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Sample records for acid extractable organics

  1. Recovery of organic extractant from secondary emulsions formed in the extraction of uranium from wet-process phosphoric acid

    SciTech Connect

    Korchnak, J.D.; Fett, R.H.G.

    1984-01-03

    Uranium in wet-process phosphoric acid is extracted with an organic extractant. The pregnant extractant is then centrifuged to separate contaminants from the extractant. Secondary emulsions obtained by separating the contaminants following centrifugation are mixed with water or an acid leaching solution. After mixing, the mixture is centrifuged to separate and recover extractant which is recycled for stripping.

  2. Water-enhanced solubility of carboxylic acids in organic solvents and its applications to extraction processes

    SciTech Connect

    Starr, J.N.; King, C.J.

    1991-11-01

    The solubilities of carboxylic acids in certain organic solvents increase remarkably with an increasing amount of water in the organic phase. This phenomenon leads to a novel extract regeneration process in which the co-extracted water is selectively removed from an extract, and the carboxylic acid precipitates. This approach is potentially advantageous compared to other regeneration processes because it removes a minor component of the extract in order to achieve a large recovery of acid from the extract. Carboxylic acids of interest include adipic acid, fumaric acid, and succinic acid because of their low to moderate solubilities in organic solvents. Solvents were screened for an increase in acid solubility with increased water concentration in the organic phase. Most Lewis-base solvents were found to exhibit this increased solubility phenomena. Solvents that have a carbonyl functional group showed a very large increase in acid solubility. 71 refs., 52 figs., 38 tabs.

  3. Potential for in situ chemical oxidation of acid extractable organics in oil sands process affected groundwater.

    PubMed

    Sohrabi, V; Ross, M S; Martin, J W; Barker, J F

    2013-11-01

    The process of bitumen extraction from oil sands in Alberta, Canada leads to an accumulation of toxic acid-extractable organics (AEOs) in oil sands process water (OSPW). Infiltration of OSPW from tailings ponds and from their retaining sand dykes and subsequent transport towards surface water has occurred. Given the apparent lack of significant natural attenuation of AEOs in groundwater, remediation may be required. This laboratory study evaluates the potential use of unactivated persulfate and permanganate as in situ oxidation agents for remediation of AEOs in groundwater. Naphthenic acids (NAs; CnH2n+zO2), which are a component of the acutely toxic AEOs, were degraded by both oxidants in OSPW samples. Permanganate oxidation yielded some residual dissolved organic carbon (DOC) whereas persulfate mineralized the AEO compounds with less residual DOC. Acid-extractable organics from oxidized OSPW had essentially no Microtox toxicity.

  4. Water-enhanced solubility of carboxylic acids in organic solvents and its application to extraction processes

    SciTech Connect

    Starr, J.N. ); King, C.J. )

    1992-11-01

    This paper reports on solubilities of carboxylic acids in certain organic solvents which increase sharply as the concentration of water in the solvent increases. This phenomenon leads to a method of regeneration for solvent-extraction processes whereby coextracted water is selectively removed from the extract, such as by stripping, thereby precipitating the acid. The removal of a minor constituent to cause precipitation reduces energy consumption, in contrast with bulk removal of solvent. Solubilities of fumaric acid were measured in a number of organic solvents, with varying amounts of water in the organic phase. Cyclohexanone and methylcyclohexanone were chosen as solvents for which detailed solid-liquid and liquid-liquid equilibria were measured for adipic, fumaric, and succinic acids in the presence of varying concentrations of water, at both 25 and 45[degrees]C. Batch precipitation experiments were performed to demonstrate the processing concept and determine the relative volatility of water to solvent in the presence of carbon.

  5. Downstream extraction process development for recovery of organic acids from a fermentation broth.

    PubMed

    Bekatorou, Argyro; Dima, Agapi; Tsafrakidou, Panagiotia; Boura, Konstantina; Lappa, Katerina; Kandylis, Panagiotis; Pissaridi, Katerina; Kanellaki, Maria; Koutinas, Athanasios A

    2016-11-01

    The present study focused on organic acids (OAs) recovery from an acidogenic fermentation broth, which is the main problem regarding the use of OAs for production of ester-based new generation biofuels or other applications. Specifically, 10 solvents were evaluated for OAs recovery from aqueous media and fermentation broths. The effects of pH, solvent/OAs solution ratios and application of successive extractions were studied. The 1:1 solvent/OAs ratio showed the best recovery rates in most cases. Butyric and isobutyric acids showed the highest recovery rates (80-90%), while lactic, succinic, and acetic acids were poorly recovered (up to 45%). The OAs recovery was significantly improved by successive 10-min extractions. Alcohols presented the best extraction performance. The process using repeated extractions with 3-methyl-1-butanol led to the highest OAs recovery. However, 1-butanol can be considered as the most cost-effective option taking into account its price and availability. PMID:27560489

  6. Downstream extraction process development for recovery of organic acids from a fermentation broth.

    PubMed

    Bekatorou, Argyro; Dima, Agapi; Tsafrakidou, Panagiotia; Boura, Konstantina; Lappa, Katerina; Kandylis, Panagiotis; Pissaridi, Katerina; Kanellaki, Maria; Koutinas, Athanasios A

    2016-11-01

    The present study focused on organic acids (OAs) recovery from an acidogenic fermentation broth, which is the main problem regarding the use of OAs for production of ester-based new generation biofuels or other applications. Specifically, 10 solvents were evaluated for OAs recovery from aqueous media and fermentation broths. The effects of pH, solvent/OAs solution ratios and application of successive extractions were studied. The 1:1 solvent/OAs ratio showed the best recovery rates in most cases. Butyric and isobutyric acids showed the highest recovery rates (80-90%), while lactic, succinic, and acetic acids were poorly recovered (up to 45%). The OAs recovery was significantly improved by successive 10-min extractions. Alcohols presented the best extraction performance. The process using repeated extractions with 3-methyl-1-butanol led to the highest OAs recovery. However, 1-butanol can be considered as the most cost-effective option taking into account its price and availability.

  7. Liquid-Liquid Extraction and Solid Phase Extraction for Urinary Organic Acids: A Comparative Study from a Resource Constraint Setting.

    PubMed

    Kumari, Chandrawati; Varughese, Bijo; Ramji, Siddarth; Kapoor, Seema

    2016-10-01

    Pre analytical process of extraction for accurate detection of organic acids is a crucial step in diagnosis of organic acidemias by GCMS analysis. This process is accomplished either by solid phase extraction (SPE) or by liquid-liquid extraction (LLE). Both extraction procedures are used in different metabolic laboratories all over the world. In this study we compared these two extraction procedures in respect of precision, accuracy, percent recovery of metabolites, number of metabolites isolated, time and cost in a resource constraint setup. We observed that the mean recovery from SPE was 84.1 % and by LLE it was 77.4 % (p value <0.05). Moreover, the average number of metabolites isolated by SPE and LLE was 161.8 ± 18.6 and 140.1 ± 20.4 respectively. The processing cost of LLE was economical. In a cost constraint setting using LLE may be the practical option if used for organic acid analysis. PMID:27605738

  8. [Rapid determination of eight organic acids in plant tissue by sequential extraction and high performance liquid chromatography].

    PubMed

    Huang, Tianzhi; Wang, Shijie; Liu Xiuming; Liu, Hong; Wu, Yanyou; Luo Xuqiang

    2014-12-01

    A sequential extraction method was developed to determine different forms of oxalate and seven oxalate-metabolism-related organic acids (glyoxylic acid, tartaric acid, glycolic acid, malic acid, acetic acid, citric acid, succinic acid) in plant tissue. The ultra-pure water was used as the extraction medium to obtain water-soluble oxalic acid and the other seven water-soluble organic acids. After the extraction of the water-soluble organic acids, the residues were extracted by dilute hydrochloric acid successively to get the acid-soluble oxalate which entered the liquid phase. A Hypersil ODS column was used with 5 mmol/L potassium dihydrogen phosphate buffer solution (pH 2. 8) as the mobile phase. The diode array detector was set at 210 nm and the column temperature at 30 °C with the injection volume of 5 µL. The flow rate was controlled at different times which allowed a good and rapid separation of the organic acids and hydrochloric acid. Under these conditions, the linear ranges of the method were 1-2000 mg/L for oxalic acid, 25-2,000 mg/L for acetic acid, and 10-2,000 mg/L for glyoxylic acid, tartaric acid, glycolic acid, malic acid, citric acid and succinic acid, with the correlation coefficients of the eight organic acids ≥ 0. 9996. The average recoveries of the eight organic acids in leaves and roots were 93. 5%-104. 4% and 85. 3%-105. 4% with RSDs of 0. 15% -2.43% and 0. 31%-2. 9% (n=7), respectively. The limits of detection ranged from 1 to 10 ng (S/N=3). The results indicated that the method is accurate, rapid and reproducible for the determination of organic acids in plant samples.

  9. Effects of organic phase, fermentation media, and operating conditions on lactic Acid extraction.

    PubMed

    Hossain, Md Monwar; Maisuria, J L

    2008-01-01

    Lactic acid has extensive uses in the food, pharmaceutical, cosmetic and chemical industry. Lately, its use in producing biodegradable polymeric materials (polylactate) makes the production of lactic acid from fermentation broths very important. The major part of the production cost accounts for the cost of separation from very dilute reaction media where productivity is low as a result of the inhibitory nature of lactic acid. The current method of extraction/separation is both expensive and unsustainable. Therefore, there is great scope for development of alternative technology that will offer efficiency, economic, and environmental benefits. One of the promising technologies for recovery of lactic acid from fermentation broth is reactive liquid-liquid extraction. In this paper the extraction and recovery of lactic acid based on reactive processes is examined and the performance of a hydrophobic microporous hollow-fiber membrane module (HFMM) is evaluated. First, equilibrium experiments were conducted using organic solutions consisting of Aliquat 336/trioctylamine (as a carrier) and tri-butyl phosphate (TBP)/sunflower oil (as a solvent) The values of the distribution coefficient were obtained as a function of feed pH, composition of the organic phase (ratio of carrier to solvent), and temperature (range 8-40 degrees C). The optimum extraction was obtained with the organic phase consisting of a mixture of 15 wt % tri-octylamine (TOA) and 15% Aliquat 336 and 70% solvent. The organic phase with TBP performed best but is less suitable because of its damaging properties (toxicity and environmental impact) and cost. Sunflower oil, which performed moderately, can be regarded as a better option as it has many desirable characteristics (nontoxic, environment- and operator-friendly) and it costs much less. The percentage extraction was approximately 33% at pH 6 and at room temperature (can be enhanced by operating at higher temperatures) at a feed flow rate of 15-20 L

  10. Solvent extraction of organic acids from stillage for its re-use in ethanol production process.

    PubMed

    Castro, G A; Caicedo, L A; Alméciga-Díaz, C J; Sanchez, O F

    2010-06-01

    Stillage re-use in the fermentation stage in ethanol production is a technique used for the reduction of water and fermentation nutrients consumption. However, the inhibitory effect on yeast growth of the by-products and feed components that remains in stillage increases with re-use and reduces the number of possible recycles. Several methods such as ultrafiltration, electrodialysis and advanced oxidation processes have been used in stillage treatment prior its re-use in the fermentation stage. Nevertheless, few studies evaluating the effect of solvent extraction as a stillage treatment option have been performed. In this work, the inhibitory effect of serial stillage recycling over ethanol and biomass production was determined, using acetic acid as a monitoring compound during the fermentation and solvent extraction process. Raw palm oil methyl ester showed the highest acetic acid extraction from the aqueous phase, presenting a distribution coefficient of 3.10 for a 1:1 aqueous phase mixture:solvent ratio. Re-using stillage without treatment allowed up to three recycles with an ethanol production of 53.7 +/- 2.0 g L(-1), which was reduced 25% in the fifth recycle. Alternatively, treated stillage allowed up to five recycles with an ethanol final concentration of 54.7 +/- 1.3 g L(- 1). These results show that reduction of acetic acid concentration by an extraction process with raw palm oil methyl ester before re-using stillage improves the number of recycles without a major effect on ethanol production. The proposed process generates a palm oil methyl ester that contains organic acids, among other by-products, that could be used for product recovery and as an alternative fuel.

  11. Investigating organic molecules responsible of auxin-like activity of humic acid fraction extracted from vermicompost.

    PubMed

    Scaglia, Barbara; Nunes, Ramom Rachide; Rezende, Maria Olímpia Oliveira; Tambone, Fulvia; Adani, Fabrizio

    2016-08-15

    This work studied the auxin-like activity of humic acids (HA) obtained from vermicomposts produced using leather wastes plus cattle dung at different maturation stages (fresh, stable and mature). Bioassays were performed by testing HA concentrations in the range of 100-6000mgcarbonL(-1). (13)C CPMAS-NMR and GC-MS instrumental methods were used to assess the effect of biological processes and starting organic mixtures on HA composition. Not all HAs showed IAA-like activity and in general, IAA-like activity increased with the length of the vermicomposting process. The presence of leather wastes was not necessary to produce the auxin-like activity of HA, since HA extracted from a mix of cattle manure and sawdust, where no leather waste was added, showed IAA-like activity as well. CPMAS (13)CNMR revealed that HAs were similar independently of the mix used and that the humification process involved the increasing concentration of pre-existing alkali soluble fractions in the biomass. GC/MS allowed the identification of the molecules involved in IAA-like effects: carboxylic acids and amino acids. The concentration of active molecules, rather than their simple presence in HA, determined the bio-stimulating effect, and a good linear regression between auxin-like activity and active stimulating molecules concentration was found (R(2)=-0.85; p<0.01, n=6). PMID:27100009

  12. Investigating organic molecules responsible of auxin-like activity of humic acid fraction extracted from vermicompost.

    PubMed

    Scaglia, Barbara; Nunes, Ramom Rachide; Rezende, Maria Olímpia Oliveira; Tambone, Fulvia; Adani, Fabrizio

    2016-08-15

    This work studied the auxin-like activity of humic acids (HA) obtained from vermicomposts produced using leather wastes plus cattle dung at different maturation stages (fresh, stable and mature). Bioassays were performed by testing HA concentrations in the range of 100-6000mgcarbonL(-1). (13)C CPMAS-NMR and GC-MS instrumental methods were used to assess the effect of biological processes and starting organic mixtures on HA composition. Not all HAs showed IAA-like activity and in general, IAA-like activity increased with the length of the vermicomposting process. The presence of leather wastes was not necessary to produce the auxin-like activity of HA, since HA extracted from a mix of cattle manure and sawdust, where no leather waste was added, showed IAA-like activity as well. CPMAS (13)CNMR revealed that HAs were similar independently of the mix used and that the humification process involved the increasing concentration of pre-existing alkali soluble fractions in the biomass. GC/MS allowed the identification of the molecules involved in IAA-like effects: carboxylic acids and amino acids. The concentration of active molecules, rather than their simple presence in HA, determined the bio-stimulating effect, and a good linear regression between auxin-like activity and active stimulating molecules concentration was found (R(2)=-0.85; p<0.01, n=6).

  13. Extraction of carboxylic acids by amine extractants

    SciTech Connect

    Tamada, Janet Ayako; King, C.J.

    1989-01-01

    This work examines the chemistry of solvent extraction by long-chain amines for recovery of carboxylic acids from dilute aqueous solution. Long-chain amines act as complexing agents with the acid, which facilitates distribution of the acid into the organic phase. The complexation is reversible, allowing for recovery of the acid from the organic phase and regeneration of the extractant. Batch extraction experiments were performed to study the complexation of acetic, lactic, succinic, malonic, fumaric, and maleic acids with Alamine 336, an aliphatic, tertiary amine extractant, dissolved in various diluents. Results were interpreted by a ''chemical'' model, in which stoichiometric ratios of acid and amine molecules are assumed to form complexes in the solvent phase. From fitting of the extraction data, the stoichiometry of complexes formed and the corresponding equilibrium constants were obtained. The results of the model were combined with infrared spectroscopic experiments and results of past studies to analyze the chemical interactions that are responsible for extraction behavior. The information from the equilibrium studies was used to develop guidelines for large-scale staged extraction and regeneration schemes. A novel scheme, in which the diluent composition is shifted between extraction and regeneration, was developed which could achieve both high solute recovery and high product concentration. 169 refs., 57 figs., 15 tabs.

  14. Extraction of soil organic phosphorus.

    PubMed

    Turner, Benjamin L; Cade-Menun, Barbara J; Condron, Leo M; Newman, Susan

    2005-04-15

    Organic phosphorus is an important component of soil biogeochemical cycles, but must be extracted from soil prior to analysis. Here we critically review the extraction of soil organic phosphorus, including procedures for quantification, speciation, and assessment of biological availability. Quantitative extraction conventionally requires strong acids and bases, which inevitably alter chemical structure. However, a single-step procedure involving sodium hydroxide and EDTA (ethylenediaminetetraacetate) is suitable for most soils and facilitates subsequent speciation by nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy. Analysis of extracts by molybdate colorimetry is a potential source of error in all procedures, because organic phosphorus is overestimated in the presence of inorganic polyphosphates or complexes between inorganic phosphate and humic substances. Sequential extraction schemes fractionate organic phosphorus based on chemical solubility, but the link to potential bioavailability is misleading. Research should be directed urgently towards establishing extractable pools of soil organic phosphorus with ecological relevance.

  15. Extraction of medium chain fatty acids from organic municipal waste and subsequent production of bio-based fuels.

    PubMed

    Kannengiesser, Jan; Sakaguchi-Söder, Kaori; Mrukwia, Timo; Jager, Johannes; Schebek, Liselotte

    2016-01-01

    This paper provides an overview on investigations for a new technology to generate bio-based fuel additives from bio-waste. The investigations are taking place at the composting plant in Darmstadt-Kranichstein (Germany). The aim is to explore the potential of bio-waste as feedstock in producing different bio-based products (or bio-based fuels). For this investigation, a facultative anaerobic process is to be integrated into the normal aerobic waste treatment process for composting. The bio-waste is to be treated in four steps to produce biofuels. The first step is the facultative anaerobic treatment of the waste in a rotting box namely percolate to generate a fatty-acid rich liquid fraction. The Hydrolysis takes place in the rotting box during the waste treatment. The organic compounds are then dissolved and transferred into the waste liquid phase. Browne et al. (2013) describes the hydrolysis as an enzymatically degradation of high solid substrates to soluble products which are further degraded to volatile fatty acids (VFA). This is confirmed by analytical tests done on the liquid fraction. After the percolation, volatile and medium chain fatty acids are found in the liquid phase. Concentrations of fatty acids between 8.0 and 31.5 were detected depending on the nature of the input material. In the second step, a fermentation process will be initiated to produce additional fatty acids. Existing microorganism mass is activated to degrade the organic components that are still remaining in the percolate. After fermentation the quantity of fatty acids in four investigated reactors increased 3-5 times. While fermentation mainly non-polar fatty acids (pentanoic to octanoic acid) are build. Next to the fermentation process, a chain-elongation step is arranged by adding ethanol to the fatty acid rich percolate. While these investigations a chain-elongation of mainly fatty acids with pair numbers of carbon atoms (acetate, butanoic and hexanoic acid) are demonstrated. After

  16. Extraction of medium chain fatty acids from organic municipal waste and subsequent production of bio-based fuels.

    PubMed

    Kannengiesser, Jan; Sakaguchi-Söder, Kaori; Mrukwia, Timo; Jager, Johannes; Schebek, Liselotte

    2016-01-01

    This paper provides an overview on investigations for a new technology to generate bio-based fuel additives from bio-waste. The investigations are taking place at the composting plant in Darmstadt-Kranichstein (Germany). The aim is to explore the potential of bio-waste as feedstock in producing different bio-based products (or bio-based fuels). For this investigation, a facultative anaerobic process is to be integrated into the normal aerobic waste treatment process for composting. The bio-waste is to be treated in four steps to produce biofuels. The first step is the facultative anaerobic treatment of the waste in a rotting box namely percolate to generate a fatty-acid rich liquid fraction. The Hydrolysis takes place in the rotting box during the waste treatment. The organic compounds are then dissolved and transferred into the waste liquid phase. Browne et al. (2013) describes the hydrolysis as an enzymatically degradation of high solid substrates to soluble products which are further degraded to volatile fatty acids (VFA). This is confirmed by analytical tests done on the liquid fraction. After the percolation, volatile and medium chain fatty acids are found in the liquid phase. Concentrations of fatty acids between 8.0 and 31.5 were detected depending on the nature of the input material. In the second step, a fermentation process will be initiated to produce additional fatty acids. Existing microorganism mass is activated to degrade the organic components that are still remaining in the percolate. After fermentation the quantity of fatty acids in four investigated reactors increased 3-5 times. While fermentation mainly non-polar fatty acids (pentanoic to octanoic acid) are build. Next to the fermentation process, a chain-elongation step is arranged by adding ethanol to the fatty acid rich percolate. While these investigations a chain-elongation of mainly fatty acids with pair numbers of carbon atoms (acetate, butanoic and hexanoic acid) are demonstrated. After

  17. Recovery of organic acids

    DOEpatents

    Verser, Dan W.; Eggeman, Timothy J.

    2011-11-01

    A method is disclosed for the recovery of an organic acid from a dilute salt solution in which the cation of the salt forms an insoluble carbonate salt. A tertiary amine and CO.sub.2 are introduced to the solution to form the insoluble carbonate salt and a complex between the acid and an amine. A water immiscible solvent, such as an alcohol, is added to extract the acid/amine complex from the dilute salt solution to a reaction phase. The reaction phase is continuously dried and a product between the acid and the solvent, such as an ester, is formed.

  18. Recovery of organic acids

    DOEpatents

    Verser, Dan W.; Eggeman, Timothy J.

    2009-10-13

    A method is disclosed for the recovery of an organic acid from a dilute salt solution in which the cation of the salt forms an insoluble carbonate salt. A tertiary amine and CO.sub.2 are introduced to the solution to form the insoluble carbonate salt and a complex between the acid and an amine. A water immiscible solvent, such as an alcohol, is added to extract the acid/amine complex from the dilute salt solution to a reaction phase. The reaction phase is continuously dried and a product between the acid and the solvent, such as an ester, is formed.

  19. Rapid separation and analysis of six organic acids in Bayer liquors by RP-HPLC after solid-phase extraction.

    PubMed

    Xiao, Jian Bo; Chen, Xiao Qing; Jiang, Xin Yu; Wu, Sheng De

    2006-01-01

    A rapid revised phase high-performance liquid chromatographic (RP-HPLC) method for the determination of six organic acids in Bayer liquors is reported. Oxalic, tartaric, acetic, succinic, glutaric and butene dicarboxylic acid were separated and quantified in 10 min. First time repeatability, reproducibility and recoveries were determined out for these acids in Bayer liquors. The organic acids were removed from Bayer liquor by using a solid-phase extraction procedure with anion-exchange cartridges. The chromatographic separation was achieved with only one Kromasil RP-C18 column thermo stated at 25 degrees C. Organic acids were detected with a UV-vis detector (215 nm). The precision results showed that the relative standard deviations of the repeatability and reproducibility were < 2.80% and < 3.74%, respectively. The accuracy of the method was confirmed with an average recovery ranging between 85.2 and 107.3%. Under optimum conditions the detection limits ranged from 50 to 1000 mg/L.

  20. Water-induced coacervation of alkyl carboxylic acid reverse micelles: phenomenon description and potential for the extraction of organic compounds.

    PubMed

    Ruiz, Francisco-Javier; Rubio, Soledad; Pérez-Bendito, Dolores

    2007-10-01

    Coacervates made up of alkanoic (C8-C16) and alkenoic (C18) acid reverse micelles were described for the first time, and their potential for the extraction of organic compounds prior to liquid chromatography was examined. The coacervation process occurred in miscible binary mixtures of water and a variety of protic and aprotic solvents. The phase behavior of alkyl carboxylic acids was found to be a function of both the Hildebrand solubility parameter, delta, and the hydrogen-bonding capability of the solvent. The best solvents for analytical extractions were those featuring the lowest delta values. The phase behavior of alkyl carboxylic acid/water/tetrahydrofuran (THF) ternary systems as a function of component concentration, pH, ionic strength, and temperature was investigated. The efficiency and the time required for phase separation depended on the experimental procedure used (i.e., standing, centrifugation, stirring, and sonication). The formation of alkyl carboxylic acid reverse micelles in THF was proven using both hydrophilic fluorescent probes and scattered light measurements. The structure of the coacervates consisted of spherical droplets dispersed in a continuous phase. Phase volume ratios were a function of both alkyl carboxylic acid and THF concentration. The low volume obtained (e.g., 1.5 microL per mg of decanoic) compared to that obtained by other coacervates (e.g., 5.1 microL per mg of dodecane sulfonic acid and 11.3 microL per mg of Triton X-114) greatly improved the concentration factors reached by coacervation-based extractions. Parameters affecting the extraction efficiency were assessed. Analytes in a wide range of polarity were efficiently extracted on the basis of the hydrophobic (e.g., PAHs) and hydrogen bond (e.g., chlorophenols, bisphenols, pesticides, phthalates, nonionic surfactants, dyes, and photographic developers) interactions that reverse micelles can establish. The coacervates were compatible with the chromatographic determination

  1. A novel anaerobic two-phase system for biohydrogen production and in situ extraction of organic acid byproducts.

    PubMed

    Sarma, Saurabh Jyoti; Brar, Satinder Kaur; Le Bihan, Yann; Buelna, Gerardo

    2015-06-01

    Owing to CO2-free emission, hydrogen is considered as a potential green alternative of fossil fuels. Water is the major emission of hydrogen combustion process and gravimetric energy density of hydrogen is nearly three times more than that of gasoline and diesel fuel. Biological hydrogen production, therefore, has commercial significance; especially, when it is produced from low-cost industrial waste-based feedstock. Light independent anaerobic fermentation is simple and mostly studied method of biohydrogen production. During hydrogen production by this method, a range of organic acid byproducts are produced. Accumulation of these byproducts is inhibitory for hydrogen production as it may result in process termination due to sharp decrease in medium pH or by possible metabolic shift. For the first time, therefore, a two-phase anaerobic bioreactor system has been reported for biohydrogen production which involves in situ extraction of different organic acids. Among different solvents, based on biocompatibility oleyl alcohol has been chosen as the organic phase of the two-phase system. An organic:aqueous phase ratio of 1:50 has been found to be optimum for hydrogen production. The strategy was capable of increasing the hydrogen production from 1.48 to 11.65 mmol/L-medium. PMID:25575763

  2. A novel anaerobic two-phase system for biohydrogen production and in situ extraction of organic acid byproducts.

    PubMed

    Sarma, Saurabh Jyoti; Brar, Satinder Kaur; Le Bihan, Yann; Buelna, Gerardo

    2015-06-01

    Owing to CO2-free emission, hydrogen is considered as a potential green alternative of fossil fuels. Water is the major emission of hydrogen combustion process and gravimetric energy density of hydrogen is nearly three times more than that of gasoline and diesel fuel. Biological hydrogen production, therefore, has commercial significance; especially, when it is produced from low-cost industrial waste-based feedstock. Light independent anaerobic fermentation is simple and mostly studied method of biohydrogen production. During hydrogen production by this method, a range of organic acid byproducts are produced. Accumulation of these byproducts is inhibitory for hydrogen production as it may result in process termination due to sharp decrease in medium pH or by possible metabolic shift. For the first time, therefore, a two-phase anaerobic bioreactor system has been reported for biohydrogen production which involves in situ extraction of different organic acids. Among different solvents, based on biocompatibility oleyl alcohol has been chosen as the organic phase of the two-phase system. An organic:aqueous phase ratio of 1:50 has been found to be optimum for hydrogen production. The strategy was capable of increasing the hydrogen production from 1.48 to 11.65 mmol/L-medium.

  3. PROCESS FOR UTILIZING ORGANIC ORTHOPHOSPHATE EXTRACTANTS

    DOEpatents

    Grinstead, R.R.

    1958-11-11

    A process is presented for recovering uranium from its ores, the steps comprising producing the uranium in solution in the trivalent state, extracting the uranium from solution in an lmmiscible organic solvent extract phase which lncludes mono and dialkyl orthophosphorlc acid esters having a varying number of carbon atoms on the alkyl substituent, amd recovering the uranium from tbe extract phase.

  4. Assessing spatial and temporal variability of acid-extractable organics in oil sands process-affected waters.

    PubMed

    Frank, Richard A; Milestone, Craig B; Rowland, Steve J; Headley, John V; Kavanagh, Richard J; Lengger, Sabine K; Scarlett, Alan G; West, Charles E; Peru, Kerry M; Hewitt, L Mark

    2016-10-01

    The acid-extractable organic compounds (AEOs), including naphthenic acids (NAs), present within oil sands process-affected water (OSPW) receive great attention due to their known toxicity. While recent progress in advanced separation and analytical methodologies for AEOs has improved our understanding of the composition of these mixtures, little is known regarding any variability (i.e., spatial, temporal) inherent within, or between, tailings ponds. In this study, 5 samples were collected from the same location of one tailings pond over a 2-week period. In addition, 5 samples were collected simultaneously from different locations within a tailings pond from a different mine site, as well as its associated recycling pond. In both cases, the AEOs were analyzed using SFS, ESI-MS, HRMS, GC×GC-ToF/MS, and GC- & LC-QToF/MS (GC analyses following conversion to methyl esters). Principal component analysis of HRMS data was able to distinguish the ponds from each other, while data from GC×GC-ToF/MS, and LC- and GC-QToF/MS were used to differentiate samples from within the temporal and spatial sample sets, with the greater variability associated with the latter. Spatial differences could be attributed to pond dynamics, including differences in inputs of tailings and surface run-off. Application of novel chemometric data analyses of unknown compounds detected by LC- and GC-QToF/MS allowed further differentiation of samples both within and between data sets, providing an innovative approach for future fingerprinting studies.

  5. Assessing spatial and temporal variability of acid-extractable organics in oil sands process-affected waters.

    PubMed

    Frank, Richard A; Milestone, Craig B; Rowland, Steve J; Headley, John V; Kavanagh, Richard J; Lengger, Sabine K; Scarlett, Alan G; West, Charles E; Peru, Kerry M; Hewitt, L Mark

    2016-10-01

    The acid-extractable organic compounds (AEOs), including naphthenic acids (NAs), present within oil sands process-affected water (OSPW) receive great attention due to their known toxicity. While recent progress in advanced separation and analytical methodologies for AEOs has improved our understanding of the composition of these mixtures, little is known regarding any variability (i.e., spatial, temporal) inherent within, or between, tailings ponds. In this study, 5 samples were collected from the same location of one tailings pond over a 2-week period. In addition, 5 samples were collected simultaneously from different locations within a tailings pond from a different mine site, as well as its associated recycling pond. In both cases, the AEOs were analyzed using SFS, ESI-MS, HRMS, GC×GC-ToF/MS, and GC- & LC-QToF/MS (GC analyses following conversion to methyl esters). Principal component analysis of HRMS data was able to distinguish the ponds from each other, while data from GC×GC-ToF/MS, and LC- and GC-QToF/MS were used to differentiate samples from within the temporal and spatial sample sets, with the greater variability associated with the latter. Spatial differences could be attributed to pond dynamics, including differences in inputs of tailings and surface run-off. Application of novel chemometric data analyses of unknown compounds detected by LC- and GC-QToF/MS allowed further differentiation of samples both within and between data sets, providing an innovative approach for future fingerprinting studies. PMID:27391053

  6. Extractive fermentation of acetic acid

    SciTech Connect

    Busche, R.M.

    1991-12-31

    In this technoeconomic evaluation of the manufacture of acetic acid by fermentation, the use of the bacterium: Acetobacter suboxydans from the old vinegar process was compared with expected performance of the newer Clostridium thermoaceticum bacterium. Both systems were projected to operate as immobilized cells in a continuous, fluidized bed bioreactor, using solvent extraction to recover the product. Acetobacter metabolizes ethanol aerobically to produce acid at 100 g/L in a low pH medium. This ensures that the product is in the form of a concentrated extractable free acid, rather than as an unextractable salt. Unfortunately, yields from glucose by way of the ethanol fermentation are poor, but near the biological limits of the organisms involved. Conversely, C. thermoaceticum is a thermophilic anaerobe that operates at high fermentation rates on glucose at neutral pH to produce acetate salts directly in substantially quantitative yields. However, it is severely inhibited by product, which restricts concentration to a dilute 20 g/L. An improved Acetobacter system operating with recycled cells at 50 g/L appears capable of producing acid at $0.38/lb, as compared with a $0.29/lb price for synthetic acid. However, this system has only a limited margin for process improvement. The present Clostridium system cannot compete, since the required selling price would be $0.42/lb. However, if the organism could be adapted to tolerate higher product concentrations at acid pH, selling price could be reduced to $0.22/lb, or about 80% of the price of synthetic acid.

  7. Preparation of a nitro-substituted tris(indolyl)methane modified silica in deep eutectic solvents for solid-phase extraction of organic acids.

    PubMed

    Wang, Na; Wang, Jiamin; Liao, Yuan; Shao, Shijun

    2016-05-01

    A new sorbent for solid-phase extraction was synthesized by chemical immobilization of nitro-substituted tris(indolyl)methane on silica in new and green deep eutectic solvents. Elemental analysis results indicated that deep eutectic solvents could be an alternative to the traditional solvents in preparing nitro-substituted tris(indolyl)methane modified silica. Coupled with high performance liquid chromatography, the extraction performance of the sorbent was evaluated by using four organic acids as model analytes. The rebinding experiments results showed that the nitro-substituted tris(indolyl)methane modified silica sorbent had a good adsorption capacity towards the selected organic acids. Under the appropriate experimental conditions, good precision and wide linear ranges with coefficient of determination (R(2)) of higher than 0.9957 were obtained, and the limits of detection were in the range of 0.50-2.0μgL(-1) for the organic acids tested. The developed solid-phase extraction-high performance liquid chromatography-diode array detection (SPE-HPLC-DAD) method was successfully applied for the determination of organic acids in two drinking samples with recoveries ranging from 76.7% to 110.0% and 67.7% to 104.0% for all the selected organic acids, respectively.

  8. Sensitive determination of organic acid preservatives in juices and soft drinks treated by monolith-based stir cake sorptive extraction and liquid chromatography analysis.

    PubMed

    Lin, Fuhua; Nong, Shuyu; Huang, Xiaojia; Yuan, Dongxing

    2013-02-01

    A simple, efficient, and sensitive method for simultaneous determination of sorbic acid (SA), benzoic acid (BA), and cinnamic acid (CA) in juices and soft drinks was developed by stir cake sorptive extraction (SCSE) coupling to high-performance liquid chromatography with diode array detection. The SCSE based on polymeric ionic liquid-based monolith (PILM) as extractive medium was used to concentrate these three organic acid preservatives. Because hydrophobic and ion-exchange interactions co-contributed to the extraction, the PILM-SCSE exhibited a high extractive capability towards analytes. To obtain optimum extraction performance, several SCSE parameters were investigated and discussed, including desorption solvent, pH value, ionic strength in the sample matrix, and the extraction and desorption time. Under the optimized extraction conditions, limits of detection of 0.16, 1.08, and 0.18 μg/L (S/N=3) and quantification limits of 0.52, 3.42, and 0.61 (S/N=10) were obtained for SA, BA, and CA, respectively. The method also showed good linearity and reproducibility, as well as advantages such as simplicity, low cost, and high feasibility. Finally, the proposed method was successfully applied to the determination of SA, BA, and CA in real juices and soft drinks, and the recoveries ranged from 63.0 to 107 %.

  9. Extraction chemistry of fermentation product carboxylic acid

    SciTech Connect

    Kertes, A.S.; King, C.J.

    1986-02-01

    Within the framework of a program aiming to improve the existing extractive recovery technology of fermentation products, the state of the art is critically reviewed. The acids under consideration are propionic, lactic, pyruvic, succinic, fumaric, maleic, malic, itaconic, tartaric, citric, and isocitric, all obtained by the aerobic fermentation of glucose via the glycolytic pathway and glyoxylate bypass. With no exception, it is the undissociated monomeric acid that is extracted into carbon-bonded and phosphorus-bonded oxygen donor extractants. In the organic phase, the acids are usually dimerized. The extractive transfer process obeys the Nernst law, and the measured partition coefficients range from about 0.003 for aliphatic hydrocarbons to about 2 to 3 for aliphatic alcohols and ketones to about 10 or more for organophosphates. Equally high distribution ratios are measured when long-chain tertiary amines are employed as extractants, forming bulky salts preferentially soluble in the organic phase. 123 references.

  10. Investigation of the impact of organic solvent type and solution pH on the extraction efficiency of naphthenic acids from oil sands process-affected water.

    PubMed

    Huang, Rongfu; McPhedran, Kerry N; Sun, Nian; Chelme-Ayala, Pamela; Gamal El-Din, Mohamed

    2016-03-01

    Naphthenic acids (NAs) from oil sand process-affected water (OSPW) were liquid-liquid extracted using six organic solvents (n-pentane, n-hexane, cyclohexane, dichloromethane, ethyl ether, and ethyl acetate) at three pHs (2.0, 8.5, and 12.0). The NAs exist in ionic (ions) and non-ionic (molecules) forms in the water phase depending on their dissociation constants and the solution pH. Results showed the extractability of NA molecules depends on the solvent polarity and the extractability of NA ions on the water solubility in solvent. The organic solvent type and solution pH were found to not only impact the extracted amounts of each NA species, but also the NAs distribution in terms of molecule carbon number and hydrogen deficiency. Overall, it is concluded that ethyl ether can be used as an alternative to dichloromethane (DCM) given their similar extraction efficiencies and extracted NA profiles. This is important since DCM is known to have metabolic toxicity and transitioning to the safer ethyl ether would eliminate laboratory DCM exposures and risk to human health. Despite the higher extraction efficiency of NAs at pH 2.0, extraction at pH 12.0 could be useful for targeted extraction of low-concentration nonpolar organic compounds in OSPW. This knowledge may assist in the determination of the specific NAs species that are known to have chronic, sub-chronic and acute toxicity to various organisms, and the potential targeting of treatment to these NAs species.

  11. Enhanced characterization of oil sands acid-extractable organics fractions using electrospray ionization-high-resolution mass spectrometry and synchronous fluorescence spectroscopy.

    PubMed

    Bauer, Anthony E; Frank, Richard A; Headley, John V; Peru, Kerry M; Hewitt, L Mark; Dixon, D George

    2015-05-01

    The open pit oil sands mining operations north of Fort McMurray, Alberta, Canada, are accumulating tailings waste at a rate approximately equal to 4.9 million m(3) /d. Naphthenic acids are among the most toxic components within tailings to aquatic life, but structural components have largely remained unidentified. In the present study, electrospray ionization high-resolution mass spectrometry (ESI-HRMS) and synchronous fluorescence spectroscopy (SFS) were used to characterize fractions derived from the distillation of an acid-extractable organics (AEO) mixture isolated from oil sands process-affected water (OSPW). Mean molecular weights of each fraction, and their relative proportions to the whole AEO extract, were as follows: fraction 1: 237 Da, 8.3%; fraction 2: 240 Da, 23.8%; fraction 3: 257 Da, 26.7%; fraction 4: 308 Da, 18.9%; fraction 5: 355 Da, 10.0%. With increasing mean molecular weight of the AEO fractions, a concurrent increase occurred in the relative abundance of nitrogen-, sulfur-, and oxygen-containing ions, double-bond equivalents, and degree of aromaticity. Structures present in the higher-molecular-weight fractions (fraction 4 and fraction 5) suggested the presence of heteroatoms, dicarboxyl and dihydroxy groups, and organic acid compounds with the potential to function as estrogens. Because organic acid compositions become dominated by more recalcitrant, higher-molecular-weight acids during natural degradation, these findings are important in the context of oil sands tailings pond water remediation.

  12. Enhanced characterization of oil sands acid-extractable organics fractions using electrospray ionization-high-resolution mass spectrometry and synchronous fluorescence spectroscopy.

    PubMed

    Bauer, Anthony E; Frank, Richard A; Headley, John V; Peru, Kerry M; Hewitt, L Mark; Dixon, D George

    2015-05-01

    The open pit oil sands mining operations north of Fort McMurray, Alberta, Canada, are accumulating tailings waste at a rate approximately equal to 4.9 million m(3) /d. Naphthenic acids are among the most toxic components within tailings to aquatic life, but structural components have largely remained unidentified. In the present study, electrospray ionization high-resolution mass spectrometry (ESI-HRMS) and synchronous fluorescence spectroscopy (SFS) were used to characterize fractions derived from the distillation of an acid-extractable organics (AEO) mixture isolated from oil sands process-affected water (OSPW). Mean molecular weights of each fraction, and their relative proportions to the whole AEO extract, were as follows: fraction 1: 237 Da, 8.3%; fraction 2: 240 Da, 23.8%; fraction 3: 257 Da, 26.7%; fraction 4: 308 Da, 18.9%; fraction 5: 355 Da, 10.0%. With increasing mean molecular weight of the AEO fractions, a concurrent increase occurred in the relative abundance of nitrogen-, sulfur-, and oxygen-containing ions, double-bond equivalents, and degree of aromaticity. Structures present in the higher-molecular-weight fractions (fraction 4 and fraction 5) suggested the presence of heteroatoms, dicarboxyl and dihydroxy groups, and organic acid compounds with the potential to function as estrogens. Because organic acid compositions become dominated by more recalcitrant, higher-molecular-weight acids during natural degradation, these findings are important in the context of oil sands tailings pond water remediation. PMID:25615406

  13. Solid-phase extraction using bis(indolyl)methane-modified silica reinforced with multiwalled carbon nanotubes for the simultaneous determination of flavonoids and aromatic organic acid preservatives.

    PubMed

    Wang, Na; Liao, Yuan; Wang, Jiamin; Tang, Sheng; Shao, Shijun

    2015-12-01

    A novel bis(indolyl)methane-modified silica reinforced with multiwalled carbon nanotubes sorbent for solid-phase extraction was designed and synthesized by chemical immobilization of nitro-substituted 3,3'-bis(indolyl)methane on silica modified with multiwalled carbon nanotubes. Coupled with high-performance liquid chromatography analysis, the extraction properties of the sorbent were evaluated for flavonoids and aromatic organic acid compounds. Under optimum conditions, the sorbent can simultaneously extract five flavonoids and two aromatic organic acid preservatives in aqueous solutions in a single-step solid-phase extraction procedure. Wide linear ranges were obtained with correlation coefficients (R(2) ) ranging from 0.9843 to 0.9976, and the limits of detection were in the range of 0.5-5 μg/L for the compounds tested. Compared with the silica modified with multiwalled carbon nanotubes sorbent and the nitro-substituted 3,3'-bis(indolyl)methane-modified silica sorbent, the developed sorbent exhibited higher extraction efficiency toward the selected analytes. The synergistic effect of nitro-substituted 3,3'-bis(indolyl)methane and multiwalled carbon nanotubes not only improved the surface-to-volume ratio but also enhanced multiple intermolecular interactions, such as hydrogen bonds, π-π, and hydrophobic interactions, between the new sorbent and the selected analytes. The as-established solid-phase extraction with high-performance liquid chromatography and diode array detection method was successfully applied to the simultaneous determination of flavonoids and aromatic organic acid preservatives in grape juices with recoveries ranging from 83.9 to 112% for all the selected analytes.

  14. Assessing the bioremediation potential of algal species indigenous to oil sands process-affected waters on mixtures of oil sands acid extractable organics.

    PubMed

    Ruffell, Sarah E; Frank, Richard A; Woodworth, Adam P; Bragg, Leslie M; Bauer, Anthony E; Deeth, Lorna E; Müller, Kirsten M; Farwell, Andrea J; Dixon, D George; Servos, Mark R; McConkey, Brendan J

    2016-11-01

    Surface mining extraction of bitumen from oil sand in Alberta, Canada results in the accumulation of oil sands process-affected water (OSPW). In attempts to maximize water recycling, and because its constituents are recognized as being toxic, OSPW is retained in settling basins. Consequently, research efforts are currently focused on developing remediation strategies capable of detoxifying OSPW to allow for eventual release. One potential bioremediation strategy proposes to utilize phytoplankton native to the Alberta oil sand region to sequester, break down, or modify the complex oil sands acid extractable organic (AEO) mixtures in OSPW. Preliminary attempts to quantify changes in total oil sands AEO concentration in test solutions by ESI-MS following a 14-day algal remediation period revealed the presence of unknown organic acids in control samples, likely released by the phytoplankton strains and often of the same atomic mass range as the oil sands AEO under investigation. To address the presence of these "biogenic" organic acids in test samples, ESI-MS in MRM mode was utilized to identify oil sands AEO "marker ions" that were a) present within the tested oil sands AEO extract and b) unique to the oil sands AEO extract only (e.g. atomic masses different from biogenic organic acids). Using this approach, one of the 21 tested algal strains, Stichococcus sp. 1, proved capable of significantly reducing the AEO marker ion concentration at test concentrations of 10, 30, and 100mgL(-1). This result, along with the accelerated growth rate and recalcitrance of this algal strain with exposure to oil sands AEO, suggests the strong potential for the use of the isolated Stichococcus sp. 1 as a candidate for bioremediation strategies.

  15. Assessing the bioremediation potential of algal species indigenous to oil sands process-affected waters on mixtures of oil sands acid extractable organics.

    PubMed

    Ruffell, Sarah E; Frank, Richard A; Woodworth, Adam P; Bragg, Leslie M; Bauer, Anthony E; Deeth, Lorna E; Müller, Kirsten M; Farwell, Andrea J; Dixon, D George; Servos, Mark R; McConkey, Brendan J

    2016-11-01

    Surface mining extraction of bitumen from oil sand in Alberta, Canada results in the accumulation of oil sands process-affected water (OSPW). In attempts to maximize water recycling, and because its constituents are recognized as being toxic, OSPW is retained in settling basins. Consequently, research efforts are currently focused on developing remediation strategies capable of detoxifying OSPW to allow for eventual release. One potential bioremediation strategy proposes to utilize phytoplankton native to the Alberta oil sand region to sequester, break down, or modify the complex oil sands acid extractable organic (AEO) mixtures in OSPW. Preliminary attempts to quantify changes in total oil sands AEO concentration in test solutions by ESI-MS following a 14-day algal remediation period revealed the presence of unknown organic acids in control samples, likely released by the phytoplankton strains and often of the same atomic mass range as the oil sands AEO under investigation. To address the presence of these "biogenic" organic acids in test samples, ESI-MS in MRM mode was utilized to identify oil sands AEO "marker ions" that were a) present within the tested oil sands AEO extract and b) unique to the oil sands AEO extract only (e.g. atomic masses different from biogenic organic acids). Using this approach, one of the 21 tested algal strains, Stichococcus sp. 1, proved capable of significantly reducing the AEO marker ion concentration at test concentrations of 10, 30, and 100mgL(-1). This result, along with the accelerated growth rate and recalcitrance of this algal strain with exposure to oil sands AEO, suggests the strong potential for the use of the isolated Stichococcus sp. 1 as a candidate for bioremediation strategies. PMID:27497784

  16. Solvent extraction behaviour of thiocyanic acid.

    PubMed

    Jurriaanse, A; Kemp, D M

    1968-11-01

    The solvent extraction behaviour of thiocyanic acid with isobutyl methyl ketone and xylene as solvents is described. In the ketone system the thiocyanic acid is solvated in the organic phase to give a complex with a proposed composition of HSCN. 2IBMK. Deviations from ideal behaviour, which can be attributed to variations in the activity coefficient of the acid in the aqueous phase, are shown.

  17. Microorganisms for producing organic acids

    DOEpatents

    Pfleger, Brian Frederick; Begemann, Matthew Brett

    2014-09-30

    Organic acid-producing microorganisms and methods of using same. The organic acid-producing microorganisms comprise modifications that reduce or ablate AcsA activity or AcsA homolog activity. The modifications increase tolerance of the microorganisms to such organic acids as 3-hydroxypropionic acid, acrylic acid, propionic acid, lactic acid, and others. Further modifications to the microorganisms increase production of such organic acids as 3-hydroxypropionic acid, lactate, and others. Methods of producing such organic acids as 3-hydroxypropionic acid, lactate, and others with the modified microorganisms are provided. Methods of using acsA or homologs thereof as counter-selectable markers are also provided.

  18. Investigation of aggregation in solvent extraction of lanthanides by acidic extractants (organophosphorus and naphthenic acid)

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Zhou, N.; Wu, J.; Yu, Z.; Neuman, R.D.; Wang, D.; Xu, G.

    1997-01-01

    Three acidic extractants (I) di(2-ethylhexyl) phosphoric acid (HDEHP), (II) 2-ethylhexyl phosphonic acid mono-2-ethylhexyl ester (HEHPEHE) and (III) naphthenic acid were employed in preparing the samples for the characterization of the coordination structure of lanthanide-extractant complexes and the physicochemical nature of aggregates formed in the organic diluent of the solvent extraction systems. Photo correlation spectroscopy (PCS) results on the aggregates formed by the partially saponified HDEHP in n-heptane showed that the hydrodynamic radius of the aggregates was comparable to the molecular dimensions of HDEHP. The addition of 2-octanol into the diluent, by which the mixed solvent was formed, increased the dimensions of the corresponding aggregates. Aggregates formed from the lanthanide ions and HDEHP in the organic phase of the extraction systems were found very unstable. In the case of naphthenic acid, PCS data showed the formation of w/o microemulsion from the saponified naphthenic acid in the mixed solvent. The extraction of lanthanides by the saponified naphthenic acid in the mixed solvent under the given experimental conditions was a process of destruction of the w/o microemulsion. A possible mechanism of the breakdown of the w/o microemulsion droplets is discussed.

  19. Temporal Variations of Organic Acids in Sumac Fruit

    SciTech Connect

    Robbins, C.; Mulcahy, F.; Somayajula, K.; Edenborn, H.M.

    2006-10-01

    Extracts from staghorn sumac (Rhus typhina) fruits were obtained from fresh fruits obtained from June to October in two successive years. Total acidity, pH, and concentrations of malic and succinic acids determined using liquid chromatography were measured for each extract. Acidity and acid concentrations reached their maxima in late July, and declined slowly thereafter. Malic and succinic acid concentrations in the extracts reached maxima of about 4 and 0.2% (expressed per unit weight of fruit), respectively. Malic and succinic acids were the only organic acids observed in the extracts, and mass balance determinations indicate that these acids are most likely the only ones present in appreciable amounts.

  20. Fermentation of aqueous plant seed extracts by lactic acid bacteria

    SciTech Connect

    Schafner, D.W.; Beuchat, R.L.

    1986-05-01

    The effects of lactic acid bacterial fermentation on chemical and physical changes in aqueous extracts of cowpea (Vigna unguiculata), peanut (Arachis hypogea), soybean (Glycine max), and sorghum (Sorghum vulgare) were studied. The bacteria investigated were Lactobacillus helveticus, L. delbrueckii, L. casei, L. bulgaricus, L. acidophilus, and Streptococcus thermophilus. Organisms were inoculated individually into all of the seed extracts; L. bulgaricus and S. thermophilus were also evaluated together as inocula for fermenting the legume extracts. During fermentation, bacterial population and changes in titratable acidity, pH, viscosity, and color were measured over a 72 h period at 37 degrees C. Maximum bacterial populations, titratable acidity, pH, and viscosity varied depending upon the type of extract and bacterial strain. The maximum population of each organism was influenced by fermentable carbohydrates, which, in turn, influenced acid production and change in pH. Change in viscosity was correlated with the amount of protein and titratable acidity of products. Color was affected by pasteurization treatment and fermentation as well as the source of extract. In the extracts inoculated simultaneously with L. bulgaricus and S. thermophilus, a synergistic effect resulted in increased bacterial populations, titratable acidity, and viscosity, and decreased pH in all the legume extracts when compared to the extracts fermented with either of these organisms individually. Fermented extracts offer potential as substitutes for cultured dairy products. 24 references.

  1. Organic acids in naturally colored surface waters

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Lamar, William L.; Goerlitz, D.F.

    1966-01-01

    Most of the organic matter in naturally colored surface waters consists of a mixture of carboxylic acids or salts of these acids. Many of the acids color the water yellow to brown; however, not all of the acids are colored. These acids range from simple to complex, but predominantly they are nonvolatile polymeric carboxylic acids. The organic acids were recovered from the water by two techniques: continuous liquid-liquid extraction with n-butanol and vacuum evaporation at 50?C (centigrade). The isolated acids were studied by techniques of gas, paper, and column chromatography and infrared spectroscopy. About 10 percent of the acids recovered were volatile or could be made volatile for gas chromatographic analysis. Approximately 30 of these carboxylic acids were isolated, and 13 of them were individually identified. The predominant part of the total acids could not be made volatile for gas chromatographic analysis. Infrared examination of many column chromatographic fractions indicated that these nonvolatile substances are primarily polymeric hydroxy carboxylic acids having aromatic and olefinic unsaturation. The evidence suggests that some of these acids result from polymerization in aqueous solution. Elemental analysis of the sodium fusion products disclosed the absence of nitrogen, sulfur, and halogens.

  2. Subcritical Water Extraction of Amino Acids from Atacama Desert Soils

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Amashukeli, Xenia; Pelletier, Christine C.; Kirby, James P.; Grunthaner, Frank J.

    2007-01-01

    Amino acids are considered organic molecular indicators in the search for extant and extinct life in the Solar System. Extraction of these molecules from a particulate solid matrix, such as Martian regolith, will be critical to their in situ detection and analysis. The goals of this study were to optimize a laboratory amino acid extraction protocol by quantitatively measuring the yields of extracted amino acids as a function of liquid water temperature and sample extraction time and to compare the results to the standard HCl vapor- phase hydrolysis yields for the same soil samples. Soil samples from the Yungay region of the Atacama Desert ( Martian regolith analog) were collected during a field study in the summer of 2005. The amino acids ( alanine, aspartic acid, glutamic acid, glycine, serine, and valine) chosen for analysis were present in the samples at concentrations of 1 - 70 parts- per- billion. Subcritical water extraction efficiency was examined over the temperature range of 30 - 325 degrees C, at pressures of 17.2 or 20.0 MPa, and for water- sample contact equilibration times of 0 - 30 min. None of the amino acids were extracted in detectable amounts at 30 degrees C ( at 17.2 MPa), suggesting that amino acids are too strongly bound by the soil matrix to be extracted at such a low temperature. Between 150 degrees C and 250 degrees C ( at 17.2 MPa), the extraction efficiencies of glycine, alanine, and valine were observed to increase with increasing water temperature, consistent with higher solubility at higher temperatures, perhaps due to the decreasing dielectric constant of water. Amino acids were not detected in extracts collected at 325 degrees C ( at 20.0 MPa), probably due to amino acid decomposition at this temperature. The optimal subcritical water extraction conditions for these amino acids from Atacama Desert soils were achieved at 200 degrees C, 17.2 MPa, and a water- sample contact equilibration time of 10 min.

  3. Composition of the amino acid and amino sugar for molecular weight fractions of hot-water extractable soil organic matters from soils with plant residue compost or mineral fertilization

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Moriizumi, M.; Matsunaga, T.; Uezono, I.; Kato, N.

    2009-04-01

    The hot-water extractable organic nitrogen is well known as a laboratory index of mineralizable nitrogen. This available nitrogen is indispensable for growth of plants because of being absorbed in crops. We measured the composition of the amino acid and amino sugar for molecular weight fractions in hot-water extractable organic matters to understand the source of the available nitrogen in soils inserted a compost. Two soil samples were collected from fields (Soil Type; Andosol) in National Agricultural Research Center in Tsukuba, Japan. A plant residue compost of 2 kga-1y-1 during 25 year has been applied to a soil and another soil was under the mineral fertilization. Organic matters were extracted from the soils of 3 g in the water of 50 ml at 80 degree centigrade for16 hours. The molecular size distribution of the hot-water extractable organic matters was analyzed by HPSCE (column YMC Diol-120, elution; 50mM phosphate buffer under pH=7.0, flow rate 1 mlmin-1), and 20 fractions were collected at regular intervals in the retention time. The chromatograms were monitored under the absorbance at 280 nm and fluorescence intensity at Ex.280 nm: Em.330nm. The concentrations of the 15 amino acids and three amino sugars (muramic acid, glucosamine, and galactosamine) for the molecule weight fractions were measured by HPLC as o-phthaldialdehyde (OPA) derivatives after the vapor HCl hydrolysis. Organic nitrogen concentrations of the hot-water extractable organic matters in the soil inserted the compost (C-soil) and the mineral fertilization soil (M-soil) were 133 and 35 mgkg-1, respectively. The extracted organic matters had the variable molecule weight (103- 104 Da). The concentrations of the amino acid and amino sugar of organic nitrogen in the C-soil were higher than those in the M-soil in all fractions. The fractions were classified into 3 groups (LW, MW, and SW) based on the molecule weight and spectroscopic characteristics. Each group had unique composition of the amino

  4. Analysis of Organic Acids.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Griswold, John R.; Rauner, Richard A.

    1990-01-01

    Presented are the procedures and a discussion of the results for an experiment in which students select unknown carboxylic acids, determine their melting points, and investigate their solubility behavior in water and ethanol. A table of selected carboxylic acids is included. (CW)

  5. Extraction of protactinium from mineral acid-alcohol media.

    PubMed

    Alian, A; Sanad, W; Shabana, R

    1968-07-01

    The extraction of protactinium with organic solvents has been investigated in the presence of water-miscible alcohols and acetone. These additives were found to increase considerably the extraction of protactinium in the cases of trilaurylamine, tributyl phosphate and isobutyl methyl ketone. The influence was less in the case of thenoyltrifluoroacetone. In mixtures of an acid with various alcohols, the influence depended on the alcohol concentration, the acidity and on the chain lengths and dielectric constants of the alcohol introduced into the extraction system.

  6. Extraction of protactinium from mineral acid-alcohol media.

    PubMed

    Alian, A; Sanad, W; Shabana, R

    1968-07-01

    The extraction of protactinium with organic solvents has been investigated in the presence of water-miscible alcohols and acetone. These additives were found to increase considerably the extraction of protactinium in the cases of trilaurylamine, tributyl phosphate and isobutyl methyl ketone. The influence was less in the case of thenoyltrifluoroacetone. In mixtures of an acid with various alcohols, the influence depended on the alcohol concentration, the acidity and on the chain lengths and dielectric constants of the alcohol introduced into the extraction system. PMID:18960346

  7. Approaches for regeneration of amine-carboxylic acid extracts

    SciTech Connect

    Dai, Y.; King, C.J.

    1995-07-01

    Extraction processes based on reversible chemical complexation can be useful for separation of polar organics from dilute solution. Tertiary amines are effective extractants for the recovery of carboxylic acids from aqueous solution. The regeneration of aminecarboxylic acid extracts is an important step which strongly influences the economic viability of the separation process. Several regeneration methods are critically reviewed, and the factors that affect swing regeneration processes, including temperature-swing, diluent composition-swing and pH-swing with a volatile base are discussed. Interest in this area comes from interest in treatment of waste streams, particularly in petrochemical and fermentation manufacture.

  8. Effect of dietary microbially produced gamma-linolenic acid and plant extracts on enzymatic and non-enzymatic antioxidants in various broiler chicken organs.

    PubMed

    Fejerčáková, A; Vašková, J; Bača, M; Vaško, L; Marcinčák, S; Hertelyová, Z; Petrášová, D; Guothová, L

    2014-10-01

    Plant extracts and fungal fermented feed with gamma-linolenic acid-rich microbial oils are perspective additives for use in animal nutrition as appetite and digestion stimulants, stimulants of physiological functions, for the prevention and treatment for certain pathological conditions, and as antioxidants. The activity of antioxidant enzymes and the level of reduced glutathione were measured in the plasma and in liver, heart and kidney mitochondria after 42 days of feeding broiler chickens both regular and combination diets. These were selected based on our previous experience. The administration of agrimony and gamma-linolenic acid resulted in a significant decrease in superoxide dismutase activity in all four bodies in contrast to plant extracts. We conclude that the decrease in activity is due to decreased production, and hence dismutation, of superoxide radicals to peroxides followed by lower activity of glutathione peroxidase, which was not seen in the case of only plant extract administration. Generally, higher glutathione reductase activity would be in response to increased demands on reduced glutathione as a cofactor for the reaction catalysed by glutathione peroxidase and the utilization of glutathione itself. However, measured levels of reduced glutathione showed no change. The results argue against any oxidative stress conditions. The application of agrimony extract appears to be suitable for the antioxidant effect against peroxidation of gamma-linolenic acid. As the efficacy of measuring the effects of diets on the oxidative stability of meat caused by selected antioxidant enzymes is rather low, additional data from the experiment will be processed to clearly assess the influence of this combination of diets.

  9. Extraction and isolation of TPE from other elements on ion exchangers in aqueous and aqueous-organic solutions of phosphoric acid

    SciTech Connect

    Guseva, L.I.; Tikhomirova, G.S.; Stepushkina, V.V.

    1988-07-01

    The behavior of Am-Es and other actinides on anion and cation exchange resins in aqueous and aqueous-organic solutions of phosphoric acid has been studied in a wide range of concentration of various components of the solution. The sorptivity of transplutonium elements (TPE) on anion exchangers from dilute H/sub 3/PO/sub 4/ with a concentration less than or equal to 1 M in presence of organic solvents (alcohols, ketones, etc.) and on cation exchangers from concentrated H/sub 3/PO/sub 4/ has been found to be significant. The possibility of use of phosphoric acid solutions for isolation of TPE from Th, Pa, U, Np, Pu, and Zr and separation of TPE in different oxidation states in presence of a high-purity oxidant has been shown.

  10. Nondispersive extraction for recovering lactic acid

    SciTech Connect

    Wang, C.J.; Bajpai, R.K.; Iannotti, E.L.

    1991-12-31

    A nondispersive extraction process for recovery of lactic acid from fermentation broth is being developed. The criteria for selection of solvent, distribution of lactic acid between the aqueous and solvent phases, and the effect of presence of other compounds in the broth, are discussed. Working with a simulated fermentation broth (without cells), a hydrophobic membrane module has been evaluated for its effectiveness as extractor. Back extraction and its role has been demonstrated. A theoretical comparison of this process with electrodialysis shows membrane extraction to be more desirable.

  11. Extraction equilibrium of indium(III) from nitric acid solutions by di(2-ethylhexyl)phosphoric acid dissolved in kerosene.

    PubMed

    Tsai, Hung-Sheng; Tsai, Teh-Hua

    2012-01-04

    The extraction equilibrium of indium(III) from a nitric acid solution using di(2-ethylhexyl) phosphoric acid (D2EHPA) as an acidic extractant of organophosphorus compounds dissolved in kerosene was studied. By graphical and numerical analysis, the compositions of indium-D2EHPA complexes in organic phase and stoichiometry of the extraction reaction were examined. Nitric acid solutions with various indium concentrations at 25 °C were used to obtain the equilibrium constant of InR₃ in the organic phase. The experimental results showed that the extraction distribution ratios of indium(III) between the organic phase and the aqueous solution increased when either the pH value of the aqueous solution and/or the concentration of the organic phase extractant increased. Finally, the recovery efficiency of indium(III) in nitric acid was measured.

  12. PROCESS FOR PRODUCING ALKYL ORTHOPHOSPHORIC ACID EXTRACTANTS

    DOEpatents

    Grinstead, R.R.

    1962-01-23

    A process is given for producing superior alkyl orthophosphoric acid extractants for use in solvent extraction methods to recover and purify various metals such as uranium and vanadium. The process comprises slurrying P/sub 2/O/ sub 5/ in a solvent diluent such as kerosene, benzene, isopropyl ether, and the like. An alipbatic alcohol having from nine to seventeen carbon atoms, and w- hcrein ihc OH group is situated inward of the terminal carbon atoms, is added to the slurry while the reaction temperature is mainiained below 60 deg C. The alcohol is added in the mole ratio of about 2 to l, alcohol to P/sub 2/O/sub 5/. A pyrophosphate reaotion product is formed in the slurry-alcohol mixture. Subsequently, the pyrophosphate reaction product is hydrolyzed with dilute mineral acid to produce the desired alkyl orthophosphoric aeid extractant. The extraetant may then be separated and utilized in metal-recovery, solvent- extraction processes. (AEC)

  13. Alkaline earth cation extraction from acid solution

    DOEpatents

    Dietz, Mark; Horwitz, E. Philip

    2003-01-01

    An extractant medium for extracting alkaline earth cations from an aqueous acidic sample solution is described as are a method and apparatus for using the same. The separation medium is free of diluent, free-flowing and particulate, and comprises a Crown ether that is a 4,4'(5')[C.sub.4 -C.sub.8 -alkylcyclohexano]18-Crown-6 dispersed on an inert substrate material.

  14. Continuous extraction of organic materials from water

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Goldberg, M.C.; DeLong, L.; Kahn, L.

    1971-01-01

    A continuous liquid solvent extractor, designed to utilize organic solvents that are heavier than water, is described. The extractor is capable of handling input rates up to 2 liters per hour and has a 500-ml. extractant capacity. Extraction efficiency is dependent upon the p-value, the two solvent ratios, rate of flow of the aqueous phase, and rate of reflux of the organic phase. Extractors can be serially coupled to increase extraction efficiency and, when coupled with a lighter-than-water extractor, the system will allow the use of any immiscible solvent.

  15. Extraction of steroidal glucosiduronic acids from aqueous solutions by anionic liquid ion-exchangers

    PubMed Central

    Mattox, Vernon R.; Litwiller, Robert D.; Goodrich, June E.

    1972-01-01

    A pilot study on the extraction of three steroidal glucosiduronic acids from water into organic solutions of liquid ion-exchangers is reported. A single extraction of a 0.5mm aqueous solution of either 11-deoxycorticosterone 21-glucosiduronic acid or cortisone 21-glucosiduronic acid with 0.1m-tetraheptylammonium chloride in chloroform took more than 99% of the conjugate into the organic phase; under the same conditions, the very polar conjugate, β-cortol 3-glucosiduronic acid, was extracted to the extent of 43%. The presence of a small amount of chloride, acetate, or sulphate ion in the aqueous phase inhibited extraction, but making the aqueous phase 4.0m with ammonium sulphate promoted extraction strongly. An increase in the concentration of ion-exchanger in the organic phase also promoted extraction. The amount of cortisone 21-glucosiduronic acid extracted by tetraheptylammonium chloride over the pH range of 3.9 to 10.7 was essentially constant. Chloroform solutions of a tertiary, a secondary, or a primary amine hydrochloride also will extract cortisone 21-glucosiduronic acid from water. The various liquid ion exchangers will extract steroidal glucosiduronic acid methyl esters from water into chloroform, although less completely than the corresponding free acids. The extraction of the glucosiduronic acids from water by tetraheptylammonium chloride occurs by an ion-exchange process; extraction of the esters does not involve ion exchange. PMID:5075264

  16. Organic compounds of different extractability in total solvent extracts from soils of contrasting water repellency

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Atanassova, Irena; Doerr, Stefan H.

    2010-05-01

    Previous studies examining organic compounds that may cause water-repellent behaviour of soils have typically focussed on analysing only the lipophilic fraction of extracted material. This study aimed to provide a more comprehensive examination by applying single- and sequential-accelerated solvent extraction (ASE), separation and analysis by GC/MS of the total solvent extracts of three soils taken from under eucalypt vegetation with different levels of water repellency. Water repellency increased in all the soils after extraction with DCM:MeOH (95:5), but was eliminated with iso-propanol/ammonia (95:5). Quantities of major lipid compound classes varied between solvents and soils. Iso-propanol/ammonia (95:5) solvent released saccharides, glycerol, aromatic acids and other polar organic compounds, which were more abundant in fractionated extracts from the single extraction and the third step sequential ASE extraction, than in the extracts from the DCM:MeOH ASE solvent. Dominant compounds extracted from all soils were long-chain alkanols (>C22), palmitic acid, C29 alkane, β-sitosterol, terpenes, terpenoids and other polar compounds. The soil with smallest repellency lacked >C18 fatty acids and had smallest concentrations of alkanols (C26, C28 and C30) and alkanes (C29, C31), but a greater abundance of more complex polar compounds than the more repellent soils. We therefore speculate that the above compounds play an important role in determining the water repellency of the soils tested. The results suggest that one-stage and sequential ASE extractions with iso-propanol:ammonia and subsequent fractionation of extracts are a useful approach in providing a comprehensive assessment of the potential compounds involved in causing soil water repellency.

  17. STRIPPING OF URANIUM FROM ORGANIC EXTRACTANTS

    DOEpatents

    Crouse, D.J. Jr.

    1962-09-01

    A liquid-liquid extraction method is given for recovering uranium values from uranium-containing solutions. Uranium is removed from a uranium-containing organic solution by contacting said organic solution with an aqueous ammonium carbonate solution substantially saturated in uranium values. A uranium- containing precipitate is thereby formed which is separated from the organic and aqueous phases. Uranium values are recovered from this separated precipitate. (AE C)

  18. High polar organic-inorganic hybrid coating stir bar sorptive extraction combined with high performance liquid chromatography-inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry for the speciation of seleno-amino acids and seleno-oligopeptides in biological samples.

    PubMed

    Mao, Xiangju; Hu, Bin; He, Man; Chen, Beibei

    2012-09-21

    In this work, partially sulfonated polystyrene-titania (PSP-TiO(2)) organic-inorganic hybrid stir bar coating was prepared by sol-gel and blending methods, and a new method of PSP-TiO(2) coating stir bar sorptive extraction (SBSE)-high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC)-inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (ICP-MS) was established for the analysis of seleno-amino acids (selenocystine (SeCys(2)), methylseleno-cysteine (MeSeCys), selenomethionine (SeMet) and selenoethionine (SeEt)) and seleno-oligopeptides (γ-glutamyl-Se-methyl-selenocysteine (γ-GluMeSeCys) and selenodiglutathione (GS-Se-SG)) in biological samples. The prepared high polar PSP-TiO(2) hybrid coating avoided the swelling of PSP and cracking of TiO(2) coating by combining the good film-forming property of PSP with the high mechanical strength of TiO(2). The scanning electron microscope (SEM) showed that no obvious swelling and damage occurred for the PSP-TiO(2) hybrid stir bar coating after 30 extraction/desorption cycles. The preparation reproducibility of PSP-TiO(2) coated stir bar, evaluated with the relative standard deviations (RSDs), was in the range of 6.7-12.6% (n=5) in one batch, and 9.9-17.6% (n=7) among different batches. The limits of detection (LODs) of the developed method for six target selenium species were in the range of 50.2-185.5 ngL(-1) (as (77)Se) and 45.9-158.8 ngL(-1) (as (82)Se) with the RSDs within 4.9-11.7%. The dynamic linear range was found to cover three orders of magnitude with correlation coefficient of 0.9995-0.9999. The developed method was applied for the analysis of Certified Reference Material SELM-1 selenium enriched yeast and the determined values were in good agreement with the certified values. The method has also been applied for the analysis of seleno-amino acids and seleno-oligopeptides in human urine and garlic samples. Different from the conventional organic polymer SBSE coatings (such as polydimethylsiloxane, PDMS), the extraction mechanism

  19. Removal of lead by apatite and its stability in the presence of organic acids.

    PubMed

    Katoh, Masahiko; Makimura, Akihiko; Sato, Takeshi

    2016-12-01

    In this study, lead sorption and desorption tests were conducted with apatite and organic acids (i.e. citric, malic, and formic acids) to understand lead removal by apatite in the presence of an organic acid and lead dissolution from the lead- and organic-acid-sorbed apatite by such organic acid exposure. The lead sorption test showed that the amount of lead removed by apatite in the presence of organic acid varied depending on the type of acid used. The molar amounts of calcium dissolved from apatite in the presence and absence of organic acid were exactly the same as those of lead removed even under different pH conditions as well as different organic acid concentrations, indicating that the varying amount of lead removal in the presence of different organic acids resulted from the magnitude of the dissolution of apatite and the precipitation of lead phosphate minerals. The percentages of lead dissolved from the organic-acid-sorbed and non-organic-acid-sorbed apatite by all the organic acid extractions were equal and higher than those by water extraction. In particular, the highest extractions were observed in the non-organic-acid-sorbed apatite by citric and malic acids. These results suggest that to immobilize lead by the use of apatite in the presence of organic acids, much more apatite must be added than in the absence of organic acid, and that measures must be taken to ensure that the immobilized lead is not dissolved.

  20. Extraction of Organic Molecules from Terrestrial Material: Quantitative Yields from Heat and Water Extractions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Beegle, L. W.; Abbey, W. A.; Tsapin, A. T.; Dragoi, D.; Kanik, I.

    2004-01-01

    In the robotic search for life on Mars, different proposed missions will analyze the chemical and biological signatures of life using different platforms. The analysis of samples via analytical instrumentation on the surface of Mars has thus far only been attempted by the two Viking missions. Robotic arms scooped relogith material into a pyrolysis oven attached to a GC/MS. No trace of organic material was found on any of the two different samples at either of the two different landing sites. This null result puts an upper limit on the amount of organics that might be present in Martian soil/rocks, although the level of detection for each individual molecular species is still debated. Determining the absolute limit of detection for each analytical instrument is essential so that null results can be understood. This includes investigating the trade off of using pyrolysis versus liquid solvent extraction to release organic materials (in terms of extraction efficiencies and the complexity of the sample extraction process.) Extraction of organics from field samples can be accomplished by a variety of methods such utilizing various solvents including HCl, pure water, supercritical fluid and Soxhelt extraction. Utilizing 6N HCl is one of the most commonly used method and frequently utilized for extraction of organics from meteorites but it is probably infeasible for robotic exploration due to difficulty of storage and transport. Extraction utilizing H2O is promising, but it could be less efficient than 6N HCl. Both supercritical fluid and Soxhelt extraction methods require bulky hardware and require complex steps, inappropriate for inclusion on rover spacecraft. This investigation reports the efficiencies of pyrolysis and solvent extraction methods for amino acids for different terrestrial samples. The samples studied here, initially created in aqueous environments, are sedimentary in nature. These particular samples were chosen because they possibly represent one of the

  1. Amino Acid, Organic Acid, and Sugar Profiles of 3 Dry Bean (Phaseolus vulgaris L.) Varieties.

    PubMed

    John, K M Maria; Luthria, Devanand

    2015-12-01

    In this study, we compared the amino acid, organic acid and sugar profiles of 3 different varieties of dry beans (black bean [BB], dark red bean [DRB], and cranberry bean [CB]). The efficiency of the 2 commonly used extraction solvents (water and methanol:chloroform:water [2.5:1:1, v/v/v/]) for cultivar differentiation based on their metabolic profile was also investigated. The results showed that the BB contained the highest concentration of amino acids followed by DRB and CB samples. Phenylalanine, a precursor for the biosynthesis of phenolic secondary metabolites was detected at low concentration in CB samples and correlated with the reduced anthocyanins content in CB extract as documented in the published literature. Comparing the extractability of 2 extraction solvents, methanol:chloroform:water (2.5:1:1, v/v/v/) showed higher recoveries of amino acids from 3 beans, whereas, sugars were extracted in higher concentration with water. Analytically, gas chromatography detected sugars (9), amino acids (11), and organic acids (3) in a single run after derivatization of the extracts. In comparison, ion chromatography detected only sugars in a single run without any derivatization step with the tested procedure. Bean samples are better differentiated by the sugar content extracted with water as compared to the aqueous organic solvent extracts using partial least-square discriminant analysis.

  2. Acid gas extraction of pyridine from water

    SciTech Connect

    Laitinen, A.; Kaunisto, J.

    2000-01-01

    Pyridine was extracted from aqueous solutions initially containing 5 or 15 wt % pyridine by using liquid or supercritical carbon dioxide at 10 MPa as a solvent in a mechanically agitated countercurrent extraction column. The lowest pyridine concentration in the raffinate was 0.06 wt %, whereas the pyridine concentration in the extract was 86--94 wt %. From the initial amount of pyridine, 96--99% was transferred from the feed stream to the extract by using relatively small solvent-to-feed ratios of 2.8--4.6 (kg of solvent/kg of feed). The measured distribution coefficients for the water/pyridine/carbon dioxide system ranged from 0.3 to 1 (weight units), depending on the initial pyridine concentration in water. Carbon dioxide is a particularly suitable solvent for the extraction of pyridine from concentrated aqueous solutions. The efficiency may be the result of an acid-base interaction between weakly basic pyridine solute and weakly acidic carbon dioxide solvent in an aqueous environment.

  3. Unusual stable isotope ratios in amino acid and carboxylic acid extracts from the Murchison meteorite

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Epstein, S.; Krishnamurthy, R. V.; Cronin, J. R.; Pizzarello, S.; Yuen, G. U.

    1987-01-01

    The isotopic composition of hydrogen, nitrogen, and carbon in amino acid and monocarboxylic acid extracts from the Murchison meteorite has been determined. The unusually high D/H and N-15/N-14 ratios in the amino acid fraction are uniquely characteristic of known interstellar organic materials. The delta D value of the monocarboxylic acid fraction is lower but still consistent with an interstellar origin. These results confirm the extraterrestrial origin of both classes of compound and provide the first evidence suggesting a direct relationship between the massive organosynthesis occurring in interstellar clouds and the presence of prebiotic compounds in primitive planetary bodies.

  4. Lactic acid fermentation of crude sorghum extract

    SciTech Connect

    Samuel, W.A.; Lee, Y.Y.; Anthony, W.B.

    1980-04-01

    Crude extract from sweet sorghum supplemented with vetch juice was utilized as the carbohydrate source for fermentative production of lactic acid. Fermentation of media containing 7% (w/v) total sugar was completed in 60-80 hours by Lactobacillus plantarum, product yield averaging 85%. Maximum acid production rates were dependent on pH, initial substrate distribution, and concentration, the rates varying from 2 to 5 g/liter per hour. Under limited medium supplementation the lactic acid yield was lowered to 67%. The fermented ammoniated product contained over eight times as much equivalent crude protein (N x 6.25) as the original medium. Unstructured kinetic models were developed for cell growth, lactic acid formation, and substrate consumption in batch fermentation. With the provision of experimentally determined kinetic parameters, the proposed models accurately described the fermentation process. 15 references.

  5. Organic electroluminescent devices having improved light extraction

    DOEpatents

    Shiang, Joseph John

    2007-07-17

    Organic electroluminescent devices having improved light extraction include a light-scattering medium disposed adjacent thereto. The light-scattering medium has a light scattering anisotropy parameter g in the range from greater than zero to about 0.99, and a scatterance parameter S less than about 0.22 or greater than about 3.

  6. Lactic acid bacterial extract as a biogenic mineral growth modifier

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Borah, Ballav M.; Singh, Atul K.; Ramesh, Aiyagari; Das, Gopal

    2009-04-01

    The formation of minerals and mechanisms by which bacteria could control their formation in natural habitats is now of current interest for material scientists to have an insight of the mechanism of in vivo mineralization, as well as to seek industrial and technological applications. Crystalline uniform structures of calcium and barium minerals formed micron-sized building blocks when synthesized in the presence of an organic matrix consisting of secreted protein extracts from three different lactic acid bacteria (LAB) viz.: Lactobacillus plantarum MTCC 1325, Lactobacillus acidophilus NRRL B4495 and Pediococcus acidilactici CFR K7. LABs are not known to form organic matrix in biological materialization processes. The influence of these bacterial extracts on the crystallization behavior was investigated in details to test the basic coordination behavior of the acidic protein. In this report, varied architecture of the mineral crystals obtained in presence of high molecular weight protein extracts of three different LAB strains has been discussed. The role of native form of high molecular weight bacterial protein extracts in the generation of nucleation centers for crystal growth was clearly established. A model for the formation of organic matrix-cation complex and the subsequent events leading to crystal growth is proposed.

  7. Process for the extraction of strontium from acidic solutions

    DOEpatents

    Horwitz, E. Philip; Dietz, Mark L.

    1994-01-01

    The invention is a process for selectively extracting strontium values from aqueous nitric acid waste solutions containing these and other fission product values. The extractant solution is a macrocyclic polyether in an aliphatic hydrocarbon diluent containing a phase modifier. The process will selectively extract strontium values from nitric acid solutions which are up to 6 molar in nitric acid.

  8. Process for the extraction of strontium from acidic solutions

    DOEpatents

    Horwitz, E.P.; Dietz, M.L.

    1993-01-01

    The invention is a process for selectively extracting strontium values from aqueous nitric acid waste solutions containing these and other fission product values. The extractant solution is a macrocyclic polyether in an aliphatic hydrocarbon diluent containing a phase modifier. The process will selectively extract strontium values from nitric acid solutions which are up to 6 molar in nitric acid.

  9. Process for the extraction of strontium from acidic solutions

    DOEpatents

    Horwitz, E.P.; Dietz, M.L.

    1994-09-06

    The invention is a process for selectively extracting strontium values from aqueous nitric acid waste solutions containing these and other fission product values. The extractant solution is a macrocyclic polyether in an aliphatic hydrocarbon diluent containing a phase modifier. The process will selectively extract strontium values from nitric acid solutions which are up to 6 molar in nitric acid. 4 figs.

  10. Reductive stripping process for uranium recovery from organic extracts

    DOEpatents

    Hurst, F.J. Jr.

    1983-06-16

    In the reductive stripping of uranium from an organic extractant in a uranium recovery process, the use of phosphoric acid having a molarity in the range of 8 to 10 increases the efficiency of the reductive stripping and allows the strip step to operate with lower aqueous to organic recycle ratios and shorter retention time in the mixer stages. Under these operating conditions, less solvent is required in the process, and smaller, less expensive process equipment can be utilized. The high strength H/sub 3/PO/sub 4/ is available from the evaporator stage of the process.

  11. Reductive stripping process for uranium recovery from organic extracts

    DOEpatents

    Hurst, Jr., Fred J.

    1985-01-01

    In the reductive stripping of uranium from an organic extractant in a uranium recovery process, the use of phosphoric acid having a molarity in the range of 8 to 10 increases the efficiency of the reductive stripping and allows the strip step to operate with lower aqueous to organic recycle ratios and shorter retention time in the mixer stages. Under these operating conditions, less solvent is required in the process, and smaller, less expensive process equipment can be utilized. The high strength H.sub.3 PO.sub.4 is available from the evaporator stage of the process.

  12. The solvent extraction of Americium(III) by 2,6-bis[(diphenylphosphino)-methyl]pyridine N,P,P` trioxide from nitric acid and hydrochloric acid solutions

    SciTech Connect

    Bond, E.M.; Engelhardt, U.; Deere, T.P.; Rapko, B.M.; Paine, R.T.

    1997-12-31

    The liquid/liquid extractions of Am(III) from nitric acid and hydrochloric acid solutions with chloroform solutions of 2,6-bis[(diphenylphosphino)methyl]pyridine N,P,P{prime} trioxide will be described. Americium(III) extracts well from high concentration nitric acid solutions (D>3000 at 6M nitric acid) and can be back extracted from the organic phase at 0.01M Nitric Acid. Americium(III) exhibits modest extraction from hydrochloric acid solutions (D=2.2 at 5M hydrochloric acid) and can be back extracted from the organic phase at 0.1M hydrochloric acid. The ligand dependency data suggest that two ligand molecules are coordinated to americium in the nitric acid system and three ligand molecules are coordinated to the americium in the hydrochloric acid system.

  13. Polyuridylic Acid-directed Phenylalanine Incorporation in Minicell Extracts

    PubMed Central

    Fralick, J. A.; Fisher, W. D.; Adler, H. I.

    1969-01-01

    Cell-free extracts of miniature Escherichia coli cells deficient in deoxyribonucleic acid (DNA) and DNA-dependent ribonucleic acid polymerase have been shown to be capable of polyuridylic acid-directed [14C]phenylalanine incorporation. PMID:4897117

  14. Novel Regenerated Solvent Extraction Processes for the Recovery of Carboxylic Acids or Ammonia from Aqueous Solutions Part I. Regeneration of Amine-Carboxylic Acid Extracts

    SciTech Connect

    Poole, L.J.; King, C.J.

    1990-03-01

    Two novel regenerated solvent extraction processes are examined. The first process has the potential to reduce the energy costs inherent in the recovery of low-volatility carboxylic acids from dilute aqueous solutions. The second process has the potential for reducing the energy costs required for separate recovery of ammonia and acid gases (e.g. CO{sub 2} and H{sub 2}S) from industrial sour waters. The recovery of carboxylic acids from dilute aqueous solution can be achieved by extraction with tertiary amines. An approach for regeneration and product recovery from such extracts is to back-extract the carboxylic acid with a water-soluble, volatile tertiary amine, such as trimethylamine. The resulting trimethylammonium carboxylate solution can be concentrated and thermally decomposed, yielding the product acid and the volatile amine for recycle. Experimental work was performed with lactic acid, succinic acid, and fumaric acid. Equilibrium data show near-stoichiometric recovery of the carboxylic acids from an organic solution of Alamine 336 into aqueous solutions of trimethylamine. For fumaric and succinic acids, partial evaporation of the aqueous back extract decomposes the carboxylate and yields the acid product in crystalline form. The decomposition of aqueous solutions of trimethylammonium lactates was not carried out to completion, due to the high water solubility of lactic acid and the tendency of the acid to self-associate. The separate recovery of ammonia and acid gases from sour waters can be achieved by combining steam-stripping of the acid gases with simultaneous removal of ammonia by extraction with a liquid cation exchanger. The use of di-2,4,4-trimethylpentyl phosphinic acid as the liquid cation exchanger is explored in this work. Batch extraction experiments were carried out to measure the equilibrium distribution ratio of ammonia between an aqueous buffer solution and an organic solution of the phosphinic acid (0.2N) in Norpar 12. The concentration

  15. Simultaneous extraction of acidic and basic drugs via on-chip electromembrane extraction.

    PubMed

    Asl, Yousef Abdossalami; Yamini, Yadollah; Seidi, Shahram; Rezazadeh, Maryam

    2016-09-21

    In the present work, a on-chip electromembrane extraction (CEME) was designed and employed for simultaneous extraction of mefenamic acid (MEF) and diclofenac (DIC), as acidic model analytes, and betaxolol (BET), as a basic model analyte, followed by HPLC-UV. The CEME consists of two polymethyl methacrylate (PMMA) parts which each part consists of two separated microfluidic channels. A polypropylene sheet membrane impregnated with an organic solvent was sandwiched between the parts. One of the parts was used as the flow path for the sample solution and the other one as holder for the acceptor phases. The separated microfluidic channels of the sample solution part were connected to each other using a small piece of a capillary tube and the sample solution was pumped through them by means of a micro-syringe pump. However, the acceptor phases of the acidic and basic analytes were separately kept stagnant in the two microfluidic channels during the extraction process. A d.c. potential was applied for migration of the analytes from sample solution through the organic membrane into the acceptor phases. All effective variables on the extraction efficiency of the analytes were optimized. Under the optimized conditions, preconcentration factors higher than 15 were achieved and the calibration curves were linear in the range of 10-500 μg L(-1) (r(2) > 0.9982). RSD% values (n = 4) and LODs were less than 7.1% and 5.0 μg L(-1). The results demonstrated that CEME could efficiently be used for the simultaneous analysis of acidic and basic analytes in biological samples.

  16. Simultaneous extraction of acidic and basic drugs via on-chip electromembrane extraction.

    PubMed

    Asl, Yousef Abdossalami; Yamini, Yadollah; Seidi, Shahram; Rezazadeh, Maryam

    2016-09-21

    In the present work, a on-chip electromembrane extraction (CEME) was designed and employed for simultaneous extraction of mefenamic acid (MEF) and diclofenac (DIC), as acidic model analytes, and betaxolol (BET), as a basic model analyte, followed by HPLC-UV. The CEME consists of two polymethyl methacrylate (PMMA) parts which each part consists of two separated microfluidic channels. A polypropylene sheet membrane impregnated with an organic solvent was sandwiched between the parts. One of the parts was used as the flow path for the sample solution and the other one as holder for the acceptor phases. The separated microfluidic channels of the sample solution part were connected to each other using a small piece of a capillary tube and the sample solution was pumped through them by means of a micro-syringe pump. However, the acceptor phases of the acidic and basic analytes were separately kept stagnant in the two microfluidic channels during the extraction process. A d.c. potential was applied for migration of the analytes from sample solution through the organic membrane into the acceptor phases. All effective variables on the extraction efficiency of the analytes were optimized. Under the optimized conditions, preconcentration factors higher than 15 were achieved and the calibration curves were linear in the range of 10-500 μg L(-1) (r(2) > 0.9982). RSD% values (n = 4) and LODs were less than 7.1% and 5.0 μg L(-1). The results demonstrated that CEME could efficiently be used for the simultaneous analysis of acidic and basic analytes in biological samples. PMID:27590546

  17. Removal of acetic acid from simulated hemicellulosic hydrolysates by emulsion liquid membrane with organophosphorus extractants.

    PubMed

    Lee, Sang Cheol

    2015-09-01

    Selective removal of acetic acid from simulated hemicellulosic hydrolysates containing xylose and sulfuric acid was attempted in a batch emulsion liquid membrane (ELM) system with organophosphorus extractants. Various experimental variables were used to develop a more energy-efficient ELM process. Total operation time of an ELM run with a very small quantity of trioctylphosphine oxide as the extractant was reduced to about a third of those required to attain almost the same extraction efficiency as obtained in previous ELM works without any extractant. Under specific conditions, acetic acid was selectively separated with a high degree of extraction and insignificant loss of xylose, and its purity and enrichment ratio in the stripping phase were higher than 92% and 6, respectively. Also, reused organic membrane solutions exhibited the extraction efficiency as high as fresh organic solutions did. These results showed that the current ELM process would be quite practical.

  18. Removal of copper from industrial sludge by traditional and microwave acid extraction.

    PubMed

    Kuo, Chao-Yin; Wu, Chung-Hsin; Lo, Shang-Lien

    2005-04-11

    This work elucidates the removal of copper from industrial sludge by traditional and microwave acid extraction. The effects of acid concentration, extraction time, sludge particle size and solid/liquid (S/L) ratio on copper removal efficiency were evaluated. Leaching with more concentrated acid yielded greater copper content from the industrial sludge. The experimental findings reveal that the most economical traditional extraction conditions were the use of 1N sulfuric or nitric acid for 60 min at an S/L ratio of 1/20; however, at an S/L ratio of 1/6, the extraction time needed to achieve the same copper removal efficiency was increased to 36 h. Increasing the microwave power and reducing the S/L ratio increased the copper extraction efficiency and the effect in the larger S/L ratio system was more significant. A comparison of the results of microwave-assisted (microwave only) and microwave-enhanced (microwave with addition of active carbon) acid extraction demonstrated that under both conditions, S/L ratio=1/6 and 1/20; adding active carbon shortened the extraction time required to achieve 80% copper extraction efficiency from 20 to 10 min. These experimental results indicate that the most important factors that most strongly affected microwave acid extraction were the addition of a microwave absorber, the microwave power input and the S/L ratio. The sludge particle size did not significantly affect the copper extraction. The results reveal that sulfuric acid was an effective extractant and that the copper fraction in the extracted sludge shifted from being mostly bound to the Fe-Mn oxides and organic matter, to being mostly bound to organic matter and remaining as a residue during acid extraction.

  19. Method for extracting lanthanides and actinides from acid solutions

    DOEpatents

    Horwitz, E. Philip; Kalina, Dale G.; Kaplan, Louis; Mason, George W.

    1985-01-01

    A process for the recovery of actinide and lanthanide values from aqueous acidic solutions with an organic extractant having the formula: ##STR1## where .phi. is phenyl, R.sup.1 is a straight or branched alkyl or alkoxyalkyl containing from 6 to 12 carbon atoms and R.sup.2 is an alkyl containing from 3 to 6 carbon atoms. The process is suitable for the separation of actinide and lanthanide values from fission product values found together in high level nuclear reprocessing waste solutions.

  20. Toxicity of organic extraction reagents to anaerobic bacteria.

    PubMed

    Playne, M J; Smith, B R

    1983-05-01

    Various forms of liquid-liquid extraction systems are being developed to separate products, such as ethanol and volatile fatty acids (VFA), from fermentation liquids, since distillation is energetically expensive. Continuous extraction is advantageous, as product inhibition of the fermentation is minimized. However, some extraction solvents may be toxic or inhibitory to microorganisms.Thirty organic chemicals were examined by means of a small scale (60 mL) batch fermentation bioassay procedure for their toxicity to a commercial inoculum (Methanobac, W.B.E. Ltd.), which was a mixed culture of facultatively anaerobic, acid-producing bacteria. Gas production, pH change of medium, and the concentrations of ethanol, VFA, and lactic acid were measured after 75 h growth. The optimum experimental conditions for toxicity testing were alfalfa as substrate (2 g), a buffered nutrient medium (pH 6.8), "Methanobac" inoculum (10 mL), and test chemicals at levels between 10 and 100 microL/mL.Thirteen chemicals were nontoxic, and included the paraffins (C(6)-C(12)), phthalates, organophosphorus compounds, Freon 113 (1,1,2-trichloro-1,2,2-trifluoro ethane), Aliquat 336 (tricaprylylmethyl ammonium chloride), di-isoamyl ether, and trioctylamine. Other amine extractants were partially toxic. Alcohols (C(5)-C(12)), ketones (C(5)-C(8)), benzene derivatives, isoamyl acetate, and di-isopropyl ether were toxic. Generally, the chemicals were not toxic unless present at levels in excess of that expected to be required to saturate the aqueous phase.Total gas production was a good indicator of toxicity even within 24 h, but the presence of homofermentative (nongas producing) lactic acid bacteria complicated interpretation."Methanobac" inoculum was compared with an inoculum derived from a rumen culture for four test chemicals. The results were essentially the same. However, the toxicity of a chemical to bacteria is likely to vary considerably between bacterial species.

  1. Organic Acid Production by Filamentous Fungi

    SciTech Connect

    Magnuson, Jon K.; Lasure, Linda L.

    2004-05-03

    Many of the commercial production processes for organic acids are excellent examples of fungal biotechnology. However, unlike penicillin, the organic acids have had a less visible impact on human well-being. Indeed, organic acid fermentations are often not even identified as fungal bioprocesses, having been overshadowed by the successful deployment of the β-lactam processes. Yet, in terms of productivity, fungal organic acid processes may be the best examples of all. For example, commercial processes using Aspergillus niger in aerated stirred-tank-reactors can convert glucose to citric acid with greater than 80% efficiency and at final concentrations in hundreds of grams per liter. Surprisingly, this phenomenal productivity has been the object of relatively few research programs. Perhaps a greater understanding of this extraordinary capacity of filamentous fungi to produce organic acids in high concentrations will allow greater exploitation of these organisms via application of new knowledge in this era of genomics-based biotechnology. In this chapter, we will explore the biochemistry and modern genetic aspects of the current and potential commercial processes for making organic acids. The organisms involved, with a few exceptions, are filamentous fungi, and this review is limited to that group. Although yeasts including Saccharomyces cerevisiae, species of Rhodotorula, Pichia, and Hansenula are important organisms in fungal biotechnology, they have not been significant for commercial organic acid production, with one exception. The yeast, Yarrowia lipolytica, and related yeast species, may be in use commercially to produce citric acid (Lopez-Garcia, 2002). Furthermore, in the near future engineered yeasts may provide new commercial processes to make lactic acid (Porro, Bianchi, Ranzi, Frontali, Vai, Winkler, & Alberghina, 2002). This chapter is divided into two parts. The first contains a review of the commercial aspects of current and potential large

  2. Butane extraction of model organic pollutants from water.

    PubMed

    Yang, Chun; Teo, Khay Chuan; Xu, Yan Rong

    2004-04-30

    In this study, n-butane (n-C(4)H(10)), a by-product of the oil refining process, was used as the extractant to remove various model organic pollutants including halogenated hydrocarbons, phenols and aromatic compounds from aqueous matrices. The presence of salt, inorganic acid and dissolved organic materials in the aqueous matrix were found to have little influence on the removal efficiency. High removal efficiencies are readily achievable for a great number of organic pollutants. The removal efficiencies for hydrophobic pollutants were greater than 90% for a single stripping stage for pollutants with a distribution constants (K(D)) greater than 45 and for a n-butane to aqueous phase ratio of 1-5. Results were also reported for the removal of residual butane in treated effluent by combinations of depressurization, air stripping and elevating operating temperature.

  3. Recovery of boric acid from wastewater by solvent extraction

    SciTech Connect

    Matsumoto, Michiaki; Kondo, Kazuo; Hirata, Makoto; Kokubu, Shuzo; Hano, Tadashi

    1997-03-01

    An extraction system for the recovery of boric acid using 2-butyl-2-ethyl-1,3-propanediol (BEPD) as an extractant was studied. Loss of the extractant to the aqueous solution was lowered by using 2-ethylhexanol as a diluent. The extraction equilibrium of boric acid with BEPD was clarified, and the equilibrium constants for various diluents were determined. Furthermore, continuous operation for the recovery of boric acid using mixer-settlers for extraction and stripping was successfully conducted during 100 hours. 10 refs., 5 figs., 2 tabs.

  4. Assessment of capillary anion exchange ion chromatography tandem mass spectrometry for the quantitative profiling of the phosphometabolome and organic acids in biological extracts.

    PubMed

    Kvitvang, Hans F N; Kristiansen, Kåre A; Bruheim, Per

    2014-11-28

    Metabolic profiling has become an important tool in biological research, and the chromatographic separation of metabolites coupled with mass spectrometric detection is the most frequently used approach for such studies. The establishment of robust chromatographic methods for comprehensive coverage of the anionic metabolite pool is especially challenging. In this study, the development of a capillary ion exchange chromatography (capIC) - negative ESI tandem mass spectrometry (MS/MS) workflow for the quantitative profiling of the phosphometabolome (e.g., sugar phosphates and nucleotides) is presented. The chromatographic separation and MS/MS conditions were optimized, and the precision of repetitive injections and accuracy in terms of error percentage to true concentration were assessed. The precision is excellent for a capillary flow system with an average CV% of 8.5% for a 50-fmol standard injection and in the lower 2.4-4.4% range for higher concentrations (500-7,500 fmol). The limit of detection (LOD) ranges from 1 to 100 nM (5-500 fmol injected on column), and the limit of quantitation (LOQ) ranges from 1 to 500 nM (5-2,500 fmol injected on column). A fast gradient method with the injection of 50% methanol in water between analytical samples is needed to eliminate carry-over and ensure optimal re-equilibration of the column. Finally, the quantitative applicability of the system was tested on real biological matrices using the constant-volume standard addition method (SAM). Extracts of the human kidney Hek293 cell line were spiked with increasing concentrations of standards to determine the concentration of each metabolite in the sample. Forty-four metabolites were detected with an average uncertainty of 4.1%. Thus, the capIC-MS/MS method exhibits excellent selectivity, sensitivity and precision for the quantitative profiling of the phosphometabolome.

  5. Physico-chemical properties of a novel (-)-hydroxycitric acid extract and its effect on body weight, selected organ weights, hepatic lipid peroxidation and DNA fragmentation, hematology and clinical chemistry, and histopathological changes over a period of 90 days.

    PubMed

    Shara, Michael; Ohia, Sunny E; Schmidt, Robert E; Yasmin, Taharat; Zardetto-Smith, Andrea; Kincaid, Anthony; Bagchi, Manashi; Chatterjee, Archana; Bagchi, Debasis; Stohs, Sidney J

    2004-05-01

    Garcinia cambogia-derived (-)-hydroxycitric acid (HCA) is a popular and natural supplement for weight management. HCA is a competitive inhibitor of the enzyme ATP citrate lyase, which catalyzes the conversion of citrate and coenzyme A to oxaloacetate and acetyl coenzyme A (acetyl CoA) in the cytosol. Acetyl CoA is used in the synthesis of fatty acids, cholesterol and triglycerides, and in the synthesis of acetylcholine in the central nervous system. Studies have demonstrated the efficacy of a novel 60% calcium-potassium salt of HCA derived from Garcinia cambogia (HCA-SX, Super CitriMax) in weight management. Results have shown that HCA-SX promotes fat oxidation, enhances serotonin release and availability in the brain cortex, normalizes lipid profiles, and lowers serum leptin levels in obese subjects. Acute oral, acute dermal, primary dermal irritation and primary eye irritation toxicity, as well as Ames bacterial reverse mutation studies and mouse lymphoma tests have demonstrated the safety of HCA-SX. However, no detailed long-term safety of HCA-SX or any other HCA extract has been previously assessed. We evaluated the dose- and time-dependent effects of HCA-SX in Sprague-Dawley rats on body weight, selected organ weights, hepatic lipid peroxidation and DNA fragmentation, hematology and clinical chemistry over a period of 90 days. Furthermore, a 90-day histopathological evaluation was conducted. The animals were treated with 0, 0.2, 2.0 and 5.0% HCA-SX of feed intake and were sacrificed on 30, 60 or 90 days of treatment. The body weight and selected organ weights were assessed and correlated as a % of body weight and brain weight at 90 days of treatment. A significant reduction in body weight was observed in treated rats as compared to control animals. An advancing age-induced marginal increase in hepatic lipid peroxidation was observed in both male and female rats, while no such difference in hepatic DNA fragmentation was observed as compared to the control

  6. Subcritical-Water Extraction of Organics from Solid Matrices

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Amashukeli, Xenia; Grunthaner, Frank; Patrick, Steven; Kirby, James; Bickler, Donald; Willis, Peter; Pelletier, Christine; Bryson, Charles

    2009-01-01

    An apparatus for extracting organic compounds from soils, sands, and other solid matrix materials utilizes water at subcritical temperature and pressure as a solvent. The apparatus, called subcritical water extractor (SCWE), is a prototype of subsystems of future instrumentation systems to be used in searching for organic compounds as signs of past or present life on Mars. An aqueous solution generated by an apparatus like this one can be analyzed by any of a variety of established chromatographic or spectroscopic means to detect the dissolved organic compound( s). The apparatus can be used on Earth: indeed, in proof-of-concept experiments, SCWE was used to extract amino acids from soils of the Atacama Desert (Chile), which was chosen because the dryness and other relevant soil conditions there approximate those on Mars. The design of the apparatus is based partly on the fact that the relative permittivity (also known as the dielectric constant) of liquid water varies with temperature and pressure. At a temperature of 30 C and a pressure of 0.1 MPa, the relative permittivity of water is 79.6, due to the strong dipole-dipole electrostatic interactions between individual molecular dipoles. As the temperature increases, increasing thermal energy causes increasing disorientation of molecular dipoles, with a consequent decrease in relative permittivity. For example, water at a temperature of 325 C and pressure of 20 MPa has a relative permittivity of 17.5, which is similar to the relative permittivities of such nonpolar organic solvents as 1-butanol (17.8). In the operation of this apparatus, the temperature and pressure of water are adjusted so that the water can be used in place of commonly used organic solvents to extract compounds that have dissimilar physical and chemical properties.

  7. Influence of dissolved organic carbon content on modelling natural organic matter acid-base properties.

    PubMed

    Garnier, Cédric; Mounier, Stéphane; Benaïm, Jean Yves

    2004-10-01

    Natural organic matter (NOM) behaviour towards proton is an important parameter to understand NOM fate in the environment. Moreover, it is necessary to determine NOM acid-base properties before investigating trace metals complexation by natural organic matter. This work focuses on the possibility to determine these acid-base properties by accurate and simple titrations, even at low organic matter concentrations. So, the experiments were conducted on concentrated and diluted solutions of extracted humic and fulvic acid from Laurentian River, on concentrated and diluted model solutions of well-known simple molecules (acetic and phenolic acids), and on natural samples from the Seine river (France) which are not pre-concentrated. Titration experiments were modelled by a 6 acidic-sites discrete model, except for the model solutions. The modelling software used, called PROSECE (Programme d'Optimisation et de SpEciation Chimique dans l'Environnement), has been developed in our laboratory, is based on the mass balance equilibrium resolution. The results obtained on extracted organic matter and model solutions point out a threshold value for a confident determination of the studied organic matter acid-base properties. They also show an aberrant decreasing carboxylic/phenolic ratio with increasing sample dilution. This shift is neither due to any conformational effect, since it is also observed on model solutions, nor to ionic strength variations which is controlled during all experiments. On the other hand, it could be the result of an electrode troubleshooting occurring at basic pH values, which effect is amplified at low total concentration of acidic sites. So, in our conditions, the limit for a correct modelling of NOM acid-base properties is defined as 0.04 meq of total analysed acidic sites concentration. As for the analysed natural samples, due to their high acidic sites content, it is possible to model their behaviour despite the low organic carbon concentration.

  8. Extraction behavior and selective separation of lead(II) using N,N-dioctyldiglycol amic acid.

    PubMed

    Shimojo, Kojiro; Nakai, Ayaka; Okamura, Hiroyuki; Ohashi, Akira; Naganawa, Hirochika

    2013-01-01

    Selective separation of lead ions (Pb(2+)) from aqueous solutions containing multiple divalent metal ions (Pb(2+), Cu(2+), Cd(2+), Zn(2+), Mn(2+), Co(2+), and Ni(2+)) was investigated using liquid-liquid extraction. N,N-Dioctyldiglycol amic acid (DODGAA) enabled quantitative extraction and efficient separation of Pb(2+) from the metal ion mixture under mildly acidic conditions. Compared with conventional commercial extractants, DODGAA provided better extraction and excellent selectivity for Pb(2+). The extraction of Pb(2+) with DODGAA proceeded through a proton-exchange reaction and formed a 1:2 complex, Pb(DODGAA)(2). The Pb(2+) was readily stripped from the extracting phase under acidic conditions, and the organic solution with DODGAA could be recycled.

  9. Conversion and Extraction of Insoluble Organic Materials in Meteorites

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Locke, Darren R.; Burton, Aaron S.; Niles, Paul B.

    2016-01-01

    We endeavor to develop and implement methods in our laboratory to convert and extract insoluble organic materials (IOM) from low car-bon bearing meteorites (such as ordinary chondrites) and Precambrian terrestrial rocks for the purpose of determining IOM structure and prebiotic chemistries preserved in these types of samples. The general scheme of converting and extracting IOM in samples is summarized in Figure 1. First, powdered samples are solvent extracted in a micro-Soxhlet apparatus multiple times using solvents ranging from non-polar to polar (hexane - non-polar, dichloromethane - non-polar to polar, methanol - polar protic, and acetonitrile - polar aprotic). Second, solid residue from solvent extractions is processed using strong acids, hydrochloric and hydrofluoric, to dissolve minerals and isolate IOM. Third, the isolated IOM is subjected to both thermal (pyrolysis) and chemical (oxidation) degradation to release compounds from the macromolecular material. Finally, products from oxidation and pyrolysis are analyzed by gas chromatography - mass spectrometry (GCMS). We are working toward an integrated method and analysis scheme that will allow us to determine prebiotic chemistries in ordinary chondrites and Precambrian terrestrial rocks. Powerful techniques that we are including are stepwise, flash, and gradual pyrolysis and ruthenium tetroxide oxidation. More details of the integrated scheme will be presented.

  10. Pectin extraction from pomegranate peels with citric acid.

    PubMed

    Pereira, Paulo Henrique F; Oliveira, Túlio Ítalo S; Rosa, Morsyleide F; Cavalcante, Fabio Lima; Moates, Graham K; Wellner, Nikolaus; Waldron, Keith W; Azeredo, Henriette M C

    2016-07-01

    Pectins were extracted from pomegranate peels with citric acid, according to a central composite design with three variables: pH (2-4), temperature (70-90°C), and extraction time (40-150min). Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) spectroscopy was used to follow changes in material composition during the main steps of pectin extraction, and also to determine the degree of methyl esterification and galacturonic acid content of pectins produced under different conditions. Harsh conditions enhanced the extraction yield and the galacturonic acid contents, but decreased the degree of methoxylation. The optimum extraction conditions, defined as those predicted to result in a yield of galacturonic acid higher than 8g/100g while keeping a minimum degree of methoxylation of 54% were: 88°C, 120min, pH 2.5. Close agreement was found between experimental and predicted values at the extraction conditions defined as optimum. PMID:27044343

  11. Pectin extraction from pomegranate peels with citric acid.

    PubMed

    Pereira, Paulo Henrique F; Oliveira, Túlio Ítalo S; Rosa, Morsyleide F; Cavalcante, Fabio Lima; Moates, Graham K; Wellner, Nikolaus; Waldron, Keith W; Azeredo, Henriette M C

    2016-07-01

    Pectins were extracted from pomegranate peels with citric acid, according to a central composite design with three variables: pH (2-4), temperature (70-90°C), and extraction time (40-150min). Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) spectroscopy was used to follow changes in material composition during the main steps of pectin extraction, and also to determine the degree of methyl esterification and galacturonic acid content of pectins produced under different conditions. Harsh conditions enhanced the extraction yield and the galacturonic acid contents, but decreased the degree of methoxylation. The optimum extraction conditions, defined as those predicted to result in a yield of galacturonic acid higher than 8g/100g while keeping a minimum degree of methoxylation of 54% were: 88°C, 120min, pH 2.5. Close agreement was found between experimental and predicted values at the extraction conditions defined as optimum.

  12. Organic acid-tolerant microorganisms and uses thereof for producing organic acids

    DOEpatents

    Pfleger, Brian Frederick; Begemann, Matthew Brett

    2014-05-06

    Organic acid-tolerant microorganisms and methods of using same. The organic acid-tolerant microorganisms comprise modifications that reduce or ablate AcsA activity or AcsA homolog activity. The modifications increase tolerance of the microorganisms to such organic acids as 3-hydroxypropionic acid (3HP), acrylic acid, and propionic acid. Further modifications to the microorganisms such as increasing expression of malonyl-CoA reductase and/or acetyl-CoA carboxylase provide or increase the ability of the microorganisms to produce 3HP. Methods of generating an organic acid with the modified microorganisms are provided. Methods of using acsA or homologs thereof as counter-selectable markers include replacing acsA or homologs thereof in cells with genes of interest and selecting for the cells comprising the genes of interest with amounts of organic acids effective to inhibit growth of cells harboring acsA or the homologs.

  13. Leaching of organic acids from macromolecular organic matter by non-supercritical CO2

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sauer, P.; Glombitza, C.; Kallmeyer, J.

    2012-04-01

    The storage of CO2 in underground reservoirs is discussed controversly in the scientific literature. The worldwide search for suitable storage formations also considers coal-bearing strata. CO2 is already injected into seams for enhanced recovery of coal bed methane. However, the effects of increased CO2 concentration, especially on organic matter rich formations, are rarely investigated. The injected CO2 will dissolve in the pore water, causing a decrease in pH and resulting in acidic formation waters. Huge amounts of low molecular weight organic acids (LMWOAs) are chemically bound to the macromolecular matrix of sedimentary organic matter and may be liberated by hydrolysis, which is enhanced by the acidic porewater. Recent investigations outlined the importance of LMWOAs as a feedstock for microbial life in the subsurface [1]. Therefore, injection of CO2 into coal formations may result in enhanced nutrient supply for subsurface microbes. To investigate the effect of high concentrations of dissolved CO2 on the release of LMWOAs from coal we developed an inexpensive high-pressure high temperature system that allows manipulating the partial pressure of dissolved gases at pressures and temperatures up to 60 MPa and 120° C, respectively. In a reservoir vessel, gases are added to saturate the extraction medium to the desired level. Inside the extraction vessel hangs a flexible and inert PVDF sleeve (polyvinylidene fluoride, almost impermeable for gases), holding the sample and separating it from the pressure fluid. The flexibility of the sleeve allows for subsampling without loss of pressure. Coal samples from the DEBITS-1 well, Waikato Basin, NZ (R0 = 0.29, TOC = 30%). were extracted at 90° C and 5 MPa, either with pure or CO2-saturated water. Subsamples were taken at different time points during the extraction. The extracted LMWOAs such as formate, acetate and oxalate were analysed by ion chromatography. Yields of LMWOAs were higher with pure water than with CO2

  14. Testing of organic acids in engine coolants

    SciTech Connect

    Weir, T.W.

    1999-08-01

    The effectiveness of 30 organic acids as inhibitors in engine coolants is reported. Tests include glassware corrosion of coupled and uncoupled metals. FORD galvanostatic and cyclic polarization electrochemistry for aluminum pitting, and reserve alkalinity (RA) measurements. Details of each test are discussed as well as some general conclusions. For example, benzoic acid inhibits coupled metals well but is ineffective on cast iron when uncoupled. In benzoic acid inhibits coupled metals well but is ineffective on cast iron when uncoupled. In general, the organic acids provide little RA when titrated to a pH of 5.5, titration to a pH of 4.5 can result in precipitation of the acid. Trends with respect to acid chain length are reported also.

  15. [Effects of low molecular weight organic acids on speciation of exogenous Cu in an acid soil].

    PubMed

    Huang, Guo-Yong; Fu, Qing-Ling; Zhu, Jun; Wan, Tian-Ying; Hu, Hong-Qing

    2014-08-01

    In order to ascertain the effect of LMWOA (citric acid, tartaric acid, oxalic acid) on Cu-contaminated soils and to investigate the change of Cu species, a red soil derived from quartz sandstone deposit was added by Cu (copper) in the form of CuSO4 x 5H2O so as to simulate soil Cu pollution, keeping the additional Cu concentrations were 0, 100, 200, 400 mg x kg(-1) respectively. After 9 months, different LMWOA was also added into the simulated soil, keeping the additional LMWOAs in soil were 0, 5, 10, 20 mmol x kg(-1) respectively. After 2 weeks incubation, the modified sequential extraction method on BCR (European Communities Bureau of Reference) was used to evaluate the effects of these LMWOAs on the changes of copper forms in soil. The result showed that the percentage of weak acid dissolved Cu, the most effective form in the soil increased with three organic acids increase in quantity in the simulated polluted soil. And there was a good activation effect on Cu in the soil when organic acid added. Activation effects on Cu increased with concentration of citric acid increasing, but it showed a rise trend before they are basically remained unchanged in the case of tartaric acid and oxalic acid added in the soil. On the contrary, the state of the reduction of copper which was regarded as a complement for effective state decreased with the increased concentration of organic acid in the soil, especially with citric acid. When 20 mmol x kg(-1) oxalic acid and citric acid were added into the soil, the activation effect was the best; whereas for tartaric, the concentration was 10 mmol x kg(-1). In general, the effect on the changes of Cu forms in the soil is citric acid > tartaric acid > oxalic acid.

  16. A solvent extraction approach to recover acetic acid from mixed waste acids produced during semiconductor wafer process.

    PubMed

    Shin, Chang-Hoon; Kim, Ju-Yup; Kim, Jun-Young; Kim, Hyun-Sang; Lee, Hyang-Sook; Mohapatra, Debasish; Ahn, Jae-Woo; Ahn, Jong-Gwan; Bae, Wookeun

    2009-03-15

    Recovery of acetic acid (HAc) from the waste etching solution discharged from silicon wafer manufacturing process has been attempted by using solvent extraction process. For this purpose 2-ethylhexyl alcohol (EHA) was used as organic solvent. In the pre-treatment stage >99% silicon and hydrofluoric acid was removed from the solution by precipitation. The synthesized product, Na(2)SiF(6) having 98.2% purity was considered of commercial grade having good market value. The waste solution containing 279 g/L acetic acid, 513 g/L nitric acid, 0.9 g/L hydrofluoric acid and 0.030 g/L silicon was used for solvent extraction study. From the batch test results equilibrium conditions for HAc recovery were optimized and found to be 4 stages of extraction at an organic:aqueous (O:A) ratio of 3, 4 stages of scrubbing and 4 stages of stripping at an O:A ratio of 1. Deionized water (DW) was used as stripping agent to elute HAc from organic phase. In the whole batch process 96.3% acetic acid recovery was achieved. Continuous operations were successfully conducted for 100 h using a mixer-settler to examine the feasibility of the extraction system for its possible commercial application. Finally, a complete process flowsheet with material balance for the separation and recovery of HAc has been proposed.

  17. Nanoparticles modified with multiple organic acids

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cook, Ronald Lee (Inventor); Luebben, Silvia DeVito (Inventor); Myers, Andrew William (Inventor); Smith, Bryan Matthew (Inventor); Elliott, Brian John (Inventor); Kreutzer, Cory (Inventor); Wilson, Carolina (Inventor); Meiser, Manfred (Inventor)

    2007-01-01

    Surface-modified nanoparticles of boehmite, and methods for preparing the same. Aluminum oxyhydroxide nanoparticles are surface modified by reaction with selected amounts of organic acids. In particular, the nanoparticle surface is modified by reactions with two or more different carboxylic acids, at least one of which is an organic carboxylic acid. The product is a surface modified boehmite nanoparticle that has an inorganic aluminum oxyhydroxide core, or part aluminum oxyhydroxide core and a surface-bonded organic shell. Organic carboxylic acids of this invention contain at least one carboxylic acid group and one carbon-hydrogen bond. One embodiment of this invention provides boehmite nanoparticles that have been surface modified with two or more acids one of which additional carries at least one reactive functional group. Another embodiment of this invention provides boehmite nanoparticles that have been surface modified with multiple acids one of which has molecular weight or average molecular weight greater than or equal to 500 Daltons. Yet, another embodiment of this invention provides boehmite nanoparticles that are surface modified with two or more acids one of which is hydrophobic in nature and has solubility in water of less than 15 by weight. The products of the methods of this invention have specific useful properties when used in mixture with liquids, as filler in solids, or as stand-alone entities.

  18. Nanoparticles modified with multiple organic acids

    DOEpatents

    Cook, Ronald Lee; Luebben, Silvia DeVito; Myers, Andrew William; Smith, Bryan Matthew; Elliott, Brian John; Kreutzer, Cory; Wilson, Carolina; Meiser, Manfred

    2007-07-17

    Surface-modified nanoparticles of boehmite, and methods for preparing the same. Aluminum oxyhydroxide nanoparticles are surface modified by reaction with selected amounts of organic acids. In particular, the nanoparticle surface is modified by reactions with two or more different carboxylic acids, at least one of which is an organic carboxylic acid. The product is a surface modified boehmite nanoparticle that has an inorganic aluminum oxyhydroxide core, or part aluminum oxyhydroxide core and a surface-bonded organic shell. Organic carboxylic acids of this invention contain at least one carboxylic acid group and one carbon-hydrogen bond. One embodiment of this invention provides boehmite nanoparticles that have been surface modified with two or more acids one of which additional carries at least one reactive functional group. Another embodiment of this invention provides boehmite nanoparticles that have been surface modified with multiple acids one of which has molecular weight or average molecular weight greater than or equal to 500 Daltons. Yet, another embodiment of this invention provides boehmite nanoparticles that are surface modified with two or more acids one of which is hydrophobic in nature and has solubility in water of less than 15 by weight. The products of the methods of this invention have specific useful properties when used in mixture with liquids, as filler in solids, or as stand-alone entities.

  19. HPLC method for the simultaneous quantification of the major organic acids in Angeleno plum fruit

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Yanwei; Wang, Jing; Cheng, Wei; Zhao, Zhilei; Cao, Jiankang

    2014-08-01

    A method was developed to profile major organic acids in Angeleno fruit by high performance liquid chromatography. Organic acids in plum were extracted by water with ultra- sonication at 50°C for 30 min. The extracts were chromatographed on Waters Atlantis T3 C18 column (4.6 mm×250 mm, 5 μm) with 0.01mol/L sulfuric acid and water as mobile phase, and flow rate was 0.5 ml/min. The column temperature was 40C, and chromatography was monitored by a diode array detector at 210 nm. The result showed that malic acid, citric acid, tartaric acid, oxalic acid, pyruvic acid, acetic acid, succinic acid in Angeleno plum, and the malic acid was the major organic acids. The coefficient of determination of the standard calibration curve is R2 > 0.999. The organic acids recovery ranged from 99.11% for Malic acid to 106.70% for Oxalic acid, and CV (n=6) ranged from 0.95% for Malic acid to 6.23% for Oxalic acid, respectively. The method was accurate, sensitive and feasible in analyzing the organic acids in Angeleno plum.

  20. Unusual stable isotope ratios in amino acid and carboxylic acid extracts from the Murchison meteorite.

    PubMed

    Epstein, S; Krishnamurthy, R V; Cronin, J R; Pizzarello, S; Yuen, G U

    1987-04-01

    Much effort has been directed to analyses of organic compounds in carbonaceous chondrites because of their implications for organic chemical evolution and the origin of life. We have determined the isotopic composition of hydrogen, nitrogen and carbon in amino acid and monocarboxylic acid extracts from the Murchison meteorite. The unusually high D/H and 15N/14N ratios in the amino acid fraction (delta D = 1,370% after correction for isotope exchange; delta 15N = 90) are uniquely characteristic of known interstellar organic materials. The delta D value of the monocarboxylic acid fraction is lower (377%), but still consistent with an interstellar origin. These results confirm the extraterrestrial origin of both classes of compound, and provide the first evidence suggesting a direct relationship between the massive organo-synthesis occurring in interstellar clouds and the presence of pre-biotic compounds in primitive planetary bodies. The isotope data also bear on the historical problem of distinguishing indigenous material from terrestrial contaminants.

  1. Subcritical water extraction of organic matter from sedimentary rocks.

    PubMed

    Luong, Duy; Sephton, Mark A; Watson, Jonathan S

    2015-06-16

    Subcritical water extraction of organic matter containing sedimentary rocks at 300°C and 1500 psi produces extracts comparable to conventional solvent extraction. Subcritical water extraction of previously solvent extracted samples confirms that high molecular weight organic matter (kerogen) degradation is not occurring and that only low molecular weight organic matter (free compounds) are being accessed in analogy to solvent extraction procedures. The sedimentary rocks chosen for extraction span the classic geochemical organic matter types. A type I organic matter-containing sedimentary rock produces n-alkanes and isoprenoidal hydrocarbons at 300°C and 1500 psi that indicate an algal source for the organic matter. Extraction of a rock containing type II organic matter at the same temperature and pressure produces aliphatic hydrocarbons but also aromatic compounds reflecting the increased contributions from terrestrial organic matter in this sample. A type III organic matter-containing sample produces a range of non-polar and polar compounds including polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons and oxygenated aromatic compounds at 300°C and 1500 psi reflecting a dominantly terrestrial origin for the organic materials. Although extraction at 300°C and 1500 psi produces extracts that are comparable to solvent extraction, lower temperature steps display differences related to organic solubility. The type I organic matter produces no products below 300°C and 1500 psi, reflecting its dominantly aliphatic character, while type II and type III organic matter contribute some polar components to the lower temperature steps, reflecting the chemical heterogeneity of their organic inventory. The separation of polar and non-polar organic compounds by using different temperatures provides the potential for selective extraction that may obviate the need for subsequent preparative chromatography steps. Our results indicate that subcritical water extraction can act as a suitable

  2. Subcritical water extraction of organic matter from sedimentary rocks.

    PubMed

    Luong, Duy; Sephton, Mark A; Watson, Jonathan S

    2015-06-16

    Subcritical water extraction of organic matter containing sedimentary rocks at 300°C and 1500 psi produces extracts comparable to conventional solvent extraction. Subcritical water extraction of previously solvent extracted samples confirms that high molecular weight organic matter (kerogen) degradation is not occurring and that only low molecular weight organic matter (free compounds) are being accessed in analogy to solvent extraction procedures. The sedimentary rocks chosen for extraction span the classic geochemical organic matter types. A type I organic matter-containing sedimentary rock produces n-alkanes and isoprenoidal hydrocarbons at 300°C and 1500 psi that indicate an algal source for the organic matter. Extraction of a rock containing type II organic matter at the same temperature and pressure produces aliphatic hydrocarbons but also aromatic compounds reflecting the increased contributions from terrestrial organic matter in this sample. A type III organic matter-containing sample produces a range of non-polar and polar compounds including polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons and oxygenated aromatic compounds at 300°C and 1500 psi reflecting a dominantly terrestrial origin for the organic materials. Although extraction at 300°C and 1500 psi produces extracts that are comparable to solvent extraction, lower temperature steps display differences related to organic solubility. The type I organic matter produces no products below 300°C and 1500 psi, reflecting its dominantly aliphatic character, while type II and type III organic matter contribute some polar components to the lower temperature steps, reflecting the chemical heterogeneity of their organic inventory. The separation of polar and non-polar organic compounds by using different temperatures provides the potential for selective extraction that may obviate the need for subsequent preparative chromatography steps. Our results indicate that subcritical water extraction can act as a suitable

  3. Screening of organic halogens and identification of chlorinated benzoic acids in carbonaceous meteorites.

    PubMed

    Schöler, Heinz F; Nkusi, Gerard; Niedan, Volker W; Müller, German; Spitthoff, Bianca

    2005-09-01

    The occurrence of halogenated organic compounds measured as a sum parameter and the evidence of chlorinated benzoic acids in four carbonaceous meteorites (Cold Bokkeveld, Murray, Murchison and Orgueil) from four independent fall events is reported. After AOX (Adsorbable organic halogen) and EOX (Extractable organic halogen) screening to quantify organically bound halogens, chlorinated organic compounds were analyzed by gas chromatography. AOX concentrations varying from 124 to 209 microg Cl/g d.w. were observed in carbonaceous meteorites. Ion chromatographic analysis of the distribution of organically bound halogens performed on the Cold Bokkeveld meteorite revealed that chlorinated and brominated organic compounds were extractable, up to 70%, whereas only trace amounts of organofluorines could be extracted. Chlorinated benzoic acids have been identified in carbonaceous meteorite extracts. Their presence and concentrations raise the question concerning the origin of halogenated, especially chlorinated, organic compounds in primitive planetary matter.

  4. COMBINING NEUTRAL AND ACIDIC EXTRACTANTS FOR RECOVERING TRANSURANIC ELEMENTS FROM NUCLEAR FUEL

    SciTech Connect

    Lumetta, Gregg J.; Neiner, Doinita; Sinkov, Sergey I.; Carter, Jennifer C.; Braley, Jenifer C.; Latesky, Stanley; Gelis, Artem V.; Tkac, Peter; Vandegrift, George F.

    2011-10-03

    We have been investigating a solvent extraction system that combines a neutral extractant--octyl(phenyl)-N,N-diisobutyl-carbamoylmethylphosphine oxide (CMPO)--with an acidic extractant--bis(2-ethylhexyl)phosphoric acid (HDEHP)--to form a single process solvent for separating Am and Cm from the other components of irradiated nuclear fuel. It was originally hypothesized that the extraction chemistry of CMPO would dominate under conditions of high acidity (> 1 M HNO3), resulting in co-extraction of the transuranic and lanthanide elements into the organic phase. Contacting the loaded solvent with a solution of diethylenetriaminepentaacetate (DTPA) buffered with lactic or citric acid at pH {approx}3 to 4 would result in a condition in which the HDEHP chemistry dominates. Although the data somewhat support this hypothesis, it is clear that there are interactions between the two extractants such that they do not act independently in the extraction and stripping regimes. We report here studies directed at determining the nature and extent of interaction between CMPO and HDEHP, the synergistic behavior of CMPO and HDEHP in the extraction of americium and neodymium, and progress towards determining the thermodynamics of this extraction system. Neodymium and americium behave similarly in the combined solvent system, with a significant synergy between CMPO and HDEHP in the extraction of both of these trivalent elements from lactate-buffered DTPA solutions. In contrast, a much weaker synergistic behaviour is observed for europium. Thus, investigations into the fundamental chemistry involved in this system have focused on the neodymium extraction. The extraction of neodymium has been systematically investigated, individually varying the HDEHP concentration, the CMPO concentration, or the aqueous phase composition. Thermodynamic modeling of the neodymium extraction system has been initiated. Interactions between CMPO and HDEHP in the organic phase must be taken into account in

  5. Determination of silver in soils, sediments, and rocks by organic-chelate extraction and atomic absorption spectrophotometry

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Chao, T.T.; Ball, J.W.; Nakagawa, H.M.

    1971-01-01

    A useful method for the determination of silver in soil, sediment, and rock samples in geochemical exploration has been developed. The sample is digested with concentrated nitric acid, and the silver extracted with triisooctyl thiophosphate (TOTP) in methyl isobutyl ketone (MIBK) after dilution of the acid digest to approximately 6 M. The extraction of silver into the organic extractant is quantitative and not affected by the nitric acid concentration from 4 M to 8 M, or by different volumes of TOTP-MIBK. The extracted silver is stable and remains in the organic phase up to several days. The silver concentration is determined by atomic absorption spectrophotometry. ?? 1971.

  6. PROCESS FOR EXTRACTING NEPTUNIUM AND PLUTONIUM FROM NITRIC ACID SOLUTIONS OF SAME CONTAINING URANYL NITRATE WITH A TERTIARY AMINE

    DOEpatents

    Sheppard, J.C.

    1962-07-31

    A process of selectively extracting plutonium nitrate and neptunium nitrate with an organic solution of a tertiary amine, away from uranyl nitrate present in an aqueous solution in a maximum concentration of 1M is described. The nitric acid concentration is adjusted to about 4M and nitrous acid is added prior to extraction. (AEC)

  7. AUTOMATED ANALYSIS OF AQUEOUS SAMPLES CONTAINING PESTICIDES, ACIDIC/BASIC/NEUTRAL SEMIVOLATILES AND VOLATILE ORGANIC COMPOUNDS BY SOLID PHASE EXTRACTION COUPLED IN-LINE TO LARGE VOLUME INJECTION GC/MS

    EPA Science Inventory

    Data is presented on the development of a new automated system combining solid phase extraction (SPE) with GC/MS spectrometry for the single-run analysis of water samples containing a broad range of organic compounds. The system uses commercially available automated in-line 10-m...

  8. New crystallization of fatty acids from aqueous ethanol solution combined with liquid-liquid extraction

    SciTech Connect

    Maeda, Kouji; Nomura, Yoshihisa; Tai, Kimihiko; Ueno, Yoshitaka; Fukui, Keisuke; Hirota, Syouji

    1999-06-01

    A new separation process of saturated fatty acids (lauric acid-myristic acid) using crystallization from an aqueous ethanol solution has been examined. There were two vessels in this separation process: an extraction vessel and a crystallization vessel. The fatty acids in the aqueous phase were first extracted from their organic phase (melt) in the extraction vessel. The fatty acids in the aqueous phase were continuously introduced to the crystallization vessel, and then the fatty acids were crystallized there. The crystals of the fatty acids were collected continuously above the aqueous phase in the crystallization vessel. In this process, the yield and the purity of the crystals over time were measured, and it was found that the purity of lauric acid increased unsteadily up to 0.98 mole fraction of lauric acid with an increase in the yield of the low yield range. The mole fraction of ethanol in the aqueous phase could be significant to control the relationship between the yield and the purity of the crystals. Three different mole fractions of lauric acid in the organic phase were used to be separated in this process. Moreover, the authors have considered the effective separations of this process, and the maximum yield and purity of the crystals have been estimated by a simple mass balance.

  9. Metabolism of Sugars and Organic Acids in Immature Grape Berries

    PubMed Central

    Hardy, P. J.

    1968-01-01

    Individual intact excised immature Sultana berries were supplied through the cut pedicel with 14C-sugars and organic acids. When 14C-hexoses were supplied malic and tartaric acids accounted for 25% and 10% of the total activity extracted after 24 hours, and sucrose was synthesized. It is proposed that the changes in the levels of organic acids during ripening are related to changes in the ability of the berry to synthesize them. Although administration of uniformly labeled sucrose resulted in the unequal labeling of glucose and fructose, the results indicate breakdown of sucrose by invertase. It is suggested that the route of entry of the pedicel-fed sugars into the berry may be different from the route taken by sugar translocated from the leaf. PMID:16656755

  10. Extraction and concentration of organic solutes from water

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Goldberg, M.C.; DeLong, L.; Sinclair, M.

    1973-01-01

    A continuous extraction apparatus is described. It extracts and simultaneously concentrates organic solutes from water. Any immiscible solvent can be used in this apparatus if the solute will partition between the solvent and water. A concentration factor of up to 105 is obtained with this technique. The dipole moment difference between the solute and solvent is demonstrated to be an index of the extraction efficiency. Optimum extraction of a given molecular species may be obtained by use of this index.

  11. SOLVENT EXTRACTION PROCESS FOR THE RECOVERY OF METALS FROM PHOSPHORIC ACID

    DOEpatents

    Bailes, R.H.; Long, R.S.

    1958-11-01

    > A solvent extraction process is presented for recovering metal values including uranium, thorium, and other lanthanide and actinide elements from crude industrial phosphoric acid solutions. The process conslsts of contacting said solution with an immisclble organic solvent extractant containing a diluent and a material selected from the group consisting of mono and di alkyl phosphates, alkyl phosphonates and alkyl phosphites. The uranlum enters the extractant phase and is subsequently recovered by any of the methods known to the art. Recovery is improved if the phosphate solution is treated with a reducing agent such as iron or aluminum powder prior to the extraction step.

  12. Photoenhanced anaerobic digestion of organic acids

    DOEpatents

    Weaver, Paul F.

    1990-01-01

    A process is described for rapid conversion of organic acids and alcohols anaerobic digesters into hydrogen and carbon dioxide, the optimal precursor substrates for production of methane. The process includes addition of photosynthetic bacteria to the digester and exposure of the bacteria to radiant energy (e.g., solar energy). The process also increases the pH stability of the digester to prevent failure of the digester. Preferred substrates for photosynthetic bacteria are the organic acid and alcohol waste products of fermentative bacteria. In mixed culture with methanogenic bacteria or in defined co-culture with non-aceticlastic methanogenic bacteria, photosynthetic bacteria are capable of facilitating the conversion or organic acids and alcohols into methane with low levels of light energy input.

  13. Photoenhanced anaerobic digestion of organic acids

    SciTech Connect

    Weaver, P.F.

    1989-08-25

    A process is described for rapid conversion of organic acids and alcohols in anaerobic digesters into hydrogen and carbon dioxide, the optimal precursor substrates for production of methane. The process includes addition of photosynthetic bacteria to the digester and exposure of the bacteria to radiant energy (e.g., solar energy). The process also increases the pH stability of the digester to prevent failure of the digester. Preferred substrates for photosynthetic bacteria are the organic acid and alcohol waste products of fermentative bacteria. In mixed culture with methanogenic bacteria or in defined co-culture with non-aceticlastic methanogenic bacteria, photosynthetic bacteria are capable of facilitating the conversion of organic acids and alcohols into methane with low levels of light energy input. 8 figs.

  14. Hydrogen peroxide in sulfuric acid extraction of uranium ores

    SciTech Connect

    DeVries, F.W.

    1984-01-10

    Uranium can be extracted from its ores at a pH of 2.5 to 5.5 using sulfuric acid, hydrogen peroxide, trace of iron and a sulfate. The extraction process is applicable to both tank leaching of conventionally mined ores and in situ leaching.

  15. Electromembrane extraction and HPLC analysis of haloacetic acids and aromatic acetic acids in wastewater.

    PubMed

    Alhooshani, Khalid; Basheer, Chanbasha; Kaur, Jagjit; Gjelstad, Astrid; Rasmussen, Knut E; Pedersen-Bjergaard, Stig; Lee, Hian Kee

    2011-10-30

    For the first time, haloacetic acids and aromatic acetic acids were extracted from wastewater samples using electromembrane extraction (EME). A thin layer of toluene immobilized on the walls of a polypropylene membrane envelope served as an artificial supported liquid membrane (SLM). The haloacetic acids (HAAs) (chloroacetic acid, dichloroacetic acid, and trifluoroacetic acid) and aromatic acetic acids (phenylacetic acid and p-hydroxyphenylacetic acid) were extracted through the SLM and into an alkalized aqueous buffer solution. The buffer solution was located inside the membrane envelope. The electrical potential difference sustained over the membrane acted as the driving force for the transport of haloacetic acids into the membrane by electrokinetic migration. After extraction, the extracts were analyzed by high-performance liquid chromatography-ultraviolet detection. The detection limits were between 0.072 and 40.3 ng L(-1). The calibration plot linearity was in the range of 5 and 200 μg L(-1) while the correlation coefficients for the analytes ranged from 0.9932 to 0.9967. Relative recoveries were in the range of 87-106%. The extraction efficiency was found to be comparable to that of solid-phase extraction.

  16. Effects of aerosol formulation to amino acids and fatty acids contents in Haruan extract.

    PubMed

    Febriyenti; Bai-Baie, Saringat Bin; Laila, Lia

    2012-01-01

    Haruan (Channa striatus) extract was formulated to aerosol for wound and burn treatment. Haruan extract is containing amino acids and fatty acids that important for wound healing process. The purpose of this study is to observe the effect of formulation and other excipients in the formula to amino acids and fatty acids content in Haruan extract before and after formulated into aerosol. Precolumn derivatization with 6-aminoquinolyl-N-hydroxysuccinimidyl carbamate (AQC) method is used for amino acids analysis. Fatty acids in Haruan extract were esterified using transesterification method to form FAMEs before analyzed using GC. Boron trifluoride-methanol reagent is used for transesterification. Tyrosine and methionine concentrations were different after formulated. The concentrations were decrease. There are six fatty acids have amount that significantly different after formulated into concentrate and aerosol. Contents of these fatty acids were increase. Generally, fatty acids which had content increased after formulated were the long-chain fatty acids. This might be happen because of chain extension process. Saponification and decarboxylation would give the chain extended product. Therefore contents of long-chain fatty acids were increase. Generally, the aerosol formulation did not affect the amino acids concentrations in Haruan extract while some long-chain fatty acids concentrations were increase after formulated into concentrate and aerosol.

  17. Fatty and resinic acids extractions from crude tall oil

    SciTech Connect

    Nogueira, J.M.F.

    1996-11-01

    The separation of fatty and resinic acidic fractions from crude tall-oil soap solutions with n-heptane by the technique of dissociation extraction is discussed. The theory of the overall process is supported by a systematic study developed to cover the high selectivity demonstrated in the differential solubility and the aptness between fatty and diterpenic acids to both liquids phases. To study the main factors affecting those liquid-liquid extraction systems and the amphiphilic behavior of such molecules involved, sodium salts aqueous solutions of crude tall oil and synthetic mixtures as molecular acidic models were used.

  18. Organic acids from biomass by continuous fermentation

    SciTech Connect

    Clausen, E.C.; Gaddy, J.C.

    1984-12-01

    In continuous fermentation, a 90% conversion of glucose and an 86% conversion of xylose were achieved in the continuous stirred tank reactor (CSTR) for a 72 hour retention time and a 30 g/l total sugar concentration. The fermentation in the CSTR was shown to be about four times faster than that in a batch reactor. A 92% conversion of glucose and a 75% conversion of xylose were found at a 28 hour retention time in the immobilized cell reaction (ICR). Also, about 67% of the sugar can be converted into organic acids in this reactor, yielding more than 20 g/L of organic acids in the ICR. The total capital investment expected for a 20 million lb (9 Gg)/yr propionic acid plant is expected to be just over $11 million, including hydrolysis and acid production. Acetic acid is also produced in this plant at a rate of 11.1 million lb (5 Gg)/yr. For this facility, the recovered acids costs is projected to be 16.6 cents/lbm (36.6cents/kg). 11 references.

  19. Direct acid methylation for extraction of fatty acid content from microalgae cells.

    PubMed

    Frigo-Vaz, Benjamin D; Wang, Ping

    2014-08-01

    Direct acid methylation was examined as a means for both analysis of fatty acid content in microalgal cells and biodiesel production without pretreatment. Microalgal cells of Chlamydomonas reinhardtii and Dunaliella tertiolecta were prepared and examined. It appeared that direct acid methylation extracted higher fatty acid content than the solvent-based Soxhlet extraction process. It also revealed that the latter was prone to extract a significant amount of nonlipid hydrophobic impurities, including hydrophobic proteins and phytol-type compounds, while direct methylation produces essentially pure ester product. This work demonstrates that direct acid methylation provides superior fatty acid extraction, promising an efficient process for either quantification of lipid content or production of biodiesel. PMID:24838798

  20. Quantification of organic acids using voltammetric tongues.

    PubMed

    Escobar, Juan David; Alcaniz, Miguel; Masot, Rafael; Fuentes, Ana; Bataller, Roman; Soto, Juan; Barat, Jose Manuel

    2013-06-01

    Recently, electronic tongues (ET) have appeared as an excellent alternative to traditional techniques for the evaluation of food quality and processes. ET systems are based on arrays of low selectivity sensors that are simultaneously sensitive to several components in a measured sample (cross-sensitivity). The aim of this study was to determine the ability of an ET based on pulse voltammetry to quantify organic acids (ascorbic, citric and malic acids) in simple (SS) and binary solutions (BS) using different electrodes. The most significant electrodes for ascorbic acid prediction were Ni and Ag for SS, and Ag and Ir for BS where positive pulses were more suitable than negative ones. The prediction of citric and malic acids in SS and BS were suitable using Ir, Rh, Pt, Ag and Cu electrodes, using both positive and negative pulses.

  1. Efficiency of hexane extraction of napropamide from Aldrich humic acid and soil solutions

    SciTech Connect

    Williams, C.F.; Letey, J.; Farmer, W.J.; Nelson, S.D.; Anderson, M.; Ben-Hur, M.

    1999-12-01

    Dissolved organic matter (DOM) has been shown to form a stable complex with napropamide [2({alpha}-naphthoxy)-N,N-diethyl propionamide] and to facilitate its transport through soil columns. Liquid-liquid extraction of organics is a common method to transfer napropamide from water into an organic phase for gas chromatography analysis. A study was conducted to determine the effect of Aldrich humic acid, soil-derived dissolved organic matter, electrical conductivity, and hydrogen ion activity on the ability of hexane to extract napropamide from solutions and from soil extracts. The electrical conductivity from solutions and from soil extracts. The electrical conductivity of Aldrich humic acid solutions were adjusted to 0.01, 0.97, and 1.69 dS m{sup {minus}1} by adding NaCl and CaCl{sub 2}, and pH was adjusted using HCl and NaOH. Electrical conductivity had no effect on extraction efficiency. In the absence of DOM pH had no effect on extraction efficiency. In the absence of DOM pH had no effect on extraction efficiency. Extraction efficiency decreased with increasing DOM concentration. Maximum reduction in extraction efficiency occurred in the presence of DOM when solution pH was near neutrality. A maximum extraction efficiency of 100% was observed in the absence of DOM and a minimum of 68% when napropamide was added to DOM solutions at pH 8.2 and then lowered to pH 5.6. Management practices such as liming and allowing napropamide to dry on the soil may increase environmental transport. Also quantification of napropamide in environmental samples can be affected by DOM.

  2. Extraction and analysis of trifluoroacetic Acid in environmental waters.

    PubMed

    Wujcik, C E; Cahill, T M; Seiber, J N

    1998-10-01

    Trifluoroacetic acid (TFA), a mildly phytotoxic compound, is a stable atmospheric breakdown product of HFC-134a, HCFC-123, and HCFC-124. An extraction and analytical method has been developed for the routine analysis of low ppt levels of TFA in aqueous samples. TFA can be quantitatively recovered from most environmental waters by an extraction procedure using a commercial anion-exchange disk. In saline samples (conductivity >620 μS), where the presence of competing anions interfered with recovery, a liquid-liquid extraction cleanup was necessary. After extraction of TFA from water, the dried disk was placed in a headspace vial containing 10% sulfuric acid in methanol and the vial sealed and then vortexed for 30 s. The sulfuric acid-methanol solution extracts trifluoroacetate anion (TFA) from the anion-exchange matrix and, when heated, quantitatively converts it to the methyl ester, which is then analyzed by automated headspace gas chromatography using electron capture or mass spectrometry detection. Several environmental samples in addition to laboratory spike solutions were successfully extracted and analyzed with this technique. Recoveries averaged 108.2% for reagent water spiked at levels from 53 to 2110 ng/L with relative standard deviations ranging from 0.3 to 8.4%. The instrument's limit of detection for TFA standard was 3.3 ng. The limit of quantitation for the extraction and analytical technique was 36 ng/L. Three water samples can be prepared for automated analysis in 20 min using this technique. PMID:21651243

  3. Recovery of uranium from phosphoric acid medium by polymeric composite beads encapsulating organophosphorus extractants

    SciTech Connect

    Singh, D.K.; Yadav, K.K.; Varshney, L.; Singh, H.

    2013-07-01

    The present study deals with the preparation and evaluation of the poly-ethersulfone (PES) based composite beads encapsulating synergistic mixture of D2EHPA and Cyanex 923 (at 4:1 mole ratio) for the separation of uranium from phosphoric acid medium. SEM was used for the characterization of the composite materials. Addition of 1% PVA (polyvinyl alcohol) improved the internal morphology and porosity of the beads. Additionally, microscopic examination of the composite bead confirmed central coconut type cavity surrounded by porous polymer layer of the beads through which exchange of metal ions take place. Effect of various experimental variables including aqueous acidity, metal ion concentration in aqueous feed, concentration of organic extractant inside the beads, extractant to polymer ratio, liquid to solid (L/S) ratio and temperature on the extraction of uranium was studied. Increase in acidity (1-6 M), L/S ratio (1- 10), metal ion concentration (0.2-3 g/L U{sub 3}O{sub 8}) and polymer to extractant ratio (1:4 -1:10) led to decrease in extraction of uranium. At 5.5 M (comparable to wet process phosphoric acid concentration) the extraction of uranium was about 85% at L/S ratio 5. Increase in extractant concentration inside the bead resulted in enhanced extraction of metal ion. Increase in temperature in the range of 30 to 50 Celsius degrees increased the extraction, whereas further increase to 70 C degrees led to the decrease in extraction of uranium. Amongst various reagents tested, stripping of uranium was quantitative by 12% Na{sub 2}CO{sub 3} solution. Polymeric beads were found to be stable and reusable up-to 10 cycles of extraction/stripping. (authors)

  4. Reactions of tetraphenyltitanium with organic acids

    SciTech Connect

    Razuvaev, G.A.; Vyshinskaya, L.I.; Vasil'eva, G.A.

    1987-12-10

    As a result of the reactions of tetraphenyltitanium with dibasic organic acids high yields were obtained of new thermally stable titanium(III) complexes: phenyltitanium(III)carboxylates. Under the action of proton-active reagents (hydrochloric acid, cyclopentadiene, methanol) the latter break down with the breakage of titanium-phenyl bond. The proposed structure was based on IR- and ESR-spectral data. The dinuclear structure of the complexes was established on the basis of a study of the triplet structure of the ESR spectra, which showed the existence of intermolecular titanium-titanium exchange through methylene groups of the dicarboxylate bridges.

  5. Toxicity of organic extraction reagents to anaerobic bacteria

    SciTech Connect

    Playne, M.J.; Smith, B.R.

    1983-05-01

    Thirty organic chemicals were examined by means of a small scale (60 mL) batch fermentation bioassay procedure for their toxicity to a commercial inoculum (Methanobac, W.B.E. Ltd.), which was a mixed culture of facultatively anaerobic, acid-producing bacteria. Gas production, pH change of medium, and the concentrations of ethanol, VFA, and lactic acid were measured after 75 h growth. The optimum experimental conditions for toxicity testing were alfalfa as substrate (2 g), a buffered nutrient medium (pH 6.8), ''Methanobac'' inoculum (10 mL), and test chemicals at levels between 10 and 100 ..mu..L/mL. Thirteen chemicals were nontoxic, and included the paraffins (C/sub 6/-C/sub 12/), phthalates, organophosphorus compounds, Freon 113 (1,1,2-trichloro-1,2,2-trifluoro ethane), Aliquat 336 (tricaprylylmethyl ammonium chloride), di-isoamyl ether, and trioctylamine. Other amine extractants were partially toxic. Alcohols (C/sub 5/-C/sub 12/), ketones (C/sub 5/-C/sub 8/), benzene derivatives, isoamyl acetate, and di-isopropyl ether were toxic. Generally, the chemicals were not toxic unless present at levels in excess of that expected to be required to saturate the aqueous phase. Total gas production was a good indicator of toxicity even within 24 h, but the presence of homofermentative (nongas producing) lactic acid bacteria complicated interpretation. ''Methanobac'' inoculum was compared with an inoculum derived from a rumen culture for four test chemicals. The results were essentially the same. However, the toxicity of a chemical to bacteria is likely to vary considerably between bacterial species.

  6. Treatment of broiler litter with organic acids.

    PubMed

    Ivanov, I E

    2001-04-01

    Experiments for treatment of contaminated broiler litter with citric, tartaric and salicylic acids were performed. At days 2 and 6 after the treatment, pH values (using a pH-meter), the ammonia concentrations (titration with 0.1 N HCl) and the microbial cells counts were determined in both experimental and control specimens of litter. The cost of acidification of litter was also determined. Our studies showed that the treatment of the contaminated litter with 5 per cent citric acid, 4 per cent tartaric acid and 1.5 per cent salicylic acid created an acid medium with pH under 5.0 and thus reduced the microbial counts to 2.2 x 10(3)colony forming units per gram manure litter. The treatment reduced the content of ammonia in the litter and in the air under the hygienic limits, i.e. 25-50 ppm. The cost of acidification of litter with these organic acids amounted to 0.1 $ per bird and 1.5 $ per 15 birds on one square metre in a growth period of 50 days. PMID:11356097

  7. Energy densification of biomass-derived organic acids

    DOEpatents

    Wheeler, M. Clayton; van Walsum, G. Peter; Schwartz, Thomas J.; van Heiningen, Adriaan

    2013-01-29

    A process for upgrading an organic acid includes neutralizing the organic acid to form a salt and thermally decomposing the resulting salt to form an energy densified product. In certain embodiments, the organic acid is levulinic acid. The process may further include upgrading the energy densified product by conversion to alcohol and subsequent dehydration.

  8. Metal-organic framework UiO-66 modified magnetite@silica core-shell magnetic microspheres for magnetic solid-phase extraction of domoic acid from shellfish samples.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Wenmin; Yan, Zhiming; Gao, Jia; Tong, Ping; Liu, Wei; Zhang, Lan

    2015-06-26

    Fe3O4@SiO2@UiO-66 core-shell magnetic microspheres were synthesized and characterized by transmission electron microscopy, scanning electron microscopy, X-ray diffraction, Fourier transform infrared spectrometry, vibrating sample magnetometry, nitrogen adsorption porosimetry and zeta potential analyzer. The synthesized Fe3O4@SiO2@UiO-66 microspheres were first used for magnetic solid-phase extraction (MSPE) of domoic acid (DA) in shellfish samples. Combined with high performance liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (HPLC-MS/MS), a fast, simple and sensitive method for the determination of DA was established successfully. Under the optimized conditions, the developed method showed short analysis time, good linearity (r(2) = 0.9990), low limit of detection (1.45 pg mL(-1); S/N = 3:1), low limit of quantification (4.82 pg mL(-1); S/N = 10:1), and good extraction repeatability (RSD ≤ 5.0%; n = 5). Real shellfish samples were processed using the developed method, and trace level of DA was detected. The results demonstrate that Fe3O4@SiO2@UiO-66 core-shell magnetic microspheres are the promising sorbents for rapid and efficient extraction of polar analytes from complex biological samples. PMID:25997847

  9. Method for liquid chromatographic extraction of strontium from acid solutions

    DOEpatents

    Horwitz, E. Philip; Dietz, Mark L.

    1992-01-01

    A method and apparatus for extracting strontium and technetium values from biological, industrial and environmental sample solutions using a chromatographic column is described. An extractant medium for the column is prepared by generating a solution of a diluent containing a Crown ether and dispersing the solution on a resin substrate material. The sample solution is highly acidic and is introduced directed to the chromatographic column and strontium or technetium is eluted using deionized water.

  10. Simple method of isolating humic acids from organic soils

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ahmed, O.

    2009-04-01

    Humic substances particularly humic acids (HA) play a major role in soil conditioning e.g. erosion control, soil cation exchange capacity, complexation of heavy metal ions and pesticides, carbon and nitrogen cycles, plant growth and reduction of ammonia volatilization from urea. Humified substances such as coal, composts, and peat soils have substantial amounts of HA but the isolation of these acids is expensive, laborious, and time consuming. Factors that affect the quality and yield of HA isolated from these materials include extraction, fractionation, and purification periods. This work developed a simple, rapid, and cost effective method of isolating HA from peat soils. There was a quadratic relationship between extraction period and HA yield. Optimum extraction period was estimated at 4 h instead of the usual range of 12 to 48 h. There was no relationship between fractionation period and HA yield. As such 2 h instead of the usual range of 12 to 24 h fractionation period could be considered optimum. Low ash content (5%), remarkable reduction in K, coupled with the fact that organic C, E4/E6, carboxylic COOH, phenolic OH, and total acidity values of the HA were consistent with those reported by other authors suggest that the HA dealt with were free from mineral matter. This was possible because the distilled water used to purify the HA served as Bronsted-Lowry acid during the purification process of the HA. Optimum purification period using distilled waster was 1 h instead of the usual range of 1 and 7 days (uses HF and HCl and dialysis). Humic acids could be isolated from tropical peat soils within 7 h (i.e. 4 h extraction, 2 h fractionation, and 1 h purification) instead of the existing period of 2 and 7 days. This could facilitate the idea of producing organic fertilizers such as ammonium-humate and potassium-humate from humified substances since techniques devised in this study did not alter the true nature of the HA. Besides, the technique is rapid, simple

  11. Production of organic acid esters from biomass - novel processes and concepts

    SciTech Connect

    Datta, R.

    1981-01-01

    After low cost, low energy pretreatment, lignocellulose can be converted directly to volatile (C/sub 2/-C/sub 6/) organic acids by mixed-culture acidogenic fermentation. The principal components of lignocellulose (pectins, hemicellulose, cellulose, and lignin) are all converted to organic acids in high yields. Esterification from dilute aqueous solutions using novel techniques based on adsorption, solvent extraction, or biochemical conversion could be an important method for recovering these acids and simultaneously producing liquid fuels or chemical feedstocks. Uses of organic acid esters and conceptual biomass conversion processes are outlined. The significance of these processes for substantially increasing liquid fuel productivity from biomass feedstocks are discussed.

  12. The extraction of actinides from nitric acid solutions with diamides of dipicolinic acid

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lapka, Joseph L.; Paulenova, Alena; Alyapyshev, Mikhail Yu; Babain, Vasiliy A.; Law, Jack D.; Herbst, R. Scott

    2010-03-01

    Diamides of dipicolinic acid (N,N'-diethyl-N,N'-ditolyl-dipicolinamide, EtTDPA) were synthesized and evaluated for their extraction capability for actinides. In this work the extractions of neptunium(V), protactinium(V), and thorium(IV) with EtTDPA in a polar fluorinated diluent from nitric acid were investigated. EtTDPA shows a high affinity for Th(IV) even at millimolar concentrations. Np(V) and Pa(V) are both reasonably extractable with EtTDPA; however, near saturated solutions are required to achieve appreciable distribution ratios. A comparison with previously published actinide extraction data is given.

  13. Bioorganic research of Galactites tomentosa Moench. Honey extracts: enantiomeric purity of chiral marker 3-phenyllactic acid.

    PubMed

    Jerković, Igor; Roje, Marin; Tuberoso, Carlo I G; Marijanović, Zvonimir; Kasum, Ana; Obradović, Marina

    2014-08-01

    Thistle (Galactites tomentosa Moench.) honey organic extracts were obtained by headspace solid-phase microextraction (HS-SPME) and ultrasonic solvent extraction (USE) and analyzed by gas chromatography (GC-FID and GC-MS) for the first time. Most abundant headspace compounds were terpenes, particularly linalool derivatives (hotrienol was predominant with a range of 38.6-57.5%). 3-Phenyllactic acid dominated in the solvent extracts (77.4-86.4%) followed by minor percentages of other shikimate pathway derivatives. After determination of an adequate enantioseparation protocol on Chirallica PST-4 column, the honey solvent extracts were analyzed by high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC). The chiral analysis revealed high enantiomeric excess (>95%) of (-)-3-phenyllactic acid in all samples. Therefore, previous findings of chemical markers of thistle honey were extended, providing new potential for advanced chemical fingerprinting (optical pure chemical marker). PMID:24850411

  14. Arterial Blood Carbonic Acid Inversely Determines Lactic and Organic Acids

    PubMed Central

    Aiken, Christopher Geoffrey Alexander

    2013-01-01

    Objective: To establish that arterial blood carbonic acid varies inversely with lactic acid in accordance with bicarbonate exchanging for lactate across cell membranes through the anion exchange mechanism to maintain the Gibbs-Donnan equilibrium. Study Design: Over 5 years, lactate was measured on all blood gases taken from neonatal admissions, as well as organic acid whenever electrolytes were required. Results: Arterial blood gases from 63 infants given high calcium TPN were analyzed. Twenty two needed continuous positive airways pressure (CPAP) only and 31 intermittent positive pressure ventilation (IPPV) and surfactant followed by CPAP to treat respiratory distress syndrome in 51 and meconium aspiration syndrome in 2. All survived and were free of infection. Excluded gases were those with high and falling lactate soon after delivery representing perinatal asphyxia, and those on dexamethasone. Strong inverse relations between carbonic and lactic acids were found at all gestational ages and, independent of glomerular filtration, between carbonic and organic acids. Lactate (mmol/L) = 62.53 X PCO2 -0.96(mmHg) r2 0.315, n 1232, p <0.001. Sixty divided by PCO2 is a convenient measure of physiological lactate at any given PCO2. In the first week, 9.13 ± 2.57% of arterial gases from infants on IPPV had lactates above 120/PCO2, significantly more than 4.74 ± 2.73% on CPAP (p<0.05) and 2.47 ± 2.39% on no support. Conclusion: Changes in arterial blood carbonic acid cause immediate inverse changes in lactic acid, because their anions interchange across cell membranes according to the Gibbs –Donnan equilibrium. Increasing PCO2 from 40 to 120 mmHg decreased lactate from 1.5 mmol/L to 0.5 mmol/L, so that the sum of carbonic and lactic acids increased from 2.72 mmol/L to only 4.17 mmol/L. This helps explain the neuroprotective effect of hypercapnoea and highlights the importance of avoiding any degree of hypocapnoea in infants on IPPV. PMID:24392387

  15. Membrane-mediated extractive fermentation for lactic acid production from cellulosic biomass

    SciTech Connect

    Chen, Rongfu; Lee, Y.Y.

    1997-12-31

    Lactic acid production from cellulosic biomass by cellulose and Lactobacillus delbrueckii was studied in a fermenter-extractor employing a microporous hollow fiber membrane (NIHF). This bioreactor system was operated under a fed-batch mode with continuous removal of lactic acid by an in situ extraction. A tertiary amine (Alamine 336) was used as an extractant for lactic acid. The extraction capacity of Alamine 336 is greatly enhanced by addition of alcohol. Long-chain alcohols serve well for this purpose since they are less toxic to micro-organism. Addition of kerosene, a diluent, was necessary to reduce the solvent viscosity. A solvent mixture of 20% Alamine 336,40% oleyl alcohol, and 40% kerosene was found to be most effective in the extraction of lactic acid. Progressive change of pH from an initial value of 5.0 down to 4.3 has significantly improved the overall performance of the simultaneous saccharification and extractive fermentation over that of constant pH operation. The change of pH was applied to promote cell growth in the early phase, and extraction in the latter phase. 20 refs., 10 figs., 1 tab.

  16. Usnic Acid and the Intramolecular Hydrogen Bond: A Computational Experiment for the Organic Laboratory

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Green, Thomas K.; Lane, Charles A.

    2006-01-01

    A computational experiment is described for the organic chemistry laboratory that allows students to estimate the relative strengths of the intramolecular hydrogen bonds of usnic and isousnic acids, two related lichen secondary metabolites. Students first extract and purify usnic acid from common lichens and obtain [superscript 1]H NMR and IR…

  17. Separation of Minor Actinides from Lanthanides by Dithiophosphinic Acid Extractants

    SciTech Connect

    D. R. Peterman; M. R. Greenhalgh; R. D. Tillotson; J. R. Klaehn; M. K. Harrup; T. A. Luther; J. D. Law; L. M. Daniels

    2008-09-01

    The selective extraction of the minor actinides (Am(III) and Cm(III)) from the lanthanides is an important part of advanced reprocessing of spent nuclear fuel. This separation would allow the Am/Cm to be fabricated into targets and recycled to a reactor and the lanthanides to be dispositioned. This separation is difficult to accomplish due to the similarities in the chemical properties of the trivalent actinides and lanthanides. Research efforts at the Idaho National Laboratory have identified an innovative synthetic pathway yielding new regiospecific dithiophosphinic acid (DPAH) extractants. The synthesis provides DPAH derivatives that can address the issues concerning minor actinide separation and extractant stability. For this work, two new symmetric DPAH extractants have been prepared. The use of these extractants for the separation of minor actinides from lanthanides will be discussed.

  18. Rosmarinic Acid and Melissa officinalis Extracts Differently Affect Glioblastoma Cells

    PubMed Central

    Ramanauskiene, Kristina; Raudonis, Raimondas

    2016-01-01

    Lemon balm (Melissa officinalis L.) has many biological effects but especially important is its neuroprotective activity. The aim of the study is to produce different extracts of Melissa officinalis and analyse their chemical composition and biological properties on rat glioblastoma C6 cells. Results revealed that rosmarinic acid (RA) is the predominant compound of lemon balm extracts. RA has cytotoxic effect on glioblastoma cells (LC50 290.5 μM after the incubation of 24 h and LC50 171.3 μM after 48 h). RA at concentration 80–130 μM suppresses the cell proliferation and has an antioxidant effect. 200 μM and higher concentrations of RA have a prooxidant effect and initiate cell death through necrosis. The aqueous extract of lemon balm is also enriched in phenolic compounds: protocatechuic, caftaric, caffeic, ferulic, and cichoric acids and flavonoid luteolin-7-glucoside. This extract at concentrations 50 μM–200 μM RA has cytotoxic activity and initiates cell death through apoptosis. Extracts prepared with 70% ethanol contain the biggest amount of active compounds. These extracts have the highest cytotoxic activity on glioblastoma cells. They initiate generation of intracellular ROS and cell death through apoptosis and necrosis. Our data suggest that differently prepared lemon balm extracts differently affect glioblastoma cells and can be used as neuroprotective agents in several therapeutic strategies.

  19. Rosmarinic Acid and Melissa officinalis Extracts Differently Affect Glioblastoma Cells

    PubMed Central

    Ramanauskiene, Kristina; Raudonis, Raimondas

    2016-01-01

    Lemon balm (Melissa officinalis L.) has many biological effects but especially important is its neuroprotective activity. The aim of the study is to produce different extracts of Melissa officinalis and analyse their chemical composition and biological properties on rat glioblastoma C6 cells. Results revealed that rosmarinic acid (RA) is the predominant compound of lemon balm extracts. RA has cytotoxic effect on glioblastoma cells (LC50 290.5 μM after the incubation of 24 h and LC50 171.3 μM after 48 h). RA at concentration 80–130 μM suppresses the cell proliferation and has an antioxidant effect. 200 μM and higher concentrations of RA have a prooxidant effect and initiate cell death through necrosis. The aqueous extract of lemon balm is also enriched in phenolic compounds: protocatechuic, caftaric, caffeic, ferulic, and cichoric acids and flavonoid luteolin-7-glucoside. This extract at concentrations 50 μM–200 μM RA has cytotoxic activity and initiates cell death through apoptosis. Extracts prepared with 70% ethanol contain the biggest amount of active compounds. These extracts have the highest cytotoxic activity on glioblastoma cells. They initiate generation of intracellular ROS and cell death through apoptosis and necrosis. Our data suggest that differently prepared lemon balm extracts differently affect glioblastoma cells and can be used as neuroprotective agents in several therapeutic strategies. PMID:27688825

  20. An enhanced procedure for measuring organic acids and methyl esters in PM2.5

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, F.; Duan, F. K.; He, K. B.; Ma, Y. L.; Rahn, K. A.; Zhang, Q.

    2015-11-01

    A solid-phase extraction (SPE) pretreatment procedure allowing organic acids to be separated from methyl esters in fine aerosol has been developed. The procedure first separates the organic acids from fatty acid methyl esters (FAMEs) and other nonacid organic compounds by aminopropyl-based SPE cartridge and then quantifies them by gas chromatography/mass spectrometry. The procedure prevents the fatty acids and dimethyl phthalate from being overestimated, and so allows us to accurately quantify the C4-C11 dicarboxylic acids (DCAs) and the C8-C30 monocarboxylic acids (MCAs). Results for the extraction of DCAs, MCAs, and AMAs in eluate and FAMEs in effluate by SAX and NH2 SPE cartridges exhibited that the NH2 SPE cartridge gave higher extraction efficiency than the SAX cartridge. The recoveries of analytes ranged from 67.5 to 111.3 %, and the RSD ranged from 0.7 to 10.9 %. The resulting correlations between the aliphatic acids and FAMEs suggest that the FAMEs had sources similar to those of the carboxylic acids, or were formed by esterifying carboxylic acids, or that aliphatic acids were formed by hydrolyzing FAMEs. Through extraction and cleanup using this procedure, 17 aromatic acids in eluate were identified and quantified by gas chromatography/tandem mass spectrometry, including five polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon (PAH): acids 2-naphthoic, biphenyl-4-carboxylic, 9-oxo-9H-fluorene-1-carboxylic, biphenyl-4,4´-dicarboxylic, and phenanthrene-1-carboxylic acid, plus 1,8-naphthalic anhydride. Correlations between the PAH acids and the dicarboxylic and aromatic acids suggested that the first three acids and 1,8-naphthalic anhydride were secondary atmospheric photochemistry products and the last two mainly primary.

  1. Study on synthetic methods of trialkyl phosphate oxide and its extraction behavior of some acids

    SciTech Connect

    Yu, M.J.; Su, Y.F.

    1987-01-01

    Trioctyl phosphine oxide (TOPO) is useful for the extraction of many inorganic and organic compounds. A mixed trialkyl phosphine oxide (TRPO) is similar in property to TOPO. The total number of carbon atoms per molecule of TRPO ranges from 15 to 27. Three methods for synthesizing TRPO are described in this paper. When TRPO is synthesized from an alcohol mixture it is significantly cheaper than a single pure alcohol as required for the production of TOPO; tedious purification steps are eliminated. TRPO is a brown liquid which is very slightly soluble in water. Toxicological measurements of LD50, AMES test, hereditary and accumulative toxicity show that TRPO is safe for use in the extraction of some pharmaceutical and biochemical compounds. Examinations of IR and NMR show that the complex interaction of P=O bond of TRPO with extracted substances is the same as that of TOPO. The distribution coefficients of phosphoric acid, citric acid, malic acid, oxalic acid, and tartaric acid with TRPO are reported. The extraction of these acids is believed to proceed by neutral-complex mechanism.

  2. Mathematical modeling of cadmium(II) solvent extraction from neutral and acidic chloride media using Cyanex 923 extractant as a metal carrier.

    PubMed

    Leopold, A A; Coll, M T; Fortuny, A; Rathore, N S; Sastre, A M

    2010-10-15

    This paper describes experimental work and the mathematical modeling of solvent extraction of cadmium(II) from neutral and acidic aqueous chloride media with a Cyanex 923 extractant in Exxol D-100. Solvent extraction experiments were carried out to analyze the influence of variations in the composition of the aqueous and organic phases on the efficiency of cadmium(II) extraction. In neutral and acidic chloride conditions, the extraction of cadmium(II) by the organophosphorous extractant Cyanex 923 (L) is based on the solvation mechanism of neutral H(n)CdCl((2+n)) species and the formation of H(n)CdCl((2+n))L(q) complexes in the organic phase, where n=0, 1, 2 and q=1, 2. The mathematical model of cadmium(II) extraction was derived from the mass balances and chemical equilibria involved in the separation system. The model was computed with the Matlab software. The equilibrium parameters for metal extraction, i.e. the stability constants of the aqueous Cd-Cl complexes, the formation constants of the acidic Cd-Cl species and the metal equilibrium extraction constants, were proposed. The optimized constants were appropriate, as there was good agreement when the model was fitted to the experimental data for each of the experiments.

  3. Method for extracting lanthanides and actinides from acid solutions by modification of Purex solvent

    DOEpatents

    Horwitz, E.P.; Kalina, D.G.

    1986-03-04

    A process is described for the recovery of actinide and lanthanide values from aqueous solutions with an extraction solution containing an organic extractant having the formula as shown in a diagram where [phi] is phenyl, R[sup 1] is a straight or branched alkyl or alkoxyalkyl containing from 6 to 12 carbon atoms and R[sup 2] is an alkyl containing from 3 to 6 carbon atoms and phase modifiers in a water-immiscible hydrocarbon diluent. The addition of the extractant to the Purex process extractant, tri-n-butylphosphate in normal paraffin hydrocarbon diluent, will permit the extraction of multivalent lanthanide and actinide values from 0.1 to 12.0 molar acid solutions. 6 figs.

  4. Method for extracting lanthanides and actinides from acid solutions by modification of purex solvent

    DOEpatents

    Horwitz, E. Philip; Kalina, Dale G.

    1986-01-01

    A process for the recovery of actinide and lanthanide values from aqueous solutions with an extraction solution containing an organic extractant having the formula: ##STR1## where .phi. is phenyl, R.sup.1 is a straight or branched alkyl or alkoxyalkyl containing from 6 to 12 carbon atoms and R.sup.2 is an alkyl containing from 3 to 6 carbon atoms and phase modifiers in a water-immiscible hydrocarbon diluent. The addition of the extractant to the Purex process extractant, tri-n-butylphosphate in normal paraffin hydrocarbon diluent, will permit the extraction of multivalent lanthanide and actinide values from 0.1 to 12.0 molar acid solutions.

  5. Acidic solvent extraction of gossypol from cottonseed meal

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    In order to expand the use of cottonseed meal in animal feeding, extraction of the meal gossypol was studied with acetic acetone- and ethanol-based solutions. Phosphoric acid was added to hydrolyze and release gossypol bound within the meal. Both solvent systems were effective at reducing gossypo...

  6. Improved method for extracting lanthanides and actinides from acid solutions

    DOEpatents

    Horwitz, E.P.; Kalina, D.G.; Kaplan, L.; Mason, G.W.

    1983-07-26

    A process for the recovery of actinide and lanthanide values from aqueous acidic solutions uses a new series of neutral bi-functional extractants, the alkyl(phenyl)-N,N-dialkylcarbamoylmethylphosphine oxides. The process is suitable for the separation of actinide and lanthanide values from fission product values found together in high-level nuclear reprocessing waste solutions.

  7. Multicentre validation study of nucleic acids extraction from FFPE tissues.

    PubMed

    Bonin, Serena; Hlubek, Falk; Benhattar, Jean; Denkert, Carsten; Dietel, Manfred; Fernandez, Pedro L; Höfler, Gerald; Kothmaier, Hannelore; Kruslin, Bozo; Mazzanti, Chiara Maria; Perren, Aurel; Popper, Helmuth; Scarpa, Aldo; Soares, Paula; Stanta, Giorgio; Groenen, Patricia J T A

    2010-09-01

    In most pathology laboratories worldwide, formalin-fixed paraffin embedded (FFPE) samples are the only tissue specimens available for routine diagnostics. Although commercial kits for diagnostic molecular pathology testing are becoming available, most of the current diagnostic tests are laboratory-based assays. Thus, there is a need for standardized procedures in molecular pathology, starting from the extraction of nucleic acids. To evaluate the current methods for extracting nucleic acids from FFPE tissues, 13 European laboratories, participating to the European FP6 program IMPACTS (www.impactsnetwork.eu), isolated nucleic acids from four diagnostic FFPE tissues using their routine methods, followed by quality assessment. The DNA-extraction protocols ranged from homemade protocols to commercial kits. Except for one homemade protocol, the majority gave comparable results in terms of the quality of the extracted DNA measured by the ability to amplify differently sized control gene fragments by PCR. For array-applications or tests that require an accurately determined DNA-input, we recommend using silica based adsorption columns for DNA recovery. For RNA extractions, the best results were obtained using chromatography column based commercial kits, which resulted in the highest quantity and best assayable RNA. Quality testing using RT-PCR gave successful amplification of 200 bp-250 bp PCR products from most tested tissues. Modifications of the proteinase-K digestion time led to better results, even when commercial kits were applied. The results of the study emphasize the need for quality control of the nucleic acid extracts with standardised methods to prevent false negative results and to allow data comparison among different diagnostic laboratories.

  8. Extractive and oxidative removal of copper bound to humic acid in soil.

    PubMed

    Hwang, Bo-Ram; Kim, Eun-Jung; Yang, Jung-Seok; Baek, Kitae

    2015-04-01

    Copper (Cu) is often found strongly bound to natural organic matter (NOM) in soil through the formation of strong Cu-NOM complexes. Therefore, in order to successfully remediate Cu-contaminated soils, effective removal of Cu bound to soil organic matter should be considered. In this study, we investigated soil washing methods for Cu removal from a synthetic Cu-contaminated model silica soil coated with humic acid (HA) and from field contaminated soil. Various reagents were studied to extract Cu bound to NOM, which included oxidant (H2O2), base (NaOH), and chelating agents (citric acid and ethylenediaminetetraacetic acid (EDTA)). Among the wash reagents, EDTA extracted Cu most effectively since EDTA formed very strong complexes with Cu, and Cu-HA complexes were transformed into Cu-EDTA complexes. NaOH extracted slightly less Cu compared to EDTA. HA was effectively extracted from the model soil under strongly alkaline conditions with NaOH, which seemed to concurrently release Cu bound to HA. However, chemical oxidation with H2O2 was not effective at destroying Cu-HA complexes. Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy and elemental analysis revealed that chelating agents such as citrate and EDTA were adsorbed onto the model soil via possible complexation between HA and extraction agents. The extraction of Cu from a field contaminated soil sample was effective with chelating agents, while oxidative removal with H2O2 and extractive removal with NaOH separated negligible amounts of Cu from the soil. Based on these results, Cu bound to organic matter in soil could be effectively removed by chelating agents, although remnant agents may remain in the soil. PMID:25388560

  9. Extractive and oxidative removal of copper bound to humic acid in soil.

    PubMed

    Hwang, Bo-Ram; Kim, Eun-Jung; Yang, Jung-Seok; Baek, Kitae

    2015-04-01

    Copper (Cu) is often found strongly bound to natural organic matter (NOM) in soil through the formation of strong Cu-NOM complexes. Therefore, in order to successfully remediate Cu-contaminated soils, effective removal of Cu bound to soil organic matter should be considered. In this study, we investigated soil washing methods for Cu removal from a synthetic Cu-contaminated model silica soil coated with humic acid (HA) and from field contaminated soil. Various reagents were studied to extract Cu bound to NOM, which included oxidant (H2O2), base (NaOH), and chelating agents (citric acid and ethylenediaminetetraacetic acid (EDTA)). Among the wash reagents, EDTA extracted Cu most effectively since EDTA formed very strong complexes with Cu, and Cu-HA complexes were transformed into Cu-EDTA complexes. NaOH extracted slightly less Cu compared to EDTA. HA was effectively extracted from the model soil under strongly alkaline conditions with NaOH, which seemed to concurrently release Cu bound to HA. However, chemical oxidation with H2O2 was not effective at destroying Cu-HA complexes. Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy and elemental analysis revealed that chelating agents such as citrate and EDTA were adsorbed onto the model soil via possible complexation between HA and extraction agents. The extraction of Cu from a field contaminated soil sample was effective with chelating agents, while oxidative removal with H2O2 and extractive removal with NaOH separated negligible amounts of Cu from the soil. Based on these results, Cu bound to organic matter in soil could be effectively removed by chelating agents, although remnant agents may remain in the soil.

  10. Selective separation of hydroxide from alkaline nuclear tank waste by liquid-liquid extraction with weak hydroxy acids.

    PubMed

    Chambliss, C Kevin; Haverlock, Tamara I; Bonnesen, Peter V; Engle, Nancy L; Moyer, Bruce A

    2002-04-15

    Recovery and recycle of caustic reagents in industrial processes offer potential means of pollution prevention, as investigated herein for particular needs related to the cleanup of alkaline nuclear waste. Specifically, the recovery of hydroxide from alkaline media by liquid-liquid extraction can be effected utilizing weak hydroxy acids, as demonstrated for NaOH utilizing a series of lipophilic fluorinated alcohols and alkylated phenols dissolved in 1-octanol. Extraction efficiency follows the expected order of acidity of the hydroxy acids, the phenols being the most efficient extractants among the compounds tested. After extraction, NaOH is effectively recoverable from the organic phase upon contact with water. The weakest hydroxy acids are the most efficiently stripped, NaOH recovery being nearly quantitative in a single contact. In competitive extraction experiments, good selectivity for hydroxide recovery over other anions such as nitrate and chloride was demonstrated. Since the order of extraction favors larger anions, the exceptional preference for hydroxide implies that the extraction occurs by deprotonation of the hydroxy acids in a cation-exchange process. Stripping therefore occurs by hydrolysis to regenerate the neutral hydroxy acid, liberating NaOH to the aqueous phase. Since hydroxide equivalents rather than actual hydroxide ions are transferred to the solvent, the process is termed "pseudohydroxide extraction." Hydroxide recovery from a simulant of alkaline nuclear tank waste (Hanford DSSF simulant) was also demonstrated in repeated extraction and stripping cycles.

  11. Determination of organic acids during the fermentation and cold storage of yogurt.

    PubMed

    Fernandez-Garcia, E; McGregor, J U

    1994-10-01

    The objective of the present study was the separation and quantification of orotic, citric, pyruvic, lactic, uric, formic, acetic, propionic, butyric, and hippuric acids in a single isocratic analysis by HPLC. Two methods of extraction were compared: 1) acetonitrile and water and 2) .01N H2SO4. Recoveries of orotic, lactic, acetic, and propionic acids were 90% for both methods. Recoveries of citric, pyruvic, uric, butyric, and hippuric acids were not satisfactory with the acetonitrile method, but were acceptable using the H2SO4 extraction procedure. Yogurts were manufactured under laboratory-scale conditions, and samples were analyzed during fermentation and after storage at 4 degrees C. Samples were analyzed for pH and organic acids. All of the organic acids exhibited varying degrees of increases and decreases during fermentation and storage. Formic and butyric acids were not detected under the conditions of this study.

  12. Phase equilibria and distribution constants of metal ions in diantipyryl alkane-organic acid-hydrochloric acid-water systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Degtev, M. I.; Popova, O. N.; Yuminova, A. A.

    2014-08-01

    The ability of antipyrine and its derivatives (diantipyryl alkanes) to form separating systems in the presence of salicylic (sulfosalicylic) acid and hydrochloric acid and water is studied. The optimum volume of the organic phase, the composition of complexes, and the mechanism for the distribution of metal ions are determined, depending on the concentrations of the main components and the salting-out agent. The complex distribution and extraction constants are calculated.

  13. 21 CFR 173.280 - Solvent extraction process for citric acid.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2010-04-01 2009-04-01 true Solvent extraction process for citric acid. 173.280... extraction process for citric acid. A solvent extraction process for recovery of citric acid from conventional Aspergillus niger fermentation liquor may be safely used to produce food-grade citric acid...

  14. Myocradial extraction of 1-[{sup 11}C] betamethylheptadecanoic acid

    SciTech Connect

    Elmaleh, D.R.; Livni, E.; Alpert, N.M.

    1994-03-01

    Betamethylheptadecanoic acid (BMHA) is a branched chain fatty acid analog that is transported into myocardial cells by the same long chain fatty acid carrier protein mechanism as natural fatty acids, but cannot be completely catabolzied and accumulates in the tissue. Thus, {sup 11}C-labeled BMHA is a useful tracer for the noninvasive evaluation of myocardial fatty acid utilization by positron emission tomography (PET). As a prelude to PET studies, the metabolism of BMHA was studied by classical techniques. The authors measured the net extraction fraction (E{sub n}) of 1-[{sup 11}C]-beta-R,S-methylheptadecanoic acid (1-[{sup 11}C]BMHA) and compared it to that of natural fatty acids in dogs, using arterial/venous measurements and a mathematical model. Two groups of conditioned dogs were studied. In the first group, measurements were made under fasting (normal control) conditions and in the second group, measurements were made during glucose and insulin infusion. Myocardial blood flow, and the extraction/utilization of other substrates (glucose, oxygen and lactate) were also measured. For natural fatty acids in the basal state, E{sub n}(FA) was 0.335. After glucose/insulin infusion, this value decreased to 0.195. The 1-[{sup 11}C]BMHA showed a similar decrease in E{sub n}(BMHA) from 0.220 in the control group to 0.100 in the group treated with glucose/insulin infusion. Preliminary PET studies with 1-[{sup 11}C]BMHA verified the validity of performing these measurements noninvasively. The results of these studies indicate that rates of fatty acid metabolism in the myocardium can be determined from steady-state concentrations of 1-[{sup 11}C]BMHA. 36 refs., 6 figs., 4 tabs.

  15. Extraction of Oleic Acid from Moroccan Olive Mill Wastewater.

    PubMed

    Elkacmi, Reda; Kamil, Noureddine; Bennajah, Mounir; Kitane, Said

    2016-01-01

    The production of olive oil in Morocco has recently grown considerably for its economic and nutritional importance favored by the country's climate. After the extraction of olive oil by pressing or centrifuging, the obtained liquid contains oil and vegetation water which is subsequently separated by decanting or centrifugation. Despite its treatment throughout the extraction process, this olive mill wastewater, OMW, still contains a very important oily residue, always regarded as a rejection. The separated oil from OMW can not be intended for food because of its high acidity of 3.397% which exceeds the international standard for human consumption defined by the standard of the Codex Alimentarius, proving its poor quality. This work gives value addition to what would normally be regarded as waste by the extraction of oleic acid as a high value product, using the technique of inclusion with urea for the elimination of saturated and unsaturated fatty acids through four successive crystallizations at 4°C and 20°C to have a final phase with oleic acid purity of 95.49%, as a biodegradable soap and a high quality glycerin will be produced by the reaction of saponification and transesterification.

  16. Extraction of Oleic Acid from Moroccan Olive Mill Wastewater

    PubMed Central

    Elkacmi, Reda; Kamil, Noureddine; Bennajah, Mounir; Kitane, Said

    2016-01-01

    The production of olive oil in Morocco has recently grown considerably for its economic and nutritional importance favored by the country's climate. After the extraction of olive oil by pressing or centrifuging, the obtained liquid contains oil and vegetation water which is subsequently separated by decanting or centrifugation. Despite its treatment throughout the extraction process, this olive mill wastewater, OMW, still contains a very important oily residue, always regarded as a rejection. The separated oil from OMW can not be intended for food because of its high acidity of 3.397% which exceeds the international standard for human consumption defined by the standard of the Codex Alimentarius, proving its poor quality. This work gives value addition to what would normally be regarded as waste by the extraction of oleic acid as a high value product, using the technique of inclusion with urea for the elimination of saturated and unsaturated fatty acids through four successive crystallizations at 4°C and 20°C to have a final phase with oleic acid purity of 95.49%, as a biodegradable soap and a high quality glycerin will be produced by the reaction of saponification and transesterification. PMID:26933663

  17. Extraction of Oleic Acid from Moroccan Olive Mill Wastewater.

    PubMed

    Elkacmi, Reda; Kamil, Noureddine; Bennajah, Mounir; Kitane, Said

    2016-01-01

    The production of olive oil in Morocco has recently grown considerably for its economic and nutritional importance favored by the country's climate. After the extraction of olive oil by pressing or centrifuging, the obtained liquid contains oil and vegetation water which is subsequently separated by decanting or centrifugation. Despite its treatment throughout the extraction process, this olive mill wastewater, OMW, still contains a very important oily residue, always regarded as a rejection. The separated oil from OMW can not be intended for food because of its high acidity of 3.397% which exceeds the international standard for human consumption defined by the standard of the Codex Alimentarius, proving its poor quality. This work gives value addition to what would normally be regarded as waste by the extraction of oleic acid as a high value product, using the technique of inclusion with urea for the elimination of saturated and unsaturated fatty acids through four successive crystallizations at 4°C and 20°C to have a final phase with oleic acid purity of 95.49%, as a biodegradable soap and a high quality glycerin will be produced by the reaction of saponification and transesterification. PMID:26933663

  18. Method for the extraction of the volatile compound salicylic acid from tobacco leaf material.

    PubMed

    Verberne, Marianne C; Brouwer, Nynke; Delbianco, Federica; Linthorst, Huub J M; Bol, John F; Verpoorte, Robert

    2002-01-01

    Salicylic acid (SA) is a signalling compound in plants which is able to induce systemic acquired resistance. In the analysis of SA in plant tissues, the extraction recovery is often very low and variable. This is mainly caused by sublimation of SA, especially during evaporation of organic solvents. Techniques have been designed in order to overcome this problem. In the first part of the extraction procedure, sublimation of SA was prevented by addition of 0.2 M sodium hydroxide. At a later stage of the extraction procedure, sublimation of SA during solvent evaporation was controlled by the addition of a small amount of HPLC eluent. In this way, recoveries in the range of 71-91% for free SA and 65-79% for acid-hydrolysed SA were obtained. Recoveries could be further optimised by the use of an internal standard to correct for volume changes after the addition of the HPLC eluent. PMID:11899606

  19. Modeling of fermentation with continuous lactic acid removal by extraction utilizing reversible chemical complexation

    SciTech Connect

    Dai, Y.; King, C.J.

    1995-07-01

    Extractive fermentation is a technique that can be used to reduce end-product inhibition by removing fermentation products in situ or in an external recycle loop. A model is presented for fermentation with continuous lactic acid removal by extraction utilizing chemical complexation. The model is formulated considering the kinetics of cell growth and the equilibrium distribution of lactic acid between aqueous and organic phases. Simulations have been carried out for different sets of operating conditions. The choice of pH balances faster kinetics at higher pH against lower product concentrations in the solvent and more difficult regeneration. A key need is for liquid extractants or solid sorbents combining stronger uptake ability with economical regeneration and satisfactory biocompatibility.

  20. An Advanced TALSPEAK Concept Using 2-Ethylhexylphosphonic Acid Mono-2-Ethylhexyl Ester as the Extractant

    SciTech Connect

    Lumetta, Gregg J.; Casella, Amanda J.; Rapko, Brian M.; Levitskaia, Tatiana G.; Pence, Natasha K.; Carter, Jennifer C.; Niver, Cynthia M.; Smoot, Margaret R.

    2014-12-21

    A method for separating the trivalent actinides and lanthanides is being developed using 2-ethylhexylphosphonic acid mono-2-ethylhexyl ester (HEH[EHP]) as the extractant. The method is based on the preferential binding of the actinides in the aqueous phase by N-(2-hydroxyethyl)ethylenediamine-N,N',N'-triacetic acid (HEDTA), which serves to keep the actinides in the aqueous phase while the lanthanides are extracted into an organic phase containing HEH[EHP]. The process is very robust, showing little dependence upon the pH or the HEH[EHP], HEDTA, and citrate concentrations over the ranges that might be expected in a nuclear fuel recycling plant. Single-stage runs with a 2-cm centrifugal contactor indicate that modifications to the process chemistry may be needed to increase the extraction rate for Sm, Eu, and Gd. The hydraulic properties of the system are favorable to application in centrifugal contactors.

  1. Investigation of HNO2 Production in Solvent Extraction Organic Phases

    SciTech Connect

    Leigh R. Martin

    2014-09-01

    This document is a letter report that was prepared to meet FCR&D level 4 milestone M4FT-14IN0304054, “Investigate HNO2 production in solvent extraction organic phases.” This work was carried out under the auspices of the Fundamental Radiation Chemistry FCR&D work package. This document reports on an initial tests performed to follow HNO2 formation in reference flowsheet relevant organic phases.

  2. Extraction of nitric acid, uranyl nitrate, and bismuth nitrate from aqueous nitric acid solutions with CMPO

    SciTech Connect

    Spencer, B.B.

    1995-08-01

    DOE sponsored development of the transuranium extraction (TRUEX) process for removing actinides from radioactive wastes. The solvent is a mixture of CMPO and TBP. Since the extraction characteristics of CMPO are not as well understood as those of TBP, the extraction of nitric acid, uranyl nitrate, and bismuth nitrate with CMPO (dissolved in n-dodecane) were studied. Results indicate that CMPO extracts nitric acid with a 1:1 stoichiometry; equilibrium constant is 2. 660{plus_minus}0.092 at 25 C, and extraction enthalpy is -5. 46{plus_minus}0.46 kcal/mol. Slope analysis indicates that uranyl nitrate extracts with a mixed equilibria of 1:1 and 2:1 stoichiometries in nearly equal proportion. Equil. constant of the 2: 1 extraction was 1.213 {times} 10{sup 6}{plus_minus}3.56 {times} 10{sup 4} at 25 C; reaction enthalpy was -9.610{plus_minus}0.594 kcal/mol. Nitration complexation constant is 8.412{plus_minus}0.579, with an enthalpy of -10.72{plus_minus}1.87 kcal/mol. Bismuth nitrate also extracts with a mixed equilibria of (perhaps) 1:1 and 2:1 stoichiometries. A 2:1 extraction equilibrium and a nitrate complexation adequately model the data. Kinetics and enthalpies were also measured.

  3. Capture and release of acid-gasses with acid-gas binding organic compounds

    DOEpatents

    Heldebrant, David J; Yonker, Clement R; Koech, Phillip K

    2015-03-17

    A system and method for acid-gas capture wherein organic acid-gas capture materials form hetero-atom analogs of alkyl-carbonate when contacted with an acid gas. These organic-acid gas capture materials include combinations of a weak acid and a base, or zwitterionic liquids. This invention allows for reversible acid-gas binding to these organic binding materials thus allowing for the capture and release of one or more acid gases. These acid-gas binding organic compounds can be regenerated to release the captured acid gasses and enable these organic acid-gas binding materials to be reused. This enables transport of the liquid capture compounds and the release of the acid gases from the organic liquid with significant energy savings compared to current aqueous systems.

  4. Non-target screening of extractable and non-extractable organic xenobiotics in riverine sediments of Ems and Mulde Rivers, Germany.

    PubMed

    Kronimus, Alexander; Schwarzbauer, Jan

    2007-05-01

    Subaquatic sediment samples derived form Elbe and Mulde Rivers, Germany, were analyzed for extractable and non-extractable anthropogenic organic compounds by a non-target screening approach. Applied methodologies were gas chromatography-mass spectrometry, dispersion extraction and degradation procedures, particularly alkaline and acidic hydrolysis, boron tribromide treatment, ruthenium tetroxide oxidation as well as pyrolysis and TMAH (tetramethylammonium hydroxide)-thermochemolysis. Numerous compounds were identified, including halogenated benzenes, anisoles, styrenes, alkanes, diphenylmethane derivates, anilines, phenols and diphenyl ethers. The results were interpreted with respect to compound specific modes of incorporation as well as to potential sources (e.g. municipal, agricultural, industrial). Extractable and non-extractable fractions differed significantly with respect to their qualitative and quantitative composition. For example, quantities in the extractable and non-extractable fractions of chlorinated benzenes differed up to factor 50. Among other significant results, the investigation revealed hints for a dependence of the mode of incorporation of chlorinated benzenes on their substitution pattern.

  5. Rapid extraction of oxygenated metabolites of arachidonic acid from biological samples using octadecylsilyl silica.

    PubMed

    Powell, W S

    1980-11-01

    A rapid procedure for the efficient extraction of prostaglandins, thromboxanes and hydroxy fatty acids from urine, plasma and tissue homogenates has been developed. Fractions containing these substances are acidified and passed through a column of octadecylsilyl silica, which retains oxygenated metabolites of arachidonic acid. Phospholipids, proteins and very polar materials either are not retained or can be eluted with dilute aqueous ethanol. Nonpolar lipids and monohydroxy fatty acids are then eluted with petroleum ether or benzene. Subsequent elution of the column with methyl formate gives a fraction containing prostaglandins and thromboxanes which is much less contaminated with extraneous material than that obtained by conventional extraction of aqueous media with organic solvents. The methyl formate can be removed rapidly under a stream of nitrogen and the components of the sample purified directly by high pressure liquid chromatography (HPLC). An improved method for the purification of prostaglandins and TXB2 by HPLC on silica columns is reported.

  6. Solid supported in situ derivatization extraction of acidic degradation products of nerve agents from aqueous samples.

    PubMed

    Chinthakindi, Sridhar; Purohit, Ajay; Singh, Varoon; Tak, Vijay; Dubey, D K; Pardasani, Deepak

    2014-09-12

    This study deals with the solid supported in situ derivatization extraction of acidic degradation products of nerve agents present in aqueous samples. Target analytes were alkyl alkylphosphonic acids and alkylphosphonic acids, which are important environmental signatures of nerve agents. The method involved tert-butyldimethylchlorosilane mediated in situ silylation of analytes on commercially available diatomaceous solid phase extraction cartridges. Various parameters such as derivatizing reagent, its concentration, reaction time, temperature and eluting solvent were optimized. Recoveries of the analytes were determined by GC-MS which ranged from 60% to 86%. The limits of detection (LOD) and limit of quantification (LOQ) with selected analytes were achieved down to 78 and 213ngmL(-1) respectively, in selected ion monitoring mode. The successful applicability of method was also demonstrated on samples of biological origin such as plasma and to the samples received in 34th official proficiency test conducted by the Organization for Prohibition the of Chemical Weapons. PMID:25103280

  7. Hydrothermal acid treatment for sugar extraction from Golenkinia sp.

    PubMed

    Choi, Sun-A; Choi, Won-Il; Lee, Jin-Suk; Kim, Seung Wook; Lee, Gye-An; Yun, Jihyun; Park, Ji-Yeon

    2015-08-01

    In this study, hydrothermal acid treatment for efficient recovery of sugar from Golenkinia sp. was investigated. The initial glucose and XMG (xylose, mannose, and galactose) contents of a prepared Golenkinia sp. solution (40g/L) were 15.05 and 5.24g/L, respectively. The microalgal cell walls were hydrolyzed, for sugar recovery, by enzymatic saccharification and/or hydrothermal acid treatment. Among the various hydrothermal acid treatment conditions, the most optimal were the 2.0% H2SO4 concentration at 150°C for 15min, under which the glucose- and XMG-extraction yields were 71.7% and 64.9%, respectively. By pH 4.8, 50°C enzymatic hydrolysis after optimal hydrothermal acid treatment, the glucose- and XMG-extraction yields were additionally increased by 8.3% and 0.8%, respectively. After hydrothermal acid treatment, the combination with the enzymatic hydrolysis process improved the total sugar yield of Golenkinia sp. to 75.4%.

  8. Superfund Innovative Technology Evaluation: Demonstration Bulletin: Organic Extraction Utilizing Solvents

    EPA Science Inventory

    This technology utilizes liquified gases as the extracting solvent to remove organics, such as hydrocarbons, oil and grease, from wastewater or contaminated sludges and soils. Carbon dioxide is generally used for aqueous solutions, and propane is used for sediment, sludges and ...

  9. Supercritical extraction of phenols from organically modified smectite

    SciTech Connect

    Park, S.J.; Yeo, S.D.

    1999-01-01

    Supercritical extraction has been performed in a fixed column to desorb phenol and 4-nitrophenol from organically modified smectite. The experiments were carried out in the sequence of adsorption of hexadecyltrimethylammonium (HDTMA) to montmorillonite, adsorption of phenols to organoclay in aqueous solutions, desorption of phenols from loaded organoclay using supercritical carbon dioxide, and adsorption of phenols to regenerated organoclay. The desorption characteristics of phenols were investigated at various pressures up to 420 bar; at temperatures of 40, 60, and 70 C, and at low concentrations of a cosolvent. The extraction percentages of phenols reached up to 90% in 3 hours of extraction. The results showed that under the experimental conditions investigated, the activity of HDTMA was intact during the supercritical extraction of phenols, and hence HDTMA-modified montmorillonite exhibited undiminished adsorption power toward phenols after several regeneration cycles.

  10. Methods of analysis by the U.S. Geological Survey Organic Geochemistry Research Group; determination of glyphosate, aminomethylphosphonic acid, and glufonsinate in water using online solid-phase extraction and high-performance liquid chromat

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Lee, E.A.; Strahan, A.P.; Thurman, E.M.

    2001-01-01

    An analytical method for the determination of glyphosate, its principal degradation compound, aminomethylphosphonic acid (AMPA), and glufosinate in water with varying matrices has been developed. Four different sample matrices fortified at 0.2 and 2.0 ?g/L (micrograms per liter) were analyzed using precolumn derivatization with 9-fluorenylmethylchloroformate (FMOC). After derivatization, cleanup and concentration were accomplished using automated online solid-phase extraction followed by elution with the mobile phase allowing for direct injection into a liquid chromatograph/mass spectrometer (LC/MS). Analytical conditions for MS detection were optimized, and quantitation was carried out using the following representative ions: 390 and 168 for glyphosate; 332, 110, and 136 for AMPA; and 402, 180, and 206 for glufosinate. Matrix effects were minimized by utilizing standard addition for quantification and an isotope-labeled glyphosate (2-13C,15N) as the internal standard. Method detection limits (MDLs) were 0.084 ?g/L for glyphosate, 0.078 ?g/L for AMPA, and 0.057 ?g/L for glufosinate. The method reporting limits (MRLs) were set at 0.1 ?g/L for all three compounds. The mean recovery values ranged from 88.0 to 128.7 percent, and relative standard deviation values ranged from 5.6 to 32.6 percent.

  11. Effect of organic acids on shrimp pathogen, Vibrio harveyi.

    PubMed

    Mine, Saori; Boopathy, Raj

    2011-07-01

    Shrimp farming accounts for more than 40% of the world shrimp production. Luminous vibriosis is a shrimp disease that causes major economic losses in the shrimp industry as a result of massive shrimp kills due to infection. Some farms in the South Asia use antibiotics to control Vibrio harveyi, a responsible pathogen for luminous vibriosis. However, the antibiotic-resistant strain was found recently in many shrimp farms, which makes it necessary to develop alternative pathogen control methods. Short-chain fatty acids are metabolic products of organisms, and they have been used as food preservatives for a long time. Organic acids are also commonly added in feeds in animal husbandry, but not in aquaculture. In this study, growth inhibitory effects of short-chain fatty acids, namely formic acid, acetic acid, propionic acid, and butyric acid, on V. harveyi were investigated. Among four acids, formic acid showed the strongest inhibitory effect followed by acetic acid, propionic acid, and butyric acid. The minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) of 0.035% formic acid suppressed growth of V. harveyi. The major inhibitory mechanism seems to be the pH effect of organic acids. The effective concentration 50 (EC50) values at 96 h inoculation for all organic acids were determined to be 0.023, 0.041, 0.03, and 0.066% for formic, acetic, propionic, and butyric acid, respectively. The laboratory study results are encouraging to formulate shrimp feeds with organic acids to control vibrio infection in shrimp aquaculture farms.

  12. Extracting metal ions with diphosphonic acid, or derivative thereof

    DOEpatents

    Horwitz, E.P.; Gatrone, R.C.; Nash, K.L.

    1994-07-26

    Thermodynamically-unstable complexing agents which are diphosphonic acids and diphosphonic acid derivatives (or sulfur containing analogs), like carboxyhydroxymethanediphosphonic acid and vinylidene-1,1-diphosphonic acid, are capable of complexing with metal ions, and especially metal ions in the II, III, IV, V and VI oxidation states, to form stable, water-soluble metal ion complexes in moderately alkaline to highly-acidic media. However, the complexing agents can be decomposed, under mild conditions, into non-organic compounds which, for many purposes are environmentally-nondamaging compounds thereby degrading the complex and releasing the metal ion for disposal or recovery. Uses for such complexing agents as well as methods for their manufacture are also described. 1 fig.

  13. Extracting metal ions with diphosphonic acid, or derivative thereof

    DOEpatents

    Horwitz, Earl P.; Gatrone, Ralph C.; Nash, Kenneth L.

    1994-01-01

    Thermodynamically-unstable complexing agents which are diphosphonic acids and diphosphonic acid derivatives (or sulphur containing analogs), like carboxyhydroxymethanediphosphonic acid and vinylidene-1,1-diphosphonic acid, are capable of complexing with metal ions, and especially metal ions in the II, III, IV, V and VI oxidation states, to form stable, water-soluble metal ion complexes in moderately alkaline to highly-acidic media. However, the complexing agents can be decomposed, under mild conditions, into non-organic compounds which, for many purposes are environmentally-nondamaging compounds thereby degrading the complex and releasing the metal ion for disposal or recovery. Uses for such complexing agents as well as methods for their manufacture are also described.

  14. Membrane extraction with thermodynamically unstable diphosphonic acid derivatives

    DOEpatents

    Horwitz, Earl Philip; Gatrone, Ralph Carl; Nash, Kenneth LaVerne

    1997-01-01

    Thermodynamically-unstable complexing agents which are diphosphonic acids and diphosphonic acid derivatives (or sulphur containing analogs), like carboxyhydroxymethanediphosphonic acid and vinylidene-1,1-diphosphonic acid, are capable of complexing with metal ions, and especially metal ions in the II, III, IV, V and VI oxidation states, to form stable, water-soluble metal ion complexes in moderately alkaline to highly-acidic media. However, the complexing agents can be decomposed, under mild conditions, into non-organic compounds which, for many purposes are environmentally-nondamaging compounds thereby degrading the complex and releasing the metal ion for disposal or recovery. Uses for such complexing agents as well as methods for their manufacture are also described.

  15. Chemical characterization and bioactive properties of aqueous and organic extracts of Geranium robertianum L.

    PubMed

    Graça, V C; Barros, Lillian; Calhelha, Ricardo C; Dias, Maria Inês; Carvalho, Ana Maria; Santos-Buelga, Celestino; Santos, P F; Ferreira, Isabel C F R

    2016-09-14

    Geranium robertianum L. has been used in folk medicine and herbalism practice for the treatment of various conditions, but the study of its bioactivity has been barely addressed. Although its phytochemical composition has received some attention, contributions to the nutritional composition are practically unknown. Herein, G. robertianum gathered in Trás-os-Montes, Northeastern Portugal, was chemically characterized regarding nutritional parameters, and the antioxidant activity and cytotoxicity against several human tumor cell lines and non-tumor porcine liver primary cells of several aqueous and organic extracts were evaluated. G. robertianum showed to be an equilibrated valuable herb, rich in carbohydrates and proteins, and poor in fat, providing sugars, tocopherols, organic and essential fatty acids. Amongst the extracts, the acetone one showed the highest total phenol and total flavonoid contents, as well as the greatest antioxidant and cytotoxic activities. This extract showed to contain hydrolysable tannins (e.g. geraniin and castalagin/vescalagin), as the main phenolic compounds. PMID:27603422

  16. Acidic organic compounds in beverage, food, and feed production.

    PubMed

    Quitmann, Hendrich; Fan, Rong; Czermak, Peter

    2014-01-01

    Organic acids and their derivatives are frequently used in beverage, food, and feed production. Acidic additives may act as buffers to regulate acidity, antioxidants, preservatives, flavor enhancers, and sequestrants. Beneficial effects on animal health and growth performance have been observed when using acidic substances as feed additives. Organic acids could be classified in groups according to their chemical structure. Each group of organic acids has its own specific properties and is used for different applications. Organic acids with low molecular weight (e.g. acetic acid, lactic acid, and citric acid), which are part of the primary metabolism, are often produced by fermentation. Others are produced more economically by chemical synthesis based on petrochemical raw materials on an industrial scale (e.g. formic acid, propionic and benzoic acid). Biotechnology-based production is of interest due to legislation, consumer demand for natural ingredients, and increasing environmental awareness. In the United States, for example, biocatalytically produced esters for food applications can be labeled as "natural," whereas identical conventional acid catalyst-based molecules cannot. Natural esters command a price several times that of non-natural esters. Biotechnological routes need to be optimized regarding raw materials and yield, microorganisms, and recovery methods. New bioprocesses are being developed for organic acids, which are at this time commercially produced by chemical synthesis. Moreover, new organic acids that could be produced with biotechnological methods are under investigation for food applications.

  17. Solvent extraction study of the thorium nitrate, nitric acid, and tributyl phosphate-dodecane system: density and acidity relationships

    SciTech Connect

    Weinberger, A.J.; Marley, J.L.; Costanzo, D.A.

    1980-05-01

    A solvent extraction study to determine equilibrium conditions of thorium nitrate-nitric acid with 30% tributyl phosphate in normal dodecane has been completed. Experimental conditions studied were 30 to 60{sup 0}C, 0.05 to 1.5 M Th(NO{sub 3}){sub 4}, and 0.0 to 3.0 M HNO{sub 3}. The extractant concentration was constant at 30% tributyl phosphate. The equilibrium experiments have produced data which demonstrate that thorium nitrate concentration, free acid, and density are related in equilibrium behavior between the aqueous and organic phases from 30 to 60{sup 0}C in the 30% tributyl phosphate-dodecane solvent extraction system. The concentration interactions apply to both the two- and three-phase regions. A linear correlation was observed for the density (D) of the aqueous or organic phase and the concentration of thorium and free acid. The general form of the equation is D = a(C/sub Th/ + bC/sub H/) + c, where a is the slope, b is the constant, c is the intercept, and C/sub Th/ and C/sub H/ are the molar concentrations of thorium and free acid respectively. The relationship of temperature, thorium nitrate, and free acid makes possible the definitions of the boundaries between the two- and three-phase regions. This dependence, in turn, permits operational control or simulation studies of the system within the two-phase region. The data demonstrate the interactions of the components of the Thorex system and can be used to improve the mathematical description of equilibrium in the SEPHIS-Thorex computer program.

  18. Determination of phenolic acids in plant extracts using CZE with on-line transient isotachophoretic preconcentration.

    PubMed

    Honegr, Jan; Pospíšilová, Marie

    2013-02-01

    A novel transient ITP-CZE for preconcentration and determination of seven phenolic acids (caffeic acid, cinnamic acid, p-coumaric acid, ferulic acid, protocatechuic acid, syringic acid, and vanilic acid) was developed and validated. Effects of several factors such as control of EOF, pH and buffer concentration, addition of organic solvents and CDs, and conditions for sample injection were investigated. Sample self-stacking was applied by means of induction of transient ITP, which was realized by adding sodium chloride into the sample. The CZE was realized in 200 mM borate buffer ((w)(s)pH 9.2) containing 37.5% methanol, 0.001% hexadimethrine bromide, and 15 mM 2-hydroxypropyl-β-CD. Under the optimal conditions for analysis, analytes were separated within 20 min. Linearity was tested for each compound in the concentration range of 0.1-10 μg/mL (R = 0.9906-0.9968) and the detection limits (S/N = 3) ranged from 11 ng/mL (protocatechuic acid) to 31 μg/mL (syringic acid). The validated method was applied to the ethanolic extract of Epilobium parviflorum, Onagraceae. The method of SPE was used for the precleaning of the sample. PMID:23401390

  19. Freeze-out extraction of monocarboxylic acids from water into acetonitrile under the action of centrifugal forces

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bekhterev, V. N.

    2016-10-01

    It is established that the efficiency of the freezing-out extraction of monocarboxylic acids C3-C;8 and sorbic acid from water into acetonitrile increases under the action of centrifugal forces. The linear growth of the partition coefficient in the homologous series of C2-C8 acids with an increase in molecule length, and the difference between the efficiency of extracting sorbic and hexanoic acid, are discussed using a theoretical model proposed earlier and based on the adsorption-desorption equilibrium of the partition of dissolved organic compounds between the resulting surface of ice and the liquid phase of the extract. The advantages of the proposed technique with respect to the degree of concentration over the method of low-temperature liquid-liquid extraction are explained in light of the phase diagram for the water-acetonitrile mixture.

  20. Dispersion-free solvent extraction of Cr(VI) from acidic solutions using hollow fiber contactor.

    PubMed

    Alguacil, Francisco J; Alonso, Manuel; Lopez, Félix A; Lopez-Delgado, Aurora; Padilla, Isabel

    2009-10-15

    The use of dispersión-free solvent extraction, through microporous hydrophobic membrane has been investigated. The hollow fiber contactor, with surface area of 1.4 m2 was used to extract Cr(VI) (0.005-0.12 g/L from aqueous sulphuric acidic media (pH 2.5-4.2 +/- 0.05). Several parameters such as extractant concentration, feed acidity and metal concentration in the initial aqueous solution were investigated. Results revealed that 15% v/v Cyanex 923 in Exxsol D-100 as organic phase and feed in the 2.5 pH range, gave optimum extraction (exceeding 95%) of Cr(VI) and it was possible to strip using 10 g/L hydrazine sulfate (also with recoveries exceeding 95%). In this step, Cr(VI) is immediately reduced to the less hazardous Cr(III) state. Results also showed that under the various experimental conditions, chromium(VI) extraction was rate-controlled by the interfacial reaction on the membrane surface. Typical overall mass transfer coefficients values are 4.2 x 10(-5) and 3.6 x 10(-6) cm/s for extraction and stripping operations, respectively.

  1. An analytical model for in situ extraction of organic vapors

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Roy, W.R.; Griffin, R.A.

    1991-01-01

    This paper introduces a simple convective-flow model that can be used as a screening tool and for conducting sensitivity analyses for in situ vapor extraction of organic compounds from porous media. An assumption basic to this model was that the total mass of volatile organic chemicals (VOC) exists in three forms: as vapors, in the soil solution, and adsorbed to soil particles. The equilibrium partitioning between the vapor-liquid phase was described by Henry's law constants (K(H)) and between the liquid-soil phase by soil adsorption constants (K(d)) derived from soil organic carbon-water partition coefficients (K(oc)). The model was used to assess the extractability of 36 VOCs from a hypothetical site. Most of the VOCs appeared to be removable from soil by this technology, although modeling results suggested that rates for the alcohols and ketones may be very slow. In general, rates for weakly adsorbed compounds (K(oc) < 100 mL/g) were significantly higher when K(H) was greater than 10-4 atm??m3??mol-1. When K(oc) was greater than about 100 mL/g, the rates of extraction were sensitive to the amount of organic carbon present in the soil. The air permeability of the soil material (k) was a critical factor. In situ extraction needs careful evaluation when k is less than 10 millidarcies to determine its applicability. An increase in the vacuum applied to an extraction well accelerated removal rates but the diameter of the well had little effect. However, an increase in the length of the well screen open to the contaminated zone significantly affected removal rates, especially in low-permeability materials.This paper introduces a simple convective-flow model that can be used as a screening tool and for conducting sensitivity analyses for in situ vapor extraction of organic compounds from porous media. An assumption basic to this model was that the total mass of volatile organic chemicals (VOC) exists in three forms: as vapors, in the soil solution, and adsorbed to soil

  2. CTEPP STANDARD OPERATING PROCEDURE FOR EXTRACTING AND PREPARING LIQUID FOOD SAMPLES FOR ANALYSIS OF POLAR ORGANIC POLLUTANTS (SOP-5.29)

    EPA Science Inventory

    This SOP describes the extraction and preparation of a liquid food sample for analysis of acidic persistent organic pollutants such as acid herbicides, pentachlorphenol, and 3,5,6-trichloro-2-phenol. It covers the extraction, concentration and derivatization of samples that are t...

  3. CTEPP STANDARD OPERATING PROCEDURE FOR EXTRACTING AND PREPARING SOLID FOOD SAMPLES FOR ANALYSIS OF POLAR ORGANIC POLLUTANTS (SOP-5.28)

    EPA Science Inventory

    This SOP describes the extraction and preparation of a solid food sample for analysis of acidic persistent organic pollutants such as acid herbicides, pentachlorphenol, and 3,5,6-trichloro-2-phenol. It covers the extraction, concentration and derivatization of samples that are to...

  4. Carboxylic and Dicarboxylic Acids Extracted from Crushed Magnesium Oxide Single Crystals

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Freund, Friedemann; Gupta, Alka D.; Kumar, Devendra; DeVincenzi, Donald (Technical Monitor)

    1998-01-01

    Carboxylic and dicarboxylic acids (glycolic, oxalic, malonic and succinic) have been extracted with tetrahydrofuran (THE) and H2O from large synthetic MgO crystals, crushed to a medium fine powder. The extracts were characterized by infrared spectroscopy and (sup 1)H-NMR (Nuclear Magnetic Resonance). The THF extracts were derivatized with tert-butyldimethylsilyl (t-BDMS) for GC-MS (Gas Chromatography - Mass Spectroscopy) analysis. A single crystal separated from the extract was used for an x-ray structure analysis, giving the monoclinic unit cell, space group P2(sub 1)/c with a(sub o) = 5.543 A, b(sub o) = 8.845 A, c(sub o) = 5.086 A, and beta = 91.9 degrees, consistent with beta-succinic acid, HOOC(CH2)COOH. The amount of extracted acids is estimated to be of the order of 0.1 to 0.5 mg/g MgO. The MgO crystals from which these organic acids were extracted grew from the 2360 C hot melt, saturated with CO/CO2 and H2O, thereby incorporating small amounts of the gaseous components to form a solid solution (ss) with MgO. Upon cooling, the ss becomes supersaturated, causing solute carbon and other solute species to segregate not only to the surface but also internally, to dislocations and subgrain boundaries. The organic acids extracted from the MgO crystals after crushing appear to derive from these segregated solutes that formed C-C, C-H, and C-O bonds along dislocations and other defects in the MgO structure, leading to entities that can generically be described as (HxCyOz)(sup n-). The processes underlying the formation of these precursors are fundamental in nature and expected to be operational in any minerals, preferentially those with dense structures, that crystallized in H2O-CO2-laden environments. This opens the possibility that common magmatic and metamorphic rocks when weathering at the surface of a tectonically active planet like Earth may be an important source of abiogenically formed complex organic compounds.

  5. Carboxylic and dicarboxylic acids extracted from crushed magnesium oxide single crystals

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Freund, F.; Gupta, A. D.; Kumar, D.

    1999-01-01

    Carboxylic and dicarboxylic acids (glycolic, oxalic, malonic and succinic) have been extracted with tetrahydrofuran (THF) and H2O from large synthetic MgO crystals, crushed to a medium fine powder. The extracts were characterized by infrared spectroscopy and 1H-NMR. The THF extracts were derivatized with tert-butyldimethylsilyl (t-BDMS) for GC-MS analysis. A single crystal separated from the extract was used for an x-ray structure analysis, giving the monoclinic unit cell, space group P21/c with ao = 5.543 A, bo = 8.845 A, co = 5.086 A, and beta = 91.9 degrees, consistent with beta-succinic acid, HOOC(CH2)COOH. The amount of extracted acids is estimated to be of the order of 0.1 to 0.5 mg g-1 MgO. The MgO crystals from which these organic acids were extracted grew from the 2860 degrees C hot melt, saturated with CO/CO2 and H2O, thereby incorporating small amounts of the gaseous components to form a solid solution (ss) with MgO. Upon cooling, the ss becomes supersaturated, causing solute carbon and other solute species to segregate not only to the surface but also internally, to dislocations and subgrain boundaries. The organic acids extracted from the MgO crystals after crushing appear to derive from these segregated solutes that formed C-C, C-H and C-O bonds along dislocations and other defects in the MgO structure, leading to entities that can generically be described as (HxCyOz)n-. The processes underlying the formation of these precursors are fundamental in nature and expected to be operational in any minerals, preferentially those with dense structures, that crystallized in H2O-CO2-laden environments. This opens the possibility that common magmatic and metamorphic rocks when weathering at the surface of a tectonically active planet like Earth may be an important source of abiogenically formed complex organic compounds.

  6. Two-step voltage dual electromembrane extraction: A new approach to simultaneous extraction of acidic and basic drugs.

    PubMed

    Asadi, Sakine; Nojavan, Saeed

    2016-06-01

    In the present work, acidic and basic drugs were simultaneously extracted by a novel method of high efficiency herein referred to as two-step voltage dual electromembrane extraction (TSV-DEME). Optimizing effective parameters such as composition of organic liquid membrane, pH values of donor and acceptor solutions, voltage and duration of each step, the method had its figures of merit investigated in pure water, human plasma, wastewater, and breast milk samples. Simultaneous extraction of acidic and basic drugs was done by applying potentials of 150 V and 400 V for 6 min and 19 min as the first and second steps, respectively. The model compounds were extracted from 4 mL of sample solution (pH = 6) into 20 μL of each acceptor solution (32 mM NaOH for acidic drugs and 32 mM HCL for basic drugs). 1-Octanol was immobilized within the pores of a porous hollow fiber of polypropylene, as the supported liquid membrane (SLM) for acidic drugs, and 2-ethyle hexanol, as the SLM for basic drugs. The proposed TSV-DEME technique provided good linearity with the resulting correlation coefficients ranging from 0.993 to 0.998 over a concentration range of 1-1000 ng mL(-1). The limit of detections of the drugs were found to range within 0.3-1.5 ng mL(-1), while the corresponding repeatability ranged from 7.7 to 15.5% (n = 4). The proposed method was further compared to simple dual electromembrane extraction (DEME), indicating significantly higher recoveries for TSV-DEME procedure (38.1-68%), as compared to those of simple DEME procedure (17.7-46%). Finally, the optimized TSV-DEME was applied to extract and quantify model compounds in breast milk, wastewater, and plasma samples.

  7. Two-step voltage dual electromembrane extraction: A new approach to simultaneous extraction of acidic and basic drugs.

    PubMed

    Asadi, Sakine; Nojavan, Saeed

    2016-06-01

    In the present work, acidic and basic drugs were simultaneously extracted by a novel method of high efficiency herein referred to as two-step voltage dual electromembrane extraction (TSV-DEME). Optimizing effective parameters such as composition of organic liquid membrane, pH values of donor and acceptor solutions, voltage and duration of each step, the method had its figures of merit investigated in pure water, human plasma, wastewater, and breast milk samples. Simultaneous extraction of acidic and basic drugs was done by applying potentials of 150 V and 400 V for 6 min and 19 min as the first and second steps, respectively. The model compounds were extracted from 4 mL of sample solution (pH = 6) into 20 μL of each acceptor solution (32 mM NaOH for acidic drugs and 32 mM HCL for basic drugs). 1-Octanol was immobilized within the pores of a porous hollow fiber of polypropylene, as the supported liquid membrane (SLM) for acidic drugs, and 2-ethyle hexanol, as the SLM for basic drugs. The proposed TSV-DEME technique provided good linearity with the resulting correlation coefficients ranging from 0.993 to 0.998 over a concentration range of 1-1000 ng mL(-1). The limit of detections of the drugs were found to range within 0.3-1.5 ng mL(-1), while the corresponding repeatability ranged from 7.7 to 15.5% (n = 4). The proposed method was further compared to simple dual electromembrane extraction (DEME), indicating significantly higher recoveries for TSV-DEME procedure (38.1-68%), as compared to those of simple DEME procedure (17.7-46%). Finally, the optimized TSV-DEME was applied to extract and quantify model compounds in breast milk, wastewater, and plasma samples. PMID:27155299

  8. Purification Or Organic Acids Using Anion Exchange Chromatography.

    DOEpatents

    Ponnampalam; Elankovan

    2001-09-04

    Disclosed is a cost-effective method for purifying and acidifying carboxylic acids, including organic acids and amino acids. The method involves removing impurities by allowing the anionic form of the carboxylic acid to bind to an anion exchange column and washing the column. The carboxylic anion is displaced as carboxylic acid by washing the resin with a strong inorganic anion. This method is effective in removing organic carboxylic acids and amino acids from a variety of industrial sources, including fermentation broths, hydrolysates, and waste streams.

  9. Phenolic and short-chained aliphatic organic acid constituents of wild oat (Avena fatua L.) seeds.

    PubMed

    Gallagher, R S; Ananth, R; Granger, K; Bradley, B; Anderson, J V; Fuerst, E P

    2010-01-13

    The objective of this research was to identify and quantify the phenolic and short-chained aliphatic organic acids present in the seeds of three wild-type populations of wild oat and compare these results to the chemical composition of seeds from two commonly utilized wild oat isolines (M73 and SH430). Phenolic acids have been shown to serve as germination inhibitors, as well as protection for seeds from biotic and abiotic stress factors in other species, whereas aliphatic organic acids have been linked to germination traits and protection against pathogens. Wild oat populations were grown under a "common garden" environment to remove maternal variation, and the resulting seeds were extracted to remove the readily soluble and chemically bound phenolic and aliphatic organic acid components. Compounds were identified and quantified using gas chromatography-mass spectrometry. Ferulic and p-coumaric acid comprised 99% of the total phenolic acids present in the seeds, of which 91% were contained in the hulls and 98% were in the chemically bound forms. Smaller quantities of OH benzoic and vanillic acid were also detected. Soluble organic acids concentrations were higher in the M73 isoline compared to SH430, suggesting that these chemical constituents could be related to seed dormancy. Malic, succinic, fumaric and azelaic acid were the dominant aliphatic organic acids detected in all seed and chemical fractions.

  10. Improved liquid chromatographic method for determination of organic acids in leaves, pulp, fruits, and rinds of Garcinia.

    PubMed

    Jayaprakasha, Guddadarangavvanahally K; Jena, Bhabani S; Sakariah, Kunnumpurath K

    2003-01-01

    An improved liquid chromatographic (LC) method was developed for determination of organic acids in leaves, pulp, fruits, and rinds of Garcinia. At present, the commonly used LC method for analysis of organic acids in Garcinia extracts uses direct application of the extracts on the column. This practice gradually reduces efficiency of the column and shortens its life. In the improved method, the interfering substances such as pigments and xanthones were effectively removed by passing the aqueous extract through an ODS cartridge. With subsequent injection on a C18 reversed-phase column, using 6.0 mM phosphoric acid as the mobile phase with a flow rate of 1.0 mL/min and UV detection at 210 nm, the organic acids were determined in the extracts. The major organic acid was (-)-hydroxycitric acid at the level of 2.5, 0.8, 3.0, and 20.1% in leaf, pulp, fresh fruit, and dried rinds, respectively. Minor quantities of hydroxycitric acid lactone, oxalic acid, and citric acid were also identified. Limits of detection and recoveries were 0.9-1.5 microg and 93.9-99.8%, respectively. This is the first report on the composition of organic acids from Garcinia pedunculata.

  11. A reexamination of amino acids in lunar soils: implications for the survival of exogenous organic material during impact delivery.

    PubMed

    Brinton, K L; Bada, J L

    1996-01-01

    Using a sensitive high performance liquid chromatography technique, we have analyzed both the hot water extract and the acid hydrolyzed hot water extract of lunar soil collected during the Apollo 17 mission. Both free amino acids and those derived from acid labile precursors are present at a level of roughly 15 ppb. Based on the D/L amino acid ratios, the free alanine and aspartic acid observed in the hot water extract can be entirely attributed to terrestrial biogenic contamination. However, in the acid labile fraction, precursors which yield amino acids are apparently present in the lunar soil. The amino acid distribution suggests that the precursor is probably solar wind implanted HCN. We have evaluated our results with regard to the meteoritic input of intact organic compounds to the moon based on an upper limit of < or = 0.3 ppb for alpha-aminoisobutyric acid, a non-protein amino acid which does not generally occur in terrestrial organisms and which is not a major amino acid produced from HCN, but which is a predominant amino acid in many carbonaceous chondrites. We find that the survival of exogenous organic compounds during lunar impact is < or = 0.8%. This result represents an example of minimum organic impact survivability. This is an important first step toward a better understanding of similar processes on Earth and on Mars, and their possible contribution to the budget of prebiotic organic compounds on the primitive Earth.

  12. A Reexamination of Amino Acids in Lunar Soils: Implications for the Survival of Exogenous Organic Material During Impact Delivery

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Brinton, Karen L. F.; Bada, Jeffrey L.

    1996-01-01

    Using a sensitive high performance liquid chromatography technique, we have analyzed both the hot water extract and the acid hydrolyzed hot water extract of lunar soil collected during the Apollo 17 mission. Both free amino acids and those derived from acid labile precursors are present at a level of roughly 15 ppb. Based on the D/L amino acid ratios, the free alanine and aspartic acid observed in the hot water extract can be entirely attributed to terrestrial biogenic contamination. However, in the acid labile fraction, precursors which yield amino acids are apparently present in the lunar soil. The amino acid distribution suggests that the precursor is probably solar wind implanted HCN. We have evaluated our results with regard to the meteoritic input of intact organic compounds to the moon based on an upper limit of less than or equal to 0.3 ppb for alpha-aminoisobutyric acid, a non-protein amino acid which does not generally occur in terrestrial organisms and which is not a major amino acid produced from HCN, but which is a predominant amino acid in many carbonaceous chondrites. We find that the survival of exogenous organic compounds during lunar impact is less than or equal to 0.8%. This result represents an example of minimum organic impact survivability. This is an important first step toward a better understanding of similar processes on Earth and on Mars, and their possible contribution to the budget of prebiotic organic compounds on the primitive Earth.

  13. A reexamination of amino acids in lunar soils: implications for the survival of exogenous organic material during impact delivery.

    PubMed

    Brinton, K L; Bada, J L

    1996-01-01

    Using a sensitive high performance liquid chromatography technique, we have analyzed both the hot water extract and the acid hydrolyzed hot water extract of lunar soil collected during the Apollo 17 mission. Both free amino acids and those derived from acid labile precursors are present at a level of roughly 15 ppb. Based on the D/L amino acid ratios, the free alanine and aspartic acid observed in the hot water extract can be entirely attributed to terrestrial biogenic contamination. However, in the acid labile fraction, precursors which yield amino acids are apparently present in the lunar soil. The amino acid distribution suggests that the precursor is probably solar wind implanted HCN. We have evaluated our results with regard to the meteoritic input of intact organic compounds to the moon based on an upper limit of < or = 0.3 ppb for alpha-aminoisobutyric acid, a non-protein amino acid which does not generally occur in terrestrial organisms and which is not a major amino acid produced from HCN, but which is a predominant amino acid in many carbonaceous chondrites. We find that the survival of exogenous organic compounds during lunar impact is < or = 0.8%. This result represents an example of minimum organic impact survivability. This is an important first step toward a better understanding of similar processes on Earth and on Mars, and their possible contribution to the budget of prebiotic organic compounds on the primitive Earth. PMID:11541128

  14. Methods of Analysis by the U.S. Geological Survey Organic Geochemistry Research Group-Determination of Dissolved Isoxaflutole and Its Sequential Degradation Products, Diketonitrile and Benzoic Acid, in Water Using Solid-Phase Extraction and Liquid Chromatography/Tandem Mass Spectrometry

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Meyer, Michael T.; Lee, Edward A.; Scribner, Elisabeth A.

    2007-01-01

    An analytical method for the determination of isoxaflutole and its sequential degradation products, diketonitrile and a benzoic acid analogue, in filtered water with varying matrices was developed by the U.S. Geological Survey Organic Geochemistry Research Group in Lawrence, Kansas. Four different water-sample matrices fortified at 0.02 and 0.10 ug/L (micrograms per liter) are extracted by vacuum manifold solid-phase extraction and analyzed by liquid chromatography/tandem mass spectrometry using electrospray ionization in negative-ion mode with multiple-reaction monitoring (MRM). Analytical conditions for mass spectrometry detection are optimized, and quantitation is carried out using the following MRM molecular-hydrogen (precursor) ion and product (p) ion transition pairs: 357.9 (precursor), 78.9 (p), and 277.6 (p) for isoxaflutole and diketonitrile, and 267.0 (precursor), 159.0 (p), and 223.1 (p) for benzoic acid. 2,4-dichlorophenoxyacetic acid-d3 is used as the internal standard, and alachlor ethanesulfonic acid-d5 is used as the surrogate standard. Compound detection limits and reporting levels are calculated using U.S. Environmental Protection Agency procedures. The mean solid-phase extraction recovery values ranged from 104 to 108 percent with relative standard deviation percentages ranging from 4.0 to 10.6 percent. The combined mean percentage concentration normalized to the theoretical spiked concentration of four water matrices analyzed eight times at 0.02 and 0.10 ug/L (seven times for the reagent-water matrix at 0.02 ug/L) ranged from approximately 75 to 101 percent with relative standard deviation percentages ranging from approximately 3 to 26 percent for isoxaflutole, diketonitrile, and benzoic acid. The method detection limit (MDL) for isoxaflutole and diketonitrile is 0.003 ug/L and 0.004 ug/L for benzoic acid. Method reporting levels (MRLs) are 0.011, 0.010, and 0.012 ug/L for isoxaflutole, diketonitrile, and benzoic acid, respectively. On the basis

  15. Fat extraction from acid- and base-hydrolyzed food samples using accelerated solvent extraction.

    PubMed

    Ullah, S M Rahmat; Murphy, Brett; Dorich, Brian; Richter, Bruce; Srinivasan, Kannan

    2011-03-23

    This paper describes a new in-cell method for pursuing accelerated solvent extraction (ASE) prior to lipid analysis from food samples. It is difficult to pursue direct ASE with acid- or base-hydrolyzed samples due to the corrosive nature of the reagents and material limitations. In this study ion exchange based materials were used to remove acid or base reagents in-cell without compromising the recovery of lipids. The performance data are presented here for the new methods for lipid extraction for a variety of food samples and compared to the Mojonnier method. NIST Standard Reference Materials (SRM-1546 and SRM-1849) were used to validate the ASE methods. Excellent fat recoveries were obtained for the ASE methods. The new methods presented here enhance the utility of ASE and eliminate labor intensive protocols.

  16. Seasonal and spatial changes of free and bound organic acids in total suspended particles in Guangzhou, China

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ma, Shexia; Peng, Ping'an; Song, Jianzhong; Bi, Xinhui; Zhao, Jinping; He, Lulu; Sheng, Guoying; Fu, Jiamo

    2010-12-01

    The concentrations and compositions of free and bound organic acids in total suspended particles from typical urban, suburban and forest park sites of Guangzhou were determined in this study. The free form of organic acids (solvent extractable) in aerosols in Guangzhou varied with site and season. The suburban samples contained the highest contents of alkanoic, alkenoic and dicarboxylic acids. These findings were consistent with a higher supply of hydrocarbons and NOx in the suburban area. However, concentrations of aromatic acids were similar in the urban, suburban and forest park sites. Generally, winter season samples of the acids from anthropogenic sources contained more organic acids than summer season samples due to stronger removal by wet deposition in the summer. For the acids from botanic sources, the summer season samples were higher. In addition to the free acids, bound acids (solvent non-extractable) mainly formed by esterification of free acids were also found in the samples. In general, bound acids were higher than free acids. Esterification is mainly controlled by the pKa of organic acids and the atmospheric pH value. This explains why aromatic and dicarboxylic acids occur mainly as bound forms and why the samples from urban sites contained high levels of bound acids as the pH of rain water can reach 4.53. Concentrations of alkanoic and alkenoic acids in the aerosols of Guangzhou were much higher than those in the other areas studied.

  17. Biobased organic acids production by metabolically engineered microorganisms.

    PubMed

    Chen, Yun; Nielsen, Jens

    2016-02-01

    Bio-based production of organic acids via microbial fermentation has been traditionally used in food industry. With the recent desire to develop more sustainable bioprocesses for production of fuels, chemicals and materials, the market for microbial production of organic acids has been further expanded as organic acids constitute a key group among top building block chemicals that can be produced from renewable resources. Here we review the current status for production of citric acid and lactic acid, and we highlight the use of modern metabolic engineering technologies to develop high performance microbes for production of succinic acid and 3-hydroxypropionic acid. Also, the key limitations and challenges in microbial organic acids production are discussed. PMID:26748037

  18. An empirical model on extractive lactic acid bioconversion.

    PubMed

    Srivastava, A; Yunus, R; Roychoudhury, P K

    1999-01-01

    The commercial production of lactic acid through fermentation process has always been in competition with its chemical synthesis process (Kirk Othmer, 1995). Lactic acid produced through the fermentation process has to cope with the problems of purification to meet the required quality standards. An attempt to improve the fermentative production is possible by proper design of an industrial process involving low capital cost for the plant. Also, the low energy costs both in its fermentation and purification, are required. In the commercial interest, the investment cost should be minimised, which is possible only when the cell density in fermenter is high. It means that the inhibitory effect of the product on process kinetics must be minimised. Based on these requirements, the extractive bioconversion technique is one of the approaches to achieve the commercially viable lactic acid production. Extractive lactic acid bioconversion using ion-exchange resin process has already been described in our earlier publications (Srivastava e al., 1992: Roychoudhury et al., 1995) It is always an advantage to develop a process model, thus opening an area of biotechnological improvements to the process. In the present paper, an empirical mathematical model has been described to explain this extractive bioconversion using ion-exchange resin process. It was based on generalised Monod's growth model and Leudeking and Piret equation. The system was defined with the assumption that the microbial growth can be represented as a single reaction; only a very little part of the substrate is utilised for the maintenance of the cells. The effect of end product inhibition on growth and product formation kinetics has also been considered in this model. A non-linear regression technique was used for evaluation of bioconversion kinetic parameters. The fourth order Runge Kutta method was used for solving the differential equations. The results of this process simulation are also discussed in the

  19. Heavy metal extraction from an artificially contaminated sandy soil under EDDS deficiency: significance of humic acid and chelant mixture.

    PubMed

    Yip, Theo C M; Yan, Dickson Y S; Yui, Matthew M T; Tsang, Daniel C W; Lo, Irene M C

    2010-06-01

    Biodegradable EDDS ([S,S]-ethylenediaminedisuccinic acid) has been suggested for enhancing heavy metal extraction from contaminated soils. Recent studies showed that Zn and Pb are less effectively extracted due to metal exchange and re-adsorption onto the soil surfaces, especially for EDDS-deficiency conditions. This study therefore investigated the influence of dissolved organic matter and the co-presence of EDTA (ethylene-diamine-tetraacetic acid) on metal extraction from an artificially contaminated sandy soil under deficient amount of chelants in batch kinetics experiments. The addition of 10 and 20mgL(-1) of humic acid as dissolved organic matter (DOC) suppressed metal extraction by EDDS, probably resulting from the competition of adsorbed humic acid for heavy metals and adsorption of metal-humate complexes onto the soil surfaces. The effects were most significant for Pb because of greater extent of metal exchange of PbEDDS and high affinity towards organic matter. Thus, one should be cautious when there is a high content of organic matter in soils or groundwater. On the other hand, compared to individual additions of EDDS or EDTA, the equimolar EDDS and EDTA mixture exhibited significantly higher Pb extraction without notable Pb re-adsorption. The synergistic performance of the EDDS and EDTA mixture probably resulted from the change of chemical speciation and thus less competition among Cu, Zn and Pb for each chelant. These findings suggest further investigation into an optimum chemistry of the chelant mixture taking into account the effectiveness and associated environmental impact.

  20. Searching for life on Mars: degradation of surfactant solutions used in organic extraction experiments.

    PubMed

    Court, Richard W; Sims, Mark R; Cullen, David C; Sephton, Mark A

    2014-09-01

    Life-detection instruments on future Mars missions may use surfactant solutions to extract organic matter from samples of martian rocks. The thermal and radiation environments of space and Mars are capable of degrading these solutions, thereby reducing their ability to dissolve organic species. Successful extraction and detection of biosignatures on Mars requires an understanding of how degradation in extraterrestrial environments can affect surfactant performance. We exposed solutions of the surfactants polysorbate 80 (PS80), Zonyl FS-300, and poly[dimethylsiloxane-co-[3-(2-(2-hydroxyethoxy)ethoxy)propyl]methylsiloxane] (PDMSHEPMS) to elevated radiation and heat levels, combined with prolonged storage. Degradation was investigated by measuring changes in pH and electrical conductivity and by using the degraded solutions to extract a suite of organic compounds spiked onto grains of the martian soil simulant JSC Mars-1. Results indicate that the proton fluences expected during a mission to Mars do not cause significant degradation of surfactant compounds. Solutions of PS80 or PDMSHEPMS stored at -20 °C are able to extract the spiked standards with acceptable recovery efficiencies. Extraction efficiencies for spiked standards decrease progressively with increasing temperature, and prolonged storage at 60°C renders the surfactant solutions ineffective. Neither the presence of ascorbic acid nor the choice of solvent unequivocally alters the efficiency of extraction of the spiked standards. Since degradation of polysorbates has the potential to produce organic compounds that could be mistaken for indigenous martian organic matter, the polysiloxane PDMSHEPMS may be a superior choice of surfactant for the exploration of Mars.

  1. Searching for life on Mars: degradation of surfactant solutions used in organic extraction experiments.

    PubMed

    Court, Richard W; Sims, Mark R; Cullen, David C; Sephton, Mark A

    2014-09-01

    Life-detection instruments on future Mars missions may use surfactant solutions to extract organic matter from samples of martian rocks. The thermal and radiation environments of space and Mars are capable of degrading these solutions, thereby reducing their ability to dissolve organic species. Successful extraction and detection of biosignatures on Mars requires an understanding of how degradation in extraterrestrial environments can affect surfactant performance. We exposed solutions of the surfactants polysorbate 80 (PS80), Zonyl FS-300, and poly[dimethylsiloxane-co-[3-(2-(2-hydroxyethoxy)ethoxy)propyl]methylsiloxane] (PDMSHEPMS) to elevated radiation and heat levels, combined with prolonged storage. Degradation was investigated by measuring changes in pH and electrical conductivity and by using the degraded solutions to extract a suite of organic compounds spiked onto grains of the martian soil simulant JSC Mars-1. Results indicate that the proton fluences expected during a mission to Mars do not cause significant degradation of surfactant compounds. Solutions of PS80 or PDMSHEPMS stored at -20 °C are able to extract the spiked standards with acceptable recovery efficiencies. Extraction efficiencies for spiked standards decrease progressively with increasing temperature, and prolonged storage at 60°C renders the surfactant solutions ineffective. Neither the presence of ascorbic acid nor the choice of solvent unequivocally alters the efficiency of extraction of the spiked standards. Since degradation of polysorbates has the potential to produce organic compounds that could be mistaken for indigenous martian organic matter, the polysiloxane PDMSHEPMS may be a superior choice of surfactant for the exploration of Mars. PMID:25192400

  2. D-Amino Acids in Living Higher Organisms

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fujii, Noriko

    2002-04-01

    The homochirality of biological amino acids (L-amino acids) and of the RNA/DNA backbone (D-ribose) might have become established before the origin of life. It has been considered that D-amino acids and L-sugars were eliminated on the primitive Earth. Therefore, the presence and function of D-amino acids in living organisms have not been studied except for D-amino acids in the cell walls of microorganisms. However, D-amino acids were recently found in various living higher organisms in the form of free amino acids, peptides, and proteins. Free D-aspartate and D-serine are present and may have important physiological functions in mammals. D-amino acids in peptides are well known as opioid peptides and neuropeptides. In protein, D-aspartate residues increase during aging. This review deals with recent advances in the study of D-amino acids in higher organisms.

  3. Diethylaminoethyl-cellulose clean-up of a large volume naphthenic acid extract.

    PubMed

    Frank, Richard A; Kavanagh, Richard; Burnison, B Kent; Headley, John V; Peru, Kerry M; Der Kraak, Glen Van; Solomon, Keith R

    2006-08-01

    The Athabasca oil sands of Alberta, Canada contain an estimated 174 billion barrels of bitumen. During oil sands refining processes, an extraction tailings mixture is produced that has been reported as toxic to aquatic organisms and is therefore collected in settling ponds on site. Investigation into the toxicity of these tailings pond waters has identified naphthenic acids (NAs) and their sodium salts as the major toxic components, and a multi-year study has been initiated to identify the principal toxic components within NA mixtures. Future toxicity studies require a large volume of a NA mixture, however, a well-defined bulk extraction technique is not available. This study investigated the use of a weak anion exchanger, diethylaminoethyl-cellulose (DEAE-cellulose), to remove humic-like material present after collecting the organic acid fraction of oil sands tailings pond water. The NA extraction and clean-up procedure proved to be a fast and efficient method to process large volumes of tailings pond water, providing an extraction efficiency of 41.2%. The resulting concentrated NA solution had a composition that differed somewhat from oil sands fresh tailings, with a reduction in the abundance of lower molecular weight NAs being the most significant difference. This reduction was mainly due to the initial acidification of tailings pond water. The DEAE-cellulose treatment had only a minor effect on the NA concentration, no noticeable effect on the NA fingerprint, and no significant effect on the mixture toxicity towards Vibrio fischeri. PMID:16469358

  4. Selective aqueous extraction of organics coupled with trapping by membrane separation

    DOEpatents

    van Eikeren, Paul; Brose, Daniel J.; Ray, Roderick J.

    1991-01-01

    An improvement to processes for the selective extractation of organic solutes from organic solvents by water-based extractants is disclosed, the improvement comprising coupling various membrane separation processes with the organic extraction process, the membrane separation process being utilized to continuously recycle the water-based extractant and at the same time selectively remove or concentrate organic solute from the water-based extractant.

  5. Direct Capture of Organic Acids From Fermentation Media Using Ionic Liquids

    SciTech Connect

    Klasson, K.T.

    2004-11-03

    Several ionic liquids have been investigated for the extraction of organic acids from fermentation broth. Partitioning of representative organic acids (lactic, acetic, and succinic) between aqueous solution and nine hydrophobic ionic liquids was measured. The extraction efficiencies were strongly dependent on pH of the aqueous phase. Distribution coefficient was very good (approximately 60) at low succinic acid concentrations for one of the ionic liquids (trihexyltetradecylphosphonium methanesulfonate) at neutral pH. However, this ionic liquid had to be diluted with nonanol due to its high viscosity in order to be useful. A diluent (trioctylamine) was also added to this mixture. The results suggest that an extraction system based on ionic liquids may be feasible for succinic acid recovery from fermentation broth and that two ideal extraction stages are needed to reduce the concentration from 33 g/L to 1 g/L of succinic acid. Further studies are needed to evaluate other issues related to practical applications, including ionic liquid loss in the process, toxicity effects of ionic liquids during simultaneous fermentation and extractions.

  6. Characterization of solvent-extractable organics in urban aerosols based on mass spectrum analysis and hygroscopic growth measurement.

    PubMed

    Mihara, Toshiyuki; Mochida, Michihiro

    2011-11-01

    To characterize atmospheric particulate organics with respect to polarity, aerosol samples collected on filters in the urban area of Nagoya, Japan, in 2009 were extracted using water, methanol, and ethyl acetate. The extracts were atomized and analyzed using a high-resolution time-of-flight aerosol mass spectrometer (HR-ToF-AMS) and a hygroscopicity tandem differential mobility analyzer. The atmospheric concentrations of the extracted organics were determined using phthalic acid as a reference material. Comparison of the organic carbon concentrations measured using a carbon analyzer and the HR-ToF-AMS suggests that organics extracted with water (WSOM) and ethyl acetate (EASOM) or those extracted with methanol (MSOM) comprise the greater part of total organics. The oxygen-carbon ratios (O/C) of the extracted organics varied: 0.51-0.75 (WSOM), 0.37-0.48 (MSOM), and 0.27-0.33 (EASOM). In the ion-group analysis, WSOM, MSOM, and EASOM were clearly characterized by the different fractions of the CH and CO(2) groups. On the basis of the hygroscopic growth measurements of the extracts, κ of organics at 90% relative humidity (κ(org)) were estimated. Positive correlation of κ(org) with O/C (r 0.70) was found for MSOM and EASOM, but no clear correlation was found for WSOM.

  7. Application of natural deep eutectic solvents to the extraction of anthocyanins from Catharanthus roseus with high extractability and stability replacing conventional organic solvents.

    PubMed

    Dai, Yuntao; Rozema, Evelien; Verpoorte, Robert; Choi, Young Hae

    2016-02-19

    Natural deep eutectic solvents (NADES) have attracted a great deal of attention in recent times as promising green media. They are generally composed of neutral, acidic or basic compounds that form liquids of high viscosity when mixed in certain molar ratio. Despite their potential, viscosity and acid or basic nature of some ingredients may affect the extraction capacity and stabilizing ability of the target compounds. To investigate these effects, extraction with a series of NADES was employed for the analysis of anthocyanins in flower petals of Catharanthus roseus in combination with HPLC-DAD-based metabolic profiling. Along with the extraction yields of anthocyanins their stability in NADES was also studied. Multivariate data analysis indicates that the lactic acid-glucose (LGH), and 1,2-propanediol-choline chloride (PCH) NADES present a similar extraction power for anthocyanins as conventional organic solvents. Furthermore, among the NADES employed, LGH exhibits an at least three times higher stabilizing capacity for cyanidins than acidified ethanol, which facilitates their extraction and analysis process. Comparing NADES to the conventional organic solvents, in addition to their reduced environmental impact, they proved to provide higher stability for anthocyanins, and therefore have a great potential as possible alternatives to those organic solvents in health related areas such as food, pharmaceuticals and cosmetics. PMID:26822320

  8. Determination of organic acids in biological fluids by ion chromatography: plasma lactate and pyruvate and urinary vanillylmandelic acid.

    PubMed

    Rich, W; Johnson, E; Lois, L; Kabra, P; Stafford, B; Marton, L

    1980-09-01

    We describe the general aspects of ion chromatography and how on-line counted ion-exchange techniques can be utilized to determine pyruvic and lactic acids in plasma and vanillymandelic acid in urine. Pyruvate and lactate are extracted from deproteinized plasma by use of an ion-exclusion resin. After elution from the resin, the plasma extract is chromatographed on an anion-exchange column, with 0.66 mmol/L sodium bicarbonate as the mobile phase. The effluent is detected with an electrical conductivity cell. Vanillylmandelic acid is extracted from diluted urine by use of an anion-exchange resin. After elution from resin, the urine extract is chromatographed on an ion-exclusion column, followed by electrochemical detection. We evaluated the procedures for precision, linearity, analytical recovery, intefering substances, and correlation with an established procedure. the combination of a preliminary resin extraction, an ion chromatographic separation, and a conductivity or electrochemical detector results in rapid, specific methods that can be adapted for use in the clinical laboratory. Preliminary data for other organic acids are presented.

  9. Carbohydrate, Organic Acid, and Amino Acid Composition of Bacteroids and Cytosol from Soybean Nodules 1

    PubMed Central

    Streeter, John G.

    1987-01-01

    Metabolites in Bradyrhizobium japonicum bacteroids and in Glycine max (L.) Merr. cytosol from root nodules were analyzed using an isolation technique which makes it possible to estimate and correct for changes in concentration which may occur during bacteroid isolation. Bacteroid and cytosol extracts were fractionated on ion-exchange columns and were analyzed for carbohydrate composition using gas-liquid chromatography and for organic acid and amino acid composition using high performance liquid chromatography. Analysis of organic acids in plant tissues as the phenacyl derivatives is reported for the first time and this approach revealed the presence of several unknown organic acids in nodules. The time required for separation of bacteroids and cytosol was varied, and significant change in concentration of individual compounds during the separation of the two fractions was estimated by calculating the regression of concentration on time. When a statistically significant slope was found, the true concentration was estimated by extrapolating the regression line to time zero. Of 78 concentration estimates made, there was a statistically significant (5% level) change in concentration during sample preparation for only five metabolites: glucose, sucrose, and succinate in the cytosol and d-pinitol and serine in bacteroids. On a mass basis, the major compounds in bacteroids were (descending order of concentration): myo-inositol, d-chiro-inositol, α,α-trehalose, sucrose, aspartate, glutamate, d-pinitol, arginine, malonate, and glucose. On a proportional basis (concentration in bacteroid as percent of concentration in bacteroid + cytosol fractions), the major compounds were: α-aminoadipate (94), trehalose (66), lysine (58), and arginine (46). The results indicate that metabolite concentrations in bacteroids can be reliably determined. PMID:16665774

  10. Effect of botanical extracts containing carnosic acid or rosmarinic acid on learning and memory in SAMP8 mice.

    PubMed

    Farr, Susan A; Niehoff, Michael L; Ceddia, Michael A; Herrlinger, Kelli A; Lewis, Brandon J; Feng, Shulin; Welleford, Andrew; Butterfield, D Allan; Morley, John E

    2016-10-15

    Oxidative damage is one of the hallmarks of the aging process. The current study evaluated effects of two proprietary antioxidant-based ingredients, rosemary extract and spearmint extract containing carnosic acid and rosmarinic acid, respectively, on learning and memory in the SAMP8 mouse model of accelerated aging. The two rosemary extracts contained carnosic acid (60% or 10% carnosic acid) and one spearmint extract contained 5% rosmarinic acid. Three doses of actives in each extract were tested: 32, 16, 1.6 or 0mg/kg. After 90days of treatment mice were tested in T-maze foot shock avoidance, object recognition and lever press. Rosemary extract containing 60% carnosic acid improved acquisition and retention in T-maze foot shock, object recognition and lever press. Rosemary extract with 10% carnosic acid improved retention in T-maze foot shock avoidance and lever press. Spearmint with 5% rosmarinic acid improved acquisition and retention in T-maze foot shock avoidance and object recognition. 4-hydroxynonenal (HNE) was reduced in the brain cortex after treatment with all three extracts (P<0.001) compared to the vehicle treated SAMP8. Protein carbonyls were reduced in the hippocampus after administration of rosemary with 10% carnosic acid (P<0.05) and spearmint containing 5% rosmarinic acid (P<0.001). The current results indicate that the extracts from spearmint and rosemary have beneficial effects on learning and memory and brain tissue markers of oxidation that occur with age in SAMP8 mice. PMID:27527000

  11. Effect of botanical extracts containing carnosic acid or rosmarinic acid on learning and memory in SAMP8 mice.

    PubMed

    Farr, Susan A; Niehoff, Michael L; Ceddia, Michael A; Herrlinger, Kelli A; Lewis, Brandon J; Feng, Shulin; Welleford, Andrew; Butterfield, D Allan; Morley, John E

    2016-10-15

    Oxidative damage is one of the hallmarks of the aging process. The current study evaluated effects of two proprietary antioxidant-based ingredients, rosemary extract and spearmint extract containing carnosic acid and rosmarinic acid, respectively, on learning and memory in the SAMP8 mouse model of accelerated aging. The two rosemary extracts contained carnosic acid (60% or 10% carnosic acid) and one spearmint extract contained 5% rosmarinic acid. Three doses of actives in each extract were tested: 32, 16, 1.6 or 0mg/kg. After 90days of treatment mice were tested in T-maze foot shock avoidance, object recognition and lever press. Rosemary extract containing 60% carnosic acid improved acquisition and retention in T-maze foot shock, object recognition and lever press. Rosemary extract with 10% carnosic acid improved retention in T-maze foot shock avoidance and lever press. Spearmint with 5% rosmarinic acid improved acquisition and retention in T-maze foot shock avoidance and object recognition. 4-hydroxynonenal (HNE) was reduced in the brain cortex after treatment with all three extracts (P<0.001) compared to the vehicle treated SAMP8. Protein carbonyls were reduced in the hippocampus after administration of rosemary with 10% carnosic acid (P<0.05) and spearmint containing 5% rosmarinic acid (P<0.001). The current results indicate that the extracts from spearmint and rosemary have beneficial effects on learning and memory and brain tissue markers of oxidation that occur with age in SAMP8 mice.

  12. Controllable Phase Separation by Boc-Modified Lipophilic Acid as a Multifunctional Extractant

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tao, Kai; Adler-Abramovich, Lihi; Gazit, Ehud

    2015-12-01

    While phase separation of immiscible liquid-liquid systems has become increasingly significant in diverse areas, the irreversible nature limits their further application in controllable extraction-concentration or capture-release fields. There is a need for the development of simple, efficient and reversible methods for numerous research and industrial extraction and separation applications. We envisioned Boc-modified lipophilic acids as a simple model for such use based on the studies of the multi-phase transitions of Boc-modified supramolecular polymeric systems. Here, we demonstrate that in the presence of Boc-7-aminoheptanoic acid (Boc-7), phase separation occurs in mixtures of miscible organic solvent and water. The separation behavior was confirmed by differential colorimetric development in aqueous and organic phases using methyl orange staining assays. Component substitution experiments verified that the phase separation results from the subtle balance between the aggregation and the solvation forces of Boc-7, and is reversible by adjusting the solution pH. Owing to the intrinsic hydrophobic properties of the organic phase and the hydrogen bonding-forming ability of the carboxyl group of Boc-7, the phase separation system captures and releases Sudan Red, fluorescein, and streptavidin in a controllable manner. Consequently, a reversible and simple phase separation system can be designed as a multifunctional extractant.

  13. Controllable Phase Separation by Boc-Modified Lipophilic Acid as a Multifunctional Extractant

    PubMed Central

    Tao, Kai; Adler-Abramovich, Lihi; Gazit, Ehud

    2015-01-01

    While phase separation of immiscible liquid-liquid systems has become increasingly significant in diverse areas, the irreversible nature limits their further application in controllable extraction-concentration or capture-release fields. There is a need for the development of simple, efficient and reversible methods for numerous research and industrial extraction and separation applications. We envisioned Boc-modified lipophilic acids as a simple model for such use based on the studies of the multi-phase transitions of Boc-modified supramolecular polymeric systems. Here, we demonstrate that in the presence of Boc-7-aminoheptanoic acid (Boc-7), phase separation occurs in mixtures of miscible organic solvent and water. The separation behavior was confirmed by differential colorimetric development in aqueous and organic phases using methyl orange staining assays. Component substitution experiments verified that the phase separation results from the subtle balance between the aggregation and the solvation forces of Boc-7, and is reversible by adjusting the solution pH. Owing to the intrinsic hydrophobic properties of the organic phase and the hydrogen bonding-forming ability of the carboxyl group of Boc-7, the phase separation system captures and releases Sudan Red, fluorescein, and streptavidin in a controllable manner. Consequently, a reversible and simple phase separation system can be designed as a multifunctional extractant. PMID:26627307

  14. Optimization of microwave-assisted extraction for six inorganic and organic arsenic species in chicken tissues using response surface methodology.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Wenfeng; Hu, Yuanan; Cheng, Hefa

    2015-09-01

    Response surface methodology was applied to optimize the parameters for microwave-assisted extraction of six major inorganic and organic arsenic species (As(III), As(V), dimethyl arsenic acid, monomethyl arsenic acid, p-arsanilic acid, and roxarsone) from chicken tissues, followed by detection using a high-performance liquid chromatography with inductively coupled mass spectrometry detection method, which allows the simultaneous analysis of both inorganic and organic arsenic species in the extract in a single run. Effects of extraction medium, solution pH, liquid-to-solid ratio, and the temperature and time of microwave-assisted extraction on the extraction of the targeted arsenic species were studied. The optimum microwave-assisted extraction conditions were: 100 mg of chicken tissue, extracted by 5 mL of 22% v/v methanol, 90 mmol/L (NH4 )2 HPO4 , and 0.07% v/v trifluoroacetic acid (with pH adjusted to 10.0 by ammonium hydroxide solution), ramping for 10 min to 71°C, and holding for 11 min. The method has good extraction performance for total arsenic in the spiked and nonspiked chicken tissues (104.0 ± 13.8% and 91.6 ± 7.8%, respectively), except for the ones with arsenic contents close to the quantitation limits. Limits of quantitation (S/N = 10) for As(III), As(V), dimethyl arsenic acid, monomethyl arsenic acid, p-arsanilic acid, and roxarsone in chicken tissues using this method were 0.012, 0.058, 0.039, 0.061, 0.102, and 0.240 mg/kg (dry weight), respectively.

  15. Antioxidant activity and sensory evaluation of a rosmarinic acid-enriched extract of Salvia officinalis

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    An extract of S. officinalis (garden sage) was developed using supercritical fluid extraction, followed by hot water extraction. The resulting extract was enriched in polyphenols, including rosmarinic acid (RA), which has shown promising health benefits in animals. The extract contained RA at a conc...

  16. Comparison of different extraction techniques for the determination of polychlorinated organic compounds in sediment.

    PubMed

    Martens, D; Gfrerer, M; Wenzl, T; Zhang, A; Gawlik, B M; Schramm, K W; Lankmayr, E; Kettrup, A

    2002-02-01

    The performance of various enhanced extraction techniques, such as accelerated solvent extraction, microwave-assisted extraction, Soxhlet extraction, ultrasonic extraction and fluidized-bed extraction for the determination of polychlorinated organic compounds in dry sediment was investigated in two laboratories. The results of the two laboratories were in good agreement. The extraction yields from the batch extraction methods were lower than those from the dynamic techniques. Accelerated solvent extraction, especially, exhibited higher extraction efficiency than the standard procedure, Soxhlet extraction, whereas the results of fluidized-bed extraction were comparable. PMID:11939632

  17. A Quantitative Analysis of Extraction of Organic Molecules from Terrestrial Sedimentary Deposits

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kanik, I.; Beegle, L. W.; Abbey, W. A.; Tsapin, A. T.

    2004-12-01

    There are several factors determining the ability to detect organic molecules as part of a robotic astrobiology mission to planets. These include the quantity of organics present in a sample, the efficiency of extracting those organics from the matrix that they reside in (i.e. sample processing) and finally the detection efficiencies of the analytical instrumentation aboard the robotic platform. Once the detection limits of the analytical instrumentation is established, the efficiency of extraction becomes the overriding factor in the detectability of these molecules, and needs to be factored in. We analyzed four different terrestrial field samples, which were initially created in aqueous environments, are sedimentary in nature. These particular samples were chosen because they possibly represent a terrestrial analog of Mars [1] and they represent a best case scenarios for finding organic molecules on the Martian surface. The extraction efficiencies of amino acids (smallest building blocks of life) from the samples using pyrolysis and solvent extraction techniques (with seven different solvents: water, hydrochloric acid, butane, ethanol, isoproponal, methanol, n=propanal) are reported. In order to remove any instrumental bias, we used a standard laboratory bench-top high pressure liquid chromatograph (HPLC). We determined both absolute quantity of organics as well as the D/L ratio to determine the preservation of that information in the processing step. Acknowledgment: The research described here was carried out at the Jet Propulsion Laboratory, and was sponsored by the NASA PIDDP and ASTID program offices. References: [1] Malin M.C. and Edgett K.S. (2003) Science 302 1931-1934.

  18. Yearly trend of dicarboxylic acids in organic aerosols from south of Sweden and source attribution

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hyder, Murtaza; Genberg, Johan; Sandahl, Margareta; Swietlicki, Erik; Jönsson, Jan Åke

    2012-09-01

    Seven aliphatic dicarboxylic acids (C3-C9) along with phthalic acid, pinic acid and pinonic acid were determined in 35 aerosol (PM10) samples collected over the year at Vavihill sampling station in south of Sweden. Mixture of dichloromethane and methanol (ratio 1:3) was preferred over water for extraction of samples and extraction was assisted by ultrasonic agitation. Analytes were derivatized using N,O-bis(trimethylsilyl)trifluoroacetamide (BSTFA) containing 1% trimethylsilyl chloride and analyzed using gas chromatography/mass spectrometry. Among studied analytes, azelaic acid was found maximum with an average concentration of 6.0 ± 3.6 ng m-3 and minimum concentration was found for pimelic acid (1.06 ± 0.63 ng m-3). A correlation coefficients analysis was used for defining the possible sources of analytes. Higher dicarboxylic acids (C7-C9) showed a strong correlation with each other (correlation coefficients (r) range, 0.96-0.97). Pinic and pinonic acids showed an increase in concentration during summer. Lower carbon number dicarboxylic acids (C3-C6) and phthalic acid were found strongly correlated, but showed a poor correlation with higher carbon number dicarboxylic acids (C7-C9), suggesting a different source for them. Biomass burning, vehicle exhaust, photo-oxidation of volatile organic compounds (natural and anthropogenic emissions) were possible sources for dicarboxylic acids.

  19. Third phase formation in the extraction of phosphotungstic acid by TBP in n-octane.

    SciTech Connect

    Antonio, M. R.; Chiarizia, R.; Jaffrennou, F.

    2010-08-30

    The solvent extraction of 12-phosphotungstic acid, also known as 12-tungstophosphoric acid-H{sub 3}PW{sub 12}O{sub 40}, the so-called Keggin heteropolyacid - by 0.73 M (20%v/v) tri-n-butyl phosphate (TBP) in n-octane under conditions comparable to those used previously for the extraction of conventional inorganic mineral acids is described. A simplified phase diagram for the pentanary system comprised of H{sub 3}PW{sub 12}O{sub 40}, HNO{sub 3}, H{sub 2}O, TBP, and n-octane reveals an extremely low initial concentration of H{sub 3}PW{sub 12}O{sub 40} (1.1 mM) at the LOC (limiting organic concentration) condition, far lower than the most effective third-phase-forming inorganic acid, namely HClO{sub 4}. The results from small-angle neutron scattering (SANS) indicate that the interparticle attraction energy - U(r) calculated through application of the Baxter sticky sphere model to the SANS data at the LOC condition - does not approach the -2 k{sub B} T value associated with phase splitting in previous studies of TBP third-phase formation. The third-phase formation model based on attractive interactions between polar cores of reverse micelles, successfully developed for TBP and other extraction systems does not apply to the extraction of H{sub 3}PW{sub 12}O{sub 40}. Rather, the separation of a third-phase from the TBP organic phase stems from the limited solubility of the heavy and highly polar H{sub 3}PW{sub 12}O{sub 40}-TBP species in the alkane diluent.

  20. Influence of Tillage, Cropping Management, and Nitrogen Source on Humic, Fulvic, and Water-Extractable Organic Matter Fractions: A Fluorescence Study

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The characterization of organic matter in agroecosystems is important due to its involvement in many soil ecosystem processes. Humic acid, fulvic acid, and water-extractable organic matter from a nine-year agroecosystem study investigating the effects of tillage, cropping system, and N source were c...

  1. Hypoglycemic activity of leaf organic extracts from Smallanthus sonchifolius: Constituents of the most active fractions.

    PubMed

    Genta, Susana B; Cabrera, Wilfredo M; Mercado, María I; Grau, Alfredo; Catalán, César A; Sánchez, Sara S

    2010-04-29

    The aim of the present study was to determine the in vivo hypoglycemic activity of five organic extracts and enhydrin obtained from yacon leaves. The main constituents of the most active fraction were identified. Five organic extracts and pure crystalline enhydrin were administered to normoglycemic, transiently hyperglycemic and streptozotocin (STZ)-diabetic rats. The fasting and post-prandial blood glucose, and serum insulin levels were estimated and an oral glucose tolerance test (OGTT) was performed for the evaluation of hypoglycemic activity and dose optimization of each extract. We found that the methanol, butanol and chloroform extracts showed effective hypoglycemic activity at minimum doses of 50, 10 and 20mg/kg body weight, respectively, and were selected for further experiments. Oral administration of a single-dose of each extract produced a slight lowering effect in the fasting blood glucose level of normal healthy rats, whereas each extract tempered significantly the hyperglycemic peak after food ingestion. Daily administration of each extract for 8 weeks produced an effective glycemic control in diabetic animals with an increase in the plasma insulin level. Phytochemical analysis of the most active fraction, the butanol extract, showed that caffeic, chlorogenic and three dicaffeoilquinic acids were significant components. Additionally, enhydrin, the major sesquiterpene lactone of yacon leaves, was also effective to reduce post-prandial glucose and useful in the treatment of diabetic animals (minimum dose: 0.8mg/kg body weight). The results presented here strongly support the notion that the phenolic compounds above as well as enhydrin are important hypoglycemic principles of yacon leaves that could ameliorate the diabetic state.

  2. Extraction of benzene and naphthalene carboxylic acids using quaternary ammonium salts as a model study for the separation of coal oxidation products

    SciTech Connect

    Kawamura, K.; Nagano, H.; Okuwaki, A.

    2005-07-01

    The ion-pair solvent extraction of benzene- and naphthalene-carboxylic acids has been investigated as a model study for the separation of coal oxidation products, which are formed by treatment with alkaline solutions at high temperatures. It was possible that benzene- and naphthalene-dicarboxylic acids are extracted into several types of organic solvents with quaternary ammonium ions. The extraction equilibrium constants (K{sub ex}) for benzoic acid, 1,2-benzenedicarboxylic acid, 1,3-benzenedicarboxylic acid, 1-naphthoic acid, 2-naphthoic acid, 2,3-naphthalenedicarboxylic acid, and 2,6-naphthalenedicarboxylic acid into chloroform were determined at 20{sup o}C. The difference of K{sub ex} among the aromatic acids was sufficiently large for designing a separation method for these aromatic acids. It was unexpected that the extraction of dicarboxylic acids was slower than that of monocarboxylic acids, although the ion-pair formation of aromatic carboxylate ion with quaternary ammonium ion is normally considered as a diffusion control reaction in aqueous phase. Thus, this fact suggests that the phase transfer of the ion-pair from aqueous to organic phase is the rate-determining step. Liner-free-energy relationship was observed for the monocarboxylic acids using different quaternary ammonium salts while that was ambiguous for the dicarboxylic acids. This is due to the steric influence of the counter ions for the magnitude of K{sub ex}.

  3. Photosensitizing properties of water-extractable organic matter from soils.

    PubMed

    Nkhili, Ezzhora; Boguta, Patrycja; Bejger, Romualda; Guyot, Ghislain; Sokołowska, Zofia; Richard, Claire

    2014-01-01

    Water-extractable organic matter (WEOM) was extracted using pure water from two black soils and from the Elliott reference soil of the International Humic Substances Society (IHSS). WEOMs were characterized by chemical and spectroscopic methods. The apparent quantum yields of singlet oxygen, triplet excited states and hydroxyl radicals formation upon irradiation within the wavelength range 290-450 nm were determined using chemical probes and compared to those of standard Elliott humic substances. In general, the aromatic content, as measured by the SUVA value, was close in WEOMs and humic substances, while the E2/E3 was higher and the humification index lower in the former. Quantum yield values measured for WEOMs fell within the range of those found for basic medium extracted humic substances or were even higher in one case. Thus, water soluble aromatic moiety of the soil organic matter, especially those with low humification degree, is important for the photosensitizing properties. We also found that WEOMs sensitized the bisphenol A phototransformation with rates of the same order of magnitude for all the samples.

  4. [Effect of phosphate and organic acid addition on passivation of simulated Pb contaminated soil and the stability of the product].

    PubMed

    Zuo, Ji-Chao; Gao, Ting-Ting; Su, Xiao-Juan; Wan, Tian-Ying; Hu, Hong-Qing

    2014-10-01

    Organic acids can improve the phosphorus availability, influence the immobilization of heavy metals in soil, and has very complicated function in phosphorus activation and heavy metal passivation. This research took simulated Pb contaminated soil as material, phosphate and citric acid as remediation matter, adopted BCR continuous extraction, 0.01 mol · L(-1) CaCl2 and toxicity characteristic leaching procedure (TCLP) to evaluate the remediation effect. Besides, malic acid and NaNO3 were taken as desorption reagents to discuss the stability of the phosphorus-citric acid-Pb system. The results showed that: in the absence of citric acid, the amount of acid extracted Pb decreased along with the increase of P concentration; when the P concentration was 100 and 400 mg · kg(-1), acid extractable Pb increased with the increasing of citric acid concentration. However, residual Pb changed in the opposite direction from acid extractable Pb. The phenomenon showed that P improved the bioavailability of Pb, while citric acid had the opposite effect. With a certain organic acid concentration, extractable Pb contents extracted by 0.01 mol · L(-1) CaCl2 and TCLP both decreased with the increasing P concentration, therefore, P had immobilization effect on Pb in contaminated soil. But at a fixed P concentration, extractable Pb contents by 0.01 mol · L(-1) CaCl2 and TCLP changed in the opposite trend with the increasing citric acid concentration. The desorption rate of Pb in soil increased with the increasing malic acid concentration, the decreasing pH and the increasing ionic strength. The desorption extent of Pb in soil with P only was lower than that with both P and citric acid. But the stability of Pb passivated by the former was higher. PMID:25693396

  5. [Effect of phosphate and organic acid addition on passivation of simulated Pb contaminated soil and the stability of the product].

    PubMed

    Zuo, Ji-Chao; Gao, Ting-Ting; Su, Xiao-Juan; Wan, Tian-Ying; Hu, Hong-Qing

    2014-10-01

    Organic acids can improve the phosphorus availability, influence the immobilization of heavy metals in soil, and has very complicated function in phosphorus activation and heavy metal passivation. This research took simulated Pb contaminated soil as material, phosphate and citric acid as remediation matter, adopted BCR continuous extraction, 0.01 mol · L(-1) CaCl2 and toxicity characteristic leaching procedure (TCLP) to evaluate the remediation effect. Besides, malic acid and NaNO3 were taken as desorption reagents to discuss the stability of the phosphorus-citric acid-Pb system. The results showed that: in the absence of citric acid, the amount of acid extracted Pb decreased along with the increase of P concentration; when the P concentration was 100 and 400 mg · kg(-1), acid extractable Pb increased with the increasing of citric acid concentration. However, residual Pb changed in the opposite direction from acid extractable Pb. The phenomenon showed that P improved the bioavailability of Pb, while citric acid had the opposite effect. With a certain organic acid concentration, extractable Pb contents extracted by 0.01 mol · L(-1) CaCl2 and TCLP both decreased with the increasing P concentration, therefore, P had immobilization effect on Pb in contaminated soil. But at a fixed P concentration, extractable Pb contents by 0.01 mol · L(-1) CaCl2 and TCLP changed in the opposite trend with the increasing citric acid concentration. The desorption rate of Pb in soil increased with the increasing malic acid concentration, the decreasing pH and the increasing ionic strength. The desorption extent of Pb in soil with P only was lower than that with both P and citric acid. But the stability of Pb passivated by the former was higher.

  6. Group extraction of organic compounds present in liquid samples

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jahnsen, Vilhelm J. (Inventor)

    1976-01-01

    An extraction device is disclosed comprising a tube containing a substantially inert, chemically non-reactive packing material with a large surface area to volume ratio. A sample which consists of organic compounds dissolved in a liquid, is introduced into the tube. As the sample passes through the packing material it spreads over the material's large surface area to form a thin liquid film which is held on the packing material in a stationary state. A particular group or family of compounds is extractable from the sample by passing a particular solvent system consisting of a solvent and selected reagents through the packing material. The reagents cause optimum conditions to exist for the compounds of the particular family to pass through the phase boundary between the sample liquid and the solvent of the solvent system. Thus, the compounds of the particular family are separated from the sample liquid and become dissolved in the solvent of the solvent system. The particular family of compounds dissolved in the solvent, representing an extract, exits the tube together with the solvent through the tube's nozzle, while the rest of the sample remains on the packing material in a stationary state. Subsequently, a different solvent system may be passed through the packing material to extract another family of compounds from the remaining sample on the packing material.

  7. Characterization of Extractable Organic Fine Particulate Matter in the Atmosphere of Houston and Source Apportionment Calculations Using Organic Molecular Markers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fraser, M. P.; Yue, Z. W.; Buzco, B.

    2002-12-01

    Samples of atmospheric PM2.5 were collected in Houston, TX every second day during the summer of 2000 as part of the EPA sponsored Houston Fine Particle Matter Supersite program. Sampling occurred at three sites, including one industrial location (HRM-3), one suburban location (Aldine) and one coastal location (La Porte). Twenty samples collected over a 24 hour period have been analyzed to quantify the concentration of 95 individual organic compounds, including: n-alkanes (C20 to C36), aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs), n-alkanoic acids (C5 to C34), n-alkenoic acids (C18:1 and C18:2), carboxylic diacids (C3 to C10), petroleum biomarkers and others. As a whole, the extractable compounds were dominated by acids, especially by octadecanoic acid and hexadecanoic acid. The measured concentration of n-alkanes exhibited a peak at C29, with carbon preference index (CPI) values in the range of 0.97 to 2.0. Using organic molecular markers, including seven alkanes, four petroleum biomarkers, seven PAH, one alkanoic acid, one alkenoic acid, levoglucosan, and three chemical components (Al, Si and Elemental Carbon), Chemical Mass Balancing (CMB) calculations have been performed on the ambient speciation data. These calculations are used to determine the contribution of seven different primary emission sources including: diesel powered vehicles, gasoline vehicles, wood combustion, fuel oil combustion, road dusts, meat cooking and vegetation waxes. The contribution of diesel powered vehicles and gasoline powered vehicles are the most important primary sources at all three sampling locations, with road dusts important at the industrial location. Meat cooking emissions were significant at all three locations. Wood combustion is an important contribution during a four-day period when uncontrolled wildfires in eastern Texas and Louisiana brought biomass combustion aerosols into the sampling region.

  8. Modeling the influence of organic acids on soil weathering

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Lawrence, Corey R.; Harden, Jennifer W.; Maher, Kate

    2014-01-01

    Biological inputs and organic matter cycling have long been regarded as important factors in the physical and chemical development of soils. In particular, the extent to which low molecular weight organic acids, such as oxalate, influence geochemical reactions has been widely studied. Although the effects of organic acids are diverse, there is strong evidence that organic acids accelerate the dissolution of some minerals. However, the influence of organic acids at the field-scale and over the timescales of soil development has not been evaluated in detail. In this study, a reactive-transport model of soil chemical weathering and pedogenic development was used to quantify the extent to which organic acid cycling controls mineral dissolution rates and long-term patterns of chemical weathering. Specifically, oxalic acid was added to simulations of soil development to investigate a well-studied chronosequence of soils near Santa Cruz, CA. The model formulation includes organic acid input, transport, decomposition, organic-metal aqueous complexation and mineral surface complexation in various combinations. Results suggest that although organic acid reactions accelerate mineral dissolution rates near the soil surface, the net response is an overall decrease in chemical weathering. Model results demonstrate the importance of organic acid input concentrations, fluid flow, decomposition and secondary mineral precipitation rates on the evolution of mineral weathering fronts. In particular, model soil profile evolution is sensitive to kaolinite precipitation and oxalate decomposition rates. The soil profile-scale modeling presented here provides insights into the influence of organic carbon cycling on soil weathering and pedogenesis and supports the need for further field-scale measurements of the flux and speciation of reactive organic compounds.

  9. Modeling the influence of organic acids on soil weathering

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lawrence, Corey; Harden, Jennifer; Maher, Kate

    2014-08-01

    Biological inputs and organic matter cycling have long been regarded as important factors in the physical and chemical development of soils. In particular, the extent to which low molecular weight organic acids, such as oxalate, influence geochemical reactions has been widely studied. Although the effects of organic acids are diverse, there is strong evidence that organic acids accelerate the dissolution of some minerals. However, the influence of organic acids at the field-scale and over the timescales of soil development has not been evaluated in detail. In this study, a reactive-transport model of soil chemical weathering and pedogenic development was used to quantify the extent to which organic acid cycling controls mineral dissolution rates and long-term patterns of chemical weathering. Specifically, oxalic acid was added to simulations of soil development to investigate a well-studied chronosequence of soils near Santa Cruz, CA. The model formulation includes organic acid input, transport, decomposition, organic-metal aqueous complexation and mineral surface complexation in various combinations. Results suggest that although organic acid reactions accelerate mineral dissolution rates near the soil surface, the net response is an overall decrease in chemical weathering. Model results demonstrate the importance of organic acid input concentrations, fluid flow, decomposition and secondary mineral precipitation rates on the evolution of mineral weathering fronts. In particular, model soil profile evolution is sensitive to kaolinite precipitation and oxalate decomposition rates. The soil profile-scale modeling presented here provides insights into the influence of organic carbon cycling on soil weathering and pedogenesis and supports the need for further field-scale measurements of the flux and speciation of reactive organic compounds.

  10. EXTRACTION OF ORGANIC CONTAMINANTS FROM MARINE SEDIMENTS AND TISSUES USING MICROWAVE ENERGY

    EPA Science Inventory

    In this study, we compared microwave solvent extraction (MSE) to conventional methods for extracting organic contaminants from marine sediments and tissues with high and varying moisture content. The organic contaminants measured were polychlorinated biphenyl (PCB) congeners, chl...

  11. The antioxidant and chlorogenic acid profiles of whole coffee fruits are influenced by the extraction procedures.

    PubMed

    Mullen, W; Nemzer, B; Ou, B; Stalmach, A; Hunter, J; Clifford, M N; Combet, E

    2011-04-27

    Commercial whole coffee fruit extracts and powder samples were analyzed for chlorogenic acids (CGA), caffeine and antioxidant activities. CGA and caffeine were characterized by LC-MS(n) and HPLC accordingly, and quantified by UV absorbance. ORAC, HORAC, NORAC, SORAC and SOAC (antioxidant capacities) were assessed. Three caffeoylquinic acids, three feruloylquinic acids, three dicaffeoylquinic acids, one p-coumaroylquinic acid, two caffeoylferuloylquinic acids and three putative chlorogenic lactones were quantified, along with a methyl ester of 5-caffeoylquinic acid (detected in one sample, the first such report in any coffee material). Multistep whole coffee fruit extracts displayed higher CGA content than single-step extracts, freeze-dried, or air-dried whole raw fruits. Caffeine in multistep extracts was lower than in the single-step extracts and powders. Antioxidant activity in whole coffee fruit extracts was up to 25-fold higher than in powders dependent upon the radical. Total antioxidant activity of samples displayed strong correlation to CGA content. PMID:21401105

  12. Self-powered switch-controlled nucleic acid extraction system.

    PubMed

    Han, Kyungsup; Yoon, Yong-Jin; Shin, Yong; Park, Mi Kyoung

    2016-01-01

    Over the past few decades, lab-on-a-chip (LOC) technologies have played a great role in revolutionizing the way in vitro medical diagnostics are conducted and transforming bulky and expensive laboratory instruments and labour-intensive tests into easy to use, cost-effective miniaturized systems with faster analysis time, which can be used for near-patient or point-of-care (POC) tests. Fluidic pumps and valves are among the key components for LOC systems; however, they often require on-line electrical power or batteries and make the whole system bulky and complex, therefore limiting its application to POC testing especially in low-resource setting. This is particularly problematic for molecular diagnostics where multi-step sample processing (e.g. lysing, washing, elution) is necessary. In this work, we have developed a self-powered switch-controlled nucleic acid extraction system (SSNES). The main components of SSNES are a powerless vacuum actuator using two disposable syringes and a switchgear made of PMMA blocks and an O-ring. In the vacuum actuator, an opened syringe and a blocked syringe are bound together and act as a working syringe and an actuating syringe, respectively. The negative pressure in the opened syringe is generated by a restoring force of the compressed air inside the blocked syringe and utilized as the vacuum source. The Venus symbol shape of the switchgear provides multiple functions including being a reagent reservoir, a push-button for the vacuum actuator, and an on-off valve. The SSNES consists of three sets of vacuum actuators, switchgears and microfluidic components. The entire system can be easily fabricated and is fully disposable. We have successfully demonstrated DNA extraction from a urine sample using a dimethyl adipimidate (DMA)-based extraction method and the performance of the DNA extraction has been confirmed by genetic (HRAS) analysis of DNA biomarkers from the extracted DNAs using the SSNES. Therefore, the SSNES can be widely

  13. Evaluating bioavailability of organic pollutants in soils by sequential ultrasonic extraction procedure.

    PubMed

    Wu, Xiang; Zhu, Lizhong

    2016-08-01

    Under current retrospective risk assessment framework, the total concentrations of organic pollutants in soils have been employed as the standard for over 30 years. The total concentrations reflect the overall accumulation in soils but tend to be overly conservative for assessing the ecological risks, where the bioavailability plays an important role. In this study, the bioavailability of organic pollutants in soils was evaluated using a stepwise and tiered classification method, namely the sequential ultrasonic extraction procedure (SEUP). The water-soluble and acid-soluble fractions extracted by the SEUP were the bioavailable fractions. The reliability and environmental relevance of the speciation method were examined with representative organic pollutants using the root uptake methods and the semipermeable membrane devices (SPMDs). The plant uptake amounts corrected with weight were highly correlated with the bioavailable fractions (R(2) > 0.75). The amounts of the bioavailable fractions were negatively correlated with the logKow values (R(2) ranging from 0.71 to 0.77) of the organic pollutants and the contents of soil organic matter (R(2) ranging from 0.68 to 0.96). As a refinement of the current risk assessment framework, the SUEP that has proved to be a reliable and convenient is thus highly recommended for evaluating the bioavailability of organic pollutants in soils.

  14. Use of extractive distillation to produce concentrated nitric acid

    SciTech Connect

    Campbell, P.C.; Griffin, T.P.; Irwin, C.F.

    1981-04-01

    Concentrated nitric acid (> 95 wt %) is needed for the treatment of off-gases from a fuels-reprocessing plant. The production of concentrated nitric acid by means of extractive distillation in the two-pot apparatus was studied to determine the steady-state behavior of the system. Four parameters, EDP volume (V/sub EDP/) and temperature (T/sub EDP/), acid feed rate, and solvent recycle, were independently varied. The major response factors were percent recovery (CPRR) and product purity (CCP). Stage efficiencies also provided information about the system response. Correlations developed for the response parameters are: CPRR = 0.02(V/sub EDP/ - 800 cc) + 53.5; CCP = -0.87 (T/sub EDP/ - 140/sup 0/C) + 81; eta/sub V,EDP/ = 9.1(F/sub feed/ - 11.5 cc/min) - 0.047(V/sub EDP/ - 800 cc) - 2.8(F/sub Mg(NO/sub 3/)/sub 2// - 50 cc/min) + 390; and eta/sub L,EDP/ = 1.9(T/sub EDP/ - 140/sup 0/C) + 79. A computer simulation of the process capable of predicting steady-state conditions was developed, but it requires further work.

  15. Organic acids in continental background aerosols

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Limbeck, Andreas; Puxbaum, Hans

    With a newly developed method aerosol samples from three distinctly different continental sites were analyzed: an urban site (Vienna), a savanna site in South Africa (Nylsvley Nature Reserve, NNR) and a free tropospheric continental background site (Sonnblick Observatory, SBO). In all samples a range of monocarboxylic acids (MCAs) and dicarboxylic acids (DCAs) has been identified and quantified. The three most abundant MCAs in Vienna were the C18, C16 and C14 acids with concentrations of 66, 45 and 36 ng m -3, respectively. At the mid tropospheric background site (SBO) the three most abundant MCAs were the C18, C16 and C12 acid. For the DCAs at all three sites oxalic, malonic and succinic acid were the dominant compounds. For some individual compounds an information about the sources could be obtained. For example the determined unsaturated MCAs in South Africa appear to result from biogenic sources whereas in Vienna those acids are considered to be derived from combustion processes. Oxalic and glyoxalic acid appear to have a free tropospheric air chemical source. The relative high amounts at SBO in comparison to Vienna can only be explained by secondary formation of oxalic acid in the atmosphere.

  16. Effects of acid-washing filter treatment on quantification of aerosol organic compounds

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yang, Liming; Lim, Jaehyun; Yu, Liya E.

    The tests of standard mixtures and four sets of atmospheric particulate samples showed that an acid-wash (AW) pretreatment of fluorocarbon-coated glass fiber filters prior to aerosol sampling enhanced the quantifiable organic compounds for more than 29% (or 66 ng m -3); in particular, 47-273 ng m -3 (21-366%) more water-soluble organic compounds (WSOCs) were measured. When the acid-pretreated filters were employed, up to nine more organic species were measured in the individual daily samples. Because the acid pretreatment reduced the metal contaminants in the glass fiber filters, using the AW filters for aerosol sampling allows higher extraction recoveries of organic compounds. Since the fingerprinting compounds were more accurately determined when the aerosol samples were collected on the AW filters, better assessment of emission sources and toxicity of air pollutants can be obtained.

  17. Equilibrium analysis of aggregation behavior in the solvent extraction of Cu(II) from sulfuric acid by didodecylnaphthalene sulfonic acid

    SciTech Connect

    Moyer, B.A.; Baes, C.F. Jr.; Case, G.N.; Lumetta, G.J.; Wilson, N.M.

    1993-01-01

    By use of the principles of equilibrium analysis, the liquid-liquid cation exchange of Cu(II) from aqueous sulfuric acid at 25{degrees}C by didodecylnaphthalenesulfonic acid (HDDNS) in toluene may be understood in terms of small hydrated aggregated species in the organic phase. Extraction data were measured as a function of organic-phase HDDNS molarity (1.0 {times} 10{sup {minus}4} to 1.0 {times} 10{sup {minus}1}), aqueous copper(II) sulfate molarity (1.2 {times} 10{sup {minus}8} to 1.3 {times} 10{sup {minus}2}), and aqueous sulfuric acid molarity (0.03 to 6.0). Graphical analysis of linear regions of the data support a model in which organic-phase aggregates of HDDNS function by cation exchange to incorporate Cu(II) ions with no apparent change in aggregation number at low loading. Supporting FTIR spectra and water-content measurements of HDDNS solutions in toluene show that the HDDNS aggregates are highly hydrated. By use of the computer program SXLSQA, a comprehensive equilibrium model was developed with inclusion of activity effects. Aqueous-phase activity coefficients and degree of aqueous bisulfate formation were estimated by use of the Pitzer treatment. Organic-phase nonideality was estimated by the Hildebrand-Scott treatment and was shown to be a negligible effect under the conditions tested. Excluding aqueous sulfuric acid molarities greater than 1, it was possible to model the data to within experimental error by assuming only the equilibrium extraction of Cu{sup 2+} ion by the aggregate (HDDNS){sub 4}(H{sub 2}O){sub 22} and the equilibrium dissociation of (HDDNS){sub 4}(H{sub 2}O){sub 22} to the monomer. The dependence of Cu(II) distribution on aqueous sulfuric acid molarity was shown to be quantitatively consistent with a cation-exchange process. In comparison with the graphical approach, the computer analysis allows comprehensive model testing over large, nonlinear data sets and eliminates the need to make limiting assumptions.

  18. Genotoxic activity of extractable organic matter from urban airborne particles in Shanghai, China.

    PubMed

    Zhao, Xiansi; Wan, Zhi; Chen, Gang; Zhu, Huigang; Jiang, Shunhui; Yao, Jiaqing

    2002-02-15

    The aim of this research is to investigate the impact of air pollution on the population in Shanghai. The genotoxicity of extractable organic matter (EOM) from the air particles was investigated by the means of the Salmonella plate incorporation assay, rat hepatocyte unscheduled DNA repair assay, and mice micronuclei test. The airborne particles were collected in 13 locations during the summer of 1992 and winter of 1993. The crude extracts were fractionated by acid-base partitioning into acid, base and neutral fractions. The neutral fractions were further fractionated by resin-silica gel column chromatography into three subfractions. The induction of revertants with the crude extracts was higher in winter samples than in summer samples. Both indirect-acting and direct-acting mutagenicity were observed. The mutagenicity was detected with TA98, but was not detected with TA100. The mutagenic activity was the greatest in the acid, aromatic and polar fractions from summer samples. The fractions from the winter samples did not show clear differences. There was no substantial location-related variance in the mutagenic potencies of EOM, but substantial location- or time-related variances in the mutagenic potencies of the airborne particles per cubic meter air were found. While rat hepatocyte unscheduled DNA synthesis (UDS) assay revealed genotoxicity for all the samples, there was no big variance in the genotoxicity of the fractions. The mouse micronuclei test showed results similar to the UDS assay. The difference of locality did not have statistical significance.

  19. An enhanced procedure for measuring organic acids and methyl esters in PM2.5

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, F.; Duan, F.; He, K.; Ma, Y.; Rahn, K. A.; Zhang, Q.

    2015-03-01

    We have developed an enhanced analytical procedure to measure organic acids and methyl esters in fine aerosol with much greater specificity and sensitivity than previously available. This capability is important because of these species and their low concentrations, even in highly polluted atmospheres like Beijing, China. The procedure first separates the acids and esters from the other organic compounds with anion-exchange solid- phase extraction (SPE), then, quantifies them by gas chromatography coupled with mass spectrometry. This allows us to accurately quantify the C4-C11 dicarboxylic and the C8-C30 monocarboxylic acids. Then the acids are separated from the esters on an aminopropyl SPE cartridge, whose weak retention isolates and enriches the acids from esters prevents the fatty acids and dimethyl phthalate from being overestimated. The resulting correlations between the aliphatic acids and fatty acid methyl esters (FAMEs) suggest that FAMEs had sources similar to those of the carboxylic acids, or were formed by esterifying carboxylic acids, or that aliphatic acids were formed by hydrolyzing FAMEs. In all, 17 aromatic acids were identified and quantified using this procedure coupled with gas chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry, including the five polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon (PAH) acids 2-naphthoic, biphenyl-4-carboxylic, 9-oxo-9H-fluorene-1-carboxylic, biphenyl-4,4´-dicarboxylic, and phenanthrene-1-carboxylic acid, plus 1,8-naphthalic anhydride. Correlations between the PAH-acids and the dicarboxylic and aromatic acids indicated that the first three acids and 1,8-naphthalic anhydride were mainly secondary, the last two mainly primary.

  20. Extraction and Analysis of Mycosporine-Like Amino Acids in Marine Algae.

    PubMed

    Rosic, Nedeljka N; Braun, Christoph; Kvaskoff, David

    2015-01-01

    Marine organisms use mycosporine-like amino acids (MAAs) as biological sunscreens for the protection from damaging ultraviolet (UV) radiation and the prevention of oxidative stress. MAAs have been discovered in many different marine and freshwater species including cyanobacteria, fungi, and algae, but also in animals like cnidarian and fishes. Here, we describe a general method for the isolation and characterization of MAA compounds from red algae and symbiotic dinoflagellates isolated from coral hosts. This method is also suitable for the extraction and analyses of MAAs from a range of other algal and marine biota. PMID:26108501

  1. Vapor extraction of organics from subsurface soils is it effective

    SciTech Connect

    Travis, C.C.; Macinnis, J.M. )

    1992-10-01

    Vapor extraction is an in situ soil-cleaning process designed to remove volatile organic compounds (VOCs) from the unsaturated (vadose) zone of soil (the zone between the soil surface and groundwater). Since the introduction of the vapor extraction system (VES) in 1984, its use has increased markedly; the VES now comprises 18% of selected remedies at Superfund sites, and this number continues to grow. The VES removes VOCs from the subsurface by providing a moving air stream that volatilizes contaminants and carries them to the surface. A review of the technology at 13 sites found vapor extraction to be very effective at removing large quantities of VOCs from the subsurface environment and significantly reducing soil concentrations. VES is very effective for removing labile fractions located in the vapor and free liquid phases or adsorbed to the external surface of the soil matrix. Studies indicate that VES will not be effective for removing contamination trapped in the interior of the soil matrix, therefore VES cannot be relied upon to return long-contaminated soils to their original condition. 16 refs., 1 fig.

  2. Antioxidant activity and sensory assessment of a rosmarinic acid-enriched extract of Salvia officinalis

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    An extract of S. officinalis (garden sage) was prepared using supercritical carbon dioxide (SC-CO2) extraction, followed by a Soxhlet hot water extraction. The resulting extract was enriched in polyphenols, including rosmarinic acid (RA), which has shown promising health benefits in animals. The ext...

  3. On the source of organic acid aerosol layers above clouds.

    PubMed

    Sorooshian, Armin; Lu, Miao-Ling; Brechtel, Fred J; Jonsson, Haflidi; Feingold, Graham; Flagan, Richard C; Seinfeld, John H

    2007-07-01

    During the July 2005 Marine Stratus/Stratocumulus Experiment (MASE) and the August-September 2006 Gulf of Mexico Atmospheric Composition and Climate Study (GoMACCS), the Center for Interdisciplinary Remotely-Piloted Aircraft Studies (CIRPAS) Twin Otter probed aerosols and cumulus clouds in the eastern Pacific Ocean off the coast of northern California and in southeastern Texas, respectively. An on-board particle-into-liquid sampler (PILS) quantified inorganic and organic acid species with < or = 5-min time resolution. Ubiquitous organic aerosol layers above cloud with enhanced organic acid levels were observed in both locations. The data suggest that aqueous-phase reactions to produce organic acids, mainly oxalic acid, followed by droplet evaporation is a source of elevated organic acid aerosol levels above cloud. Oxalic acid is observed to be produced more efficiently relative to sulfate as the cloud liquid water content increases, corresponding to larger and less acidic droplets. As derived from large eddy simulations of stratocumulus underthe conditions of MASE, both Lagrangian trajectory analysis and diurnal cloudtop evolution provide evidence that a significant fraction of the aerosol mass concentration above cloud can be accounted for by evaporated droplet residual particles. Methanesulfonate data suggest that entrainment of free tropospheric aerosol can also be a source of organic acids above boundary layer clouds.

  4. The antimicrobial activity of extracts of the lichen Cladonia foliacea and its (-)-usnic acid, atranorin, and fumarprotocetraric acid constituents.

    PubMed

    Yilmaz, Meral; Türk, Ayşen Ozdemir; Tay, Turgay; Kivanç, Merih

    2004-01-01

    The antimicrobial activity of the chloroform, diethyl ether, acetone, petroleum ether, and ethanol extracts of the lichen Cladonia foliacea and its (-)-usnic acid, atranorin, and fumarprotocetraric acid constituents against 9 bacteria and fungi has been investigated. The extracts and pure compounds alone were found active against the same bacteria and the same yeasts. Bacillus cereus, Bacillus subtilis, Staphylococcus aureus, Streptococcus faecalis, Proteus vulgaris, Listeria monocytogenes, Aeromonas hydrophila, Candida albicans, and Candida glabrata growth were inhibited. In addition, the MICs of the extracts, (-)-usnic acid, atranorin and fumarprotocetraric acid were determined. PMID:15241936

  5. Improved Butanol-Methanol (BUME) Method by Replacing Acetic Acid for Lipid Extraction of Biological Samples.

    PubMed

    Cruz, Mutya; Wang, Miao; Frisch-Daiello, Jessica; Han, Xianlin

    2016-07-01

    Extraction of lipids from biological samples is a critical step in lipidomics, especially for shotgun lipidomics where lipid extracts are directly infused into a mass spectrometer. The butanol-methanol (BUME) extraction method was originally developed to extract lipids from plasma samples with 1 % acetic acid. Considering some lipids are sensitive to acidic environments, we modified this protocol by replacing acetic acid with lithium chloride solution and extended the modified extraction to tissue samples. Although no significant reduction of plasmalogen levels in the acidic BUME extracts of rat heart samples was found, the modified method was established to extract various tissue samples, including rat liver, heart, and plasma. Essentially identical profiles of the majority of lipid classes were obtained from the extracts of the modified BUME and traditional Bligh-Dyer methods. However, it was found that neither the original, nor the modified BUME method was suitable for 4-hydroxyalkenal species measurement in biological samples. PMID:27245345

  6. Organic acids for performance enhancement in pig diets.

    PubMed

    Partanen, K H; Mroz, Z

    1999-06-01

    Organic acids and their salts appear to be potential alternatives to prophylactic in-feed antibiotics and growth promoters in order to improve the performance of weaned piglets, fattening pigs and reproductive sows, although their growth-promoting effects are generally less than that of antibiotics. Based on an analysis of published data, the growth-promoting effect of formates, fumarates and citrates did not differ in weaned piglets. In fattening pigs, formates were the most effective followed by fumarates, whereas propionates did not improve growth performance. These acids improved the feedgain ratio of both weaned piglets and fattening pigs. In weaned piglets, the growth-promoting effects of dietary organic acids appear to depend greatly on their influence on feed intake. In sows, organic acids may have anti-agalactia properties. Successful application of organic acids in the diets for pigs requires an understanding of their modes of action. It is generally considered that dietary organic acids or their salts lower gastric pH, resulting in increased activity of proteolytic enzymes and gastric retention time, and thus improved protein digestion. Reduced gastric pH and increased retention time have been difficult to demonstrate, whereas improved apparent ileal digestibilities of protein and amino acids have been observed with growing pigs, but not in weaned piglets. Organic acids may influence mucosal morphology, as well as stimulate pancreatic secretions, and they also serve as substrates in intermediary metabolism. These may further contribute to improved digestion, absorption and retention of many dietary nutrients. Organic acid supplementation reduces dietary buffering capacity, which is expected to slow down the proliferation and|or colonization of undesirable microbes, e.g. Escherichia coli, in the gastro-ileal region. However, reduced scouring has been observed in only a few studies. As performance responses to dietary organic acids in pigs often varies

  7. Composition of extractable organic matter of air particles from malaysia: Initial study

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bin Abas, M. Radzi; Simoneit, Bernd R. T.

    The solvent extractable compounds of airborne particulate samples, which were collected on two occasions in a suburb of Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia, with a standard high-volume air sampler, were investigated to determine the distributions of homologous and biomarker compounds. These preliminary results show that both samples contain n-alkanes, n-alkanoic acids and n-alkanols as the dominant solvent-extractable components, with minor amounts of n-alkanedioic acids, n-alkanones, terpenoids, sterols, and phthalate contaminants, derived from biogenic sources (vascular plant wax) and from anthropogenic utilization of fossil fuel products (lubricating oil, vehicle fuels, etc.). Some compositional differences are observed in the two samples and greater atmospheric concentrations were found for almost all organic components in the sample collected under hazy conditions. This is interpreted to be due to the local build-up of organic contaminants as a result of atmospheric stability during the haze episode, to atmospheric photochemical reactions, and to some unidentified anthropogenic activities which are peculiar to the city. Some of the organic components are also suspected to be brought in from areas outside the region.

  8. Reactive Distillation for Esterification of Bio-based Organic Acids

    SciTech Connect

    Fields, Nathan; Miller, Dennis J.; Asthana, Navinchandra S.; Kolah, Aspi K.; Vu, Dung; Lira, Carl T.

    2008-09-23

    The following is the final report of the three year research program to convert organic acids to their ethyl esters using reactive distillation. This report details the complete technical activities of research completed at Michigan State University for the period of October 1, 2003 to September 30, 2006, covering both reactive distillation research and development and the underlying thermodynamic and kinetic data required for successful and rigorous design of reactive distillation esterification processes. Specifically, this project has led to the development of economical, technically viable processes for ethyl lactate, triethyl citrate and diethyl succinate production, and on a larger scale has added to the overall body of knowledge on applying fermentation based organic acids as platform chemicals in the emerging biorefinery. Organic acid esters constitute an attractive class of biorenewable chemicals that are made from corn or other renewable biomass carbohydrate feedstocks and replace analogous petroleum-based compounds, thus lessening U.S. dependence on foreign petroleum and enhancing overall biorefinery viability through production of value-added chemicals in parallel with biofuels production. Further, many of these ester products are candidates for fuel (particularly biodiesel) components, and thus will serve dual roles as both industrial chemicals and fuel enhancers in the emerging bioeconomy. The technical report from MSU is organized around the ethyl esters of four important biorenewables-based acids: lactic acid, citric acid, succinic acid, and propionic acid. Literature background on esterification and reactive distillation has been provided in Section One. Work on lactic acid is covered in Sections Two through Five, citric acid esterification in Sections Six and Seven, succinic acid in Section Eight, and propionic acid in Section Nine. Section Ten covers modeling of ester and organic acid vapor pressure properties using the SPEAD (Step Potential

  9. Exhaustive and stable electromembrane extraction of acidic drugs from human plasma.

    PubMed

    Huang, Chuixiu; Gjelstad, Astrid; Seip, Knut Fredrik; Jensen, Henrik; Pedersen-Bjergaard, Stig

    2015-12-18

    The first part of the current work systematically described the screening of different types of organic solvents as the supported liquid membrane (SLM) for electromembrane extraction (EME) of acidic drugs, including different alcohols, ketones, and ethers. Seven acidic drugs with a wide logP range (1.01-4.39) were selected as model substances. For the first time, the EME recovery of acidic drugs and system-current across the SLM with each organic solvent as SLM were investigated and correlated to relevant solvent properties such as viscosity and Kamlet and Taft solvatochromic parameters. Solvents with high hydrogen bonding acidity (α) and dipolarity-polarizability (π*) were found to be successful SLMs, and 1-heptanol was the most efficient candidate, which provided EME recovery in the range of 94-110%. Both hydrogen bonding interactions, dipole-dipole interactions, and hydrophobic interactions were involved in stabilizing the deprotonated acidic analytes (with high hydrogen bonding basicity and high dipole moment) during mass transfer across the SLM. The efficiency of the extraction normally decreased with increasing hydrocarbon chain length of the SLM, which was mainly due to increasing viscosity and decreasing α and π* values. The system-current during EME was found to be dependent on the type and the volume of the SLM. In contact with human plasma, an SLM of pure 1-heptanol was unstable, and to improve stability, 1-heptanol was mixed with 2-nitrophenyl octyl ether (NPOE). With this SLM, exhaustive EME was performed from diluted human plasma, and the recoveries of five out of seven analytes were over 91% after 10min EME. This approach was evaluated using HPLC-UV, and the evaluation data were found to be satisfactory. PMID:26632516

  10. Recombinant microorganisms for increased production of organic acids

    DOEpatents

    Yi, Jian; Kleff, Susanne; Guettler, Michael V

    2013-04-30

    Disclosed are recombinant microorganisms for producing organic acids. The recombinant microorganisms express a polypeptide that has the enzymatic activity of an enzyme that is utilized in the pentose phosphate cycle. The recombinant microorganism may include recombinant Actinobacillus succinogenes that has been transformed to express a Zwischenferment (Zwf) gene. The recombinant microorganisms may be useful in fermentation processes for producing organic acids such as succinic acid and lactic acid. Also disclosed are novel plasmids that are useful for transforming microorganisms to produce recombinant microorganisms that express enzymes such as Zwf.

  11. Recombinant microorganisms for increased production of organic acids

    DOEpatents

    Yi, Jian; Kleff, Susanne; Guettler, Michael V.

    2012-02-21

    Disclosed are recombinant microorganisms for producing organic acids. The recombinant microorganisms express a polypeptide that has the enzymatic activity of an enzyme that is utilized in the pentose phosphate cycle. The recombinant microorganism may include recombinant Actinobacillus succinogenes that has been transformed to express a Zwischenferment (Zwf) gene. The recombinant microorganisms may be useful in fermentation processes for producing organic acids such as succinic acid and lactic acid. Also disclosed are novel plasmids that are useful for transforming microorganisms to produce recombinant microorganisms that express enzymes such as Zwf.

  12. Organic acids and bases: Review of toxicological studies

    SciTech Connect

    Leung, H.W.; Paustenbach, D.J. )

    1990-01-01

    Organic acids and bases are among the most frequently used chemicals in the manufacturing industries. However, the toxicology of only a number of them has been fully characterized, and for fewer still have occupational exposure limits been established. This paper reviews the acute and chronic toxicity data of the organic acids and bases, and considers the mechanism by which these chemicals produce their effects. A methodology for establishing preliminary occupational exposure limits based on the physicochemical properties of these chemicals is presented. Workplace exposure limits for 20 organic acids and bases which currently have no exposure guidelines are suggested. Advice regarding appropriate medical treatment of exposure to these materials is discussed. 98 references.

  13. Halogenated methanesulfonic acids: A new class of organic micropollutants in the water cycle.

    PubMed

    Zahn, Daniel; Frömel, Tobias; Knepper, Thomas P

    2016-09-15

    Mobile and persistent organic micropollutants may impact raw and drinking waters and are thus of concern for human health. To identify such possible substances of concern nineteen water samples from five European countries (France, Switzerland, The Netherlands, Spain and Germany) and different compartments of the water cycle (urban effluent, surface water, ground water and drinking water) were enriched with mixed-mode solid phase extraction. Hydrophilic interaction liquid chromatography - high resolution mass spectrometry non-target screening of these samples led to the detection and structural elucidation of seven novel organic micropollutants. One structure could already be confirmed by a reference standard (trifluoromethanesulfonic acid) and six were tentatively identified based on experimental evidence (chloromethanesulfonic acid, dichloromethanesulfonic acid, trichloromethanesulfonic acid, bromomethanesulfonic acid, dibromomethanesulfonic acid and bromochloromethanesulfonic acid). Approximated concentrations for these substances show that trifluoromethanesulfonic acid, a chemical registered under the European Union regulation REACH with a production volume of more than 100 t/a, is able to spread along the water cycle and may be present in concentrations up to the μg/L range. Chlorinated and brominated methanesulfonic acids were predominantly detected together which indicates a common source and first experimental evidence points towards water disinfection as a potential origin. Halogenated methanesulfonic acids were detected in drinking waters and thus may be new substances of concern. PMID:27267477

  14. Halogenated methanesulfonic acids: A new class of organic micropollutants in the water cycle.

    PubMed

    Zahn, Daniel; Frömel, Tobias; Knepper, Thomas P

    2016-09-15

    Mobile and persistent organic micropollutants may impact raw and drinking waters and are thus of concern for human health. To identify such possible substances of concern nineteen water samples from five European countries (France, Switzerland, The Netherlands, Spain and Germany) and different compartments of the water cycle (urban effluent, surface water, ground water and drinking water) were enriched with mixed-mode solid phase extraction. Hydrophilic interaction liquid chromatography - high resolution mass spectrometry non-target screening of these samples led to the detection and structural elucidation of seven novel organic micropollutants. One structure could already be confirmed by a reference standard (trifluoromethanesulfonic acid) and six were tentatively identified based on experimental evidence (chloromethanesulfonic acid, dichloromethanesulfonic acid, trichloromethanesulfonic acid, bromomethanesulfonic acid, dibromomethanesulfonic acid and bromochloromethanesulfonic acid). Approximated concentrations for these substances show that trifluoromethanesulfonic acid, a chemical registered under the European Union regulation REACH with a production volume of more than 100 t/a, is able to spread along the water cycle and may be present in concentrations up to the μg/L range. Chlorinated and brominated methanesulfonic acids were predominantly detected together which indicates a common source and first experimental evidence points towards water disinfection as a potential origin. Halogenated methanesulfonic acids were detected in drinking waters and thus may be new substances of concern.

  15. Extraction of amino acids from soils and sediments with superheated water

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cheng, C. N.; Ponnamperuma, C.

    1974-01-01

    A method of extraction for amino acids from soils and sediments involving superheated water has been investigated. About 75-97 per cent of the amino acids contained in four soils of a soil profile from Illinois were extracted by this method. Deep penetration of water into soil aggregates and partial hydrolysis of peptide bonds during this extraction by water at high temperature are likely mechanisms responsible for the release of amino acids from samples. This extraction method does not require subsequent desalting treatments when analyses are carried out with an ion-exchange amino acid analyzer.

  16. Antimicrobial activity of extracts of the lichen Xanthoparmelia pokornyi and its gyrophoric and stenosporic acid constituents.

    PubMed

    Candan, Mehmet; Yilmaz, Meral; Tay, Turgay; Kivanç, Merih; Türk, Hayrettin

    2006-01-01

    The antimicrobial activity of the diethyl ether, acetone, chloroform, petroleum ether, and ethanol extracts of the lichen Xanthoparmelia pokornyi and its gyrophoric acid and stenosporic acid constituents has been screened against some foodborne bacteria and fungi. Both the extracts and the acids showed antimicrobial activity against Aeromonas hydrophila, Bacillus cereus, Bacillus subtilis, Listeria monocytogenes, Proteus vulgaris, Staphylococcus aureus, Streptococcus faecalis, Yersinia enterocolitica, Candida albicans and Candida glabrata. The extracts were inactive against the tested filamentous fungi. The MIC values of the extracts and the acids for the bacteria have also been determined.

  17. [Use of organic acids in acne and skin discolorations therapy].

    PubMed

    Kapuścińska, Alicja; Nowak, Izabela

    2015-01-01

    Acne is one of the most frequent skin disorders that occurs in puberty, but often adults also have acne. The most important factors responsible for acne are elevated production of sebum by hyperactive sebaceous glands and blockage of the follicle because of hyperkeratosis [14]. The third etiopathogenic factor of acne is excessive microflora reproduction [8]. The most significant bacterium that is responsible for formation of skin lesions is Propionibacterium acnes, a rod-shaped Gram-positive and aerotolerant anaerobic bacterium. It is estimated that P. acnes is responsible for acne in approximately 80% of people aged 11 to 30 [27,40]. Even healed skin lesions can often cause skin discolorations and scar formation [51]. Exfoliating chemical substances that are commonly used in dermatology and cosmetology are organic acids. Exfoliating treatment using organic acids is called "chemical peeling" and consists of controlled application of those substances on the skin [38]. The depth of exfoliation depends on organic acid concentration, type of substance and contact time with the skin [41]. Using exfoliating agents seems to be helpful in excessive keratinization - one of several factors responsible for acne. Moreover, epidermis exfoliation is a popular method of removing skin discoloration [22]. Considering chemical structure, exfoliating substances that are most often used in cosmetology contain alpha-hydroxyacids (glycolic acid, lactic acid, mandelic acid and citric acid), beta-hydroxyacids (salicylic acid) and other organic acids, such as trichloroacetic acid and pyruvic acid [47]. In this article, a literature review of use of organic acids in acne and skin discoloration therapy is presented. PMID:25811473

  18. [Use of organic acids in acne and skin discolorations therapy].

    PubMed

    Kapuścińska, Alicja; Nowak, Izabela

    2015-03-22

    Acne is one of the most frequent skin disorders that occurs in puberty, but often adults also have acne. The most important factors responsible for acne are elevated production of sebum by hyperactive sebaceous glands and blockage of the follicle because of hyperkeratosis [14]. The third etiopathogenic factor of acne is excessive microflora reproduction [8]. The most significant bacterium that is responsible for formation of skin lesions is Propionibacterium acnes, a rod-shaped Gram-positive and aerotolerant anaerobic bacterium. It is estimated that P. acnes is responsible for acne in approximately 80% of people aged 11 to 30 [27,40]. Even healed skin lesions can often cause skin discolorations and scar formation [51]. Exfoliating chemical substances that are commonly used in dermatology and cosmetology are organic acids. Exfoliating treatment using organic acids is called "chemical peeling" and consists of controlled application of those substances on the skin [38]. The depth of exfoliation depends on organic acid concentration, type of substance and contact time with the skin [41]. Using exfoliating agents seems to be helpful in excessive keratinization - one of several factors responsible for acne. Moreover, epidermis exfoliation is a popular method of removing skin discoloration [22]. Considering chemical structure, exfoliating substances that are most often used in cosmetology contain alpha-hydroxyacids (glycolic acid, lactic acid, mandelic acid and citric acid), beta-hydroxyacids (salicylic acid) and other organic acids, such as trichloroacetic acid and pyruvic acid [47]. In this article, a literature review of use of organic acids in acne and skin discoloration therapy is presented.

  19. Role of Organic Acids in Bioformation of Kaolinite: Results of Laboratory Experiments

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bontognali, T. R. R.; Vasconcelos, C.; McKenzie, J. A.

    2012-04-01

    Clay minerals and other solid silica phases have a broad distribution in the geological record and greatly affect fundamental physicochemical properties of sedimentary rocks, including porosity. An increasing number of studies suggests that microbial activity and microbially produced organic acids might play an important role in authigenic clay mineral formation, at low temperatures and under neutral pH conditions. In particular, early laboratory experiments (Linares and Huertas, 1971) reported the precipitation of kaolinite in solutions of SiO2 and Al2O3 with different molar ratios SiO2/Al2O3, together with fulvic acid (a non-characterized mixture of many different acids containing carboxyl and phenolate groups) that was extracted from peat soil. Despite many attempts, these experiments could not be reproduced until recently. Fiore et al. (2011) hypothesized that the non-sterile fulvic acid might have contained microbes that participated in the formation of kaolinite. Using solutions saturated with Si and Al and containing oxalate and/or mixed microbial culture extracted from peat-moss soil, they performed incubation experiments, which produced kaolinite exclusively in solutions containing oxalate and microbes. We proposed to test the role of specific organic acids for kaolinite formation, conducting laboratory experiments at 25˚C, with solutions of sodium silicate, aluminum chloride and various organic compounds (i.e. EDTA, citric acid, succinic acid and oxalic acid). Specific organic acids may stabilize aluminum in octahedral coordination positions, which is crucial for the initial nucleation step. In our experiments, a poorly crystalline mineral that is possibly a kaolinite precursor formed exclusively in the presence of succinic acid. In experiments with other organic compounds, no incorporation of Al was observed, and amorphous silica was the only precipitated phase. In natural environments, succinic acid is produced by a large variety of microbes as an

  20. Hydrothermal nitric acid treatment for effectual lipid extraction from wet microalgae biomass.

    PubMed

    Lee, Ilgyu; Park, Ji-Yeon; Choi, Sun-A; Oh, You-Kwan; Han, Jong-In

    2014-11-01

    Hydrothermal acid (combined with autoclaving and nitric acid) pretreatment was applied to Nannochloropsis salina as a cost-effective yet efficient way of lipid extraction from wet biomass. The optimal conditions for this pretreatment were determined using a statistical approach, and the roles of nitric acid were also determined. The maximum lipid yield (predicted: 24.6%; experimental: 24.4%) was obtained using 0.57% nitric acid at 120°C for 30min through response surface methodology. A relatively lower lipid yield (18.4%) was obtained using 2% nitric acid; however, chlorophyll and unsaturated fatty acids, both of which adversely affect the refinery and oxidative stability of biodiesel, were found to be not co-extracted. Considering its comparable extractability even from wet biomass and ability to reduce chlorophyll and unsaturated fatty acids, the hydrothermal nitric acid pretreatment can serve as one direct and promising route of extracting microalgae oil.

  1. Method for extracting lanthanides and actinides from acid solutions by modification of Purex solvent

    DOEpatents

    Horwitz, E.P.; Kalina, D.G.

    1984-05-21

    A process has been developed for the extraction of multivalent lanthanide and actinide values from acidic waste solutions, and for the separation of these values from fission product and other values, which utilizes a new series of neutral bi-functional extractants, the alkyl(phenyl)-N, N-dialkylcarbamoylmethylphosphine oxides, in combination with a phase modifier to form an extraction solution. The addition of the extractant to the Purex process extractant, tri-n-butylphosphate in normal paraffin hydrocarbon diluent, will permit the extraction of multivalent lanthanide and actinide values from 0.1 to 12.0 molar acid solutions.

  2. Gas chromatographic organic acid profiling analysis of brandies and whiskeys for pattern recognition analysis.

    PubMed

    Park, Y J; Kim, K R; Kim, J H

    1999-06-01

    An efficient gas chromatographic profiling and pattern recognition method is described for brandy and whiskey samples according to their organic acid contents. It involves solid-phase extraction of organic acids using Chromosorb P with subsequent conversion to stable tert-butyldimethylsilyl derivatives for the direct analysis by capillary column gas chromatography and gas chromatography-mass spectrometry. A total of 12 organic acids were reproducibly identified in liquor samples (1 mL). When the GC profiles were simplified to their retention index spectra, characteristic patterns were obtained for each liquor sample as well as for each group average. Stepwise discriminant analysis provided star symbols characteristic for each liquor sample and group average. As expected, canonical discriminant analysis correctly classified 23 liquor samples studied into two groups of either brandy or whiskey.

  3. Gas chromatographic organic acid profiling analysis of brandies and whiskeys for pattern recognition analysis.

    PubMed

    Park, Y J; Kim, K R; Kim, J H

    1999-06-01

    An efficient gas chromatographic profiling and pattern recognition method is described for brandy and whiskey samples according to their organic acid contents. It involves solid-phase extraction of organic acids using Chromosorb P with subsequent conversion to stable tert-butyldimethylsilyl derivatives for the direct analysis by capillary column gas chromatography and gas chromatography-mass spectrometry. A total of 12 organic acids were reproducibly identified in liquor samples (1 mL). When the GC profiles were simplified to their retention index spectra, characteristic patterns were obtained for each liquor sample as well as for each group average. Stepwise discriminant analysis provided star symbols characteristic for each liquor sample and group average. As expected, canonical discriminant analysis correctly classified 23 liquor samples studied into two groups of either brandy or whiskey. PMID:10794629

  4. Mercury extraction by the TRUEX process solvent: I. Kinetics, extractable species, dependence on nitric acid concentration and stoichiometry

    SciTech Connect

    Herbst, R.S.; Brewer, K.N.; Tranter, T.J.; Todd, T.A.

    1995-12-01

    Mercury extraction from acidic aqueous solutions by the TRUEX process solvent (0.2 M CMPO, 1.4 M TBP in n-dodecane) has not extensively been examined. Research at the Idaho Chemical Processing Plant is currently in progress to evaluate the TRUEX process for actinide removal from several acidic waste streams, including liquid sodium-bearing waste (SBW), which contains significant quantities of mercury. Preliminary experiments were performed involving the extraction of Hg{sup 203}, added as HgCl{sub 2}, from 0.01 to 10 M HNO{sub 3} solutions. Mercury distribution coefficients (D{sub Hg}) range between 3 and 60 from 0.01 M to 2 M HNO{sub 3}. At higher nitric acid concentrations, i.e. 5 M HNO{sub 3} or greater, D{sub Hg} significantly decreases to values less than 1. These results indicate mercury is extracted from acidic solutions {<=}{approximately}2 M HNO{sub 3} and stripped with nitric acid solutions {>=}{approximately}5 M HNO{sub 3}. Experimental results indicate the extractable species is HgCl{sub 2} from nitrate media, i.e., chloride must be present in the nitrate feed to extract mercury. Extractions from Hg(NO{sub 3}){sub 2} solutions indicated substantially reduced distribution ratios, typically D{sub Hg}< 1, for the range of nitric acid concentrations examined (0.01 to 8 M HNO{sub 3}). Extraction of mercury, as HgCl{sub 2}, by the individual components of the TRUEX solvent was also examined from 2 M HNO{sub 3}. The diluent, n-dodecane, does not measurably extract mercury. With a 1.4 M TBP/n-dodecane solvent, D{sub Hg} {approximately}3.4 compared with D{sub Hg} {approximately}7 for the TRUEX solvent. Classical slope analysis techniques were utilized to evaluate the stoichiometric coefficients of Hg extraction independently for both CMPO and TBP.

  5. Choice of solvent extraction technique affects fatty acid composition of pistachio (Pistacia vera L.) oil.

    PubMed

    Abdolshahi, Anna; Majd, Mojtaba Heydari; Rad, Javad Sharifi; Taheri, Mehrdad; Shabani, Aliakbar; Teixeira da Silva, Jaime A

    2015-04-01

    Pistachio (Pistacia vera L.) oil has important nutritional and therapeutic properties because of its high concentration of essential fatty acids. The extraction method used to obtain natural compounds from raw material is critical for product quality, in particular to protect nutritional value. This study compared the fatty acid composition of pistachio oil extracted by two conventional procedures, Soxhlet extraction and maceration, analyzed by a gas chromatography-flame ionization detector (GC-FID). Four solvents with different polarities were tested: n-hexane (Hx), dichloromethane (DCM), ethyl acetate (EtAc) and ethanol (EtOH). The highest unsaturated fatty acid content (88.493 %) was obtained by Soxhlet extraction with EtAc. The Soxhlet method extracted the most oleic and linolenic acids (51.99 % and 0.385 %, respectively) although a higher concentration (36.32 %) of linoleic acid was extracted by maceration.

  6. Optimization of supercritical fluid consecutive extractions of fatty acids and polyphenols from Vitis vinifera grape wastes.

    PubMed

    Aizpurua-Olaizola, Oier; Ormazabal, Markel; Vallejo, Asier; Olivares, Maitane; Navarro, Patricia; Etxebarria, Nestor; Usobiaga, Aresatz

    2015-01-01

    In this study, supercritical fluid extraction has been successfully applied to a sequential fractionation of fatty acids and polyphenols from wine wastes (2 different vitis vinifera grapes). To this aim, in a 1st step just fatty acids were extracted and in a 2nd one the polyphenols. The variables that affected to the extraction efficiency were separately optimized in both steps following an experimental design approach. The effect of extraction temperature flow, pressure, and time were thoroughly evaluated for the extraction of fatty acids, whereas the addition of methanol was also considered in the case of the polyphenols extraction. A quantitative extraction with high efficiency was achieved at a very short time and low temperatures. Concerning quantification, fatty acids were determined by means of gas chromatography coupled to mass spectrometry after a derivatization step, whereas the polyphenols were analyzed by means of high performance liquid chromatography coupled to tandem mass spectrometry and the Folin-Ciocalteu method.

  7. CTEPP STANDARD OPERATING PROCEDURE FOR EXTRACTING AND PREPARING DERMAL WIPE AND SURFACE WIPE SAMPLES FOR ANALYSIS OF POLAR ORGANIC POLLUTANTS (SOP-5.27)

    EPA Science Inventory

    The method for extracting and preparing a dermal or surface wipe sample for analysis of acidic persistent organic pollutants is summarized in this standard operating procedure. It covers the extraction and concentration of samples that are to be analyzed by gas chromatography/mas...

  8. Characterization of citrus pectin samples extracted under different conditions: influence of acid type and pH of extraction

    PubMed Central

    Kaya, Merve; Sousa, António G.; Crépeau, Marie-Jeanne; Sørensen, Susanne O.; Ralet, Marie-Christine

    2014-01-01

    Background and Aims Pectin is a complex macromolecule, the fine structure of which is influenced by many factors. It is used as a gelling, thickening and emulsifying agent in a wide range of applications, from food to pharmaceutical products. Current industrial pectin extraction processes are based on fruit peel, a waste product from the juicing industry, in which thousands of tons of citrus are processed worldwide every year. This study examines how pectin components vary in relation to the plant source (orange, lemon, lime, grapefruit) and considers the influence of extraction conditions on the chemical and macromolecular characteristics of pectin samples. Methods Citrus peel (orange, lemon, lime and grapefruit) from a commercial supplier was used as raw material. Pectin samples were obtained on a bulk plant scale (kilograms; harsh nitric acid, mild nitric acid and harsh oxalic acid extraction) and on a laboratory scale (grams; mild oxalic acid extraction). Pectin composition (acidic and neutral sugars) and physicochemical properties (molar mass and intrinsic viscosity) were determined. Key Results Oxalic acid extraction allowed the recovery of pectin samples of high molecular weight. Mild oxalic acid-extracted pectins were rich in long homogalacturonan stretches and contained rhamnogalacturonan I stretches with conserved side chains. Nitric acid-extracted pectins exhibited lower molecular weights and contained rhamnogalacturonan I stretches encompassing few and/or short side chains. Grapefruit pectin was found to have short side chains compared with orange, lime and lemon. Orange and grapefruit pectin samples were both particularly rich in rhamnogalacturonan I backbones. Conclusions Structural, and hence macromolecular, variations within the different citrus pectin samples were mainly related to their rhamnogalacturonan I contents and integrity, and, to a lesser extent, to the length of their homogalacturonan domains. PMID:25081519

  9. Development and validation of a standard test method for sequential batch extraction of waste with acidic extraction fluid

    SciTech Connect

    Sorini, S.S.

    1993-08-01

    Subject is characterization of waste materials. Since acid rain is increasingly prevalent throughout the world, a sequential batch extraction method was developed which uses a dilute acid solution as the extraction fluid. A collaborative study was conducted in which the draft method was used to treat a spray dryer waste from a clean coal technology process and a composite mining waste. Effects of filter pore size and digestion vs nondigestion on analytical concentrations in extracts were also studied. Elements determined included Al, Ba, B, Ca, Cr, Si, Na, Sr, Pb, Mg, Mn, Si, Zn. The draft method will be published as ASTM Method D5284-92.

  10. Association Mapping of Main Tomato Fruit Sugars and Organic Acids

    PubMed Central

    Zhao, Jiantao; Xu, Yao; Ding, Qin; Huang, Xinli; Zhang, Yating; Zou, Zhirong; Li, Mingjun; Cui, Lu; Zhang, Jing

    2016-01-01

    Association mapping has been widely used to map the significant associated loci responsible for natural variation in complex traits and are valuable for crop improvement. Sugars and organic acids are the most important metabolites in tomato fruits. We used a collection of 174 tomato accessions composed of Solanum lycopersicum (123 accessions) and S. lycopersicum var cerasiforme (51 accessions) to detect significantly associated loci controlling the variation of main sugars and organic acids. The accessions were genotyped with 182 SSRs spreading over the tomato genome. Association mapping was conducted on the main sugars and organic acids detected by gas chromatography-mass spectrometer (GC-MS) over 2 years using the mixed linear model (MLM). We detected a total of 58 significantly associated loci (P < 0.001) for the 17 sugars and organic acids, including fructose, glucose, sucrose, citric acid, malic acid. These results not only co-localized with several reported QTLs, including fru9.1/PV, suc9.1/PV, ca2.1/HS, ca3.1/PV, ca4.1/PV, and ca8.1/PV, but also provided a list of candidate significantly associated loci to be functionally validated. These significantly associated loci could be used for deciphering the genetic architecture of tomato fruit sugars and organic acids and for tomato quality breeding. PMID:27617019

  11. Association Mapping of Main Tomato Fruit Sugars and Organic Acids.

    PubMed

    Zhao, Jiantao; Xu, Yao; Ding, Qin; Huang, Xinli; Zhang, Yating; Zou, Zhirong; Li, Mingjun; Cui, Lu; Zhang, Jing

    2016-01-01

    Association mapping has been widely used to map the significant associated loci responsible for natural variation in complex traits and are valuable for crop improvement. Sugars and organic acids are the most important metabolites in tomato fruits. We used a collection of 174 tomato accessions composed of Solanum lycopersicum (123 accessions) and S. lycopersicum var cerasiforme (51 accessions) to detect significantly associated loci controlling the variation of main sugars and organic acids. The accessions were genotyped with 182 SSRs spreading over the tomato genome. Association mapping was conducted on the main sugars and organic acids detected by gas chromatography-mass spectrometer (GC-MS) over 2 years using the mixed linear model (MLM). We detected a total of 58 significantly associated loci (P < 0.001) for the 17 sugars and organic acids, including fructose, glucose, sucrose, citric acid, malic acid. These results not only co-localized with several reported QTLs, including fru9.1/PV, suc9.1/PV, ca2.1/HS, ca3.1/PV, ca4.1/PV, and ca8.1/PV, but also provided a list of candidate significantly associated loci to be functionally validated. These significantly associated loci could be used for deciphering the genetic architecture of tomato fruit sugars and organic acids and for tomato quality breeding.

  12. Association Mapping of Main Tomato Fruit Sugars and Organic Acids.

    PubMed

    Zhao, Jiantao; Xu, Yao; Ding, Qin; Huang, Xinli; Zhang, Yating; Zou, Zhirong; Li, Mingjun; Cui, Lu; Zhang, Jing

    2016-01-01

    Association mapping has been widely used to map the significant associated loci responsible for natural variation in complex traits and are valuable for crop improvement. Sugars and organic acids are the most important metabolites in tomato fruits. We used a collection of 174 tomato accessions composed of Solanum lycopersicum (123 accessions) and S. lycopersicum var cerasiforme (51 accessions) to detect significantly associated loci controlling the variation of main sugars and organic acids. The accessions were genotyped with 182 SSRs spreading over the tomato genome. Association mapping was conducted on the main sugars and organic acids detected by gas chromatography-mass spectrometer (GC-MS) over 2 years using the mixed linear model (MLM). We detected a total of 58 significantly associated loci (P < 0.001) for the 17 sugars and organic acids, including fructose, glucose, sucrose, citric acid, malic acid. These results not only co-localized with several reported QTLs, including fru9.1/PV, suc9.1/PV, ca2.1/HS, ca3.1/PV, ca4.1/PV, and ca8.1/PV, but also provided a list of candidate significantly associated loci to be functionally validated. These significantly associated loci could be used for deciphering the genetic architecture of tomato fruit sugars and organic acids and for tomato quality breeding. PMID:27617019

  13. Association Mapping of Main Tomato Fruit Sugars and Organic Acids

    PubMed Central

    Zhao, Jiantao; Xu, Yao; Ding, Qin; Huang, Xinli; Zhang, Yating; Zou, Zhirong; Li, Mingjun; Cui, Lu; Zhang, Jing

    2016-01-01

    Association mapping has been widely used to map the significant associated loci responsible for natural variation in complex traits and are valuable for crop improvement. Sugars and organic acids are the most important metabolites in tomato fruits. We used a collection of 174 tomato accessions composed of Solanum lycopersicum (123 accessions) and S. lycopersicum var cerasiforme (51 accessions) to detect significantly associated loci controlling the variation of main sugars and organic acids. The accessions were genotyped with 182 SSRs spreading over the tomato genome. Association mapping was conducted on the main sugars and organic acids detected by gas chromatography-mass spectrometer (GC-MS) over 2 years using the mixed linear model (MLM). We detected a total of 58 significantly associated loci (P < 0.001) for the 17 sugars and organic acids, including fructose, glucose, sucrose, citric acid, malic acid. These results not only co-localized with several reported QTLs, including fru9.1/PV, suc9.1/PV, ca2.1/HS, ca3.1/PV, ca4.1/PV, and ca8.1/PV, but also provided a list of candidate significantly associated loci to be functionally validated. These significantly associated loci could be used for deciphering the genetic architecture of tomato fruit sugars and organic acids and for tomato quality breeding.

  14. Organic geochemistry of amino acids: Precambrian to recent

    SciTech Connect

    Engel, M.H.; Macko, S.A.

    1985-01-01

    Since the discovery of amino acids in fossils (Abelson, 1954), considerable effort has been made to elucidate the origin and distribution of amino acids in geologic materials. Racemization and decomposition reactions of amino acids and peptides derived via the natural hydrolysis of protein constituents of organisms have been extensively studied. While the ubiquity of amino acids presents a challenge for discerning their indigeneity in geologic samples, careful analyses have resulted in successful applications of amino acid racemization and decomposition reactions for investigations of geochronologic, paleoclimatic, stratigraphic, diagenetic and chemotaxonomic problems for Quaternary age samples. An investigation of amino acids in sediments from Baffin Island fjords indicates that their distribution may also provide data with respect to the relative contributions of marine and terrigenous organic matter to recent sediments. While the absence of unstable amino acids and the presence of racemic amino acids in a sample may preclude very recent contamination, the possibility of retardation of amino acid racemization rates subsequent to geopolymer formation must also be considered. Studies of amino acids in Paleozoic, Mesozoic and early Cenozoic age samples are limited. Precambrian samples, however, have received much attention, given the potential (however slight) for isolating compounds representative of the earliest living systems. A future approach for elucidating the origin(s) of amino acids in ancient samples may be analyses of their individual stable isotopic compositions.

  15. EFFECT OF ACIDITY ON SECONDARY ORGANIC AEROSOL FORMATION FROM ISOPRENE

    EPA Science Inventory

    The effect of particle-phase acidity on secondary organic aerosol (SOA) formation from isoprene is investigated in a laboratory chamber study, in which the acidity of the inorganic seed aerosol was controlled systematically. The observed enhancement in SOA mass concentration is c...

  16. Perfluorinated resinsulfonic acid--a catalyst for certain organic reactions

    SciTech Connect

    Etlis, V.S.; Beshenova, E.P.; Semenova, E.A.; Shomina, F.N.; Dreiman, N.A.; Balaev, G.A.

    1986-09-10

    The purpose of this work was to examine the possibility of using, as a catalyst in certain organic reactions, the perfluorinated resinsulfonic acid F-4SK in the H form, which is an analog of the perfluorinated resinsulfonic acid Nafion-H.

  17. Transformation of organic and inorganic compounds in trifluoroacetic acid

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vishnetskaya, M. V.; Mel'nikov, M. Ya.

    2016-09-01

    It is established that the effectiveness of fluorine-containing acids in the transformation of organic and inorganic substrates is due to the ability of the acid to perform several functions: to accumulate relatively high concentrations of molecular oxygen, to activate it, and to serve as a hydrogen-containing medium.

  18. Acoustic properties of organic acid mixtures in water

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Macavei, I.; Petrisor, V.; Auslaender, D.

    1974-01-01

    The variation of the rate of propagation of ultrasounds in organic acid mixtures in water points to structural changes caused by interactions that take place under conditions of thermal agitation, at different acid concentrations. At the same time, a difference is found in the changes in velocity as a function of the length of the carbon chain of the acids in the mixture as a result of their effect on the groups of water molecules associated by hydrogen bonds.

  19. Interaction of Humic Acids with Organic Toxicants

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tchaikovskaya, O. N.; Yudina, N. V.; Maltseva, E. V.; Nechaev, L. V.; Svetlichnyi, V. A.

    2016-08-01

    Interaction of humic acids with polyaromatic hydrocarbons (PAH) (naphthalene and anthracene) and triazole series fungicides (cyproconazole (CC) and tebuconazole (TC)) is investigated by the method of fluorescence quenching depending on the concentration of substances in solutions and their structural features. Humic acids were modified by mechanochemical activation in a planetary mill. The complex character of intermolecular interactions between PAH and fungicides with humic acids, including donor-acceptor and hydrophobic binding, is established. Thermodynamically stable conformations of biocide molecules were estimated using ChemOffice CS Chem3D 8.0 by methods of molecular mechanics (MM2) and molecular dynamics. Biocide molecules with pH 7 are in energetically favorable position when the benzene and triazole rings are almost parallel to each other. After acidification of solutions to pH 4.5, the CC molecule retains the geometry for which donor-acceptor interactions are possible: the benzene ring in the molecule represents the electron donor, and triazole is the acceptor. In this case, the electron density in CC is redistributed easier, which is explained by a smaller number of carbon atoms between the triazole and benzene rings, unlike TC. As a result, the TC triazole ring is protonated to a greater degree, acquiring a positive charge, and enters into donoracceptor interactions with humic acid (HA) samples. The above-indicated bond types allow HA to participate actively in sorption processes and to provide their interaction with biocides and PAH and hence, to act as detoxifying agents for recultivation of the polluted environment.

  20. Metabolic evolution of Escherichia coli strains that produce organic acids

    SciTech Connect

    Grabar, Tammy; Gong, Wei; Yocum, R Rogers

    2014-10-28

    This invention relates to the metabolic evolution of a microbial organism previously optimized for producing an organic acid in commercially significant quantities under fermentative conditions using a hexose sugar as sole source of carbon in a minimal mineral medium. As a result of this metabolic evolution, the microbial organism acquires the ability to use pentose sugars derived from cellulosic materials for its growth while retaining the original growth kinetics, the rate of organic acid production and the ability to use hexose sugars as a source of carbon. This invention also discloses the genetic change in the microorganism that confers the ability to use both the hexose and pentose sugars simultaneously in the production of commercially significant quantities of organic acids.

  1. Polydopamine-coated magnetic molecularly imprinted polymer for the selective solid-phase extraction of cinnamic acid, ferulic acid and caffeic acid from radix scrophulariae sample.

    PubMed

    Yin, Yuli; Yan, Liang; Zhang, Zhaohui; Wang, Jing; Luo, Ningjing

    2016-04-01

    We describe novel cinnamic acid polydopamine-coated magnetic imprinted polymers for the simultaneous selective extraction of cinnamic acid, ferulic acid and caffeic acid from radix scrophulariae sample. The novel magnetic imprinted polymers were synthesized by surface imprinting polymerization using magnetic multi-walled carbon nanotubes as the support material, cinnamic acid as the template and dopamine as the functional monomer. The magnetic imprinted polymers were characterized by transmission electron microscopy, scanning electron microscopy, Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy and vibrating sample magnetometry. The results revealed that the magnetic imprinted polymers had outstanding magnetic properties, high adsorption capacity, selectivity and fast kinetic binding toward cinnamic acid, ferulic acid and caffeic acid. Coupled with high-performance liquid chromatography, the extraction conditions of the magnetic imprinted polymers as a magnetic solid-phase extraction sorbent were investigated in detail. The proposed imprinted magnetic solid phase extraction procedure has been used for the purification and enrichment of cinnamic acid, ferulic acid and caffeic acid successfully from radix scrophulariae extraction sample with recoveries of 92.4-115.0% for cinnamic acid, 89.4-103.0% for ferulic acid and 86.6-96.0% for caffeic acid.

  2. Reactions Between Water Soluble Organic Acids and Nitrates in Atmospheric Aerosols: Recycling of Nitric Acid and Formation of Organic Salts

    SciTech Connect

    Wang, Bingbing; Laskin, Alexander

    2014-03-25

    Atmospheric particles often include a complex mixture of nitrate and secondary organic materials accumulated within the same individual particles. Nitrate as an important inorganic component can be chemically formed in the atmosphere. For instance, formation of sodium nitrate (NaNO3) and calcium nitrate Ca(NO3)2 when nitrogen oxide and nitric acid (HNO3) species react with sea salt and calcite, respectively. Organic acids contribute a significant fraction of photochemically formed secondary organics that can condense on the preexisting nitrate-containing particles. Here, we present a systematic microanalysis study on chemical composition of laboratory generated particles composed of water soluble organic acids and nitrates (i.e. NaNO3 and Ca(NO3)2) investigated using computer controlled scanning electron microscopy with energy dispersive analysis of X-rays (CCSEM/EDX) and Fourier transform infrared micro-spectroscopy (micro-FTIR). The results show that water-soluble organic acids can react with nitrates releasing gaseous HNO3 during dehydration process. These reactions are attributed to acid displacement of nitrate with weak organic acids driven by the evaporation of HNO3 into gas phase due to its relatively high volatility. The reactions result in significant nitrate depletion and formation of organic salts in mixed organic acids/nitrate particles that in turn may affect their physical and chemical properties relevant to atmospheric environment and climate. Airborne nitrate concentrations are estimated by thermodynamic calculations corresponding to various nitrate depletions in selected organic acids of atmospheric relevance. The results indicate a potential mechanism of HNO3 recycling, which may further affect concentrations of gas- and aerosol-phase species in the atmosphere and the heterogeneous reaction chemistry between them.

  3. Electromembrane extraction using two separate cells: A new design for simultaneous extraction of acidic and basic compounds.

    PubMed

    Nojavan, Saeed; Asadi, Sakine

    2016-02-01

    Simultaneous extraction of acidic and basic analytes from a sample is seen to be a challenging task. In this work, a novel and efficient electromembrane extraction (EME) method based on two separate cells was applied to simultaneously extract and preconcentrate two acidic drugs (naproxen and ibuprofen) along with a basic drug (ketamine). Once both cells were filled with the sample solution, basic drug was extracted from one cell with the other cell used to extract acidic drugs. The employed supported liquid membranes for the extraction of acidic and basic drugs were 2-ethyl hexanol and 1-octanol, respectively. Under an applied potential of 250 V in the course of the extraction process, acidic, and basic drugs were extracted from a 3.0 mL aqueous sample solution into 25 μL acceptor solutions. The pH values of the donor and acceptor solutions in the cathodic cell were 5.0 and 1.5, respectively, the corresponding values in the anodic cell were, however, 8.0 and 12.5, respectively. The rates of recovery obtained within 20 min of extraction time at a stirring rate of 750 rpm ranged from 45 to 54%. With correlation coefficients ranging from 0.990 to 0.996, the proposed EME technique provided good linearity over a concentration range of 20-1000 ng/mL. The LOD for all drugs was found to be 6.7 ng/mL, while reproducibility ranged from 7 to 12% (n = 5). Finally, applying the proposed method to determine and quantify the drugs in urine and wastewater samples, satisfactory results were achieved.

  4. Extraction of semivolatile organic compounds from high-efficiency particulate air (HEPA) filters by supercritical carbon dioxide

    SciTech Connect

    Schilling, J.B.

    1997-09-01

    Supercritical fluid extraction (SFE) using unmodified carbon dioxide has been explored as an alternative method for the extraction of semivolatile organic compounds from high-efficiency particulate air (HEPA) filters. HEPA filters provide the final stage of containment on many exhaust systems in US Department of Energy (DOE) facilities by preventing the escape of chemical and radioactive materials entrained in the exhausted air. The efficiency of the filters is tested by the manufacturer and DOE using dioctylphthalate (DOP), a substance regulated by the US Environmental Protection Agency under the Resource Conservation and Recovery Act. Therefore, the filters must be analyzed for semivolatile organics before disposal. Ninety-eight acid, base, and neutral semivolatile organics were spiked onto blank HEPA material and extracted using SFE, Soxhlet, automated Soxhlet, and sonication techniques. The SFE conditions were optimized using a Dionex SFE-703 instrument. Average recoveries for the 98 semivolatile compounds are 82.7% for Soxhlet, 74.0% for sonication, 70.2% for SFE, and 62.9% for Soxtec. Supercritical fluid extraction reduces the extraction solvent volume to 10--15 mL, a factor of 20--30 less than Soxhlet and more than 5 times less than Soxtec and sonication. Extraction times of 30--45 min are used compared to 16--18 h for Soxhlet extraction.

  5. Organic Acids Over Equatorial Africa: Results from DECAFE 88

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Helas, Günter; Bingemer, Heinz; Andreae, Meinrat O.

    1992-04-01

    Gaseous short chain organic acids were measured during the dry season (February) in and above the rain forest of the northern Congo. Samples were taken at ground level and during several flights up to 4 km altitude. The organic acids were concentrated from the atmosphere by using "mist scrubbers," which expose a mist of deionized water to the air to be probed. The organic acids absorbed in the water were subsequently analyzed by ion chromatography. Formic, acetic, and pyruvic acids were identified in the samples. At ground level, average mixing ratios of gaseous formic and acetic acid of 0.5±0.6 and 0.6±0.7 parts per billion by volume (ppbv) (1 s), respectively, were found. Boundary layer mixing ratios, however, were significantly higher (3.7±1.0 and 2.7±0.9 ppbv). This indicates a downward net flux of these atmospheric trace components from the boundary layer to the surface. Free tropospheric samples taken above the cloud convection layer show lower mixing ratios again (0.9±0.3 and 0.7±0.1 ppbv). On the basis of this vertical distribution, direct emission by vegetation is not considered to be the dominant source. Biomass burning and photochemical oxidation of biogenic precursors are the major processes contributing to the enhancement of organic acids observed in the boundary layer. The organic acids parallel the profiles of ozone and CO, which suggests that their generation processes are closely related. Pyruvic acid is not correlated with formic acid, indicating that the oxidation of isoprene is not of major importance. In emissions from biomass fires, CO correlates well with formic and acetic acid, and thus some of the enhancement of organic acids in the boundary layer can be explained due to burning. However, an additional gas phase source for organic acids must exist to explain the observed ratio of formic to acetic acid. This is most likely the ozonolysis of olefins which were released as pyrolysis products from biomass burning.

  6. Antioxidant activity and sensory evaluation of a rosmarinic acid-enriched extract of Salvia officinalis.

    PubMed

    Bakota, Erica L; Winkler-Moser, Jill K; Berhow, Mark A; Eller, Fred J; Vaughn, Steven F

    2015-04-01

    An extract of Salvia officinalis (garden sage) was prepared using supercritical carbon dioxide (SC-CO2 ) extraction, followed by hot water extraction. The resulting extract was enriched in polyphenols, including rosmarinic acid (RA), which has shown promising health benefits in animals. The extract contained RA at a concentration of 28.4 mg/g, representing a significant enrichment from the RA content in sage leaves. This extract was incorporated into oil-in-water emulsions as a source of lipid antioxidants and compared to emulsions containing pure rosmarinic acid. Both treatments were effective in suppressing lipid oxidation. The extract was evaluated by a trained sensory panel in a tea formulation. While the panel could discriminate among extract-treated and control samples, panelists demonstrated high acceptability of the sage extract in a tea.

  7. Development and validation of a method for the quantification of extractable perfluoroalkyl acids (PFAAs) and perfluorooctane sulfonamide (FOSA) in textiles.

    PubMed

    van der Veen, Ike; Weiss, Jana M; Hanning, Anne-Charlotte; de Boer, Jacob; Leonards, Pim E G

    2016-01-15

    In textiles, like outdoor clothing, per- and polyfluoroalkyl substances (PFASs) are often used for durable water repellency (DWR) of the final products. The analytical performance to determine the concentration of these chemicals available for exposure to humans and to the environment need to be established. Here a method for the extraction and analysis of one class of PFASs, namely perfluoroalkyl acids (PFAAs), in outdoor clothing was developed and validated. The PFAAs which were validated, included perfluoroalkyl carboxylic acids (PFCAs) (C4-C14), and perfluoroalkane sulfonic acids (PFSAs) (C4, C6, C7, C8). In addition, perfluorooctane sulfonamide (FOSA) was included in this study. The method was based on an organic solvent extraction and analysis by high-performance liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS). No further cleaning was needed. Two commonly used organic solvent compositions were evaluated for the optimal extraction, i.e. methanol and acetone/acetonitrile (80:20, v/v), and the number and duration of the sequential extractions were optimized. Results showed that two sequential extractions with 5mL methanol and an extraction time of 30min gave an optimal performance with an extraction efficiency of >90%. The influence of matrix on the quantification of PFAAs was studied. This indicated ion suppression due to different matrix effects or sorption behavior to specific textile samples. Validation of the entire method showed overall recoveries of>80% and relative standard deviations (RSDs) of<9% (n=3) for repeatability and <20% (n=3) for reproducibility. This is the first validation of an analytical method for the analysis of extractable PFCAs, PFSAs and FOSA associated to textiles, which is of high importance due to the regulation of PFAAs in textile.

  8. The behavior and importance of lactic acid complexation in Talspeak extraction systems

    SciTech Connect

    Grimes, Travis S.; Nilsson, Mikael; Nash, Kenneth L.

    2008-07-01

    Advanced partitioning of spent nuclear fuel in the UREX +la process relies on the TALSPEAK process for separation of fission-product lanthanides from trivalent actinides. The classic TALSPEAK utilizes an aqueous medium of both lactic acid and diethylenetriaminepentaacetic acid and the extraction reagent di(2-ethylhexyl)phosphoric acid in an aromatic diluent. In this study, the specific role of lactic acid and the complexes involved in the extraction of the trivalent actinides and lanthanides have been investigated using {sup 14}C-labeled lactic acid. Our results show that lactic acid partitions between the phases in a complex fashion. (authors)

  9. Sequential Extraction and Spectroscopic Characterisation of Organic Matter from the Callovo-Oxfordian Formation

    SciTech Connect

    Grasset, L.; Brevet, J; Schäfer, T; Claret, F; Gaucher, E; Albrecht, A; Amblès, A

    2010-01-01

    One site under consideration for the disposal of medium and high level, long lived radioactive waste is in the eastern part of the Paris Basin (Meuse/Haute Marne, France), where the National Radioactive Waste Management Agency (ANDRA) operates an underground laboratory. The sedimentary host formation is a 130 m thick, clay-rich Callovo-Oxfordian deposit ca. 350-550 m below ground in the selected area. The major fraction (>95%) of the organic matter (OM) is associated with minerals. In order to better understand the importance of OM on the chemistry of this formation, we have developed a protocol allowing extraction/fractionation of organic compounds in the rocks. The protocol is based on classical methods currently used for the isolation of humic substances from soils and for the separation of kerogen in ancient sediments using sequential extraction with solvents and water at different pH value. This allows us to the remove a large part of the minerals and to suspend almost all (>90%) of the OM (associated with residual recalcitrant minerals) in water. The OM can then be analysed via spectroscopic methods, such as mass spectrometry (MS), Fourier transform infra-red spectroscopy (FTIR), or C (1s) near-edge X-ray absorption fine structure (NEXAFS) spectroscopy. The molecular composition of the solvent-soluble, directly-extractable part shows the OM to be thermally immature. The solvent-soluble fractions obtained after acid and alkaline treatments are mostly polar in nature and have a high degree of aliphaticity. C(1s) NEXAFS analysis of water soluble organic fractions indicates a progressive increase in aliphaticity and a decrease in carboxylic/carbonyl groups with consecutive extraction steps.

  10. Estimates of Soil Bacterial Ribosome Content and Diversity Are Significantly Affected by the Nucleic Acid Extraction Method Employed

    PubMed Central

    Wüst, Pia K.; Nacke, Heiko; Kaiser, Kristin; Marhan, Sven; Sikorski, Johannes; Kandeler, Ellen; Daniel, Rolf

    2016-01-01

    Modern sequencing technologies allow high-resolution analyses of total and potentially active soil microbial communities based on their DNA and RNA, respectively. In the present study, quantitative PCR and 454 pyrosequencing were used to evaluate the effects of different extraction methods on the abundance and diversity of 16S rRNA genes and transcripts recovered from three different types of soils (leptosol, stagnosol, and gleysol). The quality and yield of nucleic acids varied considerably with respect to both the applied extraction method and the analyzed type of soil. The bacterial ribosome content (calculated as the ratio of 16S rRNA transcripts to 16S rRNA genes) can serve as an indicator of the potential activity of bacterial cells and differed by 2 orders of magnitude between nucleic acid extracts obtained by the various extraction methods. Depending on the extraction method, the relative abundances of dominant soil taxa, in particular Actinobacteria and Proteobacteria, varied by a factor of up to 10. Through this systematic approach, the present study allows guidelines to be deduced for the selection of the appropriate extraction protocol according to the specific soil properties, the nucleic acid of interest, and the target organisms. PMID:26896137

  11. Effect of aluminum, zinc, copper, and lead on the acid-base properties of water extracts from soils

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Motuzova, G. V.; Makarychev, I. P.; Petrov, M. I.

    2013-01-01

    The potentiometric titration of water extracts from the upper horizons of taiga-zone soils by salt solutions of heavy metals (Pb, Cu, and Zn) showed that their addition is an additional source of the extract acidity because of the involvement of the metal ions in complexation with water-soluble organic substances (WSOSs). At the addition of 0.01 M water solutions of Al(NO3)3 to water extracts from soils, Al3+ ions are also involved in complexes with WSOSs, which is accompanied by stronger acidification of the extracts from the upper horizon of soddy soils (with a near-neutral reaction) than from the litter of bog-podzolic soil (with a strongly acid reaction). The effect of the Al3+ hydrolysis on the acidity of the extracts is insignificantly low in both cases. A quantitative relationship was revealed between the release of protons and the ratio of free Cu2+ ions to those complexed with WSOSs at the titration of water extracts from soils by a solution of copper salt.

  12. 21 CFR 573.500 - Condensed, extracted glutamic acid fermentation product.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) ANIMAL DRUGS, FEEDS, AND RELATED PRODUCTS FOOD ADDITIVES PERMITTED IN FEED AND DRINKING WATER OF ANIMALS Food Additive Listing § 573.500 Condensed, extracted glutamic acid... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Condensed, extracted glutamic acid...

  13. 21 CFR 573.500 - Condensed, extracted glutamic acid fermentation product.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) ANIMAL DRUGS, FEEDS, AND RELATED PRODUCTS FOOD ADDITIVES PERMITTED IN FEED AND DRINKING WATER OF ANIMALS Food Additive Listing § 573.500 Condensed, extracted glutamic acid... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Condensed, extracted glutamic acid...

  14. 21 CFR 573.500 - Condensed, extracted glutamic acid fermentation product.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) ANIMAL DRUGS, FEEDS, AND RELATED PRODUCTS FOOD ADDITIVES PERMITTED IN FEED AND DRINKING WATER OF ANIMALS Food Additive Listing § 573.500 Condensed, extracted glutamic acid... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Condensed, extracted glutamic acid...

  15. 21 CFR 573.500 - Condensed, extracted glutamic acid fermentation product.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) ANIMAL DRUGS, FEEDS, AND RELATED PRODUCTS FOOD ADDITIVES PERMITTED IN FEED AND DRINKING WATER OF ANIMALS Food Additive Listing § 573.500 Condensed, extracted glutamic acid... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Condensed, extracted glutamic acid...

  16. 21 CFR 573.500 - Condensed, extracted glutamic acid fermentation product.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) ANIMAL DRUGS, FEEDS, AND RELATED PRODUCTS FOOD ADDITIVES PERMITTED IN FEED AND DRINKING WATER OF ANIMALS Food Additive Listing § 573.500 Condensed, extracted glutamic acid... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Condensed, extracted glutamic acid...

  17. Preparation method and stability of ellagic acid-rich pomegranate fruit peel extract.

    PubMed

    Panichayupakaranant, Pharkphoom; Itsuriya, Atcharaporn; Sirikatitham, Anusak

    2010-02-01

    A simple one-step purification using liquid-liquid extraction for preparing pomegranate peel extract rich in ellagic acid has been demonstrated. The method involved partitioning of the 10% v/v water in methanol extract of pomegranate peel between ethyl acetate and 2% aqueous acetic acid. This method was capable of increasing the ellagic acid content of the extract from 7.06% to 13.63% w/w. Moreover, the antioxidant activity of the extract evaluated by 1,1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) radical scavenging assay was also increased (ED(50) from 38.21 to 14.91 micro/mL). Stability evaluations of the ellagic acid-rich pomegranate peel extract in several conditions through a period of four months found that the extracts were stable either kept under light or protected from light. The extracts were also stable under 4 degrees +/- 2 degrees C, 30 degrees +/- 2 degrees C and accelerated conditions at 45 degrees C with 75% relative humidity. However, study on the effect of pH on stability of the extract in the form of solution revealed that the extract was not stable in all tested pH (5.5, 7 and 8). These results indicated that the ellagic acid-rich pomegranate peel extract was stable when it was kept as dried powder, but it was not stable in any aqueous solution. PMID:20645841

  18. Solvent extraction in the treatment of acidic high-level liquid waste : where do we stand?

    SciTech Connect

    Horwitz, E. P.; Schulz, W. W.

    1998-06-18

    During the last 15 years, a number of solvent extraction/recovery processes have been developed for the removal of the transuranic elements, {sup 90}Sr and {sup 137}Cs from acidic high-level liquid waste. These processes are based on the use of a variety of both acidic and neutral extractants. This chapter will present an overview and analysis of the various extractants and flowsheets developed to treat acidic high-level liquid waste streams. The advantages and disadvantages of each extractant along with comparisons of the individual systems are discussed.

  19. Microbial production of organic acids: expanding the markets.

    PubMed

    Sauer, Michael; Porro, Danilo; Mattanovich, Diethard; Branduardi, Paola

    2008-02-01

    Microbial production of organic acids is a promising approach for obtaining building-block chemicals from renewable carbon sources. Although some acids have been produced for some time and in-depth knowledge of these microbial production processes has been gained, further microbial production processes seem to be feasible, but large-scale production has not yet been possible. Citric, lactic and succinic acid production exemplify three processes in different stages of industrial development. Although the questions being addressed by current research on these processes are diverging, a comparison is helpful for understanding microbial organic acid production in general. In this article, through analysis of the current advances in production of these acids, we present guidelines for future developments in this fast-moving field. PMID:18191255

  20. Habituation to organic acid anions induces resistance to acid and bile in Listeria monocytogenes.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Yimin; Carpenter, Charles E; Broadbent, Jeff R; Luo, Xin

    2014-03-01

    We evaluated the intrinsic and inducible resistance of four human pathogenic strains of Listeria monocytogenes to acid and bile, factors associated with virulence. Cells were grown in media at pH 7.4, or in media at pH 6.0 containing 0 (HCl control) or 4.75 mM of different organic acids, harvested at stationary or mid log phase, and challenged for 1h in acid or bile. Stationary phase cells were intrinsically more resistant to either challenge than log phase cells, and large differences between strains were evident among the latter. Compared to the HCl control, habituation to log phase with organic acids induced significant (p<0.05) and meaningful (≥1 log) increases in acid resistance of three of four strains tested, and in bile resistance of two strains suggesting that exposure to organic acid anions may enhance virulence in L. monocytogenes.

  1. Determination of fatty acid composition and quality characteristics of oils from palm fruits using solvent extraction

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kasmin, Hasimah; Lazim, Azwan Mat; Awang, Roila

    2015-09-01

    Palm oil contains about 45% of saturated palmitic acid and 39% of mono-unsaturated oleic acid. Investigations made in the past to trace the fatty acid composition in palm revealed that ripeness of fresh fruit bunch (FFB) affect oil composition. However, there is no evidence that processing operations affect oil composition, although different stage of processing does affect the quality of oil extracted. An improved method for sterilizing the oil palm fruits by dry heating, followed by oil extraction has been studied. This method eliminates the use of water, thus, increasing the extraction of lipid soluble. The objective of this study is to determine the possibility production of palm oil with different fatty acid composition (FAC) as well as the changes in quality from conventional milling. The unripe and ripe FFB were collected, sterilized and extracted using different method of solvent extraction. Preliminary data have shown that variation in FAC will also alter the physical and chemical properties of the oil extracted.

  2. Identification of Scirpus triqueter root exudates and the effects of organic acids on desorption and bioavailability of pyrene and lead in co-contaminated wetland soils.

    PubMed

    Hou, Yunyun; Liu, Xiaoyan; Zhang, Xinying; Chen, Xiao; Tao, Kaiyun; Chen, Xueping; Liang, Xia; He, Chiquan

    2015-11-01

    Root exudates (REs) of Scirpus triqueter were extracted from the rhizosphere soil in this study. The components in the REs were identified by GC-MS. Many organic acids, such as hexadecanoic acid, pentadecanoic acid, vanillic acid, octadecanoic acid, citric acid, succinic acid, glutaric acid, and so on, were found. Batch simulated experiments were conducted to evaluate the impacts of different organic acids, such as citric acid, artificial root exudates (ARE), succinic acid, and glutaric acid in REs of S. triqueter on desorption of pyrene (PYR) and lead (Pb) in co-contaminated wetland soils. The desorption amount of PYR and Pb increased with the rise in concentrations of organic acids in the range of 0-50 g·L(-1), within shaking time of 2-24 h. The desorption effects of PYR and Pb in soils with various organic acids treatments decreased in the following order: citric acid > ARE > succinic acid > glutaric acid. The desorption rate of PYR and Pb was higher in co-contaminated soil than in single pollution soil. The impacts of organic acids in REs of S. triqueter on bioavailability of PYR and Pb suggested that organic acids enhanced the bioavailability of PYR and Pb in wetland soil, and the bioavailability effects of organic acids generally followed the same order as that of desorption effects.

  3. Identification of Scirpus triqueter root exudates and the effects of organic acids on desorption and bioavailability of pyrene and lead in co-contaminated wetland soils.

    PubMed

    Hou, Yunyun; Liu, Xiaoyan; Zhang, Xinying; Chen, Xiao; Tao, Kaiyun; Chen, Xueping; Liang, Xia; He, Chiquan

    2015-11-01

    Root exudates (REs) of Scirpus triqueter were extracted from the rhizosphere soil in this study. The components in the REs were identified by GC-MS. Many organic acids, such as hexadecanoic acid, pentadecanoic acid, vanillic acid, octadecanoic acid, citric acid, succinic acid, glutaric acid, and so on, were found. Batch simulated experiments were conducted to evaluate the impacts of different organic acids, such as citric acid, artificial root exudates (ARE), succinic acid, and glutaric acid in REs of S. triqueter on desorption of pyrene (PYR) and lead (Pb) in co-contaminated wetland soils. The desorption amount of PYR and Pb increased with the rise in concentrations of organic acids in the range of 0-50 g·L(-1), within shaking time of 2-24 h. The desorption effects of PYR and Pb in soils with various organic acids treatments decreased in the following order: citric acid > ARE > succinic acid > glutaric acid. The desorption rate of PYR and Pb was higher in co-contaminated soil than in single pollution soil. The impacts of organic acids in REs of S. triqueter on bioavailability of PYR and Pb suggested that organic acids enhanced the bioavailability of PYR and Pb in wetland soil, and the bioavailability effects of organic acids generally followed the same order as that of desorption effects. PMID:26154043

  4. DEVELOPMENTS IN THE SUPERCRITICAL FLUID EXTRACTION OF CHLOROPHENOXY ACID HERBICIDES FROM SOIL SAMPLES

    EPA Science Inventory

    Extraction of chlorophenoxy acid herbicides from soil samples with supercritical carbon dioxide as extractant and tetrabutylammonium hydroxide and methyl iodide as derivatization agents was investigated. The extraction was carried out at 400 atm and 80 C for 15 min static, follow...

  5. Simultaneous extraction of Cr(VI) and Cu(II) from humic acid with new synthesized EDTA derivatives.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Tao; Wu, Ying-Xin; Huang, Xiong-Fei; Liu, Jun-Min; Xia, Bing; Zhang, Wei-Hua; Qiu, Rong-Liang

    2012-07-01

    Soil washing is one of the few permanent treatment alternatives for removing metal contaminants. Ethylenediaminetetraacetic acid and its salts (EDTA) is very effective at removing cationic metals and has been utilized globally. However it is ineffective for anionic metal contaminants or metals bound to soil organic matter. The simultaneous removal of cationic and anionic metal contaminants by soil washing is difficult due to differences in their properties. The present study evaluated the potential of a washing process using two synthesized EDTA-derivatives, C(6)HEDTA (2,2'-((2-((carboxymethyl)(2-(hexanoyloxy)ethyl)amino)ethyl)azanediyl)diacetic acid) and C(12)HEDTA (2,2'-((2-((carboxymethyl) (2-(dodecanoyloxy)ethyl)amino)ethyl)azanediyl)diacetic acid), which consist of a hydrophilic polycarboxylic moiety and a hydrophobic moiety with a monoalkyl ester group. A series of equilibrium batch experiments at room temperature were conducted to investigate the efficacy of C(6)HEDTA and C(12)HEDTA as extractants for both oxyanion Cr(VI) and cationic Cu(II). Results showed that either C(6)HEDTA or C(12)HEDTA can extract both Cr(VI) and Cu(II) from humic acid simultaneously. However, C(6)HEDTA was less effective for Cr(VI) probably because it has no surface activities to increase solubility of humic acid, like C(12)HEDTA. Extraction of Cr(VI) was mainly attributed to the decreased surface tension and enhanced solubility of organic matter. Extraction of Cu(II) was attributed to both the Cu(II) chelation and enhanced solubility of humic acid. It was demonstrated that the hydrophilic polycarboxylic moiety of C(12)HEDTA chelates cations while the monoalkyl ester group produces surface active properties that enhance the solubility of humic acid.

  6. Antioxidant activities of rosemary (Rosmarinus Officinalis L.) extract, blackseed (Nigella sativa L.) essential oil, carnosic acid, rosmarinic acid and sesamol.

    PubMed

    Erkan, Naciye; Ayranci, Guler; Ayranci, Erol

    2008-09-01

    Antioxidant activities of three pure compounds: carnosic acid, rosmarinic acid and sesamol, as well as two plant extracts: rosemary extract and blackseed essential oil, were examined by applying DPPH and ABTS(+) radical-scavenging assays and the ferric thiocyanate test. All three test methods proved that rosemary extract had a higher antioxidant activity than blackseed essential oil. The order of antioxidant activity of pure compounds showed variations in different tests. This was attributed to structural factors of individual compounds. Phenolic contents of blackseed essential oil and rosemary extract were also determined. Rosemary extract was found to have a higher phenolic content than blackseed essential oil. This fact was utilised in explaining the higher antioxidant activity of rosemary extract.

  7. Antioxidant activities of rosemary (Rosmarinus Officinalis L.) extract, blackseed (Nigella sativa L.) essential oil, carnosic acid, rosmarinic acid and sesamol.

    PubMed

    Erkan, Naciye; Ayranci, Guler; Ayranci, Erol

    2008-09-01

    Antioxidant activities of three pure compounds: carnosic acid, rosmarinic acid and sesamol, as well as two plant extracts: rosemary extract and blackseed essential oil, were examined by applying DPPH and ABTS(+) radical-scavenging assays and the ferric thiocyanate test. All three test methods proved that rosemary extract had a higher antioxidant activity than blackseed essential oil. The order of antioxidant activity of pure compounds showed variations in different tests. This was attributed to structural factors of individual compounds. Phenolic contents of blackseed essential oil and rosemary extract were also determined. Rosemary extract was found to have a higher phenolic content than blackseed essential oil. This fact was utilised in explaining the higher antioxidant activity of rosemary extract. PMID:26050168

  8. The Roles of Organic Acids in C4 Photosynthesis

    PubMed Central

    Ludwig, Martha

    2016-01-01

    Organic acids are involved in numerous metabolic pathways in all plants. The finding that some plants, known as C4 plants, have four-carbon dicarboxylic acids as the first product of carbon fixation showed these organic acids play essential roles as photosynthetic intermediates. Oxaloacetate (OAA), malate, and aspartate (Asp) are substrates for the C4 acid cycle that underpins the CO2 concentrating mechanism of C4 photosynthesis. In this cycle, OAA is the immediate, short-lived, product of the initial CO2 fixation step in C4 leaf mesophyll cells. The malate and Asp, resulting from the rapid conversion of OAA, are the organic acids delivered to the sites of carbon reduction in the bundle-sheath cells of the leaf, where they are decarboxylated, with the released CO2 used to make carbohydrates. The three-carbon organic acids resulting from the decarboxylation reactions are returned to the mesophyll cells where they are used to regenerate the CO2 acceptor pool. NADP-malic enzyme-type, NAD-malic enzyme-type, and phosphoenolpyruvate carboxykinase-type C4 plants were identified, based on the most abundant decarboxylating enzyme in the leaf tissue. The genes encoding these C4 pathway-associated decarboxylases were co-opted from ancestral C3 plant genes during the evolution of C4 photosynthesis. Malate was recognized as the major organic acid transferred in NADP-malic enzyme-type C4 species, while Asp fills this role in NAD-malic enzyme-type and phosphoenolpyruvate carboxykinase-type plants. However, accumulating evidence indicates that many C4 plants use a combination of organic acids and decarboxylases during CO2 fixation, and the C4-type categories are not rigid. The ability to transfer multiple organic acid species and utilize different decarboxylases has been suggested to give C4 plants advantages in changing and stressful environments, as well as during development, by facilitating the balance of energy between the two cell types involved in the C4 pathway of CO2

  9. The Roles of Organic Acids in C4 Photosynthesis.

    PubMed

    Ludwig, Martha

    2016-01-01

    Organic acids are involved in numerous metabolic pathways in all plants. The finding that some plants, known as C4 plants, have four-carbon dicarboxylic acids as the first product of carbon fixation showed these organic acids play essential roles as photosynthetic intermediates. Oxaloacetate (OAA), malate, and aspartate (Asp) are substrates for the C4 acid cycle that underpins the CO2 concentrating mechanism of C4 photosynthesis. In this cycle, OAA is the immediate, short-lived, product of the initial CO2 fixation step in C4 leaf mesophyll cells. The malate and Asp, resulting from the rapid conversion of OAA, are the organic acids delivered to the sites of carbon reduction in the bundle-sheath cells of the leaf, where they are decarboxylated, with the released CO2 used to make carbohydrates. The three-carbon organic acids resulting from the decarboxylation reactions are returned to the mesophyll cells where they are used to regenerate the CO2 acceptor pool. NADP-malic enzyme-type, NAD-malic enzyme-type, and phosphoenolpyruvate carboxykinase-type C4 plants were identified, based on the most abundant decarboxylating enzyme in the leaf tissue. The genes encoding these C4 pathway-associated decarboxylases were co-opted from ancestral C3 plant genes during the evolution of C4 photosynthesis. Malate was recognized as the major organic acid transferred in NADP-malic enzyme-type C4 species, while Asp fills this role in NAD-malic enzyme-type and phosphoenolpyruvate carboxykinase-type plants. However, accumulating evidence indicates that many C4 plants use a combination of organic acids and decarboxylases during CO2 fixation, and the C4-type categories are not rigid. The ability to transfer multiple organic acid species and utilize different decarboxylases has been suggested to give C4 plants advantages in changing and stressful environments, as well as during development, by facilitating the balance of energy between the two cell types involved in the C4 pathway of CO2

  10. Novel Regenerated Solvent Extraction Processes for the Recovery of Carboxylic Acids or Ammonia from Aqueous Solutions Part II. Recovery of Ammonia from Sour Waters

    SciTech Connect

    Poole, L.J.; King, C.J.

    1990-03-01

    Two novel regenerated solvent extraction processes are examined. The first process has the potential to reduce the energy costs inherent in the recovery of low-volatility carboxylic acids from dilute aqueous solutions. The second process has the potential for reducing the energy costs required for separate recovery of ammonia and acid gases (e.g. CO{sub 2} and H{sub 2}S) from industrial sour waters. The recovery of carboxylic acids from dilute aqueous solution can be achieved by extraction with tertiary amines. An approach for regeneration and product recovery from such extracts is to back-extract the carboxylic acid with a water-soluble, volatile tertiary amine, such as trimethylamine. The resulting trimethylammonium carboxylate solution can be concentrated and thermally decomposed, yielding the product acid and the volatile amine for recycle. Experimental work was performed with lactic acid, SUCCiOlC acid, and fumaric acid. Equilibrium data show near-stoichiometric recovery of the carboxylic acids from an organic solution of Alamine 336 into aqueous solutions of trimethylamine. For fumaric and succinic acids, partial evaporation of the aqueous back extract decomposes the carboxylate and yields the acid product in crystalline form. The decomposition of aqueous solutions of trimethylammonium lactates was not carried out to completion, due to the high water solubility of lactic acid and the tendency of the acid to self-associate. The separate recovery of ammonia and acid gases from sour waters can be achieved by combining steam-stripping of the acid gases with simultaneous removal of ammonia by extraction with a liquid cation exchanger. The use of di-2,4,4-trimethylpentyl phosphinic acid as the liquid cation exchanger is explored in this work. Batch extraction experiments were carried out to measure the equilibrium distribution ratio of ammonia between an aqueous buffer solution and an organic solution of the phosphinic acid (0.2N) in Norpar 12. The concentration

  11. Effects of alkaline pretreatments and acid extraction conditions on the acid-soluble collagen from grass carp (Ctenopharyngodon idella) skin.

    PubMed

    Liu, Dasong; Wei, Guanmian; Li, Tiancheng; Hu, Jinhua; Lu, Naiyan; Regenstein, Joe M; Zhou, Peng

    2015-04-01

    This study investigated the effects of alkaline pretreatments and acid extraction conditions on the production of acid-soluble collagen (ASC) from grass carp skin. For alkaline pretreatment, 0.05 and 0.1M NaOH removed non-collagenous proteins without significant loss of ASC at 4, 10, 15 and 20 °C; while 0.2 and 0.5M NaOH caused significant loss of ASC, and 0.5M NaOH caused structural modification of ASC at 15 and 20 °C. For acid extraction at 4, 10, 15 and 20 °C, ASC was partly extracted by 0.1 and 0.2M acetic acid, while 0.5 and 1.0M acetic acid resulted in almost complete extraction. The processing conditions involving 0.05-0.1M NaOH for pretreatment, 0.5M acetic acid for extraction and 4-20 °C for both pretreatment and extraction, produced ASC with the structural integrity being well maintained and hence were recommended to prepare ASC from grass carp skin in practical application.

  12. Antimicrobial activity of acid-hydrolyzed Citrus unshiu peel extract in milk.

    PubMed

    Min, Keun Young; Kim, Hyun Jung; Lee, Kyoung Ah; Kim, Kee-Tae; Paik, Hyun-Dong

    2014-01-01

    Citrus fruit (Citrus unshiu) peels were extracted with hot water and then acid-hydrolyzed using hydrochloric acid. Antimicrobial activities of acid-hydrolyzed Citrus unshiu peel extract were evaluated against pathogenic bacteria, including Bacillus cereus, Staphylococcus aureus, and Listeria monocytogenes. Antilisterial effect was also determined by adding extracts at 1, 2, and 4% to whole, low-fat, and skim milk. The cell numbers of B. cereus, Staph. aureus, and L. monocytogenes cultures treated with acid-hydrolyzed extract for 12h at 35°C were reduced from about 8log cfu/mL to <1log cfu/mL. Bacillus cereus was more sensitive to acid-hydrolyzed Citrus unshiu peel extract than were the other bacteria. The addition of 4% acid-hydrolyzed Citrus unshiu extracts to all types of milk inhibited the growth of L. monocytogenes within 1d of storage at 4°C. The results indicated that Citrus unshiu peel extracts, after acid hydrolysis, effectively inhibited the growth of pathogenic bacteria. These findings indicate that acid hydrolysis of Citrus unshiu peel facilitates its use as a natural antimicrobial agent for food products.

  13. Hydrogen Isotope Measurements of Organic Acids and Alcohols by Pyrolysis-GC-MS-TC-IRMS: Application to Analysis of Experimentally Derived Hydrothermal Mineral-Catalyzed Organic Products

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Socki, R. A.; Fu, Q.; Niles, P. B.; Gibson, E. K.

    2012-03-01

    We report results of experiments to measure the H-isotope composition of organic acids and alcohols. These experiments make use of a pyroprobe interfaced with a GC and high-temperature extraction furnace to make quantitative H-isotope measurements.

  14. Organic acid contents in onion cultivars (Allium cepa L.).

    PubMed

    Rodríguez Galdón, Beatriz; Tascón Rodríguez, Catalina; Rodríguez Rodríguez, Elena; Díaz Romero, Carlos

    2008-08-13

    The following organic acids (glutamic, oxalic, pyruvic, malic, tartaric, citric, and fumaric), pungency, Brix degree, acidity, and pH were determined in onion cultivars (Texas, Guayonje, San Juan de la Rambla, Carrizal Alto, Carrizal Bajo, and Masca) harvested in the same agroclimatic conditions. Glutamic acid was the most abundant organic acid (325 +/- 133 mg/100 g) followed by citric acid (48.5 +/- 24.1 mg/100 g) and malic acid (43.6 +/- 10.4 mg/100 g). There were significant differences between the onion cultivars in the mean concentrations of all of the analyzed parameters. The San Juan de la Rambla and Masca cultivars presented, in general, higher concentrations of the organic acids than the other cultivars. Significant differences in most of the analyzed parameters were observed between the two seed origins for the Masca and San Juan de la Rambla cultivars. The onion samples tended to be classified according to the cultivar and, in the case of San Juan de la Rambla cultivar, according to the precedence of the seeds after applying discriminant analysis. PMID:18616262

  15. High-Throughput Screening of Australian Marine Organism Extracts for Bioactive Molecules Affecting the Cellular Storage of Neutral Lipids

    PubMed Central

    Rae, James; Fontaine, Frank; Salim, Angela A.; Lo, Harriet P.; Capon, Robert J.; Parton, Robert G.; Martin, Sally

    2011-01-01

    Mammalian cells store excess fatty acids as neutral lipids in specialised organelles called lipid droplets (LDs). Using a simple cell-based assay and open-source software we established a high throughput screen for LD formation in A431 cells in order to identify small bioactive molecules affecting lipid storage. Screening an n-butanol extract library from Australian marine organisms we identified 114 extracts that produced either an increase or a decrease in LD formation in fatty acid-treated A431 cells with varying degrees of cytotoxicity. We selected for further analysis a non-cytotoxic extract derived from the genus Spongia (Heterofibria). Solvent partitioning, HPLC fractionation and spectroscopic analysis (NMR, MS) identified a family of related molecules within this extract with unique structural features, a subset of which reduced LD formation. We selected one of these molecules, heterofibrin A1, for more detailed cellular analysis. Inhibition of LD biogenesis by heterofibrin A1 was observed in both A431 cells and AML12 hepatocytes. The activity of heterofibrin A1 was dose dependent with 20 µM inhibiting LD formation and triglyceride accumulation by ∼50% in the presence of 50 µM oleic acid. Using a fluorescent fatty acid analogue we found that heterofibrin A1 significantly reduces the intracellular accumulation of fatty acids and results in the formation of distinct fatty acid metabolites in both cultured cells and in embryos of the zebrafish Danio rerio. In summary we have shown using readily accessible software and a relatively simple assay system that we can identify and isolate bioactive molecules from marine extracts, which affect the formation of LDs and the metabolism of fatty acids both in vitro and in vivo. PMID:21857959

  16. Organic light emitting diode with light extracting layer

    DOEpatents

    Lu, Songwei

    2016-06-14

    A light extraction substrate includes a glass substrate having a first surface and a second surface. A light extraction layer is formed on at least one of the surfaces. The light extraction layer is a coating, such as a silicon-containing coating, incorporating nanoparticles.

  17. Organic compounds in lunar samples: pyrolysis products, hydrocarbons, amino acids.

    PubMed

    Nagy, B; Drew, D M; Hamilton, P B; Modzeleski, V E; Murphy, M E; Scott, W M; Urey, H C; Young, M

    1970-01-30

    Lunar fines and a chip from inside a rock pyrolyzed in helium at 700 degrees C gave methane, other gases, and aromatic hydrocarbons. Benzene/methanol extracts of fines yielded traces of high molecular weight alkanes and sulfur. Traces of glycine, alanine, ethanolamine, and urea were found in aqueous extracts. Biological controls and a terrestrial rock, dunite, subjected to exhaust from the lunar module descent engine showed a different amino acid distribution. Interpretation of the origin of the carbon compounds requires extreme care, because of possible contamination acquired during initial sample processing.

  18. Organic compounds in lunar samples: pyrolysis products, hydrocarbons, amino acids.

    PubMed

    Nagy, B; Drew, D M; Hamilton, P B; Modzeleski, V E; Murphy, M E; Scott, W M; Urey, H C; Young, M

    1970-01-30

    Lunar fines and a chip from inside a rock pyrolyzed in helium at 700 degrees C gave methane, other gases, and aromatic hydrocarbons. Benzene/methanol extracts of fines yielded traces of high molecular weight alkanes and sulfur. Traces of glycine, alanine, ethanolamine, and urea were found in aqueous extracts. Biological controls and a terrestrial rock, dunite, subjected to exhaust from the lunar module descent engine showed a different amino acid distribution. Interpretation of the origin of the carbon compounds requires extreme care, because of possible contamination acquired during initial sample processing. PMID:5410553

  19. Selective removal of phosphate for analysis of organic acids in complex samples.

    PubMed

    Deshmukh, Sandeep; Frolov, Andrej; Marcillo, Andrea; Birkemeyer, Claudia

    2015-04-01

    Accurate quantitation of compounds in samples of biological origin is often hampered by matrix interferences one of which occurs in GC-MS analysis from the presence of highly abundant phosphate. Consequently, high concentrations of phosphate need to be removed before sample analysis. Within this context, we screened 17 anion exchange solid-phase extraction (SPE) materials for selective phosphate removal using different protocols to meet the challenge of simultaneous recovery of six common organic acids in aqueous samples prior to derivatization for GC-MS analysis. Up to 75% recovery was achieved for the most organic acids, only the low pKa tartaric and citric acids were badly recovered. Compared to the traditional approach of phosphate removal by precipitation, SPE had a broader compatibility with common detection methods and performed more selectively among the organic acids under investigation. Based on the results of this study, it is recommended that phosphate removal strategies during the analysis of biologically relevant small molecular weight organic acids consider the respective pKa of the anticipated analytes and the detection method of choice.

  20. The biohydrogenation of α-linoleic acid and oleic acid by rumen micro-organisms

    PubMed Central

    Wilde, P. F.; Dawson, R. M. C.

    1966-01-01

    1. α-[U-14C]Linolenic acid was incubated with the rumen contents of sheep and the metabolic products were characterized by thin-layer chromatography, gas–liquid chromatography and absorption spectroscopy in the ultraviolet and infrared. 2. A tentative scheme for the biohydrogenation route to stearic acid is presented. The main pathway is through diconjugated cis–cis–cis-octadecatrienoic acid, non-conjugated trans–cis (cis–trans)-octadecadienoic acid and trans-octadecenoic acid, but other pathways are apparent. 3. Washed rumen micro-organisms possessed only a limited capacity to hydrogenate α-linolenic acid and oleic acid but the rate was greatly stimulated by a factor(s) present in the supernatant rumen liquor. 4. Pure cultures of Clostridium perfringens, Streptococcus faecalis, Escherichia coli and a coliform organism isolated from sheep faeces possessed negligible ability to hydrogenate unsaturated fatty acids compared with a mixed population of rumen micro-organisms. Butyrivibrio fibrisolvens slowly converted linoleic acid into octadecenoic acid. ImagesFig. 1.Fig. 2.Fig. 3. PMID:4287407

  1. Extraction and purification of lipoteichoic acids from Gram-positive bacteria.

    PubMed

    Coley, J; Duckworth, M; Baddiley, J

    1975-03-01

    Hot and cold, 80% aqueous phenol extraction procedures together with an aqueous extraction technique have been evaluated for the isolation of lipoteichoic acids from the cytoplasmic membrane of Gram-positive bacteria. Lipoteichoic acids of Staphlococcus aureus H, Micrococcus 2102, Baccillus subtilis 168, and Bacillus subtilis W-23 were examined as each of them emphasises a different problem of contamination. The purity of the lipoteichoic acids with respect to cell-wall material, nucleic acid, and protein is discussed together with the criteria of purity which enables critical structural analysis of lipoteichoic acids to be carried out.

  2. Neodymium(III) Complexes of Dialkylphosphoric and Dialkylphosphonic Acids Relevant to Liquid-Liquid Extraction Systems.

    PubMed

    Lumetta, Gregg J; Sinkov, Sergey I; Krause, Jeanette A; Sweet, Lucas E

    2016-02-15

    The complexes formed during the extraction of neodymium(III) into hydrophobic solvents containing acidic organophosphorus extractants were probed by single-crystal X-ray diffractometry, visible spectrophotometry, and Fourier-transform infrared spectroscopy. The crystal structure of the compound Nd(DMP)3 (1, DMP = dimethyl phosphate) revealed a polymeric arrangement in which each Nd(III) center is surrounded by six DMP oxygen atoms in a pseudo-octahedral environment. Adjacent Nd(III) ions are bridged by (MeO)2POO(-) anions, forming the polymeric network. The diffuse reflectance visible spectrum of 1 is nearly identical to that of the solid that is formed when an n-dodecane solution of di(2-ethylhexyl)phosphoric acid (HA) is saturated with Nd(III), indicating a similar coordination environment around the Nd center in the NdA3 solid. The visible spectrum of the HA solution fully loaded with Nd(III) is very similar to that of the NdA3 material, both displaying hypersensitive bands characteristic of an pseudo-octahedral coordination environment around Nd. These spectral characteristics persisted across a wide range of organic Nd concentrations, suggesting that the pseudo-octahedral coordination environment is maintained from dilute to saturated conditions.

  3. Ultrasound versus microwave as green processes for extraction of rosmarinic, carnosic and ursolic acids from rosemary.

    PubMed

    Jacotet-Navarro, M; Rombaut, N; Fabiano-Tixier, A-S; Danguien, M; Bily, A; Chemat, F

    2015-11-01

    Ultrasound and microwave as green processes are investigated in this study, focusing on the extraction selectivity towards antioxidant extraction from rosemary leaves. Due to its richness in valuable compounds such as rosmarinic, carnosic and ursolic acids, rosemary is a reference matrix for extraction study. In this work, six alternative processes are compared: ultrasound (bath, reactor and probe), microwave (reflux under microwave, microwave under nitrogen pressure and microwave under vapor pressure). The main result of this study is that selective extraction can be achieved according to extraction techniques and therefore to the extraction process.

  4. Starch Modification by Organic Acids and Their Derivatives: A Review.

    PubMed

    Ačkar, Đurđica; Babić, Jurislav; Jozinović, Antun; Miličević, Borislav; Jokić, Stela; Miličević, Radoslav; Rajič, Marija; Šubarić, Drago

    2015-10-27

    Starch has been an inexhaustible subject of research for many decades. It is an inexpensive, readily-available material with extensive application in the food and processing industry. Researchers are continually trying to improve its properties by different modification procedures and expand its application. What is mostly applied in this view are their chemical modifications, among which organic acids have recently drawn the greatest attention, particularly with respect to the application of starch in the food industry. Namely, organic acids naturally occur in many edible plants and many of them are generally recognized as safe (GRAS), which make them ideal modification agents for starch intended for the food industry. The aim of this review is to give a short literature overview of the progress made in the research of starch esterification, etherification, cross-linking, and dual modification with organic acids and their derivatives.

  5. Extraction of ethanol with higher carboxylic acid solvents and their toxicity to yeast

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    In a screening exercise for ethanol-selective extraction solvents, partitioning of ethanol and water from a 5 wt% aqueous solution into several C8 – C18 carboxylic acids was studied. Results for the acids are compared with those from alcohols of similar structure. In all cases studied, the acids exh...

  6. Using organic acids to diagnose and manage recalcitrant patients.

    PubMed

    Rogers, Sherry A

    2006-01-01

    "Organic acids" refers to a broad class of compounds used in fundamental metabolic processes of the body. They provide valuable clues about functional nutrient deficiencies, mitochondrial energy production, intestinal dysbiosis, free radical overload, and more, including where to start when diagnosing a patient with complicated symptoms. Organic acids present a whole new exciting world of therapeutic options. They are one of the tools that enable us to identify and correct the underlying causes of disease, and not merely temporarily suppress symptoms with pharmaceuticals. The sicker the patient, the more they need this intervention: half the patients in intensive care units were found to be nutrient-deficient in studies that look at only 1 or a few of the many nutrients. Studies show that a patient's outcome is more dismal and his chances of dying are greater as undiagnosed nutrient deficiencies mount. Furthermore, studies confirm that giving pennies' worth of antioxidants to patients in intensive care can cut the death rate in half. What drug can accomplish this, much less for pennies a day? Doesn't it make more sense to individually determine the patients' deficiencies and correct them? Combined with companion tests of intracellular minerals, toxic elements (heavy metals), fatty acids, vitamins, and amino acids, organic acids testing can clearly indicate health challenges the patient will face in the future. In many cases, they are correctable and curable. This article explored only 5 categories of organic acids out of more than 9 and 29 organic acids out of more than 47. For physicians who want more information, there are several resources available. This knowledge, along with biochemical knowledge and patient experience, can further empower physicians to help truly heal their patients.

  7. Fatty acids and sterols composition, and antioxidant activity of oils extracted from plant seeds.

    PubMed

    Kozłowska, Mariola; Gruczyńska, Eliza; Ścibisz, Iwona; Rudzińska, Magdalena

    2016-12-15

    This study determined and compared the contents of bioactive components in plant seed oils extracted with n-hexane (Soxhlet method) and chloroform/methanol (Folch method) from coriander, caraway, anise, nutmeg and white mustard seeds. Oleic acid dominated among unsaturated fatty acids in nutmeg and anise seed oils while petroselinic acid was present in coriander and caraway oils. Concerning sterols, β-sitosterol was the main component in seed oils extracted with both methods. The content of total phenolics in nutmeg, white mustard and coriander seed oils extracted with chloroform/methanol was higher than in their counterparts prepared with n-hexane. The seed oil samples extracted according to the Folch method exhibited a higher ability to scavenge DPPH radicals compared to the oil samples prepared with the Soxhlet method. DPPH values of the methanolic extracts derived from oils produced with the Folch method were also higher than in the oils extracted with n-hexane. PMID:27451203

  8. Fatty acids and sterols composition, and antioxidant activity of oils extracted from plant seeds.

    PubMed

    Kozłowska, Mariola; Gruczyńska, Eliza; Ścibisz, Iwona; Rudzińska, Magdalena

    2016-12-15

    This study determined and compared the contents of bioactive components in plant seed oils extracted with n-hexane (Soxhlet method) and chloroform/methanol (Folch method) from coriander, caraway, anise, nutmeg and white mustard seeds. Oleic acid dominated among unsaturated fatty acids in nutmeg and anise seed oils while petroselinic acid was present in coriander and caraway oils. Concerning sterols, β-sitosterol was the main component in seed oils extracted with both methods. The content of total phenolics in nutmeg, white mustard and coriander seed oils extracted with chloroform/methanol was higher than in their counterparts prepared with n-hexane. The seed oil samples extracted according to the Folch method exhibited a higher ability to scavenge DPPH radicals compared to the oil samples prepared with the Soxhlet method. DPPH values of the methanolic extracts derived from oils produced with the Folch method were also higher than in the oils extracted with n-hexane.

  9. Aggregation of dialkyl-substituted diphosphonic acids and its effect on metal ion extraction.

    SciTech Connect

    Chiarizia, R.; Barrans, R. E., Jr.; Ferraro, J. R. Herlinger, A. W.; McAlister, D. R.

    1999-10-22

    Solvent extraction reagents containing the diphosphonic acid group exhibit an extraordinary affinity for tri-, tetra- and hexavalent actinides. Their use has been considered for actinide separation and pre-concentration procedures. Solvent extraction data obtained with P,P{prime}-di(2-ethylhexyl) methane-, ethane- and butanediphosphonic acids exhibit features that are difficult to explain without Knowledge of the aggregation state of the extractants. Information about the aggregation of the dialkyl-substituted diphosphonic acids in aromatic diluents has been obtained using the complementary techniques of vapor pressure osmometry (VPO), small angle neutron scattering (SANS), infrared spectroscopy and molecular mechanics. The results from these techniques provide an understanding of the aggregation behavior of these extractants that is fully compatible with the solvent extraction data. The most important results and their relevance to solvent extraction are reviewed in this paper.

  10. Solvent systems combining neutral and acidic extractants for separating trivalent lanthanides from the transuranic elements.

    SciTech Connect

    Lumetta, G. J.; Gelis, A. V.; Vandegrift, G. F.; Chemical Sciences and Engineering Division; PNL

    2010-01-01

    This paper is a review of recent publications that have focused on combined extractant systems for separating trivalent actinides from the lanthanides. These mixed solvent systems combine an acidic extractant with a neutral extractant to achieve the actinide/lanthanide separation. Depending on the neutral extractant used, three categorizations of systems can be considered, including combinations of acidic extractants with 1 diamides, 2 carbamoylmethylphosphine oxides, and 3 polydentate nitrogen-donor ligands. This review of relevant publications indicates that, although there is significant potential for practical exploitation of mixed neutral/acidic extractant systems to achieve a single-step separation of trivalent actinides from acidic high-level waste solutions, the fundamental chemistry underlying these combined systems is not yet well understood. For example, although there is strong evidence suggesting that adducts form between the neutral and acidic extractants, the nature of these adducts generally is not known. Likewise, the structures of the mixed complexes formed between the metal ions and the two different extractants are not fully understood. Research into these basic phenomena likely will provide clues about how to design practical mixed-extractant systems that can be used to efficiently separate the transuranic elements from the lanthanides and other components of irradiated fuel.

  11. Metabolic engineering in the biotechnological production of organic acids in the tricarboxylic acid cycle of microorganisms: Advances and prospects.

    PubMed

    Yin, Xian; Li, Jianghua; Shin, Hyun-Dong; Du, Guocheng; Liu, Long; Chen, Jian

    2015-11-01

    Organic acids, which are chemically synthesized, are also natural intermediates in the metabolic pathways of microorganisms, among which the tricarboxylic acid (TCA) cycle is the most crucial route existing in almost all living organisms. Organic acids in the TCA cycle include citric acid, α-ketoglutaric acid, succinic acid, fumaric acid, l-malic acid, and oxaloacetate, which are building-block chemicals with wide applications and huge markets. In this review, we summarize the synthesis pathways of these organic acids and review recent advances in metabolic engineering strategies that enhance organic acid production. We also propose further improvements for the production of organic acids with systems and synthetic biology-guided metabolic engineering strategies.

  12. An attempt to theoretically predict third-phase formation in the dimethyldibutyltetradecylmalonamide (DMDBTDMA)/dodecane/water/nitric acid extraction system

    SciTech Connect

    LeFrancois, L.; Tondre, C.; Belnet, F.; Noel, D.

    1999-03-01

    The formation of a third phase in solvent extraction (due to splitting of the organic phase into two layers) often occurs when the aqueous phase is highly concentrated in acids. This has been reported with the extraction system dimethyldibutyltetradecylmalonamide (DMDBTDMA)/n-dodecane/water/nitric acid, both in the presence and absence of metal ions. Whereas many experimental efforts have been made to investigate the effects of different parameters on third-phase formation, very few attempts have been made to predict this phenomenon on theoretical grounds. Because the part played by aggregation of the extractant molecules is recognized, the authors propose a new predictive approach based on the use of the Flory-Huggins theory of polymer solutions, which had been successfully applied for the prediction of phase separation phenomena in nonionic surfactant solutions. The authors show that this model can provide an excellent prediction of the demixing curve (in the absence of metal ions) when establishing the relation between the interaction parameter {chi}{sub 12} calculated from this theory and the nitric acid content of the aqueous phase. Apparent values of the solubility parameter {delta}{sub 2} of the diamide extractant at different acid loadings have been calculated, from which the effect of the nature of the diluent can also be very nicely predicted.

  13. Solid-phase extraction of betanin and isobetanin from beetroot extracts using a dipicolinic acid molecularly imprinted polymer.

    PubMed

    Nestora, Sofia; Merlier, Franck; Prost, Elise; Haupt, Karsten; Rossi, Claire; Tse Sum Bui, Bernadette

    2016-09-23

    Betanin is a natural pigment with significant antioxidant and biological activities currently used as food colorant. The isolation of betanin is problematic due to its instability. In this work, we developed a fast and economic procedure based on molecularly imprinted solid-phase extraction (MISPE) for the selective clean-up of betanin and its stereoisomer isobetanin from beetroot extracts. Dipicolinic acid was used as template for the MIP preparation because of its structural similarity with the chromophore group of betanin. The MISPE procedures were fully optimized allowing the almost complete removal of matrix components such as sugars and proteins, resulting in high extraction recovery of betanin/isobetanin in a single step. Moreover, the whole extraction procedure was performed in environmentally friendly solvents with either ethanol or water. Our MISPE method is very promising for the future development of well-formulated beetroot extract with specified betanin/isobetanin content, ready for food or medicinal use. PMID:27592611

  14. Effects of peat fires on the characteristics of humic acid extracted from peat soil in Central Kalimantan, Indonesia.

    PubMed

    Yustiawati; Kihara, Yusuke; Sazawa, Kazuto; Kuramitz, Hideki; Kurasaki, Masaaki; Saito, Takeshi; Hosokawa, Toshiyuki; Syawal, M Suhaemi; Wulandari, Linda; Hendri I; Tanaka, Shunitz

    2015-02-01

    When peat forest fires happen, it leads to burn soil and also humic acids as a dominant organic matter contained in peat soil as well as the forest. The structure and properties of humic acids vary depending on their origin and environment, therefore the transformation of humic acid is also diverse. The impacts of the peat fires on peat soil from Central Kalimantan, Indonesia were investigated through the characterization of humic acids, extracted from soil in burnt and unburnt sites. The characterization of humic acids was performed by elemental composition, functional groups, molecular weight by HPSEC, pyrolysate compounds by pyrolysis-GC/MS, fluorescence spectrum by 3DEEM spectrofluorometer, and thermogravimetry. The elemental composition of each humic substance indicated that the value of H/C and O/C of humic acids from burnt sites were lower than that from unburnt sites. The molecular weight of humic acids from burnt sites was also lower than that from unburnt sites. Pyrolysate compounds of humic acids from unburnt sites differed from those of humic acids from burnt soil. The heating experiment showed that burning process caused the significant change in the properties of humic acids such as increasing the aromaticity and decreasing the molecular weight.

  15. Antimicrobial and demelanizing activity of Ganoderma lucidum extract, p-hydroxybenzoic and cinnamic acids and their synthetic acetylated glucuronide methyl esters.

    PubMed

    Heleno, Sandrina A; Ferreira, Isabel C F R; Esteves, Ana P; Ćirić, Ana; Glamočlija, Jasmina; Martins, Anabela; Soković, Marina; Queiroz, Maria João R P

    2013-08-01

    Mushroom extracts or isolated compounds may be useful in the search of new potent antimicrobial agents. Herein, it is described the synthesis of protected (acetylated) glucuronide derivatives of p-hydroxybenzoic and cinnamic acids, two compounds identified in the medicinal mushroom Ganoderma lucidum. Their antimicrobial and demelanizing activities were evaluated and compared to the parent acids and G. lucidum extract. p-Hydroxybenzoic and cinnamic acids, as also their protected glucuronide derivatives revealed high antimicrobial (antibacterial and antifungal) activity, even better than the one showed by commercial standards. Despite the variation in the order of parent acids and the protected glucuronide derivatives, their antimicrobial activity was always higher than the one revealed by the extract. Nevertheless, the extract was the only one with demelanizing activity against Aspergillus niger. The acetylated glucuronide derivatives could be deprotected to obtain glucuronide metabolites, which circulate in the human organism as products of the metabolism of the parent compounds.

  16. Bio-based production of organic acids with Corynebacterium glutamicum.

    PubMed

    Wieschalka, Stefan; Blombach, Bastian; Bott, Michael; Eikmanns, Bernhard J

    2013-03-01

    The shortage of oil resources, the steadily rising oil prices and the impact of its use on the environment evokes an increasing political, industrial and technical interest for development of safe and efficient processes for the production of chemicals from renewable biomass. Thus, microbial fermentation of renewable feedstocks found its way in white biotechnology, complementing more and more traditional crude oil-based chemical processes. Rational strain design of appropriate microorganisms has become possible due to steadily increasing knowledge on metabolism and pathway regulation of industrially relevant organisms and, aside from process engineering and optimization, has an outstanding impact on improving the performance of such hosts. Corynebacterium glutamicum is well known as workhorse for the industrial production of numerous amino acids. However, recent studies also explored the usefulness of this organism for the production of several organic acids and great efforts have been made for improvement of the performance. This review summarizes the current knowledge and recent achievements on metabolic engineering approaches to tailor C. glutamicum for the bio-based production of organic acids. We focus here on the fermentative production of pyruvate, L- and D-lactate, 2-ketoisovalerate, 2-ketoglutarate, and succinate. These organic acids represent a class of compounds with manifold application ranges, e.g. in pharmaceutical and cosmetics industry, as food additives, and economically very interesting, as precursors for a variety of bulk chemicals and commercially important polymers. PMID:23199277

  17. Bio-based production of organic acids with Corynebacterium glutamicum.

    PubMed

    Wieschalka, Stefan; Blombach, Bastian; Bott, Michael; Eikmanns, Bernhard J

    2013-03-01

    The shortage of oil resources, the steadily rising oil prices and the impact of its use on the environment evokes an increasing political, industrial and technical interest for development of safe and efficient processes for the production of chemicals from renewable biomass. Thus, microbial fermentation of renewable feedstocks found its way in white biotechnology, complementing more and more traditional crude oil-based chemical processes. Rational strain design of appropriate microorganisms has become possible due to steadily increasing knowledge on metabolism and pathway regulation of industrially relevant organisms and, aside from process engineering and optimization, has an outstanding impact on improving the performance of such hosts. Corynebacterium glutamicum is well known as workhorse for the industrial production of numerous amino acids. However, recent studies also explored the usefulness of this organism for the production of several organic acids and great efforts have been made for improvement of the performance. This review summarizes the current knowledge and recent achievements on metabolic engineering approaches to tailor C. glutamicum for the bio-based production of organic acids. We focus here on the fermentative production of pyruvate, L- and D-lactate, 2-ketoisovalerate, 2-ketoglutarate, and succinate. These organic acids represent a class of compounds with manifold application ranges, e.g. in pharmaceutical and cosmetics industry, as food additives, and economically very interesting, as precursors for a variety of bulk chemicals and commercially important polymers.

  18. Phenolic compounds, organic acids and antioxidant activity of grape juices produced in industrial scale by different processes of maceration.

    PubMed

    Lima, Marcos dos Santos; da Conceição Prudêncio Dutra, Maria; Toaldo, Isabela Maia; Corrêa, Luiz Claudio; Pereira, Giuliano Elias; de Oliveira, Débora; Bordignon-Luiz, Marilde Terezinha; Ninow, Jorge Luiz

    2015-12-01

    The effect of maceration process on the profile of phenolic compounds, organic acids composition and antioxidant activity of grape juices from new varieties of Vitis labrusca L. obtained in industrial scale was investigated. The extraction process presented a high yield without pressing the grapes. The use of a commercial pectinase resulted in an increase on extraction yield and procyanidins B1 and B2 concentrations and a decrease on turbidity and concentration of catechins. The combination of 60 °C and 3.0 mL 100 kg(-1) of enzyme resulted in the highest extraction of phenolic compounds, reducing the content of acetic acid. The juices presented high antioxidant activity, related to the great concentration of malvidin, cyanidin, catechin and caffeic, cinnamic and gallic acids. Among the bioactive compounds, the juices presented high concentration of procyanidin B1, caffeic acid and trans-resveratrol, with higher levels compared to those reported in the literature.

  19. Finished leather waste chromium acid extraction and anaerobic biodegradation of the products.

    PubMed

    Ferreira, Maria J; Almeida, Manuel F; Pinho, Sílvia C; Santos, Isabel C

    2010-06-01

    Due to the amounts of chromium in the leachate resulting from leather leaching tests, chromium sulfate tanned leather wastes are very often considered hazardous wastes. To overcome this problem, one option could be recovering the chromium and, consequently, lowering its content in the leather scrap. With this objective, chromium leather scrap was leached with sulfuric acid solutions at low temperature also aiming at maximizing chromium removal with minimum attack of the leather matrix. The effects of leather scrap dimension, sulfuric acid and sodium sulfate concentration in the solutions, as well as extraction time and temperature on chromium recovery were studied, and, additionally, organic matrix degradation was evaluated. The best conditions found for chromium recovery were leather scrap conditioning using 25mL of concentrated H(2)SO(4)/L solution at 293 or 313K during 3 or 6days. Under such conditions, 30-60+/-5% of chromium was recovered and as low as 3-6+/-1% of the leather total organic carbon (TOC) was dissolved. Using such treatment, the leather scrap area and volume are reduced and the residue is a more brittle material showing enhanced anaerobic biodegradability. Although good recovery results were achieved, due to the fact that the amount of chromium in eluate exceeded the threshold value this waste was still hazardous. Thus, it needs to be methodically washed in order to remove all the chromium de-linked from collagen.

  20. Structure of seven organic salts assembled from 2,6-diaminopyridine with monocarboxylic acids, dicarboxylic acids, and tetracarboxylic acids

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gao, Xingjun; Zhang, Huan; Wen, Xianhong; Liu, Bin; Jin, Shouwen; Wang, Daqi

    2015-08-01

    Studies concentrating on non-covalent interactions between the organic base of 2,6-diaminopyridine, and carboxylic acids have led to an increased understanding of the role 2,6-diaminopyridine in binding with carboxylic acid derivatives. Here anhydrous and hydrated multi-component organic acid-base salts of 2,6-diaminopyridine have been prepared with the carboxylic acids as nicotinic acid, o-chlorobenzoic acid, 1,3-benzodioxole-5-carboxylic acid, 3,5-dinitrosalicylic acid, 4-nitro-phthalic acid, 1,4-cyclohexanedicarboxylic acid, and butane-1,2,3,4-tetracarboxylic acid. The seven crystalline compounds were characterized by X-ray diffraction analysis, infrared (IR), melting point (mp), and elemental analysis. All structures adopted the hetero R22(8) supramolecular synthons. The supramolecular architectures bear extensive Nsbnd H⋯N, Osbnd H⋯N, Osbnd H⋯O, Nsbnd H⋯O, and CH⋯O associations as well as other nonbonding contacts as CHsbnd N, CH2sbnd O, π-π, C-π, O-π, Cl-π, Clsbnd O, and Osbnd O interactions. The role of weak and strong hydrogen bonding in the crystal packing is ascertained.

  1. [Simultaneous separation of organic acid and organic salts by electrostatic ion chromatography].

    PubMed

    Shen, G J; Yang, R F; Yu, A M

    2001-09-01

    The electrostatic ion chromatographic column was prepared by coating conjugated acid salt micelles on the surface of octadecyl silica stationary phase. Pure water was used as mobile phase, and the conductance detector was connected on-line to electrostatic ion chromatograph. The conditions under which organic acid and organic salts were detected were studied. The mechanism for the above separation is discussed. Sodium benzoate and citric acid in Lichee drink were separated and determined. This method is rapid, simple with little interference and good reproducibility without any pollution since the mobile phase is water. This is an environmental friendly analytical method. PMID:12545440

  2. Anti-inflammatory, analgesic and anti-oedematous effects of Lafoensia pacari extract and ellagic acid.

    PubMed

    Rogerio, Alexandre P; Fontanari, Caroline; Melo, Mirian C C; Ambrosio, Sérgio R; de Souza, Glória E P; Pereira, Paulo S; França, Suzelei C; da Costa, Fernando B; Albuquerque, Deijanira A; Faccioli, Lúcia H

    2006-09-01

    Lafoensia pacari St. Hil. (Lythraceae) is used in traditional medicine to treat inflammation. Previously, we demonstrated the anti-inflammatory effect that the ethanolic extract of L. pacari has in Toxocara canis infection (a model of systemic eosinophilia). In this study, we tested the anti-inflammatory activity of the same L. pacari extract in mice injected intraperitoneally with beta-glucan present in fraction 1 (F1) of the Histoplasma capsulatum cell wall (a model of acute eosinophilic inflammation). We also determined the anti-oedematous, analgesic and anti-pyretic effects of L. pacari extract in carrageenan-induced paw oedema, acetic acid writhing and LPS-induced fever, respectively. L. pacari extract significantly inhibited leucocyte recruitment into the peritoneal cavity induced by beta-glucan. In addition, the L. pacari extract presented significant analgesic, anti-oedematous and anti-pyretic effects. Bioassay-guided fractionation of the L. pacari extract in the F1 model led us to identify ellagic acid. As did the extract, ellagic acid presented anti-inflammatory, anti-oedematous and analgesic effects. However, ellagic acid had no anti-pyretic effect, suggesting that other compounds present in the plant stem are responsible for this effect. Nevertheless, our results demonstrate potential therapeutic effects of L. pacari extract and ellagic acid, providing new prospects for the development of drugs to treat pain, oedema and inflammation. PMID:16945186

  3. 9 CFR 94.3 - Organs, glands, extracts, or secretions of ruminants or swine.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... secretions of ruminants or swine. 94.3 Section 94.3 Animals and Animal Products ANIMAL AND PLANT HEALTH... RESTRICTED IMPORTATIONS § 94.3 Organs, glands, extracts, or secretions of ruminants or swine. The importation of fresh (chilled or frozen) organs, glands, extracts, or secretions derived from ruminants or...

  4. 9 CFR 94.3 - Organs, glands, extracts, or secretions of ruminants or swine.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... secretions of ruminants or swine. 94.3 Section 94.3 Animals and Animal Products ANIMAL AND PLANT HEALTH... RESTRICTED IMPORTATIONS § 94.3 Organs, glands, extracts, or secretions of ruminants or swine. The importation of fresh (chilled or frozen) organs, glands, extracts, or secretions derived from ruminants or...

  5. 9 CFR 94.3 - Organs, glands, extracts, or secretions of ruminants or swine.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... secretions of ruminants or swine. 94.3 Section 94.3 Animals and Animal Products ANIMAL AND PLANT HEALTH... RESTRICTED IMPORTATIONS § 94.3 Organs, glands, extracts, or secretions of ruminants or swine. The importation of fresh (chilled or frozen) organs, glands, extracts, or secretions derived from ruminants or...

  6. 9 CFR 94.3 - Organs, glands, extracts, or secretions of ruminants or swine.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... secretions of ruminants or swine. 94.3 Section 94.3 Animals and Animal Products ANIMAL AND PLANT HEALTH... RESTRICTED IMPORTATIONS § 94.3 Organs, glands, extracts, or secretions of ruminants or swine. The importation of fresh (chilled or frozen) organs, glands, extracts, or secretions derived from ruminants or...

  7. Acid rain effects on aluminum mobilization clarified by inclusion of strong organic acids.

    PubMed

    Lawrence, G B; Sutherland, J W; Boylen, C W; Nierzwicki-Bauer, S W; Momen, B; Baldigo, B P; Simonin, H A

    2007-01-01

    Assessments of acidic deposition effects on aquatic ecosystems have often been hindered by complications from naturally occurring organic acidity. Measurements of pH and ANCG, the most commonly used indicators of chemical effects, can be substantially influenced by the presence of organic acids. Relationships between pH and inorganic Al, which is toxic to many forms of aquatic biota, are also altered by organic acids. However, when inorganic Al concentrations are plotted against ANC (the sum of Ca2+, Mg2+, Na+, and K+, minus S042-, N03-, and Cl-), a distinct threshold for Al mobilization becomes apparent. If the concentration of strong organic anions is included as a negative component of ANC, the threshold occurs at an ANC value of approximately zero, the value expected from theoretical charge balance constraints. This adjusted ANC is termed the base-cation surplus. The threshold relationship between the base-cation surplus and Al was shown with data from approximately 200 streams in the Adirondack region of New York, during periods with low and high dissolved organic carbon concentrations, and for an additional stream from the Catskill region of New York. These results indicate that (1) strong organic anions can contribute to the mobilization of inorganic Al in combination with SO42- and N03-, and (2) the presence of inorganic Al in surface waters is an unambiguous indication of acidic deposition effects.

  8. Acid rain effects on aluminum mobilization clarified by inclusion of strong organic acids

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Lawrence, G.B.; Sutherland, J.W.; Boylen, C.W.; Nierzwicki-Bauer, S. W.; Momen, B.; Baldigo, Barry P.; Simonin, H.A.

    2007-01-01

    Assessments of acidic deposition effects on aquatic ecosystems have often been hindered by complications from naturally occurring organic acidity. Measurements of pH and ANCG, the most commonly used indicators of chemical effects, can be substantially influenced by the presence of organic acids. Relationships between pH and inorganic Al, which is toxic to many forms of aquatic biota, are also altered by organic acids. However, when inorganic Al concentrations are plotted against ANC (the sum of Ca2+, Mg 2+, Na+, and K+, minus SO42-, NO3-, and Cl-), a distinct threshold for Al mobilization becomes apparent. If the concentration of strong organic anions is included as a negative component of ANC, the threshold occurs at an ANC value of approximately zero, the value expected from theoretical charge balance constraints. This adjusted ANC is termed the base-cation surplus. The threshold relationship between the base-cation surplus and Al was shown with data from approximately 200 streams in the Adirondack region of New York, during periods with low and high dissolved organic carbon concentrations, and for an additional stream from the Catskill region of New York. These results indicate that (1) strong organic anions can contribute to the mobilization of inorganic Al in combination with SO42- and NO 3-, and (2) the presence of inorganic Al in surface waters is an unambiguous indication of acidic deposition effects. ?? 2007 American Chemical Society.

  9. Acid rain effects on aluminum mobilization clarified by inclusion of strong organic acids.

    PubMed

    Lawrence, G B; Sutherland, J W; Boylen, C W; Nierzwicki-Bauer, S W; Momen, B; Baldigo, B P; Simonin, H A

    2007-01-01

    Assessments of acidic deposition effects on aquatic ecosystems have often been hindered by complications from naturally occurring organic acidity. Measurements of pH and ANCG, the most commonly used indicators of chemical effects, can be substantially influenced by the presence of organic acids. Relationships between pH and inorganic Al, which is toxic to many forms of aquatic biota, are also altered by organic acids. However, when inorganic Al concentrations are plotted against ANC (the sum of Ca2+, Mg2+, Na+, and K+, minus S042-, N03-, and Cl-), a distinct threshold for Al mobilization becomes apparent. If the concentration of strong organic anions is included as a negative component of ANC, the threshold occurs at an ANC value of approximately zero, the value expected from theoretical charge balance constraints. This adjusted ANC is termed the base-cation surplus. The threshold relationship between the base-cation surplus and Al was shown with data from approximately 200 streams in the Adirondack region of New York, during periods with low and high dissolved organic carbon concentrations, and for an additional stream from the Catskill region of New York. These results indicate that (1) strong organic anions can contribute to the mobilization of inorganic Al in combination with SO42- and N03-, and (2) the presence of inorganic Al in surface waters is an unambiguous indication of acidic deposition effects. PMID:17265932

  10. Formation of Organic Tracers for Isoprene SOA under Acidic Conditions

    EPA Science Inventory

    The chemical compositions of a series of secondary organic aerosol (SOA) samples, formed by irradiating mixtures of isoprene and NO in a smog chamber in the absence or presence of acidic aerosols, were analyzed using derivatization-based GC-MS methods. In addition to the known is...

  11. Isolation of organic acids from large volumes of water by adsorption on macroporous resins

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Aiken, George R.; Suffet, I.H.; Malaiyandi, Murugan

    1987-01-01

    Adsorption on synthetic macroporous resins, such as the Amberlite XAD series and Duolite A-7, is routinely used to isolate and concentrate organic acids from forge volumes of water. Samples as large as 24,500 L have been processed on site by using these resins. Two established extraction schemes using XAD-8 and Duolite A-7 resins are described. The choice of the appropriate resin and extraction scheme is dependent on the organic solutes of interest. The factors that affect resin performance, selectivity, and capacity for a particular solute are solution pH, resin surface area and pore size, and resin composition. The logistical problems of sample handling, filtration, and preservation are also discussed.

  12. Indoor air chemistry: Formation of organic acids and aldehydes

    SciTech Connect

    Zhang, J.; Lioy, P.J. ||; Wilson, W.E.

    1994-12-31

    Laying emphasis on the formation of aldehydes and organic acids, the study has examined the gas-phase reactions of ozone with unsaturated VOCs. The formation of formaldehyde and formic acid was observed for all the three selected unsaturated VOCs: styrene, limonene, and 4-vinylcyclohexene. In addition, benzaldehyde was detected in the styrene-ozone-air reaction system, and acetic acid was also found in limonene-ozone-air system. The study has also examined the gas-phase reactions among formaldehyde, ozone, and nitrogen dioxide and found the formation of formic acid. The nitrate radical was suggested to play an important role in converting formaldehyde into formic acid. Experiments for all the reactions were conducted by using a 4.3 m{sup 3} Teflon chamber. Since the conditions for the reactions were similar to those for indoor environments, the results from the study can be implicated to real indoor situations and can be employed to support the findings and suggestions from the previous studies: certain aldehydes and organic acids could be generated by indoor chemistry.

  13. Seasonal variation of solvent extractable organic compounds in the aerosols in Qingdao, China

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Guo, Z. G.; Sheng, L. F.; Feng, J. L.; Fang, Ming

    The solvent extractable organic compounds in 22 seasonal total suspended particulate samples collected in Qingdao, China during June 2001-May 2002 were analyzed using gas chromatograph/mass-selective detector. Included in these samples were three from Asian dust episodes. The characteristics and abundance of the n-alkanes, polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons and fatty acids were determined. Distinct seasonal variations were detected in the Qingdao samples. The n-alkanes were found to contain substantial amounts of petroleum residues (56.0% in summer, 64.4% in fall, 77.6% in spring and 81.5% in winter). The winter polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) were from combustion sources including coal burning for space-heating and the average PAH yield was 14.4 times higher than that in summer. The acid fraction and they constituted 72.8%, 81.9%, 86.9% and 92.6% of the winter, spring, fall and summer samples, respectively. The three Asian dust episode samples possessed characteristics typical of long-distance transport samples with Cmax at C 29 and C 31 and relatively high carbon preference index values (l.85-2.37) for the alkanes, and high plant wax content (38.7-45.5%) in the fatty acids even though the total yields were not substantially larger.

  14. Antimutagenic and antioxidant properties of the aqueous extracts of organic and conventional grapevine Vitis labrusca cv. Isabella leaves in V79 cells.

    PubMed

    Trindade, Cristiano; Bortolini, Giovana Vera; Costa, Bárbara Segalotto; Anghinoni, Joanna Carra; Guecheva, Temenouga Nikolova; Arias, Ximena; Césio, Maria Verónica; Heinzen, Horácio; Moura, Dinara Jaqueline; Saffi, Jenifer; Salvador, Mirian; Henriques, João Antonio Pêgas

    2016-01-01

    Grapes are one of the most commonly consumed fruit, in both fresh and processed forms; however, a significant amount is disposed of in the environment. Searching for a use of this waste, the antigenotoxic, antimutagenic, and antioxidant activities of aqueous extracts from organic and conventional Vitis labrusca leaves were determined using V79 cells as model. The antigenotoxic activity was analyzed by the alkaline comet assay using endonuclease III and formamidopyrimidine DNA glycosylase enzymes. The antimutagenic property was assessed through the micronucleus (MN) formation, and antioxidant activities were assessed using 2',7'-dichlorodihydrofluorescin diacetate (DCFH-DA) assay and 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH(●)) radical scavenging, as well as with superoxide dismutase (SOD) and catalase (CAT) activity assays. In addition, phenolic content and ascorbic acid levels of both extracts were determined. Data showed that both organic and conventional grapevine leaves extracts possessed antigenotoxic and antimutagenic properties. The extract of organic leaves significantly reduced intracellular reactive oxygen species (ROS) levels in V79 cells, and displayed greater ability for DPPH(●) scavenging and higher SOD and CAT activities than extract from conventional leaves. Further, the extract from organic leaves contained higher phenolic and ascorbic acid concentrations. In summary, extracts from organic and conventional grape leaves induced important in vitro biological effects. PMID:27587288

  15. Antimutagenic and antioxidant properties of the aqueous extracts of organic and conventional grapevine Vitis labrusca cv. Isabella leaves in V79 cells.

    PubMed

    Trindade, Cristiano; Bortolini, Giovana Vera; Costa, Bárbara Segalotto; Anghinoni, Joanna Carra; Guecheva, Temenouga Nikolova; Arias, Ximena; Césio, Maria Verónica; Heinzen, Horácio; Moura, Dinara Jaqueline; Saffi, Jenifer; Salvador, Mirian; Henriques, João Antonio Pêgas

    2016-01-01

    Grapes are one of the most commonly consumed fruit, in both fresh and processed forms; however, a significant amount is disposed of in the environment. Searching for a use of this waste, the antigenotoxic, antimutagenic, and antioxidant activities of aqueous extracts from organic and conventional Vitis labrusca leaves were determined using V79 cells as model. The antigenotoxic activity was analyzed by the alkaline comet assay using endonuclease III and formamidopyrimidine DNA glycosylase enzymes. The antimutagenic property was assessed through the micronucleus (MN) formation, and antioxidant activities were assessed using 2',7'-dichlorodihydrofluorescin diacetate (DCFH-DA) assay and 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH(●)) radical scavenging, as well as with superoxide dismutase (SOD) and catalase (CAT) activity assays. In addition, phenolic content and ascorbic acid levels of both extracts were determined. Data showed that both organic and conventional grapevine leaves extracts possessed antigenotoxic and antimutagenic properties. The extract of organic leaves significantly reduced intracellular reactive oxygen species (ROS) levels in V79 cells, and displayed greater ability for DPPH(●) scavenging and higher SOD and CAT activities than extract from conventional leaves. Further, the extract from organic leaves contained higher phenolic and ascorbic acid concentrations. In summary, extracts from organic and conventional grape leaves induced important in vitro biological effects.

  16. The abiotic degradation of soil organic matter to oxalic acid

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Studenroth, Sabine; Huber, Stefan; Schöler, H. F.

    2010-05-01

    The abiotic degradation of soil organic matter to volatile organic compounds was studied intensely over the last years (Keppler et al., 2000; Huber et al., 2009). It was shown that soil organic matter is oxidised due to the presence of iron (III), hydrogen peroxide and chloride and thereby produces diverse alkyl halides, which are emitted into the atmosphere. The formation of polar halogenated compounds like chlorinated acetic acids which are relevant toxic environmental substances was also found in soils and sediments (Kilian et al., 2002). The investigation of the formation of other polar halogenated and non-halogenated compounds like diverse mono- and dicarboxylic acids is going to attain more and more importance. Due to its high acidity oxalic acid might have impacts on the environment e.g., nutrient leaching, plant diseases and negative influence on microbial growth. In this study, the abiotic formation of oxalic acid in soil is examined. For a better understanding of natural degradation processes mechanistic studies were conducted using the model compound catechol as representative for structural elements of the humic substances and its reaction with iron (III) and hydrogen peroxide. Iron is one of the most abundant elements on earth and hydrogen peroxide is produced by bacteria or through incomplete reduction of oxygen. To find suitable parameters for an optimal reaction and a qualitative and quantitative analysis method the following reaction parameters are varied: concentration of iron (III) and hydrogen peroxide, time dependence, pH-value and influence of chloride. Analysis of oxalic acid was performed employing an ion chromatograph equipped with a conductivity detector. The time dependent reaction shows a relatively fast formation of oxalic acid, the optimum yield is achieved after 60 minutes. Compared to the concentration of catechol an excess of hydrogen peroxide as well as a low concentration of iron (III) are required. In absence of chloride the

  17. Effect of Extraction Conditions on the Saccharide (Neutral and Acidic) Composition of the Crude Pectic Extract from Various Agro-Industrial Residues.

    PubMed

    Babbar, Neha; Roy, Sandra Van; Wijnants, Marc; Dejonghe, Winnie; Caligiani, Augusta; Sforza, Stefano; Elst, Kathy

    2016-01-13

    The influence of different extraction methodologies was assessed on the composition of both neutral (arabinose, rhamnose, galactose) and acidic (galacturonic acid) pectic polysaccharides obtained from four agro-industrial residues, namely, berry pomace (BP), onion hulls (OH), pressed pumpkin (PP), and sugar beet pulp (SBP). For acidic pectic polysaccharides, the extraction efficiency was obtained as BP (nitric acid-assisted extraction, 2 h, 62.9%), PP (enzymatic-assisted extraction, 12 h, 75.0%), SBP (enzymatic-assisted extraction, 48 h, 89.8%; and nitric acid-assisted extraction, 4 h, 76.5%), and OH (sodium hexametaphosphate-assisted extraction, 0.5 h, 100%; and ammonium oxalate-assisted extraction, 0.5 h, 100%). For neutral pectic polysaccharides, the following results were achieved: BP (enzymatic-assisted extraction, 24 h, 85.9%), PP (nitric acid-assisted extraction, 6 h, 82.2%), and SBP (enzymatic assisted extraction, 48 h, 97.5%; and nitric acid-assisted extraction, 4 h, 83.2%). On the basis of the high recovery of pectic sugars, SBP and OH are interesting candidates for the further purification of pectin and production of pectin-derived products.

  18. Extraction of gallium(III) from hydrochloric acid solutions by trioctylammonium-based mixed ionic liquids.

    PubMed

    Katsuta, Shoichi; Okai, Miho; Yoshimoto, Yuki; Kudo, Yoshihiro

    2012-01-01

    The extractabilities of aluminium(III), gallium(III), and indium(III) from hydrochloric acid solutions were investigated using a mixture of two protic ionic liquids, trioctylammonium bis(trifluoromethanesulfonyl)amide ([TOAH][NTf(2)]) and trioctylammonium nitrate ([TOAH][NO(3)]). At a HCl concentration of 4 mol L(-1) or more, gallium(III) was nearly quantitatively extracted and the extractability order was Ga > Al > In. The extractability of gallium(III) increased with increasing [TOAH][NO(3)] content in the mixed ionic liquid. The extracted gallium(III) was quantitatively stripped with aqueous nitric acid solutions. The separation and recovery of gallium(III) from hydrochloric acid solutions containing excess indium(III) was demonstrated using the mixed ionic liquid.

  19. Liquid-phase extraction coupled with metal-organic frameworks-based dispersive solid phase extraction of herbicides in peanuts.

    PubMed

    Li, Na; Wang, Zhibing; Zhang, Liyuan; Nian, Li; Lei, Lei; Yang, Xiao; Zhang, Hanqi; Yu, Aimin

    2014-10-01

    Liquid-phase extraction coupled with metal-organic frameworks-based dispersive solid phase extraction was developed and applied to the extraction of pesticides in high fatty matrices. The herbicides were ultrasonically extracted from peanut using ethyl acetate as extraction solvent. The separation of the analytes from a large amount of co-extractive fat was achieved by dispersive solid-phase extraction using MIL-101(Cr) as sorbent. In this step, the analytes were adsorbed on MIL-101(Cr) and the fat remained in bulk. The herbicides were separated and determined by high-performance liquid chromatography. The experimental parameters, including type and volume of extraction solvent, ultrasonication time, volume of hexane and eluting solvent, amount of MIL-101(Cr) and dispersive solid phase extraction time, were optimized. The limits of detection for herbicides range from 0.98 to 1.9 μg/kg. The recoveries of the herbicides are in the range of 89.5-102.7% and relative standard deviations are equal or lower than 7.0%. The proposed method is simple, effective and suitable for treatment of the samples containing high content of fat.

  20. Rapid simultaneous determination of amines and organic acids in citrus using high-performance liquid chromatography.

    PubMed

    Uckoo, Ram M; Jayaprakasha, Guddadarangavvanahally K; Nelson, Shad D; Patil, Bhimanagouda S

    2011-01-15

    Rapid analytical method for the simultaneous separation and determination of amines and organic acids is a vital interest for quality control of citrus and their products. In the present study, a simultaneous high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) method for the rapid separation of three amines and two organic acids was developed. Chromatographic separation of compounds was achieved using Xbridge C(18) column at ambient temperature, with an isocratic mobile phase of 3mM phosphoric acid at a flow rate of 1.0 mL min(-1). A photodiode array (PDA) detector was used to monitor the eluent at 223 nm and 254 nm with a total analysis time of 10 min. Extraction of amines and organic acids from citrus juice was optimized. The method was validated by tests of linearity, recovery, precision and ruggedness. The limit of detection (LOD) and limit of quantification (LOQ) for amines and ascorbic acid were determined to be 5 ng and 9.8 ng, respectively. All calibration curves showed good linearity (R(2) ≥ 0.9999) within the test ranges. The recoveries of the amines and organic acids ranged between 84% and 117%. The identity of each peak was confirmed by mass spectral (MS) analysis. The developed method was successfully applied to analyze the content of amines and organic acids in six different species and two varieties of citrus. Results indicate that mandarin and Marrs sweet orange contain high level of amines, while pummelo and Rio Red grapefruit had high content of ascorbic acid (137-251 μg mL(-1)) and citric acid (5-22 mg mL(-1)). Synephrine was the major amine present in Clementine (114 μg mL(-1)) and Marrs sweet orange (85 μg mL(-1)). To the best of our knowledge, this is the first report on simultaneous separation and quantification of amines and organic acids in Marrs sweet orange, Meyer lemon, Nova tangerine, Clementine, Ugli tangelo and Wekiwa tangelo.

  1. Extraction of Zr(IV) from hydrochloric acid with tri-octyl amine and Cyanex 921 in kerosene

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bhatta, Bhikari Charan; Panda, Nandita; Mishra, Sujata

    2013-09-01

    This article reports the extraction of zirconium (IV) from aqueous HCl solution by tri-octyl amine (TOA), Cyanex 921, and their binary mixture using kerosene as the diluent. The effect of some parameters on the extraction of Zr(IV) was investigated such as equilibration time, aqueous phase acidity, extractant molarity, chloride ion concentration, nature of diluents, and temperature. The extraction of Zr(IV) was found to be 99% from 7.5 M HCl using the mixture of extractants containing 0.1 M TOA and 0.02 M Cyanex 921 in kerosene. Kerosene was found to be the effective diluent for the extraction of Zr(IV) with the binary mixture of TOA and Cyanex 921. The positive enthalpy change and positive entropy change in the binary extraction system show the endothermic process with an increase in entropy. Stripping of Zr(IV) from the loaded organic phase containing the mixture of TOA (0.1 M) and Cyanex 921 (0.02 M) indicates that HNO3 and Na2CO3 are the best stripping agents.

  2. Ultrasound-assisted extraction and preliminary purification of proanthocyanidins and chlorogenic acid from almond (Prunus dulcis) skin.

    PubMed

    Ma, Xue; Zhou, Xin-Yu; Qiang, Qian-Qian; Zhang, Zhi-Qi

    2014-07-01

    An aqueous solution of polyethylene glycol (PEG) as a green solvent was employed for the first time to develop the ultrasound-assisted extraction of proanthocyanidins (PA) and chlorogenic acid (CA) from almond skin. The optimized extraction parameters were determined based on response surface methodology, and corresponded to an ultrasound power of 120 W, a liquid-to-solid ratio of 20:1 (mL/g), and a PEG concentration of 50% (v/v). Under these optimized conditions, the extraction yields of PAs and CA from almond skin were 32.68 ± 0.22 and 16.01 ± 0.19 mg/g, respectively. Compared with organic solvent extraction, PEG solution extraction produced higher yields. Different macroporous resins were compared for their performance in purifying PAs and CA from almond skin extract. Static adsorption/desorption experimental results demonstrated that AB-8 resin exhibits excellent purification performance at pH 4. Under the optimized dynamic adsorption/desorption conditions on the AB-8 column, the total recovery of purification for PAs and CA was 80.67%. The total content of PAs and CA in the preliminarily purified extract was 89.17% (with respective contents of 60.90 and 28.27%).

  3. Ultrasound-assisted extraction and preliminary purification of proanthocyanidins and chlorogenic acid from almond (Prunus dulcis) skin.

    PubMed

    Ma, Xue; Zhou, Xin-Yu; Qiang, Qian-Qian; Zhang, Zhi-Qi

    2014-07-01

    An aqueous solution of polyethylene glycol (PEG) as a green solvent was employed for the first time to develop the ultrasound-assisted extraction of proanthocyanidins (PA) and chlorogenic acid (CA) from almond skin. The optimized extraction parameters were determined based on response surface methodology, and corresponded to an ultrasound power of 120 W, a liquid-to-solid ratio of 20:1 (mL/g), and a PEG concentration of 50% (v/v). Under these optimized conditions, the extraction yields of PAs and CA from almond skin were 32.68 ± 0.22 and 16.01 ± 0.19 mg/g, respectively. Compared with organic solvent extraction, PEG solution extraction produced higher yields. Different macroporous resins were compared for their performance in purifying PAs and CA from almond skin extract. Static adsorption/desorption experimental results demonstrated that AB-8 resin exhibits excellent purification performance at pH 4. Under the optimized dynamic adsorption/desorption conditions on the AB-8 column, the total recovery of purification for PAs and CA was 80.67%. The total content of PAs and CA in the preliminarily purified extract was 89.17% (with respective contents of 60.90 and 28.27%). PMID:24777956

  4. Simultaneous Separation of Manganese, Cobalt, and Nickel by the Organic-Aqueous-Aqueous Three-Phase Solvent Extraction

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shirayama, Sakae; Uda, Tetsuya

    2016-04-01

    This research outlines an organic-aqueous-aqueous three-phase solvent extraction method and proposes its use in a new metal separation process for the recycling of manganese (Mn), cobalt (Co), and nickel (Ni) from used lithium ion batteries (LIBs). The three-phase system was formed by mixing xylene organic solution, 50 pct polyethylene glycol (PEG) aqueous solution, and 1 mol L-1 sodium sulfate (Na2SO4) aqueous solution. The xylene organic solution contained 2-ethylhexylphosphonic acid (D2EHPA) as an extractant for Mn ion, and the Na2SO4 aqueous solution contained 1 mol L-1 potassium thiocyanate (KSCN) as an extractant for Co ion. Concentrations of the metal ions were varied by dissolving metal sulfates in the Na2SO4 aqueous solution. As a result of the experiments, Mn, Co, and Ni ions were distributed in the xylene organic phase, PEG-rich aqueous phase, and Na2SO4-rich aqueous phase, respectively. The separation was effective when the pH value was around 4. Numerical simulation was also conducted in order to predict the distribution of metal ions after the multi-stage counter-current extractions.

  5. Organic Analysis in the Miller Range 090657 CR2 Chondrite: Part 2 Amino Acid Analyses

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Burton, A. S.; Cao, T.; Nakamura-Messenger, K.; Berger, E. L.; Messenger, S.; Clemett, S. J.; Aponte, J. C.; Elsila, J. E.

    2016-01-01

    Primitive carbonaceous chondrites contain a wide variety of organic material, ranging from soluble discrete molecules to insoluble, unstructured kerogen-like components, as well as structured nano-globules of macromolecular carbon. The relationship between the soluble organic molecules, macromolecular organic material, and host minerals are poorly understood. Due to the differences in extractability of soluble and insoluble organic materials, the analysis methods for each differ and are often performed independently. The combination of soluble and insoluble analyses, when performed concurrently, can provide a wider understanding of spatial distribution, and elemental, structural and isotopic composition of organic material in primitive meteorites. Using macroscale extraction and analysis techniques in combination with in situ microscale observation, we have been studying both insoluble and soluble organic material in the primitive CR2 chondrite Miller Range (MIL) 090657. In accompanying abstracts (Cao et al. and Messenger et al.) we discuss insoluble organic material in the samples. By performing the consortium studies, we aim to improve our understanding of the relationship between the meteorite minerals and the soluble and insoluble organic phases and to delineate which species formed within the meteorite and those that formed in nebular or presolar environments. In this abstract, we present the results of amino acid analyses of MIL 090657 by ultra performance liquid chromatography with fluorescence detection and quadrupole-time of flight mass spectrometry. Amino acids are of interest because they are essential to life on Earth, and because they are present in sufficient structural, enantiomeric and isotopic diversity to allow insights into early solar system chemical processes. Furthermore, these are among the most isotopically anomalous species, yet at least some fraction are thought to have formed by aqueously-mediated processes during parent body alteration.

  6. Degradation problems with the solvent extraction organic at Roessing uranium

    SciTech Connect

    Munyungano, Brodrick; Feather, Angus; Virnig, Michael

    2008-07-01

    Roessing Uranium Ltd recovers uranium from a low-grade ore in Namibia. Uranium is recovered and purified from an ion-exchange eluate in a solvent-extraction plant. The solvent-extraction plant uses Alamine 336 as the extractant for uranium, with isodecanol used as a phase modifier in Sasol SSX 210, an aliphatic hydrocarbon diluent. Since the plant started in the mid 1970's, there have been a few episodes where the tertiary amine has been quickly and severely degraded when the plant was operated outside certain operating parameters. The Rossing experience is discussed in more detail in this paper. (authors)

  7. Organic substances in produced and formation water from unconventional natural gas extraction in coal and shale

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Orem, William H.; Tatu, Calin A.; Varonka, Matthew S.; Lerch, Harry E.; Bates, Anne L.; Engle, Mark A.; Crosby, Lynn M.; McIntosh, Jennifer

    2014-01-01

    Organic substances in produced and formation water from coalbed methane (CBM) and gas shale plays from across the USA were examined in this study. Disposal of produced waters from gas extraction in coal and shale is an important environmental issue because of the large volumes of water involved and the variable quality of this water. Organic substances in produced water may be environmentally relevant as pollutants, but have been little studied. Results from five CBM plays and two gas shale plays (including the Marcellus Shale) show a myriad of organic chemicals present in the produced and formation water. Organic compound classes present in produced and formation water in CBM plays include: polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs), heterocyclic compounds, alkyl phenols, aromatic amines, alkyl aromatics (alkyl benzenes, alkyl biphenyls), long-chain fatty acids, and aliphatic hydrocarbons. Concentrations of individual compounds range from < 1 to 100 μg/L, but total PAHs (the dominant compound class for most CBM samples) range from 50 to 100 μg/L. Total dissolved organic carbon (TOC) in CBM produced water is generally in the 1–4 mg/L range. Excursions from this general pattern in produced waters from individual wells arise from contaminants introduced by production activities (oils, grease, adhesives, etc.). Organic substances in produced and formation water from gas shale unimpacted by production chemicals have a similar range of compound classes as CBM produced water, and TOC levels of about 8 mg/L. However, produced water from the Marcellus Shale using hydraulic fracturing has TOC levels as high as 5500 mg/L and a range of added organic chemicals including, solvents, biocides, scale inhibitors, and other organic chemicals at levels of 1000 s of μg/L for individual compounds. Levels of these hydraulic fracturing chemicals and TOC decrease rapidly over the first 20 days of water recovery and some level of residual organic contaminants remain up to 250 days after

  8. Investigation of extractable organic compounds in deep-sea hydrothermal vent fluids along the Mid-Atlantic Ridge

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    McCollom, Thomas M.; Seewald, Jeffrey S.; German, Christopher R.

    2015-05-01

    The possibility that deep-sea hydrothermal vents may contain organic compounds produced by abiotic synthesis or by microbial communities living deep beneath the surface has led to numerous studies of the organic composition of vent fluids. Most of these studies have focused on methane and other light hydrocarbons, while the possible occurrence of more complex organic compounds in the fluids has remained largely unstudied. To address this issue, the presence of higher molecular weight organic compounds in deep-sea hydrothermal fluids was assessed at three sites along the Mid-Atlantic Ridge that span a range of temperatures (51 to >360 °C), fluid compositions, and host-rock lithologies (mafic to ultramafic). Samples were obtained at several sites within the Lucky Strike, Rainbow, and Lost City hydrothermal fields. Three methods were employed to extract organic compounds for analysis, including liquid:liquid extraction, cold trapping on the walls of a coil of titanium tubing, and pumping fluids through cartridges filled with solid phase extraction (SPE) sorbents. The only samples to consistently yield high amounts of extractable organic compounds were the warm (51-91 °C), highly alkaline fluids from Lost City, which contained elevated concentrations of C8, C10, and C12n-alkanoic acids and, in some cases, trithiolane, hexadecanol, squalene, and cholesterol. Collectively, the C8-C12 acids can account for about 15% of the total dissolved organic carbon in the Lost City fluids. The even-carbon-number predominance of the alkanoic acids indicates a biological origin, but it is unclear whether these compounds are derived from microbial activity occurring within the hydrothermal chimney proximal to the site of fluid discharge or are transported from deeper within the system. Hydrothermal fluids from the Lucky Strike and Rainbow fields were characterized by an overall scarcity of extractable dissolved organic compounds. Trace amounts of aromatic hydrocarbons including

  9. Compositional similarities of non-solvent extractable fatty acids from recent marine sediments deposited in differing environments

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nishimura, Mitsugu; Baker, Earl W.

    1987-06-01

    Five recent sediment samples from a variety of North American continental shelves were analyzed for fatty acids (FAs) in the solvent-extractable (SOLEX) lipids as well as four types of non-solvent extractable (NONEX) lipids. The NONEX lipids were operationally defined by the succession of extraction procedure required to recover them. The complete procedure included (i) very mild acid treatment, (ii) HF digestion and (iii) saponification of the sediment residue following exhaustive solvent extraction. The distribution pattern and various compositional parameters of SOLEX FAs in the five sediments were divided into three different groups, indicating the difference of biological sources and also diagenetic factors and processes among the three groups of samples. Nevertheless, the compositions of the corresponding NONEX FAs after acid treatment were surprisingly very similar. This was also true for the remaining NONEX FA groups in the five sediment samples. The findings implied that most of the NONEX FAs reported here are derived directly from living organisms. It is also concluded that a large part of NONEX FAs are much more resistant to biodegradation than we have thought, so that they can form the large percentage of total lipids with increasing depth of water and sediments.

  10. Compositional similarities of non-solvent extractable fatty acids from recent marine sediments deposited in differing environments

    SciTech Connect

    Nishimura, M.; Baker, E.W.

    1987-06-01

    Five recent sediment samples from a variety of North American continental shelves were analyzed for fatty acids (FAs) in the solvent-extractable (SOLEX) lipids as well as four types of non-solvent extractable (NONEX) lipids. The NONEX lipids were operationally defined by the succession of extraction procedure required to recover them. The complete procedure included (i) very mild acid treatment, (ii) HF digestion and (iii) saponification of the sediment residue following exhaustive solvent extraction. The distribution pattern and various compositional parameters of SOLEX FAs in the five sediments were divided into three different groups, indicating the difference of biological sources and also diagenetic factors and processes among the three groups of samples. Nevertheless, the compositions of the corresponding NONEX FAs after acid treatment were surprisingly very similar. This was also true for the remaining NONEX FA groups in the five sediment samples. The findings implied that most of the NONEX FAs reported here are derived directly from living organisms. It is also concluded that a large part of NONEX FAs are much more resistant to biodegradation than the authors have thought, so that they can form the large percentage of total lipids with increasing depth of water and sediments.

  11. Review of methods used in lunar organic analysis - Extraction and hydrolysis techniques.

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kvenvolden, K. A.

    1972-01-01

    Extraction, hydrolysis, and crushing procedures have been useful in discovering some of the carbon compounds in lunar samples from the Apollo 11 and 12 missions. The nonaqueous solvent system used mostly in lunar sample work has been benzene:methanol. Two methods of extraction have been sonication and Soxhlet extraction, sonication appearing to be the preferred method. Extraction of lunar samples with water and acid hydrolysis of the water extract has proved to be the best method in the search for amino acids or their precursors. Direct acid hydrolysis of lunar samples provided evidence for the presence of carbides or carbide-like materials in lunar surface samples. Hydrolysis of lunar samples with DF, DC1, and NaOD has shown that methane and ethane are indigenous to the moon.

  12. Effects of phytic acid on peanut allergens and allergenic properties of extracts.

    PubMed

    Chung, Si-Yin; Champagne, Elaine T

    2007-10-31

    Phytic acid would form soluble and insoluble complexes with proteins. Our objective was to determine if phytic acid forms insoluble complexes with major peanut allergens, and if such reaction results in a peanut extract with a lower level of soluble allergens and allergenic property. Extracts from raw and roasted peanuts were treated with and without phytic acid at various pH values and then analyzed by SDS-PAGE and a competitive inhibition ELISA (ciELISA). The ciELISA measured IgE binding using a pooled serum from peanut-allergic individuals. Results showed that phytic acid formed complexes with the major peanut allergens (Ara h 1 and Ara h 2), which were insoluble in acidic and neutral conditions. Succinylation of the allergens inhibited complex formation, indicating that lysine residues were involved. A 6-fold reduction in IgE binding or allergenic potency of the extract was observed after treatment with phytic acid. It was concluded that phytic acid formed insoluble complexes with the major peanut allergens, and resulted in a peanut extract with reduced allergenic potency. Application of phytic acid to a peanut butter slurry presented a similar result, indicating that phytic acid may find use in the development of hypoallergenic peanut-based products.

  13. Nanofiltration, bipolar electrodialysis and reactive extraction hybrid system for separation of fumaric acid from fermentation broth.

    PubMed

    Prochaska, Krystyna; Staszak, Katarzyna; Woźniak-Budych, Marta Joanna; Regel-Rosocka, Magdalena; Adamczak, Michalina; Wiśniewski, Maciej; Staniewski, Jacek

    2014-09-01

    A novel approach based on a hybrid system allowing nanofiltration, bipolar electrodialysis and reactive extraction, was proposed to remove fumaric acid from fermentation broth left after bioconversion of glycerol. The fumaric salts can be concentrated in the nanofiltration process to a high yield (80-95% depending on pressure), fumaric acid can be selectively separated from other fermentation components, as well as sodium fumarate can be conversed into the acid form in bipolar electrodialysis process (stack consists of bipolar and anion-exchange membranes). Reactive extraction with quaternary ammonium chloride (Aliquat 336) or alkylphosphine oxides (Cyanex 923) solutions (yield between 60% and 98%) was applied as the final step for fumaric acid recovery from aqueous streams after the membrane techniques. The hybrid system permitting nanofiltration, bipolar electrodialysis and reactive extraction was found effective for recovery of fumaric acid from the fermentation broth.

  14. Influence of pasture-based feeding systems on fatty acids, organic acids and volatile organic flavour compounds in yoghurt.

    PubMed

    Akbaridoust, Ghazal; Plozza, Tim; Trenerry, V Craige; Wales, William J; Auldist, Martin J; Ajlouni, Said

    2015-08-01

    The influence of different pasture-based feeding systems on fatty acids, organic acids and volatile organic flavour compounds in yoghurt was studied. Pasture is the main source of nutrients for dairy cows in many parts of the world, including southeast Australia. Milk and milk products produced in these systems are known to contain a number of compounds with positive effects on human health. In the current study, 260 cows were fed supplementary grain and forage according to one of 3 different systems; Control (a traditional pasture based diet offered to the cows during milking and in paddock), PMR1 (a partial mixed ration which contained the same supplement as Control but was offered to the cows as a partial mixed ration on a feedpad), PMR 2 (a differently formulated partial mixed ration compared to Control and PMR1 which was offered to the cows on a feedpad). Most of the yoghurt fatty acids were influenced by feeding systems; however, those effects were minor on organic acids. The differences in feeding systems did not lead to the formation of different volatile organic flavour compounds in yoghurt. Yet, it did influence the relative abundance of these components. PMID:26143651

  15. Influence of pasture-based feeding systems on fatty acids, organic acids and volatile organic flavour compounds in yoghurt.

    PubMed

    Akbaridoust, Ghazal; Plozza, Tim; Trenerry, V Craige; Wales, William J; Auldist, Martin J; Ajlouni, Said

    2015-08-01

    The influence of different pasture-based feeding systems on fatty acids, organic acids and volatile organic flavour compounds in yoghurt was studied. Pasture is the main source of nutrients for dairy cows in many parts of the world, including southeast Australia. Milk and milk products produced in these systems are known to contain a number of compounds with positive effects on human health. In the current study, 260 cows were fed supplementary grain and forage according to one of 3 different systems; Control (a traditional pasture based diet offered to the cows during milking and in paddock), PMR1 (a partial mixed ration which contained the same supplement as Control but was offered to the cows as a partial mixed ration on a feedpad), PMR 2 (a differently formulated partial mixed ration compared to Control and PMR1 which was offered to the cows on a feedpad). Most of the yoghurt fatty acids were influenced by feeding systems; however, those effects were minor on organic acids. The differences in feeding systems did not lead to the formation of different volatile organic flavour compounds in yoghurt. Yet, it did influence the relative abundance of these components.

  16. Linking Laboratory Experiences to the Real World: The Extraction of Octylphenoxyacetic Acid from Water

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Loyo-Rosales, Jorge E.; Torrents, Alba; Rosales-Rivera, Georgina C.; Rice, Clifford C.

    2006-01-01

    Several chemical concepts to the extraction of a water pollutant OPC (octylphenoxyacetic acid) is presented. As an introduction to the laboratory experiment, a discussion on endocrine disrupters is conducted to familiarize the student with the background of the experiment and to explain the need for the extraction and quantitation of the OPC which…

  17. Some Antifungal Properties of Sorbic Acid Extracted from Berries of Rowan (Sorbus Aucuparia).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brunner, Ulrich

    1985-01-01

    The food preservative sorbic acid can be extracted from Eurasian mountain ash berries (commercially available) and used to show antifungal properties in microbiological investigations. Techniques for extraction, purification, ultraviolet analysis, and experiments displaying antifungal activity are described. A systematic search for similar…

  18. Effect of Psidium cattleianum leaf extract on Streptococcus mutans viability, protein expression and acid production.

    PubMed

    Brighenti, F L; Luppens, S B I; Delbem, A C B; Deng, D M; Hoogenkamp, M A; Gaetti-Jardim, E; Dekker, H L; Crielaard, W; ten Cate, J M

    2008-01-01

    Plants naturally produce secondary metabolites that can be used as antimicrobials. The aim of this study was to assess the effects of Psidium cattleianum leaf extract on Streptococcus mutans. The extract (100%) was obtained by decoction of 100 g of leaves in 600 ml of deionized water. To assess killing, S. mutans biofilms were treated with water (negative control) or various extract dilutions [100, 50, 25% (v/v) in water] for 5 or 60 min. To evaluate the effect on protein expression, biofilms were exposed to water or 1.6% (v/v) extract for 120 min, proteins were extracted and submitted to 2-dimensional difference gel electrophoresis. Differentially expressed proteins were identified by mass spectrometry. The effect of 1.6% (v/v) extract on acid production was determined by pH measurements and compared to a water control. Viability was similar after 5 min of treatment with the 100% extract or 60 min with the 50% extract (about 0.03% survival). There were no differences in viability between the biofilms exposed to the 25 or 50% extract after 60 min of treatment (about 0.02% survival). Treatment with the 1.6% extract significantly changed protein expression. The abundance of 24 spots was decreased compared to water (p < 0.05). The extract significantly inhibited acid production (p < 0.05). It is concluded that P. cattleianum leaf extract kills S. mutans grown in biofilms when applied at high concentrations. At low concentrations it inhibits S. mutans acid production and reduces the expression of proteins involved in general metabolism, glycolysis and lactic acid production.

  19. Organic acid modeling and model validation: Workshop summary

    SciTech Connect

    Sullivan, T.J.; Eilers, J.M.

    1992-08-14

    A workshop was held in Corvallis, Oregon on April 9--10, 1992 at the offices of E S Environmental Chemistry, Inc. The purpose of this workshop was to initiate research efforts on the entitled Incorporation of an organic acid representation into MAGIC (Model of Acidification of Groundwater in Catchments) and testing of the revised model using Independent data sources.'' The workshop was attended by a team of internationally-recognized experts in the fields of surface water acid-bass chemistry, organic acids, and watershed modeling. The rationale for the proposed research is based on the recent comparison between MAGIC model hindcasts and paleolimnological inferences of historical acidification for a set of 33 statistically-selected Adirondack lakes. Agreement between diatom-inferred and MAGIC-hindcast lakewater chemistry in the earlier research had been less than satisfactory. Based on preliminary analyses, it was concluded that incorporation of a reasonable organic acid representation into the version of MAGIC used for hindcasting was the logical next step toward improving model agreement.

  20. Organic acid modeling and model validation: Workshop summary. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Sullivan, T.J.; Eilers, J.M.

    1992-08-14

    A workshop was held in Corvallis, Oregon on April 9--10, 1992 at the offices of E&S Environmental Chemistry, Inc. The purpose of this workshop was to initiate research efforts on the entitled ``Incorporation of an organic acid representation into MAGIC (Model of Acidification of Groundwater in Catchments) and testing of the revised model using Independent data sources.`` The workshop was attended by a team of internationally-recognized experts in the fields of surface water acid-bass chemistry, organic acids, and watershed modeling. The rationale for the proposed research is based on the recent comparison between MAGIC model hindcasts and paleolimnological inferences of historical acidification for a set of 33 statistically-selected Adirondack lakes. Agreement between diatom-inferred and MAGIC-hindcast lakewater chemistry in the earlier research had been less than satisfactory. Based on preliminary analyses, it was concluded that incorporation of a reasonable organic acid representation into the version of MAGIC used for hindcasting was the logical next step toward improving model agreement.

  1. Radical scavenging capacity of methanolic Phillyrea latifolia L. extract: anthocyanin and phenolic acids composition of fruits.

    PubMed

    Ayranci, Erol; Erkan, Naciye

    2013-01-01

    Radical scavenging capacity of a crude methanolic extract from the fruits of Phillyrea latifolia L., commonly known as green olive tree or mock privet, was investigated with reference to anthocyanin standards, as flavonoids, and phenolic acid standards, as phenylpropanoids. Characterization with high performance liquid chromatography-diode array detection (HPLC-DAD) indicated the presence of keracyanin, kuromanin, cyanidin, ferulic acid, caffeic acid and rosmarinic acid at amounts of 289.1, 90.4, 191.4, 225.2, 221.2 and 190.1 mg/100 g fresh weight (FW) of fruits, respectively. Chlorogenic and p-coumaric acids were found to exist in lower amounts. Trolox equivalent antioxidant capacity (TEAC) and IC(50) values of the plant extract were found to be 1.8 mM Trolox equivalents (TE)/g FW of fruits and 69.4 µg/mL, respectively, indicating the close radical scavenging activity of the extract to those of keracyanin and p-coumaric acid. The crude methanolic P. latifolia L. fruit extract was seen to be fairly potent in radical scavenging. Total phenolic content (TPC) of the plant extract was found to be 1652.9 mg gallic acid equivalent (GAE)/100 g FW of fruits. PMID:23364751

  2. Particulate organic acids in the atmosphere of Italian cities: Are they environmentally relevant?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Balducci, Catia; Cecinato, Angelo

    2010-02-01

    Mono- and dicarboxylic n-alkyl acids were extensively investigated in downtown Rome, Italy, and in Montelibretti, ˜30 km NE of the city, during 2005-2007. Congeners ranging from lauric to mellisic, and from succinic to α,ω-docosanedioic acids were evaluated as well as phthalic, palmitoleic and oleic acids, by solvent extraction of airborne particulates followed by derivatization with propanol in the presence of boron trifluoride, and gas chromatographic-mass spectrometric analysis. Shorter measurements were made in Milan, in Taranto, at suburban and rural sites of Italy, and in the polar regions, from 1996 to 2005. The predominance of palmitic and stearic acids observed elsewhere was confirmed, and the behaviour of azelaic and phthalic acids resulted strongly dependent upon the year season. In the urban sites, among the long-chain compounds, the lignoceric acid was usually the most abundant, while the cerotic, montanic and mellisic homologues cumulatively never exceeded 8% of the total. Unlike other contaminants, the concentrations of organic acids remained fairly invariant over the last decade, suggesting that more attention must be paid to them in the future.

  3. Hydroxycinnamic Acid Derivatives Obtained from a Commercial Crataegus Extract and from Authentic Crataegus spp.§

    PubMed Central

    Kuczkowiak, Ulrich; Petereit, Frank; Nahrstedt, Adolf

    2014-01-01

    Abstract Eleven hydroxycinnamic acid derivatives were isolated from a 70% methanolic Crataegus extract (Crataegi folium cum flore) and partly verified and quantified for individual Crataegus species (C. laevigata, C. monogyna, C. nigra, C. pentagyna) by HPLC: 3-O-(E)-p-coumaroylquinic acid (1), 5-O-(E)-p-coumaroyl-quinic acid (2), 4-O-(E)-p-coumaroylquinic acid (3), 3-O-(E)-caffeoylquinic acid (4), 4-O-(E)-caffeoylquinic acid (5), 5-O-(E)-caffeoylquinic acid (6), 3,5-di-O-(E)-caffeoylquinic acid (7), 4,5-di-O-(E)-caffeoylquinic acid (8), (-)-2-O-(E)-caffeoyl-L-threonic acid (9), (-)-4-O-(E)-caffeoyl-L-threonic acid (10), and (-)-4-O-(E)-p-coumaroyl-L-threonic acid (11). Further, (-)-2-O-(E)-caffeoyl-D-malic acid (12) was isolated from C. submollis and also identified for C. pentagyna and C. nigra by co-chromatography. The isolates 10 and 11 were not found in the authentic fresh specimen, indicating that they may be formed during extraction by acyl migration from the 2-O-acylderivatives. Also, 9 and 11 are described here for the first time. All structures were assigned on the basis of their spectroscopic data (1H-, 13C-NMR, MS, optical rotation). PMID:26171328

  4. Analysis of fatty acids and phytosterols in ethanol extracts of Nelumbo nucifera seeds and rhizomes by GC-MS.

    PubMed

    Zhao, Xu; Shen, Jian; Chang, Kyung Ja; Kim, Sung Hoon

    2013-07-17

    The purpose of this study was to investigate the fatty acid and phytosterol contents in ethanol extracts of lotus seeds and rhizomes. These ethanol extracts were extracted with hexane. The hexane extracts were hydrolyzed in a microwave reactor, and total fatty acids and phytosterols were analyzed. The hexane extracts were also subjected to silica gel column chromatography. Nonpolar components (triglycerides and steryl-fatty acid esters) were hydrolyzed, and then the contents were analyzed. Polar components (diglycerides, monoglycerides, fatty acids, and phytosterols) were analyzed directly. Seeds contained higher concentrations of fatty acids and phytosterols compared to rhizomes. Linoleic acid, palmitic acid, and oleic acid were the main fatty acid components in seeds and rhizomes, and most of them in seeds were in the ester form. In seeds, phytosterols existed mainly in the free form rather than in steryl-fatty acid ester form. β-Sitosterol was the most abundant phytosterol in seeds and rhizomes.

  5. Simple and rapid preparation of infected plant tissue extracts for PCR amplification of virus, viroid, and MLO nucleic acids.

    PubMed

    Levy, L; Lee, I M; Hadidi, A

    1994-10-01

    A rapid, simple method for preparing plant tissues infected with viruses, viroids, or MLOs using a commercial product known as Gene Releaser is described. The Gene Releaser polymeric matrix method produced plant extracts suitable for PCR amplification without the use of organic solvents, ethanol precipitation, or additional nucleic acid purification techniques. Modification of maceration methods and/or extraction buffers resulted in the PCR amplification of potato spindle tuber, apple scar skin, and dapple apple viroids, as well as, genomic segments of plum pox potyvirus, grapevine virus B, grapevine leafroll-associated virus III, and elm yellows MLO. These pathogens were amplified from tissue of woody and herbaceous hosts such as peach, apricot, apple, grapevine, elm, periwinkle and potato. The application of this product for use with intractable tissue avoids lengthy and laborious extraction procedures. In our hands, about 20 samples could be prepared for PCR or RT-PCR in 1-2 h versus 1-3 days. PMID:7868647

  6. Bio-based production of organic acids with Corynebacterium glutamicum

    PubMed Central

    Wieschalka, Stefan; Blombach, Bastian; Bott, Michael; Eikmanns, Bernhard J

    2013-01-01

    The shortage of oil resources, the steadily rising oil prices and the impact of its use on the environment evokes an increasing political, industrial and technical interest for development of safe and efficient processes for the production of chemicals from renewable biomass. Thus, microbial fermentation of renewable feedstocks found its way in white biotechnology, complementing more and more traditional crude oil-based chemical processes. Rational strain design of appropriate microorganisms has become possible due to steadily increasing knowledge on metabolism and pathway regulation of industrially relevant organisms and, aside from process engineering and optimization, has an outstanding impact on improving the performance of such hosts. Corynebacterium glutamicum is well known as workhorse for the industrial production of numerous amino acids. However, recent studies also explored the usefulness of this organism for the production of several organic acids and great efforts have been made for improvement of the performance. This review summarizes the current knowledge and recent achievements on metabolic engineering approaches to tailor C. glutamicum for the bio-based production of organic acids. We focus here on the fermentative production of pyruvate, l-and d-lactate, 2-ketoisovalerate, 2-ketoglutarate, and succinate. These organic acids represent a class of compounds with manifold application ranges, e.g. in pharmaceutical and cosmetics industry, as food additives, and economically very interesting, as precursors for a variety of bulk chemicals and commercially important polymers. Funding Information Work in the laboratories of the authors was supported by the Fachagentur Nachwachsende Rohstoffe (FNR) of the Bundesministerium für Ernährung, Landwirtschaft und Verbraucherschutz (BMELV; FNR Grants 220-095-08A and 220-095-08D; Bio-ProChemBB project, ERA-IB programme), by the Deutsche Bundesstiftung Umwelt (DBU Grant AZ13040/05) and the Evonik Degussa AG. PMID

  7. Various instrumental approaches for determination of organic acids in wines.

    PubMed

    Zeravik, Jiri; Fohlerova, Zdenka; Milovanovic, Miodrag; Kubesa, Ondrej; Zeisbergerova, Marta; Lacina, Karel; Petrovic, Aleksandar; Glatz, Zdenek; Skladal, Petr

    2016-03-01

    Biosensors based on lactate oxidase, sarcosine oxidase and mixture of fumarase and sarcosine oxidase were used for monitoring of organic acids in wine samples. Additionally, tartaric acid was determined by modified colorimetric method based on formation of the vanadate-tartrate complex. The above mentioned methods were used for the analysis of 31 wine samples and obtained data were compared with the results from capillary electrophoresis as a basic standard method. This comparison showed a certain degree of correlation between biosensors and capillary electrophoresis. The provided information pointed to the potential uses of biosensors in the field of winemaking.

  8. On-line electrodialytic matrix isolation for chromatographic determination of organic acids in wine.

    PubMed

    Ohira, Shin-Ichi; Kuhara, Kenta; Shigetomi, Aki; Yamasaki, Takayuki; Kodama, Yuko; Dasgupta, Purnendu K; Toda, Kei

    2014-10-31

    Chromatographic determination of organic acids is widely performed, but the matrix often calls for lengthy and elaborate sample preparation prior to actual analysis. Matrix components, e.g., proteins, non-ionics, lipids etc. are typically removed by a combination of centrifugation/filtration and solid phase extraction (SPE) that may include the use of ion-exchange media. Here we report the quantitative electrodialytic transfer of organic acids from complex samples to ultrapure water in seconds using cellulose membranes modified with N,N-dimethylaminoethyl methacrylate, which essentially eliminates the negative ζ-potential of a regenerated cellulose membrane surface. The transfer characteristics of the ion transfer device (ITD) were evaluated with linear carboxylic acids. While the ion transfer efficiencies may be affected by the acid dissociation constants, in most cases it is possible to achieve quantitative transfer under optimized device residence time (solution flow rate) and the applied voltage. In addition, the transfer efficiency was unaffected by the wide natural variation of pH represented in real samples. The approach was applied to organic acids in various samples, including red wine, considered to represent an especially difficult matrix. While quantitative transfer of the organic acids (as judged by agreement with standard pretreatment procedures involving SPE) was achieved, transfer of other matrix components was <5%. The processed samples could then be chromatographically analyzed in a straightforward manner. We used ion exclusion chromatography with direct UV detection; in treated samples; there was a dramatic reduction of the large early peaks observed compared to only 0.45μm membrane filtered samples.

  9. On-line electrodialytic matrix isolation for chromatographic determination of organic acids in wine.

    PubMed

    Ohira, Shin-Ichi; Kuhara, Kenta; Shigetomi, Aki; Yamasaki, Takayuki; Kodama, Yuko; Dasgupta, Purnendu K; Toda, Kei

    2014-10-31

    Chromatographic determination of organic acids is widely performed, but the matrix often calls for lengthy and elaborate sample preparation prior to actual analysis. Matrix components, e.g., proteins, non-ionics, lipids etc. are typically removed by a combination of centrifugation/filtration and solid phase extraction (SPE) that may include the use of ion-exchange media. Here we report the quantitative electrodialytic transfer of organic acids from complex samples to ultrapure water in seconds using cellulose membranes modified with N,N-dimethylaminoethyl methacrylate, which essentially eliminates the negative ζ-potential of a regenerated cellulose membrane surface. The transfer characteristics of the ion transfer device (ITD) were evaluated with linear carboxylic acids. While the ion transfer efficiencies may be affected by the acid dissociation constants, in most cases it is possible to achieve quantitative transfer under optimized device residence time (solution flow rate) and the applied voltage. In addition, the transfer efficiency was unaffected by the wide natural variation of pH represented in real samples. The approach was applied to organic acids in various samples, including red wine, considered to represent an especially difficult matrix. While quantitative transfer of the organic acids (as judged by agreement with standard pretreatment procedures involving SPE) was achieved, transfer of other matrix components was <5%. The processed samples could then be chromatographically analyzed in a straightforward manner. We used ion exclusion chromatography with direct UV detection; in treated samples; there was a dramatic reduction of the large early peaks observed compared to only 0.45μm membrane filtered samples. PMID:25465003

  10. Atmospheric SO2 emissions since the late 1800s change organic sulfur forms in humic substance extracts of soils.

    PubMed

    Lehmann, Johannes; Solomon, Dawit; Zhao, Fang-Jie; McGrath, Steve P

    2008-05-15

    Atmospheric SO2 emissions in the UK and globally increased 6- and 20-fold, respectively, from the mid-1800s to the 1960s resulting in increased S deposition, acid rain, and concurrent acidification of terrestrial and aquatic ecosystems. Structural analyses using synchrotron-based X-ray near-edge spectroscopy (XANES) on humic substance extracts of archived samples from the Rothamsted Park Grass Experiment reveal a significant (R2 = -0.58; P < 0.05; N = 7) shift in soil organic sulfur (S) forms, from reduced to more oxidized organic S between 1876 and 1981, even though soil total S contents remained relatively constant. Over the last 30 years, a decrease in emissions and consequent S deposition has again corresponded with a change of organic S structures of humic extracts-reverting in the direction of their early industrial composition. However, the observed reversal lagged behind reductions in emissions by 19 years, which was computed using cross correlations between time series data (R2 = 0.66; P = 0.0024; N = 11). Presently, the ratio of oxidized-to-reduced organic S in humic substance extracts is nearly double that of early industrial times at identical SO2 emission loads. The significant and persistent structural changes of organic S in humic substances as a response to SO2 emissions and S deposition may have effects on recuperation of soils and surface waters from acidification.

  11. Atmospheric SO2 emissions since the late 1800s change organic sulfur forms in humic substance extracts of soils.

    PubMed

    Lehmann, Johannes; Solomon, Dawit; Zhao, Fang-Jie; McGrath, Steve P

    2008-05-15

    Atmospheric SO2 emissions in the UK and globally increased 6- and 20-fold, respectively, from the mid-1800s to the 1960s resulting in increased S deposition, acid rain, and concurrent acidification of terrestrial and aquatic ecosystems. Structural analyses using synchrotron-based X-ray near-edge spectroscopy (XANES) on humic substance extracts of archived samples from the Rothamsted Park Grass Experiment reveal a significant (R2 = -0.58; P < 0.05; N = 7) shift in soil organic sulfur (S) forms, from reduced to more oxidized organic S between 1876 and 1981, even though soil total S contents remained relatively constant. Over the last 30 years, a decrease in emissions and consequent S deposition has again corresponded with a change of organic S structures of humic extracts-reverting in the direction of their early industrial composition. However, the observed reversal lagged behind reductions in emissions by 19 years, which was computed using cross correlations between time series data (R2 = 0.66; P = 0.0024; N = 11). Presently, the ratio of oxidized-to-reduced organic S in humic substance extracts is nearly double that of early industrial times at identical SO2 emission loads. The significant and persistent structural changes of organic S in humic substances as a response to SO2 emissions and S deposition may have effects on recuperation of soils and surface waters from acidification. PMID:18546688

  12. Effects of ultrahigh pressure extraction on yield and antioxidant activity of chlorogenic acid and cynaroside extracted from flower buds of Lonicera japonica.

    PubMed

    Hu, Wen; Guo, Ting; Jiang, Wen-Jun; Dong, Guang-Li; Chen, Da-Wei; Yang, Shi-Lin; Li, He-Ran

    2015-06-01

    The present study was designed to establish and optimize a new method for extracting chlorogenic acid and cynaroside from Lonicera japonica Thunb. through orthogonal experimental designl. A new ultrahigh pressure extraction (UPE) technology was applied to extract chlorogenic acid and cynaroside from L. japonica. The influential factors, including solvent type, ethanol concentration, extraction pressure, time, and temperature, and the solid/liquid ratio, have been studied to optimize the extraction process. The optimal conditions for the UPE were developed by quantitative analysis of the extraction products by HPLC-DAD in comparison with standard samples. In addition, the microstructures of the medicinal materials before and after extraction were studied by scanning electron microscopy (SEM). Furthermore, the extraction efficiency of different extraction methods and the 2, 2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) radical scavenging activities of the extracts were investigated. The optimal conditions for extracting chlorogenic acid and cynaroside were as follows: ethanol concentration, 60%; extraction pressure, 400 MPa; extraction time, 2 min; extraction temperature, 30 °C; and the solid/liquid ratio, 1 : 50. Under these conditions, the yields of chlorogenic acid and cynaroside were raised to 4.863% and 0.080%, respectively. Compared with other extraction methods, such as heat reflux extraction (HRE), ultrasonic extraction (UE), and Sohxlet extraction (SE), the UPE method showed several advantages, including higher extraction yield, shorter extraction time, lower energy consumption, and higher purity of the extracts. This study could help better utilize L. japonica flower buds as a readily accessible source of natural antioxidants in food and pharmaceutical industries.

  13. Effects of ultrahigh pressure extraction on yield and antioxidant activity of chlorogenic acid and cynaroside extracted from flower buds of Lonicera japonica.

    PubMed

    Hu, Wen; Guo, Ting; Jiang, Wen-Jun; Dong, Guang-Li; Chen, Da-Wei; Yang, Shi-Lin; Li, He-Ran

    2015-06-01

    The present study was designed to establish and optimize a new method for extracting chlorogenic acid and cynaroside from Lonicera japonica Thunb. through orthogonal experimental designl. A new ultrahigh pressure extraction (UPE) technology was applied to extract chlorogenic acid and cynaroside from L. japonica. The influential factors, including solvent type, ethanol concentration, extraction pressure, time, and temperature, and the solid/liquid ratio, have been studied to optimize the extraction process. The optimal conditions for the UPE were developed by quantitative analysis of the extraction products by HPLC-DAD in comparison with standard samples. In addition, the microstructures of the medicinal materials before and after extraction were studied by scanning electron microscopy (SEM). Furthermore, the extraction efficiency of different extraction methods and the 2, 2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) radical scavenging activities of the extracts were investigated. The optimal conditions for extracting chlorogenic acid and cynaroside were as follows: ethanol concentration, 60%; extraction pressure, 400 MPa; extraction time, 2 min; extraction temperature, 30 °C; and the solid/liquid ratio, 1 : 50. Under these conditions, the yields of chlorogenic acid and cynaroside were raised to 4.863% and 0.080%, respectively. Compared with other extraction methods, such as heat reflux extraction (HRE), ultrasonic extraction (UE), and Sohxlet extraction (SE), the UPE method showed several advantages, including higher extraction yield, shorter extraction time, lower energy consumption, and higher purity of the extracts. This study could help better utilize L. japonica flower buds as a readily accessible source of natural antioxidants in food and pharmaceutical industries. PMID:26073341

  14. Contribution of microorganisms to non-extractable residue formation from biodegradable organic contaminants in soil

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nowak, K. M.; Girardi, C.; Miltner, A.; Schäffer, A.; Kästner, M.

    2012-04-01

    Biodegradation of organic contaminants in soil is actually understood as their transformation into various primary metabolites, microbial biomass, mineralisation products and non-extractable residues (NER). NER are generally considered to be composed of parent compounds or primary metabolites with hazardous potential. Up to date, however, their chemical composition remains still unclear. Studies on NER formation are limited to quantitative analyses in soils or to simple humic acids-contaminant systems. However, in the case of biodegradable organic compounds, NER may also contain microbial biomass components, e.g. fatty acids (FA) and amino acids (AA). After cell death, these biomolecules are incorporated into soil organic matter (SOM) and stabilised, ultimately forming biogenic residues which are not any more extractable. We investigated the incorporation of the 13C-label into FA and AA and their fate during biodegradation experiments in soil with isotope-labelled 2,4-dichlorophenoxyacetic acid (13C6-2,4-D) and ibuprofen (13C6-ibu) as model organic contaminants. Our study proved for the first time that nearly all NER formed from 13C6-2,4-D and 13C6-ibu in soil derived from harmless microbial biomass components stabilised in SOM. 13C-FA and 13C-AA contents in the living microbial biomass fraction decreased over time and these components were continuously incorporated into the non-living SOM pool in biotic experiments with 13C6-2,4-D and 13C6-ibu. The 13C-AA in the non-living SOM were surprisingly stable from day 32 (13C6-2,4-D) and 58 (13C6-ibu) until the end of incubation. We also studied the transformation of 13C6-2,4-D and 13C6-ibu into NER in the abiotic soil experiments. In these experiments, the total NER contents were much lower than in the corresponding biotic experiments. The absence of labelled biomolecules in the NER fraction in abiotic soils demonstrated that they consist of the potentially hazardous parent compounds and / or their metabolites. Biogenic

  15. Selectivity between lactic acid and glucose during recovery of lactic acid with basic extractants and polymeric sorbents

    SciTech Connect

    Dai, Y.; King, C.J.

    1996-04-01

    During recovery of product carboxylic acids from fermentation broths, it is important to maximize the selectivity for the desired acid, as opposed to substrate sugars. In this work uptakes of glucose and competitive uptakes of lactic acid and glucose have been measured for the extractant Alamine 336 in various diluents and three commercially available basic solid polymeric sorbents. The results show that swelling is the main factor governing the selectivity between lactic acid and glucose for the polymeric sorbents. Because of a high uptake capacity and relatively low swelling, Dowex MWA-1 gives a higher selectivity in the pH 5--6 range than do Amberlite IRA-35 and Reillex 425. Extraction with Alamine 336 provides a much higher selectivity, but a lower capacity, than the polymeric sorbents. The extent of water coextraction depends strongly on the diluent used, and larger amounts of water coextracted correspond to larger uptakes of glucose.

  16. Rosmarinic acid content in antidiabetic aqueous extract of Ocimum canum Sims grown in Ghana

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Rosmarinic acid (RA) is an important polyphenol that is found in a variety of herbs including Ocimum canum sims (locally called eme or akokobesa in Ghana). Aqueous extracts from the leaves of O.canum are used as an antidiabetic herbal medicine in Ghana. Interestingly, rosmarinic acid content and p...

  17. Optimization of extraction of phenolic acids from a vegetable waste product using a pressurized liquid extractor

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Potato tubers are eaten worldwide for their nutritional value, but potato peels are often disposed as waste. This study identified the phenolic acids content in potato peels, tuber, and developed an optimized method for extraction of phenolic acids from potato peels using a pressurized liquid extrac...

  18. Effects of hops (Humulus lupulus L.) extract on volatile fatty acid production by rumen bacteria

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Aims: To determine the effects of hops extract, on in vitro volatile fatty acid (VFA) production by bovine rumen microorganisms. Methods and Results: When mixed rumen microbes were suspended in media containing carbohydrates, the initial rates of VFA production were suppressed by beta-acid rich hops...

  19. Influence of gelatinization on the extraction of phenolic acids from wheat fractions

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The effect of gelatinization on the analysis of phenolic acids from wheat bran, whole-wheat, and refined flour samples was investigated using two extraction procedures, namely, ultrasonic (UAE) and microwave (MAE). The total phenolic acid (TPA) concentration quantity in wheat bran (2711-2913 µg/g) w...

  20. Tranexamic acid in control of haemorrhage after dental extraction in haemophilia and Christmas disease.

    PubMed

    Forbes, C D; Barr, R D; Reid, G; Thomson, C; Prentice, C R; McNicol, G P; Douglas, A S

    1972-05-01

    In a double-blind trial tranexamic acid (AMCA, Cyclokapron), 1 g three times a day for five days, significantly reduced blood loss and transfusion requirements after dental extraction in patients with haemophilia and Christmas disease. No side effects were seen in either group of patients. Screening tests showed no toxic action of tranexamic acid on the liver, kidney, or heart.

  1. Separators and organics for lead-acid batteries

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Böhnstedt, Werner

    This review discusses various interactions between organic compounds, brought into the lead-acid battery via the separator, and their subsequent effect on battery performance. Historically, the interrelationship started with certain 'expander' actions on the lead morphology due to lignins, which leached out of the wooden separators of that time. Synthetic separator materials did not show this effect, but gained acceptance as they were far more stable in the hostile battery environment. The partially hydrophobic character of synthetic separators has been overcome by organic surfactants. Other organic compounds have been found to improve further the stability of separators against oxidation. Special organic molecules, namely aldehydes and ketones, have been identified to retard, or even suppress, the adverse effects of metals such as antimony, and thus prolong the cycle-life of traction batteries in heavy-duty applications or reduce water loss from automotive batteries. Knowledge about these interactions has opened ways to improve separators.

  2. Chirality of meteoritic free and IOM-derived monocarboxylic acids and implications for prebiotic organic synthesis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Aponte, José C.; Tarozo, Rafael; Alexandre, Marcelo R.; Alexander, Conel M. O.'D.; Charnley, Steven B.; Hallmann, Christian; Summons, Roger E.; Huang, Yongsong

    2014-04-01

    The origin of homochirality and its role in the development of life on Earth are among the most intriguing questions in science. It has been suggested that carbonaceous chondrites seeded primitive Earth with the initial organic compounds necessary for the origin of life. One of the strongest pieces of evidence supporting this theory is that certain amino acids in carbonaceous chondrites display a significant L-enantiomeric excess (ee), similar to those use by terrestrial life. Analyses of ee in meteoritic molecules other than amino acids would shed more light on the origins of homochirality. In this study we investigated the stereochemistry of two groups of compounds: (1) free monocarboxylic acids (MCAs) from CM2 meteorites LON 94101 and Murchison; and (2) the aliphatic side chains present in the insoluble organic matter (IOM) and extracted in the form of monocarboxylic acids (MCAs) from EET 87770 (CR2) and Orgueil (CI1). Contrary to the well-known ee observed for amino acids in meteorites, we found that meteoritic branched free and IOM-derived MCAs with 5-8 carbon atoms are essentially racemic. The racemic nature of these compounds is used to discuss the possible influence of ultraviolet circularly polarized light (UVCPL) and aqueous alterations on the parent body on chirality observed in in carbonaceous chondrites.

  3. Effect of artichoke extract (Cynara scolymus L.) on palmitic-1-14C acid oxidation in rats.

    PubMed

    Juzyszyn, Zygmunt; Czerny, Boguslaw; Pawlik, Andrzej; Drozdzik, Marek

    2008-05-01

    Studies on the effect of the artichoke extract (AE) on oxidation of palmitic-1-14C acid administered intravenously to rats at a dose 25 and 50 mg/kg bw demonstrated marked enhancement of both 14CO2 expiration rate and 14CO2 recovery in the expired air. The extract suppressed accumulation of palmitic-1-14C acid in serum lipids and epididymal fat pad tissue as well. The effects of the extract on 14CO2 expiration rate, 14CO2 recovery, as well as accumulation of palmitic-1-14C acid were dose dependent. Total14CO2 recovery in expired air during 60 min was elevated by 17.3% (p < 0.05) and 52.1% (p < 0.001) in rats administered the extract at a dose of 25 and 50 mg/kg, respectively. The rats supplemented with the AE at a dose of 25 and 50 mg/kg bw were characterized by 10.0% (not significant) and 19% (p < 0.05) decrease in( 14)C radioactivity of serum lipids as well as reduction of epididymal fat tissue 14C radioactivity by 8.7 and 17.5% (p < 0.05), respectively, in comparison with the control rats. Thus, the results demonstrate that the AE possess stimulatory properties with respect to oxidation of palmitic acid administered to rats, and provide new information on the mechanism of antilipemic activity of the extract associated with activation of lipid oxidation in the organism.

  4. Corrosion of dental amalgams in solutions of organic acids.

    PubMed

    Palaghias, G

    1986-06-01

    A conventional and two high copper amalgams were tested in 0.5% aqueous solutions of acetic, formic, lactic and succinic acid. The corrosion behavior of the amalgams in the different solutions was evaluated by analyzing the soluble corrosion products using an atomic absorption spectrophotometer every month during a 6-month experimental period. The high copper amalgams showed a high dissolution rate in formic and lactic acid solutions from the initial stages of immersion when compared to the conventional. Later a marked decrease of the dissolution rate could be observed but it still remained at high levels. In acetic acid the amounts of elements dissolved from high copper amalgams were much less. Conventional amalgam released much smaller amounts of elements in almost all solutions tested except in the case of silver in lactic acid. Finally, in succinic acid solution, the amounts of elements dissolved were unexpectedly small considering the low pH of the solution and the dissolution rates of the amalgams in the other organic acid solutions. PMID:3461548

  5. Air-nitric acid destructive oxidation of organic wastes

    SciTech Connect

    Smith, J.R.

    1993-09-01

    Many organic materials have been completely oxidized to CO{sub 2}, CO, and inorganic acids in a 0.1M HNO{sub 3}/14.8M H{sub 3}PO{sub 4} solution with air sparging. Addition of 0.001M Pd{sub +2} reduces the CO to near 1% of the released carbon gases. To accomplish complete oxidation the solution temperature must be maintained above 130--150{degrees}C. Organic materials quantitatively destroyed include neoprene, cellulose, EDTA, TBP, tartaric acid, and nitromethane. The oxidation is usually complete in a few hours for soluble organic materials. The oxidation rate for non-aliphatic organic solids is moderately fast and surface area dependent. The rate for aliphatic organic compounds (polyethylene, PVC, and n-dodecane) is relatively very slow. This is due to the large energy required to abstract a hydrogen atom from these compounds, 99 kcal/mole. The combination of NO{sub 2}{center_dot} and H{center_dot} to produce HNO{sub 2} releases only 88 kcal/mole. Under conditions of high NO{sub 2}{center_dot} concentration it should be possible to oxidize these aliphatic compounds.

  6. Antimicrobial activity of extracts of the lichen Parmelia sulcata and its salazinic acid constituent.

    PubMed

    Candan, Mehmet; Yilmaz, Meral; Tay, Turgay; Erdem, Murat; Türk, Ayşen Ozdemir

    2007-01-01

    The antimicrobial activity of the acetone, chloroform, diethyl ether, methanol, and petroleum ether extracts of the lichen Parmelia sulcata and its salazinic acid constituent have been screened against twenty eight food-borne bacteria and fungi. All of the extracts with the exception of the petroleum ether extract showed antimicrobial activity against Aeromonas hydrophila, Bacillus cereus, Bacillus subtilis, Listeria monocytogenes, Proteus vulgaris, Yersinia enterocolitica, Staphylococcus aureus, Streptococcus faecalis, Candida albicans, Candida glabrata, Aspergillus niger, Aspergillus fumigatus, and Penicillium notatum. Salazinic acid did not show antimicrobial activity against L. monocytogenes, P. vulgaris, Y. enterocolitica, and S. faecalis but showed activity against Pseudomonas aeruginosa and Salmonella typhimurium as well. The MIC values of the extracts and the acid for the bacteria and fungi have also been determined. PMID:17913083

  7. Organic corrosion inhibitors for aluminum in perchloric acid

    SciTech Connect

    Metikos-Hukovic, M.; Stupnisek-Lisac, E. . Dept. of Electrochemistry); Grubac, Z. . Dept. of Inorganic Chemistry)

    1994-02-01

    Substituted N-arylpyrroles containing carbaldehyde groups on a pyrrole ring and their inhibitive effects on the corrosion of aluminum (Al) in perchloric acid (HCIO[sub 4]) were investigated. Electrochemical measurements showed the organic compounds examined had good inhibiting properties at 40 C. The high inhibition effect of the N-aryl-2,5-dimethylpyrroles containing carbaldehyde groups on a pyrrole ring on corrosion of Al in acid media was explained on the basis of the electronic structure of the molecule and by the condensation characteristic of the carbaldehydes. Investigation of the influence of substitution type ([minus]F,[minus]Cl,[minus]NH[sub 2]) on the inhibiting characteristics of examined organic compounds showed the best inhibiting effect was from substituted N-arylpyrrole with fluorine in the ortho position of the phenyl ring.

  8. Application of ionic liquids based enzyme-assisted extraction of chlorogenic acid from Eucommia ulmoides leaves.

    PubMed

    Liu, Tingting; Sui, Xiaoyu; Li, Li; Zhang, Jie; Liang, Xin; Li, Wenjing; Zhang, Honglian; Fu, Shuang

    2016-01-15

    A new approach for ionic liquid based enzyme-assisted extraction (ILEAE) of chlorogenic acid (CGA) from Eucommia ulmoides is presented in which enzyme pretreatment was used in ionic liquids aqueous media to enhance extraction yield. For this purpose, the solubility of CGA and the activity of cellulase were investigated in eight 1-alkyl-3-methylimidazolium ionic liquids. Cellulase in 0.5 M [C6mim]Br aqueous solution was found to provide better performance in extraction. The factors of ILEAE procedures including extraction time, extraction phase pH, extraction temperatures and enzyme concentrations were investigated. Moreover, the novel developed approach offered advantages in term of yield and efficiency compared with other conventional extraction techniques. Scanning electronic microscopy of plant samples indicated that cellulase treated cell wall in ionic liquid solution was subjected to extract, which led to more efficient extraction by reducing mass transfer barrier. The proposed ILEAE method would develope a continuous process for enzyme-assisted extraction including enzyme incubation and solvent extraction process. In this research, we propose a novel view for enzyme-assisted extraction of plant active component, besides concentrating on enzyme facilitated cell wall degradation, focusing on improvement of bad permeability of ionic liquids solutions. PMID:26709302

  9. Application of ionic liquids based enzyme-assisted extraction of chlorogenic acid from Eucommia ulmoides leaves.

    PubMed

    Liu, Tingting; Sui, Xiaoyu; Li, Li; Zhang, Jie; Liang, Xin; Li, Wenjing; Zhang, Honglian; Fu, Shuang

    2016-01-15

    A new approach for ionic liquid based enzyme-assisted extraction (ILEAE) of chlorogenic acid (CGA) from Eucommia ulmoides is presented in which enzyme pretreatment was used in ionic liquids aqueous media to enhance extraction yield. For this purpose, the solubility of CGA and the activity of cellulase were investigated in eight 1-alkyl-3-methylimidazolium ionic liquids. Cellulase in 0.5 M [C6mim]Br aqueous solution was found to provide better performance in extraction. The factors of ILEAE procedures including extraction time, extraction phase pH, extraction temperatures and enzyme concentrations were investigated. Moreover, the novel developed approach offered advantages in term of yield and efficiency compared with other conventional extraction techniques. Scanning electronic microscopy of plant samples indicated that cellulase treated cell wall in ionic liquid solution was subjected to extract, which led to more efficient extraction by reducing mass transfer barrier. The proposed ILEAE method would develope a continuous process for enzyme-assisted extraction including enzyme incubation and solvent extraction process. In this research, we propose a novel view for enzyme-assisted extraction of plant active component, besides concentrating on enzyme facilitated cell wall degradation, focusing on improvement of bad permeability of ionic liquids solutions.

  10. Supercritical fluid extraction and organic solvent microextraction of chemical agent simulants from soil

    SciTech Connect

    Griest, W.H.; Ramsey, R.S.; Ho, C.h.; Caldwell, W.M.

    1991-12-31

    Experiments with chemical warfare agent simulants suggest that supercritical fluid extraction can achieve good extraction recoveries of agents in soil and produce less laboratory waste than current organic solvent extraction methods. Two-ppm spikes in 1 g of Rocky Mountain Arsenal Standard Soil were extracted using 5% methanol in carbon dioxide at 300 atm for 2 min at 60{degrees}C. Recoveries (n=3) were 79{plus_minus}23% for dimethylmethylphosphonate, 93{plus_minus}14% for 2-chlorethylethylsulfide, 92{plus_minus}13% for diisopropylfluorophosphate, and 95{plus_minus}17% for diisopropylmethylphosphonate. A 5 min ultrasonic micro-scale extraction using methanol is more reproducible but less efficient.

  11. Supercritical fluid extraction and organic solvent microextraction of chemical agent simulants from soil

    SciTech Connect

    Griest, W.H.; Ramsey, R.S.; Ho, C.h.; Caldwell, W.M.

    1991-01-01

    Experiments with chemical warfare agent simulants suggest that supercritical fluid extraction can achieve good extraction recoveries of agents in soil and produce less laboratory waste than current organic solvent extraction methods. Two-ppm spikes in 1 g of Rocky Mountain Arsenal Standard Soil were extracted using 5% methanol in carbon dioxide at 300 atm for 2 min at 60{degrees}C. Recoveries (n=3) were 79{plus minus}23% for dimethylmethylphosphonate, 93{plus minus}14% for 2-chlorethylethylsulfide, 92{plus minus}13% for diisopropylfluorophosphate, and 95{plus minus}17% for diisopropylmethylphosphonate. A 5 min ultrasonic micro-scale extraction using methanol is more reproducible but less efficient.

  12. Quality Control of Gamma Irradiated Dwarf Mallow (Malva neglecta Wallr.) Based on Color, Organic Acids, Total Phenolics and Antioxidant Parameters.

    PubMed

    Pinela, José; Barros, Lillian; Antonio, Amilcar L; Carvalho, Ana Maria; Oliveira, M Beatriz P P; Ferreira, Isabel C F R

    2016-01-01

    This study addresses the effects of gamma irradiation (1, 5 and 8 kGy) on color, organic acids, total phenolics, total flavonoids, and antioxidant activity of dwarf mallow (Malva neglecta Wallr.). Organic acids were analyzed by ultra fast liquid chromatography (UFLC) coupled to a photodiode array (PDA) detector. Total phenolics and flavonoids were measured by the Folin-Ciocalteu and aluminium chloride colorimetric methods, respectively. The antioxidant activity was evaluated based on the DPPH(•) scavenging activity, reducing power, β-carotene bleaching inhibition and thiobarbituric acid reactive substances (TBARS) formation inhibition. Analyses were performed in the non-irradiated and irradiated plant material, as well as in decoctions obtained from the same samples. The total amounts of organic acids and phenolics recorded in decocted extracts were always higher than those found in the plant material or hydromethanolic extracts, respectively. The DPPH(•) scavenging activity and reducing power were also higher in decocted extracts. The assayed irradiation doses affected differently the organic acids profile. The levels of total phenolics and flavonoids were lower in the hydromethanolic extracts prepared from samples irradiated at 1 kGy (dose that induced color changes) and in decocted extracts prepared from those irradiated at 8 kGy. The last samples also showed a lower antioxidant activity. In turn, irradiation at 5 kGy favored the amounts of total phenolics and flavonoids. Overall, this study contributes to the understanding of the effects of irradiation in indicators of dwarf mallow quality, and highlighted the decoctions for its antioxidant properties. PMID:27070569

  13. Quality Control of Gamma Irradiated Dwarf Mallow (Malva neglecta Wallr.) Based on Color, Organic Acids, Total Phenolics and Antioxidant Parameters.

    PubMed

    Pinela, José; Barros, Lillian; Antonio, Amilcar L; Carvalho, Ana Maria; Oliveira, M Beatriz P P; Ferreira, Isabel C F R

    2016-04-08

    This study addresses the effects of gamma irradiation (1, 5 and 8 kGy) on color, organic acids, total phenolics, total flavonoids, and antioxidant activity of dwarf mallow (Malva neglecta Wallr.). Organic acids were analyzed by ultra fast liquid chromatography (UFLC) coupled to a photodiode array (PDA) detector. Total phenolics and flavonoids were measured by the Folin-Ciocalteu and aluminium chloride colorimetric methods, respectively. The antioxidant activity was evaluated based on the DPPH(•) scavenging activity, reducing power, β-carotene bleaching inhibition and thiobarbituric acid reactive substances (TBARS) formation inhibition. Analyses were performed in the non-irradiated and irradiated plant material, as well as in decoctions obtained from the same samples. The total amounts of organic acids and phenolics recorded in decocted extracts were always higher than those found in the plant material or hydromethanolic extracts, respectively. The DPPH(•) scavenging activity and reducing power were also higher in decocted extracts. The assayed irradiation doses affected differently the organic acids profile. The levels of total phenolics and flavonoids were lower in the hydromethanolic extracts prepared from samples irradiated at 1 kGy (dose that induced color changes) and in decocted extracts prepared from those irradiated at 8 kGy. The last samples also showed a lower antioxidant activity. In turn, irradiation at 5 kGy favored the amounts of total phenolics and flavonoids. Overall, this study contributes to the understanding of the effects of irradiation in indicators of dwarf mallow quality, and highlighted the decoctions for its antioxidant properties.

  14. Characterization and functional properties of mango peel pectin extracted by ultrasound assisted citric acid.

    PubMed

    Wang, Miaomiao; Huang, Bohui; Fan, Chuanhui; Zhao, Kaili; Hu, Hao; Xu, Xiaoyun; Pan, Siyi; Liu, Fengxia

    2016-10-01

    Pectin was extracted from 'Tainong No. 1' mango peels, using a chelating agent-citric acid as extraction medium by ultrasound-assisted extraction (UAE) and conventional extraction (CE) at temperatures of 20 and 80°C. Chemical structures, rheological and emulsifying properties of mango peel pectins (MPPs) were comparatively studied with laboratory grade citrus pectin (CP). All MPPs exhibited higher protein content (4.74%-5.94%), degree of methoxylation (85.43-88.38%), average molecular weight (Mw, 378.4-2858kDa) than the CP, but lower galacuronic acid content (GalA, 52.21-53.35%). CE or UAE at 80°C resulted in significantly higher pectin yield than those at 20°C, while the extraction time for UAE-80°C (15min) was significantly shorter compared to CE-80°C (2h) with comparable pectin yield. Moreover, MPPs extracted at 80°C were observed with higher GalA and protein content, higher Mw, resulting in higher viscosity, better emulsifying capacity and stability, as compared to those extracted at 20°C and the CP. Therefore, these results suggested that MPPs from 'Tainong No. 1' may become a highly promising pectin with good thickening and emulsifying properties, using ultrasound-assisted citric acid as an efficient and eco-friendly extraction method. PMID:27283236

  15. Characterization and functional properties of mango peel pectin extracted by ultrasound assisted citric acid.

    PubMed

    Wang, Miaomiao; Huang, Bohui; Fan, Chuanhui; Zhao, Kaili; Hu, Hao; Xu, Xiaoyun; Pan, Siyi; Liu, Fengxia

    2016-10-01

    Pectin was extracted from 'Tainong No. 1' mango peels, using a chelating agent-citric acid as extraction medium by ultrasound-assisted extraction (UAE) and conventional extraction (CE) at temperatures of 20 and 80°C. Chemical structures, rheological and emulsifying properties of mango peel pectins (MPPs) were comparatively studied with laboratory grade citrus pectin (CP). All MPPs exhibited higher protein content (4.74%-5.94%), degree of methoxylation (85.43-88.38%), average molecular weight (Mw, 378.4-2858kDa) than the CP, but lower galacuronic acid content (GalA, 52.21-53.35%). CE or UAE at 80°C resulted in significantly higher pectin yield than those at 20°C, while the extraction time for UAE-80°C (15min) was significantly shorter compared to CE-80°C (2h) with comparable pectin yield. Moreover, MPPs extracted at 80°C were observed with higher GalA and protein content, higher Mw, resulting in higher viscosity, better emulsifying capacity and stability, as compared to those extracted at 20°C and the CP. Therefore, these results suggested that MPPs from 'Tainong No. 1' may become a highly promising pectin with good thickening and emulsifying properties, using ultrasound-assisted citric acid as an efficient and eco-friendly extraction method.

  16. Determination of haloacetic acids in swimming pool waters by membrane-protected micro-solid phase extraction.

    PubMed

    Nsubuga, Hakimu; Basheer, Chanbasha

    2013-11-01

    In this study, a simple and efficient extraction method for determining haloacetic acids (HAAs) in swimming pool waters has been developed. HAAs are toxic organic pollutants of disinfection origin most commonly detected in swimming pool and drinking waters at trace level concentrations. For the first time, a highly efficient sorbent was developed using rice husk and used for micro-solid phase extraction (μ-SPE) technique. To increase the extraction capability of rice husk silica, iron oxide was incorporated via sol-gel process. In μ-SPE device, the novel sorbent was packed and used for extraction of HAAs prior to analysis using ultra performance liquid chromatography-ultraviolet detection (UPLC-UV). Various extraction parameters were optimized to improve the extraction efficiency of μ-SPE. Under optimum conditions, linearity (coefficient of determination, r(2)≥0.991 over the concentration range of 1-150 μg/L), detection limits in the range of 0.001-0.092 μg/L, mean recoveries up to 110% with corresponding relative standard deviations of 2-7% (n=3) had been obtained. Finally, the method was applied to swimming pool water to evaluate its feasibility. The mean concentrations for HAAs from the pool waters were in the range of 6.8 and 48.6 μg/L which are far below the standard values set by United States Environmental Protection Agency. PMID:24075018

  17. Aquatic organisms in acidic environments: a literature review

    SciTech Connect

    Eilers, J.M.; Lien, G.J.; Berg, R.G.

    1985-10-01

    Acid deposition has aroused concern about aquatic organisms in soft water lakes and streams, as the loss of indigenous species is commonly observed when pH decreases. This literature review was initiated to intensively examine the distribution of invertebrates with respect to pH, in order to define the tolerance limits of various species in acidified waters and predict how acidification would alter distributions.

  18. Biochar: a green sorbent to sequester acidic organic contaminants

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sigmund, Gabriel; Kah, Melanie; Sun, Huichao; Hofmann, Thilo

    2015-04-01

    Biochar is a carbon rich product of biomass pyrolysis that exhibits a high sorption potential towards a wide variety of inorganic and organic contaminants. Because it is a valuable soil additive and a potential carbon sink that can be produced from renewable resources, biochar has gained growing attention for the development of more sustainable remediation strategies. A lot of research efforts have been dedicated to the sorption of hydrophobic contaminants and metals to biochar. Conversely, the understanding of the sorption of acidic organic contaminants remains limited, and questions remain on the influence of biochar characteristics (e.g. ash content) on the sorption behaviour of acidic organic contaminants. To address this knowledge gap, sorption batch experiments were conducted with a series of structurally similar acidic organic contaminants covering a range of dissociation constant (2,4-D, MCPA, 2,4-DB and triclosan). The sorbents selected for experimentation included a series of 10 biochars covering a range of characteristics, multiwalled carbon nanotubes as model for pure carbonaceous phases, and an activated carbon as benchmark. Overall, sorption coefficient [L/kg] covered six orders of magnitude and generally followed the order 2,4-D < MCPA < 2,4-DB < triclosan. Combining comprehensive characterization of the sorbents with the sorption dataset allowed the discussion of sorption mechanisms and driving factors of sorption. Statistical analysis suggests that (i) partitioning was the main driver for sorption to sorbents with small specific surface area (< 25 m²/g), whereas (ii) specific mechanisms dominated sorption to sorbents with larger specific surface area. Results showed that factors usually not considered for the sorption of neutral contaminants play an important role for the sorption of organic acids. The pH dependent lipophilicity ratio (i.e. D instead of Kow), ash content and ionic strength are key factors influencing the sorption of acidic organic

  19. Simultaneous Extraction of Viral and Bacterial Nucleic Acids for Molecular Diagnostic Applications

    PubMed Central

    Kajiura, Lauren N.; Stewart, Scott D.; Dresios, John; Uyehara, Catherine F. T.

    2015-01-01

    Molecular detection of microbial pathogens in clinical samples requires the application of efficient sample lysis protocols and subsequent extraction and isolation of their nucleic acids. Here, we describe a simple and time-efficient method for simultaneous extraction of genomic DNA from gram-positive and -negative bacteria, as well as RNA from viral agents present in a sample. This method compared well with existing bacterial- and viral-specialized extraction protocols, worked reliably on clinical samples, and was not pathogen specific. This method may be used to extract DNA and RNA concurrently from viral and bacterial pathogens present in a sample and effectively detect coinfections in routine clinical diagnostics. PMID:26543438

  20. Acid-catalyzed hot-water extraction of lipids from Chlorella vulgaris.

    PubMed

    Park, Ji-Yeon; Oh, You-Kwan; Lee, Jin-Suk; Lee, Kyubock; Jeong, Min-Ji; Choi, Sun-A

    2014-02-01

    Acid-catalyzed hot-water treatment for efficient extraction of lipids from a wet microalga, Chlorella vulgaris, was investigated. For an initial fatty acids content of 381.6mg/g cell, the extracted-lipid yield with no heating and no catalyst was 83.2mg/g cell. Under a 1% H2SO4 concentration heated at 120°C for 60min, however, the lipid-extraction yield was 337.4mg/g cell. The fatty acids content, meanwhile, was 935mg fatty acid/g lipid. According to the severity index formula, 337.5mg/g cell of yield under the 1% H2SO4 concentration heated at 150°C for 8min, and 334.2mg/g cell of yield under the 0.5% H2SO4 concentration heated at 150°C for 16min, were obtained. The lipids extracted by acid-catalyzed hot-water treatment were converted to biodiesel. The biodiesel's fatty acid methyl ester (FAME) content after esterification of the microalgal lipids was increased to 79.2% by the addition of excess methanol and sulfuric acid.

  1. Analytical determination of the microbial utilization and transformation of humic acids extracted from municipal refuse.

    PubMed

    Filip, Z; Berthelin, J

    2001-11-01

    Humic substances are usually the refractory part of natural organic matter, and in a landfill they can retain inorganic and organic micropollutants. This study has investigated analytically whether humic acids (HA) extracted by use of alkali from either fresh municipal refuse or from refuse disposed of in a landfill for up to 12 months can resist microbial degradation under aerobic conditions. When added as a supplementary nutrient source, up to 63.6% of HA was utilized and this percentage was enhanced to a mean value of 88.5% when different HA preparations were used as the sole source of carbon. In cultures of a soil microbial community containing the same preparations as sole sources of nitrogen, HA was usually completely utilized. The remaining HA re-isolated from some microbial cultures were highly depleted in carbon and, simultaneously, the nitrogen content was enhanced. The FTIR spectra were indicative of strong participation of aliphatic structural units in the refuse-related HA preparations. Because of the microbial activity, different carbonaceous substances were primarily removed from the HA structure, and an increase in nitrogenous molecular groups became apparent. The structural transformations brought about by soil microorganisms "in vitro" corresponded to those occurring naturally in HA obtained from refuse aged for 12 months in a landfill.

  2. Plant regeneration and biochemical accumulation of hydroxybenzoic and hydroxycinnamic acid derivatives in Hypoxis hemerocallidea organ and callus cultures.

    PubMed

    Moyo, Mack; Amoo, Stephen O; Aremu, Adeyemi O; Gruz, Jiří; Subrtová, Michaela; Doležal, Karel; Van Staden, Johannes

    2014-10-01

    Micropropagation of Hypoxis hemerocallidea Fisch. and C.A. Mey was used as a model system to study the influence of cytokinins (CKs) on plant regeneration and biochemical accumulation of hydroxybenzoic and hydroxycinnamic acid derivatives in organ and callus cultures and their antioxidant activity. Fourteen free phenolic acids were detected using ultra performance liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (UPLC-MS/MS) while antioxidant activity was evaluated using oxygen radical absorbance capacity (ORAC) and 2,2-diphenyl-1-picryl hydrazyl (DPPH) radical scavenging activity. Cytokinins had a significant effect on the biochemical accumulation of hydroxybenzoic and hydroxycinnamic acid derivatives in H. hemerocallidea organ cultures. In particular, meta-topolin-treated organ cultures produced high concentrations of gallic, protocatechuic, gentisic, p-hydroxybenzoic, m-hydroxybenzoic, salicylic, chlorogenic and trans-cinnamic acids. The isoprenoid CK, N(6)-(2-isopentenyl)-adenine significantly increased the accumulation of hydroxycinnamic acid derivatives, namely, caffeic, p-coumaric, sinapic and ferulic acids. Cytokinin-treated organ cultures exhibited a significant increase in antioxidant activity, particularly in the ORAC model. In callus cultures, CKs decreased the concentrations of hydroxycinnamic acid derivatives and antioxidant activity when compared to the control. Overall, both CK type and concentration had a significant effect on plant regeneration, callus proliferation, biochemical accumulation of free phenolic acids and antioxidant activity of the resultant extracts.

  3. Organic acid mediated repression of sugar utilization in rhizobia.

    PubMed

    Iyer, Bhagya; Rajput, Mahendrapal Singh; Jog, Rahul; Joshi, Ekta; Bharwad, Krishna; Rajkumar, Shalini

    2016-11-01

    Rhizobia are a class of symbiotic diazotrophic bacteria which utilize C4 acids in preference to sugars and the sugar utilization is repressed as long as C4 acids are present. This can be manifested as a diauxie when rhizobia are grown in the presence of a sugar and a C4 acid together. Succinate, a C4 acid is known to repress utilization of sugars, sugar alcohols, hydrocarbons, etc by a mechanism termed as Succinate Mediated Catabolite Repression (SMCR). Mechanism of catabolite repression determines the hierarchy of carbon source utilization in bacteria. Though the mechanism of catabolite repression has been well studied in model organisms like E. coli, B. subtilis and Pseudomonas sp., mechanism of SMCR in rhizobia has not been well elucidated. C4 acid uptake is important for effective symbioses while mutation in the sugar transport and utilization genes does not affect symbioses. Deletion of hpr and sma0113 resulted in the partial relief of SMCR of utilization of galactosides like lactose, raffinose and maltose in the presence of succinate. However, no such regulators governing SMCR of glucoside utilization have been identified till date. Though rhizobia can utilize multitude of sugars, high affinity transporters for many sugars are yet to be identified. Identifying high affinity sugar transporters and studying the mechanism of catabolite repression in rhizobia is important to understand the level of regulation of SMCR and the key regulators involved in SMCR. PMID:27664739

  4. Amino acids, fatty acids and sterols profile of some marine organisms from Portuguese waters.

    PubMed

    Pereira, David M; Valentão, Patrícia; Teixeira, Natércia; Andrade, Paula B

    2013-12-01

    Marine organisms have been increasingly regarded as good sources of new drugs for human therapeutics and also as nutrients for human diet. The amino acids, fatty acids and sterols profiles of the widely consumed echinoderms Paracentrotus lividus Lamarck (sea urchin), Holothuria forskali Chiaje (sea cucumber), the gastropod molluscs Aplysia fasciata Poiret and Aplysia punctata Cuvier (sea hares), from Portuguese waters, were established by GC-MS analysis. Overall, 10 amino acids, 14 fatty acids and 4 sterols were determined. In general, all species presented the 10 amino acids identified, with the exceptions of H. forskali, in which no glycine, proline, trans-4-hydroxy-proline or phenylalanine were found, and of A. fasciata which did not contain proline. Unsaturated fatty acids were predominant compounds, with those from the ω-6 series, being in higher amounts than their ω-3 homologues, and cholesterol being the main sterol. The amino acids, fatty acids and sterols qualitative and quantitative composition of A. fasciata, A. punctata and H. forskali is reported here for the first time.

  5. Aquatic photodegradation of sunscreen agent p-aminobenzoic acid in the presence of dissolved organic matter.

    PubMed

    Zhou, Lei; Ji, Yuefei; Zeng, Chao; Zhang, Ya; Wang, Zunyao; Yang, Xi

    2013-01-01

    Dissolved organic matter (DOM) is an important photosensitizer for the phototransformation of organic contaminants in sunlit natural waters. This article focuses on the photolysis kinetics and mechanism of sunscreen agent p-aminobenzoic acid (PABA) in the presence of four kinds of DOM; Suwannee River fulvic acid (SRFA), Suwannee River humic acid (SRHA), Nordic Lake fulvic acid (NOFA) and Nordic Lake humic acid (NOHA). It is evident that direct photolysis of PABA is highly pH-dependent because different species of PABA have different electrical densities on the ring system. The presence of four kinds of DOM inhibits the photolysis of PABA primarily due to their light screening effect. Meanwhile, a complex interaction involving energy transfer, triplet carbonyl group induced electron transfer, and amino acid induced proton abstraction between PABA and DOM is verified by competition kinetics experiments and density functional theory (DFT) computation. In addition, DOM-induced singlet oxygen ((1)O(2)) and hydroxyl radical (OH) are determined to play an insignificant role in PABA photolysis by competition dynamics method. Photoproducts identification using solid phase extraction-liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry (SPE-LC-MS) techniques reveals that the distribution of the photoproducts could not be affected by the addition of DOM. Two photodegradation pathways of PABA are temporarily proposed, in which the di(tri)-polymerization of intermediates are the dominant pathway whereas the oxidation of amino group to nitryl followed by hydroxylation is a minor process. Our findings reveal that direct photolysis is the dominant transformation pathway of PABA in natural sunlit waters, while the presence of DOM could evidently influence such process by light screening effect, energy transfer, electron transfer and proton abstraction mechanism. The findings in this study provide useful information for understanding of interaction between DOM and organic contaminants. PMID

  6. Method for separating actinides. [Patent application; stripping of Np from organic extractant

    DOEpatents

    Friedman, H.A.; Toth, L.M.

    1980-11-10

    An organic solution used for processing spent nuclear reactor fuels is contacted with an aqueous nitric acid solution to strip Np(VI), U(VI), and Pu(IV) from the organic solution into the acid solution. The acid solution is exposed to ultraviolet light, which reduces Np(VI) to Np(V) without reducing U(VI) and Pu(IV). Since the solubility of Np(V) in the organic solution is much lower than that of Np(VI), U(VI), and Pu(IV), a major part of the Np is stripped from the organic solution while leaving most of the U and Pu therein.

  7. Extractability of elements in sugar maple xylem along a gradient of soil acidity.

    PubMed

    Bilodeau Gauthier, Simon; Houle, Daniel; Gagnon, Christian; Côté, Benoît; Messier, Christian

    2008-01-01

    Dendrochemistry has been used for the historical dating of pollution. Its reliability is questionable due primarily to the radial mobility of elements in sapwood. In the present study, the extractability of seven elements was characterized to assess their suitability for the monitoring of environmental conditions. Nine mature sugar maple trees (Acer saccharum Marsh.), a wide-ranging species in eastern North America that has suffered decline in past decades, were sampled in three Quebec watersheds along a soil acidity gradient. Five-year groups of annual tree rings were treated by sequential chemical extractions using extractants of varying strength (deionized H2O, 0.05 M HCl, and concentrated HNO(3)) to selectively solubilize the elements into three fractions (water-soluble, acid-soluble, and residual). Monovalent K; divalent Ba, Ca, Cd, Mg, Mn; and trivalent Al cations were found mostly in the water-soluble, acid-soluble, and residual fractions, respectively. Forms more likely to be mobile within the tree (water-soluble and acid-soluble) do not seem to be suitable for temporal monitoring because of potential lateral redistribution in sapwood rings. However, certain elements (Cd, Mn) were responsive to current soil acidity and could be used in spatial variation monitoring. Extractability of Al varied according to soil acidity; at less acidic sites, up to 90% of Al was contained in the residual form, whereas on very acidic soils, as much as 45% was found in the water-soluble and acid-soluble fractions. Sequential extractions can be useful for determining specific forms of metals as key indicators of soil acidification.

  8. Studies of the acidic components of the Colorado Green River formation oil shale-Mass spectrometric identification of the methyl esters of extractable acids.

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Haug, P.; Schnoes, H. K.; Burlingame, A. L.

    1971-01-01

    Study of solvent extractable acidic constituents of oil shale from the Colorado Green River Formation. Identification of individual components is based on gas chromatographic and mass spectrometric data obtained for their respective methyl esters. Normal acids, isoprenoidal acids, alpha, omega-dicarboxylic acids, mono-alpha-methyl dicarboxylic acids and methyl ketoacids were identified. In addition, the presence of monocyclic, benzoic, phenylalkanoic and naphthyl-carboxylic acids, as well as cycloaromatic acids, is demonstrated by partial identification.

  9. Organics Characterization Of DWPF Alternative Reductant Simulants, Glycolic Acid, And Antifoam 747

    SciTech Connect

    White, T. L.; Wiedenman, B. J.; Lambert, D. P.; Crump, S. L.; Fondeur, F. F.; Papathanassiu, A. E.; Kot, W. K.; Pegg, I. L.

    2013-10-01

    of impurities such as formic and diglycolic acid that were then carried over in the SME products. Oxalic acid present in the simulated tank farm waste was also detected. Finally, numerous other compounds, at low concentrations, were observed present in etheric extracts of aqueous supernate solutions of the SME samples and are thought to be breakdown products of antifoam 747. The data collectively suggest that although addition of glycolic acid and antifoam 747 will introduce a number of impurities and breakdown products into the melter feed, the concentrations of these organics is expected to remain low and may not significantly impact REDOX or off-gas flammability predictions. In the SME products examined presently, which contained variant amounts of glycolic acid and antifoam 747, no unexpected organic degradation product was found at concentrations above 500 mg/kg, a reasonable threshold concentration for an organic compound to be taken into account in the REDOX modeling. This statement does not include oxalic or formic acid that were sometimes observed above 500 mg/kg and acetic acid that has an analytical detection limit of 1250 mg/kg due to high glycolate concentration in the SME products tested. Once a finalized REDOX equation has been developed and implemented, REDOX properties of known organic species will be determined and their impact assessed. Although no immediate concerns arose during the study in terms of a negative impact of organics present in SME products of the glycolic flowsheet, evidence of antifoam degradation suggest that an alternative antifoam to antifoam 747 is worth considering. The determination and implementation of an antifoam that is more hydrolysis resistant would have benefits such as increasing its effectiveness over time and reducing the generation of degradation products.

  10. Comparison of an automated nucleic acid extraction system with the column-based procedure

    PubMed Central

    Hinz, Rebecca; Hagen, Ralf Matthias

    2015-01-01

    Here, we assessed the extraction efficiency of a deployable bench-top nucleic acid extractor EZ1 in comparison to the column-based approach with complex sample matrices. A total of 48 EDTA blood samples and 81 stool samples were extracted by EZ1 automated extraction and the column-based QIAamp DNA Mini Kit. Blood sample extractions were assessed by two real-time malaria PCRs, while stool samples were analyzed by six multiplex real-time PCR assays targeting bacterial, viral, and parasitic stool pathogens. Inhibition control PCR testing was performed as well. In total, 147 concordant and 13 discordant pathogen-specific PCR results were obtained. The latter comprised 11 positive results after column-based extraction only and two positive results after EZ1 extraction only. EZ1 extraction showed a higher frequency of inhibition. This phenomenon was, however, inconsistent for the different PCR schemes. In case of concordant PCR results, relevant differences of cycle threshold numbers for the compared extraction schemes were not observed. Switches from well-established column-based extraction to extraction with the automated EZ1 system do not lead to a relevantly reduced yield of target DNA when complex sample matrices are used. If sample inhibition is observed, column-based extraction from another sample aliquot may be considered. PMID:25883797

  11. Improved light extraction from white organic light-emitting devices using a binary random phase array

    SciTech Connect

    Inada, Yasuhisa Nishiwaki, Seiji; Hirasawa, Taku; Nakamura, Yoshitaka; Hashiya, Akira; Wakabayashi, Shin-ichi; Suzuki, Masa-aki; Matsuzaki, Jumpei

    2014-02-10

    We have developed a binary random phase array (BRPA) to improve the light extraction performance of white organic light-emitting devices (WOLEDs). We demonstrated that the scattering of incoming light can be controlled by employing diffraction optics to modify the structural parameters of the BRPA. Applying a BRPA to the substrate of the WOLED leads to enhanced extraction efficiency and suppression of angle-dependent color changes. Our systematic study clarifies the effect of scattering on the light extraction of WOLEDs.

  12. Searching for amino-acid homochirality on Mars with the Mars Organic Molecule Analyzer (MOMA) onboard ExoMars

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Buch, A.; Freissinet, C.; Sternberg, R.; Brault, A.; Szopa, C.; Claude-Geffroy, C.; Coll, P. J.; Grand, N.; Raulin, F.; Pinick, V.; Goesmann, F.

    2012-12-01

    The joint ESA-Roscosmos Exo-Mars-2018 rover mission plans to seek the signs of a past or a present life on Mars. The Mars Organic Molecule Analyzer (MOMA) experiment onboard theExoMars rover will be a key analytical tool in providing molecular information from Mars solid samples, with a specific focus on the characterization of their organic content. In this purpose, one of MOMA's main instruments is a gas chromatograph-mass spectrometer (GC-MS), which provides a unique ability to characterize a broad range of compounds and allow chemical analyses on volatile and refractory species. The challenge with the analysis of this refractory matter embedded in soil is their primary extraction before their analysis by GC-MS. Since the extraction of organic matter is not possible by liquid solvent extraction, we have developed a method based on the thermodesorption and subsequent derivatization of the organic molecules. The goal of the thermodesorption is to extract the organic matter by heating the sample quickly enough not to degrade its organic content. One of the main focuses is to determine the chirality of this organic matter, notably amino acids. Indeed, on Earth, homochirality of molecules is an indicator for the presence of life. Amino acids appear to bear only the left-handed form (L) in living system. However, other refractory compounds can raise interest: nucleobases, carboxylic acids and PAHs are among molecules supported by life as we know it, and all of them can display chirality. The intrinsic chirality of molecules being thermosensitive, the thermodesorption parameters have been adjusted to occur within a range of temperatures from 150 °C to 300 °C over a period of 30 s to 10 min, depending on the chemical compound. Under these conditions, we have shown that amino acids are not degraded and that their chirality is preserved. Once extracted, refractory molecules with labile hydrogens (e.g. amino acids, nucleobases, carboxylic acids, etc.) are derivatized

  13. [FTIR investigation of organic phase containing rare earth ion in naphthenic acid-phosphonate ester-heptane system].

    PubMed

    Yin, Wen-Xuan; Liu, Yu-Feng; Zhang, Yuan-Fu; Weng, Shi-Fu; Wu, Jin-Guang

    2006-05-01

    Naphthenic acid (NA) was mixed with PC88A in heptane, and 10 moL x L(-1) KOH aqueous solution was used to saponify the solution subsequently. The transparent and clear appearance of the obtained solution indicated the formation of w/o micell and microemusion. In the present study, micell with high saponification percentage (80%) was used to extract neodymium. The organic phase structure was characterized using FTIR spectroscopy in the extraction process. IR spectra indicate that the characteristic peaks of nu(COOH), nu(s)(COO-) and nu(P=O) shift to lower wavenumbers as the loading of Nd in organic phase increases. The results demonstrated that Nd(III) are coordinated to P=O and COO- groups simultaneously, and the supramolecules with self-assembly structure was formed containing PC88A and NA, which were binding with Nd(III) in the extracted organic phase.

  14. Bonded-phase extraction column isolation of organic compounds in groundwater at a hazardous waste site

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Rostad, C.E.; Pereira, W.E.; Ratcliff, S.M.

    1984-01-01

    A procedure for isolation of hazardous organic compounds from water for gas chromatography/mass spectrometry analysis Is presented and applied to creosote- and pentachlorophenol-contaminated groundwater resulting from wood-treatment processes. This simple procedure involved passing a 50-100-mL sample through a bonded-phase extraction column, eluting the trapped organic compounds from the column with 2-4 mL of solvent, and evaporating the sample to 100 ??L with a stream of dry nitrogen, after which the sample was ready for gas chromatography/mass spectrometry analysis. Representative compounds indicative of creosote contamination were used for recovery and precision studies from the cyclohexyl-bonded phase. Recovery of these compounds from n-octyl-, n-octadecyl-, cyclohexyl-, and phenyl-bonded phases was compared. The bonded phase that exhibited the best recovery and least bias toward acidic or basic cmpounds was the n-octadecyl phase. Detailed compound Identification Is given for compounds Isolated from creosote- and pentachlorophenol-contaminated groundwater using the cyclohexyl-bonded phase.

  15. Preparation of porous clay minerals with organic-inorganic hybrid pillars using solvent-extraction route.

    PubMed

    Nakatsuji, Minori; Ishii, Ryo; Wang, Zheng-Ming; Ooi, Kenta

    2004-04-01

    A microporous clay mineral with organic-inorganic hybrid pillars was synthesized using a hydrochloric acid (HCl)/ethanol extraction method after intercalation of tetraethoxysilane (TEOS) or TEOS/methyltriethoxysilane (MTS) into the cetyltrimetylammonium ion (CTA)-exchanged vermiculite. The products retained their layered structure, due to the formation of stable pillars by the polymerization of hydrolyzed TEOS and MTS during the HCl/ethanol treatment. The BET surface areas, which increased to above 500 m2g(-1) with an increase in the HCl concentration up to 0.4 moldm(-3), are nearly equal to that of the calcined product obtained by the conventional method. However, the pore sizes of HCl/ethanol-treated materials were narrower than those of the calcined product, owing to the formation of the polysiloxane networks in the gallery. A water adsorption study showed that the product treated with a TEOS/MTS mixture had a hydrophobic surface as a result of the successful incorporation of methyl groups at the surface of the pillars. This novel method is advantageous for the synthesis of organophilic pillared clays with different kinds of organic materials in the interlayers. PMID:14985033

  16. Technology Demonstration Summary: CF Systems Organics Extraction System, New Bedford Harbor, Massachusetts

    EPA Science Inventory

    The Site Program demonstration of CF Systems' organics extraction technology was conducted to obtain specific operating and cost information that could be used in evaluating the potential applicability of the technology to Superfund sites. The demonstration was conducted concurr...

  17. Extraction and Esterification of Low-Titer Short-Chain Volatile Fatty Acids from Anaerobic Fermentation with Ionic Liquids.

    PubMed

    Andersen, Stephen J; Berton, Jan K E T; Naert, Pieter; Gildemyn, Sylvia; Rabaey, Korneel; Stevens, Christian V

    2016-08-23

    Ionic liquids can both act as a solvent and mediate esterification to valorize low-titer volatile fatty acids and generate organic solvents from renewable carbon sources including biowaste and CO2 . In this study, four phosphonium ionic liquids were tested for single-stage extraction of acetic acid from a dilute stream and esterification to ethyl acetate with added ethanol and heat. The esterification proceeded with a maximum conversion of 85.9±1.3 % after 30 min at 75 °C at a 1:1 stoichiometric ratio of reactants. Extraction and esterification can be tailored using mixed-anion ionic liquids; this is demonstrated herein using a common trihexyl(tetradecyl)phosphonium cation and a mixed chloride and bis(trifluoromethylsulfonyl)imide anion ionic liquid. As a further proof-of-concept, ethyl acetate was generated from an ionic liquid-driven esterification of an acetic acid extractant generated using CO2 as the only carbon source by microbial electrosynthesis.

  18. Extraction and Esterification of Low-Titer Short-Chain Volatile Fatty Acids from Anaerobic Fermentation with Ionic Liquids.

    PubMed

    Andersen, Stephen J; Berton, Jan K E T; Naert, Pieter; Gildemyn, Sylvia; Rabaey, Korneel; Stevens, Christian V

    2016-08-23

    Ionic liquids can both act as a solvent and mediate esterification to valorize low-titer volatile fatty acids and generate organic solvents from renewable carbon sources including biowaste and CO2 . In this study, four phosphonium ionic liquids were tested for single-stage extraction of acetic acid from a dilute stream and esterification to ethyl acetate with added ethanol and heat. The esterification proceeded with a maximum conversion of 85.9±1.3 % after 30 min at 75 °C at a 1:1 stoichiometric ratio of reactants. Extraction and esterification can be tailored using mixed-anion ionic liquids; this is demonstrated herein using a common trihexyl(tetradecyl)phosphonium cation and a mixed chloride and bis(trifluoromethylsulfonyl)imide anion ionic liquid. As a further proof-of-concept, ethyl acetate was generated from an ionic liquid-driven esterification of an acetic acid extractant generated using CO2 as the only carbon source by microbial electrosynthesis. PMID:27390131

  19. Effect of ethanolic extract of leaves of Paederia foetida Linn. on acetic acid induced colitis in albino rats

    PubMed Central

    Das, Swarnamoni; Kanodia, Lalit; Mukherjee, Apurba; Hakim, Abdul

    2013-01-01

    Objectives: To evaluate the effect of ethanolic extract of leaves of Paederia foetida on acetic acid induced colitis in albino rats. Materials and Methods: Ethanolic extract of Paederia foetida (EEPF) was prepared by percolation method. Acute toxicity test was done by using Organization for Economic Cooperation and Development guidelines. Albino rats were divided into four groups of five animals each. Groups A and B received 3% gum acacia. Groups C and D received EEPF 500 mg/kg body weight (BW) and 5-aminosalisylic acid 100 mg/kg BW respectively. Colitis was induced by transrectal administration of 4% acetic acid on 5th day. All animals were sacrificed after 48 h of colitis induction and distal 10 cm of the colon was dissected. Colon was weighed for disease activity index (DAI) and scored macroscopically and microscopically. Biochemical assessment of tissue myeloperoxidase (MPO), catalase (CAT) and superoxide dismutase (SOD) was done in colonic tissue homogenate and malondialdehyde (MDA) was estimated in serum. Results: P. foetida showed significant (P < 0.05) reduction in DAI, macroscopic and microscopic lesion score as well as significant (P < 0.05) improvement in MPO, MDA, CAT, and SOD level as compared to Group B. Conclusions: The ethanolic extract of leaves of P. foetida showed significant amelioration of experimentally induced colitis, which may be attributed to its anti-inflammatory and antioxidant property. PMID:24130378

  20. Effects of raspberry fruit extracts and ellagic acid on respiratory burst in murine macrophages.

    PubMed

    Raudone, Lina; Bobinaite, Ramune; Janulis, Valdimaras; Viskelis, Pranas; Trumbeckaite, Sonata

    2014-06-01

    The mechanism of action of polyphenolic compounds is attributed to their antioxidant, anti-inflammatory, and anti-proliferative properties and their effects on subcellular signal transduction, cell cycle impairment and apoptosis. A raspberry (Rubus idaeus L.) fruit extract contains various antioxidant active compounds, particularly ellagic acid (EA); however the exact intracellular mechanism of their action is not fully understood. The aim of the study was to evaluate the antioxidant effect of raspberry extracts, and that of ellagic acid by assessment of the production of the reactive oxygen species (ROS) by murine macrophage J774 cells. Raspberry extracts and their active compound EA did not affect or had very minor effects on cell viability. No significant difference in the ROS generation in arachidonic acid stimulated macrophages was determined for raspberry extracts and EA whereas in the phorbol-12 myristate-13 acetate model ROS generation was significantly (p < 0.05) reduced. Our observation that raspberry pomace extracts in vitro reduce ROS production in a J774 macrophage culture suggests that raspberry extract and ellagic acid mediated antioxidant effects may be due to the regulation of NADPH oxidase activity.

  1. Direct lactic acid fermentation of Jerusalem artichoke tuber extract using Lactobacillus paracasei without acidic or enzymatic inulin hydrolysis.

    PubMed

    Choi, Hwa-Young; Ryu, Hee-Kyoung; Park, Kyung-Min; Lee, Eun Gyo; Lee, Hongweon; Kim, Seon-Won; Choi, Eui-Sung

    2012-06-01

    Lactic acid fermentation of Jerusalem artichoke tuber was performed with strains of Lactobacillus paracasei without acidic or enzymatic inulin hydrolysis prior to fermentation. Some strains of L. paracasei, notably KCTC13090 and KCTC13169, could ferment hot-water extract of Jerusalem artichoke tuber more efficiently compared with other Lactobacillus spp. such as L. casei type strain KCTC3109. The L. paracasei strains could utilize almost completely the fructo-oligosaccharides present in Jerusalem artichoke. Inulin-fermenting L. paracasei strains produced c.a. six times more lactic acid compared with L. casei KCTC3109. Direct lactic fermentation of Jerusalem artichoke tuber extract at 111.6g/L of sugar content with a supplement of 5 g/L of yeast extract by L. paracasei KCTC13169 in a 5L jar fermentor produced 92.5 ce:hsp sp="0.25"/>g/L of lactic acid with 16.8 g/L fructose equivalent remained unutilized in 72 h. The conversion efficiency of inulin-type sugars to lactic acid was 98% of the theoretical yield.

  2. SUPERCRITICAL FLUID EXTRACTION OF SEMI-VOLATILE ORGANIC COMPOUNDS FROM PARTICLES

    EPA Science Inventory

    A nitrogen oxide flux chamber was modified to measure the flux of semi-volatile organic compounds (SVOCs). Part of the modification involved the development of methods to extract SVOCs from polyurethane foam (PUF), sand, and soil. Breakthroughs and extraction efficiencies were ...

  3. Reversible Acid Gas Capture Using CO2-Binding Organic Liquids

    SciTech Connect

    Heldebrant, David J.; Koech, Phillip K.; Yonker, Clement R.; Rainbolt, James E.; Zheng, Feng

    2010-08-31

    Acid gas scrubbing technology is predominantly aqueous alkanolamine based. Of the acid gases, CO2, H2S and SO2 have been shown to be reversible, however there are serious disadvantages with corrosion and high regeneration costs. The primary scrubbing system composed of monoethanolamine is limited to 30% by weight because of the highly corrosive solution. This gravimetric limitation limits the CO2 volumetric (≤108 g/L) and gravimetric capacity (≤7 wt%) of the system. Furthermore the scrubbing system has a large energy penalty from pumping and heating the excess water required to dissolve the MEA bicarbonate salt. Considering the high specific heat of water (4 j/g-1K-1), low capacities and the high corrosion we set out to design a fully organic solvent that can chemically bind all acid gases i.e. CO2 as reversible alkylcarbonate ionic liquids or analogues thereof. Having a liquid acid gas carrier improves process economics because there is no need for excess solvent to pump and to heat. We have demonstrated illustrated in Figure 1, that CO2-binding organic liquids (CO2BOLs) have a high CO2 solubility paired with a much lower specific heat (<1.5 J/g-1K-1) than aqueous systems. CO2BOLs are a subsection of a larger class of materials known as Binding Organic Liquids (BOLs). Our BOLs have been shown to reversibly bind and release COS, CS2, and SO2, which we denote COSBOLS, CS2BOLs and SO2BOLs. Our BOLs are highly tunable and can be designed for post or pre-combustion gas capture. The design and testing of the next generation zwitterionic CO2BOLs and SO2BOLs are presented.

  4. Pressurized liquid extraction and HPLC quantification of folic acid in fortified wheat flours.

    PubMed

    Araújo, Michel Mozeika; Marchioni, Eric; Villavicencio, Anna Lucia Casañas Haasis; Zhao, Minjie; Zimmermann, Pierre; El-Khoury, Etienne; Bergaentzle, Martine

    2012-08-01

    A pressurized liquid extraction (PLE) method using phosphate buffer as solvent was applied for folic acid (FA) extraction from fortified wheat flours and was compared to a standard solid-liquid extraction (SLE) method. Extracted FA was quantified by reverse phase high-performance liquid chromatography (RP-HPLC) hyphenated with a phenyl column and an absorption photometric detector (λ = 280 nm). Detection and quantification limits were 0.12 and 0.4 ng, respectively, corresponding to 0.06 and 0.2 μg g(-1) of analyzed wheat flour. Equivalent FA contents were found by both extraction methods, but a single PLE allowed a total recovery of FA content, whereas at least three successive SLEs were needed to achieve a total recovery of FA. The obtained results indicated that PLE is a rapid and efficient technique for FA extraction from fortified wheat flour.

  5. Comparative evaluation of volatiles, phenolics, sugars, organic acids and antioxidant properties of Sel-42 and Tainung papaya varieties.

    PubMed

    Kelebek, Hasim; Selli, Serkan; Gubbuk, Hamide; Gunes, Esma

    2015-04-15

    The present study was designed to determine the phenolic compounds, organic acids, sugars, aroma profiles and antioxidant properties of Sel-42 and Tainung papayas grown in Turkey. High-performance liquid chromatography/electrospray ionisation tandem mass spectrometry (HPLC-ESI-MS/MS) method was used for the phenolic compounds analysis. Twelve phenolic compounds were identified and quantified in the samples. The total phenolic content of Sel-42 was clearly higher than that of Tainung. Protocatechuic acid-hexoside, gallic acid-deoxyhexoside, ferulic acid and chlorogenic acids were the most abundant phenolics in both cultivars. Aroma composition of papaya was analysed by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS). A total of 46 and 42 aroma compounds, including esters, alcohols, terpenes, lactones, acids, carbonyl compounds, and volatile phenols were identified in the Sel-42 and Tainung, respectively. The significant linear correlation was confirmed between the values for the total phenolic content and antioxidant activity of papaya extracts.

  6. Comparison of Three Solid Phase Materials for the Extraction of Carboxylic Acids from River Water Followed by 2D GC × GC-TOFMS Determination.

    PubMed

    Bosire, G O; Ngila, J C; Parshotam, H

    2016-01-01

    The extraction and determination of aliphatic and aromatic carboxylic acids as well as their influence on the aromaticity and molecularity relationship of natural organic matter (NOM) in water are reported in this study. Three solid phase extraction (SPE) sorbents were used and their extraction efficiencies evaluated after chromatographic determinations (using gas chromatography with a time of flight mass spectrometer (GC × GC-TOFMS) and liquid chromatography with organic carbon detector (LC-OCD)). More than 42 carboxylic acids were identified in raw water from the Vaal River, which feeds the Lethabo Power Generation Station, South Africa, with cooling water. The aromatic carboxylic acid efficiency (28%) was achieved by using Strata™ X SPE while the highest aliphatic carboxylic acid efficiency (92.08%) was achieved by silica SPE. The hydrophobic nature of NOM in water depends on the nature of organic compounds in water, whether aromatic or aliphatic. The LC-OCD was used to assess the hydrophobicity levels of NOM as a function of these carboxylic acids in cooling water. The LC-OCD results showed that the aromatic nature of NOM in SPE filtered water followed the order Silica>Strata X>C-18. From the results, the hydrophobicity degree of the samples depended on the type and number of carboxylic acids that were removed by the SPE cartridges. PMID:27274730

  7. Comparison of Three Solid Phase Materials for the Extraction of Carboxylic Acids from River Water Followed by 2D GC × GC-TOFMS Determination.

    PubMed

    Bosire, G O; Ngila, J C; Parshotam, H

    2016-01-01

    The extraction and determination of aliphatic and aromatic carboxylic acids as well as their influence on the aromaticity and molecularity relationship of natural organic matter (NOM) in water are reported in this study. Three solid phase extraction (SPE) sorbents were used and their extraction efficiencies evaluated after chromatographic determinations (using gas chromatography with a time of flight mass spectrometer (GC × GC-TOFMS) and liquid chromatography with organic carbon detector (LC-OCD)). More than 42 carboxylic acids were identified in raw water from the Vaal River, which feeds the Lethabo Power Generation Station, South Africa, with cooling water. The aromatic carboxylic acid efficiency (28%) was achieved by using Strata™ X SPE while the highest aliphatic carboxylic acid efficiency (92.08%) was achieved by silica SPE. The hydrophobic nature of NOM in water depends on the nature of organic compounds in water, whether aromatic or aliphatic. The LC-OCD was used to assess the hydrophobicity levels of NOM as a function of these carboxylic acids in cooling water. The LC-OCD results showed that the aromatic nature of NOM in SPE filtered water followed the order Silica>Strata X>C-18. From the results, the hydrophobicity degree of the samples depended on the type and number of carboxylic acids that were removed by the SPE cartridges.

  8. Comparison of Three Solid Phase Materials for the Extraction of Carboxylic Acids from River Water Followed by 2D GC × GC-TOFMS Determination

    PubMed Central

    Bosire, G. O.; Ngila, J. C.; Parshotam, H.

    2016-01-01

    The extraction and determination of aliphatic and aromatic carboxylic acids as well as their influence on the aromaticity and molecularity relationship of natural organic matter (NOM) in water are reported in this study. Three solid phase extraction (SPE) sorbents were used and their extraction efficiencies evaluated after chromatographic determinations (using gas chromatography with a time of flight mass spectrometer (GC × GC-TOFMS) and liquid chromatography with organic carbon detector (LC-OCD)). More than 42 carboxylic acids were identified in raw water from the Vaal River, which feeds the Lethabo Power Generation Station, South Africa, with cooling water. The aromatic carboxylic acid efficiency (28%) was achieved by using Strata™ X SPE while the highest aliphatic carboxylic acid efficiency (92.08%) was achieved by silica SPE. The hydrophobic nature of NOM in water depends on the nature of organic compounds in water, whether aromatic or aliphatic. The LC-OCD was used to assess the hydrophobicity levels of NOM as a function of these carboxylic acids in cooling water. The LC-OCD results showed that the aromatic nature of NOM in SPE filtered water followed the order Silica>Strata X>C-18. From the results, the hydrophobicity degree of the samples depended on the type and number of carboxylic acids that were removed by the SPE cartridges. PMID:27274730

  9. Phytoremediation of uranium-contaminated soils: Role of organic acids in triggering uranium hyperaccumulation in plants

    SciTech Connect

    Huang, J.W.; Blaylock, M.J.; Kapulnik, Y.; Ensley, B.D.

    1998-07-01

    Uranium phytoextraction, the use of plants to extract U from contaminated soils, is an emerging technology. The authors report on the development of this technology for the cleanup of U-contaminated soils. In this research, they investigated the effects of various soil amendments on U desorption from soil to soil solution, studied the physiological characteristics of U uptake and accumulation in plants, and developed techniques to trigger U hyperaccumulation in plants. A key to the success of U phytoextraction is to increase soil U availability to plants. The authors have found that some organic acids can be added to soils to increase U desorption from soil to soil solution and to trigger a rapid U accumulation in plants. Of the organic acids (acetic acid, citric acid, and malic acid) tested, citric acid was the most effective in enhancing U accumulation in plants. Shoot U concentrations of Brassica juncea and Brassica chinensis grown in a U-contaminated soil increased from less than 5 mg kg{sup {minus}1} to more than 5,000 mg kg{sup {minus}1} in citric acid-treated soils. To their knowledge, this is the highest shoot U concentration reported for plants grown on U-contaminated soils. Using this U hyperaccumulation technique, they are now able to increase U accumulation in shoots of selected plant species grown in two U-contaminated soils by more than 1,000-fold within a few days. The results suggest that U phytoextraction may provide an environmentally friendly alternative for the cleanup of U-contaminated soils.

  10. Extraction of selected organic bases by bis 1,2-dicarbollylcobaltate anion from water into chloroform

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Navrátil, O.; Skaličan, Z.; Kobliha, Z.; Halámek, E.

    1999-01-01

    Bis-1,2-dicarbollylcobaltate anion, labelled by 60Co, forms ionic associates with cations of some organic bases and quaternary salts, especially those causing psychic effect on human organism. Their stability and partition between aqueous 0,1 mol. L-1 HCl and chloroform were investigated radiometrically. A method of competitive extraction was proposed for some anions of dyes which were so far used for extraction-spectrophotometric determination of some bases.

  11. [Optimization of extraction technology for salidroside, tyrosol, crenulatin and gallic acid in Rhodiolae Crenulatae Radix et Rhizoma with orthogonal test].

    PubMed

    Luo, Xin; Wang, Xue-jing; Zhao, Yi-wu; Huang, Wen-zhe; Wang, Zhen-zhong; Xiao, Wei

    2015-09-01

    The extracting technology of salidroside, tyrosol, crenulatin and gallic acid from Rhodiolae Crenulatae Radix et Rhizoma was optimized. With extraction rate of salidroside, tyrosol, crenulatin and gallic acid as indexes, orthogonal test was used to evaluate effect of 4 factors on extracting technology, including concentration of solvent, the dosage of solvent, duration of extraction, and frequency of extraction. The results showed that, the best extracting technology was to extract in 70% alcohol with 8 times the weight of herbal medicine for 2 times, with 3 hours once. High extraction rate of salidroside, tyrosol, crenulatin and gallic acid were obtained with the present technology. The extracting technology was stable and feasible with high extraction rate of four compounds from Rhodiolae Crenulatae Radix et Rhizoma, it was suitable for industrial production.

  12. Microbial process for the preparation of acetic acid, as well as solvent for its extraction from the fermentation broth

    DOEpatents

    Gaddy, James L.; Clausen, Edgar C.; Ko, Ching-Whan; Wade, Leslie E.; Wikstrom, Carl V.

    2007-03-27

    A modified water-immiscible solvent useful in the extraction of acetic acid from aqueous streams is a substantially pure mixture of isomers of highly branched di-alkyl amines. Solvent mixtures formed of such a modified solvent with a desired co-solvent, preferably a low boiling hydrocarbon, are useful in the extraction of acetic acid from aqueous gaseous streams. An anaerobic microbial fermentation process for the production of acetic acid employs such solvents, under conditions which limit amide formation by the solvent and thus increase the efficiency of acetic acid recovery. Methods for the direct extraction of acetic acid and the extractive fermentation of acetic acid also employ the modified solvents and increase efficiency of acetic acid production. Such increases in efficiency are also obtained where the energy source for the microbial fermentation contains carbon dioxide and the method includes a carbon dioxide stripping step prior to extraction of acetic acid in solvent.

  13. Microbial process for the preparation of acetic acid, as well as solvent for its extraction from the fermentation broth

    DOEpatents

    Gaddy, James L.; Clausen, Edgar C.; Ko, Ching-Whan; Wade, Leslie E.; Wikstrom, Carl V.

    2004-06-22

    A modified water-immiscible solvent useful in the extraction of acetic acid from aqueous streams is a substantially pure mixture of isomers of highly branched di-alkyl amines. Solvent mixtures formed of such a modified solvent with a desired co-solvent, preferably a low boiling hydrocarbon, are useful in the extraction of acetic acid from aqueous gaseous streams. An anaerobic microbial fermentation process for the production of acetic acid employs such solvents, under conditions which limit amide formation by the solvent and thus increase the efficiency of acetic acid recovery. Methods for the direct extraction of acetic acid and the extractive fermentation of acetic acid also employ the modified solvents and increase efficiency of acetic acid production. Such increases in efficiency are also obtained where the energy source for the microbial fermentation contains carbon dioxide and the method includes a carbon dioxide stripping step prior to extraction of acetic acid in solvent.

  14. Studies on tropane alkaloid extraction by volatile organic solvents: dichloromethane vs. chloroform.

    PubMed

    El Jaber-Vazdekis, Nabil; Gutierrez-Nicolas, Fátima; Ravelo, Angel G; Zárate, Rafael

    2006-01-01

    In order to investigate the production of tropane alkaloids by hairy roots of Atropa baetica, transgenic for the gene h6h encoding the enzyme hyoscyamine 6beta-hydroxylase, solvent extraction with chloroform and with dichloromethane of the metabolites present in the liquid medium and in the root tissue was compared. The extraction of scopolamine from the liquid medium was equally effective with either solvent, giving maximum values of around 850 microg/flask. For the roots, three different extraction methods were employed: A, employing chloroform:methanol: (25%) ammonia (15:5:1) for initial extraction, followed by treatment with sulfuric acid and ammonia, and using chloroform for the final extraction and washes; B, as A but using dichloromethane for extraction and washes; and C, as B but substituting chloroform for dichloromethane in the extraction cocktail. Scopolamine was the most abundant metabolite (present in amounts of 3250-3525 microg/g dry weight) and presented similar extraction efficiencies with all of the extraction methods employed. The highest amounts of hyoscyamine and the intermediate 6beta-hydxoxyhyoscyamine were present on day 31 (800 and 975 microg/g dry weight, respectively) and no statistical differences between the three extraction methods employed were detected. This study confirms that, for the extraction of tropane alkaloids, dichloromethane can replace the commonly employed chloroform, the use of which incurs major health, security and regulation problems. PMID:16634287

  15. Artificially MoO3 graded ITO anodes for acidic buffer layer free organic photovoltaics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lee, Hye-Min; Kim, Seok-Soon; Kim, Han-Ki

    2016-02-01

    We report characteristics of MoO3 graded ITO anodes prepared by a RF/DC graded sputtering for acidic poly(3,4-ethylene dioxylene thiophene):poly(styrene sulfonic acid) (PEDOT:PSS)-free organic solar cells (OSCs). Graded sputtering of the MoO3 buffer layer on top of the ITO layer produced MoO3 graded ITO anodes with a sheet resistance of 12.67 Ω/square, a resistivity of 2.54 × 10-4 Ω cm, and an optical transmittance of 86.78%, all of which were comparable to a conventional ITO anode. In addition, the MoO3 graded ITO electrode showed a greater work function of 4.92 eV than that (4.6 eV) of an ITO anode, which is beneficial for hole extraction from an organic active layer. Due to the high work function of MoO3 graded ITO electrodes, the acidic PEDOT:PSS-free OSCs fabricated on the MoO3 graded ITO electrode exhibited a power conversion efficiency 3.60% greater than that of a PEDOT:PSS-free OSC on the conventional ITO anode. The successful operation of PEDOT:PSS-free OSCs indicates simpler fabrication steps for cost-effective OSCs and elimination of interfacial reactions caused by the acidic PEDOT:PSS layer for reliable OSCs.

  16. Comparison of capillary pressure relationships of organic liquid water systems containing an organic acid or base

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lord, D. L.; Demond, A. H.; Hayes, K. F.

    2005-04-01

    The presence of surface-active solutes such as organic acids and bases may have a profound influence on the transport of organic liquid contaminants through their impact on the constitutive relationship of capillary pressure vs. saturation. This relationship is a function of the interfacial tension and wettability of the system, which, in turn, depend on the pH and the concentration of organic acids and bases that are present. This study examines the impact of pH and the concentration on the interfacial tension, contact angle, and capillary pressure of systems consisting of tetrachloroethylene, water, and quartz containing either octanoic acid or dodecylamine. In general, the ionic form of the solute tended to remain in the aqueous phase and reduced the capillary pressure through its impact on the interfacial tension and contact angle; on the other hand, the neutral form of the solute partitioned into the organic liquid phase and had a lesser impact on the capillary pressure for the same total mass of solute. A comparison of these data with data generated in previous research in similar systems where o-xylene was the organic liquid showed that the trends are analogous. Thus, the behavior of these two solvent systems seems to be driven primarily by the aqueous phase speciation of the solute, and the differences between the capillary pressure relationships for the two systems could be attributed to the pure system interfacial tension.

  17. Determination of total organic halogen (TOX) in humic acids after microwave-induced combustion.

    PubMed

    Pereira, Juliana S F; Moreira, Clarissa M; Albers, Christian N; Jacobsen, Ole S; Flores, Erico M M

    2011-04-01

    Chemically chlorinated organic matter as well as natural background humic acids contain significant amounts of organically bound halogens that must be determined for assessment of environmental pollution. In this work the use of ion chromatography (IC) and inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (ICP-MS) is proposed for the determination of total organic Cl, Br and I concentration in humic acids extracted from various forest soil horizons after a single digestion by microwave-induced combustion (MIC). Samples were pressed as pellets and combusted using 20 bar of oxygen and ammonium nitrate solution as igniter. Analytes were absorbed in diluted alkaline solution (50mM (NH(4))(2)CO(3)) and a reflux step was applied after combustion to improve analyte recoveries (5 min, microwave power of 1400W). The accuracy was evaluated using certified reference materials (CRM) and spiked samples. Using MIC the agreement with CRM values and spike recoveries was higher than 97% for all analytes. As an advantage over conventional procedures, using MIC it was possible to digest up to eight samples in only 25 min, obtaining a single solution suitable for all halogens determination in humic acids samples by different techniques (IC and ICP-MS). The limit of detection (3σ) for Cl, Br and I obtained by IC was 1.2, 2.5 and 4.3μgg(-1) and by ICP-MS it was 1.4, 0.03 and 0.002μgg(-1), respectively.

  18. Exudation of organic acids by a marsh plant and implications on trace metal availability in the rhizosphere of estuarine sediments

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mucha, Ana P.; Almeida, C. Marisa R.; Bordalo, Adriano A.; Vasconcelos, M. Teresa S. D.

    2005-10-01

    The aim of this work was to identify a variety of low molecular weight organic acids exuded by the sea rush Juncus maritimus collected at two locations with different sediment characteristics (sandy and muddy) and to examine whether specific differences in physico-chemical sediment characteristics influenced plant exudation. Just after collection, plant roots were rinsed and put in contact with deionised water for 2 h. In the obtained solution the organic acids, exuded by the plants, were determined by high performance liquid chromatography. Juncus maritimus was shown to be capable of releasing malonate and oxalate. Sediments and rhizosediments (sediment in contact with the plant roots and rhizomes, corresponding to the area of higher belowground biomass) from the areas where the plants had been collected were characterised in terms of physical and chemical composition, including acid volatile sulphide and total-recoverable metals (Pb, Cr, Cu, Zn, Ni and Cd). It was found that the extent of exudation varied markedly between sites. The identified organic acids were used as extractants of metals from sediments and rhizosediments and the results were compared with those provided by a very commonly used sequential extraction approach, which was carried out in parallel. This work demonstrates that J. maritimus can release organic compounds that can act as complexing agents of trace metal and therefore organic exudates should be accounted for when dealing with estuarine environment quality.

  19. Proton-binding study of standard and reference fulvic acids, humic acids, and natural organic matter

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ritchie, Jason D.; Perdue, E. Michael

    2003-01-01

    The acid-base properties of 14 standard and reference materials from the International Humic Substances Society (IHSS) were investigated by potentiometric titration. Titrations were conducted in 0.1 M NaCl under a nitrogen atmosphere, averaging 30 min from start to finish. Concentrations of carboxyl groups and phenolic groups were estimated directly from titration curves. Titration data were also fit to a modified Henderson-Hasselbalch model for two classes of proton-binding sites to obtain "best fit" parameters that describe proton-binding curves for the samples. The model was chosen for its simplicity, its ease of implementation in computer spreadsheets, and its excellent ability to describe the shapes of the titration curves. The carboxyl contents of the IHSS samples are in the general order: terrestrial fulvic acids > aquatic fulvic acids > Suwannee River natural organic matter (NOM) > aquatic humic acids > terrestrial humic acids. Overall, fulvic acids and humic acids have similar phenolic contents; however, all of the aquatically derived samples have higher phenolic contents than the terrestrially derived samples. The acid-base properties of reference Suwannee River NOM are surprisingly similar to those of standard Suwannee River humic acid. Results from titrations in this study were compared with other published results from both direct and indirect titrations. Typically, carboxyl contents for the IHSS samples were in agreement with the results from both methods of titration. Phenolic contents for the IHSS samples were comparable to those determined by direct titrations, but were significantly less than estimates of phenolic content that were based on indirect titrations with Ba(OH) 2 and Ca(OAc) 2. The average phenolic-to-carboxylic ratio of the IHSS samples is approximately 1:4. Models that assume a 1:2 ratio of phenolic-to-carboxylic groups may overestimate the relative contribution of phenolic groups to the acid-base chemistry of humic substances.

  20. Nickel deficiency disrupts metabolism of ureides, amino acids, and organic acids of young pecan foliage.

    PubMed

    Bai, Cheng; Reilly, Charles C; Wood, Bruce W

    2006-02-01

    The existence of nickel (Ni) deficiency is becoming increasingly apparent in crops, especially for ureide-transporting woody perennials, but its physiological role is poorly understood. We evaluated the concentrations of ureides, amino acids, and organic acids in photosynthetic foliar tissue from Ni-sufficient (Ni-S) versus Ni-deficient (Ni-D) pecan (Carya illinoinensis [Wangenh.] K. Koch). Foliage of Ni-D pecan seedlings exhibited metabolic disruption of nitrogen metabolism via ureide catabolism, amino acid metabolism, and ornithine cycle intermediates. Disruption of ureide catabolism in Ni-D foliage resulted in accumulation of xanthine, allantoic acid, ureidoglycolate, and citrulline, but total ureides, urea concentration, and urease activity were reduced. Disruption of amino acid metabolism in Ni-D foliage resulted in accumulation of glycine, valine, isoleucine, tyrosine, tryptophan, arginine, and total free amino acids, and lower concentrations of histidine and glutamic acid. Ni deficiency also disrupted the citric acid cycle, the second stage of respiration, where Ni-D foliage contained very low levels of citrate compared to Ni-S foliage. Disruption of carbon metabolism was also via accumulation of lactic and oxalic acids. The results indicate that mouse-ear, a key morphological symptom, is likely linked to the toxic accumulation of oxalic and lactic acids in the rapidly growing tips and margins of leaflets. Our results support the role of Ni as an essential plant nutrient element. The magnitude of metabolic disruption exhibited in Ni-D pecan is evidence of the existence of unidentified physiological roles for Ni in pecan. PMID:16415214

  1. Multiresponse optimization of an extraction procedure of carnosol and rosmarinic and carnosic acids from rosemary.

    PubMed

    Oliveira, Gerlon de A R; de Oliveira, Anselmo E; da Conceição, Edemílson C; Leles, Maria I G

    2016-11-15

    A green solvent-based optimization for rosmarinic acid (RA), carnosol (COH), and carnosic acid (CA) extraction, the three main antioxidants from rosemary, was performed. The conventional solid-liquid extraction was optimized using a central composite design (CCD) followed by the desirability approach. In the CCD analysis the quantitative effects of extraction time (4.8-55.2min), liquid-to-solid ratio (4.6-21.4mLg(-1)), and ethanol content (44.8-95.2% v/v) were determined for the extracted amount of antioxidants, their concentrations in the extract, and the extraction yield. Samples were analyzed by HPLC and the antioxidants were identified by comparison with pure standard retention times and UV spectra. The desirability function that simultaneously maximizes the antioxidants extraction and their concentrations in the final product was validated. The extraction using a hydroalcoholic solution 70% v/v, at low liquid-to-solid ratio (5mLg(-1)), and after 55-min yielded an antioxidant recovery rate of 89.8%, and a final product 4.75 times richer in the main antioxidants than the raw material.

  2. Multiresponse optimization of an extraction procedure of carnosol and rosmarinic and carnosic acids from rosemary.

    PubMed

    Oliveira, Gerlon de A R; de Oliveira, Anselmo E; da Conceição, Edemílson C; Leles, Maria I G

    2016-11-15

    A green solvent-based optimization for rosmarinic acid (RA), carnosol (COH), and carnosic acid (CA) extraction, the three main antioxidants from rosemary, was performed. The conventional solid-liquid extraction was optimized using a central composite design (CCD) followed by the desirability approach. In the CCD analysis the quantitative effects of extraction time (4.8-55.2min), liquid-to-solid ratio (4.6-21.4mLg(-1)), and ethanol content (44.8-95.2% v/v) were determined for the extracted amount of antioxidants, their concentrations in the extract, and the extraction yield. Samples were analyzed by HPLC and the antioxidants were identified by comparison with pure standard retention times and UV spectra. The desirability function that simultaneously maximizes the antioxidants extraction and their concentrations in the final product was validated. The extraction using a hydroalcoholic solution 70% v/v, at low liquid-to-solid ratio (5mLg(-1)), and after 55-min yielded an antioxidant recovery rate of 89.8%, and a final product 4.75 times richer in the main antioxidants than the raw material. PMID:27283656

  3. Predictions of diagenetic reactions in the presence of organic acids

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Harrison, Wendy J.; Thyne, Geoffrey D.

    1992-02-01

    Stability constants have been estimated for cation complexes with anions of monofunctional and difunctional acids (combinations of Ca, Mg, Fe, Al, Sr, Mn, U, Th, Pb, Cu, Zn with formate, acetate, propionate, oxalate, malonate, succinate, and salicylate) between 0 and 200°C. Difunctional acid anions form much more stable complexes than monofunctional acid anions with aluminum; the importance of the aluminum-acetate complex is relatively minor in comparison to aluminum oxalate and malonate complexes. Divalent metal cations such as Mg, Ca, and Fe form more stable complexes with acetate than with difunctional acid anions. Aluminum-oxalate can dominate the species distribution of aluminum under acidic pH conditions, whereas the divalent cation-acetate and oxalate complexes rarely account for more than 60% of the total dissolved cation, and then only in more alkaline waters. Mineral thermodynamic affinities were calculated using the reaction path model EQ3/6 for waters having variable organic acid anion (OAA) contents under conditions representative of those found during normal burial diagenesis. The following scenarios are possible: 1) K-feldspar and albite are stable, anorthite dissolves 2) All feldpars are stable 3) Carbonates can be very unstable to slightly unstable, but never increase in stability. Organic acid anions are ineffective at neutral to alkaline pH in modifying stabilities of aluminosilicate minerals whereas the anions are variably effective under a wide range of pH in modifying carbonate mineral stabilities. Reaction path calculations demonstrate that the sequence of mineral reactions occurring in an arkosic sandstone-fluid system is only slightly modified by the presence of OAA. A spectrum of possible sandstone alteration mineralogies can be obtained depending on the selected boundary conditions: EQ3/6 predictions include quartz overgrowth, calcite replacement of plagioclase, albitization of plagioclase, and the formation of porosity-occluding calcite

  4. Antioxidant activity and sensory analysis of a rosmarinic acid-enriched extract of garden sage (Salvia officinalis)

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    A novel extract of S. officinalis (garden sage) was prepared using supercritical carbon dioxide (SC-CO2) extraction, followed by a Soxhlet hot water extraction. The resulting extract was enriched in polyphenols, including rosmarinic acid (RA), which has shown promising health benefits in animals. Th...

  5. Extractive spectrophotometric and fluorimetric determination of boron with 2,2,4-trimethyl-1,3-pentanediaol and carminic acid.

    PubMed

    Aznarez, J; Ferrer, A; Rabadan, J M; Marco, L

    1985-12-01

    Boric acid at mug ml or ng ml level can be extracted from 1-6M hydrochloric acid into 2,2,4-trimethyl-1,3-pentanediol solution in chloroform and thus separated from many ions which interfere in the usual spectrophotometric methods. The boron is determined directly in the organic phase without back-extraction into water, by adding a solution of carminic acid in a mixture of sulphuric and glacial acetic acids (1+2 v v ) and measuring the absorbance at 549 nm. The molar absorptivity is 2.58 x 10(4) l.mole(-1).cm(-1) and Beer's law is valid for the 0.05-0.4 mug ml boron range. In the fluorimetric method, 509 or 547 nm can be used as the excitation wavelength and 567 nm for emission measurement, giving a linear response in the 8-120 ng ml boron range. Both methods have been applied to determination of boron in plants and natural waters with good precision and accuracy. PMID:18963973

  6. Crystal and molecular structure of eight organic acid-base adducts from 2-methylquinoline and different acids

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Jing; Jin, Shouwen; Tao, Lin; Liu, Bin; Wang, Daqi

    2014-08-01

    Eight supramolecular complexes with 2-methylquinoline and acidic components as 4-aminobenzoic acid, 2-aminobenzoic acid, salicylic acid, 5-chlorosalicylic acid, 3,5-dinitrosalicylic acid, malic acid, sebacic acid, and 1,5-naphthalenedisulfonic acid were synthesized and characterized by X-ray crystallography, IR, mp, and elemental analysis. All of the complexes are organic salts except compound 2. All supramolecular architectures of 1-8 involve extensive classical hydrogen bonds as well as other noncovalent interactions. The results presented herein indicate that the strength and directionality of the classical hydrogen bonds (ionic or neutral) between acidic components and 2-methylquinoline are sufficient to bring about the formation of binary organic acid-base adducts. The role of weak and strong noncovalent interactions in the crystal packing is ascertained. These weak interactions combined, the complexes 1-8 displayed 2D-3D framework structure.

  7. Comparison of Dithiophosphinic and Phosphinic Acid Derivatives for Minor Actinide Extraction

    SciTech Connect

    Mason K Harrup; Dean R. Peterman; Thomas A. Luther; Mitchell R. Greenhalgh; John R. Klaehn

    2008-03-01

    A new extractant for the separation of actinide(III) and lanthanide(III), bis(otrifluoromethylphenyl) phosphinic acid (O-PA) was synthesized. The synthetic route employed mirrors one that was employed to produce the sulfur containing analog bis(otrifluoromethylphenyl) dithiophosphinic acid (S-PA). Multinuclear NMR spectroscopy was used for elementary characterization of the new O-PA derivative. This new O-PA extractant was used to perform Am(III)/Eu(III) separations and the results were directly compared to those obtained in identical separation experiments using S-PA, an extractant that is known to exhibit separation factors of ~100,000 at low pH. The separations data are presented and discussed in terms comparing the nature of the oxygen atom as a donor to that of the sulfur atom in extractants that are otherwise identical.

  8. Comparison of Aromatic Dithiophoshinic and Phosphinic Acid Derivatives for Minor Actinide Extraction

    SciTech Connect

    John R. Klaehn; Dean R. Peterman; Mason K. Harrup; Richard D. Tillotson; Mitchell R. Greenhalgh; Thomas A. Luther; Jack D. Law; Lee M. Daniels

    2008-03-01

    A new extractant for the separation of actinide(III) and lanthanide(III), bis(otrifluoromethylphenyl) phosphinic acid (O-PA) was synthesized. The synthetic route employed mirrors one that was employed to produce the sulfur containing analog bis(otrifluoromethylphenyl) dithiophosphinic acid (S-PA). Multinuclear NMR spectroscopy was used for elementary characterization of the new O-PA derivative. This new O-PA extractant was used to perform Am(III)/Eu(III) separations and the results were directly compared to those obtained in identical separation experiments using S-PA, an extractant that is known to exhibit separation factors of ~100,000 at low pH. The separations data are presented and discussed in terms comparing the nature of the oxygen atom as a donor to that of the sulfur atom in extractants that are otherwise identical.

  9. Effect of rosemary, echinacea, green tea extracts and ascorbic acid on broiler meat quality.

    PubMed

    Mirshekar, R; Dastar, B; Shabanpour, B

    2009-08-01

    This study evaluated the effect of addition some plant extracts and ascorbic acid in presence of distilled water as the control on the broiler thigh meat color, subsequent lipid oxidation (TBARS) and rancidity development during frozen storage of chicken thigh meat. All the extracts were used in the density of 1000 ppm. The results showed that all the antioxidants had significant effect on lipid oxidation as measured by TBARS value during frozen storage at -20 degrees C for 120 days. However, lipid oxidation only occurred to a limited extent and was insufficient to cause rancid flavor development. The results also demonstrated that rosemary and green tea were the most effective antioxidants in stabilization of a* value. Echinacea, green tea and rosemary extracts were effective antioxidants and strongly inhibited oxidation. Present findings show that these plants extracts exhibit greater antioxidant efficiency compared to ascorbic acid.

  10. Synthesis and characterization of ultraviolet light-emitting organic acids.

    PubMed

    An, Chun-Ai; Guo, Yanchao; Si, Zhenjun; Duan, Qian

    2014-05-01

    Three ultraviolet light-emitting organic acids of 3,3'-(4-phenyl-4H-1,2,4-triazole-3,5-diyl)dibenzoic acid (Tz-1), 4,4',4″-(4H-1,2,4-triazole-3,4,5-triyl)tribenzoic acid (Tz-2), and 4,4'-(4-(4'-carboxy-[1,1'-biphenyl]-4-yl)-4H-1,2,4-triazole-3,5-diyl)dibenzoic acid (Tz-3) were successfully synthesized and fully characterized by the (1)H NMR, the IR absorption spectra, and the X-ray single crystal diffraction. It was found that Tz-1, Tz-2, and Tz-3 could give out the ultraviolet photoluminescent spectra centered at 369 nm, 365 nm and 350 nm, respectively. The luminescence quantum yields of Tz-1 and Tz-2 were measured to be 0.20 and 0.14, respectively. Additionally, the density functional theory (DFT) and the time-dependent DFT calculations were also carried out for Tz-1, Tz-2, and Tz-3.

  11. Flavonoids and Phenolic Acids in Methanolic Extracts, Infusions and Tinctures from Commercial Samples of Lemon Balm.

    PubMed

    Arceusz, Agnieszka; Wesolowski, Marek; Ulewicz-Magulska, Beata

    2015-06-01

    The aim of this study was to quantify the levels of flavonoids (rutin, myricetin, quercetin, kaempferol) and phenolic acids (gallic, p-coumaric, rosmarinic, syringic, caffeic, chlorogenic, ellagic, ferulic) in lemon balm (Melissa officinalis L.) commonly used as a culinary, aromatic and medicinal herb. A rapid and reliable HPLC procedure was developed to determine the phenolic compounds in methanolic extracts, infusions and tinctures prepared from lemon balm. Except for myricetin and quercetin, as well as ellagic, gallic and rosmarinic acids, higher levels of the analytes under study were determined in the methanolic extracts (up to 22 mg/g of dry weight, DW), than in infusions (up to 5 mg/g DW). Tinctures were the poorest in flavonoids and phenolic acids (below 550 μg/g DW), except for ellagic and rosmarinic acids, which were quantified in tinctures at higher levels (mg/g DW). To sum up, the flavonoids were extracted more effectively in the infusions and tinctures than the phenolic acids. Statistically significant correlations were found between phenolic acids, possibly owing to similar biochemical pathways of the compounds. The hierarchical cluster and principal component analyses have also shown that the samples of lemon balm could be differentiated based on the levels of flavonoids and phenolic acids. PMID:26197530

  12. Flavonoids and Phenolic Acids in Methanolic Extracts, Infusions and Tinctures from Commercial Samples of Lemon Balm.

    PubMed

    Arceusz, Agnieszka; Wesolowski, Marek; Ulewicz-Magulska, Beata

    2015-06-01

    The aim of this study was to quantify the levels of flavonoids (rutin, myricetin, quercetin, kaempferol) and phenolic acids (gallic, p-coumaric, rosmarinic, syringic, caffeic, chlorogenic, ellagic, ferulic) in lemon balm (Melissa officinalis L.) commonly used as a culinary, aromatic and medicinal herb. A rapid and reliable HPLC procedure was developed to determine the phenolic compounds in methanolic extracts, infusions and tinctures prepared from lemon balm. Except for myricetin and quercetin, as well as ellagic, gallic and rosmarinic acids, higher levels of the analytes under study were determined in the methanolic extracts (up to 22 mg/g of dry weight, DW), than in infusions (up to 5 mg/g DW). Tinctures were the poorest in flavonoids and phenolic acids (below 550 μg/g DW), except for ellagic and rosmarinic acids, which were quantified in tinctures at higher levels (mg/g DW). To sum up, the flavonoids were extracted more effectively in the infusions and tinctures than the phenolic acids. Statistically significant correlations were found between phenolic acids, possibly owing to similar biochemical pathways of the compounds. The hierarchical cluster and principal component analyses have also shown that the samples of lemon balm could be differentiated based on the levels of flavonoids and phenolic acids.

  13. SIMPLE METHOD FOR THE EXTRACTION OF PHOTOPIGMENTS AND MYCOSPORINE-LIKE AMINO ACIDS (MAAS) FROM SYMBIODINIUM SPP.

    EPA Science Inventory

    Numerous extraction methods have been developed and used in the quantitation of both photopigments and mycosporine amino acids (MAAs) found in Symbiodinium sp. and zooanthellate metazoans. We have development of a simple, mild extraction procedure using methanol, which when coupl...

  14. DC diaphragm discharge in water solutions of selected organic acids

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vyhnankova, Edita J.; Hammer, Malte U.; Reuter, Stephan; Krcma, Frantisek

    2015-07-01

    Effect of four simple organic acids water solution on a DC diaphragm discharge was studied. Efficiency of the discharge was quantified by the hydrogen peroxide production determined by UV-VIS spectrometry of a H2O2 complex formed with specific titanium reagent. Automatic titration was used to study the pH behaviour after the plasma treatment. Optical emission spectroscopy overview spectra were recorded and detailed spectra of OH band and Hβ line were used to calculate the rotational temperature and comparison of the line profile (reflecting electron concentration) in the acid solutions. Contribution to the topical issue "The 14th International Symposium on High Pressure Low Temperature Plasma Chemistry (HAKONE XIV)", edited by Nicolas Gherardi, Ronny Brandenburg and Lars Stollenwark

  15. Engineering Porous Organic Cage Crystals with Increased Acid Gas Resistance.

    PubMed

    Zhu, Guanghui; Hoffman, Christopher D; Liu, Yang; Bhattacharyya, Souryadeep; Tumuluri, Uma; Jue, Melinda L; Wu, Zili; Sholl, David S; Nair, Sankar; Jones, Christopher W; Lively, Ryan P

    2016-07-25

    Both known and new CC3-based porous organic cages are prepared and exposed to acidic SO2 in vapor and liquid conditions. Distinct differences in the stability of the CC3 cages exist depending on the chirality of the diamine linkers used. The acid catalyzed CC3 degradation mechanism is probed via in situ IR and a degradation pathway is proposed and supported with computational results. CC3 crystals synthesized with racemic mixtures of diaminocyclohexane exhibited enhanced stability compared to CC3-R and CC3-S. Confocal fluorescent microscope images reveal that the stability difference in CC3 species originates from an abundance of mesoporous grain boundaries in CC3-R and CC3-S, allowing facile access of aqueous SO2 throughout the crystal, promoting decomposition. These grain boundaries are absent from CC3 crystals made with racemic linkers. PMID:27253350

  16. NEPTUNIUM SOLVENT EXTRACTION PROCESS

    DOEpatents

    Dawson, L.R.; Fields, P.R.

    1959-10-01

    The separation of neptunium from an aqueous solution by solvent extraction and the extraction of neptunium from the solvent solution are described. Neptunium is separated from an aqueous solution containing tetravalent or hexavalent neptunium nitrate, nitric acid, and a nitrate salting out agent, such as sodium nitrate, by contacting the solution with an organic solvent such as diethyl ether. Subsequently, the neptunium nitrate is extracted from the organic solvent extract phase with water.

  17. Atmospheric So2 Emissions Since the Late 1800s Change Organic Sulfur Forms in Humic Substance Extracts of Soils

    SciTech Connect

    Lehmann,J.; Solomon, D.; Zhao, F.; McGrath, S.

    2008-01-01

    Atmospheric SO2 emissions in the UK and globally increased 6- and 20-fold, respectively, from the mid-1800s to the 1960s resulting in increased S deposition, acid rain, and concurrent acidification of terrestrial and aquatic ecosystems. Structural analyses using synchrotron-based X-ray near-edge spectroscopy (XANES) on humic substance extracts of archived samples from the Rothamsted Park Grass Experiment reveal a significant (R2 = -0.58; P < 0.05; N = 7) shift in soil organic sulfur (S) forms, from reduced to more oxidized organic S between 1876 and 1981, even though soil total S contents remained relatively constant. Over the last 30 years, a decrease in emissions and consequent S deposition has again corresponded with a change of organic S structures of humic extractsreverting in the direction of their early industrial composition. However, the observed reversal lagged behind reductions in emissions by 19 years, which was computed using cross correlations between time series data (R2 = 0.66; P = 0.0024; N = 11). Presently, the ratio of oxidized-to-reduced organic S in humic substance extracts is nearly double that of early industrial times at identical SO2 emission loads. The significant and persistent structural changes of organic S in humic substances as a response to SO2 emissions and S deposition may have effects on recuperation of soils and surface waters from acidification.

  18. Control of Meloidogyne incognita Using Mixtures of Organic Acids.

    PubMed

    Seo, Yunhee; Kim, Young Ho

    2014-12-01

    This study sought to control the root-knot nematode (RKN) Meloidogyne incognita using benign organo-chemicals. Second-stage juveniles (J2) of RKN were exposed to dilutions (1.0%, 0.5%, 0.2%, and 0.1%) of acetic acid (AA), lactic acid (LA), and their mixtures (MX). The nematode bodies were disrupted severely and moderately by vacuolations in 0.5% of MX and single organic acids, respectively, suggesting toxicity of MX may be higher than AA and LA. The mortality of J2 was 100% at all concentrations of AA and MX and only at 1.0% and 0.5% of LA, which lowered slightly at 0.2% and greatly at 0.1% of LA. This suggests the nematicidal activity of MX may be mostly derived from AA together with supplementary LA toxicity. MX was applied to chili pepper plants inoculated with about 1,000 J2, for which root-knot gall formations and plant growths were examined 4 weeks after inoculation. The root gall formation was completely inhibited by 0.5% MX and standard and double concentrations of fosthiazate; and inhibited 92.9% and 57.1% by 0.2% and 0.1% MX, respectively. Shoot height, shoot weight, and root weight were not significantly (P ≤ 0.05) different among all treatments and the untreated and non-inoculated controls. All of these results suggest that the mixture of the organic acids may have a potential to be developed as an eco-friendly nematode control agent that needs to be supported by the more nematode control experiments in fields. PMID:25506312

  19. Control of Meloidogyne incognita Using Mixtures of Organic Acids

    PubMed Central

    Seo, Yunhee; Kim, Young Ho

    2014-01-01

    This study sought to control the root-knot nematode (RKN) Meloidogyne incognita using benign organo-chemicals. Second-stage juveniles (J2) of RKN were exposed to dilutions (1.0%, 0.5%, 0.2%, and 0.1%) of acetic acid (AA), lactic acid (LA), and their mixtures (MX). The nematode bodies were disrupted severely and moderately by vacuolations in 0.5% of MX and single organic acids, respectively, suggesting toxicity of MX may be higher than AA and LA. The mortality of J2 was 100% at all concentrations of AA and MX and only at 1.0% and 0.5% of LA, which lowered slightly at 0.2% and greatly at 0.1% of LA. This suggests the nematicidal activity of MX may be mostly derived from AA together with supplementary LA toxicity. MX was applied to chili pepper plants inoculated with about 1,000 J2, for which root-knot gall formations and plant growths were examined 4 weeks after inoculation. The root gall formation was completely inhibited by 0.5% MX and standard and double concentrations of fosthiazate; and inhibited 92.9% and 57.1% by 0.2% and 0.1% MX, respectively. Shoot height, shoot weight, and root weight were not significantly (P ≤ 0.05) different among all treatments and the untreated and non-inoculated controls. All of these results suggest that the mixture of the organic acids may have a potential to be developed as an eco-friendly nematode control agent that needs to be supported by the more nematode control experiments in fields. PMID:25506312

  20. Biotransformation and improved enzymatic extraction of chlorogenic acid from coffee pulp by filamentous fungi.

    PubMed

    Torres-Mancera, María Teresa; Baqueiro-Peña, Itzamná; Figueroa-Montero, Arturo; Rodríguez-Serrano, Gabriela; González-Zamora, Eduardo; Favela-Torres, Ernesto; Saucedo-Castañeda, Gerardo

    2013-01-01

    The highest enzymatic extraction of covalent linked chlorogenic (36.1%) and caffeic (CA) (33%) acids from coffee pulp (CP) was achieved by solid-state fermentation with a mixture of three enzymatic extracts produced by Aspergillus tamarii, Rhizomucor pusillus, and Trametes sp. Enzyme extracts were produced in a practical inexpensive way. Synergistic effects on the extraction yield were observed when more than one enzyme extract was used. In addition, biotransformation of chlorogenic acid (ChA) by Aspergillus niger C23308 was studied. Equimolar transformation of ChA into CA and quinic acids (QA) was observed during the first 36 h in submerged culture. Subsequently, after 36 h, equimolar transformation of CA into protocatechuic acid was observed; this pathway is being reported for the first time for A. niger. QA was used as a carbon source by A. niger C23308. This study presents the potential of using CP to produce enzymes and compounds such as ChA with biological activities.

  1. Optimization of pectin extraction from banana peels with citric acid by using response surface methodology.

    PubMed

    Oliveira, Túlio Ítalo S; Rosa, Morsyleide F; Cavalcante, Fabio Lima; Pereira, Paulo Henrique F; Moates, Graham K; Wellner, Nikolaus; Mazzetto, Selma E; Waldron, Keith W; Azeredo, Henriette M C

    2016-05-01

    A central composite design was used to determine effects of pH (2.0-4.5), extraction temperature (70-90 °C) and time (120-240 min) on the yield, degree of methoxylation (DM) and galacturonic acid content (GA) of pectins extracted from banana peels with citric acid. Changes in composition during the main steps of pectin extraction were followed by Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) spectroscopy. FTIR was also used to determine DM and GA of pectins. Harsh temperature and pH conditions enhanced the extraction yield, but decreased DM. GA presented a maximum value at 83 °C, 190 min, and pH 2.7. The yield of galacturonic acid (YGA), which took into account both the extraction yield and the pectin purity, was improved by higher temperature and lower pH values. The optimum extraction conditions, defined as those resulting in a maximum YGA while keeping DM at a minimum of 51%, were: 87 °C, 160 min, pH 2.0.

  2. Efficacy of antimicrobials extracted from organic pecan shell for inhibiting the growth of Listeria spp.

    PubMed

    Babu, Dinesh; Crandall, Philip G; Johnson, Casey L; O'Bryan, Corliss A; Ricke, Steven C

    2013-12-01

    Growers and processors of USDA certified organic foods are in need of suitable organic antimicrobials. The purpose of the research reported here was to develop and test natural antimicrobials derived from an all-natural by-product, organic pecan shells. Unroasted and roasted organic pecan shells were subjected to solvent free extraction to produce antimicrobials that were tested against Listeria spp. and L. monocytogenes serotypes to determine the minimum inhibitory concentrations (MIC) of antimicrobials. The effectiveness of pecan shell extracts were further tested using a poultry skin model system and the growth inhibition of the Listeria cells adhered onto the skin model were quantified. The solvent free extracts of pecan shells inhibited Listeria strains at MICs as low as 0.38%. The antimicrobial effectiveness tests on a poultry skin model exhibited nearly a 2 log reduction of the inoculated cocktail mix of Listeria strains when extracts of pecan shell powder were used. The extracts also produced greater than a 4 log reduction of the indigenous spoilage bacteria on the chicken skin. Thus, the pecan shell extracts may prove to be very effective alternative antimicrobials against food pathogens and supplement the demand for effective natural antimicrobials for use in organic meat processing.

  3. Efficacy of antimicrobials extracted from organic pecan shell for inhibiting the growth of Listeria spp.

    PubMed

    Babu, Dinesh; Crandall, Philip G; Johnson, Casey L; O'Bryan, Corliss A; Ricke, Steven C

    2013-12-01

    Growers and processors of USDA certified organic foods are in need of suitable organic antimicrobials. The purpose of the research reported here was to develop and test natural antimicrobials derived from an all-natural by-product, organic pecan shells. Unroasted and roasted organic pecan shells were subjected to solvent free extraction to produce antimicrobials that were tested against Listeria spp. and L. monocytogenes serotypes to determine the minimum inhibitory concentrations (MIC) of antimicrobials. The effectiveness of pecan shell extracts were further tested using a poultry skin model system and the growth inhibition of the Listeria cells adhered onto the skin model were quantified. The solvent free extracts of pecan shells inhibited Listeria strains at MICs as low as 0.38%. The antimicrobial effectiveness tests on a poultry skin model exhibited nearly a 2 log reduction of the inoculated cocktail mix of Listeria strains when extracts of pecan shell powder were used. The extracts also produced greater than a 4 log reduction of the indigenous spoilage bacteria on the chicken skin. Thus, the pecan shell extracts may prove to be very effective alternative antimicrobials against food pathogens and supplement the demand for effective natural antimicrobials for use in organic meat processing. PMID:24279287

  4. Isolation and characterization of hyaluronic acid from marine organisms.

    PubMed

    Giji, Sadhasivam; Arumugam, Muthuvel

    2014-01-01

    Hyaluronic acid (HA) being a viscous slippery substance is a multifunctional glue with immense therapeutic applications such as ophthalmic surgery, orthopedic surgery and rheumatology, drug delivery systems, pulmonary pathology, joint pathologies, and tissue engineering. Although HA has been isolated from terrestrial origin (human umbilical cord, rooster comb, bacterial sources, etc.) so far, the increasing interest on this polysaccharide significantly aroused the alternative search from marine sources since it is at the preliminary level. Enthrallingly, marine environments are considered more biologically diverse than terrestrial environments. Although numerous methods have been described for the extraction and purification of HA, the hitch on the isolation methods which greatly influences the yield as well as the molecular weight of the polymer still exists. Adaptation of suitable method is essential in this venture. Stimulated by the developed technology, to sketch the steps involved in isolation and analytical techniques for characterization of this polymer, a brief report on the concerned approach has been reviewed.

  5. 40 CFR 721.5465 - Amine salt of organic acid (generic).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 31 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Amine salt of organic acid (generic... Substances § 721.5465 Amine salt of organic acid (generic). (a) Chemical substance and significant new uses subject to reporting. (1) The chemical substance identified generically as amine salt of organic acid...

  6. 40 CFR 721.5465 - Amine salt of organic acid (generic).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 32 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Amine salt of organic acid (generic... Substances § 721.5465 Amine salt of organic acid (generic). (a) Chemical substance and significant new uses subject to reporting. (1) The chemical substance identified generically as amine salt of organic acid...

  7. 40 CFR 721.5465 - Amine salt of organic acid (generic).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 31 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Amine salt of organic acid (generic... Substances § 721.5465 Amine salt of organic acid (generic). (a) Chemical substance and significant new uses subject to reporting. (1) The chemical substance identified generically as amine salt of organic acid...

  8. 40 CFR 721.5465 - Amine salt of organic acid (generic).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 32 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Amine salt of organic acid (generic... Substances § 721.5465 Amine salt of organic acid (generic). (a) Chemical substance and significant new uses subject to reporting. (1) The chemical substance identified generically as amine salt of organic acid...

  9. 40 CFR 721.5465 - Amine salt of organic acid (generic).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 30 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Amine salt of organic acid (generic... Substances § 721.5465 Amine salt of organic acid (generic). (a) Chemical substance and significant new uses subject to reporting. (1) The chemical substance identified generically as amine salt of organic acid...

  10. Separation of triacylglycerols and free fatty acids in microalgal lipids by solid-phase extraction for separate fatty acid profiling analysis by gas chromatography.

    PubMed

    Paik, Man-Jeong; Kim, Hoon; Lee, Jinwoo; Brand, Jerry; Kim, Kyoung-Rae

    2009-07-31

    Microalgal lipids were separated into two fractions, triacylglycerols (TAGs) and free fatty acids (FFAs), by solid-phase extraction employing sodium carbonate as the sorbent and dichloromethane (20% by volume) in n-hexane as the extracting solvent. The TAG fraction was then saponified, followed by acidification, extraction and tert-butyldimethylsilyl esterification. The FFA fraction was directly acidified, extracted and derivatized. From the lipid extracts of eight microalgal species examined, a total of 13 fatty acids were detected in the TAG fractions and nine were found in the FFA fractions, with at much higher total TAG content in all microalgae. Oleic acid was the most prominent fatty acid in three species, alpha-linolenic acid was more abundant in two others, and palmitic acid was present in highest concentration in the remaining three species.

  11. Extraction of organic compounds from representative shales and the effect on porosity

    DOE PAGES

    DiStefano, Victoria H.; McFarlane, Joanna; Anovitz, Lawrence M.; Stack, Andrew G.; Gordon, Alexander D.; Littrell, Ken C.; Chipera, Steve J.; Hunt, Rodney D.; Lewis, Samuel A.; Hale, Richard E.; et al

    2016-09-01

    This study is an attempt to understand how native organics are distributed with respect to pore size to determine the relationship between hydrocarbon chemistry and pore structure in shales, as the location and accessibility of hydrocarbons is key to understanding and improving the extractability of hydrocarbons in hydraulic fracturing. Selected shale cores from the Eagle Ford and Marcellus formations were subjected to pyrolysis gas chromatography (GC), thermogravimetric analysis, and organic solvent extraction with the resulting effluent analyzed by GC-mass spectrometry (MS). Organics representing the oil and gas fraction (0.1 to 1