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Sample records for acid extraction efficiency

  1. Efficiency and selectivity of triterpene acid extraction from decoctions and tinctures prepared from apple peels

    PubMed Central

    Siani, Antonio C.; Nakamura, Marcos J.; dos Santos, Daniel S.; Mazzei, José L.; do Nascimento, Adriana C.; Valente, Ligia M. M.

    2014-01-01

    Background: This study assessed the extraction efficiency of ursolic (UA) and oleanolic acids (OA), as well as the total phenols in aqueous and hydroethanolic extracts of dry apple peels at room temperature. Materials and Methods: After running preliminary assays on decoctions and tinctures (ethanol: water 7:3 v/v), the extracts from dried apple (cv. Fuji) peels were obtained by static maceration over varied intervals (2 to 180 days). The UA and OA content in the extracts was quantified by High Performance Liquid Chromatography with Diode Array Detection (HPLC-DAD) with a reversed phase column and isocratic elution (CH3CN/H2O/H3PO4) against calibration curves (R2 > 0.9995). The total phenol content in the extracts was evaluated spectrophotometrically at 760 nm using the Folin-Ciocalteau method referencing gallic acid. Results: UA and OA in the hydroethanolic extracts ranged from 3.63-6.12 mg/g and 2.12-3.30 mg/g, corresponding to 1.72-3.07 and 1.00-1.66 mg/g in the raw material, respectively. Higher values of triterpene acid content corresponded to maceration periods of 10 or 30 days. The residual phenol and polyphenol content ranged from 6.97 to 11.6 mg/g. The UA and OA yields, as well as the total phenol content, versus the maceration time were plotted in Control Charts within confidence intervals (95%) and were unaffected during the assayed period. Conclusion: Apple peel tinctures from 10% solids obtained at room temperature exhibited the highest content of triterpene acids when employing a maceration period of 10 to 30 days. Extracts prepared using this procedure contained an average of 7.33 mg/g of total triterpene acids and 10.6 mg/g phenolic compounds. These results establish supporting data for apple peel tinctures and their derived phytopharmaceuticals that are standardized on the ursolic-oleanolic acid content. PMID:24991096

  2. New method for the rapid extraction of natural products: efficient isolation of shikimic acid from star anise.

    PubMed

    Just, Jeremy; Deans, Bianca J; Olivier, Wesley J; Paull, Brett; Bissember, Alex C; Smith, Jason A

    2015-05-15

    A new, practical, rapid, and high-yielding process for the pressurized hot water extraction (PHWE) of multigram quantities of shikimic acid from star anise (Illicium verum) using an unmodified household espresso machine has been developed. This operationally simple and inexpensive method enables the efficient and straightforward isolation of shikimic acid and the facile preparation of a range of its synthetic derivatives.

  3. Rational optimization of amber suppressor tRNAs toward efficient incorporation of a non-natural amino acid into protein in a eukaryotic wheat germ extract.

    PubMed

    Ogawa, Atsushi; Namba, Yuki; Gakumasawa, Mai

    2016-03-07

    Amber suppression is a useful method of genetically incorporating a non-natural amino acid (NAA) into a protein during translation by utilizing an NAA-charged amber suppressor tRNA (sup-tRNA). A wheat germ extract (WGE) is suitable for this method by virtue of its high productivity and versatility in addition to its advantages as a cell-free translation system. However, in spite of this high potential, a genetic NAA incorporation system in WGE has not been sufficiently optimized in terms of sup-tRNAs, in contrast to that in E. coli and its cell extracts. We herein rationally optimized amber sup-tRNAs to efficiently incorporate a model NAA, p-acetyl-phenylalanine (AcPhe), into a protein in WGE, via flexizyme-based aminoacylation. The optimized sup-tRNA (named tLys-opt) that was pre-charged with AcPhe exclusively yielded up to 220 μg mL(-1) of AcPhe-incorporated protein (yellow fluorescent protein, YPet) under the optimal conditions. This high productivity is comparable to the best reported yield of a similar NAA-incorporated protein synthesized with an engineered aminoacyl-tRNA synthetase/sup-tRNA pair in WGE, despite the fact that tLys-opt that has released AcPhe was not reused at all in this study. The results clearly show both the necessity of optimizing sup-tRNAs for efficient NAA incorporation and the validity of our strategy for their optimization. Because the optimization strategy described here is expected to be applicable not only to amber sup-tRNAs for other NAAs but also to ones used in other acylation methods, it would facilitate the synthesis of large amounts of various types of NAA-incorporated proteins in WGE.

  4. Development of an efficient fungal DNA extraction method to be used in random amplified polymorphic DNA-PCR analysis to differentiate cyclopiazonic acid mold producers.

    PubMed

    Sánchez, Beatriz; Rodríguez, Mar; Casado, Eva M; Martín, Alberto; Córdoba, Juan J

    2008-12-01

    A variety of previously established mechanical and chemical treatments to achieve fungal cell lysis combined with a semiautomatic system operated by a vacuum pump were tested to obtain DNA extract to be directly used in randomly amplified polymorphic DNA (RAPD)-PCR to differentiate cyclopiazonic acid-producing and -nonproducing mold strains. A DNA extraction method that includes digestion with proteinase K and lyticase prior to using a mortar and pestle grinding and a semiautomatic vacuum system yielded DNA of high quality in all the fungal strains and species tested, at concentrations ranging from 17 to 89 ng/microl in 150 microl of the final DNA extract. Two microliters of DNA extracted with this method was directly used for RAPD-PCR using primer (GACA)4. Reproducible RAPD fingerprints showing high differences between producer and nonproducer strains were observed. These differences in the RAPD patterns did not differentiate all the strains tested in clusters by cyclopiazonic acid production but may be very useful to distinguish cyclopiazonic acid producer strains from nonproducer strains by a simple RAPD analysis. Thus, the DNA extracts obtained could be used directly without previous purification and quantification for RAPD analysis to differentiate cyclopiazonic acid producer from nonproducer mold strains. This combined analysis could be adaptable to other toxigenic fungal species to enable differentiation of toxigenic and non-toxigenic molds, a procedure of great interest in food safety.

  5. Use of methanol for the efficient extraction and analysis of melamine and cyanuric acid residues in dairy products and pet foods.

    PubMed

    Tran, Buu N; Okoniewski, Richard; Storm, Robin; Jansing, Robert; Aldous, Kenneth M

    2010-01-13

    The recent worldwide shortage of acetonitrile has prompted the development of a new method using methanol as an alternative organic solvent in the extraction and liquid chromatographic analysis of melamine and cyanuric acid that may be present as contaminants in dairy products and pet foods. A simple extraction of melamine and cyanuric acid residues in fortified samples was successfully achieved, using a methanol-water mixture and analysis by isotopic dilution high-performance liquid chromatography-triple-quadrupole mass spectrometry (HPLC-MS/MS). A two-step centrifugation procedure was employed to remove matrix components from extracts. The separation of melamine and cyanuric acid was carried out on a Dionex Acclaim Trinity P1 column, with a methanol and ammonium acetate buffer used as the mobile phase. Excellent linearity was achieved for both the melamine and cyanuric acid calibrations. A variety of dairy products and pet foods were fortified with melamine and cyanuric acid at three levels, 1, 2.5, and 10 microg/g, producing recovery yields of 101-119% for melamine and 84-123% for cyanuric acid. The lower limit of quantification (LLOQ) of melamine was 0.03 microg/g for liquid milk and 0.05 microg/g for dry infant milk formula. The quantitative results were comparable with those derived from previous methods that have been proposed by the U.S. Food and Drug Administration for the screening of melamine and its analogues in foods.

  6. Extraction efficiency of hydrophilic and lipophilic antioxidants from lyophilized foods using pressurized liquid extraction and manual extraction.

    PubMed

    Watanabe, Jun; Oki, Tomoyuki; Takebayashi, Jun; Takano-Ishikawa, Yuko

    2014-09-01

    The efficient extraction of antioxidants from food samples is necessary in order to accurately measure their antioxidant capacities. α-Tocopherol and gallic acid were spiked into samples of 5 lyophilized and pulverized vegetables and fruits (onion, cabbage, Satsuma mandarin orange, pumpkin, and spinach). The lipophilic and hydrophilic antioxidants in the samples were sequentially extracted with a mixed solvent of n-hexane and dichloromethane, and then with acetic acid-acidified aqueous methanol. Duplicate samples were extracted: one set was extracted using an automated pressurized liquid extraction apparatus, and the other set was extracted manually. Spiked α-tocopherol and gallic acid were recovered almost quantitatively in the extracted lipophilic and hydrophilic fractions, respectively, especially when pressurized liquid extraction was used. The expected increase in lipophilic oxygen radical absorbance capacity (L-ORAC) due to spiking with α-tocopherol, and the expected increase in 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl radical scavenging activities and total polyphenol content due to spiking with gallic acid, were all recovered in high yield. Relatively low recoveries, as reflected in the hydrophilic ORAC (H-ORAC) value, were obtained following spiking with gallic acid, suggesting an interaction between gallic acid and endogenous antioxidants. The H-ORAC values of gallic acid-spiked samples were almost the same as those of postadded (spiked) samples. These results clearly indicate that lipophilic and hydrophilic antioxidants are effectively extracted from lyophilized food, especially when pressurized liquid extraction is used.

  7. Extractive fermentation of acetic acid

    SciTech Connect

    Busche, R.M.

    1991-12-31

    In this technoeconomic evaluation of the manufacture of acetic acid by fermentation, the use of the bacterium: Acetobacter suboxydans from the old vinegar process was compared with expected performance of the newer Clostridium thermoaceticum bacterium. Both systems were projected to operate as immobilized cells in a continuous, fluidized bed bioreactor, using solvent extraction to recover the product. Acetobacter metabolizes ethanol aerobically to produce acid at 100 g/L in a low pH medium. This ensures that the product is in the form of a concentrated extractable free acid, rather than as an unextractable salt. Unfortunately, yields from glucose by way of the ethanol fermentation are poor, but near the biological limits of the organisms involved. Conversely, C. thermoaceticum is a thermophilic anaerobe that operates at high fermentation rates on glucose at neutral pH to produce acetate salts directly in substantially quantitative yields. However, it is severely inhibited by product, which restricts concentration to a dilute 20 g/L. An improved Acetobacter system operating with recycled cells at 50 g/L appears capable of producing acid at $0.38/lb, as compared with a $0.29/lb price for synthetic acid. However, this system has only a limited margin for process improvement. The present Clostridium system cannot compete, since the required selling price would be $0.42/lb. However, if the organism could be adapted to tolerate higher product concentrations at acid pH, selling price could be reduced to $0.22/lb, or about 80% of the price of synthetic acid.

  8. Microwave-Assisted Extraction of Oleanolic Acid and Ursolic Acid from Ligustrum lucidum Ait

    PubMed Central

    Xia, En-Qin; Wang, Bo-Wei; Xu, Xiang-Rong; Zhu, Li; Song, Yang; Li, Hua-Bin

    2011-01-01

    Oleanolic acid and ursolic acid are the main active components in fruit of Ligustrum lucidum Ait, and possess anticancer, antimutagenic, anti-inflammatory, antioxidative and antiprotozoal activities. In this study, microwave-assisted extraction of oleanolic acid and ursolic acid from Ligustrum lucidum was investigated with HPLC-photodiode array detection. Effects of several experimental parameters, such as type and concentration of extraction solvent, ratio of liquid to material, microwave power, extraction temperature and microwave time, on the extraction efficiencies of oleanolic acid and ursolic acid from Ligustrum lucidum were evaluated. The influence of experimental parameters on the extraction efficiency of ursolic acid was more significant than that of oleanolic acid (p < 0.05). The optimal extraction conditions were 80% ethanol aqueous solution, the ratio of material to liquid was 1:15, and extraction for 30 min at 70 °C under microwave irradiation of 500 W. Under optimal conditions, the yields of oleanolic acid and ursolic acid were 4.4 ± 0.20 mg/g and 5.8 ± 0.15 mg/g, respectively. The results obtained are helpful for the full utilization of Ligustrum lucidum, which also indicated that microwave-assisted extraction is a very useful method for extraction of oleanolic acid and ursolic acid from plant materials. PMID:21954361

  9. A simple and efficient ultrasonic-assisted extraction procedure combined with UV-Vis spectrophotometry for the pre-concentration and determination of folic acid (vitamin B9) in various sample matrices.

    PubMed

    Gürkan, Ramazan; Altunay, Nail

    2016-07-01

    A simple and efficient ultrasonic-assisted extraction (UAE) procedure has been proposed for the pre-concentration of (2S)-2-[(4-{[(2-amino-4-hydroxypteridin-yl)methyl]amino}phenyl)formamido]pentanedioic acid (folic acid) in vegetables, pharmaceuticals and foods prior to determination at 540 nm using UV-Vis spectrophotometry. The method is based on hydrophobic ternary complex formation of folic acid with silver ions in the presence of cetyltrimethylammonium bromide (CTAB) as a sensitivity enhancer counter ion at pH 7.0, and then extraction into a micellar phase of polyethylene glycol monoalkyl ether (Genapol X-080). The impacts on the extraction efficiency and complex formation of analytical parameters such as sample pH, concentration of silver, concentration of surfactants and extraction time, ultrasonic time and sample volume, were investigated and optimised in detail. The matrix effect on the pre-concentration and determination of folic acid was investigated, and it was observed that the proposed method was highly selective against possible matrix co-extractives. Under optimised conditions, a good linear relationship between the analytical signal and folic acid concentration was obtained in the range of 0.6-180 μg l(-1) with a detection limit of 0.19 μg l(-1) and quantification limit of 0.63 μg l(-1). The applicability was evaluated using samples fortified at different concentration levels, and recoveries higher than 94.1% were obtained. The precision as the percent relative standard deviation (RSD%) was in range of 2.5-3.8% (10 and 40 μg l(-1), n = 5). The proposed method was validated by analysis of two standard reference materials (SRMs) and various real samples, and satisfactory results were obtained.

  10. Subcritical Water Extraction of Amino Acids from Atacama Desert Soils

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Amashukeli, Xenia; Pelletier, Christine C.; Kirby, James P.; Grunthaner, Frank J.

    2007-01-01

    Amino acids are considered organic molecular indicators in the search for extant and extinct life in the Solar System. Extraction of these molecules from a particulate solid matrix, such as Martian regolith, will be critical to their in situ detection and analysis. The goals of this study were to optimize a laboratory amino acid extraction protocol by quantitatively measuring the yields of extracted amino acids as a function of liquid water temperature and sample extraction time and to compare the results to the standard HCl vapor- phase hydrolysis yields for the same soil samples. Soil samples from the Yungay region of the Atacama Desert ( Martian regolith analog) were collected during a field study in the summer of 2005. The amino acids ( alanine, aspartic acid, glutamic acid, glycine, serine, and valine) chosen for analysis were present in the samples at concentrations of 1 - 70 parts- per- billion. Subcritical water extraction efficiency was examined over the temperature range of 30 - 325 degrees C, at pressures of 17.2 or 20.0 MPa, and for water- sample contact equilibration times of 0 - 30 min. None of the amino acids were extracted in detectable amounts at 30 degrees C ( at 17.2 MPa), suggesting that amino acids are too strongly bound by the soil matrix to be extracted at such a low temperature. Between 150 degrees C and 250 degrees C ( at 17.2 MPa), the extraction efficiencies of glycine, alanine, and valine were observed to increase with increasing water temperature, consistent with higher solubility at higher temperatures, perhaps due to the decreasing dielectric constant of water. Amino acids were not detected in extracts collected at 325 degrees C ( at 20.0 MPa), probably due to amino acid decomposition at this temperature. The optimal subcritical water extraction conditions for these amino acids from Atacama Desert soils were achieved at 200 degrees C, 17.2 MPa, and a water- sample contact equilibration time of 10 min.

  11. Solvent extraction of metals with hydroxamic acids.

    PubMed

    Vernon, F; Khorassani, J H

    1978-07-01

    Solvent extraction with hydroxamic acids has been investigated. with comparison of aliphatic and aromatic reagents for the extraction of iron, copper, cobalt and nickel. Caprylohydroxamic acid has been evaluated for use in extraction systems for titanium, vanadium, chromium, molybdenum and uranium, both in terms of acidity of aqueous phase and oxidation state of the metal. It has been established that caprylohydroxamic acid in 1-hexanol is a suitable extractant for the removal of titanium(IV), vanadium(V), chromium(VI), molybdenum(VI) and uranium(VI) from 6M hydrochloric acid.

  12. Recovery of heavy metals from industrial sludge using various acid extraction approaches.

    PubMed

    Wu, C H; Kuo, C Y; Lo, S L

    2009-01-01

    Heavy metals were removed from industrial sludge by traditional and microwave-assisted acid extraction approaches. The effects of acid concentration, extraction time, sludge particle size and solid/liquid (S/L) ratio on copper-extraction efficiency were assessed. Leaching with increased acid concentrations increased the yield of heavy metals from the industrial sludge. In microwave-assisted acid extraction, reducing the S/L ratio and sludge particle size increased copper-extraction efficiency. These experimental findings indicate that S/L ratio most strongly influenced microwave-assisted acid extraction. Both traditional and microwave-assisted acid extraction demonstrate that sulfuric acid was an effective extractant, and the copper fraction in extracted sludge shifted from being primarily bound to Fe-Mn oxides and organic-matter partition, to being mostly bound to organic matter, remaining as a residue during acid extraction.

  13. Microwave-assisted extraction versus Soxhlet extraction to determine triterpene acids in olive skins.

    PubMed

    Fernandez-Pastor, Ignacio; Fernandez-Hernandez, Antonia; Perez-Criado, Sergio; Rivas, Francisco; Martinez, Antonio; Garcia-Granados, Andres; Parra, Andres

    2017-03-01

    Microwave-assisted extraction is compared with a more classical technique, Soxhlet extraction, to determine the content of triterpene acids in olive skins. The samples used in their original unmilled state and milled were extracted with ethyl acetate or methanol as solvents. The optimized operating conditions (e.g., amount and type of solvent, and time and temperature of extractions) to attain the better extraction yields have been established. For the identification and quantitation of the target compounds, an ultra high performance liquid chromatography with tandem mass spectrometry method was employed. The best results were achieved using the microwave-assisted extraction technique, which was much faster than the Soxhlet extraction method, and showed higher efficiency in the extraction of the triterpenic acids (oleanolic and maslinic).

  14. Enantioselective liquid-liquid extraction of zopiclone with mandelic acid ester derivatives.

    PubMed

    Peng, Yangfeng; He, Quan; Zuo, Bin; Niu, Haibo; Tong, Tianzhong; Zhao, Hongliang

    2013-12-01

    Enantioselective liquid-liquid extraction of zopiclone was conducted by employing a series of (R)-mandelic acid esters as chiral extractants. The effects of concentration of extractant, concentration of zopiclone, type of organic solvent, pH value, and temperature on the extraction efficiency were investigated. (R)-o-chloromandelic acid propyl ester was demonstrated to be an efficient chiral extractant for zopiclone resolution with a maximum enantioselectivity of 1.6.

  15. Electro-extractive fermentation for efficient biohydrogen production.

    PubMed

    Redwood, Mark D; Orozco, Rafael L; Majewski, Artur J; Macaskie, Lynne E

    2012-03-01

    Electrodialysis, an electrochemical membrane technique, was found to prolong and enhance the production of biohydrogen and purified organic acids via the anaerobic fermentation of glucose by Escherichia coli. Through the design of a model electrodialysis medium using cationic buffer, pH was precisely controlled electrokinetically, i.e. by the regulated extraction of acidic products with coulombic efficiencies of organic acid recovery in the range 50-70% maintained over continuous 30-day experiments. Contrary to previous reports, E. coli produced H(2) after aerobic growth in minimal medium without inducers and with a mixture of organic acids dominated by butyrate. The selective separation of organic acids from fermentation provides a potential nitrogen-free carbon source for further biohydrogen production in a parallel photofermentation. A parallel study incorporated this fermentation system into an integrated biohydrogen refinery (IBR) for the conversion of organic waste to hydrogen and energy.

  16. Absolute Electron Extraction Efficiency of Liquid Xenon

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kamdin, Katayun; Mizrachi, Eli; Morad, James; Sorensen, Peter

    2016-03-01

    Dual phase liquid/gas xenon time projection chambers (TPCs) currently set the world's most sensitive limits on weakly interacting massive particles (WIMPs), a favored dark matter candidate. These detectors rely on extracting electrons from liquid xenon into gaseous xenon, where they produce proportional scintillation. The proportional scintillation from the extracted electrons serves to internally amplify the WIMP signal; even a single extracted electron is detectable. Credible dark matter searches can proceed with electron extraction efficiency (EEE) lower than 100%. However, electrons systematically left at the liquid/gas boundary are a concern. Possible effects include spontaneous single or multi-electron proportional scintillation signals in the gas, or charging of the liquid/gas interface or detector materials. Understanding EEE is consequently a serious concern for this class of rare event search detectors. Previous EEE measurements have mostly been relative, not absolute, assuming efficiency plateaus at 100%. I will present an absolute EEE measurement with a small liquid/gas xenon TPC test bed located at Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory.

  17. Electromembrane extraction and HPLC analysis of haloacetic acids and aromatic acetic acids in wastewater.

    PubMed

    Alhooshani, Khalid; Basheer, Chanbasha; Kaur, Jagjit; Gjelstad, Astrid; Rasmussen, Knut E; Pedersen-Bjergaard, Stig; Lee, Hian Kee

    2011-10-30

    For the first time, haloacetic acids and aromatic acetic acids were extracted from wastewater samples using electromembrane extraction (EME). A thin layer of toluene immobilized on the walls of a polypropylene membrane envelope served as an artificial supported liquid membrane (SLM). The haloacetic acids (HAAs) (chloroacetic acid, dichloroacetic acid, and trifluoroacetic acid) and aromatic acetic acids (phenylacetic acid and p-hydroxyphenylacetic acid) were extracted through the SLM and into an alkalized aqueous buffer solution. The buffer solution was located inside the membrane envelope. The electrical potential difference sustained over the membrane acted as the driving force for the transport of haloacetic acids into the membrane by electrokinetic migration. After extraction, the extracts were analyzed by high-performance liquid chromatography-ultraviolet detection. The detection limits were between 0.072 and 40.3 ng L(-1). The calibration plot linearity was in the range of 5 and 200 μg L(-1) while the correlation coefficients for the analytes ranged from 0.9932 to 0.9967. Relative recoveries were in the range of 87-106%. The extraction efficiency was found to be comparable to that of solid-phase extraction.

  18. Extraction chemistry of fermentation product carboxylic acid

    SciTech Connect

    Kertes, A.S.; King, C.J.

    1986-02-01

    Within the framework of a program aiming to improve the existing extractive recovery technology of fermentation products, the state of the art is critically reviewed. The acids under consideration are propionic, lactic, pyruvic, succinic, fumaric, maleic, malic, itaconic, tartaric, citric, and isocitric, all obtained by the aerobic fermentation of glucose via the glycolytic pathway and glyoxylate bypass. With no exception, it is the undissociated monomeric acid that is extracted into carbon-bonded and phosphorus-bonded oxygen donor extractants. In the organic phase, the acids are usually dimerized. The extractive transfer process obeys the Nernst law, and the measured partition coefficients range from about 0.003 for aliphatic hydrocarbons to about 2 to 3 for aliphatic alcohols and ketones to about 10 or more for organophosphates. Equally high distribution ratios are measured when long-chain tertiary amines are employed as extractants, forming bulky salts preferentially soluble in the organic phase. 123 references.

  19. Extraction chemistry of fermentation product carboxylic acids

    SciTech Connect

    Kertes, A.S.; King, C.J.

    1986-02-01

    Within the framework of a program aiming to improve the existing extractive recovery technology of fermentation products, the state of the art is critically reviewed. The acids under consideration are propionic, lactic, pyruvic, succinic, fumaric, maleic, malic, itaconic, tartaric, citric, and isocitric, all obtained by the aerobic fermentation of glucose via the glycolytic pathways and glyoxylate bypass. With no exception, it is the undissociated monomeric acid that is extracted into carbon-bonded and phosphorus-bonded oxygen donor extractants. In the organic phase, the acids are usually dimerized. The extractive transfer process obeys the Nernst law, and the measured partition coefficients range from about 0.003 for aliphatic hydrocarbons to about 2 to 3 for aliphatic alcohols and ketones to about 10 or more for organophosphates. Equally high distribution ratios are measured when long-chain tertiary amines are employed as extractants, forming bulky salts preferentially soluble in the organic phase.

  20. White LED with High Package Extraction Efficiency

    SciTech Connect

    Yi Zheng; Matthew Stough

    2008-09-30

    The goal of this project is to develop a high efficiency phosphor converting (white) Light Emitting Diode (pcLED) 1-Watt package through an increase in package extraction efficiency. A transparent/translucent monolithic phosphor is proposed to replace the powdered phosphor to reduce the scattering caused by phosphor particles. Additionally, a multi-layer thin film selectively reflecting filter is proposed between blue LED die and phosphor layer to recover inward yellow emission. At the end of the project we expect to recycle approximately 50% of the unrecovered backward light in current package construction, and develop a pcLED device with 80 lm/W{sub e} using our technology improvements and commercially available chip/package source. The success of the project will benefit luminous efficacy of white LEDs by increasing package extraction efficiency. In most phosphor-converting white LEDs, the white color is obtained by combining a blue LED die (or chip) with a powdered phosphor layer. The phosphor partially absorbs the blue light from the LED die and converts it into a broad green-yellow emission. The mixture of the transmitted blue light and green-yellow light emerging gives white light. There are two major drawbacks for current pcLEDs in terms of package extraction efficiency. The first is light scattering caused by phosphor particles. When the blue photons from the chip strike the phosphor particles, some blue light will be scattered by phosphor particles. Converted yellow emission photons are also scattered. A portion of scattered light is in the backward direction toward the die. The amount of this backward light varies and depends in part on the particle size of phosphors. The other drawback is that yellow emission from phosphor powders is isotropic. Although some backward light can be recovered by the reflector in current LED packages, there is still a portion of backward light that will be absorbed inside the package and further converted to heat. Heat

  1. Ultrasound-assisted extraction of carnosic acid and rosmarinic acid using ionic liquid solution from Rosmarinus officinalis.

    PubMed

    Zu, Ge; Zhang, Rongrui; Yang, Lei; Ma, Chunhui; Zu, Yuangang; Wang, Wenjie; Zhao, Chunjian

    2012-01-01

    Ionic liquid based, ultrasound-assisted extraction was successfully applied to the extraction of phenolcarboxylic acids, carnosic acid and rosmarinic acid, from Rosmarinus officinalis. Eight ionic liquids, with different cations and anions, were investigated in this work and [C(8)mim]Br was selected as the optimal solvent. Ultrasound extraction parameters, including soaking time, solid-liquid ratio, ultrasound power and time, and the number of extraction cycles, were discussed by single factor experiments and the main influence factors were optimized by response surface methodology. The proposed approach was demonstrated as having higher efficiency, shorter extraction time and as a new alternative for the extraction of carnosic acid and rosmarinic acid from R. officinalis compared with traditional reference extraction methods. Ionic liquids are considered to be green solvents, in the ultrasound-assisted extraction of key chemicals from medicinal plants, and show great potential.

  2. Ultrasound-Assisted Extraction of Carnosic Acid and Rosmarinic Acid Using Ionic Liquid Solution from Rosmarinus officinalis

    PubMed Central

    Zu, Ge; Zhang, Rongrui; Yang, Lei; Ma, Chunhui; Zu, Yuangang; Wang, Wenjie; Zhao, Chunjian

    2012-01-01

    Ionic liquid based, ultrasound-assisted extraction was successfully applied to the extraction of phenolcarboxylic acids, carnosic acid and rosmarinic acid, from Rosmarinus officinalis. Eight ionic liquids, with different cations and anions, were investigated in this work and [C8mim]Br was selected as the optimal solvent. Ultrasound extraction parameters, including soaking time, solid–liquid ratio, ultrasound power and time, and the number of extraction cycles, were discussed by single factor experiments and the main influence factors were optimized by response surface methodology. The proposed approach was demonstrated as having higher efficiency, shorter extraction time and as a new alternative for the extraction of carnosic acid and rosmarinic acid from R. officinalis compared with traditional reference extraction methods. Ionic liquids are considered to be green solvents, in the ultrasound-assisted extraction of key chemicals from medicinal plants, and show great potential. PMID:23109836

  3. Microwave-assisted extraction of glycyrrhizic acid from licorice root.

    PubMed

    Pan; Liu; Jia; Shu

    2000-07-01

    In the present study, a microwave-assisted extraction (MAE) technique has been developed for the extraction of glycyrrhizic acid (GA) from licorice root. Various experimental conditions, such as extraction time, different ethanol and ammonia concentration, liquid/solid ratios, pre-leaching time before MAE and material size for the MAE procedure were investigated to optimize the efficiency of the extraction. Under appropriate MAE conditions, such as extraction times of 4-5min, ethanol concentrations of 50-60% (v/v), ammonia concentrations of 1-2% (v/v) and liquid/solid ratios of 10:1(ml/g), the recovery of GA from licorice root with MAE was equivalent with conventional extraction methods. Those methods include extraction at room temperature (ERT), the traditional Soxhlet extraction, heat reflux extraction and ultrasonic extraction. Due to the considerable savings in time and solvent, MAE was more effective than the conventional methods. This novel method is suitable for fast extraction of GA from licorice root.

  4. PROCESS FOR PRODUCING ALKYL ORTHOPHOSPHORIC ACID EXTRACTANTS

    DOEpatents

    Grinstead, R.R.

    1962-01-23

    A process is given for producing superior alkyl orthophosphoric acid extractants for use in solvent extraction methods to recover and purify various metals such as uranium and vanadium. The process comprises slurrying P/sub 2/O/ sub 5/ in a solvent diluent such as kerosene, benzene, isopropyl ether, and the like. An alipbatic alcohol having from nine to seventeen carbon atoms, and w- hcrein ihc OH group is situated inward of the terminal carbon atoms, is added to the slurry while the reaction temperature is mainiained below 60 deg C. The alcohol is added in the mole ratio of about 2 to l, alcohol to P/sub 2/O/sub 5/. A pyrophosphate reaotion product is formed in the slurry-alcohol mixture. Subsequently, the pyrophosphate reaction product is hydrolyzed with dilute mineral acid to produce the desired alkyl orthophosphoric aeid extractant. The extraetant may then be separated and utilized in metal-recovery, solvent- extraction processes. (AEC)

  5. Alkaline earth cation extraction from acid solution

    DOEpatents

    Dietz, Mark; Horwitz, E. Philip

    2003-01-01

    An extractant medium for extracting alkaline earth cations from an aqueous acidic sample solution is described as are a method and apparatus for using the same. The separation medium is free of diluent, free-flowing and particulate, and comprises a Crown ether that is a 4,4'(5')[C.sub.4 -C.sub.8 -alkylcyclohexano]18-Crown-6 dispersed on an inert substrate material.

  6. Dielectric nanoparticles for the enhancement of OLED light extraction efficiency

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mann, Vidhi; Rastogi, Vipul

    2017-03-01

    This work reports the use of dielectric nanoparticles placed at glass substrate in the improvement of light extraction efficiency of organic light emitting diode (OLED). The nanoparticles will act as scattering medium for the light trapped in the waveguiding modes of the device. The scattering efficiency of dielectric nanoparticles has been calculated by Mie Theory. The finite difference time domain (FDTD) analysis and simulation estimate the effect of dielectric nanoparticles on the light extraction efficiency of OLED. The efficiency depends upon the diameter, interparticle separation and refractive index of dielectric nanoparticles. It is shown that the dielectric nanoparticles layer can enhance the light extraction efficiency by a factor of 1.7.

  7. Lactic acid fermentation of crude sorghum extract

    SciTech Connect

    Samuel, W.A.; Lee, Y.Y.; Anthony, W.B.

    1980-04-01

    Crude extract from sweet sorghum supplemented with vetch juice was utilized as the carbohydrate source for fermentative production of lactic acid. Fermentation of media containing 7% (w/v) total sugar was completed in 60-80 hours by Lactobacillus plantarum, product yield averaging 85%. Maximum acid production rates were dependent on pH, initial substrate distribution, and concentration, the rates varying from 2 to 5 g/liter per hour. Under limited medium supplementation the lactic acid yield was lowered to 67%. The fermented ammoniated product contained over eight times as much equivalent crude protein (N x 6.25) as the original medium. Unstructured kinetic models were developed for cell growth, lactic acid formation, and substrate consumption in batch fermentation. With the provision of experimentally determined kinetic parameters, the proposed models accurately described the fermentation process. 15 references.

  8. Investigation of aggregation in solvent extraction of lanthanides by acidic extractants (organophosphorus and naphthenic acid)

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Zhou, N.; Wu, J.; Yu, Z.; Neuman, R.D.; Wang, D.; Xu, G.

    1997-01-01

    Three acidic extractants (I) di(2-ethylhexyl) phosphoric acid (HDEHP), (II) 2-ethylhexyl phosphonic acid mono-2-ethylhexyl ester (HEHPEHE) and (III) naphthenic acid were employed in preparing the samples for the characterization of the coordination structure of lanthanide-extractant complexes and the physicochemical nature of aggregates formed in the organic diluent of the solvent extraction systems. Photo correlation spectroscopy (PCS) results on the aggregates formed by the partially saponified HDEHP in n-heptane showed that the hydrodynamic radius of the aggregates was comparable to the molecular dimensions of HDEHP. The addition of 2-octanol into the diluent, by which the mixed solvent was formed, increased the dimensions of the corresponding aggregates. Aggregates formed from the lanthanide ions and HDEHP in the organic phase of the extraction systems were found very unstable. In the case of naphthenic acid, PCS data showed the formation of w/o microemulsion from the saponified naphthenic acid in the mixed solvent. The extraction of lanthanides by the saponified naphthenic acid in the mixed solvent under the given experimental conditions was a process of destruction of the w/o microemulsion. A possible mechanism of the breakdown of the w/o microemulsion droplets is discussed.

  9. Comparison of nucleic acid extraction methods for the detection of Mycoplasma pneumoniae.

    PubMed

    Thurman, Kathleen A; Cowart, Kelley C; Winchell, Jonas M

    2009-12-01

    Four nucleic acid extraction procedures (2 automated and 2 manual) were compared for their efficiency at isolating Mycoplasma pneumoniae DNA. Oropharyngeal swabs from healthy volunteers were spiked with varying amounts of M. pneumoniae, extracted, and tested using real-time polymerase chain reaction. Our data indicate that both automated extraction methods consistently outperform the manual procedures.

  10. Mechanical algal disruption for efficient biodiesel extraction

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Krehbiel, Joel David

    Biodiesel from algae provides several benefits over current biodiesel feedstocks, but the energy requirements of processing algae into a useable fuel are currently so high as to be prohibitive. One route to improving this is via disruption of the cells prior to lipid extraction, which can significantly increase energy recovery. Unfortunately, several obvious disruption techniques require more energy than can be gained. This dissertation examines the use of microbubbles to improve mechanical disruption of algal cells using experimental, theoretical, and computational methods. New laboratory experiments show that effective ultrasonic disruption of algae is achieved by adding microbubbles to an algal solution. The configuration studied flows the solution through a tube and insonifies a small section with a high-pressure ultrasound wave. Previous biomedical research has shown effective cell membrane damage on animal cells with similar methods, but the present research is the first to extend such study to algal cells. Results indicate that disruption increases with peak negative pressure between 1.90 and 3.07 MPa and with microbubble concentration up to 12.5 x 107 bubbles/ml. Energy estimates of this process suggest that it requires only one-fourth the currently most-efficient laboratory-scale disruption process. Estimates of the radius near each bubble that causes disruption (i.e. the disruption radius) suggest that it increases with peak negative pressure and is near 9--20 microm for all cases tested. It is anticipated that these procedures can be designed for better efficiency and efficacy, which will be facilitated by identifying the root mechanisms of the bubble-induced disruption. We therefore examine whether bubble expansion alone creates sufficient cell deformation for cell rupture. The spherically-symmetric Marmottant model for bubble dynamics allows estimation of the flow regime under experimental conditions. Bubble expansion is modeled as a point source of

  11. Removal of acetic acid from simulated hemicellulosic hydrolysates by emulsion liquid membrane with organophosphorus extractants.

    PubMed

    Lee, Sang Cheol

    2015-09-01

    Selective removal of acetic acid from simulated hemicellulosic hydrolysates containing xylose and sulfuric acid was attempted in a batch emulsion liquid membrane (ELM) system with organophosphorus extractants. Various experimental variables were used to develop a more energy-efficient ELM process. Total operation time of an ELM run with a very small quantity of trioctylphosphine oxide as the extractant was reduced to about a third of those required to attain almost the same extraction efficiency as obtained in previous ELM works without any extractant. Under specific conditions, acetic acid was selectively separated with a high degree of extraction and insignificant loss of xylose, and its purity and enrichment ratio in the stripping phase were higher than 92% and 6, respectively. Also, reused organic membrane solutions exhibited the extraction efficiency as high as fresh organic solutions did. These results showed that the current ELM process would be quite practical.

  12. Process for the extraction of strontium from acidic solutions

    DOEpatents

    Horwitz, E.P.; Dietz, M.L.

    1993-01-01

    The invention is a process for selectively extracting strontium values from aqueous nitric acid waste solutions containing these and other fission product values. The extractant solution is a macrocyclic polyether in an aliphatic hydrocarbon diluent containing a phase modifier. The process will selectively extract strontium values from nitric acid solutions which are up to 6 molar in nitric acid.

  13. Process for the extraction of strontium from acidic solutions

    DOEpatents

    Horwitz, E.P.; Dietz, M.L.

    1994-09-06

    The invention is a process for selectively extracting strontium values from aqueous nitric acid waste solutions containing these and other fission product values. The extractant solution is a macrocyclic polyether in an aliphatic hydrocarbon diluent containing a phase modifier. The process will selectively extract strontium values from nitric acid solutions which are up to 6 molar in nitric acid. 4 figs.

  14. Process for the extraction of strontium from acidic solutions

    DOEpatents

    Horwitz, E. Philip; Dietz, Mark L.

    1994-01-01

    The invention is a process for selectively extracting strontium values from aqueous nitric acid waste solutions containing these and other fission product values. The extractant solution is a macrocyclic polyether in an aliphatic hydrocarbon diluent containing a phase modifier. The process will selectively extract strontium values from nitric acid solutions which are up to 6 molar in nitric acid.

  15. Extraction equilibrium of indium(III) from nitric acid solutions by di(2-ethylhexyl)phosphoric acid dissolved in kerosene.

    PubMed

    Tsai, Hung-Sheng; Tsai, Teh-Hua

    2012-01-04

    The extraction equilibrium of indium(III) from a nitric acid solution using di(2-ethylhexyl) phosphoric acid (D2EHPA) as an acidic extractant of organophosphorus compounds dissolved in kerosene was studied. By graphical and numerical analysis, the compositions of indium-D2EHPA complexes in organic phase and stoichiometry of the extraction reaction were examined. Nitric acid solutions with various indium concentrations at 25 °C were used to obtain the equilibrium constant of InR₃ in the organic phase. The experimental results showed that the extraction distribution ratios of indium(III) between the organic phase and the aqueous solution increased when either the pH value of the aqueous solution and/or the concentration of the organic phase extractant increased. Finally, the recovery efficiency of indium(III) in nitric acid was measured.

  16. An efficient chemical analysis of phenolic acids and flavonoids in raw propolis by microwave-assisted extraction combined with high-performance liquid chromatography using the fused-core technology.

    PubMed

    Pellati, Federica; Prencipe, Francesco Pio; Bertelli, Davide; Benvenuti, Stefania

    2013-01-01

    A closed-vessel microwave-assisted extraction (MAE) technique was optimized for the first time for the extraction of polyphenols from raw propolis. The results obtained by means of response surface experimental design methodology showed that the best global response was reached when the extraction temperature was set at 106 °C, the solvent composition close to EtOH-H2O 80:20 (v/v), with an extraction time of 15 min. In comparison with other techniques, such as maceration, heat reflux extraction (HRE) and ultrasound-assisted extraction (UAE), the extraction with MAE was improved by shorter extraction time and lower volume of solvent needed. The HPLC analyses of propolis extracts were carried out on a fused-core Ascentis Express C18 column (150 mm × 3.0 mm I.D., 2.7 μm), with a gradient mobile phase composed by 0.1% formic acid in water and acetonitrile. Detection was performed by DAD and MS. The method validation indicated that the correlation coefficients were >0.999; the limit of detection was in the range 0.5-0.8 μg/ml for phenolic acids and 1.2-3.0 μg/ml for flavonoids; the recovery range was 95.3-98.1% for phenolic acids and 94.1-101.3% for flavonoids; the intra- and inter-day %RSD values for retention times and peak areas were ≤ 0.3 and 2.2%, respectively. The quali- and quantitative analysis of polyphenols in Italian samples of raw propolis was performed with the validated method. Total phenolic acids ranged from 5.0 to 120.8 mg/g and total flavonoids from 2.5 to 168.0mg/g. The proposed MAE procedure and HPLC method can be considered reliable and useful tools for the comprehensive multi-component analysis of polyphenols in propolis extracts to be used in apitherapy.

  17. Hydrothermal acid treatment for sugar extraction from Golenkinia sp.

    PubMed

    Choi, Sun-A; Choi, Won-Il; Lee, Jin-Suk; Kim, Seung Wook; Lee, Gye-An; Yun, Jihyun; Park, Ji-Yeon

    2015-08-01

    In this study, hydrothermal acid treatment for efficient recovery of sugar from Golenkinia sp. was investigated. The initial glucose and XMG (xylose, mannose, and galactose) contents of a prepared Golenkinia sp. solution (40g/L) were 15.05 and 5.24g/L, respectively. The microalgal cell walls were hydrolyzed, for sugar recovery, by enzymatic saccharification and/or hydrothermal acid treatment. Among the various hydrothermal acid treatment conditions, the most optimal were the 2.0% H2SO4 concentration at 150°C for 15min, under which the glucose- and XMG-extraction yields were 71.7% and 64.9%, respectively. By pH 4.8, 50°C enzymatic hydrolysis after optimal hydrothermal acid treatment, the glucose- and XMG-extraction yields were additionally increased by 8.3% and 0.8%, respectively. After hydrothermal acid treatment, the combination with the enzymatic hydrolysis process improved the total sugar yield of Golenkinia sp. to 75.4%.

  18. Microbial process for the preparation of acetic acid, as well as solvent for its extraction from the fermentation broth

    DOEpatents

    Gaddy, James L.; Clausen, Edgar C.; Ko, Ching-Whan; Wade, Leslie E.; Wikstrom, Carl V.

    2004-06-22

    A modified water-immiscible solvent useful in the extraction of acetic acid from aqueous streams is a substantially pure mixture of isomers of highly branched di-alkyl amines. Solvent mixtures formed of such a modified solvent with a desired co-solvent, preferably a low boiling hydrocarbon, are useful in the extraction of acetic acid from aqueous gaseous streams. An anaerobic microbial fermentation process for the production of acetic acid employs such solvents, under conditions which limit amide formation by the solvent and thus increase the efficiency of acetic acid recovery. Methods for the direct extraction of acetic acid and the extractive fermentation of acetic acid also employ the modified solvents and increase efficiency of acetic acid production. Such increases in efficiency are also obtained where the energy source for the microbial fermentation contains carbon dioxide and the method includes a carbon dioxide stripping step prior to extraction of acetic acid in solvent.

  19. Microbial process for the preparation of acetic acid, as well as solvent for its extraction from the fermentation broth

    DOEpatents

    Gaddy, James L.; Clausen, Edgar C.; Ko, Ching-Whan; Wade, Leslie E.; Wikstrom, Carl V.

    2007-03-27

    A modified water-immiscible solvent useful in the extraction of acetic acid from aqueous streams is a substantially pure mixture of isomers of highly branched di-alkyl amines. Solvent mixtures formed of such a modified solvent with a desired co-solvent, preferably a low boiling hydrocarbon, are useful in the extraction of acetic acid from aqueous gaseous streams. An anaerobic microbial fermentation process for the production of acetic acid employs such solvents, under conditions which limit amide formation by the solvent and thus increase the efficiency of acetic acid recovery. Methods for the direct extraction of acetic acid and the extractive fermentation of acetic acid also employ the modified solvents and increase efficiency of acetic acid production. Such increases in efficiency are also obtained where the energy source for the microbial fermentation contains carbon dioxide and the method includes a carbon dioxide stripping step prior to extraction of acetic acid in solvent.

  20. High extraction efficiency ultraviolet light-emitting diode

    DOEpatents

    Wierer, Jonathan; Montano, Ines; Allerman, Andrew A.

    2015-11-24

    Ultraviolet light-emitting diodes with tailored AlGaN quantum wells can achieve high extraction efficiency. For efficient bottom light extraction, parallel polarized light is preferred, because it propagates predominately perpendicular to the QW plane and into the typical and more efficient light escape cones. This is favored over perpendicular polarized light that propagates along the QW plane which requires multiple, lossy bounces before extraction. The thickness and carrier density of AlGaN QW layers have a strong influence on the valence subband structure, and the resulting optical polarization and light extraction of ultraviolet light-emitting diodes. At Al>0.3, thinner QW layers (<2.5 nm are preferred) result in light preferentially polarized parallel to the QW plane. Also, active regions consisting of six or more QWs, to reduce carrier density, and with thin barriers, to efficiently inject carriers in all the QWs, are preferred.

  1. Improved extraction of saturated fatty acids but not omega-3 fatty acids from sheep red blood cells using a one-step extraction procedure.

    PubMed

    Clayton, Edward H; Gulliver, Catherine E; Piltz, John W; Taylor, Robert D; Blake, Robert J; Meyer, Richard G

    2012-07-01

    Several methods are available to extract total lipid and methylate fatty acids from a range of samples including red blood cells (RBC). Fatty acid analysis of human RBC can be undertaken using a two-step extraction and methylation or a combined one-step extraction and methylation procedure. The lipid composition of sheep RBC differs significantly from that of humans and may affect their extraction. The purpose of the current study was to examine the efficiency of extraction of lipid and detection of fatty acids from sheep RBC using a one-step procedure. Fatty acids were analysed using a one-step extraction and methylation procedure using methanol:toluene and acetyl chloride in comparison with a two-step procedure involving extraction of lipid using chloroform:methanol and separate methylation. Concentrations of saturated fatty acids including C16:0 and C18:0 were significantly higher (42.6 and 33.9 % respectively) following extraction using the one-step procedure compared with the two-step procedure. However, concentrations of some polyunsaturated fatty acids, including C20:5n-3 and C22:6n-3 were not significantly different between either procedure. The improved detection of fatty acids may be related to the ability of different solvents to extract different lipid fractions. The differential extraction of lipids and detection of fatty acids from sheep RBC may have important implications in studies examining the effect of dietary treatment on the possible health benefits of fatty acids.

  2. Extraction of fatty acids from dried freshwater algae using accelerated solvent extraction

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    A high temperature/pressure extraction method (accelerated solvent extraction)(ASE) and a manual extraction method (modified Folch extraction) were compared with regard to their ability to extract total fat from three samples of air-dried filamentous algae and determine the fatty acid (FA) profile o...

  3. FTIR Spectroscopy for Evaluation and Monitoring of Lipid Extraction Efficiency for Oleaginous Fungi

    PubMed Central

    Zimmermann, Boris; Kosa, Gergely; Kohler, Achim; Shapaval, Volha

    2017-01-01

    To assess whether Fourier Transform Infrared (FTIR) spectroscopy could be used to evaluate and monitor lipid extraction processes, the extraction methods of Folch, Bligh and Lewis were used. Biomass of the oleaginous fungi Mucor circinelloides and Mortierella alpina were employed as lipid-rich material for the lipid extraction. The presence of lipids was determined by recording infrared spectra of all components in the lipid extraction procedure, such as the biomass before and after extraction, the water and extract phases. Infrared spectra revealed the incomplete extraction after all three extraction methods applied to M.circinelloides and it was shown that mechanical disruption using bead beating and HCl treatment were necessary to complete the extraction in this species. FTIR spectroscopy was used to identify components, such as polyphosphates, that may have negatively affected the extraction process and resulted in differences in extraction efficiency between M.circinelloides and M.alpina. Residual lipids could not be detected in the infrared spectra of M.alpina biomass after extraction using the Folch and Lewis methods, indicating their complete lipid extraction in this species. Bligh extraction underestimated the fatty acid content of both M.circinelloides and M.alpina biomass and an increase in the initial solvent-to-sample ratio (from 3:1 to 20:1) was needed to achieve complete extraction and a lipid-free IR spectrum. In accordance with previous studies, the gravimetric lipid yield was shown to overestimate the potential of the SCO producers and FAME quantification in GC-FID was found to be the best-suited method for lipid quantification. We conclude that FTIR spectroscopy can serve as a tool for evaluating the lipid extraction efficiency, in addition to identifying components that may affect lipid extraction processes. PMID:28118388

  4. Electrochemical chloride extraction: efficiency and side effects

    SciTech Connect

    Orellan, J.C.; Escadeillas, G.; Arliguie, G

    2004-02-01

    Some specimens of reinforced concrete cast with an alkali-resistant aggregate, previously maintained in a solution of NaCl, were subjected to an electrochemical chloride extraction (ECE). The chloride profiles before and after treatment were determined. Likewise, alkali ions profiles before and after treatment were determined. After treatment, some specimens were stored in a controlled atmosphere (60 deg. C and 100% RH) in order to accelerate the alkali-silica reaction, if any. Results of chloride content after treatment show that about 40% of the initial chloride is removed within 7 weeks. About one-half of the chloride close to steel was removed, but at the same time, significant amounts of alkali ions were observed around the steel. Microstructural observations by scanning electron microscopy (SEM) showed that after treatment, new cementitious phases containing higher concentrations of sodium, aluminum and potassium were formed. Moreover, alkali-silica gel was observed in the specimens stored at 60 deg. C and 100% RH. It may be possible that the ECE accumulates locally high amounts of alkali ions that stimulate the alkali-silica reaction even though the concrete contained nominally inert siliceous aggregates. The specimen expansions were not recorded, but no cracks were observed.

  5. Astrobionibbler: In Situ Microfluidic Subcritical Water Extraction of Amino Acids

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Noell, A. C.; Fisher, A. M.; Takano, N.; Fors-Francis, K.; Sherrit, S.; Grunthaner, F.

    2016-10-01

    A fluidic-chip based instrument for subcritical water extraction (SCWE) of amino acids and other organics from powder samples has been developed. A variety of soil analog extractions have been performed to better understand SCWE capabilities.

  6. Improving the efficiency of antioxidant extraction from mango peel by using microwave-assisted extraction.

    PubMed

    Dorta, Eva; Lobo, M Gloria; González, Mónica

    2013-06-01

    The purpose of this study was to analyze the extraction efficiency of antioxidants from mango peel by comparing two techniques: microwave-assisted (MAE) and traditional solvent (TE) extraction. The number of extraction steps, water content in the extractant, peel weight-to-solvent volume ratio in extractions and extraction time all had an influence on obtaining extracts with high antioxidant capacity, but the extraction technique and the water content in the extractant were the factors with the greatest effect. Using three steps, a water content of 50 % in the ethanol:water extractant, an extraction time of 60 min and a weight-to-volume ratio of 1:10 or 1:50 (w/v) led to the highest antioxidant activity and phytochemicals content in extracts. The extraction time needed to extract phytochemicals from mango peel was similar when MAE and TE were used. However, the antioxidant capacity and phytochemical content were around 1.5-6.0 times higher in the extracts obtained by MAE.

  7. Efficient production of free fatty acids from soybean meal carbohydrates.

    PubMed

    Wang, Dan; Thakker, Chandresh; Liu, Ping; Bennett, George N; San, Ka-Yiu

    2015-11-01

    Conversion of biomass feedstock to chemicals and fuels has attracted increasing attention recently. Soybean meal, containing significant quantities of carbohydrates, is an inexpensive renewable feedstock. Glucose, galactose, and fructose can be obtained by enzymatic hydrolysis of soluble carbohydrates of soybean meal. Free fatty acids (FFAs) are valuable molecules that can be used as precursors for the production of fuels and other value-added chemicals. In this study, free fatty acids were produced by mutant Escherichia coli strains with plasmid pXZ18Z (carrying acyl-ACP thioesterase (TE) and (3R)-hydroxyacyl-ACP dehydratase) using individual sugars, sugar mixtures, and enzymatic hydrolyzed soybean meal extract. For individual sugar fermentations, strain ML211 (MG1655 fadD(-) fabR(-) )/pXZ18Z showed the best performance, which produced 4.22, 3.79, 3.49 g/L free fatty acids on glucose, fructose, and galactose, respectively. While the strain ML211/pXZ18Z performed the best with individual sugars, however, for sugar mixture fermentation, the triple mutant strain XZK211 (MG1655 fadD(-) fabR(-) ptsG(-) )/pXZ18Z with an additional deletion of ptsG encoding the glucose-specific transporter, functioned the best due to relieved catabolite repression. This strain produced approximately 3.18 g/L of fatty acids with a yield of 0.22 g fatty acids/g total sugar. Maximum free fatty acids production of 2.78 g/L with a high yield of 0.21 g/g was achieved using soybean meal extract hydrolysate. The results suggested that soybean meal carbohydrates after enzymatic treatment could serve as an inexpensive feedstock for the efficient production of free fatty acids.

  8. Recovery of boric acid from wastewater by solvent extraction

    SciTech Connect

    Matsumoto, Michiaki; Kondo, Kazuo; Hirata, Makoto; Kokubu, Shuzo; Hano, Tadashi

    1997-03-01

    An extraction system for the recovery of boric acid using 2-butyl-2-ethyl-1,3-propanediol (BEPD) as an extractant was studied. Loss of the extractant to the aqueous solution was lowered by using 2-ethylhexanol as a diluent. The extraction equilibrium of boric acid with BEPD was clarified, and the equilibrium constants for various diluents were determined. Furthermore, continuous operation for the recovery of boric acid using mixer-settlers for extraction and stripping was successfully conducted during 100 hours. 10 refs., 5 figs., 2 tabs.

  9. Batteries for efficient energy extraction from a water salinity difference.

    PubMed

    La Mantia, Fabio; Pasta, Mauro; Deshazer, Heather D; Logan, Bruce E; Cui, Yi

    2011-04-13

    The salinity difference between seawater and river water is a renewable source of enormous entropic energy, but extracting it efficiently as a form of useful energy remains a challenge. Here we demonstrate a device called "mixing entropy battery", which can extract and store it as useful electrochemical energy. The battery, containing a Na(2-x)Mn(5)O(10) nanorod electrode, was shown to extract energy from real seawater and river water and can be applied to a variety of salt waters. We demonstrated energy extraction efficiencies of up to 74%. Considering the flow rate of river water into oceans as the limiting factor, the renewable energy production could potentially reach 2 TW, or ∼13% of the current world energy consumption. The mixing entropy battery is simple to fabricate and could contribute significantly to renewable energy in the future.

  10. Acid generation efficiency: EUV photons versus photoelectrons

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Goldfarb, Dario L.; Afzali-Ardakani, Ali; Glodde, Martin

    2016-03-01

    EUV photoacid generation efficiency has been described primarily in terms of the EUV photon absorption by the PAG or the resist matrix and the production of low energy photoelectrons, which are reported as being ultimately responsible for the high quantum efficiencies reported in EUV resists (<1). Such observation led to a number of recent studies on PAGs with variable electron affinity (EA) and reduction potential (Ered) presumably conducive to a differential EUV photoelectron harvesting efficiency. However, such studies either did not disclose the PAG chemical structures, replaced the EUV source with an e-beam source, or lacked a fundamental discussion of the underlying physical mechanisms behind EUV PAG decomposition. In this work, we report the EUV photospeed of a methacrylatebased resist formulated with a battery of openly disclosed isostructural sulfonium PAGs covering a wide range of EA's and Ered's, to unveil any preferential photoelectron scavenging effect. In parallel, several iodonium PAGs are also tested in order to compare the direct EUV photon absorption route to the photoelectron-based decomposition path. Contrarily to what has been widely reported, we have found no direct correlation whatsoever between photospeed and the calculated EA's or experimental Ered's for the isostructural sulfonium PAGs studied. Instead, we found that iodonium PAGs make more efficient use of the available EUV power due to their higher photoabsorption cross-section. Additionally, we determined a cation size effect for both PAG groups, which is able to further modulate the acid generation efficiency. Finally, we present a formal explanation for the unselective response towards photoelectron harvesting based on the stabilization of the PAG cation by bulky substituent groups, the spatial and temporal range of the transient photoelectron and the differences in electron transfer processes for the different systems studied.

  11. The influence of substrate on DNA transfer and extraction efficiency.

    PubMed

    Verdon, Timothy J; Mitchell, R John; van Oorschot, Roland A H

    2013-01-01

    The circumstances surrounding deposition of DNA profiles are increasingly becoming an issue in court proceedings, especially whether or not the deposit was made by primary transfer. In order to improve the currently problematic evaluation of transfer scenarios in court proceedings, we examined the influence a variety of nine substrate types (six varieties of fabric, plywood, tarpaulin, and plastic sheets) has on DNA transfer involving blood. DNA transfer percentages were significantly higher (p=0.03) when the primary substrate was of non-porous material (such as tarpaulin, plastic or, to a lesser degree, wood) and the secondary substrate porous (such as fabrics). These findings on transfer percentages confirm the results of previous studies. Fabric composition was also shown to have a significant (p=0.03) effect on DNA transfer; when experiments were performed with friction from a variety of fabrics to a specific weave of cotton, transfer percentages ranged from 4% (flannelette) to 94% (acetate). The propensity for the same nine substrates to impact upon the efficiency of DNA extraction procedures was also examined. Significant (p=0.03) differences were found among the extraction efficiencies from different materials. When 15μL of blood was deposited on each of the substrates, the lowest quantity of DNA was extracted from plastic (20ng) and the highest quantities extracted from calico and flannelette (650ng). Significant (p<0.05) differences also exist among the DNA extraction yield from different initial blood volumes from all substrates. Also, significantly greater (p<0.05) loss of DNA was seen during concentration of extracts with higher compared to lower initial quantities of DNA. These findings suggest that the efficiency of extraction and concentration impacts upon the final amount of DNA available for analysis and that consideration of these effects should not be ignored. The application of correction factors to adjust for any variation among extraction and

  12. Efficient Procedure for Extracting Tylenchulus semipenetrans from Citrus Roots

    PubMed Central

    Greco, N.; D'Addabbo, T.

    1990-01-01

    Investigations were undertaken to determine the suitability of sucrose and magnesium sulphate solutions and a silica colloidal suspension with centrifugation for extracting Tylenchulus semipenetrans from citrus roots. The efficiency of incubation, sodium hypochlorite, centrifugation, and maceration methods was also compared. Numbers of females recovered by centrifugation with colloidal silica were greater than those from sucrose or magnesium sulphate. Incubation, sodium hypochlorite, and centrifugation methods were satisfactory for extracting eggs, second-stage juveniles, and males, whereas the maceration-sieving method was less efficient. Combining the sodium hypochlorite method with a 15-second maceration followed by centrifugation in colloidal silica reduced the recovery of T. semipenetrans females from citrus roots. PMID:19287763

  13. Fermentation of aqueous plant seed extracts by lactic acid bacteria

    SciTech Connect

    Schafner, D.W.; Beuchat, R.L.

    1986-05-01

    The effects of lactic acid bacterial fermentation on chemical and physical changes in aqueous extracts of cowpea (Vigna unguiculata), peanut (Arachis hypogea), soybean (Glycine max), and sorghum (Sorghum vulgare) were studied. The bacteria investigated were Lactobacillus helveticus, L. delbrueckii, L. casei, L. bulgaricus, L. acidophilus, and Streptococcus thermophilus. Organisms were inoculated individually into all of the seed extracts; L. bulgaricus and S. thermophilus were also evaluated together as inocula for fermenting the legume extracts. During fermentation, bacterial population and changes in titratable acidity, pH, viscosity, and color were measured over a 72 h period at 37 degrees C. Maximum bacterial populations, titratable acidity, pH, and viscosity varied depending upon the type of extract and bacterial strain. The maximum population of each organism was influenced by fermentable carbohydrates, which, in turn, influenced acid production and change in pH. Change in viscosity was correlated with the amount of protein and titratable acidity of products. Color was affected by pasteurization treatment and fermentation as well as the source of extract. In the extracts inoculated simultaneously with L. bulgaricus and S. thermophilus, a synergistic effect resulted in increased bacterial populations, titratable acidity, and viscosity, and decreased pH in all the legume extracts when compared to the extracts fermented with either of these organisms individually. Fermented extracts offer potential as substitutes for cultured dairy products. 24 references.

  14. Application of dissolvable layered double hydroxides as sorbent in dispersive solid-phase extraction and extraction by co-precipitation for the determination of aromatic acid anions.

    PubMed

    Tang, Sheng; Lee, Hian Kee

    2013-08-06

    Three types of magnesium-aluminum layered double hydroxides were synthesized and employed as solid-phase extraction (SPE) sorbents to extract several aromatic acids (protocatechuic acid, mandelic acid, phthalic acid, benzoic acid, and salicylic acid) from aqueous samples. An interesting feature of these sorbents is that they dissolve when the pH of the solution is lower than 4. Thus, the analyte elution step, as needed in conventional sorbent-based extraction, was obviated by dissolving the sorbent in acid after extraction and separation from the sample solution. The extract was then directly injected into a high-performance liquid chromatography-ultraviolet detection system for analysis. In the key adsorption process, both dispersive SPE and co-precipitation extraction with the sorbents were conducted and experimental parameters such as pH, temperature, and extraction time were optimized. The results showed that both extraction methods provided low limits of detection (0.03-1.47 μg/L) and good linearity (r(2) > 0.9903). The optimized extraction conditions were applied to human urine and sports drink samples. This new and interesting extraction approach was demonstrated to be a fast and efficient procedure for the extraction of organic anions from aqueous samples.

  15. Effects of ultrahigh pressure extraction on yield and antioxidant activity of chlorogenic acid and cynaroside extracted from flower buds of Lonicera japonica.

    PubMed

    Hu, Wen; Guo, Ting; Jiang, Wen-Jun; Dong, Guang-Li; Chen, Da-Wei; Yang, Shi-Lin; Li, He-Ran

    2015-06-01

    The present study was designed to establish and optimize a new method for extracting chlorogenic acid and cynaroside from Lonicera japonica Thunb. through orthogonal experimental designl. A new ultrahigh pressure extraction (UPE) technology was applied to extract chlorogenic acid and cynaroside from L. japonica. The influential factors, including solvent type, ethanol concentration, extraction pressure, time, and temperature, and the solid/liquid ratio, have been studied to optimize the extraction process. The optimal conditions for the UPE were developed by quantitative analysis of the extraction products by HPLC-DAD in comparison with standard samples. In addition, the microstructures of the medicinal materials before and after extraction were studied by scanning electron microscopy (SEM). Furthermore, the extraction efficiency of different extraction methods and the 2, 2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) radical scavenging activities of the extracts were investigated. The optimal conditions for extracting chlorogenic acid and cynaroside were as follows: ethanol concentration, 60%; extraction pressure, 400 MPa; extraction time, 2 min; extraction temperature, 30 °C; and the solid/liquid ratio, 1 : 50. Under these conditions, the yields of chlorogenic acid and cynaroside were raised to 4.863% and 0.080%, respectively. Compared with other extraction methods, such as heat reflux extraction (HRE), ultrasonic extraction (UE), and Sohxlet extraction (SE), the UPE method showed several advantages, including higher extraction yield, shorter extraction time, lower energy consumption, and higher purity of the extracts. This study could help better utilize L. japonica flower buds as a readily accessible source of natural antioxidants in food and pharmaceutical industries.

  16. Application of ionic liquids based enzyme-assisted extraction of chlorogenic acid from Eucommia ulmoides leaves.

    PubMed

    Liu, Tingting; Sui, Xiaoyu; Li, Li; Zhang, Jie; Liang, Xin; Li, Wenjing; Zhang, Honglian; Fu, Shuang

    2016-01-15

    A new approach for ionic liquid based enzyme-assisted extraction (ILEAE) of chlorogenic acid (CGA) from Eucommia ulmoides is presented in which enzyme pretreatment was used in ionic liquids aqueous media to enhance extraction yield. For this purpose, the solubility of CGA and the activity of cellulase were investigated in eight 1-alkyl-3-methylimidazolium ionic liquids. Cellulase in 0.5 M [C6mim]Br aqueous solution was found to provide better performance in extraction. The factors of ILEAE procedures including extraction time, extraction phase pH, extraction temperatures and enzyme concentrations were investigated. Moreover, the novel developed approach offered advantages in term of yield and efficiency compared with other conventional extraction techniques. Scanning electronic microscopy of plant samples indicated that cellulase treated cell wall in ionic liquid solution was subjected to extract, which led to more efficient extraction by reducing mass transfer barrier. The proposed ILEAE method would develope a continuous process for enzyme-assisted extraction including enzyme incubation and solvent extraction process. In this research, we propose a novel view for enzyme-assisted extraction of plant active component, besides concentrating on enzyme facilitated cell wall degradation, focusing on improvement of bad permeability of ionic liquids solutions.

  17. Determination of hexabromocyclododecane diastereoisomers in Sargassum fusiforme and comparison of the extraction efficiency of ultrasonication, microwave-assisted extraction, Soxhlet extraction and pressurised liquid extraction.

    PubMed

    Han, Chao; Chen, Xiaomei; Xie, Wen; Zhu, Zhenou; Liu, Cuiping; Chen, Fan; Shen, Yan

    2010-11-01

    The concentrations of hexabromocyclododecanes (HBCD) in Sargassum fusiforme, the common Chinese edible seaweed, were investigated by LC-MS/MS. For the recovery of HBCD, the efficiency levels of ultrasonic-assisted extraction, microwave-assisted extraction, Soxhlet extraction and pressurised liquid extraction were compared under different conditions. Pressurised liquid extraction and ultrasonic-assisted extraction resulted in complete extraction of HBCD (92.7-102.5% recovery). Microwave-assisted extraction and Soxhlet extraction, on the other hand, offered relatively low extraction recoveries (82.1-90.6%). The instrumental LODs on columns in this study were 1.0, 0.3 and 0.7 ng/g for α-HBCD, β-HBCD and γ-HBCD, respectively. Because of its accuracy, this straightforward method is particularly suitable for routine HBCD analysis.

  18. Efficient extraction method to collect sugar from sweet sorghum

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Sweet sorghum is a domesticated grass containing a sugar-rich juice that can be readily utilized for ethanol production. Most of the sugar is stored inside the cells of the stalk tissue and can be difficult to release, a necessary step before conventional fermentation. While this crop holds much promise as an arid land sugar source for biofuel production, a number of challenges must be overcome. One lies in the inherent labile nature of the sugars in the stalks leading to a short usable storage time. Also, collection of sugars from the sweet sorghum stalks is usually accomplished by mechanical squeezing, but generally does not collect all of the available sugars. Results In this paper, we present two methods that address these challenges for utilization of sweet sorghum for biofuel production. The first method demonstrates a means to store sweet sorghum stalks in the field under semi-arid conditions. The second provides an efficient water extraction method that can collect as much of the available sugar as feasible. Operating parameters investigated include temperature, stalk size, and solid–liquid ratio that impact both the rate of sugar release and the maximal amount recovered with a goal of low water use. The most desirable conditions include 30°C, 0.6 ratio of solid to liquid (w/w), which collects 90 % of the available sugar. Variations in extraction methods did not alter the efficiency of the eventual ethanol fermentation. Conclusions The water extraction method has the potential to be used for sugar extraction from both fresh sweet sorghum stalks and dried ones. When combined with current sugar extraction methods, the overall ethanol production efficiency would increase compared to current field practices. PMID:23305036

  19. Solvent extraction of rare-earth metals by carboxylic acids

    SciTech Connect

    Preez, A.C. du; Preston, J.S.

    1992-04-01

    The solvent extraction of the trivalent lanthanides and yttrium from nitrate media by solutions of carboxylic acids in xylene has been studied. Commercially available carboxylic acids such as Versatic 10 and naphthenic acids were used, as well as model compounds of known structure, such as 2-ethylhexanoic and 3-cyclohexylpropanoic acids. In a few cases, extraction of the metals from sulphate and chloride solutions was also investigated. The dependence of the extraction properties of the carboxylic acids on the atomic number of the lanthanide shows a definite relationship to the steric bulk of the carboxylic acid molecule quantified by means of the steric parameter, E{sub s}{prime} of the substituent alkyl group. The stoichiometries of the extracted complexes for representative light (La), middle (Gd) and heavy (Lu) rare-earth metals were investigated by the slope-analysis technique for a sterically hindered acid (Versatic 10 acid; -E{prime}{sub s} = 3.83) and an acid with low steric hindrance (3-cyclohexylpropanoic acid; -E{prime}{sub s} = 0.28). 14 refs., 13 figs., 3 tabs.

  20. Extraction of uranium by macroporous bifunctional phosphinic acid resin

    SciTech Connect

    Sabharwal, K.N.; Rao, P.R.V.; Srinivasan, M.

    1995-05-01

    The extraction of U(VI), Th(IV) and a number of fission products from nitric acid medium by a newly synthesised macroporous bifunctional phosphinic acid resin has been studied. The extraction of uranium from sulphuric acid medium has also been studied. While the gel type phosphinic acid resins seems to pose a number of problems in practical applications, the macroporous type resins are shown to be suitable for a variety of applications where conventional ion exchange resins are of limited use. 12 refs., 5 figs., 3 tabs.

  1. Analysis of entropy extraction efficiencies in random number generation systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Chao; Wang, Shuang; Chen, Wei; Yin, Zhen-Qiang; Han, Zheng-Fu

    2016-05-01

    Random numbers (RNs) have applications in many areas: lottery games, gambling, computer simulation, and, most importantly, cryptography [N. Gisin et al., Rev. Mod. Phys. 74 (2002) 145]. In cryptography theory, the theoretical security of the system calls for high quality RNs. Therefore, developing methods for producing unpredictable RNs with adequate speed is an attractive topic. Early on, despite the lack of theoretical support, pseudo RNs generated by algorithmic methods performed well and satisfied reasonable statistical requirements. However, as implemented, those pseudorandom sequences were completely determined by mathematical formulas and initial seeds, which cannot introduce extra entropy or information. In these cases, “random” bits are generated that are not at all random. Physical random number generators (RNGs), which, in contrast to algorithmic methods, are based on unpredictable physical random phenomena, have attracted considerable research interest. However, the way that we extract random bits from those physical entropy sources has a large influence on the efficiency and performance of the system. In this manuscript, we will review and discuss several randomness extraction schemes that are based on radiation or photon arrival times. We analyze the robustness, post-processing requirements and, in particular, the extraction efficiency of those methods to aid in the construction of efficient, compact and robust physical RNG systems.

  2. Extraction and recovery of methylene blue from industrial wastewater using benzoic acid as an extractant.

    PubMed

    Muthuraman, G; Teng, Tjoon Tow; Leh, Cheu Peng; Norli, I

    2009-04-15

    Liquid-liquid extraction (LLE) of methylene blue (MB) from industrial wastewater using benzoic acid (extractant) in xylene has been studied at 27 degrees C. The extraction of the dye increased with increasing extractant concentration. The extraction abilities have been studied on benzoic acid concentration in the range of 0.36-5.8x10(-2) M. The distribution ratio of the dye is reasonably high (D=49.5) even in the presence of inorganic salts. Irrespective of the concentration of dye, extraction under optimal conditions was 90-99% after 15 min of phase separation. The extracted dye in the organic phase can be back extracted into sulphuric acid solution. The resultant recovered organic phase can be reused in succeeding extraction of dye with the yield ranging from 99 to 87% after 15 times reused, depending on the concentration of the initial feed solution. Experimental parameters examined were benzoic acid concentration, effect of diluent, effect of pH, effect of initial dye concentration, effect of equilibration time, various stripping agents, aqueous to organic phase ratio in extraction, organic to aqueous phase ratio in stripping and reusability of solvent.

  3. Relevance of carnosic acid, carnosol, and rosmarinic acid concentrations in the in vitro antioxidant and antimicrobial activities of Rosmarinus officinalis (L.) methanolic extracts.

    PubMed

    Jordán, Maria J; Lax, Vanesa; Rota, Maria C; Lorán, Susana; Sotomayor, José A

    2012-09-26

    The importance of the diterpenic and rosmarinic acid content in the biological activities of rosemary extracts has been studied previously, but how the relationship between the concentration of these components affects their antioxidant and antibacterial activities has received little attention. Accordingly, from a total of 150 plants, 27 methanolic extracts were selected, for their similar diterpene contents but different ratios between carnosic acid and carnosol concentrations. In extracts with similar rosmarinic acid contents but differing proportions between carnosic acid and carnosol, the two diterpenes were seen to equally affect the in vitro antioxidant activity; however, and related with the antibacterial efficiency, this biological activity improved when carnosol was the major diterpene component.

  4. A comparison of the efficiency of five different commercial DNA extraction kits for extraction of DNA from faecal samples.

    PubMed

    Claassen, Shantelle; du Toit, Elloise; Kaba, Mamadou; Moodley, Clinton; Zar, Heather J; Nicol, Mark P

    2013-08-01

    Differences in the composition of the gut microbiota have been associated with a range of diseases using culture-independent methods. Reliable extraction of nucleic acid is a key step in identifying the composition of the faecal microbiota. Five widely used commercial deoxyribonucleic acid (DNA) extraction kits (QIAsymphony® Virus/Bacteria Midi Kit (kit QS), ZR Fecal DNA MiniPrep™ (kit Z), QIAamp® DNA Stool Mini Kit (kit QA), Ultraclean® Fecal DNA Isolation Kit (kit U) and PowerSoil® DNA Isolation Kit (kit P)) were evaluated, using human faecal samples. Yield, purity and integrity of total genomic DNA were compared spectrophotometrically and using gel electrophoresis. Three bacteria, commonly found in human faeces were quantified using real time polymerase chain reaction (qPCR) and total bacterial diversity was studied using denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis (DGGE) as well as terminal restriction fragment length polymorphism (T-RFLP). The measurements of DNA yield and purity exhibited variations between the five kits tested in this study. Automated kit QS exhibited the best quality and highest quantity of DNA. All kits were shown to be reproducible with CV values≤0.46 for DNA extraction. qPCR results showed that all kits were uniformly efficient for extracting DNA from the selected target bacteria. DGGE and T-RFLP produced the highest diversity scores for DNA extracted using kit Z (H'=2.30 and 1.27) and kit QS (H'=2.16 and 0.94), which also extracted the highest DNA yields compared to the other kits assessed.

  5. Mitotic apparatus: the selective extraction of protein with mild acid.

    PubMed

    Bibring, T; Baxandall, J

    1968-07-26

    The treatment of isolated mitotic apparatus with mild (pH 3) hydrochloric acid results in the extraction of less than 10 percent of its protein, accompanied by the selective morphological disappearance of the microtubules. The same extraction can be shown to dissolve outer doublet microtubules from sperm flagella. A protein with points of similarity to the flagellar microtubule protein is the major component of the extract from mitotic apparatus.

  6. Recovery of organic extractant from secondary emulsions formed in the extraction of uranium from wet-process phosphoric acid

    SciTech Connect

    Korchnak, J.D.; Fett, R.H.G.

    1984-01-03

    Uranium in wet-process phosphoric acid is extracted with an organic extractant. The pregnant extractant is then centrifuged to separate contaminants from the extractant. Secondary emulsions obtained by separating the contaminants following centrifugation are mixed with water or an acid leaching solution. After mixing, the mixture is centrifuged to separate and recover extractant which is recycled for stripping.

  7. An economical and efficient technology for the extraction of resveratrol from peanut (Arachis hypogaea) sprouts by multi-stage countercurrent extraction.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Qianghua; Bian, Yanhong; Shi, Yingying; Zheng, Shangyong; Gu, Xu; Zhang, Danyan; Zhu, Xiufang; Wang, Xiaoli; Jiang, Dingyun; Xiong, Qingping

    2015-07-15

    In this paper, an economical and efficient technology for the extraction of resveratrol from peanut sprouts by multi-stage countercurrent extraction (MSCE) was investigated based on the alkaline extraction and acid precipitation method (AEAP). Firstly, the MSCE equipment and operation procedures were designed. Then, the optimal parameters of MSCE were obtained by using single-factor experiments and Box-Behnken design (BBD) as follows: extraction temperature of 46.6 °C, CaO to raw material ratio of 6:100, water to raw material ratio of 8.8:1 and extraction time of 51.7 min. Finally, the performance of MSCE was compared against the single pot extraction (SPE) under optimal conditions. The results demonstrated that MSCE was a time-saving, energy-saving, and cost-saving extraction technology for manufacturing resveratrol from peanut sprouts.

  8. Recovery of acetic acid from waste streams by extractive distillation.

    PubMed

    Demiral, H; Yildirim, M Ercengiz

    2003-01-01

    Wastes have been considered to be a serious worldwide environmental problem in recent years. Because of increasing pollution, these wastes should be treated. However, industrial wastes can contain a number of valuable organic components. Recovery of these components is important economically. Using conventional distillation techniques, the separation of acetic acid and water is both impractical and uneconomical, because it often requires large number of trays and a high reflux ratio. In practice special techniques are used depending on the concentration of acetic acid. Between 30 and 70% (w/w) acetic acid contents, extractive distillation was suggested. Extractive distillation is a multicomponent-rectification method similar in purpose to azeotropic distillation. In extractive distillation, to a binary mixture which is difficult or impossible to separate by ordinary means, a third component termed an entrainer is added which alters the relative volatility of the original constituents, thus permitting the separation. In our department acetic acid is used as a solvent during the obtaining of cobalt(III) acetate from cobalt(II) acetate by an electrochemical method. After the operation, the remaining waste contains acetic acid. In thiswork, acetic acid which has been found in this waste was recovered by extractive distillation. Adiponitrile and sulfolane were used as high boiling solvents and the effects of solvent feed rate/solution feed rate ratio and type were investigated. According to the experimental results, it was seem that the recovery of acetic acid from waste streams is possible by extractive distillation.

  9. Extraction of protactinium from mineral acid-alcohol media.

    PubMed

    Alian, A; Sanad, W; Shabana, R

    1968-07-01

    The extraction of protactinium with organic solvents has been investigated in the presence of water-miscible alcohols and acetone. These additives were found to increase considerably the extraction of protactinium in the cases of trilaurylamine, tributyl phosphate and isobutyl methyl ketone. The influence was less in the case of thenoyltrifluoroacetone. In mixtures of an acid with various alcohols, the influence depended on the alcohol concentration, the acidity and on the chain lengths and dielectric constants of the alcohol introduced into the extraction system.

  10. Approaches for regeneration of amine-carboxylic acid extracts

    SciTech Connect

    Dai, Y.; King, C.J.

    1995-07-01

    Extraction processes based on reversible chemical complexation can be useful for separation of polar organics from dilute solution. Tertiary amines are effective extractants for the recovery of carboxylic acids from aqueous solution. The regeneration of aminecarboxylic acid extracts is an important step which strongly influences the economic viability of the separation process. Several regeneration methods are critically reviewed, and the factors that affect swing regeneration processes, including temperature-swing, diluent composition-swing and pH-swing with a volatile base are discussed. Interest in this area comes from interest in treatment of waste streams, particularly in petrochemical and fermentation manufacture.

  11. Comprehensive extraction study using N,N-dioctyldiglycolamic acid.

    PubMed

    Shimojo, Kojiro; Nakai, Ayaka; Okamura, Hiroyuki; Saito, Takumi; Ohashi, Akira; Naganawa, Hirochika

    2014-01-01

    We report on the acid dissociation constants (Ka) of diglycolamic acid-type ligands together with comprehensive data on the extraction performance of N,N-dioctyldiglycolamic acid (DODGAA) for 54 metal ions. The pKa of the diglycolamic acid framework was determined to be 3.54 ± 0.03 in water (0.1 M LiCl, 25°C) by potentiometric titration, indicating that DODGAA is strongly acidic compared with acetic acid. DODGAA can quantitatively transfer various metal ions among the 54 metal ions through a proton-exchange reaction, and provides excellent extraction performance and separation ability for rare-earth metal ions, In(III), Fe(III), Hg(II), and Pb(II) among the 54 metal ions.

  12. Fatty and resinic acids extractions from crude tall oil

    SciTech Connect

    Nogueira, J.M.F.

    1996-11-01

    The separation of fatty and resinic acidic fractions from crude tall-oil soap solutions with n-heptane by the technique of dissociation extraction is discussed. The theory of the overall process is supported by a systematic study developed to cover the high selectivity demonstrated in the differential solubility and the aptness between fatty and diterpenic acids to both liquids phases. To study the main factors affecting those liquid-liquid extraction systems and the amphiphilic behavior of such molecules involved, sodium salts aqueous solutions of crude tall oil and synthetic mixtures as molecular acidic models were used.

  13. Accurate and efficient maximal ball algorithm for pore network extraction

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Arand, Frederick; Hesser, Jürgen

    2017-04-01

    The maximal ball (MB) algorithm is a well established method for the morphological analysis of porous media. It extracts a network of pores and throats from volumetric data. This paper describes structural modifications to the algorithm, while the basic concepts are preserved. Substantial improvements to accuracy and efficiency are achieved as follows: First, all calculations are performed on a subvoxel accurate distance field, and no approximations to discretize balls are made. Second, data structures are simplified to keep memory usage low and improve algorithmic speed. Third, small and reasonable adjustments increase speed significantly. In volumes with high porosity, memory usage is improved compared to classic MB algorithms. Furthermore, processing is accelerated more than three times. Finally, the modified MB algorithm is verified by extracting several network properties from reference as well as real data sets. Runtimes are measured and compared to literature.

  14. Extraction of Cysts and Eggs of Heterodera schachtii from Soil with an Assessment of Extraction Efficiency

    PubMed Central

    Caswell, E. P.; Thomason, I. J.; McKinney, H. E.

    1985-01-01

    Techniques are described for the extraction and enumeration of cysts and contained eggs from soil samples. The average recovery of cysts from seeded soil samples of differing soil texture was 82.7 ± 2.1%. Recovery from sandy clay soil samples seeded at 1 cyst/100 g soil was 63.4 ± 5.5%; at 4.2 cysts/100 g soil recovery was 89.6 ± 1.8%. Recovery of cysts from naturally infested clay soil was 88.3 ± 2.05%. Egg extraction efficiency for seeded samples was calculated as 78%, and for naturally infested soil was estimated as 83%. PMID:19294103

  15. Characterization and functional properties of mango peel pectin extracted by ultrasound assisted citric acid.

    PubMed

    Wang, Miaomiao; Huang, Bohui; Fan, Chuanhui; Zhao, Kaili; Hu, Hao; Xu, Xiaoyun; Pan, Siyi; Liu, Fengxia

    2016-10-01

    Pectin was extracted from 'Tainong No. 1' mango peels, using a chelating agent-citric acid as extraction medium by ultrasound-assisted extraction (UAE) and conventional extraction (CE) at temperatures of 20 and 80°C. Chemical structures, rheological and emulsifying properties of mango peel pectins (MPPs) were comparatively studied with laboratory grade citrus pectin (CP). All MPPs exhibited higher protein content (4.74%-5.94%), degree of methoxylation (85.43-88.38%), average molecular weight (Mw, 378.4-2858kDa) than the CP, but lower galacuronic acid content (GalA, 52.21-53.35%). CE or UAE at 80°C resulted in significantly higher pectin yield than those at 20°C, while the extraction time for UAE-80°C (15min) was significantly shorter compared to CE-80°C (2h) with comparable pectin yield. Moreover, MPPs extracted at 80°C were observed with higher GalA and protein content, higher Mw, resulting in higher viscosity, better emulsifying capacity and stability, as compared to those extracted at 20°C and the CP. Therefore, these results suggested that MPPs from 'Tainong No. 1' may become a highly promising pectin with good thickening and emulsifying properties, using ultrasound-assisted citric acid as an efficient and eco-friendly extraction method.

  16. Direct lactic acid fermentation of Jerusalem artichoke tuber extract using Lactobacillus paracasei without acidic or enzymatic inulin hydrolysis.

    PubMed

    Choi, Hwa-Young; Ryu, Hee-Kyoung; Park, Kyung-Min; Lee, Eun Gyo; Lee, Hongweon; Kim, Seon-Won; Choi, Eui-Sung

    2012-06-01

    Lactic acid fermentation of Jerusalem artichoke tuber was performed with strains of Lactobacillus paracasei without acidic or enzymatic inulin hydrolysis prior to fermentation. Some strains of L. paracasei, notably KCTC13090 and KCTC13169, could ferment hot-water extract of Jerusalem artichoke tuber more efficiently compared with other Lactobacillus spp. such as L. casei type strain KCTC3109. The L. paracasei strains could utilize almost completely the fructo-oligosaccharides present in Jerusalem artichoke. Inulin-fermenting L. paracasei strains produced c.a. six times more lactic acid compared with L. casei KCTC3109. Direct lactic fermentation of Jerusalem artichoke tuber extract at 111.6g/L of sugar content with a supplement of 5 g/L of yeast extract by L. paracasei KCTC13169 in a 5L jar fermentor produced 92.5 ce:hsp sp="0.25"/>g/L of lactic acid with 16.8 g/L fructose equivalent remained unutilized in 72 h. The conversion efficiency of inulin-type sugars to lactic acid was 98% of the theoretical yield.

  17. Supercritical fluid extraction of free amino acids from broccoli leaves.

    PubMed

    Arnáiz, E; Bernal, J; Martín, M T; Nozal, M J; Bernal, J L; Toribio, L

    2012-08-10

    The extraction of free amino acids (AAs) from broccoli leaves using supercritical fluid extraction (SFE) with CO(2) modified with methanol, is presented in this work. The effect of the different variables was studied, showing the percentage of methanol a strong influence on the extraction. The best results in terms of extraction yield were obtained at 250 bar, 70°C, 35% methanol as organic modifier, a flow rate of 2 mL/min, and 5 min and 30 min as static and dynamic extraction times, respectively. The extraction yield obtained with the SFE method was comparable to that obtained employing conventional solvent extraction with methanol-water (70:30) and minor than using water, but the relative proportion of the AAs in the extracts was very different. For example, the use of SFE allowed the enrichment in proline and glutamine of the extracts. The selected conditions were applied to obtain SFE extracts of broccoli leaves from different varieties (Naxos, Nubia, Marathon, Parthenon and Viola). The highest levels of AAs were found in the SFE extracts from the Nubia variety.

  18. Facile Preparation of Molybdenum Bronzes as an Efficient Hole Extraction Layer in Organic Photovoltaics.

    PubMed

    Wang, Jiantai; Zhang, Jun; Meng, Bin; Zhang, Baohua; Xie, Zhiyuan; Wang, Lixiang

    2015-06-24

    We proposed a facile and green one-pot strategy to synthesize Mo bronzes nanoparticles to serve as an efficient hole extraction layer in polymer solar cells. Mo bronzes were obtained through reducing the fractional self-aggregated ammonium heptamolybdate with appropriate reducing agent ascorbic acid, and its optoelectronic properties were fully characterized. The synthesized Mo bronzes displayed strong n-type semiconductor characteristics with a work function of 5.2-5.4 eV, matched well with the energy levels of current donor polymers. The presented gap states of the Mo bronzes near the Fermi level were beneficial for facilitating charge extraction. The as-synthesized Mo bronzes were used as hole extraction layer in polymer solar cells and significantly enhanced the photovoltaic performance and stability. The power conversion efficiency was increased by more than 18% compared with the polyethylene dioxythiophene:polystyrenesulfonate-based reference cell. The excellent performance and facile preparation render the as-synthesized solution-processed Mo bronzes nanoparticles a promising candidate for hole extraction layer in low-cost and efficient polymer solar cells.

  19. Enhanced lipid extraction from algae using free nitrous acid pretreatment.

    PubMed

    Bai, Xue; Naghdi, Forough Ghasemi; Ye, Liu; Lant, Paul; Pratt, Steven

    2014-05-01

    Lipid extraction has been identified as a major bottleneck for large-scale algal biodiesel production. In this work free nitrous acid (FNA) is presented as an effective and low cost pretreatment to enhance lipid recovery from algae. Two batch tests, with a range of FNA additions, were conducted to disrupt algal cells prior to lipid extraction by organic solvents. Total accessible lipid content was quantified by the Bligh and Dyer method, and was found to increase with pretreatment time (up to 48 h) and FNA concentration (up to 2.19 mg HNO2-N/L). Hexane extraction was used to study industrially accessible lipids. The mass transfer coefficient (k) for lipid extraction using hexane from algae treated with 2.19 mg HNO2-N/L FNA was found to be dramatically higher than for extraction from untreated algae. Consistent with extraction results, cell disruption analysis indicated the disruption of the cell membrane barrier.

  20. Extraction, purification, methylation and GC-MS analysis of short-chain carboxylic acids for metabolic flux analysis.

    PubMed

    Tivendale, Nathan D; Jewett, Erin M; Hegeman, Adrian D; Cohen, Jerry D

    2016-08-15

    Dynamic metabolic flux analysis requires efficient and effective methods for extraction, purification and analysis of a plethora of naturally-occurring compounds. One area of metabolism that would be highly informative to study using metabolic flux analysis is the tricarboxylic acid (TCA) cycle, which consists of short-chain carboxylic acids. Here, we describe a newly-developed method for extraction, purification, derivatization and analysis of short-chain carboxylic acids involved in the TCA cycle. The method consists of snap-freezing the plant material, followed by maceration and a 12-15h extraction at -80 °C. The extracts are then subject to reduction (to stabilize β-keto acids), purified by strong anion exchange solid phase extraction and methylated with methanolic HCl. This method could also be readily adapted to quantify many other short-chain carboxylic acids.

  1. Ultrasonic-Assisted Extraction of Raspberry Seed Oil and Evaluation of Its Physicochemical Properties, Fatty Acid Compositions and Antioxidant Activities

    PubMed Central

    Huang, Qun; Wang, Jinli; Lin, Qiyang; Liu, Mingxin; Lee, Won Young; Song, Hongbo

    2016-01-01

    Ultrasonic-assisted extraction was employed for highly efficient separation of aroma oil from raspberry seeds. A central composite design with two variables and five levels was employed and effects of process variables of sonication time and extraction temperature on oil recovery and quality were investigated. Optimal conditions predicted by response surface methodology were sonication time of 37 min and extraction temperature of 54°C. Specifically, ultrasonic-assisted extraction (UAE) was able to provide a higher content of beneficial unsaturated fatty acids, whereas conventional Soxhlet extraction (SE) resulted in a higher amount of saturated fatty acids. Moreover, raspberry seed oil contained abundant amounts of edible linoleic acid and linolenic acid, which suggest raspberry seeds could be valuable edible sources of natural γ-linolenic acid products. In comparison with SE, UAE exerted higher free radical scavenging capacities. In addition, UAE significantly blocked H2O2-induced intracellular reactive oxygen species (ROS) generation. PMID:27120053

  2. Ultrasonic-Assisted Extraction of Raspberry Seed Oil and Evaluation of Its Physicochemical Properties, Fatty Acid Compositions and Antioxidant Activities.

    PubMed

    Teng, Hui; Chen, Lei; Huang, Qun; Wang, Jinli; Lin, Qiyang; Liu, Mingxin; Lee, Won Young; Song, Hongbo

    2016-01-01

    Ultrasonic-assisted extraction was employed for highly efficient separation of aroma oil from raspberry seeds. A central composite design with two variables and five levels was employed and effects of process variables of sonication time and extraction temperature on oil recovery and quality were investigated. Optimal conditions predicted by response surface methodology were sonication time of 37 min and extraction temperature of 54°C. Specifically, ultrasonic-assisted extraction (UAE) was able to provide a higher content of beneficial unsaturated fatty acids, whereas conventional Soxhlet extraction (SE) resulted in a higher amount of saturated fatty acids. Moreover, raspberry seed oil contained abundant amounts of edible linoleic acid and linolenic acid, which suggest raspberry seeds could be valuable edible sources of natural γ-linolenic acid products. In comparison with SE, UAE exerted higher free radical scavenging capacities. In addition, UAE significantly blocked H2O2-induced intracellular reactive oxygen species (ROS) generation.

  3. Method for liquid chromatographic extraction of strontium from acid solutions

    DOEpatents

    Horwitz, E. Philip; Dietz, Mark L.

    1992-01-01

    A method and apparatus for extracting strontium and technetium values from biological, industrial and environmental sample solutions using a chromatographic column is described. An extractant medium for the column is prepared by generating a solution of a diluent containing a Crown ether and dispersing the solution on a resin substrate material. The sample solution is highly acidic and is introduced directed to the chromatographic column and strontium or technetium is eluted using deionized water.

  4. The extraction of actinides from nitric acid solutions with diamides of dipicolinic acid

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lapka, Joseph L.; Paulenova, Alena; Alyapyshev, Mikhail Yu; Babain, Vasiliy A.; Law, Jack D.; Herbst, R. Scott

    2010-03-01

    Diamides of dipicolinic acid (N,N'-diethyl-N,N'-ditolyl-dipicolinamide, EtTDPA) were synthesized and evaluated for their extraction capability for actinides. In this work the extractions of neptunium(V), protactinium(V), and thorium(IV) with EtTDPA in a polar fluorinated diluent from nitric acid were investigated. EtTDPA shows a high affinity for Th(IV) even at millimolar concentrations. Np(V) and Pa(V) are both reasonably extractable with EtTDPA; however, near saturated solutions are required to achieve appreciable distribution ratios. A comparison with previously published actinide extraction data is given.

  5. Freeze-out extraction of monocarboxylic acids from water into acetonitrile under the action of centrifugal forces

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bekhterev, V. N.

    2016-10-01

    It is established that the efficiency of the freezing-out extraction of monocarboxylic acids C3-C;8 and sorbic acid from water into acetonitrile increases under the action of centrifugal forces. The linear growth of the partition coefficient in the homologous series of C2-C8 acids with an increase in molecule length, and the difference between the efficiency of extracting sorbic and hexanoic acid, are discussed using a theoretical model proposed earlier and based on the adsorption-desorption equilibrium of the partition of dissolved organic compounds between the resulting surface of ice and the liquid phase of the extract. The advantages of the proposed technique with respect to the degree of concentration over the method of low-temperature liquid-liquid extraction are explained in light of the phase diagram for the water-acetonitrile mixture.

  6. Enrichment and separation of chlorogenic acid from the extract of Eupatorium adenophorum Spreng by macroporous resin.

    PubMed

    Liu, Boyan; Dong, Beitao; Yuan, Xiaofan; Kuang, Qirong; Zhao, Qingsheng; Yang, Mei; Liu, Jie; Zhao, Bing

    2016-01-01

    A simple and efficient chromatographic method for separation of chlorogenic acid from Eupatorium adenophorum Spreng extract was developed. The adsorption properties of nine macroporous resins were evaluated. NKA-II resin showed much better adsorption/desorption properties. The adsorption of chlorogenic acid on NKA-II resin at 25°C was well fitted to Langmuir isotherm model and pseudo-second-order kinetic model. The dynamic adsorption and desorption experiments were carried out on columns packed with NKA-II resin to optimize the separation process. The content of chlorogenic acid in the product increased to 22.17%, with a recovery yield of 82.41%.

  7. Improved DNA extraction efficiency from low level cell numbers using a silica monolith based micro fluidic device.

    PubMed

    Kashkary, Loay; Kemp, Cordula; Shaw, Kirsty J; Greenway, Gillian M; Haswell, Stephen J

    2012-10-31

    The evaluation of a micro fluidic system with an integrated silica monolith for performing DNA extraction from limited biological samples has been carried out. Low DNA target concentrations usually require the addition of carrier RNA to ensure desired extraction efficiencies. Here, we demonstrate a micro fluidic extraction system with increasingly efficient extraction performances for biological samples containing <15 ng of total DNA without the need of adding carrier nucleic acids. All extracted DNA showed successful amplification via the polymerase chain reaction demonstrating both the effectiveness of the proposed system at removing potential inhibitors and yielding good quality DNA. The work presented here beneficially identifies reduced sample volumes/concentrations as suitable for processing with respect to downstream analysis by enabling pre-concentration of the biological sample, particularly important when dealing with clinical or forensic specimens.

  8. Separation of Minor Actinides from Lanthanides by Dithiophosphinic Acid Extractants

    SciTech Connect

    D. R. Peterman; M. R. Greenhalgh; R. D. Tillotson; J. R. Klaehn; M. K. Harrup; T. A. Luther; J. D. Law; L. M. Daniels

    2008-09-01

    The selective extraction of the minor actinides (Am(III) and Cm(III)) from the lanthanides is an important part of advanced reprocessing of spent nuclear fuel. This separation would allow the Am/Cm to be fabricated into targets and recycled to a reactor and the lanthanides to be dispositioned. This separation is difficult to accomplish due to the similarities in the chemical properties of the trivalent actinides and lanthanides. Research efforts at the Idaho National Laboratory have identified an innovative synthetic pathway yielding new regiospecific dithiophosphinic acid (DPAH) extractants. The synthesis provides DPAH derivatives that can address the issues concerning minor actinide separation and extractant stability. For this work, two new symmetric DPAH extractants have been prepared. The use of these extractants for the separation of minor actinides from lanthanides will be discussed.

  9. Microbial process for the preparation of acetic acid as well as solvent for its extraction from the fermentation broth

    DOEpatents

    Gaddy, James L.; Clausen, Edgar C.; Ko, Ching-Whan; Wade, Leslie E.; Wikstrom, Carl V.

    2006-07-11

    A modified water-immiscible solvent useful in the extraction of acetic acid from aqueous streams is a substantially pure mixture of isomers of highly branched di-alkyl amines. This solvent is substantially devoid of mono-alkyl amines and alcohols. Solvent mixtures formed of such a modified solvent with a desired cosolvent, preferably a low boiling hydrocarbon which forms an azeotrope with water are useful in the extraction of acetic acid from aqueous gaseous streams. An anaerobic microbial fermentation process for the production of acetic acid employs such solvents, under conditions which limit amide formation by the solvent and thus increase the efficiency of acetic acid recovery. Methods for the direct extraction of acetic acid and the extractive fermentation of acetic acid also employ the modified solvents and increase efficiency of acetic acid production. Such increases in efficiency are also obtained where the energy source for the microbial fermentation contains carbon dioxide and the method includes a carbon dioxide stripping step prior to extraction of acetic acid in solvent.

  10. Microbial process for the preparation of acetic acid as well as solvent for its extraction from the fermentation broth

    DOEpatents

    Gaddy, James L.; Clausen, Edgar C.; Ko, Ching-Whan; Wade, Leslie E.; Wikstrom, Carl V.

    2002-01-01

    A modified water-immiscible solvent useful in the extraction of acetic acid from aqueous streams is a substantially pure mixture of isomers of highly branched di-alkyl amines. This solvent is substantially devoid of mono-alkyl amines and alcohols. Solvent mixtures formed of such a modified solvent with a desired cosolvent, preferably a low boiling hydrocarbon which forms an azeotrope with water are useful in the extraction of acetic acid from aqueous gaseous streams. An anaerobic microbial fermentation process for the production of acetic acid employs such solvents, under conditions which limit amide formation by the solvent and thus increase the efficiency of acetic acid recovery. Methods for the direct extraction of acetic acid and the extractive fermentation of acetic acid also employ the modified solvents and increase efficiency of acetic acid production. Such increases in efficiency are also obtained where the energy source for the microbial fermentation contains carbon dioxide and the method includes a carbon dioxide stripping step prior to extraction of acetic acid in solvent.

  11. Rosmarinic Acid and Melissa officinalis Extracts Differently Affect Glioblastoma Cells.

    PubMed

    Ramanauskiene, Kristina; Raudonis, Raimondas; Majiene, Daiva

    Lemon balm (Melissa officinalis L.) has many biological effects but especially important is its neuroprotective activity. The aim of the study is to produce different extracts of Melissa officinalis and analyse their chemical composition and biological properties on rat glioblastoma C6 cells. Results revealed that rosmarinic acid (RA) is the predominant compound of lemon balm extracts. RA has cytotoxic effect on glioblastoma cells (LC50 290.5 μM after the incubation of 24 h and LC50 171.3 μM after 48 h). RA at concentration 80-130 μM suppresses the cell proliferation and has an antioxidant effect. 200 μM and higher concentrations of RA have a prooxidant effect and initiate cell death through necrosis. The aqueous extract of lemon balm is also enriched in phenolic compounds: protocatechuic, caftaric, caffeic, ferulic, and cichoric acids and flavonoid luteolin-7-glucoside. This extract at concentrations 50 μM-200 μM RA has cytotoxic activity and initiates cell death through apoptosis. Extracts prepared with 70% ethanol contain the biggest amount of active compounds. These extracts have the highest cytotoxic activity on glioblastoma cells. They initiate generation of intracellular ROS and cell death through apoptosis and necrosis. Our data suggest that differently prepared lemon balm extracts differently affect glioblastoma cells and can be used as neuroprotective agents in several therapeutic strategies.

  12. Rosmarinic Acid and Melissa officinalis Extracts Differently Affect Glioblastoma Cells

    PubMed Central

    Ramanauskiene, Kristina; Raudonis, Raimondas

    2016-01-01

    Lemon balm (Melissa officinalis L.) has many biological effects but especially important is its neuroprotective activity. The aim of the study is to produce different extracts of Melissa officinalis and analyse their chemical composition and biological properties on rat glioblastoma C6 cells. Results revealed that rosmarinic acid (RA) is the predominant compound of lemon balm extracts. RA has cytotoxic effect on glioblastoma cells (LC50 290.5 μM after the incubation of 24 h and LC50 171.3 μM after 48 h). RA at concentration 80–130 μM suppresses the cell proliferation and has an antioxidant effect. 200 μM and higher concentrations of RA have a prooxidant effect and initiate cell death through necrosis. The aqueous extract of lemon balm is also enriched in phenolic compounds: protocatechuic, caftaric, caffeic, ferulic, and cichoric acids and flavonoid luteolin-7-glucoside. This extract at concentrations 50 μM–200 μM RA has cytotoxic activity and initiates cell death through apoptosis. Extracts prepared with 70% ethanol contain the biggest amount of active compounds. These extracts have the highest cytotoxic activity on glioblastoma cells. They initiate generation of intracellular ROS and cell death through apoptosis and necrosis. Our data suggest that differently prepared lemon balm extracts differently affect glioblastoma cells and can be used as neuroprotective agents in several therapeutic strategies. PMID:27688825

  13. Efficient and robust feature extraction by maximum margin criterion.

    PubMed

    Li, Haifeng; Jiang, Tao; Zhang, Keshu

    2006-01-01

    In pattern recognition, feature extraction techniques are widely employed to reduce the dimensionality of data and to enhance the discriminatory information. Principal component analysis (PCA) and linear discriminant analysis (LDA) are the two most popular linear dimensionality reduction methods. However, PCA is not very effective for the extraction of the most discriminant features, and LDA is not stable due to the small sample size problem. In this paper, we propose some new (linear and nonlinear) feature extractors based on maximum margin criterion (MMC). Geometrically, feature extractors based on MMC maximize the (average) margin between classes after dimensionality reduction. It is shown that MMC can represent class separability better than PCA. As a connection to LDA, we may also derive LDA from MMC by incorporating some constraints. By using some other constraints, we establish a new linear feature extractor that does not suffer from the small sample size problem, which is known to cause serious stability problems for LDA. The kernelized (nonlinear) counterpart of this linear feature extractor is also established in the paper. Our extensive experiments demonstrate that the new feature extractors are effective, stable, and efficient.

  14. Factors Affecting the Relative Efficiency of General Acid Catalysis

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kwan, Eugene E.

    2005-01-01

    A simple framework for evaluating experimental kinetic data to provide support for Specific Acid Catalysis (SAC) and General Acid Catalysis (GAC) is described based on the factors affecting their relative efficiency. Observations reveal that increasing the SAC-to-GAC rate constant ratio reduces the effective pH range for GAC.

  15. Improved method for extracting lanthanides and actinides from acid solutions

    DOEpatents

    Horwitz, E.P.; Kalina, D.G.; Kaplan, L.; Mason, G.W.

    1983-07-26

    A process for the recovery of actinide and lanthanide values from aqueous acidic solutions uses a new series of neutral bi-functional extractants, the alkyl(phenyl)-N,N-dialkylcarbamoylmethylphosphine oxides. The process is suitable for the separation of actinide and lanthanide values from fission product values found together in high-level nuclear reprocessing waste solutions.

  16. Acidic solvent extraction of gossypol from cottonseed meal

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    In order to expand the use of cottonseed meal in animal feeding, extraction of the meal gossypol was studied with acetic acetone- and ethanol-based solutions. Phosphoric acid was added to hydrolyze and release gossypol bound within the meal. Both solvent systems were effective at reducing gossypo...

  17. Charge Efficiency Tests of Lead/Acid Batteries

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rowlette, J. J.

    1984-01-01

    Current, voltage, and gas evolution measured during charge/discharge cycles. Series of standarized tests for evaluating charging efficiency of lead/acid storage batteries described in report. Purpose of tests to provide information for design of battery charger that allows maximum recharge efficiency for electric-vehicle batteries consistent with other operating parameters, such as range, water loss, and cycle life.

  18. Efficiency of melt extraction from partially molten regions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hier-Majumder, S.; Abbott, M. E.; Drombosky, T.; Wimert, J. T.

    2011-12-01

    We discuss the efficiency of buoyancy-driven melt extraction in relation to the low velocity layer (LVL), atop the transition zone, and the ultralow velocity zones (ULVZ), atop the core mantle boundary. The LVL is characterized by a relatively large thickness, globally varying on the order of 30-90 km. It is inferred that the LVL is characterized by a modest amount of melting, 1% or less. The ULVZ, in contrast, is much thinner, with an average thickness of 10 km. It is also characterized by a density between 8-10% higher than the surrounding mantle, and contains up to 10% by volume melt. Three factors, frictional resistance, capillary tension, and stirring can contribute to long term melt retention in these partially molten regions. Frictional resistance to melt percolation is inversely proportional to the melt fraction squared. Consequently, the drainage efficiency of both buoyant and dense melts are reduced at low melt fractions. Strong tension on grain boundaries reduces the dihedral angle at the melt-grain triple junctions, establishing a well-connected network. Despite the presence of this well connected pathway, a larger force is required to counter the strong capillary tension and segregate melt from the matrix, especially at small melt fractions. Finally, compaction within the ULVZ stirred by convective motions in the overlying mantle can also preclude substantial drainage of melt and retain the melt over geological times.

  19. Superheated water extraction of glycyrrhizic acid from licorice root.

    PubMed

    Shabkhiz, Mohammad A; Eikani, Mohammad H; Bashiri Sadr, Zeinolabedin; Golmohammad, Fereshteh

    2016-11-01

    Superheated water extraction (SWE) has become an interesting green extraction method for different classes of compounds. In this study, SWE was used to extract glycyrrhizic acid (GA) from licorice root. Response surface methodology (RSM) was applied to evaluate and optimize the extraction conditions. The influence of operating conditions such as water temperature (100, 120 and 140°C) and solvent flow rates (1, 3 and 5mL/min) were investigated at 0.5mm mean particle size and 20bar pressure. Separation and identification of the glycyrrhizic acid, as the main component, was carried out by the RP-HPLC method. The best operating conditions for the SWE of licorice were determined to be 100°C temperature,15mL/min flow rate and 120min extraction time. The results showed that the amount of the obtained GA was relatively higher using SWE (54.760mg/g) than the Soxhlet method (28.760mg/g) and ultrasonic extraction (18.240mg/g).

  20. Propionic acid production by extractive fermentation. 1. Solvent considerations

    SciTech Connect

    Gu, Z.; Glatz, B.A.; Glatz, C.E.

    1998-02-20

    Solvent selection for extractive fermentation for propionic acid was conducted with three systems: Alamine{reg_sign} 304-1 (trilaurylamine) in 2-octanol, 1-dodecanol, and Witcohol{reg_sign} 85 NF (oleyl alcohol). Among them, the solvent containing 2-octanol exhibited the highest partition coefficient in acid extraction, but it was also toxic to propionibacteria. The most solvent-resistant strain among five strains of the microorganism was selected. Solvent toxicity was eliminated via two strategies: entrapment of dissolved toxic solvent in the culture growth medium with vegetable oils such as corn, olive, or soybean oils; or replacement of the toxic 2-octanol with nontoxic Witcohol 85 NF. The complete recovery of acids from the Alamine 304-1/Witcohol 85 NF was also realized with vacuum distillation.

  1. Propionic acid production by extractive fermentation. I. Solvent considerations.

    PubMed

    Gu, Z; Glatz, B A; Glatz, C E

    1998-02-20

    Solvent selection for extractive fermentation for propionic acid was conducted with three systems: Alamine 304-1 (trilaurylamine) in 2-octanol, 1-dodecanol, and Witcohol 85 NF (oleyl alcohol). Among them, the solvent containing 2-octanol exhibited the highest partition coefficient in acid extraction, but it was also toxic to propionibacteria. The most solvent-resistant strain among five strains of the microorganism was selected. Solvent toxicity was eliminated via two strategies: entrapment of dissolved toxic solvent in the culture growth medium with vegetable oils such as corn, olive, or soybean oils; or replacement of the toxic 2-octanol with nontoxic Witcohol 85 NF. The complete recovery of acids from the Alamine 304-1/Witcohol 85 NF was also realized with vacuum distillation.

  2. Alternative and Efficient Extraction Methods for Marine-Derived Compounds

    PubMed Central

    Grosso, Clara; Valentão, Patrícia; Ferreres, Federico; Andrade, Paula B.

    2015-01-01

    Marine ecosystems cover more than 70% of the globe’s surface. These habitats are occupied by a great diversity of marine organisms that produce highly structural diverse metabolites as a defense mechanism. In the last decades, these metabolites have been extracted and isolated in order to test them in different bioassays and assess their potential to fight human diseases. Since traditional extraction techniques are both solvent- and time-consuming, this review emphasizes alternative extraction techniques, such as supercritical fluid extraction, pressurized solvent extraction, microwave-assisted extraction, ultrasound-assisted extraction, pulsed electric field-assisted extraction, enzyme-assisted extraction, and extraction with switchable solvents and ionic liquids, applied in the search for marine compounds. Only studies published in the 21st century are considered. PMID:26006714

  3. Selective extraction and determination of chlorogenic acid in fruit juices using hydrophilic magnetic imprinted nanoparticles.

    PubMed

    Hao, Yi; Gao, Ruixia; Liu, Dechun; He, Gaiyan; Tang, Yuhai; Guo, Zengjun

    2016-06-01

    In this paper, the novel hydrophilic magnetic molecularly imprinted nanoparticles were developed for selective separation and determination of chlorogenic acid in aqueous fruit juices. The polymers were prepared by using amino-functionalized magnetic nanoparticles as carriers, branched polyethyleneimine as functional monomer, and chlorogenic acid as template molecule. Branched polyethyleneimine with abundant active amino groups could react with template sufficiently, and its unique dendritic structure may amplify the number of the imprinted cavities. Meanwhile, it would improve the hydrophilicity of imprinted materials for attaining high extraction efficiency. The resulted polymers exhibit fast kinetics, high adsorption capacity, and favorable selectivity. In addition, the obtained nanoparticles were used as solid-phase extraction sorbents for selective isolation and determination of chlorogenic acid in peach, apple, and grape juices (0.92, 4.21, and 0.75 μg mL(-1), respectively).

  4. Extraction and Analysis of Microbial Phospholipid Fatty Acids in Soils

    PubMed Central

    Quideau, Sylvie A.; McIntosh, Anne C.S.; Norris, Charlotte E.; Lloret, Emily; Swallow, Mathew J.B.; Hannam, Kirsten

    2016-01-01

    Phospholipid fatty acids (PLFAs) are key components of microbial cell membranes. The analysis of PLFAs extracted from soils can provide information about the overall structure of terrestrial microbial communities. PLFA profiling has been extensively used in a range of ecosystems as a biological index of overall soil quality, and as a quantitative indicator of soil response to land management and other environmental stressors. The standard method presented here outlines four key steps: 1. lipid extraction from soil samples with a single-phase chloroform mixture, 2. fractionation using solid phase extraction columns to isolate phospholipids from other extracted lipids, 3. methanolysis of phospholipids to produce fatty acid methyl esters (FAMEs), and 4. FAME analysis by capillary gas chromatography using a flame ionization detector (GC-FID). Two standards are used, including 1,2-dinonadecanoyl-sn-glycero-3-phosphocholine (PC(19:0/19:0)) to assess the overall recovery of the extraction method, and methyl decanoate (MeC10:0) as an internal standard (ISTD) for the GC analysis. PMID:27685177

  5. Extraction of Oleic Acid from Moroccan Olive Mill Wastewater

    PubMed Central

    Elkacmi, Reda; Kamil, Noureddine; Bennajah, Mounir; Kitane, Said

    2016-01-01

    The production of olive oil in Morocco has recently grown considerably for its economic and nutritional importance favored by the country's climate. After the extraction of olive oil by pressing or centrifuging, the obtained liquid contains oil and vegetation water which is subsequently separated by decanting or centrifugation. Despite its treatment throughout the extraction process, this olive mill wastewater, OMW, still contains a very important oily residue, always regarded as a rejection. The separated oil from OMW can not be intended for food because of its high acidity of 3.397% which exceeds the international standard for human consumption defined by the standard of the Codex Alimentarius, proving its poor quality. This work gives value addition to what would normally be regarded as waste by the extraction of oleic acid as a high value product, using the technique of inclusion with urea for the elimination of saturated and unsaturated fatty acids through four successive crystallizations at 4°C and 20°C to have a final phase with oleic acid purity of 95.49%, as a biodegradable soap and a high quality glycerin will be produced by the reaction of saponification and transesterification. PMID:26933663

  6. Extraction of hidden information by efficient community detection in networks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lee, Jooyoung; Lee, Juyong; Gross, Steven

    2013-03-01

    Currently, we are overwhelmed by a deluge of experimental data, and network physics has the potential to become an invaluable method to increase our understanding of large interacting datasets. However, this potential is often unrealized for two reasons: uncovering the hidden community structure of a network, known as community detection, is difficult, and further, even if one has an idea of this community structure, it is not a priori obvious how to efficiently use this information. Here, to address both of these issues, we, first, identify optimal community structure of given networks in terms of modularity by utilizing a recently introduced community detection method. Second, we develop an approach to use this community information to extract hidden information from a network. When applied to a protein-protein interaction network, the proposed method outperforms current state-of-the-art methods that use only the local information of a network. The method is generally applicable to networks from many areas. This work was supported by the National Research Foundation of Korea (NRF) grant funded by the Korea government (MEST) (No. 20120001222).

  7. Extraction of nitric acid, uranyl nitrate, and bismuth nitrate from aqueous nitric acid solutions with CMPO

    SciTech Connect

    Spencer, B.B.

    1995-08-01

    DOE sponsored development of the transuranium extraction (TRUEX) process for removing actinides from radioactive wastes. The solvent is a mixture of CMPO and TBP. Since the extraction characteristics of CMPO are not as well understood as those of TBP, the extraction of nitric acid, uranyl nitrate, and bismuth nitrate with CMPO (dissolved in n-dodecane) were studied. Results indicate that CMPO extracts nitric acid with a 1:1 stoichiometry; equilibrium constant is 2. 660{plus_minus}0.092 at 25 C, and extraction enthalpy is -5. 46{plus_minus}0.46 kcal/mol. Slope analysis indicates that uranyl nitrate extracts with a mixed equilibria of 1:1 and 2:1 stoichiometries in nearly equal proportion. Equil. constant of the 2: 1 extraction was 1.213 {times} 10{sup 6}{plus_minus}3.56 {times} 10{sup 4} at 25 C; reaction enthalpy was -9.610{plus_minus}0.594 kcal/mol. Nitration complexation constant is 8.412{plus_minus}0.579, with an enthalpy of -10.72{plus_minus}1.87 kcal/mol. Bismuth nitrate also extracts with a mixed equilibria of (perhaps) 1:1 and 2:1 stoichiometries. A 2:1 extraction equilibrium and a nitrate complexation adequately model the data. Kinetics and enthalpies were also measured.

  8. Efficient removal of naphthalene-2-ol from aqueous solutions by solvent extraction.

    PubMed

    Shao, Jingjing; Cheng, Yan; Yang, Chunping; Zeng, Guangming; Liu, Wencan; Jiao, Panpan; He, Huijun

    2016-09-01

    Naphthalene-2-ol is a typical biologically recalcitrant pollutant in dye wastewater. Solvent extraction of naphthalene-2-ol from aqueous solutions using mixed solvents was investigated. Various extractants and diluents were evaluated, and the effects of volume ratio of extractant to diluent, initial pH, initial concentration of naphthalene-2-ol in aqueous solution, extraction time, temperature, volume ratio of organic phase to aqueous phase (O/A), stirring rate and extraction stages, on extraction efficiency were examined separately. Regeneration and reuse of the spent extractant were also investigated. Results showed that tributyl phosphate (TBP) achieved 98% extraction efficiency for naphthalene-2-ol in a single stage extraction, the highest among the 12 extractants evaluated. Extraction efficiency was optimized when cyclohexane and n-octane were used as diluents. The solvent combination of 20% TBP, 20% n-octanol and 60% cyclohexane (V/V) obtained the maximum extraction efficiency for naphthalene-2-ol, 99.3%, within 20min using three cross-current extraction stages under the following extraction conditions: O/A ratio of 1:1, initial pH of 3, 25°C and stirring rate of 150r/min. Recovery of mixed solvents was achieved by using 15% (W/W) NaOH solution at an O:A ratio of 1:1 and a contact time of 15min. The mixed solvents achieved an extraction capacity for naphthalene-2-ol stably higher than 90% during five cycles after regeneration.

  9. [Remediation efficiency of lead-contaminated soil at an industrial site by ultrasonic-assisted chemical extraction].

    PubMed

    Wang, Xin-jie; Huang, Jin-lou; Liu, Zhi-qiang; Yue, Xi

    2013-09-01

    This research chose five lead-contaminated sites of a lead-acid battery factory to analyze the speciation distribution and concentration of lead. Under the same conditions (0.1 mol x L(-1) EDTA,30 min, 25 degrees C), the removal effect of heavy metal was compared between ultrasonic-assisted chemical extraction (UCE) and conventional chemical extraction ( CCE), and the variation of lead speciation was further explored. The results showed that the lead removal efficiency of UCE was significantly better than CCE. The lead removal efficiency of WS, A, B, C and BZ was 10.06%, 48.29%, 48.69%, 53.28% and 36.26% under CCE. While the removal efficiency of the UCE was 22.42%, 69.31%, 71.00%, 74.49% and 71.58%, with the average efficiency higher by 22%. By comparing the speciation distribution of the two washing methods, it was found that the acid extractable content maintained or decreased after UCE, whereas it showed an increasing trend after CCE. The reduction effect of the reducible was as high as 98% by UCE. UCE also showed a more efficient reduction effect of the organic matter-sulfite bounded form and the residual form. Hence, it is feasible to improve the washing efficiency of heavy metal contained in soil by conducting the cleaning process with the help of ultrasonic wave, which is a simple and fast mean to remove lead from contaminated sites.

  10. Lactic acid bacterial extract as a biogenic mineral growth modifier

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Borah, Ballav M.; Singh, Atul K.; Ramesh, Aiyagari; Das, Gopal

    2009-04-01

    The formation of minerals and mechanisms by which bacteria could control their formation in natural habitats is now of current interest for material scientists to have an insight of the mechanism of in vivo mineralization, as well as to seek industrial and technological applications. Crystalline uniform structures of calcium and barium minerals formed micron-sized building blocks when synthesized in the presence of an organic matrix consisting of secreted protein extracts from three different lactic acid bacteria (LAB) viz.: Lactobacillus plantarum MTCC 1325, Lactobacillus acidophilus NRRL B4495 and Pediococcus acidilactici CFR K7. LABs are not known to form organic matrix in biological materialization processes. The influence of these bacterial extracts on the crystallization behavior was investigated in details to test the basic coordination behavior of the acidic protein. In this report, varied architecture of the mineral crystals obtained in presence of high molecular weight protein extracts of three different LAB strains has been discussed. The role of native form of high molecular weight bacterial protein extracts in the generation of nucleation centers for crystal growth was clearly established. A model for the formation of organic matrix-cation complex and the subsequent events leading to crystal growth is proposed.

  11. Methods and compositions for efficient nucleic acid sequencing

    DOEpatents

    Drmanac, Radoje

    2006-07-04

    Disclosed are novel methods and compositions for rapid and highly efficient nucleic acid sequencing based upon hybridization with two sets of small oligonucleotide probes of known sequences. Extremely large nucleic acid molecules, including chromosomes and non-amplified RNA, may be sequenced without prior cloning or subcloning steps. The methods of the invention also solve various current problems associated with sequencing technology such as, for example, high noise to signal ratios and difficult discrimination, attaching many nucleic acid fragments to a surface, preparing many, longer or more complex probes and labelling more species.

  12. Methods and compositions for efficient nucleic acid sequencing

    DOEpatents

    Drmanac, Radoje

    2002-01-01

    Disclosed are novel methods and compositions for rapid and highly efficient nucleic acid sequencing based upon hybridization with two sets of small oligonucleotide probes of known sequences. Extremely large nucleic acid molecules, including chromosomes and non-amplified RNA, may be sequenced without prior cloning or subcloning steps. The methods of the invention also solve various current problems associated with sequencing technology such as, for example, high noise to signal ratios and difficult discrimination, attaching many nucleic acid fragments to a surface, preparing many, longer or more complex probes and labelling more species.

  13. Unusual stable isotope ratios in amino acid and carboxylic acid extracts from the Murchison meteorite

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Epstein, S.; Krishnamurthy, R. V.; Cronin, J. R.; Pizzarello, S.; Yuen, G. U.

    1987-01-01

    The isotopic composition of hydrogen, nitrogen, and carbon in amino acid and monocarboxylic acid extracts from the Murchison meteorite has been determined. The unusually high D/H and N-15/N-14 ratios in the amino acid fraction are uniquely characteristic of known interstellar organic materials. The delta D value of the monocarboxylic acid fraction is lower but still consistent with an interstellar origin. These results confirm the extraterrestrial origin of both classes of compound and provide the first evidence suggesting a direct relationship between the massive organosynthesis occurring in interstellar clouds and the presence of prebiotic compounds in primitive planetary bodies.

  14. An efficient extraction method for quantitation of adenosine triphosphate in mammalian tissues and cells.

    PubMed

    Chida, Junji; Yamane, Kazuhiko; Takei, Tunetomo; Kido, Hiroshi

    2012-05-21

    Firefly bioluminescence is widely used in the measurement of adenosine 5'-triphosphate (ATP) levels in biological materials. For such assays in tissues and cells, ATP must be extracted away from protein in the initial step and extraction efficacy is the main determinant of the assay accuracy. Extraction reagents recommended in the commercially available ATP assay kits are chaotropic reagents, trichloroacetic acid (TCA), perchloric acid (PCA), and ethylene glycol (EG), which extract nucleotides through protein precipitation and/or nucleotidase inactivation. We found that these reagents are particularly useful for measuring ATP levels in materials with relatively low protein concentrations such as blood cells, cultured cells, and bacteria. However, these methods are not suitable for ATP extraction from tissues with high protein concentrations, because some ATP may be co-precipitated with the insolubilized protein during homogenization and extraction, and it could also be precipitated by neutralization in the acid extracts. Here we found that a phenol-based extraction method markedly increased the ATP and other nucleotides extracted from tissues. In addition, phenol extraction does not require neutralization before the luciferin-luciferase assay step. ATP levels analyzed by luciferase assay in various tissues extracted by Tris-EDTA-saturated phenol (phenol-TE) were over 17.8-fold higher than those extracted by TCA and over 550-fold higher than those in EG extracts. Here we report a simple, rapid, and reliable phenol-TE extraction procedure for ATP measurement in tissues and cells by luciferase assay.

  15. Investigation of factors influencing chloride extraction efficiency during electrochemical chloride extraction from reinforcing concrete

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sharp, Stephen R.

    2005-11-01

    residue revealed that it contains calcium carbonate, calcium chloride, and other yet unidentified minor components when calcium hydroxide was used as the electrolyte. The surface film can be completely removed mechanically or to some extent inhibited chemically, with both of these processes resulting in an increase in the efficiency of the electrochemical chloride extraction process. In addition, an obvious relationship between the cover depth, water-to-cement ratio, and chloride extraction efficiency does not exist, however, cover depth does influence the current density. The final phase of this study will be presented in a VTRC/FHWA final report. This report will include the results that are presented in this dissertation, in addition to the results from the ongoing research. It will also include an estimation of the additional service life that can be expected following treatment.

  16. Rapid and efficient isolation of high quality nucleic acids from plant tissues rich in polyphenols and polysaccharides.

    PubMed

    Japelaghi, Reza Heidari; Haddad, Raheem; Garoosi, Ghasem-Ali

    2011-10-01

    Isolation of high quality nucleic acids from plant tissues rich in polysaccharides and polyphenols is often difficult. The presence of these substances can affect the quality and/or quantity of the nucleic acids isolated. Here, we describe a rapid and efficient nucleic acids extraction protocol that in contrast to other methods tested, effectively purify high quality nucleic acids from plant tissues rich in polysaccharides and polyphenolic compounds such as different grape tissues and fruit tissue of fruit trees. The nucleic acids isolated with this protocol were successfully used for many functional genomic based experiments including polymerase chain reaction, reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR), cloning, and semiquantitative RT-PCR.

  17. Efficient extraction strategies of tea (Camellia sinensis) biomolecules.

    PubMed

    Banerjee, Satarupa; Chatterjee, Jyotirmoy

    2015-06-01

    Tea is a popular daily beverage worldwide. Modulation and modifications of its basic components like catechins, alkaloids, proteins and carbohydrate during fermentation or extraction process changes organoleptic, gustatory and medicinal properties of tea. Through these processes increase or decrease in yield of desired components are evident. Considering the varied impacts of parameters in tea production, storage and processes that affect the yield, extraction of tea biomolecules at optimized condition is thought to be challenging. Implementation of technological advancements in green chemistry approaches can minimize the deviation retaining maximum qualitative properties in environment friendly way. Existed extraction processes with optimization parameters of tea have been discussed in this paper including its prospects and limitations. This exhaustive review of various extraction parameters, decaffeination process of tea and large scale cost effective isolation of tea components with aid of modern technology can assist people to choose extraction condition of tea according to necessity.

  18. An efficient and cost-effective method for DNA extraction from athalassohaline soil using a newly formulated cell extraction buffer.

    PubMed

    Narayan, Avinash; Jain, Kunal; Shah, Amita R; Madamwar, Datta

    2016-06-01

    The present study describes the rapid and efficient indirect lysis method for environmental DNA extraction from athalassohaline soil by newly formulated cell extraction buffer. The available methods are mostly based on direct lysis which leads to DNA shearing and co-extraction of extra cellular DNA that influences the community and functional analysis. Moreover, during extraction of DNA by direct lysis from athalassohaline soil, it was observed that, upon addition of poly ethylene glycol (PEG), isopropanol or absolute ethanol for precipitation of DNA, salt precipitates out and affecting DNA yield significantly. Therefore, indirect lysis method was optimized for extraction of environmental DNA from such soil containing high salts and low microbial biomass (CFU 4.3 × 10(4) per gram soil) using newly formulated cell extraction buffer in combination with low and high speed centrifugation. The cell extraction buffer composition and its concentration were optimized and PEG 8000 (1 %; w/v) and 1 M NaCl gave maximum cell mass for DNA extraction. The cell extraction efficiency was assessed with acridine orange staining of soil samples before and after cell extraction. The efficiency, reproducibility and purity of extracted DNA by newly developed procedure were compared with previously recognized methods and kits having different protocols including indirect lysis. The extracted environmental DNA showed better yield (5.6 ± 0.7 μg g(-1)) along with high purity ratios. The purity of DNA was validated by assessing its usability in various molecular techniques like restriction enzyme digestion, amplification of 16S rRNA gene using PCR and UV-Visible spectroscopy analysis.

  19. Stabilization of caffeic acid derivatives in Echinacea purpurea L. glycerin extract.

    PubMed

    Bergeron, Chantal; Gafner, Stefan; Batcha, Laura L; Angerhofer, Cindy K

    2002-07-03

    Recent work has shown that enzymatic degradation and oxidation of cichoric acid and other caffeic derivatives occurs in Echinacea preparations. However, very little is known as to the means of stabilizing these phytopreparations. To stabilize the glycerin extract of Echinacea purpurea, we have evaluated the effects of 3 natural antioxidants (citric acid, malic acid, and hibiscus extract) on the stability of the major caffeic acid derivatives (caftaric acid, caffeic acid, cichoric acid, and 2-O-feruloyl-tartaric acid). Chlorogenic acid, which normally occurs in an ethanol extract of E. purpurea, was not present in the glycerin extract. The caffeic acid derivatives, with the exception of 2-O-feruloyl-tartaric acid, were subject to degradation in the control sample. 2-O-Feruloyl-tartaric acid was stable during the whole testing period. All antioxidant treatments greatly improved the stability of caffeic acid derivatives. Stability was dependent upon the concentration of antioxidant added.

  20. Extraction of semivolatile organic compounds from high-efficiency particulate air (HEPA) filters by supercritical carbon dioxide

    SciTech Connect

    Schilling, J.B.

    1997-09-01

    Supercritical fluid extraction (SFE) using unmodified carbon dioxide has been explored as an alternative method for the extraction of semivolatile organic compounds from high-efficiency particulate air (HEPA) filters. HEPA filters provide the final stage of containment on many exhaust systems in US Department of Energy (DOE) facilities by preventing the escape of chemical and radioactive materials entrained in the exhausted air. The efficiency of the filters is tested by the manufacturer and DOE using dioctylphthalate (DOP), a substance regulated by the US Environmental Protection Agency under the Resource Conservation and Recovery Act. Therefore, the filters must be analyzed for semivolatile organics before disposal. Ninety-eight acid, base, and neutral semivolatile organics were spiked onto blank HEPA material and extracted using SFE, Soxhlet, automated Soxhlet, and sonication techniques. The SFE conditions were optimized using a Dionex SFE-703 instrument. Average recoveries for the 98 semivolatile compounds are 82.7% for Soxhlet, 74.0% for sonication, 70.2% for SFE, and 62.9% for Soxtec. Supercritical fluid extraction reduces the extraction solvent volume to 10--15 mL, a factor of 20--30 less than Soxhlet and more than 5 times less than Soxtec and sonication. Extraction times of 30--45 min are used compared to 16--18 h for Soxhlet extraction.

  1. Extraction of metals and/or metalloids from acidic media using supercritical fluids and salts

    DOEpatents

    Wai, Chien M.; Smart, Neil G.; Lin, Yuehe

    1998-01-01

    A method of extracting metalloid and metal species from a solid or liquid material by exposing the material to a fluid solvent, particularly supercritical carbon dioxide, containing a chelating agent is described. The chelating agent forms chelates that are soluble in the fluid to allow removal of the species from the material. In preferred embodiments, the extraction solvent is supercritical carbon dioxide and the chelating agent comprises a trialkyl phosphate, a triaryl phosphate, a trialkylphosphine oxide, a triarylphosphine oxide, or mixtures thereof. The method provides an environmentally benign process for removing contaminants from industrial waste. The method is particularly useful for extracting actinides from acidic solutions, and the process can be aided by the addition of nitrate salts. The chelate and supercritical fluid can be regenerated, and the contaminant species recovered, to provide an economic, efficient process.

  2. Extraction of metals and/or metalloids from acidic media using supercritical fluids and salts

    DOEpatents

    Wai, C.M.; Smart, N.G.; Lin, Y.

    1998-06-23

    A method is described for extracting metalloid and metal species from a solid or liquid material by exposing the material to a fluid solvent, particularly supercritical carbon dioxide, containing a chelating agent. The chelating agent forms chelates that are soluble in the fluid to allow removal of the species from the material. In preferred embodiments, the extraction solvent is supercritical carbon dioxide and the chelating agent comprises a trialkyl phosphate, a triaryl phosphate, a trialkylphosphine oxide, a triarylphosphine oxide, or mixtures thereof. The method provides an environmentally benign process for removing contaminants from industrial waste. The method is particularly useful for extracting actinides from acidic solutions, and the process can be aided by the addition of nitrate salts. The chelate and supercritical fluid can be regenerated, and the contaminant species recovered, to provide an economic, efficient process. 7 figs.

  3. Efficient free fatty acid production in engineered Escherichia coli strains using soybean oligosaccharides as feedstock.

    PubMed

    Wang, Dan; Wu, Hui; Thakker, Chandresh; Beyersdorf, Jared; Bennett, George N; San, Ka-Yiu

    2015-01-01

    To be competitive with current petrochemicals, microbial synthesis of free fatty acids can be made to rely on a variety of renewable resources rather than on food carbon sources, which increase its attraction for governments and companies. Industrial waste soybean meal is an inexpensive feedstock, which contains soluble sugars such as stachyose, raffinose, sucrose, glucose, galactose, and fructose. Free fatty acids were produced in this report by introducing an acyl-ACP carrier protein thioesterase and (3R)-hydroxyacyl-ACP dehydratase into E. coli. Plasmid pRU600 bearing genes involved in raffinose and sucrose metabolism was also transformed into engineered E. coli strains, which allowed more efficient utilization of these two kinds of specific oligosaccharide present in the soybean meal extract. Strain ML103 (pRU600, pXZ18Z) produced ~1.60 and 2.66 g/L of free fatty acids on sucrose and raffinose, respectively. A higher level of 2.92 g/L fatty acids was obtained on sugar mixture. The fatty acid production using hydrolysate obtained from acid or enzyme based hydrolysis was evaluated. Engineered strains just produced ~0.21 g/L of free fatty acids with soybean meal acid hydrolysate. However, a fatty acid production of 2.61 g/L with a high yield of 0.19 g/g total sugar was observed on an enzymatic hydrolysate. The results suggest that complex mixtures of oligosaccharides derived from soybean meal can serve as viable feedstock to produce free fatty acids. Enzymatic hydrolysis acts as a much more efficient treatment than acid hydrolysis to facilitate the transformation of industrial waste from soybean processing to high value added chemicals.

  4. A Magnetic Nanoparticle Based Nucleic Acid Isolation and Purification Instrument for DNA Extraction of Escherichia Coli O157: H7.

    PubMed

    Chen, Yahui; Lin, Jianhan; Jiang, Qin; Chen, Qi; Zhang, Shengjun; Li, Li

    2016-03-01

    The objective of this study was to evaluate the performance of a nucleic acid isolation and purification instrument using Escherichia coli O157:H7 as the model. The instrument was developed with magnetic nanoparticles for efficiently capturing nucleic acids and an intelligent mechanical unit for automatically performing the whole nucleic acid extraction process. A commercial DNA extraction kit from Huier Nano Company was used as reference. Nucleic acids in 1 ml of E. coli O157: H7 at a concentration of 5 x 10(8) CFU/mL were extracted by using this instrument and the kit in parallel and then detected by an ultraviolet spectrophotometer to obtain A260 values and A260/A280 values for the determination of the extracted DNA's quantity and purity, respectively. The A260 values for the instrument and the kit were 0.78 and 0.61, respectively, and the A260/A280 values were 1.98 and 1.93. The coefficient of variations of these parallel tests ranged from 10.5% to 16.7%. The results indicated that this nucleic acid isolation and purification instrument could extract a comparable level of nucleic acid within 50 min compared to the commercial DNA extraction kit.

  5. Antioxidant activity and sensory evaluation of a rosmarinic acid-enriched extract of Salvia officinalis

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    An extract of S. officinalis (garden sage) was developed using supercritical fluid extraction, followed by hot water extraction. The resulting extract was enriched in polyphenols, including rosmarinic acid (RA), which has shown promising health benefits in animals. The extract contained RA at a conc...

  6. Optimization of polyphenol extraction from red grape pomace using aqueous glycerol/tartaric acid mixtures and response surface methodology.

    PubMed

    Makris, Dimitris P; Passalidi, Vassiliki; Kallithraka, Stamatina; Mourtzinos, Ioannis

    2016-01-01

    Grape pomace is a food industry waste containing a high burden of antioxidant polyphenols and several methodologies have been developed for their efficient extraction. However, a sustainable and environmentally friendly process should involve recovery means composed of benign, non-toxic solvents, such as tartaric acid and glycerol, which are natural food constituents. In this line, this study examined the extraction of polyphenols using aqueous tartaric acid/glycerol solutions. The aim was to assess the role of acid and glycerol concentration in the extraction yield, employing a Box-Behnken experimental design and response surface methodology. The results showed that solutions containing only glycerol (20%, w/v) are more suitable for retrieving polyphenols, flavonoids, and pigments from grape pomace, while tartaric acid exerted a negative effect in this regard, when tested at concentrations up to 2% (w/v).

  7. Extraction Behaviors of Heavy Rare Earths with Organophosphoric Extractants: The Contribution of Extractant Dimer Dissociation, Acid Ionization, and Complexation. A Quantum Chemistry Study.

    PubMed

    Jing, Yu; Chen, Ji; Chen, Li; Su, Wenrou; Liu, Yu; Li, Deqian

    2017-03-30

    Heavy rare earths (HREs), namely Ho(3+), Er(3+), Tm(3+), Yb(3+) and Lu(3+), are rarer and more exceptional than light rare earths, due to the stronger extraction capacity for 100 000 extractions. Therefore, their incomplete stripping and high acidity of stripping become problems for HRE separation by organophosphoric extractants. However, the theories of extractant structure-performance relationship and molecular design method of novel HRE extractants are still not perfect. Beyond the coordination chemistry of the HRE-extracted complex, the extractant dimer dissociation, acid ionization, and complexation behaviors can be crucial to HRE extraction and reactivity of ionic species for understanding and further improving the extraction performance. To address the above issues, three primary fundamental processes, including extractant dimer dissociation, acid ionization, and HRE complexation, were identified and investigated systematically. The intrinsic extraction performances of HRE cations with four acidic organophosphoric extractants (P507, P204, P227 and Cyanex 272) were studied by using relativistic energy-consistent 4f core pseudopotentials, combined with density functional theory and a solvation model. Four acidic organophosphoric extractants have been qualified quantitatively from microscopic structures to chemical properties. It has been found that the Gibbs free energy changes of the overall extraction process (sequence: P204 > P227 > P507 > Cyanex 272) and their differences as a function of HREs (sequence: Ho/Er > Er/Tm > Tm/Yb > Yb/Lu) are in good agreement with the experimental maximum extraction capacities and separation factors. These results could provide an important approach to evaluate HRE extractants by the comprehensive consideration of dimer dissociation, acid ionization, and complexation processes. This paper also demonstrates the importance of the P-O bond, the P-C bond, isomer substituent, and solvation effects on the structure

  8. Method for extracting lanthanides and actinides from acid solutions

    DOEpatents

    Horwitz, E. Philip; Kalina, Dale G.; Kaplan, Louis; Mason, George W.

    1985-01-01

    A process for the recovery of actinide and lanthanide values from aqueous acidic solutions with an organic extractant having the formula: ##STR1## where .phi. is phenyl, R.sup.1 is a straight or branched alkyl or alkoxyalkyl containing from 6 to 12 carbon atoms and R.sup.2 is an alkyl containing from 3 to 6 carbon atoms. The process is suitable for the separation of actinide and lanthanide values from fission product values found together in high level nuclear reprocessing waste solutions.

  9. Highly Efficient Extraction of Phenolic Compounds by Use of Magnetic Room Temperature Ionic Liquids for Environmental Remediation

    PubMed Central

    Deng, Ning; Li, Min; Zhao, Lijie; Lu, Chengfei; de Rooy, Sergio L.; Warner, Isiah M.

    2011-01-01

    A hydrophobic magnetic room temperature ionic liquid (MRTIL), trihexyltetradecylphosphonium tetrachloroferrate(III) ([3C6PC14][FeCl4]), was synthesized from trihexyltetradecylphosphonium chloride and FeCl3·6H2O. This MRTIL was investigated as a possible separation agent for solvent extraction of phenolic compounds from aqueous solution. Due to its strong paramagnetism, [3C6PC14][FeCl4] responds to an external neodymium magnet, which was employed in the design of a novel magnetic extraction technique. The conditions for extraction, including extraction time, volume ratio between MRTIL and aqueous phase, pH of aqueous solution, and structures of phenolic compounds were investigated and optimized. The magnetic extraction of phenols achieved equilibrium in 20 min and the phenolic compounds were found to have higher distribution ratios under acidic conditions. In addition, it was observed that phenols containing a greater number of chlorine or nitro substitutents exhibited higher distribution ratios. For example, the distribution ratio of phenol (DPh) was 107. In contrast, 3,5-dichlorophenol distribution ratio (D3,5-DCP) had a much higher value of 6372 under identical extraction conditions. When compared with four selected traditional non-magnetic room temperature ionic liquids, our [3C6PC14][FeCl4] exhibited significantly higher extraction efficiency under the same experimental conditions used in this work. Pentachlorophenol, a major component in the contaminated soil sample obtained from a superfund site, was successfully extracted and removed by use of [3C6PC14][FeCl4] with high extraction efficiency. Pentachlorophenol concentration was dramatically reduced from 7.8 μg.mL−1 to 0.2 μg.mL−1 after the magnetic extraction by use of [3C6PC14][FeCl4]. PMID:21783320

  10. Simultaneous extraction and HPLC determination of 3-indole butyric acid and 3-indole acetic acid in pea plant by using ionic liquid-modified silica as sorbent.

    PubMed

    Sheikhian, Leila; Bina, Sedigheh

    2016-01-15

    In this study, ionic liquid-modified silica was used as sorbent for simultaneous extraction and preconcentration of 3-indole butyric acid and 3-indole acetic acid in pea plants. The effect of some parameters such as pH and ionic strength of sample solution, amount of sorbent, flow rate of aqueous sample solution and eluent solution, concentration of eluent solution, and temperature were studied for each hormone solution. Percent extraction of 3-indole butyric acid and 3-indole acetic acid was strongly affected by pH of aqueous sample solution. Ionic strength of aqueous phase and temperature showed no serious effects on extraction efficiency of studied plant hormones. Obtained breakthrough volume was 200mL for each of studied hormones. Preconcentration factor for spectroscopic and chromatographic determination of studied hormones was 100 and 4.0×10(3) respectively. Each solid sorbent phase was reusable for almost 10 times of extraction/stripping procedure. Relative standard deviations of extraction/stripping processes of 3-indole butyric acid and 3-indole acetic acid were 2.79% and 3.66% respectively. The calculated limit of detections for IBA and IAA were 9.1×10(-2)mgL(-1) and 1.6×10(-1)mgL(-1) respectively.

  11. Comparison of manual and automated nucleic acid extraction methods from clinical specimens for microbial diagnosis purposes.

    PubMed

    Wozniak, Aniela; Geoffroy, Enrique; Miranda, Carolina; Castillo, Claudia; Sanhueza, Francia; García, Patricia

    2016-11-01

    The choice of nucleic acids (NAs) extraction method for molecular diagnosis in microbiology is of major importance because of the low microbial load, different nature of microorganisms, and clinical specimens. The NA yield of different extraction methods has been mostly studied using spiked samples. However, information from real human clinical specimens is scarce. The purpose of this study was to compare the performance of a manual low-cost extraction method (Qiagen kit or salting-out extraction method) with the automated high-cost MagNAPure Compact method. According to cycle threshold values for different pathogens, MagNAPure is as efficient as Qiagen for NA extraction from noncomplex clinical specimens (nasopharyngeal swab, skin swab, plasma, respiratory specimens). In contrast, according to cycle threshold values for RNAseP, MagNAPure method may not be an appropriate method for NA extraction from blood. We believe that MagNAPure versatility reduced risk of cross-contamination and reduced hands-on time compensates its high cost.

  12. Calcium extraction from brine water and seawater using oxalic acid

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Natasha, Nadia Chrisayu; Lalasari, Latifa Hanum

    2017-01-01

    Calcium can be extracted not only from rocks but also from natural liquor such as seawater and brine water. In order to extract the calcium from seawater and brine water, oxalic acid was used in this research. Effect of variations of the volume of the oxalic acid at a constant concentration in seawater and brine water to produce calcium was investigated. The concentration of oxalic acid was 100 g/l and the variations of its volume were 2 ml, 4 ml, 6 ml, 8 ml, 10 ml, 20 ml, 30 ml, 40 ml, and 50 ml. The used seawater and brine water were firstly evaporated from 100 ml into 50 ml and then the oxalic acid was added into them with mixing to produce the calcium precipitates. The precipitates were analyzed by X-ray diffraction (XRD) and scanning electron microscope (SEM) and the filtrates were analyzed by inductively coupled plasma-optical emission spectrometry (ICP-OES). The SEM analysis showed that the precipitates from brine water were consisted of only calcium compound while from seawater sodium one was also found along with calcium compound. The XRD analysis showed that the calcium was present in the form of calcium oxalate for both seawater and brine water. The ICP-OES analysis of the filtrate from seawater precipitation showed that the its calcium content was decreased from 826.20 ppm to 0.04 ppm while from brine water, it decreased from 170.06 ppm to 1.96 ppm. These results showed that both seawater and brine water have the potential to be a raw material for calcium production.

  13. Fast determination of bioactive phytic acid and pyrophosphate in walnuts using microwave accelerated extraction.

    PubMed

    Liu, Tong; He, Liu; Valiente, Manuel; López-Mesas, Montserrat

    2017-04-15

    Bioactive compounds phytic acid (IP6) and pyrophosphate (PPi) are minor components of walnuts with the ability of being inhibitors of urolithiasis, among others. Since simultaneous analysis of IP6 and PPi have known drawbacks, a new method to determine their content in walnuts has been developed with emphasis on their extraction from walnuts by microwave-assisted extraction (MAE). Acid content of extracting solvent, extraction time and temperature were optimized. After extraction, compounds were purified by selective adsorption/desorption on an anion exchange solid phase extraction and analyzed by inductive coupled plasma/mass spectrometry. A mixture of H2SO4 and HCl as solvent to extract both, IP6 and PPi, provided results slightly higher than those determined by conventional extraction with no statistical difference. The possible hydrolysis of phytic acid by MAE was analyzed. Compared with the conventional acid extraction method, significant improvement is achieved by the MAE method reducing extraction time from 3h to 10min.

  14. Extraction of Palladium from Nitric Acid by Diamides of Di-picolinic Acid

    SciTech Connect

    Alyapyshev, M.Yu.; Babain, V.A.; Pokhitonov, Yu.A.; Esimantovskiy, V.M.

    2007-07-01

    The most complicated and urgent problem of atomic industry consists in the safe isolation and storage of radioactive wastes. The long-lived radionuclides presented in high-level liquid wastes (HLLW) pose a potential threat to environment for hundreds and thousands of years. One of the possible ways to reduce the danger of HLLW storages is concerned with treatment of HLLW intended to recovery of long-lived radionuclides and their partitioning into separate fractions. The separation of the most hazardous radionuclides (like transplutonium elements (TPE)) to the individual fraction of low volume leads to decrease of the total volume of HLLW and therefore to decrease of solidified waste storage costs. It should be noted that only in the case of reprocessing it can be possible to recover individual radionuclides (or their fractions) into separate flows with further special approach to each of them. Partitioning of different HLLW is under investigation in many countries now. Numerous processes for recovery of Cs, Sr, TPE and REE have been already developed and tested. At the same time partitioning is only the first step on the road to the following synthesis of materials providing the safe storage of long-lived radionuclides over many thousands of years. The metallic palladium contained in HLLW seems to be a promising material for producing of matrices for incorporation of radioactive wastes. Different methods for palladium recovery have been investigated: reductive precipitation, electrochemical precipitation, sorption and extraction. Of prime importance are extraction methods. Phosphine oxides, carbamoyl-phosphine oxides, crown-ethers, oximes, sulfides and some other compounds were proposed as extractants towards palladium from nitric acid media. It is reasonable to recover palladium into individual fraction during waste partitioning. Diamides of malonic, di-glycolic and pyridine-dicarboxylic (di-picolinic) acids are intensively investigated as extractants for HLLW

  15. Development of a solid-phase extraction method for simultaneous extraction of adipic acid, succinic acid and 1,4-butanediol formed during hydrolysis of poly(butylene adipate) and poly(butylene succinate).

    PubMed

    Lindström, Annika; Albertsson, Ann-Christine; Hakkarainen, Minna

    2004-01-02

    A solid-phase extraction (SPE) method was developed for the simultaneous extraction of dicarboxylic acids and diols formed during hydrolysis of poly(butylene succinate), PBS, and poly(butylene adipate), PBA. Four commercial non-polar SPE columns, three silica based: C8, C18, C18 (EC), and one resin based: ENV+, were tested for the extraction of succinic acid, adipic acid and 1,4-butanediol, the expected final hydrolysis products of PBS and PBA. ENV+ resin was chosen as a solid-phase, because it displayed the best extraction efficiency for 1,4-butanediol and succinic acid. Linear range for the extracted analytes was 1-500 ng/microl for adipic acid and 2-500 ng/microl for 1,4-butanediol and succinic acid. Detection and quantification limits for the analytes were between 1-2 and 2-7 ng/microl, respectively, and relative standard deviations were between 3 and 7%. Good repeatability and low detection limits made the developed SPE method and subsequent gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS) analysis a sensitive tool for identification and quantification of hydrolysis products at early stages of degradation.

  16. Efficient degradation of tannic acid by black Aspergillus species.

    PubMed

    Van Diepeningen, Anne D; Debets, Alfons J M; Varga, Janos; van der Gaag, Marijn; Swart, Klaas; Hoekstra, Rolf F

    2004-08-01

    A set of aspergillus strains from culture collections and wild-type black aspergilli isolated on non-selective media were used to validate the use of media with 20% tannic acid for exclusive and complete selection of the black aspergilli. The 20% tannic acid medium proved useful for both quantitative and qualitative selection of all different black aspergilli, including all recognized species: A. carbonarius, A. japonicus, A. aculeatus, A foetidus, A. heteromorphus, A. niger, A. tubingensis and A. brasiliensis haplotypes. Even higher concentrations of tannic acid can be utilized by the black aspergilli suggesting a very efficient tannic acid-degrading system. Colour mutants show that the characteristic ability to grow on high tannic acid concentrations is not causally linked to the other typical feature of these aspergilli, i.e. the formation of brown-black pigments. Sequence analysis of the A. niger genome using the A. oryzae tannase gene yielded eleven tannase-like genes, far more than in related species. Therefore, a unique ecological niche in the degradation of tannic acid and connected nitrogen release seems to be reserved for these black-spored cosmopolitans.

  17. Optimisation of extraction and sludge dewatering efficiencies of bio-flocculants extracted from Abelmoschus esculentus (okra).

    PubMed

    Lee, Chai Siah; Chong, Mei Fong; Robinson, John; Binner, Eleanor

    2015-07-01

    The production of natural biopolymers as flocculants for water treatment is highly desirable due to their inherent low toxicity and low environmental footprint. In this study, bio-flocculants were extracted from Hibiscus/Abelmoschus esculentus (okra) by using a water extraction method, and the extract yield and its performance in sludge dewatering were evaluated. Single factor experimental design was employed to obtain the optimum conditions for extraction temperature (25-90 °C), time (0.25-5 h), solvent loading (0.5-5 w/w) and agitation speed (0-225 rpm). Results showed that extraction yield was affected non-linearly by all experimental variables, whilst the sludge dewatering ability was only influenced by the temperature of the extraction process. The optimum extraction conditions were obtained at 70 °C, 2 h, solvent loading of 2.5 w/w and agitation at 200 rpm. Under the optimal conditions, the extract yield was 2.38%, which is comparable to the extraction of other polysaccharides (0.69-3.66%). The bio-flocculants displayed >98% removal of suspended solids and 68% water recovery during sludge dewatering, and were shown to be comparable with commercial polyacrylamide flocculants. This work shows that bio-flocculants could offer a feasible alternative to synthetic flocculants for water treatment and sludge dewatering applications, and can be extracted using only water as a solvent, minimising the environmental footprint of the extraction process.

  18. Effect of solvent addition sequence on lycopene extraction efficiency from membrane neutralized caustic peeled tomato waste.

    PubMed

    Phinney, David M; Frelka, John C; Cooperstone, Jessica L; Schwartz, Steven J; Heldman, Dennis R

    2017-01-15

    Lycopene is a high value nutraceutical and its isolation from waste streams is often desirable to maximize profits. This research investigated solvent addition order and composition on lycopene extraction efficiency from a commercial tomato waste stream (pH 12.5, solids ∼5%) that was neutralized using membrane filtration. Constant volume dilution (CVD) was used to desalinate the caustic salt to neutralize the waste. Acetone, ethanol and hexane were used as direct or blended additions. Extraction efficiency was defined as the amount of lycopene extracted divided by the total lycopene in the sample. The CVD operation reduced the active alkali of the waste from 0.66 to <0.01M and the moisture content of the pulp increased from 93% to 97% (wet basis), showing the removal of caustic salts from the waste. Extraction efficiency varied from 32.5% to 94.5%. This study demonstrates a lab scale feasibility to extract lycopene efficiently from tomato processing byproducts.

  19. DIAMIDE DERIVATIVES OF DIPICOLINIC ACID AS ACTINIDE AND LANTHANIDE EXTRACTANTS IN A VARIATION OF THE UNEX PROCESS

    SciTech Connect

    D. R. Peterman; R. S. Herbst; J. D. Law; R. D. Tillotson; T. G. Garn; T. A. Todd; V. N. Romanovskiy; V. A. Babain; M. Yu. Alyapyshev; I. V. Smirnov

    2007-09-01

    The Universal Extraction (UNEX) process has been developed for simultaneous extraction of cesium, strontium, and actinides from acidic solutions. This process utilizes an extractant consisting of 0.08 M chlorinated cobalt dicarbollide (HCCD), 0.007-0.02 M polyethylene glycol (PEG-400), and 0.02 M diphenyl-N,N-di-n-butylcarbamoylmethylphosphine oxide (Ph2CMPO) in the diluent trifluoromethylphenyl sulfone (CF3C6H5SO2, designated FS-13) and provides simultaneous extraction of Cs, Sr, actinides, and lanthanides from HNO3 solutions. The UNEX process is of limited utility for processing acidic solutions containing large quantities of lanthanides and/or actinides, such as dissolved spent nuclear fuel solutions. These constraints are primarily attributed to the limited concentrations of CMPO (a maximum of ~0.02 M) in the organic phase and limited solubility of the CMPO-metal complexes. As a result, alternative actinide and lanthanide extractants are being investigated for use with HCCD as an improvement for waste processing and for applications where higher concentrations of the metals are present. Our preliminary results indicate that diamide derivatives of dipicolinic acid may function as efficient actinide and lanthanide extractants. The results to be presented indicate that, of the numerous diamides studied to date, the tetrabutyldiamide of dipicolinic acid, TBDPA, shows the most promise as an alternative actinide/lanthanide extractant in the UNEX process.

  20. Identification of sulfonic acids as efficient ecto-5'-nucleotidase inhibitors.

    PubMed

    Iqbal, Jamshed; Saeed, Aamer; Raza, Rabia; Matin, Abdul; Hameed, Abdul; Furtmann, Norbert; Lecka, Joanna; Sévigny, Jean; Bajorath, Jürgen

    2013-01-01

    Ecto-5'-nucleotidase (CD73) is well known for its implication in cancer. Inhibition of ecto-5'-nucleotidases is thought to provide an attractive approach to cancer therapy. This study identifies sulfonic acid compounds as efficient inhibitors of ecto-5'-nucleotidases. The compounds were tested against recombinant human and rat ecto-5'-nucleotidases. The most potent new sulfonic acid inhibitor 6-amino-4-hydroxynaphthalene-2-sulfonic acid (1) of ecto-5'-nucleotidase had an IC₅₀ of 1.32 ± 0.09 μM for the human and 10.4 ± 3.3 μM for the rat enzyme. Generally, all compounds were more active against the human enzyme. Plausible binding mode models were developed for this new class of inhibitors. Furthermore, several sulfonic acid inhibitors were efficient cytotoxic agents when tested on H157 cancer cell lines. Hence, new ecto-5'-nucleotidases inhibitors displayed significant potential for further development as compounds for anti-cancer therapy.

  1. Evaluation and Optimization of Downstream Process Parameters for Extraction of Betulinic Acid from the Bark of Ziziphus jujubae L.

    PubMed Central

    Dubey, Kashyap Kumar; Goel, Nitika

    2013-01-01

    Present work investigated an apposite and efficient method for extraction of betulinic acid (BA) from the bark of Ziziphus jujubae. Various extraction methods like stirring extraction, soxhlet extraction, ultrasonic extraction, and microwave assisted extraction (MAE) were evaluated for increasing recovery percentage of BA. From the raffinate so obtained, BA was isolated. Thin layer chromatography (TLC) was used to analyze the extract and high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) for quantification. The results revealed that the percentage extraction of BA from Z. jujubae by MAE was more proficient. As recovery percentage of BA by MAE technique turned out to be maximum, by using response surface methodology (RSM), three process parameters (pH, temperature, and time) were optimized by MAE and it was observed that the optimum parameters (pH 6.5, temp. 70.23°C, and time 3.5 min) gave the maximum recovery of BA (0.44% w/w). To validate the RSM model, experiments were performed and the highest recovery of BA was found to be 0.4% w/w which is ±0.04% to the predicted value. Henceforth the extraction efficiency and the substantial saving of time by MAE was more capable than the other extraction techniques. PMID:24324374

  2. Water-enhanced solubility of carboxylic acids in organic solvents and its applications to extraction processes

    SciTech Connect

    Starr, J.N.; King, C.J.

    1991-11-01

    The solubilities of carboxylic acids in certain organic solvents increase remarkably with an increasing amount of water in the organic phase. This phenomenon leads to a novel extract regeneration process in which the co-extracted water is selectively removed from an extract, and the carboxylic acid precipitates. This approach is potentially advantageous compared to other regeneration processes because it removes a minor component of the extract in order to achieve a large recovery of acid from the extract. Carboxylic acids of interest include adipic acid, fumaric acid, and succinic acid because of their low to moderate solubilities in organic solvents. Solvents were screened for an increase in acid solubility with increased water concentration in the organic phase. Most Lewis-base solvents were found to exhibit this increased solubility phenomena. Solvents that have a carbonyl functional group showed a very large increase in acid solubility. 71 refs., 52 figs., 38 tabs.

  3. Role of modifier in microwave assisted extraction of oleanolic acid from Gymnema sylvestre: application of green extraction technology for botanicals.

    PubMed

    Mandal, Vivekananda; Dewanjee, Saikat; Mandal, Subhash C

    2009-08-01

    This work highlights the development of a green extraction technology for botanicals with the use of microwave energy. Taking into consideration the extensive time involved in conventional extraction methods, coupled with usage of large volumes of organic solvent and energy resources, an ecofriendly green method that can overcome the above problems has been developed. The work compares the effect of sample pretreatment with untreated sample for improved yield of oleanolic acid from Gymnema sylvestre leaves. The pretreated sample with water produced 0.71% w/w oleanolic acid in one extraction cycle with 500 W microwave power, 25 mL methanol and only an 8 min extraction time. On the other hand, a conventional heat reflux extraction for 6 hours could produce only 0.62% w/w oleanolic acid. The detailed mechanism of extraction has been studied through scanning electron micrographs. The environmental impact of the proposed green method has also been evaluated.

  4. Possibility of high efficient beam extraction from the CERN SPS with a bent crystal. Simulation results

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Scandale, W.; Kovalenko, A. D.; Taratin, A. M.

    2017-03-01

    The extraction of the SPS beam of 270 GeV/c protons assisted by a bent crystal was studied by simulation. Two methods for delivering the SPS beam onto a crystal were considered: transverse diffusion and orbit bump of the beam. It was shown that the main condition for high efficient beam extraction with a bent crystal, which is a small divergence of the incident beam, can be fulfilled. Extraction efficiency up to 99% can be reached for both methods of the beam delivering. The irradiation of the electrostatic septum wires during the beam extraction can be considerably reduced.

  5. Role of polyadenylic acid in a deoxyribonucleic acid-membrane fraction extracted from pneumococci.

    PubMed Central

    Firshein, W; Meyer, B; Epner, E; Viggiani, J

    1976-01-01

    After the addition of radioactive polyadenylic acid to cell suspensions of pneumocci, part of the radioactivity becomes associated with a deoxyribonucleic acid (DNA)-membrane fraction extracted from the cells. A variety of techniques show that a portion of this associated radioactivity may represent oligoadenylates complexed to DNA, probaby as part of a ribonucleic acid (RNA) component. Polyadenylic acid, which had previously been shown to enhance DNA synthesis in cell suspensions (Firshein and Benson, 1968), also enhances the extent of DNA synthesis by the DNA-membrane fraction in vitro under specific conditions of concentration and conformation. The mechanism of action of this enhancement may be related to the ability of oligoadenylates to increase the number of initiation sites for DNA replication by stimulating the production of an RNA primer, thus providing additional 3'-OH groups with which DNA polymerase can react. PMID:6428

  6. Optimization of Polycyclic Aromatic Hydrocarbon (PAH) Extraction Efficiency Parameters for Sub- and Supercritical Water Extraction (SCWE) Instrument

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Okada, Asahi A.

    2005-01-01

    Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons are a class of molecules composed of multiple, bonded benzene rings. As PAHS are believed to be present on Mars, positive confirmation of their presence on Mars is highly desirable. To extract PAHS, which have low volatility, a fluid extraction method is ideal, and one that does not utilize organic solvents is especially ideal for in situ instrumental analysis. The use of water as a solvent, which at subcritical pressures and temperatures is relatively non-Polar, has significant potential. As SCWE instruments have not yet been commercialized, all instruments are individually-built research prototypes: thus, initial efforts were intended to determine if extraction efficiencies on the JPL-built laboratory-scale SCWE instrument are comparable to differing designs built elsewhere. Samples of soil with certified reference concentrations of PAHs were extracted using SCWE as well as conventional Soxhlet extraction. Continuation of the work would involve extractions on JPL'S newer, portable SCWE instrument prototype to determine its efficiency in extracting PAHs.

  7. [Determination of phthalic acid esters in textiles by solid phase extraction-gas chromatography].

    PubMed

    Niu, Zengyuan; Ye, Xiwen; Fang, Liping; Xue, Qiuhong; Sun, Zhongsong

    2006-09-01

    A method was established for the simultaneous determination of some phthalic acid esters, namely, dimethyl phthalate (DMP), diethyl phthalate (DEP), dipropyl phthalate (DPrP), dibutyl phthalate (DBP), diamyl phthalate (DAP), dihexyl phthalate (DHP), benzyln-butyl phthalate (BBP), di-(2-ethylhexyl) phthalate (DEHP), dicyclohexyl phthalate (DCHP), di-n-octyl phthalate (DNOP), diisononyl phthalate (DINP) and diisodecyl phthalate (DIDP) in textiles by solid phase extraction (SPE) coupled with gas chromatography (GC). The phthalic acid esters in textiles were extracted by Soxhlet extraction with hexane, the extracts were then cleaned up and enriched by a strong anion exchange (SAX) SPE cartridge. The parameters affecting the purification efficiency of SPE cartridge, such as solvent conditioning, rinsing, and elution, were studied. Conditioning with 5 mL hexane and rinsing with 3 mL isooctane were proved to be the optimal conditions. Of the several solvent ratios (ethylacetate in hexane) used for selective elution of phthalic acid esters from the SAX SPE cartridge, the 15% (v/v) content for ethylacetate in hexane gave the best result. Under the optimized conditions, the recoveries of phthalic acid esters for spiked standards (n=7) were 86.3%-102.7%, and the relative standard deviations (RSDs) were less than 5%. In this method the detection limits for DMP, DEP, DPrP, DBP, DAP, BBP, DCHP, DEHP, DNOP were all below 1 mg/kg, and the detection limits for DINP and DIDP were 1.74 mg/kg and 1.55 mg/kg respectively. This SPE-GC method is sensitive, accurate and suitable for the analysis of phthalate environmental hormones in textiles.

  8. A novel microalgal lipid extraction method using biodiesel (fatty acid methyl esters) as an extractant.

    PubMed

    Huang, Wen-Can; Park, Chan Woo; Kim, Jong-Duk

    2017-02-01

    Although microalgae are considered promising renewable sources of biodiesel, the high cost of the downstream process is a significant obstacle in large-scale biodiesel production. In this study, a novel approach for microalgal biodiesel production was developed by using the biodiesel as an extractant. First, wet microalgae with 70% water content were incubated with a mixture of biodiesel/methanol and penetration of the mixture through the cell membrane and swelling of the lipids contained in microalgae was confirmed. Significant increases of lipid droplets were observed by confocal microscopy. Second, the swelled lipid droplets in microalgae were squeezed out using mechanical stress across the cell membrane and washed with methanol. The lipid extraction efficiency reached 68%. This process does not require drying of microalgae or solvent recovery, which the most energy-intensive step in solvent-based biodiesel production.

  9. Thallium extraction from hydrochloric acid media into a deep eutectic solvent using bis(2-ethylhexyl) phosphate

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tran, Kate; Volia, Merinda; Tereshatov, Evgeny; Folden, Charles, III

    2016-09-01

    The chemical properties of superheavy elements are relatively unknown due to their short half-lives and difficulty of production. In preparation for a future experiment to study the chemical properties of element 113, separation techniques have been used to study the behavior of its homologs, In and Tl. Previous work studied the liquid-liquid extraction of radioactive 201Tl (t1 / 2 = 3 . 04 d) from various concentrations of HCl into a mixture of menthol and lauric acid that formed a so-called deep eutectic solvent (DES). This work focuses on the effects of adding an extraction agent, bis(2-ethylhexyl) phosphate (HDEHP), to the DES on the efficiency of thallium extraction. The extraction of Tl(I) was generally poor, both with and without HDEHP added. In contrast, 111In (t1 / 2 = 2 . 80 d) showed significant extraction using HDEHP added to the same DES. This difference in behavior could potentially be exploited in a future experiment on the chemistry of element 113. National Science Foundation.

  10. Improved proteomic analysis following trichloroacetic acid extraction of Bacillus anthracis spore proteins.

    PubMed

    Deatherage Kaiser, Brooke L; Wunschel, David S; Sydor, Michael A; Warner, Marvin G; Wahl, Karen L; Hutchison, Janine R

    2015-11-01

    Proteomic analysis of bacterial samples provides valuable information about cellular responses and functions under different environmental pressures. Analysis of cellular proteins is dependent upon efficient extraction from bacterial samples, which can be challenging with increasing complexity and refractory characteristics. While no single method can recover 100% of the bacterial proteins, selected protocols can improve overall protein isolation, peptide recovery, or enrichment for certain classes of proteins. The method presented here is technically simple, does not require specialized equipment such as a mechanical disrupter, and is effective for protein extraction of the particularly challenging sample type of Bacillus anthracis Sterne spores. The ability of Trichloroacetic acid (TCA) extraction to isolate proteins from spores and enrich for spore-specific proteins was compared to the traditional mechanical disruption method of bead beating. TCA extraction improved the total average number of proteins identified within a sample as compared to bead beating (547 vs 495, respectively). Further, TCA extraction enriched for 270 spore proteins, including those typically identified by first isolating the spore coat and exosporium layers. Bead beating enriched for 156 spore proteins more typically identified from whole spore proteome analyses. The total average number of proteins identified was equal using TCA or bead beating for easily lysed samples, such as B. anthracis vegetative cells. As with all assays, supplemental methods such as implementation of an alternative preparation method may simplify sample preparation and provide additional insight to the protein biology of the organism being studied.

  11. Improved Proteomic Analysis Following Trichloroacetic Acid Extraction of Bacillus anthracis Spore Proteins

    SciTech Connect

    Kaiser, Brooke LD; Wunschel, David S.; Sydor, Michael A.; Warner, Marvin G.; Wahl, Karen L.; Hutchison, Janine R.

    2015-08-07

    Proteomic analysis of bacterial samples provides valuable information about cellular responses and functions under different environmental pressures. Proteomic analysis is dependent upon efficient extraction of proteins from bacterial samples without introducing bias toward extraction of particular protein classes. While no single method can recover 100% of the bacterial proteins, selected protocols can improve overall protein isolation, peptide recovery, or enrich for certain classes of proteins. The method presented here is technically simple and does not require specialized equipment such as a mechanical disrupter. Our data reveal that for particularly challenging samples, such as B. anthracis Sterne spores, trichloroacetic acid extraction improved the number of proteins identified within a sample compared to bead beating (714 vs 660, respectively). Further, TCA extraction enriched for 103 known spore specific proteins whereas bead beating resulted in 49 unique proteins. Analysis of C. botulinum samples grown to 5 days, composed of vegetative biomass and spores, showed a similar trend with improved protein yields and identification using our method compared to bead beating. Interestingly, easily lysed samples, such as B. anthracis vegetative cells, were equally as effectively processed via TCA and bead beating, but TCA extraction remains the easiest and most cost effective option. As with all assays, supplemental methods such as implementation of an alternative preparation method may provide additional insight to the protein biology of the bacteria being studied.

  12. Stir bar sorptive extraction-liquid desorption applied to the analysis of hop-derived bitter acids in beer by micellar electrokinetic chromatography.

    PubMed

    De Villiers, André; Vanhoenacker, Gerd; Lynen, Fréderic; Sandra, Pat

    2004-02-01

    Stir bar sorptive extraction-liquid desorption (SBSE-LD) has been applied as an efficient sample preparation method for the analysis of beer bitter acids. Extracts free of almost all interfering compounds were obtained, allowing simultaneous analysis of iso-alpha-acids and reduced iso-alpha-acids. A robust micellar electrokinetic chromatography (MEKC) method was developed that enables fast separation of iso-alpha-acids and reduced iso-alpha-acids. Quantitative data are in good agreement with results obtained by high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) using direct beer injection.

  13. Validation of Internal Controls for Extraction and Amplification of Nucleic Acids from Enteric Viruses in Water Samples ▿ †

    PubMed Central

    Hata, Akihiko; Katayama, Hiroyuki; Kitajima, Masaaki; Visvanathan, Chettiyappan; Nol, Chea; Furumai, Hiroaki

    2011-01-01

    Inhibitors that reduce viral nucleic acid extraction efficiency and interfere with cDNA synthesis and/or polymerase activity affect the molecular detection of viruses in aquatic environments. To overcome these significant problems, we developed a methodology for assessing nucleic acid yields and DNA amplification efficiencies for environmental water samples. This involved adding particles of adenovirus type 5 and murine norovirus and newly developed primer-sharing controls, which are amplified with the same primer pairs and result in the same amplicon sizes as the targets, to these samples. We found that nucleic acid loss during the extraction process, rather than reverse transcription-PCR (RT-PCR) inhibition, more significantly attributed to underestimation of the presence of viral genomes in the environmental water samples tested in this study. Our success rate for satisfactorily amplifying viral RNAs and DNAs by RT-PCR was higher than that for obtaining adequate nucleic acid preparations. We found that inhibitory properties were greatest when we used larger sample volumes. A magnetic silica bead-based RNA extraction method effectively removed inhibitors that interfere with viral nucleic acid extraction and RT-PCR. To our knowledge, this is the first study to assess the inhibitory properties of environmental water samples by using both control virus particles and primer-sharing controls. PMID:21602369

  14. Ionic liquid-functionalized silica for selective solid-phase extraction of organic acids, amines and aldehydes.

    PubMed

    Vidal, Lorena; Parshintsev, Jevgeni; Hartonen, Kari; Canals, Antonio; Riekkola, Marja-Liisa

    2012-02-24

    Three ionic liquid (IL)-functionalized silica materials, imidazolium, N-methylimidazolium and 1-alkyl-3-(propyl-3-sulfonate) imidazolium, were synthesised and applied in solid-phase extraction (SPE) of organic acids, amines and aldehydes, which are important compound families in atmospheric aerosol particles. 1-Alkyl-3-(propyl-3-sulfonate) imidazolium-functionalized silica was tested as sorbent for SPE for the first time. The analytes were separated and detected by liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry (LC-MS). To confirm the results achieved by LC-MS, the acids were additionally determined by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS). The stability of the IL-functionalized silica materials was tested at low and high pH. The effect of the pH on the extraction was also informative of the retention mechanism of the materials. The results showed anion exchange to be the main interaction, but hydrophobic and π interactions and hydrogen bonding also played a role in the extraction. Extraction efficiencies for organic acids ranged from 87 to 110%, except for cis-pinonic acid (19-29%). Lower extraction efficiencies for amines and aldehydes confirmed that anionic exchange was the predominant interaction. Comparisons made with two commercial SPE materials--silica-based strong anion exchange (SAX) and polymer-based mixed-mode anion exchange and reverse-phase (MAX)--showed the IL-functionalized materials to offer different selectivity and better extraction efficiency than SAX for aromatic compounds. Finally, the new materials were successfully tested in the extraction of an atmospheric aerosol sample.

  15. Exhaustive and stable electromembrane extraction of acidic drugs from human plasma.

    PubMed

    Huang, Chuixiu; Gjelstad, Astrid; Seip, Knut Fredrik; Jensen, Henrik; Pedersen-Bjergaard, Stig

    2015-12-18

    The first part of the current work systematically described the screening of different types of organic solvents as the supported liquid membrane (SLM) for electromembrane extraction (EME) of acidic drugs, including different alcohols, ketones, and ethers. Seven acidic drugs with a wide logP range (1.01-4.39) were selected as model substances. For the first time, the EME recovery of acidic drugs and system-current across the SLM with each organic solvent as SLM were investigated and correlated to relevant solvent properties such as viscosity and Kamlet and Taft solvatochromic parameters. Solvents with high hydrogen bonding acidity (α) and dipolarity-polarizability (π*) were found to be successful SLMs, and 1-heptanol was the most efficient candidate, which provided EME recovery in the range of 94-110%. Both hydrogen bonding interactions, dipole-dipole interactions, and hydrophobic interactions were involved in stabilizing the deprotonated acidic analytes (with high hydrogen bonding basicity and high dipole moment) during mass transfer across the SLM. The efficiency of the extraction normally decreased with increasing hydrocarbon chain length of the SLM, which was mainly due to increasing viscosity and decreasing α and π* values. The system-current during EME was found to be dependent on the type and the volume of the SLM. In contact with human plasma, an SLM of pure 1-heptanol was unstable, and to improve stability, 1-heptanol was mixed with 2-nitrophenyl octyl ether (NPOE). With this SLM, exhaustive EME was performed from diluted human plasma, and the recoveries of five out of seven analytes were over 91% after 10min EME. This approach was evaluated using HPLC-UV, and the evaluation data were found to be satisfactory.

  16. Determination of the optimum conditions for boric acid extraction with carbon dioxide gas in aqueous media from colemanite containing arsenic

    SciTech Connect

    Ata, O.N.; Colak, S.; Copur, M.; Celik, C.

    2000-02-01

    The Taguchi method was used to determine optimum conditions for the boric acid extraction from colemanite ore containing As in aqueous media saturated by CO{sub 2} gas. After the parameters were determined to be efficient on the extraction efficiency, the experimental series with two steps were carried out. The chosen experimental parameters for the first series of experiments and their ranges were as follows: (1) reaction temperature, 25--70 C; (2) solid-to-liquid ratio (by weight), 0.091 to 0.333; (3) gas flow rate (in mL/min), 66.70--711; (4) mean particle size, {minus}100 to {minus}10 mesh; (5) stirring speed, 200--600 rpm; (6) reaction time, 10--90 min. The optimum conditions were found to be as follows: reaction temperature, 70 C; solid-to-liquid ratio, 0.091; gas flow rate, 711 (in mL/min); particle size, {minus}100 mesh; stirring speed, 500 rpm; reaction time, 90 min. Under these optimum conditions, the boric acid extraction efficiency from the colemanite containing As was approximately 54%. Chosen experimental parameters for the second series of experiments and their ranges were as follows: (1) reaction temperature, 60--80 C; (2) solid-to-liquid ratio (by weight), 0.1000 to 0.167; (3) gas pressure (in atm), 1.5; 2.7; (4) reaction time, 45--120 min. The optimum conditions were found to be as follows: reaction temperature, 70 C; solid-to-liquid ratio, 0.1; gas pressure, 2.7 atm; reaction time, 120 min. Under these optimum conditions the boric acid extraction efficiency from the colemanite ore was approximately 75%. Under these optimum conditions, the boric acid extraction efficiency from calcined colemanite ore was approximately 99.55%.

  17. Antioxidant activity and sensory assessment of a rosmarinic acid-enriched extract of Salvia officinalis

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    An extract of S. officinalis (garden sage) was prepared using supercritical carbon dioxide (SC-CO2) extraction, followed by a Soxhlet hot water extraction. The resulting extract was enriched in polyphenols, including rosmarinic acid (RA), which has shown promising health benefits in animals. The ext...

  18. A rapid and efficient assay for extracting DNA from fungi

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Griffin, Dale W.; Kellogg, C.A.; Peak, K.K.; Shinn, E.A.

    2002-01-01

    Aims: A method for the rapid extraction of fungal DNA from small quantities of tissue in a batch-processing format was investigated. Methods and Results: Tissue (< 3.0 mg) was scraped from freshly-grown fungal isolates. The tissue was suspended in buffer AP1 and subjected to seven rounds of freeze/thaw using a crushed dry ice/ethanol bath and a boiling water bath. After a 30 min boiling step, the tissue was quickly ground against the wall of the microfuge tube using a sterile pipette tip. The Qiagen DNeasy Plant Tissue Kit protocol was then used to purify the DNA for PCR/ sequencing applications. Conclusions: The method allowed batch DNA extraction from multiple fungal isolates using a simple yet rapid and reliable assay. Significance and Impact of the Study: Use of this assay will allow researchers to obtain DNA from fungi quickly for use in molecular assays that previously required specialized instrumentation, was time-consuming or was not conducive to batch processing.

  19. Efficient regioselective O3-monodesilylation by hydrochloric acid in cyclodextrins.

    PubMed

    Gu, Jiamin; Chen, Tong; Wang, Qifang; Chen, Tieyu; Ling, Chang-Chun

    2015-06-17

    An efficient O3-monodesilylation method has been developed for the derivatization of per-3-O-silylated cyclodextrin (CD) derivatives. Using hydrochloric acid as a reagent, the O3-monodesilylation was found to be regioselective, mild, practical and general as it can be applied to all α-, β- and γ-CDs. The advantage of the methodology is that the acid-catalyzed O3-desilylation can be carried out in a stepwise manner so that different types of functional groups can be introduced to a CD molecule at different stage of the O3-desilylations. This makes the current methodology flexible and versatile. This current methodology constitutes one of the few methodologies available for the regioselective modification of CDs at the secondary face.

  20. Electrocarboxylation: towards sustainable and efficient synthesis of valuable carboxylic acids

    PubMed Central

    Matthessen, Roman; Fransaer, Jan; Binnemans, Koen

    2014-01-01

    Summary The near-unlimited availability of CO2 has stimulated a growing research effort in creating value-added products from this greenhouse gas. This paper presents the trends on the most important methods used in the electrochemical synthesis of carboxylic acids from carbon dioxide. An overview is given of different substrate groups which form carboxylic acids upon CO2 fixation, including mechanistic considerations. While most work focuses on the electrocarboxylation of substrates with sacrificial anodes, this review considers the possibilities and challenges of implementing other synthetic methodologies. In view of potential industrial application, the choice of reactor setup, electrode type and reaction pathway has a large influence on the sustainability and efficiency of the process. PMID:25383120

  1. Establishment and application of an efficient, economic, and rapid rice DNA extraction method

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    A rapid, economic, and efficient method for DNA extraction from rice leaf, root and seed was developed, and the extracted DNA was used as a template to successfully amplify the rice blast resistance gene Pi-ta. Profiles of Pi-ta in 165 breeding lines detected by DNA markers were verified using diff...

  2. Optimization of carvacrol, rosmarinic, oleanolic and ursolic acid extraction from oregano herbs (Origanum onites L., Origanum vulgare spp. hirtum and Origanum vulgare L.).

    PubMed

    Baranauskaitė, Justė; Jakštas, Valdas; Ivanauskas, Liudas; Kopustinskienė, Dalia M; Drakšienė, Gailutė; Masteikova, Ruta; Bernatonienė, Jurga

    2016-01-01

    The aim of our study was to increase the extraction efficiency of carvacrol, rosmarinic, oleanolic and ursolic acid from the different species of oregano herbs (Origanum onites L., Origanum vulgare spp. hirtum and Origanum vulgare L.). Various extraction methods (ultrasound-assisted, heat-reflux, continuous stirring, maceration, percolation) and extraction conditions (different solvent, material:solvent ratio, extraction temperature, extraction time) were used, and the active substances were determined by HPLC. The lowest content of carvacrol, rosmarinic, oleanolic and ursolic acid was obtained by percolation. During heat-reflux extraction, the content of active substances depended on the solvent used: ethanol/non-aqueous solvent (glycerol or propylene glycol) mixture was more effective compared with ethanol alone. The results showed that for each species of oregano the most optimal extraction method should be selected to maximize the content of biologically active substances in the extracts.

  3. Evaluation of the extraction efficiency of thermally labile bioactive compounds in Gastrodia elata Blume by pressurized hot water extraction and microwave-assisted extraction.

    PubMed

    Teo, Chin Chye; Tan, Swee Ngin; Yong, Jean Wan Hong; Hew, Choy Sin; Ong, Eng Shi

    2008-02-22

    Our earlier work showed that the stability of the bioactive compounds gastrodin (GA) and vanillyl alcohol (VA) in Gastrodia elata Blume behaved differently with varying compositions of water-ethanol using pressurized liquid extraction (PLE) at room temperature. To have a better understanding of the extraction process of these thermally labile compounds under elevated temperature conditions, pressurized hot water extraction (PHWE) and microwave-assisted extraction (MAE) methods were proposed. PHWE and MAE showed that GA and VA could be extracted using pure water under optimized conditions of temperature and extraction time. The extraction efficiency of GA and VA by the proposed methods was found to be higher or comparable to heating under reflux using water. The marker compounds present in the plant extracts were determined by RP-HPLC. The optimized conditions were found to be different for the two proposed methods on extraction of GA and VA. The method precision (RSD, n=6) was found to vary from 0.92% to 3.36% for the two proposed methods on different days. Hence, PHWE and MAE methods were shown to be feasible alternatives for the extraction of thermally labile marker compounds present in medicinal plants.

  4. A novel automated device for rapid nucleic acid extraction utilizing a zigzag motion of magnetic silica beads.

    PubMed

    Yamaguchi, Akemi; Matsuda, Kazuyuki; Uehara, Masayuki; Honda, Takayuki; Saito, Yasunori

    2016-02-04

    We report a novel automated device for nucleic acid extraction, which consists of a mechanical control system and a disposable cassette. The cassette is composed of a bottle, a capillary tube, and a chamber. After sample injection in the bottle, the sample is lysed, and nucleic acids are adsorbed on the surface of magnetic silica beads. These magnetic beads are transported and are vibrated through the washing reagents in the capillary tube under the control of the mechanical control system, and thus, the nucleic acid is purified without centrifugation. The purified nucleic acid is automatically extracted in 3 min for the polymerase chain reaction (PCR). The nucleic acid extraction is dependent on the transport speed and the vibration frequency of the magnetic beads, and optimizing these two parameters provided better PCR efficiency than the conventional manual procedure. There was no difference between the detection limits of our novel device and that of the conventional manual procedure. We have already developed the droplet-PCR machine, which can amplify and detect specific nucleic acids rapidly and automatically. Connecting the droplet-PCR machine to our novel automated extraction device enables PCR analysis within 15 min, and this system can be made available as a point-of-care testing in clinics as well as general hospitals.

  5. Novel Regenerated Solvent Extraction Processes for the Recovery of Carboxylic Acids or Ammonia from Aqueous Solutions Part I. Regeneration of Amine-Carboxylic Acid Extracts

    SciTech Connect

    Poole, L.J.; King, C.J.

    1990-03-01

    Two novel regenerated solvent extraction processes are examined. The first process has the potential to reduce the energy costs inherent in the recovery of low-volatility carboxylic acids from dilute aqueous solutions. The second process has the potential for reducing the energy costs required for separate recovery of ammonia and acid gases (e.g. CO{sub 2} and H{sub 2}S) from industrial sour waters. The recovery of carboxylic acids from dilute aqueous solution can be achieved by extraction with tertiary amines. An approach for regeneration and product recovery from such extracts is to back-extract the carboxylic acid with a water-soluble, volatile tertiary amine, such as trimethylamine. The resulting trimethylammonium carboxylate solution can be concentrated and thermally decomposed, yielding the product acid and the volatile amine for recycle. Experimental work was performed with lactic acid, succinic acid, and fumaric acid. Equilibrium data show near-stoichiometric recovery of the carboxylic acids from an organic solution of Alamine 336 into aqueous solutions of trimethylamine. For fumaric and succinic acids, partial evaporation of the aqueous back extract decomposes the carboxylate and yields the acid product in crystalline form. The decomposition of aqueous solutions of trimethylammonium lactates was not carried out to completion, due to the high water solubility of lactic acid and the tendency of the acid to self-associate. The separate recovery of ammonia and acid gases from sour waters can be achieved by combining steam-stripping of the acid gases with simultaneous removal of ammonia by extraction with a liquid cation exchanger. The use of di-2,4,4-trimethylpentyl phosphinic acid as the liquid cation exchanger is explored in this work. Batch extraction experiments were carried out to measure the equilibrium distribution ratio of ammonia between an aqueous buffer solution and an organic solution of the phosphinic acid (0.2N) in Norpar 12. The concentration

  6. Controllable Phase Separation by Boc-Modified Lipophilic Acid as a Multifunctional Extractant

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tao, Kai; Adler-Abramovich, Lihi; Gazit, Ehud

    2015-12-01

    While phase separation of immiscible liquid-liquid systems has become increasingly significant in diverse areas, the irreversible nature limits their further application in controllable extraction-concentration or capture-release fields. There is a need for the development of simple, efficient and reversible methods for numerous research and industrial extraction and separation applications. We envisioned Boc-modified lipophilic acids as a simple model for such use based on the studies of the multi-phase transitions of Boc-modified supramolecular polymeric systems. Here, we demonstrate that in the presence of Boc-7-aminoheptanoic acid (Boc-7), phase separation occurs in mixtures of miscible organic solvent and water. The separation behavior was confirmed by differential colorimetric development in aqueous and organic phases using methyl orange staining assays. Component substitution experiments verified that the phase separation results from the subtle balance between the aggregation and the solvation forces of Boc-7, and is reversible by adjusting the solution pH. Owing to the intrinsic hydrophobic properties of the organic phase and the hydrogen bonding-forming ability of the carboxyl group of Boc-7, the phase separation system captures and releases Sudan Red, fluorescein, and streptavidin in a controllable manner. Consequently, a reversible and simple phase separation system can be designed as a multifunctional extractant.

  7. Controllable Phase Separation by Boc-Modified Lipophilic Acid as a Multifunctional Extractant

    PubMed Central

    Tao, Kai; Adler-Abramovich, Lihi; Gazit, Ehud

    2015-01-01

    While phase separation of immiscible liquid-liquid systems has become increasingly significant in diverse areas, the irreversible nature limits their further application in controllable extraction-concentration or capture-release fields. There is a need for the development of simple, efficient and reversible methods for numerous research and industrial extraction and separation applications. We envisioned Boc-modified lipophilic acids as a simple model for such use based on the studies of the multi-phase transitions of Boc-modified supramolecular polymeric systems. Here, we demonstrate that in the presence of Boc-7-aminoheptanoic acid (Boc-7), phase separation occurs in mixtures of miscible organic solvent and water. The separation behavior was confirmed by differential colorimetric development in aqueous and organic phases using methyl orange staining assays. Component substitution experiments verified that the phase separation results from the subtle balance between the aggregation and the solvation forces of Boc-7, and is reversible by adjusting the solution pH. Owing to the intrinsic hydrophobic properties of the organic phase and the hydrogen bonding-forming ability of the carboxyl group of Boc-7, the phase separation system captures and releases Sudan Red, fluorescein, and streptavidin in a controllable manner. Consequently, a reversible and simple phase separation system can be designed as a multifunctional extractant. PMID:26627307

  8. Solvent extraction of scandium from malonic acid with high molecular-weight amines.

    PubMed

    Dalvi, M B; Khopkar, S M

    1979-09-01

    Scandium is quantitatively extracted with 4% Amberlite LA-1 or Amberlite LA-2 in xylene at pH 2.5-5.5 from 0.1M malonic acid. Scandium is stripped from the organic phase with 0.5M hydrochloric acid and determined spectrophotometrically at 525 nm, as its complex with Alizarin Red S. Primene JM-T, tri-iso-octylamine, tributylamine and tribenzylamine have also been studied as extractants, but found to be unsatisfactory for various reasons. Xylene, toluene, benzene, chloroform, carbon tetrachloride, hexane, cyclohexane and kerosene have been studied as diluents. Xylene is found to be the most efficient. Scandium can be separated from most metals by selective extraction, and from gallium, thallium(III), bismuth, antimony(III), chromium(III), copper(II), iron(III), uranium(VI), cerium, zirconium, indium, thorium and titanium by selective stripping, in some cases combined with use of suitable complexing media to retain the other metals in the organic phase.

  9. Extraction of amino acids from soils and sediments with superheated water

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cheng, C. N.; Ponnamperuma, C.

    1974-01-01

    A method of extraction for amino acids from soils and sediments involving superheated water has been investigated. About 75-97 per cent of the amino acids contained in four soils of a soil profile from Illinois were extracted by this method. Deep penetration of water into soil aggregates and partial hydrolysis of peptide bonds during this extraction by water at high temperature are likely mechanisms responsible for the release of amino acids from samples. This extraction method does not require subsequent desalting treatments when analyses are carried out with an ion-exchange amino acid analyzer.

  10. Fatty Acid Composition and Antioxidant Activity of Tea (Camellia sinensis L.) Seed Oil Extracted by Optimized Supercritical Carbon Dioxide

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Yuefei; Sun, Da; Chen, Hao; Qian, Lisheng; Xu, Ping

    2011-01-01

    Seeds are another product in addition to leaves (raw materials for teas) of tea (Camellia sinensis L.) plant. The great increase of tea consumption in recent years raises the challenge of finding commercial applications for tea seeds. In the present study, supercritical carbon dioxide (SC-CO2) extraction edible oil from tea seed was carried out, response surface methodology (RSM) was used to optimize processing parameters including time (20–90 min), temperature (35–45 °C) and pressure (50–90 MPa). The fatty acid composition and antioxidant activity of the extracted oil was also investigated. The highest yield of oil (29.2 ± 0.6%) was obtained under optimal SC-CO2 extraction conditions (45 °C, 89.7 min and 32 MPa, respectively), which was significantly higher (p < 0.05) than that (25.3 ± 1.0%) given by Soxhlet extraction. Meanwhile, tea seed oil extracted by SC-CO2 contained approximately 80% unsaturated fatty acids and showed a much stronger scavenging ability on the DPPH radical than that extracted by Soxhlet. SC-CO2 is a promising alternative for efficient extraction of edible oil from tea seed. Moreover, tea seed oil extracted by SC-CO2 is highly edible and has good antioxidant activity, and therefore may play a potential role as a health-promoting food resource in human diets. PMID:22174626

  11. Brönsted acidic ionic liquid based ultrasound-microwave synergistic extraction of pectin from pomelo peels.

    PubMed

    Liu, Zaizhi; Qiao, Lu; Yang, Fengjian; Gu, Huiyan; Yang, Lei

    2017-01-01

    3-Methyl-1-(4-sulfonylbutyl) imidazolium hydrogensulfate, [HO3S(CH2)4mim]HSO4, was applied as an extractant in an ultrasound-microwave synergistic extraction approach to substitute conventional solvent for the extraction of pectin from the albedo part of pomelo peels. The analysis of variance (ANOVA) test and response surface method were employed for the optimization of the extraction conditions. A pectin yield of 328.64±4.19mg/g was achieved using the obtained optimal conditions, which was significantly higher than yields of conventional methods with reference solvents. Pectin samples extracted with [HO3S(CH2)4mim]HSO4 and hydrochloric acid solutions were tested by ANOVA and showed no significant differences in total carbohydrate content and degree of esterification; while galacturonic acid content was significantly different for the pectin from each extraction solvents. The differences revealed from images of atomic force microscopy and scanning electron microscope, Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy, and thermogravimetric analysis suggested the physiochemical properties of pectin could be affected by the extraction solvent. The [HO3S(CH2)4mim]HSO4 proved to be a promising alternative to conventional solvents and the proposed method is efficient for the extraction of pectin from the albedo of pomelo peels.

  12. High light extraction efficiency in bulk-GaN based volumetric violet light-emitting diodes

    SciTech Connect

    David, Aurelien Hurni, Christophe A.; Aldaz, Rafael I.; Cich, Michael J.; Ellis, Bryan; Huang, Kevin; Steranka, Frank M.; Krames, Michael R.

    2014-12-08

    We report on the light extraction efficiency of III-Nitride violet light-emitting diodes with a volumetric flip-chip architecture. We introduce an accurate optical model to account for light extraction. We fabricate a series of devices with varying optical configurations and fit their measured performance with our model. We show the importance of second-order optical effects like photon recycling and residual surface roughness to account for data. We conclude that our devices reach an extraction efficiency of 89%.

  13. Extraction fatty acid as a source to produce biofuel in microalgae Chlorella sp. and Spirulina sp. using supercritical carbon dioxide

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tai, Do Chiem; Hai, Dam Thi Thanh; Vinh, Nguyen Hanh; Phung, Le Thi Kim

    2016-06-01

    In this research, the fatty acids of isolated microalgae were extracted by some technologies such as maceration, Soxhlet, ultrasonic-assisted extraction and supercritical fluid extraction; and analyzed for biodiesel production using GC-MS. This work deals with the extraction of microalgae oil from dry biomass by using supercritical fluid extraction method. A complete study at laboratory of the influence of some parameters on the extraction kinetics and yields and on the composition of the oil in terms of lipid classes and profiles is proposed. Two types of microalgae were studied: Chlorella sp. and Spirulina sp. For the extraction of oil from microalgae, supercritical CO2 (SC-CO2) is regarded with interest, being safer than n-hexane and offering a negligible environmental impact, a short extraction time and a high-quality final product. Whilst some experimental papers are available on the supercritical fluid extraction (SFE) of oil from microalgae, only limited information exists on the kinetics of the process. These results demonstrate that supercritical CO2 extraction is an efficient method for the complete recovery of the neutral lipid phase.

  14. Method for extracting lanthanides and actinides from acid solutions by modification of Purex solvent

    DOEpatents

    Horwitz, E.P.; Kalina, D.G.

    1984-05-21

    A process has been developed for the extraction of multivalent lanthanide and actinide values from acidic waste solutions, and for the separation of these values from fission product and other values, which utilizes a new series of neutral bi-functional extractants, the alkyl(phenyl)-N, N-dialkylcarbamoylmethylphosphine oxides, in combination with a phase modifier to form an extraction solution. The addition of the extractant to the Purex process extractant, tri-n-butylphosphate in normal paraffin hydrocarbon diluent, will permit the extraction of multivalent lanthanide and actinide values from 0.1 to 12.0 molar acid solutions.

  15. Variables influencing extraction of nucleic acids from microbial plankton (viruses, bacteria, and protists) collected on nanoporous aluminum oxide filters.

    PubMed

    Mueller, Jaclyn A; Culley, Alexander I; Steward, Grieg F

    2014-07-01

    Anodic aluminum oxide (AAO) filters have high porosity and can be manufactured with a pore size that is small enough to quantitatively capture viruses. These properties make the filters potentially useful for harvesting total microbial communities from water samples for molecular analyses, but their performance for nucleic acid extraction has not been systematically or quantitatively evaluated. In this study, we characterized the flux of water through commercially produced nanoporous (0.02 μm) AAO filters (Anotop; Whatman) and used isolates (a virus, a bacterium, and a protist) and natural seawater samples to test variables that we expected would influence the efficiency with which nucleic acids are recovered from the filters. Extraction chemistry had a significant effect on DNA yield, and back flushing the filters during extraction was found to improve yields of high-molecular-weight DNA. Using the back-flush protocol, the mass of DNA recovered from microorganisms collected on AAO filters was ≥ 100% of that extracted from pellets of cells and viruses and 94% ± 9% of that obtained by direct extraction of a liquid bacterial culture. The latter is a minimum estimate of the relative recovery of microbial DNA, since liquid cultures include dissolved nucleic acids that are retained inefficiently by the filter. In conclusion, we demonstrate that nucleic acids can be extracted from microorganisms on AAO filters with an efficiency similar to that achievable by direct extraction of microbes in suspension or in pellets. These filters are therefore a convenient means by which to harvest total microbial communities from multiple aqueous samples in parallel for subsequent molecular analyses.

  16. Choice of solvent extraction technique affects fatty acid composition of pistachio (Pistacia vera L.) oil.

    PubMed

    Abdolshahi, Anna; Majd, Mojtaba Heydari; Rad, Javad Sharifi; Taheri, Mehrdad; Shabani, Aliakbar; Teixeira da Silva, Jaime A

    2015-04-01

    Pistachio (Pistacia vera L.) oil has important nutritional and therapeutic properties because of its high concentration of essential fatty acids. The extraction method used to obtain natural compounds from raw material is critical for product quality, in particular to protect nutritional value. This study compared the fatty acid composition of pistachio oil extracted by two conventional procedures, Soxhlet extraction and maceration, analyzed by a gas chromatography-flame ionization detector (GC-FID). Four solvents with different polarities were tested: n-hexane (Hx), dichloromethane (DCM), ethyl acetate (EtAc) and ethanol (EtOH). The highest unsaturated fatty acid content (88.493 %) was obtained by Soxhlet extraction with EtAc. The Soxhlet method extracted the most oleic and linolenic acids (51.99 % and 0.385 %, respectively) although a higher concentration (36.32 %) of linoleic acid was extracted by maceration.

  17. An Efficient Method for Genomic DNA Extraction from Different Molluscs Species

    PubMed Central

    Pereira, Jorge C.; Chaves, Raquel; Bastos, Estela; Leitão, Alexandra; Guedes-Pinto, Henrique

    2011-01-01

    The selection of a DNA extraction method is a critical step when subsequent analysis depends on the DNA quality and quantity. Unlike mammals, for which several capable DNA extraction methods have been developed, for molluscs the availability of optimized genomic DNA extraction protocols is clearly insufficient. Several aspects such as animal physiology, the type (e.g., adductor muscle or gills) or quantity of tissue, can explain the lack of efficiency (quality and yield) in molluscs genomic DNA extraction procedure. In an attempt to overcome these aspects, this work describes an efficient method for molluscs genomic DNA extraction that was tested in several species from different orders: Veneridae, Ostreidae, Anomiidae, Cardiidae (Bivalvia) and Muricidae (Gastropoda), with different weight sample tissues. The isolated DNA was of high molecular weight with high yield and purity, even with reduced quantities of tissue. Moreover, the genomic DNA isolated, demonstrated to be suitable for several downstream molecular techniques, such as PCR sequencing among others. PMID:22174651

  18. Fluorometric Quantification of Polyphosphate in Environmental Plankton Samples: Extraction Protocols, Matrix Effects, and Nucleic Acid Interference

    PubMed Central

    Martin, Patrick

    2013-01-01

    Polyphosphate (polyP) is a ubiquitous biochemical with many cellular functions and comprises an important environmental phosphorus pool. However, methodological challenges have hampered routine quantification of polyP in environmental samples. We tested 15 protocols to extract inorganic polyphosphate from natural marine samples and cultured cyanobacteria for fluorometric quantification with 4′,6-diamidino-2-phenylindole (DAPI) without prior purification. A combination of brief boiling and digestion with proteinase K was superior to all other protocols, including other enzymatic digestions and neutral or alkaline leaches. However, three successive extractions were required to extract all polyP. Standard addition revealed matrix effects that differed between sample types, causing polyP to be over- or underestimated by up to 50% in the samples tested here. Although previous studies judged that the presence of DNA would not complicate fluorometric quantification of polyP with DAPI, we show that RNA can cause significant interference at the wavelengths used to measure polyP. Importantly, treating samples with DNase and RNase before proteinase K digestion reduced fluorescence by up to 57%. We measured particulate polyP along a North Pacific coastal-to-open ocean transect and show that particulate polyP concentrations increased toward the open ocean. While our final method is optimized for marine particulate matter, different environmental sample types may need to be assessed for matrix effects, extraction efficiency, and nucleic acid interference. PMID:23104409

  19. Characterization of citrus pectin samples extracted under different conditions: influence of acid type and pH of extraction

    PubMed Central

    Kaya, Merve; Sousa, António G.; Crépeau, Marie-Jeanne; Sørensen, Susanne O.; Ralet, Marie-Christine

    2014-01-01

    Background and Aims Pectin is a complex macromolecule, the fine structure of which is influenced by many factors. It is used as a gelling, thickening and emulsifying agent in a wide range of applications, from food to pharmaceutical products. Current industrial pectin extraction processes are based on fruit peel, a waste product from the juicing industry, in which thousands of tons of citrus are processed worldwide every year. This study examines how pectin components vary in relation to the plant source (orange, lemon, lime, grapefruit) and considers the influence of extraction conditions on the chemical and macromolecular characteristics of pectin samples. Methods Citrus peel (orange, lemon, lime and grapefruit) from a commercial supplier was used as raw material. Pectin samples were obtained on a bulk plant scale (kilograms; harsh nitric acid, mild nitric acid and harsh oxalic acid extraction) and on a laboratory scale (grams; mild oxalic acid extraction). Pectin composition (acidic and neutral sugars) and physicochemical properties (molar mass and intrinsic viscosity) were determined. Key Results Oxalic acid extraction allowed the recovery of pectin samples of high molecular weight. Mild oxalic acid-extracted pectins were rich in long homogalacturonan stretches and contained rhamnogalacturonan I stretches with conserved side chains. Nitric acid-extracted pectins exhibited lower molecular weights and contained rhamnogalacturonan I stretches encompassing few and/or short side chains. Grapefruit pectin was found to have short side chains compared with orange, lime and lemon. Orange and grapefruit pectin samples were both particularly rich in rhamnogalacturonan I backbones. Conclusions Structural, and hence macromolecular, variations within the different citrus pectin samples were mainly related to their rhamnogalacturonan I contents and integrity, and, to a lesser extent, to the length of their homogalacturonan domains. PMID:25081519

  20. Effects of different biomass drying and lipid extraction methods on algal lipid yield, fatty acid profile, and biodiesel quality.

    PubMed

    Hussain, Javid; Liu, Yan; Lopes, Wilson A; Druzian, Janice I; Souza, Carolina O; Carvalho, Gilson C; Nascimento, Iracema A; Liao, Wei

    2015-03-01

    Three lipid extraction methods of hexane Soxhlet (Sox-Hex), Halim (HIP), and Bligh and Dyer (BD) were applied on freeze-dried (FD) and oven-dried (OD) Chlorella vulgaris biomass to evaluate their effects on lipid yield, fatty acid profile, and algal biodiesel quality. Among these three methods, HIP was the preferred one for C. vulgaris lipid recovery considering both extraction efficiency and solvent toxicity. It had the highest lipid yields of 20.0 and 22.0% on FD and OD biomass, respectively, with corresponding neutral lipid yields of 14.8 and 12.7%. The lipid profiling analysis showed that palmitic, oleic, linoleic, and α-linolenic acids were the major fatty acids in the algal lipids, and there were no significant differences on the amount of these acids between different drying and extraction methods. Correlative models applied to the fatty acid profiles concluded that high contents of palmitic and oleic acids in algal lipids contributed to balancing the ratio of saturated and unsaturated fatty acids and led to a high-quality algal biodiesel.

  1. Comparison of nucleic acid extraction platforms for detection of select biothreat agents for use in clinical resource limited settings.

    PubMed

    Shipley, Michelle A; Koehler, Jeffrey W; Kulesh, David A; Minogue, Timothy D

    2012-10-01

    High-quality nucleic acids are critical for optimal PCR-based diagnostics and pathogen detection. Rapid sample processing time is important for the earliest administration of therapeutic and containment measures, especially in the case of biothreat agents. In this context, we compared the Fujifilm QuickGene-Mini80 to Qiagen's QIAamp Mini Purification kits for extraction of DNA and RNA for potential use in austere settings. Qiagen (QIAamp) column-based extraction is the currently recommended purification platform by United States Army Medical Research Institute for Infectious Diseases for both DNA and RNA extraction. However, this sample processing system requires dedicated laboratory equipment including a centrifuge. In this study, we investigated the QuickGene-Mini80, which does not require centrifugation, as a suitable platform for nucleic acid extraction for use in resource-limited locations. Quality of the sample extraction was evaluated using pathogen-specific, real-time PCR assays for nucleic acids extracted from viable and γ-irradiated Bacillus anthracis, Yersinia pestis, vaccinia virus, Venezuelan equine encephalitis virus, or B. anthracis spores in buffer or human whole blood. QuickGene-Mini80 and QIAamp performed similarly for DNA extraction regardless of organism viability. It was noteworthy that γ-irradiation did not have a significant impact on real-time PCR for organism detection. Comparison with QIAamp showed a less than adequate performance of the Fujifilm instrument for RNA extraction. However, QuickGene-Mini80 remains a viable alternative to QIAamp for DNA extraction for use in remote settings due to extraction quality, time efficiency, reduced instrument requirements, and ease of use.

  2. Determination of free medium-chain fatty acids in beer by stir bar sorptive extraction.

    PubMed

    Horák, Tomás; Culík, Jirí; Jurková, Marie; Cejka, Pavel; Kellner, Vladimír

    2008-07-04

    Free medium-chain fatty acids in beer originate from raw materials, mainly from the fermentation activity of yeasts, and can influence beer taste, vitality of yeasts and also the foam stability of beer. This study presents the development of the method for the determination of free fatty medium-chain acids including caproic acid, caprylic acid, capric acid and lauric acid in beer or wort using stir bar sorptive extraction (SBSE). The combination of this extraction technique with solvent back extraction of the extracted analytes and subsequent gas chromatographic analysis with flame ionization detection was used for the determination of these compounds. The influences of different solvent back solutions, sampling time, solvent back extraction times and different contents of ethanol were studied. The method had high repeatability (RSD <6.7%), good linearity (the correlation coefficients were higher than 0.9963 for quadratic curves over the concentration range 0.5-8.0mg/l) and recoveries 57-89%.

  3. A novel integrated approach to quantitatively evaluate the efficiency of extracellular polymeric substances (EPS) extraction process.

    PubMed

    Sun, Min; Li, Wen-Wei; Yu, Han-Qing; Harada, Hideki

    2012-12-01

    A novel integrated approach is developed to quantitatively evaluate the extracellular polymeric substances (EPS) extraction efficiency after taking into account EPS yield, EPS damage, and cell lysis. This approach incorporates grey relational analysis and fuzzy logic analysis, in which the evaluation procedure is established on the basis of grey relational coefficients generation, membership functions construction, and fuzzy rules description. The flocculation activity and DNA content of EPS are chosen as the two evaluation responses. To verify the feasibility and effectiveness of this integrated approach, EPS from Bacillus megaterium TF10 are extracted using five different extraction methods, and their extraction efficiencies are evaluated as one real case study. Based on the evaluation results, the maximal extraction grades and corresponding optimal extraction times of the five extraction methods are ordered as EDTA, 10 h > formaldehyde + NaOH, 60 min > heating, 120 min > ultrasonication, 30 min > H₂SO₄, 30 min > control. The proposed approach here offers an effective tool to select appropriate EPS extraction methods and determine the optimal extraction conditions.

  4. Towards standardisation of cell-free DNA measurement in plasma: controls for extraction efficiency, fragment size bias and quantification.

    PubMed

    Devonshire, Alison S; Whale, Alexandra S; Gutteridge, Alice; Jones, Gerwyn; Cowen, Simon; Foy, Carole A; Huggett, Jim F

    2014-10-01

    Circulating cell-free DNA (cfDNA) is becoming an important clinical analyte for prenatal testing, cancer diagnosis and cancer monitoring. The extraction stage is critical in ensuring clinical sensitivity of analytical methods measuring minority nucleic acid fractions, such as foetal-derived sequences in predominantly maternal cfDNA. Consequently, quality controls are required for measurement of extraction efficiency, fragment size bias and yield for validation of cfDNA methods. We evaluated the utility of an external DNA spike for monitoring these parameters in a study comparing three specific cfDNA extraction methods [QIAamp circulating nucleic acid (CNA) kit, NucleoSpin Plasma XS (NS) kit and FitAmp plasma/serum DNA isolation (FA) kit] with the commonly used QIAamp DNA blood mini (DBM) kit. We found that the extraction efficiencies of the kits ranked in the order CNA kit > DBM kit > NS kit > FA kit, and the CNA and NS kits gave a better representation of smaller DNA fragments in the extract than the DBM kit. We investigated means of improved reporting of cfDNA yield by comparing quantitative PCR measurements of seven different reference gene assays in plasma samples and validating these with digital PCR. We noted that the cfDNA quantities based on measurement of some target genes (e.g. TERT) were, on average, more than twofold higher than those of other assays (e.g. ERV3). We conclude that analysis and averaging of multiple reference genes using a GeNorm approach gives a more reliable estimate of total cfDNA quantity.

  5. Sulfonated nanocellulose for the efficient dispersive micro solid-phase extraction and determination of silver nanoparticles in food products.

    PubMed

    Ruiz-Palomero, Celia; Soriano, M Laura; Valcárcel, Miguel

    2016-01-08

    This paper reports a simple approach to Analytical Nanoscience and Nanotechnology (AN&N) that integrates the nanotool, sulfonated nanocellulose (s-NC), and nanoanalyte, silver nanoparticles (AgNPs), in the same analytical process by using an efficient, environmentally friendly dispersive micro solid-phase extraction (D-μSPE) capillary electrophoresis (CE) method with s-NC as sorbent material. Introducing negatively charged sulfate groups onto the surface of cellulose enhances its surface chemistry and enables the extraction and preconcentration of AgNPs of variable diameter (10, 20 and 60nm) and shell composition (citrate and polyvinylpyrrolidone coatings) from complex matrices into a cationic surfactant. In this way, AgNPs of diverse nature were successfully extracted onto the s-NC sorbent and then desorbed into an aqueous solution containing thiotic acid (TA) prior to CE without the need for any labor-intensive cleanup. The ensuing eco-friendly D-μSPE method exhibited a linear response to AgNPs with a limit of detection (LOD) of 20μg/L. Its ability to specifically recognize AgNPs of different sizes was checked in orange juice and mussels, which afforded recoveries of 70.9-108.4%. The repeatability of the method at the limit of quantitation (LOQ) level was 5.6%. Based on the results, sulfonated nanocellulose provides an efficient, cost-effective analytical nanotool for the extraction of AgNPs from food products.

  6. Evaluation of efficient extraction methods for recovery of photosynthetic pigments from microalgae.

    PubMed

    Ilavarasi, A; Pandiaraj, D; Mubarakali, D; Ilyas, M H Mohammed; Thajuddin, N

    2012-09-15

    Microalgal species are known to have pigments in their cellular constitute at the maximum and are valuable bioactive products. In the present study focused was on the evaluation of efficient extraction methods for photosynthetic pigments from microalgal species. They are, Chlorella sp., Acrochaete sp., Phormidium chlorinum, Jaaginema pseudogeminatum and Chroococcus sp. There are four different extraction methods were adopted for active recovery and are economically feasible such as direct extraction, mechanical grinding, heating and preheated solvent method. It was found that mechanical grinding method has extract two fold increased amount than the other methods. Additionally, this methods is inexpensive, less laborious and active extraction. It is suggested that this method could be used for the extraction of photosynthetic pigments from microalgae for pharmaceutical to biotechnological purpose.

  7. Focused microwave-assisted Soxhlet extraction of acorn oil for determination of the fatty acid profile by GC-MS. Comparison with conventional and standard methods.

    PubMed

    Pérez-Serradilla, J A; Ortiz, M C; Sarabia, L; de Castro, M D Luque

    2007-05-01

    A study of the feasibility of focused microwave-assisted Soxhlet extraction of acorn oil and comparison of results from analysis of trans fatty acids in the oil thus obtained with those for oils obtained by use of other methods commonly used for oil extraction are reported here. The proposed method was optimized by means of a 21-experiment screening design to determine, by means of a reduced number of experiments, which factors affect both extraction efficiency and the degree of unsaturation of the fatty acids in the oil. The proposed method enables total extraction of the fatty acids in 30 min, which is much less than the time required by the Folch (4.5 h), Soxhlet (16 h), and ISO (8 h) reference methods and the stirring-extraction method (56 h). The efficiency of extraction achieved by use of the proposed method is statistically equivalent to that achieved by use of the other methods; the composition of the extracts obtained by use of the proposed method and the Folch and stirring reference methods are also statistically similar. No trans fatty acids were present in the extracts obtained by use of the Folch, stirring, and proposed methods but they were detected in the extracts obtained by use of both the Soxhlet and ISO methods.

  8. Optical Simulation and Optimization of Light Extraction Efficiency for Organic Light Emitting Diodes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Su, Hang

    Current organic light emitting diodes (OLEDs) suffer from the low light extraction efficiency. In this thesis, novel OLED structures including photonic crystal, Fabry-Perot resonance cavity and hyperbolic metamaterials were numerically simulated and theoretically investigated. Finite-difference time-domain (FDTD) method was employed to numerically simulate the light extraction efficiency of various 3D OLED structures. With photonic crystal structures, a maximum of 30% extraction efficiency is achieved. A higher external quantum efficiency of 35% is derived after applying Fabry-Perot resonance cavity into OLEDs. Furthermore, different factors such as material properties, layer thicknesses and dipole polarizations and locations have been studied. Moreover, an upper limit for the light extraction efficiency of 80% is reached theoretically with perfect reflector and single dipole polarization and location. To elucidate the physical mechanism, transfer matrix method is introduced to calculate the spectral-hemispherical reflectance of the multilayer OLED structures. In addition, an attempt of using hyperbolic metamaterial in OLED has been made and resulted in 27% external quantum efficiency, due to the similar mechanism of wave interference as Fabry-Perot structure. The simulation and optimization methods and findings would facilitate the design of next generation, high-efficiency OLED devices.

  9. An all-in-one electro-membrane extraction: development of an electro-membrane extraction method for the simultaneous extraction of acidic and basic drugs with a wide range of polarities.

    PubMed

    Koruni, Mohammad Hossein; Tabani, Hadi; Gharari, Hossein; Fakhari, Ali Reza

    2014-09-26

    Efficient and simultaneous extraction of a series of basic and acidic compounds with a large polarity range using only a single run of electro-membrane extraction (EME) has been a challenge. To overcome this difficulty, in this work, a new EME setup was developed for the determination of basic and acidic model drugs with different polarities using two auxiliary electrodes (one as the cathode and the other as the anode) and their circumferential hollow fibers impregnated with organic solvent compositions different from those of main hollow fibers, coupled with capillary electrophoresis (CE). Satisfactory analytical figures of merit including limits of quantification (15-45 ng mL(-1)), good preconcentration factors (66-132) and recoveries (33-66%) were obtained by the proposed EME-CE/UV (detection at 214 nm) procedure. Finally, the applicability of this method was evaluated by the extraction and determination of the drugs in urine samples from drug-using suspects.

  10. Antioxidant activity and sensory evaluation of a rosmarinic acid-enriched extract of Salvia officinalis.

    PubMed

    Bakota, Erica L; Winkler-Moser, Jill K; Berhow, Mark A; Eller, Fred J; Vaughn, Steven F

    2015-04-01

    An extract of Salvia officinalis (garden sage) was prepared using supercritical carbon dioxide (SC-CO2 ) extraction, followed by hot water extraction. The resulting extract was enriched in polyphenols, including rosmarinic acid (RA), which has shown promising health benefits in animals. The extract contained RA at a concentration of 28.4 mg/g, representing a significant enrichment from the RA content in sage leaves. This extract was incorporated into oil-in-water emulsions as a source of lipid antioxidants and compared to emulsions containing pure rosmarinic acid. Both treatments were effective in suppressing lipid oxidation. The extract was evaluated by a trained sensory panel in a tea formulation. While the panel could discriminate among extract-treated and control samples, panelists demonstrated high acceptability of the sage extract in a tea.

  11. 21 CFR 573.500 - Condensed, extracted glutamic acid fermentation product.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) ANIMAL DRUGS, FEEDS, AND RELATED PRODUCTS FOOD ADDITIVES PERMITTED IN FEED AND DRINKING WATER OF ANIMALS Food Additive Listing § 573.500 Condensed, extracted glutamic acid... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Condensed, extracted glutamic acid...

  12. 21 CFR 573.500 - Condensed, extracted glutamic acid fermentation product.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) ANIMAL DRUGS, FEEDS, AND RELATED PRODUCTS FOOD ADDITIVES PERMITTED IN FEED AND DRINKING WATER OF ANIMALS Food Additive Listing § 573.500 Condensed, extracted glutamic acid... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Condensed, extracted glutamic acid...

  13. 21 CFR 573.500 - Condensed, extracted glutamic acid fermentation product.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) ANIMAL DRUGS, FEEDS, AND RELATED PRODUCTS FOOD ADDITIVES PERMITTED IN FEED AND DRINKING WATER OF ANIMALS Food Additive Listing § 573.500 Condensed, extracted glutamic acid... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Condensed, extracted glutamic acid...

  14. 21 CFR 573.500 - Condensed, extracted glutamic acid fermentation product.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) ANIMAL DRUGS, FEEDS, AND RELATED PRODUCTS FOOD ADDITIVES PERMITTED IN FEED AND DRINKING WATER OF ANIMALS Food Additive Listing § 573.500 Condensed, extracted glutamic acid... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Condensed, extracted glutamic acid...

  15. The behavior and importance of lactic acid complexation in Talspeak extraction systems

    SciTech Connect

    Grimes, Travis S.; Nilsson, Mikael; Nash, Kenneth L.

    2008-07-01

    Advanced partitioning of spent nuclear fuel in the UREX +la process relies on the TALSPEAK process for separation of fission-product lanthanides from trivalent actinides. The classic TALSPEAK utilizes an aqueous medium of both lactic acid and diethylenetriaminepentaacetic acid and the extraction reagent di(2-ethylhexyl)phosphoric acid in an aromatic diluent. In this study, the specific role of lactic acid and the complexes involved in the extraction of the trivalent actinides and lanthanides have been investigated using {sup 14}C-labeled lactic acid. Our results show that lactic acid partitions between the phases in a complex fashion. (authors)

  16. Double-grating displacement structure for improving the light extraction efficiency of LEDs.

    PubMed

    Wang, Zhibin; Hao, Yang; Wang, Zhongdong; Liu, Xian; Zhang, Qian; Zhu, Dandan

    2012-01-01

    To improve the light extraction efficiency of light-emitting diodes (LEDs), grating patterns were etched on GaN and silver film surfaces. The grating-patterned surface etching enabled the establishment of an LED model with a double-grating displacement structure that is based on the surface plasmon resonance principle. A numerical simulation was conducted using the finite difference time domain method. The influence of different grating periods for GaN surface and silver film thickness on light extraction efficiency was analyzed. The light extraction efficiency of LEDs was highest when the grating period satisfied grating coupling conditions. The wavelength of the highest value was also close to the light wavelength of the medium. The plasmon resonance frequencies on both sides of the silver film were affected by silver film thickness. With increasing film thickness, plasmon resonance frequency tended toward the same value and light extraction efficiency reached its maximum. When the grating period for the GaN surface was 365 nm and the silver film thickness was 390 nm, light extraction efficiency reached a maximum of 55%.

  17. Efficiency of Class I and Class II malocclusion treatment with four premolar extractions

    PubMed Central

    JANSON, Guilherme; NAKAMURA, Alexandre; BARROS, Sérgio Estelita; BOMBONATTI, Roberto; CHIQUETO, Kelly

    2014-01-01

    Four premolar extractions is a successful protocol to treat Class I malocclusion, but it is a less efficient way when compared with other Class II treatment protocols. Objective: The objective of this study was to evaluate the influence of anteroposterior discrepancy on the success of four premolar extractions protocol. For that, treatment efficiency of Class I and complete Class II malocclusions, treated with four premolar extractions were compared. Methods: A sample of 107 records from 75 Class I (mean age of 13.98 years - group 1) and 32 Class II (mean age of 13.19 years - group 2) malocclusion patients treated with four premolar extractions was selected. The initial and final occlusal status of each patient was evaluated on dental casts with the PAR index. The treatment time was calculated based on the clinical charts, and the treatment efficiency was obtained by the ratio between the percentage of PAR reduction and treatment time. The PAR index and its components, the treatment time and the treatment efficiency of the groups were statistically compared with t tests and Mann-Whitney U-test. Results: The Class II malocclusion patients had a greater final PAR index than Class I malocclusion patients, and similar duration (Class I - 28.95 mo. and Class II - 28.10 mo.) and treatment efficiency. Conclusion: The treatment of the complete Class II malocclusion with four premolar extractions presented worse occlusal results than Class I malocclusion owing to incomplete molar relationship correction. PMID:24918660

  18. Engineering crassulacean acid metabolism to improve water-use efficiency

    PubMed Central

    Borland, Anne M.; Hartwell, James; Weston, David J.; Schlauch, Karen A.; Tschaplinski, Timothy J.; Tuskan, Gerald A.; Yang, Xiaohan; Cushman, John C.

    2014-01-01

    Climatic extremes threaten agricultural sustainability worldwide. One approach to increase plant water-use efficiency is to introduce crassulacean acid metabolism (CAM) into C3 crops. Such a task requires comprehensive systems-level understanding of the enzymatic and regulatory pathways underpinning this temporal CO2 pump. Here, we review the progress that has been made in achieving this goal. Given that CAM arose through multiple independent evolutionary origins, comparative transcriptomics and genomics of taxonomically diverse CAM species are being used to define the genetic ‘parts list’ required to operate the core CAM functional modules of nocturnal carboxylation, daytime decarboxylation, and inverse stomatal regulation. Engineered CAM offers the potential to sustain plant productivity for food, feed, fiber, and biofuel production in hotter and drier climates. PMID:24559590

  19. Engineering crassulacean acid metabolism to improve water-use efficiency.

    PubMed

    Borland, Anne M; Hartwell, James; Weston, David J; Schlauch, Karen A; Tschaplinski, Timothy J; Tuskan, Gerald A; Yang, Xiaohan; Cushman, John C

    2014-05-01

    Climatic extremes threaten agricultural sustainability worldwide. One approach to increase plant water-use efficiency (WUE) is to introduce crassulacean acid metabolism (CAM) into C3 crops. Such a task requires comprehensive systems-level understanding of the enzymatic and regulatory pathways underpinning this temporal CO2 pump. Here we review the progress that has been made in achieving this goal. Given that CAM arose through multiple independent evolutionary origins, comparative transcriptomics and genomics of taxonomically diverse CAM species are being used to define the genetic 'parts list' required to operate the core CAM functional modules of nocturnal carboxylation, diurnal decarboxylation, and inverse stomatal regulation. Engineered CAM offers the potential to sustain plant productivity for food, feed, fiber, and biofuel production in hotter and drier climates.

  20. Graphene phosphonic acid as an efficient flame retardant.

    PubMed

    Kim, Min-Jung; Jeon, In-Yup; Seo, Jeong-Min; Dai, Liming; Baek, Jong-Beom

    2014-03-25

    We report the preparation of graphene phosphonic acid (GPA) via a simple and versatile method and its use as an efficient flame retardant. In order to covalently attach phosphorus to the edges of graphene nanoplatelets, graphite was ball-milled with red phosphorus. The cleavage of graphitic C-C bonds during mechanochemical ball-milling generates reactive carbon species, which react with phosphorus in a sealed ball-mill crusher to form graphene phosphorus. Subsequent opening of the crusher in air moisture leads to violent oxidation of graphene phosphorus into GPA (highest oxidation state). The GPA is readily dispersible in many polar solvents, including neutral water, allowing for solution (spray) coating for high-performance, nontoxic flame-retardant applications.

  1. Evaluation of the efficiency of extraction of PAHs from diesel particulate matter with pressurized solvents.

    PubMed

    Turrio-Baldassarri, Luigi; Battistelli, Chiara Laura; Iamiceli, Anna Laura

    2003-02-01

    Pressurized Fluid Extraction (PFE) was evaluated for the extraction of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) and nitro-derivatives from diesel particulate matter. Extraction conditions were set up by performing several tests in which temperature, solvent strength, pressure, and static time were gradually increased. The results obtained on a laboratory test material made of a "lean" (low content of soluble fraction) Diesel particulate matter indicate that very severe conditions were needed in order to obtain better recoveries of the higher molecular weight molecules. Moreover, extraction efficiency seems to be influenced by the amount of soluble matter in the particulate, so that a "lean" particulate appears more difficult to extract. Recoveries of the deuterated standards of certain PAHs (i.e. indeno[1,2,3- cd]pyrene) were incomplete even with the toughest conditions tested. Experiments carried out on a certified material (SRM 1650 from NIST) also indicate that PFE can perform a better extraction of some of the PAHs than the method used for certification, but still incomplete. Comparison of results obtained on the SRM with different extraction techniques suggests that the composition of the extract varies considerably with the extraction technique and conditions. It is relevant to notice that recent Diesel engines produce leaner particulate: for future materials more drastic extraction conditions will be required.

  2. Solvent extraction in the treatment of acidic high-level liquid waste : where do we stand?

    SciTech Connect

    Horwitz, E. P.; Schulz, W. W.

    1998-06-18

    During the last 15 years, a number of solvent extraction/recovery processes have been developed for the removal of the transuranic elements, {sup 90}Sr and {sup 137}Cs from acidic high-level liquid waste. These processes are based on the use of a variety of both acidic and neutral extractants. This chapter will present an overview and analysis of the various extractants and flowsheets developed to treat acidic high-level liquid waste streams. The advantages and disadvantages of each extractant along with comparisons of the individual systems are discussed.

  3. Molecularly imprinted polymer microspheres for solid-phase extraction of protocatechuic acid in Rhizoma homalomenae.

    PubMed

    Chen, Fang-Fang; Wang, Guo-Ying; Shi, Yan-Ping

    2011-10-01

    Molecularly imprinted polymers (MIPs) had been prepared by precipitation polymerization method using acrylamide as the functional monomer, ethylene glycol dimethacrylate as the cross-linker, acetonitrile as the porogen solvent and protocatechuic acid (PA), one of phenolic acids, as the template molecule. The MIPs were characterized by scanning electron microscopy and Fourier transform infrared, and their performance relative to non-imprinted polymers was assessed by equilibrium binding experiments. Six structurally similar phenolic acids, including p-hydroxybenzoic acid, gallic acid, salicylic acid, syringic acid, vanillic acid, ferulic acid were selected to assess the selectivity and recognition capability of the MIPs. The MIPs were applied to extract PA from the traditional Chinese medicines as a solid-phase extraction sorbent. The resultant cartridge showed that the MIPs have a good extraction performance and were able to selectively extract almost 82% of PA from the extract of Rhizoma homalomenae. Thus, the proposed molecularly imprinted-solid phase extraction-high performance liquid chromatography method can be successfully used to extract and analyse PA in traditional Chinese medicines.

  4. Determination of fatty acid composition and quality characteristics of oils from palm fruits using solvent extraction

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kasmin, Hasimah; Lazim, Azwan Mat; Awang, Roila

    2015-09-01

    Palm oil contains about 45% of saturated palmitic acid and 39% of mono-unsaturated oleic acid. Investigations made in the past to trace the fatty acid composition in palm revealed that ripeness of fresh fruit bunch (FFB) affect oil composition. However, there is no evidence that processing operations affect oil composition, although different stage of processing does affect the quality of oil extracted. An improved method for sterilizing the oil palm fruits by dry heating, followed by oil extraction has been studied. This method eliminates the use of water, thus, increasing the extraction of lipid soluble. The objective of this study is to determine the possibility production of palm oil with different fatty acid composition (FAC) as well as the changes in quality from conventional milling. The unripe and ripe FFB were collected, sterilized and extracted using different method of solvent extraction. Preliminary data have shown that variation in FAC will also alter the physical and chemical properties of the oil extracted.

  5. The leaf extract of Siberian Crabapple (Malus baccata (Linn.) Borkh) contains potential fatty acid synthase inhibitors.

    PubMed

    Wei, Xiang; Zhao, Ran; Sun, Ying-Hui; Cong, Jian-Ping; Meng, Fan-Guo; Zhou, Hai-Meng

    2009-02-01

    The present work focused on the kinetics of the inhibitory effects of the leaf extract of Siberian Crabapple, named Shan jingzi in China, on chicken liver fatty acid synthase. The results showed that this extract had much stronger inhibitory ability on fatty acid synthase than that from green teas described in many previous reports. The inhibitory ability of this extract is closely related to the extracting solvent, and the time of extraction was also an important influencing factor. The inhibitory types of this extract on diffeerent substrates of chicken liver fatty acid synthase, acetyl-CoA, malonyl-CoA and NADPH, were found to be noncompetitive, uncompetitive and mixed, respectively. The studies here shed a new light on the exploration for inhibitors of fatty acid synthase.

  6. Production of (R)-3-hydroxybutyric acid by Burkholderia cepacia from wood extract hydrolysates

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    (R)-hydroxyalkanoic acids (R-HAs) are valuable building blocks for the synthesis of fine chemicals and biopolymers because of the chiral center and the two active functional groups. Hydroxyalkanoic acids fermentation can revolutionize the polyhydroxyalkanoic acids (PHA) production by increasing efficiency and enhancing product utility. Modifying the fermentation conditions that promotes the in vivo depolymerization and secretion to fermentation broth in wild type bacteria is a novel and promising approach to produce R-HAs. Wood extract hydrolysate (WEH) was found to be a suitable substrate for R-3-hydroxybutyric acid (R-3-HB) production by Burkholderia cepacia. Using Paulownia elongate WEH as a feedstock, the R-3-HB concentration in fermentation broth reached as high as 14.2 g/L after 3 days of batch fermentation and the highest concentration of 16.8 g/L was obtained at day 9. Further investigation indicated that the composition of culture medium contributed to the enhanced R-3-HB production. PMID:24949263

  7. DEVELOPMENTS IN THE SUPERCRITICAL FLUID EXTRACTION OF CHLOROPHENOXY ACID HERBICIDES FROM SOIL SAMPLES

    EPA Science Inventory

    Extraction of chlorophenoxy acid herbicides from soil samples with supercritical carbon dioxide as extractant and tetrabutylammonium hydroxide and methyl iodide as derivatization agents was investigated. The extraction was carried out at 400 atm and 80 C for 15 min static, follow...

  8. Optimization of Betulinic Acid Extraction from Tecomella undulata Bark Using a Box-Behnken Design and Its Densitometric Validation.

    PubMed

    Siddiqui, Nahida; Aeri, Vidhu

    2016-04-06

    Betulinic acid (BA) is a pentacyclic triterpenoid acid obtained from the stem bark of Tecomella undulata Seem. (Bignoniaceae). Development of an efficient extraction method for the isolation of BA is important as it has a wide range of pharmacological activity. A Box-Behnken design (BBD) was used to investigate the effect of extraction variables such as temperature (30-60 °C), time (4-8 h) and solvent to drug ratio (300-500 mL/100 g) on the maximization of BA yield and its quantification using validated densitometric high performance thin layer chromatography coupled with ultraviolet detection (HPTLC-VIS). A quadratic polynomial model was found to best fit the model with R² = 0.99. The optimized Soxhlet extraction yielded 2.449% w/w of BA at a temperature 53.86 °C, time 6.38 h and solvent to drug ratio 371 mL/100 g. BA in Tecomella undulata bark was detected at Rf value of 0.65 at 510 nm using the solvent system toluene-ethyl acetate-glacial acetic acid (8.5:1.5:0.02 v/v/v). The analytical method was validated and the linear regression analysis reflects good linear relationship (R² = 0.9902). Lower %RSD and SEM suggested that the developed HPTLC-VIS method was precise, accurate and robust. Therefore, these economical techniques are very efficient and promising for the extraction and quantification of pharmaceutically important BA.

  9. Microwave assisted extraction-solid phase extraction for high-efficient and rapid analysis of monosaccharides in plants.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Ying; Li, Hai-Fang; Ma, Yuan; Jin, Yan; Kong, Guanghui; Lin, Jin-Ming

    2014-11-01

    Monosaccharides are the fundamental composition units of saccharides which are a common source of energy for metabolism. An effective and simple method consisting of microwave assisted extraction (MAE), solid phase extraction (SPE) and high performance liquid chromatography-refractive index detector (HPLC-RID) was developed for rapid detection of monosaccharides in plants. The MAE was applied to break down the structure of the plant cells and release the monosaccharides, while the SPE procedure was adopted to purify the extract before analysis. Finally, the HPLC-RID was employed to separate and analyze the monosaccharides with amino column. As a result, the extraction time was reduced to 17 min, which was nearly 85 times faster than soxhlet extraction. The recoveries of arabinose, xylose, fructose and glucose were 85.01%, 87.79%, 103.17%, and 101.24%, with excellent relative standard deviations (RSDs) of 1.94%, 1.13%, 0.60% and 1.67%, respectively. The proposed method was demonstrated to be efficient and time-saving, and had been applied to analyze monosaccharides in tobacco and tea successfully.

  10. Effect of oil extraction assisted by ultrasound on the physicochemical properties and fatty acid profile of pumpkin seed oil (Cucurbita pepo).

    PubMed

    Hernández-Santos, Betsabé; Rodríguez-Miranda, Jesús; Herman-Lara, Erasmo; Torruco-Uco, Juan G; Carmona-García, Roselis; Juárez-Barrientos, José M; Chávez-Zamudio, Rubí; Martínez-Sánchez, Cecilia E

    2016-07-01

    The effects of amplitude and time of ultrasound-assisted extraction on the physicochemical properties and the fatty acid profile of pumpkin seed oil (Cucurbita pepo) were evaluated. Ultrasound time (5-30 min) and the response variables amplitude (25-100%), extraction yield, efficiency, oxidative stability in terms of the free fatty acids (FFA) of the plant design comprising two independent experiments variables, peroxide (PV), p-anisidine (AV), totox value (TV) and the fatty acid profile were evaluated. The results were analyzed by multiple linear regression. The time and amplitude showed significant differences (P<0.05) for all variables. The highest yield of extraction was achieved at 5 min and amplitude of 62.5% (62%). However, the optimal ultrasound-assisted extraction conditions were as follows: ultrasound time of 26.34 min and amplitude of 89.02%. All extracts showed low FFA (2.75-4.93% oleic acid), PV (1.67-4.68 meq/kg), AV (1.94-3.69) and TV (6.25-12.55) values. The main fatty acids in all the extracts were oleic and linoleic acid. Therefore, ultrasound-assisted oil extraction had increased performance and reduced extraction time without affecting the oil quality.

  11. Yeast display evolution of a kinetically efficient 13-amino acid substrate for lipoic acid ligase

    PubMed Central

    Puthenveetil, Sujiet; Liu, Daniel S.; White, Katharine A.; Thompson, Samuel; Ting, Alice Y.

    2009-01-01

    E. coli lipoic acid ligase (LplA) catalyzes ATP-dependent covalent ligation of lipoic acid onto specific lysine sidechains of three acceptor proteins involved in oxidative metabolism. Our lab has shown that LplA and engineered mutants can ligate useful small-molecule probes such as alkyl azides (Nat. Biotechnol. 2007, 25, 1483–1487) and photocrosslinkers (Angew. Chem Int. Ed Engl. 2008, 47, 7018–7021) in place of lipoic acid, facilitating imaging and proteomic studies. Both to further our understanding of lipoic acid metabolism, and to improve LplA’s utility as a biotechnological platform, we have engineered a novel 13-amino acid peptide substrate for LplA. LplA’s natural protein substrates have a conserved β-hairpin structure, a conformation that is difficult to recapitulate in a peptide, and thus we performed in vitro evolution to engineer the LplA peptide substrate, called “LplA Acceptor Peptide” (LAP). A ~107 library of LAP variants was displayed on the surface of yeast cells, labeled by LplA with either lipoic acid or bromoalkanoic acid, and the most efficiently labeled LAP clones were isolated by fluorescence activated cell sorting. Four rounds of evolution followed by additional rational mutagenesis produced a “LAP2” sequence with a kcat/Km of 0.99 μM−1min−1, >70-fold better than our previous rationally-designed 22-amino acid LAP1 sequence (Nat. Biotechnol. 2007, 25, 1483–1487), and only 8-fold worse than the kcat/Km values of natural lipoate and biotin acceptor proteins. The kinetic improvement over LAP1 allowed us to rapidly label cell surface peptide-fused receptors with quantum dots. PMID:19863063

  12. Enhanced production of gamma-aminobutyric acid using rice bran extracts by Lactobacillus sakei B2-16.

    PubMed

    Kook, Moo-Chang; Seo, Myung-Ji; Cheigh, Chan-Ick; Pyun, Yu-Ryang; Cho, Seok-Cheol; Park, Hoon

    2010-04-01

    An efficient and simple fermentation process was developed for the production of gamma-amminobutyric acid (GABA) by Lactobacillus sakei B2-16. When the L. sakei B2-16 was cultivated in the rice bran extracts medium containing 4% sucrose, 1% yeast extract and 12% monosodium glutamate, the maximum GABA concentration reached 660.0 mM with 100% conversion yield, showing the 2.4-fold higher GABA concentration compared to the modified MRS medium without the rice bran extracts. The GABA production was scaled-up from a laboratory scale (5 L) to a pilot (300 L) and a plant scales (5,000 L) to investigate the application possibility of GABA production to industrial fields. The GABA production at the pilot and plant scales was similar to the laboratory scale using rice bran extracts medium which could be effective for the low-cost production of GABA.

  13. Differential efficiency among DNA extraction methods influences detection of the amphibian pathogen Batrachochytrium dendrobatidis.

    PubMed

    Bletz, M C; Rebollar, E A; Harris, R N

    2015-02-10

    Chytridiomycosis, caused by the fungal pathogen Batrachochytrium dendrobatidis (Bd), is responsible for massive declines and extinctions of amphibians worldwide. The most common method for detecting Bd is quantitative polymerase chain reaction (qPCR). qPCR is a highly sensitive detection technique, but its ability to determine the presence and accurately quantify the amount of Bd is also contingent on the efficiency of the DNA extraction method used prior to PCR. Using qPCR, we compared the extraction efficiency of 3 different extraction methods commonly used for Bd detection across a range of zoospore quantities: PrepMan Ultra Reagent, Qiagen DNeasy Blood and Tissue Kit, and Mobio PowerSoil DNA Isolation Kit. We show that not all extraction methods led to successful detection of Bd for the low zoospore quantities and that there was variation in the estimated zoospore equivalents among the methods, which demonstrates that these methods have different extraction efficiencies. These results highlight the importance of considering the extraction method when comparing across studies. The Qiagen DNeasy kit had the highest efficiency. We also show that replicated estimates of less than 1 zoospore can result from known zoospore concentrations; therefore, such results should be considered when obtained from field data. Additionally, we discuss the implications of our findings for interpreting previous studies and for conducting future Bd surveys. It is imperative to use the most efficient DNA extraction method in tandem with the highly sensitive qPCR technique in order to accurately diagnose the presence of Bd as well as other pathogens.

  14. Antioxidant activities of rosemary (Rosmarinus Officinalis L.) extract, blackseed (Nigella sativa L.) essential oil, carnosic acid, rosmarinic acid and sesamol.

    PubMed

    Erkan, Naciye; Ayranci, Guler; Ayranci, Erol

    2008-09-01

    Antioxidant activities of three pure compounds: carnosic acid, rosmarinic acid and sesamol, as well as two plant extracts: rosemary extract and blackseed essential oil, were examined by applying DPPH and ABTS(+) radical-scavenging assays and the ferric thiocyanate test. All three test methods proved that rosemary extract had a higher antioxidant activity than blackseed essential oil. The order of antioxidant activity of pure compounds showed variations in different tests. This was attributed to structural factors of individual compounds. Phenolic contents of blackseed essential oil and rosemary extract were also determined. Rosemary extract was found to have a higher phenolic content than blackseed essential oil. This fact was utilised in explaining the higher antioxidant activity of rosemary extract.

  15. High Efficiency DNA Extraction by Graphite Oxide/Cellulose/Magnetite Composites Under Na+ Free System

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Akceoglu, Garbis Atam; Li, Oi Lun; Saito, Nagahiro

    2016-04-01

    DNA extraction is the key step at various research areas like biotechnology, diagnostic development, paternity determination, and forensic science . Solid support extraction is the most common method for DNA purification. In this method, Na+ ions have often been applied as binding buffers in order to obtain high extraction efficiency and high quality of DNA; however, the presence of Na+ ions might be interfering with the downstream DNA applications. In this study, we proposed graphite oxide (GO)/magnetite composite/cellulose as an innovative material for Na+-free DNA extraction. The total wt.% of GO was fixed at 4.15% in the GO/cellulose/magnetite composite . The concentration of magnetite within the composites were controlled at 0-3.98 wt.%. The extraction yield of DNA increased with increasing weight percentage of magnetite. The highest yield was achieved at 3.98 wt.% magnetite, where the extraction efficiency was reported to be 338.5 ng/µl. The absorbance ratios between 260 nm and 280 nm (A260/A280) of the DNA elution volume was demonstrated as 1.81, indicating the extracted DNA consisted of high purity. The mechanism of adsorption of DNA was provided by (1) π-π interaction between the aromatic ring in GO and nucleobases of DNA molecule, and (2) surface charge interaction between the positive charge magnetite and anions such as phosphates within the DNA molecules. The results proved that the GO/cellulose/magnetite composite provides a Na+-free method for selective DNA extraction with high extraction efficiency of pure DNA.

  16. Efficient oil palm total RNA extraction with a total RNA extraction kit.

    PubMed

    Habib, S H; Saud, H M; Kausar, H

    2014-04-03

    Oil palm tissues are rich in polyphenols, polysaccharides and secondary metabolites; these can co-precipitate with RNA, causing problems for downstream applications. We compared two different methods (one conventional and a kit-based method - Easy-Blue(TM) Total RNA Extraction Kit) to isolate total RNA from leaves, roots and shoot apical meristems of tissue culture derived truncated leaf syndrome somaclonal oil palm seedlings. The quality and quantity of total RNA were compared through spectrophotometry and formaldehyde gel electrophoresis. The specificity and applicability of the protocols were evaluated for downstream applications, including cDNA synthesis and RT-PCR analysis. We found that the conventional method gave higher yields of RNA but took longer, and it was contaminated with genomic DNA. This method required extra genomic DNA removal steps that further reduced the RNA yield. The kit-based method, on the other hand, produced good yields as well as well as good quality RNA, within a very short period of time from a small amount of starting material. Moreover, the RNA from the kit-based method was more suitable for synthesizing cDNA and RT-PCR amplification than the conventional method. Therefore, we conclude that the Easy-BlueTM Total RNA Extraction Kit method is suitable and superior for isolation of total RNA from oil palm leaf, root and shoot apical meristem.

  17. Efficient extraction of olive pulp and stone proteins by using an enzyme-assisted method.

    PubMed

    Vergara-Barberán, María; Lerma-García, María Jesús; Herrero-Martínez, José Manuel; Simó-Alfonso, Ernesto Francisco

    2014-07-01

    An efficient protein extraction protocol for proteins from olive pulp and stone by using enzymes was developed. For this purpose, different parameters that affect the extraction process, such as enzyme type and content, pH, and extraction temperature and time, were tested. The influence of these factors on protein recovery was examined using the standard Bradford assay, while the extracted proteins were characterized by sodium dodecyl sulfate-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis (SDS-PAGE). The best extraction conditions were achieved at pH 7.0 and 5% (v/v) Palatase® 20000 L (lipase) for pulp and Lecitase® Ultra (phospholipase) for stone proteins. The optimal extraction temperature and time were 30 and 40 °C for 15 min for pulp and stone tissues, respectively. Under these conditions, several protein extracts coming from olive fruits of different genetic variety were analyzed, their profiles being compared by SDS-PAGE. The developed enzyme-assisted extraction method showed faster extraction, higher recovery, and reduced solvent usage than the nonenzymatic methods previously described in the literature. In the case of stone proteins, different electrophoretic profiles and band intensities were obtained that could be helpful to distinguish samples according to their genetic variety.

  18. Antimicrobial activity of acid-hydrolyzed Citrus unshiu peel extract in milk.

    PubMed

    Min, Keun Young; Kim, Hyun Jung; Lee, Kyoung Ah; Kim, Kee-Tae; Paik, Hyun-Dong

    2014-01-01

    Citrus fruit (Citrus unshiu) peels were extracted with hot water and then acid-hydrolyzed using hydrochloric acid. Antimicrobial activities of acid-hydrolyzed Citrus unshiu peel extract were evaluated against pathogenic bacteria, including Bacillus cereus, Staphylococcus aureus, and Listeria monocytogenes. Antilisterial effect was also determined by adding extracts at 1, 2, and 4% to whole, low-fat, and skim milk. The cell numbers of B. cereus, Staph. aureus, and L. monocytogenes cultures treated with acid-hydrolyzed extract for 12h at 35°C were reduced from about 8log cfu/mL to <1log cfu/mL. Bacillus cereus was more sensitive to acid-hydrolyzed Citrus unshiu peel extract than were the other bacteria. The addition of 4% acid-hydrolyzed Citrus unshiu extracts to all types of milk inhibited the growth of L. monocytogenes within 1d of storage at 4°C. The results indicated that Citrus unshiu peel extracts, after acid hydrolysis, effectively inhibited the growth of pathogenic bacteria. These findings indicate that acid hydrolysis of Citrus unshiu peel facilitates its use as a natural antimicrobial agent for food products.

  19. Short Communication An efficient method for simultaneous extraction of high-quality RNA and DNA from various plant tissues.

    PubMed

    Oliveira, R R; Viana, A J C; Reátegui, A C E; Vincentz, M G A

    2015-12-29

    Determination of gene expression is an important tool to study biological processes and relies on the quality of the extracted RNA. Changes in gene expression profiles may be directly related to mutations in regulatory DNA sequences or alterations in DNA cytosine methylation, which is an epigenetic mark. Correlation of gene expression with DNA sequence or epigenetic mark polymorphism is often desirable; for this, a robust protocol to isolate high-quality RNA and DNA simultaneously from the same sample is required. Although commercial kits and protocols are available, they are mainly optimized for animal tissues and, in general, restricted to RNA or DNA extraction, not both. In the present study, we describe an efficient and accessible method to extract both RNA and DNA simultaneously from the same sample of various plant tissues, using small amounts of starting material. The protocol was efficient in the extraction of high-quality nucleic acids from several Arabidopsis thaliana tissues (e.g., leaf, inflorescence stem, flower, fruit, cotyledon, seedlings, root, and embryo) and from other tissues of non-model plants, such as Avicennia schaueriana (Acanthaceae), Theobroma cacao (Malvaceae), Paspalum notatum (Poaceae), and Sorghum bicolor (Poaceae). The obtained nucleic acids were used as templates for downstream analyses, such as mRNA sequencing, quantitative real time-polymerase chain reaction, bisulfite treatment, and others; the results were comparable to those obtained with commercial kits. We believe that this protocol could be applied to a broad range of plant species, help avoid technical and sampling biases, and facilitate several RNA- and DNA-dependent analyses.

  20. Long-term purification efficiency of a wetland constructed to treat runoff from peat extraction.

    PubMed

    Karjalainen, Satu M; Heikkinen, Kaisa; Ihme, Raimo; Kløve, Bjørn

    2016-01-01

    Peat extraction increases the phosphorus, nitrogen, organic matter, suspended solids, and iron concentrations in runoff, resulting in negative effects on downstream water bodies. Wetlands are commonly used as natural cost-effective solutions to mitigate these negative effects. This study analyzed changes in the quality of runoff water from peat extraction areas and the long-term efficiency of constructed wetlands. The results indicate that the quality of runoff water changed after the initial drainage and during peat extraction. Nitrogen leached at high concentrations in the early stages of peat extraction following drainage, whereas the leaching of iron and phosphorus increased after peat extraction from deeper layers. Comparison of water quality and impurities retained immediately after treatment wetland construction and 14 years later showed that the treatment wetland remained functional, with good retention capacity, over a long period.

  1. Effects of alkaline pretreatments and acid extraction conditions on the acid-soluble collagen from grass carp (Ctenopharyngodon idella) skin.

    PubMed

    Liu, Dasong; Wei, Guanmian; Li, Tiancheng; Hu, Jinhua; Lu, Naiyan; Regenstein, Joe M; Zhou, Peng

    2015-04-01

    This study investigated the effects of alkaline pretreatments and acid extraction conditions on the production of acid-soluble collagen (ASC) from grass carp skin. For alkaline pretreatment, 0.05 and 0.1M NaOH removed non-collagenous proteins without significant loss of ASC at 4, 10, 15 and 20 °C; while 0.2 and 0.5M NaOH caused significant loss of ASC, and 0.5M NaOH caused structural modification of ASC at 15 and 20 °C. For acid extraction at 4, 10, 15 and 20 °C, ASC was partly extracted by 0.1 and 0.2M acetic acid, while 0.5 and 1.0M acetic acid resulted in almost complete extraction. The processing conditions involving 0.05-0.1M NaOH for pretreatment, 0.5M acetic acid for extraction and 4-20 °C for both pretreatment and extraction, produced ASC with the structural integrity being well maintained and hence were recommended to prepare ASC from grass carp skin in practical application.

  2. Efficient inclusion body processing using chemical extraction and high gradient magnetic fishing.

    PubMed

    Heebøll-Nielsen, Anders; Choe, Woo-Seok; Middelberg, Anton P J; Thomas, Owen R T

    2003-01-01

    In this study we introduce a radical new approach for the recovery of proteins expressed in the form of inclusion bodies, involving (i) chemical extraction from the host cells, (ii) adsorptive capture of the target protein onto small magnetic adsorbents, and (iii) subsequent rapid collection of the product-loaded supports with the aid of high gradient magnetic fields. The manufacture and testing of two types of micron-sized nonporous superparamagnetic metal chelator particles derivatized with iminodiacetic acid is described. In small-scale adsorption studies conducted with a hexahistidine tagged form of the L1 coat protein of human papillomavirus type 16 dissolved in 8 M urea-phosphate buffer, the best binding performance (Q(max) = 58 mg g(-1) and K(d) approximately 0.08 microM) was exhibited by Cu(2+)-charged type II support materials. Equilibrium adsorption of L1 to these nonporous supports was achieved very rapidly (<300 s), and approximately 90% of the tightly bound L1 could be desorbed in just one elution step by including >100 mM imidazole in the equilibration buffer. The influence of feedstock complexity on L1 adsorption to the Cu(2+)-charged type II magnetic chelators was studied using various dilutions of four crude chemical E. coli cell extracts containing denatured L1 protein. Undiminished L1 adsorption to these adsorbents (relative to the 8 M urea-phosphate buffer case) was observed with the least complex of these feed materials, i.e., a partially clarified (12 g dry weight L(-1)) and spermine-treated chemical cell extract (feedstock B). Efficient recovery of L1 from feed B was demonstrated at a 60-fold increased scale using the high gradient magnetic fishing (HGMF) system to collect loaded Cu(2+)-chelator particles following batch adsorption of L1. Over 70% of the initial L1 present was recovered within the HGMF rig in a highly clarified form in two batch elution cycles with an overall purification factor of approximately 10.

  3. Current Physical and SDS Extraction Methods Do Not Efficiently Remove Exosporium Proteins from Bacillus anthracis spores

    PubMed Central

    Thompson, Brian M.; Binkley, Jana M.; Stewart, George C.

    2011-01-01

    Biochemical studies of the outermost spore layers of the Bacillus cereus family are hindered by difficulties in efficient dispersal of the external spore layers and difficulties in dissociating protein complexes that comprise the exosporium layer. Detergent and physical methods have been utilized to disrupt the exosporium layer. Herein we compare commonly used SDS extraction buffers used to extract spore proteins and demonstrate the incomplete extractability of the exosporium layer by these methods. Sonication and bead beating methods for exosporium layer removal were also examined. A combination of genetic and physical methods is the most effective for isolating proteins found in the spore exosporium. PMID:21338631

  4. Studies on the Inhibitive Effect of Datura Stramonium Extract on the Acid Corrosion of Mild Steel

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Raja, Pandian Bothi; Sethuraman, Mathur Gopalakrishnan

    The extract of Datura stramonium has been studied as a possible source of green inhibitor for corrosion of mild steel (MS) in HCl and H2SO4 media at different temperatures. The anticorrosion effect was evaluated by conventional weight loss studies, electrochemical studies viz., Tafel polarization, ac impedance, and SEM studies. The studies reveal that the plant extract acts as a good inhibitor in both the acid media and better in H2SO4 medium. Tafel polarization method indicate that the plant extract behaves as a mixed mode inhibitor. Double layer capacitance and charge transfer resistance values derived from Nyquist plots obtained from ac impedance studies give supporting evidence for the anticorrosive effect. The inhibitive effect may be attributed to the adsorption of the inhibitor on the surface of MS, following Temkin adsorption isotherm. Increase of inhibition efficiency with increase of temperature along with Ea values serve as a proof for chemisorption. SEM studies provide the confirmatory evidence for the protection of MS by the green inhibitor. The study reveals the potential of D. stramonium for combating corrosion which may be due to the adsorption of alkaloids and other phytoconstituents.

  5. High Performance PbS Quantum Dot/Graphene Hybrid Solar Cell with Efficient Charge Extraction.

    PubMed

    Kim, Byung-Sung; Neo, Darren C J; Hou, Bo; Park, Jong Bae; Cho, Yuljae; Zhang, Nanlin; Hong, John; Pak, Sangyeon; Lee, Sanghyo; Sohn, Jung Inn; Assender, Hazel E; Watt, Andrew A R; Cha, SeungNam; Kim, Jong Min

    2016-06-08

    Hybrid colloidal quantum dot (CQD) solar cells are fabricated from multilayer stacks of lead sulfide (PbS) CQD and single layer graphene (SG). The inclusion of graphene interlayers is shown to increase power conversion efficiency by 9.18%. It is shown that the inclusion of conductive graphene enhances charge extraction in devices. Photoluminescence shows that graphene quenches emission from the quantum dot suggesting spontaneous charge transfer to graphene. CQD photodetectors exhibit increased photoresponse and improved transport properties. We propose that the CQD/SG hybrid structure is a route to make CQD thin films with improved charge extraction, therefore resulting in improved solar cell efficiency.

  6. Influence of Leaf Litter Moisture on the Efficiency of the Winkler Method for Extracting Ants

    PubMed Central

    Delsinne, Thibaut D.; Arias-Penna, Tania M.

    2012-01-01

    The Winkler extraction is one of the two fundamental sampling techniques of the standardized “Ants of the Leaf Litter” protocol, which aims to allow qualitative and quantitative comparisons of ant (Hymenoptera: Formicidae) assemblages. To achieve this objective, it is essential that the standard 48—hour extraction provides a reliable picture of the assemblages under study. Here, we tested to what extent the efficiency of the ant extraction is affected by the initial moisture content of the leaf litter sample. In an Ecuadorian mountain rainforest, the leaf litter present under rainfall—excluded and rainfall—allowed plots was collected, its moisture content measured, and its ant fauna extracted with a mini—Winkler apparatus for a 48—hour and a 96—hour period. The efficiency of the Winkler method to extract ant individuals over a 48—hour period decreased with the moisture content of the leaf litter sample. However, doubling the extraction time did not improve the estimations of the ant species richness, composition, and relative abundance. Although the moisture content of the leaf litter slightly affected the ant sampling, our results indicated that a 48—hour Winkler extraction, as recommended by the “Ants of the Leaf Litter” protocol, is sufficient to allow reliable comparisons of ant assemblages. PMID:22962850

  7. Influence of hydrofluoric acid on extraction of thorium using a commercially available extraction chromatographic resin.

    PubMed

    Shimada-Fujiwara, Asako; Hoshi, Akiko; Kameo, Yutaka; Nakashima, Mikio

    2009-05-01

    The dependence of Th recovery on hydrofluoric acid (HF) concentration in nitric acid (HNO(3)) solutions (1-5 mol/dm(3)) containing 1x10(-6) mol/dm(3) of Th and various concentrations of HF and the elution behavior were studied using a commercially available UTEVA (for uranium and tetravalent actinide) resin column. Thorium recovery decreased with an increase in HF concentration in the sample solutions. The concentration of HF at which Th recovery started to decrease was approximately 1x10(-4) mol/dm(3) in 1 mol/dm(3) HNO(3) solution, approximately 1x10(-3) mol/dm(3) in 3 mol/dm(3) HNO(3) solution, and approximately 1x10(-2) mol/dm(3) in 5 mol/dm(3) HNO(3) solution. When Al(NO(3))(3) (0.2 mol/dm(3)) or Fe(NO(3))(3) (0.6 mol/dm(3)) was added as a masking agent for F(-) to the Th solution containing 1x10(-1) mol/dm(3) HF and 1 mol/dm(3) HNO(3), Th recovery improved from 1.4+/-0.3% to 95+/-5% or 93+/-3%. Effective extraction of Th using UTEVA resin was achieved by selecting the concentration of HNO(3) and/or adding masking agents such as Al(NO(3))(3) according to the concentration of HF in the sample solution.

  8. Efficiently prepared ephedrine alkaloids-free Ephedra Herb extract: a putative marker and antiproliferative effects.

    PubMed

    Oshima, Naohiro; Yamashita, Tadatoshi; Hyuga, Sumiko; Hyuga, Masashi; Kamakura, Hiroyuki; Yoshimura, Morio; Maruyama, Takuro; Hakamatsuka, Takashi; Amakura, Yoshiaki; Hanawa, Toshihiko; Goda, Yukihiro

    2016-07-01

    Ephedrine alkaloids (EAs) have been considered the main pharmacologically active substances in Ephedra Herb (, Mao; EH) since they were first identified by Prof. N. Nagai, and are known to induce palpitation, hypertension, insomnia, and dysuria as side effects. Therefore, the administration of drugs containing EH to patients with cardiovascular-related diseases is severely contraindicated. While our previous studies suggest that some of the effects of EH may not be due to EAs, considering their side effects would be expedient to develop a new EAs-free EH extract (EFE). Here, we established a preparation method for EFE and revealed its chemical composition, including the content of herbacetin, a flavonoid aglycon present in EH and a potential putative marker for EFE quality control. In addition, we showed the antiproliferative effects of EFE against the H1975 non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) cell line. EFE was prepared from EH extract using the ion exchange resin SK-1B. LC/Orbitrap MS analysis revealed the removal of EAs, 6-methoxykynurenic acid, and 6-hydroxykynurenic acid from the original extract. Quantitative analysis of herbacetin using LC/MS in acid-hydrolyzed EFE showed that its content was 0.104 %. Although several alkaloidal constituents were removed from EH extract, the antiproliferative effect of EFE against H1975 cells was comparable to that of EH extract. These results indicate that EFE retained the anticancer effect of EH and demonstrated its potential for future development as a new herbal medicine with reduced side effects.

  9. Development and validation of a method for the quantification of extractable perfluoroalkyl acids (PFAAs) and perfluorooctane sulfonamide (FOSA) in textiles.

    PubMed

    van der Veen, Ike; Weiss, Jana M; Hanning, Anne-Charlotte; de Boer, Jacob; Leonards, Pim E G

    2016-01-15

    In textiles, like outdoor clothing, per- and polyfluoroalkyl substances (PFASs) are often used for durable water repellency (DWR) of the final products. The analytical performance to determine the concentration of these chemicals available for exposure to humans and to the environment need to be established. Here a method for the extraction and analysis of one class of PFASs, namely perfluoroalkyl acids (PFAAs), in outdoor clothing was developed and validated. The PFAAs which were validated, included perfluoroalkyl carboxylic acids (PFCAs) (C4-C14), and perfluoroalkane sulfonic acids (PFSAs) (C4, C6, C7, C8). In addition, perfluorooctane sulfonamide (FOSA) was included in this study. The method was based on an organic solvent extraction and analysis by high-performance liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS). No further cleaning was needed. Two commonly used organic solvent compositions were evaluated for the optimal extraction, i.e. methanol and acetone/acetonitrile (80:20, v/v), and the number and duration of the sequential extractions were optimized. Results showed that two sequential extractions with 5mL methanol and an extraction time of 30min gave an optimal performance with an extraction efficiency of >90%. The influence of matrix on the quantification of PFAAs was studied. This indicated ion suppression due to different matrix effects or sorption behavior to specific textile samples. Validation of the entire method showed overall recoveries of>80% and relative standard deviations (RSDs) of<9% (n=3) for repeatability and <20% (n=3) for reproducibility. This is the first validation of an analytical method for the analysis of extractable PFCAs, PFSAs and FOSA associated to textiles, which is of high importance due to the regulation of PFAAs in textile.

  10. Ultrasound versus microwave as green processes for extraction of rosmarinic, carnosic and ursolic acids from rosemary.

    PubMed

    Jacotet-Navarro, M; Rombaut, N; Fabiano-Tixier, A-S; Danguien, M; Bily, A; Chemat, F

    2015-11-01

    Ultrasound and microwave as green processes are investigated in this study, focusing on the extraction selectivity towards antioxidant extraction from rosemary leaves. Due to its richness in valuable compounds such as rosmarinic, carnosic and ursolic acids, rosemary is a reference matrix for extraction study. In this work, six alternative processes are compared: ultrasound (bath, reactor and probe), microwave (reflux under microwave, microwave under nitrogen pressure and microwave under vapor pressure). The main result of this study is that selective extraction can be achieved according to extraction techniques and therefore to the extraction process.

  11. DRAMATIC IMPROVEMENTS IN CAUSTIC-SIDE SOLVENT EXTRACTION OF CESIUM THROUGH MORE EFFICIENT STRIPPING

    SciTech Connect

    Delmau, Laetitia Helene; Bazelaire, Eve; Bonnesen, Peter V; Engle, Nancy L; Gorbunova, Maryna; Haverlock, Tamara; Moyer, Bruce A; Ensor, Dale; Meadors, Viola M; Harmon, Ben; Bartsch, Richard A.; Surowiec, Malgorzata A.; Zhou, Hui

    2008-01-01

    Dramatic potential improvements to the chemistry of the Caustic-Side Solvent Extraction (CSSX) process are presented as related to enhancement of cesium stripping. The current process for removing cesium from the alkaline high-level waste (HLW) at the USDOE Savannah River Site employs acidic scrub and strip stages and shows remarkable extraction and selectivity properties for cesium. It was determined that cesium stripping can be greatly improved with caustic or near-neutral stages using sodium hydroxide and boric acid as scrub and strip solutions, respectively. Improvements can also be achieved by appending pH-sensitive functional groups to the calix[4]arene-crown-6 extractant. Addition of a proton-ionizable group to the calixarene frame leads to a dramatic "pH swing" of up to 6 orders of magnitude change in cesium distribution ratio.

  12. Extraction of ethanol with higher carboxylic acid solvents and their toxicity to yeast

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    In a screening exercise for ethanol-selective extraction solvents, partitioning of ethanol and water from a 5 wt% aqueous solution into several C8 – C18 carboxylic acids was studied. Results for the acids are compared with those from alcohols of similar structure. In all cases studied, the acids exh...

  13. Formic acid aided hot water extraction of hemicellulose from European silver birch (Betula pendula) sawdust.

    PubMed

    Goldmann, Werner Marcelo; Ahola, Juha; Mikola, Marja; Tanskanen, Juha

    2017-02-11

    Hemicellulose has been extracted from birch (Betula pendula) sawdust by formic acid aided hot water extraction. The maximum amount of hemicellulose extracted was about 70mol% of the total hemicellulose content at 170°C, measured as the combined yield of xylose and furfural. Lower temperatures (130 and 140°C) favored hemicellulose hydrolysis rather than cellulose hydrolysis, even though the total hemicellulose yield was less than at 170°C. It was found that formic acid greatly increased the hydrolysis of hemicellulose to xylose and furfural at the experimental temperatures. The amount of lignin in the extract remained below the detection limit of the analysis (3g/L) in all cases. Formic acid aided hot water extraction is a promising technique for extracting hemicellulose from woody biomass, while leaving a solid residue with low hemicellulose content, which can be delignified to culminate in the three main isolated lignocellulosic fractions: cellulose, hemicellulose, and lignin.

  14. Fatty acids and sterols composition, and antioxidant activity of oils extracted from plant seeds.

    PubMed

    Kozłowska, Mariola; Gruczyńska, Eliza; Ścibisz, Iwona; Rudzińska, Magdalena

    2016-12-15

    This study determined and compared the contents of bioactive components in plant seed oils extracted with n-hexane (Soxhlet method) and chloroform/methanol (Folch method) from coriander, caraway, anise, nutmeg and white mustard seeds. Oleic acid dominated among unsaturated fatty acids in nutmeg and anise seed oils while petroselinic acid was present in coriander and caraway oils. Concerning sterols, β-sitosterol was the main component in seed oils extracted with both methods. The content of total phenolics in nutmeg, white mustard and coriander seed oils extracted with chloroform/methanol was higher than in their counterparts prepared with n-hexane. The seed oil samples extracted according to the Folch method exhibited a higher ability to scavenge DPPH radicals compared to the oil samples prepared with the Soxhlet method. DPPH values of the methanolic extracts derived from oils produced with the Folch method were also higher than in the oils extracted with n-hexane.

  15. Microalgae amino acid extraction and analysis at nanomolar level using electroporation and capillary electrophoresis with laser-induced fluorescence detection.

    PubMed

    Nehmé, Reine; Atieh, Carla; Fayad, Syntia; Claude, Bérengère; Chartier, Agnès; Tannoury, Mona; Elleuch, Fatma; Abdelkafi, Slim; Pichon, Chantal; Morin, Philippe

    2017-01-01

    Amino acids play a key role in food analysis, clinical diagnostics, and biochemical research. Capillary electrophoresis with laser-induced fluorescence detection was used for the analysis of several amino acids. Amino acid labeling with fluorescein isothiocyanate was conducted using microwave-assisted derivatization at 80°C (680 W) during only 150 s. Good electrophoretic resolution was obtained using a background electrolyte composed of sodium tetraborate buffer (100 mM; pH 9.4) and β-cyclodextrin (10 mM), and the limits of quantification were 3-30 nM. The developed capillary electrophoresis with laser-induced fluorescence method was used to analyze amino acids in Dunaliella salina green algae grown under different conditions. A simple extraction technique based on electroporation of the cell membrane was introduced. A home-made apparatus allowed the application of direct and alternating voltages across the electrochemical compartment containing a suspension of microalgae in distilled water at 2.5 g/L. A direct voltage of 12 V applied for 4 min gave the optimum extraction yield. Results were comparable to those obtained with accelerated-solvent extraction. The efficiency of electroporation in destroying microalgae membranes was shown by examining the algae surface morphology using scanning electron microscopy. Stress conditions were found to induce the production of amino acids in Dunaliella salina cells.

  16. Copper extraction by fatty hydroxamic acids derivatives synthesized based on palm kernel oil.

    PubMed

    Haron, Jelas; Jahangirian, Hossein; Silong, Sidik; Yusof, Nor Azah; Kassim, Anuar; Moghaddam, Roshanak Rafiee; Peyda, Mazyar; Abdollahi, Yadollah; Amin, Jamileh; Gharayebi, Yadollah

    2012-01-01

    Fatty hydroxamic acids derivatives based on palm kernel oil which are phenyl fatty hydroxamic acids (PFHAs), methyl fatty hydroxamic acids (MFHAs), isopropyl fatty hydroxamic acids (IPFHAs) and benzyl fatty hydroxamic acids (BFHAs) were applied as chelating agent for copper liquid-liquid extraction. The extraction of copper from aqueous solution by MFHAs, PFHAs, BFHAs or IPFHAs were carried out in hexane as an organic phase through the formation of copper methyl fatty hydroxamate (Cu-MFHs), copper phenyl fatty hydroxamate (Cu-PFHs), copper benzyl fatty hydroxamate (Cu-BFHs) and copper isopropyl fatty hydroxamate (Cu-IPFHs). The results showed that the fatty hydroxamic acid derivatives could extract copper at pH 6.2 effectively with high percentage of extraction (the percentages of copper extraction by MFHAs, PFHAs, IPFHs and BFHAs were found to be 99.3, 87.5, 82.3 and 90.2%, respectively). The extracted copper could be quantitatively stripped back into sulphuric acid (3M) aqueous solution. The obtained results showed that the copper recovery percentages from Cu-MFHs, Cu-PFHs, Cu-BFHs and Cu-IPFHs are 99.1, 99.4, 99.6 and 99.9 respectively. The copper extraction was not affected by the presence of a large amount of Mg (II), Ni (II), Al (III), Mn (II) and Co (II) ions in the aqueous solution.

  17. Magnetic hydrophilic-lipophilic balance sorbent for efficient extraction of chemical warfare agents from water samples.

    PubMed

    Singh, Varoon; Purohit, Ajay Kumar; Chinthakindi, Sridhar; Goud D, Raghavender; Tak, Vijay; Pardasani, Deepak; Shrivastava, Anchal Roy; Dubey, Devendra Kumar

    2016-02-19

    Magnetic hydrophilic-lipophilic balance (MHLB) hybrid resin was prepared by precipitation polymerization using N-vinylpyrrolidone (PVP) and divinylbenzene (DVB) as monomers and Fe2O3 nanoparticles as magnetic material. These resins were successfully applied for the extraction of chemical warfare agents (CWAs) and their markers from water samples through magnetic dispersive solid-phase extraction (MDSPE). By varying the ratios of monomers, resin with desired hydrophilic-lipophilic balance was prepared for the extraction of CWAs and related esters of varying polarities. Amongst different composites Fe2O3 nanoparticles coated with 10% PVP+90% DVB exhibited the best recoveries varying between 70.32 and 97.67%. Parameters affecting the extraction efficiencies, such as extraction time, desorption time, nature and volume of desorption solvent, amount of extraction sorbent and the effect of salts on extraction were investigated. Under the optimized conditions, linearity was obtained in the range of 0.5-500 ng mL(-1) with correlation ranging from 0.9911-0.9980. Limits of detection and limits of quantification were 0.5-1.0 and 3.0-5.0 ng mL(-1) respectively with RSDs varying from 4.88-11.32% for markers of CWAs. Finally, the developed MDSPE method was employed for extraction of analytes from water samples of various sources and the OPCW proficiency test samples.

  18. Solid-phase extraction of betanin and isobetanin from beetroot extracts using a dipicolinic acid molecularly imprinted polymer.

    PubMed

    Nestora, Sofia; Merlier, Franck; Prost, Elise; Haupt, Karsten; Rossi, Claire; Tse Sum Bui, Bernadette

    2016-09-23

    Betanin is a natural pigment with significant antioxidant and biological activities currently used as food colorant. The isolation of betanin is problematic due to its instability. In this work, we developed a fast and economic procedure based on molecularly imprinted solid-phase extraction (MISPE) for the selective clean-up of betanin and its stereoisomer isobetanin from beetroot extracts. Dipicolinic acid was used as template for the MIP preparation because of its structural similarity with the chromophore group of betanin. The MISPE procedures were fully optimized allowing the almost complete removal of matrix components such as sugars and proteins, resulting in high extraction recovery of betanin/isobetanin in a single step. Moreover, the whole extraction procedure was performed in environmentally friendly solvents with either ethanol or water. Our MISPE method is very promising for the future development of well-formulated beetroot extract with specified betanin/isobetanin content, ready for food or medicinal use.

  19. Simultaneous determination of docosahexaenoic acid and eicosapentaenoic acid in common seafood using ultrasonic cell crusher extraction combined with gas chromatography.

    PubMed

    Zhao, Juanjuan; Ren, Yan; Yu, Chen; Chen, Xiangming; Shi, Yanan

    2017-02-01

    An effective method for the simultaneous determination of docosahexaenoic acid and eicosapentaenoic acid in common seafood by gas chromatography was developed and validated. Total docosahexaenoic acid and eicosapentaenoic acid were extracted from seafood by ultrasonic cell crusher assisted extraction and methyl esterified for gas chromatography analysis in the presence of the internal standard. The linearity was good (r > 0.999) in 9.59 ∼ 479.5 μg/mL for docosahexaenoic acid and 9.56 ∼ 477.8 μg/mL for eicosapentaenoic acid. The intrarun and interrun precisions were both within 4.8 and 6.1% for the two analytes, while the accuracy was less than 5.8%. The developed method was applied for determination of docosahexaenoic acid and eicosapentaenoic acid in six kinds of seafood. The result showed the content of docosahexaenoic acid and eicosapentaenoic acid was all higher than 1 mg/g in yellow croaker, hairtail, venerupis philippinarum, mussel, and oyster. Our work may be helpful for dietary optimization and production of docosahexaenoic acid and eicosapentaenoic acid.

  20. Ampholine-functionalized hybrid organic-inorganic silica material as sorbent for solid-phase extraction of acidic and basic compounds.

    PubMed

    Wang, Tingting; Chen, Yihui; Ma, Junfeng; Chen, Mingliang; Nie, Chenggang; Hu, Minjie; Li, Ying; Jia, Zhijian; Fang, Jianghua; Gao, Haoqi

    2013-09-20

    A novel sorbent for solid-phase extraction (SPE) was synthesized by chemical immobilization of ampholine on hybrid organic-inorganic silica material. The ampholine-functionalized hybrid organic-inorganic silica sorbent is consisted of aliphatic amine groups, carboxyl groups and long carbon chains, allowing for extraction of both acidic and basic compounds. The retention properties of the developed sorbent were evaluated for 1-hydroxy-2-naphthoic acid (HNA), 1-naphthoic acid (NA), 3-hydroxybenzoic acid (HBA), benzoic acid (BA), sorbic acid (SA), vanillic aldehyde (VA), butyl 4-hydroxybenzoate (BHB), propyl 4-hydroxybenzoate (PHB), ethyl 4-hydroxybenzoate (EHB), and methyl 4-hydroxybenzoate (MHB). The results show that such a sorbent has three types of interaction, i.e., electrostatic interaction, hydrophobic interaction, and hydrogen bonding, exhibiting high extraction efficiency towards the compounds tested. The adsorption capacities of the analytes ranged from 0.61 to 6.54μgmg(-1). The reproducibility of the sorbent preparation was evaluated at three spiking concentration levels, with relative standard deviations (RSDs) of 1.0-10.5%. The recoveries of ten acidic and basic compounds spiked in beverage Coca-Cola(®) sample ranged from 82.5% to 98.2% with RSDs less than 5.8%. Under optimum conditions, the ampholine-functionalized hybrid organic-inorganic silica sorbent rendered higher extraction efficiency for acidic compounds than that of the commercially available ampholine-functionalized silica particles, and was comparable to that of the commercial Oasis WAX and Oasis WCX.

  1. Factors Affecting the Capture Efficiency of a Fume Extraction Torch for Gas Metal Arc Welding

    PubMed Central

    Bonthoux, Francis

    2016-01-01

    Welding fumes are classified as Group 2B ‘possibly carcinogenic’ and this prompts to the implementation of local exhaust ventilation (LEV). The fume extraction torch with LEV integrated into the tool is the most attractive solution but its capture efficiency is often disappointing in practice. This study assesses the main parameters affecting fume capture efficiency namely the extraction flow rate, the positioning of the suction openings on the torch, the angle of inclination of the torch to the workpiece during welding, the metal transfer modes, and the welding deposition rate. The theoretical velocity induced by suction, estimated from the extraction flow rate and the position of the suction openings, is the main parameter affecting effectiveness of the device. This is the design parameter and its value should never be <0.25 m s−1. The angle of the torch relative to the workpiece also has a great deal of influence. To improve efficiency, work station layouts need to favour positions where the torch is held with angles closer to perpendicular (<15°). Welding with high deposition rates (>1.1g s−1) and spray transfer leads to low capture efficiency if induced velocities are <0.5 m s−1. The results of the study can be used in the design of integrated on-torch extraction systems and provide information for fixing system objectives. PMID:27074798

  2. Gallium Nitride Light Emitter on a Patterned Sapphire Substrate for Improved Defectivity and Light Extraction Efficiency

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2010-01-01

    Gallium nitride light emitter on a patterned sapphire substrate for improved defectivity and light extraction efficiency Michael A. Mastro a,*, Byung ...Phys. 47 (2008) 7827. [6] B.J. Kim, H. Jung, J. Shin , M.A. Mastro, C.R. Eddy Jr., J.K. Hite, S.H. Kim, J. Bang, J. Kim, Thin Solid Films 517 (2009

  3. Role of deoxyribonucleic acid ligase in a doxyribonucleic acid membrane fraction extracted from pneumococci.

    PubMed Central

    Greene, M; Firshein, W

    1976-01-01

    Deoxyribonucleic acid (DNA) ligase has been detected in a DNA membrane fraction extracted from Pneumococcus. The specific activity of the enzyme in this fraction is 10-fold greater than in the remaining cell extract. It remains firmly bound (with other enzymes) to the complex after a purification procedure in which a considerable percentage of the macromolecules are dissociated. The ligase acts in two ways in the DNA membrane fraction in vitro. One, it catalyzes the linkage of small-molecular-weight pieces of newly synthesized DNA into heavier-molecular-weight DNA strands as shown by others (M Gellert, 1976; R. Okazaki, A. Sugino, S. Hirose, T. Okazaki, Y. Imae, R. Kainuma-Kuroda, T. Ogawa, M. Arisawa, and Y. Kurosowa, 1973; B. Olivera and I. Lehman, 14; and A. Sugino, S. Hirose, and R. Okazaki, 1972) and, two, it protects DNA from degradation by deoxyribonucleases. This latter effect is due to a competition between the ability of the nucleases to degrade DNA and the ability of DNA ligase to seal the nicks produced by these degradative enzymes. The ligase acts cooperatively with other enzymes in the DNA membrane fraction to synthesize DNA. PMID:4433

  4. Determination of haloacetic acids in water using layered double hydroxides as a sorbent in dispersive solid-phase extraction followed by liquid chromatography with tandem mass spectrometry.

    PubMed

    Alsharaa, Abdulnaser; Sajid, Muhammad; Basheer, Chanbasha; Alhooshani, Khalid; Lee, Hian Kee

    2016-09-01

    In the present study, highly efficient and simple dispersive solid-phase extraction procedure for the determination of haloacetic acids in water samples has been established. Three different types of layered double hydroxides were synthesized and used as a sorbent in dispersive solid-phase extraction. Due to the interesting behavior of layered double hydroxides in an acidic medium (pH˂4), the analyte elution step was not needed; the layered double hydroxides are simply dissolved in acid immediately after extraction to release the analytes which are then directly introduced into a liquid chromatography with tandem mass spectrometry system for analysis. Several dispersive solid-phase extraction parameters were optimized to increase the extraction efficiency of haloacetic acids such as temperature, extraction time and pH. Under optimum conditions, good linearity was achieved over the concentration range of 0.05-100 μg/L with detection limits in the range of 0.006-0.05 μg/L. The relative standard deviations were 0.33-3.64% (n = 6). The proposed method was applied to different water samples collected from a drinking water plant to determine the concentrations of haloacetic acids.

  5. Efficient method of protein extraction from Theobroma cacao L. roots for two-dimensional gel electrophoresis and mass spectrometry analyses.

    PubMed

    Bertolde, F Z; Almeida, A-A F; Silva, F A C; Oliveira, T M; Pirovani, C P

    2014-07-04

    Theobroma cacao is a woody and recalcitrant plant with a very high level of interfering compounds. Standard protocols for protein extraction were proposed for various types of samples, but the presence of interfering compounds in many samples prevented the isolation of proteins suitable for two-dimensional gel electrophoresis (2-DE). An efficient method to extract root proteins for 2-DE was established to overcome these problems. The main features of this protocol are: i) precipitation with trichloroacetic acid/acetone overnight to prepare the acetone dry powder (ADP), ii) several additional steps of sonication in the ADP preparation and extractions with dense sodium dodecyl sulfate and phenol, and iii) adding two stages of phenol extractions. Proteins were extracted from roots using this new protocol (Method B) and a protocol described in the literature for T. cacao leaves and meristems (Method A). Using these methods, we obtained a protein yield of about 0.7 and 2.5 mg per 1.0 g lyophilized root, and a total of 60 and 400 spots could be separated, respectively. Through Method B, it was possible to isolate high-quality protein and a high yield of roots from T. cacao for high-quality 2-DE gels. To demonstrate the quality of the extracted proteins from roots of T. cacao using Method B, several protein spots were cut from the 2-DE gels, analyzed by tandem mass spectrometry, and identified. Method B was further tested on Citrus roots, with a protein yield of about 2.7 mg per 1.0 g lyophilized root and 800 detected spots.

  6. A simple and efficient solar cell parameter extraction method from a single current-voltage curve

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Chunfu; Zhang, Jincheng; Hao, Yue; Lin, Zhenhua; Zhu, Chunxiang

    2011-09-01

    In this work, a simple and efficient method for the extraction of all the parameters of a solar cell from a single current-voltage (I-V) curve under the constant illumination level is proposed. With the help of the Lambert W function, the explicit analytic expression for I is obtained. By reducing the number of the parameters, the expression for I only depends on the ideality factor n, the series resistance Rs, and the shunt resistance Rsh. This analytic expression is directly used to fit the experimental data and extract the device parameters. This simple solar cell parameter extraction method can be directly applied for all kinds of solar cells whose I-V characteristics follow the single-diode model. The parameters of various solar devices including silicon solar cells, silicon solar modules, dye-sensitized solar cells, and organic solar cells with standalone, tandem, and multi-junction structures have been successfully extracted by using our proposed method.

  7. As, Cd, Cr, Ni and Pb pressurized liquid extraction with acetic acid from marine sediment and soil samples

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Moreda-Piñeiro, Jorge; Alonso-Rodríguez, Elia; López-Mahía, Purificación; Muniategui-Lorenzo, Soledad; Prada-Rodríguez, Darío; Moreda-Piñeiro, Antonio; Bermejo-Barrera, Adela; Bermejo-Barrera, Pilar

    2006-12-01

    Rapid leaching procedures by Pressurized Liquid Extraction (PLE) have been developed for As, Cd, Cr, Ni and Pb leaching from environmental matrices (marine sediment and soil samples). The Pressurized Liquid Extraction is completed after 16 min. The released elements by acetic acid Pressurized Liquid Extraction have been evaluated by inductively coupled plasma-optical emission spectrometry. The optimum multi-element leaching conditions when using 5.0 ml stainless steel extraction cells, were: acetic acid concentration 8.0 M, extraction temperature 100 °C, pressure 1500 psi, static time 5 min, flush solvent 60%, two extraction steps and 0.50 g of diatomaceous earth as dispersing agent (diatomaceous earth mass/sample mass ratio of 2). Results have showed that high acetic acid concentrations and high extraction temperatures increase the metal leaching efficiency. Limits of detection (between 0.12 and 0.5 μg g - 1 ) and repeatability of the over-all procedure (around 6.0%) were assessed. Finally, accuracy was studied by analyzing PACS-2 (marine sediment), GBW-07409 (soil), IRANT-12-1-07 (cambisol soil) and IRANT-12-1-08 (luvisol soil) certified reference materials (CRMs). These certified reference materials offer certified concentrations ranges between 2.9 and 26.2 μg g - 1 for As, from 0.068 to 2.85 μg g - 1 for Cd, between 26.4 and 90.7 μg g - 1 for Cr, from 9.3 to 40.0 μg g - 1 for Ni and between 16.3 and 183.0 μg g - 1 for Pb. Recoveries after analysis were between 95.7 and 105.1% for As, 96.2% for Cd, 95.2 and 100.6% for Cr, 95.7 and 103% for Ni and 94.2 and 105.5% for Pb.

  8. Adipic acid increases plasma lysine but does not improve the efficiency of lysine utilization in swine.

    PubMed

    van Kempen, T A; van Heugten, E; Trottier, N L

    2001-09-01

    Adipic acid, upon catabolism, results in intermediates that bear a structural similarity to lysine degradation products. The objectives of this research were to determine whether adipic acid affects lysine concentrations in plasma and to evaluate whether adipic acid improves the efficiency of lysine utilization in pigs. In Exp. 1, nursery pigs (n = 14) were fed (for a period of 7 d) either a standard nursery diet or the same diet supplemented with 1% adipic acid to assess effects on plasma amino acid concentrations (plasma collected on d 7). In Exp. 2, nursery pigs (n = 56) were fed (for a period of 15 d) either a control diet or the same diet but deficient in either lysine, threonine, or tryptophan with or without supplemental adipic acid to assess the effects of adipic acid on the efficiency of amino acid utilization. The results from Exp. 1 showed that adipic acid increased plasma lysine (by 18%) but not alpha-amino adipic acid, an intermediate in lysine degradation. Experiment 2 demonstrated that adipic acid did not increase the efficiency of utilization of lysine, threonine, or tryptophan. The lack of effects on alpha-amino adipic acid in Exp. 1 and the lack of a positive effect on the efficiency of utilization of lysine, threonine, and tryptophan suggest that adipic acid does not inhibit the mitochondrial uptake of lysine and(or) its degradation in the mitochondrion. It is concluded that feeding adipic acid increases plasma lysine but does not improve the efficiency of lysine utilization.

  9. Quantitation of Binding, Recovery and Desalting Efficiency in Solid Phase Extraction Micropipette Tips

    SciTech Connect

    Palmblad, M N; Vogel, J S

    2004-08-02

    Micropipette-tip solid phase extraction systems are common in proteomic analyses for desalting and concentrating samples for mass spectrometry, removing interferences, and increasing sensitivity. These systems are inexpensive, disposable, and highly efficient. Here we show micropipette-tip solid phase extraction is a direct sample preparation method for {sup 14}C-accelerator mass spectrometry (AMS), removing salts or reagent from labeled macromolecules. We compared loading, recovery and desalting efficiency in commercially available SPE micro-tips using {sup 14}C-labeled peptides and proteins, AMS, and alpha spectrometry ion energy loss quantitation. The polypropylene in the tips was nearly {sup 14}C-free and simultaneously provided low-background carrier for AMS. The silica material did not interfere with the analysis. Alpha spectrometry provided an absolute measurement of desalting efficiency.

  10. Enhancing extraction efficiency of mid-infrared fluorescence in chalcogenide glass via photonic crystal

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Jun; Zhang, Peiqing; Ma, Beijiao; Dai, Shixun; Zhang, Wei; Nie, Qiuhua

    2016-04-01

    The use of rare earth-doped chalcogenide glass is an attractive method to develop mid-infrared sources. In this work, Er3+-doped chalcogenide glass is prepared, and photonic crystal (PC) pattern is designed to improve the extraction efficiency of light emission from the sample surface. The finite difference time domain simulation shows that the light extraction efficiency from the sample surface can be 1.62 times stronger than that from the sample without PC structure by introducing a simple two-dimensional (2D) PC structure into glass samples. This improvement was the result of the efficient light diffraction on the surface because of the integrated 2D PC. Results in this work offer a potential in developing midinfrared light sources.

  11. An Efficient Extraction Method for Fragrant Volatiles from Jasminum sambac (L.) Ait.

    PubMed

    Ye, Qiuping; Jin, Xinyi; Zhu, Xinliang; Lin, Tongxiang; Hao, Zhilong; Yang, Qian

    2015-01-01

    The sweet smell of aroma of Jasminum sambac (L.) Ait. is releasing while the flowers are blooming. Although components of volatile oil have been extensively studied, there are problematic issues, such as low efficiency of yield, flavour distortion. Here, the subcritical fluid extraction (SFE) was performed to extract fragrant volatiles from activated carbon that had absorbed the aroma of jasmine flowers. This novel method could effectively obtain main aromatic compounds with quality significantly better than solvent extraction (SE). Based on the analysis data with response surface methodology (RSM), we optimized the extraction conditions which consisted of a temperature of 44°C, a solvent-to-material ratio of 3.5:1, and an extraction time of 53 min. Under these conditions, the extraction yield was 4.91%. Furthermore, the key jasmine essence oil components, benzyl acetate and linalool, increase 7 fold and 2 fold respectively which lead to strong typical smell of the jasmine oil. The new method can reduce spicy components which lead to the essential oils smelling sweeter. Thus, the quality of the jasmine essence oil was dramatically improved and yields based on the key component increased dramatically. Our results provide a new effective technique for extracting fragrant volatiles from jasmine flowers.

  12. Recycling of indium from CIGS photovoltaic cells: potential of combining acid-resistant nanofiltration with liquid-liquid extraction.

    PubMed

    Zimmermann, Yannick-Serge; Niewersch, Claudia; Lenz, Markus; Kül, Zöhre Zohra; Corvini, Philippe F-X; Schäffer, Andreas; Wintgens, Thomas

    2014-11-18

    Electronic consumer products such as smartphones, TV, computers, light-emitting diodes, and photovoltaic cells crucially depend on metals and metalloids. So-called "urban mining" considers them as secondary resources since they may contain precious elements at concentrations many times higher than their primary ores. Indium is of foremost interest being widely used, expensive, scarce and prone to supply risk. This study first investigated the capability of different nanofiltration membranes of extracting indium from copper-indium-gallium- selenide photovoltaic cell (CIGS) leachates under low pH conditions and low transmembrane pressure differences (<3 bar). Retentates were then subjected to a further selective liquid-liquid extraction (LLE). Even at very acidic pH indium was retained to >98% by nanofiltration, separating it from parts of the Ag, Sb, Se, and Zn present. LLE using di-(2-ethylhexyl)phosphoric acid (D2EHPA) extracted 97% of the indium from the retentates, separating it from all other elements except for Mo, Al, and Sn. Overall, 95% (2.4 g m(-2) CIGS) of the indium could be extracted to the D2EHPA phase. Simultaneously, by nanofiltration the consumption of D2EHPA was reduced by >60% due to the metal concentration in the reduced retentate volume. These results show clearly the potential for efficient scarce metal recovery from secondary resources. Furthermore, since nanofiltration was applicable at very low pH (≥ 0.6), it may be applied in hydrometallurgy typically using acidic conditions.

  13. Effect of catalyst concentration and reaction time on the extraction of glucomannan from porang (Amorphophallus oncophyllus) flour via acid hydrolysis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kumoro, A. C.; Yuganta, T. H. A.; Ratnawati, R.; Retnowati, D. S.

    2016-11-01

    High demand of glucomannan for various applications has attracted the attention of researchers to look for efficient extraction method from its botanical sources. The aim of this study is to investigate the effect of catalyst concentration and reaction time on the yield and purity of glucomannan, and profile of reducing sugar during glucomannan extraction from crude porang flour via acid hydrolysis. The effect of catalyst concentration was found to be more pronounced over the effect of reaction time. When catalyst concentration was varied from 0.03125 to 1 M, extraction of glucomannan from porang flour for 1 hour at 60°C yielded 40.5 to 70% glucomannan with purity of 47.35 to 90.18% (w/w). The yield and purity of glucomannan obtained from extraction using catalyst concentration of 1 M for 0.25 to 3 hour ranged between 49 to 66.67% and 58.32 to 90.18% (w/w), respectively. Reduction in glucomannan yield and purity observed at high catalyst concentration and prolong reaction time was likely to be due to over-decomposition. Glucomannan with highest purity (90.18% w/w) was obtained at 66.67% yield from acid hydrolysis of porang flour using 0.5 M hydrochloric acid solution with flour:water ratio of 1:50 at 60°C for 1 hour.

  14. COMBINING NEUTRAL AND ACIDIC EXTRACTANTS FOR RECOVERING TRANSURANIC ELEMENTS FROM NUCLEAR FUEL

    SciTech Connect

    Lumetta, Gregg J.; Neiner, Doinita; Sinkov, Sergey I.; Carter, Jennifer C.; Braley, Jenifer C.; Latesky, Stanley; Gelis, Artem V.; Tkac, Peter; Vandegrift, George F.

    2011-10-03

    We have been investigating a solvent extraction system that combines a neutral extractant--octyl(phenyl)-N,N-diisobutyl-carbamoylmethylphosphine oxide (CMPO)--with an acidic extractant--bis(2-ethylhexyl)phosphoric acid (HDEHP)--to form a single process solvent for separating Am and Cm from the other components of irradiated nuclear fuel. It was originally hypothesized that the extraction chemistry of CMPO would dominate under conditions of high acidity (> 1 M HNO3), resulting in co-extraction of the transuranic and lanthanide elements into the organic phase. Contacting the loaded solvent with a solution of diethylenetriaminepentaacetate (DTPA) buffered with lactic or citric acid at pH {approx}3 to 4 would result in a condition in which the HDEHP chemistry dominates. Although the data somewhat support this hypothesis, it is clear that there are interactions between the two extractants such that they do not act independently in the extraction and stripping regimes. We report here studies directed at determining the nature and extent of interaction between CMPO and HDEHP, the synergistic behavior of CMPO and HDEHP in the extraction of americium and neodymium, and progress towards determining the thermodynamics of this extraction system. Neodymium and americium behave similarly in the combined solvent system, with a significant synergy between CMPO and HDEHP in the extraction of both of these trivalent elements from lactate-buffered DTPA solutions. In contrast, a much weaker synergistic behaviour is observed for europium. Thus, investigations into the fundamental chemistry involved in this system have focused on the neodymium extraction. The extraction of neodymium has been systematically investigated, individually varying the HDEHP concentration, the CMPO concentration, or the aqueous phase composition. Thermodynamic modeling of the neodymium extraction system has been initiated. Interactions between CMPO and HDEHP in the organic phase must be taken into account in

  15. Chemical composition of phase I Coxiella burnetii soluble antigen prepared by trichloroacetic acid extraction.

    PubMed

    Lukácová, M; Brezina, R; Schramek, S; Pastorek, J

    1989-01-01

    Optimal conditions of extraction (time and temperature) by trichloroacetic acid of soluble antigen from phase I Coxiella burnetii (TCAE), possessing protective properties and used as a chemovaccine against Q fever in men, were studied. Extracts prepared under various conditions were analysed for their polysaccharide, protein and phosphorus contents. Forty-five min of extraction at 0 degrees C were sufficient to obtain a soluble antigen reacting in immunodiffusion with hyperimmune rabbit antiserum. The polysaccharide contents decreased with prolonged extraction at 0 degrees C. At higher extraction temperatures (37 and 100 degrees C), the polysaccharide contents increased while that of proteins decreased. TCAE prepared at 100 degrees C gave no positive immunodiffusion reaction.

  16. Extraction of gallium(III) from hydrochloric acid solutions by trioctylammonium-based mixed ionic liquids.

    PubMed

    Katsuta, Shoichi; Okai, Miho; Yoshimoto, Yuki; Kudo, Yoshihiro

    2012-01-01

    The extractabilities of aluminium(III), gallium(III), and indium(III) from hydrochloric acid solutions were investigated using a mixture of two protic ionic liquids, trioctylammonium bis(trifluoromethanesulfonyl)amide ([TOAH][NTf(2)]) and trioctylammonium nitrate ([TOAH][NO(3)]). At a HCl concentration of 4 mol L(-1) or more, gallium(III) was nearly quantitatively extracted and the extractability order was Ga > Al > In. The extractability of gallium(III) increased with increasing [TOAH][NO(3)] content in the mixed ionic liquid. The extracted gallium(III) was quantitatively stripped with aqueous nitric acid solutions. The separation and recovery of gallium(III) from hydrochloric acid solutions containing excess indium(III) was demonstrated using the mixed ionic liquid.

  17. Leveraging abscisic acid receptors for efficient water use in Arabidopsis

    PubMed Central

    Yang, Zhenyu; Liu, Jinghui; Tischer, Stefanie V.; Christmann, Alexander; Windisch, Wilhelm; Schnyder, Hans; Grill, Erwin

    2016-01-01

    Plant growth requires the influx of atmospheric CO2 through stomatal pores, and this carbon uptake for photosynthesis is inherently associated with a large efflux of water vapor. Under water deficit, plants reduce transpiration and are able to improve carbon for water exchange leading to higher water use efficiency (WUE). Whether increased WUE can be achieved without trade-offs in plant growth is debated. The signals mediating the WUE response under water deficit are not fully elucidated but involve the phytohormone abscisic acid (ABA). ABA is perceived by a family of related receptors known to mediate acclimation responses and to reduce transpiration. We now show that enhanced stimulation of ABA signaling via distinct ABA receptors can result in plants constitutively growing at high WUE in the model species Arabidopsis. WUE was assessed by three independent approaches involving gravimetric analyses, 13C discrimination studies of shoots and derived cellulose fractions, and by gas exchange measurements of whole plants and individual leaves. Plants expressing the ABA receptors RCAR6/PYL12 combined up to 40% increased WUE with high growth rates, i.e., are water productive. Water productivity was associated with maintenance of net carbon assimilation by compensatory increases of leaf CO2 gradients, thereby sustaining biomass acquisition. Leaf surface temperatures and growth potentials of plants growing under well-watered conditions were found to be reliable indicators for water productivity. The study shows that ABA receptors can be explored to generate more plant biomass per water transpired, which is a prime goal for a more sustainable water use in agriculture. PMID:27247417

  18. Simultaneous determination of gibberellic acid, indole-3-acetic acid and abscisic acid in wheat extracts by solid-phase extraction and liquid chromatography-electrospray tandem mass spectrometry.

    PubMed

    Hou, Shengjie; Zhu, Jiang; Ding, Mingyu; Lv, Guohua

    2008-08-15

    A liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS) method was developed for simultaneous determination of three representative phytohormones in plant samples: gibberellic acid (GA(3)), indole-3-acetic acid (IAA) and abscisic acid (ABA). A solid-phase extraction (SPE) pretreatment method was used to concentrate and purify the three phytohormones of different groups from plant samples. The separation was carried out on a C(18) reversed-phase column, using methanol/water containing 0.2% formic acid (50:50, v/v) as the isocratic mobile phase at the flow-rate of 1.0 mL min(-1), and the three phytohormones were eluted within 7 min. A linear ion trap mass spectrometer equipped with electrospray ionization source was operated in negative ion mode. Selective reaction monitoring (SRM) was employed for quantitative measurement. The SRM transitions monitored were as 345-->239, 301 for GA(3), 174-->130 for IAA and 263-->153, 219 for ABA. Good linearities were found within the ranges of 5-200 microg mL(-1) for IAA and 0.005-10 microg mL(-1) for ABA and GA(3). Their detection limits based on a signal-to-noise ratio of three were 0.005 microg mL(-1), 2.2 microg mL(-1) and 0.003 microg mL(-1) for GA(3), IAA and ABA, respectively. Good recoveries from 95.5% to 102.4% for the three phytohormones were obtained. The results demonstrated that the SPE-LC-MS/MS method developed is highly effective for analyzing trace amounts of the three phytohormones in plant samples.

  19. Efficient DNA extraction from nail clippings using the protease solution from Cucumis melo.

    PubMed

    Yoshida-Yamamoto, Shumi; Nishimura, Sayaka; Okuno, Teruko; Rakuman, Miki; Takii, Yukio

    2010-09-01

    Owing to the increasing importance of genomic information, obtaining genomic DNA easily from biological specimens has become more and more important. This article proposes an efficient method for obtaining genomic DNA from nail clippings. Nail clippings can be easily obtained, are thermostable and easy to transport, and have low infectivity. The drawback of their use, however, has been the difficulty of extracting genomic material from them. We have overcome this obstacle using the protease solution obtained from Cucumis melo. The keratinolytic activity of the protease solution was 1.78-fold higher than that of proteinase K, which is commonly used to degrade keratin. With the protease solution, three times more DNA was extracted than when proteinase K was used. In order to verify the integrity of the extracted DNA, genotype analysis on 170 subjects was performed by both PCR-RFLP and Real Time PCR. The results of the genotyping showed that the extracted DNA was suitable for genotyping analysis. In conclusion, we have developed an efficient extraction method for using nail clippings as a genome source and a research tool in molecular epidemiology, medical diagnostics, and forensic science.

  20. Extraction of medium chain fatty acids from organic municipal waste and subsequent production of bio-based fuels.

    PubMed

    Kannengiesser, Jan; Sakaguchi-Söder, Kaori; Mrukwia, Timo; Jager, Johannes; Schebek, Liselotte

    2016-01-01

    these three pre-treatments, the percolate is brought to a refinery to extract the non-polar fatty acids using bio-diesel, which was generated from used kitchen oil at the refinery. The extraction tests in the lab have proved that the efficiency of the liquid-liquid-extraction is directly linked with the chain length and polarity of the fatty acids. By using a non-polar bio-diesel mainly the non-polar fatty acids, like pentanoic to octanoic acid, are extracted. After extraction, the bio-diesel enriched with the fatty acids is esterified. As a result bio-diesel with a lower viscosity than usual is produced. The fatty acids remaining in the percolate after the extraction can be used in another fermentation process to generate biogas.

  1. A solvent extraction approach to recover acetic acid from mixed waste acids produced during semiconductor wafer process.

    PubMed

    Shin, Chang-Hoon; Kim, Ju-Yup; Kim, Jun-Young; Kim, Hyun-Sang; Lee, Hyang-Sook; Mohapatra, Debasish; Ahn, Jae-Woo; Ahn, Jong-Gwan; Bae, Wookeun

    2009-03-15

    Recovery of acetic acid (HAc) from the waste etching solution discharged from silicon wafer manufacturing process has been attempted by using solvent extraction process. For this purpose 2-ethylhexyl alcohol (EHA) was used as organic solvent. In the pre-treatment stage >99% silicon and hydrofluoric acid was removed from the solution by precipitation. The synthesized product, Na(2)SiF(6) having 98.2% purity was considered of commercial grade having good market value. The waste solution containing 279 g/L acetic acid, 513 g/L nitric acid, 0.9 g/L hydrofluoric acid and 0.030 g/L silicon was used for solvent extraction study. From the batch test results equilibrium conditions for HAc recovery were optimized and found to be 4 stages of extraction at an organic:aqueous (O:A) ratio of 3, 4 stages of scrubbing and 4 stages of stripping at an O:A ratio of 1. Deionized water (DW) was used as stripping agent to elute HAc from organic phase. In the whole batch process 96.3% acetic acid recovery was achieved. Continuous operations were successfully conducted for 100 h using a mixer-settler to examine the feasibility of the extraction system for its possible commercial application. Finally, a complete process flowsheet with material balance for the separation and recovery of HAc has been proposed.

  2. Solvent extraction equilibria of the nickel-3-(2-furyl)-2-mercaptopropenoic acid complex as an ion-pair with the diphenylguanidinium ion.

    PubMed

    Izquierdo, A; Prat, M D; Garbayo, A

    1988-12-01

    The extraction of nickel from aqueous media (0.1M NaClO(4)) with 3-(2-furyl)-2-mercaptopropenoic acid (FMPA) in dichloroethane at 25 degrees has been studied. The extraction is efficient only if a suitable counter-ion is present to form an ion-associate with the Ni-FMPA complex. The diphenylguanidinium ion has been found suitable as the counter-ion.

  3. Two-Stage Separation of V(IV) and Al(III) by Crystallization and Solvent Extraction from Aluminum-Rich Sulfuric Acid Leaching Solution of Stone Coal

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shi, Qihua; Zhang, Yimin; Liu, Tao; Huang, Jing; Liu, Hong

    2016-12-01

    To improve separation of V(IV) and Al(III) from aluminum-rich sulfuric acid leaching solution of stone coal, the two-stage separation by crystallization and solvent extraction methods have been developed. A co-extraction coefficient (k) was put forward to evaluate comprehensively co-extraction extent in different solutions. In the crystallization stage, 68.2% of aluminum can be removed from the solution. In the solvent extraction stage, vanadium was selectively extracted using di-2-ethylhexyl phosphoric acid/tri-n-butyl phosphate from the crystalline mother solution, followed by H2SO4 stripped efficiently. A V2O5 product with purity of 98.39% and only 0.10% Al was obtained after oxidation, precipitation, and calcination. Compared with vanadium extraction from solution without crystallization, the counter-current extraction stage of vanadium can be decreased from 6 to 3 and co-extraction coefficient (k) decreased from 2.51 to 0.58 with two-stage separation. It is suggested that the aluminum removal by crystallization can evidently weaken the influence of aluminum co-extraction on vanadium extraction and improve the selectivity of solvent extraction for vanadium.

  4. Electrophilic amination of amino acids with N-Boc-oxaziridines: efficient preparation of N-orthogonally diprotected hydrazino acids and piperazic acid derivatives.

    PubMed

    Hannachi, Jean-Christophe; Vidal, Joëlle; Mulatier, Jean-Christophe; Collet, André

    2004-04-02

    A general two-step preparation of enantiopure N(alpha),N(beta)-orthogonally diprotected alpha-hydrazino acids 1 is developed on a multigram scale. The key reaction is the efficient electrophilic amination of N-benzyl amino acids 6 with N-Boc-oxaziridine 7 and accommodates various functional groups encountered in side chains of amino acids. The cyclic 2,3,4,5-tetrahydro-3-pyridazine carboxylic acid (piperazic acid) derivatives 2 and 3 or the cyclic 3,4-dihydro-3-pyrazolecarboxylate 4 are conveniently prepared from glutamic acid or aspartic acid via orthogonally diprotected alpha-hydrazino acids 1m and 1n.

  5. A Solution Processed Flexible Nanocomposite Electrode with Efficient Light Extraction for Organic Light Emitting Diodes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Lu; Liang, Jiajie; Chou, Shu-Yu; Zhu, Xiaodan; Niu, Xiaofan; Zhibinyu; Pei, Qibing

    2014-03-01

    Highly efficient organic light emitting diodes (OLEDs) based on multiple layers of vapor evaporated small molecules, indium tin oxide transparent electrode, and glass substrate have been extensively investigated and are being commercialized. The light extraction from the exciton radiative decay is limited to less than 30% due to plasmonic quenching on the metallic cathode and the waveguide in the multi-layer sandwich structure. Here we report a flexible nanocomposite electrode comprising single-walled carbon nanotubes and silver nanowires stacked and embedded in the surface of a polymer substrate. Nanoparticles of barium strontium titanate are dispersed within the substrate to enhance light extraction efficiency. Green polymer OLED (PLEDs) fabricated on the nanocomposite electrode exhibit a maximum current efficiency of 118 cd/A at 10,000 cd/m2 with the calculated external quantum efficiency being 38.9%. The efficiencies of white PLEDs are 46.7 cd/A and 30.5%, respectively. The devices can be bent to 3 mm radius repeatedly without significant loss of electroluminescent performance. The nanocomposite electrode could pave the way to high-efficiency flexible OLEDs with simplified device structure and low fabrication cost.

  6. A Solution Processed Flexible Nanocomposite Electrode with Efficient Light Extraction for Organic Light Emitting Diodes

    PubMed Central

    Li, Lu; Liang, Jiajie; Chou, Shu-Yu; Zhu, Xiaodan; Niu, Xiaofan; ZhibinYu; Pei, Qibing

    2014-01-01

    Highly efficient organic light emitting diodes (OLEDs) based on multiple layers of vapor evaporated small molecules, indium tin oxide transparent electrode, and glass substrate have been extensively investigated and are being commercialized. The light extraction from the exciton radiative decay is limited to less than 30% due to plasmonic quenching on the metallic cathode and the waveguide in the multi-layer sandwich structure. Here we report a flexible nanocomposite electrode comprising single-walled carbon nanotubes and silver nanowires stacked and embedded in the surface of a polymer substrate. Nanoparticles of barium strontium titanate are dispersed within the substrate to enhance light extraction efficiency. Green polymer OLED (PLEDs) fabricated on the nanocomposite electrode exhibit a maximum current efficiency of 118 cd/A at 10,000 cd/m2 with the calculated external quantum efficiency being 38.9%. The efficiencies of white PLEDs are 46.7 cd/A and 30.5%, respectively. The devices can be bent to 3 mm radius repeatedly without significant loss of electroluminescent performance. The nanocomposite electrode could pave the way to high-efficiency flexible OLEDs with simplified device structure and low fabrication cost. PMID:24632742

  7. Extracting metal ions with diphosphonic acid, or derivative thereof

    DOEpatents

    Horwitz, Earl P.; Gatrone, Ralph C.; Nash, Kenneth L.

    1994-01-01

    Thermodynamically-unstable complexing agents which are diphosphonic acids and diphosphonic acid derivatives (or sulphur containing analogs), like carboxyhydroxymethanediphosphonic acid and vinylidene-1,1-diphosphonic acid, are capable of complexing with metal ions, and especially metal ions in the II, III, IV, V and VI oxidation states, to form stable, water-soluble metal ion complexes in moderately alkaline to highly-acidic media. However, the complexing agents can be decomposed, under mild conditions, into non-organic compounds which, for many purposes are environmentally-nondamaging compounds thereby degrading the complex and releasing the metal ion for disposal or recovery. Uses for such complexing agents as well as methods for their manufacture are also described.

  8. Membrane extraction with thermodynamically unstable diphosphonic acid derivatives

    DOEpatents

    Horwitz, Earl Philip; Gatrone, Ralph Carl; Nash, Kenneth LaVerne

    1997-01-01

    Thermodynamically-unstable complexing agents which are diphosphonic acids and diphosphonic acid derivatives (or sulphur containing analogs), like carboxyhydroxymethanediphosphonic acid and vinylidene-1,1-diphosphonic acid, are capable of complexing with metal ions, and especially metal ions in the II, III, IV, V and VI oxidation states, to form stable, water-soluble metal ion complexes in moderately alkaline to highly-acidic media. However, the complexing agents can be decomposed, under mild conditions, into non-organic compounds which, for many purposes are environmentally-nondamaging compounds thereby degrading the complex and releasing the metal ion for disposal or recovery. Uses for such complexing agents as well as methods for their manufacture are also described.

  9. Membrane extraction with thermodynamically unstable diphosphonic acid derivatives

    DOEpatents

    Horwitz, E.P.; Gatrone, R.C.; Nash, K.L.

    1997-10-14

    Thermodynamically-unstable complexing agents which are diphosphonic acids and diphosphonic acid derivatives (or sulphur containing analogs), like carboxyhydroxymethanediphosphonic acid and vinylidene-1,1-diphosphonic acid, are capable of complexing with metal ions, and especially metal ions in the II, III, IV, V and VI oxidation states, to form stable, water-soluble metal ion complexes in moderately alkaline to highly-acidic media. However, the complexing agents can be decomposed, under mild conditions, into non-organic compounds which, for many purposes are environmentally-nondamaging compounds thereby degrading the complex and releasing the metal ion for disposal or recovery. Uses for such complexing agents as well as methods for their manufacture are also described. 1 fig.

  10. Extracting metal ions with diphosphonic acid, or derivative thereof

    DOEpatents

    Horwitz, E.P.; Gatrone, R.C.; Nash, K.L.

    1994-07-26

    Thermodynamically-unstable complexing agents which are diphosphonic acids and diphosphonic acid derivatives (or sulfur containing analogs), like carboxyhydroxymethanediphosphonic acid and vinylidene-1,1-diphosphonic acid, are capable of complexing with metal ions, and especially metal ions in the II, III, IV, V and VI oxidation states, to form stable, water-soluble metal ion complexes in moderately alkaline to highly-acidic media. However, the complexing agents can be decomposed, under mild conditions, into non-organic compounds which, for many purposes are environmentally-nondamaging compounds thereby degrading the complex and releasing the metal ion for disposal or recovery. Uses for such complexing agents as well as methods for their manufacture are also described. 1 fig.

  11. Low temperature aqueous electrodeposited TiO(x) thin films as electron extraction layer for efficient inverted organic solar cells.

    PubMed

    Wong, Kim Hai; Mason, Chad William; Devaraj, Sappani; Ouyang, Jianyong; Balaya, Palani

    2014-02-26

    Organic solar cells based on poly(3-hexylthiophene) and [6,6]-phenyl-C61-butyric acid methyl ester were fabricated with electrodeposited TiOx electron extraction layers 5-180 nm thick. Electrodeposition under ambient conditions is an attractive, facile and viable approach to prepare metal oxide interfacial layers. The TiOx films obtained displayed a linear relationship between thickness and deposition time when fabricated under ambient conditions using an aqueous air stable peroxotitanium precursor. The precursor solution was prepared from titanium isopropoxide using a chelate process, which allowed water to be used as solvent due to considerably decreased sensitivity of the precursor solution towards hydrolysis. Highly conformal TiOx films, typically observed with vacuum deposition techniques, were obtained on the indium tin oxide substrate upon electrogeneration of OH(-) ions using H2O2 additive. Conversely, significantly rougher films with spherical growths were obtained using NO3(-) additives. Low temperature annealing at 200 °C in air was found to greatly improve purity and O stoichiometry of the TiOx films, enabling efficient devices incorporating the electrodeposited TiOx to be made. Using MoOx as the hole extraction layer, the maximum power conversion efficiency obtained was 3.8% (Voc = 610 mV; Jsc = 10.6 mA/cm(2); FF = 59%) under simulated 100 mW/cm(2) (AM1.5G) solar irradiation, whereas an efficiency of 3.4% was achieved with fully solution processed interfacial layers comprising the electrodeposited TiOx films and a surfactant-modified PEDOT:PSS hole extraction layer.

  12. Methods for extraction and determination of phenolic acids in medicinal plants: a review.

    PubMed

    Arceusz, Agnieszka; Wesolowski, Marek; Konieczynski, Pawel

    2013-12-01

    Phenolic acids constitute a group of potentially immunostimulating compounds. They occur in all medicinal plants and are widely used in phytotherapy and foods of plant origin. In recent years, phenolic acids have attracted much interest owing to their biological functions. This paper reviews the extraction and determination methods of phenolic acids in medicinal plants over the last 10 years. Although Soxhlet extraction and ultrasonic assisted extraction (UAE) are commonly used for the extraction of phenolic acids from plant materials, alternative techniques such as supercritical fluid extraction (SFE), and accelerated solvent extraction (ASE) can also be used. After extraction, phenolic acids are determined usually by liquid chromatography (LC) owing to the recent developments in this technique, especially when it is coupled with mass spectrometry (MS). Also detection systems are discussed, including UV-Vis, diode array, electrochemical and fluorimetric. Other popular techniques for the analysis of this group of secondary metabolites are gas chromatography coupled with mass spectrometry (GC-MS) and capillary electrophoresis (CE).

  13. Some Antifungal Properties of Sorbic Acid Extracted from Berries of Rowan (Sorbus Aucuparia).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brunner, Ulrich

    1985-01-01

    The food preservative sorbic acid can be extracted from Eurasian mountain ash berries (commercially available) and used to show antifungal properties in microbiological investigations. Techniques for extraction, purification, ultraviolet analysis, and experiments displaying antifungal activity are described. A systematic search for similar…

  14. Linking Laboratory Experiences to the Real World: The Extraction of Octylphenoxyacetic Acid from Water

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Loyo-Rosales, Jorge E.; Torrents, Alba; Rosales-Rivera, Georgina C.; Rice, Clifford C.

    2006-01-01

    Several chemical concepts to the extraction of a water pollutant OPC (octylphenoxyacetic acid) is presented. As an introduction to the laboratory experiment, a discussion on endocrine disrupters is conducted to familiarize the student with the background of the experiment and to explain the need for the extraction and quantitation of the OPC which…

  15. Nanofiltration, bipolar electrodialysis and reactive extraction hybrid system for separation of fumaric acid from fermentation broth.

    PubMed

    Prochaska, Krystyna; Staszak, Katarzyna; Woźniak-Budych, Marta Joanna; Regel-Rosocka, Magdalena; Adamczak, Michalina; Wiśniewski, Maciej; Staniewski, Jacek

    2014-09-01

    A novel approach based on a hybrid system allowing nanofiltration, bipolar electrodialysis and reactive extraction, was proposed to remove fumaric acid from fermentation broth left after bioconversion of glycerol. The fumaric salts can be concentrated in the nanofiltration process to a high yield (80-95% depending on pressure), fumaric acid can be selectively separated from other fermentation components, as well as sodium fumarate can be conversed into the acid form in bipolar electrodialysis process (stack consists of bipolar and anion-exchange membranes). Reactive extraction with quaternary ammonium chloride (Aliquat 336) or alkylphosphine oxides (Cyanex 923) solutions (yield between 60% and 98%) was applied as the final step for fumaric acid recovery from aqueous streams after the membrane techniques. The hybrid system permitting nanofiltration, bipolar electrodialysis and reactive extraction was found effective for recovery of fumaric acid from the fermentation broth.

  16. Hydroxycinnamic Acid Derivatives Obtained from a Commercial Crataegus Extract and from Authentic Crataegus spp.§

    PubMed Central

    Kuczkowiak, Ulrich; Petereit, Frank; Nahrstedt, Adolf

    2014-01-01

    Abstract Eleven hydroxycinnamic acid derivatives were isolated from a 70% methanolic Crataegus extract (Crataegi folium cum flore) and partly verified and quantified for individual Crataegus species (C. laevigata, C. monogyna, C. nigra, C. pentagyna) by HPLC: 3-O-(E)-p-coumaroylquinic acid (1), 5-O-(E)-p-coumaroyl-quinic acid (2), 4-O-(E)-p-coumaroylquinic acid (3), 3-O-(E)-caffeoylquinic acid (4), 4-O-(E)-caffeoylquinic acid (5), 5-O-(E)-caffeoylquinic acid (6), 3,5-di-O-(E)-caffeoylquinic acid (7), 4,5-di-O-(E)-caffeoylquinic acid (8), (-)-2-O-(E)-caffeoyl-L-threonic acid (9), (-)-4-O-(E)-caffeoyl-L-threonic acid (10), and (-)-4-O-(E)-p-coumaroyl-L-threonic acid (11). Further, (-)-2-O-(E)-caffeoyl-D-malic acid (12) was isolated from C. submollis and also identified for C. pentagyna and C. nigra by co-chromatography. The isolates 10 and 11 were not found in the authentic fresh specimen, indicating that they may be formed during extraction by acyl migration from the 2-O-acylderivatives. Also, 9 and 11 are described here for the first time. All structures were assigned on the basis of their spectroscopic data (1H-, 13C-NMR, MS, optical rotation). PMID:26171328

  17. Analysis of fatty acids and phytosterols in ethanol extracts of Nelumbo nucifera seeds and rhizomes by GC-MS.

    PubMed

    Zhao, Xu; Shen, Jian; Chang, Kyung Ja; Kim, Sung Hoon

    2013-07-17

    The purpose of this study was to investigate the fatty acid and phytosterol contents in ethanol extracts of lotus seeds and rhizomes. These ethanol extracts were extracted with hexane. The hexane extracts were hydrolyzed in a microwave reactor, and total fatty acids and phytosterols were analyzed. The hexane extracts were also subjected to silica gel column chromatography. Nonpolar components (triglycerides and steryl-fatty acid esters) were hydrolyzed, and then the contents were analyzed. Polar components (diglycerides, monoglycerides, fatty acids, and phytosterols) were analyzed directly. Seeds contained higher concentrations of fatty acids and phytosterols compared to rhizomes. Linoleic acid, palmitic acid, and oleic acid were the main fatty acid components in seeds and rhizomes, and most of them in seeds were in the ester form. In seeds, phytosterols existed mainly in the free form rather than in steryl-fatty acid ester form. β-Sitosterol was the most abundant phytosterol in seeds and rhizomes.

  18. Nucleic acids extraction from laser microdissected FFPE tissue sections.

    PubMed

    Burgemeister, Renate

    2011-01-01

    Tissue heterogeneity is a common source of unsuccessful experiments. Laser capture microdissection is a tool to prepare homogeneous tissue and cell areas as starting material for reliable and reproducible results as it allows the defined investigation of spatially different tissue areas.Nearly all samples allow the extraction of DNA. Fresh or fresh frozen samples are an ideal source for getting access to high-quality RNA. But also the large archives of formalin-fixed, paraffin-embedded (FFPE) tissue specimens are a valuable source of sample material for RNA extraction. Optimized protocols may help to make the RNA from FFPE material suitable for expression studies.

  19. Separation of Technetium in Nitric Acid Solution With an Extractant Impregnated Resin

    SciTech Connect

    Jei Kwon Moon; Eil Hee Lee; Chong-Hun Jung; Byung Chul Lee

    2006-07-01

    An extractant impregnated resin (EIR) was prepared by impregnation of Aliquat 336 into Amberlite XAD-4 for separation of technetium from rhodium in nitric acid solution. The prepared EIR showed high preference for rhenium (chemical analogue of technetium) over rhodium. The adsorption isotherms for rhenium were described well by Langmuir equation in both the single and multi-component systems. Maximum adsorption capacities obtained by modelling the isotherms of rhenium were 2.01 meq g{sup -1} and 1.97 meq g{sup -1} for the single and the multi-component systems, respectively. Column tests were also performed to confirm the separation efficiency of rhenium using a jacketed glass column (diam. 11 x L 150). The EIR column showed successful separation of rhenium with the breakthrough volume of about 122 BV for the breakthrough concentration of 0.08. Also the breakthrough data were modelled successfully by assuming a homogeneous diffusion model in the particle phase. The diffusivities obtained from the modelling were in the order of 10{sup -7} cm{sup 2} min{sup -1} for a rhenium. The rhenium adsorbed on the bed could be eluted with a high purity by using a nitric acid solution. (authors)

  20. Solid phase extraction-spectrophotometric determination of salicylic acid using magnetic iron oxide nanoparticles as extractor.

    PubMed

    Parham, Hooshang; Rahbar, Nadereh

    2009-08-15

    This method shows a novel, fast and simple solid phase extraction-spectrophotometric procedure for preconcentration and determination of salicylic acid (SA) in blood serum using magnetic iron oxide nanoparticles (MIONs) as extractor. It is shown that the novel magnetic nano-adsorbent is quite efficient for fast adsorption of SA at 25 degrees C. Various parameters affecting the adsorption of SA on MIONs, such as pH of solution, type, volume and concentration of desorbing reagent and amount of adsorbent and matrix effects, have been investigated. The calibration graph for the determination of SA was linear in the range of 0.025-1.250microgmL(-1). The limit of detection (LOD) based on three times the standard deviation of the blank (3S(b)) was 5.5x10(-3)microgmL(-1) (n=10) for SA. The intra-day precision (R.S.D.) was below 10.1% and inter-day R.S.D. was less than 17.5%, while accuracy (relative error R.E.) was within +/-3.6 determined from quality control samples for salicylic acid (SA) which corresponded to requirement of the guidance of Food and Drug Administration (FDA). The preconcentration factor of 100 was achieved in this method. The proposed procedure has been successfully applied to the determination of SA in blood serum.

  1. Are the fatty acids responsible for the higher effect of oil and alcoholic extract of Nigella sativa over its aqueous extract on Trichomonas vaginalis trophozoites?

    PubMed

    Mahmoud, Mona Abd El-Fattah Ahmad; Aminou, Heba AbdelKader; Hashem, Hanan Ahmed

    2016-03-01

    Trichomoniasis, the disease caused by the flagellate protozoan Trichomonas vaginalis is the sexually transmitted infection with the largest annual incidence. Metronidazole is the drug of choice recommended for the treatment of human trichomoniasis but it can lead to drug resistance and many other adverse effects. So, it is necessary for new alternatives for the treatment of this infection. Medicinal plants or herbs could be good alternative regimens to be inexpensive, effective and safe to use. In the present study, the therapeutic potential of Nigella sativa aqueous and alcoholic extracts as well as seeds oil was examined. Different concentrations of these plant preparations were incubated in vitro with cultivated T. vaginalis trophozoites and its effect on growth was compared with metronidazole under the same conditions. Both the alcoholic extract and oil proved to be valuable agents as efficient as metronidazole in treating T. vaginalis infection. The remarkable effect of N. sativa oil may be attributed to the fact that the active principles extracted from N. sativa seeds are mostly from its essential oil (omega 3, 6, 9 as well as 7 fatty acids). However, further experimental and clinical investigations are needed to evaluate and standardize the doses of these natural products to be safe and efficient.

  2. Original Research: Effect of various dietary fats on fatty acid profile in duck liver: Efficient conversion of short-chain to long-chain omega-3 fatty acids.

    PubMed

    Chen, Xi; Du, Xue; Shen, Jianliang; Lu, Lizhi; Wang, Weiqun

    2017-01-01

    Omega-3 fatty acids, especially long-chain omega-3 fatty acids, have been associated with potential health benefits for chronic disease prevention. Our previous studies found that dietary omega-3 fatty acids could accumulate in the meat and eggs in a duck model. This study was to reveal the effects of various dietary fats on fatty acid profile and conversion of omega-3 fatty acids in duck liver. Female Shan Partridge Ducks were randomly assigned to five dietary treatments, each consisting of 6 replicates of 30 birds. The experimental diets substituted the basal diet by 2% of flaxseed oil, rapeseed oil, beef tallow, or fish oil, respectively. In addition, a dose response study was further conducted for flaxseed and fish oil diets at 0.5%, 1%, and 2%, respectively. At the end of the five-week treatment, fatty acids were extracted from the liver samples and analyzed by GC-FID. As expected, the total omega-3 fatty acids and the ratio of total omega-3/omega-6 significantly increased in both flaxseed and fish oil groups when compared with the control diet. No significant change of total saturated fatty acids or omega-3 fatty acids was found in both rapeseed and beef tallow groups. The dose response study further indicated that 59-81% of the short-chain omega-3 ALA in flaxseed oil-fed group was efficiently converted to long-chain DHA in the duck liver, whereas 1% of dietary flaxseed oil could produce an equivalent level of DHA as 0.5% of dietary fish oil. The more omega-3 fatty acids, the less omega-6 fatty acids in the duck liver. Taken together, this study showed the fatty acid profiling in the duck liver after various dietary fat consumption, provided insight into a dose response change of omega-3 fatty acids, indicated an efficient conversion of short- to long-chain omega-3 fatty acid, and suggested alternative long-chain omega-3 fatty acid-enriched duck products for human health benefits.

  3. Comparison of classic with novel in situ extraction of soil amino acids from grassland soil

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, J.; Williams, D. G.

    2012-12-01

    Characterization of organic and inorganic soil nitrogen availability is important for determining ecosystem response to global change, as nitrogen limitation is often a major constraint on ecosystem productivity. Classic methods of soil nitrogen extraction involve field collection of soil samples and disturbance of soil aggregates during processing. A novel method of soil amino acid extraction is described that allows the collection of semi-sterile soil water extracts in situ with minimal disturbance to soils. Comparison of samples collected using this novel method to samples collected in parallel using classic methods developed by Brookes et al. 1985 and Kielland 1994 revealed different detectable amino acid N pools relative to ammonium. Glutamate and arginine comprised the highest amino acid N pools from extracts collected from a semiarid grassland site using this new method of extraction. In contrast, samples collected and extracted using the classic method contained higher relative levels of serine, glycine and glutamate. The amounts of dominant amino acids relative to ammonium were significantly greater using the classic method compared to the new method. These observed higher ratios of amino acids to ammonium are likely the result of additional amino acid inputs by lysis of microorganisms which are not removed when filtering in the classic method. Disturbance associated with classic methods of soil N determination may have led to alterations in the quantity and distribution of ammonium and amino acids in extracts. Minimizing disturbance of soil aggregates when sampling nitrogen pools and selection of an appropriate filter for collecting free amino acids may be important for accurately determining nitrogen availability to plant roots and soil microbes.

  4. Extractive fermentation for butyric acid production from glucose by Clostridium tyrobutyricum.

    PubMed

    Wu, Zetang; Yang, Shang-Tian

    2003-04-05

    A novel extractive fermentation for butyric acid production from glucose, using immobilized cells of Clostridium tyrobutyricum in a fibrous bed bioreactor, was developed by using 10% (v/v) Alamine 336 in oleyl alcohol as the extractant contained in a hollow-fiber membrane extractor for selective removal of butyric acid from the fermentation broth. The extractant was simultaneously regenerated by stripping with NaOH in a second membrane extractor. The fermentation pH was self-regulated by a balance between acid production and removal by extraction, and was kept at approximately pH 5.5 throughout the study. Compared with conventional fermentation, extractive fermentation resulted in a much higher product concentration (>300 g/L) and product purity (91%). It also resulted in higher reactor productivity (7.37 g/L. h) and butyric acid yield (0.45 g/g). Without on-line extraction to remove the acid products, at the optimal pH of 6.0, the final butyric acid concentration was only approximately 43.4 g/L, butyric acid yield was 0.423 g/g, and reactor productivity was 6.77 g/L. h. These values were much lower at pH 5.5: 20.4 g/L, 0.38 g/g, and 5.11 g/L. h, respectively. The improved performance for extractive fermentation can be attributed to the reduced product inhibition by selective removal of butyric acid from the fermentation broth. The solvent was found to be toxic to free cells in suspension, but not harmful to cells immobilized in the fibrous bed. The process was stable and provided consistent long-term performance for the entire 2-week period of study.

  5. Recovery of uranium from phosphoric acid medium by polymeric composite beads encapsulating organophosphorus extractants

    SciTech Connect

    Singh, D.K.; Yadav, K.K.; Varshney, L.; Singh, H.

    2013-07-01

    The present study deals with the preparation and evaluation of the poly-ethersulfone (PES) based composite beads encapsulating synergistic mixture of D2EHPA and Cyanex 923 (at 4:1 mole ratio) for the separation of uranium from phosphoric acid medium. SEM was used for the characterization of the composite materials. Addition of 1% PVA (polyvinyl alcohol) improved the internal morphology and porosity of the beads. Additionally, microscopic examination of the composite bead confirmed central coconut type cavity surrounded by porous polymer layer of the beads through which exchange of metal ions take place. Effect of various experimental variables including aqueous acidity, metal ion concentration in aqueous feed, concentration of organic extractant inside the beads, extractant to polymer ratio, liquid to solid (L/S) ratio and temperature on the extraction of uranium was studied. Increase in acidity (1-6 M), L/S ratio (1- 10), metal ion concentration (0.2-3 g/L U{sub 3}O{sub 8}) and polymer to extractant ratio (1:4 -1:10) led to decrease in extraction of uranium. At 5.5 M (comparable to wet process phosphoric acid concentration) the extraction of uranium was about 85% at L/S ratio 5. Increase in extractant concentration inside the bead resulted in enhanced extraction of metal ion. Increase in temperature in the range of 30 to 50 Celsius degrees increased the extraction, whereas further increase to 70 C degrees led to the decrease in extraction of uranium. Amongst various reagents tested, stripping of uranium was quantitative by 12% Na{sub 2}CO{sub 3} solution. Polymeric beads were found to be stable and reusable up-to 10 cycles of extraction/stripping. (authors)

  6. Enhancement of light extraction efficiency of vertical LED with patterned graphene as current spreading layer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Singh, Sumitra; Sai Nandini, Annam Deepthi; Pal, Suchandan; Dhanavantri, Chenna

    2016-01-01

    In this paper we report an optimised pattern of surface textured graphene current spreading layer (CSL) for the enhancement of light extraction efficiency (LEE) in InGaN/GaN vertical light emitting diodes (V-LEDs). It is found that by texturing graphene surface LEE improves drastically. This improvement is attributed to better current spreading of graphene and increased random and multiple scattering of light through textured surfaces. Simulation results illustrate that V-LEDs with surface textured (hexagonal pattern) ITO as CSL shows threefold improvement in light extraction efficiency compared to V-LEDs with no surface texturing on ITO CSL. Further, LEE of V-LEDs having patterned graphene CSL is compared with that for indium tin oxide (ITO) CSL. V-LEDs with optimised hexagonal patterning on graphene CSL shows 13.42% enhancement of LEE compared to that of LED with hexagonal patterning on ITO surface.

  7. SETG: Nucleic Acid Extraction and Sequencing for In Situ Life Detection on Mars

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mojarro, A.; Hachey, J.; Tani, J.; Smith, A.; Bhattaru, S. A.; Pontefract, A.; Doebler, R.; Brown, M.; Ruvkun, G.; Zuber, M. T.; Carr, C. E.

    2016-10-01

    We are developing an integrated nucleic acid extraction and sequencing instrument: the Search for Extra-Terrestrial Genomes (SETG) for in situ life detection on Mars. Our goals are to identify related or unrelated nucleic acid-based life on Mars.

  8. Rosmarinic acid content in antidiabetic aqueous extract of Ocimum canum Sims grown in Ghana

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Rosmarinic acid (RA) is an important polyphenol that is found in a variety of herbs including Ocimum canum sims (locally called eme or akokobesa in Ghana). Aqueous extracts from the leaves of O.canum are used as an antidiabetic herbal medicine in Ghana. Interestingly, rosmarinic acid content and p...

  9. Influence of gelatinization on the extraction of phenolic acids from wheat fractions

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The effect of gelatinization on the analysis of phenolic acids from wheat bran, whole-wheat, and refined flour samples was investigated using two extraction procedures, namely, ultrasonic (UAE) and microwave (MAE). The total phenolic acid (TPA) concentration quantity in wheat bran (2711-2913 µg/g) w...

  10. Effects of hops (Humulus lupulus L.) extract on volatile fatty acid production by rumen bacteria

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Aims: To determine the effects of hops extract, on in vitro volatile fatty acid (VFA) production by bovine rumen microorganisms. Methods and Results: When mixed rumen microbes were suspended in media containing carbohydrates, the initial rates of VFA production were suppressed by beta-acid rich hops...

  11. 21 CFR 173.280 - Solvent extraction process for citric acid.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... conventional Aspergillus niger fermentation liquor may be safely used to produce food-grade citric acid in... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2010-04-01 2009-04-01 true Solvent extraction process for citric acid. 173.280 Section 173.280 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN...

  12. 21 CFR 173.280 - Solvent extraction process for citric acid.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... conventional Aspergillus niger fermentation liquor may be safely used to produce food-grade citric acid in... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Solvent extraction process for citric acid. 173.280 Section 173.280 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND...

  13. 21 CFR 173.280 - Solvent extraction process for citric acid.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... conventional Aspergillus niger fermentation liquor may be safely used to produce food-grade citric acid in... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Solvent extraction process for citric acid. 173.280 Section 173.280 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND...

  14. 21 CFR 173.280 - Solvent extraction process for citric acid.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... conventional Aspergillus niger fermentation liquor may be safely used to produce food-grade citric acid in... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Solvent extraction process for citric acid. 173.280 Section 173.280 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND...

  15. [Multi-objective optimization of extraction process for red ginseng based upon extraction efficiency and cost control].

    PubMed

    Zhong, Yi; Zhu, Jie-Qiang; Fan, Xiao-Hui; Kang, Li-Yuan; Li, Zheng

    2014-07-01

    It is the objective of this study to optimize the extraction process of red ginseng to minimize the unit cost of extracting effective ingredients. The relation between the target variables of total quantity of ginsenosides and first extraction time, first extraction solution amount, second extraction time, second extract solution amount were studied with Box-Behnken experimental design method. At the same we also considered the cost of extraction solution and energy usage. The objective function was set as unit cost of target (total quantity of ginsenosides or its purity) for the multi-objective optimization of extraction process. As a result, the optimal process parameters were found as first extraction time (108.7 min), first extraction solution amount folds (12), second extraction time (30 min), second extraction solution amount folds (8) to minimize the unit cost. It indicated that this approach could potentially be used to optimize industrial extraction process for manufacturing Chinese medicine.

  16. Comparative study on two-step concentrated acid hydrolysis for the extraction of sugars from lignocellulosic biomass.

    PubMed

    Wijaya, Yanuar Philip; Putra, Robertus Dhimas Dhewangga; Widyaya, Vania Tanda; Ha, Jeong-Myeong; Suh, Dong Jin; Kim, Chang Soo

    2014-07-01

    Among all the feasible thermochemical conversion processes, concentrated acid hydrolysis has been applied to break the crystalline structure of cellulose efficiently and scale up for mass production as lignocellulosic biomass fractionation process. Process conditions are optimized by investigating the effect of decrystallization sulfuric acid concentration (65-80 wt%), hydrolysis temperature (80°C and 100°C), hydrolysis reaction time (during two hours), and biomass species (oak wood, pine wood, and empty fruit bunch (EFB) of palm oil) toward sugar recovery. At the optimum process condition, 78-96% sugars out of theoretically extractable sugars have been fractionated by concentrated sulfuric acid hydrolysis of the three different biomass species with 87-90 g/L sugar concentration in the hydrolyzate and highest recalcitrance of pine (softwood) was determined by the correlation of crystallinity index and sugar yield considering reaction severity.

  17. An optimal control method for maximizing the efficiency of direct drive ocean wave energy extraction system.

    PubMed

    Chen, Zhongxian; Yu, Haitao; Wen, Cheng

    2014-01-01

    The goal of direct drive ocean wave energy extraction system is to convert ocean wave energy into electricity. The problem explored in this paper is the design and optimal control for the direct drive ocean wave energy extraction system. An optimal control method based on internal model proportion integration differentiation (IM-PID) is proposed in this paper though most of ocean wave energy extraction systems are optimized by the structure, weight, and material. With this control method, the heavy speed of outer heavy buoy of the energy extraction system is in resonance with incident wave, and the system efficiency is largely improved. Validity of the proposed optimal control method is verified in both regular and irregular ocean waves, and it is shown that IM-PID control method is optimal in that it maximizes the energy conversion efficiency. In addition, the anti-interference ability of IM-PID control method has been assessed, and the results show that the IM-PID control method has good robustness, high precision, and strong anti-interference ability.

  18. A Rapid and Economical Method for Efficient DNA Extraction from Diverse Soils Suitable for Metagenomic Applications

    PubMed Central

    Devi, Selvaraju Gayathri; Fathima, Anwar Aliya; Radha, Sudhakar; Arunraj, Rex; Curtis, Wayne R.; Ramya, Mohandass

    2015-01-01

    A rapid, cost effective method of metagenomic DNA extraction from soil is a useful tool for environmental microbiology. The present work describes an improved method of DNA extraction namely “powdered glass method” from diverse soils. The method involves the use of sterile glass powder for cell lysis followed by addition of 1% powdered activated charcoal (PAC) as purifying agent to remove humic substances. The method yielded substantial DNA (5.87 ± 0.04 μg/g of soil) with high purity (A260/280: 1.76 ± 0.05) and reduced humic substances (A340: 0.047 ± 0.03). The quality of the extracted DNA was compared against five different methods based on 16S rDNA PCR amplification, BamHI digestion and validated using quantitative PCR. The digested DNA was used for a metagenomic library construction with the transformation efficiency of 4 X 106 CFU mL-1. Besides providing rapid, efficient and economical extraction of metgenomic DNA from diverse soils, this method’s applicability is also demonstrated for cultivated organisms (Gram positive B. subtilis NRRL-B-201, Gram negative E. coli MTCC40, and a microalgae C. sorokiniana UTEX#1666). PMID:26167854

  19. An Optimal Control Method for Maximizing the Efficiency of Direct Drive Ocean Wave Energy Extraction System

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Zhongxian; Yu, Haitao; Wen, Cheng

    2014-01-01

    The goal of direct drive ocean wave energy extraction system is to convert ocean wave energy into electricity. The problem explored in this paper is the design and optimal control for the direct drive ocean wave energy extraction system. An optimal control method based on internal model proportion integration differentiation (IM-PID) is proposed in this paper though most of ocean wave energy extraction systems are optimized by the structure, weight, and material. With this control method, the heavy speed of outer heavy buoy of the energy extraction system is in resonance with incident wave, and the system efficiency is largely improved. Validity of the proposed optimal control method is verified in both regular and irregular ocean waves, and it is shown that IM-PID control method is optimal in that it maximizes the energy conversion efficiency. In addition, the anti-interference ability of IM-PID control method has been assessed, and the results show that the IM-PID control method has good robustness, high precision, and strong anti-interference ability. PMID:25152913

  20. New efficient calixarene amide ionophores for the selective removal of strontium ion from nuclear waste: synthesis, complexation, and extraction properties.

    PubMed

    Casnati, A; Barboso, S; Rouquette, H; Schwing-Weill, M J; Arnaud-Neu, F; Dozol, J F; Ungaro, R

    2001-12-12

    Three novel lower rim hexamide derivatives 5(6), 7(6), and 9(6) of p-hydroxycalix[6]arene and four octamides 5(8), 7(8)-9(8) derived from the corresponding p-hydroxycalix[8]arene were synthesized, and their potential as extractants in radioactive waste treatment was evaluated, in comparison with upper rim analogues 12(6) and 12(8) and other existing selective neutral ionophores currently used in radioactive waste treatment. Extraction of alkali and alkaline earth metal picrates from water to dichloromethane, and of the corresponding nitrates from acidic water solution simulating radioactive waste, to 2-nitrophenyl hexyl ether (NPHE), showed that the lower rim amides extract divalent cations much better than monovalent ones. The upper rim hexa-12(6) and octamide 12(8) are very inefficient ligands, hardly extracting any cation. In all cases, p-alkoxy octamides are more efficient and selective extractants than the corresponding hexamides. In the case of simulated waste solutions, the distribution coefficients for strontium removal by octamides (6.5 < D(Sr) < 30) are much higher than the corresponding value (D(Sr)) found for dicyclohexyl-18-crown-6 (DC18C6), and the same applies for the strontium/sodium selectivity, which is 6500 < D(Sr)/D(Na) < 30 000 for octamides and 47 for DC18C6. ESI-MS, UV-vis, and X-ray crystal structure studies give consistent results and indicate the formation of 2:1 (cation/ligand) strontium complexes for all octamides tested. Stability constants were determined in homogeneous methanol solution for alkali metal (log beta(11) < or = 2), calcium (4.3 < or = log beta(11) < or = 6.0; 9.4 < or = log beta(21) < or = 12.0), and strontium (5.6 < or = log beta(11) < or = 12.3) ions using a UV-vis competition method with 1-(2-pyridylazo)-2-naphthol (PAN). They confirm the high efficiency and high divalent/monovalent selectivity found in metal ion extraction experiments for the new octamide ligands. Evidence for a positive cooperative effect between the

  1. A magnetic sorbent for the efficient and rapid extraction of organic micropollutants from large-volume environmental water samples.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Mancheng; Zhou, Qing; Li, Aimin; Shuang, Chendong; Wang, Wei; Wang, Mengqiao

    2013-11-05

    A magnetic solid-phase extraction (MSPE) method based on a novel magnetic sorbent was proposed for the extraction of target compounds from large-volume water samples. First, magnetic hypercrosslinked microspheres (NAND-1) were prepared via membrane emulsification-suspension polymerization and post crosslinking reaction. To ensure that the Fe3O4 nanoparticles could completely pass through the membrane without blocking the pores, oleic acid was used to modify the Fe3O4 nanoparticles, which enhanced lipophilicity and monodispersity of the magnetite nanoparticles. The obtained NAND-1 microspheres exhibited super paramagnetic characteristics and excellent magnetic responsiveness with a saturation magnetization of 2.53 emu/g. In addition, a uniform particle size (~8 μm) and a large average surface area (1303.59 m(2)/g) were also observed, which were both beneficial for the extraction of the target compounds. Thus, NAND-1 has the potential to simultaneously exhibit good extraction efficiencies toward different types of organic micropollutants (OMPs), including triazines, carbamazepine and diethyl phthalate. The conditions of the MSPE based on NAND-1 were optimized by single factor and orthogonal design experiments. This MSPE method needed only a small amount of sorbent (50mg/L) for the extraction of OMPs from a large-volume aquatic sample (5L) and reached equilibrium in a short amount of time (30 min). Moreover, the solution volume, the pH, and the salinity had insignificant influences on the extraction of the eight target OMPs. Under the optimum conditions, the recoveries of the eight OMPs calculated by analyzing the spiked samples were from 91.7% to 99.4%. The NAND-1 could be recycled ten times and still achieve recoveries of the eight OMPs higher than 86%. The limits of detection of the eight OMPs ranged from 1.76 to 27.56 ng/L, and the limits of quantification were from 5.71 to 92.05 ng/L. These results indicated that the proposed method, based on the use of NAND-1

  2. Effect of chlorogenic acid on antioxidant activity of Flos Lonicerae extracts*

    PubMed Central

    Wu, Lan

    2007-01-01

    Flos Lonicerae is a medically useful traditional Chinese medicine herb. However, little is known about the antioxidant properties of Flos Lonicerae extracts. Here the antioxidant capacity of water, methanolic and ethanolic extracts prepared from Flos Lonicerae to scavenge 1,1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) radical and reduce Fe3+ to Fe2+ is examined. Chlorogenic acid, a major component of Flos Lonicerae, is identified and further purified from 70% ethanolic extract with high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) and its antioxidant capacity is characterized. The total phenolic compounds and chlorogenic acid contents in Flos Lonicerae are determined. The present results demonstrate that the Flos Lonicerae extracts exhibit antioxidant activity and chlorogenic acid is a major contributor to this activity. PMID:17726749

  3. Downstream extraction process development for recovery of organic acids from a fermentation broth.

    PubMed

    Bekatorou, Argyro; Dima, Agapi; Tsafrakidou, Panagiotia; Boura, Konstantina; Lappa, Katerina; Kandylis, Panagiotis; Pissaridi, Katerina; Kanellaki, Maria; Koutinas, Athanasios A

    2016-11-01

    The present study focused on organic acids (OAs) recovery from an acidogenic fermentation broth, which is the main problem regarding the use of OAs for production of ester-based new generation biofuels or other applications. Specifically, 10 solvents were evaluated for OAs recovery from aqueous media and fermentation broths. The effects of pH, solvent/OAs solution ratios and application of successive extractions were studied. The 1:1 solvent/OAs ratio showed the best recovery rates in most cases. Butyric and isobutyric acids showed the highest recovery rates (80-90%), while lactic, succinic, and acetic acids were poorly recovered (up to 45%). The OAs recovery was significantly improved by successive 10-min extractions. Alcohols presented the best extraction performance. The process using repeated extractions with 3-methyl-1-butanol led to the highest OAs recovery. However, 1-butanol can be considered as the most cost-effective option taking into account its price and availability.

  4. Comparison of Three Solid Phase Materials for the Extraction of Carboxylic Acids from River Water Followed by 2D GC × GC-TOFMS Determination

    PubMed Central

    Bosire, G. O.; Ngila, J. C.; Parshotam, H.

    2016-01-01

    The extraction and determination of aliphatic and aromatic carboxylic acids as well as their influence on the aromaticity and molecularity relationship of natural organic matter (NOM) in water are reported in this study. Three solid phase extraction (SPE) sorbents were used and their extraction efficiencies evaluated after chromatographic determinations (using gas chromatography with a time of flight mass spectrometer (GC × GC-TOFMS) and liquid chromatography with organic carbon detector (LC-OCD)). More than 42 carboxylic acids were identified in raw water from the Vaal River, which feeds the Lethabo Power Generation Station, South Africa, with cooling water. The aromatic carboxylic acid efficiency (28%) was achieved by using Strata™ X SPE while the highest aliphatic carboxylic acid efficiency (92.08%) was achieved by silica SPE. The hydrophobic nature of NOM in water depends on the nature of organic compounds in water, whether aromatic or aliphatic. The LC-OCD was used to assess the hydrophobicity levels of NOM as a function of these carboxylic acids in cooling water. The LC-OCD results showed that the aromatic nature of NOM in SPE filtered water followed the order Silica>Strata X>C-18. From the results, the hydrophobicity degree of the samples depended on the type and number of carboxylic acids that were removed by the SPE cartridges. PMID:27274730

  5. Comparison of Three Solid Phase Materials for the Extraction of Carboxylic Acids from River Water Followed by 2D GC × GC-TOFMS Determination.

    PubMed

    Bosire, G O; Ngila, J C; Parshotam, H

    2016-01-01

    The extraction and determination of aliphatic and aromatic carboxylic acids as well as their influence on the aromaticity and molecularity relationship of natural organic matter (NOM) in water are reported in this study. Three solid phase extraction (SPE) sorbents were used and their extraction efficiencies evaluated after chromatographic determinations (using gas chromatography with a time of flight mass spectrometer (GC × GC-TOFMS) and liquid chromatography with organic carbon detector (LC-OCD)). More than 42 carboxylic acids were identified in raw water from the Vaal River, which feeds the Lethabo Power Generation Station, South Africa, with cooling water. The aromatic carboxylic acid efficiency (28%) was achieved by using Strata™ X SPE while the highest aliphatic carboxylic acid efficiency (92.08%) was achieved by silica SPE. The hydrophobic nature of NOM in water depends on the nature of organic compounds in water, whether aromatic or aliphatic. The LC-OCD was used to assess the hydrophobicity levels of NOM as a function of these carboxylic acids in cooling water. The LC-OCD results showed that the aromatic nature of NOM in SPE filtered water followed the order Silica>Strata X>C-18. From the results, the hydrophobicity degree of the samples depended on the type and number of carboxylic acids that were removed by the SPE cartridges.

  6. Inhibition effects on fermentation of hardwood extracted hemicelluloses by acetic acid and sodium.

    PubMed

    Walton, Sara; van Heiningen, Adriaan; van Walsum, Peter

    2010-03-01

    Extraction of hemicellulose from hardwood chips prior to pulping is a possible method for producing ethanol and acetic acid in an integrated forest bio-refinery, adding value to wood components normally relegated to boiler fuel. Hemicellulose was extracted from hardwood chips using green liquor, a pulping liquor intermediate consisting of aqueous NaOH, Na(2)CO(3), and Na(2)S, at 160 degrees C, held for 110 min in a 20 L rocking digester. The extracted liquor contained 3.7% solids and had a pH of 5.6. The organic content of the extracts was mainly xylo-oligosaccharides and acetic acid. Because it was dilute, the hemicellulose extract was concentrated by evaporation in a thin film evaporator. Concentrates from the evaporator reached levels of up to 10% solids. Inhibitors such as acetic acid and sodium were also concentrated by this method, presenting a challenge for the fermentation organisms. Fermentation experiments were conducted with Escherichia coli K011. The un-concentrated extract supported approximately 70% conversion of the initial sugars in 14 h. An extract evaporated down to 6% solids was also fermentable while a 10% solids extract was not initially fermentable. Strain conditioning was later found to enable fermentation at this level of concentration. Alternative processing schemes or inhibitor removal prior to fermentation are necessary to produce ethanol economically.

  7. Phenolic acids, antioxidant and antiproliferative activities of Naviglio® extracts from Schizogyne sericea (Asteraceae).

    PubMed

    Caprioli, Giovanni; Iannarelli, Romilde; Sagratini, Gianni; Vittori, Sauro; Zorzetto, Christian; Sánchez-Mateo, Candelaria C; Rabanal, Rosa M; Quassinti, Luana; Bramucci, Massimo; Vitali, Luca A; Petrelli, Dezemona; Lupidi, Giulio; Venditti, Alessandro; Maggi, Filippo

    2017-03-01

    Schizogyne sericea, well-known as 'salado', is a halophytic shrub widespread on coastal rocks of Tenerife (Canary Islands). This plant is used traditionally as analgesic, astringent, anti-inflammatory and vulnerary agent. In the present work, we have analysed the aqueous and ethanolic extracts of S. sericea for the content of phenolic acids by HPLC-DAD. The dynamic solid-liquid Naviglio® extractor was used to extract the flowering aerial parts. Aqueous extracts showed higher levels of phenolics than ethanolic extracts. S. sericea extracts were rich in chlorogenic and isochlorogenic acids. The Naviglio® extracts obtained were assayed for in vitro biological activities, namely antioxidant, antimicrobial and cytotoxicity on tumour cells by DPPH, ABTS, FRAP, agar disc-diffusion and MTT methods, respectively. Results showed that aqueous extracts, being richer in phenolic acids, are endowed with relevant radical scavenging activity (TEAC values in the range 208-960 μmol TE/g) while ethanolic extracts exhibited noteworthy antiproliferative effects on tumour cells.

  8. Determination of arsenic species in solid matrices utilizing supercritical fluid extraction coupled with gas chromatography after derivatization with thioglycolic acid n-butyl ester.

    PubMed

    Wang, Zhifeng; Cui, Zhaojie

    2016-12-01

    A method using derivatization and supercritical fluid extraction coupled with gas chromatography was developed for the analysis of dimethylarsinate, monomethylarsonate and inorganic arsenic simultaneously in solid matrices. Thioglycolic acid n-butyl ester was used as a novel derivatizing reagent. A systematic discussion was made to investigate the effects of pressure, temperature, flow rate of the supercritical CO2 , extraction time, concentration of the modifier, and microemulsion on extraction efficiency. The application for real environmental samples was also studied. Results showed that thioglycolic acid n-butyl ester was an effective derivatizing reagent that could be applied for arsenic speciation. Using methanol as modifier of the supercritical CO2 can raise the extraction efficiency, which can be further enhanced by adding a microemulsion that contains Triton X-405. The optimum extraction conditions were: 25 MPa, 90°C, static extraction for 10 min, dynamic extraction for 25 min with a flow rate of 2.0 mL/min of supercritical CO2 modified by 5% v/v methanol and microemulsion. The detection limits of dimethylarsinate, monomethylarsonate, and inorganic arsenic in solid matrices were 0.12, 0.26, and 1.1 mg/kg, respectively. The optimized method was sensitive, convenient, and reliable for the extraction and analysis of different arsenic species in solid samples.

  9. Production of lactic acid from hemicellulose extracts by Bacillus coagulans MXL-9.

    PubMed

    Walton, Sara L; Bischoff, Kenneth M; van Heiningen, Adriaan R P; van Walsum, G Peter

    2010-08-01

    Bacillus coagulans MXL-9 was found capable of growing on pre-pulping hemicellulose extracts, utilizing all of the principle monosugars found in woody biomass. This organism is a moderate thermophile isolated from compost for its pentose-utilizing capabilities. It was found to have high tolerance for inhibitors such as acetic acid and sodium, which are present in pre-pulping hemicellulose extracts. Fermentation of 20 g/l xylose in the presence of 30 g/l acetic acid required a longer lag phase but overall lactic acid yield was not diminished. Similarly, fermentation of xylose in the presence of 20 g/l sodium increased the lag time but did not affect overall product yield, though 30 g/l sodium proved completely inhibitory. Fermentation of hot water-extracted Siberian larch containing 45 g/l total monosaccharides, mainly galactose and arabinose, produced 33 g/l lactic acid in 60 h and completely consumed all sugars. Small amounts of co-products were formed, including acetic acid, formic acid, and ethanol. Hemicellulose extract formed during autohydrolysis of mixed hardwoods contained mainly xylose and was converted into lactic acid with a 94% yield. Green liquor-extracted hardwood hemicellulose containing 10 g/l acetic acid and 6 g/l sodium was also completely converted into lactic acid at a 72% yield. The Bacillus coagulans MXL-9 strain was found to be well suited to production of lactic acid from lignocellulosic biomass due to its compatibility with conditions favorable to industrial enzymes and its ability to withstand inhibitors while rapidly consuming all pentose and hexose sugars of interest at high product yields.

  10. SOLVENT EXTRACTION PROCESS FOR THE RECOVERY OF METALS FROM PHOSPHORIC ACID

    DOEpatents

    Bailes, R.H.; Long, R.S.

    1958-11-01

    > A solvent extraction process is presented for recovering metal values including uranium, thorium, and other lanthanide and actinide elements from crude industrial phosphoric acid solutions. The process conslsts of contacting said solution with an immisclble organic solvent extractant containing a diluent and a material selected from the group consisting of mono and di alkyl phosphates, alkyl phosphonates and alkyl phosphites. The uranlum enters the extractant phase and is subsequently recovered by any of the methods known to the art. Recovery is improved if the phosphate solution is treated with a reducing agent such as iron or aluminum powder prior to the extraction step.

  11. Centrifugal partition extraction in the pH-zone-refining displacement mode: an efficient strategy for the screening and isolation of biologically active phenolic compounds.

    PubMed

    Hamzaoui, Mahmoud; Renault, Jean-Hugues; Reynaud, Romain; Hubert, Jane

    2013-10-15

    Centrifugal partition extraction (CPE) was developed for the first time in the pH-zone-refining mode to fractionate a crude bark extract of the African tree Anogeissus leiocarpus Guill. & Perr. (Combretaceae). The fractionation process was performed at a flow rate of 20mL/min using a biphasic solvent system composed of methyl tert-butyl ether/acetonitrile/water (4:1:5, v/v/v) in the ascending mode. Sodium hydroxide (40mM) and trifluoroacetic acid (30mM) were used as retainer and displacer agents, respectively. In a single run of 67min, 3g of the initial crude extract were successfully separated into fractions selectively enriched in ionizable triterpenes, ellagic acid derivatives and flavonoids. The antioxidant potential of the initial crude extract, isolated compounds and fraction pools was also evaluated by using the 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) stable free radical scavenging assay, providing an interesting view about the effect of the degree of substitution of ellagic acid derivatives on their radical scavenging activity. This study will demonstrate that centrifugal partition extraction used in the pH-zone-refining mode can be proposed as an efficient strategy for the rapid screening of natural phenolic compounds.

  12. New efficient DNA extraction method to access the microbiome of Ricinus communis seeds.

    PubMed

    Santos, C D; Dias, A C C; Amaral, I M R; Bonetti, A M; Campos, T A

    2013-02-28

    Ricinus communis (castor bean) seeds are used to produce an alcohol-soluble oil that is used in more than 400 industrial processes. Despite its economic importance, there has been little research on the endophytic microbiota of castor bean seeds. This microbiota is important for plant metabolic processes and may have considerable biotechnological potential, such as production of lipases and plant growth promoter agents. We evaluated several DNA extraction methodologies in order to access the microbial diversity of castor bean through a metagenomic approach. Based on our observations, we developed a new methodology that takes advantage of the low solubility of calcium phosphates and the high affinity of these phosphates for proteins and polysaccharides. The extracted DNA quality was evaluated by PCR, using a selective primer pair for bacterial and mitochondrial 16S rDNA genes (799F and 1492R). We found this methodology quantitatively and qualitatively more efficient than the other approaches. In evaluating this new extraction methodology, we found that the difficulties of DNA extraction from castor bean seeds, such as abundant oil, polysaccharides, phenolic compounds, and plant enzymes, could be overcome. The resulting extracts had high concentration and purity, and they were obtained faster than with previous methods. The samples contained virtually all of the DNA, including the microbial DNA; this was validated by PCR analysis.

  13. Influence of boric acid on electrospray ionization efficiency.

    PubMed

    Rebane, Riin; Herodes, Koit

    2012-01-01

    Liquid chromatography electrospray ionization mass-spectrometry (LC-ESI-MS) was used to analyze 9-fluorenylmethylmethoxycarbonyl chloride (Fmoc-Cl) and diethyl ethoxymethylenemalonate (Deemm) derivatives of three amino acids and five other compounds. Influence of boric acid on their ionization was investigated and dramatic impact on the signal was observed. The strongest signal suppression (6% of signal remains) was observed for the Deemm derivative of beta-Alanine (with ammonium acetate in eluent). With only formic acid as the eluent pH modifier, signal enhancement was observed, being largest for Fmoc-Cl derivative of Phenylalanine, 267%. Investigation of the influence of boric acid shows that it is a possible signal enhancer for LC-ESI-MS analysis.

  14. Tandem air-agitated liquid-liquid microextraction as an efficient method for determination of acidic drugs in complicated matrices.

    PubMed

    Bazregar, Mohammad; Rajabi, Maryam; Yamini, Yadollah; Asghari, Alireza; Hemmati, Maryam

    2016-04-21

    A rapid and simple microextraction method with a high sample clean-up, termed as tandem air-agitated liquid-liquid microextraction (TAALLME), is described. This method is based upon the tandem implementation of the air-agitated liquid-liquid microextraction (AALLME), and this approach improves the applicability of the dispersive liquid-liquid microextraction (DLLME) methods in complicated matrices. With very simple tools, the three non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs diclofenac, ibuprofen, and mefenamic acid were efficiently extracted, with an overall extraction time of 7 min. By performing the first AALLME, these acidic analytes, contained in an aqueous sample solution (donor phase, 8.0 mL), were extracted into the organic solvent (1,2-dichloroethane, 37 μL), and their simple back-extraction into the aqueous acceptor solution (pH, 10.01, 51 μL) was obtained in 2 min by a second implementation of AALLME. Response surface methodology (RSM) was used for optimization of the experimental parameters. The pH values 2.94 and 10.01 were obtained for the donor and acceptor phases, respectively, and the volumes 99.5 and 51 μL were obtained for the organic solvent and the acceptor phase, respectively, as the optimal extraction conditions. Under the optimized conditions, tandem AALLME-HPLC-UV provided a good linearity in the range of 0.5-4000 ng mL(-1), limits of detection (0.1-0.3 ng mL(-1)), extraction repeatabilities (relative standard deviations (RSDs) below 7.7%, n = 5), and the enrichment factors (EFs) of 80-104. Finally, the applicability of the proposed method was evaluated by the extraction and determination of the drugs under study in the wastewater and human plasma samples.

  15. Materials and methods for efficient lactic acid production

    DOEpatents

    Zhou, Shengde; Ingram, Lonnie O'Neal; Shanmugam, Keelnatham T.; Yomano, Lorraine; Grabar, Tammy B.; Moore, Jonathan C.

    2009-12-08

    The present invention provides derivatives of ethanologenic Escherichia coli K011 constructed for the production of lactic acid. The transformed E. coli of the invention are prepared by deleting the genes that encode competing pathways followed by a growth-based selection for mutants with improved performance. These transformed E. coli are useful for providing an increased supply of lactic acid for use in food and industrial applications.

  16. Materials and methods for efficient lactic acid production

    SciTech Connect

    Zhou, Shengde; Ingram, Lonnie O'Neal; Shanmugam, Keelnatham T; Yomano, Lorraine; Grabar, Tammy B; Moore, Jonathan C

    2013-04-23

    The present invention provides derivatives of Escherichia coli constructed for the production of lactic acid. The transformed E. coli of the invention are prepared by deleting the genes that encode competing pathways followed by a growth-based selection for mutants with improved performance. These transformed E. coli are useful for providing an increased supply of lactic acid for use in food and industrial applications.

  17. Pulsed electromembrane extraction for analysis of derivatized amino acids: A powerful technique for determination of animal source of gelatin samples.

    PubMed

    Rezazadeh, Maryam; Yamini, Yadollah; Seidi, Shahram; Aghaei, Ali

    2015-05-01

    Differentiation of animal sources of gelatin is required for many reasons such as some anxieties about bovine spongiform encephalopathy or a ban on consuming porcine gelatin in some religions. In the present work, an efficient method is introduced for determination of animal origin of gelatin samples. The basis of this procedure is the application of pulsed electric field for extraction, preconcentration, and analysis of derivatized amino acids in gelatin. To this end, after derivatization of amino acids of interest by means of o-phthalaldehyde (OPA) for enhancing their ultraviolet (UV) absorbance as well as increasing their lipophilicities, a 137V electric field was applied for 20min with 10min(-1) frequency to make the analytes migrate through a 200µm organic liquid membrane into an aqueous acceptor phase. Finally, the acceptor phase was analyzed by HPLC-UV. The proposed technique offered a high efficiency for analysis of amino acids, regarding 43% and 79% as extraction recoveries and 25ng mL(-1) and 50ng mL(-1) as limits of detection (LODs) for asparagine and glutamine, respectively. Therefore, due to sample cleanup ability of the proposed method and obtained preconcentration factors (29 and 53 for asparagine and glutamine, respectively), it could be carried out for differentiation of animal origins of gelatin samples, even if only small amounts of samples are available or in complicated media of foodstuffs and medicament.

  18. Rapid analysis of fatty acid profiles in raw nuts and seeds by microwave-ultrasonic synergistic in situ extraction-derivatisation and gas chromatography-mass spectrometry.

    PubMed

    Liu, Rui-Lin; Song, Shuang-Hong; Wu, Mei; He, Tian; Zhang, Zhi-Qi

    2013-12-15

    Based on microwave-ultrasonic synergistic in situ extraction-derivatisation (MUED), gas chromatography-mass spectrometry was proposed for rapid analysis of fatty acid profiles in raw nut and seed materials. Several critical experimental parameters for MUED, including reaction temperature, microwave power, amounts of catalyst and derivatisation reagent, have been optimised using response surface methodology. The results showed that the chromatographic peak areas of total fatty acids and the content of total unsaturated fatty acids obtained with MUED were markedly higher than those obtained by the conventional method (P<0.05 and P<0.01, respectively). The MUED method simplified the handling steps compared to the conventional procedure, shortened the sample preparation time whilst improving the extraction and derivatisation efficiency of lipids, and reduced oxidisation and decomposition of the unsaturated fatty acids. The simplicity, robustness and practicality of this method highlighted its significant potential for application in the rapid analysis of fatty acids in natural food resource samples.

  19. Synthesis of caffeic acid and p-hydroxybenzoic acid molecularly imprinted polymers and their application for the selective extraction of polyphenols from olive mill waste waters.

    PubMed

    Michailof, Chrysa; Manesiotis, Panagiotis; Panayiotou, Costas

    2008-02-22

    Using caffeic acid and p-hydroxybenzoic acid as templates, two molecularly imprinted polymers (MIPs) were prepared that were used for isolation of polyphenols from olive mill waste water samples (OMWWs) without previous pre-treatment. For the preparation of the caffeic acid MIPs 4-vinylpyridine, allylurea, allylaniline and methacrylic acid were tested as functional monomers, ethylene glycol dimethylacrylate (EDMA), pentaerythritol trimethylacrylate (PETRA) and divinylbenzene 80 (DVB80) as cross-linkers and tetrahydrofuran as porogen. For p-hydroxybenzoic acid 4-vinylpyridine, allylurea and allylaniline were tested as functional monomers, EDMA and PETRA as cross-linkers and acetonitrile as porogen. The performance of the synthesized polymers was evaluated against seven structurally related compounds by means of polymer-based HPLC. The two polymers that presented the most interesting properties were further evaluated by batch rebinding and from the derived isotherms their capacity and binding strength were determined. Using solid-phase extraction (SPE), their ability to recognize and bind the template molecule from an aqueous solution as well as the pH dependence of the binding strength were explored. After establishing the best SPE protocol, an aqueous model mixture of compounds and a raw OMWWs sample were loaded on the two best polymers. The result of the consecutive use of the two polymers on the same sample was explored. It was concluded that acidic conditions favour the recognition abilities of both polymers and that they can be used for a quick and efficient isolation of the polyphenol fraction directly from raw OMWW.

  20. Combination of Electromembrane Extraction and Liquid-Phase Microextraction in a Single Step: Simultaneous Group Separation of Acidic and Basic Drugs.

    PubMed

    Huang, Chuixiu; Seip, Knut Fredrik; Gjelstad, Astrid; Shen, Xiantao; Pedersen-Bjergaard, Stig

    2015-07-07

    Electromembrane extraction (EME) and liquid-phase microextraction (LPME) were combined in a single step for the first time to realize simultaneous and clear group separation of basic and acidic drugs. Using 2-nitrophenyl octyl ether as the supported liquid membrane (SLM) for EME and dihexyl ether as the SLM for LPME, basic and acidic drugs were extracted and separated simultaneously from a low pH sample by EME and LPME, respectively. After 15 min of extraction, basic drugs (citalopram and sertraline) were exhaustively extracted, whereas the recoveries for acidic drugs (ketoprofen and ibuprofen) were in the range of 76%-86%. Longer extraction time provided higher recoveries for the acidic drugs, but this somewhat deteriorated the group separation. Matrices effects from the coexisting acidic drugs/basic drugs were tested, and we observed that simultaneous EME/LPME was not affected by coexisting drugs at high concentration. This approach was further investigated from human plasma. Extraction recoveries were strongly dependent on dilution of plasma with buffer and on extraction time. Finally, this simultaneous EME/LPME approach was evaluated in combination with liquid chromatography (LC)-MS. The linearity ranges for the basic and acidic drugs were 10-600 ng/mL and 1-60 μg/mL, respectively, with R(2) > 0.997 for all analytes. The repeatability at three different levels for all analytes was less than 15%. The limits of quantification (LOQ, S/N = 10) were found to be 4.0-6.3 ng/mL and 0.6-0.9 μg/mL for basic and acidic drugs, respectively. Simultaneous EME/LPME enabled efficient group separation of basic and acidic analytes under optimum experimental conditions for both EME and LPME.

  1. Sequential ultrasound-microwave assisted acid extraction (UMAE) of pectin from pomelo peels.

    PubMed

    Liew, Shan Qin; Ngoh, Gek Cheng; Yusoff, Rozita; Teoh, Wen Hui

    2016-12-01

    This study aims to optimize sequential ultrasound-microwave assisted extraction (UMAE) on pomelo peel using citric acid. The effects of pH, sonication time, microwave power and irradiation time on the yield and the degree of esterification (DE) of pectin were investigated. Under optimized conditions of pH 1.80, 27.52min sonication followed by 6.40min microwave irradiation at 643.44W, the yield and the DE value of pectin obtained was respectively at 38.00% and 56.88%. Based upon optimized UMAE condition, the pectin from microwave-ultrasound assisted extraction (MUAE), ultrasound assisted extraction (UAE) and microwave assisted extraction (MAE) were studied. The yield of pectin adopting the UMAE was higher than all other techniques in the order of UMAE>MUAE>MAE>UAE. The pectin's galacturonic acid content obtained from combined extraction technique is higher than that obtained from sole extraction technique and the pectin gel produced from various techniques exhibited a pseudoplastic behaviour. The morphological structures of pectin extracted from MUAE and MAE closely resemble each other. The extracted pectin from UMAE with smaller and more regular surface differs greatly from that of UAE. This has substantiated the highest pectin yield of 36.33% from UMAE and further signified their compatibility and potentiality in pectin extraction.

  2. An efficient and scalable extraction and quantification method for algal derived biofuel.

    PubMed

    Lohman, Egan J; Gardner, Robert D; Halverson, Luke; Macur, Richard E; Peyton, Brent M; Gerlach, Robin

    2013-09-01

    Microalgae are capable of synthesizing a multitude of compounds including biofuel precursors and other high value products such as omega-3-fatty acids. However, accurate analysis of the specific compounds produced by microalgae is important since slight variations in saturation and carbon chain length can affect the quality, and thus the value, of the end product. We present a method that allows for fast and reliable extraction of lipids and similar compounds from a range of algae, followed by their characterization using gas chromatographic analysis with a focus on biodiesel-relevant compounds. This method determines which range of biologically synthesized compounds is likely responsible for each fatty acid methyl ester (FAME) produced; information that is fundamental for identifying preferred microalgae candidates as a biodiesel source. Traditional methods of analyzing these precursor molecules are time intensive and prone to high degrees of variation between species and experimental conditions. Here we detail a new method which uses microwave energy as a reliable, single-step cell disruption technique to extract lipids from live cultures of microalgae. After extractable lipid characterization (including lipid type (free fatty acids, mono-, di- or tri-acylglycerides) and carbon chain length determination) by GC-FID, the same lipid extracts are transesterified into FAMEs and directly compared to total biodiesel potential by GC-MS. This approach provides insight into the fraction of total FAMEs derived from extractable lipids compared to FAMEs derived from the residual fraction (i.e. membrane bound phospholipids, sterols, etc.). This approach can also indicate which extractable lipid compound, based on chain length and relative abundance, is responsible for each FAME. This method was tested on three species of microalgae; the marine diatom Phaeodactylum tricornutum, the model Chlorophyte Chlamydomonas reinhardtii, and the freshwater green alga Chlorella vulgaris

  3. Application of a continuous distribution model for proton binding by humic acids extracted from acidic lake sediments

    SciTech Connect

    Rhea, J.R.; Young, T.C. )

    1987-01-01

    The proton binding characteristics of humic acids extracted from the sediments of Cranberry Pond, an acidic water body located in the Adirondack Mountain region of New York State, were explored by the application of a nultiligand distribution model. The model characterizes a class of proton binding sites by mean log K values and the standard deviations of log K values and the mean. Mean log K values and their relative abundances were determined directly from experimental titration data. The model accurately predicts the binding of protons by the humic acids for pH values in the range 3.5 to 10.0.

  4. Application of a continuous distribution model for proton binding by humic acids extracted from acidic lake sediments

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rhea, James R.; Young, Thomas C.

    1987-10-01

    The proton binding characteristics of humic acids extracted from the sediments of Cranberry Pond, an acidic water body located in the Adirondack Mountain region of New York State, were explored by the application of a multiligand distribution model. The model characterizes a class of proton binding sites by mean log K values and the standard deviations of log K values about the mean. Mean log K values and their relative abundances were determined directly from experimental titration data. The model accurately predicts the binding of protons by the humic acids for pH values in the range 3.5 to 10.0.

  5. Combination of counterpropagation artificial neural networks and antioxidant activities for comprehensive evaluation of associated-extraction efficiency of various cyclodextrins in the traditional Chinese formula Xue-Zhi-Ning.

    PubMed

    Sun, Lili; Yang, Jianwen; Wang, Meng; Zhang, Huijie; Liu, Yanan; Ren, Xiaoliang; Qi, Aidi

    2015-11-10

    Xue-Zhi-Ning (XZN) is a widely used traditional Chinese medicine formula to treat hyperlipidemia. Recently, cyclodextrins (CDs) have been extensively used to minimize problems relative to medicine bioavailability, such as low solubility and poor stability. The objective of this study was to determine the associated-extraction efficiency of various CDs in XZN. Three various type CDs were evaluated, including native CDs (α-CD, β-CD), hydrophilic CD derivatives (HP-β-CD and Me-β-CD), and ionic CD derivatives (SBE-β-CD and CM-β-CD). An ultra high-performance liquid chromatography (UHPLC) fingerprint was applied to determine the components in CD extracts and original aqueous extract (OAE). A counterpropagation artificial neural network (CP-ANN) was used to analyze the components in different extracts and compare the selective extraction of various CDs. Extraction efficiencies of the various CDs in terms of extracted components follow the ranking, ionic CD derivatives>hydrophilic CD derivatives>native CDs>OAE. Besides, different types of CDs have their own selective extraction and ionic CD derivatives present the strongest associated-extraction efficiency. Antioxidant potentials of various extracts were evaluated by determining the inhibition of spontaneous, H2O2-induced, CCl4-induced and Fe(2+)/ascorbic acid-induced lipid peroxidation (LPO) and analyzing the scavenging capacity for DPPH and hydroxyl radicals. The order of extraction efficiencies of the various CDs relative to antioxidant activities is as follows: SBE-β-CD>CM-β-CD>HP-β-CD>Me-β-CD>β-CD>α-CD. It can be demonstrated that all of the CDs studied increase the extraction efficiency and that ionic CD derivatives (SBE-β-CD and CM-β-CD) present the highest extraction capability in terms of amount extracted and antioxidant activities of extracts.

  6. Extractability of elements in sugar maple xylem along a gradient of soil acidity.

    PubMed

    Bilodeau Gauthier, Simon; Houle, Daniel; Gagnon, Christian; Côté, Benoît; Messier, Christian

    2008-01-01

    Dendrochemistry has been used for the historical dating of pollution. Its reliability is questionable due primarily to the radial mobility of elements in sapwood. In the present study, the extractability of seven elements was characterized to assess their suitability for the monitoring of environmental conditions. Nine mature sugar maple trees (Acer saccharum Marsh.), a wide-ranging species in eastern North America that has suffered decline in past decades, were sampled in three Quebec watersheds along a soil acidity gradient. Five-year groups of annual tree rings were treated by sequential chemical extractions using extractants of varying strength (deionized H2O, 0.05 M HCl, and concentrated HNO(3)) to selectively solubilize the elements into three fractions (water-soluble, acid-soluble, and residual). Monovalent K; divalent Ba, Ca, Cd, Mg, Mn; and trivalent Al cations were found mostly in the water-soluble, acid-soluble, and residual fractions, respectively. Forms more likely to be mobile within the tree (water-soluble and acid-soluble) do not seem to be suitable for temporal monitoring because of potential lateral redistribution in sapwood rings. However, certain elements (Cd, Mn) were responsive to current soil acidity and could be used in spatial variation monitoring. Extractability of Al varied according to soil acidity; at less acidic sites, up to 90% of Al was contained in the residual form, whereas on very acidic soils, as much as 45% was found in the water-soluble and acid-soluble fractions. Sequential extractions can be useful for determining specific forms of metals as key indicators of soil acidification.

  7. Polytetrafluoroethylene-jacketed stirrer modified with graphene oxide and polydopamine for the efficient extraction of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Zinxin; Mwadini, Mwadini Ahmada; Chen, Zilin

    2016-10-01

    Steel stirrers jacketed with polytetrafluoroethylene can be regarded as an ideal substrate for stirrer bar sorptive extraction. However, it is still a great challenge to immobilize graphene onto a polytetrafluoroethylene stirrer due to the high chemical resistance of the surface of a polytetrafluoroethylene stirrer. We describe here a method to modify the surface of polytetrafluoroethylene stirrers with graphene. In this work, graphene was used as the sorbent due to its excellent adsorption capability for aromatic compounds, such as polycyclic aromatic compounds. Graphene was successfully immobilized onto polytetrafluoroethylene-stirrer by a bio-inspired polydopamine functionalization method. The graphene-modified polytetrafluoroethylene-stirrer shows good stability and tolerance to stirring, ultrasonication, strong acidic and basic solutions, and to organic solvents. The multilayer coating was characterized by scanning electronic microscopy and Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy. After the optimization of some experimental conditions, the graphene-modified polytetrafluoroethylene stirrer was used for the stirrer bar sorptive extraction of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons, in which the binding between the polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons and the graphene layer was mainly based on π-π stacking and hydrophobic interactions. The graphene-modified polytetrafluoroethylene-stirrer-based stirrer bar sorptive extraction and high-performance liquid chromatography method was developed for the determination of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons with great extraction efficiency, with enrichment factors from 18 to 62. The method has low limits of detection of 1-5 pg/mL, wide linear range (5-100 and 10-200 pg/mL), good linearity (R ≥ 0.9957) and good reproducibility (RSD ≤ 6.45%). The proposed method has been applied to determine polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons in real dust samples. Good recoveries were obtained, ranging from 88.53 to 109.43%.

  8. Studies of the acidic components of the Colorado Green River formation oil shale-Mass spectrometric identification of the methyl esters of extractable acids.

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Haug, P.; Schnoes, H. K.; Burlingame, A. L.

    1971-01-01

    Study of solvent extractable acidic constituents of oil shale from the Colorado Green River Formation. Identification of individual components is based on gas chromatographic and mass spectrometric data obtained for their respective methyl esters. Normal acids, isoprenoidal acids, alpha, omega-dicarboxylic acids, mono-alpha-methyl dicarboxylic acids and methyl ketoacids were identified. In addition, the presence of monocyclic, benzoic, phenylalkanoic and naphthyl-carboxylic acids, as well as cycloaromatic acids, is demonstrated by partial identification.

  9. Selective dissolution followed by EDDS washing of an e-waste contaminated soil: Extraction efficiency, fate of residual metals, and impact on soil environment.

    PubMed

    Beiyuan, Jingzi; Tsang, Daniel C W; Valix, Marjorie; Zhang, Weihua; Yang, Xin; Ok, Yong Sik; Li, Xiang-Dong

    2017-01-01

    To enhance extraction of strongly bound metals from oxide minerals and organic matter, this study examined the sequential use of reductants, oxidants, alkaline solvents and organic acids followed by a biodegradable chelating agent (EDDS, [S,S]-ethylene-diamine-disuccinic-acid) in a two-stage soil washing. The soil was contaminated by Cu, Zn, and Pb at an e-waste recycling site in Qingyuan city, China. In addition to extraction efficiency, this study also examined the fate of residual metals (e.g., leachability, bioaccessibility, and distribution) and the soil quality parameters (i.e., cytotoxicity, enzyme activities, and available nutrients). The reductants (dithionite-citrate-bicarbonate and hydroxylamine hydrochloride) effectively extracted metals by mineral dissolution, but elevated the leachability and bioaccessibility of metals due to the transformation from Fe/Mn oxides to labile fractions. Subsequent EDDS washing was found necessary to mitigate the residual risks. In comparison, prior washing by oxidants (persulphate, hypochlorite, and hydrogen peroxide) was marginally useful because of limited amount of soil organic matter. Prior washing by alkaline solvents (sodium hydroxide and sodium bicarbonate) was also ineffective due to metal precipitation. In contrast, prior washing by low-molecular-weight organic acids (citrate and oxalate) improved the extraction efficiency. Compared to hydroxylamine hydrochloride, citrate and oxalate induced lower cytotoxicity (Microtox) and allowed higher enzyme activities (dehydrogenase, acid phosphatase, and urease) and soil nutrients (available nitrogen and phosphorus), which would facilitate reuse of the treated soil. Therefore, while sequential washing proved to enhance extraction efficacy, the selection of chemical agents besides EDDS should also include the consideration of effects on metal leachability/bioaccessibility and soil quality.

  10. Surface lignin change pertaining to the integrated process of dilute acid pre-extraction and mechanical refining of poplar wood chips and its impact on enzymatic hydrolysis.

    PubMed

    Liu, Wei; Chen, Wei; Hou, Qingxi; Zhang, Jinping; Wang, Bing

    2017-03-01

    Dilute acid pre-extraction enhanced the mechanically refined poplar pulp substrates' enzymatic hydrolysis efficiency obviously. The results showed that the surface lignin distribution was changed significantly in residual wood chips and pulp substrates, and the surface lignin distribution showed important impact on the following enzymatic hydrolysis. Acid pre-extraction can lead to a redistribution of lignin in fiber cell walls, i.e., the lignin was degraded and migrated to fiber surface in the form of re-deposited lignin and pseudo-lignin. However, higher pre-extraction intensity was not desired due to the formation of redeposited lignin and pseudo-lignin. This study will help to reach a deeper understanding on the lignin distribution in the view of molecular and ultrastructure, and promote the development of a cost-efficient pretreatment strategy for biomass processing.

  11. Effects of raspberry fruit extracts and ellagic acid on respiratory burst in murine macrophages.

    PubMed

    Raudone, Lina; Bobinaite, Ramune; Janulis, Valdimaras; Viskelis, Pranas; Trumbeckaite, Sonata

    2014-06-01

    The mechanism of action of polyphenolic compounds is attributed to their antioxidant, anti-inflammatory, and anti-proliferative properties and their effects on subcellular signal transduction, cell cycle impairment and apoptosis. A raspberry (Rubus idaeus L.) fruit extract contains various antioxidant active compounds, particularly ellagic acid (EA); however the exact intracellular mechanism of their action is not fully understood. The aim of the study was to evaluate the antioxidant effect of raspberry extracts, and that of ellagic acid by assessment of the production of the reactive oxygen species (ROS) by murine macrophage J774 cells. Raspberry extracts and their active compound EA did not affect or had very minor effects on cell viability. No significant difference in the ROS generation in arachidonic acid stimulated macrophages was determined for raspberry extracts and EA whereas in the phorbol-12 myristate-13 acetate model ROS generation was significantly (p < 0.05) reduced. Our observation that raspberry pomace extracts in vitro reduce ROS production in a J774 macrophage culture suggests that raspberry extract and ellagic acid mediated antioxidant effects may be due to the regulation of NADPH oxidase activity.

  12. Comparison of manual and automated nucleic acid extraction from whole-blood samples.

    PubMed

    Riemann, Kathrin; Adamzik, Michael; Frauenrath, Stefan; Egensperger, Rupert; Schmid, Kurt W; Brockmeyer, Norbert H; Siffert, Winfried

    2007-01-01

    Nucleic acid extraction and purification from whole blood is a routine application in many laboratories. Automation of this procedure promises standardized sample treatment, a low error rate, and avoidance of contamination. The performance of the BioRobot M48 (Qiagen) and the manual QIAmp DNA Blood Mini Kit (Qiagen) was compared for the extraction of DNA from whole blood. The concentration and purity of the extracted DNAs were determined by spectrophotometry. Analytical sensitivity was assessed by common PCR and genotyping techniques. The quantity and quality of the generated DNAs were slightly higher using the manual extraction method. The results of downstream applications were comparable to each other. Amplification of high-molecular-weight PCR fragments, genotyping by restriction digest, and pyrosequencing were successful for all samples. No cross-contamination could be detected. While automated DNA extraction requires significantly less hands-on time, it is slightly more expensive than the manual extraction method.

  13. Mercury analysis of various types of coal using acid extraction and pyrolysis methods

    SciTech Connect

    Jae Young Park; Jong Hyun Won; Tai Gyu Lee

    2006-12-15

    The mercury contents of various types of coal currently consumed in Korea were analyzed using acid extraction and pyrolysis methods. The results of analysis by acid extraction and pyrolysis methods were compared and discussed. Generally, high mercury concentrations of 105.6 to 434.5 ng/g (by acid extraction) and 125.7 to 475.4 ng/g (by pyrolysis) were obtained for tested anthracite coals in this study. For bituminous coals, the mercury contents were 11.5-48 ng/g (by acid extraction) and 12.5-52.4 ng/g (by pyrolysis). For coal samples, much simpler and far less time-consuming pyrolysis method tends to give higher values for the Hg concentration than the acid extraction method (by less than 10%) because of the interference from a UV absorption by SOx generated during thermal destruction of coal matrix. Also, further analysis shows that coals with higher densities have higher mercury contents and that the sulfur and mercury contents of coals are positively correlated with each other. 10 refs., 4 figs., 2 tabs.

  14. Determination of volatile fatty acids in wastewater by solvent extraction and gas chromatography

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mkhize, Nontando T.; Msagati, Titus A. M.; Mamba, Bhekie B.; Momba, Maggy

    The purpose of this study was to develop a liquid-liquid extraction method for the analysis of volatile fatty acids collected at the elutriation units of Unit 3, 4 and 5 at Johannesburg Water-Northern Works Wastewater Treatment Plant. Liquid-liquid extraction (LLE) method employing dichloromethane (DCM) and methyl-tert-butyl-ether (MTBE) as extracting solvents was used during the quantitative analysis of volatile fatty acids namely acetic, propionic, butyric, isobutyric, valeric, isovaleric and heptanoic acid. The detection of the extracts was by gas chromatography coupled to a mass spectrometer operating under electron ionization mode (GC-EI-MS). The results showed that MTBE was a better extraction solvent than DCM as it gave much higher recoveries (>5 folds). On the other hand, the overall reactor performance for all the three units in the period when the samples were collected, which was measured by the ratio of propionic to acetic acid was good since the ratio o did not exceed 1.4 with the exception of the samples collected on the 3rd of October where the ratio exceeded 1.4 significantly. The concentration of acetic acid, another indicator for the reactor performance in all three units was way below 800 mg/L thus the digester balance was on par.

  15. Reactive Extraction of Lactic Acid by Using Tri-n-octylamine: Structure of the Ionic Phase.

    PubMed

    Aimer, Matthias; Klemm, Elias; Langanke, Bernd; Gehrke, Helmut; Stubenrauch, Cosima

    2016-03-01

    Lactic acid is a promising biogenic platform chemical which can be produced by fermentation of cellulose and hemicellulose. However, separating lactic acid from the fermentation broth is extremely costly and technically complex. We therefore investigated whether liquid/liquid extraction of lactic acid with tri-n-octylamine is a cost-effective alternative to the existing downstream processing method. In order to find an answer to this question, the structure of the middle phase of the occurring three-phase region, which is enriched with up to 20 wt. % lactic acid, was explored. The results of our IR, small-angle X-ray scattering and NMR measurements show that this phase is ionic and has a bicontinuous structure. Due to the analogy with bicontinuous microemulsions, it should be possible to further enrich the lactic acid, which could lead to a rethink regarding the design of extraction processes.

  16. [Optimization of extraction technology for salidroside, tyrosol, crenulatin and gallic acid in Rhodiolae Crenulatae Radix et Rhizoma with orthogonal test].

    PubMed

    Luo, Xin; Wang, Xue-jing; Zhao, Yi-wu; Huang, Wen-zhe; Wang, Zhen-zhong; Xiao, Wei

    2015-09-01

    The extracting technology of salidroside, tyrosol, crenulatin and gallic acid from Rhodiolae Crenulatae Radix et Rhizoma was optimized. With extraction rate of salidroside, tyrosol, crenulatin and gallic acid as indexes, orthogonal test was used to evaluate effect of 4 factors on extracting technology, including concentration of solvent, the dosage of solvent, duration of extraction, and frequency of extraction. The results showed that, the best extracting technology was to extract in 70% alcohol with 8 times the weight of herbal medicine for 2 times, with 3 hours once. High extraction rate of salidroside, tyrosol, crenulatin and gallic acid were obtained with the present technology. The extracting technology was stable and feasible with high extraction rate of four compounds from Rhodiolae Crenulatae Radix et Rhizoma, it was suitable for industrial production.

  17. Psidium cattleianum fruit extracts are efficient in vitro scavengers of physiologically relevant reactive oxygen and nitrogen species.

    PubMed

    Ribeiro, Alessandra Braga; Chisté, Renan Campos; Freitas, Marisa; da Silva, Alex Fiori; Visentainer, Jesuí Vergílio; Fernandes, Eduarda

    2014-12-15

    Psidium cattleianum, an unexploited Brazilian native fruit, is considered a potential source of bioactive compounds. In the present study, the in vitro scavenging capacity of skin and pulp extracts from P. cattleianum fruits against reactive oxygen species (ROS) and reactive nitrogen species (RNS) was evaluated by in vitro screening assays. Additionally, the composition of phenolic compounds and carotenoids in both extracts was determined by LC-MS/MS. The major phenolic compounds identified and quantified (dry matter) in the skin and pulp extracts of P. cattleianum were ellagic acid (2213-3818 μg/g extracts), ellagic acid deoxyhexoside (1475-2,070 μg/g extracts) and epicatechin gallate (885-1,603 μg/g extracts); while all-trans-lutein (2-10 μg/g extracts), all-trans-antheraxanthin (1.6-9 μg/g extracts) and all-trans-β-carotene (4-6 μg/g extracts) were the major carotenoids identified in both extracts. P. cattleianum pulp extract showed higher scavenging capacity than skin extract for all tested ROS and RNS. Considering the potential beneficial effects to human health, P. cattleianum may be considered as a good source of natural antioxidants and may be useful for the food and phytopharmaceutical industry.

  18. Evaluation and optimization of nucleic acid extraction methods for the molecular analysis of bacterial communities associated with corroded carbon steel.

    PubMed

    Marty, Florence; Ghiglione, Jean-François; Païssé, Sandrine; Gueuné, Hervé; Quillet, Laurent; van Loosdrecht, Mark C M; Muyzer, Gerard

    2012-01-01

    Different DNA and RNA extraction approaches were evaluated and protocols optimized on in situ corrosion products from carbon steel in marine environments. Protocols adapted from the PowerSoil DNA/RNA Isolation methods resulted in the best nucleic acid (NA) extraction performances (ie combining high NA yield, quality, purity, representativeness of microbial community and processing time efficiency). The PowerSoil RNA Isolation Kit was the only method which resulted in amplifiable RNA of good quality (ie intact 16S/23S rRNA). Sample homogenization and hot chemical (SDS) cell lysis combined with mechanical (bead-beating) lysis in presence of a DNA competitor (skim milk) contributed to improving substantially (around 23 times) the DNA yield of the PowerSoil DNA Isolation Kit. Apart from presenting NA extraction strategies for optimizing extraction parameters with corrosion samples from carbon steel, this study proposes DNA and RNA extraction procedures suited for comparative molecular analysis of total and active fractions of bacterial communities associated with carbon steel corrosion events, thereby contributing to improved MIC diagnosis and control.

  19. Pd/C synthesized with citric acid: an efficient catalyst for hydrogen generation from formic acid/sodium formate.

    PubMed

    Wang, Zhi-Li; Yan, Jun-Min; Wang, Hong-Li; Ping, Yun; Jiang, Qing

    2012-01-01

    A highly efficient hydrogen generation from formic acid/sodium formate aqueous solution catalyzed by in situ synthesized Pd/C with citric acid has been successfully achieved at room temperature. Interestingly, the presence of citric acid during the formation and growth of the Pd nanoparticles on carbon can drastically enhance the catalytic property of the resulted Pd/C, on which the conversion and turnover frequency for decomposition of formic acid/sodium formate system can reach the highest values ever reported of 85% within 160 min and 64 mol H(2) mol(-1) catalyst h(-1), respectively, at room temperature. The present simple, low cost, but highly efficient CO-free hydrogen generation system at room temperature is believed to greatly promote the practical application of formic acid system on fuel cells.

  20. Pd/C Synthesized with Citric Acid: An Efficient Catalyst for Hydrogen Generation from Formic Acid/Sodium Formate

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Zhi-Li; Yan, Jun-Min; Wang, Hong-Li; Ping, Yun; Jiang, Qing

    2012-01-01

    A highly efficient hydrogen generation from formic acid/sodium formate aqueous solution catalyzed by in situ synthesized Pd/C with citric acid has been successfully achieved at room temperature. Interestingly, the presence of citric acid during the formation and growth of the Pd nanoparticles on carbon can drastically enhance the catalytic property of the resulted Pd/C, on which the conversion and turnover frequency for decomposition of formic acid/sodium formate system can reach the highest values ever reported of 85% within 160 min and 64 mol H2 mol−1 catalyst h−1, respectively, at room temperature. The present simple, low cost, but highly efficient CO-free hydrogen generation system at room temperature is believed to greatly promote the practical application of formic acid system on fuel cells. PMID:22953041

  1. Energy metabolic state in hypothermically stored boar spermatozoa using a revised protocol for efficient ATP extraction.

    PubMed

    Nguyen, Quynh Thu; Wallner, Ulrike; Schmicke, Marion; Waberski, Dagmar; Henning, Heiko

    2016-11-15

    Mammalian spermatozoa utilize ATP as the energy source for key functions on the route to fertilization. ATP and its precursor nucleotides ADP and AMP are regularly investigated in sperm physiology studies, mostly by bioluminescence assays. Assay results vary widely, mainly due to different efficiencies in nucleotide extraction and prevention of their enzymatic degradation. Here, we describe a revised, validated protocol for efficient phosphatase inhibition and adenine nucleotide extraction resulting in consistently high ATP concentrations exceeding previously reported values for boar spermatozoa up to 20-fold. The revised assay is applicable for determining ATP concentrations and adenylate energy charge in extracts from fresh and frozen samples, thereby allowing simultaneous assessment of semen samples from long-term storage experiments. After validation, the assay was applied to liquid-preserved boar spermatozoa stored at 17°C and 5°C for 24 and 72 h. Cooling to 5°C, but not storage duration, reduced ATP concentration in spermatozoa (P<0.05), which was accompanied by the appearance of AMP and ADP in the preservation medium. ATP and energy charge were highly correlated to the proportion of membrane-intact spermatozoa, supporting the idea of nucleotides leaking through disrupted membranes in cold-shocked cells. The present assay allows highly standardized studies of energy metabolism in spermatozoa.

  2. Energy metabolic state in hypothermically stored boar spermatozoa using a revised protocol for efficient ATP extraction

    PubMed Central

    Nguyen, Quynh Thu; Wallner, Ulrike; Schmicke, Marion; Waberski, Dagmar

    2016-01-01

    ABSTRACT Mammalian spermatozoa utilize ATP as the energy source for key functions on the route to fertilization. ATP and its precursor nucleotides ADP and AMP are regularly investigated in sperm physiology studies, mostly by bioluminescence assays. Assay results vary widely, mainly due to different efficiencies in nucleotide extraction and prevention of their enzymatic degradation. Here, we describe a revised, validated protocol for efficient phosphatase inhibition and adenine nucleotide extraction resulting in consistently high ATP concentrations exceeding previously reported values for boar spermatozoa up to 20-fold. The revised assay is applicable for determining ATP concentrations and adenylate energy charge in extracts from fresh and frozen samples, thereby allowing simultaneous assessment of semen samples from long-term storage experiments. After validation, the assay was applied to liquid-preserved boar spermatozoa stored at 17°C and 5°C for 24 and 72 h. Cooling to 5°C, but not storage duration, reduced ATP concentration in spermatozoa (P<0.05), which was accompanied by the appearance of AMP and ADP in the preservation medium. ATP and energy charge were highly correlated to the proportion of membrane-intact spermatozoa, supporting the idea of nucleotides leaking through disrupted membranes in cold-shocked cells. The present assay allows highly standardized studies of energy metabolism in spermatozoa. PMID:27612509

  3. Extraction of gold(III) from hydrochloric acid solutions by CTAB/n-heptane/iso-amyl alcohol/Na2SO3 microemulsion.

    PubMed

    Lu, Wenjuan; Lu, Yanmin; Liu, Fei; Shang, Kai; Wang, Wei; Yang, Yanzhao

    2011-02-28

    The extraction of Au(III) from hydrochloric acid solutions by microemulsion was studied. The extraction experiments were carried out using cetyltrimethylammonium bromide (CTAB) as surfactant and iso-amyl alcohol as co-surfactant. Au(III) was found to be extracted into the microemulsion phase due to ion pair formation such as AuCl(4)(-)CTAB(+). The influence of temperature on the extraction of Au(III) has been investigated at temperatures ranging from 288 to 313 K. Temperature was found to decrease the distribution of Au(III). Thermodynamic parameters like enthalpy and entropy of the extraction, calculated by applying Van't Hoff equation, were -36.76 kJ mol(-1) and -84.87 J mol(-1) K(-1), respectively. Furthermore, the influence of the concentrations of hydrogen ion and chloride anion on the extraction efficiency (E%) were verified. Au(III) was extracted quantitatively (E%>99%) and selectively at the whole range of HCl concentrations (0.2-5 M). Recovery of gold from electrical waste and treatment of CTAB wastewater generated from the extraction were also discussed. Thus, the extraction of Au(III) from hydrochloric acid solutions by microemulsion is an effective approach.

  4. [Anti-inflammatory effect of Urtica dioica folia extract in comparison to caffeic malic acid].

    PubMed

    Obertreis, B; Giller, K; Teucher, T; Behnke, B; Schmitz, H

    1996-01-01

    Urtica dioica extract is a traditionary used adjuvant therapeutic in rheumatoid arthritis. The antiphlogistic effects of the urtica dioica folia extract IDS 23 (Extractum Urticae dioicae foliorum) and the main phenolic ingredient caffeic malic acid were tested concerning the inhibitory potential on biosynthesis of arachidonic acid metabolites in vitro. The caffeic malic acid was isolated from Urtica folia extract using gel exclusion- and high performance liquid chromatography and identified by mass spectroscopy and nuclear magnetic resonance. Concerning the 5-lipoxygenase products IDS 23 showed a partial inhibitory effect. The isolated phenolic acid inhibited the synthesis of the leukotriene B4 in a concentration dependent manner. The concentration for halfmaximal inhibition (IC50) was 83 microns/ml in the used assay. IDS 23 showed a strong concentration dependent inhibition of the synthesis of cyclooxygenase derived reactions. The IC50 were 92 micrograms/ml for IDS 23 and 38 micrograms/ml for the caffeic malic acid. Calculating the content in IDS 23 the caffeic malic acid is a possible but not the only active ingredient of the plant extract in the tested assay systems. It is demonstrated that the phenolic component showed a different enzymatic target compared with IDS 23. The antiphlogistic effects observed in vitro may give an explanation for the pharmacological and clinical effects of IDS 23 in therapie of rheumatoid diseases.

  5. Study on synthetic methods of trialkyl phosphate oxide and its extraction behavior of some acids

    SciTech Connect

    Yu, M.J.; Su, Y.F.

    1987-01-01

    Trioctyl phosphine oxide (TOPO) is useful for the extraction of many inorganic and organic compounds. A mixed trialkyl phosphine oxide (TRPO) is similar in property to TOPO. The total number of carbon atoms per molecule of TRPO ranges from 15 to 27. Three methods for synthesizing TRPO are described in this paper. When TRPO is synthesized from an alcohol mixture it is significantly cheaper than a single pure alcohol as required for the production of TOPO; tedious purification steps are eliminated. TRPO is a brown liquid which is very slightly soluble in water. Toxicological measurements of LD50, AMES test, hereditary and accumulative toxicity show that TRPO is safe for use in the extraction of some pharmaceutical and biochemical compounds. Examinations of IR and NMR show that the complex interaction of P=O bond of TRPO with extracted substances is the same as that of TOPO. The distribution coefficients of phosphoric acid, citric acid, malic acid, oxalic acid, and tartaric acid with TRPO are reported. The extraction of these acids is believed to proceed by neutral-complex mechanism.

  6. Recovery and separation of sulfuric acid and iron from dilute acidic sulfate effluent and waste sulfuric acid by solvent extraction and stripping.

    PubMed

    Qifeng, Wei; Xiulian, Ren; Jingjing, Guo; Yongxing, Chen

    2016-03-05

    The recovery and simultaneous separation of sulfuric acid and iron from dilute acidic sulfate effluent (DASE) and waste sulfuric acid (WSA) have been an earnest wish for researchers and the entire sulfate process-based titanium pigment industry. To reduce the pollution of the waste acid and make a comprehensive use of the iron and sulfuric acid in it, a new environmentally friendly recovery and separation process for the DASE and the WSA is proposed. This process is based on the reactive extraction of sulfuric acid and Fe(III) from the DASE. Simultaneously, stripping of Fe(III) is carried out in the loaded organic phase with the WSA. Compared to the conventional ways, this innovative method allows the effective extraction of sulfuric acid and iron from the DASE, and the stripping of Fe(III) from the loaded organic phase with the WSA. Trioctylamine (TOA) and tributyl phosphate (TBP) in kerosene (10-50%) were used as organic phases for solvent extraction. Under the optimal conditions, about 98% of Fe(III) and sulfuric acid were removed from the DASE, and about 99.9% of Fe(III) in the organic phase was stripped with the WSA.

  7. Determination of caffeoylquinic acids in feed and related products by focused ultrasound solid-liquid extraction and ultra-high performance liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry.

    PubMed

    Tena, M T; Martínez-Moral, M P; Cardozo, P W

    2015-06-26

    A method to determine caffeoylquinic acids (CQAs) in three sources (herbal extract, feed additive and finished feed) using for the first time focused ultrasound solid-liquid extraction (FUSLE) followed by ultra-high performance liquid chromatography (UPLC) coupled to quadrupole-time of flight mass spectrometry is presented. Pressurized liquid extraction (PLE) was also tested as extraction technique but it was discarded because cynarin was not stable under temperature values used in PLE. The separation of the CQAs isomers was carried out in only seven minutes. FUSLE variables such as extraction solvent, power and time were optimized by a central composite design. Under optimal conditions, FUSLE extraction was performed with 8mL of an 83:17 methanol-water mixture for 30s at a power of 60%. Only two extraction steps were found necessary to recover analytes quantitatively. Sensitivity, linearity, accuracy and precision were established. Matrix effect was studied for each type of sample. It was not detected for mono-CQAs, whereas the cynarin signal was strongly decreased due to ionization suppression in presence of matrix components; so the quantification by standard addition was mandatory for the determination of di-caffeoylquinic acids. Finally, the method was applied to the analysis of herbal extracts, feed additives and finished feed. In all samples, chlorogenic acid was the predominant CQA, followed by criptochlorogenic acid, neochlorogenic acid and cynarin. The method allows an efficient determination of chlorogenic acid with good recovery rates. Therefore, it may be used for screening of raw material and for process and quality control in feed manufacture.

  8. Multiresponse optimization of an extraction procedure of carnosol and rosmarinic and carnosic acids from rosemary.

    PubMed

    Oliveira, Gerlon de A R; de Oliveira, Anselmo E; da Conceição, Edemílson C; Leles, Maria I G

    2016-11-15

    A green solvent-based optimization for rosmarinic acid (RA), carnosol (COH), and carnosic acid (CA) extraction, the three main antioxidants from rosemary, was performed. The conventional solid-liquid extraction was optimized using a central composite design (CCD) followed by the desirability approach. In the CCD analysis the quantitative effects of extraction time (4.8-55.2min), liquid-to-solid ratio (4.6-21.4mLg(-1)), and ethanol content (44.8-95.2% v/v) were determined for the extracted amount of antioxidants, their concentrations in the extract, and the extraction yield. Samples were analyzed by HPLC and the antioxidants were identified by comparison with pure standard retention times and UV spectra. The desirability function that simultaneously maximizes the antioxidants extraction and their concentrations in the final product was validated. The extraction using a hydroalcoholic solution 70% v/v, at low liquid-to-solid ratio (5mLg(-1)), and after 55-min yielded an antioxidant recovery rate of 89.8%, and a final product 4.75 times richer in the main antioxidants than the raw material.

  9. Antioxidant activity and sensory analysis of a rosmarinic acid-enriched extract of garden sage (Salvia officinalis)

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    A novel extract of S. officinalis (garden sage) was prepared using supercritical carbon dioxide (SC-CO2) extraction, followed by a Soxhlet hot water extraction. The resulting extract was enriched in polyphenols, including rosmarinic acid (RA), which has shown promising health benefits in animals. Th...

  10. Efficient Execution Methods of Pivoting for Bulk Extraction of Entity-Attribute-Value-Modeled Data.

    PubMed

    Luo, Gang; Frey, Lewis J

    2016-03-01

    Entity-attribute-value (EAV) tables are widely used to store data in electronic medical records and clinical study data management systems. Before they can be used by various analytical (e.g., data mining and machine learning) programs, EAV-modeled data usually must be transformed into conventional relational table format through pivot operations. This time-consuming and resource-intensive process is often performed repeatedly on a regular basis, e.g., to provide a daily refresh of the content in a clinical data warehouse. Thus, it would be beneficial to make pivot operations as efficient as possible. In this paper, we present three techniques for improving the efficiency of pivot operations: 1) filtering out EAV tuples related to unneeded clinical parameters early on; 2) supporting pivoting across multiple EAV tables; and 3) conducting multi-query optimization. We demonstrate the effectiveness of our techniques through implementation. We show that our optimized execution method of pivoting using these techniques significantly outperforms the current basic execution method of pivoting. Our techniques can be used to build a data extraction tool to simplify the specification of and improve the efficiency of extracting data from the EAV tables in electronic medical records and clinical study data management systems.

  11. FDTD analysis of the light extraction efficiency of OLEDs with a random scattering layer.

    PubMed

    Kim, Jun-Whee; Jang, Ji-Hyang; Oh, Min-Cheol; Shin, Jin-Wook; Cho, Doo-Hee; Moon, Jae-Hyun; Lee, Jeong-Ik

    2014-01-13

    The light extraction efficiency of OLEDs with a nano-sized random scattering layer (RSL-OLEDs) was analyzed using the Finite Difference Time Domain (FDTD) method. In contrast to periodic diffraction patterns, the presence of an RSL suppresses the spectral shift with respect to the viewing angle. For FDTD simulation of RSL-OLEDs, a planar light source with a certain spatial and temporal coherence was incorporated, and the light extraction efficiency with respect to the fill factor of the RSL and the absorption coefficient of the material was investigated. The design results were compared to the experimental results of the RSL-OLEDs in order to confirm the usefulness of FDTD in predicting experimental results. According to our FDTD simulations, the light confined within the ITO-organic waveguide was quickly absorbed, and the absorption coefficients of ITO and RSL materials should be reduced in order to obtain significant improvement in the external quantum efficiency (EQE). When the extinction coefficient of ITO was 0.01, the EQE in the RSL-OLED was simulated to be enhanced by a factor of 1.8.

  12. Polarized backlight with constrained angular divergence for enhancement of light extraction efficiency from wire grid polarizer.

    PubMed

    Yao, Po-Hung; Chung, Chi-Jui; Wu, Chien-Li; Chen, Cheng-Huan

    2012-02-27

    Efficiency of liquid crystal displays highly depends on the amount of polarized light emerging from the backlight module. In this paper, a backlight architecture using a nanoimprint wire grid polarizer for polarization recycling is proposed and studied, in which the extraction efficiency of polarized light is the major concern. The backlight module is composed of the stack of a wire grid polarizer, a lenticular array and a light guide plate. The light guide plate features interleaving v-groove and trapezoidal ridge coated with aluminum on the top surface, and scattering dot array on the bottom. The angular divergence of emerging light from the light guide plate can be well constrained so as to exploit the angular range with the best transmission of polarized light for the wire grid polarizer. The prototype of a 2.5-inch module has demonstrated an angular divergence of 48°. The overall extraction efficiency of polarized light enhanced by 21% and uniformity of 76% have been achieved.

  13. Comparison of Aromatic Dithiophoshinic and Phosphinic Acid Derivatives for Minor Actinide Extraction

    SciTech Connect

    John R. Klaehn; Dean R. Peterman; Mason K. Harrup; Richard D. Tillotson; Mitchell R. Greenhalgh; Thomas A. Luther; Jack D. Law; Lee M. Daniels

    2008-03-01

    A new extractant for the separation of actinide(III) and lanthanide(III), bis(otrifluoromethylphenyl) phosphinic acid (O-PA) was synthesized. The synthetic route employed mirrors one that was employed to produce the sulfur containing analog bis(otrifluoromethylphenyl) dithiophosphinic acid (S-PA). Multinuclear NMR spectroscopy was used for elementary characterization of the new O-PA derivative. This new O-PA extractant was used to perform Am(III)/Eu(III) separations and the results were directly compared to those obtained in identical separation experiments using S-PA, an extractant that is known to exhibit separation factors of ~100,000 at low pH. The separations data are presented and discussed in terms comparing the nature of the oxygen atom as a donor to that of the sulfur atom in extractants that are otherwise identical.

  14. Comparison of Dithiophosphinic and Phosphinic Acid Derivatives for Minor Actinide Extraction

    SciTech Connect

    Mason K Harrup; Dean R. Peterman; Thomas A. Luther; Mitchell R. Greenhalgh; John R. Klaehn

    2008-03-01

    A new extractant for the separation of actinide(III) and lanthanide(III), bis(otrifluoromethylphenyl) phosphinic acid (O-PA) was synthesized. The synthetic route employed mirrors one that was employed to produce the sulfur containing analog bis(otrifluoromethylphenyl) dithiophosphinic acid (S-PA). Multinuclear NMR spectroscopy was used for elementary characterization of the new O-PA derivative. This new O-PA extractant was used to perform Am(III)/Eu(III) separations and the results were directly compared to those obtained in identical separation experiments using S-PA, an extractant that is known to exhibit separation factors of ~100,000 at low pH. The separations data are presented and discussed in terms comparing the nature of the oxygen atom as a donor to that of the sulfur atom in extractants that are otherwise identical.

  15. Sensitive life detection: extraction of nucleic acids sorbing to Mars analogue minerals

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Direito, S. O. L.; Marees, A.; Röling, W. F. M.

    2011-10-01

    The main goal of space missions to Mars is to find irrefutable proof of life. Consequently, the development, evaluation and optimization of sensitive extraction and detection methods for biomarkers are of extreme importance. Our aim consisted in the optimization of sensitive extraction techniques for molecules storing hereditary information (nucleic acids such as DNA), since these are common in life forms. However, adsorption of nucleic acids to mineral matrixes and soils can generate low extraction yields. Therefore, a second aim was to determine adsorption and identify 'problematic' Mars analogue minerals. In addition, the development of a method for quantification of DNA recovery by the use of an internal control was proved to be essential, since sensitive extraction needs information on recovery.

  16. Module Extraction for Efficient Object Queries over Ontologies with Large ABoxes

    PubMed Central

    Xu, Jia; Shironoshita, Patrick; Visser, Ubbo; John, Nigel; Kabuka, Mansur

    2015-01-01

    The extraction of logically-independent fragments out of an ontology ABox can be useful for solving the tractability problem of querying ontologies with large ABoxes. In this paper, we propose a formal definition of an ABox module, such that it guarantees complete preservation of facts about a given set of individuals, and thus can be reasoned independently w.r.t. the ontology TBox. With ABox modules of this type, isolated or distributed (parallel) ABox reasoning becomes feasible, and more efficient data retrieval from ontology ABoxes can be attained. To compute such an ABox module, we present a theoretical approach and also an approximation for SHIQ ontologies. Evaluation of the module approximation on different types of ontologies shows that, on average, extracted ABox modules are significantly smaller than the entire ABox, and the time for ontology reasoning based on ABox modules can be improved significantly. PMID:26848490

  17. Efficient microplastics extraction from sand. A cost effective methodology based on sodium iodide recycling.

    PubMed

    Kedzierski, Mikaël; Le Tilly, Véronique; César, Guy; Sire, Olivier; Bruzaud, Stéphane

    2017-02-15

    Evaluating the microplastics pollution on the shores requires overcoming the technological and economical challenge of efficient plastic extraction from sand. The recovery of dense microplastics requires the use of NaI solutions, a costly process. The aim of this study is to decrease this cost by recycling the NaI solutions and to determine the impact of NaI storage. For studying the NaI recyclability, the solution density and the salt mass have been monitored during ten life cycles. Density, pH and salt mass have been measured for 40days to assess the storage effect. The results show that NaI solutions are recyclable without any density alterations with a total loss of 35.9% after the 10cycles of use. During storage, chemical reactions may appear but are reversible. Consequently, the use of recycling methods allows for a significant cost reduction. How far the plastic extraction by dense solutions is representative is discussed.

  18. SIMPLE METHOD FOR THE EXTRACTION OF PHOTOPIGMENTS AND MYCOSPORINE-LIKE AMINO ACIDS (MAAS) FROM SYMBIODINIUM SPP.

    EPA Science Inventory

    Numerous extraction methods have been developed and used in the quantitation of both photopigments and mycosporine amino acids (MAAs) found in Symbiodinium sp. and zooanthellate metazoans. We have development of a simple, mild extraction procedure using methanol, which when coupl...

  19. Healing Effect of Pistacia Atlantica Fruit Oil Extract in Acetic Acid-Induced Colitis in Rats

    PubMed Central

    Tanideh, Nader; Masoumi, Samira; Hosseinzadeh, Massood; Safarpour, Ali Reza; Erjaee, Hoda; Koohi-Hosseinabadi, Omid; Rahimikazerooni, Salar

    2014-01-01

    Background: Considering the anti-oxidant properties of Pistacia atlantica and lack of data regarding its efficacy in the treatment of ulcerative colitis, this study aims at investigating the effect of the Pistacia atlantica fruit extract in treating experimentally induced colitis in a rat model. Methods: Seventy male Sprague-Dawley rats (weighing 220±20 g) were used. All rats fasted 24 hours before the experimental procedure. The rats were randomly divided into 7 groups, each containing 10 induced colitis with 2ml acetic acid (3%). Group 1 (Asacol), group 2 (base gel) and group 7 (without treatment) were assigned as control groups. Group 3 (300 mg/ml) and group 4 (600 mg/ml) received Pistacia atlantica fruit orally. Group 5 (10% gel) and group 6 (20% gel) received Pistacia atlantica in the form of gel as enema. Macroscopic, histopathological examination and MDA measurement were carried out. Results: All groups revealed significant macroscopic healing in comparison with group 7 (P<0.001). Regarding microscopic findings in the treatment groups compared with group 7, the latter group differed significantly with groups 1, 2, 4 and 6 (P<0.001). There was a significant statistical difference in MDA scores of the seven treatment groups (F(5,54)=76.61, P<0.001). Post-hoc comparisons indicated that the mean±SD score of Asacol treated group (1.57±0.045) was not significantly different from groups 4 (1.62±0.024) and 6 (1.58±0.028). Conclusion: Our study showed that a high dose of Pistacia atlantica fruit oil extract, administered orally and rectally can improve colitis physiologically and pathologically in a rat model, and may be efficient for ulcerative colitis. PMID:25429174

  20. Flavonoids and Phenolic Acids in Methanolic Extracts, Infusions and Tinctures from Commercial Samples of Lemon Balm.

    PubMed

    Arceusz, Agnieszka; Wesolowski, Marek; Ulewicz-Magulska, Beata

    2015-06-01

    The aim of this study was to quantify the levels of flavonoids (rutin, myricetin, quercetin, kaempferol) and phenolic acids (gallic, p-coumaric, rosmarinic, syringic, caffeic, chlorogenic, ellagic, ferulic) in lemon balm (Melissa officinalis L.) commonly used as a culinary, aromatic and medicinal herb. A rapid and reliable HPLC procedure was developed to determine the phenolic compounds in methanolic extracts, infusions and tinctures prepared from lemon balm. Except for myricetin and quercetin, as well as ellagic, gallic and rosmarinic acids, higher levels of the analytes under study were determined in the methanolic extracts (up to 22 mg/g of dry weight, DW), than in infusions (up to 5 mg/g DW). Tinctures were the poorest in flavonoids and phenolic acids (below 550 μg/g DW), except for ellagic and rosmarinic acids, which were quantified in tinctures at higher levels (mg/g DW). To sum up, the flavonoids were extracted more effectively in the infusions and tinctures than the phenolic acids. Statistically significant correlations were found between phenolic acids, possibly owing to similar biochemical pathways of the compounds. The hierarchical cluster and principal component analyses have also shown that the samples of lemon balm could be differentiated based on the levels of flavonoids and phenolic acids.

  1. Efficient extraction of proteins from recalcitrant plant tissue for subsequent analysis by two-dimensional gel electrophoresis.

    PubMed

    Parkhey, Suruchi; Chandrakar, Vibhuti; Naithani, S C; Keshavkant, S

    2015-10-01

    Protein extraction for two-dimensional electrophoresis from tissues of recalcitrant species is quite problematic and challenging due to the low protein content and high abundance of contaminants. Proteomics in Shorea robusta is scarcely conducted due to the lack of a suitable protein preparation procedure. To establish an effective protein extraction protocol suitable for two-dimensional electrophoresis in Shorea robusta, four procedures (borate buffer/trichloroacetic acid extraction, organic solvent/trichloroacetic acid precipitation, sucrose/Tris/phenol, and organic solvent/phenol/sodium dodecyl sulfate) were evaluated. Following these, proteins were isolated from mature leaves and were analyzed for proteomics, and also for potential contaminants, widely reported to hinder proteomics. The borate buffer/trichloroacetic acid extraction had the lowest protein yield and did not result in any banding even in one-dimensional electrophoresis. In contrast, organic solvent/phenol/sodium dodecyl sulfate extraction allowed the highest protein yield. Moreover, during proteomics, organic solvent/phenol/sodium dodecyl sulfate extracted protein resolved the maximum number (144) of spots. Further, when proteins were evaluated for contaminants, significant (77-95%) reductions in the nucleic acids, phenol, and sugars were discernible with refinement in extraction procedure. Accumulated data suggested that the organic solvent/phenol/sodium dodecyl sulfate extraction was the most effective protocol for protein isolation for proteomics of Shorea robusta and can be used for plants that have a similar set of contaminants.

  2. A rapid and efficient determination of natural estrogens in soils by pressurised liquid extraction and gas chromatography-mass spectrometry.

    PubMed

    Beck, Josefine; Totsche, Kai Uwe; Kögel-Knabner, Ingrid

    2008-03-01

    We present a new analytical procedure for the extraction and determination of natural estrogens in soils based on pressurised liquid extraction and GC-MS determination. After testing twelve solvents, acetone proved to be the most efficient extractant. The optimum extraction temperature is 60 degrees C. Soil extracts have to be purified and concentrated by C-18 solid phase extraction. The dried extracts are derivatised by N-methyl-N-(trimethylsilyl)trifluoro-acetamide before measurement by GC-MS. Recoveries of 79-103% with relative standard deviations extraction and a low detection limit (1 ng kg(-1)) represent an improvement of estrogen analysis in soils compared to established procedures.

  3. Regularities of extracting humic acids from soils using sodium pyrophosphate solutions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bakina, L. G.; Drichko, V. F.; Orlova, N. E.

    2017-02-01

    Regularities of extracting humic acids from different soil types (soddy-podzolic soil, gray forest soil, and all chernozem subtypes) with sodium pyrophosphate solutions at different pH values (from 5 to 13) have been studied. It is found that, regardless of soil type, the process occurs in two stages through the dissociation of carboxylic groups and phenolic hydroxyls, each of which can be described by a logistic function. Parameters of the logistic equations approximating the extraction of humic acids from soils at different pH values are independent of the content and composition of humus in soils. Changes in the optical density of humic acids extracted from soils using sodium pyrophosphate solutions with different pH values are described in the first approximation by the Gaussian function. The optically densest humic acids are extracted using sodium pyrophosphate solutions at pH 10. Therefore, it is proposed to use an extract with pH 10 for the characterization of organic matter with the maximum possible degree of humification in the given soil.

  4. High Efficiency Energy Extraction from a Relativistic Electron Beam in a Strongly Tapered Undulator

    SciTech Connect

    Sudar, N.; Musumeci, P.; Duris, J.; Gadjev, I.; Polyanskiy, M.; Pogorelsky, I.; Fedurin, M.; Swinson, C.; Kusche, K.; Babzien, M.; Gover, A.

    2016-10-19

    Here we present results of an experiment where, using a 200 GW CO2 laser seed, a 65 MeV electron beam was decelerated down to 35 MeV in a 54-cm-long strongly tapered helical magnetic undulator, extracting over 30% of the initial electron beam energy to coherent radiation. These results, supported by simulations of the radiation field evolution, demonstrate unparalleled electro-optical conversion efficiencies for a relativistic beam in an undulator field and represent an important step in the development of high peak and average power coherent radiation sources.

  5. High Efficiency Energy Extraction from a Relativistic Electron Beam in a Strongly Tapered Undulator

    DOE PAGES

    Sudar, N.; Musumeci, P.; Duris, J.; ...

    2016-10-19

    Here we present results of an experiment where, using a 200 GW CO2 laser seed, a 65 MeV electron beam was decelerated down to 35 MeV in a 54-cm-long strongly tapered helical magnetic undulator, extracting over 30% of the initial electron beam energy to coherent radiation. These results, supported by simulations of the radiation field evolution, demonstrate unparalleled electro-optical conversion efficiencies for a relativistic beam in an undulator field and represent an important step in the development of high peak and average power coherent radiation sources.

  6. High light extraction efficiency LEDs with asymmetric obtuse angle micro-structured roofs

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, Chang-Jiang; Chao, Ju-Hung; Zhu, Wenbin; Yin, Stuart

    2016-09-01

    This study reports a high light extraction efficiency (LEE) light emitting diode (LED) by harnessing asymmetric obtuse angle micro-structured roofs. In comparison to conventional symmetric micro-structured roofs, the LEE has been improved from 62% to 73%. This represents an 11% improvement in LEE, which is significant for LED. It is speculated that this improvement is largely due to the increased surface area and better randomization on the direction of transmitted/reflected light, which enhances the escaping probability after multiple reflections.

  7. High Efficiency Energy Extraction from a Relativistic Electron Beam in a Strongly Tapered Undulator

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sudar, N.; Musumeci, P.; Duris, J.; Gadjev, I.; Polyanskiy, M.; Pogorelsky, I.; Fedurin, M.; Swinson, C.; Kusche, K.; Babzien, M.; Gover, A.

    2016-10-01

    We present results of an experiment where, using a 200 GW CO2 laser seed, a 65 MeV electron beam was decelerated down to 35 MeV in a 54-cm-long strongly tapered helical magnetic undulator, extracting over 30% of the initial electron beam energy to coherent radiation. These results, supported by simulations of the radiation field evolution, demonstrate unparalleled electro-optical conversion efficiencies for a relativistic beam in an undulator field and represent an important step in the development of high peak and average power coherent radiation sources.

  8. Optimization of Light-Diffracting Photonic-Crystals for High Extraction Efficiency LEDs

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    David, Aurélien; Benisty, Henri; Weisbuch, Claude

    2007-06-01

    Photonic-crystal (PhC)-assisted light extraction is a promising method for ultrahigh efficiency, planar light-emitting diodes (LEDs). However, modeling of such structures is challenging due to the variety of their parameters and the heavy computational burden they represent. We present a thorough theoretical discussion of the optimization of PhC LEDs, which relies both on approximate treatments and on rigorous 3-D calculations. Two material systems (GaAs and GaN) are investigated, leading to quite different optimal regimes. Notably, it appears that besides the properties of the 2-D PhC itself, design of the vertical structure plays a major role in optimization.

  9. Distribution of zirconium in petroleum sulfoxides during extraction and sorption from nitric and hydrochloric acid solutions

    SciTech Connect

    Turanov, A.N.

    1988-11-20

    Petroleum sulfoxides (PSO) are effective extractants for several metals. We discussed the distribution of petroleum sulfoxides and zirconium between aqueous solutions of hydrochloric and nitric acid and organic solvents, and also the macroporous sorbent impregnated with PSO. For the investigation we used a macroposous copolymer of styrene with divinylbenzene. Our investigation showed a noticeable decrease in the contamination of the raffinates by petroleum sulfoxides and their more complete utilization as extractant of metals from solutions of acids when PSO is deposited on a macroporous copolymer of styrene with divinylbenzene.

  10. Enhanced absorption of boswellic acids by a lecithin delivery form (Phytosome(®)) of Boswellia extract.

    PubMed

    Hüsch, Jan; Bohnet, Janine; Fricker, Gert; Skarke, Carsten; Artaria, Christian; Appendino, Giovanni; Schubert-Zsilavecz, Manfred; Abdel-Tawab, Mona

    2013-01-01

    The anti-inflammatory potential of Boswellia serrata gum resin extracts has been demonstrated in vitro and in animal studies as well as in pilot clinical trials. However, pharmacokinetic studies have evidenced low systemic absorption of boswellic acids (BAs), especially of KBA and AKBA, in rodents and humans. This observation has provided a rationale to improve the formulation of Boswellia extract. We present here the results of a murine comparative bioavailability study of Casperome™, a soy lecithin formulation of standardized B. serrata gum resin extract (BE), and its corresponding non-formulated extract. The concentration of the six major BAs [11-keto-β-boswellic acid (KBA), acetyl-11-keto-β-boswellic acid (AKBA), β-boswellic acid (βBA), acetyl-β-boswellic acid (AβBA), α-boswellic acid (αBA), and acetyl-α-boswellic acid (AαBA)] was evaluated in the plasma and in a series of tissues (brain, muscle, eye, liver and kidney), providing the first data on tissue distribution of BAs. Weight equivalent and equimolar oral administration of Casperome™ provided significantly higher plasma levels (up to 7-fold for KBA, and 3-fold for βBA quantified as area under the plasma concentration time curve, AUC(last)) compared to the non-formulated extract. This was accompanied by remarkably higher tissue levels. Of particular relevance was the marked increase in brain concentration of KBA and AKBA (35-fold) as well as βBA (3-fold) following Casperome™ administration. Notably, up to 17 times higher BA levels were observed in poorly vascularized organs such as the eye. The increased systemic availability of BAs and the improved tissue distribution, qualify Casperome™ for further clinical development to fully exploit the clinical potential of BE.

  11. Water-enhanced solubility of carboxylic acids in organic solvents and its application to extraction processes

    SciTech Connect

    Starr, J.N. ); King, C.J. )

    1992-11-01

    This paper reports on solubilities of carboxylic acids in certain organic solvents which increase sharply as the concentration of water in the solvent increases. This phenomenon leads to a method of regeneration for solvent-extraction processes whereby coextracted water is selectively removed from the extract, such as by stripping, thereby precipitating the acid. The removal of a minor constituent to cause precipitation reduces energy consumption, in contrast with bulk removal of solvent. Solubilities of fumaric acid were measured in a number of organic solvents, with varying amounts of water in the organic phase. Cyclohexanone and methylcyclohexanone were chosen as solvents for which detailed solid-liquid and liquid-liquid equilibria were measured for adipic, fumaric, and succinic acids in the presence of varying concentrations of water, at both 25 and 45[degrees]C. Batch precipitation experiments were performed to demonstrate the processing concept and determine the relative volatility of water to solvent in the presence of carbon.

  12. The removal of uranium from acidic media using ion exchange and/or extraction chromatography

    SciTech Connect

    FitzPatrick, J.R.; Schake, B.S.; Murphy, J.; Holmes, K; West, M.H.

    1996-06-01

    The separation and purification of uranium from either nitric acid or hydrochloric acid media can be accomplished by using either solvent extraction or ion-exchange. Over the past two years at Los Alamos, emerging programs are focused on recapturing the expertise required to do limited, small-quantity processing of enriched uranium. During this period of time, we have been investigating ion-addition, waste stream polishing is associated with this effort in order to achieve more complete removal of uranium prior to recycle of the acid. Extraction chromatography has been demonstrated to further polish the uranium from both nitric and hydrochloric acid media thus allowing for a more complete recovery of the actinide material and creation of less waste during the processing steps.

  13. One-stop genomic DNA extraction by salicylic acid-coated magnetic nanoparticles.

    PubMed

    Zhou, Zhongwu; Kadam, Ulhas S; Irudayaraj, Joseph

    2013-11-15

    Salicylic acid-coated magnetic nanoparticles were prepared via a modified one-step synthesis and used for a one-stop extraction of genomic DNA from mammalian cells. The synthesized magnetic particles were used for magnetic separation of cells from the media by nonspecific binding of the particles as well as extraction of genomic DNA from the lysate. The quantity and quality were confirmed by agarose gel electrophoresis and polymerase chain reaction. The entire process of extraction and isolation can be completed within 30 min. Compared with traditional methods based on centrifugation and filtration, the established method is fast, simple, reliable, and environmentally friendly.

  14. Solution processed sodium chloride interlayers for efficient electron extraction from polymer solar cells

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nickel, Felix; Reinhard, Manuel; Zhang, Zhenhao; Pütz, Andreas; Kettlitz, Siegfried; Lemmer, Uli; Colsmann, Alexander

    2012-07-01

    We investigate a solution-processable, non-toxic sodium chloride (NaCl) interlayer for aluminum cathodes in organic solar cells. The electron extraction at the cathode interface is strongly improved upon the insertion of NaCl leading to power conversion efficiencies of up to 2.9% as compared to 1.8% efficient devices without interlayer. Scanning electron and kelvin probe force microscopy studies reveal that the formation of NaCl crystals causes a decrease of the aluminum work function by more than 300 mV. By impedance spectroscopy, we found evidence that the NaCl crystals improve the energetic alignment at the polymer/metal interface.

  15. Quinic acid is a biologically active component of the Uncaria tomentosa extract C-Med 100.

    PubMed

    Akesson, Christina; Lindgren, Hanna; Pero, Ronald W; Leanderson, Tomas; Ivars, Fredrik

    2005-01-01

    We have previously reported that the C-Med 100 extract of the plant Uncaria tomentosa induces prolonged lymphocyte half life and hence increased spleen cell number in mice receiving the extract in their drinking water. Further, the extract induces cell proliferation arrest and inhibits activation of the transcriptional regulator nuclear factor kappaB (NF-kappaB) in vitro. We now report that mice exposed to quinic acid (QA), a component of this extract, had significantly increased number of spleen cells, thus recapitulating the in vivo biological effect of C-Med 100 exposure. Commercially supplied QA (H(+) form) did not, however, inhibit cell proliferation in vitro, while the ammonia-treated QA (QAA) was a potent inhibitor. Both QA and QAA inhibited NF-kappaB activity in exposed cells at similar concentrations. Thus, our present data identify QA as a candidate component for both in vivo and in vitro biological effects of the C-Med 100 extract.

  16. Method for extracting lanthanides and actinides from acid solutions by modification of purex solvent

    DOEpatents

    Horwitz, E. Philip; Kalina, Dale G.

    1986-01-01

    A process for the recovery of actinide and lanthanide values from aqueous solutions with an extraction solution containing an organic extractant having the formula: ##STR1## where .phi. is phenyl, R.sup.1 is a straight or branched alkyl or alkoxyalkyl containing from 6 to 12 carbon atoms and R.sup.2 is an alkyl containing from 3 to 6 carbon atoms and phase modifiers in a water-immiscible hydrocarbon diluent. The addition of the extractant to the Purex process extractant, tri-n-butylphosphate in normal paraffin hydrocarbon diluent, will permit the extraction of multivalent lanthanide and actinide values from 0.1 to 12.0 molar acid solutions.

  17. Extraction of lycopene from tomato paste by ursodeoxycholic acid using the selective inclusion complex method.

    PubMed

    Seifi, Mahmoud; Seifi, Parisa; Hadizadeh, Farzin; Mohajeri, Seyed Ahmad

    2013-11-01

    Lycopene, a precursor of β-carotene with well-known antioxidant activity and powerful health properties, can be found in many natural products such as tomato (Lycopersicon esculentum), watermelon, red pepper, and papaya. Many separation methods have been reported for extracting lycopene from its sources. The inclusion complex is an effective method for extraction and purification of organic chemicals. This procedure has 2 main components: host and guest molecules. In this study, lycopene (guest) was extracted from tomato paste by ursodeoxycholic acid, the inclusive agent (host). The molecular structure of the extracted lycopene was then confirmed by (1) HNMR and its purity was evaluated using high-performance liquid chromatography and UV-Vis spectrophotometry methods, in comparison with a standard product. The results indicated that the proposed separation method was very promising and could be used for the extraction and purification of lycopene from tomato paste.

  18. Method for extracting lanthanides and actinides from acid solutions by modification of Purex solvent

    DOEpatents

    Horwitz, E.P.; Kalina, D.G.

    1986-03-04

    A process is described for the recovery of actinide and lanthanide values from aqueous solutions with an extraction solution containing an organic extractant having the formula as shown in a diagram where [phi] is phenyl, R[sup 1] is a straight or branched alkyl or alkoxyalkyl containing from 6 to 12 carbon atoms and R[sup 2] is an alkyl containing from 3 to 6 carbon atoms and phase modifiers in a water-immiscible hydrocarbon diluent. The addition of the extractant to the Purex process extractant, tri-n-butylphosphate in normal paraffin hydrocarbon diluent, will permit the extraction of multivalent lanthanide and actinide values from 0.1 to 12.0 molar acid solutions. 6 figs.

  19. Design of guanidinium ionic liquid based microwave-assisted extraction for the efficient extraction of Praeruptorin A from Radix peucedani.

    PubMed

    Ding, Xueqin; Li, Li; Wang, Yuzhi; Chen, Jing; Huang, Yanhua; Xu, Kaijia

    2014-12-01

    A series of novel tetramethylguanidinium ionic liquids and hexaalkylguanidinium ionic liquids have been synthesized based on 1,1,3,3-tetramethylguanidine. The structures of the ionic liquids were confirmed by (1)H NMR spectroscopy and mass spectrometry. A green guanidinium ionic liquid based microwave-assisted extraction method has been developed with these guanidinium ionic liquids for the effective extraction of Praeruptorin A from Radix peucedani. After extraction, reversed-phase high-performance liquid chromatography with UV detection was employed for the analysis of Praeruptorin A. Several significant operating parameters were systematically optimized by single-factor and L9 (3(4)) orthogonal array experiments. The amount of Praeruptorin A extracted by [1,1,3,3-tetramethylguanidine]CH2CH(OH)COOH is the highest, reaching 11.05 ± 0.13 mg/g. Guanidinium ionic liquid based microwave-assisted extraction presents unique advantages in Praeruptorin A extraction compared with guanidinium ionic liquid based maceration extraction, guanidinium ionic liquid based heat reflux extraction and guanidinium ionic liquid based ultrasound-assisted extraction. The precision, stability, and repeatability of the process were investigated. The mechanisms of guanidinium ionic liquid based microwave-assisted extraction were researched by scanning electron microscopy and IR spectroscopy. All the results show that guanidinium ionic liquid based microwave-assisted extraction has a huge potential in the extraction of bioactive compounds from complex samples.

  20. Cell nucleus targeting for living cell extraction of nucleic acid associated proteins with intracellular nanoprobes of magnetic carbon nanotubes.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Yi; Hu, Zhengyan; Qin, Hongqiang; Liu, Fangjie; Cheng, Kai; Wu, Ren'an; Zou, Hanfa

    2013-08-06

    Since nanoparticles could be ingested by cells naturally and target at a specific cellular location as designed, the extraction of intracellular proteins from living cells for large-scale analysis by nanoprobes seems to be ideally possible. Nucleic acid associated proteins (NAaP) take the crucial position during biological processes in maintaining and regulating gene structure and gene related behaviors, yet there are still challenges during the global investigation of intracellular NAaP, especially from living cells. In this work, a strategy to extract intracellular proteins from living cells with the magnetic carbon nanotube (oMWCNT@Fe3O4) as an intracellular probe is developed, to achieve the high throughput analysis of NAaP from living human hepatoma BEL-7402 cells with a mass spectrometry-based proteomic approach. Due to the specific intracellular localization of the magnetic carbon nanotubes around nuclei and its strong interaction with nucleic acids, the highly efficient extraction was realized for cellular NAaP from living cells, with the capability of identifying 2383 intracellular NAaP from only ca. 10,000 living cells. This method exhibited potential applications in dynamic and in situ analysis of intracellular proteins.

  1. [Rapid determination of eight organic acids in plant tissue by sequential extraction and high performance liquid chromatography].

    PubMed

    Huang, Tianzhi; Wang, Shijie; Liu Xiuming; Liu, Hong; Wu, Yanyou; Luo Xuqiang

    2014-12-01

    A sequential extraction method was developed to determine different forms of oxalate and seven oxalate-metabolism-related organic acids (glyoxylic acid, tartaric acid, glycolic acid, malic acid, acetic acid, citric acid, succinic acid) in plant tissue. The ultra-pure water was used as the extraction medium to obtain water-soluble oxalic acid and the other seven water-soluble organic acids. After the extraction of the water-soluble organic acids, the residues were extracted by dilute hydrochloric acid successively to get the acid-soluble oxalate which entered the liquid phase. A Hypersil ODS column was used with 5 mmol/L potassium dihydrogen phosphate buffer solution (pH 2. 8) as the mobile phase. The diode array detector was set at 210 nm and the column temperature at 30 °C with the injection volume of 5 µL. The flow rate was controlled at different times which allowed a good and rapid separation of the organic acids and hydrochloric acid. Under these conditions, the linear ranges of the method were 1-2000 mg/L for oxalic acid, 25-2,000 mg/L for acetic acid, and 10-2,000 mg/L for glyoxylic acid, tartaric acid, glycolic acid, malic acid, citric acid and succinic acid, with the correlation coefficients of the eight organic acids ≥ 0. 9996. The average recoveries of the eight organic acids in leaves and roots were 93. 5%-104. 4% and 85. 3%-105. 4% with RSDs of 0. 15% -2.43% and 0. 31%-2. 9% (n=7), respectively. The limits of detection ranged from 1 to 10 ng (S/N=3). The results indicated that the method is accurate, rapid and reproducible for the determination of organic acids in plant samples.

  2. Valoniopsis pachynema Extract as a Green Inhibitor for Corrosion of Brass in 0.1 N Phosphoric Acid Solution

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Selva Kumar, R.; Chandrasekaran, V.

    2016-04-01

    The effect of marine alga Valoniopsis pachynema extract on corrosion inhibition of brass in phosphoric acid was investigated by weight-loss method, potentiodynamic polarization, and electrochemical impedance spectroscopy studies. The inhibition efficiency is found to increase with increasing concentration of extract and decreases with rise in temperature. The activation energy, thermodynamic parameters (free energy, enthalpy, and entropy change) and kinetic parameters (rate constant and half-life) for inhibition process were calculated. These thermodynamic and kinetic parameters indicate a strong interaction between the inhibitor and the brass surface. The inhibition is assumed to occur via adsorption of inhibitor molecules on brass surface, which obeys Temkin adsorption isotherm. The adsorption of inhibitor on the brass surface is exothermic, physical, and spontaneous, and follows first-order kinetics. The polarization measurements showed that the inhibitor behaves as a mixed type inhibitor and the higher inhibition surface coverage on the brass was predicted. Inhibition efficiency values were found to show good trend with weight-loss method, potentiodynamic polarization, and electrochemical impedance spectroscopy studies. Surface study techniques (FT-IR and SEM) were carried out to ascertain the inhibitive nature of the algal extract on the brass surface.

  3. Plant uptake of cadmium from acid-extracted anaerobically digested sewage sludge. [Beta vulgaris

    SciTech Connect

    Logan, T.J.; Feltz, R.E.

    1985-01-01

    Approximately 80% of the Cd in an anaerobically digested sewage sludge was removed by acid extraction and dewatering. The acid extracted sludge was treated by (i) neutralization to pH 5.9 with Ca(OH)/sub 2/, (ii) addition of monocalcium phosphate (MCP) followed by Ca(OH)/sub 2/ neutralization to pH 5.9, and, (iii) addition of rock phosphate (RP) followed by Ca(OH)/sub 2/ neutralization to pH 5.9. The three treated sludges and the non acid-extracted sludge were applied to Spinks loamy sand at rates equivalent to 18.7 and 37.4 ..mu..mol Cd kg/sup -1/. Swiss chard (Beta vulgaris) was grown in the greenhouse for 56 d. Cadmium, Fe, Ca, and P were measured in saturation extracts of treated soil after sludge addition. These data indicated that hydroxyapatite was stable throughout the study in the soil receiving MCP treated sludge but not in other soil treatments. Cadmium concentration in saturation extracts of the soil with MCP sludge decreased while Cd concentration in saturation extracts of the other sludge treatments were much higher throughout the study. Chard yields were higher in the control than in any of the sludge treatments, and the difference was attributed to greater N availability in the control. Cadmium concentration in Swiss chard tissue at harvest was significantly lower from the MCP sludge than from the other sludges. Cadmium concentration in chard tissue was also higher from the aerated sludge (11.9 mmol Cd kg/sup -1/) than from the three acid-extracted sludges (2.58-3.29 mmol Cd kg/sup -1/). No significant difference in the Cd concentration of chard was obtained for the 18.7 and 37.4 ..mu..mol Cd kg/sup -1/ rates of the MCP sludge, while Cd concentrations in chard increased linearly with Cd applied by the other sludges.

  4. Chitosan-Modified Filter Paper for Nucleic Acid Extraction and "in Situ PCR" on a Thermoplastic Microchip.

    PubMed

    Gan, Wupeng; Gu, Yin; Han, Junping; Li, Cai-Xia; Sun, Jing; Liu, Peng

    2017-03-21

    Plastic microfluidic devices with embedded chitosan-modified Fusion 5 filter paper (unmodified one purchased from GE Healthcare) have been successfully developed for DNA extraction and concentration, utilizing two different mechanisms for DNA capture: the physical entanglement of long-chain DNA molecules with the fiber matrix of the filter paper and the electrostatic adsorption of DNA to the chitosan-modified filter fibers. This new method not only provided a high DNA extraction efficiency at a pH of 5 by synergistically combining these two capture mechanisms together, but also resisted the elution of DNA from filters at a pH > 8 due to the entanglement of DNA with fibers. As a result, PCR buffers can be directly loaded into the extraction chamber for "in situ PCR", in which the captured DNA were used for downstream analysis without any loss. We demonstrated that the capture efficiencies of a 3-mm-diameter filter disc in a microchip were 98% and 95% for K562 human genomic DNA and bacteriophage λ-DNA, respectively. The washes with DI water, PCR mixture, and TE buffer cannot elute the captured DNA. In addition, the filter disc can enrich 62% of λ-DNA from a diluted sample (0.05 ng/μL), providing a concentration factor more than 30-fold. Finally, a microdevice with a simple two-chamber structure was developed for on-chip cell lysis, DNA extraction, and 15-plex short tandem repeat amplification from blood. This DNA extraction coupled with "in situ PCR" has great potential to be utilized in fully integrated microsystems for rapid, near-patient nucleic acid testing.

  5. Leaching of phosphorus from incinerated sewage sludge ash by means of acid extraction followed by adsorption on orange waste gel.

    PubMed

    Biswas, Biplob Kumar; Inoue, Katsutoshi; Harada, Hiroyuki; Ohto, Keisuke; Kawakita, Hidetaka

    2009-01-01

    Ashes from sewage sludge incineration have a high phosphorus content, approximately 8% (W/W), which indicates a potential resource of the limiting nutrient. Incineration of sewage sludge with subsequent recovery of phosphorus is a relatively new sludge treatment technique. In this article, the leaching of phosphorus by using sulfuric acid as well as hydrochloric acid by means of several batch experiments was presented. At the same time a selective recovery of phosphorus by adsorption was also discussed. The effects of acid concentration, temperature and time on extraction were studied. The phosphorus leaching increased with the increase in acid concentration and temperature. Kinetic studies showed that the complete leaching of phosphorus took place in less than 4 h. Selective adsorption of phosphorus by using orange waste gel provided a hint for recovery of this natural resource, which eventually could meet the ever-increasing requirement for phosphorus. The overall results indicated that the incinerated sewage sludge ash can be treated with acid to efficiently recover phosphorus and thus can be considered a potentially renewable source of phosphorus.

  6. Pellet pestle homogenization of agarose gel slices at 45 degrees C for deoxyribonucleic acid extraction.

    PubMed

    Kurien, B T; Kaufman, K M; Harley, J B; Scofield, R H

    2001-09-15

    A simple method for extracting DNA from agarose gel slices is described. The extraction is rapid and does not involve harsh chemicals or sophisticated equipment. The method involves homogenization of the excised gel slice (in Tris-EDTA buffer), containing the DNA fragment of interest, at 45 degrees C in a microcentrifuge tube with a Kontes pellet pestle for 1 min. The "homogenate" is then centrifuged for 30 s and the supernatant is saved. The "homogenized" agarose is extracted one more time and the supernatant obtained is combined with the previous supernatant. The DNA extracted using this method lent itself to restriction enzyme analysis, ligation, transformation, and expression of functional protein in bacteria. This method was found to be applicable with 0.8, 1.0, and 2.0% agarose gels. DNA fragments varying from 23 to 0.4 kb were extracted using this procedure and a yield ranging from 40 to 90% was obtained. The yield was higher for fragments 2.0 kb and higher (70-90%). This range of efficiency was maintained when the starting material was kept between 10 and 300 ng. The heat step was found to be critical since homogenization at room temperature failed to yield any DNA. Extracting DNA with our method elicited an increased yield (up to twofold) compared with that extracted with a commercial kit. Also, the number of transformants obtained using the DNA extracted with our method was at least twice that obtained using the DNA extracted with the commercial kit.

  7. Validated Method for the Characterization and Quantification of Extractable and Nonextractable Ellagitannins after Acid Hydrolysis in Pomegranate Fruits, Juices, and Extracts.

    PubMed

    García-Villalba, Rocío; Espín, Juan Carlos; Aaby, Kjersti; Alasalvar, Cesarettin; Heinonen, Marina; Jacobs, Griet; Voorspoels, Stefan; Koivumäki, Tuuli; Kroon, Paul A; Pelvan, Ebru; Saha, Shikha; Tomás-Barberán, Francisco A

    2015-07-29

    Pomegranates are one of the main highly valuable sources of ellagitannins. Despite the potential health benefits of these compounds, reliable data on their content in pomegranates and derived extracts and food products is lacking, as it is usually underestimated due to their complexity, diversity, and lack of commercially available standards. This study describes a new method for the analysis of the extractable and nonextractable ellagitannins based on the quantification of the acid hydrolysis products that include ellagic acid, gallic acid, sanguisorbic acid dilactone, valoneic acid dilactone, and gallagic acid dilactone in pomegranate samples. The study also shows the occurrence of ellagitannin C-glycosides in pomegranates. The method was optimized using a pomegranate peel extract. To quantify nonextractable ellagitannins, freeze-dried pomegranate fruit samples were directly hydrolyzed with 4 M HCl in water at 90 °C for 24 h followed by extraction of the pellet with dimethyl sulfoxide/methanol (50:50, v/v). The method was validated and reproducibility was assessed by means of an interlaboratory trial, showing high reproducibility across six laboratories with relative standard deviations below 15%. Their applicability was demonstrated in several pomegranate extracts, different parts of pomegranate fruit (husk, peels, and mesocarp), and commercial juices. A large variability has been found in the ellagitannin content (150-750 mg of hydrolysis products/g) and type (gallagic acid/ellagic acid ratios between 4 and 0.15) of the 11 pomegranate extracts studied.

  8. Fatty acid profile and elemental content of avocado (Persea americana Mill.) oil--effect of extraction methods.

    PubMed

    Reddy, Mageshni; Moodley, Roshila; Jonnalagadda, Sreekanth B

    2012-01-01

    Interest in vegetable oil extracted from idioblast cells of avocado fruit is growing. In this study, five extraction methods to produce avocado oil have been compared: traditional solvent extraction using a Soxhlet or ultrasound, Soxhlet extraction combined with microwave or ultra-turrax treatment and supercritical fluid extraction (SFE). Traditional Soxhlet extraction produced the most reproducible results, 64.76 ± 0.24 g oil/100 g dry weight (DW) and 63.67 ± 0.20 g oil/100 g DW for Hass and Fuerte varieties, respectively. Microwave extraction gave the highest yield of oil (69.94%) from the Hass variety. Oils from microwave extraction had the highest fatty acid content; oils from SFE had wider range of fatty acids. Oils from Fuerte variety had a higher monounsaturated: saturated FA ratio (3.45-3.70). SFE and microwave extraction produced the best quality oil, better than traditional Soxhlet extraction, with the least amount of oxidizing metals present.

  9. Efficient production of L-lactic acid from xylose by a recombinant Candida utilis strain.

    PubMed

    Tamakawa, Hideyuki; Ikushima, Shigehito; Yoshida, Satoshi

    2012-01-01

    Efficient L-lactic acid production from xylose was achieved using a pyruvate decarboxylase-deficient Candida utilis strain expressing an L-lactate dehydrogenase, an NADH-preferring mutated xylose reductase (XR), a xylitol dehydrogenase and a xylulokinase. The recombinant strain showed 53% increased L-lactic acid production compared with the reference strain expressing native XR (NADPH-preferring).

  10. Optimization of electrically active magnetic nanoparticles as accurate and efficient microbial extraction tools.

    PubMed

    Cloutier, Barbara C; Cloutier, Ashley K; Alocilja, Evangelyn C

    2015-02-05

    Food defense requires the means to efficiently screen large volumes of food for microbial pathogens. Even rapid detection methods often require lengthy enrichment steps, making them impractical for this application. There is a great need for rapid, sensitive, specific, and inexpensive methods for extracting and concentrating microbial pathogens from food. In this study, an immuno-magnetic separation (IMS) methodology was developed for Escherichia coli O157:H7, using electrically active magnetic nanoparticles (EAMNPs). The analytical specificity of the IMS method was evaluated against Escherichia coli O55:H7 and Shigella boydii, and was improved over previous protocols by the addition of sodium chloride during the conjugation of antibodies onto MNPs. The analytical sensitivity of the IMS method was greatest when a high concentration of antibodies (1.0 mg/mL) was present during conjugation. EAMNP concentrations of 1.0 and 0.5 mg/mL provided optimal analytical sensitivity and analytical specificity. The entire IMS procedure requires only 35 min, and antibody-conjugated MNPs show no decline in performance up to 149 days after conjugation. This analytically sensitive and specific extraction protocol has excellent longevity and shows promise as an effective extraction for multiple electrochemical biosensor applications.

  11. Extraction efficiencies of heavy metals in hydroethanolic solvent from herbs of commerce.

    PubMed

    Sullivan, James; Greenfield, Jackie; Cumberford, Greg; Grant, Jim; Stewart, Jeremy

    2010-01-01

    Heavy metal contamination of herbal products is a major concern in the herbal and dietary supplement industry. Heavy metal exposure is well-documented to cause a variety of adverse human health effects and to negatively impact our environment. The Final Rule for Dietary Supplements for current good manufacturing practice regulation, 21 U.S. Food and Drug Administration Code of Federal Regulations 111, requires dietary supplement manufacturers to establish herbal purity limits for heavy metal contaminants considered safe for human consumption. Heavy metals may enter into the herbal manufacturing process via bioaccumulation from the harvest site or during postharvest processing phases, such as drying and/or liquid extraction. Traditionally, herbalists have used hydroethanolic solvents to extract herbal biomasses in pure food-grade ethanol-water combinations with solvent polarities capable of removing a wide range of hydrophilic and lipophilic constituents. The presented data demonstrate that hydroethanolic solvents are not completely efficient in the extraction of heavy metal accumulations from plant matrixes; and can act as an effective decontamination step in herbal product processing.

  12. SNP-sites: rapid efficient extraction of SNPs from multi-FASTA alignments

    PubMed Central

    Taylor, Ben; Delaney, Aidan J.; Soares, Jorge; Seemann, Torsten; Keane, Jacqueline A.; Harris, Simon R.

    2016-01-01

    Rapidly decreasing genome sequencing costs have led to a proportionate increase in the number of samples used in prokaryotic population studies. Extracting single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) from a large whole genome alignment is now a routine task, but existing tools have failed to scale efficiently with the increased size of studies. These tools are slow, memory inefficient and are installed through non-standard procedures. We present SNP-sites which can rapidly extract SNPs from a multi-FASTA alignment using modest resources and can output results in multiple formats for downstream analysis. SNPs can be extracted from a 8.3 GB alignment file (1842 taxa, 22 618 sites) in 267 seconds using 59 MB of RAM and 1 CPU core, making it feasible to run on modest computers. It is easy to install through the Debian and Homebrew package managers, and has been successfully tested on more than 20 operating systems. SNP-sites is implemented in C and is available under the open source license GNU GPL version 3. PMID:28348851

  13. Identification of Bioactivity, Volatile and Fatty Acid Profile in Supercritical Fluid Extracts of Mexican arnica

    PubMed Central

    García-Pérez, J. Saúl; Cuéllar-Bermúdez, Sara P.; Arévalo-Gallegos, Alejandra; Rodríguez-Rodríguez, José; Iqbal, Hafiz M. N.; Parra-Saldivar, Roberto

    2016-01-01

    Supercritical fluid extraction (SFE) is a sustainable technique used for the extraction of lipophilic metabolites such as pigments and fatty acids. Arnica plant is considered a potential candidate material with high antioxidant and antimicrobial activities. Therefore, in this study, a locally available Heterotheca inuloides, also known as Mexican arnica, was analyzed for the extraction of high-value compounds. Based on different pressure (P), temperature (T), and co-solvent (CoS), four treatments (T) were prepared. A maximum 7.13% yield was recovered from T2 (T = 60 °C, P = 10 MPa, CoS = 8 g/min), followed by 6.69% from T4 (T = 60 °C, P = 30 MPa, CoS = 4 g/min). Some bioactive sesquiterpenoids such as 7-hydroxycadalene, caryophyllene and δ-cadinene were identified in the extracts by GC/MS. The fatty acid profile revealed that the main components were palmitic acid (C16:0), followed by linoleic acid (C18:2ω6c), α-linolenic acid (C18:3ω3) and stearic acid (C18:0) differing in percent yield per treatment. Antibacterial activities were determined by the agar diffusion method, indicating that all the treatments exerted strong antibacterial activity against S. aureus, C. albicans, and E. coli strains. The antioxidant capacity of the extracts was also measured by three in vitro assays, DPPH, TEAC and FRAP, using Trolox as a standard. Results showed high antioxidant capacity enabling pharmaceutical applications of Mexican arnica. PMID:27626416

  14. Identification of Bioactivity, Volatile and Fatty Acid Profile in Supercritical Fluid Extracts of Mexican arnica.

    PubMed

    García-Pérez, J Saúl; Cuéllar-Bermúdez, Sara P; Arévalo-Gallegos, Alejandra; Rodríguez-Rodríguez, José; Iqbal, Hafiz M N; Parra-Saldivar, Roberto

    2016-09-12

    Supercritical fluid extraction (SFE) is a sustainable technique used for the extraction of lipophilic metabolites such as pigments and fatty acids. Arnica plant is considered a potential candidate material with high antioxidant and antimicrobial activities. Therefore, in this study, a locally available Heterotheca inuloides, also known as Mexican arnica, was analyzed for the extraction of high-value compounds. Based on different pressure (P), temperature (T), and co-solvent (CoS), four treatments (T) were prepared. A maximum 7.13% yield was recovered from T2 (T = 60 °C, P = 10 MPa, CoS = 8 g/min), followed by 6.69% from T4 (T = 60 °C, P = 30 MPa, CoS = 4 g/min). Some bioactive sesquiterpenoids such as 7-hydroxycadalene, caryophyllene and δ-cadinene were identified in the extracts by GC/MS. The fatty acid profile revealed that the main components were palmitic acid (C16:0), followed by linoleic acid (C18:2ω6c), α-linolenic acid (C18:3ω3) and stearic acid (C18:0) differing in percent yield per treatment. Antibacterial activities were determined by the agar diffusion method, indicating that all the treatments exerted strong antibacterial activity against S. aureus, C. albicans, and E. coli strains. The antioxidant capacity of the extracts was also measured by three in vitro assays, DPPH, TEAC and FRAP, using Trolox as a standard. Results showed high antioxidant capacity enabling pharmaceutical applications of Mexican arnica.

  15. Phytochemicals from Tradescantia albiflora Kunth Extracts Reduce Serum Uric Acid Levels in Oxonate-induced Rats

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Wen-Ling; Sheu, Shi-Yuan; Huang, Wen-Dar; Chuang, Ya-Ling; Tseng, Han-Chun; Hwang, Tzann-Shun; Fu, Yuan-Tsung; Kuo, Yueh-Hsiung; Yao, Chun-Hsu; Kuo, Tzong-Fu

    2016-01-01

    Background: Tradescantia albiflora (TA) Kunth (Commelinaceae) has been used for treating gout and hyperuricemia as folklore remedies in Taiwan. Therefore, it is worthwhile to study the effect of TA extracts on lowering uric acid activity. The hypouricemic effects of TA extracts on potassium oxonate (PO)-induced acute hyperuricemia were investigated for the first time. Materials and Methods: All treatments at the same volume (1 ml) were orally administered to the abdominal cavity of PO-induced hyperuricemic rats. One milliliter of TA extract in n-hexane (HE), ethyl acetate (EA), n-butanol (BuOH), and water fractions has 0.28, 0.21, 0.28, and 1.03 mg TA, respectively; and the plasma uric acid (PUA) level was measured for a consecutive 4 h after administration. Results: All four fractions' extracts derived from TA were observed to significantly reduce PUA compared with the PO group. The EA-soluble fraction (TA-EA) exhibited the best xanthine oxidase (XO) inhibitory activity. Following column chromatography, 12 phytochemicals were isolated and identified from the EA fraction. The IC50 values of isolated phytochemicals indicated that bracteanolide A (AR11) showed the remarkable XO inhibitory effect (IC50 value of 76.4 μg/ml). These findings showed that the in vivo hypouricemic effect in hyperuricemic rats was consistent with in vitro XO inhibitory activity, indicating that TA extracts and derived phytochemicals could be potential candidates as hypouricemic agents. SUMMARY Tradescantia albiflora extracts possess in vivo hypouricemic action in hyperuricemic ratsT. albiflora extracts exhibited strong inhibitory activity against xanthine oxidase (XO)Butenolide may play an important role in XO inhibitionThe extract bracteanolide A was demonstrated potent XO inhibitory activity in vitro. Abbreviations used: TA: Tradescantia albiflora, PO: potassium oxonate, HE: n-hexane, EA: ethyl acetate, BuOH: n-butanol, PUA: plasma uric acid, XO: xanthine oxidase, MeOH: methanol, IP

  16. Efficient ytterbium triflate catalyzed microwave-assisted synthesis of 3-acylacrylic acid building blocks.

    PubMed

    Tolstoluzhsky, Nikita V; Gorobets, Nikolay Yu; Kolos, Nadezhda N; Desenko, Sergey M

    2008-01-01

    The derivatives of 4-(hetero)aryl-4-oxobut-2-enoic acid are useful as building blocks in the synthesis of biologically active compounds. An efficient general protocol for the synthesis of these building blocks was developed. This method combines microwave assistance and ytterbium triflate catalyst and allows the fast preparation of the target acids starting from different (hetero)aromatic ketones and glyoxylic acid monohydrate giving pure products in 52-75% isolated yields.

  17. Extraction of total nucleic acid based on silica-coated magnetic particles for RT-qPCR detection of plant RNA virus/viroid.

    PubMed

    Sun, Ning; Deng, Congliang; Zhao, Xiaoli; Zhou, Qi; Ge, Guanglu; Liu, Yi; Yan, Wenlong; Xia, Qiang

    2014-02-01

    In this study, a nucleic acid extraction method based on silica-coated magnetic particles (SMPs) and RT-qPCR assay was developed to detect Arabis mosaic virus (ArMV), Lily symptomless virus (LSV), Hop stunt viroid (HSVd) and grape yellow speckle viroid 1 (GYSVd-1). The amplification sequences of RT-qPCR were reversely transcribed in vitro as RNA standard templates. The standard curves covered six or seven orders of magnitude with a detection limit of 100 copies per each assay. Extraction efficiency of the SMPs method was evaluated by recovering spiked ssRNAs from plant samples and compared to two commercial kits (TRIzol and RNeasy Plant mini kit). Results showed that the recovery rate of SMPs method was comparable to the commercial kits when spiked ssRNAs were extracted from lily leaves, whereas it was two or three times higher than commercial kits when spiked ssRNAs were extracted from grapevine leaves. SMPs method was also used to extract viral nucleic acid from15 ArMV-positive lily leaf samples and 15 LSV-positive lily leaf samples. SMPs method did not show statistically significant difference from other methods on detecting ArMV, but LSV. The SMPs method has the same level of virus load as the TRIzol, and its mean virus load of was 0.5log10 lower than the RNeasy Plant mini kit. Nucleic acid was extracted from 19 grapevine-leaf samples with SMPs and the two commercial kits and subsequently screened for HSVd and GYSVd-1 by RT-qPCR. Regardless of HSVd or GYSVd-1, SMPs method outperforms other methods on both positive rate and the viroid load. In conclusion, SMPs method was able to efficiently extract the nucleic acid of RNA viruses or viroids, especially grapevine viroids, from lily-leaf or grapevine-leaf samples for RT-qPCR detection.

  18. Surfactant-assisted electromembrane extraction combined with capillary electrophoresis as a novel technique for the determination of acidic drugs in biological fluids.

    PubMed

    Fakhari, Ali Reza; Hasheminasab, Kobra Sadat; Aladaghlo, Zolfaghar; Koruni, Mohammad Hosein

    2015-12-01

    In this paper, for the first time, surfactant-assisted electromembrane extraction coupled with capillary electrophoresis with UV detector was introduced for the extraction of acidic drugs from biological fluids. In this technique, in the presence of the nonionic surfactant in the donor phase, tendency of analyte ions into the supported liquid membrane (SLM) was increased. Naproxen and diclofenac were selected as model acidic drugs. In order to obtain the best extraction efficiency, several factors influencing the extraction efficiency were investigated. Optimal extractions were accomplished with 1-octanol as the SLM, 15 Volt dc potential as the driving force, pH 12 in acceptor solution, and 0.2 mmol/L Triton X-100 with pH 7.4 in donor solution. Equilibrium extraction conditions were obtained after 15 min of operation where the whole assembly agitated at 1000 rpm. Under the optimized conditions, preconcentration factors in the range of 176-184 and recoveries in the range of 88-92% were obtained. The applied method offers acceptable linearity with correlation coefficients higher than 0.9992. Limits of detection of 1.51 ng/mL and 2.42 ng/mL were obtained for naproxen and diclofenac, respectively. Finally, the developed method was successfully applied for the determination of naproxen and diclofenac in different matrices including plasma and urine samples.

  19. Comparison of the Amino-Acid Content in Pharmacopuncture Extracts Taken from a Scorpion's Body and from Its Tail

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Jin-Ho; Shin, Joon-Shik; Chi, Eun-Hya; Lee, In-Hee

    2013-01-01

    Objective: This study was conducted to investigate the amino-acid compositions of pharmacopuncture extracts taken from the body and from the tail of Buthus martensii Karsch, which are frequently prescribed in Oriental medicine. Methods: Amino acids in hot water and 70% ethanol extracts taken from the scorpion’s whole body and from its tail were screened by using high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC). The experiments were performed with linearity, precision and accuracy. Results: The results of the amino-acid-composition analysis showed that the Buthus martensii Karsch extracts contained various amino acids such as aspartic acid, histidine, alanine, tyrosine, and cystine. The amino-acid analysis showed that the hot water extract was more beneficial than the ethanol extract, except for histidine. The amino acids from the tail and the body of the scorpion were compared, and the concentration of aspartic acid in the extract from the scorpion’s tail was two times that found in the extract from its body. The results of validation experiments were all satisfactory. Conclusion: Studies on the ingredients in extracts from a scorpion other than buthotoxin may demonstrate that the antiepileptic efficacy, anticancer activity, antithrombotic action and analgesic effect are enhanced. Using only the tail of the scorpion when pharmacopuncture is dispensed may be beneficial because the extracts from the tail of the scorpion have higher potency than those from the whole body. PMID:25780666

  20. Extraction of p-coumaric acid and ferulic acid using surfactant-based aqueous two-phase system.

    PubMed

    Dhamole, Pradip B; Demanna, Dhanashree; Desai, S A

    2014-09-01

    Ferulic acid (FA) and p-coumaric acid (pCA) are high-value products that can be obtained by alkaline hydrolysis of lignocellulose. Present work explores the potential of surfactant-based cloud-point extraction (CPE) for FA and pCA extraction from corn cob hydrolysate. More than 90 % (w/w) extraction of both FA and pCA was achieved from model system with L92. The partition coefficient of FA and pCA in L92 aqueous phase system was 35 and 55, respectively. A significant enrichment (8-10-fold) of both FA and pCA was achieved in surfactant-rich phase. Furthermore, the downstream process volume was reduced by 10 to 13 times. Optimized conditions (5 % v/v L92 and pH 3.0) resulted into 85 and 89 % extraction of FA and p-CA, respectively, from alkaline corn cob hydrolysate. Biocompatibility tests were carried out for L92 for ethanol fermentation and found to be biocompatible. Thus, the new surfactant-based CPE system not only concentrated FA and pCA but also reduced the process volume significantly. Further, aqueous phase containing sugars can be used for ethanol fermentation.

  1. Comparison of methods of extracting messenger Ribonucleic Acid from ejaculated Porcine (Sus Scrofa) Spermatozoa

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    H. D. Guthrie, G.R. Welch, and L. A. Blomberg. Comparison of Methods of Extracting Messenger Ribonucleic Acid from Ejaculated Porcine (Sus Scrofa) Spermatozoa. Biotechnology and Germplasm Laboratory, Agricultural Research Service U. S. Department of Agriculture, Beltsville, MD 20705 The purpos...

  2. Emerging Technology Summary. ACID EXTRACTION TREATMENT SYSTEM FOR TREATMENT OF METAL CONTAMINATED SOILS

    EPA Science Inventory

    The Acid Extraction Treatment System (AETS) is intended to reduce the concentrations and/or teachability of heavy metals in contaminated soils so the soil can be returned to the site from which it originated. The objective of the project was to determine the effectiveness and com...

  3. Rosmarinic acid content in antidiabetic aqueous extract from ocimum canum sims in Ghana

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Rosmarinic acid (RA) is an important polyphenol that is found in a variety of herbs including Ocimum canum sims (locally called eme or akokobesa in Ghana). Aqueous extracts from the leaves of O. canum are used as an antidiabetic herbal medicine in Ghana. Analytical TLC was used to examine the compos...

  4. The influence of tributyl phosphate on molybdenum extraction with solutions of dibutyl phosphoric acid

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Goletskiy, N. D.; Zilberman, B. Ya.; Fedorov, Yu. S.; Khonina, I. V.; Kukharev, D. N.

    2006-01-01

    Comparative investigations were carried out to study the influence of TBP on Mo extraction by HDBP solutions in xylene and TBP in xylene. The dependences of DMo on HNO3 concentration for both HDBP and D2EHPA have minima at about 3 mol/L HNO3. This shows similar extraction properties of HDBP and D2EHPA. The presence of TBP in the solvent results in the reduction of Mo extraction and in an increase in the formal slopes of the falling and rising parts of the logDMo — log[HNO3] curve from -0.5 and +2 up to -2 and +4. Solvent loading curves with Mo show that in the absence of TBP a molybdenum solvate with two molecules of HDBP is formed at low acidity. Anomalous increase in the maximum solvent loading in the presence of TBP is caused by the ability of TBP to extract Mo from oversaturated low acidity solutions following the acidic mechanism. A molybdenum solvate with two HDBP molecules and one HNO3 molecule is possibly formed at high acidity. A flowsheet for Mo recovery from HLW with HDBP-TBP solvent was tested in centrifugal contactors.

  5. Umami taste amino acids produced by hydrolyzing extracted protein from tomato seed meal

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Enzymatic hydrolysis was performed for extracting protein to prepare umami taste amino acids from defatted tomato seed meal (DTSM) which is a by-product of tomato processing. Papain was used as an enzyme for the hydrolysis of DTSM. The particle size distribution of DTSM, protein concentration and fr...

  6. TWOPOT: a computer model of the two-pot extractive distillation concept for nitric acid

    SciTech Connect

    Jubin, R.T.; Holland, W.D.; Counce, R.M.; Beckwith, D.R.

    1985-05-01

    A mathematical model, TWOPOT, of the ''two-pot'' extractive distillation concept for nitric acid concentration has been developed. Prediction from a computer simulation using this model shows excellent agreement with the experimental data. This model is recommended for use in the design of large-scale, similar-purpose equipment. 9 refs., 15 figs., 2 tabs.

  7. 21 CFR 173.280 - Solvent extraction process for citric acid.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Solvent extraction process for citric acid. 173.280 Section 173.280 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) SECONDARY DIRECT FOOD ADDITIVES PERMITTED IN FOOD FOR HUMAN CONSUMPTION...

  8. Phenolic acids composition of fruit extracts of Ber (Ziziphus mauritiana L., var. Golo lemai)

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Fruits of Ziziphus mauritiana L. (ber) are consumed in fresh and dried/processed form in many countries across Asia including Pakistan. In the present study, we analyzed the composition of total phenolic acids (free, soluble-bound and insoluble-bound) from Golo lemai ber fruit extracts by applying a...

  9. Lemon juice improves the extractability and quality characteristics of pectin from yellow passion fruit by-product as compared with commercial citric acid extractant.

    PubMed

    Yapo, Beda M

    2009-06-01

    An environment-friendly procedure, allowing the extraction of safe pectin products with good functional properties from yellow passion fruit by-product, was developed using two natural acid extractants, namely, pure lemon juice and citric acid solvent. The results show that both of them solubilise, from cell wall material, pectins characterised by high galacturonic acid content (64-78% w/w), degree of esterification (52-73), viscosity-average molecular weight (70-95 kDa) and capable of forming gels in the presence of high soluble solids (sucrose) content and acid. However, compared to pure citric acid solvents, lemon natural juice and its concentrate isolate, under similar extraction conditions, pectins of superior quality characteristics, i.e., higher galacturonic acid content, degree of esterification, viscosity-average molecular weight and gelling power.

  10. Investigation of metal ion extraction and aggregate formation combining acidic and neutral organophosphorous reagents

    SciTech Connect

    Braatz, A.D.; Nilsson, M.; Ellis, R.; Antonio, M.

    2013-07-01

    In the present study, we investigate how varying mixtures of tri-n-butyl phosphate (TBP) and dibutyl phosphate (HDBP) results in enhanced extraction of lanthanum(III), La{sup 3+}, and dysprosium(III), Dy{sup 3+}. Water and metal ion extraction were carefully monitored as a function of TBP:HDBP mole ratio.In addition to these techniques, EXAFS was used to determine the coordination environment of the metal ion in this system. To produce the necessary signal, a concentration of 1.25*10{sup -3} M La{sup 3+} and Dy{sup 3+} was used. Although previous studies of synergistic extraction of metal cations using combinations of neutral and acidic reagents explain the enhanced extraction by increased dehydration of the metal ion and the formation of mixed extractant complexes, our evidence for the increased water extraction coupled with the aggregate formation suggests a reverse micellar aspect to synergism in the system containing TBP and HDBP. It is quite possible that both of these phenomena contribute to our system behavior. The EXAFS data shows that, based on coordination numbers alone, several possible structures may exist. From this study, we cannot provide a definitive answer as to the nature of extraction in this system or the exact complex formed during extraction.

  11. A sulfuric-lactic acid process for efficient purification of fungal chitosan with intact molecular weight.

    PubMed

    Naghdi, Mitra; Zamani, Akram; Karimi, Keikhosro

    2014-02-01

    The most recent method of fungal chitosan purification, i.e., two steps of dilute sulfuric acid treatment, pretreatment of cell wall at room temperature for phosphate removal and extraction of chitosan from the phosphate free cell wall at high temperature, significantly reduces the chitosan molecular weight. This study was aimed at improvement of this method. In the pretreatment step, to choose the best conditions, cell wall of Rhizopus oryzae, containing 9% phosphate, 10% glucosamine, and 21% N-acetyl glucosamine, was treated with sulfuric, lactic, acetic, nitric, or hydrochloric acid, at room temperature. Sulfuric acid showed the best performance in phosphate removal (90%) and cell wall recovery (89%). To avoid depolymerisation of chitosan, hot sulfuric acid extraction was replaced with lactic acid treatment at room temperature, and a pure fungal chitosan was obtained (0.12 g/g cell wall). Similar pretreatment and extraction processes were conducted on pure shrimp chitosan and resulted in a chitosan recovery of higher than 87% while the reduction of chitosan viscosity was less than 15%. Therefore, the sulfuric-lactic acid method purified the fungal chitosan without significant molecular weight manipulation.

  12. Evaluation of microwave-assisted extraction for aristolochic acid from Aristolochiae Fructus by chromatographic analysis coupled with nephrotoxicity studies.

    PubMed

    Zhou, Ting; Xiao, Xiao-Hua; Wang, Jia-Yue; Chen, Jin-Ling; Xu, Xian-Fang; He, Zhi-Feng; Li, Gong-Ke

    2012-02-01

    In this paper, a microwave-assisted extraction (MAE) method was established for aristolochic acid-I from Aristolochiae Fructus, and the advantage of MAE was evaluated by chromatographic analysis coupled with nephrotoxicity studies. The experimental parameters of MAE for aristolochic acid-I in Aristolochiae Fructus were investigated and MAE was compared with Soxhlet extraction and ultrasound-assisted extraction in terms of extraction yields and extraction conditions. Under the optimum conditions, MAE could provide higher extraction yields of aristolochic acid-I (1.10 mg/g) than ultrasound-assisted extraction (0.82 mg/g) and Soxhlet extraction (0.95 mg/g), in addition to using less solvent and having a shorter extraction time. Furthermore, the nephrotoxicities of the extracts of Aristolochiae Fructus from different extraction procedures were investigated in Sprague-Dawley rats. The results of nephrotoxicity studies of, for example, general conditions, biochemistry parameters and histopathology examination showed no significantly differences in the nephrotoxicity levels of the extracts from MAE and that from Soxhlet extraction. These results indicated that MAE technique is a simple, rapid and effective extraction method, and the microwave irradiation during MAE procedure did not have any influence on the nephrotoxicity of Aristolochiae Fructus compared with Soxhlet extraction.

  13. Molecularly imprinted polymers with synthetic dummy template for simultaneously selective removal and enrichment of ginkgolic acids from Ginkgo biloba L. leaves extracts.

    PubMed

    Ji, Wenhua; Ma, Xiuli; Xie, Hongkai; Chen, Lingxiao; Wang, Xiao; Zhao, Hengqiang; Huang, Luqi

    2014-11-14

    Dummy molecularly imprinted polymers (DMIPs) for simultaneously selective removal and enrichment of ginkgolic acids (GAs) during the processing of Ginkgo biloba leaves have been prepared. Two dummy template molecule with similar structural skeleton to GAs, 6-methoxysalicylic acid (MOSA, DT-1) and 6-hexadecyloxysalicylic acid (HOSA, DT-2), have been designed and synthesized. The performance of the DMIPs and NIPs were evaluated including selective recognition capacity, adsorption isotherm, and adsorption kinetics. The selective recognition capacity of the three GAs with four analogues on the sorbents illustrated that the DMIPs sorbents have high specificity for GAs. An efficient method based on DMIP-HOSA coupled with solid-phase extraction (SPE) was developed for simultaneously selective removal and enrichment of ginkgolic acids (GAs) during the processing of Ginkgo biloba leaves. The method showed excellent recoveries (82.5-88.7%) and precision (RSD 0.5-2.6%, n=5) for licorice extracts, Gastrodia elata extracts and pepper extracts spiked at three concentration levels each (50, 100, 200 μg mL(-1)). The results indicated that GAs and standardized Ginkgo biloba leaves extracts could be obtained simultaneously through the DMIP-SPE.

  14. Evaluation of food grade solvents for lipid extraction and impact of storage temperature on fatty acid composition of edible seaweeds Laminaria digitata (Phaeophyceae) and Palmaria palmata (Rhodophyta).

    PubMed

    Schmid, Matthias; Guihéneuf, Freddy; Stengel, Dagmar B

    2016-10-01

    This study evaluated the impact of different food- and non-food grade extraction solvents on yield and fatty acid composition of the lipid extracts of two seaweed species (Palmaria palmata and Laminaria digitata). The application of chloroform/methanol and three different food grade solvents (ethanol, hexane, ethanol/hexane) revealed significant differences in both, extraction yield and fatty acid composition. The extraction efficiency, in terms of yields of total fatty acids (TFA), was in the order: chloroform/methanol>ethanol>hexane>ethanol/hexane for both species. Highest levels of polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFA) were achieved by the extraction with ethanol. Additionally the effect of storage temperature on the stability of PUFA in ground and freeze-dried seaweed biomass was investigated. Seaweed samples were stored for a total duration of 22months at three different temperatures (-20°C, 4°C and 20°C). Levels of TFA and PUFA were only stable after storage at -20°C for the two seaweed species.

  15. Experimental study and thermodynamic modeling for determining the effect of non-polar solvent (hexane)/polar solvent (methanol) ratio and moisture content on the lipid extraction efficiency from Chlorella vulgaris.

    PubMed

    Malekzadeh, Mohammad; Abedini Najafabadi, Hamed; Hakim, Maziar; Feilizadeh, Mehrzad; Vossoughi, Manouchehr; Rashtchian, Davood

    2016-02-01

    In this research, organic solvent composed of hexane and methanol was used for lipid extraction from dry and wet biomass of Chlorella vulgaris. The results indicated that lipid and fatty acid extraction yield was decreased by increasing the moisture content of biomass. However, the maximum extraction efficiency was attained by applying equivolume mixture of hexane and methanol for both dry and wet biomass. Thermodynamic modeling was employed to estimate the effect of hexane/methanol ratio and moisture content on fatty acid extraction yield. Hansen solubility parameter was used in adjusting the interaction parameters of the model, which led to decrease the number of tuning parameters from 6 to 2. The results indicated that the model can accurately estimate the fatty acid recovery with average absolute deviation percentage (AAD%) of 13.90% and 15.00% for the two cases of using 6 and 2 adjustable parameters, respectively.

  16. Extraction of manganese by alkyl monocarboxylic acid in a mixed extractant from a leaching solution of spent lithium-ion battery ternary cathodic material

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Joo, Sung-Ho; Shin, Dongju; Oh, ChangHyun; Wang, Jei-Pil; Shin, Shun Myung

    2016-02-01

    We investigate the separation of manganese by an antagonistic effect from a leaching solution of ternary cathodic material of spent lithium-ion batteries that contain 11,400 mg L-1 Co, 11,700 mg L-1 Mn, 12,200 mg L-1 Ni, and 5300 mg L-1 Li using a mixture of alkyl monocarboxylic acid and di-(2-ethylhexyl)phosphoric acid extractants. pH isotherm, distribution coefficient, separation factor, McCabe-Thiele diagram, selective scrubbing, and countercurrent extraction tests are carried out to prove an antagonistic effect and to recover manganese using alkyl monocarboxylic in the mixed extractant. Slope analysis is used to determine the extraction mechanism between a mixture of extractants and valuable metals. An increasing concentration of alkyl monocarboxylic acid in the mixture of extractants results in a decrease in distribution coefficient of cobalt and manganese, however, the separation factor value (β(Mn/Co)) increases at pH 4.5. This is caused by slope analysis where alkyl monocarboxylic acid disrupts the extraction mechanism between di-(2-ethylhexyl)phosphoric acid and cobalt. Finally, continuous countercurrent extraction in a mini-plant test demonstrate the feasibility of manganese recovery from cobalt, nickel, and lithium.

  17. An Advanced TALSPEAK Concept Using 2-Ethylhexylphosphonic Acid Mono-2-Ethylhexyl Ester as the Extractant

    SciTech Connect

    Lumetta, Gregg J.; Casella, Amanda J.; Rapko, Brian M.; Levitskaia, Tatiana G.; Pence, Natasha K.; Carter, Jennifer C.; Niver, Cynthia M.; Smoot, Margaret R.

    2014-12-21

    A method for separating the trivalent actinides and lanthanides is being developed using 2-ethylhexylphosphonic acid mono-2-ethylhexyl ester (HEH[EHP]) as the extractant. The method is based on the preferential binding of the actinides in the aqueous phase by N-(2-hydroxyethyl)ethylenediamine-N,N',N'-triacetic acid (HEDTA), which serves to keep the actinides in the aqueous phase while the lanthanides are extracted into an organic phase containing HEH[EHP]. The process is very robust, showing little dependence upon the pH or the HEH[EHP], HEDTA, and citrate concentrations over the ranges that might be expected in a nuclear fuel recycling plant. Single-stage runs with a 2-cm centrifugal contactor indicate that modifications to the process chemistry may be needed to increase the extraction rate for Sm, Eu, and Gd. The hydraulic properties of the system are favorable to application in centrifugal contactors.

  18. Nucleic acid extraction methods from fixed and paraffin-embedded tissues in cancer diagnostics.

    PubMed

    Bonin, Serena; Stanta, Giorgio

    2013-04-01

    Diagnostic tests, based on nucleic acid extracts from formalin-fixed and paraffin-embedded tissues, are now becoming increasingly common due to the introduction of biological agents for cancer therapy. Unfortunately, the formalin-fixed and paraffin-embedded tissues are heterogeneous in terms of processing and tissue type, and this has an impact on downstream molecular techniques, especially RNA-based techniques. The present review deals with most of the variables connected to the extraction of nucleic acids from formalin-fixed paraffin-embedded tissues, ranging from tissue processing to quality control of extracts. The most recent peer-reviewed publications (mostly published in the past 5 years) and information provided by company websites have been analyzed to compile this review.

  19. Method for the extraction of the volatile compound salicylic acid from tobacco leaf material.

    PubMed

    Verberne, Marianne C; Brouwer, Nynke; Delbianco, Federica; Linthorst, Huub J M; Bol, John F; Verpoorte, Robert

    2002-01-01

    Salicylic acid (SA) is a signalling compound in plants which is able to induce systemic acquired resistance. In the analysis of SA in plant tissues, the extraction recovery is often very low and variable. This is mainly caused by sublimation of SA, especially during evaporation of organic solvents. Techniques have been designed in order to overcome this problem. In the first part of the extraction procedure, sublimation of SA was prevented by addition of 0.2 M sodium hydroxide. At a later stage of the extraction procedure, sublimation of SA during solvent evaporation was controlled by the addition of a small amount of HPLC eluent. In this way, recoveries in the range of 71-91% for free SA and 65-79% for acid-hydrolysed SA were obtained. Recoveries could be further optimised by the use of an internal standard to correct for volume changes after the addition of the HPLC eluent.

  20. Solvent extraction of Sc(III), Zr(IV), Th(IV), Fe(III), and Lu(III) with thiosubstituted organophosphinic acid extractants

    SciTech Connect

    Wang, C.; Li, D.

    1995-05-01

    The solvent extraction of Sc(III), Zr(IV), Th(IV), Fe(III) and Lu(III) with Cyanex 302 (bis(2,4,4-trimethylpentyl)monothiphosphinic acid) and Cyanex 301 (bis(2,4,4-trimethylpentyl)dithiophosphinic acid) in n-hexane from acidic aqueous solutions has been investigated systematically. The effect of equilibrium aqueous acidity on the extraction with these reagents was studied. The separation of Th(IV), Fe(III) and Lu(III) from Sc(III), or the separation of other metals from Lu(III) with Cyanex 302, can be achieved by controlling the aqueous acidity. However, Cyanex 301 exhibited a poor selectivity for the above metals, except for Lu(III). The extraction of these metals with Cyanex 272, Cyanex 302 and Cyanex 301 has been compared. The stripping percentages of Sc(III) for Cyanex 302 and Cyanex 301 in a single stage are near 78% and 75% with 3.5 mol/L and 5.8 mol/L sulphuric acid solutions, respectively. The effects of extractant concentration and temperature on the extraction of Sc(III) were investigated. The stoichiometry of the extraction of Sc(III) with Cyanex 302 was determined. The role of different components of Cyanex 302 in the extraction of Sc(III) was discussed. 18 refs., 10 figs.

  1. A modified acid digestion procedure for extraction of tungsten from soil.

    PubMed

    Bednar, A J; Jones, W T; Chappell, M A; Johnson, D R; Ringelberg, D B

    2010-01-15

    Interest in tungsten occurrence and geochemistry is increasing due to increased use of tungsten compounds and its unknown biochemical effects. Tungsten has a complex geochemistry, existing in most environmental matrices as the soluble and mobile tungstate anion, as well as poly- and heteropolytungstates. Because the geochemistry of tungsten is substantially different than most trace metals, including the formation of insoluble species under acidic conditions, it is not extracted from soil matrices using standard acid digestion procedures. Therefore, the current work describes a modification to a commonly used acid digestion procedure to facilitate quantification of tungsten in soil matrices. Traditional soil digestion procedures, using nitric and hydrochloric acids with hydrogen peroxide yield <1 up to 50% recovery on soil matrix spike samples, whereas the modified method reported here, which includes the addition of phosphoric acid, yields spike recoveries in the 76-98% range. Comparison of the standard and modified digestion procedures on National Institute of Standards and Technology Standard Reference Materials yielded significantly improved tungsten recoveries for the phosphoric acid modified method. The modified method also produces comparable results for other acid extractable metals as the standard methods, and therefore can be used simultaneously for tungsten and other metals of interest.

  2. Topical Formulation Comprising Fatty Acid Extract from Cod Liver Oil: Development, Evaluation and Stability Studies

    PubMed Central

    Ilievska, Biljana; Loftsson, Thorsteinn; Hjalmarsdottir, Martha Asdis; Asgrimsdottir, Gudrun Marta

    2016-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to develop a pharmaceutical formulation containing fatty acid extract rich in free omega-3 fatty acids such as eicosapentaenoic acid and docosahexaenoic acid for topical use. Although the health benefits of cod liver oil and other fish oils taken orally as a dietary supplement have been acknowledged and exploited, it is clear that their use can be extended further to cover their antibacterial properties. In vitro evaluation showed that 20% (v/v) fatty acid extract exhibits good activity against strains of the Gram-positive bacteria Staphylococcus aureus, Enterococcus faecalis, Streptoccoccus pyogenes and Streptoccoccus pneumonia. Therefore, free polyunsaturated fatty acids from cod liver oil or other fish oils can be used as safe and natural antibacterial agents. In this study, ointment compositions containing free fatty acids as active antibacterial agents were prepared by using various natural waxes and characterized. The effects of different waxes, such as carnauba wax, ozokerite wax, laurel wax, beeswax, rice bran wax, candelilla wax and microcrystalline wax, in the concentration range of 1% to 5% (w/w) on the ointment texture, consistency and stability were evaluated. The results showed significant variations in texture, sensory and rheological profiles. This was attributed to the wax’s nature and chain composition. Microcrystalline wax gave the best results but laurel wax, beeswax and rice bran wax exhibited excellent texturing, similar sensory profiles and well-balanced rheological properties. PMID:27258290

  3. Altered nucleic acid partitioning during phenol extraction or silica adsorption by guanidinium and potassium salts.

    PubMed

    Xu, Lei; Lv, Jun; Ling, Liefeng; Wang, Peng; Song, Ping; Su, Ruirui; Zhu, Guoping

    2011-12-15

    Nucleic acids were found to partition into the phenol phase during phenol extraction in the presence of guanidinium at certain concentrations under acidic conditions. The guanidinium-concentration-dependent nucleic acid partitioning patterns were analogous to those of the nucleic acid adsorption/partitioning onto silica mediated by guanidinium, which implied that phenol and silica interact with nucleic acids through similar mechanisms. A competition effect was observed in which the nucleic acids that had partitioned into the phenol phase or onto the silica solid phase could be recovered to the aqueous phases by potassium in a molecular weight-salt concentration-dependent manner (the higher molecular weight nucleic acids needed higher concentrations of potassium to be recovered, and vice versa). Methods were developed based on these findings to isolate total RNA from Escherichia coli. By controlling the concentrations of guanidinium and potassium salts used before phenol extraction or silica adsorption, we can selectively recover total RNA but not the high molecular weight genomic DNA in the aqueous phases. Genomic DNA-free total RNA obtained by our methods is suitable for RT-PCR or other purposes. The methods can also be adapted to isolate small RNAs or RNA in certain molecular weight ranges by changing the salt concentrations used.

  4. Physical Pre-Treatment Improves Efficient DNA Extraction and qPCR Sensitivity from Clostridium Difficile Spores in Faecal Swine Specimens.

    PubMed

    Grześkowiak, Łukasz; Zentek, Jürgen; Vahjen, Wilfried

    2016-11-01

    A considerable fraction of the faecal microbiota is spore-forming. Molecular quantification of bacteria may be underestimated if preceded with nucleic acid extraction without special treatment to extract recalcitrant bacterial spores. The objective of this study was to improve the DNA extraction regarding the presence of Clostridium difficile spores in faecal swine specimens. Sow faeces were inoculated with spores of C. difficile (10(6) CFU), frozen at - 30 °C overnight and subjected to DNA extraction. As a preceding step to a standard DNA extraction method (QIAamp DNA stool Mini kit), different physical treatments such as microwave oven heating and repeated bead-beating techniques and a combination of both were applied and compared with each other by means of qPCR. Using a standard DNA extraction method only, C. difficile spores were quantified at 4.96 log copy number/200 mg of faeces. A repeated bead-beating at 6 m/s for 10 min followed by a standard DNA extraction resulted in 5.77 log copy number of spores in inoculated faeces. Heating in a microwave oven at 800 W for 1, 3, 5 and 10 min followed by a standard DNA extraction resulted in a gene quantification of up to 4.89 log copy number. A combination of both methods resulted in the bacterial gene quantity of 5.37 log copy number. Pre-treatment with repeated bead-beating led to the highest quantification of bacteria, and therefore it can be applied for more efficient DNA extraction from spores of C. difficile in faecal specimens.

  5. Efforts to Improve Efficiency of Extraction Well Operation at the Fernald Preserve, Harrison, Ohio – 16177

    SciTech Connect

    Glassmeyer, Cathy; Hooten, Gwen; Hertel, Bill; Broberg, Ken

    2016-03-01

    The Fernald Preserve, a former uranium processing facility that produced high-purity uranium metal products during the Cold War, is located in southwest Ohio. The facility became a US Department of Energy Office of Legacy Management (LM) site in November 2006, following completion of the Comprehensive Environmental Response, Compensation, and Liability Act environmental remediation and site restoration (with the exception of groundwater). When the site was turned over to LM, approximately 76.5 ha of the Great Miami Aquifer remained contaminated with uranium above the final remediation level of 30 μg/L. Here, uranium contamination is being removed from groundwater in the Great Miami Aquifer through a pump-and-treat operation, which is predicted to continue until 2033. Twenty extraction wells pump about 30 million liters per day. Operation of the system is impacted by iron in the groundwater that promotes iron fouling of the well pumps, motors, and screens. The design of the well field evolved over 21 years and reflected a conservative system that could respond to a wide range of pumping conditions. For instance, some of the extraction wells were sized with pumps and motors that would allow the well to pump up to 1890 L/min (500 gpm) if warranted. The added flexibility, though, came at the cost of operational efficiency. We describe the efforts that have been taken by LM since the Fernald site was transferred to LM to mitigate the operational impacts from the iron fouling aquifer conditions and improve the efficiency of the well-field operation. Variable-frequency drives were installed at six wells to replace flow control valves. Several wells with oversized pumps and motors were changed from 24-hour per day operation to 8-hour per day operation to allow the pumps to operate closer to their design flow rates. Pumps and motors were “right-sized” at many wells to improve pumping efficiency. The process used to rehabilitate (or clean) well screens was improved, and

  6. Ultra trace determination of fluorobenzoic acids in tap and reservoir water using solid-phase extraction and gas chromatography-mass spectrometry.

    PubMed

    Müller, Karsten; Seubert, Andreas

    2012-10-19

    A method for the ultra trace analysis of 21 fluorobenzoic acids (FBAs) via GC-MS based on solid-phase extraction (SPE) and derivatization with BF3·MeOH is described. All fluorobenzoic acids were enriched and determined simultaneously. Solid-phase extraction on hydrophilic-lipophilic-balanced reversed-phase cartridges containing a poly(divinylbenzene-co-N-vinylpyrrolidone) polymer allowed a 250-fold enrichment of the acids if 100mL sample volume is used with extraction efficiencies between 71% and 94%. The method enables the determination of fluorobenzoic acid methyl esters (FBAMEs) down to the range of 6-44 ng L(-1) combined with a fast and easy sample-preparation (pH-adjusting prior to SPE and derivatization within 24 h at 64 °C directly in the vial). It uses low amounts of chemicals and is adaptable to larger and smaller sample volumes. Simultaneous extraction and determination of 21 fluorinated aromatic acids in reservoir samples with high salinity confirmed the applicability and reproducibility of the method.

  7. Extractive and oxidative removal of copper bound to humic acid in soil.

    PubMed

    Hwang, Bo-Ram; Kim, Eun-Jung; Yang, Jung-Seok; Baek, Kitae

    2015-04-01

    Copper (Cu) is often found strongly bound to natural organic matter (NOM) in soil through the formation of strong Cu-NOM complexes. Therefore, in order to successfully remediate Cu-contaminated soils, effective removal of Cu bound to soil organic matter should be considered. In this study, we investigated soil washing methods for Cu removal from a synthetic Cu-contaminated model silica soil coated with humic acid (HA) and from field contaminated soil. Various reagents were studied to extract Cu bound to NOM, which included oxidant (H2O2), base (NaOH), and chelating agents (citric acid and ethylenediaminetetraacetic acid (EDTA)). Among the wash reagents, EDTA extracted Cu most effectively since EDTA formed very strong complexes with Cu, and Cu-HA complexes were transformed into Cu-EDTA complexes. NaOH extracted slightly less Cu compared to EDTA. HA was effectively extracted from the model soil under strongly alkaline conditions with NaOH, which seemed to concurrently release Cu bound to HA. However, chemical oxidation with H2O2 was not effective at destroying Cu-HA complexes. Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy and elemental analysis revealed that chelating agents such as citrate and EDTA were adsorbed onto the model soil via possible complexation between HA and extraction agents. The extraction of Cu from a field contaminated soil sample was effective with chelating agents, while oxidative removal with H2O2 and extractive removal with NaOH separated negligible amounts of Cu from the soil. Based on these results, Cu bound to organic matter in soil could be effectively removed by chelating agents, although remnant agents may remain in the soil.

  8. Extraction-spectrophotometric determination of germanium(IV) with mandelic acid and malachite green.

    PubMed

    Sato, S; Tanaka, H

    1989-03-01

    A method has been developed for determination of germanium, based on complexation with mandelic acid and extraction of the ion-associate formed with Malachite Green (MG) into chlorobenzene. A weakly acidic aqueous solution (pH 2.5-3.5) at room temperature is used and indirect determination is achieved by measuring the absorbance of MG in the extract, at 628 mn. The calibration graph is linear over the range (0.17-8.63) x 10(-6) (0.05-2.50 mug of germanium); the apparent molar absorptivity is 1.33 x 10(5) 1.mole(-1).cm(-1). The interferences from Fe, Ti, Sn(IV), Mo, and SB(III) can be eliminated by addition of trans-1,2-diaminocyclohexanetetra-acetic acid and sodium diethyldithiocarbamate.

  9. Determination of naphthenic acids in crude oils using nonaqueous ion exchange solid-phase extraction.

    PubMed

    Jones, D M; Watson, J S; Meredith, W; Chen, M; Bennett, B

    2001-02-01

    A method is presented for the routine, rapid, and quantitative analysis of aliphatic and naphthenic acids in crude oils, based on their isolation using nonaqueous ion exchange solid-phase extraction cartridges. The isolated acid fractions are methylated and analyzed by gas chromatography and gas chromatography/mass spectrometry. The method is effective on both light and heavy oils and is capable of providing mechanistic information of geochemical significance on the origin of the acids in the oils. Analysis of oils that were solvent extracted from laboratory and field mesocosm marine sediment oil degradation studies indicate that this new method of analyzing the products of hydrocarbon biodegradation may be a useful tool for monitoring the progress of bioremediation of oil spills in the environment.

  10. Efficient power extraction in surface-emitting semiconductor lasers using graded photonic heterostructures.

    PubMed

    Xu, Gangyi; Colombelli, Raffaele; Khanna, Suraj P; Belarouci, Ali; Letartre, Xavier; Li, Lianhe; Linfield, Edmund H; Davies, A Giles; Beere, Harvey E; Ritchie, David A

    2012-07-17

    Symmetric and antisymmetric band-edge modes exist in distributed feedback surface-emitting semiconductor lasers, with the dominant difference being the radiation loss. Devices generally operate on the low-loss antisymmetric modes, although the power extraction efficiency is low. Here we develop graded photonic heterostructures, which localize the symmetric mode in the device centre and confine the antisymmetric modes close to the laser facet. This modal spatial separation is combined with absorbing boundaries to increase the antisymmetric mode loss, and force device operation on the symmetric mode, with elevated radiation efficiency. Application of this concept to terahertz quantum cascade lasers leads to record-high peak-power surface emission (>100 mW) and differential efficiencies (230 mW A(-1)), together with low-divergence, single-lobed emission patterns, and is also applicable to continuous-wave operation. Such flexible tuning of the radiation loss using graded photonic heterostructures, with only a minimal influence on threshold current, is highly desirable for optimizing second-order distributed feedback lasers.

  11. Energy efficient facile extraction process of cellulose nanofibres and their dimensional characterization using light scattering techniques.

    PubMed

    Yadav, Chandravati; Saini, Arun; Maji, Pradip K

    2017-06-01

    A chemi-mechanical approach was used to extract cellulose nanofibres (CNFs) from waste mango wood scraps using a mild chemical treatment ensuring no acid hydrolysis. The dimensional analysis for CNFs has been done by taking into account both the microscopic and light scattering techniques. The FESEM (field emission scanning electron microscopy) analysis revealed the diameter of obtained CNFs in the range of 5-40nm with an average diameter of approximately 12nm. The AFM (atomic force microscopy) analysis gave a more precise average diameter value of 5nm for the obtained CNFs. The aspect ratio as determined by applying mathematical calculations on the data revealed through dynamic and static light scattering techniques (DLS, SLS) was approximately 200. The characteristic shape determined by fractal dimension investigation from SLS measurement revealed the rod/thread like shape of CNFs at lower concentrations.

  12. Liquid extraction of rhenium(VII) and molybdenum(VI) with trialkylphosphine oxide from acidic solutions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Travkin, V. F.; Palant, A. A.

    2012-01-01

    The liquid extraction of rhenium(VII) and molybdenum(VI) ions from sulfuric, hydrochloric, and nitric acid media is studied in the temperature range from 20 to 40°C using trialkylphosphine oxide in kerosene as an extracting agent. The maximum separation of these metals is attained when they are extracted from solutions of 1.0-2.0 M H2SO4 (the duration of intense phase mixing was 3-5 min). The enthalpy of the studied process is estimated to be Δ H = -32.32 kJ/mol for molybdenum and -51.52 kJ/mol for rhenium. The chemical aspects of the extraction process studied are discussed.

  13. Comparison of QIAGEN automated nucleic acid extraction methods for CMV quantitative PCR testing.

    PubMed

    Miller, Steve; Seet, Henrietta; Khan, Yasmeen; Wright, Carolyn; Nadarajah, Rohan

    2010-04-01

    We examined the effect of nucleic acid extraction methods on the analytic characteristics of a quantitative polymerase chain reaction (PCR) assay for cytomegalovirus (CMV). Human serum samples were extracted with 2 automated instruments (BioRobot EZ1 and QIAsymphony SP, QIAGEN, Valencia, CA) and CMV PCR results compared with those of pp65 antigenemia testing. Both extraction methods yielded results that were comparably linear and precise, whereas the QIAsymphony SP had a slightly lower limit of detection (1.92 log(10) copies/mL vs 2.26 log(10) copies/mL). In both cases, PCR was more sensitive than CMV antigen detection, detecting CMV viremia in 12% (EZ1) and 21% (QIAsymphony) of antigen-negative specimens. This study demonstrates the feasibility of using 2 different extraction techniques to yield results within 0.5 log(10) copies/mL of the mean value, a level that would allow for clinical comparison between different laboratory assays.

  14. Inertial effects of the semi-passive flapping foil on its energy extraction efficiency

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Deng, Jian; Teng, Lubao; Pan, Dingyi; Shao, Xueming

    2015-05-01

    The inertia plays a significant role in the response of a system undergoing flow-induced vibrations, which has been extensively investigated by previous researchers. However, the inertial effects of an energy harvester employing the mechanism of flow-induced vibrations have attracted little attention. This paper concentrates on a semi-passive energy extraction system considering its inertial effects. The incompressible Navier-Stokes equations are solved using a finite-volume based numerical solver with a moving grid technique. A partitioned method is used to couple the fluid and structure motions with the sub-iteration technique and an Aitken relaxation, which guarantees a strong fluid-structure coupling. In addition, a fictitious mass is added to resolve the numerical instability aroused by low density ratios. First, at a fixed mass ratio of r = 1, we identify an optimal set of parameters, at which a maximum efficiency of η = 34% is achieved. Further studies with r ranging from 0.125 to 100 are performed around the optimal parameters. The results show that for the semi-passive flapping energy harvester, the energy harvesting efficiency decreases monotonically with increasing mass ratio. We also notice that the total power extraction stays at a high level with little variation for r < 10; therefore, if we concern more about the amount of power extraction rather than its efficiency, the inertial effects can be neglectable for r < 10. Moreover, since one degree of freedom is released for the semi-passive system, it is possible for the system to automatically determine its optimal operational parameters. We note that the optimal phase difference ϕ = 82° has been well determined, which leads to a good timing of vortex-foil interactions. We note two different trends on phase difference for the effects of reduced frequency and mass ratio, respectively. By varying the reduced frequency f∗, an optimal f∗ is identified, at which the minimum phase difference is

  15. Comparison of methods for acid quantification: impact of resist components on acid-generating efficiency

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cameron, James F.; Fradkin, Leslie; Moore, Kathryn; Pohlers, Gerd

    2000-06-01

    Chemically amplified deep UV (CA-DUV) positive resists are the enabling materials for manufacture of devices at and below 0.18 micrometer design rules in the semiconductor industry. CA-DUV resists are typically based on a combination of an acid labile polymer and a photoacid generator (PAG). Upon UV exposure, a catalytic amount of a strong Bronsted acid is released and is subsequently used in a post-exposure bake step to deprotect the acid labile polymer. Deprotection transforms the acid labile polymer into a base soluble polymer and ultimately enables positive tone image development in dilute aqueous base. As CA-DUV resist systems continue to mature and are used in increasingly demanding situations, it is critical to develop a fundamental understanding of how robust these materials are. One of the most important factors to quantify is how much acid is photogenerated in these systems at key exposure doses. For the purpose of quantifying photoacid generation several methods have been devised. These include spectrophotometric methods, ion conductivity methods and most recently an acid-base type titration similar to the standard addition method. This paper compares many of these techniques. First, comparisons between the most commonly used acid sensitive dye, tetrabromophenol blue sodium salt (TBPB) and a less common acid sensitive dye, Rhodamine B base (RB) are made in several resist systems. Second, the novel acid-base type titration based on the standard addition method is compared to the spectrophotometric titration method. During these studies, the make up of the resist system is probed as follows: the photoacid generator and resist additives are varied to understand the impact of each of these resist components on the acid generation process.

  16. PROCESS FOR EXTRACTING NEPTUNIUM AND PLUTONIUM FROM NITRIC ACID SOLUTIONS OF SAME CONTAINING URANYL NITRATE WITH A TERTIARY AMINE

    DOEpatents

    Sheppard, J.C.

    1962-07-31

    A process of selectively extracting plutonium nitrate and neptunium nitrate with an organic solution of a tertiary amine, away from uranyl nitrate present in an aqueous solution in a maximum concentration of 1M is described. The nitric acid concentration is adjusted to about 4M and nitrous acid is added prior to extraction. (AEC)

  17. Extracts from Tribulus species may modulate platelet adhesion by interfering with arachidonic acid metabolism.

    PubMed

    Olas, Beata; Hamed, Arafa I; Oleszek, Wieslaw; Stochmal, Anna

    2015-01-01

    The present work was designed to study the effects of crude extracts from Tribulus pterocarpus, T. pentandrus and T. parvispinus on selected biological functions of human blood platelets in vitro. Platelet suspensions were pre-incubated with extracts from aerial parts of T. pterocarpus, T. pentandrus and T. parvispinus, at the final concentrations of 0.5, 5 and 50 µg/ml. Then, for platelet activation thrombin, was used. The effects of crude extracts from T. pterocarpus, T. pentandrus and T. parvispinus on adhesion of blood platelets to collagen were determined by method according to Tuszynski and Murphy. Arachidonic acid metabolism was measured by the level of thiobarbituric acid reactive substances (TBARS). In these studies we also compared the action of tested crude plant extracts with the effects of the polyphenolic fraction isolated from aerial parts of T. pterocarpus, which has antiplatelet and antioxidative properties. The performed assays demonstrated that the tested crude extract from T. pterocarpus and the phenolic fraction from T. pterocarpus might influence the platelet functions in vitro. The inhibitory, concentration-dependent effects of this tested extract and its phenolic fraction on adhesion of resting platelets and thrombin - stimulated platelets to collagen was found. We also observed that the crude extract from T. pterocarpus, like the polyphenolic fraction from T. pterocarpus reduced TBARS production in blood platelets. In the comparative studies, the tested crude extract from T. pterocarpus was not found to be more effective antiplatelet factor, than the polyphenolic fraction from this plant. The results obtained suggest that T. pterocarpus may be a promising source of natural compounds, valuable in the prevention of the enhanced activity of blood platelets in numerous cardiovascular diseases.

  18. A novel miniaturized biofilter based on silicon micropillars for nucleic acid extraction.

    PubMed

    Petralia, Salvatore; Sciuto, Emanuele Luigi; Conoci, Sabrina

    2016-12-19

    New miniaturised microfluidic biofilter (BF) devices based on silicon micropillars have been developed and tested regarding their ability to extract HBV (Hepatitis B Virus) bacterial DNA from biological sample solutions. The device is composed of a silicon microchannel in which the pillars are distributed at the bottom surface. The extracted DNA solutions were analysed by real time PCR amplification and the biofilter performance was evaluated. The results obtained show that the DNA binding to the biofilters and the elution efficiency strictly depend on the pillars' geometrical dimensions and increase proportionally with the surface/volume ratio. The device exhibiting the best extraction efficiency was then tested in combination with a silicon integrated real time PCR amplification chip as a preliminary step towards the development of genetic point-of-care devices.

  19. Anti-leukemic activity of Dillenia indica L. fruit extract and quantification of betulinic acid by HPLC.

    PubMed

    Kumar, Deepak; Mallick, Sumana; Vedasiromoni, Joseph R; Pal, Bikas C

    2010-05-01

    The methanolic extract of Dillenia indica L. fruits showed significant anti-leukemic activity in human leukemic cell lines U937, HL60 and K562. This finding led to fractionation of the methanolic extract, on the basis of polarity, in which the ethyl acetate fraction showed the highest anti-leukemic activity. A major compound, betulinic acid, was isolated from the ethyl acetate fraction by silica gel column chromatography and was identified and characterized. Betulinic acid could explain the anti-leukemic activity of the methanolic extract and the ethyl acetate fraction. Hence the quantitative estimation of betulinic acid was approached in methanolic extract and fractions using HPLC.

  20. Efficient production of free fatty acids from ionic liquid-based acid- or enzyme-catalyzed bamboo hydrolysate.

    PubMed

    Mi, Le; Qin, Dandan; Cheng, Jie; Wang, Dan; Li, Sha; Wei, Xuetuan

    2017-03-01

    Two engineered Escherichia coli strains, DQ101 (MG1655 fadD (-))/pDQTES and DQ101 (MG1655 fadD (-))/pDQTESZ were constructed to investigate the free fatty acid production using ionic liquid-based acid- or enzyme-catalyzed bamboo hydrolysate as carbon source in this study. The plasmid, pDQTES, carrying an acyl-ACP thioesterase 'TesA of E. coli in pTrc99A was constructed firstly, and then (3R)-hydroxyacyl-ACP dehydratase was ligated after the TesA to give the plasmid pDQTESZ. These two strains exhibited efficient fatty acid production when glucose was used as the sole carbon source, with a final concentration of 2.45 and 3.32 g/L, respectively. The free fatty acid production of the two strains on xylose is not as efficient as that on glucose, which was 2.32 and 2.96 g/L, respectively. For mixed sugars, DQ101 (MG1655 fadD (-))-based strains utilized glucose and pentose sequentially under the carbon catabolite repression (CCR) regulation. The highest total FFAs concentration from the mixed sugar culture reached 2.81 g/L by DQ101 (MG1655 fadD (-))/pDQTESZ. Furthermore, when ionic liquid-based enzyme-catalyzed bamboo hydrolysate was used as the carbon source, the strain DQ101 (MG1655 fadD (-))/pDQTESZ could produce 1.23 g/L FFAs with a yield of 0.13 g/g, and while it just produced 0.65 g/L free fatty acid with the ionic liquid-based acid-catalyzed bamboo hydrolysate as the feedstock. The results suggested that enzymatic catalyzed bamboo hydrolysate with ionic liquid pretreatment could serve as an efficient feedstock for free fatty acid production.

  1. Development of sample preparation method for isoliquiritigenin, liquiritin, and glycyrrhizic acid analysis in licorice by ionic liquids-ultrasound based extraction and high-performance liquid chromatography detection.

    PubMed

    Yang, Lei; Li, Li-li; Liu, Ting-ting; Zu, Yuan-gang; Yang, Feng-jian; Zhao, Chun-jian; Zhang, Lin; Chen, Xiao-qiang; Zhang, Zhong-hua

    2013-05-01

    An ionic liquid-based ultrasonic-assisted extraction (ILUAE) method had been used for the effective extraction of isoliquiritigenin (IQ), liquiritin (LQ) and glycyrrhizic acid (GA) from licorice. The ionic liquids with different cations and anions were investigated in this work and 0.5 M 1-butyl-3-methylimidazolium bromide solution was selected as solvent. In addition, the technical parameters including soaking time, solid-liquid ratio, ultrasonic power and time were optimized. Compared with the conventional solvent extraction, the proposed approach exhibited higher efficiency, which indicated the ILUAE was an efficient, rapid and simple sample preparation technique. There was no degradation of the target analytes had been observed at the optimum conditions which was evidenced by the stability studies performed with standard of IQ, LQ and GA. The proposed method also showed high reproducibility and was environmental friendly.

  2. Efficient synthesis of silver nanoparticles from Prosopis juliflora leaf extract and its antimicrobial activity using sewage

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Raja, K.; Saravanakumar, A.; Vijayakumar, R.

    2012-11-01

    In this paper, aqueous extract of fresh leaves of Prosopis juliflora was used for the synthesis of silver (Ag) nanoparticles. UV-Vis spectroscopy studies were carried out to asses silver nanoparticles formation within 5 min, scanning electron microscopic was used to characterize shape of the Ag nanoparticles, X-ray diffraction analysis confirms the nanoparticles as crystalline silver and facecentered cubic type and Fourier transform infra-red assed that shows biomolecule compounds which are responsible for reduction and capping material of silver nanoparticles. The anti microbial activity of silver nanoparticle was performed using sewage. The approach of plant-mediated synthesis appears to be cost efficient, eco-friendly and easy methods.

  3. Efficient synthesis of silver nanoparticles from Prosopis juliflora leaf extract and its antimicrobial activity using sewage.

    PubMed

    Raja, K; Saravanakumar, A; Vijayakumar, R

    2012-11-01

    In this paper, aqueous extract of fresh leaves of Prosopis juliflora was used for the synthesis of silver (Ag) nanoparticles. UV-Vis spectroscopy studies were carried out to asses silver nanoparticles formation within 5 min, scanning electron microscopic was used to characterize shape of the Ag nanoparticles, X-ray diffraction analysis confirms the nanoparticles as crystalline silver and facecentered cubic type and Fourier transform infra-red assed that shows biomolecule compounds which are responsible for reduction and capping material of silver nanoparticles. The anti microbial activity of silver nanoparticle was performed using sewage. The approach of plant-mediated synthesis appears to be cost efficient, eco-friendly and easy methods.

  4. Interactive knee cartilage extraction using efficient segmentation software: data from the osteoarthritis initiative.

    PubMed

    Gan, Hong-Seng; Tan, Tian-Swee; Wong, Liang-Xuan; Tham, Weng-Kit; Sayuti, Khairil Amir; Abdul Karim, Ahmad Helmy; bin Abdul Kadir, Mohammed Rafiq

    2014-01-01

    In medical image segmentation, manual segmentation is considered both labor- and time-intensive while automated segmentation often fails to segment anatomically intricate structure accordingly. Interactive segmentation can tackle shortcomings reported by previous segmentation approaches through user intervention. To better reflect user intention, development of suitable editing functions is critical. In this paper, we propose an interactive knee cartilage extraction software that covers three important features: intuitiveness, speed, and convenience. The segmentation is performed using multi-label random walks algorithm. Our segmentation software is simple to use, intuitive to normal and osteoarthritic image segmentation and efficient using only two third of manual segmentation's time. Future works will extend this software to three dimensional segmentation and quantitative analysis.

  5. Temperature shifts for extraction and purification of zygomycetes chitosan with dilute sulfuric acid.

    PubMed

    Zamani, Akram; Edebo, Lars; Niklasson, Claes; Taherzadeh, Mohammad J

    2010-08-13

    The temperature-dependent hydrolysis and solubility of chitosan in sulfuric acid solutions offer the possibility for chitosan extraction from zygomycetes mycelia and separation from other cellular ingredients with high purity and high recovery. In this study, Rhizomucor pusillus biomass was initially extracted with 0.5 M NaOH at 120 °C for 20 min, leaving an alkali insoluble material (AIM) rich in chitosan. Then, the AIM was subjected to two steps treatment with 72 mM sulfuric acid at (i) room temperature for 10 min followed by (ii) 120 °C for 45 min. During the first step, phosphate of the AIM was released into the acid solution and separated from the chitosan-rich residue by centrifugation. In the second step, the residual AIM was re-suspended in fresh 72 mM sulfuric acid, heated at 120 °C and hot filtered, whereby chitosan was extracted and separated from the hot alkali and acid insoluble material (HAAIM). The chitosan was recovered from the acid solution by precipitation at lowered temperature and raised pH to 8-10. The treatment resulted in 0.34 g chitosan and 0.16 g HAAIM from each gram AIM. At the start, the AIM contained at least 17% phosphate, whereas after the purification, the corresponding phosphate content of the obtained chitosan was just 1%. The purity of this chitosan was higher than 83%. The AIM subjected directly to the treatment with hot sulfuric acid (at 120 °C for 45 min) resulted in a chitosan with a phosphate impurity of 18.5%.

  6. Assessment of rosmarinic acid content in six Lamiaceae species extracts and their antioxidant and antimicrobial potential.

    PubMed

    Benedec, Daniela; Hanganu, Daniela; Oniga, Ilioara; Tiperciuc, Brindusa; Olah, Neli-Kinga; Raita, Oana; Bischin, Cristina; Silaghi-Dumitrescu, Radu; Vlase, Laurian

    2015-11-01

    In the present study, six indigenous species of Lamiaceae family (Origanum vulgare L., Melissa officinalis L., Rosmarinus officinalis L., Ocimum basilicum L., Salvia officinalis L. and Hyssopus officinalis L.), have been analyzed to assess the rosmarinic acid, phenyl propane derivatives and polyphenolic contents and their antioxidant and antimicrobial potential. HPLC-MS method has been used for the analysis ofrosmarinicacid. The phenyl propane derivatives and total phenolic contents were determined using spectrophotometric method. The ethanolic extracts were screened for antioxidant activities by DPPH radical scavenging, HAPX (hemoglobin ascorbate per oxidase activity inhibition), and EPR (electron paramagnetic resonance) methods. The ethanolic extracts revealed the presence of rosmarinic acid in the largest amount in O. vulgare (12.40mg/g) and in the lowest in R. officinalis (1.33 mg/g). O. vulgare extracts exhibited the highest antioxidant capacity, in line with the rosmarinic acid and polyphenolic contents. The antimicrobial testing showed a significant activity against L. monocytogenes, S. aureus and C. albicans for all six extracts.

  7. Comparison of commercial systems for extraction of nucleic acids from DNA/RNA respiratory pathogens.

    PubMed

    Yang, Genyan; Erdman, Dean E; Kodani, Maja; Kools, John; Bowen, Michael D; Fields, Barry S

    2011-01-01

    This study compared six automated nucleic acid extraction systems and one manual kit for their ability to recover nucleic acids from human nasal wash specimens spiked with five respiratory pathogens, representing Gram-positive bacteria (Streptococcus pyogenes), Gram-negative bacteria (Legionella pneumophila), DNA viruses (adenovirus), segmented RNA viruses (human influenza virus A), and non-segmented RNA viruses (respiratory syncytial virus). The robots and kit evaluated represent major commercially available methods that are capable of simultaneous extraction of DNA and RNA from respiratory specimens, and included platforms based on magnetic-bead technology (KingFisher mL, Biorobot EZ1, easyMAG, KingFisher Flex, and MagNA Pure Compact) or glass fiber filter technology (Biorobot MDX and the manual kit Allprep). All methods yielded extracts free of cross-contamination and RT-PCR inhibition. All automated systems recovered L. pneumophila and adenovirus DNA equivalently. However, the MagNA Pure protocol demonstrated more than 4-fold higher DNA recovery from the S. pyogenes than other methods. The KingFisher mL and easyMAG protocols provided 1- to 3-log wider linearity and extracted 3- to 4-fold more RNA from the human influenza virus and respiratory syncytial virus. These findings suggest that systems differed in nucleic acid recovery, reproducibility, and linearity in a pathogen specific manner.

  8. Aqueous extracts of Mozambican plants as alternative and environmentally safe acid-base indicators.

    PubMed

    Macuvele, Domingos Lusitaneo Pier; Sithole, Gerre Zebedias Samo; Cesca, Karina; Macuvele, Suzana Lília Pinare; Matsinhe, Jonas Valente

    2016-06-01

    Indicators are substances that change color as the pH of the medium. Many of these substances are dyes of synthetic origin. The mulala plant (Euclea natalensis), which roots are commonly used by rural communities for their oral hygiene, and roseira (Hibiscus rosa-sinensis), an ornamental plant, are abundant in Mozambique. Currently, synthetic acid-base indicators are most commonly used but have environmental implications and, on the other hand, are expensive products, so the demand for natural indicators started. This study investigated the applicability of aqueous extracts of H. rosa-sinensis and E. natalensis as acid-base indicators. Ground on this work, the extracts can be used as acid-base indicators. On the basis of the absorption spectroscopy in both the UV-Vis region and previous studies, it was possible to preliminarily pinpoint anthocyanins and naphthoquinones as responsible for the shifting of colors depending on the pH range of aqueous extracts of H. rosa-sinensis and E. natalensis. These natural indicators are easily accessible, inexpensive, easy to extract, environmentally safe, and locally available.

  9. Comparison of supercritical fluid extraction and ultrasound-assisted extraction of fatty acids from quince (Cydonia oblonga Miller) seed using response surface methodology and central composite design.

    PubMed

    Daneshvand, Behnaz; Ara, Katayoun Mahdavi; Raofie, Farhad

    2012-08-24

    Fatty acids of Cydonia oblonga Miller cultivated in Iran were obtained by supercritical (carbon dioxide) extraction and ultrasound-assisted extraction methods. The oils were analyzed by capillary gas chromatography using mass spectrometric detections. The compounds were identified according to their retention indices and mass spectra (EI, 70eV). The experimental parameters of SFE such as pressure, temperature, modifier volume, static and dynamic extraction time were optimized using a Central Composite Design (CCD) after a 2(5) factorial design. Pressure and dynamic extraction time had significant effect on the extraction yield, while the other factors (temperature, static extraction time and modifier volume) were not identified as significant factors under the selected conditions. The results of chemometrics analysis showed the highest yield for SFE (24.32%), which was obtained at a pressure of 353bar, temperature of 35°C, modifier (methanol) volume of 150μL, and static and dynamic extraction times of 10 and 60min, respectively. Ultrasound-assisted extraction (UAE) of Fatty acids from C. oblonga Miller was optimized, using a rotatable central composite design. The optimum conditions were as follows: solvent (n-hexane) volume, 22mL; extraction time, 30min; and extraction temperature, 55°C. This resulted in a maximum oil recovery of 19.5%. The extracts with higher yield from both methods were subjected to transesterification and GC-MS analysis. The results show that the oil obtained by SFE with the optimal operating conditions allowed a fatty acid composition similar to the oil obtained by UAE in optimum condition and no significant differences were found. The major components of oil extract were Linoleic, Palmitic, Oleic, Stearic and Eicosanoic acids.

  10. Memory-efficient architecture for hysteresis thresholding and object feature extraction.

    PubMed

    Najjar, Mayssaa A; Karlapudi, Swetha; Bayoumi, Magdy A

    2011-12-01

    Hysteresis thresholding is a method that offers enhanced object detection. Due to its recursive nature, it is time consuming and requires a lot of memory resources. This makes it avoided in streaming processors with limited memory. We propose two versions of a memory-efficient and fast architecture for hysteresis thresholding: a high-accuracy pixel-based architecture and a faster block-based one at the expense of some loss in the accuracy. Both designs couple thresholding with connected component analysis and feature extraction in a single pass over the image. Unlike queue-based techniques, the proposed scheme treats candidate pixels almost as foreground until objects complete; a decision is then made to keep or discard these pixels. This allows processing on the fly, thus avoiding additional passes for handling candidate pixels and extracting object features. Moreover, labels are reused so only one row of compact labels is buffered. Both architectures are implemented in MATLAB and VHDL. Simulation results on a set of real and synthetic images show that the execution speed can attain an average increase up to 24× for the pixel-based and 52× for the block-based when compared to state-of-the-art techniques. The memory requirements are also drastically reduced by about 99%.

  11. An efficient preparation of N-methyl-alpha-amino acids from N-nosyl-alpha-amino acid phenacyl esters.

    PubMed

    Leggio, Antonella; Belsito, Emilia Lucia; De Marco, Rosaria; Liguori, Angelo; Perri, Francesca; Viscomi, Maria Caterina

    2010-03-05

    In this paper we describe a simple and efficient solution-phase synthesis of N-methyl-N-nosyl-alpha-amino acids and N-Fmoc-N-methyl-alpha-amino acids. This represents a very important application in peptide synthesis to obtain N-methylated peptides in both solution and solid phase. The developed methodology involves the use of N-nosyl-alpha-amino acids with the carboxyl function protected as a phenacyl ester and the methylating reagent diazomethane. An important aspect of this synthetic strategy is the possibility to selectively deprotect the carboxyl function or alternatively both amino and carboxyl moieties by using the same reagent with a different molar excess and under mild conditions. Furthermore, the adopted procedure keeps unchanged the acid-sensitive side chain protecting groups used in Fmoc-based synthetic strategies.

  12. Lipid nutritional value of legumes: Evaluation of different extraction methods and determination of fatty acid composition.

    PubMed

    Caprioli, Giovanni; Giusti, Federica; Ballini, Roberto; Sagratini, Gianni; Vila-Donat, Pilar; Vittori, Sauro; Fiorini, Dennis

    2016-02-01

    This study sought to contribute to the assessment of the nutritional properties of legumes by determining the fatty acid (FA) composition of 29 legume samples after the evaluation of nine extraction methods. The Folch method and liquid-solid extraction with hexane/isopropanol or with hexane/acetone were investigated, as was the effect of previous hydration of samples. Soxhlet extractions were also evaluated with different solvent mixtures. Results on FA composition using the hexane/isopropanol extraction method were the same in terms of FA composition of the Folch method, but the extraction yield was only around 20-40% of that of the Folch method preceded by hydration. Some types of legumes showed particularly interesting values for the ratio of polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFAs) n-6/n-3, such as lentils, with the value of 4.0, and Azuki beans, at 3.2. In lentils, the PUFAs% ranged from 42.0% to 57.4%, while in Azuki beans it was 57.5%.

  13. Extractive fermentation for enhanced propionic acid production from lactose by Propionibacterium acidipropionici

    SciTech Connect

    Jin, Z.; Yang, S.T.

    1998-05-01

    An extractive fermentation process using an amine extractant and a hollow-fiber membrane extractor to selectively remove propionic acid from the fermentation broth was developed to produce propionate from lactose. Compared to the conventional batch fermentation, the extractive fermentation had a much higher productivity ({approximately}1 g/(L{center_dot}h) or 5-fold increase), higher propionate yield (up to 0.66 g/g or more than 20% increase), higher final product concentration (75 g/L or higher), and higher product purity ({approximately}90%). Meanwhile, acetate and succinate productions in the extractive fermentation were significantly reduced. The improved fermentation performance can be attributed to the reduced product inhibition and a possible metabolic pathway shift to favor more propionic but less acetic and succinic acid production. The process was stable and gave consistent long-term performance over the 1.5-month period studied. The effects of propionate concentration, pH, and amine content in the solvent on the extractive fermentation were also studied and are discussed in this paper.

  14. Integrated printed circuit board device for cell lysis and nucleic acid extraction.

    PubMed

    Marshall, Lewis A; Wu, Liang Li; Babikian, Sarkis; Bachman, Mark; Santiago, Juan G

    2012-11-06

    Preparation of raw, untreated biological samples remains a major challenge in microfluidics. We present a novel microfluidic device based on the integration of printed circuit boards and an isotachophoresis assay for sample preparation of nucleic acids from biological samples. The device has integrated resistive heaters and temperature sensors as well as a 70 μm × 300 μm × 3.7 cm microfluidic channel connecting two 15 μL reservoirs. We demonstrated this device by extracting pathogenic nucleic acids from 1 μL dispensed volume of whole blood spiked with Plasmodium falciparum. We dispensed whole blood directly onto an on-chip reservoir, and the system's integrated heaters simultaneously lysed and mixed the sample. We used isotachophoresis to extract the nucleic acids into a secondary buffer via isotachophoresis. We analyzed the convective mixing action with micro particle image velocimetry (micro-PIV) and verified the purity and amount of extracted nucleic acids using off-chip quantitative polymerase chain reaction (PCR). We achieved a clinically relevant limit of detection of 500 parasites per microliter. The system has no moving parts, and the process is potentially compatible with a wide range of on-chip hybridization or amplification assays.

  15. Nigella sativa L. Seed Extract Modulates the Neurotransmitter Amino Acids Release in Cultured Neurons In Vitro

    PubMed Central

    El-Naggar, Tarek; Gómez-Serranillos, María Pilar; Palomino, Olga María; Arce, Carmen; Carretero, María Emilia

    2010-01-01

    Nigella sativa L. (NS) has been used for medicinal purposes since ancient times. This study aimed to investigate the cytotoxicity of NS dry methanolic extract on cultured cortical neurons and its influence on neurotransmitter release, as well as the presence of excitatory (glutamate and aspartate) and inhibitory amino acids (gamma-aminobutyric acid—GABA—and glycine) in NS extract. Cultured rat cortical neurons were exposed to different times and concentrations of NS dry methanolic extract and cell viability was then determined by a quantitative colorimetric method. NS did not induce any toxicity. The secretion of different amino acids was studied in primary cultured cortical neurons by high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) using a derivation before injection with dansyl chloride. NS modulated amino acid release in cultured neurons; GABA was significantly increased whereas secretion of glutamate, aspartate, and glycine were decreased. The in vitro findings support the hypothesis that the sedative and depressive effects of NS observed in vivo could be based on changes of inhibitory/excitatory amino acids levels. PMID:20625485

  16. Carboxylic and dicarboxylic acids extracted from crushed magnesium oxide single crystals

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Freund, F.; Gupta, A. D.; Kumar, D.

    1999-01-01

    Carboxylic and dicarboxylic acids (glycolic, oxalic, malonic and succinic) have been extracted with tetrahydrofuran (THF) and H2O from large synthetic MgO crystals, crushed to a medium fine powder. The extracts were characterized by infrared spectroscopy and 1H-NMR. The THF extracts were derivatized with tert-butyldimethylsilyl (t-BDMS) for GC-MS analysis. A single crystal separated from the extract was used for an x-ray structure analysis, giving the monoclinic unit cell, space group P21/c with ao = 5.543 A, bo = 8.845 A, co = 5.086 A, and beta = 91.9 degrees, consistent with beta-succinic acid, HOOC(CH2)COOH. The amount of extracted acids is estimated to be of the order of 0.1 to 0.5 mg g-1 MgO. The MgO crystals from which these organic acids were extracted grew from the 2860 degrees C hot melt, saturated with CO/CO2 and H2O, thereby incorporating small amounts of the gaseous components to form a solid solution (ss) with MgO. Upon cooling, the ss becomes supersaturated, causing solute carbon and other solute species to segregate not only to the surface but also internally, to dislocations and subgrain boundaries. The organic acids extracted from the MgO crystals after crushing appear to derive from these segregated solutes that formed C-C, C-H and C-O bonds along dislocations and other defects in the MgO structure, leading to entities that can generically be described as (HxCyOz)n-. The processes underlying the formation of these precursors are fundamental in nature and expected to be operational in any minerals, preferentially those with dense structures, that crystallized in H2O-CO2-laden environments. This opens the possibility that common magmatic and metamorphic rocks when weathering at the surface of a tectonically active planet like Earth may be an important source of abiogenically formed complex organic compounds.

  17. Carboxylic and Dicarboxylic Acids Extracted from Crushed Magnesium Oxide Single Crystals

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Freund, Friedemann; Gupta, Alka D.; Kumar, Devendra; DeVincenzi, Donald (Technical Monitor)

    1998-01-01

    Carboxylic and dicarboxylic acids (glycolic, oxalic, malonic and succinic) have been extracted with tetrahydrofuran (THE) and H2O from large synthetic MgO crystals, crushed to a medium fine powder. The extracts were characterized by infrared spectroscopy and (sup 1)H-NMR (Nuclear Magnetic Resonance). The THF extracts were derivatized with tert-butyldimethylsilyl (t-BDMS) for GC-MS (Gas Chromatography - Mass Spectroscopy) analysis. A single crystal separated from the extract was used for an x-ray structure analysis, giving the monoclinic unit cell, space group P2(sub 1)/c with a(sub o) = 5.543 A, b(sub o) = 8.845 A, c(sub o) = 5.086 A, and beta = 91.9 degrees, consistent with beta-succinic acid, HOOC(CH2)COOH. The amount of extracted acids is estimated to be of the order of 0.1 to 0.5 mg/g MgO. The MgO crystals from which these organic acids were extracted grew from the 2360 C hot melt, saturated with CO/CO2 and H2O, thereby incorporating small amounts of the gaseous components to form a solid solution (ss) with MgO. Upon cooling, the ss becomes supersaturated, causing solute carbon and other solute species to segregate not only to the surface but also internally, to dislocations and subgrain boundaries. The organic acids extracted from the MgO crystals after crushing appear to derive from these segregated solutes that formed C-C, C-H, and C-O bonds along dislocations and other defects in the MgO structure, leading to entities that can generically be described as (HxCyOz)(sup n-). The processes underlying the formation of these precursors are fundamental in nature and expected to be operational in any minerals, preferentially those with dense structures, that crystallized in H2O-CO2-laden environments. This opens the possibility that common magmatic and metamorphic rocks when weathering at the surface of a tectonically active planet like Earth may be an important source of abiogenically formed complex organic compounds.

  18. Extraction and quantification of gymnemic acids through gymnemagenin from callus cultures of Gymnema sylvestre.

    PubMed

    Kanetkar, P V; Singhal, R S; Laddha, K S; Kamat, M Y

    2006-01-01

    The phyto-constituents of Gymnema sylvestre are used in the treatment of diabetes and obesity. The present work reports on the extraction of gymnemic acid through gymnemagenin from callus cultures of G. sylvestre. Components were separated on pre-coated silica gel 60 GF254 plates with chloroform:methanol (8:2) and scanned using a densitometric scanner at 205 nm in the near-UV region. Linearity of determination of gymnemagenin was observed in the range 2-10 microg. The average percentage recovery of gymnemagenin from leaf callus extracts was 98.9+/-0.3.

  19. Chlorogenic acids from green coffee extract are highly bioavailable in humans.

    PubMed

    Farah, Adriana; Monteiro, Mariana; Donangelo, Carmen M; Lafay, Sophie

    2008-12-01

    Chlorogenic acids (CGA) are cinnamic acid derivatives with biological effects mostly related to their antioxidant and antiinflammatory activities. Caffeoylquinic acids (CQA) and dicaffeoylquinic acids (diCQA) are the main CGA found in nature. Because green coffee is a major source of CGA, it has been used for production of nutraceuticals. However, data on the bioavailability of CGA from green coffee in humans are inexistent. The present study evaluated the pharmacokinetic profile and apparent bioavailability of CGA in plasma and urine of 10 healthy adults for 8 h after the consumption of a decaffeinated green coffee extract containing 170 mg of CGA. Three CQA, 3 diCQA, and caffeic, ferulic, isoferulic, and p-coumaric acids were identified in plasma by HPLC-Diode Array Detector-MS after treatment. Over 30% (33.1 +/- 23.1%) of the ingested cinnamic acid moieties were recovered in plasma, including metabolites, with peak levels from 0.5 to 8 h after treatment. CGA and metabolites identified in urine after treatment were 4-CQA, 5-CQA, and sinapic, p-hydroxybenzoic, gallic, vanillic, dihydrocaffeic, caffeic, ferulic, isoferulic, and p-coumaric acids, totaling 5.5 +/- 10.6% urinary recovery of the ingested cinnamic and quinic acid moiteties. This study shows that the major CGA compounds present in green coffee are highly absorbed and metabolized in humans.

  20. Sodium sulphite inhibition of potato and cherry polyphenolics in nucleic acid extraction for virus detection by RT-PCR.

    PubMed

    Singh, R P; Nie, X; Singh, M; Coffin, R; Duplessis, P

    2002-01-01

    Phenolic compounds from plant tissues inhibit reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR). Multiple-step protocols using several additives to inhibit polyphenolic compounds during nucleic acid extraction are common, but time consuming and laborious. The current research highlights that the inclusion of 0.65 to 0.70% of sodium sulphite in the extraction buffer minimizes the pigmentation of nucleic acid extracts and improves the RT-PCR detection of Potato virus Y (PVY) and Potato leafroll virus (PLRV) in potato (Solanum tuberosum) tubers and Prune dwarf virus (PDV) and Prunus necrotic ringspot virus (PNRSV) in leaves and bark in the sweet cherry (Prunus avium) tree. Substituting sodium sulphite in the nucleic acid extraction buffer eliminated the use of proteinase K during extraction. Reagents phosphate buffered saline (PBS)-Tween 20 and polyvinylpyrrolidone (PVP) were also no longer required during RT or PCR phase. The resultant nucleic acid extracts were suitable for both duplex and multiplex RT-PCR. This simple and less expensive nucleic acid extraction protocol has proved very effective for potato cv. Russet Norkotah, which contains a high amount of polyphenolics. Comparing commercially available RNA extraction kits (Catrimox and RNeasy), the sodium sulphite based extraction protocol yielded two to three times higher amounts of RNA, while maintaining comparable virus detection by RT-PCR. The sodium sulphite based extraction protocol was equally effective in potato tubers, and in leaves and bark from the cherry tree.

  1. Prospective evaluation of a new automated nucleic acid extraction system using routine clinical respiratory specimens.

    PubMed

    Mengelle, C; Mansuy, J-M; Sandres-Sauné, K; Barthe, C; Boineau, J; Izopet, J

    2012-06-01

    The aim of the study was to evaluate the MagNA Pure 96™ nucleic acid extraction system using clinical respiratory specimens for identifying viruses by qualitative real-time PCR assays. Three extraction methods were tested, that is, the MagNA Pure LC™, the COBAS Ampliprep™, and the MagNA Pure 96™ with 10-fold dilutions of an influenza A(H1N1)pdm09 sample. Two hundred thirty-nine respiratory specimens, 35 throat swabs, 164 nasopharyngeal specimens, and 40 broncho-alveolar fluids, were extracted with the MagNA Pure 96™ and the COBAS Ampliprep™ instruments. Forty COBAS Ampliprep™ positive samples were also tested. Real-time PCRs were used to identify influenza A and influenza A(H1N1)pdm09, rhinovirus, enterovirus, adenovirus, varicella zoster virus, cytomegalovirus, and herpes simplex virus. Similar results were obtained on RNA extracted from dilutions of influenza A(H1N1)pdm09 with the three systems: the MagNA Pure LC™, the COBAS Ampliprep™, and the MagNA Pure 96™. Data from clinical respiratory specimens extracted with the MagNA Pure 96™ and COBAS Ampliprep™ instruments were in 98.5% in agreement (P < 0.0001) for influenza A and influenza A(H1N1)pdm09. Data for rhinovirus were in 97.3% agreement (P < 0.0001) and in 96.8% agreement for enterovirus. They were in 100% agreement for adenovirus. Data for cytomegalovirus and HSV1-2 were in 95.2% agreement (P < 0.0001). The MagNA Pure 96™ instrument is easy-to-use, reliable, and has a high throughput for extracting total nucleic acid from respiratory specimens. These extracts are suitable for molecular diagnosis with any type of real-time PCR assay.

  2. A simple and efficient method for DNA extraction from skin and paraffin-embedded tissues applicable to T-cell clonality assays.

    PubMed

    Sidorova, Julia V; Biderman, Bella V; Nikulina, Elena E; Sudarikov, Andrey B

    2012-01-01

    PCR-based clonality assay of rearranged T-cell receptor genes gamma and beta (TCRG and TCRB) in a number of cases could be essential to discriminate between cutaneous T-cell lymphomas and reactive lymphoproliferative lesions in the skin. However, extraction of good-quality DNA from skin specimens (especially formalin-fixed paraffin-embedded) remains a challenge. Common procedures, being labour-intensive and time-consuming and requiring toxic solvents such as phenol and chloroform, still may end up with DNA sample of insufficient quality. We herewith present a simple and efficient method for DNA isolation based on ammonia extraction of tissue, followed by neutralization and simultaneous salting out of proteins with acetic acid. We have analysed 30 samples - 24 fresh (16 skin, two spleen and six lymph node) and six paraffin-embedded. Standard procedure (proteinase K digestion, followed by phenol/chloroform extraction) has been carried out simultaneously. We observed good PCR signal for TCRG rearrangements in 30 samples processed with the new protocol and only in 20 extracted with proteinase K/phenol/chloroform. For TCRB, the success rate was 29 of 30 with the new protocol, compared to 11 of 30 with conventional protocol. The proposed method of DNA extraction should improve the value of T-cell clonality assay, because insufficient DNA quality and quantity may bias analysis towards monoclonality and therefore cause false-positive results.

  3. Optimization of extraction efficiency by shear emulsifying assisted enzymatic hydrolysis and functional properties of dietary fiber from deoiled cumin (Cuminum cyminum L.).

    PubMed

    Ma, Mengmei; Mu, Taihua; Sun, Hongnan; Zhang, Miao; Chen, Jingwang; Yan, Zhibin

    2015-07-15

    This study evaluated the optimal conditions for extracting dietary fiber (DF) from deoiled cumin by shear emulsifying assisted enzymatic hydrolysis (SEAEH) using the response surface methodology. Fat adsorption capacity (FAC), glucose adsorption capacity (GAC), and bile acid retardation index (BRI) were measured to evaluate the functional properties of the extracted DF. The results revealed that the optimal extraction conditions included an enzyme to substrate ratio of 4.5%, a reaction temperature of 57 °C, a pH value of 7.7, and a reaction time of 155 min. Under these conditions, DF extraction efficiency and total dietary fiber content were 95.12% and 84.18%, respectively. The major components of deoiled cumin DF were hemicellulose (37.25%) and cellulose (33.40%). FAC and GAC increased with decreasing DF particle size (51-100 μm), but decreased with DF particle sizes <26 μm; BRI increased with decreasing DF particle size. The results revealed that SEAEH is an effective method for extracting DF. DF with particle size 26-51 μm had improved functional properties.

  4. Efficiency of membrane technology, activated charcoal, and a micelle-clay complex for removal of the acidic pharmaceutical mefenamic acid.

    PubMed

    Khalaf, Samer; Al-Rimawi, Fuad; Khamis, Mustafa; Nir, Shlomo; Bufo, Sabino A; Scrano, Laura; Mecca, Gennaro; Karaman, Rafik

    2013-01-01

    The efficiency of sequential advanced membrane technology wastewater treatment plant towards removal of a widely used non-steroid anti-inflammatory drug (NSAID) mefenamic acid was investigated. The sequential system included activated sludge, ultrafiltration by hollow fibre membranes with 100 kDa cutoff, and spiral wound membranes with 20 kDa cutoff, activated carbon and a reverse osmosis (RO) unit. The performance of the integrated plant showed complete removal of mefenamic acid from spiked wastewater samples. The activated carbon column was the most effective component in removing mefenamic acid with a removal efficiency of 97.2%. Stability study of mefenamic acid in pure water and Al-Quds activated sludge revealed that the anti-inflammatory drug was resistant to degradation in both environments. Batch adsorption of mefenamic acid by activated charcoal and a composite micelle (otadecyltrimethylammonium (ODTMA)-clay (montmorillonite) was determined at 25.0°C. Langmuir isotherm was found to fit the data with Qmax of 90.9 mg g(-1) and 100.0 mg g(-1) for activated carbon and micelle-clay complex, respectively. Filtration experiment by micelle-clay columns mixed with sand in the mg L(-1) range revealed complete removal of the drug with much larger capacity than activated carbon column. The combined results demonstrated that an integration of a micelle-clay column in the plant system has a good potential to improve the removal efficiency of the plant towards NSAID drugs such as mefenamic acid.

  5. Biochemical characteristics and gelling capacity of pectin from yellow passion fruit rind as affected by acid extractant nature.

    PubMed

    Yapo, Beda M

    2009-02-25

    The effects of acid extractant type on the yield and characteristics of pectin from yellow passion fruit (Passiflora edulis flavicarpa) rind was investigated by using citric, nitric, or sulfuric acids at different concentrations (10 mM and 30 mM) and pH (1.8 and 2.5). The results showed that not only concentration, but also acid type influenced the extracted pectin yields (3-14%, w/w). The yield of pectin extracted with citric acid was the lowest. Acid type and concentration affected the molecular characteristics of pectin, notably, the degree of esterification (29-73), galacturonic acid to rhamnose ratio (14-35), weight average-molecular weight (100-250 kDa), gel strength (127-179), and setting time (841-1236 s). Citric acid-extracted pectin had a higher degree of esterification and weight average-molecular weight and better gelling properties. At 30 mM concentration, nitric and sulfuric acids solubilize pectins having a degree of esterification <50, contrary to citric acid. The results indicate that the latter acid exerts the least deesterifying action on pectin solubilization from the cell wall material. Citric acid-extracted pectin was closer to lemon pectin of similar degree of esterification in terms of gelling properties.

  6. Comparison of dilute acid and sulfite pretreatments on Acacia confusa for biofuel application and the influence of its extractives.

    PubMed

    Yeh, Ting-Feng; Chang, Mao-Ju; Chang, Wan-Jung

    2014-11-05

    Chemical components of lignocellulosic biomass may impede biofuel processing efficiency. To understand whether the heartwood of Acacia confusa is suitable for biofuel application, extractive-free heartwood of A. confusa was subjected to dilute acid (DA) or sulfite pretreatments. Sugar recoveries were used to evaluate the performance of different pretreatments. Cell wall properties, such as 4-O-alkylated lignin structures, S/G ratios, and xylan contents, of the pretreated samples showed significant correlations with the enzymatic saccharification of glucan. The 4% bisulfite-pretreated samples produced higher total sugar recoveries than DA-treated samples. The highest total sugar recoveries from DA and sulfite pretreatment were 52.0% (170 °C for 20 min) and 65.3% (4% NaHSO3 and 1% H2SO4), respectively. The results also demonstrated that the existence of extractives in the heartwood of A. confusa hindered the sugar recoveries from both the pretreatments and enzymatic saccharification. Total sugar recoveries were reduced 11.7-17.7% in heartwood samples with extractives.

  7. Extraction of rare earth oxides using supercritical carbon dioxide modified with Tri-n-butyl phosphate–nitric acid adducts

    DOE PAGES

    Baek, Donna L.; Fox, Robert V.; Case, Mary E.; ...

    2016-06-14

    A new tri-n-butylphosphate–nitric acid (TBP–HNO3) adduct was prepared by combining TBP and fuming (90%) HNO3. The adduct was characterized, and its phase-equilibrium behavior in supercritical carbon dioxide is reported. Supercritical carbon dioxide (sc-CO2) was modified with this new adduct [TBP(HNO3)5.2(H2O)1.7], and the extraction efficacies of selected rare earth oxides (Y, Ce, Eu, Tb, and Dy) at 338 K and 34.5 MPa were compared with those obtained using an adduct formed from concentrated (70%) HNO3 and TBP [TBP(HNO3)1.7(H2O)0.6]. All rare earth oxides tested with both adduct species could be extracted with the exception of cerium oxide. Furthermore, the water and acidmore » concentrations in the different adducts were found to play a significant role in rare earth oxide extraction efficiency.« less

  8. Combining octyl(phenyl)-N,N-diisobutyl-carbamoylmethylphosphine oxide and bis-(2-ethylhexyl)phosphoric acid extractants for recovering transuranic elements from irradiated nuclear fuel

    SciTech Connect

    Lumetta, Gregg J.; Carter, Jennifer C.; Gelis, Artem V.; Vandegrift, George F.

    2009-10-14

    Advanced concepts for closing the nuclear fuel cycle include separating Am and Cm from other fuel components. Separating these elements from the lanthanide elements at an industrial scale remains a significant technical challenge. We describe here a chemical system in which a neutral extractant--octyl(phenyl)-N,N-diisobutyl-carbamoylmethyl-phosphine oxide (CMPO)--is combined with an acidic extractant--bis-(2-ethylhexyl)phosphoric acid (HDEHP)--to form a single process solvent (with dodecane as the diluent) for separating Am and Cm from the other components of irradiated nuclear fuel. Continuous variation experiments in which the relative CMPO and HDEHP concentrations are varied indicate a synergistic relationship between the two extractants in the extraction of Am from buffered diethylenetriaminepentaacetic acid (DTPA) solutions. A solvent mixture consisting or 0.1 M CMPO + 1 M HDEHP in dodecane offers acceptable extraction efficiency for the trivalent lanthanides and actinides from 1 M HNO3 while maintaining good lanthanide/actinide separation factors in the stripping regime (buffered DTPA solutions with pH 3.5 to 4). Using citrate buffer instead of lactate buffer results in improved lanthanide/actinide separation factors.

  9. A fully disposable and integrated paper-based device for nucleic acid extraction, amplification and detection.

    PubMed

    Tang, Ruihua; Yang, Hui; Gong, Yan; You, MinLi; Liu, Zhi; Choi, Jane Ru; Wen, Ting; Qu, Zhiguo; Mei, Qibing; Xu, Feng

    2017-03-29

    Nucleic acid testing (NAT) has been widely used for disease diagnosis, food safety control and environmental monitoring. At present, NAT mainly involves nucleic acid extraction, amplification and detection steps that heavily rely on large equipment and skilled workers, making the test expensive, time-consuming, and thus less suitable for point-of-care (POC) applications. With advances in paper-based microfluidic technologies, various integrated paper-based devices have recently been developed for NAT, which however require off-chip reagent storage, complex operation steps and equipment-dependent nucleic acid amplification, restricting their use for POC testing. To overcome these challenges, we demonstrate a fully disposable and integrated paper-based sample-in-answer-out device for NAT by integrating nucleic acid extraction, helicase-dependent isothermal amplification and lateral flow assay detection into one paper device. This simple device allows on-chip dried reagent storage and equipment-free nucleic acid amplification with simple operation steps, which could be performed by untrained users in remote settings. The proposed device consists of a sponge-based reservoir and a paper-based valve for nucleic acid extraction, an integrated battery, a PTC ultrathin heater, temperature control switch and on-chip dried enzyme mix storage for isothermal amplification, and a lateral flow test strip for naked-eye detection. It can sensitively detect Salmonella typhimurium, as a model target, with a detection limit of as low as 10(2) CFU ml(-1) in wastewater and egg, and 10(3) CFU ml(-1) in milk and juice in about an hour. This fully disposable and integrated paper-based device has great potential for future POC applications in resource-limited settings.

  10. Case study: purification efficiency of a treatment wetland used at a peat extraction area

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Eskelinen, Riku; Ronkanen, Anna-Kaisa; Marttila, Hannu; Kløve, Bjørn

    2014-05-01

    The inflow and outflow of a treatment wetland was intensively monitored between March 2012 and October 2012. Sampling was done with automated sampling equipment bidaily during the snowmelt period and daily for the rest of the study period. The treatment wetland is located downstream of a peat extraction area with a surface area of 208 ha. Drainage network at the peat extraction area has been fitted with peak flow control structures and a sedimentation basin from which the water is pumped to the treatment wetland. The treatment wetland has a surface area of 11 ha of peatland soil and is covered by grassy vegetation during the summer season. After flowing through the wetland water is discharging to a small stream through a v-notch weir. All samples were analysed for electric conductivity (EC), suspended solids (SS), Colour, Turbidity and pH. Additional analyses for various elements and nutrients were done for samples selected on the basis of hydrology. Results of the additional analyses represent the dissolved fraction of analysed elements as the samples were first filtrated with 0.45 µm filter for SS. Our results show that the purification efficiency varies during the measurement period. For example, to SS the overall purification efficiency was 62 %. However during the spring flood the purification efficiency is negative which can be caused by snowmelt water flushing previous year's dead vegetation or particulate matter accumulated during the winter period. After midsummer we can observe drastic increase in the retention of SS. Similar pattern can be seen in the retention of phosphorous with overall retention of 11 % of the total phosphorous. In the case of nitrogen the overall performance for the wetland is poor. Some of this can be explained by poor retention of NO2-3-N due to cold weather during spring melt season. However during the summer time denitrification process seems to be working as the retention of N improves. Retention of dissolved organic carbon

  11. Removal of Cu(II) and Ni(II) using cellulose extracted from sisal fiber and cellulose-g-acrylic acid copolymer.

    PubMed

    Hajeeth, T; Vijayalakshmi, K; Gomathi, T; Sudha, P N

    2013-11-01

    The extraction of cellulose from sisal fiber was done initially using the steam explosion method. The batch adsorption studies were conducted using the cellulose extracted from the sisal fiber and cellulose-g-acrylic acid as an adsorbent for the removal of Cu(II) and Ni(II) metal ions from aqueous solution. The effect of sorbent amount, agitation period and pH of solution that influence sorption capacity were investigated. From the observed results, it was evident that the adsorption of metal ions increases with the increase in contact time and adsorbent dosage. The optimum pH was found to be 5.0 for the removal of copper(II) and nickel(II) for both the extracted cellulose and cellulose-g-acrylic acid copolymer. The adsorption data were modeled using Langmuir and Freundlich isotherms. The experimental results of the Langmuir, Freundlich isotherms revealed that the adsorption of Cu(II) and nickel(II) ion onto cellulose extracted from the sisal fiber and cellulose-g-acrylic acid copolymer was found to fit well with Freundlich isotherm. The kinetics studies show that the adsorption follows the pseudo-second-order kinetics. From the above results, it was concluded that the cellulose-g-acrylic acid copolymer was found to be an efficient adsorbent.

  12. Fluid extraction

    DOEpatents

    Wai, Chien M.; Laintz, Kenneth E.

    1999-01-01

    A method of extracting metalloid and metal species from a solid or liquid material by exposing the material to a supercritical fluid solvent containing a chelating agent is described. The chelating agent forms chelates that are soluble in the supercritical fluid to allow removal of the species from the material. In preferred embodiments, the extraction solvent is supercritical carbon dioxide and the chelating agent is a fluorinated .beta.-diketone. In especially preferred embodiments the extraction solvent is supercritical carbon dioxide, and the chelating agent comprises a fluorinated .beta.-diketone and a trialkyl phosphate, or a fluorinated .beta.-diketone and a trialkylphosphine oxide. Although a trialkyl phosphate can extract lanthanides and actinides from acidic solutions, a binary mixture comprising a fluorinated .beta.-diketone and a trialkyl phosphate or a trialkylphosphine oxide tends to enhance the extraction efficiencies for actinides and lanthanides. The method provides an environmentally benign process for removing contaminants from industrial waste without using acids or biologically harmful solvents. The method is particularly useful for extracting actinides and lanthanides from acidic solutions. The chelate and supercritical fluid can be regenerated, and the contaminant species recovered, to provide an economic, efficient process.

  13. Multiwell CO2 injectivity: impact of boundary conditions and brine extraction on geologic CO2 storage efficiency and pressure buildup.

    PubMed

    Heath, Jason E; McKenna, Sean A; Dewers, Thomas A; Roach, Jesse D; Kobos, Peter H

    2014-01-21

    CO2 storage efficiency is a metric that expresses the portion of the pore space of a subsurface geologic formation that is available to store CO2. Estimates of storage efficiency for large-scale geologic CO2 storage depend on a variety of factors including geologic properties and operational design. These factors govern estimates on CO2 storage resources, the longevity of storage sites, and potential pressure buildup in storage reservoirs. This study employs numerical modeling to quantify CO2 injection well numbers, well spacing, and storage efficiency as a function of geologic formation properties, open-versus-closed boundary conditions, and injection with or without brine extraction. The set of modeling runs is important as it allows the comparison of controlling factors on CO2 storage efficiency. Brine extraction in closed domains can result in storage efficiencies that are similar to those of injection in open-boundary domains. Geomechanical constraints on downhole pressure at both injection and extraction wells lower CO2 storage efficiency as compared to the idealized scenario in which the same volumes of CO2 and brine are injected and extracted, respectively. Geomechanical constraints should be taken into account to avoid potential damage to the storage site.

  14. Biotransformation of caffeoyl quinic acids from green coffee extracts by Lactobacillus johnsonii NCC 533

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    The potential of Lactobacillus johnsonii NCC 533 to metabolize chlorogenic acids from green coffee extract was investigated. Two enzymes, an esterase and a hydroxycinnamate decarboxylase (HCD), were involved in this biotransformation. The complete hydrolysis of 5-caffeoylquinic acid (5-CQA) into caffeic acid (CA) by L. johnsonii esterase occurred during the first 16 h of reaction time. No dihydrocaffeic acid was identified in the reaction mixture. The decarboxylation of CA into 4-vinylcatechol (4-VC) started only when the maximum concentration of CA was reached (10 μmol/ml). CA was completely transformed into 4-VC after 48 h of incubation. No 4-vinylphenol or other derivatives could be identified in the reaction media. In this study we demonstrate the capability of L. johnsonii to transform chlorogenic acids from green coffee extract into 4-VC in two steps one pot reaction. Thus, the enzymatic potential of certain lactobacilli might be explored to generate flavor compounds from plant polyphenols. PMID:23692950

  15. Kinetics of the extraction of succinic acid with tri-n-octylamine in 1-octanol solution.

    PubMed

    Jun, Young-Si; Huh, Yun Suk; Hong, Won Hi; Hong, Yeon Ki

    2005-01-01

    Kinetic studies for the extraction of succinic acid from aqueous solution with 1-octanol solutions of tri-n-octylamine (TOA) were carried out using a stirred cell with a microporous hydrophobic membrane. The interfacial concentrations of species were correlated and thus the intrinsic kinetics was obtained. The overall extraction process was controlled by the chemical reaction at or near the interface between the aqueous and organic phases. The formation reaction of succinic acid-TOA complex was found to be first order with respect to the concentration of succinic acid in the aqueous phase and the order of 0.5 with respect to that of TOA in the organic phase with a rate constant of (3.14 +/- 0.6) x 10(-8) m(2.5) x mol(-0.5) x s(-1). The dissociation reaction of succinic acid-TOA complex was found to be the second-order with respect to that of succinic acid-TOA complex in the organic phase and the order of -2 with respect to that of TOA in the organic phase with a rate constant of (1.44 +/- 1.4) x 10(-4) mol x m(-2) x s(-1).

  16. Effect of different polyphenol sources on the efficiency of ellagic acid release by Aspergillus niger.

    PubMed

    Sepúlveda, Leonardo; de la Cruz, Reynaldo; Buenrostro, José Juan; Ascacio-Valdés, Juan Alberto; Aguilera-Carbó, Antonio Francisco; Prado, Arely; Rodríguez-Herrera, Raúl; Aguilar, Cristóbal Noé

    2016-01-01

    Fungal hydrolysis of ellagitannins produces hexahydroxydiphenic acid, which is considered an intermediate molecule in ellagic acid release. Ellagic acid has important and desirable beneficial health properties. The aim of this work was to identify the effect of different sources of ellagitannins on the efficiency of ellagic acid release by Aspergillus niger. Three strains of A. niger (GH1, PSH and HT4) were assessed for ellagic acid release from different polyphenol sources: cranberry, creosote bush, and pomegranate used as substrate. Polyurethane foam was used as support for solid-state culture in column reactors. Ellagitannase activity was measured for each of the treatments. Ellagic acid was quantified by high performance liquid chromatography. When pomegranate polyphenols were used, a maximum value of ellagic acid (350.21 mg/g) was reached with A. niger HT4 in solid-state culture. The highest amount of ellagitannase (5176.81 U/l) was obtained at 8h of culture when cranberry polyphenols and strain A. niger PSH were used. Results demonstrated the effect of different polyphenol sources and A. niger strains on ellagic acid release. It was observed that the best source for releasing ellagic acid was pomegranate polyphenols and A. niger HT4 strain, which has the ability to degrade these compounds for obtaining a potent bioactive molecule such as ellagic acid.

  17. Extraction of Alumina from high-silica bauxite by hydrochloric acid leaching using preliminary roasting method

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Valeev, D. V.; Mansurova, E. R.; Bychinskii, V. A.; Chudnenko, K. V.

    2016-02-01

    A process of dissolution Severoonezhsk deposit boehmite-kaolinite bauxite by hydrochloric acid, as well as the processes that occur during open-air calcination, were investigated. A dehydration process has been studied, and the basic phase transformation temperatures were identified. Temperature and time of calcination influence on bauxite dehydration speed were determined. It is shown that the preliminary calcination increases the extraction ratio of alumina into solution up to 89%. Thermodynamic modelling of physical and chemical processes of bauxite decomposition by hydrochloric acid and the basic forms of aluminium speciation in solution were obtained.

  18. Efficient preparation of (R)-2-chloromandelic acid via a recycle process of resolution.

    PubMed

    Hu, Yu; Wu, Chang; Wu, Xue-Ying; Li, Shao-Lei; Sun, Xiao-Xia; Tang, Ze-Biao

    2015-03-01

    Efficient preparation of (R)-2-chloromandelic acid based on a recycle process of resolution is described. In the process, the desired was obtained by coordination-mediated resolution with D-O,O'-di-(p-toluoyl)-tartaric acid in the presence of Ca(2+) . Meanwhile, the undesired could be racemized in the presence of sodium hydroxide and the product was suitable for further resolution. A carbanion mechanism for the racemization of is proposed.

  19. Deep-ultraviolet light-emitting diodes with external quantum efficiency higher than 20% at 275 nm achieved by improving light-extraction efficiency

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Takano, Takayoshi; Mino, Takuya; Sakai, Jun; Noguchi, Norimichi; Tsubaki, Kenji; Hirayama, Hideki

    2017-03-01

    Enhancing the light-extraction efficiency is the key issue for realizing highly efficient AlGaN-based ultraviolet light-emitting diodes (UV-LEDs). We introduced several features to improve the light extraction: a transparent AlGaN:Mg contact layer, a Rh mirror electrode, an AlN template on a patterned sapphire substrate, and encapsulation resin. The combination of the AlGaN:Mg contact layer and the Rh mirror electrode significantly improved the output power and the external quantum efficiency (EQE) of UV-LEDs. By introducing the aforementioned features, a maximum EQE of >20% at an emission wavelength of 275 nm and a 20-mA direct current was achieved.

  20. Efficient production of L-lactic acid from cassava powder by Lactobacillus rhamnosus.

    PubMed

    Wang, Limin; Zhao, Bo; Liu, Bo; Yang, Chunyu; Yu, Bo; Li, Qinggang; Ma, Cuiqing; Xu, Ping; Ma, Yanhe

    2010-10-01

    Cassava is one of the most efficient and rich crops in terms of carbohydrate production, which is a tropical perennial plant that grows on poor or depleted soils. Microbial conversion of such a renewable raw material to useful products is an important objective in industrial biotechnology. L-Lactic acid was efficiently produced from cassava powder by a Lactobacillus rhamnosus strain CASL. The fermentation properties of cassava powder were compared with those of glucose and corn powder. The efficiencies of various fermentation strategies for L-lactic acid production from cassava powder, including simultaneous saccharification and fermentation (SSF), two-step fermentation (TSF) and simultaneous liquefaction, saccharification and fermentation (SLSF), were investigated. The high L-lactic acid concentration (175.4 g/l) was obtained using 275 g/l of cassava powder concentration (total sugar of 222.5 g/l) in SSF batch fermentation. This is the highest L-lactic acid concentration reported, from cassava source, and it provides an efficient L-lactic acid production process with cheap raw bioresources, such as cassava powder.

  1. Selective precipitation of ribonucleic acid from a mixture of total cellular nucleic acids extracted from cultured mammalian cells

    PubMed Central

    Harrison, P. R.

    1971-01-01

    A simple and reproducible method is described for precipitating RNA selectively from total mammalian-cell nucleic acids extracted by the phenol–sodium dodecyl sulphate procedure at pH8.0. Under specified conditions bulk RNA is precipitated almost quantitatively whereas bulk DNA remains in solution. Minor components of RNA (detected by pulse-labelling and chromatography on methylated albumin–kieselguhr) and rapidly labelled components of DNA containing single-stranded regions are also precipitated. The usefulness of the method is discussed in the context of isolating separately both RNA and DNA from cultured cells that are difficult to obtain in quantity. PMID:5165620

  2. The effect of acidity on the distribution and symbiotic efficiency of rhizobia in Lithuanian soils

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lapinskas, E. B.

    2007-04-01

    The distribution and symbiotic efficiency of nodule bacteria Rhizobium leguminosarum_bv. trifolii F., Sinorhizobium meliloti D., Rhizobium galegae L., and Rhizobium leguminosarum bv. viciae F. in Lithuanian soils as dependent on the soil acidity were studied in the long-term field, pot, and laboratory experiments. The critical and optimal pH values controlling the distribution of rhizobia and the symbiotic nitrogen fixation were determined for every bacterial species. The relationship was found between the soil pH and the nitrogen-fixing capacity of rhizobia. A positive effect of liming of acid soils in combination with inoculation of legumes on the efficiency of symbiotic nitrogen fixation was demonstrated.

  3. A ruthenium-based biomimetic hydrogen cluster for efficient photocatalytic hydrogen generation from formic acid.

    PubMed

    Chang, Chin-Hao; Chen, Mei-Hua; Du, Wan-Shan; Gliniak, Jacek; Lin, Jia-Hoa; Wu, Hsin-Hua; Chan, Hsin-Fang; Yu, Jen-Shiang K; Wu, Tung-Kung

    2015-04-20

    A ruthenium-based biomimetic hydrogen cluster, [Ru2 (CO)6 (μ-SCH2 CH2 CH2 S)] (1), has been synthesized and, in the presence of the P ligand tri(o-tolyl)phosphine, demonstrated efficient photocatalytic hydrogen generation from formic acid decomposition. Turnover frequencies (TOFs) of 5500 h(-1) and turnover numbers (TONs) over 24 700 were obtained with less than 50 ppm of the catalyst, thus representing the highest TOFs for ruthenium complexes as well as the best efficiency for photocatalytic hydrogen production from formic acid. Moreover, 1 showed high stability with no significant degradation of the photocatalyst observed after prolonged photoirradiation at 90 °C.

  4. Spontaneous surface convection in extraction of lanthanoids by di-2-ethylhexylphosphoric acid

    SciTech Connect

    Dupal, A.Ya.; Tarasov, V.V.; Yagodin, G.A.; Arutyunyan, V.A.

    1988-09-01

    It has been established that when lanthanoids are extracted from aqueous nitric acid solutions (pH > 1.5) by di-2-ethylhexylphosphoric acid in decane or toluene a spontaneous surface convection occurs in the system over the initial period, which leads to an up to tenfold increase in the mass transfer coefficient. The intensity of the spontaneous surface convection (SSC) depends on the concentrations of the components and the conditions under which the extraction is conducted. With the passage of time an interphase film is formed at the interface which suppresses the SSC and retards the mass transfer. Small additions of ionic surfactants increase the surface viscosity, reducing any motion in the interphase region, which leads to an effective suppression of the SSC.

  5. Recovery of Uranium from Wet Phosphoric Acid by Solvent Extraction Processes

    SciTech Connect

    Beltrami, Denis; Cote, Gérard; Mokhtari, Hamid; Courtaud, Bruno; Moyer, Bruce A.; Chagnes, Alexandre

    2014-11-17

    Between 1951 and 1991, we developed about 17 processes to recover uranium from wet phosphoric acid (WPA), but the viability of these processes was subject to the variation of the uranium price market. Nowadays, uranium from WPA appears to be attractive due to the increase of the global uranium demand resulting from the emergence of developing countries. Moreover, the increasing demand provides impetus for a new look at the applicable technology with a view to improvements as well as altogether new approaches. This paper gives an overview on extraction processes developed in the past to recover uranium from wet phosphoric acid (WPA) as well as the physicochemistry involved in these processes. Recent advances concerning the development of new extraction systems are also reported and discussed.

  6. Recovery of Uranium from Wet Phosphoric Acid by Solvent Extraction Processes

    DOE PAGES

    Beltrami, Denis; Cote, Gérard; Mokhtari, Hamid; ...

    2014-11-17

    Between 1951 and 1991, we developed about 17 processes to recover uranium from wet phosphoric acid (WPA), but the viability of these processes was subject to the variation of the uranium price market. Nowadays, uranium from WPA appears to be attractive due to the increase of the global uranium demand resulting from the emergence of developing countries. Moreover, the increasing demand provides impetus for a new look at the applicable technology with a view to improvements as well as altogether new approaches. This paper gives an overview on extraction processes developed in the past to recover uranium from wet phosphoricmore » acid (WPA) as well as the physicochemistry involved in these processes. Recent advances concerning the development of new extraction systems are also reported and discussed.« less

  7. Supercritical carbon dioxide extraction of seed oil from winter melon (Benincasa hispida) and its antioxidant activity and fatty acid composition.

    PubMed

    Bimakr, Mandana; Rahman, Russly Abdul; Taip, Farah Saleena; Adzahan, Noranizan Mohd; Sarker, Md Zaidul Islam; Ganjloo, Ali

    2013-01-15

    In the present study, supercritical carbon dioxide (SC-CO(2)) extraction of seed oil from winter melon (Benincasa hispida) was investigated. The effects of process variables namely pressure (150-300 bar), temperature (40-50 °C) and dynamic extraction time (60-120 min) on crude extraction yield (CEY) were studied through response surface methodology (RSM). The SC-CO(2) extraction process was modified using ethanol (99.9%) as co-solvent. Perturbation plot revealed the significant effect of all process variables on the CEY. A central composite design (CCD) was used to optimize the process conditions to achieve maximum CEY. The optimum conditions were 244 bar pressure, 46 °C temperature and 97 min dynamic extraction time. Under these optimal conditions, the CEY was predicted to be 176.30 mg-extract/g-dried sample. The validation experiment results agreed with the predicted value. The antioxidant activity and fatty acid composition of crude oil obtained under optimized conditions were determined and compared with published results using Soxhlet extraction (SE) and ultrasound assisted extraction (UAE). It was found that the antioxidant activity of the extract obtained by SC-CO(2) extraction was strongly higher than those obtained by SE and UAE. Identification of fatty acid composition using gas chromatography (GC) showed that all the extracts were rich in unsaturated fatty acids with the most being linoleic acid. In contrast, the amount of saturated fatty acids extracted by SE was higher than that extracted under optimized SC-CO(2) extraction conditions.

  8. A comparison of neutralization efficiency of chemicals with respect to acidic Kopili River water

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kapil, Nibedita; Bhattacharyya, Krishna G.

    2016-02-01

    Among all the renewable sources of energy, hydropower is the most potential source which is economical, non-polluting and eco-friendly. The efficiency of hydropower plant in the long run depends on many factors like water and sediment quality. Erosive and corrosive wear of machine parts like turbine is a complex phenomenon. The problem becomes more acute if the hydroenvironment is acidic in nature. The wear and tear due to corrosion/erosion caused by acid mine drainage (AMD) from coal mines reduces the efficiency and the life of the equipments. In this work, neutralization of the acidic water of the Kopili River, Assam, India was investigated using a number of basic chemicals and quantitatively estimating their effectiveness and actual requirement. The acidic water of the river, used as the cooling water, has been found responsible for damaging the equipments of the Kopili Hydro Electric Power Project (KHEP), Assam/Meghalaya, India by reducing the life of all metallic parts through corrosion. In this work, use is made of a number of basic materials like calcium carbonate, calcium hydroxide, calcium oxide, sodium carbonate, sodium hydroxide, and ammonia to examine their neutralization efficiency with respect to the acidic water and it was found that quick lime or raw lime (CaO) has the highest neutralization capacity. Suggestions have been made for meeting the problem of acidity of the river water.

  9. Enhancing the light extraction efficiency of AlGaN deep ultraviolet light emitting diodes by using nanowire structures

    SciTech Connect

    Djavid, Mehrdad; Mi, Zetian

    2016-02-01

    The performance of conventional AlGaN deep ultraviolet light emitting diodes has been limited by the extremely low light extraction efficiency (<10%), due to the unique transverse magnetic (TM) polarized light emission. Here, we show that, by exploiting the lateral side emission, the extraction efficiency of TM polarized light can be significantly enhanced in AlGaN nanowire structures. Using the three-dimensional finite-difference time domain simulation, we demonstrate that the nanowire structures can be designed to inhibit the emission of guided modes and redirect trapped light into radiated modes. A light extraction efficiency of more than 70% can, in principle, be achieved by carefully optimizing the nanowire size, nanowire spacing, and p-GaN thickness.