the reduction-oxidation system to thereby regenerate the solution and provide decontaminated equipment that is essentially radioactive contamination-free.

  13. Uniform vertical trench etching on silicon with high aspect ratio by metal-assisted chemical etching using nanoporous catalysts.

    PubMed

    Li, Liyi; Liu, Yan; Zhao, Xueying; Lin, Ziyin; Wong, Ching-Ping

    2014-01-08

    Recently, metal-assisted chemical etching (MaCE) has been proposed as a promising wet-etching method for the fabrication of micro- and nanostructures on silicon with low cost. However, uniform vertical trench etching with high aspect ratio is still of great challenge for traditional MaCE. Here we report an innovated MaCE method, which combined the use of a nanoporous gold thin film as the catalyst and a hydrofluoric acid (HF)-hydrogen peroxide (H2O2) mixture solution with a low HF-to-H2O2 concentration ratio (ρ) as the etchant. The reported method successfully fabricated vertical trenches on silicon with a width down to 2 μm and an aspect ratio of 16. The geometry of the trenches was highly uniform throughout the 3D space. The vertical etching direction was favored on both (100)- and (111)-oriented silicon substrates. The reported method was also capable of producing multiple trenches on the same substrate with individually-tunable lateral geometry. An etching mechanism including a through-catalyst mass-transport process and an electropolishing-favored charge-transport process was identified by a comparative study. The novel method fundamentally solves the problems of distortion and random movement of isolated catalysts in MaCE. The results mark a breakthrough in high-quality silicon trench-etching technology with a cost of more than 2 orders of magnitude lower than that of the currently available methods.

  14. Method of etching zirconium diboride

    SciTech Connect

    Heath, L.S.; Kwiatkowski, B.

    1988-03-31

    The invention described herein may be manufactured, used, and licensed by or for the Government for governmental purposes without the payment to us of any royalty thereon. This invention relates in general to a method of etching, zirconium diboride(ZrB/sub 2/) and, in particular, to a method of dry etching a thin film of ZrB/sub 2/ that has been deposited onto a substrate and patterned using photolithography. U.S. patent application S.N. 156, 124, filed 16 February, 1988, of Linda S. Heath for Method of Etching Titanium Diboride and assigned to a common assignee and with which this application is copending describes and claims a method of etching titanium diboride with a dry etch. Zirconium diboride, like titanium diboride, TiB/sub 2/, has become of interest in laboratory research because of its resistance to change or degradation at high temperatures. By adjusting the process parameters, one is able to attain etch rates of 67 to 140 A/min for ZrB/sub 2/. This is useful for patterning ZrB/sub 2/ as a diffusion barrier or a Schottky contact to semiconductors. The ZrB/sub 2/ film may be on a GaAs substrate.

  15. Dental Diseases of Acid Factory Workers Globally-Narrative Review Article

    PubMed Central

    SUDHANSHU, Sanadhya; PANKAJ, Aapaliya; SORABH, Jain; NIDHI, Sharma

    2014-01-01

    Abstract Background Industrial growth is occurring exponentially, for unimpeded growth, industrial workers are recruited on a large scale globally. There are various sectors of industries present for which laborers are trained in accordance to their requirements. As workers possess the general health risk of occupational hazards, various labor laws, schemes and policies are undertaken by the government which are implemented by industries, but very few attention for oral health is being given because of which laborers are more progressing towards hidden adverse oral effects which can affect their working efficacy. Various studies on different sector workers were carried out focusing their oral health status but for acid factory workers it is neglected and therefore unrevealed to the society. For this purpose, in this article, though, paucity of literature, still, tries to enlighten the oral health status in acid factory industrial workers with available resources. PMID:26060673

  16. Dental Diseases of Acid Factory Workers Globally-Narrative Review Article.

    PubMed

    Sudhanshu, Sanadhya; Pankaj, Aapaliya; Sorabh, Jain; Nidhi, Sharma

    2014-01-01

    Background Industrial growth is occurring exponentially, for unimpeded growth, industrial workers are recruited on a large scale globally. There are various sectors of industries present for which laborers are trained in accordance to their requirements. As workers possess the general health risk of occupational hazards, various labor laws, schemes and policies are undertaken by the government which are implemented by industries, but very few attention for oral health is being given because of which laborers are more progressing towards hidden adverse oral effects which can affect their working efficacy. Various studies on different sector workers were carried out focusing their oral health status but for acid factory workers it is neglected and therefore unrevealed to the society. For this purpose, in this article, though, paucity of literature, still, tries to enlighten the oral health status in acid factory industrial workers with available resources.

  17. Acid resistance and structural changes of human dental enamel treated with Er:YAG laser.

    PubMed

    Rodríguez-Vilchis, Laura Emma; Contreras-Bulnes, Rosalía; Sánchez-Flores, Ignacio; Samano, Enrique Cuauhtémoc

    2010-04-01

    The purpose of this study was to evaluate the acid resistance and structural changes in the enamel surface of permanent teeth after subablative Er:YAG laser irradiation in vitro. Er:YAG irradiation laser is expected to enhance acid resistance and to produce morphological changes on the enamel surface. One hundred twenty samples of human enamel were divided into four groups (n = 30): Group I was the control (no laser irradiation), and Groups II, III, and IV were irradiated with Er:YAG laser at 100 mJ (12.7 J/cm(2)), 100 mJ (7.5 J/cm(2)), and 150 mJ (11 J/cm(2)), respectively, at 10 Hz and with water spray. The samples were placed in an acid solution, and the released calcium was quantified by atomic absorption spectrometry. The weight percentages of calcium, phosphorus, oxygen, and chlorine on the enamel surface were determined by energy dispersive X-ray spectroscopy. The morphological changes were observed by scanning electron microscopy. One-way ANOVA and Kruskal-Wallis tests were performed (p acid resistance of enamel due to subablative Er:YAG laser irradiation on the samples did not increase as expected. Morphological microscopic changes included craters and cracks on the irradiated zones.

  18. Graphene-Assisted Chemical Etching of Silicon Using Anodic Aluminum Oxides as Patterning Templates.

    PubMed

    Kim, Jungkil; Lee, Dae Hun; Kim, Ju Hwan; Choi, Suk-Ho

    2015-11-04

    We first report graphene-assisted chemical etching (GaCE) of silicon by using patterned graphene as an etching catalyst. Chemical-vapor-deposition-grown graphene transferred on a silicon substrate is patterned to a mesh with nanohole arrays by oxygen plasma etching using an anodic- aluminum-oxide etching mask. The prepared graphene mesh/silicon is immersed in a mixture solution of hydrofluoric acid and hydro peroxide with various molecular fractions at optimized temperatures. The silicon underneath graphene mesh is then selectively etched to form aligned nanopillar arrays. The morphology of the nanostructured silicon can be controlled to be smooth or porous depending on the etching conditions. The experimental results are systematically discussed based on possible mechanisms for GaCE of Si.

  19. Relevant aspects in the surface properties in titanium dental implants for the cellular viability.

    PubMed

    Velasco-Ortega, E; Alfonso-Rodríguez, C A; Monsalve-Guil, L; España-López, A; Jiménez-Guerra, A; Garzón, I; Alaminos, M; Gil, F J

    2016-07-01

    Roughness and topographical features are the most relevant of the surface properties for a dental implant for its osseointegration. For that reason, we studied the four surfaces more used in titanium dental implants: machined, sandblasted, acid etching and sandblasted plus acid etching. The roughness and wettability (contact angle and surface free energy) was studied by means 3D-interferometric microscope and sessile drop method. Normal human gingival fibroblasts (HGF) were obtained from small oral mucosa biopsies and were used for cell cultures. To analyze cell integrity, we first quantified the total amount of DNA and LDH released from dead cells to the culture medium. Then, LIVE/DEAD assay was used as a combined method assessing cell integrity and metabolism. All experiments were carried out on each cell type cultured on each Ti material for 24h, 48h and 72h. To evaluate the in vivo cell adhesion capability of each Ti surface, the four types of discs were grafted subcutaneously in 5 Wistar rats. Sandblasted surfaces were significantly rougher than acid etching and machined. Wettability and surface free energy decrease when the roughness increases in sand blasted samples. This fact favors the protein adsorption. The DNA released by cells cultured on the four Ti surfaces did not differ from that of positive control cells (p>0.05). The number of cells per area was significantly lower (p<0.05) in the sand-blasted surface than in the machined and surface for both cell types (7±2 cells for HGF and 10±5 cells for SAOS-2). The surface of the machined-type discs grafted in vivo had a very small area occupied by cells and/or connective tissue (3.5%), whereas 36.6% of the sandblasted plus acid etching surface, 75.9% of sandblasted discs and 59.6% of acid etching discs was covered with cells and connective tissue. Cells cultured on rougher surfaces tended to exhibit attributes of more differentiated osteoblasts than cells cultured on smoother surfaces. These surface

  20. Dental Procedures.

    PubMed

    Ramponi, Denise R

    2016-01-01

    Dental problems are a common complaint in emergency departments in the United States. There are a wide variety of dental issues addressed in emergency department visits such as dental caries, loose teeth, dental trauma, gingival infections, and dry socket syndrome. Review of the most common dental blocks and dental procedures will allow the practitioner the opportunity to make the patient more comfortable and reduce the amount of analgesia the patient will need upon discharge. Familiarity with the dental equipment, tooth, and mouth anatomy will help prepare the practitioner for to perform these dental procedures.

  1. Dry Ice Etches Terrain

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2007-01-01

    [figure removed for brevity, see original site] Figure 1

    Every year seasonal carbon dioxide ice, known to us as 'dry ice,' covers the poles of Mars. In the south polar region this ice is translucent, allowing sunlight to pass through and warm the surface below. The ice then sublimes (evaporates) from the bottom of the ice layer, and carves channels in the surface.

    The channels take on many forms. In the subimage shown here (figure 1) the gas from the dry ice has etched wide shallow channels. This region is relatively flat, which may be the reason these channels have a different morphology than the 'spiders' seen in more hummocky terrain.

    Observation Geometry Image PSP_003364_0945 was taken by the High Resolution Imaging Science Experiment (HiRISE) camera onboard the Mars Reconnaissance Orbiter spacecraft on 15-Apr-2007. The complete image is centered at -85.4 degrees latitude, 104.0 degrees East longitude. The range to the target site was 251.5 km (157.2 miles). At this distance the image scale is 25.2 cm/pixel (with 1 x 1 binning) so objects 75 cm across are resolved. The image shown here has been map-projected to 25 cm/pixel . The image was taken at a local Mars time of 06:57 PM and the scene is illuminated from the west with a solar incidence angle of 75 degrees, thus the sun was about 15 degrees above the horizon. At a solar longitude of 219.6 degrees, the season on Mars is Northern Autumn.

  2. Dry Ice Etches Terrain

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2007-01-01

    [figure removed for brevity, see original site] Figure 1

    Every year seasonal carbon dioxide ice, known to us as 'dry ice,' covers the poles of Mars. In the south polar region this ice is translucent, allowing sunlight to pass through and warm the surface below. The ice then sublimes (evaporates) from the bottom of the ice layer, and carves channels in the surface.

    The channels take on many forms. In the subimage shown here (figure 1) the gas from the dry ice has etched wide shallow channels. This region is relatively flat, which may be the reason these channels have a different morphology than the 'spiders' seen in more hummocky terrain.

    Observation Geometry Image PSP_003364_0945 was taken by the High Resolution Imaging Science Experiment (HiRISE) camera onboard the Mars Reconnaissance Orbiter spacecraft on 15-Apr-2007. The complete image is centered at -85.4 degrees latitude, 104.0 degrees East longitude. The range to the target site was 251.5 km (157.2 miles). At this distance the image scale is 25.2 cm/pixel (with 1 x 1 binning) so objects 75 cm across are resolved. The image shown here has been map-projected to 25 cm/pixel . The image was taken at a local Mars time of 06:57 PM and the scene is illuminated from the west with a solar incidence angle of 75 degrees, thus the sun was about 15 degrees above the horizon. At a solar longitude of 219.6 degrees, the season on Mars is Northern Autumn.

  3. [Effect of dental alloys on salivary alkaline and acid phosphatase, alpha amylase K+, Na+, and Cl-].

    PubMed

    Todorov, I; Saprjanova, M

    1977-04-01

    Comparative studied were performed in healthy subjects without metals in their oral cavities and in individuals having different metal alloys (gold, steel, amalgam) in their mouths and presenting with various complaints such as xerostomia, burning mucosa, etc. It was found that the contents of alkaline and acid phosphatases, alpha-amylase, K+, Na+ and Cl- in saliva increased significantly with the increase in total corrosion potential when non-precious metal alloys, especially different types of alloys, were present. Parallel to this, the frequency and the intensity of the complaints increased.

  4. Etching mechanism and morphology evolution in dry etching

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lee, Sang Ho

    III-V compound semiconductors (GaAs(100), GaP(100), InP(100), and GaN(0001)) and an insulator (amorphous SiO2) were etched, then their morphological dependencies on etch conditions were studied. All of them were etched in Cl 2/H2/Ar plasmas. Low energy electron enhanced etching (LE4) technique was mostly used to prevent surface and subsurface damage that may interfere with surface roughness. This technique exploits electrons from a DC plasma positive column instead of ion bombardment for the chemical reaction enhancement on sample surfaces. However, the effects of ion bombardment were also studied. The selection of bombarding species (electrons or ions) and energy of the bombarding species were controlled by biasing potentials for samples. In any case, the bias potential to sample surfaces was kept within a range of low energy during bombardment to prevent etch-induced damage which may affect the morphological evolution. The x-ray Triple Axis Diffractometer (TAD) was used to monitor structural damage after etching; energy dispersive x-ray spectroscopy (EDX), for chemical impurities or etch product residues. However, no structural damage nor residue was detected within the experimental conditions. Scanning electron microscopy (SEM) was used to observe surface morphologies; then, height variations over the surfaces were obtained using atomic force microscopy (AFM). The AFM data quantified statistical behavior (i.e. rms height variation, skewness, auto-covariance function, structure factor) of the surfaces. Such statistical behavior was linked with atomic mechanisms through scaling theory. This methodology revealed that quenched noise and thermochemical properties, which are highly dependent on temperature, govern surface morphologies for GaAs(100), GaP(100), and Inp(100). Although the nature of quenched noise is not well understood, this study shows that ridges in the mum range act as quenched noise. The quenched noise originates in nonuniform thermochemical

  5. Effect of re-etching oxalate-occluded dentin and enamel on bonding effectiveness of etch-and-rinse adhesives.

    PubMed

    Yousry, Mai Mahmoud

    2012-02-01

    To determine whether or not re-etching of oxalate-treated dentin and enamel increases microshear bond strength (µSBS) and improves hybridization. Two single-bottle etch-and-rinse adhesives, SingleBond (3M/ESPE) and OptiBond S (Kerr), were bonded to deep occlusal dentin and enamel after perfusion under 20 mmHg simulated intrapulpal pressure. For each adhesive tested, the experimental groups were: G1: bonding according to manufacturer's instructions (control); G2: application of oxalate desensitizer (D/Sense Crystal, Centrix) to acid-etched substrate followed by 60 s water rinsing prior to bonding; G3: same as G2, but with a further 15-s re-etching with 35% phosphoric acid before bonding. The microshear bond strength (µSBS) to dentin and enamel was tested (n = 15); a scanning electron microscopic (SEM) analysis of surface topography (n = 2), interface (n = 2), and failure mode was also performed. The data were statistically analyzed using ANOVA and Tukey's tests at p ≤ 0.05. In enamel, both adhesives showed no significant difference in μSBS among groups. In dentin, the highest statistically μSBS for both adhesives was recorded for G1, followed by G2, with the lowest values revealed remnants of calcium oxalate crystals that were removed only from enamel surfaces after re-etching. SEM images of the interface revealed inadequate dentin hybridization in G2 and G3 compared to G1. Re-etching after oxalate treatment compromises bonding of single-bottle etch-and-rinse adhesives to dentin and provides no added benefits to enamel bonding.

  6. Effect of Postoperative Bleaching on Microleakage of Etch-and-Rinse and Self-etch Adhesives

    PubMed Central

    Mortazavi, Vajihesadat; Fathi, Mohammadhossein; Soltani, Fereidon

    2011-01-01

    Background: Bleaching the discoloured teeth may affect the tooth/composite interface. The aim of this in vitro experimental study was to evaluate the effect of vital tooth bleaching on microleakage of existent class V composite resin restorations bonded with three dental bonding agents. Methods: Class V cavities were prepared on buccal surfaces of 72 intact, extracted human anterior teeth with gingival margins in dentin and occlusal margins in enamel, and randomly divided into 3 groups. Cavities in the three groups were treated with Scotch bond Multi-Purpose, a total etch system and Prompt L-Pop and iBond, two self-etch adhesives. All teeth were restored with Z250 resin composite material and thermo-cycled. Each group was equally divided into the control and the bleached subgroups (n = 12). The bleached subgroups were bleached with 15% carbamide peroxide gel for 8 hours a day for 15 days. Microleakage scores were evaluated on the incisal and cervical walls. Data were analyzed using Kruskal-Wallis, Mann-Whitney and Bonferroni post-hoc tests (α = 0.05). Results: Bleaching with carbamide peroxide gel significantly increased the microleakage of composite restorations in Prompt L-Pop group at dentinal walls (P = 0.001). Bleaching had no effect on microleakage of restorations in the Scotch bond Multi-Purpose and iBond groups. Conclusion: Vital tooth bleaching with carbamide peroxide gel has an adverse effect on marginal seal of dentinal walls of existent composite resin restorations bonded with prompt L-Pop self-etch adhesive. PMID:22132010

  7. [Effects of tooth whitening agents and acidic drinks on the surface properties of dental enamel].

    PubMed

    Chen, Xiaoling; Chen, Zhiqun; Lin, Yao; Shao, Jinquan; Yin, Lu

    2013-10-01

    Using tooth whitening agents (bleaching clip) in vitro and acidic drinks, we conducted a comparative study of the changes in enamel surface morphology, Ca/P content, and hardness. Tooth whitening glue pieces, cola, and orange juice were used to soak teeth in artificial saliva in vitro. Physiological saline was used as a control treatment. The morphology of the four groups was observed under a scanning electron microscope (SEM) immediately after the teeth were soaked for 7 and 14 d. The changes in Ca/P content and microhardness were analyzed. The enamel surfaces of the teeth in the three test groups were demineralized. The Ca/P ratio and the average microhardness were significantly lower than those of the control group immediately after the teeth were soaked (P < 0.05). The Ca/P ratio and microhardness gradually increased after 7 d. No significant difference was observed between the control group and the test groups after 14 d (P > 0.05). Bleaching agents caused transient demineralization of human enamel, but these agents could induce re-mineralization and repair of enamel over time. Demineralization caused by bleaching covered a relatively normal range compared with acidic drinks and daily drinking.

  8. Microleakage evaluation of core buildup composite resins with total-etch and self-etch adhesive systems.

    PubMed

    Moosavi, Horieh; Moazzami, Saieds Mostafa; Loh, Shaghayegh; Salari, Soheil

    2010-03-01

    primer displayed better sealing than that obtained with the total-etching, two-step dental adhesive.

  9. Influence of Etching Mode on Enamel Bond Durability of Universal Adhesive Systems.

    PubMed

    Suzuki, T; Takamizawa, T; Barkmeier, W W; Tsujimoto, A; Endo, H; Erickson, R L; Latta, M A; Miyazaki, M

    2016-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to determine the enamel bond durability of three universal adhesives in different etching modes through fatigue testing. The three universal adhesives used were Scotchbond Universal, Prime&Bond Elect universal dental adhesive, and All-Bond Universal light-cured dental adhesive. A single-step self-etch adhesive, Clearfil S(3) Bond Plus was used as a control. The shear bond strength (SBS) and shear fatigue strength (SFS) to human enamel were evaluated in total-etch mode and self-etch mode. A stainless steel metal ring with an internal diameter of 2.4 mm was used to bond the resin composite to the flat-ground (4000-grit) tooth surfaces for determination of both SBS and SFS. For each enamel surface treatment, 15 specimens were prepared for SBS and 30 specimens for SFS. The staircase method for fatigue testing was then used to determine the SFS of the resin composite bonded to the enamel using 10-Hz frequencies for 50,000 cycles or until failure occurred. Scanning electron microscopy was used to observe representative debonded specimen surfaces and the resin-enamel interfaces. A two-way analysis of variance and the Tukey post hoc test were used for analysis of the SBS data, whereas a modified t-test with Bonferroni correction was used for the SFS data. All adhesives in total-etch mode showed significantly higher SBS and SFS values than those in self-etch mode. Although All-Bond Universal in self-etch mode showed a significantly lower SBS value than the other adhesives, there was no significant difference in SFS values among the adhesives in this mode. All adhesives showed higher SFS:SBS ratios in total-etch mode than in self-etch mode. With regard to the adhesive systems used in this study, universal adhesives showed higher enamel bond strengths in total-etch mode. Although the influence of different etching modes on the enamel-bonding performance of universal adhesives was found to be dependent on the adhesive material, total-etch mode

  10. Bonding with self-etching primers--pumice or pre-etch? An in vitro study.

    PubMed

    Fitzgerald, Ian; Bradley, Gerard T; Bosio, Jose A; Hefti, Arthur F; Berzins, David W

    2012-04-01

    The purpose of this study was to compare the shear bond strengths (SBSs) of orthodontic brackets bonded with self-etching primer (SEP) using different enamel surface preparations. A two-by-two factorial study design was used. Sixty human premolars were harvested, cleaned, and randomly assigned to four groups (n = 15 per group). Teeth were bathed in saliva for 48 hours to form a pellicle. Treatments were assigned as follows: group 1 was pumiced for 10 seconds and pre-etched for 5 seconds with 37 per cent phosphoric acid before bonding with SEP (Transbond Plus). Group 2 was pumiced for 10 seconds before bonding. Group 3 was pre-etched for 5 seconds before bonding. Group 4 had no mechanical or chemical preparation before bonding. All teeth were stored in distilled water for 24 hours at 37°C before debonding. The SBS values and adhesive remnant index (ARI) score were recorded. The SBS values (± 1 SD) for groups 1-4 were 22.9 ± 6.6, 16.1 ± 7.3, 36.2 ± 8.2, and 13.1 ± 10.1 MPa, respectively. Two-way analysis of variance and subsequent contrasts showed statistically significant differences among treatment groups. ARI scores indicated the majority of adhesive remained on the bracket for all four groups. Pre-etching the bonding surface for 5 seconds with 37 per cent phosphoric acid, instead of pumicing, when using SEPs to bond orthodontic brackets, resulted in greater SBSs.

  11. The management of defective resin composite restorations: current trends in dental school teaching in Japan.

    PubMed

    Lynch, C D; Hayashi, M; Seow, L L; Blum, I R; Wilson, N H F

    2013-01-01

    The aim of this article is to investigate the contemporary teaching of the management of defective direct resin composite restorations in dental schools in Japan. A questionnaire relating to the teaching of the management of defective resin composite restorations was developed and e-mailed to 29 dental schools in Japan in 2010. Completed responses were received from 19 of the 29 invited schools (response rate = 66%). Eighteen schools (95%) report that they included the teaching of repair of direct defective resin composite restorations in their dental school programs. Thirteen schools reported that they included both clinical and didactic instruction on the repair of direct resin composite restorations. Fourteen schools did not teach any mechanical roughening of the exposed resin composite restoration surface before undertaking a repair. The most commonly reported treatment was acid etching with phosphoric acid (12 schools). The most commonly taught material for completing repairs was a flowable resin composite (16 schools). The teaching of repair of defective resin composite restorations is well established within many Japanese dental schools, to a greater extent than in some other regions of the world. The impact of this teaching on subsequent clinical practices in Japan should be investigated. Furthermore, it is concluded that there is a need for much stronger leadership in operative and conservative dentistry, ideally at the global level, to resolve differences in key aspects of operative procedures such as repairs.

  12. State of the art etch-and-rinse adhesives

    PubMed Central

    Pashley, David H; Tay, Franklin R; Breschi, Lorenzo; Tjäderhane, Leo; Carvalho, Ricardo M; Carrilho, Marcela; Tezvergil-Mutluay, Arzu

    2013-01-01

    Etch-and-rinse adhesive systems are the oldest of the multi-generation evolution of resin bonding systems. In the 3-step version, they involve acid-etching, priming and application of a separate adhesive. Each step can accomplish multiple goals. This review explores the therapeutic opportunities of each separate step. Acid-etching, using 32-37% phosphoric acid (pH 0.1-0.4) not only simultaneously etches enamel and dentin, but the low pH kills many residual bacteria. Some etchants include anti-microbial compounds such as benzalkonium chloride that also inhibits matrix metalloproteinases (MMPs) in dentin. Primers are usually water and HEMA-rich solutions that ensure complete expansion of the collagen fibril meshwork and wet the collagen with hydrophilic monomers. However, water alone can re-expand dried dentin and can also serve as a vehicle for protease inhibitors or protein cross-linking agents that may increase the durability of resin-dentin bonds. In the future, ethanol or other water-free solvents may serve as dehydrating primers that may also contain antibacterial quaternary ammonium methacrylates to inhibit dentin MMPs and increase the durability of resin-dentin bonds. The complete evaporation of solvents is nearly impossible. Manufacturers may need to optimize solvent concentrations. Solvent-free adhesives can seal resin-dentin interfaces with hydrophobic resins that may also contain fluoride and antimicrobial compounds. Etch-and-rinse adhesives produce higher resin-dentin bonds that are more durable than most 1 and 2-step adhesives. Incorporation of protease inhibitors in etchants and/or cross-linking agents in primers may increase the durability of resin-dentin bonds. The therapeutic potential of etch-and-rinse adhesives has yet to be fully exploited. PMID:21112620

  13. Oxidized linoleic acid metabolite-cytochrome P450 system (OLAM-CYP) is active in biopsy samples from patients with inflammatory dental pain.

    PubMed

    Ruparel, Shivani; Hargreaves, Kenneth M; Eskander, Michael; Rowan, Spencer; de Almeida, Jose F A; Roman, Linda; Henry, Michael A

    2013-11-01

    Endogenous TRPV1 agonists such as oxidized linoleic acid metabolites (OLAMs) and the enzymes releasing them [eg, cytochrome P450 (CYP)] are up-regulated after inflammation in the rat. However, it is not known whether such agonists are elevated in human inflammatory pain conditions. Because TRPV1 is expressed in human dental pulp nociceptors, we hypothesized that OLAM-CYP machinery is active in this tissue type and is increased under painful inflammatory conditions such as irreversible pulpitis (IP). The aim of this study was to compare CYP expression and linoleic acid (LA) metabolism in normal vs inflamed human dental pulp. Our data showed that exogenous LA metabolism was significantly increased in IP tissues compared to normal tissues and that pretreatment with a CYP inhibitor, ketoconazole, significantly inhibited LA metabolism. Additionally, extracts obtained from LA-treated inflamed tissues evoked significant inward currents in trigeminal ganglia neurons and were blocked by pretreatment with the TRPV1 antagonist IRTX. Moreover, extracts obtained from ketoconazole-pretreated inflamed tissues significantly reduced inward currents in trigeminal ganglia neurons. These data suggest that LA metabolites produced in human inflamed tissues act as TRPV1 agonists and that the metabolite production can be targeted by CYP inhibition. In addition, immunohistochemical analysis of 2 CYP isoforms, CYP2J and CYP3A1, were shown to be predominately expressed in immune cells infiltrating the inflamed dental pulp, emphasizing the paracrine role of CYP enzymes in OLAM regulation. Collectively, our data indicate that the machinery responsible for OLAM production is up-regulated during inflammation and can be targeted to develop potential analgesics for inflammatory-induced dental pain.

  14. Dental Assistants

    MedlinePlus

    ... the direction of a dentist . They may prepare materials for dental impressions or to create temporary crowns. All dental ... Nursing assistants, sometimes called nursing aides , help provide basic care for patients in hospitals and residents of ... more information about becoming a dental assistant and for a list of accredited dental ...

  15. Helium ion beam enhanced local etching of silicon nitride

    SciTech Connect

    Petrov, Yu. V. Sharov, T. V.; Baraban, A. P.

    2016-06-17

    We investigated the effect of the helium ion implantation on the etching rate of silicon nitride in hydrofluoric acid. Helium ions were implanted into 500-nm-thick silicon nitride film with energies from 15 keV to 35 keV. The ion fluence from 10{sup 14} cm{sup −2} to 10{sup 17} cm{sup −2} was used. All samples were investigated with a scanning electron microscope and atomic force microscope. The dependence of the etching rate on the concentration of ion-induced defects is obtained.

  16. Wet Chemical Etching Survey of III-Nitrides

    SciTech Connect

    Abernathy, C.R.; Cho, H.; Hays, D.C.; MacKenzie, J.D.; Pearton, S.J.; Ren, F.; Shul, R.J.; Vartuli, C.B.; Zolper, J.C.

    1999-02-04

    Wet chemical etching of GaN, InN, AlN, InAlN and InGaN was investigated in various acid and base solutions at temperatures up to 75 C. Only KOH-based solutions were found to etch AlN and InAlN. No etchants were found for the other nitrides, emphasizing their extreme lack of chemical reactivity. The native oxide on most of the nitrides could be removed in potassium tetraborate at 75 C, or HCl/H{sub 2}O at 25 C.

  17. Effect of Zirconia Dental Implant Surfaces on Bone Integration: A Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis

    PubMed Central

    2017-01-01

    Background. The information available about osseointegration and the bone to implant interaction of zirconia implants with various surface modifications is still far from sufficient. Objective. The purpose of this systematic review and meta-analysis was to evaluate and compare zirconia dental implants with different surface topographies, with a focus on bone to implant contact and removal torque. Methods. The systematic review of the extracted publications was performed to compare the bone to implant contact (BIC) with removal torque (RT) values of titanium dental implants and machined and surfaced modified zirconia implants. Results. A total of fifteen articles on BIC and RT values were included in the quantitative analysis. No significant difference in the BIC values was observed between titanium and machined zirconia implants (p = 0.373; 95% CI: −0.166 to 0.443). However, a significantly better BIC values were observed for acid etched zirconia implants compared with those of titanium implants (p = 0.032; 95% CI: 0.068 to 1.461). Unmodified zirconia implants showed favorable BIC values compared to modified-surface zirconia implants (p = 0.021; 95% CI: −0.973 to −0.080). Conclusion. Acid etched zirconia implants may serve as a possible substitute for successful osseointegration. PMID:28299337

  18. Effect of Zirconia Dental Implant Surfaces on Bone Integration: A Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis.

    PubMed

    Hafezeqoran, Ali; Koodaryan, Roodabeh

    2017-01-01

    Background. The information available about osseointegration and the bone to implant interaction of zirconia implants with various surface modifications is still far from sufficient. Objective. The purpose of this systematic review and meta-analysis was to evaluate and compare zirconia dental implants with different surface topographies, with a focus on bone to implant contact and removal torque. Methods. The systematic review of the extracted publications was performed to compare the bone to implant contact (BIC) with removal torque (RT) values of titanium dental implants and machined and surfaced modified zirconia implants. Results. A total of fifteen articles on BIC and RT values were included in the quantitative analysis. No significant difference in the BIC values was observed between titanium and machined zirconia implants (p = 0.373; 95% CI: -0.166 to 0.443). However, a significantly better BIC values were observed for acid etched zirconia implants compared with those of titanium implants (p = 0.032; 95% CI: 0.068 to 1.461). Unmodified zirconia implants showed favorable BIC values compared to modified-surface zirconia implants (p = 0.021; 95% CI: -0.973 to -0.080). Conclusion. Acid etched zirconia implants may serve as a possible substitute for successful osseointegration.

  19. Regenerative Electroless Etching of Silicon.

    PubMed

    Kolasinski, Kurt W; Gimbar, Nathan J; Yu, Haibo; Aindow, Mark; Mäkilä, Ermei; Salonen, Jarno

    2017-01-09

    Regenerative electroless etching (ReEtching), described herein for the first time, is a method of producing nanostructured semiconductors in which an oxidant (Ox1 ) is used as a catalytic agent to facilitate the reaction between a semiconductor and a second oxidant (Ox2 ) that would be unreactive in the primary reaction. Ox2 is used to regenerate Ox1 , which is capable of initiating etching by injecting holes into the semiconductor valence band. Therefore, the extent of reaction is controlled by the amount of Ox2 added, and the rate of reaction is controlled by the injection rate of Ox2 . This general strategy is demonstrated specifically for the production of highly luminescent, nanocrystalline porous Si from the reaction of V2 O5 in HF(aq) as Ox1 and H2 O2 (aq) as Ox2 with Si powder and wafers.

  20. Lithium Niobate Reactive Ion Etching

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2000-07-01

    sputter method. The coated substrates were then patterned using a photolithographic mask with AZP 4620 photoresist. The NiCr layer was sputter etched to...create the NiCr RIE mask and the photoresist residual removed. Sputter etch was the chosen technology to pattern the NiCr for two main reasons; - An...2. Experimental Description 2.1 Preparation of Lithium Niobate Samples The LiNbO3 substrates were coated with a 3000 A layer of NiCr using the RF

  1. Detection of HEMA in self-etching adhesive systems with high performance liquid chromatography

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Panduric, V.; Tarle, Z.; Hameršak, Z.; Stipetić, I.; Matosevic, D.; Negovetić-Mandić, V.; Prskalo, K.

    2009-04-01

    One of the factors that can decrease hydrolytic stability of self-etching adhesive systems (SEAS) is 2-hydroxymethylmethacrylate (HEMA). Due to hydrolytic instability of acidic methacrylate monomers in SEAS, HEMA can be present even if the manufacturer did not include it in original composition. The aim of the study was to determine the presence of HEMA because of decomposition by hydrolysis of methacrylates during storage, resulting with loss of adhesion strength to hard dental tissues of the tooth crown. Three most commonly used SEAS were tested: AdheSE ONE, G-Bond and iBond under different storage conditions. High performance liquid chromatography analysis was performed on a Nucleosil C 18-100 5 μm (250 × 4.6 mm) column, Knauer K-501 pumps and Wellchrom DAD K-2700 detector at 215 nm. Data were collected and processed by EuroCrom 2000 HPLC software. Calibration curves were made related eluted peak area to known concentrations of HEMA (purchased from Fluka). The elution time for HEMA is 12.25 min at flow rate 1.0 ml/min. Obtained results indicate that no HEMA was present in AdheSE ONE because methacrylates are substituted with methacrylamides that seem to be more stable under acidic aqueous conditions. In all other adhesive systems HEMA was detected.

  2. Nanostructured porous silicon by laser assisted electrochemical etching

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, J.; Lu, C.; Hu, X. K.; Yang, Xiujuan; Loboda, A. V.; Lipson, R. H.

    2009-08-01

    Nanostructured porous silicon (pSi) was fabricated by combining electrochemical etching with 355 nm laser processing. pSi prepared in this way proves to be an excellent substrate for desorption/ionization on silicon (DIOS) mass spectrometry (MS). Surfaces prepared by electrochemical etching and laser irradiation exhibit strong quantum confinement as evidenced by the observation of a red shift in the Si Raman band at ~520-500 cm-1. The height of the nanostructured columns produced by electrochemical etching and laser processing is on the order of microns compared with tens of nanometers obtained without laser irradiation. The threshold for laser desorption and ionization of 12 mJ/cm2 using the pSi substrates prepared in this work is lower than that obtained for conventional matrix assisted laser desorption ionization (MALDI)-MS using a standard matrix compound such as [alpha]-cyano-4-hydroxycinnamic acid (CHCA; 30 mJ/cm2). Furthermore, the substrates prepared by etching and laser irradiation appear to resist laser damage better than those prepared by etching alone. These results enhance the capability of pSi for the detection of small molecular weight analytes by DIOS-MS.

  3. Association of dental enamel lead levels with risk factors for environmental exposure.

    PubMed

    Olympio, Kelly Polido Kaneshiro; Naozuka, Juliana; Oliveira, Pedro Vitoriano; Cardoso, Maria Regina Alves; Bechara, Etelvino José Henriques; Günther, Wanda Maria Risso

    2010-10-01

    To analyze household risk factors associated with high lead levels in surface dental enamel. A cross-sectional study was conducted with 160 Brazilian adolescents aged 1418 years living in poor neighborhoods in the city of Bauru, southeastern Brazil, from August to December 2008. Body lead concentrations were assessed in surface dental enamel acid-etch microbiopsies. Dental enamel lead levels were measured by graphite furnace atomic absorption spectrometry and phosphorus levels were measured by inductively coupled plasma optical emission spectrometry. The parents answered a questionnaire about their children's potential early (05 years old) exposure to well-known lead sources. Logistic regression was used to identify associations between dental enamel lead levels and each environmental risk factor studied. Social and familial covariables were included in the models. The results suggest that the adolescents studied were exposed to lead sources during their first years of life. Risk factors associated with high dental enamel lead levels were living in or close to a contaminated area (OR = 4.49; 95% CI: 1.69;11.97); and member of the household worked in the manufacturing of paints, paint pigments, ceramics or batteries (OR = 3.43; 95% CI: 1.31;9.00). Home-based use of lead-glazed ceramics, low-quality pirated toys, anticorrosive paint on gates and/or sale of used car batteries (OR = 1.31; 95% CI: 0.56;3.03) and smoking (OR = 1.66; 95% CI: 0.52;5.28) were not found to be associated with high dental enamel lead levels. Surface dental enamel can be used as a marker of past environmental exposure to lead and lead concentrations detected are associated to well-known sources of lead contamination.

  4. Drugs that promote dental caries.

    PubMed

    2015-02-01

    Dental caries result from erosion of tooth enamel or cementum by acidic substances produced by bacteria found in dental plaque. Caries can lead to pulp necrosis and tooth loss. Risk factors include certain dietary habits, poor oral hygiene, and dry mouth. Diabetes and Sjogren's syndrome can also promote dental caries. Psychotropic substances such as cocaine, methamphetamine, heroin and cannabis can promote dental caries. Many medicinal drugs facilitate the formation of dental caries, through various mechanisms; they include formulations with a high sugar content; drugs that cause dry mouth (especially antimuscarinics); drugs that lower the buccal pH (inhaled powders, etc.); and drugs that cause demineralisation (tetracyclines, etc.). In practice, patients (and parents) should be informed that some drugs can increase the risk of dental caries. They should be encouraged to adapt and reinforce dental hygiene, and advised to visit a dentist regularly.

  5. Design of new phosphonic acid monomers for dental adhesives--synthesis of (meth) acryloxyalkyl 3-phosphonopropionates and evaluation of their adhesion-promoting functions.

    PubMed

    Ikemura, Kunio; Tay, Franklin R; Nishiyama, Nonrihiro; Pashley, David H; Endo, Takeshi

    2006-09-01

    The aims of this study were to synthesize new phosphonic acid monomers, and to examine their bonding performance. Four kinds of newly designed phosphonic acid monomers were synthesized, and seven experimental composite-type adhesive resins comprising the synthesized monomers (3 wt%), with BPO/DEPT/BPBA initiator were prepared. Tensile bond strengths of the adhesive resins to enamel and metal were measured with a universal testing machine at a crosshead speed of 1.0 mm/ min. The synthesized adhesive monomers were light yellow viscous liquids with 32.5%-49.3% yields, and identified by 1H NMR, IR and elemental analysis to be (meth)acryloxyalkyl 3-phosphonopropionates [R-P(=O) (OH)2] (5-MPPP, 6-MHPP, 6-AHPP, 10-MDPP). It was found that the newly developed phosphonic acid monomers with BPO/DEPT/BPBA initiator attained strong adhesion to both unetched, ground enamel and sandblasted Ni-Cr alloy with good durability. They exhibited significantly higher bond strengths than conventional phosphorous-containing monomers such as MEPP and VBPA (p <0.01). These findings indicate that the experimental phosphonic acid monomer-containing adhesive resins have potential prosthodontic and orthodontic applications, especially as self-etching, non-rinsing orthodontic adhesive resins.

  6. Saliva and dental erosion

    PubMed Central

    BUZALAF, Marília Afonso Rabelo; HANNAS, Angélicas Reis; KATO, Melissa Thiemi

    2012-01-01

    Dental erosion is a multifactorial condition. The consideration of chemical, biological and behavioral factors is fundamental for its prevention and therapy. Among the biological factors, saliva is one of the most important parameters in the protection against erosive wear. Objective This review discusses the role of salivary factors on the development of dental erosion. Material and Methods A search was undertaken on MEDLINE website for papers from 1969 to 2010. The keywords used in the research were "saliva", "acquired pellicle", "salivary flow", "salivary buffering capacity" and "dental erosion". Inclusion of studies, data extraction and quality assessment were undertaken independently and in duplicate by two members of the review team. Disagreements were solved by discussion and consensus or by a third party. Results Several characteristics and properties of saliva play an important role in dental erosion. Salivary clearance gradually eliminates the acids through swallowing and saliva presents buffering capacity causing neutralization and buffering of dietary acids. Salivary flow allows dilution of the acids. In addition, saliva is supersaturated with respect to tooth mineral, providing calcium, phosphate and fluoride necessary for remineralization after an erosive challenge. Furthermore, many proteins present in saliva and acquired pellicle play an important role in dental erosion. Conclusions Saliva is the most important biological factor affecting the progression of dental erosion. Knowledge of its components and properties involved in this protective role can drive the development of preventive measures targeting to enhance its known beneficial effects. PMID:23138733

  7. Modification of the Surface Topography and Composition of Ultrafine and Coarse Grained Titanium by Chemical Etching

    PubMed Central

    Nazarov, Denis V.; Zemtsova, Elena G.; Solokhin, Alexandr Yu.; Valiev, Ruslan Z.; Smirnov, Vladimir M.

    2017-01-01

    In this study, we present the detailed investigation of the influence of the etching medium (acidic or basic Piranha solutions) and the etching time on the morphology and surface relief of ultrafine grained (UFG) and coarse grained (CG) titanium. The surface relief and morphology have been studied by means of scanning electron microscopy (SEM), atomic force microscopy (AFM), and the spectral ellipsometry. The composition of the samples has been determined by X-ray fluorescence analysis (XRF) and X-ray Photoelectron Spectroscopy (XPS). Significant difference in the etching behavior of UFG and CG titanium has been found. UFG titanium exhibits higher etching activity independently of the etching medium. Formed structures possess higher homogeneity. The variation of the etching medium and time leads to micro-, nano-, or hierarchical micro/nanostructures on the surface. Significant difference has been found between surface composition for UFG titanium etched in basic and acidic Piranha solution. Based on the experimental data, the possible reasons and mechanisms are considered for the formation of nano- and microstructures. The prospects of etched UFG titanium as the material for implants are discussed. PMID:28336849

  8. Modification of the Surface Topography and Composition of Ultrafine and Coarse Grained Titanium by Chemical Etching.

    PubMed

    Nazarov, Denis V; Zemtsova, Elena G; Solokhin, Alexandr Yu; Valiev, Ruslan Z; Smirnov, Vladimir M

    2017-01-13