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Sample records for acid extraction kit

  1. Evaluation of commercial kits for the extraction and purification of viral nucleic acids from environmental and fecal samples.

    PubMed

    Iker, Brandon C; Bright, Kelly R; Pepper, Ian L; Gerba, Charles P; Kitajima, Masaaki

    2013-07-01

    The extraction and purification of nucleic acids is a critical step in the molecular detection of enteric viruses from environmental or fecal samples. In the present study, the performance of three commercially available kits was assessed: the MO BIO PowerViral Environmental DNA/RNA Isolation kit, the Qiagen QIAamp Viral RNA Mini kit, and the Zymo ZR Virus DNA/RNA Extraction kit. Viral particles of adenovirus 2 (AdV), murine norovirus (MNV), and poliovirus type 1 (PV1) were spiked in molecular grade water and three different types of sample matrices (i.e., biosolids, feces, and surface water concentrates), extracted with the kits, and the yields of the nucleic acids were determined by quantitative PCR (qPCR). The MO BIO kit performed the best with the biosolids, which were considered to contain the highest level of inhibitors and provided the most consistent detection of spiked virus from all of the samples. A qPCR inhibition test using an internal control plasmid DNA and a nucleic acid purity test using an absorbance at 230 nm for the nucleic acid extracts demonstrated that the MO BIO kit was able to remove qPCR inhibitors more effectively than the Qiagen and Zymo kits. These results suggest that the MO BIO kit is appropriate for the extraction and purification of viral nucleic acids from environmental and clinical samples that contain high levels of inhibitors. PMID:23578704

  2. Nucleic acid detection kits

    DOEpatents

    Hall, Jeff G.; Lyamichev, Victor I.; Mast, Andrea L.; Brow, Mary Ann; Kwiatkowski, Robert W.; Vavra, Stephanie H.

    2005-03-29

    The present invention relates to means for the detection and characterization of nucleic acid sequences, as well as variations in nucleic acid sequences. The present invention also relates to methods for forming a nucleic acid cleavage structure on a target sequence and cleaving the nucleic acid cleavage structure in a site-specific manner. The structure-specific nuclease activity of a variety of enzymes is used to cleave the target-dependent cleavage structure, thereby indicating the presence of specific nucleic acid sequences or specific variations thereof. The present invention further relates to methods and devices for the separation of nucleic acid molecules based on charge. The present invention also provides methods for the detection of non-target cleavage products via the formation of a complete and activated protein binding region. The invention further provides sensitive and specific methods for the detection of nucleic acid from various viruses in a sample.

  3. The utilization of a commercial soil nucleic acid extraction kit and PCR for the detection of Clostridium tetanus and Clostridium chauvoei on farms after flooding in Taiwan.

    PubMed

    Huang, Shr-Wei; Chan, Jacky Peng-Wen; Shia, Wei-Yau; Shyu, Chin-Lin; Tung, Kwon-Chung; Wang, Chi-Young

    2013-05-01

    Clostridial diseases are zoonoses and are classified as soil-borne diseases. Clostridium chauvoei and Clostridium tetani cause blackleg disease and tetanus, respectively. Since bacteria and spores are re-distributed by floods and then, subsequently, contaminate soils, pastures and water; the case numbers associated with clostridial diseases usually increase after floods. Because Taiwan is often affected by flood damage during the typhoon season, possible threats from these diseases are present. Thus, this study's aim is to apply a combination of a commercial nucleic acid extraction kit and PCR to assess the prevalence of Clostridia spp. in soil and to compare the positivity rates for farms before and after floods. The minimum amounts of Clostridium tetanus and Clostridium chauvoei that could be extracted from soils and detected by PCR were 10 and 50 colony forming units (cfu), respectively. In total, 76 samples were collected from the central and southern regions of Taiwan, which are the areas that are most frequently damaged by typhoons. Noteworthy, the positive rates for Clostridium tetanus and Clostridium chauvoei in Pingtung county after the severe floods caused by a typhoon increased significantly from 13.73 and 7.84% to 53.85 and 50.00%, respectively. This study for the first time provides the evidence from surveillance data that there are changes in the environmental distribution of Clostridium spp. after floods. This study indicates that screening for soil-related zoonotic pathogens is a potential strategy that may help to control these diseases. PMID:23208321

  4. Magnetic bead-based nucleic acid purification kit: Clinical application and performance evaluation in stool specimens.

    PubMed

    Yoon, Jihoon G; Kang, Jin Seok; Hwang, Seung Yong; Song, Jaewoo; Jeong, Seok Hoon

    2016-05-01

    Two different methods - the semi-automated magnetic bead-based kit (SK, Stool DNA/RNA Purification kit®) and the manual membrane column-based kit (QS, QIAamp® DNA Stool Mini kit) - for purifying nucleic acids from clinical stool samples were compared and evaluated. The SK kit was more user-friendly than QS due to the reduced manual processing, partial automation, and short turnaround time with half cost. Furthermore, SK produced high yields in both DNA and RNA extractions but poor purity in RNA extraction. In the assessment of rotavirus and Clostridium difficile infection, both kits had equivalent or more sensitive performance compared with the standard method. Although SK showed some interference and inhibition in nucleic acid extraction, the performance, including the repeatability, linearity, analytical sensitivity, and matrix effect, was sufficient for routine clinical use. PMID:27030641

  5. Assessing the Utility of Soil DNA Extraction Kits for Increasing DNA Yields and Eliminating PCR Inhibitors from Buried Skeletal Remains.

    PubMed

    Hebda, Lisa M; Foran, David R

    2015-09-01

    DNA identification of human remains is often necessary when decedents are skeletonized; however, poor DNA recovery and polymerase chain reaction (PCR) inhibition are frequently encountered, a situation exacerbated by burial. In this research, the utility of integrating soil DNA isolation kits into buried skeletal DNA analysis was evaluated and compared to a standard human DNA extraction kit and organic extraction. The soil kits successfully extracted skeletal DNA at quantities similar to standard methods, although the two kits tested, which differ mechanistically, were not equivalent. Further, the PCR inhibitors calcium and humic acid were effectively removed using the soil kits, whereas collagen was less so. Finally, concordant control region sequences were obtained from human skeletal remains using all four methods. Based on these comparisons, soil DNA isolation kits, which quickened the extraction process, proved to be a viable extraction technique for skeletal remains that resulted in positive identification of a decedent. PMID:26258388

  6. Comparison of the Simplexa™ Flu A/B & RSV kit (nucleic acid extraction-dependent assay) and the Prodessa ProFlu+™ assay for detecting influenza and respiratory syncytial viruses.

    PubMed

    Selvaraju, Suresh B; Bambach, Adrienne V; Leber, Amy L; Patru, Maria-Magdalena; Patel, Anami; Menegus, Marilyn A

    2014-09-01

    The relative performance of 2 widely used reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) assays, the Focus diagnostics Simplexa™ Flu A/B & RSV kit (nucleic acid extraction-dependent assay) and the Prodessa Proflu+™ assay, was evaluated using 735 prospectively and retrospectively collected nasopharyngeal swab specimens. Overall, the assays showed positive and negative agreements of 100% and 99.7% for influenza A, 98.1% and 99.9% for influenza B, and 99.3% and 99.5% for respiratory syncytial virus. The relative analytical sensitivity of the 2 assays was also similar. PMID:25209363

  7. Evaluation of commercial RNA extraction kits for the isolation of viral MS2 RNA from soil.

    PubMed

    Dineen, Shauna M; Aranda, Roman; Dietz, Marianne E; Anders, Douglas L; Robertson, James M

    2010-09-01

    Nucleic acid extraction is a critical step in the detection of an unknown biological agent. However, success can vary depending on the isolation and identification methods chosen and the difficulty of extraction from environmental matrices. In this work, bacteriophage MS2 RNA was extracted from three soil matrices, sand, clay, and loam, using five commercially available kits: the PowerSoil Total RNA Isolation, E.Z.N.A. Soil RNA, FastRNA Pro Soil-Direct, FastRNA Pro Soil-Indirect, and IT 1-2-3 Platinum Path kits. Success of the isolation was determined using an MS2-specific RT-PCR assay. The reproducibility and sensitivity of each method in the hands of both experienced and novice users were assessed and compared. Cost, operator time, and storage conditions were also considered in the evaluation. The RNA isolation method that yielded the best results, as defined by reproducibility and sensitivity, was the E.Z.N.A. Soil RNA kit for sand, the IT 1-2-3 Platinum Path Sample Purification kit for clay, and the FastRNA Pro Soil-Indirect kit for loam. However, if time and storage conditions are important considerations, the IT 1-2-3 Platinum Path kit may be appropriate for use with all soils since the kit has the shortest processing time and fewest temperature requirements. PMID:20417664

  8. Comparison of commercial DNA extraction kits for isolation and purification of bacterial and eukaryotic DNA from PAH-contaminated soils.

    PubMed

    Mahmoudi, Nagissa; Slater, Greg F; Fulthorpe, Roberta R

    2011-08-01

    Molecular characterization of the microbial populations of soils and sediments contaminated with polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) is often a first step in assessing intrinsic biodegradation potential. However, soils are problematic for molecular analysis owing to the presence of organic matter, such as humic acids. Furthermore, the presence of contaminants, such as PAHs, can cause further challenges to DNA extraction, quantification, and amplification. The goal of our study was to compare the effectiveness of four commercial soil DNA extraction kits (UltraClean Soil DNA Isolation kit, PowerSoil DNA Isolation kit, PowerMax Soil DNA Isolation kit, and FastDNA SPIN kit) to extract pure, high-quality bacterial and eukaryotic DNA from PAH-contaminated soils. Six different contaminated soils were used to determine if there were any biases among the kits due to soil properties or level of contamination. Extracted DNA was used as a template for bacterial 16S rDNA and eukaryotic 18S rDNA amplifications, and PCR products were subsequently analyzed using denaturing gel gradient electrophoresis (DGGE). We found that the FastDNA SPIN kit provided significantly higher DNA yields for all soils; however, it also resulted in the highest levels of humic acid contamination. Soil texture and organic carbon content of the soil did not affect the DNA yield of any kit. Moreover, a liquid-liquid extraction of the DNA extracts found no residual PAHs, indicating that all kits were effective at removing contaminants in the extraction process. Although the PowerSoil DNA Isolation kit gave relatively low DNA yields, it provided the highest quality DNA based on successful amplification of both bacterial and eukaryotic DNA for all six soils. DGGE fingerprints among the kits were dramatically different for both bacterial and eukaryotic DNA. The PowerSoil DNA Isolation kit revealed multiple bands for each soil and provided the most consistent DGGE profiles among replicates for both

  9. Comparison of DNA Extraction Kits for Detection of Burkholderia pseudomallei in Spiked Human Whole Blood Using Real-Time PCR

    PubMed Central

    Podnecky, Nicole L.; Elrod, Mindy G.; Newton, Bruce R.; Dauphin, Leslie A.; Shi, Jianrong; Chawalchitiporn, Sutthinan; Baggett, Henry C.; Hoffmaster, Alex R.; Gee, Jay E.

    2013-01-01

    Burkholderia pseudomallei, the etiologic agent of melioidosis, is endemic in northern Australia and Southeast Asia and can cause severe septicemia that may lead to death in 20% to 50% of cases. Rapid detection of B. pseudomallei infection is crucial for timely treatment of septic patients. This study evaluated seven commercially available DNA extraction kits to determine the relative recovery of B. pseudomallei DNA from spiked EDTA-containing human whole blood. The evaluation included three manual kits: the QIAamp DNA Mini kit, the QIAamp DNA Blood Mini kit, and the High Pure PCR Template Preparation kit; and four automated systems: the MagNAPure LC using the DNA Isolation Kit I, the MagNAPure Compact using the Nucleic Acid Isolation Kit I, and the QIAcube using the QIAamp DNA Mini kit and the QIAamp DNA Blood Mini kit. Detection of B. pseudomallei DNA extracted by each kit was performed using the B. pseudomallei specific type III secretion real-time PCR (TTS1) assay. Crossing threshold (CT) values were used to compare the limit of detection and reproducibility of each kit. This study also compared the DNA concentrations and DNA purity yielded for each kit. The following kits consistently yielded DNA that produced a detectable signal from blood spiked with 5.5×104 colony forming units per mL: the High Pure PCR Template Preparation, QIAamp DNA Mini, MagNA Pure Compact, and the QIAcube running the QIAamp DNA Mini and QIAamp DNA Blood Mini kits. The High Pure PCR Template Preparation kit yielded the lowest limit of detection with spiked blood, but when this kit was used with blood from patients with confirmed cases of melioidosis, the bacteria was not reliably detected indicating blood may not be an optimal specimen. PMID:23460920

  10. Using a commercial DNA extraction kit to obtain RNA from mature rice kernels

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Few RNA extraction protocols or commercial kits work well with the starchy endosperm of cereal grains. Standard RNA extraction protocols are time consuming, use large amounts of expensive chemicals, and leave behind hazardous wastes. However, there are numerous commercial DNA extraction kits that ...

  11. Efficient oil palm total RNA extraction with a total RNA extraction kit.

    PubMed

    Habib, S H; Saud, H M; Kausar, H

    2014-01-01

    Oil palm tissues are rich in polyphenols, polysaccharides and secondary metabolites; these can co-precipitate with RNA, causing problems for downstream applications. We compared two different methods (one conventional and a kit-based method - Easy-Blue(TM) Total RNA Extraction Kit) to isolate total RNA from leaves, roots and shoot apical meristems of tissue culture derived truncated leaf syndrome somaclonal oil palm seedlings. The quality and quantity of total RNA were compared through spectrophotometry and formaldehyde gel electrophoresis. The specificity and applicability of the protocols were evaluated for downstream applications, including cDNA synthesis and RT-PCR analysis. We found that the conventional method gave higher yields of RNA but took longer, and it was contaminated with genomic DNA. This method required extra genomic DNA removal steps that further reduced the RNA yield. The kit-based method, on the other hand, produced good yields as well as well as good quality RNA, within a very short period of time from a small amount of starting material. Moreover, the RNA from the kit-based method was more suitable for synthesizing cDNA and RT-PCR amplification than the conventional method. Therefore, we conclude that the Easy-BlueTM Total RNA Extraction Kit method is suitable and superior for isolation of total RNA from oil palm leaf, root and shoot apical meristem. PMID:24781991

  12. Kit for detecting nucleic acid sequences using competitive hybridization probes

    DOEpatents

    Lucas, Joe N.; Straume, Tore; Bogen, Kenneth T.

    2001-01-01

    A kit is provided for detecting a target nucleic acid sequence in a sample, the kit comprising: a first hybridization probe which includes a nucleic acid sequence that is sufficiently complementary to selectively hybridize to a first portion of the target sequence, the first hybridization probe including a first complexing agent for forming a binding pair with a second complexing agent; and a second hybridization probe which includes a nucleic acid sequence that is sufficiently complementary to selectively hybridize to a second portion of the target sequence to which the first hybridization probe does not selectively hybridize, the second hybridization probe including a detectable marker; a third hybridization probe which includes a nucleic acid sequence that is sufficiently complementary to selectively hybridize to a first portion of the target sequence, the third hybridization probe including the same detectable marker as the second hybridization probe; and a fourth hybridization probe which includes a nucleic acid sequence that is sufficiently complementary to selectively hybridize to a second portion of the target sequence to which the third hybridization probe does not selectively hybridize, the fourth hybridization probe including the first complexing agent for forming a binding pair with the second complexing agent; wherein the first and second hybridization probes are capable of simultaneously hybridizing to the target sequence and the third and fourth hybridization probes are capable of simultaneously hybridizing to the target sequence, the detectable marker is not present on the first or fourth hybridization probes and the first, second, third, and fourth hybridization probes each include a competitive nucleic acid sequence which is sufficiently complementary to a third portion of the target sequence that the competitive sequences of the first, second, third, and fourth hybridization probes compete with each other to hybridize to the third portion of the

  13. Comparison of six commercial DNA extraction kits for detection of Brucella neotomae in Mexican and Central American-style cheese and other milk products.

    PubMed

    Lusk, Tina S; Strain, Errol; Kase, Julie A

    2013-05-01

    Raw or inadequately pasteurized milk from infected animals and cheese made with such milk are a frequent vehicle for human brucellosis infection. Also, biological terrorism is a concern with certain Brucella spp. Due to matrix-associated real-time polymerase chain reaction (qPCR) inhibitors, robust sample preparations are crucial. We compared six commercial nucleic acid extraction kits using nine Mexican and Central American-style soft cheeses or creams and three liquid milk products inoculated with Brucella neotomae, a surrogate for pathogenic Brucella spp. Kits were evaluated by purity and quantity of DNA as determined by qPCR Ct values, reproducibility across cheese and milk types, and cost. At 10(7) CFU/g in four different cheeses, Qiagen statistically outperformed all other kits. When two cheese styles were inoculated at dual levels, Qiagen and High Pure kit extracted samples at 1.5 × 10(5) CFU/g produced average Ct values of 34-39, while PrepSEQ and MagMAX kit extracted samples exhibited higher or no Ct values. High Pure and Qiagen kits excelled also with liquid milk products. Considering matrices, inoculation levels, and kits evaluated, High Pure and Qiagen products produced Brucella DNA of high quality and quantity indicated by the lowest Ct values and were the least expensive. PMID:23498184

  14. USING A COMMERCIAL DNA EXTRACTION KIT TO OBTAIN RNA FROM MATURE RICE KERNELS

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Extraction of total RNA from starchy plant material such as common food grains is difficult, and especially so from dry rice (Oryza sativa L.) kernels. Most commercial RNA kits are not suited for starchy materials and traditional RNA extraction procedures leave hazardous organic wastes that have ex...

  15. Comparison of three DNA extraction kits to establish maximum yield and quality of coral-associated microbial DNA

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Baker, Erin J.; Kellogg, Christina A.

    2014-01-01

    Coral microbiology is an expanding field, yet there is no standard DNA extraction protocol. Although many researchers depend on commercial extraction kits, no specific kit has been optimized for use with coral samples. Both soil and plant DNA extraction kits from MO BIO Laboratories, Inc., have been used by many research groups for this purpose. MO BIO recently replaced their PowerPlant® kit with an improved PowerPlantPro kit, but it was unclear how these changes would affect the kit’s use with coral samples. In order to determine which kit produced the best results, we conducted a comparison between the original PowerPlant kit, the new PowerPlantPro kit, and an alternative kit, PowerSoil, using samples from several different coral genera. The PowerPlantPro kit had the highest DNA yields, but the lack of 16S rRNA gene amplification in many samples suggests that much of the yield may be coral DNA rather than microbial DNA. The most consistent positive amplifications came from the PowerSoil kit.

  16. A comparison of different pre-lysis methods and extraction kits for recovery of Streptococcus agalacticae (Lancefield group B Streptococcus) DNA from whole blood.

    PubMed

    Burke, Rachael M; McKenna, James P; Cox, Ciara; Coyle, Peter V; Shields, Michael D; Fairley, Derek J

    2016-10-01

    Sub-optimal recovery of bacterial DNA from whole blood samples can limit the sensitivity of molecular assays to detect pathogenic bacteria. We compared 3 different pre-lysis protocols (none, mechanical pre-lysis and achromopeptidase pre-lysis) and 5 commercially available DNA extraction platforms for direct detection of Group B Streptococcus (GBS) in spiked whole blood samples, without enrichment culture. DNA was extracted using the QIAamp Blood Mini kit (Qiagen), UCP Pathogen Mini kit (Qiagen), QuickGene DNA Whole Blood kit S (Fuji), Speed Xtract Nucleic Acid Kit 200 (Qiagen) and MagNA Pure Compact Nucleic Acid Isolation Kit I (Roche Diagnostics Corp). Mechanical pre-lysis increased yields of bacterial genomic DNA by 51.3 fold (95% confidence interval; 31.6-85.1, p<0.001) and pre-lysis with achromopeptidase by 6.1 fold (95% CI; 4.2-8.9, p<0.001), compared with no pre-lysis. Differences in yield due to pre-lysis were 2-3 fold larger than differences in yield between extraction methods. Including a pre-lysis step can improve the limits of detection of GBS using PCR or other molecular methods without need for culture. PMID:27546716

  17. An evaluation of the performance of five extraction methods: Chelex® 100, QIAamp® DNA Blood Mini Kit, QIAamp® DNA Investigator Kit, QIAsymphony® DNA Investigator® Kit and DNA IQ™.

    PubMed

    Ip, Stephen C Y; Lin, Sze-Wah; Lai, Kam-Ming

    2015-05-01

    DNA left at a crime scene was often limited in amount and far from pristine. To maximize the chance of recovering as much information as possible from such compromised samples, an appropriate extraction method using the available technologies needs to be devised. In this study, we used human blood, buffy coat and a total of 76 simulated touch DNA samples to test the effectiveness of the following five common DNA extraction methods, namely, Chelex® 100, QIAamp® DNA Blood Mini Kit, QIAamp® DNA Investigator Kit, QIAsymphony® DNA Investigator® Kit and DNA IQ™ system, in the recovery of such DNA. We demonstrated that the QIAamp® and QIAsymphony® DNA Investigator® Kits, and the DNA IQ™ system, exhibited a better effectiveness in DNA recovery amongst these methods and yielded extracts with higher success rate in subsequent DNA profiling. These extracts also generated profiles with better intra-colour signal balance. The findings in this work allowed us to propose an extraction approach as follows: 1) casework samples shall be extracted with the QIAamp®/QIAsymphony® DNA Investigator® Kits or the DNA IQ™ system, viz., QIAsymphony® DNA Investigator® Kit and DNA IQ™, due to their higher throughput, are for the touched DNA evidence from the volume crime, while QIAamp® DNA Investigator Kit is preferable for challenging bloodstain samples; and 2) control samples, such as buccal swab, with known identity can be extracted with the Chelex, due to their cheaper cost per sample. PMID:25934373

  18. Extraction of carboxylic acids by amine extractants

    SciTech Connect

    Tamada, Janet Ayako; King, C.J.

    1989-01-01

    This work examines the chemistry of solvent extraction by long-chain amines for recovery of carboxylic acids from dilute aqueous solution. Long-chain amines act as complexing agents with the acid, which facilitates distribution of the acid into the organic phase. The complexation is reversible, allowing for recovery of the acid from the organic phase and regeneration of the extractant. Batch extraction experiments were performed to study the complexation of acetic, lactic, succinic, malonic, fumaric, and maleic acids with Alamine 336, an aliphatic, tertiary amine extractant, dissolved in various diluents. Results were interpreted by a ''chemical'' model, in which stoichiometric ratios of acid and amine molecules are assumed to form complexes in the solvent phase. From fitting of the extraction data, the stoichiometry of complexes formed and the corresponding equilibrium constants were obtained. The results of the model were combined with infrared spectroscopic experiments and results of past studies to analyze the chemical interactions that are responsible for extraction behavior. The information from the equilibrium studies was used to develop guidelines for large-scale staged extraction and regeneration schemes. A novel scheme, in which the diluent composition is shifted between extraction and regeneration, was developed which could achieve both high solute recovery and high product concentration. 169 refs., 57 figs., 15 tabs.

  19. Comparison of four commercial DNA extraction kits for the recovery of Bacillus spp. spore DNA from spiked powder samples.

    PubMed

    Mölsä, Markos; Kalin-Mänttäri, Laura; Tonteri, Elina; Hemmilä, Heidi; Nikkari, Simo

    2016-09-01

    Bacillus spp. include human pathogens such as Bacillus anthracis, the causative agent of anthrax and a biothreat agent. Bacillus spp. form spores that are physically highly resistant and may remain active over sample handling. We tested four commercial DNA extraction kits (QIAamp DNA Mini Kit, RTP Pathogen Kit, ZR Fungal/Bacterial DNA MiniPrep, and genesig Easy DNA/RNA Extraction kit) for sample inactivation and DNA recovery from two powders (icing sugar and potato flour) spiked with Bacillus thuringiensis spores. The DNA was analysed using a B. thuringiensis-specific real-time PCR assay. The detection limit was 3×10(1)CFU of spiked B. thuringiensis spores with the QIAamp DNA Mini, RTP Pathogen, and genesig Easy DNA/RNA Extraction kits, and 3×10(3)CFU with the ZR Fungal/Bacterial DNA MiniPrep kit. The results showed that manual extraction kits are effective and safe for fast and easy DNA extraction from powder samples even in field conditions. Adding a DNA filtration step to the extraction protocol ensures the removal of Bacillus spp. spores from DNA samples without affecting sensitivity. PMID:27435532

  20. Preparation of acid-base bifunctional mesoporous KIT-6 (KIT: Korea Advanced Institute of Science and Technology) and its catalytic performance in Knoevenagel reaction

    SciTech Connect

    Xu, Ling; Wang, Chunhua; Guan, Jingqi

    2014-05-01

    Acid-base bifunctional mesoporous catalysts Al-KIT-6-NH{sub 2} containing different aluminum content have been synthesized through post synthetic grafting method. The materials were characterized by X-ray diffraction (XRD), scanning electron micrographs (SEM), transmission electron micrographs (TEM), Fourier-transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR), IR spectra of pyridine adsorption, NH{sub 3}-TPD and TG analysis. The characterization results indicated that the pore structure of KIT-6 was well kept after the addition of aluminum and grafting of aminopropyl groups. The acid amount of Al-KIT-6 increased with enhancing aluminum content. Catalytic results showed that weak acid and weak base favor the Knoevenagel reaction, while catalysts with strong acid and weak base exhibited worse catalytic behavior. - Graphical abstract: The postulated steps of mechanism for the acid-base catalyzed process are as follows: (1) the aldehyde gets activated by the surface acidic sites which allow the amine undergoes nucleophilic to attack the carbonyl carbon of benzaldehyde. (2) Water is released in the formation of imine intermediate. (3) The ethyl cyanoacetate reacts with the intermediate. (4) The benzylidene ethyl cyanoacetate is formed and the amine is regenerated. - Highlights: • KIT-6 and Al-KIT-6-NH{sub 2} with different Si/Al ratios has been successfully prepared. • 79.4% Yield was obtained over 46-Al-KIT-6-NH{sub 2} within 20 min in Knoevenagel reaction. • Low Al-content Al-KIT-6-NH{sub 2} shows better catalytic stability than high Al-content catalysts. • There is acid-base synergistic effect in Knoevenagel reaction.

  1. Probe kit for identifying a base in a nucleic acid

    DOEpatents

    Fodor, Stephen P. A.; Lipshutz, Robert J.; Huang, Xiaohua

    2001-01-01

    Devices and techniques for hybridization of nucleic acids and for determining the sequence of nucleic acids. Arrays of nucleic acids are formed by techniques, preferably high resolution, light-directed techniques. Positions of hybridization of a target nucleic acid are determined by, e.g., epifluorescence microscopy. Devices and techniques are proposed to determine the sequence of a target nucleic acid more efficiently and more quickly through such synthesis and detection techniques.

  2. Reduced PCR Sensitivity Due to Impaired DNA Recovery with the MagNA Pure LC Total Nucleic Acid Isolation Kit

    PubMed Central

    Schuurman, Tim; van Breda, Alex; de Boer, Richard; Kooistra-Smid, Mirjam; Beld, Marcel; Savelkoul, Paul; Boom, René

    2005-01-01

    The increasing demand for molecular diagnostics in clinical microbiology laboratories necessitates automated sample processing. In the present study, we evaluated the performance of the MagNA Pure LC total nucleic acid isolation kit (M extraction) in comparison with the manual method (Si extraction) according to Boom et al. (R. Boom, C. J. A. Sol, M. M. M. Salimans, C. L. Jansen, P. M. Wertheim-van Dillen, and J. van der Noordaa, J. Clin. Microbiol. 28:495-503, 1990) for the detection of viral DNA by competitive quantitative PCR. Reconstruction experiments with HindIII-digested phage lambda DNA and HaeIII-digested φX174 DNA showed that the recovery of DNA from phosphate-buffered saline, cerebrospinal fluid, EDTA-anticoagulated plasma, and EDTA-anticoagulated whole blood by M extraction is, on average, 6.6-fold lower compared to Si extraction. PCR signals of spiked PCR control DNAs for Epstein-Barr virus and varicella-zoster virus were also between 1.9- and 14.2-fold lower after M extraction compared to Si extraction, also suggesting impaired DNA recovery. M extraction of spiked cytomegalovirus strain AD 169 in whole blood showed a 5- to 10-fold reduction in PCR sensitivity compared to Si extraction. This reduction of PCR sensitivity was also observed when clinical whole blood samples were processed by M extraction. Before implementing M extraction, the clinical consequences of the reduced recovery should first be considered, especially when maximal sensitivity is required. PMID:16145116

  3. Elementary Acid Rain Kit, Interdisciplinary, Grades 4-8.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stubbs, Harriett S.; And Others

    An interdisciplinary approach for teaching about acid rain is offered in this curriculum guide for teachers of grades 4-8. Skill and concept areas of science, math, social studies, art, and the language arts are developed in 12 activities which focus on the acid rain problems. A matrix of the activities and subject areas indicates the coverage…

  4. Comparison of six commercial kits to extract bacterial chromosome and plasmid DNA for MiSeq sequencing.

    PubMed

    Becker, Laura; Steglich, Matthias; Fuchs, Stephan; Werner, Guido; Nübel, Ulrich

    2016-01-01

    We compared commercial kits for extraction of genomic DNA from the Gram-negative bacterium Klebsiella pneumoniae for subsequent Miseq sequencing. Purification of DNA was based on matrix binding (silica or anion exchange resin) or differential precipitation (salting out), respectively. The choice of extraction kit had little effect on sequencing quality and coverage across drastically different replicons, except for an apparent depletion of small plasmids (<5 kb) during precipitation-based extractions. Sequencing coverage provided copy-number estimates for small plasmids that were consistently higher than those from quantitative real-time PCR. PMID:27312200

  5. Comparison of six commercial kits to extract bacterial chromosome and plasmid DNA for MiSeq sequencing

    PubMed Central

    Becker, Laura; Steglich, Matthias; Fuchs, Stephan; Werner, Guido; Nübel, Ulrich

    2016-01-01

    We compared commercial kits for extraction of genomic DNA from the Gram-negative bacterium Klebsiella pneumoniae for subsequent Miseq sequencing. Purification of DNA was based on matrix binding (silica or anion exchange resin) or differential precipitation (salting out), respectively. The choice of extraction kit had little effect on sequencing quality and coverage across drastically different replicons, except for an apparent depletion of small plasmids (<5 kb) during precipitation-based extractions. Sequencing coverage provided copy-number estimates for small plasmids that were consistently higher than those from quantitative real-time PCR. PMID:27312200

  6. Optimization of pH values to formulate the bireagent kit for serum uric acid assay.

    PubMed

    Huang, Ya; Chen, Yuanxiang; Yang, Xiaolan; Zhao, Hua; Hu, Xiaolei; Pu, Jun; Liao, Juan; Long, Gaobo; Liao, Fei

    2015-01-01

    A new formulation of the bireagent kit for serum uric acid assay was developed based on the effects of pH on enzyme stability. At 4 °C, half-lives of uricases from Bacillus fastidious and Arthrobacter globiforms were longer than 15 months at pH 9.2, but became shorter at pH below 8.0; half-lives of ascorbate oxidase and peroxidase were comparable at pH 6.5 and 7.0, but became much shorter at pH higher than 7.4. In the new formulation of the bireagent kit, Reagent A contained peroxidase, 4-aminoantipyrine, and ascorbate oxidase in 50 mM phosphate buffer at pH 6.5; Reagent B contained B. fastidious or A. globiforms uricase in 50 mM sodium borate buffer at pH 9.2; Reagents A and B were mixed at 4:1 to produce a final pH from 7.2 to 7.6 for developing a stable color. The new bireagent kit consumed smaller quantities of three enzymes for the same shelf life. With the new bireagent kit, there were linear responses of absorbance at 546 nm to uric acid up to 34 mM in reaction mixtures and a good correlation of uric acid levels in clinical sera with those by a commercial kit, but stronger resistance to ascorbate. Therefore, the new formulation was advantageous. PMID:24673428

  7. Genomic DNA extraction from medicinal plants available in Malaysia using a TriOmic(TM) improved extraction kit.

    PubMed

    Mohd-Hairul, A R; Sade, A B; Yiap, B C; Raha, A R

    2011-01-01

    DNA extraction was carried out on 32 medicinal plant samples available in Malaysia using the TriOmic(TM) extraction kit. Amounts of 0.1 g flowers or young leaves were ground with liquid nitrogen, lysed at 65°C in RY1(plus) buffer and followed by RNAse treatment. Then, RY2 buffer was added to the samples and mixed completely by vortexing before removal of cell debris by centrifugation. Supernatants were transferred to fresh microcentrifuge tubes and 0.1 volume RY3 buffer was added to each of the transferred supernatant. The mixtures were applied to spin columns followed by a centrifugation step to remove buffers and other residues. Washing step was carried out twice by applying 70% ethanol to the spin columns. Genomic DNA of the samples was recovered by applying 50 μL TE buffer to the membrane of each spin column, followed by a centrifugation step at room temperature. A modification of the TriOmic(TM) extraction procedure was carried out by adding chloroform:isoamyl alcohol (24:1) steps in the extraction procedure. The genomic DNA extracted from most of the 32 samples showed an increase of total yield when chloroform:isoamyl alcohol (24:1) steps were applied in the TriOmicTM extraction procedure. This preliminary study is very important for molecular studies of medicinal plants available in Malaysia since the DNA extraction can be completed in a shorter period of time (within 1 h) compared to manual extraction, which entails applying phenol, chloroform and ethanol precipitation, and requires 1-2 days to complete. PMID:22095601

  8. Comparison of eight commercially available kits for DNA extraction from formalin-fixed paraffin-embedded tissues.

    PubMed

    Janecka, Anna; Adamczyk, Agnieszka; Gasińska, Anna

    2015-05-01

    A proper extraction method from formalin-fixed paraffin-embedded (FFPE) blocks is essential to obtain DNA of satisfactory quality/quantity. We compared the effectiveness of eight commercially available kits for DNA extraction based on 10 FFPE tissues. Kits differed significantly in terms of DNA yield, purity, and quality. Using the QIAamp DNA FFPE Tissue Kit (Qiagen) and the ReliaPrep FFPE gDNA Miniprep System (Promega), we obtained DNA of the highest quality and acceptable quantity. We also demonstrated that overnight digestion of samples usually improved DNA yield and/or purity. For precious or limited material, double elution is recommended for obtaining up to 42% higher amount of DNA. PMID:25640584

  9. Methods and kits for nucleic acid analysis using fluorescence resonance energy transfer

    DOEpatents

    Kwok, Pui-Yan; Chen, Xiangning

    1999-01-01

    A method for detecting the presence of a target nucleotide or sequence of nucleotides in a nucleic acid is disclosed. The method is comprised of forming an oligonucleotide labeled with two fluorophores on the nucleic acid target site. The doubly labeled oligonucleotide is formed by addition of a singly labeled dideoxynucleoside triphosphate to a singly labeled polynucleotide or by ligation of two singly labeled polynucleotides. Detection of fluorescence resonance energy transfer upon denaturation indicates the presence of the target. Kits are also provided. The method is particularly applicable to genotyping.

  10. Solvent extraction studies of holmium with acidic extractants

    SciTech Connect

    Gaikwad, A.G.; Damodaran, A.D. )

    1993-03-01

    Liquid-liquid extraction studies of holmium with 2-ethylhexyl phosphoric acid mono-2-ethylhexyl ester, naphthenic, and Versatic 10 acids have been carried out. The nature of the extracted species and the extraction equilibrium constants of these systems have been determined from aqueous nitrate solution. The extraction mechanism and complexation models have been proposed. 11 refs., 8 figs.

  11. Extractive fermentation of acetic acid

    SciTech Connect

    Busche, R.M.

    1991-12-31

    In this technoeconomic evaluation of the manufacture of acetic acid by fermentation, the use of the bacterium: Acetobacter suboxydans from the old vinegar process was compared with expected performance of the newer Clostridium thermoaceticum bacterium. Both systems were projected to operate as immobilized cells in a continuous, fluidized bed bioreactor, using solvent extraction to recover the product. Acetobacter metabolizes ethanol aerobically to produce acid at 100 g/L in a low pH medium. This ensures that the product is in the form of a concentrated extractable free acid, rather than as an unextractable salt. Unfortunately, yields from glucose by way of the ethanol fermentation are poor, but near the biological limits of the organisms involved. Conversely, C. thermoaceticum is a thermophilic anaerobe that operates at high fermentation rates on glucose at neutral pH to produce acetate salts directly in substantially quantitative yields. However, it is severely inhibited by product, which restricts concentration to a dilute 20 g/L. An improved Acetobacter system operating with recycled cells at 50 g/L appears capable of producing acid at $0.38/lb, as compared with a $0.29/lb price for synthetic acid. However, this system has only a limited margin for process improvement. The present Clostridium system cannot compete, since the required selling price would be $0.42/lb. However, if the organism could be adapted to tolerate higher product concentrations at acid pH, selling price could be reduced to $0.22/lb, or about 80% of the price of synthetic acid.

  12. Evaluation of the NucliSens Basic Kit for Detection of Chlamydia trachomatis and Neisseria gonorrhoeae in Genital Tract Specimens Using Nucleic Acid Sequence-Based Amplification of 16S rRNA

    PubMed Central

    Mahony, J. B.; Song, X.; Chong, S.; Faught, M.; Salonga, T.; Kapala, J.

    2001-01-01

    We evaluated a new RNA amplification and detection kit, the NucliSens Basic Kit (Organon Teknika), for the detection of Chlamydia trachomatis and Neisseria gonorrhoeae in genitourinary specimens. The Basic Kit provides an open platform for RNA amplification and detection and contains isolation reagents for nucleic acid extraction, nucleic acid sequence-based amplification (NASBA) reagents (enzymes and buffers), and a generic ruthenium-labeled probe for electrochemiluminescent (ECL) detection of amplified product. Using freshly purified and titrated stocks of C. trachomatis and N. gonorrhoeae and in vitro-generated RNA transcripts for sensitivity determinations, the Basic Kit detected 1 inclusion-forming unit of C. trachomatis, 1 CFU of N. gonorrhoeae, and 100 RNA molecules of 16S rRNA for both bacteria. The clinical performance of the Basic Kit was evaluated by testing a total of 250 specimens for N. gonorrhoeae by culture and NASBA and a total of 96 specimens for C. trachomatis by PCR and NASBA. The Basic Kit detected 139 of 142 N. gonorrhoeae culture-positive specimens and gave a negative result for 73 of 74 culture-negative specimens, for a sensitivity and specificity of 97.9 and 98.7%, respectively. For C. trachomatis, the Basic Kit detected 24 of 24 PCR-positive specimens and gave a negative result for 71 of 72 PCR-negative specimens, for a sensitivity and specificity of 100 and 98.6%, respectively. The Basic Kit also detected specimens containing both N. gonorrhoeae and C. trachomatis, using a multiplex NASBA assay using primers for both bacteria. The NucliSens Basic Kit offers a versatile platform for the development of sensitive RNA detection assays for sexually transmitted diseases. PMID:11283067

  13. Comparison of DNA extraction kits and modification of DNA elution procedure for the quantitation of subdominant bacteria from piggery effluents with real-time PCR

    PubMed Central

    Desneux, Jérémy; Pourcher, Anne-Marie

    2014-01-01

    Four commercial DNA extraction kits and a minor modification in the DNA elution procedure were evaluated for the quantitation of bacteria in pig manure samples. The PowerSoil®, PowerFecal®, NucleoSpin® Soil kits and QIAamp® DNA Stool Mini kit were tested on raw manure samples and on lagoon effluents for their ability to quantify total bacteria and a subdominant bacteria specific of pig manure contamination: Lactobacillus amylovorus. The NucleoSpin® Soil kit (NS kit), and to a lesser extent the PowerFecal® kit were the most efficient methods. Regardless of the kit utilized, the modified elution procedure increased DNA yield in the lagoon effluent by a factor of 1.4 to 1.8. When tested on 10 piggery effluent samples, compared to the QIAamp kit, the NS kit combined with the modified elution step, increased by a factor up to 1.7 log10 the values of the concentration of L. amylovorus. Regardless of the type of manure, the best DNA quality and the highest concentrations of bacteria were obtained using the NS kit combined with the modification of the elution procedure. The method recommended here significantly improved quantitation of subdominant bacteria in manure. PMID:24838631

  14. Comparison of DNA extraction kits and modification of DNA elution procedure for the quantitation of subdominant bacteria from piggery effluents with real-time PCR.

    PubMed

    Desneux, Jérémy; Pourcher, Anne-Marie

    2014-08-01

    Four commercial DNA extraction kits and a minor modification in the DNA elution procedure were evaluated for the quantitation of bacteria in pig manure samples. The PowerSoil(®), PowerFecal(®), NucleoSpin(®) Soil kits and QIAamp(®) DNA Stool Mini kit were tested on raw manure samples and on lagoon effluents for their ability to quantify total bacteria and a subdominant bacteria specific of pig manure contamination: Lactobacillus amylovorus. The NucleoSpin(®) Soil kit (NS kit), and to a lesser extent the PowerFecal(®) kit were the most efficient methods. Regardless of the kit utilized, the modified elution procedure increased DNA yield in the lagoon effluent by a factor of 1.4 to 1.8. When tested on 10 piggery effluent samples, compared to the QIAamp kit, the NS kit combined with the modified elution step, increased by a factor up to 1.7 log10 the values of the concentration of L. amylovorus. Regardless of the type of manure, the best DNA quality and the highest concentrations of bacteria were obtained using the NS kit combined with the modification of the elution procedure. The method recommended here significantly improved quantitation of subdominant bacteria in manure. PMID:24838631

  15. Evaluation of commercial kits for dual extraction of DNA and RNA from human body fluids.

    PubMed

    Schweighardt, Andrew J; Tate, Courtney M; Scott, Kristina A; Harper, Kathryn A; Robertson, James M

    2015-01-01

    STR typing of DNA evidence can identify the donor with a high power of discrimination but cannot identify the tissue origin of a body-fluid stain. Using RNA to attribute a crime scene stain to a particular tissue may aid in reconstruction efforts. With blood from 10 donors, four DNA and RNA coextraction kits were evaluated by measuring yields and STR and mRNA profiles. T tests indicated some significant differences in kit performance. The Zymo Research ZR-Duet(™) kit performed best based on average DNA (41.4 ng) and mRNA (4.07 ng) yields and was the only kit to provide complete DNA/RNA profiles for all samples. The consistency of this kit was challenged by data from additional blood and saliva donors. Further testing is advised before a superior kit is unequivocally chosen. Stand-alone DNA or RNA purification generally offers higher yield, but coextraction may still allow successful STR profiling and tissue source identification. PMID:25284026

  16. The Impact of Different DNA Extraction Kits and Laboratories upon the Assessment of Human Gut Microbiota Composition by 16S rRNA Gene Sequencing

    PubMed Central

    Kennedy, Nicholas A.; Walker, Alan W.; Berry, Susan H.; Duncan, Sylvia H.; Farquarson, Freda M.; Louis, Petra; Thomson, John M.; Ahmad, T; Anderson, CA; Barrett, JC; Drummond, H; Edwards, C; Hart, A; Hawkey, C; Henderson, P; Khan, M; Lamb, CA; Lee, JC; Mansfield, JC; Mathew, CG; Mowat, C; Newman, WG; Prescott, NJ; Simmons, A; Simpson, P; Taylor, K; Taylor, K; Wilson, DC; Satsangi, Jack; Flint, Harry J.; Parkhill, Julian

    2014-01-01

    Introduction Determining bacterial community structure in fecal samples through DNA sequencing is an important facet of intestinal health research. The impact of different commercially available DNA extraction kits upon bacterial community structures has received relatively little attention. The aim of this study was to analyze bacterial communities in volunteer and inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) patient fecal samples extracted using widely used DNA extraction kits in established gastrointestinal research laboratories. Methods Fecal samples from two healthy volunteers (H3 and H4) and two relapsing IBD patients (I1 and I2) were investigated. DNA extraction was undertaken using MoBio Powersoil and MP Biomedicals FastDNA SPIN Kit for Soil DNA extraction kits. PCR amplification for pyrosequencing of bacterial 16S rRNA genes was performed in both laboratories on all samples. Hierarchical clustering of sequencing data was done using the Yue and Clayton similarity coefficient. Results DNA extracted using the FastDNA kit and the MoBio kit gave median DNA concentrations of 475 (interquartile range 228-561) and 22 (IQR 9-36) ng/µL respectively (p<0.0001). Hierarchical clustering of sequence data by Yue and Clayton coefficient revealed four clusters. Samples from individuals H3 and I2 clustered by patient; however, samples from patient I1 extracted with the MoBio kit clustered with samples from patient H4 rather than the other I1 samples. Linear modelling on relative abundance of common bacterial families revealed significant differences between kits; samples extracted with MoBio Powersoil showed significantly increased Bacteroidaceae, Ruminococcaceae and Porphyromonadaceae, and lower Enterobacteriaceae, Lachnospiraceae, Clostridiaceae, and Erysipelotrichaceae (p<0.05). Conclusion This study demonstrates significant differences in DNA yield and bacterial DNA composition when comparing DNA extracted from the same fecal sample with different extraction kits. This highlights

  17. The inhibitory effect of a Platycodon root extract on ultraviolet B-induced pigmentation due to a decrease in Kit expression.

    PubMed

    Kasamatsu, Shinya; Hachiya, Akira; Shimotoyodome, Yoshie; Kameyama, Akiyo; Miyauchi, Yuki; Higuchi, Kazuhiko; Fujimori, Taketoshi; Ohuchi, Atsushi; Shibuya, Yusuke; Kitahara, Takashi

    2014-07-01

    The signaling of stem cell factor (SCF) through its receptor Kit is known to play an important role in regulating cutaneous melanogenesis. In the course of UVB-induced pigmentation, the expression of membrane-bound SCF by epidermal keratinocytes is upregulated at an early phase and subsequently activates neighboring melanocytes via their Kit receptors. In order to identify effective skin-lightening materials, we screened botanical extracts to determine their abilities to diminish Kit expression in melanocytes. A Platycodon root extract was consequently found to have a remarkable inhibitory activity on Kit expression. When the extract was applied to three-dimensional human skin substitutes in vitro and to human skin in vivo after UVB irradiation, their pigmentation was significantly reduced, confirming the substantial contribution of the suppression of SCF/Kit signaling to preventing or inhibiting melanin synthesis. These data demonstrate that a Platycodon root extract is a promising material for a skin-lightening product to improve pigmentation-related diseases. PMID:24799080

  18. Extraction chemistry of fermentation product carboxylic acids

    SciTech Connect

    Kertes, A.S.; King, C.J.

    1986-02-01

    Within the framework of a program aiming to improve the existing extractive recovery technology of fermentation products, the state of the art is critically reviewed. The acids under consideration are propionic, lactic, pyruvic, succinic, fumaric, maleic, malic, itaconic, tartaric, citric, and isocitric, all obtained by the aerobic fermentation of glucose via the glycolytic pathways and glyoxylate bypass. With no exception, it is the undissociated monomeric acid that is extracted into carbon-bonded and phosphorus-bonded oxygen donor extractants. In the organic phase, the acids are usually dimerized. The extractive transfer process obeys the Nernst law, and the measured partition coefficients range from about 0.003 for aliphatic hydrocarbons to about 2 to 3 for aliphatic alcohols and ketones to about 10 or more for organophosphates. Equally high distribution ratios are measured when long-chain tertiary amines are employed as extractants, forming bulky salts preferentially soluble in the organic phase.

  19. Extraction chemistry of fermentation product carboxylic acid

    SciTech Connect

    Kertes, A.S.; King, C.J.

    1986-02-01

    Within the framework of a program aiming to improve the existing extractive recovery technology of fermentation products, the state of the art is critically reviewed. The acids under consideration are propionic, lactic, pyruvic, succinic, fumaric, maleic, malic, itaconic, tartaric, citric, and isocitric, all obtained by the aerobic fermentation of glucose via the glycolytic pathway and glyoxylate bypass. With no exception, it is the undissociated monomeric acid that is extracted into carbon-bonded and phosphorus-bonded oxygen donor extractants. In the organic phase, the acids are usually dimerized. The extractive transfer process obeys the Nernst law, and the measured partition coefficients range from about 0.003 for aliphatic hydrocarbons to about 2 to 3 for aliphatic alcohols and ketones to about 10 or more for organophosphates. Equally high distribution ratios are measured when long-chain tertiary amines are employed as extractants, forming bulky salts preferentially soluble in the organic phase. 123 references.

  20. Comparison of four commercial DNA extraction kits for PCR detection of Listeria monocytogenes, Salmonella, Escherichia coli O157:H7, and Staphylococcus aureus in fresh, minimally processed vegetables.

    PubMed

    Elizaquível, P; Aznar, R

    2008-10-01

    Four commercial DNA extraction methods, PrepMan Ultra (Applied Biosystems), InstaGene Matrix (BioRad), DNeasy Tissue kit (Qiagen), and UltraClean (MoBio), were tested for PCR detection of Listeria monocytogenes, Escherichia coli O157: H7, Salmonella, and Staphylococcus aureus in fresh, minimally processed vegetables. For comparative purposes, sensitivity assays with specific PCRs were carried out after DNA extraction with the four methods in green pepper, broccoli, and onion artificially inoculated with the four pathogens separately. As confirmed by statistical analysis, the DNeasy Tissue kit rendered the highest sensitivity values in the three matrices assayed for Salmonella, L. monocytogenes, and E. coli O157:H7 and in onion for S. aureus. Despite being the most expensive of the methods compared, the DNeasy Tissue Kit can be successfully applied for any of the four most commonly studied pathogens, thus saving time and overall reducing the cost of the analysis. PMID:18939762

  1. Nondispersive extraction for recovering lactic acid

    SciTech Connect

    Wang, C.J.; Bajpai, R.K.; Iannotti, E.L.

    1991-12-31

    A nondispersive extraction process for recovery of lactic acid from fermentation broth is being developed. The criteria for selection of solvent, distribution of lactic acid between the aqueous and solvent phases, and the effect of presence of other compounds in the broth, are discussed. Working with a simulated fermentation broth (without cells), a hydrophobic membrane module has been evaluated for its effectiveness as extractor. Back extraction and its role has been demonstrated. A theoretical comparison of this process with electrodialysis shows membrane extraction to be more desirable.

  2. [Measurement of serum prostatic acid phosphatase (PAP) by Delfia PAP Kit using europium and clinical evaluation in patients with prostate cancer].

    PubMed

    Akimoto, S; Ohki, T; Ichikawa, T; Akakura, K; Shimazaki, J

    1994-11-01

    Fundamental and clinical studies of serum prostatic acid phosphatase (PAP) detected by a Delfia PAP kit were performed. The system is a time-resolved fluoroimmunoassay using europium as a tracer. The lower limit of detection was 0.2 ng/ml. Sera from 54 patients with prostate cancer, 20 with benign prostatic hypertrophy, 20 with urological malignancies other than prostate cancer and 140 adult males over 46 years old were determined. From the mean + 2 S.D. of serum PAP values obtained on the adult males, 1.5 ng/ml was considered as the upper normal level of adult males. By calculating the efficiency and ROC curve using the PAP values of prostate cancer and benign prostatic cancer, 2.5 ng/ml was decided as a cut-off value of this kit. The positive rates of adult males, prostate cancer, benign prostatic cancer and urological malignancies other than prostate cancer were 0.7%, 65%, 20% and 10%, respectively. The sensitivity of stage A2, B2, C and D1 + D2 was, 0%, 0%, 64% and 83%, respectively. The efficiency of the Delfia PAP kit was 52% and that of the Markit M PA kit was 71%. The correlation between the values assayed with the Delfia PAP kit and the Dinabot PAP kit was very high; the value obtained with the Delfia PAP kit was about 80% of that obtained with the Dinabot PAP kit. PMID:7530404

  3. Slip Kits.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Coombes, S. D.

    1979-01-01

    Discusses the process of developing the Science Lessons from Industrial Processes (SLIP) kits by 16 British science teachers. The content, applicability, and components of these kits (based upon local industries) are also included. (HM)

  4. PROCESS FOR PRODUCING ALKYL ORTHOPHOSPHORIC ACID EXTRACTANTS

    DOEpatents

    Grinstead, R.R.

    1962-01-23

    A process is given for producing superior alkyl orthophosphoric acid extractants for use in solvent extraction methods to recover and purify various metals such as uranium and vanadium. The process comprises slurrying P/sub 2/O/ sub 5/ in a solvent diluent such as kerosene, benzene, isopropyl ether, and the like. An alipbatic alcohol having from nine to seventeen carbon atoms, and w- hcrein ihc OH group is situated inward of the terminal carbon atoms, is added to the slurry while the reaction temperature is mainiained below 60 deg C. The alcohol is added in the mole ratio of about 2 to l, alcohol to P/sub 2/O/sub 5/. A pyrophosphate reaotion product is formed in the slurry-alcohol mixture. Subsequently, the pyrophosphate reaction product is hydrolyzed with dilute mineral acid to produce the desired alkyl orthophosphoric aeid extractant. The extraetant may then be separated and utilized in metal-recovery, solvent- extraction processes. (AEC)

  5. Alkaline earth cation extraction from acid solution

    DOEpatents

    Dietz, Mark; Horwitz, E. Philip

    2003-01-01

    An extractant medium for extracting alkaline earth cations from an aqueous acidic sample solution is described as are a method and apparatus for using the same. The separation medium is free of diluent, free-flowing and particulate, and comprises a Crown ether that is a 4,4'(5')[C.sub.4 -C.sub.8 -alkylcyclohexano]18-Crown-6 dispersed on an inert substrate material.

  6. Extraction of total nucleic acid based on silica-coated magnetic particles for RT-qPCR detection of plant RNA virus/viroid.

    PubMed

    Sun, Ning; Deng, Congliang; Zhao, Xiaoli; Zhou, Qi; Ge, Guanglu; Liu, Yi; Yan, Wenlong; Xia, Qiang

    2014-02-01

    In this study, a nucleic acid extraction method based on silica-coated magnetic particles (SMPs) and RT-qPCR assay was developed to detect Arabis mosaic virus (ArMV), Lily symptomless virus (LSV), Hop stunt viroid (HSVd) and grape yellow speckle viroid 1 (GYSVd-1). The amplification sequences of RT-qPCR were reversely transcribed in vitro as RNA standard templates. The standard curves covered six or seven orders of magnitude with a detection limit of 100 copies per each assay. Extraction efficiency of the SMPs method was evaluated by recovering spiked ssRNAs from plant samples and compared to two commercial kits (TRIzol and RNeasy Plant mini kit). Results showed that the recovery rate of SMPs method was comparable to the commercial kits when spiked ssRNAs were extracted from lily leaves, whereas it was two or three times higher than commercial kits when spiked ssRNAs were extracted from grapevine leaves. SMPs method was also used to extract viral nucleic acid from15 ArMV-positive lily leaf samples and 15 LSV-positive lily leaf samples. SMPs method did not show statistically significant difference from other methods on detecting ArMV, but LSV. The SMPs method has the same level of virus load as the TRIzol, and its mean virus load of was 0.5log10 lower than the RNeasy Plant mini kit. Nucleic acid was extracted from 19 grapevine-leaf samples with SMPs and the two commercial kits and subsequently screened for HSVd and GYSVd-1 by RT-qPCR. Regardless of HSVd or GYSVd-1, SMPs method outperforms other methods on both positive rate and the viroid load. In conclusion, SMPs method was able to efficiently extract the nucleic acid of RNA viruses or viroids, especially grapevine viroids, from lily-leaf or grapevine-leaf samples for RT-qPCR detection. PMID:24291163

  7. Comparative Evaluation of Commercially Available Manual and Automated Nucleic Acid Extraction Methods for Rotavirus RNA Detection in Stool

    PubMed Central

    Esona, Mathew D.; McDonald, Sharla; Kamili, Shifaq; Kerin, Tara; Gautam, Rashi; Bowen, Michael D.

    2015-01-01

    Rotaviruses are a major cause of viral gastroenteritis in children. For accurate and sensitive detection of rotavirus RNA from stool samples by reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR), the extraction process must be robust. However, some extraction methods may not remove the strong RT-PCR inhibitors known to be present in stool samples. The objective of this study was to evaluate and compare the performance of six extraction methods used commonly for extraction of rotavirus RNA from stool, which have never been formally evaluated: the MagNA Pure Compact, KingFisher Flex and NucliSENS® easyMAG® instruments, the NucliSENS® miniMAG® semi-automated system, and two manual purification kits, the QIAamp Viral RNA kit and a modified RNaid® kit. Using each method, total nucleic acid or RNA was extracted from eight rotavirus-positive stool samples with enzyme immunoassay optical density (EIA OD) values ranging from 0.176 to 3.098. Extracts prepared using the MagNA Pure Compact instrument yielded the most consistent results by qRT-PCR and conventional RT-PCR. When extracts prepared from a dilution series were extracted by the 6 methods and tested, rotavirus RNA was detected in all samples by qRT-PCR but by conventional RT-PCR testing, only the MagNA Pure Compact and KingFisher Flex extracts were positive in all cases. RT-PCR inhibitors were detected in extracts produced with the QIAamp Viral RNA Mini kit. The findings of this study should prove useful for selection of extraction methods to be incorporated into future rotavirus detection and genotyping protocols. PMID:24036075

  8. Kinetics of mercury extraction using oleic acid

    SciTech Connect

    Larson, K.A.; Wiencek, J.M. )

    1993-11-01

    In the absence of halide ion, Hg[sup 2+] is the predominant species in water and can be effectively extracted using oleic acid. The organic phase complex that is formed is HgR[sub 2] [center dot] 2(RH). The presence of polar modifiers in the organic phase facilitates the formation of a complex dimer, [HgR[sub 2] [center dot] 2(RH)][sub 2]. Kinetics of the extraction reaction have been studied as a function of pH, Hg[sup 2+] concentration, oleic acid concentration, and mixing rate in a stirred cell reactor. Extraction kinetics are first order in mercury concentration and zero order with respect to oleic acid concentration and pH. This is consistent with film theory predictions for an instantaneous reaction that is mass transfer controlled. A diffusion/reaction model for mercury extraction in a batch stirred tank reactor has been developed that incorporates this information, and includes mass transfer of mercuric ion from the bulk solution to the droplet surface, equilibrium between aqueous mercury and organic mercury complex at the droplet interface, and diffusion and dimer formation of the complex within the organic phase droplet. Without the use of adjustable parameters, this model successfully predicts mercury extraction rate and equilibrium.

  9. Comparison of a modified phenol/chloroform and commercial-kit methods for extracting DNA from horse fecal material.

    PubMed

    Janabi, Ali H D; Kerkhof, Lee J; McGuinness, Lora R; Biddle, Amy S; McKeever, Kenneth H

    2016-10-01

    There are many choices for methods of extracting bacterial DNA for Next Generation Sequencing (NGS) from fecal samples. Here, we compare our modifications of a phenol/chloroform extraction method plus an inhibitor removal solution (C3) (ph/Chl+C3) to the PowerFecal® DNA Isolation Kit (MoBio-K). DNA quality and quantity coupled to NGS results were used to assess differences in relative abundance, Shannon diversity index, unique species, and principle coordinate analysis (PCoA) between biological replicates. Six replicate samples, taken from a single ball of horse feces manually collected from the rectum, were subjected to each extraction method. The Ph/Chl+C3 method produced 100× higher DNA yields with less shearing than the MoBio-K method. To assess the methods, the two method samples were sent for sequencing of the bacterial V3-V4 region of 16S rRNA gene using the Illumina MiSeq platform. The relative abundance of Bacteroidetes was greater and there were more unique species assigned to this group in MoBio-K than in Ph/Chl+C3 (P<0.05). In contrast, Firmicutes had greater relative abundance and more unique species in Ph/Chl+C3 extracts than in MoBio-K (P<0.05). The other major bacterial phyla were equally abundant in samples using both extraction methods. Alpha diversity and Shannon Weaver indices showed greater evenness of bacterial distribution in Ph/Chl+C3 compared with MoBio-K (P<0.05), but there was no difference in the OTU richness. Principle coordinate analysis (PCoA) indicated a distinct separation between the two methods (P<0.05) and tighter clustering (less variability) in Ph/Chl+C3 than in MoBio-K. These results suggest that the Ph/Chl+C3 may be preferred for research to identify specific Firmicutes taxa such as Clostridium, and Bacillus. However; MoBio-K may be a better choice for projects focusing on Bacteroidetes abundance. The Ph/Chl+C3 method required less time, but has some safety concerns associated with exposure and disposal of phenol and

  10. Acid gas extraction of pyridine from water

    SciTech Connect

    Laitinen, A.; Kaunisto, J.

    2000-01-01

    Pyridine was extracted from aqueous solutions initially containing 5 or 15 wt % pyridine by using liquid or supercritical carbon dioxide at 10 MPa as a solvent in a mechanically agitated countercurrent extraction column. The lowest pyridine concentration in the raffinate was 0.06 wt %, whereas the pyridine concentration in the extract was 86--94 wt %. From the initial amount of pyridine, 96--99% was transferred from the feed stream to the extract by using relatively small solvent-to-feed ratios of 2.8--4.6 (kg of solvent/kg of feed). The measured distribution coefficients for the water/pyridine/carbon dioxide system ranged from 0.3 to 1 (weight units), depending on the initial pyridine concentration in water. Carbon dioxide is a particularly suitable solvent for the extraction of pyridine from concentrated aqueous solutions. The efficiency may be the result of an acid-base interaction between weakly basic pyridine solute and weakly acidic carbon dioxide solvent in an aqueous environment.

  11. Endothelial cell-fatty acid binding protein 4 promotes angiogenesis: role of stem cell factor/c-kit pathway.

    PubMed

    Elmasri, Harun; Ghelfi, Elisa; Yu, Chen-wei; Traphagen, Samantha; Cernadas, Manuela; Cao, Haiming; Shi, Guo-Ping; Plutzky, Jorge; Sahin, Mustafa; Hotamisligil, Gokhan; Cataltepe, Sule

    2012-09-01

    Fatty acid binding protein 4 (FABP4) plays an important role in regulation of glucose and lipid homeostasis as well as inflammation through its actions in adipocytes and macrophages. FABP4 is also expressed in a subset of endothelial cells, but its role in this cell type is not known. We found that FABP4-deficient human umbilical vein endothelial cells (HUVECs) demonstrate a markedly increased susceptibility to apoptosis as well as decreased migration and capillary network formation. Aortic rings from FABP4(-/-) mice demonstrated decreased angiogenic sprouting, which was recovered by reconstitution of FABP4. FABP4 was strongly regulated by mTORC1 and inhibited by Rapamycin. FABP4 modulated activation of several important signaling pathways in HUVECs, including downregulation of P38, eNOS, and stem cell factor (SCF)/c-kit signaling. Of these, the SCF/c-kit pathway was found to have a major role in attenuated angiogenic activity of FABP4-deficient ECs as provision of exogenous SCF resulted in a significant recovery in cell proliferation, survival, morphogenesis, and aortic ring sprouting. These data unravel a novel pro-angiogenic role for endothelial cell-FABP4 and suggest that it could be exploited as a potential target for diseases associated with pathological angiogenesis. PMID:22562362

  12. Endothelial cell-fatty acid binding protein 4 promotes angiogenesis: role of stem cell factor/c-kit pathway

    PubMed Central

    Elmasri, Harun; Ghelfi, Elisa; Yu, Chen-wei; Traphagen, Samantha; Cernadas, Manuela; Cao, Haiming; Shi, Guo-Ping; Plutzky, Jorge; Sahin, Mustafa; Hotamisligil, Gokhan; Cataltepe, Sule

    2013-01-01

    Fatty acid binding protein 4 (FABP4) plays an important role in regulation of glucose and lipid homeostasis as well as inflammation through its actions in adipocytes and macrophages. FABP4 is also expressed in a subset of endothelial cells, but its role in this cell type is not known. We found that FABP4-deficient human umbilical vein endothelial cells (HUVECs) demonstrate a markedly increased susceptibility to apoptosis as well as decreased migration and capillary network formation. Aortic rings from FABP4−/− mice demonstrated decreased angiogenic sprouting, which was recovered by reconstitution of FABP4. FABP4 was strongly regulated by mTORC1 and inhibited by Rapamycin. FABP4 modulated activation of several important signaling pathways in HUVECs, including downregulation of P38, eNOS, and stem cell factor (SCF)/c-kit signaling. Of these, the SCF/c-kit pathway was found to have a major role in attenuated angiogenic activity of FABP4-deficient ECs as provision of exogenous SCF resulted in a significant recovery in cell proliferation, survival, morphogenesis, and aortic ring sprouting. These data unravel a novel pro-angiogenic role for endothelial cell-FABP4 and suggest that it could be exploited as a potential target for diseases associated with pathological angiogenesis. PMID:22562362

  13. Lactic acid fermentation of crude sorghum extract

    SciTech Connect

    Samuel, W.A.; Lee, Y.Y.; Anthony, W.B.

    1980-04-01

    Crude extract from sweet sorghum supplemented with vetch juice was utilized as the carbohydrate source for fermentative production of lactic acid. Fermentation of media containing 7% (w/v) total sugar was completed in 60-80 hours by Lactobacillus plantarum, product yield averaging 85%. Maximum acid production rates were dependent on pH, initial substrate distribution, and concentration, the rates varying from 2 to 5 g/liter per hour. Under limited medium supplementation the lactic acid yield was lowered to 67%. The fermented ammoniated product contained over eight times as much equivalent crude protein (N x 6.25) as the original medium. Unstructured kinetic models were developed for cell growth, lactic acid formation, and substrate consumption in batch fermentation. With the provision of experimentally determined kinetic parameters, the proposed models accurately described the fermentation process. 15 references.

  14. Comparison of an automated nucleic acid extraction system with the column-based procedure

    PubMed Central

    Hinz, Rebecca; Hagen, Ralf Matthias

    2015-01-01

    Here, we assessed the extraction efficiency of a deployable bench-top nucleic acid extractor EZ1 in comparison to the column-based approach with complex sample matrices. A total of 48 EDTA blood samples and 81 stool samples were extracted by EZ1 automated extraction and the column-based QIAamp DNA Mini Kit. Blood sample extractions were assessed by two real-time malaria PCRs, while stool samples were analyzed by six multiplex real-time PCR assays targeting bacterial, viral, and parasitic stool pathogens. Inhibition control PCR testing was performed as well. In total, 147 concordant and 13 discordant pathogen-specific PCR results were obtained. The latter comprised 11 positive results after column-based extraction only and two positive results after EZ1 extraction only. EZ1 extraction showed a higher frequency of inhibition. This phenomenon was, however, inconsistent for the different PCR schemes. In case of concordant PCR results, relevant differences of cycle threshold numbers for the compared extraction schemes were not observed. Switches from well-established column-based extraction to extraction with the automated EZ1 system do not lead to a relevantly reduced yield of target DNA when complex sample matrices are used. If sample inhibition is observed, column-based extraction from another sample aliquot may be considered. PMID:25883797

  15. Investigation of aggregation in solvent extraction of lanthanides by acidic extractants (organophosphorus and naphthenic acid)

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Zhou, N.; Wu, J.; Yu, Z.; Neuman, R.D.; Wang, D.; Xu, G.

    1997-01-01

    Three acidic extractants (I) di(2-ethylhexyl) phosphoric acid (HDEHP), (II) 2-ethylhexyl phosphonic acid mono-2-ethylhexyl ester (HEHPEHE) and (III) naphthenic acid were employed in preparing the samples for the characterization of the coordination structure of lanthanide-extractant complexes and the physicochemical nature of aggregates formed in the organic diluent of the solvent extraction systems. Photo correlation spectroscopy (PCS) results on the aggregates formed by the partially saponified HDEHP in n-heptane showed that the hydrodynamic radius of the aggregates was comparable to the molecular dimensions of HDEHP. The addition of 2-octanol into the diluent, by which the mixed solvent was formed, increased the dimensions of the corresponding aggregates. Aggregates formed from the lanthanide ions and HDEHP in the organic phase of the extraction systems were found very unstable. In the case of naphthenic acid, PCS data showed the formation of w/o microemulsion from the saponified naphthenic acid in the mixed solvent. The extraction of lanthanides by the saponified naphthenic acid in the mixed solvent under the given experimental conditions was a process of destruction of the w/o microemulsion. A possible mechanism of the breakdown of the w/o microemulsion droplets is discussed.

  16. Evaluation of DNA extraction kits and phylogenetic diversity of the porcine gastrointestinal tract based on Illumina sequencing of two hypervariable regions.

    PubMed

    Burbach, Katharina; Seifert, Jana; Pieper, Dietmar H; Camarinha-Silva, Amélia

    2016-02-01

    A robust DNA extraction method is important to identify the majority of microorganisms present in environmental microbial communities and to enable a consistent comparison between different studies. Here, 15 manual and four automated commercial DNA extraction kits were evaluated for their efficiency to extract DNA from porcine feces and ileal digesta samples. DNA yield, integrity, and purity varied among the different methods. Terminal restriction fragment length polymorphism (T-RFLP) and Illumina amplicon sequencing were used to characterize the diversity and composition of the microbial communities. We also compared phylogenetic profiles of two regions of the 16S rRNA gene, one of the most used region (V1-2) and the V5-6 region. A high correlation between community structures obtained by analyzing both regions was observed at genus and family level for ileum digesta and feces. Based on our findings, we want to recommend the FastDNA(™) SPIN Kit for Soil (MP Biomedical) as a suitable kit for the analyses of porcine gastrointestinal tract samples. PMID:26541370

  17. Comparative Study of Seven Commercial Kits for Human DNA Extraction from Urine Samples Suitable for DNA Biomarker-Based Public Health Studies

    PubMed Central

    El Bali, Latifa; Diman, Aurélie; Bernard, Alfred; Roosens, Nancy H. C.; De Keersmaecker, Sigrid C. J.

    2014-01-01

    Human genomic DNA extracted from urine could be an interesting tool for large-scale public health studies involving characterization of genetic variations or DNA biomarkers as a result of the simple and noninvasive collection method. These studies, involving many samples, require a rapid, easy, and standardized extraction protocol. Moreover, for practicability, there is a necessity to collect urine at a moment different from the first void and to store it appropriately until analysis. The present study compared seven commercial kits to select the most appropriate urinary human DNA extraction procedure for epidemiological studies. DNA yield has been determined using different quantification methods: two classical, i.e., NanoDrop and PicoGreen, and two species-specific real-time quantitative (q)PCR assays, as DNA extracted from urine contains, besides human, microbial DNA also, which largely contributes to the total DNA yield. In addition, the kits giving a good yield were also tested for the presence of PCR inhibitors. Further comparisons were performed regarding the sampling time and the storage conditions. Finally, as a proof-of-concept, an important gene related to smoking has been genotyped using the developed tools. We could select one well-performing kit for the human DNA extraction from urine suitable for molecular diagnostic real-time qPCR-based assays targeting genetic variations, applicable to large-scale studies. In addition, successful genotyping was possible using DNA extracted from urine stored at −20°C for several months, and an acceptable yield could also be obtained from urine collected at different moments during the day, which is particularly important for public health studies. PMID:25365790

  18. Process for the extraction of strontium from acidic solutions

    DOEpatents

    Horwitz, E. Philip; Dietz, Mark L.

    1994-01-01

    The invention is a process for selectively extracting strontium values from aqueous nitric acid waste solutions containing these and other fission product values. The extractant solution is a macrocyclic polyether in an aliphatic hydrocarbon diluent containing a phase modifier. The process will selectively extract strontium values from nitric acid solutions which are up to 6 molar in nitric acid.

  19. Process for the extraction of strontium from acidic solutions

    DOEpatents

    Horwitz, E.P.; Dietz, M.L.

    1993-01-01

    The invention is a process for selectively extracting strontium values from aqueous nitric acid waste solutions containing these and other fission product values. The extractant solution is a macrocyclic polyether in an aliphatic hydrocarbon diluent containing a phase modifier. The process will selectively extract strontium values from nitric acid solutions which are up to 6 molar in nitric acid.

  20. Process for the extraction of strontium from acidic solutions

    DOEpatents

    Horwitz, E.P.; Dietz, M.L.

    1994-09-06

    The invention is a process for selectively extracting strontium values from aqueous nitric acid waste solutions containing these and other fission product values. The extractant solution is a macrocyclic polyether in an aliphatic hydrocarbon diluent containing a phase modifier. The process will selectively extract strontium values from nitric acid solutions which are up to 6 molar in nitric acid. 4 figs.

  1. Lipophilic nucleic acids--a flexible construction kit for organization and functionalization of surfaces.

    PubMed

    Schade, Matthias; Berti, Debora; Huster, Daniel; Herrmann, Andreas; Arbuzova, Anna

    2014-06-01

    Lipophilic nucleic acids have become a versatile tool for structuring and functionalization of lipid bilayers and biological membranes as well as cargo vehicles to transport and deliver bioactive compounds, like interference RNA, into cells by taking advantage of reversible hybridization with complementary strands. This contribution reviews the different types of conjugates of lipophilic nucleic acids, and their physicochemical and self-assembly properties. Strategies for choosing a nucleic acid, lipophilic modification, and linker are discussed. Interaction with lipid membranes and its stability, dynamic structure and assembly of lipophilic nucleic acids upon embedding into biological membranes are specific points of the review. A large diversity of conjugates including lipophilic peptide nucleic acid and siRNA provides tailored solutions for specific applications in bio- and nanotechnology as well as in cell biology and medicine, as illustrated through some selected examples. PMID:24650567

  2. Extraction of fatty acids from dried freshwater algae using accelerated solvent extraction

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    A high temperature/pressure extraction method (accelerated solvent extraction)(ASE) and a manual extraction method (modified Folch extraction) were compared with regard to their ability to extract total fat from three samples of air-dried filamentous algae and determine the fatty acid (FA) profile o...

  3. Quantification of Bacterial Fatty Acids by Extraction and Methylation

    PubMed Central

    Politz, Mark; Lennen, Rebecca; Pfleger, Brian

    2016-01-01

    This protocol describes two similar methods for the extraction and methylation of fatty acids from bacterial cultures. The acid derivatization protocol (Lennen et al., 2013; Bligh and Dyer, 1959) results in the extraction and methylation of all fatty acids, both free and bound, from a bacterial culture, while the base derivatization protocol (Lennen and Pfleger, 2013) captures only bound (phospholipid, acyl-thioester) species. After extraction into hexane, the lipids may be analyzed by gas chromatography.

  4. Recovery of boric acid from wastewater by solvent extraction

    SciTech Connect

    Matsumoto, Michiaki; Kondo, Kazuo; Hirata, Makoto; Kokubu, Shuzo; Hano, Tadashi

    1997-03-01

    An extraction system for the recovery of boric acid using 2-butyl-2-ethyl-1,3-propanediol (BEPD) as an extractant was studied. Loss of the extractant to the aqueous solution was lowered by using 2-ethylhexanol as a diluent. The extraction equilibrium of boric acid with BEPD was clarified, and the equilibrium constants for various diluents were determined. Furthermore, continuous operation for the recovery of boric acid using mixer-settlers for extraction and stripping was successfully conducted during 100 hours. 10 refs., 5 figs., 2 tabs.

  5. [Mentoring Kit.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    United Way of America, Alexandria, VA.

    This document contains the National One to One Mentoring Partnership kit, designed to help users better understand what mentoring is and how they can support it in its many variations. The National One to One Mentoring Partnership is described as a new coalition mobilized to provide mentoring opportunities to youth, with the goal of giving every…

  6. The effect of deoxyribonucleic acid extraction methods from lymphoid tissue on the purity, content, and amplifying ability

    PubMed Central

    Ayatollahi, Hossein; Sadeghian, Mohammad Hadi; Keramati, Mohammad Reza; Ayatollahi, Ali; Shajiei, Arezoo; Sheikhi, Maryam; Bakhshi, Samane

    2016-01-01

    Background: Nowadays, definitive diagnosis of numerous diseases is based on the genetic and molecular findings. Therefore, preparation of fundamental materials for these evaluations is necessary. Deoxyribonucleic acid (DNA) is the first material for the molecular pathology and genetic analysis, and better results need more pure DNA. Furthermore, higher concentration of achieved DNA causes better results and higher amplifying ability for subsequent steps. We aim to evaluate five DNA extraction methods to compare DNA intimacy including purity, concentration, and amplifying ability with each other. Materials and Methods: The lymphoid tissue DNA was extracted from formalin-fixed, paraffin embedded (FFPE) tissue through five different methods including phenol-chloroform as the reference method, DNA isolation kit (QIAamp DNA FFPE Tissue Kit, Qiagen, Germany), proteinase K and xylol extraction and heat alkaline plus mineral oil extraction as authorship innovative method. Finally, polymerase chain reaction (PCR) and real-time PCR method were assessed to compare each following method consider to DNA purity and its concentration. Results: Among five different applied methods, the highest mean of DNA purity was related to heat alkaline method. Moreover, the highest mean of DNA concentration was related to heat alkaline plus mineral oil. Furthermore, the best result in quantitative PCR was in proteinase K method that had the lowest cycle threshold averages among the other extraction methods. Conclusion: We concluded that our innovative method for DNA extraction (heat alkaline plus mineral oil) achieved high DNA purity and concentration.

  7. Ultrasound-assisted extraction of oleanolic acid and ursolic acid from Ligustrum lucidum Ait.

    PubMed

    Xia, En-Qin; Yu, Ying-Ying; Xu, Xiang-Rong; Deng, Gui-Fang; Guo, Ya-Jun; Li, Hua-Bin

    2012-07-01

    Oleanolic acid and ursolic acid are the main bioactive compounds in fruit of Ligustrum lucidum Ait, which possess anti-inflammatory, antioxidative, antiprotozoal, antimutagenic and anticancer properties. In this study, the ultrasound-assisted extraction of oleanolic acid and ursolic acid from L. lucidum Ait was investigated with HPLC-photodiode array detection. Effects of several experimental parameters, such as type and concentration of extraction solvent, ratio of liquid to material, extraction temperature and extraction time, on extraction efficiencies of oleanolic acid and ursolic acid from L. lucidum were evaluated. The influence of experimental parameters on extraction efficiency of ursolic acid was more significant than that of oleanolic acid. The optimal extraction conditions were 95% ethanol, the ratio of material to liquid at 1:20, and extraction for 10 min at 40°C under ultrasonic irradiation. Under the optimal conditions, the yields of oleanolic acid and ursolic acid were 6.3 ± 0.25 and 9.8 ± 0.30 mg/g, respectively. The results indicated that the ultrasound-assisted extraction is a very useful method for the extraction of oleanolic acid and ursolic acid from L. lucidum. PMID:22197019

  8. Extraction of Nucleic Acids from Lyophilized Plant Material

    PubMed Central

    Guinn, Gene

    1966-01-01

    Four methods for extracting nucleic acids from lyophilized cotton (Gossypium hirsutum L. cv. Stoneville 62) leaves and roots were compared. They were based on the use of: (I) HC104; (II) KOH; (III) a mixture of 90% phenol, Tris (hydroxymethyl) aminomethane buffer, and sodium lauryl sulfate; and (IV) NaCl. (I) extracted large amounts of RNA but little DNA and extracted much carbohydrate and protein contaminants. (II) gave a good yield of both RNA and DNA but extracted such large amounts of contaminating material that purification of RNA on an anion exchange column was necessary. (III) extracted only part of the RNA and practically no DNA, but extracted contaminating materials. (IV) resulted in high yields of both RNA and DNA when modified to omit preliminary acid extraction of impurities. The use of cold trichloroacetic acid instead of ethanol, to precipitate NaCl-extracted nucleic acids, separated the nucleic acids from most of the carbohydrate and acid-soluble phosphate contaminants and resulted in good agreement among results by ultraviolet absorbance, pentose tests, and phosphate analysis. This method also resulted in lower protein contents and better ultraviolet absorption spectra than the other methods tested. Nucleic acids were extracted from leaves of 14 other species of plants, in addition to cotton, by this modified NaCl procedure. PMID:16656306

  9. Subcritical Water Extraction of Amino Acids from Atacama Desert Soils

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Amashukeli, Xenia; Pelletier, Christine C.; Kirby, James P.; Grunthaner, Frank J.

    2007-01-01

    Amino acids are considered organic molecular indicators in the search for extant and extinct life in the Solar System. Extraction of these molecules from a particulate solid matrix, such as Martian regolith, will be critical to their in situ detection and analysis. The goals of this study were to optimize a laboratory amino acid extraction protocol by quantitatively measuring the yields of extracted amino acids as a function of liquid water temperature and sample extraction time and to compare the results to the standard HCl vapor- phase hydrolysis yields for the same soil samples. Soil samples from the Yungay region of the Atacama Desert ( Martian regolith analog) were collected during a field study in the summer of 2005. The amino acids ( alanine, aspartic acid, glutamic acid, glycine, serine, and valine) chosen for analysis were present in the samples at concentrations of 1 - 70 parts- per- billion. Subcritical water extraction efficiency was examined over the temperature range of 30 - 325 degrees C, at pressures of 17.2 or 20.0 MPa, and for water- sample contact equilibration times of 0 - 30 min. None of the amino acids were extracted in detectable amounts at 30 degrees C ( at 17.2 MPa), suggesting that amino acids are too strongly bound by the soil matrix to be extracted at such a low temperature. Between 150 degrees C and 250 degrees C ( at 17.2 MPa), the extraction efficiencies of glycine, alanine, and valine were observed to increase with increasing water temperature, consistent with higher solubility at higher temperatures, perhaps due to the decreasing dielectric constant of water. Amino acids were not detected in extracts collected at 325 degrees C ( at 20.0 MPa), probably due to amino acid decomposition at this temperature. The optimal subcritical water extraction conditions for these amino acids from Atacama Desert soils were achieved at 200 degrees C, 17.2 MPa, and a water- sample contact equilibration time of 10 min.

  10. Pectin extraction from pomegranate peels with citric acid.

    PubMed

    Pereira, Paulo Henrique F; Oliveira, Túlio Ítalo S; Rosa, Morsyleide F; Cavalcante, Fabio Lima; Moates, Graham K; Wellner, Nikolaus; Waldron, Keith W; Azeredo, Henriette M C

    2016-07-01

    Pectins were extracted from pomegranate peels with citric acid, according to a central composite design with three variables: pH (2-4), temperature (70-90°C), and extraction time (40-150min). Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) spectroscopy was used to follow changes in material composition during the main steps of pectin extraction, and also to determine the degree of methyl esterification and galacturonic acid content of pectins produced under different conditions. Harsh conditions enhanced the extraction yield and the galacturonic acid contents, but decreased the degree of methoxylation. The optimum extraction conditions, defined as those predicted to result in a yield of galacturonic acid higher than 8g/100g while keeping a minimum degree of methoxylation of 54% were: 88°C, 120min, pH 2.5. Close agreement was found between experimental and predicted values at the extraction conditions defined as optimum. PMID:27044343

  11. Microwave-Assisted Extraction of Oleanolic Acid and Ursolic Acid from Ligustrum lucidum Ait

    PubMed Central

    Xia, En-Qin; Wang, Bo-Wei; Xu, Xiang-Rong; Zhu, Li; Song, Yang; Li, Hua-Bin

    2011-01-01

    Oleanolic acid and ursolic acid are the main active components in fruit of Ligustrum lucidum Ait, and possess anticancer, antimutagenic, anti-inflammatory, antioxidative and antiprotozoal activities. In this study, microwave-assisted extraction of oleanolic acid and ursolic acid from Ligustrum lucidum was investigated with HPLC-photodiode array detection. Effects of several experimental parameters, such as type and concentration of extraction solvent, ratio of liquid to material, microwave power, extraction temperature and microwave time, on the extraction efficiencies of oleanolic acid and ursolic acid from Ligustrum lucidum were evaluated. The influence of experimental parameters on the extraction efficiency of ursolic acid was more significant than that of oleanolic acid (p < 0.05). The optimal extraction conditions were 80% ethanol aqueous solution, the ratio of material to liquid was 1:15, and extraction for 30 min at 70 °C under microwave irradiation of 500 W. Under optimal conditions, the yields of oleanolic acid and ursolic acid were 4.4 ± 0.20 mg/g and 5.8 ± 0.15 mg/g, respectively. The results obtained are helpful for the full utilization of Ligustrum lucidum, which also indicated that microwave-assisted extraction is a very useful method for extraction of oleanolic acid and ursolic acid from plant materials. PMID:21954361

  12. Fermentation of aqueous plant seed extracts by lactic acid bacteria

    SciTech Connect

    Schafner, D.W.; Beuchat, R.L.

    1986-05-01

    The effects of lactic acid bacterial fermentation on chemical and physical changes in aqueous extracts of cowpea (Vigna unguiculata), peanut (Arachis hypogea), soybean (Glycine max), and sorghum (Sorghum vulgare) were studied. The bacteria investigated were Lactobacillus helveticus, L. delbrueckii, L. casei, L. bulgaricus, L. acidophilus, and Streptococcus thermophilus. Organisms were inoculated individually into all of the seed extracts; L. bulgaricus and S. thermophilus were also evaluated together as inocula for fermenting the legume extracts. During fermentation, bacterial population and changes in titratable acidity, pH, viscosity, and color were measured over a 72 h period at 37 degrees C. Maximum bacterial populations, titratable acidity, pH, and viscosity varied depending upon the type of extract and bacterial strain. The maximum population of each organism was influenced by fermentable carbohydrates, which, in turn, influenced acid production and change in pH. Change in viscosity was correlated with the amount of protein and titratable acidity of products. Color was affected by pasteurization treatment and fermentation as well as the source of extract. In the extracts inoculated simultaneously with L. bulgaricus and S. thermophilus, a synergistic effect resulted in increased bacterial populations, titratable acidity, and viscosity, and decreased pH in all the legume extracts when compared to the extracts fermented with either of these organisms individually. Fermented extracts offer potential as substitutes for cultured dairy products. 24 references.

  13. GlobalFiler(®) Express DNA amplification kit in South Africa: Extracting the past from the present.

    PubMed

    Ristow, Peter Gustav; Cloete, Kevin Wesley; D'Amato, Maria Eugenia

    2016-09-01

    In this study, the GlobalFiler(®) Express amplification kit was evaluated for forensic use in 541 South African individuals belonging to the Afrikaaner, amaXhosa,(1) amaZulu,(1) Asian Indian and Coloured population groups. Allelic frequencies, genetic diversity parameters and forensic informative metrics were calculated for each population. A total of 301 alleles were observed ranging between 5 and 44.2 repeat units, 43 were rarely observed partial repeats and seven were novel. The combined match probability (CMP) ranged from 2.21×10(-26) (Coloured) to 5.21×10(-25) (AmaZulu), and the combined power of exclusion (CPE) 0.9999999978 (Afrikaaner) to 0.99999999979 (AmaZulu) respectively. No significant departures from Hardy-Weinberg equilibrium (HWE) were observed after Bonferroni correction. Strong evidence of genetic structure was detected using the coancestry coefficient θ, Analysis of Molecular Variance (AMOVA) and an unsupervised Bayesian clustering method (STRUCTURE). The efficiency of assignment of individuals to population groups was evaluated by applying likelihood ratios with WHICHRUN, and the individual ancestral membership probabilities inferred by STRUCTURE. Likelihood ratios performed the best in the assignment of individuals to population groups. Signs of positive selection were detected for TH01 and D13S317 and purifying/balancing selection for locus SE33. These three loci also displayed the largest informativeness for assignment (In) values. The results of this study supports the use of the GlobalFiler(®) STR profiling kit for forensic applications in South Africa with the additional capability to predict ethnicity or continental origin of a random sample. PMID:27479880

  14. Extraction of actinides and nitric acid by crown ethers

    SciTech Connect

    Rozen, A.M.; Nikolotova, Z.I.; Kartasheva, N.A.; Luk'yanenko, N.G.; Bogatskii, A.V.

    1982-10-01

    This work studied the extraction of thorium nitrate, and an extraction isotherm of uranyl nitrate was obtained; the distribution of HNO/sub 3/ was studied over a wide range of acidity (up to 18M), which uses different concepts on the mechanism of the process. The extraction of Pu(VI) and Np(IV) was studied up to a 12 M acidity; two crown ethers had not previously been used for the extraction of the actinides. A quantitative description of the equilibria studied is given, and the influence of the structure of the ethers on the complex formation is discussed.

  15. Performance verification of the Maxwell 16 Instrument and DNA IQ Reference Sample Kit for automated DNA extraction of known reference samples.

    PubMed

    Krnajski, Z; Geering, S; Steadman, S

    2007-12-01

    Advances in automation have been made for a number of processes conducted in the forensic DNA laboratory. However, because most robotic systems are designed for high-throughput laboratories batching large numbers of samples, smaller laboratories are left with a limited number of cost-effective options for employing automation. The Maxwell 16 Instrument and DNA IQ Reference Sample Kit marketed by Promega are designed for rapid, automated purification of DNA extracts from sample sets consisting of sixteen or fewer samples. Because the system is based on DNA capture by paramagnetic particles with maximum binding capacity, it is designed to generate extracts with yield consistency. The studies herein enabled evaluation of STR profile concordance, consistency of yield, and cross-contamination performance for the Maxwell 16 Instrument. Results indicate that the system performs suitably for streamlining the process of extracting known reference samples generally used for forensic DNA analysis and has many advantages in a small or moderate-sized laboratory environment. PMID:25869266

  16. Dendrimer-functionalized mesoporous silica as a reversed-phase/anion-exchange mixed-mode sorbent for solid phase extraction of acid drugs in human urine.

    PubMed

    Li, Yun; Yang, Jiajia; Huang, Chaonan; Wang, Longxing; Wang, Jincheng; Chen, Jiping

    2015-05-01

    A new dendrimer-functionalized mesoporous silica material based on large-pore 3D cubic Korea Advanced Institute of Science and Technology-6 (KIT-6) was synthesized by the growing of dendritic branches inside the mesopores of aminopropyl functionalized KIT-6. Detailed physical characterizations using transmission electron microscopy, nitrogen adsorption-desorption measurements, Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) spectroscopy, and elemental analysis reveal that the multifunctional dendrimers have been grown successfully within the confined spaces of mesopores. Although the 3D ordered mesoporous architecture of KIT-6 was well preserved, there was a significant and continuous decrease in pore size, specific surface area (SBET) and pore volume when increasing dendrimer generation up to six. In order to get a compromise between the SBET, pore size and density of functionalities, the dendrimer-functionalized KIT-6 (DF-KIT-6) for generation 2 (SBET, 314.2 m(2) g(-1); pore size, 7.9 nm; carbon and nitrogen contents, 19.80% and 1.92%) was selected for solid phase extraction (SPE) applications. The DF-KIT-6 was then evaluated as a reversed-phase/anion-exchange mixed-mode sorbent for extraction of the selected acidic drugs (ketoprofen, KEP; naproxen, NAP; and ibuprofen, IBU), since the dendrimers contained both hydrocarbonaceous and amine functionalities. The effective parameters on extraction efficiency such as sample pH and volume, type and volume of eluent and wash solvents were optimized. Under the optimized experimental conditions, the DF-KIT-6 based SPE coupled with HPLC-UV method demonstrated good sensitivity (0.4-4.6 ng mL(-1) detection of limits) and linearity (R(2)>0.990 for 10-2000 ng mL(-1) of KEP and IBU, and 1-200 ng mL(-1) of NAP). The potential use of DF-KIT-6 sorbent for preconcentration and cleanup of acid drugs in human urine samples was also demonstrated. Satisfactory recoveries at two spiking levels (30 and 300 ng mL(-1) for KEP and IBU, 3 and 30 ng mL(-1

  17. ALUMINUM RECLAMATION BY ACIDIC EXTRACTION OF ALUMINUM-ANODIZING SLUDGES

    EPA Science Inventory

    Extraction of aluminum-anodizing sludges with sulfuric acid was examined to determine the potential for production of commercial-strength solutions of aluminum sulfate, that is liquid alum. The research established kinetic and stoichiometric relationships and evaluates product qu...

  18. Recovery of organic extractant from secondary emulsions formed in the extraction of uranium from wet-process phosphoric acid

    SciTech Connect

    Korchnak, J.D.; Fett, R.H.G.

    1984-01-03

    Uranium in wet-process phosphoric acid is extracted with an organic extractant. The pregnant extractant is then centrifuged to separate contaminants from the extractant. Secondary emulsions obtained by separating the contaminants following centrifugation are mixed with water or an acid leaching solution. After mixing, the mixture is centrifuged to separate and recover extractant which is recycled for stripping.

  19. Extraction of protactinium from mineral acid-alcohol media.

    PubMed

    Alian, A; Sanad, W; Shabana, R

    1968-07-01

    The extraction of protactinium with organic solvents has been investigated in the presence of water-miscible alcohols and acetone. These additives were found to increase considerably the extraction of protactinium in the cases of trilaurylamine, tributyl phosphate and isobutyl methyl ketone. The influence was less in the case of thenoyltrifluoroacetone. In mixtures of an acid with various alcohols, the influence depended on the alcohol concentration, the acidity and on the chain lengths and dielectric constants of the alcohol introduced into the extraction system. PMID:18960346

  20. Approaches for regeneration of amine-carboxylic acid extracts

    SciTech Connect

    Dai, Y.; King, C.J.

    1995-07-01

    Extraction processes based on reversible chemical complexation can be useful for separation of polar organics from dilute solution. Tertiary amines are effective extractants for the recovery of carboxylic acids from aqueous solution. The regeneration of aminecarboxylic acid extracts is an important step which strongly influences the economic viability of the separation process. Several regeneration methods are critically reviewed, and the factors that affect swing regeneration processes, including temperature-swing, diluent composition-swing and pH-swing with a volatile base are discussed. Interest in this area comes from interest in treatment of waste streams, particularly in petrochemical and fermentation manufacture.

  1. Fatty and resinic acids extractions from crude tall oil

    SciTech Connect

    Nogueira, J.M.F.

    1996-11-01

    The separation of fatty and resinic acidic fractions from crude tall-oil soap solutions with n-heptane by the technique of dissociation extraction is discussed. The theory of the overall process is supported by a systematic study developed to cover the high selectivity demonstrated in the differential solubility and the aptness between fatty and diterpenic acids to both liquids phases. To study the main factors affecting those liquid-liquid extraction systems and the amphiphilic behavior of such molecules involved, sodium salts aqueous solutions of crude tall oil and synthetic mixtures as molecular acidic models were used.

  2. Direct acid methylation for extraction of fatty acid content from microalgae cells.

    PubMed

    Frigo-Vaz, Benjamin D; Wang, Ping

    2014-08-01

    Direct acid methylation was examined as a means for both analysis of fatty acid content in microalgal cells and biodiesel production without pretreatment. Microalgal cells of Chlamydomonas reinhardtii and Dunaliella tertiolecta were prepared and examined. It appeared that direct acid methylation extracted higher fatty acid content than the solvent-based Soxhlet extraction process. It also revealed that the latter was prone to extract a significant amount of nonlipid hydrophobic impurities, including hydrophobic proteins and phytol-type compounds, while direct methylation produces essentially pure ester product. This work demonstrates that direct acid methylation provides superior fatty acid extraction, promising an efficient process for either quantification of lipid content or production of biodiesel. PMID:24838798

  3. Supercritical fluid extraction of free amino acids from broccoli leaves.

    PubMed

    Arnáiz, E; Bernal, J; Martín, M T; Nozal, M J; Bernal, J L; Toribio, L

    2012-08-10

    The extraction of free amino acids (AAs) from broccoli leaves using supercritical fluid extraction (SFE) with CO(2) modified with methanol, is presented in this work. The effect of the different variables was studied, showing the percentage of methanol a strong influence on the extraction. The best results in terms of extraction yield were obtained at 250 bar, 70°C, 35% methanol as organic modifier, a flow rate of 2 mL/min, and 5 min and 30 min as static and dynamic extraction times, respectively. The extraction yield obtained with the SFE method was comparable to that obtained employing conventional solvent extraction with methanol-water (70:30) and minor than using water, but the relative proportion of the AAs in the extracts was very different. For example, the use of SFE allowed the enrichment in proline and glutamine of the extracts. The selected conditions were applied to obtain SFE extracts of broccoli leaves from different varieties (Naxos, Nubia, Marathon, Parthenon and Viola). The highest levels of AAs were found in the SFE extracts from the Nubia variety. PMID:22608777

  4. HPV16 detection by qPCR method in relation to quantity and quality of DNA extracted from archival formalin fixed and paraffin embedded head and neck cancer tissues by three commercially available kits.

    PubMed

    Biesaga, Beata; Janecka, Anna; Mucha-Małecka, Anna; Adamczyk, Agnieszka; Szostek, Sława; Słonina, Dorota; Halaszka, Krzysztof; Przewoźnik, Marcin

    2016-10-01

    The aim of the present study was to compare HPV16 detection by quantitative polymerase chain reaction (qPCR) in relation to the quantity and quality of DNA isolated from 21 formalin fixed and paraffin embedded (FFPE) head and neck cancer tissues by three commercially available kits: EX-WAX™ DNA Extraction Kit (M) (Merck Millipore, Darmstadt, Germany), QIAamp(®) DNA FFPE Tissue (Q) (Qiagen, Hilden, Germany) and ReliaPrep™ FFPE gDNA Miniprep System (P) (Promega, Madison, USA). Quantity of extracted DNA was assessed spectrophometrically and fluorometrically. Its quality was analyzed using A260/280 and A260/230 ratios and the β-actin fragment amplifiability in qPCR. HPV16 presence was detected by qPCR, using specific primers and TaqMan probe. HPV infection was found in 8 DNA samples extracted with M kit (38.1%) and in 7 (33.3%) isolated with Q and P kits. Three samples from M and Q kits were characterized by HPV16 positivity and lack of β-actin amplifiability. They had significantly lower A260/280 ratio (M: 1.6±0.0, p=0.044 and Q: 1.7±0.0, p=0.016) compared to samples with both fragments amplification (M: 1.7±0.0 and Q: 1.9±0.0). Therefore, for HPV detection by qPCR in FFPE tissues we recommend ReliaPrep™ FFPE gDNA Miniprep System. PMID:27456982

  5. Development of a Nucleic Acid Extraction Procedure for Simultaneous Recovery of DNA and RNA from Diverse Microbes in Water

    PubMed Central

    Hill, Vincent R.; Narayanan, Jothikumar; Gallen, Rachel R.; Ferdinand, Karen L.; Cromeans, Theresa; Vinjé, Jan

    2015-01-01

    Drinking and environmental water samples contain a diverse array of constituents that can interfere with molecular testing techniques, especially when large volumes of water are concentrated to the small volumes needed for effective molecular analysis. In this study, a suite of enteric viruses, bacteria, and protozoan parasites were seeded into concentrated source water and finished drinking water samples, in order to investigate the relative performance of nucleic acid extraction techniques for molecular testing. Real-time PCR and reverse transcription-PCR crossing threshold (CT) values were used as the metrics for evaluating relative performance. Experimental results were used to develop a guanidinium isothiocyanate-based lysis buffer (UNEX buffer) that enabled effective simultaneous extraction and recovery of DNA and RNA from the suite of study microbes. Procedures for bead beating, nucleic acid purification, and PCR facilitation were also developed and integrated in the protocol. The final lysis buffer and sample preparation procedure was found to be effective for a panel of drinking water and source water concentrates when compared to commercial nucleic acid extraction kits. The UNEX buffer-based extraction protocol enabled PCR detection of six study microbes, in 100 L finished water samples from four drinking water treatment facilities, within three CT values (i.e., within 90% difference) of the reagent-grade water control. The results from this study indicate that this newly formulated lysis buffer and sample preparation procedure can be useful for standardized molecular testing of drinking and environmental waters. PMID:26016775

  6. The extraction of actinides from nitric acid solutions with diamides of dipicolinic acid

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lapka, Joseph L.; Paulenova, Alena; Alyapyshev, Mikhail Yu; Babain, Vasiliy A.; Law, Jack D.; Herbst, R. Scott

    2010-03-01

    Diamides of dipicolinic acid (N,N'-diethyl-N,N'-ditolyl-dipicolinamide, EtTDPA) were synthesized and evaluated for their extraction capability for actinides. In this work the extractions of neptunium(V), protactinium(V), and thorium(IV) with EtTDPA in a polar fluorinated diluent from nitric acid were investigated. EtTDPA shows a high affinity for Th(IV) even at millimolar concentrations. Np(V) and Pa(V) are both reasonably extractable with EtTDPA; however, near saturated solutions are required to achieve appreciable distribution ratios. A comparison with previously published actinide extraction data is given.

  7. Method for liquid chromatographic extraction of strontium from acid solutions

    DOEpatents

    Horwitz, E. Philip; Dietz, Mark L.

    1992-01-01

    A method and apparatus for extracting strontium and technetium values from biological, industrial and environmental sample solutions using a chromatographic column is described. An extractant medium for the column is prepared by generating a solution of a diluent containing a Crown ether and dispersing the solution on a resin substrate material. The sample solution is highly acidic and is introduced directed to the chromatographic column and strontium or technetium is eluted using deionized water.

  8. Separation of Minor Actinides from Lanthanides by Dithiophosphinic Acid Extractants

    SciTech Connect

    D. R. Peterman; M. R. Greenhalgh; R. D. Tillotson; J. R. Klaehn; M. K. Harrup; T. A. Luther; J. D. Law; L. M. Daniels

    2008-09-01

    The selective extraction of the minor actinides (Am(III) and Cm(III)) from the lanthanides is an important part of advanced reprocessing of spent nuclear fuel. This separation would allow the Am/Cm to be fabricated into targets and recycled to a reactor and the lanthanides to be dispositioned. This separation is difficult to accomplish due to the similarities in the chemical properties of the trivalent actinides and lanthanides. Research efforts at the Idaho National Laboratory have identified an innovative synthetic pathway yielding new regiospecific dithiophosphinic acid (DPAH) extractants. The synthesis provides DPAH derivatives that can address the issues concerning minor actinide separation and extractant stability. For this work, two new symmetric DPAH extractants have been prepared. The use of these extractants for the separation of minor actinides from lanthanides will be discussed.

  9. Inhibition of gastric acid secretion by the aqueous extract and purified extracts of Stachytarpheta cayennensis.

    PubMed

    Vela, S M; Souccar, C; Lima-Landman, M T; Lapa, A J

    1997-02-01

    Stachytarpheta cayennensis Schauer (Verbenaceae) is used in folk medicine to treat gastric and intestinal disturbances. The freeze-dried aqueous extract of the whole plant tested to rodents up to the dose of 2 g kg-1, p.o., did not produce signs of toxicity. The extract (0.5-2 g kg-1, p.o.) increased the intestinal motility and protected mice against ulcers induced by restraintin-cold, ethanol or indomethacin. Injected into the duodenal lumen the extract inhibited the basal acid secretion as well as that induced by histamine and bethanecol in pylorus-ligated mice. Partition of the aqueous extract in organic solvents yielded semipurified fractions whose antiacid activity guided further chemical purification. All the fractions were chromatographically characterized, the main substances in the active extract being flavonoids and amines; some substances were revealed only under UV light. The most purified active fraction obtained presented a specific activity 5-10 times higher than that detected in the original extract. Data from pharmacological studies indicate that the antiulcer activity of S. cayennensis is related to a specific inhibition of gastric acid secretion. Cholinergic and histaminergic stimulation of acid secretion were similarly reduced by the extracts suggesting inhibition of common steps in both pathways, possibly at the level of histamine release/H2 receptor interaction, or at the proton pump. Whatever the mechanisms involved, the present data confirm the plant effectiveness as antiacid/antiulcer and laxative. PMID:9063095

  10. Acidic solvent extraction of gossypol from cottonseed meal

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    In order to expand the use of cottonseed meal in animal feeding, extraction of the meal gossypol was studied with acetic acetone- and ethanol-based solutions. Phosphoric acid was added to hydrolyze and release gossypol bound within the meal. Both solvent systems were effective at reducing gossypo...

  11. Improved method for extracting lanthanides and actinides from acid solutions

    DOEpatents

    Horwitz, E.P.; Kalina, D.G.; Kaplan, L.; Mason, G.W.

    1983-07-26

    A process for the recovery of actinide and lanthanide values from aqueous acidic solutions uses a new series of neutral bi-functional extractants, the alkyl(phenyl)-N,N-dialkylcarbamoylmethylphosphine oxides. The process is suitable for the separation of actinide and lanthanide values from fission product values found together in high-level nuclear reprocessing waste solutions.

  12. ACID EXTRACTION TREATMENT SYSTEM FOR TREATMENT OF METAL CONTAMINATED SOILS

    EPA Science Inventory

    The Acid Extraction Treatment System (AETS) reduces the concentrations and/or leachability of heavy metals in contaminated soils so the soil can be returned to the site from which it originated. he objective of the project was to determine the effectiveness and commercial viabili...

  13. Deterioration of stannous ion in radiopharmaceutical kits during storage.

    PubMed

    McBride, M H; Shaw, S M; Kessler, W V

    1979-10-01

    The deterioration of stannous ion (Sn++) in inhouse-prepared and commercial radiopharmaceutical kits was studied. Sn++ content of three types of nonlyophilized, deoxygenated, aqueous inhouse-prepared kits [diethylenetriamine pentaacetic acid (DTPA), pyrophosphate and glucoheptonate] and of three commercially prepared kits (two lyophilized pyrophosphate kits and one diphosphonate in sealed glass ampul kit) was measured by differential pulse polarography. Inhouse-prepared kits were assayed initially and after storage for 6, 12, 24 and 48 days at 24, 5 and -18 C. Commercial kits were assayed initially and after storage for 12, 24 and 48 days at 5 and 24 C. Of the inhouse-prepared kits, Sn++ stability when stored for 48 days at 5 and 24 C. Freezer storage should be used, when possible, to insure maximum stability of Sn++ in inhouse-prepared, nonlyophilized ratiopharmaceutical kits. The commercial procedures of lyophilization and of sealing the reagent in a sealed glass ampul prolong Sn++ stability. PMID:507080

  14. Superheated water extraction of glycyrrhizic acid from licorice root.

    PubMed

    Shabkhiz, Mohammad A; Eikani, Mohammad H; Bashiri Sadr, Zeinolabedin; Golmohammad, Fereshteh

    2016-11-01

    Superheated water extraction (SWE) has become an interesting green extraction method for different classes of compounds. In this study, SWE was used to extract glycyrrhizic acid (GA) from licorice root. Response surface methodology (RSM) was applied to evaluate and optimize the extraction conditions. The influence of operating conditions such as water temperature (100, 120 and 140°C) and solvent flow rates (1, 3 and 5mL/min) were investigated at 0.5mm mean particle size and 20bar pressure. Separation and identification of the glycyrrhizic acid, as the main component, was carried out by the RP-HPLC method. The best operating conditions for the SWE of licorice were determined to be 100°C temperature,15mL/min flow rate and 120min extraction time. The results showed that the amount of the obtained GA was relatively higher using SWE (54.760mg/g) than the Soxhlet method (28.760mg/g) and ultrasonic extraction (18.240mg/g). PMID:27211663

  15. 21 CFR 173.280 - Solvent extraction process for citric acid.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Solvent extraction process for citric acid. 173... Solvent extraction process for citric acid. A solvent extraction process for recovery of citric acid from conventional Aspergillus niger fermentation liquor may be safely used to produce food-grade citric acid...

  16. 21 CFR 173.280 - Solvent extraction process for citric acid.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Solvent extraction process for citric acid. 173... Solvent extraction process for citric acid. A solvent extraction process for recovery of citric acid from conventional Aspergillus niger fermentation liquor may be safely used to produce food-grade citric acid...

  17. Myocradial extraction of 1-[{sup 11}C] betamethylheptadecanoic acid

    SciTech Connect

    Elmaleh, D.R.; Livni, E.; Alpert, N.M.

    1994-03-01

    Betamethylheptadecanoic acid (BMHA) is a branched chain fatty acid analog that is transported into myocardial cells by the same long chain fatty acid carrier protein mechanism as natural fatty acids, but cannot be completely catabolzied and accumulates in the tissue. Thus, {sup 11}C-labeled BMHA is a useful tracer for the noninvasive evaluation of myocardial fatty acid utilization by positron emission tomography (PET). As a prelude to PET studies, the metabolism of BMHA was studied by classical techniques. The authors measured the net extraction fraction (E{sub n}) of 1-[{sup 11}C]-beta-R,S-methylheptadecanoic acid (1-[{sup 11}C]BMHA) and compared it to that of natural fatty acids in dogs, using arterial/venous measurements and a mathematical model. Two groups of conditioned dogs were studied. In the first group, measurements were made under fasting (normal control) conditions and in the second group, measurements were made during glucose and insulin infusion. Myocardial blood flow, and the extraction/utilization of other substrates (glucose, oxygen and lactate) were also measured. For natural fatty acids in the basal state, E{sub n}(FA) was 0.335. After glucose/insulin infusion, this value decreased to 0.195. The 1-[{sup 11}C]BMHA showed a similar decrease in E{sub n}(BMHA) from 0.220 in the control group to 0.100 in the group treated with glucose/insulin infusion. Preliminary PET studies with 1-[{sup 11}C]BMHA verified the validity of performing these measurements noninvasively. The results of these studies indicate that rates of fatty acid metabolism in the myocardium can be determined from steady-state concentrations of 1-[{sup 11}C]BMHA. 36 refs., 6 figs., 4 tabs.

  18. Optimized methods for total nucleic acid extraction and quantification of the bat white-nose syndrome fungus, Pseudogymnoascus destructans, from swab and environmental samples.

    PubMed

    Verant, Michelle L; Bohuski, Elizabeth A; Lorch, Jeffery M; Blehert, David S

    2016-03-01

    The continued spread of white-nose syndrome and its impacts on hibernating bat populations across North America has prompted nationwide surveillance efforts and the need for high-throughput, noninvasive diagnostic tools. Quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction (qPCR) analysis has been increasingly used for detection of the causative fungus, Pseudogymnoascus destructans, in both bat- and environment-associated samples and provides a tool for quantification of fungal DNA useful for research and monitoring purposes. However, precise quantification of nucleic acid from P. destructans is dependent on effective and standardized methods for extracting nucleic acid from various relevant sample types. We describe optimized methodologies for extracting fungal nucleic acids from sediment, guano, and swab-based samples using commercial kits together with a combination of chemical, enzymatic, and mechanical modifications. Additionally, we define modifications to a previously published intergenic spacer-based qPCR test for P. destructans to refine quantification capabilities of this assay. PMID:26965231

  19. Application of carboxyphenylboronic acid-functionalized magnetic nanoparticles for extracting nucleic acid from seeds.

    PubMed

    Sun, Ning; Deng, Congliang; Ge, Guanglu; Xia, Qiang

    2015-01-01

    Magnetic iron oxide nanoparticles functionalized with 4-carboxyphenylboronic acid (CPBA-MNPs) were developed for extracting genomic DNA, total RNA and nucleic acids from seeds. The seed samples were genetically-modified maize seeds and unmodified soybean seeds infected by bean pod mottle virus and tobacco ringspot virus. The total nucleic acids, genomic DNA, and RNA could be separately extracted from these seeds with high qualities using CPBA-MNPs under different conditions. Furthermore, the results of real-time quantitative qPCR and real-time reverse transcription (RT)-PCR indicated that the nucleic acids extracted from these seeds using CPBA-MNPs were suitable for the detection of genetically-modified seeds and seed-borne viruses. PMID:25214223

  20. Kits in Motion

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gee, Maureen

    1975-01-01

    Discusses three kits developed by museums in British Columbia for use in rural classrooms. The science kit on marine biology consists of modules which included specimens, books, audiovisual materials and student activities. (BR)

  1. Extraction of Oleic Acid from Moroccan Olive Mill Wastewater

    PubMed Central

    Elkacmi, Reda; Kamil, Noureddine; Bennajah, Mounir; Kitane, Said

    2016-01-01

    The production of olive oil in Morocco has recently grown considerably for its economic and nutritional importance favored by the country's climate. After the extraction of olive oil by pressing or centrifuging, the obtained liquid contains oil and vegetation water which is subsequently separated by decanting or centrifugation. Despite its treatment throughout the extraction process, this olive mill wastewater, OMW, still contains a very important oily residue, always regarded as a rejection. The separated oil from OMW can not be intended for food because of its high acidity of 3.397% which exceeds the international standard for human consumption defined by the standard of the Codex Alimentarius, proving its poor quality. This work gives value addition to what would normally be regarded as waste by the extraction of oleic acid as a high value product, using the technique of inclusion with urea for the elimination of saturated and unsaturated fatty acids through four successive crystallizations at 4°C and 20°C to have a final phase with oleic acid purity of 95.49%, as a biodegradable soap and a high quality glycerin will be produced by the reaction of saponification and transesterification. PMID:26933663

  2. Extraction of Oleic Acid from Moroccan Olive Mill Wastewater.

    PubMed

    Elkacmi, Reda; Kamil, Noureddine; Bennajah, Mounir; Kitane, Said

    2016-01-01

    The production of olive oil in Morocco has recently grown considerably for its economic and nutritional importance favored by the country's climate. After the extraction of olive oil by pressing or centrifuging, the obtained liquid contains oil and vegetation water which is subsequently separated by decanting or centrifugation. Despite its treatment throughout the extraction process, this olive mill wastewater, OMW, still contains a very important oily residue, always regarded as a rejection. The separated oil from OMW can not be intended for food because of its high acidity of 3.397% which exceeds the international standard for human consumption defined by the standard of the Codex Alimentarius, proving its poor quality. This work gives value addition to what would normally be regarded as waste by the extraction of oleic acid as a high value product, using the technique of inclusion with urea for the elimination of saturated and unsaturated fatty acids through four successive crystallizations at 4°C and 20°C to have a final phase with oleic acid purity of 95.49%, as a biodegradable soap and a high quality glycerin will be produced by the reaction of saponification and transesterification. PMID:26933663

  3. Extraction of nitric acid, uranyl nitrate, and bismuth nitrate from aqueous nitric acid solutions with CMPO

    SciTech Connect

    Spencer, B.B.

    1995-08-01

    DOE sponsored development of the transuranium extraction (TRUEX) process for removing actinides from radioactive wastes. The solvent is a mixture of CMPO and TBP. Since the extraction characteristics of CMPO are not as well understood as those of TBP, the extraction of nitric acid, uranyl nitrate, and bismuth nitrate with CMPO (dissolved in n-dodecane) were studied. Results indicate that CMPO extracts nitric acid with a 1:1 stoichiometry; equilibrium constant is 2. 660{plus_minus}0.092 at 25 C, and extraction enthalpy is -5. 46{plus_minus}0.46 kcal/mol. Slope analysis indicates that uranyl nitrate extracts with a mixed equilibria of 1:1 and 2:1 stoichiometries in nearly equal proportion. Equil. constant of the 2: 1 extraction was 1.213 {times} 10{sup 6}{plus_minus}3.56 {times} 10{sup 4} at 25 C; reaction enthalpy was -9.610{plus_minus}0.594 kcal/mol. Nitration complexation constant is 8.412{plus_minus}0.579, with an enthalpy of -10.72{plus_minus}1.87 kcal/mol. Bismuth nitrate also extracts with a mixed equilibria of (perhaps) 1:1 and 2:1 stoichiometries. A 2:1 extraction equilibrium and a nitrate complexation adequately model the data. Kinetics and enthalpies were also measured.

  4. Levitation Kits Demonstrate Superconductivity.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Worthy, Ward

    1987-01-01

    Describes the "Project 1-2-3" levitation kit used to demonstrate superconductivity. Summarizes the materials included in the kit. Discusses the effect demonstrated and gives details on how to obtain kits. Gives an overview of the documentation that is included. (CW)

  5. Hydrothermal acid treatment for sugar extraction from Golenkinia sp.

    PubMed

    Choi, Sun-A; Choi, Won-Il; Lee, Jin-Suk; Kim, Seung Wook; Lee, Gye-An; Yun, Jihyun; Park, Ji-Yeon

    2015-08-01

    In this study, hydrothermal acid treatment for efficient recovery of sugar from Golenkinia sp. was investigated. The initial glucose and XMG (xylose, mannose, and galactose) contents of a prepared Golenkinia sp. solution (40g/L) were 15.05 and 5.24g/L, respectively. The microalgal cell walls were hydrolyzed, for sugar recovery, by enzymatic saccharification and/or hydrothermal acid treatment. Among the various hydrothermal acid treatment conditions, the most optimal were the 2.0% H2SO4 concentration at 150°C for 15min, under which the glucose- and XMG-extraction yields were 71.7% and 64.9%, respectively. By pH 4.8, 50°C enzymatic hydrolysis after optimal hydrothermal acid treatment, the glucose- and XMG-extraction yields were additionally increased by 8.3% and 0.8%, respectively. After hydrothermal acid treatment, the combination with the enzymatic hydrolysis process improved the total sugar yield of Golenkinia sp. to 75.4%. PMID:25976916

  6. Unusual stable isotope ratios in amino acid and carboxylic acid extracts from the Murchison meteorite

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Epstein, S.; Krishnamurthy, R. V.; Cronin, J. R.; Pizzarello, S.; Yuen, G. U.

    1987-01-01

    The isotopic composition of hydrogen, nitrogen, and carbon in amino acid and monocarboxylic acid extracts from the Murchison meteorite has been determined. The unusually high D/H and N-15/N-14 ratios in the amino acid fraction are uniquely characteristic of known interstellar organic materials. The delta D value of the monocarboxylic acid fraction is lower but still consistent with an interstellar origin. These results confirm the extraterrestrial origin of both classes of compound and provide the first evidence suggesting a direct relationship between the massive organosynthesis occurring in interstellar clouds and the presence of prebiotic compounds in primitive planetary bodies.

  7. Lactic acid bacterial extract as a biogenic mineral growth modifier

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Borah, Ballav M.; Singh, Atul K.; Ramesh, Aiyagari; Das, Gopal

    2009-04-01

    The formation of minerals and mechanisms by which bacteria could control their formation in natural habitats is now of current interest for material scientists to have an insight of the mechanism of in vivo mineralization, as well as to seek industrial and technological applications. Crystalline uniform structures of calcium and barium minerals formed micron-sized building blocks when synthesized in the presence of an organic matrix consisting of secreted protein extracts from three different lactic acid bacteria (LAB) viz.: Lactobacillus plantarum MTCC 1325, Lactobacillus acidophilus NRRL B4495 and Pediococcus acidilactici CFR K7. LABs are not known to form organic matrix in biological materialization processes. The influence of these bacterial extracts on the crystallization behavior was investigated in details to test the basic coordination behavior of the acidic protein. In this report, varied architecture of the mineral crystals obtained in presence of high molecular weight protein extracts of three different LAB strains has been discussed. The role of native form of high molecular weight bacterial protein extracts in the generation of nucleation centers for crystal growth was clearly established. A model for the formation of organic matrix-cation complex and the subsequent events leading to crystal growth is proposed.

  8. Ultrasound-Assisted Extraction of Carnosic Acid and Rosmarinic Acid Using Ionic Liquid Solution from Rosmarinus officinalis

    PubMed Central

    Zu, Ge; Zhang, Rongrui; Yang, Lei; Ma, Chunhui; Zu, Yuangang; Wang, Wenjie; Zhao, Chunjian

    2012-01-01

    Ionic liquid based, ultrasound-assisted extraction was successfully applied to the extraction of phenolcarboxylic acids, carnosic acid and rosmarinic acid, from Rosmarinus officinalis. Eight ionic liquids, with different cations and anions, were investigated in this work and [C8mim]Br was selected as the optimal solvent. Ultrasound extraction parameters, including soaking time, solid–liquid ratio, ultrasound power and time, and the number of extraction cycles, were discussed by single factor experiments and the main influence factors were optimized by response surface methodology. The proposed approach was demonstrated as having higher efficiency, shorter extraction time and as a new alternative for the extraction of carnosic acid and rosmarinic acid from R. officinalis compared with traditional reference extraction methods. Ionic liquids are considered to be green solvents, in the ultrasound-assisted extraction of key chemicals from medicinal plants, and show great potential. PMID:23109836

  9. 21 CFR 173.280 - Solvent extraction process for citric acid.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Solvent extraction process for citric acid. 173.280 Section 173.280 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN... Solvent extraction process for citric acid. A solvent extraction process for recovery of citric acid...

  10. 21 CFR 173.280 - Solvent extraction process for citric acid.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2010-04-01 2009-04-01 true Solvent extraction process for citric acid. 173.280 Section 173.280 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES... extraction process for citric acid. A solvent extraction process for recovery of citric acid...

  11. Silica with immobilized phosphinic acid-derivative for uranium extraction.

    PubMed

    Budnyak, Tetyana M; Strizhak, Alexander V; Gładysz-Płaska, Agnieszka; Sternik, Dariusz; Komarov, Igor V; Kołodyńska, Dorota; Majdan, Marek; Tertykh, Valentin А

    2016-08-15

    A novel adsorbent benzoimidazol-2-yl-phenylphosphinic acid/aminosilica adsorbent (BImPhP(O)(OH)/SiO2NH2) was prepared by carbonyldiimidazole-mediated coupling of aminosilica with 1-carboxymethylbenzoimidazol-2-yl-phenylphosphinic acid. It was obtained through direct phosphorylation of 1-cyanomethylbenzoimidazole by phenylphosphonic dichloride followed by basic hydrolysis of the nitrile. The obtained sorbent was well characterized by physicochemical methods, such as differential scanning calorimetry-mass spectrometry (DSC-MS), surface area and pore distribution analysis (ASAP), scanning electron microscopy (SEM), X-ray photoelectron (XPS) and Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) spectroscopies. The adsorption behavior of the sorbent and initial silica gel as well as aminosilica gel with respect to uranium(VI) from the aqueous media has been studied under varying operating conditions of pH, concentration of uranium(VI), contact time, and desorption in different media. The synthesized material was found to show an increase in adsorption activity with respect to uranyl ions in comparison with the initial compounds. In particular, the highest adsorption capacity for the obtained modified silica was found at the neutral pH, where one gram of the adsorbent can extract 176mg of uranium. Under the same conditions the aminosilica extracts 166mg/g, and the silica - 144mg/g of uranium. In the acidic medium, which is common for uranium nuclear wastes, the synthesized adsorbent extracts 27mg/g, the aminosilica - 16mg/g, and the silica - 14mg/g of uranium. It was found that 15% of uranium ions leached from the prepared material in acidic solutions, while 4% of uranium can be removed in a phosphate solution. PMID:27177215

  12. Evaluation of Three Automated Nucleic Acid Extraction Systems for Identification of Respiratory Viruses in Clinical Specimens by Multiplex Real-Time PCR

    PubMed Central

    Kwon, Aerin; Lee, Kyung-A

    2014-01-01

    A total of 84 nasopharyngeal swab specimens were collected from 84 patients. Viral nucleic acid was extracted by three automated extraction systems: QIAcube (Qiagen, Germany), EZ1 Advanced XL (Qiagen), and MICROLAB Nimbus IVD (Hamilton, USA). Fourteen RNA viruses and two DNA viruses were detected using the Anyplex II RV16 Detection kit (Seegene, Republic of Korea). The EZ1 Advanced XL system demonstrated the best analytical sensitivity for all the three viral strains. The nucleic acids extracted by EZ1 Advanced XL showed higher positive rates for virus detection than the others. Meanwhile, the MICROLAB Nimbus IVD system was comprised of fully automated steps from nucleic extraction to PCR setup function that could reduce human errors. For the nucleic acids recovered from nasopharyngeal swab specimens, the QIAcube system showed the fewest false negative results and the best concordance rate, and it may be more suitable for detecting various viruses including RNA and DNA virus strains. Each system showed different sensitivity and specificity for detection of certain viral pathogens and demonstrated different characteristics such as turnaround time and sample capacity. Therefore, these factors should be considered when new nucleic acid extraction systems are introduced to the laboratory. PMID:24868527

  13. Simultaneous extraction of acidic and basic drugs via on-chip electromembrane extraction.

    PubMed

    Asl, Yousef Abdossalami; Yamini, Yadollah; Seidi, Shahram; Rezazadeh, Maryam

    2016-09-21

    In the present work, a on-chip electromembrane extraction (CEME) was designed and employed for simultaneous extraction of mefenamic acid (MEF) and diclofenac (DIC), as acidic model analytes, and betaxolol (BET), as a basic model analyte, followed by HPLC-UV. The CEME consists of two polymethyl methacrylate (PMMA) parts which each part consists of two separated microfluidic channels. A polypropylene sheet membrane impregnated with an organic solvent was sandwiched between the parts. One of the parts was used as the flow path for the sample solution and the other one as holder for the acceptor phases. The separated microfluidic channels of the sample solution part were connected to each other using a small piece of a capillary tube and the sample solution was pumped through them by means of a micro-syringe pump. However, the acceptor phases of the acidic and basic analytes were separately kept stagnant in the two microfluidic channels during the extraction process. A d.c. potential was applied for migration of the analytes from sample solution through the organic membrane into the acceptor phases. All effective variables on the extraction efficiency of the analytes were optimized. Under the optimized conditions, preconcentration factors higher than 15 were achieved and the calibration curves were linear in the range of 10-500 μg L(-1) (r(2) > 0.9982). RSD% values (n = 4) and LODs were less than 7.1% and 5.0 μg L(-1). The results demonstrated that CEME could efficiently be used for the simultaneous analysis of acidic and basic analytes in biological samples. PMID:27590546

  14. ENVIROGARD™ PCB TEST KIT, MILLIPORE, INC. - INNOVATIVE TECHNOLOGY EVALUATION REPORT

    EPA Science Inventory

    The Envirogard™ polychlorinated biphenyl (PCB) immunoassay test kit rapidly analyzes for PCB concentrations in soils. Soils samples are extracted using methanol; extracts and calibration solutions are added to test tubes coated with antibodies that bind PCB molecules. The soil ex...

  15. An acidic method of zein extraction from DDGS.

    PubMed

    Xu, Weijie; Reddy, Narendra; Yang, Yiqi

    2007-07-25

    Zein with a higher intrinsic viscosity and phosphorus content, similar protein content, lower yellowness, and at potentially much lower cost than commercially available zein was obtained from distillers dried grains with solubles (DDGS). A novel extraction method using acidic conditions in the presence of a reducing agent has been used to obtain about 10% aqueous ethanol soluble zein from DDGS. The optimum pH, time, temperature, and amount of reducing agent that can produce zein with high quality and yield have been developed. In addition to the zein, about 17% oil based on the dry weight of DDGS has also been obtained during zein extraction. The zein obtained from this research is expected to be suitable for use as fibers, films, and binders and in paints. PMID:17590006

  16. Antioxidant activity and sensory evaluation of a rosmarinic acid-enriched extract of Salvia officinalis

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    An extract of S. officinalis (garden sage) was developed using supercritical fluid extraction, followed by hot water extraction. The resulting extract was enriched in polyphenols, including rosmarinic acid (RA), which has shown promising health benefits in animals. The extract contained RA at a conc...

  17. Method for extracting lanthanides and actinides from acid solutions

    DOEpatents

    Horwitz, E. Philip; Kalina, Dale G.; Kaplan, Louis; Mason, George W.

    1985-01-01

    A process for the recovery of actinide and lanthanide values from aqueous acidic solutions with an organic extractant having the formula: ##STR1## where .phi. is phenyl, R.sup.1 is a straight or branched alkyl or alkoxyalkyl containing from 6 to 12 carbon atoms and R.sup.2 is an alkyl containing from 3 to 6 carbon atoms. The process is suitable for the separation of actinide and lanthanide values from fission product values found together in high level nuclear reprocessing waste solutions.

  18. Creation of learning kits

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Stow, D. A.; Estes, J. E.; Mertz, F. C.

    1981-01-01

    A learning kit is an essential part of any remote sensing workshop, course, or in-house training program to provide the "hands-on" experience of working with remotely sensed imagery. This is the objective of laboratory and field exercises as well as the reason behind the production of imagery/map kits. The way in which these learning kits (containing conventional remotely sensed and collateral data products) are put together is described and some concerns that influence the creation of learning kits are discussed. These include budgetary constraints, number of imagery types, and number of collateral data types.

  19. Extraction of Palladium from Nitric Acid by Diamides of Di-picolinic Acid

    SciTech Connect

    Alyapyshev, M.Yu.; Babain, V.A.; Pokhitonov, Yu.A.; Esimantovskiy, V.M.

    2007-07-01

    The most complicated and urgent problem of atomic industry consists in the safe isolation and storage of radioactive wastes. The long-lived radionuclides presented in high-level liquid wastes (HLLW) pose a potential threat to environment for hundreds and thousands of years. One of the possible ways to reduce the danger of HLLW storages is concerned with treatment of HLLW intended to recovery of long-lived radionuclides and their partitioning into separate fractions. The separation of the most hazardous radionuclides (like transplutonium elements (TPE)) to the individual fraction of low volume leads to decrease of the total volume of HLLW and therefore to decrease of solidified waste storage costs. It should be noted that only in the case of reprocessing it can be possible to recover individual radionuclides (or their fractions) into separate flows with further special approach to each of them. Partitioning of different HLLW is under investigation in many countries now. Numerous processes for recovery of Cs, Sr, TPE and REE have been already developed and tested. At the same time partitioning is only the first step on the road to the following synthesis of materials providing the safe storage of long-lived radionuclides over many thousands of years. The metallic palladium contained in HLLW seems to be a promising material for producing of matrices for incorporation of radioactive wastes. Different methods for palladium recovery have been investigated: reductive precipitation, electrochemical precipitation, sorption and extraction. Of prime importance are extraction methods. Phosphine oxides, carbamoyl-phosphine oxides, crown-ethers, oximes, sulfides and some other compounds were proposed as extractants towards palladium from nitric acid media. It is reasonable to recover palladium into individual fraction during waste partitioning. Diamides of malonic, di-glycolic and pyridine-dicarboxylic (di-picolinic) acids are intensively investigated as extractants for HLLW

  20. Ultrasound-assisted extraction (UAE) and solvent extraction of papaya seed oil: yield, fatty acid composition and triacylglycerol profile.

    PubMed

    Samaram, Shadi; Mirhosseini, Hamed; Tan, Chin Ping; Ghazali, Hasanah Mohd

    2013-01-01

    The main objective of the current work was to evaluate the suitability of ultrasound-assisted extraction (UAE) for the recovery of oil from papaya seed as compared to conventional extraction techniques (i.e., Soxhlet extraction (SXE) and solvent extraction (SE)). In the present study, the recovery yield, fatty acid composition and triacylglycerol profile of papaya seed oil obtained from different extraction methods and conditions were compared. Results indicated that both solvent extraction (SE, 12 h/25 °C) and ultrasound-assisted extraction (UAE) methods recovered relatively high yields (79.1% and 76.1% of total oil content, respectively). Analysis of fatty acid composition revealed that the predominant fatty acids in papaya seed oil were oleic (18:1, 70.5%-74.7%), palmitic (16:0, 14.9%-17.9%), stearic (18:0, 4.50%-5.25%), and linoleic acid (18:2, 3.63%-4.6%). Moreover, the most abundant triacylglycerols of papaya seed oil were triolein (OOO), palmitoyl diolein (POO) and stearoyl oleoyl linolein (SOL). In this study, ultrasound-assisted extraction (UAE) significantly (p < 0.05) influenced the triacylglycerol profile of papaya seed oil, but no significant differences were observed in the fatty acid composition of papaya seed oil extracted by different extraction methods (SXE, SE and UAE) and conditions. PMID:24152670

  1. Water-enhanced solubility of carboxylic acids in organic solvents and its applications to extraction processes

    SciTech Connect

    Starr, J.N.; King, C.J.

    1991-11-01

    The solubilities of carboxylic acids in certain organic solvents increase remarkably with an increasing amount of water in the organic phase. This phenomenon leads to a novel extract regeneration process in which the co-extracted water is selectively removed from an extract, and the carboxylic acid precipitates. This approach is potentially advantageous compared to other regeneration processes because it removes a minor component of the extract in order to achieve a large recovery of acid from the extract. Carboxylic acids of interest include adipic acid, fumaric acid, and succinic acid because of their low to moderate solubilities in organic solvents. Solvents were screened for an increase in acid solubility with increased water concentration in the organic phase. Most Lewis-base solvents were found to exhibit this increased solubility phenomena. Solvents that have a carbonyl functional group showed a very large increase in acid solubility. 71 refs., 52 figs., 38 tabs.

  2. The antioxidant and chlorogenic acid profiles of whole coffee fruits are influenced by the extraction procedures.

    PubMed

    Mullen, W; Nemzer, B; Ou, B; Stalmach, A; Hunter, J; Clifford, M N; Combet, E

    2011-04-27

    Commercial whole coffee fruit extracts and powder samples were analyzed for chlorogenic acids (CGA), caffeine and antioxidant activities. CGA and caffeine were characterized by LC-MS(n) and HPLC accordingly, and quantified by UV absorbance. ORAC, HORAC, NORAC, SORAC and SOAC (antioxidant capacities) were assessed. Three caffeoylquinic acids, three feruloylquinic acids, three dicaffeoylquinic acids, one p-coumaroylquinic acid, two caffeoylferuloylquinic acids and three putative chlorogenic lactones were quantified, along with a methyl ester of 5-caffeoylquinic acid (detected in one sample, the first such report in any coffee material). Multistep whole coffee fruit extracts displayed higher CGA content than single-step extracts, freeze-dried, or air-dried whole raw fruits. Caffeine in multistep extracts was lower than in the single-step extracts and powders. Antioxidant activity in whole coffee fruit extracts was up to 25-fold higher than in powders dependent upon the radical. Total antioxidant activity of samples displayed strong correlation to CGA content. PMID:21401105

  3. Use of extractive distillation to produce concentrated nitric acid

    SciTech Connect

    Campbell, P.C.; Griffin, T.P.; Irwin, C.F.

    1981-04-01

    Concentrated nitric acid (> 95 wt %) is needed for the treatment of off-gases from a fuels-reprocessing plant. The production of concentrated nitric acid by means of extractive distillation in the two-pot apparatus was studied to determine the steady-state behavior of the system. Four parameters, EDP volume (V/sub EDP/) and temperature (T/sub EDP/), acid feed rate, and solvent recycle, were independently varied. The major response factors were percent recovery (CPRR) and product purity (CCP). Stage efficiencies also provided information about the system response. Correlations developed for the response parameters are: CPRR = 0.02(V/sub EDP/ - 800 cc) + 53.5; CCP = -0.87 (T/sub EDP/ - 140/sup 0/C) + 81; eta/sub V,EDP/ = 9.1(F/sub feed/ - 11.5 cc/min) - 0.047(V/sub EDP/ - 800 cc) - 2.8(F/sub Mg(NO/sub 3/)/sub 2// - 50 cc/min) + 390; and eta/sub L,EDP/ = 1.9(T/sub EDP/ - 140/sup 0/C) + 79. A computer simulation of the process capable of predicting steady-state conditions was developed, but it requires further work.

  4. Self-powered switch-controlled nucleic acid extraction system.

    PubMed

    Han, Kyungsup; Yoon, Yong-Jin; Shin, Yong; Park, Mi Kyoung

    2016-01-01

    Over the past few decades, lab-on-a-chip (LOC) technologies have played a great role in revolutionizing the way in vitro medical diagnostics are conducted and transforming bulky and expensive laboratory instruments and labour-intensive tests into easy to use, cost-effective miniaturized systems with faster analysis time, which can be used for near-patient or point-of-care (POC) tests. Fluidic pumps and valves are among the key components for LOC systems; however, they often require on-line electrical power or batteries and make the whole system bulky and complex, therefore limiting its application to POC testing especially in low-resource setting. This is particularly problematic for molecular diagnostics where multi-step sample processing (e.g. lysing, washing, elution) is necessary. In this work, we have developed a self-powered switch-controlled nucleic acid extraction system (SSNES). The main components of SSNES are a powerless vacuum actuator using two disposable syringes and a switchgear made of PMMA blocks and an O-ring. In the vacuum actuator, an opened syringe and a blocked syringe are bound together and act as a working syringe and an actuating syringe, respectively. The negative pressure in the opened syringe is generated by a restoring force of the compressed air inside the blocked syringe and utilized as the vacuum source. The Venus symbol shape of the switchgear provides multiple functions including being a reagent reservoir, a push-button for the vacuum actuator, and an on-off valve. The SSNES consists of three sets of vacuum actuators, switchgears and microfluidic components. The entire system can be easily fabricated and is fully disposable. We have successfully demonstrated DNA extraction from a urine sample using a dimethyl adipimidate (DMA)-based extraction method and the performance of the DNA extraction has been confirmed by genetic (HRAS) analysis of DNA biomarkers from the extracted DNAs using the SSNES. Therefore, the SSNES can be widely

  5. The Indonesia Kit. A Study Kit.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Briere, Elaine; Gage, Susan

    This document is designed for Canadians interested in the South Pacific island chain nation of Indonesia. The kit includes information, photographs, and illustrations concerning Indonesia, West Papua (Irian Jaya), and East Timor. There are discussions of Indonesia's environment, its transmigration program, development refugees, and ties with…

  6. Antioxidant activity and sensory assessment of a rosmarinic acid-enriched extract of Salvia officinalis

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    An extract of S. officinalis (garden sage) was prepared using supercritical carbon dioxide (SC-CO2) extraction, followed by a Soxhlet hot water extraction. The resulting extract was enriched in polyphenols, including rosmarinic acid (RA), which has shown promising health benefits in animals. The ext...

  7. [Comparison of 3 assay kits of prostate specific antigen in serum of prostatic cancer].

    PubMed

    Akimoto, S; Akakura, K; Shimazaki, J

    1988-12-01

    The serum prostate specific antigen (PA) of the patients with prostatic cancer were determined with 3 assay kits, the Diagnostic Products Cooperation (DPC) kit, the Eiken kit and the Dainippon Pharmaceutical Co. (MARKIT F) kit. The first 2 assay kits involve radioimmunoassay and the latter EIA. For comparison, prostatic acid phosphatase (PAP) and gamma-seminoprotein (gamma-Sm) were determined using an Eiken kit and Chugai kit. Efficiency of the DPC kit, Eiken kit and the MARKIT F kit for untreated prostatic cancer was 26, 25 and 36%, respectively. The PA level measured using the Eiken kit and the MARKIT F kit both well correlated to the PAP level, but with the DPC kit correlation was slightly low. The PA level measured using the 3 different kits correlated poorly with the gamma-Sm level. The PA values obtained with 3 different assays from patients with prostatic cancer were highly correlated, but showed great differences in the values measured. When the standards used in the DPC kit were analyzed by the Eiken kit, the DPC standards as measured by the Eiken kit had only about half of their assigned values. The same standards were analyzed by the MARKIT F kit, the standards yielded measured values about one third of their assigned values. When the standards used in the MARKIT F kit were analyzed by the Eiken kit, the MARKIT F standards yielded measured values about 2.5 fold of their assigned values. The differences between the values obtained with the 3 assay kits presented a serious problem in clinical use of PA. Standardization of these assay kits will be awaited. PMID:2467543

  8. Improved Butanol-Methanol (BUME) Method by Replacing Acetic Acid for Lipid Extraction of Biological Samples.

    PubMed

    Cruz, Mutya; Wang, Miao; Frisch-Daiello, Jessica; Han, Xianlin

    2016-07-01

    Extraction of lipids from biological samples is a critical step in lipidomics, especially for shotgun lipidomics where lipid extracts are directly infused into a mass spectrometer. The butanol-methanol (BUME) extraction method was originally developed to extract lipids from plasma samples with 1 % acetic acid. Considering some lipids are sensitive to acidic environments, we modified this protocol by replacing acetic acid with lithium chloride solution and extended the modified extraction to tissue samples. Although no significant reduction of plasmalogen levels in the acidic BUME extracts of rat heart samples was found, the modified method was established to extract various tissue samples, including rat liver, heart, and plasma. Essentially identical profiles of the majority of lipid classes were obtained from the extracts of the modified BUME and traditional Bligh-Dyer methods. However, it was found that neither the original, nor the modified BUME method was suitable for 4-hydroxyalkenal species measurement in biological samples. PMID:27245345

  9. Fatty acid extracts from Lucilia sericata larvae promote murine cutaneous wound healing by angiogenic activity

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    Background fatty acids are considered to be effective components to promote wound healing and Lucilia sericata larvae are applied clinically to treat intractable wounds. We aimed to investigat the effect of fatty acid extracts from dried Lucilia sericata larvae on murine cutaneuous wound healing as well as angiogenesis. Results On day 7 and 10 after murine acute excision wounds creation, the percent wound contraction of fatty acid extracts group was higher than that of vaseline group. On day 3, 7 and 10 after wounds creation, the wound healing quality of fatty acid extracts group was better than that of vaseline group on terms of granulation formation and collagen organization. On day 3 after wounds creation, the micro vessel density and vascular endothelial growth factor expression of fatty acid extracts group were higher than that of vaseline group. Component analysis of the fatty acid extracts by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry showed there were 10 kinds of fatty acids in total and the ratio of saturated fatty acid, monounsaturated fatty acid and polyunsaturated fatty acid (PUFA) was: 20.57%:60.32%:19.11%. Conclusions Fatty acid extracts from dried Lucilia sericata larvae, four fifths of which are unsaturated fatty acids, can promote murine cutaneous wound healing probably resulting from the powerful angiogenic activity of the extracts. PMID:20211009

  10. Acid extraction and purification of recombinant spider silk proteins.

    PubMed

    Mello, Charlene M; Soares, Jason W; Arcidiacono, Steven; Butler, Michelle M

    2004-01-01

    A procedure has been developed for the isolation of recombinant spider silk proteins based upon their unique stability and solubilization characteristics. Three recombinant silk proteins, (SpI)7, NcDS, and [(SpI)4/(SpII)1]4, were purified by extraction with organic acids followed by affinity or ion exchange chromatography resulting in 90-95% pure silk solutions. The protein yield of NcDS (15 mg/L culture) and (SpI)7 (35 mg/L) increased 4- and 5-fold, respectively, from previously reported values presumably due to a more complete solubilization of the expressed recombinant protein. [(SpI)4/(SpII)1]4, a hybrid protein based on the repeat sequences of spidroin I and spidroin II, had a yield of 12.4 mg/L. This method is an effective, reproducible technique that has broad applicability for a variety of silk proteins as well as other acid stable biopolymers. PMID:15360297

  11. Novel Regenerated Solvent Extraction Processes for the Recovery of Carboxylic Acids or Ammonia from Aqueous Solutions Part I. Regeneration of Amine-Carboxylic Acid Extracts

    SciTech Connect

    Poole, L.J.; King, C.J.

    1990-03-01

    Two novel regenerated solvent extraction processes are examined. The first process has the potential to reduce the energy costs inherent in the recovery of low-volatility carboxylic acids from dilute aqueous solutions. The second process has the potential for reducing the energy costs required for separate recovery of ammonia and acid gases (e.g. CO{sub 2} and H{sub 2}S) from industrial sour waters. The recovery of carboxylic acids from dilute aqueous solution can be achieved by extraction with tertiary amines. An approach for regeneration and product recovery from such extracts is to back-extract the carboxylic acid with a water-soluble, volatile tertiary amine, such as trimethylamine. The resulting trimethylammonium carboxylate solution can be concentrated and thermally decomposed, yielding the product acid and the volatile amine for recycle. Experimental work was performed with lactic acid, succinic acid, and fumaric acid. Equilibrium data show near-stoichiometric recovery of the carboxylic acids from an organic solution of Alamine 336 into aqueous solutions of trimethylamine. For fumaric and succinic acids, partial evaporation of the aqueous back extract decomposes the carboxylate and yields the acid product in crystalline form. The decomposition of aqueous solutions of trimethylammonium lactates was not carried out to completion, due to the high water solubility of lactic acid and the tendency of the acid to self-associate. The separate recovery of ammonia and acid gases from sour waters can be achieved by combining steam-stripping of the acid gases with simultaneous removal of ammonia by extraction with a liquid cation exchanger. The use of di-2,4,4-trimethylpentyl phosphinic acid as the liquid cation exchanger is explored in this work. Batch extraction experiments were carried out to measure the equilibrium distribution ratio of ammonia between an aqueous buffer solution and an organic solution of the phosphinic acid (0.2N) in Norpar 12. The concentration

  12. Extraction of amino acids from soils and sediments with superheated water

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cheng, C. N.; Ponnamperuma, C.

    1974-01-01

    A method of extraction for amino acids from soils and sediments involving superheated water has been investigated. About 75-97 per cent of the amino acids contained in four soils of a soil profile from Illinois were extracted by this method. Deep penetration of water into soil aggregates and partial hydrolysis of peptide bonds during this extraction by water at high temperature are likely mechanisms responsible for the release of amino acids from samples. This extraction method does not require subsequent desalting treatments when analyses are carried out with an ion-exchange amino acid analyzer.

  13. Hydrothermal nitric acid treatment for effectual lipid extraction from wet microalgae biomass.

    PubMed

    Lee, Ilgyu; Park, Ji-Yeon; Choi, Sun-A; Oh, You-Kwan; Han, Jong-In

    2014-11-01

    Hydrothermal acid (combined with autoclaving and nitric acid) pretreatment was applied to Nannochloropsis salina as a cost-effective yet efficient way of lipid extraction from wet biomass. The optimal conditions for this pretreatment were determined using a statistical approach, and the roles of nitric acid were also determined. The maximum lipid yield (predicted: 24.6%; experimental: 24.4%) was obtained using 0.57% nitric acid at 120°C for 30min through response surface methodology. A relatively lower lipid yield (18.4%) was obtained using 2% nitric acid; however, chlorophyll and unsaturated fatty acids, both of which adversely affect the refinery and oxidative stability of biodiesel, were found to be not co-extracted. Considering its comparable extractability even from wet biomass and ability to reduce chlorophyll and unsaturated fatty acids, the hydrothermal nitric acid pretreatment can serve as one direct and promising route of extracting microalgae oil. PMID:25255190

  14. Method for extracting lanthanides and actinides from acid solutions by modification of Purex solvent

    DOEpatents

    Horwitz, E.P.; Kalina, D.G.

    1984-05-21

    A process has been developed for the extraction of multivalent lanthanide and actinide values from acidic waste solutions, and for the separation of these values from fission product and other values, which utilizes a new series of neutral bi-functional extractants, the alkyl(phenyl)-N, N-dialkylcarbamoylmethylphosphine oxides, in combination with a phase modifier to form an extraction solution. The addition of the extractant to the Purex process extractant, tri-n-butylphosphate in normal paraffin hydrocarbon diluent, will permit the extraction of multivalent lanthanide and actinide values from 0.1 to 12.0 molar acid solutions.

  15. Choice of solvent extraction technique affects fatty acid composition of pistachio (Pistacia vera L.) oil.

    PubMed

    Abdolshahi, Anna; Majd, Mojtaba Heydari; Rad, Javad Sharifi; Taheri, Mehrdad; Shabani, Aliakbar; Teixeira da Silva, Jaime A

    2015-04-01

    Pistachio (Pistacia vera L.) oil has important nutritional and therapeutic properties because of its high concentration of essential fatty acids. The extraction method used to obtain natural compounds from raw material is critical for product quality, in particular to protect nutritional value. This study compared the fatty acid composition of pistachio oil extracted by two conventional procedures, Soxhlet extraction and maceration, analyzed by a gas chromatography-flame ionization detector (GC-FID). Four solvents with different polarities were tested: n-hexane (Hx), dichloromethane (DCM), ethyl acetate (EtAc) and ethanol (EtOH). The highest unsaturated fatty acid content (88.493 %) was obtained by Soxhlet extraction with EtAc. The Soxhlet method extracted the most oleic and linolenic acids (51.99 % and 0.385 %, respectively) although a higher concentration (36.32 %) of linoleic acid was extracted by maceration. PMID:25829628

  16. Extraction equilibria of rare earths by a new reagent (2-ethylhexyl-3-pentadecylphenyl) phosphoric acid.

    PubMed

    Sreelatha, S; Rao, T P; Narayanan, C S; Damodaran, A D

    1994-03-01

    A new reagent (2-ethylhexyl-3-pentadecylphenyl) phosphoric acid (EPPA = HR) was synthesized from cardanol (I, 37300-39-5) and was used to investigate the extraction behaviour of lanthanum(III), europium(III) and lutetium(III) from hydrochloric acid solutions. The species extracted were found to be Ln(HR(2))(3) (where Ln = La(III) or Eu(III) or Lu(III)). The extraction behaviour of the above lanthanides has also been compared with yttrium and other rare earths. It was observed that the extraction increases with increase in atomic number of rare earths. In addition, the extraction efficiency of EPPA has also been compared with well known acidic organophosphorus extractants like di-2-ethylhexyl phosphoric acid (DEHPA), 2-ethylhexyl-mono-2-ethylhexyl phosphoric acid (EHEHPA). PMID:18965945

  17. Modeling of nickel extraction between Di-n-butyl phosphorodithioate and acid

    SciTech Connect

    Bogacki, M.B.; Szymanowski, J. . Inst. of Chemical Technology and Engineering); Cote, G. . Lab. de Chimie Analytique)

    1993-11-01

    A chemical model for nickel(II) extraction from acidic sulfate solutions with O,O-di-n-butyl phosphorodithioate and for nickel stripping with hydrochloric acid solutions is presented and used for discussion of extraction-stripping systems with either conventional sequential stages of extraction and stripping or unconventional cross-current flows. A good agreement of the model with experimental extraction data is observed. The number of extraction and stripping stages necessary to obtain a given yield of transfer of nickel(II) has been found to be lower in unconventional extraction-stripping systems than in conventional systems with sequential stages of extraction and stripping. The use of hydrochloric acid for stripping instead of sulfuric acid leads to an important increase of nickel transfer from the feed to the strip liquor.

  18. Inhibition of mutagenicity in Salmonella typhimurium by Glycyrrhiza glabra extract, glycyrrhizinic acid, 18 alpha- and 18 beta-glycyrrhetinic acids.

    PubMed

    Zani, F; Cuzzoni, M T; Daglia, M; Benvenuti, S; Vampa, G; Mazza, P

    1993-12-01

    The effects of Glycyrrhiza glabra L. extract, glycyrrhizinic acid, 18 alpha- and 18 beta-glycyrrhetinic acids on the mutagenicity of the ethyl methanesulfonate, N-methyl-N'-nitro-N-nitrosoguanidine, and ribose-lysine Maillard model systems were investigated by using the Salmonella/microsome reversion assay. The protocol used allowed us to detect desmutagenic and antimutagenic activity and to avoid false positive results due to toxicity. For all the compounds tested, no desmutagenic activity was observed against ethyl methanesulfonate and N-methyl-N'-nitro-N-nitrosoguanidine; only Glycyrrhiza glabra extract showed antimutagenic activity against ethyl methanesulfonate. On using the ribose-lysine mutagenic browning mixture, the desmutagenic activities of the Glycyrrhiza glabra extract, glycyrrhizinic acid, 18 alpha- and 18 beta-glycyrrhetinic acids were observed. 18 beta-Glycyrrhetinic acid was the most active compound. Glycyrrhiza glabra extract also exhibited antimutagenic activity against ribose-lysine. PMID:8302947

  19. Characterization of citrus pectin samples extracted under different conditions: influence of acid type and pH of extraction

    PubMed Central

    Kaya, Merve; Sousa, António G.; Crépeau, Marie-Jeanne; Sørensen, Susanne O.; Ralet, Marie-Christine

    2014-01-01

    Background and Aims Pectin is a complex macromolecule, the fine structure of which is influenced by many factors. It is used as a gelling, thickening and emulsifying agent in a wide range of applications, from food to pharmaceutical products. Current industrial pectin extraction processes are based on fruit peel, a waste product from the juicing industry, in which thousands of tons of citrus are processed worldwide every year. This study examines how pectin components vary in relation to the plant source (orange, lemon, lime, grapefruit) and considers the influence of extraction conditions on the chemical and macromolecular characteristics of pectin samples. Methods Citrus peel (orange, lemon, lime and grapefruit) from a commercial supplier was used as raw material. Pectin samples were obtained on a bulk plant scale (kilograms; harsh nitric acid, mild nitric acid and harsh oxalic acid extraction) and on a laboratory scale (grams; mild oxalic acid extraction). Pectin composition (acidic and neutral sugars) and physicochemical properties (molar mass and intrinsic viscosity) were determined. Key Results Oxalic acid extraction allowed the recovery of pectin samples of high molecular weight. Mild oxalic acid-extracted pectins were rich in long homogalacturonan stretches and contained rhamnogalacturonan I stretches with conserved side chains. Nitric acid-extracted pectins exhibited lower molecular weights and contained rhamnogalacturonan I stretches encompassing few and/or short side chains. Grapefruit pectin was found to have short side chains compared with orange, lime and lemon. Orange and grapefruit pectin samples were both particularly rich in rhamnogalacturonan I backbones. Conclusions Structural, and hence macromolecular, variations within the different citrus pectin samples were mainly related to their rhamnogalacturonan I contents and integrity, and, to a lesser extent, to the length of their homogalacturonan domains. PMID:25081519

  20. Extraction of amino acids by reverse iontophoresis: simulation of therapeutic monitoring in vitro.

    PubMed

    Sieg, Anke; Jeanneret, Fabienne; Fathi, Marc; Hochstrasser, Denis; Rudaz, Serge; Veuthey, Jean-Luc; Guy, Richard H; Delgado-Charro, M Begoña

    2008-11-01

    Reverse iontophoresis across the skin has been investigated as alternative, non-invasive method for clinical and therapeutic drug monitoring. This research investigated the reverse iontophoretic extraction of 19 amino acids present at clinically relevant levels in the subdermal compartment of an in vitro diffusion cell. Over a simulated, systemic concentration range of 0-500 microM, the extraction of amino acids was linear. Charged amino acids were extracted towards the electrode of opposite polarity, while zwitterionic species were extracted to both anode and cathode with the latter predominating. The reverse iontophoretic extraction flux was a linear function of amino acid isoelectric point, reflecting the different contributions of electromigration and electroosmosis to electrotransport. Overall, the results confirm the feasibility of monitoring amino acids at clinically relevant levels and provide an incentive for in vivo research to further explore the clinical potential of reverse iontophoresis for the non-invasive monitoring of amino acids. PMID:18675906

  1. Development and validation of a standard test method for sequential batch extraction of waste with acidic extraction fluid

    SciTech Connect

    Sorini, S.S.

    1993-08-01

    Subject is characterization of waste materials. Since acid rain is increasingly prevalent throughout the world, a sequential batch extraction method was developed which uses a dilute acid solution as the extraction fluid. A collaborative study was conducted in which the draft method was used to treat a spray dryer waste from a clean coal technology process and a composite mining waste. Effects of filter pore size and digestion vs nondigestion on analytical concentrations in extracts were also studied. Elements determined included Al, Ba, B, Ca, Cr, Si, Na, Sr, Pb, Mg, Mn, Si, Zn. The draft method will be published as ASTM Method D5284-92.

  2. Application of anion-exchange imidazolium silica for the multiphase dispersive extraction of phenolic acids.

    PubMed

    Bi, Wentao; Row, Kyung Ho

    2013-08-01

    This paper reports the application of a multiphase dispersive extraction method to the extraction, separation, and determination of the phenolic acids from Salicornia herbacea L. using silica-confined ionic liquids as sorbents. A suitable sorbent for phenolic acid extraction and separation was first identified based on the adsorption behavior of the phenolic acids on different silica-confined ionic liquids. The sample was then mixed with the optimized sorbent and solvent to achieve multiphase dispersive extraction. The sample/sorbent ratio was optimized using theoretical calculations from the adsorption isotherm and experiments. After transferring the supernatant to an empty cartridge, an SPE process was used to separate the three phenolic acids from the other interference. Through systematic optimization, the optimal conditions produced high recovery rates of protocatechuic acid (91.20%), caffeic acid (94.03%), and ferulic acid (91.33%). Overall, the proposed method is expected to have wide applicability. PMID:23861179

  3. FUELS IN SOIL TEST KIT: FIELD USE OF DIESEL DOG SOIL TEST KITS

    SciTech Connect

    Unknown

    2001-05-31

    Western Research Institute (WRI) is commercializing Diesel Dog Portable Soil Test Kits for performing analysis of fuel-contaminated soils in the field. The technology consists of a method developed by WRI (U.S. Patents 5,561,065 and 5,976,883) and hardware developed by WRI that allows the method to be performed in the field (patent pending). The method is very simple and does not require the use of highly toxic reagents. The aromatic components in a soil extract are measured by absorption at 254 nm with a field-portable photometer. WRI added significant value to the technology by taking the method through the American Society for Testing and Materials (ASTM) approval and validation processes. The method is designated ASTM Method D-5831-96, Standard Test Method for Screening Fuels in Soils. This ASTM designation allows the method to be used for federal compliance activities. In FY 99, twenty-five preproduction kits were successfully constructed in cooperation with CF Electronics, Inc., of Laramie, Wyoming. The kit components work well and the kits are fully operational. In the calendar year 2000, kits were provided to the following entities who agreed to participate as FY 99 and FY 00 JSR (Jointly Sponsored Research) cosponsors and use the kits as opportunities arose for field site work: Wyoming Department of Environmental Quality (DEQ) (3 units), F.E. Warren Air Force Base, Gradient Corporation, The Johnson Company (2 units), IT Corporation (2 units), TRC Environmental Corporation, Stone Environmental, ENSR, Action Environmental, Laco Associates, Barenco, Brown and Caldwell, Dames and Moore Lebron LLP, Phillips Petroleum, GeoSyntek, and the State of New Mexico. By early 2001, ten kits had been returned to WRI following the six-month evaluation period. On return, the components of all ten kits were fully functional. The kits were upgraded with circuit modifications, new polyethylene foam inserts, and updated instruction manuals.

  4. The behavior and importance of lactic acid complexation in Talspeak extraction systems

    SciTech Connect

    Grimes, Travis S.; Nilsson, Mikael; Nash, Kenneth L.

    2008-07-01

    Advanced partitioning of spent nuclear fuel in the UREX +la process relies on the TALSPEAK process for separation of fission-product lanthanides from trivalent actinides. The classic TALSPEAK utilizes an aqueous medium of both lactic acid and diethylenetriaminepentaacetic acid and the extraction reagent di(2-ethylhexyl)phosphoric acid in an aromatic diluent. In this study, the specific role of lactic acid and the complexes involved in the extraction of the trivalent actinides and lanthanides have been investigated using {sup 14}C-labeled lactic acid. Our results show that lactic acid partitions between the phases in a complex fashion. (authors)

  5. Comparative Assessment of Automated Nucleic Acid Sample Extraction Equipment for Biothreat Agents

    PubMed Central

    Kalina, Warren Vincent; Douglas, Christina Elizabeth; Coyne, Susan Rajnik

    2014-01-01

    Magnetic beads offer superior impurity removal and nucleic acid selection over older extraction methods. The performances of nucleic acid extraction of biothreat agents in blood or buffer by easyMAG, MagNA Pure, EZ1 Advanced XL, and Nordiag Arrow were evaluated. All instruments showed excellent performance in blood; however, the easyMAG had the best precision and versatility. PMID:24452173

  6. Preparation method and stability of ellagic acid-rich pomegranate fruit peel extract.

    PubMed

    Panichayupakaranant, Pharkphoom; Itsuriya, Atcharaporn; Sirikatitham, Anusak

    2010-02-01

    A simple one-step purification using liquid-liquid extraction for preparing pomegranate peel extract rich in ellagic acid has been demonstrated. The method involved partitioning of the 10% v/v water in methanol extract of pomegranate peel between ethyl acetate and 2% aqueous acetic acid. This method was capable of increasing the ellagic acid content of the extract from 7.06% to 13.63% w/w. Moreover, the antioxidant activity of the extract evaluated by 1,1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) radical scavenging assay was also increased (ED(50) from 38.21 to 14.91 micro/mL). Stability evaluations of the ellagic acid-rich pomegranate peel extract in several conditions through a period of four months found that the extracts were stable either kept under light or protected from light. The extracts were also stable under 4 degrees +/- 2 degrees C, 30 degrees +/- 2 degrees C and accelerated conditions at 45 degrees C with 75% relative humidity. However, study on the effect of pH on stability of the extract in the form of solution revealed that the extract was not stable in all tested pH (5.5, 7 and 8). These results indicated that the ellagic acid-rich pomegranate peel extract was stable when it was kept as dried powder, but it was not stable in any aqueous solution. PMID:20645841

  7. Molecularly imprinted polymer microspheres for solid-phase extraction of protocatechuic acid in Rhizoma homalomenae.

    PubMed

    Chen, Fang-Fang; Wang, Guo-Ying; Shi, Yan-Ping

    2011-10-01

    Molecularly imprinted polymers (MIPs) had been prepared by precipitation polymerization method using acrylamide as the functional monomer, ethylene glycol dimethacrylate as the cross-linker, acetonitrile as the porogen solvent and protocatechuic acid (PA), one of phenolic acids, as the template molecule. The MIPs were characterized by scanning electron microscopy and Fourier transform infrared, and their performance relative to non-imprinted polymers was assessed by equilibrium binding experiments. Six structurally similar phenolic acids, including p-hydroxybenzoic acid, gallic acid, salicylic acid, syringic acid, vanillic acid, ferulic acid were selected to assess the selectivity and recognition capability of the MIPs. The MIPs were applied to extract PA from the traditional Chinese medicines as a solid-phase extraction sorbent. The resultant cartridge showed that the MIPs have a good extraction performance and were able to selectively extract almost 82% of PA from the extract of Rhizoma homalomenae. Thus, the proposed molecularly imprinted-solid phase extraction-high performance liquid chromatography method can be successfully used to extract and analyse PA in traditional Chinese medicines. PMID:21809445

  8. Determination of fatty acid composition and quality characteristics of oils from palm fruits using solvent extraction

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kasmin, Hasimah; Lazim, Azwan Mat; Awang, Roila

    2015-09-01

    Palm oil contains about 45% of saturated palmitic acid and 39% of mono-unsaturated oleic acid. Investigations made in the past to trace the fatty acid composition in palm revealed that ripeness of fresh fruit bunch (FFB) affect oil composition. However, there is no evidence that processing operations affect oil composition, although different stage of processing does affect the quality of oil extracted. An improved method for sterilizing the oil palm fruits by dry heating, followed by oil extraction has been studied. This method eliminates the use of water, thus, increasing the extraction of lipid soluble. The objective of this study is to determine the possibility production of palm oil with different fatty acid composition (FAC) as well as the changes in quality from conventional milling. The unripe and ripe FFB were collected, sterilized and extracted using different method of solvent extraction. Preliminary data have shown that variation in FAC will also alter the physical and chemical properties of the oil extracted.

  9. DEVELOPMENTS IN THE SUPERCRITICAL FLUID EXTRACTION OF CHLOROPHENOXY ACID HERBICIDES FROM SOIL SAMPLES

    EPA Science Inventory

    Extraction of chlorophenoxy acid herbicides from soil samples with supercritical carbon dioxide as extractant and tetrabutylammonium hydroxide and methyl iodide as derivatization agents was investigated. The extraction was carried out at 400 atm and 80 C for 15 min static, follow...

  10. Antioxidant activities of rosemary (Rosmarinus Officinalis L.) extract, blackseed (Nigella sativa L.) essential oil, carnosic acid, rosmarinic acid and sesamol.

    PubMed

    Erkan, Naciye; Ayranci, Guler; Ayranci, Erol

    2008-09-01

    Antioxidant activities of three pure compounds: carnosic acid, rosmarinic acid and sesamol, as well as two plant extracts: rosemary extract and blackseed essential oil, were examined by applying DPPH and ABTS(+) radical-scavenging assays and the ferric thiocyanate test. All three test methods proved that rosemary extract had a higher antioxidant activity than blackseed essential oil. The order of antioxidant activity of pure compounds showed variations in different tests. This was attributed to structural factors of individual compounds. Phenolic contents of blackseed essential oil and rosemary extract were also determined. Rosemary extract was found to have a higher phenolic content than blackseed essential oil. This fact was utilised in explaining the higher antioxidant activity of rosemary extract. PMID:26050168

  11. MeshKit

    2010-10-05

    MeshKit is an open-source library of mesh generation functionality. MeshKit has general mesh manipulation and generation functions such as Copoy, Move, Rotate and Extrude mesh. In addition, new quad mesh and embedded boundary Cartesian mesh algorithm (EB Mesh) are included. Interfaces to several public domain meshing algorithms (TetGen, netgen, triangle, Gmsh, camal) are also offered. This library interacts with mesh data mostly through iMesh including accessing the mesh in parallel. It also can interact withmore » iGeom interface to provide geometry functionality such as importing solid model based geometries. iGeom and IMesh are implemented in the CGM and MOAB packages, respectively. For some non-existing function in iMesh such as tree-construction and ray-tracing, MeshKit also interacts with MOAB functions directly.« less

  12. MeshKit

    SciTech Connect

    2010-10-05

    MeshKit is an open-source library of mesh generation functionality. MeshKit has general mesh manipulation and generation functions such as Copoy, Move, Rotate and Extrude mesh. In addition, new quad mesh and embedded boundary Cartesian mesh algorithm (EB Mesh) are included. Interfaces to several public domain meshing algorithms (TetGen, netgen, triangle, Gmsh, camal) are also offered. This library interacts with mesh data mostly through iMesh including accessing the mesh in parallel. It also can interact with iGeom interface to provide geometry functionality such as importing solid model based geometries. iGeom and IMesh are implemented in the CGM and MOAB packages, respectively. For some non-existing function in iMesh such as tree-construction and ray-tracing, MeshKit also interacts with MOAB functions directly.

  13. Antimicrobial activity of acid-hydrolyzed Citrus unshiu peel extract in milk.

    PubMed

    Min, Keun Young; Kim, Hyun Jung; Lee, Kyoung Ah; Kim, Kee-Tae; Paik, Hyun-Dong

    2014-01-01

    Citrus fruit (Citrus unshiu) peels were extracted with hot water and then acid-hydrolyzed using hydrochloric acid. Antimicrobial activities of acid-hydrolyzed Citrus unshiu peel extract were evaluated against pathogenic bacteria, including Bacillus cereus, Staphylococcus aureus, and Listeria monocytogenes. Antilisterial effect was also determined by adding extracts at 1, 2, and 4% to whole, low-fat, and skim milk. The cell numbers of B. cereus, Staph. aureus, and L. monocytogenes cultures treated with acid-hydrolyzed extract for 12h at 35°C were reduced from about 8log cfu/mL to <1log cfu/mL. Bacillus cereus was more sensitive to acid-hydrolyzed Citrus unshiu peel extract than were the other bacteria. The addition of 4% acid-hydrolyzed Citrus unshiu extracts to all types of milk inhibited the growth of L. monocytogenes within 1d of storage at 4°C. The results indicated that Citrus unshiu peel extracts, after acid hydrolysis, effectively inhibited the growth of pathogenic bacteria. These findings indicate that acid hydrolysis of Citrus unshiu peel facilitates its use as a natural antimicrobial agent for food products. PMID:24534507

  14. Rapid and automated sample preparation for nucleic acid extraction on a microfluidic CD (compact disk)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kim, Jitae; Kido, Horacio; Zoval, Jim V.; Gagné, Dominic; Peytavi, Régis; Picard, François J.; Bastien, Martine; Boissinot, Maurice; Bergeron, Michel G.; Madou, Marc J.

    2006-01-01

    Rapid and automated preparation of PCR (polymerase chain reaction)-ready genomic DNA was demonstrated on a multiplexed CD (compact disk) platform by using hard-to-lyse bacterial spores. Cell disruption is carried out while beadcell suspensions are pushed back and forth in center-tapered lysing chambers by angular oscillation of the disk - keystone effect. During this lysis period, the cell suspensions are securely held within the lysing chambers by heatactivated wax valves. Upon application of a remote heat to the disk in motion, the wax valves release lysate solutions into centrifuge chambers where cell debris are separated by an elevated rotation of the disk. Only debris-free DNA extract is then transferred to collection chambers by capillary-assisted siphon and collected for heating that inactivates PCR inhibitors. Lysing capacity was evaluated using a real-time PCR assay to monitor the efficiency of Bacillus globigii spore lysis. PCR analysis showed that 5 minutes' CD lysis run gave spore lysis efficiency similar to that obtained with a popular commercial DNA extraction kit (i.e., IDI-lysis kit from GeneOhm Sciences Inc.) which is highly efficient for microbial cell and spore lysis. This work will contribute to the development of an integrated CD-based assay for rapid diagnosis of infectious diseases.

  15. Travel Medical Kit.

    PubMed

    Terry, Anne C; Haulman, N Jean

    2016-03-01

    "The traveler's medical kit is an essential tool for both the novice and expert traveler. It is designed to treat travel-related illness and injury and to ensure preexisting medical conditions are managed appropriately. Travelers are at increased risk for common gastrointestinal issues during travel. Respiratory illnesses make up approximately 8% of the ailments present in returned international travelers. Approximately 12% of travelers experience a travel-related skin condition. First aid treatment for minor injuries is essential to all travel medical kits. The complexity ranges from a small, simple case for the urban traveler to a larger, extensive case for wilderness travel." PMID:26900112

  16. Sorption of norfloxacin onto humic acid extracted from weathered coal.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Qin; Zhao, Ling; Dong, Yuan-Hua; Huang, Guan-Yi

    2012-07-15

    Norfloxacin (NOR), is an ionizable and polar antimicrobial compound, and it may enter the environment in substantial amounts via the application of manure or sewage as a fertilizer. Sorption of NOR onto humic acid (HA) may affect its environmental fate. In this study, HA extracted from weathered coal was used to investigate the sorption of NOR at different solution chemistry conditions (pH, ionic strength) and temperatures. The sorption of NOR onto HA showed a two-stage sorption process with an equilibration time of 48 h. The sorption kinetic curve fitted well with a pseudo second-order kinetic model. Thermodynamic characteristics demonstrated that the sorption of NOR onto HA was a spontaneous and exothermic process predominated by physical sorption. All sorption isotherms fitted well with the Freundlich and Langmuir models and they were highly nonlinear with values of n between 0.4 and 0.5, suggesting the high heterogeneity of HA. Increasing Ca2+ concentration resulted in a considerable reduction in the K(d) values of NOR, hinting that Ca2+ had probably competed with NOR(+,0) for the cation exchange sites on the surfaces of HA. The sorption reached a maximum at pH 6.0 over the pH range of 2.0-8.0, implying that the primary sorption mechanism was cation exchange interaction between NOR(+,0) species and the negatively charged functional groups of HA. Spectroscopic evidence demonstrated that the piperazinyl moiety of NOR was responsible for sorption onto HA, while the carbonyl group and the aromatic structure of HA participated in adsorbing NOR. PMID:22459013

  17. Preparation of molecularly imprinted polymers based on magnetic nanoparticles for the selective extraction of protocatechuic acid from plant extracts.

    PubMed

    Xie, Xiaoyu; Wei, Fen; Chen, Liang; Wang, Sicen

    2015-03-01

    In this study, highly selective core-shell molecularly imprinted polymers on the surface of magnetic nanoparticles were prepared using protocatechuic acid as the template molecule. The resulting magnetic molecularly imprinted polymers were characterized by transmission electron microscopy, Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy, X-ray diffraction, and vibrating sample magnetometry. The binding performances of the prepared materials were evaluated by static and selective adsorption. The binding isotherms were obtained for protocatechuic acid and fitted by the Langmuir isotherm model and Freundlich isotherm model. Furthermore, the resulting materials were used as the solid-phase extraction materials coupled to high-performance liquid chromatography for the selective extraction and detection of protocatechuic acid from the extracts of Homalomena occulta and Cynomorium songaricum with the recoveries in the range 86.3-102.2%. PMID:25641806

  18. Investigation of the extraction properties of dibutyl ester of dibutoxymethane phosphonic acid

    SciTech Connect

    Herrmann, E.; Hala, J.

    1983-01-01

    The extraction properties of the dibutyl ester of dibutoxymethane phosphonic acid (DBDBMP), an analog of TBP with a P-C bond, were shown to be similar to those of TBP except for hydrolysis of DBDBMP in acidic solutions. The formation of acidic organophosphorus compounds during hydrolysis of DBDBMP was confirmed by /sup 31/P-N.M.R. measurements. 4 figures, 1 table.

  19. Extraction of ethanol with higher carboxylic acid solvents and their toxicity to yeast

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    In a screening exercise for ethanol-selective extraction solvents, partitioning of ethanol and water from a 5 wt% aqueous solution into several C8 – C18 carboxylic acids was studied. Results for the acids are compared with those from alcohols of similar structure. In all cases studied, the acids exh...

  20. Ultrasound versus microwave as green processes for extraction of rosmarinic, carnosic and ursolic acids from rosemary.

    PubMed

    Jacotet-Navarro, M; Rombaut, N; Fabiano-Tixier, A-S; Danguien, M; Bily, A; Chemat, F

    2015-11-01

    Ultrasound and microwave as green processes are investigated in this study, focusing on the extraction selectivity towards antioxidant extraction from rosemary leaves. Due to its richness in valuable compounds such as rosmarinic, carnosic and ursolic acids, rosemary is a reference matrix for extraction study. In this work, six alternative processes are compared: ultrasound (bath, reactor and probe), microwave (reflux under microwave, microwave under nitrogen pressure and microwave under vapor pressure). The main result of this study is that selective extraction can be achieved according to extraction techniques and therefore to the extraction process. PMID:26186826

  1. 49 CFR 173.161 - Chemical kits and first aid kits.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 2 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Chemical kits and first aid kits. 173.161 Section... Class 7 § 173.161 Chemical kits and first aid kits. (a) Applicability. Chemical kits and first aid kits... assigned to the chemical kit and first aid kit as a whole must be the most stringent packing group...

  2. 49 CFR 173.161 - Chemical kits and first aid kits.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 2 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Chemical kits and first aid kits. 173.161 Section... Class 7 § 173.161 Chemical kits and first aid kits. (a) Applicability. Chemical kits and first aid kits... assigned to the chemical kit and first aid kit as a whole must be the most stringent packing group...

  3. 49 CFR 173.161 - Chemical kits and first aid kits.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 2 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Chemical kits and first aid kits. 173.161 Section... Class 7 § 173.161 Chemical kits and first aid kits. (a) Applicability. Chemical kits and first aid kits... assigned to the chemical kit and first aid kit as a whole must be the most stringent packing group...

  4. 49 CFR 173.161 - Chemical kits and first aid kits.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 2 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Chemical kits and first aid kits. 173.161 Section... Class 7 § 173.161 Chemical kits and first aid kits. (a) Applicability. Chemical kits and first aid kits... assigned to the chemical kit and first aid kit as a whole must be the most stringent packing group...

  5. Sulfonic acids: catalysts for the liquid-liquid extraction of metals

    SciTech Connect

    Osseo-Asare, K.; Keeney, M.E.

    1980-05-01

    Three sulfonic acid extractants, dinonylnaphthalene sulfonic acid (HDNNS), didodecylnaphthalene sulfonic acid (HDDNS) and di-(2-ethyl-hexyl) sodium sulfosuccinate (Aerosol OT, AOT) are compared as to their effects on the extraction of nickel with LIX63. The acidic extractants interact synergistically with the oxime. Interfacial tension results are presented which demonstrate that the sulfonates form reversed micelles in non-polar organic solvents. It is proposed that the reversed micelles catalyze the extraction by specific solubilization of both the metal and the extractant, resulting in an increase in the interfacial concentration of the reacting species. The ability of LIX63 to chelate with nickel without deprotonating permits the synergism to occur at low pH.

  6. New lyophilized kit for rapid radiofluorination of peptides.

    PubMed

    McBride, William J; D'Souza, Christopher A; Karacay, Habibe; Sharkey, Robert M; Goldenberg, David M

    2012-03-21

    Radiolabeling compounds with positron-emitting radionuclides often involves a time-consuming, customized process. Herein, we report a simple lyophilized kit formulation for labeling peptides with (18)F, based on the aluminum-fluoride procedure. The prototype kit contains IMP485, a NODA (1,4,7-triazacyclononane-1,4-diacetate)-MPAA (methyl phenylacetic acid)-di-HSG (histamine-succinyl-glycine) hapten-peptide, [NODA-MPAA-D-Lys(HSG)-D-Tyr-D-Lys(HSG)-NH(2)], used for pretargeting, but we also examined a similar kit formulation for a somatostatin-binding peptide [IMP466, NOTA-D-Phe-Cys-Phe-D-Trp-Lys-Thr-Cys-Throl] bearing a NOTA ligand to determine if the benefits of using a kit can be extended to other AlF-binding peptides. The NODA-MPAA ligand forms a single stable complex with (AlF)(2+) in high yields. In order to establish suitable conditions for a facile kit, the formulation was optimized for pH, peptide to Al(3+) ratio, bulking agent, radioprotectant, and the buffer. For optimal labeling, the kit was reconstituted with an aqueous solution of (18)F(-) and ethanol (1:1), heated at 100-110 °C for 15 min, and then simply and rapidly purified using one of two equally effective solid-phase extraction (SPE) methods. Al(18)F-IMP485 was isolated as a single isomer complex, in high yield (45-97%) and high specific activity (up to 223 GBq/μmol), within 20 min. The labeled product was stable in human serum at 37 °C for 4 h and in vivo, urine samples showed the intact product was eliminated. Tumor targeting of the Al(18)F-IMP485 in nude mice bearing human colon cancer xenografts pretargeted with an anti-CEACAM5 bispecific antibody showed very low uptake (0.06% ± 0.02 ID/g) in bone, further illustrating its stability. At 1 h, pretargeted animals had high Al(18)F-IMP485 tumor uptake (28.1% ± 4.5 ID/g), with ratios of 9 ± 4, 123 ± 38, 110 ± 43, and 120 ± 108 for kidney, liver, blood and bone, respectively. Tumor uptake remained high at 3 h postinjection, with increased

  7. A New Lyophilized Kit for Rapid Radiofluorination of Peptides

    PubMed Central

    McBride, William J.; D'Souza, Christopher A.; Karacay, Habibe; Sharkey, Robert M.; Goldenberg, David M.

    2012-01-01

    Radiolabeling compounds with positron-emitting radionuclides often involves a time-consuming, customized process. Herein, we report a simple lyophilized kit formulation for labeling peptides with 18F, based on the aluminum-fluoride procedure. The prototype kit contains IMP485, a NODA (1,4,7-triazacyclononane-1,4-diacetate)-MPAA (methyl phenylacetic acid)-di-HSG (histamine-succinyl-glycine) hapten-peptide, [NODA-MPAA-D-Lys(HSG)-D-Tyr-D-Lys(HSG)-NH2], used for pretargeting, but we also examined a similar kit formulation for a somatostatin-binding peptide [IMP466, NOTA-D-Phe-Cys-Phe-D-Trp-Lys-Thr-Cys-Throl] bearing a NOTA ligand to determine if the benefits of using a kit can be extended to other AlF-binding peptides. The NODA-MPAA ligand forms a single stable complex with (AlF)2+ in high yields. In order to establish suitable conditions for a facile kit, the formulation was optimized for pH, peptide to Al3+ ratio, bulking agent, radioprotectant, and the buffer. For optimal labeling, the kit was reconstituted with an aqueous solution of 18F− and ethanol (1:1), heated at 100–110 °C for 15 min, and then simply and rapidly purified using one of two equally effective solid-phase extraction (SPE) methods. Al18F-IMP485 was isolated as a single isomer complex, in high yield (45–97%) and high specific activity (up to 223 GBq/μmol), within 20 min. The labeled product was stable in human serum at 37 °C for 4 h and in vivo, urine samples showed the intact product was eliminated. Tumor targeting of the Al18F-IMP485 in nude mice bearing human colon cancer xenografts pretargeted with an anti-CEACAM5 bispecific antibody showed very low uptake (0.06% ± 0.02 ID/g) in bone, further illustrating its stability. At 1 h, pretargeted animals had high Al18F-IMP485 tumor uptake (28.1% ± 4.5 ID/g), with ratios of 9 ± 4, 123 ± 38, 110 ± 43 and 120 ± 108 for kidney, liver, blood and bone, respectively. Tumor uptake remained high at 3 h post-injection, with increased tumor

  8. Aggregation of dialkyl-substituted diphosphonic acids and its effect on metal ion extraction.

    SciTech Connect

    Chiarizia, R.; Barrans, R. E., Jr.; Ferraro, J. R. Herlinger, A. W.; McAlister, D. R.

    1999-10-22

    Solvent extraction reagents containing the diphosphonic acid group exhibit an extraordinary affinity for tri-, tetra- and hexavalent actinides. Their use has been considered for actinide separation and pre-concentration procedures. Solvent extraction data obtained with P,P{prime}-di(2-ethylhexyl) methane-, ethane- and butanediphosphonic acids exhibit features that are difficult to explain without Knowledge of the aggregation state of the extractants. Information about the aggregation of the dialkyl-substituted diphosphonic acids in aromatic diluents has been obtained using the complementary techniques of vapor pressure osmometry (VPO), small angle neutron scattering (SANS), infrared spectroscopy and molecular mechanics. The results from these techniques provide an understanding of the aggregation behavior of these extractants that is fully compatible with the solvent extraction data. The most important results and their relevance to solvent extraction are reviewed in this paper.

  9. Fatty acids and sterols composition, and antioxidant activity of oils extracted from plant seeds.

    PubMed

    Kozłowska, Mariola; Gruczyńska, Eliza; Ścibisz, Iwona; Rudzińska, Magdalena

    2016-12-15

    This study determined and compared the contents of bioactive components in plant seed oils extracted with n-hexane (Soxhlet method) and chloroform/methanol (Folch method) from coriander, caraway, anise, nutmeg and white mustard seeds. Oleic acid dominated among unsaturated fatty acids in nutmeg and anise seed oils while petroselinic acid was present in coriander and caraway oils. Concerning sterols, β-sitosterol was the main component in seed oils extracted with both methods. The content of total phenolics in nutmeg, white mustard and coriander seed oils extracted with chloroform/methanol was higher than in their counterparts prepared with n-hexane. The seed oil samples extracted according to the Folch method exhibited a higher ability to scavenge DPPH radicals compared to the oil samples prepared with the Soxhlet method. DPPH values of the methanolic extracts derived from oils produced with the Folch method were also higher than in the oils extracted with n-hexane. PMID:27451203

  10. Solvent systems combining neutral and acidic extractants for separating trivalent lanthanides from the transuranic elements.

    SciTech Connect

    Lumetta, G. J.; Gelis, A. V.; Vandegrift, G. F.; Chemical Sciences and Engineering Division; PNL

    2010-01-01

    This paper is a review of recent publications that have focused on combined extractant systems for separating trivalent actinides from the lanthanides. These mixed solvent systems combine an acidic extractant with a neutral extractant to achieve the actinide/lanthanide separation. Depending on the neutral extractant used, three categorizations of systems can be considered, including combinations of acidic extractants with 1 diamides, 2 carbamoylmethylphosphine oxides, and 3 polydentate nitrogen-donor ligands. This review of relevant publications indicates that, although there is significant potential for practical exploitation of mixed neutral/acidic extractant systems to achieve a single-step separation of trivalent actinides from acidic high-level waste solutions, the fundamental chemistry underlying these combined systems is not yet well understood. For example, although there is strong evidence suggesting that adducts form between the neutral and acidic extractants, the nature of these adducts generally is not known. Likewise, the structures of the mixed complexes formed between the metal ions and the two different extractants are not fully understood. Research into these basic phenomena likely will provide clues about how to design practical mixed-extractant systems that can be used to efficiently separate the transuranic elements from the lanthanides and other components of irradiated fuel.

  11. Chat Reference. SPEC Kit.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ronan, Jana, Comp.; Turner, Carol, Comp.

    2002-01-01

    This SPEC (Systems and Procedures Exchange Center) Kit presents the results of a survey of Association of Research Libraries (ARL) member libraries designed to gather data on chat reference service. A total of 66 of 124 ARL member libraries responded to the survey. A copy of the questionnaire with tabulated results is presented. Representative…

  12. The ESL Starter Kit.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Virginia Commonwealth Univ., Richmond. Virginia Adult Education and Literacy Resource Center.

    The kit is intended for teachers beginning to teach English as a Second Language (ESL). The first part offers some ideas for testing, registering, and placing students according to their needs and goals. A sample registration form, placement test, list of commercially-available tests, and sample needs assessments are included here. The second…

  13. Australian Dreamings. [Multimedia Kit].

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nordin, Julee; Johnson, Pat

    This multimedia kit includes 3 video programs with over 50 images in both live footage and still images; introduction to the art and culture of Australia's Aboriginal people, a presentation and discussion of artwork including ancient rock painting, Gagudju and Kunwiniku X-ray style bark painting, and Papunga dot painting; 2 studio activities…

  14. Ohio EPA Teachers Kit.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ohio State Environmental Protection Agency, Columbus.

    In an effort to provide teachers in Ohio with assistance in environmental education, the Ohio Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) has produced this teachers kit. It is designed to describe what the Ohio EPA is doing to protect Ohio's air, land, and water. The background information provides an historical account of some of the events that have…

  15. Balloons and Science Kit.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Balloon Council, Washington, DC.

    This document provides background information on balloons including: (1) the history of balloons; (2) balloon manufacturing; (3) biodegradability; (4) the fate of latex balloons; and (5) the effect of balloons on the rainforest and sea mammals. Also included as part of this instructional kit are four fun experiments that allow students to…

  16. User Authentication. SPEC Kit.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Plum, Terry, Comp.; Bleiler, Richard, Comp.

    2001-01-01

    This SPEC (Systems and Procedures Exchange Center) Kit presents the results of a survey of Association of Research Libraries (ARL) member libraries designed to examine the systems research libraries use to authenticate and authorize the users of their online networked information resources. A total of 52 of 121 ARL member libraries responded to…

  17. Kaleo's Safe Walking Kit.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hawaii State Dept. of Education, Honolulu. Office of Instructional Services.

    This pedestrian safety kit for kindergarten through the third grade consists of 16 lessons encompassing many safety concepts, guidelines and skills that emphasize pedestrian safety rules, alertness, and responsible reaction to hazardous situations. Lessons include activities of varying difficulty for large group, small group or individual…

  18. Theme Kits Made Easy.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Eslinger, Leslie Silk

    Recognizing the long-lasting impact of young childrens learning through themes as well as the amount of teacher time spent in preparing for this type of teaching, this kit is designed to help teachers avoid the shortcomings of theme-based teaching, while capitalizing on the benefits of this approach. The book is presented in two sections. The…

  19. Projectable Basic Electronics Kit.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    H'ng, John; And Others

    1982-01-01

    Outlines advantages derived from constructing and using a Projectable Basic Electronics Kit and provides: (1) list of components; (2) diagrams of 10 finished components (resistor; capacitor; diode; switch; bulb; transistor; meter; variable capacitor; coil; connecting terminal); and (3) diode and transistor activities. (JN)

  20. Personalized Thematic Kits

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bontrager, Sharon

    2010-01-01

    Teaching Spanish at the K-5 level is a passion of mine, and the author would like to share some of the practical applications that she finds most rewarding and effective. She has found enthusiastic response to the creation of detailed language learning kits that are rooted in storytelling, but expanded to include home-made board games,…

  1. Core Competencies. SPEC Kit.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McNeil, Beth, Comp.

    2002-01-01

    This SPEC (Systems and Procedures Exchange Center) Kit presents the results of a survey of Association of Research Libraries (ARL) member libraries designed to investigate the status of core competencies (i.e., the skills, knowledge, abilities, and attributes that employees across an organization are expected to have to contribute successfully…

  2. Optimized methods for total nucleic acid extraction and quantification of the bat white-nose syndrome fungus, Pseudogymnoascus destructans, from swab and environmental samples

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Verant, Michelle; Bohuski, Elizabeth A.; Lorch, Jeffrey M.; Blehert, David

    2016-01-01

    The continued spread of white-nose syndrome and its impacts on hibernating bat populations across North America has prompted nationwide surveillance efforts and the need for high-throughput, noninvasive diagnostic tools. Quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction (qPCR) analysis has been increasingly used for detection of the causative fungus, Pseudogymnoascus destructans, in both bat- and environment-associated samples and provides a tool for quantification of fungal DNA useful for research and monitoring purposes. However, precise quantification of nucleic acid fromP. destructans is dependent on effective and standardized methods for extracting nucleic acid from various relevant sample types. We describe optimized methodologies for extracting fungal nucleic acids from sediment, guano, and swab-based samples using commercial kits together with a combination of chemical, enzymatic, and mechanical modifications. Additionally, we define modifications to a previously published intergenic spacer–based qPCR test for P. destructans to refine quantification capabilities of this assay.

  3. Solvent effects on focused microwave assisted extraction of polyphenolic acids from Eucommia ulmodies.

    PubMed

    Li, Hui; Chen, Bo; Nie, Lihua; Yao, Shouzhuo

    2004-01-01

    An open microwave-assisted extraction system was used to extract gallic acid, protocatechuic acid, chlorogenic acid and caffeic acid from Eucommia ulmodies. The effect of extraction variables, especially solvent, on the recoveries of these polyphenolic compounds was investigated using factorial design. As extracting solvent for these compounds, methanol produced a higher recovery than pure water. For straight chain alcohol solvents, the lower the carbon number, the higher the recoveries of the polyphenolic acids. The optimal ratio of methanol:water:glacial acetic acid in the solvent mixture used in microwave-assisted extraction was 2:8:0.3 (v/v) and this solvent could be directly used as the mobile phase in HPLC separation without additional intermittent treatment as reported in literature. The extraction under the condition of 50% microwave power and 30 s irradiation at a solvent:sample ratio of 10 (mL/g) was found to be the most advantageous. The repeatability test of extraction and chromatographic analysis was satisfactory for the analysis of these polyphenolic compounds. PMID:15508835

  4. Solvent Systems Combining Neutral and Acidic Extractants for Separating Trivalent Lanthanides from the Transuranic Elements

    SciTech Connect

    Lumetta, Gregg J.; Gelis, Artem V.; Vandegrift, George F.

    2010-04-23

    This paper is a review of recent publications that have focused on combined extractant systems for separating trivalent actinides from the lanthanides. These mixed solvent systems combine an acidic extractant with a neutral extractant to achieve the actinide/lanthanide separation. Depending on the neutral extractant used, three categorizations of systems can be considered, including combinations of acidic extractants with 1) diamides, 2) carbamoylmethylphosphine oxides, and 3) polydentate nitrogen-donor ligands. This review of relevant publications indicates that, although there is significant potential for practical exploitation of mixed neutral/acidic extractant systems to achieve a single-step separation of trivalent actinides from acidic high-level waste solutions, the fundamental chemistry underlying these combined systems is not yet well understood. For example, although there is strong evidence suggesting that adducts form between the neutral and acidic extractants, the nature of these adducts generally is not known. Likewise, the structures of the mixed complexes formed between the metal ions and the two different extactants are not fully understood. Research into these basic phenomena likely will provide clues about how to design practical mixed-extractant systems that can be used to efficiently separate the transuranic elements from the lanthanides and other components of irradiated fuel.

  5. The solvent extraction of Americium(III) by 2,6-bis[(diphenylphosphino)-methyl]pyridine N,P,P` trioxide from nitric acid and hydrochloric acid solutions

    SciTech Connect

    Bond, E.M.; Engelhardt, U.; Deere, T.P.; Rapko, B.M.; Paine, R.T.

    1997-12-31

    The liquid/liquid extractions of Am(III) from nitric acid and hydrochloric acid solutions with chloroform solutions of 2,6-bis[(diphenylphosphino)methyl]pyridine N,P,P{prime} trioxide will be described. Americium(III) extracts well from high concentration nitric acid solutions (D>3000 at 6M nitric acid) and can be back extracted from the organic phase at 0.01M Nitric Acid. Americium(III) exhibits modest extraction from hydrochloric acid solutions (D=2.2 at 5M hydrochloric acid) and can be back extracted from the organic phase at 0.1M hydrochloric acid. The ligand dependency data suggest that two ligand molecules are coordinated to americium in the nitric acid system and three ligand molecules are coordinated to the americium in the hydrochloric acid system.

  6. Inhibitory effects of rosemary extracts, carnosic acid and rosmarinic acid on the growth of various human cancer cell lines.

    PubMed

    Yesil-Celiktas, Ozlem; Sevimli, Canan; Bedir, Erdal; Vardar-Sukan, Fazilet

    2010-06-01

    The leaves of Rosmarinus officinalis harvested from three different locations of Turkey were extracted by both methanolic and supercritical CO(2) extraction. Subsequently, six extracts and the active compounds, carnosic acid, and rosmarinic acid were applied to various human cancer cell lines including NCI-H82 (human, small cell lung, carcinoma), DU-145 (human, prostate, carcinoma), Hep-3B (human, black, liver, carcinoma, hepatocellular), K-562 (human chronic myeloid leukemia), MCF-7 (human, breast, adenocarcinoma), PC-3 (human, prostate, adenocarcinoma) and MDA-MB-231 (human, breast, adenocarcinoma) by MTT assay. Supercritical CO(2) extracts had superior antiproliferative effect compared to the soxhlet extracts. Although the extracts exhibited various cytotoxic effects against different cell lines, comparatively low IC(50) values ranging between 12.50 and 47.55 microg/ml were attained against K-562, being the most sensitive cell line. Moreover, carnosic acid caused the lowest cell viability with values ranging from 13 to 30 % at a concentration of 19 muM after 48 h of treatments, resulting in superior antiproliferative effect. Rosemary extract is a potential candidate to be included in the anti-cancer diet with pre-determined doses avoiding toxicity. PMID:20449663

  7. COMBINING NEUTRAL AND ACIDIC EXTRACTANTS FOR RECOVERING TRANSURANIC ELEMENTS FROM NUCLEAR FUEL

    SciTech Connect

    Lumetta, Gregg J.; Neiner, Doinita; Sinkov, Sergey I.; Carter, Jennifer C.; Braley, Jenifer C.; Latesky, Stanley; Gelis, Artem V.; Tkac, Peter; Vandegrift, George F.

    2011-10-03

    We have been investigating a solvent extraction system that combines a neutral extractant--octyl(phenyl)-N,N-diisobutyl-carbamoylmethylphosphine oxide (CMPO)--with an acidic extractant--bis(2-ethylhexyl)phosphoric acid (HDEHP)--to form a single process solvent for separating Am and Cm from the other components of irradiated nuclear fuel. It was originally hypothesized that the extraction chemistry of CMPO would dominate under conditions of high acidity (> 1 M HNO3), resulting in co-extraction of the transuranic and lanthanide elements into the organic phase. Contacting the loaded solvent with a solution of diethylenetriaminepentaacetate (DTPA) buffered with lactic or citric acid at pH {approx}3 to 4 would result in a condition in which the HDEHP chemistry dominates. Although the data somewhat support this hypothesis, it is clear that there are interactions between the two extractants such that they do not act independently in the extraction and stripping regimes. We report here studies directed at determining the nature and extent of interaction between CMPO and HDEHP, the synergistic behavior of CMPO and HDEHP in the extraction of americium and neodymium, and progress towards determining the thermodynamics of this extraction system. Neodymium and americium behave similarly in the combined solvent system, with a significant synergy between CMPO and HDEHP in the extraction of both of these trivalent elements from lactate-buffered DTPA solutions. In contrast, a much weaker synergistic behaviour is observed for europium. Thus, investigations into the fundamental chemistry involved in this system have focused on the neodymium extraction. The extraction of neodymium has been systematically investigated, individually varying the HDEHP concentration, the CMPO concentration, or the aqueous phase composition. Thermodynamic modeling of the neodymium extraction system has been initiated. Interactions between CMPO and HDEHP in the organic phase must be taken into account in

  8. Effect of Extraction Conditions on the Saccharide (Neutral and Acidic) Composition of the Crude Pectic Extract from Various Agro-Industrial Residues.

    PubMed

    Babbar, Neha; Roy, Sandra Van; Wijnants, Marc; Dejonghe, Winnie; Caligiani, Augusta; Sforza, Stefano; Elst, Kathy

    2016-01-13

    The influence of different extraction methodologies was assessed on the composition of both neutral (arabinose, rhamnose, galactose) and acidic (galacturonic acid) pectic polysaccharides obtained from four agro-industrial residues, namely, berry pomace (BP), onion hulls (OH), pressed pumpkin (PP), and sugar beet pulp (SBP). For acidic pectic polysaccharides, the extraction efficiency was obtained as BP (nitric acid-assisted extraction, 2 h, 62.9%), PP (enzymatic-assisted extraction, 12 h, 75.0%), SBP (enzymatic-assisted extraction, 48 h, 89.8%; and nitric acid-assisted extraction, 4 h, 76.5%), and OH (sodium hexametaphosphate-assisted extraction, 0.5 h, 100%; and ammonium oxalate-assisted extraction, 0.5 h, 100%). For neutral pectic polysaccharides, the following results were achieved: BP (enzymatic-assisted extraction, 24 h, 85.9%), PP (nitric acid-assisted extraction, 6 h, 82.2%), and SBP (enzymatic assisted extraction, 48 h, 97.5%; and nitric acid-assisted extraction, 4 h, 83.2%). On the basis of the high recovery of pectic sugars, SBP and OH are interesting candidates for the further purification of pectin and production of pectin-derived products. PMID:26652767

  9. A solvent extraction approach to recover acetic acid from mixed waste acids produced during semiconductor wafer process.

    PubMed

    Shin, Chang-Hoon; Kim, Ju-Yup; Kim, Jun-Young; Kim, Hyun-Sang; Lee, Hyang-Sook; Mohapatra, Debasish; Ahn, Jae-Woo; Ahn, Jong-Gwan; Bae, Wookeun

    2009-03-15

    Recovery of acetic acid (HAc) from the waste etching solution discharged from silicon wafer manufacturing process has been attempted by using solvent extraction process. For this purpose 2-ethylhexyl alcohol (EHA) was used as organic solvent. In the pre-treatment stage >99% silicon and hydrofluoric acid was removed from the solution by precipitation. The synthesized product, Na(2)SiF(6) having 98.2% purity was considered of commercial grade having good market value. The waste solution containing 279 g/L acetic acid, 513 g/L nitric acid, 0.9 g/L hydrofluoric acid and 0.030 g/L silicon was used for solvent extraction study. From the batch test results equilibrium conditions for HAc recovery were optimized and found to be 4 stages of extraction at an organic:aqueous (O:A) ratio of 3, 4 stages of scrubbing and 4 stages of stripping at an O:A ratio of 1. Deionized water (DW) was used as stripping agent to elute HAc from organic phase. In the whole batch process 96.3% acetic acid recovery was achieved. Continuous operations were successfully conducted for 100 h using a mixer-settler to examine the feasibility of the extraction system for its possible commercial application. Finally, a complete process flowsheet with material balance for the separation and recovery of HAc has been proposed. PMID:18639982

  10. Extracting metal ions with diphosphonic acid, or derivative thereof

    DOEpatents

    Horwitz, Earl P.; Gatrone, Ralph C.; Nash, Kenneth L.

    1994-01-01

    Thermodynamically-unstable complexing agents which are diphosphonic acids and diphosphonic acid derivatives (or sulphur containing analogs), like carboxyhydroxymethanediphosphonic acid and vinylidene-1,1-diphosphonic acid, are capable of complexing with metal ions, and especially metal ions in the II, III, IV, V and VI oxidation states, to form stable, water-soluble metal ion complexes in moderately alkaline to highly-acidic media. However, the complexing agents can be decomposed, under mild conditions, into non-organic compounds which, for many purposes are environmentally-nondamaging compounds thereby degrading the complex and releasing the metal ion for disposal or recovery. Uses for such complexing agents as well as methods for their manufacture are also described.

  11. Extracting metal ions with diphosphonic acid, or derivative thereof

    DOEpatents

    Horwitz, E.P.; Gatrone, R.C.; Nash, K.L.

    1994-07-26

    Thermodynamically-unstable complexing agents which are diphosphonic acids and diphosphonic acid derivatives (or sulfur containing analogs), like carboxyhydroxymethanediphosphonic acid and vinylidene-1,1-diphosphonic acid, are capable of complexing with metal ions, and especially metal ions in the II, III, IV, V and VI oxidation states, to form stable, water-soluble metal ion complexes in moderately alkaline to highly-acidic media. However, the complexing agents can be decomposed, under mild conditions, into non-organic compounds which, for many purposes are environmentally-nondamaging compounds thereby degrading the complex and releasing the metal ion for disposal or recovery. Uses for such complexing agents as well as methods for their manufacture are also described. 1 fig.

  12. Membrane extraction with thermodynamically unstable diphosphonic acid derivatives

    DOEpatents

    Horwitz, E.P.; Gatrone, R.C.; Nash, K.L.

    1997-10-14

    Thermodynamically-unstable complexing agents which are diphosphonic acids and diphosphonic acid derivatives (or sulphur containing analogs), like carboxyhydroxymethanediphosphonic acid and vinylidene-1,1-diphosphonic acid, are capable of complexing with metal ions, and especially metal ions in the II, III, IV, V and VI oxidation states, to form stable, water-soluble metal ion complexes in moderately alkaline to highly-acidic media. However, the complexing agents can be decomposed, under mild conditions, into non-organic compounds which, for many purposes are environmentally-nondamaging compounds thereby degrading the complex and releasing the metal ion for disposal or recovery. Uses for such complexing agents as well as methods for their manufacture are also described. 1 fig.

  13. Membrane extraction with thermodynamically unstable diphosphonic acid derivatives

    DOEpatents

    Horwitz, Earl Philip; Gatrone, Ralph Carl; Nash, Kenneth LaVerne

    1997-01-01

    Thermodynamically-unstable complexing agents which are diphosphonic acids and diphosphonic acid derivatives (or sulphur containing analogs), like carboxyhydroxymethanediphosphonic acid and vinylidene-1,1-diphosphonic acid, are capable of complexing with metal ions, and especially metal ions in the II, III, IV, V and VI oxidation states, to form stable, water-soluble metal ion complexes in moderately alkaline to highly-acidic media. However, the complexing agents can be decomposed, under mild conditions, into non-organic compounds which, for many purposes are environmentally-nondamaging compounds thereby degrading the complex and releasing the metal ion for disposal or recovery. Uses for such complexing agents as well as methods for their manufacture are also described.

  14. Inflight medical kits.

    PubMed

    Rayman, R B

    1998-10-01

    Great controversy surrounds the issue of United States (US) air carrier inflight medical kits. Although there are four medications mandated by the Federal Aviation Administration (FAA) that appeared to be adequate as determined by a 1988 survey, there is now a renewed call to review the medical kit contents with an eye toward making them more robust. This has been prompted by several well publicized inflight medical events and the fact that overseas airlines have a very wide array of pharmaceuticals and supplies. Consequently, the Aerospace Medical Association (AsMA) convened a Task Force of physicians across the major specialties to put forward recommendations regarding medication, medical supplies, and automatic external defibrillators (AEDs). These deliberations were based upon a survey of AsMA physician members. PMID:9773906

  15. Nanofiltration, bipolar electrodialysis and reactive extraction hybrid system for separation of fumaric acid from fermentation broth.

    PubMed

    Prochaska, Krystyna; Staszak, Katarzyna; Woźniak-Budych, Marta Joanna; Regel-Rosocka, Magdalena; Adamczak, Michalina; Wiśniewski, Maciej; Staniewski, Jacek

    2014-09-01

    A novel approach based on a hybrid system allowing nanofiltration, bipolar electrodialysis and reactive extraction, was proposed to remove fumaric acid from fermentation broth left after bioconversion of glycerol. The fumaric salts can be concentrated in the nanofiltration process to a high yield (80-95% depending on pressure), fumaric acid can be selectively separated from other fermentation components, as well as sodium fumarate can be conversed into the acid form in bipolar electrodialysis process (stack consists of bipolar and anion-exchange membranes). Reactive extraction with quaternary ammonium chloride (Aliquat 336) or alkylphosphine oxides (Cyanex 923) solutions (yield between 60% and 98%) was applied as the final step for fumaric acid recovery from aqueous streams after the membrane techniques. The hybrid system permitting nanofiltration, bipolar electrodialysis and reactive extraction was found effective for recovery of fumaric acid from the fermentation broth. PMID:24983693

  16. Linking Laboratory Experiences to the Real World: The Extraction of Octylphenoxyacetic Acid from Water

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Loyo-Rosales, Jorge E.; Torrents, Alba; Rosales-Rivera, Georgina C.; Rice, Clifford C.

    2006-01-01

    Several chemical concepts to the extraction of a water pollutant OPC (octylphenoxyacetic acid) is presented. As an introduction to the laboratory experiment, a discussion on endocrine disrupters is conducted to familiarize the student with the background of the experiment and to explain the need for the extraction and quantitation of the OPC which…

  17. Some Antifungal Properties of Sorbic Acid Extracted from Berries of Rowan (Sorbus Aucuparia).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brunner, Ulrich

    1985-01-01

    The food preservative sorbic acid can be extracted from Eurasian mountain ash berries (commercially available) and used to show antifungal properties in microbiological investigations. Techniques for extraction, purification, ultraviolet analysis, and experiments displaying antifungal activity are described. A systematic search for similar…

  18. Microwave-Assisted Solvent Extraction and Analysis of Shikimic Acid from Plant Tissues

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    A simple method using microwave-assisted extraction (MWAE) using water as the extraction solvent was developed for the determination of shikimic acid in plant tissue of Brachiaria decumbens Stapf, an important Poaceae forage and weed species widely spread in agricultural and non-agricultural areas t...

  19. SOLVENT EXTRACTION PROCESS FOR SEPARATING URANIUM AND PLUTONIUM FROM AQUEOUS ACIDIC SOLUTIONS OF NEUTRON IRRADIATED URANIUM

    DOEpatents

    Bruce, F.R.

    1962-07-24

    A solvent extraction process was developed for separating actinide elements including plutonium and uranium from fission products. By this method the ion content of the acidic aqueous solution is adjusted so that it contains more equivalents of total metal ions than equivalents of nitrate ions. Under these conditions the extractability of fission products is greatly decreased. (AEC)

  20. Hydrothermal-acid treatment for effectual extraction of eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA)-abundant lipids from Nannochloropsis salina.

    PubMed

    Lee, Ilgyu; Han, Jong-In

    2015-09-01

    Hydrothermal acid treatment, was adopted to extract eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA) from wet biomass of Nannochloropsis salina. It was found that sulfuric acid-based treatment increased EPA yield from 11.8 to 58.1 mg/g cell in a way that was nearly proportional to its concentration. Nitric acid exhibited the same pattern at low concentrations, but unlike sulfuric acid its effectiveness unexpectedly dropped from 0.5% to 2.0%. The optimal and minimal conditions for hydrothermal acid pretreatment were determined using a statistical approach; its maximum EPA yield (predicted: 43.69 mg/g cell; experimental: 43.93 mg/g cell) was established at a condition of 1.27% of sulfuric acid, 113.34 °C of temperature, and 36.71 min of reaction time. Our work demonstrated that the acid-catalyzed cell disruption, accompanied by heat, can be one potentially promising option for ω-3 fatty acids extraction. PMID:25966023

  1. Hydroxycinnamic Acid Derivatives Obtained from a Commercial Crataegus Extract and from Authentic Crataegus spp.

    PubMed

    Kuczkowiak, Ulrich; Petereit, Frank; Nahrstedt, Adolf

    2014-12-01

    Eleven hydroxycinnamic acid derivatives were isolated from a 70% methanolic Crataegus extract (Crataegi folium cum flore) and partly verified and quantified for individual Crataegus species (C. laevigata, C. monogyna, C. nigra, C. pentagyna) by HPLC: 3-O-(E)-p-coumaroylquinic acid (1), 5-O-(E)-p-coumaroyl-quinic acid (2), 4-O-(E)-p-coumaroylquinic acid (3), 3-O-(E)-caffeoylquinic acid (4), 4-O-(E)-caffeoylquinic acid (5), 5-O-(E)-caffeoylquinic acid (6), 3,5-di-O-(E)-caffeoylquinic acid (7), 4,5-di-O-(E)-caffeoylquinic acid (8), (-)-2-O-(E)-caffeoyl-L-threonic acid (9), (-)-4-O-(E)-caffeoyl-L-threonic acid (10), and (-)-4-O-(E)-p-coumaroyl-L-threonic acid (11). Further, (-)-2-O-(E)-caffeoyl-D-malic acid (12) was isolated from C. submollis and also identified for C. pentagyna and C. nigra by co-chromatography. The isolates 10 and 11 were not found in the authentic fresh specimen, indicating that they may be formed during extraction by acyl migration from the 2-O-acylderivatives. Also, 9 and 11 are described here for the first time. All structures were assigned on the basis of their spectroscopic data ((1)H-, (13)C-NMR, MS, optical rotation). PMID:26171328

  2. Hydroxycinnamic Acid Derivatives Obtained from a Commercial Crataegus Extract and from Authentic Crataegus spp.§

    PubMed Central

    Kuczkowiak, Ulrich; Petereit, Frank; Nahrstedt, Adolf

    2014-01-01

    Abstract Eleven hydroxycinnamic acid derivatives were isolated from a 70% methanolic Crataegus extract (Crataegi folium cum flore) and partly verified and quantified for individual Crataegus species (C. laevigata, C. monogyna, C. nigra, C. pentagyna) by HPLC: 3-O-(E)-p-coumaroylquinic acid (1), 5-O-(E)-p-coumaroyl-quinic acid (2), 4-O-(E)-p-coumaroylquinic acid (3), 3-O-(E)-caffeoylquinic acid (4), 4-O-(E)-caffeoylquinic acid (5), 5-O-(E)-caffeoylquinic acid (6), 3,5-di-O-(E)-caffeoylquinic acid (7), 4,5-di-O-(E)-caffeoylquinic acid (8), (-)-2-O-(E)-caffeoyl-L-threonic acid (9), (-)-4-O-(E)-caffeoyl-L-threonic acid (10), and (-)-4-O-(E)-p-coumaroyl-L-threonic acid (11). Further, (-)-2-O-(E)-caffeoyl-D-malic acid (12) was isolated from C. submollis and also identified for C. pentagyna and C. nigra by co-chromatography. The isolates 10 and 11 were not found in the authentic fresh specimen, indicating that they may be formed during extraction by acyl migration from the 2-O-acylderivatives. Also, 9 and 11 are described here for the first time. All structures were assigned on the basis of their spectroscopic data (1H-, 13C-NMR, MS, optical rotation). PMID:26171328

  3. Application of dissolvable layered double hydroxides as sorbent in dispersive solid-phase extraction and extraction by co-precipitation for the determination of aromatic acid anions.

    PubMed

    Tang, Sheng; Lee, Hian Kee

    2013-08-01

    Three types of magnesium-aluminum layered double hydroxides were synthesized and employed as solid-phase extraction (SPE) sorbents to extract several aromatic acids (protocatechuic acid, mandelic acid, phthalic acid, benzoic acid, and salicylic acid) from aqueous samples. An interesting feature of these sorbents is that they dissolve when the pH of the solution is lower than 4. Thus, the analyte elution step, as needed in conventional sorbent-based extraction, was obviated by dissolving the sorbent in acid after extraction and separation from the sample solution. The extract was then directly injected into a high-performance liquid chromatography-ultraviolet detection system for analysis. In the key adsorption process, both dispersive SPE and co-precipitation extraction with the sorbents were conducted and experimental parameters such as pH, temperature, and extraction time were optimized. The results showed that both extraction methods provided low limits of detection (0.03-1.47 μg/L) and good linearity (r(2) > 0.9903). The optimized extraction conditions were applied to human urine and sports drink samples. This new and interesting extraction approach was demonstrated to be a fast and efficient procedure for the extraction of organic anions from aqueous samples. PMID:23855757

  4. Selectivity between lactic acid and glucose during recovery of lactic acid with basic extractants and polymeric sorbents

    SciTech Connect

    Dai, Y.; King, C.J.

    1996-04-01

    During recovery of product carboxylic acids from fermentation broths, it is important to maximize the selectivity for the desired acid, as opposed to substrate sugars. In this work uptakes of glucose and competitive uptakes of lactic acid and glucose have been measured for the extractant Alamine 336 in various diluents and three commercially available basic solid polymeric sorbents. The results show that swelling is the main factor governing the selectivity between lactic acid and glucose for the polymeric sorbents. Because of a high uptake capacity and relatively low swelling, Dowex MWA-1 gives a higher selectivity in the pH 5--6 range than do Amberlite IRA-35 and Reillex 425. Extraction with Alamine 336 provides a much higher selectivity, but a lower capacity, than the polymeric sorbents. The extent of water coextraction depends strongly on the diluent used, and larger amounts of water coextracted correspond to larger uptakes of glucose.

  5. New crystallization of fatty acids from aqueous ethanol solution combined with liquid-liquid extraction

    SciTech Connect

    Maeda, Kouji; Nomura, Yoshihisa; Tai, Kimihiko; Ueno, Yoshitaka; Fukui, Keisuke; Hirota, Syouji

    1999-06-01

    A new separation process of saturated fatty acids (lauric acid-myristic acid) using crystallization from an aqueous ethanol solution has been examined. There were two vessels in this separation process: an extraction vessel and a crystallization vessel. The fatty acids in the aqueous phase were first extracted from their organic phase (melt) in the extraction vessel. The fatty acids in the aqueous phase were continuously introduced to the crystallization vessel, and then the fatty acids were crystallized there. The crystals of the fatty acids were collected continuously above the aqueous phase in the crystallization vessel. In this process, the yield and the purity of the crystals over time were measured, and it was found that the purity of lauric acid increased unsteadily up to 0.98 mole fraction of lauric acid with an increase in the yield of the low yield range. The mole fraction of ethanol in the aqueous phase could be significant to control the relationship between the yield and the purity of the crystals. Three different mole fractions of lauric acid in the organic phase were used to be separated in this process. Moreover, the authors have considered the effective separations of this process, and the maximum yield and purity of the crystals have been estimated by a simple mass balance.

  6. Liquid-Liquid Extraction and Solid Phase Extraction for Urinary Organic Acids: A Comparative Study from a Resource Constraint Setting.

    PubMed

    Kumari, Chandrawati; Varughese, Bijo; Ramji, Siddarth; Kapoor, Seema

    2016-10-01

    Pre analytical process of extraction for accurate detection of organic acids is a crucial step in diagnosis of organic acidemias by GCMS analysis. This process is accomplished either by solid phase extraction (SPE) or by liquid-liquid extraction (LLE). Both extraction procedures are used in different metabolic laboratories all over the world. In this study we compared these two extraction procedures in respect of precision, accuracy, percent recovery of metabolites, number of metabolites isolated, time and cost in a resource constraint setup. We observed that the mean recovery from SPE was 84.1 % and by LLE it was 77.4 % (p value <0.05). Moreover, the average number of metabolites isolated by SPE and LLE was 161.8 ± 18.6 and 140.1 ± 20.4 respectively. The processing cost of LLE was economical. In a cost constraint setting using LLE may be the practical option if used for organic acid analysis. PMID:27605738

  7. Optimization of extraction of phenolic acids from a vegetable waste product using a pressurized liquid extractor

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Potato tubers are eaten worldwide for their nutritional value, but potato peels are often disposed as waste. This study identified the phenolic acids content in potato peels, tuber, and developed an optimized method for extraction of phenolic acids from potato peels using a pressurized liquid extrac...

  8. 21 CFR 573.500 - Condensed, extracted glutamic acid fermentation product.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) ANIMAL DRUGS, FEEDS, AND RELATED PRODUCTS FOOD ADDITIVES PERMITTED IN FEED... fermentation product. Condensed, extracted glutamic acid fermentation product may be safely used in animal feed... glutamic acid. (b) It is used or intended for use as follows: (1) In poultry feed as a source of protein...

  9. 21 CFR 573.500 - Condensed, extracted glutamic acid fermentation product.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) ANIMAL DRUGS, FEEDS, AND RELATED PRODUCTS FOOD ADDITIVES PERMITTED IN FEED... fermentation product. Condensed, extracted glutamic acid fermentation product may be safely used in animal feed... glutamic acid. (b) It is used or intended for use as follows: (1) In poultry feed as a source of protein...

  10. 21 CFR 573.500 - Condensed, extracted glutamic acid fermentation product.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) ANIMAL DRUGS, FEEDS, AND RELATED PRODUCTS FOOD ADDITIVES PERMITTED IN FEED... fermentation product. Condensed, extracted glutamic acid fermentation product may be safely used in animal feed... glutamic acid. (b) It is used or intended for use as follows: (1) In poultry feed as a source of protein...

  11. 21 CFR 573.500 - Condensed, extracted glutamic acid fermentation product.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) ANIMAL DRUGS, FEEDS, AND RELATED PRODUCTS FOOD ADDITIVES PERMITTED IN FEED... fermentation product. Condensed, extracted glutamic acid fermentation product may be safely used in animal feed... glutamic acid. (b) It is used or intended for use as follows: (1) In poultry feed as a source of protein...

  12. Rosmarinic acid content in antidiabetic aqueous extract of Ocimum canum Sims grown in Ghana

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Rosmarinic acid (RA) is an important polyphenol that is found in a variety of herbs including Ocimum canum sims (locally called eme or akokobesa in Ghana). Aqueous extracts from the leaves of O.canum are used as an antidiabetic herbal medicine in Ghana. Interestingly, rosmarinic acid content and p...

  13. Influence of gelatinization on the extraction of phenolic acids from wheat fractions

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The effect of gelatinization on the analysis of phenolic acids from wheat bran, whole-wheat, and refined flour samples was investigated using two extraction procedures, namely, ultrasonic (UAE) and microwave (MAE). The total phenolic acid (TPA) concentration quantity in wheat bran (2711-2913 µg/g) w...

  14. Effects of hops (Humulus lupulus L.) extract on volatile fatty acid production by rumen bacteria

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Aims: To determine the effects of hops extract, on in vitro volatile fatty acid (VFA) production by bovine rumen microorganisms. Methods and Results: When mixed rumen microbes were suspended in media containing carbohydrates, the initial rates of VFA production were suppressed by beta-acid rich hops...

  15. Effects of ultrahigh pressure extraction on yield and antioxidant activity of chlorogenic acid and cynaroside extracted from flower buds of Lonicera japonica.

    PubMed

    Hu, Wen; Guo, Ting; Jiang, Wen-Jun; Dong, Guang-Li; Chen, Da-Wei; Yang, Shi-Lin; Li, He-Ran

    2015-06-01

    The present study was designed to establish and optimize a new method for extracting chlorogenic acid and cynaroside from Lonicera japonica Thunb. through orthogonal experimental designl. A new ultrahigh pressure extraction (UPE) technology was applied to extract chlorogenic acid and cynaroside from L. japonica. The influential factors, including solvent type, ethanol concentration, extraction pressure, time, and temperature, and the solid/liquid ratio, have been studied to optimize the extraction process. The optimal conditions for the UPE were developed by quantitative analysis of the extraction products by HPLC-DAD in comparison with standard samples. In addition, the microstructures of the medicinal materials before and after extraction were studied by scanning electron microscopy (SEM). Furthermore, the extraction efficiency of different extraction methods and the 2, 2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) radical scavenging activities of the extracts were investigated. The optimal conditions for extracting chlorogenic acid and cynaroside were as follows: ethanol concentration, 60%; extraction pressure, 400 MPa; extraction time, 2 min; extraction temperature, 30 °C; and the solid/liquid ratio, 1 : 50. Under these conditions, the yields of chlorogenic acid and cynaroside were raised to 4.863% and 0.080%, respectively. Compared with other extraction methods, such as heat reflux extraction (HRE), ultrasonic extraction (UE), and Sohxlet extraction (SE), the UPE method showed several advantages, including higher extraction yield, shorter extraction time, lower energy consumption, and higher purity of the extracts. This study could help better utilize L. japonica flower buds as a readily accessible source of natural antioxidants in food and pharmaceutical industries. PMID:26073341

  16. Recovery of uranium from phosphoric acid medium by polymeric composite beads encapsulating organophosphorus extractants

    SciTech Connect

    Singh, D.K.; Yadav, K.K.; Varshney, L.; Singh, H.

    2013-07-01

    The present study deals with the preparation and evaluation of the poly-ethersulfone (PES) based composite beads encapsulating synergistic mixture of D2EHPA and Cyanex 923 (at 4:1 mole ratio) for the separation of uranium from phosphoric acid medium. SEM was used for the characterization of the composite materials. Addition of 1% PVA (polyvinyl alcohol) improved the internal morphology and porosity of the beads. Additionally, microscopic examination of the composite bead confirmed central coconut type cavity surrounded by porous polymer layer of the beads through which exchange of metal ions take place. Effect of various experimental variables including aqueous acidity, metal ion concentration in aqueous feed, concentration of organic extractant inside the beads, extractant to polymer ratio, liquid to solid (L/S) ratio and temperature on the extraction of uranium was studied. Increase in acidity (1-6 M), L/S ratio (1- 10), metal ion concentration (0.2-3 g/L U{sub 3}O{sub 8}) and polymer to extractant ratio (1:4 -1:10) led to decrease in extraction of uranium. At 5.5 M (comparable to wet process phosphoric acid concentration) the extraction of uranium was about 85% at L/S ratio 5. Increase in extractant concentration inside the bead resulted in enhanced extraction of metal ion. Increase in temperature in the range of 30 to 50 Celsius degrees increased the extraction, whereas further increase to 70 C degrees led to the decrease in extraction of uranium. Amongst various reagents tested, stripping of uranium was quantitative by 12% Na{sub 2}CO{sub 3} solution. Polymeric beads were found to be stable and reusable up-to 10 cycles of extraction/stripping. (authors)

  17. Supercritical fluid extraction of uranium and thorium from nitric acid solutions with organophosphorus reagents

    SciTech Connect

    Lin, Y.; Wai, C.M.; Smart, N.G. |

    1995-10-01

    Extraction techniques for the recovery of uranium and transuranic elements from acid waste solutions are important in nuclear waste management. This paper examines the feasibility of extracting uranyl and thorium ions from nitric acid solutions with supercritical CO{sub 2} containing the different organophosphorus reagents. In this study, an organophosphorus reagent is dissolved in supercritical CO{sub 2} by passing the fluid through a reagent vessel placed upstream of the sample vessel in the extractor. Using TBPO or TOPO in supercritical CO{sub 2}, effective extraction of uranyl and thorium ions can be achieved even in dilute HNO{sub 3} solutions, thus yielding the possibility of reducing acidic waste volumes in nuclear waste treatment. The results may form the basis of a novel extraction process for the treatment of acidified nuclear wastes, while minimizing the production of secondary wastes. 12 refs., 2 figs., 2 tabs.

  18. DEMONSTRATION BULLETIN: ENVIROGARD™ PCB TEST KIT - MILLIPORE, INC.

    EPA Science Inventory

    The EnviroGard™ polychlorinated biphenyl (PCB) immunoassay test kit rapidly analyzes for PCB concentrations in soils. Soil sample extracts are added to test tubes coated with antibodies that bind PCB molecules. The excess soil extracts are washed out of the tubes after incubat...

  19. Characterization and functional properties of mango peel pectin extracted by ultrasound assisted citric acid.

    PubMed

    Wang, Miaomiao; Huang, Bohui; Fan, Chuanhui; Zhao, Kaili; Hu, Hao; Xu, Xiaoyun; Pan, Siyi; Liu, Fengxia

    2016-10-01

    Pectin was extracted from 'Tainong No. 1' mango peels, using a chelating agent-citric acid as extraction medium by ultrasound-assisted extraction (UAE) and conventional extraction (CE) at temperatures of 20 and 80°C. Chemical structures, rheological and emulsifying properties of mango peel pectins (MPPs) were comparatively studied with laboratory grade citrus pectin (CP). All MPPs exhibited higher protein content (4.74%-5.94%), degree of methoxylation (85.43-88.38%), average molecular weight (Mw, 378.4-2858kDa) than the CP, but lower galacuronic acid content (GalA, 52.21-53.35%). CE or UAE at 80°C resulted in significantly higher pectin yield than those at 20°C, while the extraction time for UAE-80°C (15min) was significantly shorter compared to CE-80°C (2h) with comparable pectin yield. Moreover, MPPs extracted at 80°C were observed with higher GalA and protein content, higher Mw, resulting in higher viscosity, better emulsifying capacity and stability, as compared to those extracted at 20°C and the CP. Therefore, these results suggested that MPPs from 'Tainong No. 1' may become a highly promising pectin with good thickening and emulsifying properties, using ultrasound-assisted citric acid as an efficient and eco-friendly extraction method. PMID:27283236

  20. Comparison of some spectroscopic and physico-chemical properties of humic acids extracted from sewage sludge and bottom sediments

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Polak, J.; Bartoszek, M.; Sułkowski, W. W.

    2009-04-01

    Comparison of the physico-chemical properties was carried out for humic acids extracted from sewage sludge and bottom sediments. The isolated humic acids were investigated by means of EPR, IR, UV/vis spectroscopic methods and elementary analysis AE. On the basis of earlier studies it was stated that humic acids extracted from sewage sludge can be divided into humic acids extracted from raw sewage sludge and from sewage sludge after the digestion process. The digestion process was found to have the most significant effect on the physico-chemical properties of humic acids extracted from sludge during sewage treatment. Humic acids extracted from sewage sludge had higher free radical concentration than humic acid extracted from bottom sediments. Values of the g-factor were similar for all studied samples. However, it is noteworthy that g-factor values for humic acid extracted from raw sewage sludge and from bottom sediments were lower in comparison to the humic acid extracted from sewage sludge after the fermentation processes. The IR spectra of all studied humic acids confirmed the presence of functional groups characteristic for humic substances. It was also observed that humic acids extracted from bottom sediments had a more aromatic character and contained less carbon, nitrogen and hydrogen than those extracted from the sewage sludge.

  1. Simultaneous Extraction of Viral and Bacterial Nucleic Acids for Molecular Diagnostic Applications

    PubMed Central

    Kajiura, Lauren N.; Stewart, Scott D.; Dresios, John; Uyehara, Catherine F. T.

    2015-01-01

    Molecular detection of microbial pathogens in clinical samples requires the application of efficient sample lysis protocols and subsequent extraction and isolation of their nucleic acids. Here, we describe a simple and time-efficient method for simultaneous extraction of genomic DNA from gram-positive and -negative bacteria, as well as RNA from viral agents present in a sample. This method compared well with existing bacterial- and viral-specialized extraction protocols, worked reliably on clinical samples, and was not pathogen specific. This method may be used to extract DNA and RNA concurrently from viral and bacterial pathogens present in a sample and effectively detect coinfections in routine clinical diagnostics. PMID:26543438

  2. Simultaneous extraction and derivatization of 2-chlorovinylarsonous acid from soils using supercritical and pressurized fluids.

    PubMed

    Chaudot, X; Tambuté, A; Caude, M

    2000-08-01

    Supercritical carbon dioxide and pressurized fluids are compared for the extraction with in situ derivatization of 2-chlorovinylarsonous acid (CVAA) from a series of seven spiked soils. Samples are allowed to age (up to 42 days) and periodically extracted. Sample ageing leads to a recovery decrease due to the development of strong interactions between CVAA and matrix active sites, as time elapses. A similar behavior is observed when usual ultrasonic extraction is performed. Supercritical fluid extraction (SFE) with in situ derivatization leads to the highest recovery. Moreover, SFE allows a solvent consumption reduction. A limit of detection of 0.2 microg/g is reached with the SFE method. PMID:10949499

  3. SOLVENT EXTRACTION PROCESS FOR THE RECOVERY OF METALS FROM PHOSPHORIC ACID

    DOEpatents

    Bailes, R.H.; Long, R.S.

    1958-11-01

    > A solvent extraction process is presented for recovering metal values including uranium, thorium, and other lanthanide and actinide elements from crude industrial phosphoric acid solutions. The process conslsts of contacting said solution with an immisclble organic solvent extractant containing a diluent and a material selected from the group consisting of mono and di alkyl phosphates, alkyl phosphonates and alkyl phosphites. The uranlum enters the extractant phase and is subsequently recovered by any of the methods known to the art. Recovery is improved if the phosphate solution is treated with a reducing agent such as iron or aluminum powder prior to the extraction step.

  4. The impact of different methods of DNA extraction on microbial community measures of BALF samples based on metagenomic data

    PubMed Central

    Wen, Yan; Xiao, Fei; Wang, Chen; Wang, Zhen

    2016-01-01

    Purpose: It is a challenge to find a better microorganisms DNA extraction method for samples taken from the lower airways for metagenomic sequencing, as the concentrations of bacteria in the alveoli and small airways are likely considerably less than that of the mouth or lower digestive tract. Background DNA from the host, and extraction biases can significantly interfere with microbiota assessment and increase the cost of sequencing. This study aimed to develop an optimized DNA extraction method, which would enable a higher concentration of microbial DNA to be extracted from the samples. Methods: We compared the microbiota profiles of the lower airway communities in twelve individuals with IIP. DNA was extracted using three different extraction methods: QIAamp UCP PurePathogen Blood Kit named kit3 in this study, QIAamp UCP Pathogen Mini Kit named kit2, and QIAamp DNA Microbiome Kit named kit1. DNA libraries were constructed according to the manufacturer’s instructions (Illumina). The same workflows from Illumina were used to perform cluster generation, template hybridization, isothermal amplification, linearization, blocking, denaturing, and hybridization of the sequencing primers. Raw data was uploaded to MG-RAST v3 and analyzed. Results: A great number of bacterium inhabits the lower airways of patients with IIP, though there is no airway infection. More bacterium was found in mouth or upper airway. DNA concentrations of DNA samples isolated with kit1 with Benzonase were significantly lower than those isolated with the other two kits for BALF and mouthwash samples. Moreover, the ratio of human genome in clean reads of samples isolated with kit1 with Benzonase was remarkably smaller than those isolated with kit2 and kit3. The relative abundance of total bacteria, the total number of taxa, and the relative abundance of taxa in BALF samples as opposed to mouthwash samples with kit1 were significantly higher than for those extracted the other kits. Conclusion: A

  5. KIT — EDRN Public Portal

    Cancer.gov

    SCF-sR, also known as KIT, is the human homolog of the proto-oncogene c-kit. C-kit was first identified as the cellular homolog of the feline sarcoma viral oncogene v-kit. Human KIT is a tyrosine-protein kinase that acts as cell-surface receptor for the cytokine KITLG/SCF and plays an essential role in the regulation of cell survival and proliferation, hematopoiesis, stem cell maintenance, gametogenesis, mast cell development, migration and function, and in melanogenesis. KIT is a type 3 transmembrane receptor for MGF (mast cell growth factor, also known as stem cell factor). Mutations in this gene are associated with gastrointestinal stromal tumors, mast cell disease, acute myelogenous lukemia, and piebaldism. Multiple transcript variants encoding different isoforms have been found for this gene.

  6. Studies of the acidic components of the Colorado Green River formation oil shale-Mass spectrometric identification of the methyl esters of extractable acids.

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Haug, P.; Schnoes, H. K.; Burlingame, A. L.

    1971-01-01

    Study of solvent extractable acidic constituents of oil shale from the Colorado Green River Formation. Identification of individual components is based on gas chromatographic and mass spectrometric data obtained for their respective methyl esters. Normal acids, isoprenoidal acids, alpha, omega-dicarboxylic acids, mono-alpha-methyl dicarboxylic acids and methyl ketoacids were identified. In addition, the presence of monocyclic, benzoic, phenylalkanoic and naphthyl-carboxylic acids, as well as cycloaromatic acids, is demonstrated by partial identification.

  7. Protein crystallography prescreen kit

    DOEpatents

    Segelke, Brent W.; Krupka, Heike I.; Rupp, Bernhard

    2007-10-02

    A kit for prescreening protein concentration for crystallization includes a multiplicity of vials, a multiplicity of pre-selected reagents, and a multiplicity of sample plates. The reagents and a corresponding multiplicity of samples of the protein in solutions of varying concentrations are placed on sample plates. The sample plates containing the reagents and samples are incubated. After incubation the sample plates are examined to determine which of the sample concentrations are too low and which the sample concentrations are too high. The sample concentrations that are optimal for protein crystallization are selected and used.

  8. Protein crystallography prescreen kit

    DOEpatents

    Segelke, Brent W.; Krupka, Heike I.; Rupp, Bernhard

    2005-07-12

    A kit for prescreening protein concentration for crystallization includes a multiplicity of vials, a multiplicity of pre-selected reagents, and a multiplicity of sample plates. The reagents and a corresponding multiplicity of samples of the protein in solutions of varying concentrations are placed on sample plates. The sample plates containing the reagents and samples are incubated. After incubation the sample plates are examined to determine which of the sample concentrations are too low and which the sample concentrations are too high. The sample concentrations that are optimal for protein crystallization are selected and used.

  9. Education Payload Operation - Kit D

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Keil, Matthew

    2009-01-01

    Education Payload Operation - Kit D (EPO-Kit D) includes education items that will be used to support the live International Space Station (ISS) education downlinks and Education Payload Operation (EPO) demonstrations onboard the ISS. The main objective of EPO-Kit D supports the National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) goal of attracting students to study and seek careers in science, technology, engineering, and mathematics.

  10. Optics learning through affordable kit

    SciTech Connect

    P, Anusha N E-mail: chitrashaji@gmail.com Shaji, Chitra E-mail: chitrashaji@gmail.com Sharan, Alok E-mail: chitrashaji@gmail.com

    2014-10-15

    An affordable kit which helps to understand some of the optical phenomena qualitatively and quantitatively is presented in this paper. It supplements optics taught in classes. The kit consists of equipments which are available in the market at nominal cost such as laser pointer, lenses, glass plates, razor blades, coins, ball bearing etc. Experiments which come under wave optics (interference and diffraction) and ray optics (reflection and refraction) are explained using this kit.

  11. Optics learning through affordable kit

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    P, Anusha N.; Shaji, Chitra; Sharan, Alok

    2014-10-01

    An affordable kit which helps to understand some of the optical phenomena qualitatively and quantitatively is presented in this paper. It supplements optics taught in classes. The kit consists of equipments which are available in the market at nominal cost such as laser pointer, lenses, glass plates, razor blades, coins, ball bearing etc. Experiments which come under wave optics (interference and diffraction) and ray optics (reflection and refraction) are explained using this kit.

  12. Separation of phenolic acids from natural plant extracts using molecularly imprinted anion-exchange polymer confined ionic liquids.

    PubMed

    Bi, Wentao; Tian, Minglei; Row, Kyung Ho

    2012-04-01

    Polymer-confined ionic liquids were used for the separation of phenolic acids from natural plant extract by utilizing an anion-exchange mechanism. They were synthesized using molecular imprinting technique to reduce non-directional ion-ion interactions during anion-exchange and other interactions with interference substances that could decrease selectivity. A suitable sorbent for phenolic acid separation could be identified based on the adsorption behaviors of phenolic acids on different polymer-confined ionic liquids. Thus, the developed ionic liquid-based molecularly imprinted anion-exchange polymer (IMAP) achieved high recovery rates by solid-phase extraction of phenolic acids from Salicornia herbacea L. extract: 90.1% for protocatechuic acid, 95.5% for ferulic acid and 96.6% for caffeic acid. Moreover, the phenolic acids were separable from each other by repeated solid phase extraction cycles. The proposed method could be used to separate other phenolic acids or organic acids from complex samples. PMID:21903215

  13. Direct lactic acid fermentation of Jerusalem artichoke tuber extract using Lactobacillus paracasei without acidic or enzymatic inulin hydrolysis.

    PubMed

    Choi, Hwa-Young; Ryu, Hee-Kyoung; Park, Kyung-Min; Lee, Eun Gyo; Lee, Hongweon; Kim, Seon-Won; Choi, Eui-Sung

    2012-06-01

    Lactic acid fermentation of Jerusalem artichoke tuber was performed with strains of Lactobacillus paracasei without acidic or enzymatic inulin hydrolysis prior to fermentation. Some strains of L. paracasei, notably KCTC13090 and KCTC13169, could ferment hot-water extract of Jerusalem artichoke tuber more efficiently compared with other Lactobacillus spp. such as L. casei type strain KCTC3109. The L. paracasei strains could utilize almost completely the fructo-oligosaccharides present in Jerusalem artichoke. Inulin-fermenting L. paracasei strains produced c.a. six times more lactic acid compared with L. casei KCTC3109. Direct lactic fermentation of Jerusalem artichoke tuber extract at 111.6g/L of sugar content with a supplement of 5 g/L of yeast extract by L. paracasei KCTC13169 in a 5L jar fermentor produced 92.5 ce:hsp sp="0.25"/>g/L of lactic acid with 16.8 g/L fructose equivalent remained unutilized in 72 h. The conversion efficiency of inulin-type sugars to lactic acid was 98% of the theoretical yield. PMID:22516247

  14. Permeability of Rosmarinic acid in Prunella vulgaris and Ursolic acid in Salvia officinalis Extracts across Caco-2 Cell Monolayers

    PubMed Central

    Qiang, Zhiyi; Ye, Zhong; Hauck, Cathy; Murphy, Patricia A.; McCoy, Joe-Ann; Widrlechner, Mark P.; Reddy, Manju B.; Hendrich, Suzanne

    2011-01-01

    Ethnopharmacological relevance Rosmarinic acid (RA), a caffeic acid-related compound found in high concentrations in Prunella vulgaris (self-heal), and ursolic acid (UA), a pentacyclic triterpene acid concentrated in Salvia officinalis (sage), have been traditionally used to treat inflammation in the mouth, and may also be beneficial for gastrointestinal health in general. Aim of the study To investigate the permeabilities of RA and UA as pure compounds and in P. vulgaris and S. officinalis ethanol extracts across human intestinal epithelial Caco-2 cell monolayers. Materials and methods The permeabilities and Phase II biotransformation of RA and UA as pure compounds and in herbal extracts were compared using Caco-2 cells with HPLC detection. Results The apparent permeability coefficient (Papp) for RA and RA in P. vulgaris extracts was 0.2 ± 0.05 × 10−6 cm/s, significantly increased to 0.9 ± 0.2 × 10−6 cm/s after β-glucuronidase/sulfatase treatment. Papp for UA and UA in S. officinalis extract was 2.7 ± 0.3 × 10−6 cm/s and 2.3 ± 0.5 × 10−6 cm/s before and after β-glucuronidase/sulfatase treatment, respectively. Neither compound was affected in permeability by the herbal extract matrix. Conclusion RA and UA in herbal extracts had similar uptake as that found using the pure compounds, which may simplify the prediction of compound efficacy, but the apparent lack of intestinal glucuronidation/sulfation of UA is likely to further enhance the bioavailability of that compound compared with RA. PMID:21798330

  15. Preparative yield and properties of humic acids obtained by sequential alkaline extractions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kholodov, V. A.; Yaroslavtseva, N. V.; Konstantinov, A. I.; Perminova, I. V.

    2015-10-01

    The preparative yield, composition, and structure of humic acids obtained by sequential alkaline extractions from two soils (a soddy-podzolic soil under forest and a typical chernozem in treatment with permanent black fallow of a long-term experiment since 1964) have been studied. The preparative yield of humic acids from the first extraction is 0.40 and 0.94% for the soddy-podzolic soil (Retisols) and the chernozem, respectively. The preparative yield from the second extraction is lower by several times, and the yield from the third extraction is lower by an order of magnitude. The study of the obtained preparations by elemental analysis, gel-permeation chromatography, and 13C NMR spectroscopy has shown insignificant changes in the elemental, molecular-weight, and structural-group composition of humic acids among the extractions. It has been supposed that this is related to the soil features: typical climatic factors for the formation of soil subtype in the case of soddy-podzolic soil and the land use in the long-term experiment in the case of typical chernozem. It has been concluded that that a single extraction is sufficient for the separation of humic acids and the preparation of a representative sample.

  16. Effects of raspberry fruit extracts and ellagic acid on respiratory burst in murine macrophages.

    PubMed

    Raudone, Lina; Bobinaite, Ramune; Janulis, Valdimaras; Viskelis, Pranas; Trumbeckaite, Sonata

    2014-06-01

    The mechanism of action of polyphenolic compounds is attributed to their antioxidant, anti-inflammatory, and anti-proliferative properties and their effects on subcellular signal transduction, cell cycle impairment and apoptosis. A raspberry (Rubus idaeus L.) fruit extract contains various antioxidant active compounds, particularly ellagic acid (EA); however the exact intracellular mechanism of their action is not fully understood. The aim of the study was to evaluate the antioxidant effect of raspberry extracts, and that of ellagic acid by assessment of the production of the reactive oxygen species (ROS) by murine macrophage J774 cells. Raspberry extracts and their active compound EA did not affect or had very minor effects on cell viability. No significant difference in the ROS generation in arachidonic acid stimulated macrophages was determined for raspberry extracts and EA whereas in the phorbol-12 myristate-13 acetate model ROS generation was significantly (p < 0.05) reduced. Our observation that raspberry pomace extracts in vitro reduce ROS production in a J774 macrophage culture suggests that raspberry extract and ellagic acid mediated antioxidant effects may be due to the regulation of NADPH oxidase activity. PMID:24699912

  17. Membrane-mediated extractive fermentation for lactic acid production from cellulosic biomass

    SciTech Connect

    Chen, Rongfu; Lee, Y.Y.

    1997-12-31

    Lactic acid production from cellulosic biomass by cellulose and Lactobacillus delbrueckii was studied in a fermenter-extractor employing a microporous hollow fiber membrane (NIHF). This bioreactor system was operated under a fed-batch mode with continuous removal of lactic acid by an in situ extraction. A tertiary amine (Alamine 336) was used as an extractant for lactic acid. The extraction capacity of Alamine 336 is greatly enhanced by addition of alcohol. Long-chain alcohols serve well for this purpose since they are less toxic to micro-organism. Addition of kerosene, a diluent, was necessary to reduce the solvent viscosity. A solvent mixture of 20% Alamine 336,40% oleyl alcohol, and 40% kerosene was found to be most effective in the extraction of lactic acid. Progressive change of pH from an initial value of 5.0 down to 4.3 has significantly improved the overall performance of the simultaneous saccharification and extractive fermentation over that of constant pH operation. The change of pH was applied to promote cell growth in the early phase, and extraction in the latter phase. 20 refs., 10 figs., 1 tab.

  18. Determination of volatile fatty acids in wastewater by solvent extraction and gas chromatography

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mkhize, Nontando T.; Msagati, Titus A. M.; Mamba, Bhekie B.; Momba, Maggy

    The purpose of this study was to develop a liquid-liquid extraction method for the analysis of volatile fatty acids collected at the elutriation units of Unit 3, 4 and 5 at Johannesburg Water-Northern Works Wastewater Treatment Plant. Liquid-liquid extraction (LLE) method employing dichloromethane (DCM) and methyl-tert-butyl-ether (MTBE) as extracting solvents was used during the quantitative analysis of volatile fatty acids namely acetic, propionic, butyric, isobutyric, valeric, isovaleric and heptanoic acid. The detection of the extracts was by gas chromatography coupled to a mass spectrometer operating under electron ionization mode (GC-EI-MS). The results showed that MTBE was a better extraction solvent than DCM as it gave much higher recoveries (>5 folds). On the other hand, the overall reactor performance for all the three units in the period when the samples were collected, which was measured by the ratio of propionic to acetic acid was good since the ratio o did not exceed 1.4 with the exception of the samples collected on the 3rd of October where the ratio exceeded 1.4 significantly. The concentration of acetic acid, another indicator for the reactor performance in all three units was way below 800 mg/L thus the digester balance was on par.

  19. Ulcer healing activity of Mumijo aqueous extract against acetic acid induced gastric ulcer in rats

    PubMed Central

    Shahrokhi, Nader; Keshavarzi, Zakieh; Khaksari, Mohammad

    2015-01-01

    Objective: Gastric ulcer is an important clinical problem, chiefly due to extensive use of some drugs. The aim was to assess the activity of Mumijo extract (which is used in traditional medicine) against acetic acid induced gastric ulcer in rats. Materials and Methods: The aqueous extract of Mumijo was prepared. Animals were randomly (n = 10) divided into four groups: Control, sham-operated group (received 0.2 ml of acetic acid to induce gastric ulcer), Mumijo (100 mg/kg/daily) were given for 4 days postacetic acid administration, and ranitidine group (20 mg/kg). The assessed parameters were pH and pepsin levels (by Anson method) of gastric contents and gastric histopathology. Ranitidine was used as reference anti-ulcer drug. Results: The extract (100 mg/kg/daily, p.o.) inhibited acid acetic-induced gastric ulceration by elevating its pH versus sham group (P < 0.01) and decreasing the pepsin levels compared to standard drug, ranitidine (P < 0.05). The histopathology data showed that the treatment with Mumijo extract had a significant protection against all mucosal damages. Conclusion: Mumijo extract has potent antiulcer activity. Its anti-ulcer property probably acts via a reduction in gastric acid secretion and pepsin levels. The obtained results support the use of this herbal material in folk medicine. PMID:25709338

  20. Mercury analysis of various types of coal using acid extraction and pyrolysis methods

    SciTech Connect

    Jae Young Park; Jong Hyun Won; Tai Gyu Lee

    2006-12-15

    The mercury contents of various types of coal currently consumed in Korea were analyzed using acid extraction and pyrolysis methods. The results of analysis by acid extraction and pyrolysis methods were compared and discussed. Generally, high mercury concentrations of 105.6 to 434.5 ng/g (by acid extraction) and 125.7 to 475.4 ng/g (by pyrolysis) were obtained for tested anthracite coals in this study. For bituminous coals, the mercury contents were 11.5-48 ng/g (by acid extraction) and 12.5-52.4 ng/g (by pyrolysis). For coal samples, much simpler and far less time-consuming pyrolysis method tends to give higher values for the Hg concentration than the acid extraction method (by less than 10%) because of the interference from a UV absorption by SOx generated during thermal destruction of coal matrix. Also, further analysis shows that coals with higher densities have higher mercury contents and that the sulfur and mercury contents of coals are positively correlated with each other. 10 refs., 4 figs., 2 tabs.

  1. Recovery and separation of sulfuric acid and iron from dilute acidic sulfate effluent and waste sulfuric acid by solvent extraction and stripping.

    PubMed

    Qifeng, Wei; Xiulian, Ren; Jingjing, Guo; Yongxing, Chen

    2016-03-01

    The recovery and simultaneous separation of sulfuric acid and iron from dilute acidic sulfate effluent (DASE) and waste sulfuric acid (WSA) have been an earnest wish for researchers and the entire sulfate process-based titanium pigment industry. To reduce the pollution of the waste acid and make a comprehensive use of the iron and sulfuric acid in it, a new environmentally friendly recovery and separation process for the DASE and the WSA is proposed. This process is based on the reactive extraction of sulfuric acid and Fe(III) from the DASE. Simultaneously, stripping of Fe(III) is carried out in the loaded organic phase with the WSA. Compared to the conventional ways, this innovative method allows the effective extraction of sulfuric acid and iron from the DASE, and the stripping of Fe(III) from the loaded organic phase with the WSA. Trioctylamine (TOA) and tributyl phosphate (TBP) in kerosene (10-50%) were used as organic phases for solvent extraction. Under the optimal conditions, about 98% of Fe(III) and sulfuric acid were removed from the DASE, and about 99.9% of Fe(III) in the organic phase was stripped with the WSA. PMID:26546698

  2. A newly developed kit for the measurement of urinary liver-type fatty acid-binding protein as a biomarker for acute kidney injury in patients with critical care.

    PubMed

    Sato, Ryo; Suzuki, Yasushi; Takahashi, Gaku; Kojika, Masahiro; Inoue, Yoshihiro; Endo, Shigeatsu

    2015-03-01

    In recent years, it has been reported that the urinary level of Liver-type fatty acid-binding protein (L-FABP) serves as a useful biomarker for diagnosing acute kidney injury (AKI) or sepsis complicated by AKI. However, because the urinary level of L-FABP is currently measured by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA), several days may elapse before the results of the measurement become available. We have newly developed a simplified kit, the Dip-test, for measuring the urinary level of L-FABP. The Dip-test was measured at 80 measurement points (22 points in noninfectious disease, 13 points in SIRS, 20 points in infectious disease, and 25 points in sepsis) in 20 patients. The urinary L-FABP levels as determined by ELISA in relation to the results of the Dip-test were as follows: 10.10 ± 12.85 ng/ml in patients with a negative Dip-test ([-] group), 41.93 ± 50.51 ng/ml in patients with a ± test ([±] group), 70.36 ± 73.70 ng/ml in patients with a positive test ([+] group), 1048.96 ± 2117.68 ng/ml in patients with a 2 + test ([2+] group), and 23,571.55 ± 21,737.45 ng/ml in patients with a 3 + test ([3+] group). The following tendency was noted: the stronger the positive Dip-test reaction, the higher the urinary L-FABP level. Multigroup comparison revealed a significant differences in the urinary L-FABP levels between the Dip-test (-) group and each of the other groups. In this study, the usefulness of the Dip-test, our newly developed simplified kit for measuring the urinary L-FABP level, is suggested. PMID:25499195

  3. Microbial process for the preparation of acetic acid, as well as solvent for its extraction from the fermentation broth

    DOEpatents

    Gaddy, James L.; Clausen, Edgar C.; Ko, Ching-Whan; Wade, Leslie E.; Wikstrom, Carl V.

    2004-06-22

    A modified water-immiscible solvent useful in the extraction of acetic acid from aqueous streams is a substantially pure mixture of isomers of highly branched di-alkyl amines. Solvent mixtures formed of such a modified solvent with a desired co-solvent, preferably a low boiling hydrocarbon, are useful in the extraction of acetic acid from aqueous gaseous streams. An anaerobic microbial fermentation process for the production of acetic acid employs such solvents, under conditions which limit amide formation by the solvent and thus increase the efficiency of acetic acid recovery. Methods for the direct extraction of acetic acid and the extractive fermentation of acetic acid also employ the modified solvents and increase efficiency of acetic acid production. Such increases in efficiency are also obtained where the energy source for the microbial fermentation contains carbon dioxide and the method includes a carbon dioxide stripping step prior to extraction of acetic acid in solvent.

  4. Microbial process for the preparation of acetic acid, as well as solvent for its extraction from the fermentation broth

    DOEpatents

    Gaddy, James L.; Clausen, Edgar C.; Ko, Ching-Whan; Wade, Leslie E.; Wikstrom, Carl V.

    2007-03-27

    A modified water-immiscible solvent useful in the extraction of acetic acid from aqueous streams is a substantially pure mixture of isomers of highly branched di-alkyl amines. Solvent mixtures formed of such a modified solvent with a desired co-solvent, preferably a low boiling hydrocarbon, are useful in the extraction of acetic acid from aqueous gaseous streams. An anaerobic microbial fermentation process for the production of acetic acid employs such solvents, under conditions which limit amide formation by the solvent and thus increase the efficiency of acetic acid recovery. Methods for the direct extraction of acetic acid and the extractive fermentation of acetic acid also employ the modified solvents and increase efficiency of acetic acid production. Such increases in efficiency are also obtained where the energy source for the microbial fermentation contains carbon dioxide and the method includes a carbon dioxide stripping step prior to extraction of acetic acid in solvent.

  5. Two-step voltage dual electromembrane extraction: A new approach to simultaneous extraction of acidic and basic drugs.

    PubMed

    Asadi, Sakine; Nojavan, Saeed

    2016-06-01

    In the present work, acidic and basic drugs were simultaneously extracted by a novel method of high efficiency herein referred to as two-step voltage dual electromembrane extraction (TSV-DEME). Optimizing effective parameters such as composition of organic liquid membrane, pH values of donor and acceptor solutions, voltage and duration of each step, the method had its figures of merit investigated in pure water, human plasma, wastewater, and breast milk samples. Simultaneous extraction of acidic and basic drugs was done by applying potentials of 150 V and 400 V for 6 min and 19 min as the first and second steps, respectively. The model compounds were extracted from 4 mL of sample solution (pH = 6) into 20 μL of each acceptor solution (32 mM NaOH for acidic drugs and 32 mM HCL for basic drugs). 1-Octanol was immobilized within the pores of a porous hollow fiber of polypropylene, as the supported liquid membrane (SLM) for acidic drugs, and 2-ethyle hexanol, as the SLM for basic drugs. The proposed TSV-DEME technique provided good linearity with the resulting correlation coefficients ranging from 0.993 to 0.998 over a concentration range of 1-1000 ng mL(-1). The limit of detections of the drugs were found to range within 0.3-1.5 ng mL(-1), while the corresponding repeatability ranged from 7.7 to 15.5% (n = 4). The proposed method was further compared to simple dual electromembrane extraction (DEME), indicating significantly higher recoveries for TSV-DEME procedure (38.1-68%), as compared to those of simple DEME procedure (17.7-46%). Finally, the optimized TSV-DEME was applied to extract and quantify model compounds in breast milk, wastewater, and plasma samples. PMID:27155299

  6. Study on synthetic methods of trialkyl phosphate oxide and its extraction behavior of some acids

    SciTech Connect

    Yu, M.J.; Su, Y.F.

    1987-01-01

    Trioctyl phosphine oxide (TOPO) is useful for the extraction of many inorganic and organic compounds. A mixed trialkyl phosphine oxide (TRPO) is similar in property to TOPO. The total number of carbon atoms per molecule of TRPO ranges from 15 to 27. Three methods for synthesizing TRPO are described in this paper. When TRPO is synthesized from an alcohol mixture it is significantly cheaper than a single pure alcohol as required for the production of TOPO; tedious purification steps are eliminated. TRPO is a brown liquid which is very slightly soluble in water. Toxicological measurements of LD50, AMES test, hereditary and accumulative toxicity show that TRPO is safe for use in the extraction of some pharmaceutical and biochemical compounds. Examinations of IR and NMR show that the complex interaction of P=O bond of TRPO with extracted substances is the same as that of TOPO. The distribution coefficients of phosphoric acid, citric acid, malic acid, oxalic acid, and tartaric acid with TRPO are reported. The extraction of these acids is believed to proceed by neutral-complex mechanism.

  7. Multiresponse optimization of an extraction procedure of carnosol and rosmarinic and carnosic acids from rosemary.

    PubMed

    Oliveira, Gerlon de A R; de Oliveira, Anselmo E; da Conceição, Edemílson C; Leles, Maria I G

    2016-11-15

    A green solvent-based optimization for rosmarinic acid (RA), carnosol (COH), and carnosic acid (CA) extraction, the three main antioxidants from rosemary, was performed. The conventional solid-liquid extraction was optimized using a central composite design (CCD) followed by the desirability approach. In the CCD analysis the quantitative effects of extraction time (4.8-55.2min), liquid-to-solid ratio (4.6-21.4mLg(-1)), and ethanol content (44.8-95.2% v/v) were determined for the extracted amount of antioxidants, their concentrations in the extract, and the extraction yield. Samples were analyzed by HPLC and the antioxidants were identified by comparison with pure standard retention times and UV spectra. The desirability function that simultaneously maximizes the antioxidants extraction and their concentrations in the final product was validated. The extraction using a hydroalcoholic solution 70% v/v, at low liquid-to-solid ratio (5mLg(-1)), and after 55-min yielded an antioxidant recovery rate of 89.8%, and a final product 4.75 times richer in the main antioxidants than the raw material. PMID:27283656

  8. Antioxidant activity and sensory analysis of a rosmarinic acid-enriched extract of garden sage (Salvia officinalis)

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    A novel extract of S. officinalis (garden sage) was prepared using supercritical carbon dioxide (SC-CO2) extraction, followed by a Soxhlet hot water extraction. The resulting extract was enriched in polyphenols, including rosmarinic acid (RA), which has shown promising health benefits in animals. Th...

  9. Comparison of Dithiophosphinic and Phosphinic Acid Derivatives for Minor Actinide Extraction

    SciTech Connect

    Mason K Harrup; Dean R. Peterman; Thomas A. Luther; Mitchell R. Greenhalgh; John R. Klaehn

    2008-03-01

    A new extractant for the separation of actinide(III) and lanthanide(III), bis(otrifluoromethylphenyl) phosphinic acid (O-PA) was synthesized. The synthetic route employed mirrors one that was employed to produce the sulfur containing analog bis(otrifluoromethylphenyl) dithiophosphinic acid (S-PA). Multinuclear NMR spectroscopy was used for elementary characterization of the new O-PA derivative. This new O-PA extractant was used to perform Am(III)/Eu(III) separations and the results were directly compared to those obtained in identical separation experiments using S-PA, an extractant that is known to exhibit separation factors of ~100,000 at low pH. The separations data are presented and discussed in terms comparing the nature of the oxygen atom as a donor to that of the sulfur atom in extractants that are otherwise identical.

  10. Comparison of Aromatic Dithiophoshinic and Phosphinic Acid Derivatives for Minor Actinide Extraction

    SciTech Connect

    John R. Klaehn; Dean R. Peterman; Mason K. Harrup; Richard D. Tillotson; Mitchell R. Greenhalgh; Thomas A. Luther; Jack D. Law; Lee M. Daniels

    2008-03-01

    A new extractant for the separation of actinide(III) and lanthanide(III), bis(otrifluoromethylphenyl) phosphinic acid (O-PA) was synthesized. The synthetic route employed mirrors one that was employed to produce the sulfur containing analog bis(otrifluoromethylphenyl) dithiophosphinic acid (S-PA). Multinuclear NMR spectroscopy was used for elementary characterization of the new O-PA derivative. This new O-PA extractant was used to perform Am(III)/Eu(III) separations and the results were directly compared to those obtained in identical separation experiments using S-PA, an extractant that is known to exhibit separation factors of ~100,000 at low pH. The separations data are presented and discussed in terms comparing the nature of the oxygen atom as a donor to that of the sulfur atom in extractants that are otherwise identical.

  11. Procedure optimization for extracting short-chain fatty acids from human faeces.

    PubMed

    Dobrowolska Iwanek, Justyna; Zagrodzki, Paweł; Woźniakiewicz, Michał; Woźniakiewicz, Aneta; Zwolińska Wcisło, Małgorzata; Winnicka, Diana; Paśko, Paweł

    2016-05-30

    Short-chain fatty acids play an important role in the physiology and metabolism of the colon. Disturbed balance of such compounds in human gut can significantly contribute to etiological factors of various gastrointestinal disorders and it may also increase the risk of developing cancer or cardiovascular diseases. The aim of the study was to select the optimal parameters for acetic, propionic and butyric acids extraction from stool samples. The experimental conditions were optimized with respect to the solvent sample shacking time, sample ultrasounds (Ultrasound-Assisted Extraction, UAE) exposure time and the number of extractions from the particulate stool samples. The screening of experimental parameters was conducted with fractional factorial design of experiments, namely 3(3-1). The optimal conditions for UAE were found, namely ultrasound digestion time of 40min (at 35°C), shaking time of 4min, and the three subsequent extractions. PMID:26977586

  12. Flavonoids and Phenolic Acids in Methanolic Extracts, Infusions and Tinctures from Commercial Samples of Lemon Balm.

    PubMed

    Arceusz, Agnieszka; Wesolowski, Marek; Ulewicz-Magulska, Beata

    2015-06-01

    The aim of this study was to quantify the levels of flavonoids (rutin, myricetin, quercetin, kaempferol) and phenolic acids (gallic, p-coumaric, rosmarinic, syringic, caffeic, chlorogenic, ellagic, ferulic) in lemon balm (Melissa officinalis L.) commonly used as a culinary, aromatic and medicinal herb. A rapid and reliable HPLC procedure was developed to determine the phenolic compounds in methanolic extracts, infusions and tinctures prepared from lemon balm. Except for myricetin and quercetin, as well as ellagic, gallic and rosmarinic acids, higher levels of the analytes under study were determined in the methanolic extracts (up to 22 mg/g of dry weight, DW), than in infusions (up to 5 mg/g DW). Tinctures were the poorest in flavonoids and phenolic acids (below 550 μg/g DW), except for ellagic and rosmarinic acids, which were quantified in tinctures at higher levels (mg/g DW). To sum up, the flavonoids were extracted more effectively in the infusions and tinctures than the phenolic acids. Statistically significant correlations were found between phenolic acids, possibly owing to similar biochemical pathways of the compounds. The hierarchical cluster and principal component analyses have also shown that the samples of lemon balm could be differentiated based on the levels of flavonoids and phenolic acids. PMID:26197530

  13. SIMPLE METHOD FOR THE EXTRACTION OF PHOTOPIGMENTS AND MYCOSPORINE-LIKE AMINO ACIDS (MAAS) FROM SYMBIODINIUM SPP.

    EPA Science Inventory

    Numerous extraction methods have been developed and used in the quantitation of both photopigments and mycosporine amino acids (MAAs) found in Symbiodinium sp. and zooanthellate metazoans. We have development of a simple, mild extraction procedure using methanol, which when coupl...

  14. Parallel artificial liquid membrane extraction of acidic drugs from human plasma.

    PubMed

    Roldán-Pijuán, Mercedes; Pedersen-Bjergaard, Stig; Gjelstad, Astrid

    2015-04-01

    The new sample preparation concept "Parallel artificial liquid membrane extraction (PALME)" was evaluated for extraction of the acidic drugs ketoprofen, fenoprofen, diclofenac, flurbiprofen, ibuprofen, and gemfibrozil from human plasma samples. Plasma samples (250 μL) were loaded into individual wells in a 96-well donor plate and diluted with HCl to protonate the acidic drugs. The acidic drugs were extracted as protonated species from the individual plasma samples, through corresponding artificial liquid membranes each comprising 2 μL of dihexyl ether, and into corresponding acceptor solutions each comprising 50 μL of 25 mM ammonia solution (pH 10). The liquid membranes and the acceptor solutions were located in a 96-well filter plate, which was sandwiched with the 96-well donor plate during extraction. Parallel extraction of several samples was performed for 15 to 60 min, followed by high-performance liquid chromatography-ultraviolet detection of the individual acceptor solutions. Important PALME parameters including the chemical composition of the liquid membrane, extraction time, and sample pH were optimized, and the extraction performance was evaluated. Except for flurbiprofen, exhaustive extraction was accomplished from plasma. Linearity was obtained for all six drugs in the range 0.025-10 μg/mL, with r (2) values ranging between 0.998 and 1.000. Precision data were in the range 3-22% RSD, and accuracy data were within 72-130% with spiked plasma samples. Based on the current experiences, PALME showed substantial potential for future high-throughput bioanalysis of non-polar acidic drugs. PMID:25682297

  15. Effect of temperature on the extraction of Cu(II) by oleic acid

    SciTech Connect

    Fatibello-Filho, O.; Trofino, J.C.; Neves, E.F.A.

    1986-01-01

    The effects of the temperature on the extraction of Cu(II) with oleic acid has been studied in the temperature range 283-323K. The temperature dependence of the conditional constant of extraction is given in the form: lnK/sub ext/ = -2.46 + 4352.21 (- 1/T) with ..delta..H/sup 0//sub ext/ equal to 36.2KJ/mol.K (endothermic process).

  16. 14 CFR Appendix A to Part 121 - First Aid Kits and Emergency Medical Kits

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 3 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false First Aid Kits and Emergency Medical Kits A... REQUIREMENTS: DOMESTIC, FLAG, AND SUPPLEMENTAL OPERATIONS Pt. 121, App. A Appendix A to Part 121—First Aid Kits and Emergency Medical Kits Approved first-aid kits, at least one approved emergency medical kit,...

  17. 14 CFR Appendix A to Part 121 - First Aid Kits and Emergency Medical Kits

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 3 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false First Aid Kits and Emergency Medical Kits A... REQUIREMENTS: DOMESTIC, FLAG, AND SUPPLEMENTAL OPERATIONS Pt. 121, App. A Appendix A to Part 121—First Aid Kits and Emergency Medical Kits Approved first-aid kits, at least one approved emergency medical kit,...

  18. 14 CFR Appendix A to Part 121 - First Aid Kits and Emergency Medical Kits

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 3 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false First Aid Kits and Emergency Medical Kits A... REQUIREMENTS: DOMESTIC, FLAG, AND SUPPLEMENTAL OPERATIONS Pt. 121, App. A Appendix A to Part 121—First Aid Kits and Emergency Medical Kits Approved first-aid kits, at least one approved emergency medical kit,...

  19. 14 CFR Appendix A to Part 121 - First Aid Kits and Emergency Medical Kits

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 3 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false First Aid Kits and Emergency Medical Kits A... REQUIREMENTS: DOMESTIC, FLAG, AND SUPPLEMENTAL OPERATIONS Pt. 121, App. A Appendix A to Part 121—First Aid Kits and Emergency Medical Kits Approved first-aid kits, at least one approved emergency medical kit,...

  20. 14 CFR Appendix A to Part 121 - First Aid Kits and Emergency Medical Kits

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 3 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false First Aid Kits and Emergency Medical Kits A... REQUIREMENTS: DOMESTIC, FLAG, AND SUPPLEMENTAL OPERATIONS Pt. 121, App. A Appendix A to Part 121—First Aid Kits and Emergency Medical Kits Approved first-aid kits, at least one approved emergency medical kit,...

  1. Culture of the Caribbean Kit.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    1974

    This document describes the contents of a kit considered to have been designed to extent the learning of pupils who are exposed to films, film strips, and other programs that introduce Puerto Ricans and people of other Caribbean regions. The kits are held to be usable in conjunction with the film strips, as library or showcase presentations, or as…

  2. First Follow Nature, Kit II.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    1971

    Developing pupils' awareness of their environment, learning to distinguish between what is pleasant and unpleasant, and examining acts of man to determine which are destructive and which are in harmony with nature are the purposes of Scholastic's Earth Corps Environmental Study Kits for Grades 1-6. This kit explores in depth the reasons some…

  3. Improve Quality: Use Tool Kits.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gartner, Sue

    2001-01-01

    Addresses issues of defining quality in both business and community service. Describes the use of a regulatory tool kit containing rules and regulations a child care center must follow to ensure children's health, safety, and well-being. Specific tool kit types described include regulatory, government funded, rating scale, and NAEYC. (SD)

  4. Look Around You, Kit I.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    1971

    Developing pupils' awareness of their environment, learning to distinguish between what is pleasant and unpleasant, and examining acts of man to determine which are destructive and which are in harmony with nature are the purposes of Scholastic's Earth Corps Environmental Study Kits for grades 1-6. This kit is designed to help the child develop…

  5. Biotransformation and improved enzymatic extraction of chlorogenic acid from coffee pulp by filamentous fungi.

    PubMed

    Torres-Mancera, María Teresa; Baqueiro-Peña, Itzamná; Figueroa-Montero, Arturo; Rodríguez-Serrano, Gabriela; González-Zamora, Eduardo; Favela-Torres, Ernesto; Saucedo-Castañeda, Gerardo

    2013-01-01

    The highest enzymatic extraction of covalent linked chlorogenic (36.1%) and caffeic (CA) (33%) acids from coffee pulp (CP) was achieved by solid-state fermentation with a mixture of three enzymatic extracts produced by Aspergillus tamarii, Rhizomucor pusillus, and Trametes sp. Enzyme extracts were produced in a practical inexpensive way. Synergistic effects on the extraction yield were observed when more than one enzyme extract was used. In addition, biotransformation of chlorogenic acid (ChA) by Aspergillus niger C23308 was studied. Equimolar transformation of ChA into CA and quinic acids (QA) was observed during the first 36 h in submerged culture. Subsequently, after 36 h, equimolar transformation of CA into protocatechuic acid was observed; this pathway is being reported for the first time for A. niger. QA was used as a carbon source by A. niger C23308. This study presents the potential of using CP to produce enzymes and compounds such as ChA with biological activities. PMID:23341203

  6. Enhanced absorption of boswellic acids by a lecithin delivery form (Phytosome(®)) of Boswellia extract.

    PubMed

    Hüsch, Jan; Bohnet, Janine; Fricker, Gert; Skarke, Carsten; Artaria, Christian; Appendino, Giovanni; Schubert-Zsilavecz, Manfred; Abdel-Tawab, Mona

    2013-01-01

    The anti-inflammatory potential of Boswellia serrata gum resin extracts has been demonstrated in vitro and in animal studies as well as in pilot clinical trials. However, pharmacokinetic studies have evidenced low systemic absorption of boswellic acids (BAs), especially of KBA and AKBA, in rodents and humans. This observation has provided a rationale to improve the formulation of Boswellia extract. We present here the results of a murine comparative bioavailability study of Casperome™, a soy lecithin formulation of standardized B. serrata gum resin extract (BE), and its corresponding non-formulated extract. The concentration of the six major BAs [11-keto-β-boswellic acid (KBA), acetyl-11-keto-β-boswellic acid (AKBA), β-boswellic acid (βBA), acetyl-β-boswellic acid (AβBA), α-boswellic acid (αBA), and acetyl-α-boswellic acid (AαBA)] was evaluated in the plasma and in a series of tissues (brain, muscle, eye, liver and kidney), providing the first data on tissue distribution of BAs. Weight equivalent and equimolar oral administration of Casperome™ provided significantly higher plasma levels (up to 7-fold for KBA, and 3-fold for βBA quantified as area under the plasma concentration time curve, AUC(last)) compared to the non-formulated extract. This was accompanied by remarkably higher tissue levels. Of particular relevance was the marked increase in brain concentration of KBA and AKBA (35-fold) as well as βBA (3-fold) following Casperome™ administration. Notably, up to 17 times higher BA levels were observed in poorly vascularized organs such as the eye. The increased systemic availability of BAs and the improved tissue distribution, qualify Casperome™ for further clinical development to fully exploit the clinical potential of BE. PMID:23092618

  7. Distribution of zirconium in petroleum sulfoxides during extraction and sorption from nitric and hydrochloric acid solutions

    SciTech Connect

    Turanov, A.N.

    1988-11-20

    Petroleum sulfoxides (PSO) are effective extractants for several metals. We discussed the distribution of petroleum sulfoxides and zirconium between aqueous solutions of hydrochloric and nitric acid and organic solvents, and also the macroporous sorbent impregnated with PSO. For the investigation we used a macroposous copolymer of styrene with divinylbenzene. Our investigation showed a noticeable decrease in the contamination of the raffinates by petroleum sulfoxides and their more complete utilization as extractant of metals from solutions of acids when PSO is deposited on a macroporous copolymer of styrene with divinylbenzene.

  8. Optimization of pectin extraction from banana peels with citric acid by using response surface methodology.

    PubMed

    Oliveira, Túlio Ítalo S; Rosa, Morsyleide F; Cavalcante, Fabio Lima; Pereira, Paulo Henrique F; Moates, Graham K; Wellner, Nikolaus; Mazzetto, Selma E; Waldron, Keith W; Azeredo, Henriette M C

    2016-05-01

    A central composite design was used to determine effects of pH (2.0-4.5), extraction temperature (70-90 °C) and time (120-240 min) on the yield, degree of methoxylation (DM) and galacturonic acid content (GA) of pectins extracted from banana peels with citric acid. Changes in composition during the main steps of pectin extraction were followed by Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) spectroscopy. FTIR was also used to determine DM and GA of pectins. Harsh temperature and pH conditions enhanced the extraction yield, but decreased DM. GA presented a maximum value at 83 °C, 190 min, and pH 2.7. The yield of galacturonic acid (YGA), which took into account both the extraction yield and the pectin purity, was improved by higher temperature and lower pH values. The optimum extraction conditions, defined as those resulting in a maximum YGA while keeping DM at a minimum of 51%, were: 87 °C, 160 min, pH 2.0. PMID:26769512

  9. Recovery of acids from anaerobic acidification broth by liquid-liquid extraction.

    PubMed

    Alkaya, Emrah; Kaptan, Serkan; Ozkan, Leyla; Uludag-Demirer, Sibel; Demirer, Göksel N

    2009-11-01

    In this study, anaerobic acidification of sugar beet processing wastes and subsequent liquid-liquid extraction of produced fermentation metabolites were investigated. The aim of extraction experiments was to asses the influence of pH and extractant (trioctylphosphine oxide (TOPO) in kerosene) concentrations on the recovery of volatile fatty acids (VFAs) from fermentation broth. The effect of TOPO in kerosene concentration was as crucial as the effect of pH on the recovery of VFAs via extraction. Consequently, pH 2.5 was determined as optimum. At this pH, percent recoveries of VFAs were changed from 43% to 98%, depending on the type of the acid extracted (acetic, butyric, propionic and valeric acids) and the concentration of TOPO in kerosene (5-20%). As the concentration of TOPO in kerosene was increased, efficiency of extraction was increased. As a result, highest VFA recoveries (61-98%) were observed at 20% TOPO in kerosene with distribution ratio values ranging between 1.54 and 40.79. At pH 2.5, the increase in TOPO concentration directly increased the chemical oxygen demand (COD) removal efficiencies, as it does for total VFA recovery. Up to 72% COD removals were achieved, at 20% TOPO in kerosene at pH 2.5, while the removal efficiencies remained between 19% and 22% at pH 5.5. PMID:19747710

  10. EXTRACTION AND ELECTROSPINNING OF ZEIN EXTRACTED FROM CORN GLUTEN MEAL USING ACETIC ACID

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    It has been demonstrated that zein fibers can be produced using the electrospinning technique. Fibers electrospun from acetic acid solution under suitable conditions provide fibers with a more consistent morphology (round 0.5-2.0 micro fibers) compared to fibers produced from aqueous ethanol soluti...

  11. The removal of uranium from acidic media using ion exchange and/or extraction chromatography

    SciTech Connect

    FitzPatrick, J.R.; Schake, B.S.; Murphy, J.; Holmes, K; West, M.H.

    1996-06-01

    The separation and purification of uranium from either nitric acid or hydrochloric acid media can be accomplished by using either solvent extraction or ion-exchange. Over the past two years at Los Alamos, emerging programs are focused on recapturing the expertise required to do limited, small-quantity processing of enriched uranium. During this period of time, we have been investigating ion-addition, waste stream polishing is associated with this effort in order to achieve more complete removal of uranium prior to recycle of the acid. Extraction chromatography has been demonstrated to further polish the uranium from both nitric and hydrochloric acid media thus allowing for a more complete recovery of the actinide material and creation of less waste during the processing steps.

  12. Cosmic Light EDU kit

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Doran, Rosa

    2015-08-01

    In 2015 we celebrate the International Year of Light, a great opportunity to promote awareness about the importance of light coming from the Cosmos and what messages it is bringing to mankind. In parallel a unique moment to attract the attention of stakeholders on the dangers of light pollution and its impact in our lives and our pursuit of more knowledge. In this presentation I want to present one of the conrnerstones of IYL2015, a partnership between the Galileo Teacher Training Program, Universe Awareness and Globe at Night, the Cosmic Light EDU kit. The aim of this project is to assemble a core set of tools and resources representing our basic knowledge pilars about the Universe and simple means to preserve our night sky.

  13. One-solvent extraction of astaxanthin from lactic acid fermented shrimp wastes.

    PubMed

    Gimeno, Miquel; Ramírez-Hernández, Jessica Yesemite; Mártinez-Ibarra, César; Pacheco, Neith; García-Arrazola, Roeb; Bárzana, Eduardo; Shirai, Keiko

    2007-12-12

    Free astaxanthin one-solvent extractions with ethanol, acetone, and liquid 1,1,1,2-tetrafluoroethane from raw and lactic acid fermented (ensilaged) shrimp residues were investigated. The total carotenoid recovery from ensilaged shrimp wastes was higher than that from non-ensilaged ones as assessed by HPLC analyses. Acetone gave the highest extraction yields of free astaxanthin with up to 115 microg/g of material. Moreover, liquid tetrafluoroethane is reported for the first time in a successful one-solvent extraction of carotenoids from shrimp. PMID:18020413

  14. One-stop Genomic DNA Extraction by Salicylic Acid Coated Magnetic Nanoparticles

    PubMed Central

    Zhou, Zhongwu; Kadam, Ulhas; Irudayaraj, Joseph

    2014-01-01

    Salicylic acid coated magnetic nanoparticles were prepared via a modified, one-step synthesis and used for a one-stop extraction of genomic DNA from mammalian cells. The synthesized magnetic particles were used for magnetic separation of cells from the media by non-specific binding of the particles, as well as extraction of genomic DNA from the lysate. The quantity and quality were confirmed by agarose gel electrophoresis and polymerase chain reaction. The entire process of extraction and isolation can be completed within 30 min. Compared to traditional methods based on centrifugation and filtration, the established method is fast, simple, reliable, and environmentally-friendly. PMID:23911528

  15. Extraction of lycopene from tomato paste by ursodeoxycholic acid using the selective inclusion complex method.

    PubMed

    Seifi, Mahmoud; Seifi, Parisa; Hadizadeh, Farzin; Mohajeri, Seyed Ahmad

    2013-11-01

    Lycopene, a precursor of β-carotene with well-known antioxidant activity and powerful health properties, can be found in many natural products such as tomato (Lycopersicon esculentum), watermelon, red pepper, and papaya. Many separation methods have been reported for extracting lycopene from its sources. The inclusion complex is an effective method for extraction and purification of organic chemicals. This procedure has 2 main components: host and guest molecules. In this study, lycopene (guest) was extracted from tomato paste by ursodeoxycholic acid, the inclusive agent (host). The molecular structure of the extracted lycopene was then confirmed by (1) HNMR and its purity was evaluated using high-performance liquid chromatography and UV-Vis spectrophotometry methods, in comparison with a standard product. The results indicated that the proposed separation method was very promising and could be used for the extraction and purification of lycopene from tomato paste. PMID:24111697

  16. Method for extracting lanthanides and actinides from acid solutions by modification of purex solvent

    DOEpatents

    Horwitz, E. Philip; Kalina, Dale G.

    1986-01-01

    A process for the recovery of actinide and lanthanide values from aqueous solutions with an extraction solution containing an organic extractant having the formula: ##STR1## where .phi. is phenyl, R.sup.1 is a straight or branched alkyl or alkoxyalkyl containing from 6 to 12 carbon atoms and R.sup.2 is an alkyl containing from 3 to 6 carbon atoms and phase modifiers in a water-immiscible hydrocarbon diluent. The addition of the extractant to the Purex process extractant, tri-n-butylphosphate in normal paraffin hydrocarbon diluent, will permit the extraction of multivalent lanthanide and actinide values from 0.1 to 12.0 molar acid solutions.

  17. Method for extracting lanthanides and actinides from acid solutions by modification of Purex solvent

    DOEpatents

    Horwitz, E.P.; Kalina, D.G.

    1986-03-04

    A process is described for the recovery of actinide and lanthanide values from aqueous solutions with an extraction solution containing an organic extractant having the formula as shown in a diagram where [phi] is phenyl, R[sup 1] is a straight or branched alkyl or alkoxyalkyl containing from 6 to 12 carbon atoms and R[sup 2] is an alkyl containing from 3 to 6 carbon atoms and phase modifiers in a water-immiscible hydrocarbon diluent. The addition of the extractant to the Purex process extractant, tri-n-butylphosphate in normal paraffin hydrocarbon diluent, will permit the extraction of multivalent lanthanide and actinide values from 0.1 to 12.0 molar acid solutions. 6 figs.

  18. Optimisation of DNA and RNA extraction from archival formalin-fixed tissue.

    PubMed Central

    Coombs, N J; Gough, A C; Primrose, J N

    1999-01-01

    Archival, formalin-fixed, paraffin-embedded tissue is an invaluable resource for molecular genetic studies but the extraction of high quality nucleic acid may be problematic. We have optimised DNA extraction by comparing 10 protocols, including a commercially available kit and a novel method that utilises a thermal cycler. The thermal cycler and Chelex-100 extraction method yielded DNA capable of amplification by PCR from every block and 61% of sections versus 54% using microwave and Chelex-100, 15% with classical xylene-based extraction and 60% of sections using the kit. Successful RNA extraction was observed, by beta-actin amplification, in 83.7% sections for samples treated by the thermal cycler and Chelex-100 method. Thermal cycler and Chelex-100 extraction of nucleic acid is reliable, quick and inexpensive. PMID:10454649

  19. Plant uptake of cadmium from acid-extracted anaerobically digested sewage sludge. [Beta vulgaris

    SciTech Connect

    Logan, T.J.; Feltz, R.E.

    1985-01-01

    Approximately 80% of the Cd in an anaerobically digested sewage sludge was removed by acid extraction and dewatering. The acid extracted sludge was treated by (i) neutralization to pH 5.9 with Ca(OH)/sub 2/, (ii) addition of monocalcium phosphate (MCP) followed by Ca(OH)/sub 2/ neutralization to pH 5.9, and, (iii) addition of rock phosphate (RP) followed by Ca(OH)/sub 2/ neutralization to pH 5.9. The three treated sludges and the non acid-extracted sludge were applied to Spinks loamy sand at rates equivalent to 18.7 and 37.4 ..mu..mol Cd kg/sup -1/. Swiss chard (Beta vulgaris) was grown in the greenhouse for 56 d. Cadmium, Fe, Ca, and P were measured in saturation extracts of treated soil after sludge addition. These data indicated that hydroxyapatite was stable throughout the study in the soil receiving MCP treated sludge but not in other soil treatments. Cadmium concentration in saturation extracts of the soil with MCP sludge decreased while Cd concentration in saturation extracts of the other sludge treatments were much higher throughout the study. Chard yields were higher in the control than in any of the sludge treatments, and the difference was attributed to greater N availability in the control. Cadmium concentration in Swiss chard tissue at harvest was significantly lower from the MCP sludge than from the other sludges. Cadmium concentration in chard tissue was also higher from the aerated sludge (11.9 mmol Cd kg/sup -1/) than from the three acid-extracted sludges (2.58-3.29 mmol Cd kg/sup -1/). No significant difference in the Cd concentration of chard was obtained for the 18.7 and 37.4 ..mu..mol Cd kg/sup -1/ rates of the MCP sludge, while Cd concentrations in chard increased linearly with Cd applied by the other sludges.

  20. HPLC quantification of all five ginkgolic acid derivatives in Ginkgo biloba extracts using 13 : 0 ginkgolic acid as a single marker compound.

    PubMed

    Wang, Ruwei; Kobayashi, Yuta; Lin, Yu; Rauwald, Hans Wilhelm; Yao, Jianbiao; Fang, Ling; Qiao, Hongxiang; Kuchta, Kenny

    2015-01-01

    An HPLC quantification method for ginkgolic acid derivatives in Ginkgo biloba leaf extracts was developed. Using 13 : 0 ginkgolic acid as a marker compound, the relative correlation factors of the four other ginkgolic acid derivatives - namely, 15 : 0 ginkgolic acid, 15 : 1 ginkgolic acid, 17 : 1 ginkgolic acid, and 17 : 2 ginkgolic acid - to 13 : 0 ginkgolic acid were determined by HPLC and subsequently used for calculating their contents in ten hydro-ethanolic refined extract samples. In other words, the content of 13 : 0 ginkgolic acid in the extracts was determined using the isolated compound as an external standard. Subsequently the now known concentration of this compound functioned as an internal standard for the quantification of the other four ginkgolic acid derivatives via the described correlation factors. This HPLC method was validated by two independent control measurements, one with an external standard for every individual compound and one based on the present method with the single marker compound alone. The results did not differ significantly in any of the 10 tested extract samples. The protocol presented here thus not only uses the same reference substance for G. biloba extracts as the current Chinese Pharmacopoeia method but also incorporates the advantages of the current European Pharmacopoeia approach. It is simple, reproducible, and can be used to determine the total contents of ginkgolic acid derivatives in G. biloba leaf extracts. PMID:25519835

  1. Polyphenolic composition, antioxidant and antibacterial activities for two Romanian subspecies of Achillea distans Waldst. et Kit. ex Willd.

    PubMed

    Benedec, Daniela; Vlase, Laurian; Oniga, Ilioara; Mot, Augustin C; Damian, Grigore; Hanganu, Daniela; Duma, Mihaela; Silaghi-Dumitrescu, Radu

    2013-01-01

    The aim of this work was to study the chemical composition, antioxidant and antibacterial properties of Achillea distans Waldst. et Kit. subsp. distans and Achillea distans Waldst. et Kit. subsp. alpina Rochel, from the Rodna Mountains (Romania). The identification and quantification of major phenolic compounds was performed by a HPLC-MS method. The total polyphenolic and flavonoid content was determined spectrophotometrically. The antioxidant activity was evaluated using the DPPH bleaching method, trolox equivalent antioxidant capacity assay (TEAC), hemoglobin ascorbate peroxidase activity inhibition (HAPX) assay, and an Electron Paramagnetic Resonance (EPR) spectroscopy method. A data indicated that A. distans subsp. alpina extract has more antioxidant activity than A. distans subsp. distans extract. Luteolin, apigenin, quercetin, caffeic and chlorogenic acids were present in the two extracts of A. distans, but in different amounts. Three flavonoids were detected only in A. distans subsp. alpina. The polyphenol-richer A. distans subsp. alpina extract showed a higher antioxidant activity than A. distans subsp. distans extract. A. distans subsp. distans extract showed inhibitory activity for Gram-positive bacteria, as evaluated with four species. The quantitative and qualitative differences between the two subspecies of Achillea distans could be used as a potential taxonomic marker in order to distinguish the species. PMID:23887715

  2. Identification of Bioactivity, Volatile and Fatty Acid Profile in Supercritical Fluid Extracts of Mexican arnica.

    PubMed

    García-Pérez, J Saúl; Cuéllar-Bermúdez, Sara P; Arévalo-Gallegos, Alejandra; Rodríguez-Rodríguez, José; Iqbal, Hafiz M N; Parra-Saldivar, Roberto

    2016-01-01

    Supercritical fluid extraction (SFE) is a sustainable technique used for the extraction of lipophilic metabolites such as pigments and fatty acids. Arnica plant is considered a potential candidate material with high antioxidant and antimicrobial activities. Therefore, in this study, a locally available Heterotheca inuloides, also known as Mexican arnica, was analyzed for the extraction of high-value compounds. Based on different pressure (P), temperature (T), and co-solvent (CoS), four treatments (T) were prepared. A maximum 7.13% yield was recovered from T2 (T = 60 °C, P = 10 MPa, CoS = 8 g/min), followed by 6.69% from T4 (T = 60 °C, P = 30 MPa, CoS = 4 g/min). Some bioactive sesquiterpenoids such as 7-hydroxycadalene, caryophyllene and δ-cadinene were identified in the extracts by GC/MS. The fatty acid profile revealed that the main components were palmitic acid (C16:0), followed by linoleic acid (C18:2ω6c), α-linolenic acid (C18:3ω3) and stearic acid (C18:0) differing in percent yield per treatment. Antibacterial activities were determined by the agar diffusion method, indicating that all the treatments exerted strong antibacterial activity against S. aureus, C. albicans, and E. coli strains. The antioxidant capacity of the extracts was also measured by three in vitro assays, DPPH, TEAC and FRAP, using Trolox as a standard. Results showed high antioxidant capacity enabling pharmaceutical applications of Mexican arnica. PMID:27626416

  3. Validated Method for the Characterization and Quantification of Extractable and Nonextractable Ellagitannins after Acid Hydrolysis in Pomegranate Fruits, Juices, and Extracts.

    PubMed

    García-Villalba, Rocío; Espín, Juan Carlos; Aaby, Kjersti; Alasalvar, Cesarettin; Heinonen, Marina; Jacobs, Griet; Voorspoels, Stefan; Koivumäki, Tuuli; Kroon, Paul A; Pelvan, Ebru; Saha, Shikha; Tomás-Barberán, Francisco A

    2015-07-29

    Pomegranates are one of the main highly valuable sources of ellagitannins. Despite the potential health benefits of these compounds, reliable data on their content in pomegranates and derived extracts and food products is lacking, as it is usually underestimated due to their complexity, diversity, and lack of commercially available standards. This study describes a new method for the analysis of the extractable and nonextractable ellagitannins based on the quantification of the acid hydrolysis products that include ellagic acid, gallic acid, sanguisorbic acid dilactone, valoneic acid dilactone, and gallagic acid dilactone in pomegranate samples. The study also shows the occurrence of ellagitannin C-glycosides in pomegranates. The method was optimized using a pomegranate peel extract. To quantify nonextractable ellagitannins, freeze-dried pomegranate fruit samples were directly hydrolyzed with 4 M HCl in water at 90 °C for 24 h followed by extraction of the pellet with dimethyl sulfoxide/methanol (50:50, v/v). The method was validated and reproducibility was assessed by means of an interlaboratory trial, showing high reproducibility across six laboratories with relative standard deviations below 15%. Their applicability was demonstrated in several pomegranate extracts, different parts of pomegranate fruit (husk, peels, and mesocarp), and commercial juices. A large variability has been found in the ellagitannin content (150-750 mg of hydrolysis products/g) and type (gallagic acid/ellagic acid ratios between 4 and 0.15) of the 11 pomegranate extracts studied. PMID:26158321

  4. Phytochemicals from Tradescantia albiflora Kunth Extracts Reduce Serum Uric Acid Levels in Oxonate-induced Rats

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Wen-Ling; Sheu, Shi-Yuan; Huang, Wen-Dar; Chuang, Ya-Ling; Tseng, Han-Chun; Hwang, Tzann-Shun; Fu, Yuan-Tsung; Kuo, Yueh-Hsiung; Yao, Chun-Hsu; Kuo, Tzong-Fu

    2016-01-01

    Background: Tradescantia albiflora (TA) Kunth (Commelinaceae) has been used for treating gout and hyperuricemia as folklore remedies in Taiwan. Therefore, it is worthwhile to study the effect of TA extracts on lowering uric acid activity. The hypouricemic effects of TA extracts on potassium oxonate (PO)-induced acute hyperuricemia were investigated for the first time. Materials and Methods: All treatments at the same volume (1 ml) were orally administered to the abdominal cavity of PO-induced hyperuricemic rats. One milliliter of TA extract in n-hexane (HE), ethyl acetate (EA), n-butanol (BuOH), and water fractions has 0.28, 0.21, 0.28, and 1.03 mg TA, respectively; and the plasma uric acid (PUA) level was measured for a consecutive 4 h after administration. Results: All four fractions' extracts derived from TA were observed to significantly reduce PUA compared with the PO group. The EA-soluble fraction (TA-EA) exhibited the best xanthine oxidase (XO) inhibitory activity. Following column chromatography, 12 phytochemicals were isolated and identified from the EA fraction. The IC50 values of isolated phytochemicals indicated that bracteanolide A (AR11) showed the remarkable XO inhibitory effect (IC50 value of 76.4 μg/ml). These findings showed that the in vivo hypouricemic effect in hyperuricemic rats was consistent with in vitro XO inhibitory activity, indicating that TA extracts and derived phytochemicals could be potential candidates as hypouricemic agents. SUMMARY Tradescantia albiflora extracts possess in vivo hypouricemic action in hyperuricemic ratsT. albiflora extracts exhibited strong inhibitory activity against xanthine oxidase (XO)Butenolide may play an important role in XO inhibitionThe extract bracteanolide A was demonstrated potent XO inhibitory activity in vitro. Abbreviations used: TA: Tradescantia albiflora, PO: potassium oxonate, HE: n-hexane, EA: ethyl acetate, BuOH: n-butanol, PUA: plasma uric acid, XO: xanthine oxidase, MeOH: methanol, IP

  5. Elemental and spectroscopic characterization of fractions of an acidic extract of oil sands process water.

    PubMed

    Jones, D; Scarlett, A G; West, C E; Frank, R A; Gieleciak, R; Hager, D; Pureveen, J; Tegelaar, E; Rowland, S J

    2013-11-01

    'Naphthenic acids' (NAs) in petroleum produced water and oil sands process water (OSPW), have been implicated in toxicological effects. However, many are not well characterized. A method for fractionation of NAs of an OSPW was used herein and a multi-method characterization of the fractions conducted. The unfractionated OSPW acidic extract was characterized by elemental analysis, electrospray ionization-Orbitrap-mass spectrometry (ESI-MS), and an esterified extract by Fourier Transform infrared (FTIR) and ultraviolet-visible (UV) absorption spectroscopy and by comprehensive multidimensional gas chromatography-MS (GCxGC-MS). Methyl esters were fractionated by argentation solid phase extraction (Ag(+) SPE) and fractions eluting with: hexane; diethyl ether: hexane and diethyl ether, examined. Each was weighed, examined by elemental analysis, FTIR, UV, GC-MS and GCxGC-MS (both nominal and high resolution MS). The ether fraction, containing sulfur, was also examined by GCxGC-sulfur chemiluminescence detection (GCxGC-SCD). The major ions detected by ESI-MS in the OSPW extract were assigned to alicyclic and aromatic 'O2' acids; sulfur was also present. Components recovered by Ag(+) SPE were also methyl esters of alicyclic and aromatic acids; these contained little sulfur or nitrogen. FTIR spectra showed that hydroxy acids and sulfoxides were absent or minor. UV spectra, along with the C/H ratio, further confirmed the aromaticity of the hexane:ether eluate. The more minor ether eluate contained further aromatics and 1.5% sulfur. FTIR spectra indicated free carboxylic acids, in addition to esters. Four major sulfur compounds were detected by GCxGC-SCD. GCxGC-high resolution MS indicated these were methyl esters of C18 S-containing, diaromatics with ≥C3 carboxylic acid side chains. PMID:23856466

  6. Automated DNA extraction from pollen in honey.

    PubMed

    Guertler, Patrick; Eicheldinger, Adelina; Muschler, Paul; Goerlich, Ottmar; Busch, Ulrich

    2014-04-15

    In recent years, honey has become subject of DNA analysis due to potential risks evoked by microorganisms, allergens or genetically modified organisms. However, so far, only a few DNA extraction procedures are available, mostly time-consuming and laborious. Therefore, we developed an automated DNA extraction method from pollen in honey based on a CTAB buffer-based DNA extraction using the Maxwell 16 instrument and the Maxwell 16 FFS Nucleic Acid Extraction System, Custom-Kit. We altered several components and extraction parameters and compared the optimised method with a manual CTAB buffer-based DNA isolation method. The automated DNA extraction was faster and resulted in higher DNA yield and sufficient DNA purity. Real-time PCR results obtained after automated DNA extraction are comparable to results after manual DNA extraction. No PCR inhibition was observed. The applicability of this method was further successfully confirmed by analysis of different routine honey samples. PMID:24295710

  7. Solvent extraction study of the thorium nitrate, nitric acid, and tributyl phosphate-dodecane system: density and acidity relationships

    SciTech Connect

    Weinberger, A.J.; Marley, J.L.; Costanzo, D.A.

    1980-05-01

    A solvent extraction study to determine equilibrium conditions of thorium nitrate-nitric acid with 30% tributyl phosphate in normal dodecane has been completed. Experimental conditions studied were 30 to 60{sup 0}C, 0.05 to 1.5 M Th(NO{sub 3}){sub 4}, and 0.0 to 3.0 M HNO{sub 3}. The extractant concentration was constant at 30% tributyl phosphate. The equilibrium experiments have produced data which demonstrate that thorium nitrate concentration, free acid, and density are related in equilibrium behavior between the aqueous and organic phases from 30 to 60{sup 0}C in the 30% tributyl phosphate-dodecane solvent extraction system. The concentration interactions apply to both the two- and three-phase regions. A linear correlation was observed for the density (D) of the aqueous or organic phase and the concentration of thorium and free acid. The general form of the equation is D = a(C/sub Th/ + bC/sub H/) + c, where a is the slope, b is the constant, c is the intercept, and C/sub Th/ and C/sub H/ are the molar concentrations of thorium and free acid respectively. The relationship of temperature, thorium nitrate, and free acid makes possible the definitions of the boundaries between the two- and three-phase regions. This dependence, in turn, permits operational control or simulation studies of the system within the two-phase region. The data demonstrate the interactions of the components of the Thorex system and can be used to improve the mathematical description of equilibrium in the SEPHIS-Thorex computer program.

  8. Direct determination of carnosic acid in a new active packaging based on natural extract of rosemary.

    PubMed

    Bentayeb, K; Rubio, C; Batlle, R; Nerín, C

    2007-11-01

    A new antioxidant film is being developed that incorporates a natural extract of rosemary and is intended for contact with food. The rosemary extract has been screened and carnosic acid and carnosol have been determined as the major antioxidant components (6.96% and 0.88%, respectively) that are responsible for the antioxidant properties of the whole extract. Thus, a fast method for the direct determination of carnosic acid in the packaging material, in order to evaluate the antioxidant capacity of the new active plastic, has been developed and optimized. The method consists of extraction from the plastic with methanol, followed by anion exchange solid-phase extraction and final analysis by UPLC-MS. Using this process, the recovery of carnosic acid is about 99%. The complete analytical performance of the method developed here is also assessed. The analytical features of the method, such as the relative standard deviation, reproducibility, repeatability, linear range, and detection and quantification limits, are shown. This method can be subsequently modified to monitor other active components in different packages, and it constitutes a crucial step forward in research into new and improved commercial antioxidant packages. PMID:17938896

  9. Comparison of fatty acid profile and antioxidant potential of extracts of seven Citrus rootstock seeds.

    PubMed

    Plastina, Pierluigi; Fazio, Alessia; Gabriele, Bartolo

    2012-01-01

    The extracts of seven Citrus rootstock seeds have been compared regarding fatty acid profile and antioxidant potential. Sour orange (Citrus aurantium L.) was found to contain the highest oil amount (34%), while the Poncirus trifoliata cultivars contained the highest percentage of unsaturated fatty acids (84-87%). In addition, the antioxidant properties of the extracts from defatted seeds have been evaluated by measuring their radical scavenging activity against 2,2'-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl. The highest antioxidant activities were observed in the case of the acetone extract of sour orange and Citrumelo Swingle (76% and 75%, respectively), at a concentration of 0.17 mg mL(-1). Moreover, the total phenolic content of the extracts, determined using the Folin-Ciocalteau reagent, was found to be correlated with the radical scavenging activity results. The acetone extracts of sour orange and Citrumelo Swingle exhibited the highest phenolic content [112.3 and 103.4 mg gallic acid equivalent g(-1) dry sample weight, respectively]. PMID:22236049

  10. Optimizing Medical Kits for Spaceflight

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Keenan, A. B,; Foy, Millennia; Myers, G.

    2014-01-01

    The Integrated Medical Model (IMM) is a probabilistic model that estimates medical event occurrences and mission outcomes for different mission profiles. IMM simulation outcomes describing the impact of medical events on the mission may be used to optimize the allocation of resources in medical kits. Efficient allocation of medical resources, subject to certain mass and volume constraints, is crucial to ensuring the best outcomes of in-flight medical events. We implement a new approach to this medical kit optimization problem. METHODS We frame medical kit optimization as a modified knapsack problem and implement an algorithm utilizing a dynamic programming technique. Using this algorithm, optimized medical kits were generated for 3 different mission scenarios with the goal of minimizing the probability of evacuation and maximizing the Crew Health Index (CHI) for each mission subject to mass and volume constraints. Simulation outcomes using these kits were also compared to outcomes using kits optimized..RESULTS The optimized medical kits generated by the algorithm described here resulted in predicted mission outcomes more closely approached the unlimited-resource scenario for Crew Health Index (CHI) than the implementation in under all optimization priorities. Furthermore, the approach described here improves upon in reducing evacuation when the optimization priority is minimizing the probability of evacuation. CONCLUSIONS This algorithm provides an efficient, effective means to objectively allocate medical resources for spaceflight missions using the Integrated Medical Model.

  11. A Java commodity grid kit.

    SciTech Connect

    von Laszewski, G.; Foster, I.; Gawor, J.; Lane, P.; Mathematics and Computer Science

    2001-07-01

    In this paper we report on the features of the Java Commodity Grid Kit. The Java CoG Kit provides middleware for accessing Grid functionality from the Java framework. Java CoG Kit middleware is general enough to design a variety of advanced Grid applications with quite different user requirements. Access to the Grid is established via Globus protocols, allowing the Java CoG Kit to communicate also with the C Globus reference implementation. Thus, the Java CoG Kit provides Grid developers with the ability to utilize the Grid, as well as numerous additional libraries and frameworks developed by the Java community to enable network, Internet, enterprise, and peer-to peer computing. A variety of projects have successfully used the client libraries of the Java CoG Kit to access Grids driven by the C Globus software. In this paper we also report on the efforts to develop server side Java CoG Kit components. As part of this research we have implemented a prototype pure Java resource management system that enables one to run Globus jobs on platforms on which a Java virtual machine is supported, including Windows NT machines.

  12. Comparison of methods of extracting messenger Ribonucleic Acid from ejaculated Porcine (Sus Scrofa) Spermatozoa

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    H. D. Guthrie, G.R. Welch, and L. A. Blomberg. Comparison of Methods of Extracting Messenger Ribonucleic Acid from Ejaculated Porcine (Sus Scrofa) Spermatozoa. Biotechnology and Germplasm Laboratory, Agricultural Research Service U. S. Department of Agriculture, Beltsville, MD 20705 The purpos...

  13. Phenolic acids composition of fruit extracts of Ber (Ziziphus mauritiana L., var. Golo lemai)

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Fruits of Ziziphus mauritiana L. (ber) are consumed in fresh and dried/processed form in many countries across Asia including Pakistan. In the present study, we analyzed the composition of total phenolic acids (free, soluble-bound and insoluble-bound) from Golo lemai ber fruit extracts by applying a...

  14. Hydrogen-Deuterium Exchange of Meteoritic Dicarboxylic Acids During Aqueous Extraction

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Fuller, M.; Huang, Y.

    2002-01-01

    This study examines the extent of hydrogen-deuterium exchange on dicarboxylic acids during aqueous extraction. Deuterium enrichment was observed to be a function of diacid structure as well as delta-D. Additional information is contained in the original extended abstract.

  15. Emerging Technology Summary. ACID EXTRACTION TREATMENT SYSTEM FOR TREATMENT OF METAL CONTAMINATED SOILS

    EPA Science Inventory

    The Acid Extraction Treatment System (AETS) is intended to reduce the concentrations and/or teachability of heavy metals in contaminated soils so the soil can be returned to the site from which it originated. The objective of the project was to determine the effectiveness and com...

  16. Influence of gelatinization on the extraction of phenolic acids from wheat fractions.

    PubMed

    Lu, Yingjian; Luthria, Devanand

    2016-03-01

    The effect of gelatinization on the analysis of phenolic acids from wheat bran, whole-wheat, and refined flour samples was investigated using two extraction procedures, namely, ultrasonic (UAE) and microwave (MAE). The total phenolic acid (TPA) quantity in wheat bran (2711-2913μg/g) was significantly higher than the whole (664-715μg/g) and refined wheat (109-112μg/g) flour samples by both extraction methods as analyzed by liquid chromatography mass spectrometry. The recovery of phenolic acids from the spiked wheat bran sample was higher than from either the whole or refined wheat flour samples by both extraction procedures. The recovery of TPA (74-89%) from whole and refined wheat flours by MAE was significantly lower than that of UAE (90-98%). This difference was attributed to the gelatinization of starch present in the wheat flours caused by MAE. Gelatinization reduces the extractability of phenolic acids from wheat flour samples. Furthermore, both spectrometric assays (total phenolic content and radical scavenging capacities) showed similar trend as compared to LC-MS analyses. PMID:26471664

  17. 21 CFR 573.500 - Condensed, extracted glutamic acid fermentation product.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Condensed, extracted glutamic acid fermentation product. 573.500 Section 573.500 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) ANIMAL DRUGS, FEEDS, AND RELATED PRODUCTS FOOD ADDITIVES PERMITTED IN FEED AND DRINKING WATER OF ANIMALS Food...

  18. Rosmarinic acid content in antidiabetic aqueous extract from ocimum canum sims in Ghana

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Rosmarinic acid (RA) is an important polyphenol that is found in a variety of herbs including Ocimum canum sims (locally called eme or akokobesa in Ghana). Aqueous extracts from the leaves of O. canum are used as an antidiabetic herbal medicine in Ghana. Analytical TLC was used to examine the compos...

  19. Absorption spectral analysis of proteins and free amino acids in Pleurotus ostreatus fruiting body extracts

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kostyshyn, S.; Gorshynska, I.; Guminetsky, S. G.

    2002-02-01

    The paper deals with the results of spectrophotometric studies of the extracts of Pleurotus ostreatus fruiting bodies, grown in natural conditions in different habitats of Chernivtsy region, in the spectral interval of 215 - 340 nm. It is shown that the samples reveal considerable difference both in free amino acid content and reserved protein content of albumins, globulins, prolamins, glutelins.

  20. Umami taste amino acids produced by hydrolyzing extracted protein from tomato seed meal

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Enzymatic hydrolysis was performed for extracting protein to prepare umami taste amino acids from defatted tomato seed meal (DTSM) which is a by-product of tomato processing. Papain was used as an enzyme for the hydrolysis of DTSM. The particle size distribution of DTSM, protein concentration and fr...

  1. Determination of phenolic acids in plant extracts using CZE with on-line transient isotachophoretic preconcentration.

    PubMed

    Honegr, Jan; Pospíšilová, Marie

    2013-02-01

    A novel transient ITP-CZE for preconcentration and determination of seven phenolic acids (caffeic acid, cinnamic acid, p-coumaric acid, ferulic acid, protocatechuic acid, syringic acid, and vanilic acid) was developed and validated. Effects of several factors such as control of EOF, pH and buffer concentration, addition of organic solvents and CDs, and conditions for sample injection were investigated. Sample self-stacking was applied by means of induction of transient ITP, which was realized by adding sodium chloride into the sample. The CZE was realized in 200 mM borate buffer ((w)(s)pH 9.2) containing 37.5% methanol, 0.001% hexadimethrine bromide, and 15 mM 2-hydroxypropyl-β-CD. Under the optimal conditions for analysis, analytes were separated within 20 min. Linearity was tested for each compound in the concentration range of 0.1-10 μg/mL (R = 0.9906-0.9968) and the detection limits (S/N = 3) ranged from 11 ng/mL (protocatechuic acid) to 31 μg/mL (syringic acid). The validated method was applied to the ethanolic extract of Epilobium parviflorum, Onagraceae. The method of SPE was used for the precleaning of the sample. PMID:23401390

  2. Investigation of metal ion extraction and aggregate formation combining acidic and neutral organophosphorous reagents

    SciTech Connect

    Braatz, A.D.; Nilsson, M.; Ellis, R.; Antonio, M.

    2013-07-01

    In the present study, we investigate how varying mixtures of tri-n-butyl phosphate (TBP) and dibutyl phosphate (HDBP) results in enhanced extraction of lanthanum(III), La{sup 3+}, and dysprosium(III), Dy{sup 3+}. Water and metal ion extraction were carefully monitored as a function of TBP:HDBP mole ratio.In addition to these techniques, EXAFS was used to determine the coordination environment of the metal ion in this system. To produce the necessary signal, a concentration of 1.25*10{sup -3} M La{sup 3+} and Dy{sup 3+} was used. Although previous studies of synergistic extraction of metal cations using combinations of neutral and acidic reagents explain the enhanced extraction by increased dehydration of the metal ion and the formation of mixed extractant complexes, our evidence for the increased water extraction coupled with the aggregate formation suggests a reverse micellar aspect to synergism in the system containing TBP and HDBP. It is quite possible that both of these phenomena contribute to our system behavior. The EXAFS data shows that, based on coordination numbers alone, several possible structures may exist. From this study, we cannot provide a definitive answer as to the nature of extraction in this system or the exact complex formed during extraction.

  3. Topical Formulation Comprising Fatty Acid Extract from Cod Liver Oil: Development, Evaluation and Stability Studies

    PubMed Central

    Ilievska, Biljana; Loftsson, Thorsteinn; Hjalmarsdottir, Martha Asdis; Asgrimsdottir, Gudrun Marta

    2016-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to develop a pharmaceutical formulation containing fatty acid extract rich in free omega-3 fatty acids such as eicosapentaenoic acid and docosahexaenoic acid for topical use. Although the health benefits of cod liver oil and other fish oils taken orally as a dietary supplement have been acknowledged and exploited, it is clear that their use can be extended further to cover their antibacterial properties. In vitro evaluation showed that 20% (v/v) fatty acid extract exhibits good activity against strains of the Gram-positive bacteria Staphylococcus aureus, Enterococcus faecalis, Streptoccoccus pyogenes and Streptoccoccus pneumonia. Therefore, free polyunsaturated fatty acids from cod liver oil or other fish oils can be used as safe and natural antibacterial agents. In this study, ointment compositions containing free fatty acids as active antibacterial agents were prepared by using various natural waxes and characterized. The effects of different waxes, such as carnauba wax, ozokerite wax, laurel wax, beeswax, rice bran wax, candelilla wax and microcrystalline wax, in the concentration range of 1% to 5% (w/w) on the ointment texture, consistency and stability were evaluated. The results showed significant variations in texture, sensory and rheological profiles. This was attributed to the wax’s nature and chain composition. Microcrystalline wax gave the best results but laurel wax, beeswax and rice bran wax exhibited excellent texturing, similar sensory profiles and well-balanced rheological properties. PMID:27258290

  4. Topical Formulation Comprising Fatty Acid Extract from Cod Liver Oil: Development, Evaluation and Stability Studies.

    PubMed

    Ilievska, Biljana; Loftsson, Thorsteinn; Hjalmarsdottir, Martha Asdis; Asgrimsdottir, Gudrun Marta

    2016-06-01

    The purpose of this study was to develop a pharmaceutical formulation containing fatty acid extract rich in free omega-3 fatty acids such as eicosapentaenoic acid and docosahexaenoic acid for topical use. Although the health benefits of cod liver oil and other fish oils taken orally as a dietary supplement have been acknowledged and exploited, it is clear that their use can be extended further to cover their antibacterial properties. In vitro evaluation showed that 20% (v/v) fatty acid extract exhibits good activity against strains of the Gram-positive bacteria Staphylococcus aureus, Enterococcus faecalis, Streptoccoccus pyogenes and Streptoccoccus pneumonia. Therefore, free polyunsaturated fatty acids from cod liver oil or other fish oils can be used as safe and natural antibacterial agents. In this study, ointment compositions containing free fatty acids as active antibacterial agents were prepared by using various natural waxes and characterized. The effects of different waxes, such as carnauba wax, ozokerite wax, laurel wax, beeswax, rice bran wax, candelilla wax and microcrystalline wax, in the concentration range of 1% to 5% (w/w) on the ointment texture, consistency and stability were evaluated. The results showed significant variations in texture, sensory and rheological profiles. This was attributed to the wax's nature and chain composition. Microcrystalline wax gave the best results but laurel wax, beeswax and rice bran wax exhibited excellent texturing, similar sensory profiles and well-balanced rheological properties. PMID:27258290

  5. Method for the extraction of the volatile compound salicylic acid from tobacco leaf material.

    PubMed

    Verberne, Marianne C; Brouwer, Nynke; Delbianco, Federica; Linthorst, Huub J M; Bol, John F; Verpoorte, Robert

    2002-01-01

    Salicylic acid (SA) is a signalling compound in plants which is able to induce systemic acquired resistance. In the analysis of SA in plant tissues, the extraction recovery is often very low and variable. This is mainly caused by sublimation of SA, especially during evaporation of organic solvents. Techniques have been designed in order to overcome this problem. In the first part of the extraction procedure, sublimation of SA was prevented by addition of 0.2 M sodium hydroxide. At a later stage of the extraction procedure, sublimation of SA during solvent evaporation was controlled by the addition of a small amount of HPLC eluent. In this way, recoveries in the range of 71-91% for free SA and 65-79% for acid-hydrolysed SA were obtained. Recoveries could be further optimised by the use of an internal standard to correct for volume changes after the addition of the HPLC eluent. PMID:11899606

  6. An Advanced TALSPEAK Concept Using 2-Ethylhexylphosphonic Acid Mono-2-Ethylhexyl Ester as the Extractant

    SciTech Connect

    Lumetta, Gregg J.; Casella, Amanda J.; Rapko, Brian M.; Levitskaia, Tatiana G.; Pence, Natasha K.; Carter, Jennifer C.; Niver, Cynthia M.; Smoot, Margaret R.

    2014-12-21

    A method for separating the trivalent actinides and lanthanides is being developed using 2-ethylhexylphosphonic acid mono-2-ethylhexyl ester (HEH[EHP]) as the extractant. The method is based on the preferential binding of the actinides in the aqueous phase by N-(2-hydroxyethyl)ethylenediamine-N,N',N'-triacetic acid (HEDTA), which serves to keep the actinides in the aqueous phase while the lanthanides are extracted into an organic phase containing HEH[EHP]. The process is very robust, showing little dependence upon the pH or the HEH[EHP], HEDTA, and citrate concentrations over the ranges that might be expected in a nuclear fuel recycling plant. Single-stage runs with a 2-cm centrifugal contactor indicate that modifications to the process chemistry may be needed to increase the extraction rate for Sm, Eu, and Gd. The hydraulic properties of the system are favorable to application in centrifugal contactors.

  7. Modeling of fermentation with continuous lactic acid removal by extraction utilizing reversible chemical complexation

    SciTech Connect

    Dai, Y.; King, C.J.

    1995-07-01

    Extractive fermentation is a technique that can be used to reduce end-product inhibition by removing fermentation products in situ or in an external recycle loop. A model is presented for fermentation with continuous lactic acid removal by extraction utilizing chemical complexation. The model is formulated considering the kinetics of cell growth and the equilibrium distribution of lactic acid between aqueous and organic phases. Simulations have been carried out for different sets of operating conditions. The choice of pH balances faster kinetics at higher pH against lower product concentrations in the solvent and more difficult regeneration. A key need is for liquid extractants or solid sorbents combining stronger uptake ability with economical regeneration and satisfactory biocompatibility.

  8. Selective extraction of cesium from acidic nitrate solutions with didodecylnaphthalenesulfonic acid synergized with bis(tert-butylbenzo)-21-crown-7

    SciTech Connect

    McDowell, W.J.; Case, G.N. ); McDonough, J.A.; Bartsch, R.A. )

    1992-12-01

    The behavior of other crown ether-synergized sulfonic acid extraction systems suggested that the title system would be selective for cesium. Synthesis of the new lipophilic crown ether, bis[4(5)-tert-butylbenzo]-21-crown-7 (D(tBB)21C7), allowed testing of this hypothesis. Under nonloading conditions, the distribution coefficient for cesium between a toluene solution 0.025 M in didodecylnaphthalenesulfonic acid (HDDNS) and D(tBB)21C7 and an aqueous phase 0.1 M in nitric acid is 100 with separation factors of 1.2 from rubidium, 5.6 from potassium, and 294 from sodium. Under loading and competitive extraction conditions, the distribution coefficients were lower (5 for cesium), but the separation factors remained in the same order and of useful magnitude, 1.5 from rubidium, 6.4 from potassium, and 192 from sodium. Increasing the concentrations of D(tBB)21C7 and HDDNS in the organic phase gives higher distribution coefficients for cesium as did lower aqueous acid concentrations. 23 refs., 8 figs., 1 tab.

  9. Sorption of Cu(2+) on humic acids sequentially extracted from a sediment.

    PubMed

    Yang, Kun; Miao, Gangfen; Wu, Wenhao; Lin, Daohui; Pan, Bo; Wu, Fengchang; Xing, Baoshan

    2015-11-01

    In addition to the diverse properties of humic acids (HAs) extracted from different soils or sediments, chemical compositions, functional groups and structures of HAs extracted from a single soil or sediment could also be diverse and thus significantly affect sorption of heavy metals, which is a key process controlling the transfer, transformation and fate of heavy metals in the environment. In this study, we sequentially extracted four HA fractions from a single sediment and conducted the sorption experiments of Cu(2+) on these HA fractions. Our results showed that aromaticity and acidic group content of HA fraction decreased with increasing extraction. Earlier extracted HA fraction had higher sorption capacity and affinity for Cu(2+). There were two fractions of adsorbed Cu(2+) on HAs, i.e., ion exchanged fraction and surface bonded fraction, which can be captured mechanically by the bi-Langmuir model with good isotherm fitting. The ion exchanged fraction had larger sorption capacity but lower sorption affinity, compared with the surface bonded fraction. The dissociated carboxyl groups of HAs were responsible for both fractions of Cu(2+) sorption, due to the more Cu(2+) sorption on the earlier extracted HA fraction with more carboxyl groups and at higher pH. The intensive competition between H(+) and the exchangeable Cu(2+) could result in the decrease of ion exchanged capacity and affinity for Cu(2+) on HAs. PMID:26246274

  10. Extraction of manganese by alkyl monocarboxylic acid in a mixed extractant from a leaching solution of spent lithium-ion battery ternary cathodic material

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Joo, Sung-Ho; Shin, Dongju; Oh, ChangHyun; Wang, Jei-Pil; Shin, Shun Myung

    2016-02-01

    We investigate the separation of manganese by an antagonistic effect from a leaching solution of ternary cathodic material of spent lithium-ion batteries that contain 11,400 mg L-1 Co, 11,700 mg L-1 Mn, 12,200 mg L-1 Ni, and 5300 mg L-1 Li using a mixture of alkyl monocarboxylic acid and di-(2-ethylhexyl)phosphoric acid extractants. pH isotherm, distribution coefficient, separation factor, McCabe-Thiele diagram, selective scrubbing, and countercurrent extraction tests are carried out to prove an antagonistic effect and to recover manganese using alkyl monocarboxylic in the mixed extractant. Slope analysis is used to determine the extraction mechanism between a mixture of extractants and valuable metals. An increasing concentration of alkyl monocarboxylic acid in the mixture of extractants results in a decrease in distribution coefficient of cobalt and manganese, however, the separation factor value (β(Mn/Co)) increases at pH 4.5. This is caused by slope analysis where alkyl monocarboxylic acid disrupts the extraction mechanism between di-(2-ethylhexyl)phosphoric acid and cobalt. Finally, continuous countercurrent extraction in a mini-plant test demonstrate the feasibility of manganese recovery from cobalt, nickel, and lithium.

  11. Identification of ellagic acid derivatives in methanolic extracts from Qualea species.

    PubMed

    Nasser, Ana L M; Carli, Camila B A; Rodrigues, Clenilson M; Maia, Danielle C G; Carlos, Iracilda Z; Eberlin, Marcos N; Hiruma-Lima, Clélia A; Vilegas, Wagner

    2008-01-01

    The methanolic extract from the barks of the medicinal plant Qualea parviflora (Vochysiaceae) was fractionated by column chromatography over silica gel followed by gel permeation over Sephadex LH-20 to give 3,3'-di-O-methylellagic acid-4-O-beta-D-glucopyranoside (1), 3-O-methylellagic acid-4'-O-alpha-L-rhamnopyranoside (2), 3,3',4-tri-O-methylellagic acid-4'-O-beta-D-glucopyranoside (3), and 3,3'-di-O-methylellagic acid (4), together with triterpenes and saponins. We also performed comparative analyses among this species and Q. grandiflora and Q. multiflora using high-pressure liquid chromatography. The biological assays showed that, when compared to the standard ellagic acid, compounds 1-4 are less cytotoxic but have a lower capacity of stimulating murine peritoneal macrophages to release nitric oxide and tumoural-alpha necrose factor. PMID:19227825

  12. Highly efficient extraction of cellular nucleic acid associated proteins in vitro with magnetic oxidized carbon nanotubes.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Yi; Hu, Zhengyan; Qin, Hongqiang; Wei, Xiaoluan; Cheng, Kai; Liu, Fangjie; Wu, Ren'an; Zou, Hanfa

    2012-12-01

    Nucleic acid associated proteins (NAaP) play the essential roles in gene regulation and protein expression. The global analysis of cellular NAaP would give a broad insight to understand the interaction between nucleic acids and the associated proteins, such as the important proteinous regulation factors on nucleic acids. Proteomic analysis presents a novel strategy to investigate a group of proteins. However, the large scale analysis of NAaP is yet impossible due to the lack of approaches to harvest target protein groups with a high efficiency. Herein, a simple and efficient method was developed to collect cellular NAaP using magnetic oxidized carbon nanotubes based on the strong interaction between carbon nanotubes and nucleic acids along with corresponding associated proteins. We found that the magnetic oxidized carbon nanotubes demonstrated a nearly 100% extraction efficiency for intracellular nucleic acids from cells in vitro. Importantly, the proteins associated on nucleic acids could be highly efficiently harvested using magnetic oxidized carbon nanotubes due to the binding of NAaP on nucleic acids. 1594 groups of nuclear NAaP and 2595 groups of cellular NAaP were extracted and identified from about 1,000,000 cells, and 803 groups of NAaP were analyzed with only about 10,000 cells, showing a promising performance for the proteomic analysis of NAaP from minute cellular samples. This highly efficient extraction strategy for NAaP is a simple approach to identify cellular nucleic acid associated proteome, and we believed this strategy could be further applied in systems biology to understand the gene expression and regulation. PMID:23121485

  13. Degradation study of carnosic acid, carnosol, rosmarinic acid, and rosemary extract (Rosmarinus officinalis L.) assessed using HPLC.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Ying; Smuts, Jonathan P; Dodbiba, Edra; Rangarajan, Rekha; Lang, John C; Armstrong, Daniel W

    2012-09-12

    Rosemary, whose major caffeoyl-derived and diterpenoid ingredients are rosmarinic acid, carnosol, and carnosic acid, is an important source of natural antioxidants and is being recognized increasingly as a useful preservative, protectant, and even as a potential medicinal agent. Understanding the stability of these components and their mode of interaction in mixtures is important if they are to be utilized to greatest effect. A study of the degradation of rosmarinic acid, carnosol, carnosic acid, and a mixture of the three was conducted in ethanolic solutions at different temperatures and light exposure. As expected, degradation increased with temperature. Some unique degradation products were formed with exposure to light. Several degradation products were reported for the first time. The degradation products were identified by HPLC/MS/MS, UV, and NMR. The degradation of rosemary extract in fish oil also was investigated, and much slower rates of degradation were observed for carnosic acid. In the mixture of the three antioxidants, carnosic acid serves to maintain levels of carnosol, though it does so at least in part at the cost of its own degradation. PMID:22881034

  14. Selective extraction and determination of chlorogenic acid in fruit juices using hydrophilic magnetic imprinted nanoparticles.

    PubMed

    Hao, Yi; Gao, Ruixia; Liu, Dechun; He, Gaiyan; Tang, Yuhai; Guo, Zengjun

    2016-06-01

    In this paper, the novel hydrophilic magnetic molecularly imprinted nanoparticles were developed for selective separation and determination of chlorogenic acid in aqueous fruit juices. The polymers were prepared by using amino-functionalized magnetic nanoparticles as carriers, branched polyethyleneimine as functional monomer, and chlorogenic acid as template molecule. Branched polyethyleneimine with abundant active amino groups could react with template sufficiently, and its unique dendritic structure may amplify the number of the imprinted cavities. Meanwhile, it would improve the hydrophilicity of imprinted materials for attaining high extraction efficiency. The resulted polymers exhibit fast kinetics, high adsorption capacity, and favorable selectivity. In addition, the obtained nanoparticles were used as solid-phase extraction sorbents for selective isolation and determination of chlorogenic acid in peach, apple, and grape juices (0.92, 4.21, and 0.75 μg mL(-1), respectively). PMID:26830581

  15. Solid supported in situ derivatization extraction of acidic degradation products of nerve agents from aqueous samples.

    PubMed

    Chinthakindi, Sridhar; Purohit, Ajay; Singh, Varoon; Tak, Vijay; Dubey, D K; Pardasani, Deepak

    2014-09-12

    This study deals with the solid supported in situ derivatization extraction of acidic degradation products of nerve agents present in aqueous samples. Target analytes were alkyl alkylphosphonic acids and alkylphosphonic acids, which are important environmental signatures of nerve agents. The method involved tert-butyldimethylchlorosilane mediated in situ silylation of analytes on commercially available diatomaceous solid phase extraction cartridges. Various parameters such as derivatizing reagent, its concentration, reaction time, temperature and eluting solvent were optimized. Recoveries of the analytes were determined by GC-MS which ranged from 60% to 86%. The limits of detection (LOD) and limit of quantification (LOQ) with selected analytes were achieved down to 78 and 213ngmL(-1) respectively, in selected ion monitoring mode. The successful applicability of method was also demonstrated on samples of biological origin such as plasma and to the samples received in 34th official proficiency test conducted by the Organization for Prohibition the of Chemical Weapons. PMID:25103280

  16. Extractive and oxidative removal of copper bound to humic acid in soil.

    PubMed

    Hwang, Bo-Ram; Kim, Eun-Jung; Yang, Jung-Seok; Baek, Kitae

    2015-04-01

    Copper (Cu) is often found strongly bound to natural organic matter (NOM) in soil through the formation of strong Cu-NOM complexes. Therefore, in order to successfully remediate Cu-contaminated soils, effective removal of Cu bound to soil organic matter should be considered. In this study, we investigated soil washing methods for Cu removal from a synthetic Cu-contaminated model silica soil coated with humic acid (HA) and from field contaminated soil. Various reagents were studied to extract Cu bound to NOM, which included oxidant (H2O2), base (NaOH), and chelating agents (citric acid and ethylenediaminetetraacetic acid (EDTA)). Among the wash reagents, EDTA extracted Cu most effectively since EDTA formed very strong complexes with Cu, and Cu-HA complexes were transformed into Cu-EDTA complexes. NaOH extracted slightly less Cu compared to EDTA. HA was effectively extracted from the model soil under strongly alkaline conditions with NaOH, which seemed to concurrently release Cu bound to HA. However, chemical oxidation with H2O2 was not effective at destroying Cu-HA complexes. Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy and elemental analysis revealed that chelating agents such as citrate and EDTA were adsorbed onto the model soil via possible complexation between HA and extraction agents. The extraction of Cu from a field contaminated soil sample was effective with chelating agents, while oxidative removal with H2O2 and extractive removal with NaOH separated negligible amounts of Cu from the soil. Based on these results, Cu bound to organic matter in soil could be effectively removed by chelating agents, although remnant agents may remain in the soil. PMID:25388560

  17. Interactions between variable-charge soils and acidic solutions containing fluoride: an investigation using repetitive extractions.

    PubMed

    Zhu, Mao-Xu; Jiang, Xin; Ji, Guo-Liang

    2004-08-01

    The reaction between two variable-charge soils and acidic solutions containing F was investigated with a repetitive extraction method. When added F concentration was 10(-4) mol/L, F did not markedly enhance solution pH in the whole prolonged extractions, in comparison with F-free acidic solution extractions. Most of the added F was adsorbed on soil surfaces and Al-F complexes were the dominant F species in solution. With increasing extractions, the fraction of Al-F slightly increased, arising from dissolution and/or desorption of Al. In comparison with F-free acidic solution extractions, F-induced Al dissolution did not significantly increase Al release, probably because of the modest reactivity of metal-F surface complexes at terminal sites at low F loading. The gradual decrease in Al release in the following extractions was due to the gradual depletion of readily reactive Al-containing mineral phases. In contrast to the low F loading, at an F concentration of 10(-3) mol/L, the pH was enhanced dramatically in the initial extraction and a high pH was maintained in the following extractions. In the initial extraction, the increase in negative surface charges and solution pH seemingly depressed proton-induced Al dissolution and enhanced readsorption of some positively charged Al-F complexes, resulting in low amounts of Al and F in solution. In the following several extractions, F-induced Al dissolution and desorption of Al-F complexes substantially enhanced the amounts of Al and F, and the fraction of Al-F complexes in solution. Several interconnected mechanisms such as ligand exchange, the release of OH(-) ions from soluble hydroxylated Al groups, desorption of Al as Al-F complexes, and F-induced breakdown of soil minerals were responsible for the alteration in pH, Al release, and the fraction of Al-F complexes in the later extractions. A molecular-level interpretation is needed in order to address the different impacts of varying F concentration levels on soil

  18. Efficiency and selectivity of triterpene acid extraction from decoctions and tinctures prepared from apple peels

    PubMed Central

    Siani, Antonio C.; Nakamura, Marcos J.; dos Santos, Daniel S.; Mazzei, José L.; do Nascimento, Adriana C.; Valente, Ligia M. M.

    2014-01-01

    Background: This study assessed the extraction efficiency of ursolic (UA) and oleanolic acids (OA), as well as the total phenols in aqueous and hydroethanolic extracts of dry apple peels at room temperature. Materials and Methods: After running preliminary assays on decoctions and tinctures (ethanol: water 7:3 v/v), the extracts from dried apple (cv. Fuji) peels were obtained by static maceration over varied intervals (2 to 180 days). The UA and OA content in the extracts was quantified by High Performance Liquid Chromatography with Diode Array Detection (HPLC-DAD) with a reversed phase column and isocratic elution (CH3CN/H2O/H3PO4) against calibration curves (R2 > 0.9995). The total phenol content in the extracts was evaluated spectrophotometrically at 760 nm using the Folin-Ciocalteau method referencing gallic acid. Results: UA and OA in the hydroethanolic extracts ranged from 3.63-6.12 mg/g and 2.12-3.30 mg/g, corresponding to 1.72-3.07 and 1.00-1.66 mg/g in the raw material, respectively. Higher values of triterpene acid content corresponded to maceration periods of 10 or 30 days. The residual phenol and polyphenol content ranged from 6.97 to 11.6 mg/g. The UA and OA yields, as well as the total phenol content, versus the maceration time were plotted in Control Charts within confidence intervals (95%) and were unaffected during the assayed period. Conclusion: Apple peel tinctures from 10% solids obtained at room temperature exhibited the highest content of triterpene acids when employing a maceration period of 10 to 30 days. Extracts prepared using this procedure contained an average of 7.33 mg/g of total triterpene acids and 10.6 mg/g phenolic compounds. These results establish supporting data for apple peel tinctures and their derived phytopharmaceuticals that are standardized on the ursolic-oleanolic acid content. PMID:24991096

  19. PROCESS FOR EXTRACTING NEPTUNIUM AND PLUTONIUM FROM NITRIC ACID SOLUTIONS OF SAME CONTAINING URANYL NITRATE WITH A TERTIARY AMINE

    DOEpatents

    Sheppard, J.C.

    1962-07-31

    A process of selectively extracting plutonium nitrate and neptunium nitrate with an organic solution of a tertiary amine, away from uranyl nitrate present in an aqueous solution in a maximum concentration of 1M is described. The nitric acid concentration is adjusted to about 4M and nitrous acid is added prior to extraction. (AEC)

  20. Inhibition of lysophospholipase D activity by unsaturated lysophosphatidic acids or seed extracts containing 1-linoleoyl and 1-oleoyl lysophosphatidic acid.

    PubMed

    Liu, Xi-Wen; Sok, Dai-Eun; Yook, Hong-Sun; Sohn, Cheon-Bae; Chung, Young-Jin; Kim, Mee Ree

    2007-10-17

    Lysophospholipase D (lysoPLD), generating lipid mediator lysophosphatidic acid (LPA) from lysophosphatidyclcholine (LPC), is known to be inhibited by lysophosphatidic acids. Meanwhile, some plant lipids are known to contain lysophospholipids as minor components. Therefore, it is interesting to test whether edible seed samples, rich in phospholipids, may contain lysophospholipids, which express a strong inhibition of lysoPLD activity. First, the structural importance of fatty acyl group in LPAs was examined by determining the inhibitory effect of various LPAs on bovine lysoPLD activity. The most potent in the inhibition of lysoPLD activity was linoleoyl-LPA ( K i, 0.21 microM), followed by arachidonoyl-LPA ( K i, 0.55 microM), oleoyl-LPA ( K i, 1.2 microM), and palmitoyl-LPA ( K i, 1.4 microM), based on the fluoresecent assay. The same order of inhibitory potency among LPA analogs with different acyl chains was also found in the spectrophotometric assay. Subsequently, the extracts of 12 edible seeds were screened for the inhibition of lysoPLD activity using both spectrophotometric and fluorescent assays. Among seed extracts tested, the extract from soybean seed, sesame seed, or sunflower seed (30 mg seed weight/mL) was found to exhibit a potent inhibition (>80%) of lysoPLD activity. In further study employing ESI-MS/MS analysis, major LPA components in seed extracts were identified to be 1-linoleoyl LPA, 1-oleoyl LPA, and 1-palmitoyl LPA with 1-linoleoyl LPA being more predominant. Thus, the potent inhibition of lysoPLD activity by seed extracts might be ascribed to the presence of LPA with linoleoyl group rather than other acyl chains. PMID:17887800

  1. RAPESEED PHOSPHATIDYLCHOLINE HYDROLYSIS TO PHOSPHATIDIC ACID USING PLANT EXTRACTS WITH PHOPSPHOLIPASE D.

    PubMed

    Pasker, Beata; Sosada, Marian; Fraś, Paweł; Boryczka, Monika; Górecki, Michał; Zych, Maria

    2015-01-01

    Phosphatidic acid (PA) has a crucial role in cell membrane structure and function. For that reason it has a possible application in the treatment of some health disorders in humans, can be used as a natural and non toxic emulsifier and the component of drug carriers in pharmaceuticals and cosmetics as well as a component for synthesis of some new phospholipids. PA is short-lived in the cell and is difficult to extract directly from the biological material. PA may be easily prepared by hydrolysis of phospholipids, especially phosphatidylcholine (PC), using cabbage phospholipase D (PLD). Hydrolytic activity of purified by us PLD extracts from cabbage towards rapeseed phosphatidylcholine (RPC) was investigated. Hydrolysis was carried out in the biphasic system (water/diethyl ether) at pH 6,5 and temp 30°C. Influence of enzymatic extracts from three cabbage varieties, reaction time, Ca2+ concentration and enzyme extracts/PC ratio, on activity towards RPC resulting in rapeseed phosphatidic acid (RPA) formation were examined. Our study shows that the PLD extracts from savoy cabbage (PLDsc), white cabbage (PLDwc) and brussels sprouts (PLDbs) used in experiments exhibit hydrolytic activity towards RPC resulting in rapeseed RPA with different yield. The highest activity towards RPC shows PLD extract from PLDsc with the RPC conversion degree to RPA (90%) was observed at 120 mM Ca2+ concentration, reaction time 60 min and ratio of PLD extract to RPC 6 : 1 (w/w). Our study shows that purified by us PLDsc extracts exhibit hydrolytic activity towards RPC giving new RPA with satisfying conversion degree for use in pharmacy, cosmetics and as a standard in analytical chemistry. PMID:26642684

  2. Build an Emergency Preparedness Kit

    MedlinePlus

    ... tire traction -Red or brightly- colored cloth -NOAA weather radio For more information on building emergency kits, ... and a flashlight with extra batteries. A NOAA weather radio warns the public of severe weather and ...

  3. Build an Emergency Preparedness Kit

    MedlinePlus

    ... equipment such as an oxygen tank -Battery-powered radio, flashlight, extra batteries -- - Canned food, manual can opener ... traction -Red or brightly- colored cloth -NOAA weather radio For more information on building emergency kits, contact ...

  4. FUELS IN SOIL TEST KIT: FIELD USE OF DIESEL DOG SOIL TEST KITS

    SciTech Connect

    Susan S. Sorini; John F. Schabron; Joseph F. Rovani, Jr.

    2002-09-30

    Western Research Institute (WRI) has developed a new commercial product ready for technology transfer, the Diesel Dog{reg_sign} Portable Soil Test Kit, for performing analysis of fuel-contaminated soils in the field. The technology consists of a method developed by WRI (U.S. Patents 5,561,065 and 5,976,883) and hardware developed by WRI that allows the method to be performed in the field (patent pending). The method is very simple and does not require the use of highly toxic reagents. The aromatic components in a soil extract are measured by absorption at 254 nm with a field-portable photometer. WRI added significant value to the technology by taking the method through the American Society for Testing and Materials (ASTM) approval and validation processes. The method is designated as ASTM Method D 5831-96, Standard Test Method for Screening Fuels in Soils. This ASTM designation allows the method to be used for federal compliance activities. In June 2001, the Diesel Dog technology won an American Chemical Society Regional Industrial Innovations Award. To gain field experience with the new technology, Diesel Dog kits have been used for a variety of site evaluation and cleanup activities. Information gained from these activities has led to improvements in hardware configurations and additional insight into correlating Diesel Dog results with results from laboratory methods. The Wyoming Department of Environmental Quality (DEQ) used Diesel Dog Soil Test Kits to guide cleanups at a variety of sites throughout the state. ENSR, of Acton, Massachusetts, used a Diesel Dog Portable Soil Test Kit to evaluate sites in the Virgin Islands and Georgia. ChemTrack and the U.S. Army Corps of Engineers successfully used a test kit to guide excavation at an abandoned FAA fuel-contaminated site near Fairbanks, Alaska. Barenco, Inc. is using a Diesel Dog Portable Soil Test Kit for site evaluations in Canada. A small spill of diesel fuel was cleaned up in Laramie, Wyoming using a Diesel

  5. Optimizing ultrasonic ellagic acid extraction conditions from infructescence of Platycarya strobilacea using response surface methodology.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Liang-Liang; Xu, Man; Wang, Yong-Mei; Wu, Dong-Mei; Chen, Jia-Hong

    2010-11-01

    The infructescence of Platycarya strobilacea is a rich source of ellagic acid (EA) which has shown antioxidant, anticancer and antimutagen properties. Response surface methodology (RSM) was used to optimize the conditions for ultrasonic extraction of EA from infructescence of P. strobilacea. A central composite design (CCD) was used for experimental design and analysis of the results to obtain the optimal processing parameters. The content of EA in the extracts was determined by HPLC with UV detection. Three independent variables such as ultrasonic extraction temperature (°C), liquid:solid ratio (mL/g), and ultrasonic extraction time (min) were investigated. The experimental data obtained were fitted to a quadratic equation using multiple regression analysis and also analyzed by appropriate statistical methods. The 3-D response surface and the contour plots derived from the mathematical models were applied to determine the optimal conditions. The optimum ultrasonic extraction conditions were as follows: ultrasonic extraction temperature 70 °C, liquid:solid ratio 22.5, and ultrasonic extraction time 40 min. Under these conditions, the experimental percentage value was 1.961%, which is in close agreement with the value predicted by the model. PMID:21060299

  6. Temperature Shifts for Extraction and Purification of Zygomycetes Chitosan with Dilute Sulfuric Acid

    PubMed Central

    Zamani, Akram; Edebo, Lars; Niklasson, Claes; Taherzadeh, Mohammad J.

    2010-01-01

    The temperature-dependent hydrolysis and solubility of chitosan in sulfuric acid solutions offer the possibility for chitosan extraction from zygomycetes mycelia and separation from other cellular ingredients with high purity and high recovery. In this study, Rhizomucor pusillus biomass was initially extracted with 0.5 M NaOH at 120 °C for 20 min, leaving an alkali insoluble material (AIM) rich in chitosan. Then, the AIM was subjected to two steps treatment with 72 mM sulfuric acid at (i) room temperature for 10 min followed by (ii) 120 °C for 45 min. During the first step, phosphate of the AIM was released into the acid solution and separated from the chitosan-rich residue by centrifugation. In the second step, the residual AIM was re-suspended in fresh 72 mM sulfuric acid, heated at 120 °C and hot filtered, whereby chitosan was extracted and separated from the hot alkali and acid insoluble material (HAAIM). The chitosan was recovered from the acid solution by precipitation at lowered temperature and raised pH to 8–10. The treatment resulted in 0.34 g chitosan and 0.16 g HAAIM from each gram AIM. At the start, the AIM contained at least 17% phosphate, whereas after the purification, the corresponding phosphate content of the obtained chitosan was just 1%. The purity of this chitosan was higher than 83%. The AIM subjected directly to the treatment with hot sulfuric acid (at 120 °C for 45 min) resulted in a chitosan with a phosphate impurity of 18.5%. PMID:21152285

  7. Energy Management Curriculum Starter Kit

    SciTech Connect

    Turner, W.C.

    1987-02-01

    The Energy Management Curriculum Starter Kit was designed to help engineering educators develop and teach energy management courses. Montana State University and Oklahoma State University courses are embodied in the model curriculum given. The curricula offered at many other universities throughout the United States are also presented. The kit was designed specifically to train engineering students to be good energy managers. Courses at both the undergraduate and postgraduate level are presented.

  8. Extraction of pyridines into fluorous solvents based on hydrogen bond complex formation with carboxylic acid receptors.

    PubMed

    O'Neal, Kristi L; Geib, Steven; Weber, Stephen G

    2007-04-15

    A molecular receptor embedded in a 'poor-solvent' receiving phase, such as a fluorous phase, should offer the ideal medium for selective extraction and sensing. The limited solubility of most solutes in fluorous phases enhances selectivity by reducing the extraction of unwanted matrix components. Thus, receptor-doped fluorous phases may be ideal extraction media. Unfortunately, sufficient data do not exist to judge the capability of this approach. The solubilities of very few nonfluorous solutes are known. As far as we are aware, such important quantities as the strength of a hydrogen bond in a fluorous environment are not known. Thus, it is currently impossible to predict whether a particular receptor/solute complex based on a particular set of noncovalent interactions will provide enough thermodynamic stabilization to extract the solute into the fluorous phase. In this work, fluorous carboxylic acids (a carboxylic acid-terminated perfluoropolypropylene oxide called Krytox and perfluorodecanoic acid (PFDA)) were used as receptors and substituted pyridines as solutes to show that the fluorous receptor dramatically enhances the liquid-liquid extraction of the polar substrates from chloroform into perfluorohexanes. The method of continuous variations was used to determine the receptor-pyridine complex stoichiometry of 3:1. The free energies of formation of the 3:1 complexes from one pyridine and 3/2 H-bonded cyclic dimers of the fluorous carboxylic acid are -30.4 (Krytox) and -37.3 kJ mol-1 (PFDA). The free energy required to dissociate the dimer in perfluorohexanes is +16.5 kJ mol-1 (Krytox). The crystal structure of the complex showed a 1:1 stoichiometry with a mixed strong-weak hydrogen-bonded motif. Based on the stoichiometry, crystal structure, and UV and IR spectroscopic shifts, we propose that the 3:1 complex has four hydrogen bonds and the carboxylic acid transfers a proton to pyridine. The resulting pyridinium carboxylate N+H-O- hydrogen bond is accompanied

  9. Extraction, purification, methylation and GC-MS analysis of short-chain carboxylic acids for metabolic flux analysis.

    PubMed

    Tivendale, Nathan D; Jewett, Erin M; Hegeman, Adrian D; Cohen, Jerry D

    2016-08-15

    Dynamic metabolic flux analysis requires efficient and effective methods for extraction, purification and analysis of a plethora of naturally-occurring compounds. One area of metabolism that would be highly informative to study using metabolic flux analysis is the tricarboxylic acid (TCA) cycle, which consists of short-chain carboxylic acids. Here, we describe a newly-developed method for extraction, purification, derivatization and analysis of short-chain carboxylic acids involved in the TCA cycle. The method consists of snap-freezing the plant material, followed by maceration and a 12-15h extraction at -80 °C. The extracts are then subject to reduction (to stabilize β-keto acids), purified by strong anion exchange solid phase extraction and methylated with methanolic HCl. This method could also be readily adapted to quantify many other short-chain carboxylic acids. PMID:27348709

  10. Ultrasonic-Assisted Extraction of Raspberry Seed Oil and Evaluation of Its Physicochemical Properties, Fatty Acid Compositions and Antioxidant Activities

    PubMed Central

    Huang, Qun; Wang, Jinli; Lin, Qiyang; Liu, Mingxin; Lee, Won Young; Song, Hongbo

    2016-01-01

    Ultrasonic-assisted extraction was employed for highly efficient separation of aroma oil from raspberry seeds. A central composite design with two variables and five levels was employed and effects of process variables of sonication time and extraction temperature on oil recovery and quality were investigated. Optimal conditions predicted by response surface methodology were sonication time of 37 min and extraction temperature of 54°C. Specifically, ultrasonic-assisted extraction (UAE) was able to provide a higher content of beneficial unsaturated fatty acids, whereas conventional Soxhlet extraction (SE) resulted in a higher amount of saturated fatty acids. Moreover, raspberry seed oil contained abundant amounts of edible linoleic acid and linolenic acid, which suggest raspberry seeds could be valuable edible sources of natural γ-linolenic acid products. In comparison with SE, UAE exerted higher free radical scavenging capacities. In addition, UAE significantly blocked H2O2-induced intracellular reactive oxygen species (ROS) generation. PMID:27120053

  11. Assessment of rosmarinic acid content in six Lamiaceae species extracts and their antioxidant and antimicrobial potential.

    PubMed

    Benedec, Daniela; Hanganu, Daniela; Oniga, Ilioara; Tiperciuc, Brindusa; Olah, Neli-Kinga; Raita, Oana; Bischin, Cristina; Silaghi-Dumitrescu, Radu; Vlase, Laurian

    2015-11-01

    In the present study, six indigenous species of Lamiaceae family (Origanum vulgare L., Melissa officinalis L., Rosmarinus officinalis L., Ocimum basilicum L., Salvia officinalis L. and Hyssopus officinalis L.), have been analyzed to assess the rosmarinic acid, phenyl propane derivatives and polyphenolic contents and their antioxidant and antimicrobial potential. HPLC-MS method has been used for the analysis ofrosmarinicacid. The phenyl propane derivatives and total phenolic contents were determined using spectrophotometric method. The ethanolic extracts were screened for antioxidant activities by DPPH radical scavenging, HAPX (hemoglobin ascorbate per oxidase activity inhibition), and EPR (electron paramagnetic resonance) methods. The ethanolic extracts revealed the presence of rosmarinic acid in the largest amount in O. vulgare (12.40mg/g) and in the lowest in R. officinalis (1.33 mg/g). O. vulgare extracts exhibited the highest antioxidant capacity, in line with the rosmarinic acid and polyphenolic contents. The antimicrobial testing showed a significant activity against L. monocytogenes, S. aureus and C. albicans for all six extracts. PMID:26687747

  12. Aqueous extracts of Mozambican plants as alternative and environmentally safe acid-base indicators.

    PubMed

    Macuvele, Domingos Lusitaneo Pier; Sithole, Gerre Zebedias Samo; Cesca, Karina; Macuvele, Suzana Lília Pinare; Matsinhe, Jonas Valente

    2016-06-01

    Indicators are substances that change color as the pH of the medium. Many of these substances are dyes of synthetic origin. The mulala plant (Euclea natalensis), which roots are commonly used by rural communities for their oral hygiene, and roseira (Hibiscus rosa-sinensis), an ornamental plant, are abundant in Mozambique. Currently, synthetic acid-base indicators are most commonly used but have environmental implications and, on the other hand, are expensive products, so the demand for natural indicators started. This study investigated the applicability of aqueous extracts of H. rosa-sinensis and E. natalensis as acid-base indicators. Ground on this work, the extracts can be used as acid-base indicators. On the basis of the absorption spectroscopy in both the UV-Vis region and previous studies, it was possible to preliminarily pinpoint anthocyanins and naphthoquinones as responsible for the shifting of colors depending on the pH range of aqueous extracts of H. rosa-sinensis and E. natalensis. These natural indicators are easily accessible, inexpensive, easy to extract, environmentally safe, and locally available. PMID:26936478

  13. Development and demonstration of solvent extraction processes for the separation of radionuclides from acidic radioactive waste

    SciTech Connect

    Law, J.D.; Brewer, K.N.; Herbst, R.S.; Todd, T.A.; Wood, D.J.

    1999-06-01

    The presence of long-lived radionuclides presents a challenge to the management of radioactive wastes. Immobilization of these radionuclides must be accomplished prior to long-term, permanent disposal. Separation of the radionuclides from the waste solutions has the potential of significantly decreasing the costs associated with the immobilization and disposal of the radioactive waste by minimizing waste volumes. Several solvent extraction processes have been developed and demonstrated at the Idaho National Engineering and Environmental Laboratory for the separation of transuranic element (TRUs), {sup 90}Sr, and/or {sup 137}Cs from acidic radioactive waste solutions. The Transuranic Extraction (TRUEX) and phosphine oxide (POR) processes for the separation of TRUs, the Strontium Extraction (SREX) process for the separation of {sup 90}Sr, the chlorinated cobalt dicarbollide (ChCoDiC) process for the separation of {sup 137}Cs and {sup 90}Sr, and a universal solvent extraction process for the simultaneous separation of TRUs, {sup 90}Sr, and {sup 137}Cs have all been demonstrated in centrifugal contactors using actual radioactive waste solutions. This article summarizes the most recent results of each of the flowsheet demonstrations and allows for comparison of the technologies. The successful demonstration of these solvent extraction processes indicates that they are all viable for the treatment of acidic radioactive waste solutions.

  14. Lipid nutritional value of legumes: Evaluation of different extraction methods and determination of fatty acid composition.

    PubMed

    Caprioli, Giovanni; Giusti, Federica; Ballini, Roberto; Sagratini, Gianni; Vila-Donat, Pilar; Vittori, Sauro; Fiorini, Dennis

    2016-02-01

    This study sought to contribute to the assessment of the nutritional properties of legumes by determining the fatty acid (FA) composition of 29 legume samples after the evaluation of nine extraction methods. The Folch method and liquid-solid extraction with hexane/isopropanol or with hexane/acetone were investigated, as was the effect of previous hydration of samples. Soxhlet extractions were also evaluated with different solvent mixtures. Results on FA composition using the hexane/isopropanol extraction method were the same in terms of FA composition of the Folch method, but the extraction yield was only around 20-40% of that of the Folch method preceded by hydration. Some types of legumes showed particularly interesting values for the ratio of polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFAs) n-6/n-3, such as lentils, with the value of 4.0, and Azuki beans, at 3.2. In lentils, the PUFAs% ranged from 42.0% to 57.4%, while in Azuki beans it was 57.5%. PMID:26304436

  15. Spectroscopic studies of the progress of humification processes in humic acid extracted from sewage sludge

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Polak, J.; Sułkowski, W. W.; Bartoszek, M.; Papież, W.

    2005-06-01

    The humic acids extracted from sludge collected from the digestion chamber and the sludge drying beds were studied. The sludge samples were collected, dried and humic acids were extracted. The progress of the humification processes was studied with EPR, IR and NMR spectroscopic methods. For extracted humic acids, concentration of free radicals and g factor was determined with EPR. The presence of characteristic functional groups was confirmed with IR and NMR spectroscopy. To study the changes in content of the elements, the elemental analysis was performed to determine the percentage of carbon, hydrogen, nitrogen, sulfur and oxygen. Taking all the obtained results into account it was found that on the sewage drying beds, humification processes take place in the sludge. In the first two weeks when the sludge on the drying beds an intensive enrichment of humic acids in free radicals takes place. This is the result of the intensive humification process course after the stage in the fermentation chamber where the mesophilic fermentation takes place. Moreover, the humidity of sludge influences the intensive development of free radical concentration at the beginning of the storing period, whereas the humification processes still continue.

  16. Comparison of supercritical fluid extraction and ultrasound-assisted extraction of fatty acids from quince (Cydonia oblonga Miller) seed using response surface methodology and central composite design.

    PubMed

    Daneshvand, Behnaz; Ara, Katayoun Mahdavi; Raofie, Farhad

    2012-08-24

    Fatty acids of Cydonia oblonga Miller cultivated in Iran were obtained by supercritical (carbon dioxide) extraction and ultrasound-assisted extraction methods. The oils were analyzed by capillary gas chromatography using mass spectrometric detections. The compounds were identified according to their retention indices and mass spectra (EI, 70eV). The experimental parameters of SFE such as pressure, temperature, modifier volume, static and dynamic extraction time were optimized using a Central Composite Design (CCD) after a 2(5) factorial design. Pressure and dynamic extraction time had significant effect on the extraction yield, while the other factors (temperature, static extraction time and modifier volume) were not identified as significant factors under the selected conditions. The results of chemometrics analysis showed the highest yield for SFE (24.32%), which was obtained at a pressure of 353bar, temperature of 35°C, modifier (methanol) volume of 150μL, and static and dynamic extraction times of 10 and 60min, respectively. Ultrasound-assisted extraction (UAE) of Fatty acids from C. oblonga Miller was optimized, using a rotatable central composite design. The optimum conditions were as follows: solvent (n-hexane) volume, 22mL; extraction time, 30min; and extraction temperature, 55°C. This resulted in a maximum oil recovery of 19.5%. The extracts with higher yield from both methods were subjected to transesterification and GC-MS analysis. The results show that the oil obtained by SFE with the optimal operating conditions allowed a fatty acid composition similar to the oil obtained by UAE in optimum condition and no significant differences were found. The major components of oil extract were Linoleic, Palmitic, Oleic, Stearic and Eicosanoic acids. PMID:22824221

  17. Comparison of Neuroprotective Effects of Melissa officinalis Total Extract and Its Acidic and Non-Acidic Fractions against A β-Induced Toxicity

    PubMed Central

    Sepand, Mohammad Reza; Soodi, Maliheh; Hajimehdipoor, Homa; Soleimani, Masoud; Sahraei, Ehsan

    2013-01-01

    Alzheimer’s disease (AD) is a neurodegenerative disease that was characterized with deposit of beta amyloid (Aβ) aggregate in senile plaque. Oxidative damage to neurons and loss of cholinergic neurons in forebrain region are observed in this disease. Melissa officinalis is a medicinal plant from Lamiaceae family, used traditionally in the treatment of cognitive disorders. It has cholinomimetic and potent antioxidant activity. In the present study, we investigated the possible neuroprotective effects of total ethanolic extract, acidic and nonacidic fraction of Melissa officinalis on Aβ-induced cytotoxicity and oxidative stress in PC12 cells and also measured their in-vitro anticholinesterase activity. PC12 cells were incubated with the extract and fractions prior to the incubation with Aβ and cell toxicity was assessed by MTT assay. In addition, productions of reactive oxygen species (ROS), Malondialdehyde (MDA) as a biomarker of lipid peroxidation and glutathione peroxidase activity were measured. Pretreatment of cells with total extract and acidic fraction (not non-acidic fraction) had protective effect against Aβ-induced oxidative changes and cell death. In concentrations in which both total extracts of an acidic fraction showed neuroprotective effects, inhibition of cholinesterase activity was not significant. Then, the protective effects of Melissa officinalis total extract and acidic fraction were not attributed to their anticholinesterase activity. Acidic fraction showed more potent protective effect compared to the total extract, leading to the fact that polyphenolic compounds and terpenoic acids are the most effective components in the total extract concentrated in this fraction. PMID:24250617

  18. Chlorogenic acids from green coffee extract are highly bioavailable in humans.

    PubMed

    Farah, Adriana; Monteiro, Mariana; Donangelo, Carmen M; Lafay, Sophie

    2008-12-01

    Chlorogenic acids (CGA) are cinnamic acid derivatives with biological effects mostly related to their antioxidant and antiinflammatory activities. Caffeoylquinic acids (CQA) and dicaffeoylquinic acids (diCQA) are the main CGA found in nature. Because green coffee is a major source of CGA, it has been used for production of nutraceuticals. However, data on the bioavailability of CGA from green coffee in humans are inexistent. The present study evaluated the pharmacokinetic profile and apparent bioavailability of CGA in plasma and urine of 10 healthy adults for 8 h after the consumption of a decaffeinated green coffee extract containing 170 mg of CGA. Three CQA, 3 diCQA, and caffeic, ferulic, isoferulic, and p-coumaric acids were identified in plasma by HPLC-Diode Array Detector-MS after treatment. Over 30% (33.1 +/- 23.1%) of the ingested cinnamic acid moieties were recovered in plasma, including metabolites, with peak levels from 0.5 to 8 h after treatment. CGA and metabolites identified in urine after treatment were 4-CQA, 5-CQA, and sinapic, p-hydroxybenzoic, gallic, vanillic, dihydrocaffeic, caffeic, ferulic, isoferulic, and p-coumaric acids, totaling 5.5 +/- 10.6% urinary recovery of the ingested cinnamic and quinic acid moiteties. This study shows that the major CGA compounds present in green coffee are highly absorbed and metabolized in humans. PMID:19022950

  19. Carboxylic and dicarboxylic acids extracted from crushed magnesium oxide single crystals

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Freund, F.; Gupta, A. D.; Kumar, D.

    1999-01-01

    Carboxylic and dicarboxylic acids (glycolic, oxalic, malonic and succinic) have been extracted with tetrahydrofuran (THF) and H2O from large synthetic MgO crystals, crushed to a medium fine powder. The extracts were characterized by infrared spectroscopy and 1H-NMR. The THF extracts were derivatized with tert-butyldimethylsilyl (t-BDMS) for GC-MS analysis. A single crystal separated from the extract was used for an x-ray structure analysis, giving the monoclinic unit cell, space group P21/c with ao = 5.543 A, bo = 8.845 A, co = 5.086 A, and beta = 91.9 degrees, consistent with beta-succinic acid, HOOC(CH2)COOH. The amount of extracted acids is estimated to be of the order of 0.1 to 0.5 mg g-1 MgO. The MgO crystals from which these organic acids were extracted grew from the 2860 degrees C hot melt, saturated with CO/CO2 and H2O, thereby incorporating small amounts of the gaseous components to form a solid solution (ss) with MgO. Upon cooling, the ss becomes supersaturated, causing solute carbon and other solute species to segregate not only to the surface but also internally, to dislocations and subgrain boundaries. The organic acids extracted from the MgO crystals after crushing appear to derive from these segregated solutes that formed C-C, C-H and C-O bonds along dislocations and other defects in the MgO structure, leading to entities that can generically be described as (HxCyOz)n-. The processes underlying the formation of these precursors are fundamental in nature and expected to be operational in any minerals, preferentially those with dense structures, that crystallized in H2O-CO2-laden environments. This opens the possibility that common magmatic and metamorphic rocks when weathering at the surface of a tectonically active planet like Earth may be an important source of abiogenically formed complex organic compounds.

  20. Carboxylic and Dicarboxylic Acids Extracted from Crushed Magnesium Oxide Single Crystals

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Freund, Friedemann; Gupta, Alka D.; Kumar, Devendra; DeVincenzi, Donald (Technical Monitor)

    1998-01-01

    Carboxylic and dicarboxylic acids (glycolic, oxalic, malonic and succinic) have been extracted with tetrahydrofuran (THE) and H2O from large synthetic MgO crystals, crushed to a medium fine powder. The extracts were characterized by infrared spectroscopy and (sup 1)H-NMR (Nuclear Magnetic Resonance). The THF extracts were derivatized with tert-butyldimethylsilyl (t-BDMS) for GC-MS (Gas Chromatography - Mass Spectroscopy) analysis. A single crystal separated from the extract was used for an x-ray structure analysis, giving the monoclinic unit cell, space group P2(sub 1)/c with a(sub o) = 5.543 A, b(sub o) = 8.845 A, c(sub o) = 5.086 A, and beta = 91.9 degrees, consistent with beta-succinic acid, HOOC(CH2)COOH. The amount of extracted acids is estimated to be of the order of 0.1 to 0.5 mg/g MgO. The MgO crystals from which these organic acids were extracted grew from the 2360 C hot melt, saturated with CO/CO2 and H2O, thereby incorporating small amounts of the gaseous components to form a solid solution (ss) with MgO. Upon cooling, the ss becomes supersaturated, causing solute carbon and other solute species to segregate not only to the surface but also internally, to dislocations and subgrain boundaries. The organic acids extracted from the MgO crystals after crushing appear to derive from these segregated solutes that formed C-C, C-H, and C-O bonds along dislocations and other defects in the MgO structure, leading to entities that can generically be described as (HxCyOz)(sup n-). The processes underlying the formation of these precursors are fundamental in nature and expected to be operational in any minerals, preferentially those with dense structures, that crystallized in H2O-CO2-laden environments. This opens the possibility that common magmatic and metamorphic rocks when weathering at the surface of a tectonically active planet like Earth may be an important source of abiogenically formed complex organic compounds.

  1. Extraction and quantification of gymnemic acids through gymnemagenin from callus cultures of Gymnema sylvestre.

    PubMed

    Kanetkar, P V; Singhal, R S; Laddha, K S; Kamat, M Y

    2006-01-01

    The phyto-constituents of Gymnema sylvestre are used in the treatment of diabetes and obesity. The present work reports on the extraction of gymnemic acid through gymnemagenin from callus cultures of G. sylvestre. Components were separated on pre-coated silica gel 60 GF254 plates with chloroform:methanol (8:2) and scanned using a densitometric scanner at 205 nm in the near-UV region. Linearity of determination of gymnemagenin was observed in the range 2-10 microg. The average percentage recovery of gymnemagenin from leaf callus extracts was 98.9+/-0.3. PMID:17144249

  2. Selective separation of hydroxide from alkaline nuclear tank waste by liquid-liquid extraction with weak hydroxy acids.

    PubMed

    Chambliss, C Kevin; Haverlock, Tamara I; Bonnesen, Peter V; Engle, Nancy L; Moyer, Bruce A

    2002-04-15

    Recovery and recycle of caustic reagents in industrial processes offer potential means of pollution prevention, as investigated herein for particular needs related to the cleanup of alkaline nuclear waste. Specifically, the recovery of hydroxide from alkaline media by liquid-liquid extraction can be effected utilizing weak hydroxy acids, as demonstrated for NaOH utilizing a series of lipophilic fluorinated alcohols and alkylated phenols dissolved in 1-octanol. Extraction efficiency follows the expected order of acidity of the hydroxy acids, the phenols being the most efficient extractants among the compounds tested. After extraction, NaOH is effectively recoverable from the organic phase upon contact with water. The weakest hydroxy acids are the most efficiently stripped, NaOH recovery being nearly quantitative in a single contact. In competitive extraction experiments, good selectivity for hydroxide recovery over other anions such as nitrate and chloride was demonstrated. Since the order of extraction favors larger anions, the exceptional preference for hydroxide implies that the extraction occurs by deprotonation of the hydroxy acids in a cation-exchange process. Stripping therefore occurs by hydrolysis to regenerate the neutral hydroxy acid, liberating NaOH to the aqueous phase. Since hydroxide equivalents rather than actual hydroxide ions are transferred to the solvent, the process is termed "pseudohydroxide extraction." Hydroxide recovery from a simulant of alkaline nuclear tank waste (Hanford DSSF simulant) was also demonstrated in repeated extraction and stripping cycles. PMID:11993889

  3. Pressurized water extraction of β-glucan enriched fractions with bile acids-binding capacities obtained from edible mushrooms.

    PubMed

    Palanisamy, Marimuthu; Aldars-García, Laila; Gil-Ramírez, Alicia; Ruiz-Rodríguez, Alejandro; Marín, Francisco R; Reglero, Guillermo; Soler-Rivas, Cristina

    2014-01-01

    A pressurized water extraction (PWE) method was developed in order to extract β-glucans with bile acids-binding capacities from cultivated mushrooms (Agaricus bisporus, Lentinula edodes, and Pleurotus ostreatus) to be used as supplements to design novel foods with hypocholesterolemic properties. Extraction yields were higher in individual than sequential extractions being the optimal extraction parameters: 200°C, 5 cycles of 5 min each at 10.3 MPa. The crude polysaccharide (PSC) fractions, isolated from the PWE extracts contained mainly β-glucans (including chitooligosaccharides deriving from chitin hydrolysis), α-glucans, and other PSCs (hetero-/proteo-glucans) depending on the extraction temperature and mushroom strain considered. The observed bile acids-binding capacities of some extracts were similar to a β-glucan enriched fraction obtained from cereals. PMID:24399760

  4. Biotransformation of caffeoyl quinic acids from green coffee extracts by Lactobacillus johnsonii NCC 533

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    The potential of Lactobacillus johnsonii NCC 533 to metabolize chlorogenic acids from green coffee extract was investigated. Two enzymes, an esterase and a hydroxycinnamate decarboxylase (HCD), were involved in this biotransformation. The complete hydrolysis of 5-caffeoylquinic acid (5-CQA) into caffeic acid (CA) by L. johnsonii esterase occurred during the first 16 h of reaction time. No dihydrocaffeic acid was identified in the reaction mixture. The decarboxylation of CA into 4-vinylcatechol (4-VC) started only when the maximum concentration of CA was reached (10 μmol/ml). CA was completely transformed into 4-VC after 48 h of incubation. No 4-vinylphenol or other derivatives could be identified in the reaction media. In this study we demonstrate the capability of L. johnsonii to transform chlorogenic acids from green coffee extract into 4-VC in two steps one pot reaction. Thus, the enzymatic potential of certain lactobacilli might be explored to generate flavor compounds from plant polyphenols. PMID:23692950

  5. Biotransformation of caffeoyl quinic acids from green coffee extracts by Lactobacillus johnsonii NCC 533.

    PubMed

    Bel-Rhlid, Rachid; Thapa, Dinesh; Kraehenbuehl, Karin; Hansen, Carl Erik; Fischer, Lutz

    2013-01-01

    The potential of Lactobacillus johnsonii NCC 533 to metabolize chlorogenic acids from green coffee extract was investigated. Two enzymes, an esterase and a hydroxycinnamate decarboxylase (HCD), were involved in this biotransformation. The complete hydrolysis of 5-caffeoylquinic acid (5-CQA) into caffeic acid (CA) by L. johnsonii esterase occurred during the first 16 h of reaction time. No dihydrocaffeic acid was identified in the reaction mixture. The decarboxylation of CA into 4-vinylcatechol (4-VC) started only when the maximum concentration of CA was reached (10 μmol/ml). CA was completely transformed into 4-VC after 48 h of incubation. No 4-vinylphenol or other derivatives could be identified in the reaction media. In this study we demonstrate the capability of L. johnsonii to transform chlorogenic acids from green coffee extract into 4-VC in two steps one pot reaction. Thus, the enzymatic potential of certain lactobacilli might be explored to generate flavor compounds from plant polyphenols. PMID:23692950

  6. Extraction of Alumina from high-silica bauxite by hydrochloric acid leaching using preliminary roasting method

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Valeev, D. V.; Mansurova, E. R.; Bychinskii, V. A.; Chudnenko, K. V.

    2016-02-01

    A process of dissolution Severoonezhsk deposit boehmite-kaolinite bauxite by hydrochloric acid, as well as the processes that occur during open-air calcination, were investigated. A dehydration process has been studied, and the basic phase transformation temperatures were identified. Temperature and time of calcination influence on bauxite dehydration speed were determined. It is shown that the preliminary calcination increases the extraction ratio of alumina into solution up to 89%. Thermodynamic modelling of physical and chemical processes of bauxite decomposition by hydrochloric acid and the basic forms of aluminium speciation in solution were obtained.

  7. Optimization of extraction procedure and chromatographic separation of glyphosate, glufosinate and aminomethylphosphonic acid in soil.

    PubMed

    Druart, Coline; Delhomme, Olivier; de Vaufleury, Annette; Ntcho, Evodie; Millet, Maurice

    2011-02-01

    Analysing herbicides in soil is a complex issue that needs validation and optimization of existing methods. An extraction and analysis method was developed to assess concentrations of glyphosate, glufosinate and aminomethylphophonic acid (AMPA) in field soil samples. After testing extractions by accelerated solvent extraction and ultrasonic extraction, agitation was selected with the best recoveries. Water was preferred as solvent extraction because it resulted in a cleaner chromatogram with fewer impurities than was the case with alkaline solvents. Analysis was performed by FMOC pre-column derivatization followed by high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) on a 300 mm C(18) column which permitted enhanced separation and sensitivity than a 250 mm C(18) column and increased resistance than the NH(2) column for soil samples. This extraction and analysis method allowing a minimum of steps before the injection in the HPLC with fluorescence detection is efficient and sensitive for a clay-loamy soil with detection limits of 103 μg kg(-1) for glyphosate, 15 μg kg(-1) for glufosinate and 16 μg kg(-1) for AMPA in soil samples. PMID:21153586

  8. Recovery of Uranium from Wet Phosphoric Acid by Solvent Extraction Processes

    SciTech Connect

    Beltrami, Denis; Cote, Gérard; Mokhtari, Hamid; Courtaud, Bruno; Moyer, Bruce A.; Chagnes, Alexandre

    2014-11-17

    Between 1951 and 1991, we developed about 17 processes to recover uranium from wet phosphoric acid (WPA), but the viability of these processes was subject to the variation of the uranium price market. Nowadays, uranium from WPA appears to be attractive due to the increase of the global uranium demand resulting from the emergence of developing countries. Moreover, the increasing demand provides impetus for a new look at the applicable technology with a view to improvements as well as altogether new approaches. This paper gives an overview on extraction processes developed in the past to recover uranium from wet phosphoric acid (WPA) as well as the physicochemistry involved in these processes. Recent advances concerning the development of new extraction systems are also reported and discussed.

  9. Recovery of Uranium from Wet Phosphoric Acid by Solvent Extraction Processes

    DOE PAGESBeta

    Beltrami, Denis; Cote, Gérard; Mokhtari, Hamid; Courtaud, Bruno; Moyer, Bruce A.; Chagnes, Alexandre

    2014-11-17

    Between 1951 and 1991, we developed about 17 processes to recover uranium from wet phosphoric acid (WPA), but the viability of these processes was subject to the variation of the uranium price market. Nowadays, uranium from WPA appears to be attractive due to the increase of the global uranium demand resulting from the emergence of developing countries. Moreover, the increasing demand provides impetus for a new look at the applicable technology with a view to improvements as well as altogether new approaches. This paper gives an overview on extraction processes developed in the past to recover uranium from wet phosphoricmore » acid (WPA) as well as the physicochemistry involved in these processes. Recent advances concerning the development of new extraction systems are also reported and discussed.« less

  10. An active ingredient of Cat's Claw water extracts identification and efficacy of quinic acid.

    PubMed

    Sheng, Yezhou; Akesson, Christina; Holmgren, Kristin; Bryngelsson, Carl; Giamapa, Vincent; Pero, Ronald W

    2005-01-15

    Historic medicinal practice has defined Cat's Claw, also known as Una de Gato or Uncaria tomentosa, as an effective treatment for several health disorders including chronic inflammation, gastrointestinal dysfunction such as ulcers, tumors and infections. The efficacy of Cat's Claw was originally believed, as early as the 1960s, to be due to the presence of oxindole alkaloids. However, more recently water-soluble Cat's Claw extracts were shown not to contain significant amounts of alkaloids (<0.05%), and yet still were shown to be very efficacious. Here we characterize the active ingredients of a water-soluble Cat's Claw extract called C-Med-100 as inhibiting cell growth without cell death thus providing enhanced opportunities for DNA repair, and the consequences thereof, such as immune stimulation, anti-inflammation and cancer prevention. The active ingredients were chemically defined as quinic acid esters and could also be shown to be bioactive in vivo as quinic acid. PMID:15619581

  11. Quantitation of volatiles and nonvolatile acids in an extract from coffee beverages: correlation with antioxidant activity.

    PubMed

    Fujioka, Kazutoshi; Shibamoto, Takayuki

    2006-08-01

    The antioxidant activities of a commercial brewed coffee were investigated by measuring malonaldehyde (MA) formation from oxidized cod liver oil using a gas chromatographic method (MA-GC assay) and a thiobarbituric acid method (TBA assay). The highest antioxidant activity obtained by the MA-GC assay was from regular whole brewed coffee (97.8%) at a level of 20%, and the highest antioxidant activity obtained by the TBA assay was from decaffeinated whole brewed coffee (96.6%) at a level of 5%. Among 31 chemicals identified in a dichloromethane extract, guaiacol, ethylguaiacol, and vinylguaiacol exhibited antioxidant activities, which were comparable to that of alpha-tocopherol. Among nine chlorogenic acids (three caffeoylquinic acids, three feruloylquinic acids, and three dicaffeoylquinic acids) identified, 5-caffeoylquinic acid contained the greatest amount both in regular (883.5 microg/mL) and in decaffeinated (1032.6 microg/mL) coffees; it exhibited 24.5% activity by the MA-GC assay and 45.3% activity by the TBA assay at a level of 10 microg/mL. Caffeic and ferulic acids showed moderate antioxidant activities in both assays. PMID:16881716

  12. Supercritical carbon dioxide extraction of seed oil from winter melon (Benincasa hispida) and its antioxidant activity and fatty acid composition.

    PubMed

    Bimakr, Mandana; Rahman, Russly Abdul; Taip, Farah Saleena; Adzahan, Noranizan Mohd; Sarker, Md Zaidul Islam; Ganjloo, Ali

    2013-01-01

    In the present study, supercritical carbon dioxide (SC-CO(2)) extraction of seed oil from winter melon (Benincasa hispida) was investigated. The effects of process variables namely pressure (150-300 bar), temperature (40-50 °C) and dynamic extraction time (60-120 min) on crude extraction yield (CEY) were studied through response surface methodology (RSM). The SC-CO(2) extraction process was modified using ethanol (99.9%) as co-solvent. Perturbation plot revealed the significant effect of all process variables on the CEY. A central composite design (CCD) was used to optimize the process conditions to achieve maximum CEY. The optimum conditions were 244 bar pressure, 46 °C temperature and 97 min dynamic extraction time. Under these optimal conditions, the CEY was predicted to be 176.30 mg-extract/g-dried sample. The validation experiment results agreed with the predicted value. The antioxidant activity and fatty acid composition of crude oil obtained under optimized conditions were determined and compared with published results using Soxhlet extraction (SE) and ultrasound assisted extraction (UAE). It was found that the antioxidant activity of the extract obtained by SC-CO(2) extraction was strongly higher than those obtained by SE and UAE. Identification of fatty acid composition using gas chromatography (GC) showed that all the extracts were rich in unsaturated fatty acids with the most being linoleic acid. In contrast, the amount of saturated fatty acids extracted by SE was higher than that extracted under optimized SC-CO(2) extraction conditions. PMID:23322066

  13. Solvent extraction of organic acids from stillage for its re-use in ethanol production process.

    PubMed

    Castro, G A; Caicedo, L A; Alméciga-Díaz, C J; Sanchez, O F

    2010-06-01

    Stillage re-use in the fermentation stage in ethanol production is a technique used for the reduction of water and fermentation nutrients consumption. However, the inhibitory effect on yeast growth of the by-products and feed components that remains in stillage increases with re-use and reduces the number of possible recycles. Several methods such as ultrafiltration, electrodialysis and advanced oxidation processes have been used in stillage treatment prior its re-use in the fermentation stage. Nevertheless, few studies evaluating the effect of solvent extraction as a stillage treatment option have been performed. In this work, the inhibitory effect of serial stillage recycling over ethanol and biomass production was determined, using acetic acid as a monitoring compound during the fermentation and solvent extraction process. Raw palm oil methyl ester showed the highest acetic acid extraction from the aqueous phase, presenting a distribution coefficient of 3.10 for a 1:1 aqueous phase mixture:solvent ratio. Re-using stillage without treatment allowed up to three recycles with an ethanol production of 53.7 +/- 2.0 g L(-1), which was reduced 25% in the fifth recycle. Alternatively, treated stillage allowed up to five recycles with an ethanol final concentration of 54.7 +/- 1.3 g L(- 1). These results show that reduction of acetic acid concentration by an extraction process with raw palm oil methyl ester before re-using stillage improves the number of recycles without a major effect on ethanol production. The proposed process generates a palm oil methyl ester that contains organic acids, among other by-products, that could be used for product recovery and as an alternative fuel. PMID:19748936

  14. Interlaboratory comparison of measurements of acid-volatile sulfide and simultaneously extracted nickel in spiked sediments

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Brumbaugh, William G.; Hammerschmidt, Chad R.; Zanella, Luciana; Rogevich, Emily; Salata, Gregory; Bolek, Radoslaw

    2011-01-01

    An interlaboratory comparison of acid-volatile sulfide (AVS) and simultaneously extracted nickel (SEM_Ni) measurements of sediments was conducted among five independent laboratories. Relative standard deviations for the seven test samples ranged from 5.6 to 71% (mean?=?25%) for AVS and from 5.5 to 15% (mean?=?10%) for SEM_Ni. These results are in stark contrast to a recently published study that indicated AVS and SEM analyses were highly variable among laboratories.

  15. Interlaboratory comparison of measurements of acid-volatile sulfide and simultaneously extracted nickel in spiked sediments

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Brumbaugh, W.G.; Hammerschmidt, C.R.; Zanella, L.; Rogevich, E.; Salata, G.; Bolek, R.

    2011-01-01

    An interlaboratory comparison of acid-volatile sulfide (AVS) and simultaneously extracted nickel (SEM-Ni) measurements of sediments was conducted among five independent laboratories. Relative standard deviations for the seven test samples ranged from 5.6 to 71% (mean=25%) for AVS and from 5.5 to 15% (mean=10%) for SEM-Ni. These results are in stark contrast to a recently published study that indicated AVS and SEM analyses were highly variable among laboratories. ?? 2011 SETAC.

  16. Selective extraction of derivates of p-hydroxy-benzoic acid from plant material by using a molecularly imprinted polymer.

    PubMed

    Karasová, Gabriela; Lehotay, Jozef; Sádecká, Jana; Skacáni, Ivan; Lachová, Miroslava

    2005-12-01

    Selective SPE of derivates of p-hydroxybenzoic acid (pHBA) from plant extract of Melissa officinalis is presented using a molecularly imprinted polymer (MIP) made with protocatechuic acid (PA) as template molecule. MIP was prepared with acrylamide as functional monomer, ethylene glycol dimethacrylate as crosslinking monomer and ACN as porogen. MIP was evaluated towards six phenolic acids: PA, gallic acid, pHBA, vanillic acid (VA), gentisic acid (GeA) and syringic acid (SyrA), and then steps of molecularly imprinted SPE (MISPE) procedure were optimized. The best specific binding capacity of MIP was obtained for PA in ACN (34.7 microg/g of MIP). Other tested acids were also bound on MIP if they were dissolved in this solvent. ACN was chosen as solvent for sample application. M. officinalis was extracted into methanol/water (4:1, v/v), the extract was then evaporated to dryness and dissolved in ACN before application on MIP. Water and ACN were used as washing solvents and elution of benzoic acids was performed by means of a mixture methanol/acetic acid (9:1, v/v). pHBA, GA, PA and VA were extracted with recoveries of 56.3-82.1% using this MISPE method. GeA was not determined in plant extract. PMID:16405176

  17. Extraction of metals and/or metalloids from acidic media using supercritical fluids and salts

    DOEpatents

    Wai, Chien M.; Smart, Neil G.; Lin, Yuehe

    1998-01-01

    A method of extracting metalloid and metal species from a solid or liquid material by exposing the material to a fluid solvent, particularly supercritical carbon dioxide, containing a chelating agent is described. The chelating agent forms chelates that are soluble in the fluid to allow removal of the species from the material. In preferred embodiments, the extraction solvent is supercritical carbon dioxide and the chelating agent comprises a trialkyl phosphate, a triaryl phosphate, a trialkylphosphine oxide, a triarylphosphine oxide, or mixtures thereof. The method provides an environmentally benign process for removing contaminants from industrial waste. The method is particularly useful for extracting actinides from acidic solutions, and the process can be aided by the addition of nitrate salts. The chelate and supercritical fluid can be regenerated, and the contaminant species recovered, to provide an economic, efficient process.

  18. Hypoglycaemic effects of tea extracts and ent-kaurenoic acid from Smallanthus sonchifolius.

    PubMed

    Raga, Dennis D; Alimboyoguen, Agnes B; del Fierro, Ramon S; Ragasa, Consolacion Y

    2010-11-01

    Hypoglycaemic activity was observed in normoglycaemic mice orally administered with the aqueous Smallanthus sonchifolius leaf tea extract, alloxan-induced diabetic mice orally administered with ent-kaurenoic acid (1), and normoglycaemic mice intraperitoneally administered with 1 from S. sonchifolius leaves. A single dose administration of 50 mg kg(-1) BW yacon leaf tea extract demonstrated immediate but relatively short hypoglycaemic activity, with significant effects observed during 1-2 h. Similarly, administration with 100 mg kg(-1) BW yacon leaf tea extract obtained by heavy stirring in hot water demonstrated a more potent activity compared to the positive control at 1.5-2.0 h. Oral administration of 1 did not affect the blood glucose level of the alloxan-induced diabetic mice, but a single intraperitonial injection of 10 mg kg(-1) BW in normoglycaemic mice had consistent percent blood glucose reduction persisting from 1 to 2 h observation periods. PMID:20981618

  19. Reactive extraction of lactic acid with trioctylamine/methylene chloride/n-hexane

    SciTech Connect

    Han, D.H.; Hong, W.H.

    1996-04-01

    The trioctylamine (TOA)/methylene chloride (MC)/n-hexane system was used as the extraction agent for the extraction of lactic acid. Curves of equilibrium and hydration were obtained at various temperatures and concentrations of TOA. A modified mass action model was proposed to interpret the equilibrium and the hydration curves. The reaction mechanism and the corresponding parameters which best represent the equilibrium data were estimated, and the concentration of water in the organic phase was predicted by inserting the parameters into the simple mathematical equation of the modified model. The concentration of MC and the change of temperature were important factors for the extraction and the stripping process. The stripping was performed by a simple distillation which was a combination of temperature-swing regeneration and diluent-swing regeneration. The type of inactive diluent has no influence on the stripping. The stripping efficiencies were about 70%.

  20. Extraction of copper and zinc-humic acid with an ionic liquid

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Huang, H.-L.; Tseng, Ru-Ling

    2009-04-01

    Extraction of copper and zinc in the contaminated soil with a room temperature ionic liquid (RTIL) has been studied by X-ray absorption near edge structural (XANES) and X-ray absorption fine structural (EXAFS) spectroscopies in the present work. By the least-square fitted XANES spectra, the major copper and zinc species in the contaminated soil are adsorbed copper- and adsorbed zinc-humic acid (HA). In a short contact, 80% of copper and zinc in the contaminated soil was extracted into the RTIL. The fitted EXAFS spectra show that Cu-HA and Zn-HA in the RTIL possessed the Cu-O and ZnO (1st shell) bond distances of 1.96 and 1.82 Å, respectively. The possible reaction path involved in extraction of copper and zinc in the contaminated soil into the RTIL has also been pointed out. Keywords: RTIL; XANES; EXAFS

  1. Extraction of metals and/or metalloids from acidic media using supercritical fluids and salts

    DOEpatents

    Wai, C.M.; Smart, N.G.; Lin, Y.

    1998-06-23

    A method is described for extracting metalloid and metal species from a solid or liquid material by exposing the material to a fluid solvent, particularly supercritical carbon dioxide, containing a chelating agent. The chelating agent forms chelates that are soluble in the fluid to allow removal of the species from the material. In preferred embodiments, the extraction solvent is supercritical carbon dioxide and the chelating agent comprises a trialkyl phosphate, a triaryl phosphate, a trialkylphosphine oxide, a triarylphosphine oxide, or mixtures thereof. The method provides an environmentally benign process for removing contaminants from industrial waste. The method is particularly useful for extracting actinides from acidic solutions, and the process can be aided by the addition of nitrate salts. The chelate and supercritical fluid can be regenerated, and the contaminant species recovered, to provide an economic, efficient process. 7 figs.

  2. Analysis of perfluorinated carboxylic acids in soils II: optimization of chromatography and extraction.

    PubMed

    Washington, John W; Henderson, W Matthew; Ellington, J Jackson; Jenkins, Thomas M; Evans, John J

    2008-02-15

    With the objective of detecting and quantitating low concentrations of perfluorinated carboxylic acids (PFCAs), including perfluorooctanoic acid (PFOA), in soils, we compared the analytical suitability of liquid chromatography columns containing three different stationary phases, two different liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (LC/MS/MS) systems, and eight combinations of sample-extract pretreatments, extractions and cleanups on three test soils. For the columns and systems we tested, we achieved the greatest analytical sensitivity for PFCAs using a column with a C(18) stationary phase in a Waters LC/MS/MS. In this system we achieved an instrument detection limit for PFOA of 270 ag/microL, equating to about 14 fg of PFOA on-column. While an elementary acetonitrile/water extraction of soils recovers PFCAs effectively, natural soil organic matter also dissolved in the extracts commonly imparts significant noise that appears as broad, multi-nodal, asymmetric peaks that coelute with several PFCAs. The intensity and elution profile of this noise is highly variable among soils and it challenges detection of low concentrations of PFCAs by decreasing the signal-to-noise contrast. In an effort to decrease this background noise, we investigated several methods of pretreatment, extraction and cleanup, in a variety of combinations, that used alkaline and unbuffered water, acetonitrile, tetrabutylammonium hydrogen sulfate, methyl-tert-butyl ether, dispersed activated carbon and solid-phase extraction. For the combined objectives of complete recovery and minimization of background noise, we have chosen: (1) alkaline pretreatment; (2) extraction with acetonitrile/water; (3) evaporation to dryness; (4) reconstitution with tetrabutylammonium-hydrogen-sulfate ion-pairing solution; (5) ion-pair extraction to methyl-tert-butyl ether; (6) evaporation to dryness; (7) reconstitution with 60/40 acetonitrile/water (v/v); and (8) analysis by LC/MS/MS. Using this method, we

  3. Stabilization of Cu in acid-extracted industrial sludge using a microwave process.

    PubMed

    Chen, Ching-Lung; Lo, Shang-Lien; Kuan, Wen-Hui; Hsieh, Ching-Hong

    2005-08-31

    The leaching concentration of copper ions from the industrial sludge that has been extracted using sulfuric acid may still exceed 15 mg/L, which is the leaching standard of the toxicity characteristic leaching procedure (TCLP) for hazardous waste in Taiwan. Therefore, the acid-extracted industrial sludge is still an important source of hazardous waste. Usually, hazardous waste in Taiwan must be solidified and passed through the TCLP test before it is disposed in a landfill. The aim of this study is to develop a microwave process to stabilize copper ions in the sludge to replace the use of traditional solidification. In this study, two parameters--the reaction time of the microwave process and the additive reagents--were considered. The efficiency of stabilization of the microwave process was evaluated from the result of the TCLP test. The results showed that the stabilization efficiency of copper ions obtained using a microwave process without any added reagent depends highly on the property of the original acid-extracted sludge. Under some conditions, the leaching concentrations were much lower than those of the raw sludge. In additive reagent systems, the results showed that iron powder promoted the stabilization of copper ions more than the other additives such as sodium carbonate and sodium silicate. The leaching concentration of copper ions decreased dramatically from 179.4 to 6.5mg/L below in the iron additive system. PMID:15936873

  4. Extraction and determination of ellagic acid contentin chestnut bark and fruit.

    PubMed

    Vekiari, S A; Gordon, M H; García-Macías, P; Labrinea, H

    2008-10-15

    Chestnuts are an important economic resource in the chestnut growing regions, not only for the fruit, but also for the wood. The content of ellagic acid (EA), a naturally occurring inhibitor of carcinogenesis, was determined in chestnut fruits and bark. EA was extracted with methanol and free ellagic acid was determined by HPLC with UV detection, both in the crude extract and after hydrolysis. The concentration of EA was generally increased after hydrolysis due to the presence of ellagitannins in the crude extract. The concentration varied between 0.71 and 21.6mgg(-1) (d.w.) in un-hydrolyzed samples, and between 2.83 and 18.4mgg(-1) (d.w.) in hydrolyzed samples. In chestnut fruits, traces of EA were present in the seed, with higher concentrations in the pellicle and pericarp. However, all fruit tissues had lower concentrations of EA than had the bark. The concentration of EA in the hydrolyzed samples showed a non-linear correlation with the concentration in the unhydrolyzed extracts. PMID:26047294

  5. [Determination of trace extractable lead in artificial acid sweat from ecological textiles by GFAAS].

    PubMed

    Liu, Chong-Hua; Fang, Han; Lin, Xiao-Yang; Zhang, Xiao-Li; Deng, Zhi-Guang; Li, Yun-Song

    2009-11-01

    Extractable trace level lead in artificial sweat solution from ecological textiles is a key item limited by eco-textile standard. But the content of this extractable Pb is not so easy to determine for the strict limit of eco-textile standard, the complicatedness of extractable solution matrix and the strong background interference of NaCl. In the present paper a method for the determination of trace extractable lead in artificial acid sweat from ecological textiles by graphite furnace atomic absorption spectrometry (GFAAS) is described. Based on a number of experiments by using different single and mixed matrix modifiers including (NH4)2 H2PO4, NH4 NO3, Pd(NO3)2, Ni(NO3)2 and ascorbic acid, an effective modifier and its quantity were selected and the graphite furnace operating parameters were optimized. Experimental test results revealed that adding 5 mL (1 : 1) mixed solution of 50 g x L(-1) ammonium nitrate and 100 mg x L(-1) palladium regent was an effective way to inhibit volatile lead and reduce background signals. The detection limit could reach a low level of 0.7 microg x L(-1). The relative standard deviation was 3.2%. Under the optimum experimental conditions, the recoveries ranged between 95.5% and 105%. PMID:20102007

  6. Diethylaminoethyl-cellulose clean-up of a large volume naphthenic acid extract.

    PubMed

    Frank, Richard A; Kavanagh, Richard; Burnison, B Kent; Headley, John V; Peru, Kerry M; Der Kraak, Glen Van; Solomon, Keith R

    2006-08-01

    The Athabasca oil sands of Alberta, Canada contain an estimated 174 billion barrels of bitumen. During oil sands refining processes, an extraction tailings mixture is produced that has been reported as toxic to aquatic organisms and is therefore collected in settling ponds on site. Investigation into the toxicity of these tailings pond waters has identified naphthenic acids (NAs) and their sodium salts as the major toxic components, and a multi-year study has been initiated to identify the principal toxic components within NA mixtures. Future toxicity studies require a large volume of a NA mixture, however, a well-defined bulk extraction technique is not available. This study investigated the use of a weak anion exchanger, diethylaminoethyl-cellulose (DEAE-cellulose), to remove humic-like material present after collecting the organic acid fraction of oil sands tailings pond water. The NA extraction and clean-up procedure proved to be a fast and efficient method to process large volumes of tailings pond water, providing an extraction efficiency of 41.2%. The resulting concentrated NA solution had a composition that differed somewhat from oil sands fresh tailings, with a reduction in the abundance of lower molecular weight NAs being the most significant difference. This reduction was mainly due to the initial acidification of tailings pond water. The DEAE-cellulose treatment had only a minor effect on the NA concentration, no noticeable effect on the NA fingerprint, and no significant effect on the mixture toxicity towards Vibrio fischeri. PMID:16469358

  7. Selective extraction of zinc(II) over iron(II) from spent hydrochloric acid pickling effluents by liquid-liquid extraction.

    PubMed

    Mansur, Marcelo Borges; Rocha, Sônia Denise Ferreira; Magalhães, Fernando Silva; Benedetto, Jeaneth dos Santos

    2008-02-11

    The selective removal of zinc(II) over iron(II) by liquid-liquid extraction from spent hydrochloric acid pickling effluents produced by the zinc hot-dip galvanizing industry was studied at room temperature. Two distinct effluents were investigated: effluent 1 containing 70.2g/L of Zn, 92.2g/L of Fe and pH 0.6, and effluent 2 containing 33.9 g/L of Zn, 203.9g/L of Fe and 2M HCl. The following extractants were compared: TBP (tri-n-butyl phosphate), Cyanex 272 [bis(2,4,4-trimethylpentyl)phosphinic acid], Cyanex 301 [bis(2,4,4-trimethylpentyl) dithiophosphinic acid] and Cyanex 302 [bis(2,4,4-trimethylpentyl) monothiophosphinic acid]. The best separation results were obtained for extractants TBP and Cyanex 301. Around 92.5% of zinc and 11.2% of iron were extracted from effluent 1 in one single contact using 100% (v/v) of TBP. With Cyanex 301, around 80-95% of zinc and less than 10% of iron were extracted from effluent 2 at pH 0.3-1.0. For Cyanex 272, the highest extraction yield for zinc (70% of zinc with 20% of iron extraction) was found at pH 2.4. Cyanex 302 presented low metal extraction levels (below 10%) and slow phase disengagement characteristics. Reactions for the extraction of zinc with TBP and Cyanex 301 from hydrochloric acid solution were proposed. PMID:17570579

  8. Solid extractant on the base of bifunctional extractants and solvating diluents for recovery of rare-earth and actinide elements from strongly acidic media

    SciTech Connect

    Romanovskii, V.N.; Smirnov, I.V.

    1996-12-31

    Diphosphine dioxides of different structure were synthesized and studied with the goal of using as a base for preparation of solid extractants. Of all the studied compounds, DPDO-11 was chosen. The solid extractant on its base was prepared by impregnation of divinylbenzene - styrol matrix with the solution of 0.8 M DPDO in fluoropol-1083. The investigation of extraction and physico-chemical properties of this solid extractant shows that it can be used for selective recovery of actinide and rare-earth elements from aqueous solutions in the wide range of acidity.

  9. Clouding in fatty acid dispersions for charge-dependent dye extraction.

    PubMed

    Garenne, David; Navailles, Laurence; Nallet, Frédéric; Grélard, Axelle; Dufourc, Erick J; Douliez, Jean-Paul

    2016-04-15

    The clouding phenomenon in non-ionic surfactant systems is a common feature that remains rare for ionic detergents. Here, we show that fatty acid (negatively charged) systems cloud upon cooling hot dispersions depending on the concentration or when adding excess guanidine hydrochloride. The clouding of these solutions yields the formation of enriched fatty acid droplets in which they exhibit a polymorphism that depends on the temperature: upon cooling, elongated wormlike micelles transit to rigid stacked bilayers inside droplets. Above this transition temperature, droplets coalesce yielding a phase separation between a fatty acid-rich phase and water, allowing extraction of dyes depending on their charge and lipophilicity. Positively charged and zwitterionic dyes were sequestered within the droplets (and then in the fatty acid-rich upper phase) whereas the negatively charged ones were found in both phases. Our results show an additional case of negatively charged surfactant which exhibit clouding phenomenon and suggest that these systems could be used for extracting solutes depending on their charge and lipophilicity. PMID:26828279

  10. Methyl jasmonate, yeast extract and sucrose stimulate phenolic acids accumulation in Eryngium planum L. shoot cultures.

    PubMed

    Kikowska, Małgorzata; Kędziora, Izabela; Krawczyk, Aldona; Thiem, Barbara

    2015-01-01

    Eryngium planum L. has been reported as a medicinal plant used in traditional medicine in Europe. The tissue cultures may be an alternative source of the biomass rich in desired bioactive compounds. The purpose of this study was to investigate the influence of the biotechnological techniques on the selected phenolic acids accumulation in the agitated shoot cultures of E. planum. Qualitative and quantitative analyses of those compounds in 50% aqueous - methanolic extracts from the biomass were conducted by applying the HPLC method. Methyl jasmonate (MeJA), yeast extract (YE) and sucrose (Suc) stimulated accumulation of the phenolic acids: rosmarinic (RA), chlorogenic (CGA) and caffeic (CA) in in vitro shoot cultures. Cultivation of shoots in liquid MS media supplemented with 1.0 mg L(-1) 6-benzyladenine and 0.1 mg L(-1) indole-3-acetic acid in the presence of 100 µM MeJA for 48h was an optimum condition of elicitation and resulted in approximately 4.5-fold increased content of RA + CGA + CA in plant material compared to the control (19.795 mg g(-1) DW, 4.36 mg g(-1) DW, respectively). The results provide the first evidence that the selected phenolic acids can be synthesized in elicited shoot cultures of flat sea holly in higher amount than in untreated shoots. PMID:25856557

  11. Solid phase extraction of petroleum carboxylic acids using a functionalized alumina as stationary phase.

    PubMed

    de Conto, Juliana Faccin; Nascimento, Juciara dos Santos; de Souza, Driele Maiara Borges; da Costa, Luiz Pereira; Egues, Silvia Maria da Silva; Freitas, Lisiane Dos Santos; Benvenutti, Edilson Valmir

    2012-04-01

    Petroleum essentially consists of a mixture of organic compounds, mainly containing carbon and hydrogen, and, in minor quantities, compounds with nitrogen, sulphur, and oxygen. Some of these compounds, such as naphthenic acids, can cause corrosion in pipes and equipment used in processing plants. Considering that the methods of separation or clean up the target compounds in low concentrations and in complex matrix use large amounts of solvents or stationary phases, is necessary to study new methodologies that consume smaller amounts of solvent and stationary phases to identify the acid components present in complex matrix, such as crude oil samples. The proposed study aimed to recover acid compounds using the solid phase extraction method, employing different types of commercial stationary ion exchange phases (SAX and NH(2)) and new phase alumina functionalized with 1,4-bis(n-propyl)diazoniabicyclo[2.2.2]octane chloride silsesquioxane (Dab-Al(2)O(3)), synthesized in this work. Carboxylic acids were used as standard mixture in the solid phase extraction for further calculation of recovery yield. Then, the real sample (petroleum) was fractionated into saturates, aromatics, resins, and asphaltenes, and the resin fraction of petroleum (B1) was eluted through stationary ion exchange phases. The stationary phase synthesized in this work showed an efficiency of ion exchange comparable to that of the commercial stationary phases. PMID:22589166

  12. Supercritical Fluid Extraction of Toxic Heavy Metals and Uranium from Acidic Solutions with Sulfur-Containing Organophosphorus Reagents

    SciTech Connect

    Lin, Yuehe ); Liu, Chongxuan ); Wu, Hong ); Yak, H K.; Wai, Chien M.

    2003-03-02

    The feasibility of using sulfur-containing organophosphorus reagents for the chelation-supercritical fluid extraction (SFE) of toxic heavy metals and uranium from acidic media was investigated. The SFE experiments were conducted in a specially-designed flow-through liquid extractor. Effective extraction of the metal ions from various acidic media was demonstrated. The effect of ligand concentration in supercritical CO{sub 2} on the kinetics of metal extraction was studied. A simplified model is used to describe the extraction kinetics and the good agreement of experimental data with the equilibrium-based model is achieved.

  13. The extraction of americium and strontium by P,P'-Di(2-ethylhexyl) benzene-1,2- diphosphonic acid.

    SciTech Connect

    Otu, E. O.; Chiarizia, R.; Rickert, P. G.; Nash, K. L.; Chemistry; Indiana Univ. Southeast

    2002-01-01

    A new acidic organophosphorus extractant, P,P'-di(2-ethylhexyl) benzene-1,2-diphosphonic acid (H2DEH[1,2-BzDP]), has been synthesized. Though the extractant proved unstable with respect to acid hydrolysis upon storage at room temperature, it was sufficiently stable in o-xylene solution under refrigeration to determine its aggregation and extraction properties for Sr{sup 2+} and Am{sup 3+} between 25 and 60 C. Slope analysis of radioanalytical data and the results of osmometric measurements indicate that the dominant extraction reaction for both metal ions is M{sup n+}+n HL{l_equilibrium}ML{sub n}+n H{sup +} where n=2 for Sr(II) and 3 for Am(III). In the Sr system there is also evidence for the extraction of SrNO{sub 3}{sup +}. As the extractant aggregation and extraction stoichiometries do not change significantly with temperature, it was possible to derive enthalpies and entropies of extraction from the temperature dependence of the metal extraction equilibrium constants between 25.0 and 60.0 C. The extraction of both metal ions is driven by an exothermic enthalpy and opposed by unfavorable entropies. The thermodynamic data are discussed in comparison with earlier data on the thermodynamics of extraction of these metal ions by analogous ligands containing aliphatic alkyl linkages between the functional groups and other data from the literature.

  14. Extraction of humic acid by coacervate: investigation of direct and back processes.

    PubMed

    Ghouas, H; Haddou, B; Kameche, M; Derriche, Z; Gourdon, C

    2012-02-29

    The two aqueous phases extraction process is widely used in environmental clean up of industrial effluents and fine chemical products for their reuse. This process can be made by cloud point of polyethoxylated alcohols and micellar solubilization phenomenon. It is commonly called "coacervate extraction" and is used, in our case, for humic acid extraction from aqueous solution at 100mg/L. The surfactants used are alcohol polyethoxylate and alkylphenol polyethoxylate. Phase diagrams of binary water/surfactant and pseudo-binary are plotted. The extraction results are expressed by the following responses: percentage of solute extracted, E (%), residual concentrations of solute and surfactant in dilute phase (X(s,w), and X(t,w) respectively) and volume fraction of coacervate at equilibrium (ϕ). For each parameter, the experimental results are fitted to empirical equations in three dimensions. The aim of this study is to find out the best compromise between E and ϕC. The comparison between experimental and calculated values allows models validation. Sodium sulfate, cetyltrimethylammonium bromide (CTAB) addition and pH effect are also studied. Finally, the possibility of recycling the surfactant has been proved. PMID:22260753

  15. Improved Proteomic Analysis Following Trichloroacetic Acid Extraction of Bacillus anthracis Spore Proteins

    SciTech Connect

    Kaiser, Brooke LD; Wunschel, David S.; Sydor, Michael A.; Warner, Marvin G.; Wahl, Karen L.; Hutchison, Janine R.

    2015-08-07

    Proteomic analysis of bacterial samples provides valuable information about cellular responses and functions under different environmental pressures. Proteomic analysis is dependent upon efficient extraction of proteins from bacterial samples without introducing bias toward extraction of particular protein classes. While no single method can recover 100% of the bacterial proteins, selected protocols can improve overall protein isolation, peptide recovery, or enrich for certain classes of proteins. The method presented here is technically simple and does not require specialized equipment such as a mechanical disrupter. Our data reveal that for particularly challenging samples, such as B. anthracis Sterne spores, trichloroacetic acid extraction improved the number of proteins identified within a sample compared to bead beating (714 vs 660, respectively). Further, TCA extraction enriched for 103 known spore specific proteins whereas bead beating resulted in 49 unique proteins. Analysis of C. botulinum samples grown to 5 days, composed of vegetative biomass and spores, showed a similar trend with improved protein yields and identification using our method compared to bead beating. Interestingly, easily lysed samples, such as B. anthracis vegetative cells, were equally as effectively processed via TCA and bead beating, but TCA extraction remains the easiest and most cost effective option. As with all assays, supplemental methods such as implementation of an alternative preparation method may provide additional insight to the protein biology of the bacteria being studied.

  16. Impact of Ellagic Acid in Bone Formation after Tooth Extraction: An Experimental Study on Diabetic Rats

    PubMed Central

    Al-Obaidi, Mazen M. Jamil; Al-Bayaty, Fouad Hussain; Hussaini, Jamal; Khor, Goot Heah

    2014-01-01

    Objectives. To estimate the impact of ellagic acid (EA) towards healing tooth socket in diabetic animals, after tooth extraction. Methods. Twenty-four Sprague Dawley male rats weighing 250–300 g were selected for this study. All animals were intraperitoneally injected with 45 mg/kg (b.w.) of freshly prepared streptozotocin (STZ), to induce diabetic mellitus. Then, the animals were anesthetized, and the upper left central incisor was extracted and the whole extracted sockets were filled with Rosuvastatin (RSV). The rats were separated into three groups, comprising 8 rats each. The first group was considered as normal control group and orally treated with normal saline. The second group was regarded as diabetic control group and orally treated with normal saline, whereas the third group comprised diabetic rats, administrated with EA (50 mg/kg) orally. The maxilla tissue stained by eosin and hematoxylin (H&E) was used for histological examinations and immunohistochemical technique. Fibroblast growth factor (FGF-2) and alkaline phosphatase (ALP) were used to evaluate the healing process in the extracted tooth socket by immunohistochemistry test. Results. The reactions of immunohistochemistry for FGF-2 and ALP presented stronger expression, predominantly in EA treated diabetic rat, than the untreated diabetic rat. Conclusion. These findings suggest that the administration of EA combined with RSV may have accelerated the healing process of the tooth socket of diabetic rats, after tooth extraction. PMID:25485304

  17. Phytochemistry of Cimicifugic Acids and Associated Bases in Cimicifuga racemosa Root Extracts

    PubMed Central

    GÖdecke, Tanja; Nikolic, Dejan; Lankin, David C.; Chen, Shao-Nong; Powell, Sharla L.; Dietz, Birgit; Bolton, Judy L.; Van Breemen, Richard B.; Farnsworth, Norman R.; Pauli, Guido F.

    2009-01-01

    Introduction Earlier studies reported serotonergic activity for cimicifugic acids (CA) isolated from Cimicifuga racemosa. The discovery of strongly basic alkaloids, cimipronidines, from the active extract partition and evaluation of previously employed work-up procedures has led to the hypothesis of strong acid/base association in the extract. Objective Re-isolation of the CAs was desired to permit further detailed studies. Based on the acid/base association hypothesis, a new separation scheme of the active partition was required, which separates acids from associated bases. Methodology A new 5-HT7 bioassay guided work-up procedure was developed that concentrates activity into one partition. The latter was subjected to a new 2-step centrifugal partitioning chromatography (CPC) method, which applies pH zone refinement gradient (pHZR CPC) to dissociate the acid/base complexes. The resulting CA fraction was subjected to a second CPC step. Fractions and compounds were monitored by 1H NMR using a structure based spin-pattern analysis facilitating dereplication of the known acids. Bioassay results were obtained for the pHZR CPC fractions and for purified CAs. Results A new CA was characterized. While none of the pure CAs was active, the serotonergic activity was concentrated in a single pHZR CPC fraction, which was subsequently shown to contain low levels of the potent 5-HT7 ligand, Nω–methylserotonin. Conclusion This study shows that CAs are not responsible for serotonergic activity in black cohosh. New phytochemical methodology (pHZR CPC) and a sensitive dereplication method (LC-MS) led to the identification of Nω–methylserotonin as serotonergic active principle. PMID:19140115

  18. Speciation of copper-humic acid in zeolite Y during extraction with a RTIL

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Huang, Hsin-Liang; Jyun Chen, Yan

    2010-07-01

    Chemical structure of copper chelated with humic acid (Cu-HA) in the micro-pores of zeolite Y (to simulate micropores in copper contaminated soils) and extracted with a room temperature ionic liquid (RTIL) ([C 4mim][PF 6], 1-butyl-3-methylimidazolium hexafluorophosphate) has been studied by X-ray absorption (near edge structure (XANES) and Fourier transformed extended X-ray absorption fine structure (EXAFS)) spectroscopy. At the temperature of 298 K, within 30 min, about 84% of Cu-HA in Y can be extracted by the RTIL. The XANES spectra reveal that a small amount of Cu(II)-HA (7%), adsorbed Cu(II) ( Cu(ads)2+) (5%) and Cu[mim]42+ (4%), which are not extracted, are found in Y. In the copper extracted RTIL, 75% of Cu(II)-HA in Y are converted to Cu[mim]42+ during extraction. About 17% of Cu(II)-HA is also found in the RTIL. Therefore, at least three reaction paths may be involved in the extraction process: (1) extraction of Cu(II)-HA in the RTIL, (2) Cu 2+ (formed from dissociation of Cu(II)-HA in the RTIL) adsorbed on Y, and (3) inter-conversion of Cu(II)-HA to Cu[mim]42+ in the RTIL. The refined EXAFS data indicate that the Cu-O bond distance in the Y and RTIL phases is 1.94 Å with an average coordination number (CN) of 3.4. Note that Cu[mim]42+ in the RTIL processes a Cu-N bond distance of 1.96 Å and a CN of 4.1.

  19. Solid phase microextraction field kit

    DOEpatents

    Nunes, Peter J.; Andresen, Brian D.

    2005-08-16

    A field kit for the collection, isolation and concentration of trace amounts of high explosives (HE), biological weapons (BW) and chemical weapons (CW) residues in air, soil, vegetation, swipe, and liquid samples. The field kit includes a number of Solid Phase Microextraction (SPME) fiber and syringe assemblies in a hermetically sealed transportation container or tubes which includes a sampling port, a number of extra SPME fiber and syringe assemblies, the fiber and syringe assemblies including a protective cap for the fiber, and an extractor for the protective cap, along with other items including spare parts, protective glove, and an instruction manual, all located in an airtight container.

  20. Equilibrium analysis of aggregation behavior in the solvent extraction of Cu(II) from sulfuric acid by didodecylnaphthalene sulfonic acid

    SciTech Connect

    Moyer, B.A.; Baes, C.F. Jr.; Case, G.N.; Lumetta, G.J.; Wilson, N.M.

    1993-01-01

    By use of the principles of equilibrium analysis, the liquid-liquid cation exchange of Cu(II) from aqueous sulfuric acid at 25{degrees}C by didodecylnaphthalenesulfonic acid (HDDNS) in toluene may be understood in terms of small hydrated aggregated species in the organic phase. Extraction data were measured as a function of organic-phase HDDNS molarity (1.0 {times} 10{sup {minus}4} to 1.0 {times} 10{sup {minus}1}), aqueous copper(II) sulfate molarity (1.2 {times} 10{sup {minus}8} to 1.3 {times} 10{sup {minus}2}), and aqueous sulfuric acid molarity (0.03 to 6.0). Graphical analysis of linear regions of the data support a model in which organic-phase aggregates of HDDNS function by cation exchange to incorporate Cu(II) ions with no apparent change in aggregation number at low loading. Supporting FTIR spectra and water-content measurements of HDDNS solutions in toluene show that the HDDNS aggregates are highly hydrated. By use of the computer program SXLSQA, a comprehensive equilibrium model was developed with inclusion of activity effects. Aqueous-phase activity coefficients and degree of aqueous bisulfate formation were estimated by use of the Pitzer treatment. Organic-phase nonideality was estimated by the Hildebrand-Scott treatment and was shown to be a negligible effect under the conditions tested. Excluding aqueous sulfuric acid molarities greater than 1, it was possible to model the data to within experimental error by assuming only the equilibrium extraction of Cu{sup 2+} ion by the aggregate (HDDNS){sub 4}(H{sub 2}O){sub 22} and the equilibrium dissociation of (HDDNS){sub 4}(H{sub 2}O){sub 22} to the monomer. The dependence of Cu(II) distribution on aqueous sulfuric acid molarity was shown to be quantitatively consistent with a cation-exchange process. In comparison with the graphical approach, the computer analysis allows comprehensive model testing over large, nonlinear data sets and eliminates the need to make limiting assumptions.

  1. Metal ion complexation properties of fulvic acids extracted from composted sewage sludge as compared to a soil fulvic acid.

    PubMed

    Esteves da Silva, Joaquim C G; Oliveira, César J S

    2002-07-01

    Complexation properties of an anthropogenic fulvic acid (FA) extracted from a composted sewage sludge (csFA) for Cu(II), Pb(II) and Cd(II) were studied at pH=6 and at a concentration of 25 mg L(-1). For the case of Cu(II), a particular analysis of the complexation phenomena was done at pH values of 3, 4, 5 and 6 and at aqueous FA concentrations of 25, 50 and 100 mg L(-1) by synchronous excitation molecular fluorescence spectroscopy (SyF). Potentiometric titrimetry with Cu(II), Pb(II), Cd(II) and H+ ion-selective electrodes and acid-base conductimetric titrations were used to obtain experimental information about the acid properties and complexation phenomena. A comparison of the results obtained for csFA with a natural soil FA (sFA) was made. Differences have been detected in the structural composition of the two samples and in the structure of the binding sites. In the csFA, binding site structures containing nitrogen probably play an important role in the complexation, besides oxygen containing structures. Complexation by sFA is mainly due to carboxylic and phenolic structures. Nevertheless, this work shows that csFA have macroscopic complexation properties (magnitude of the conditional stability constant and binding sites concentration) somewhat similar to the natural sFA samples. PMID:12188141

  2. Micro-solid phase extraction of perfluorinated carboxylic acids from human plasma.

    PubMed

    Lashgari, Maryam; Lee, Hian Kee

    2016-02-01

    Micro-solid phase extraction (μ-SPE), with liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry has been developed for the determination of trace levels of perfluorinated carboxylic acids (PFCAs) in human plasma. The μ-SPE sorbent was surfactant-templated mesoporous silica. Extraction time, desorption time and salt concentration were chosen as the most effective parameters and were optimized simultaneously by use of central composite design. Under the optimized extraction conditions, good linearity in the range of 100 and 5000ngL(-1) was obtained with coefficients of determination of between 0.986 and 0.995. The limits of detection (at a signal to noise ratio of 3) were measured to be in the range of between 21.23 and 65.07ngL(-1), and limits of quantification (at a signal to noise ratio of 10) were in the range of between 70.77 and 216.92ngL(-1). The relative recoveries of spiked PFCAs in different samples were in the range of between 87.58 and 102.45%. As expected from the global distribution of PFCs, contaminations at low levels (less than 200ngL(-1)) were detected (with the highest concentration recorded for perfluorooctanoic acid (PFOA)). Considering the complex nature of biological samples and the issue of matrix effects in the analysis of PFCAs, μ-SPE as an extraction method was shown to be advantageous; it combined extraction and concentration in one single step with no additional sample clean-up, and was able to remove significant matrix interferences. PMID:26795278

  3. Optimizing dilute-acid pretreatment of rapeseed straw for extraction of hemicellulose.

    PubMed

    Jeong, Tae-Su; Um, Byung-Hwan; Kim, Jun-Seok; Oh, Kyeong-Keun

    2010-05-01

    Biological conversion of biomass into fuels and chemicals requires hydrolysis of the polysaccharide fraction into monomeric sugars prior to fermentation. Hydrolysis can be performed enzymatically or with mineral acids. In this study, dilute sulfuric acid was used as a catalyst for the pretreatment of rapeseed straw. The purpose of this study is to optimize the pretreatment process in a 15-mL bomb tube reactor and investigate the effects of the acid concentration, temperature, and reaction time. These parameters influence hemicellulose removal and production of sugars (xylose, glucose, and arabinose) in the hydrolyzate as well as the formation of by-products (furfural, 5-hydroxymethylfurfural, and acetic acid). Statistical analysis was based on a model composition corresponding to a 3(3) orthogonal factorial design and employed the response surface methodology to optimize the pretreatment conditions, aiming to attain maximum xylan, mannan, and galactan (XMG) extraction from hemicellulose of rapeseed straw. The obtained optimum conditions were: H2SO4 concentration of 1.76% and temperature of 152.6 degrees C with a reaction time of 21 min. Under these optimal conditions, 85.5% of the total sugar was recovered after acid hydrolysis (78.9% XMG and 6.6% glucan). The hydrolyzate contained 1.60 g/L glucose, 0.61 g/L arabinose, 10.49 g/L xylose, mannose, and galactose, 0.39 g/L cellobiose, 0.94 g/L fructose, 0.02 g/L 1,6-anhydro-glucose, 1.17 g/L formic acid, 2.94 g/L acetic acid, 0.04 g/L levulinic acid, 0.04 g/L 5-hydroxymethylfurfural, and 0.98 g/L furfural. PMID:20087686

  4. Analysis of amino acids without derivatization in barley extracts by LC-MS-MS.

    PubMed

    Thiele, Björn; Füllner, Kerstin; Stein, Nadine; Oldiges, Marco; Kuhn, Arnd J; Hofmann, Diana

    2008-08-01

    A method has been developed for quantification of 20 amino acids as well as 13 (15)N-labeled amino acids in barley plants. The amino acids were extracted from plant tissues using aqueous HCl-ethanol and directly analyzed without further purification. Analysis of the underivatized amino acids was performed by liquid chromatography (LC)-electrospray ionization (ESI) tandem mass spectrometry (MS-MS) in the positive ESI mode. Separation was achieved on a strong cation exchange column (Luna 5micro SCX 100A) with 30 mM ammonium acetate in water (solvent A) and 5% acetic acid in water (solvent B). Quantification was accomplished using d (2)-Phe as an internal standard. Calibration curves were linear over the range 0.5-50 microM, and limits of detection were estimated to be 0.1-3.0 microM. The mass-spectrometric technique was employed to study the regulation of amino acid levels in barley plants grown at 15 degrees C uniform root temperature (RT) and 20-10 degrees C vertical RT gradient (RTG). The LC-MS-MS results demonstrated enhanced concentration of free amino acids in shoots at 20-10 degrees C RTG, while total free amino acid concentration in roots was similarly low for both RT treatments. (15)NO(3) (-) labeling experiments showed lower (15)N/(14)N ratios for Glu, Ser, Ala and Val in plants grown at 20-10 degrees C RTG compared with those grown at 15 degrees C RT. PMID:18506428

  5. Microbial process for the preparation of acetic acid as well as solvent for its extraction from the fermentation broth

    DOEpatents

    Gaddy, James L.; Clausen, Edgar C.; Ko, Ching-Whan; Wade, Leslie E.; Wikstrom, Carl V.

    2002-01-01

    A modified water-immiscible solvent useful in the extraction of acetic acid from aqueous streams is a substantially pure mixture of isomers of highly branched di-alkyl amines. This solvent is substantially devoid of mono-alkyl amines and alcohols. Solvent mixtures formed of such a modified solvent with a desired cosolvent, preferably a low boiling hydrocarbon which forms an azeotrope with water are useful in the extraction of acetic acid from aqueous gaseous streams. An anaerobic microbial fermentation process for the production of acetic acid employs such solvents, under conditions which limit amide formation by the solvent and thus increase the efficiency of acetic acid recovery. Methods for the direct extraction of acetic acid and the extractive fermentation of acetic acid also employ the modified solvents and increase efficiency of acetic acid production. Such increases in efficiency are also obtained where the energy source for the microbial fermentation contains carbon dioxide and the method includes a carbon dioxide stripping step prior to extraction of acetic acid in solvent.

  6. Microbial process for the preparation of acetic acid as well as solvent for its extraction from the fermentation broth

    DOEpatents

    Gaddy, James L.; Clausen, Edgar C.; Ko, Ching-Whan; Wade, Leslie E.; Wikstrom, Carl V.

    2006-07-11

    A modified water-immiscible solvent useful in the extraction of acetic acid from aqueous streams is a substantially pure mixture of isomers of highly branched di-alkyl amines. This solvent is substantially devoid of mono-alkyl amines and alcohols. Solvent mixtures formed of such a modified solvent with a desired cosolvent, preferably a low boiling hydrocarbon which forms an azeotrope with water are useful in the extraction of acetic acid from aqueous gaseous streams. An anaerobic microbial fermentation process for the production of acetic acid employs such solvents, under conditions which limit amide formation by the solvent and thus increase the efficiency of acetic acid recovery. Methods for the direct extraction of acetic acid and the extractive fermentation of acetic acid also employ the modified solvents and increase efficiency of acetic acid production. Such increases in efficiency are also obtained where the energy source for the microbial fermentation contains carbon dioxide and the method includes a carbon dioxide stripping step prior to extraction of acetic acid in solvent.

  7. Vine-shoot waste aqueous extract applied as foliar fertilizer to grapevines: Effect on amino acids and fermentative volatile content.

    PubMed

    Sánchez-Gómez, R; Garde-Cerdán, T; Zalacain, A; Garcia, R; Cabrita, M J; Salinas, M R

    2016-04-15

    The aim of this work was to study the influence of foliar applications of different wood aqueous extracts on the amino acid content of musts and wines from Airén variety; and to study their relationship with the volatile compounds formed during alcoholic fermentation. For this purpose, the foliar treatments proposed were a vine-shoot aqueous extract applied in one and two times, and an oak extract which was only applied once. Results obtained show the potential of Airén vine-shoot waste aqueous extracts to be used as foliar fertilizer, enhancing the wine amino acid content especially when they were applied once. Similar results were observed with the aqueous oak extract. Regarding wine fermentative volatile compounds, there is a close relationship between musts and their wines amino acid content allowing us to discuss about the role of proline during the alcoholic fermentation and the generation of certain volatiles. PMID:26616933

  8. Extraction of uranium: comparison of stripping with ammonia vs. strong acid

    SciTech Connect

    Moldovan, B.; Grinbaum, B.; Efraim, A.

    2008-07-01

    Following extraction of uranium in the first stage of solvent extraction using a tertiary amine, typically Alamine 336, the stripping of the extracted uranium is accomplished either by use of an aqueous solution of (NH{sub 4}){sub 2}SO{sub 4} /NH{sub 4}OH or by strong-acid stripping using 400-500 g/L H{sub 2}SO{sub 4}. Both processes have their merits and determine the downstream processing. The classical stripping with ammonia is followed by addition of strong base, to precipitate ammonium uranyl sulfate (NH{sub 4}){sub 2}UO{sub 2}(SO{sub 4}){sub 2}, which yields finally the yellow cake. Conversely, stripping with H{sub 2}SO{sub 4}, followed by oxidation with hydrogen peroxide yields uranyl oxide as product. At the Cameco Key Lake operation, both processes were tested on a pilot scale, using a Bateman Pulsed Column (BPC). The BPC proved to be applicable to both processes. It met the process criteria both for extraction and stripping, leaving less than 1 mg/L of U{sub 3}O{sub 8} in the raffinate, and product solution had the required concentration of U{sub 3}O{sub 8} at high flux and reasonable height of transfer unit. In the Key Lake mill, each operation can be carried out in a single column. The main advantages of the strong-acid stripping over ammonia stripping are: (1) 60% higher flux in the extraction, (2) tenfold higher concentration of the uranium in the product solution, and (3) far more robust process, with no need of pH control in the stripping and no need to add acid to the extraction in order to keep the pH above the point of precipitation of iron compounds. The advantages of the ammoniacal process are easier stripping, that is, less stages needed to reach equilibrium and lower concentration of modifier needed to prevent the creation of a third phase. (authors)

  9. Controllable Phase Separation by Boc-Modified Lipophilic Acid as a Multifunctional Extractant.

    PubMed

    Tao, Kai; Adler-Abramovich, Lihi; Gazit, Ehud

    2015-01-01

    While phase separation of immiscible liquid-liquid systems has become increasingly significant in diverse areas, the irreversible nature limits their further application in controllable extraction-concentration or capture-release fields. There is a need for the development of simple, efficient and reversible methods for numerous research and industrial extraction and separation applications. We envisioned Boc-modified lipophilic acids as a simple model for such use based on the studies of the multi-phase transitions of Boc-modified supramolecular polymeric systems. Here, we demonstrate that in the presence of Boc-7-aminoheptanoic acid (Boc-7), phase separation occurs in mixtures of miscible organic solvent and water. The separation behavior was confirmed by differential colorimetric development in aqueous and organic phases using methyl orange staining assays. Component substitution experiments verified that the phase separation results from the subtle balance between the aggregation and the solvation forces of Boc-7, and is reversible by adjusting the solution pH. Owing to the intrinsic hydrophobic properties of the organic phase and the hydrogen bonding-forming ability of the carboxyl group of Boc-7, the phase separation system captures and releases Sudan Red, fluorescein, and streptavidin in a controllable manner. Consequently, a reversible and simple phase separation system can be designed as a multifunctional extractant. PMID:26627307

  10. Controllable Phase Separation by Boc-Modified Lipophilic Acid as a Multifunctional Extractant

    PubMed Central

    Tao, Kai; Adler-Abramovich, Lihi; Gazit, Ehud

    2015-01-01

    While phase separation of immiscible liquid-liquid systems has become increasingly significant in diverse areas, the irreversible nature limits their further application in controllable extraction-concentration or capture-release fields. There is a need for the development of simple, efficient and reversible methods for numerous research and industrial extraction and separation applications. We envisioned Boc-modified lipophilic acids as a simple model for such use based on the studies of the multi-phase transitions of Boc-modified supramolecular polymeric systems. Here, we demonstrate that in the presence of Boc-7-aminoheptanoic acid (Boc-7), phase separation occurs in mixtures of miscible organic solvent and water. The separation behavior was confirmed by differential colorimetric development in aqueous and organic phases using methyl orange staining assays. Component substitution experiments verified that the phase separation results from the subtle balance between the aggregation and the solvation forces of Boc-7, and is reversible by adjusting the solution pH. Owing to the intrinsic hydrophobic properties of the organic phase and the hydrogen bonding-forming ability of the carboxyl group of Boc-7, the phase separation system captures and releases Sudan Red, fluorescein, and streptavidin in a controllable manner. Consequently, a reversible and simple phase separation system can be designed as a multifunctional extractant. PMID:26627307

  11. Controllable Phase Separation by Boc-Modified Lipophilic Acid as a Multifunctional Extractant

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tao, Kai; Adler-Abramovich, Lihi; Gazit, Ehud

    2015-12-01

    While phase separation of immiscible liquid-liquid systems has become increasingly significant in diverse areas, the irreversible nature limits their further application in controllable extraction-concentration or capture-release fields. There is a need for the development of simple, efficient and reversible methods for numerous research and industrial extraction and separation applications. We envisioned Boc-modified lipophilic acids as a simple model for such use based on the studies of the multi-phase transitions of Boc-modified supramolecular polymeric systems. Here, we demonstrate that in the presence of Boc-7-aminoheptanoic acid (Boc-7), phase separation occurs in mixtures of miscible organic solvent and water. The separation behavior was confirmed by differential colorimetric development in aqueous and organic phases using methyl orange staining assays. Component substitution experiments verified that the phase separation results from the subtle balance between the aggregation and the solvation forces of Boc-7, and is reversible by adjusting the solution pH. Owing to the intrinsic hydrophobic properties of the organic phase and the hydrogen bonding-forming ability of the carboxyl group of Boc-7, the phase separation system captures and releases Sudan Red, fluorescein, and streptavidin in a controllable manner. Consequently, a reversible and simple phase separation system can be designed as a multifunctional extractant.

  12. Citric acid production from extract of Jerusalem artichoke tubers by the genetically engineered yeast Yarrowia lipolytica strain 30 and purification of citric acid.

    PubMed

    Wang, Ling-Fei; Wang, Zhi-Peng; Liu, Xiao-Yan; Chi, Zhen-Ming

    2013-11-01

    In this study, citric acid production from extract of Jerusalem artichoke tubers by the genetically engineered yeast Yarrowia lipolytica strain 30 was investigated. After the compositions of the extract of Jerusalem artichoke tubers for citric acid production were optimized, the results showed that natural components of extract of Jerusalem artichoke tubers without addition of any other components were suitable for citric acid production by the yeast strain. During 10 L fermentation using the extract containing 84.3 g L(-1) total sugars, 68.3 g L(-1) citric acid was produced and the yield of citric acid was 0.91 g g(-1) within 336 h. At the end of the fermentation, 9.2 g L(-1) of residual total sugar and 2.1 g L(-1) of reducing sugar were left in the fermented medium. At the same time, citric acid in the supernatant of the culture was purified. It was found that 67.2 % of the citric acid in the supernatant of the culture was recovered and purity of citric acid in the crystal was 96 %. PMID:23584740

  13. SIMULTANEOUS QUANTIFICATION OF JASMONIC ACID AND SALICYLIC ACID IN PLANTS BY VAPOR PHASE EXTRACTION AND GAS CHROMATOGRAPHY-CHEMICAL IONIZATION-MASS SPECTROMETRY

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Jasmonic acid and salicylic acid represent important signaling compounds in plant defensive responses against other organisms. Here, we present a new method for the easy, sensitive and reproducible quantification of both compounds by vapor phase extraction and gas chromatography-positive ion chemic...

  14. Cytotoxic activity of an octadecenoic acid extract from Euphorbia kansui (Euphorbiaceae) on human tumour cell strains.

    PubMed

    Yu, Farong; Lu, Shunqing; Yu, Fahong; Shi, Junnian; McGuire, Peter M; Wang, Rui

    2008-02-01

    We have investigated the cytotoxic and antitumour activity of an octadecenoic acid extract, mainly containing oleic and linoleic acids, from Euphorbia kansui on human gastric (SGC-7901), hepatocellular carcinoma (BEL-7402), and leukaemia (HL-60) tumour cell strains. Significant and dose-dependent antiproliferation effects were observed on tumour cells from the dose of 3.2 microg mL(-1), which were comparable with or better than those of the common antitumour agent 5-fluorouracil. Results from the clone formation assay and flow cytometry indicated that the mixture of octadecenoic acids resulted in a dose-dependent reduction in the number of tumour cells and significantly inhibited cell proliferation, with induced apoptosis and G(0)/G(1) phase cell cycle arrest. Also, the octadecenoic acids could not only cause cell apoptosis/necrosis but also functionally and structurally damage the tumour cell membrane and cell ultra-structures. These observations encourage further clinical evaluation of the inhibitory effects of octadecenoic acids on various forms of cancer. PMID:18237474

  15. Nephroprotective effect of date fruit extract against dichloroacetic acid exposure in adult rats.

    PubMed

    El Arem, Amira; Thouri, Amira; Zekri, Mouna; Saafi, Emna Behija; Ghrairi, Fatma; Zakhama, Abdelfattah; Achour, Lotfi

    2014-03-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate the protective effects of aqueous date extract (ADE) on dichloroacetic acid (DCA)-induced nephrotoxicity. In vitro, total phenolic content estimated in the ADE were 417.71mg gallic acid equivalents/100g fresh weights (FW), while total flavonoid and tannins contents were 285.23 and 73.65mg catechin equivalents/100g FW, respectively. The ADE has strong scavenging activity. Ferulic, caffeic and p-coumaric acids are the major's compounds. Nephrotoxicity was induced in male Wistar rats by the administration of 0.5 and 2g/L DCA as drinking water. Some of these rats received also by gavage ADE (4mL/kg) before the administration of DCA. After two months of experiment, DCA administration caused elevated levels of renal MDA, significant depletion of GSH levels, altered the antioxidant enzyme activities and deteriorated the renal functions as assessed by the increased plasma urea, uric acid and creatinine levels compared to control rats. The treatment with the ADE significantly normalized the increased plasma levels of creatinine, urea and uric acid, reduced the elevated MDA levels, significantly normalized the antioxidant enzyme activities and GSH level and restored the altered kidney histology in rats treated with DCA. Therefore, it was speculated that ADE protects rats from kidney damage through its antioxidant capacity. PMID:24394489

  16. Exhaustive and stable electromembrane extraction of acidic drugs from human plasma.

    PubMed

    Huang, Chuixiu; Gjelstad, Astrid; Seip, Knut Fredrik; Jensen, Henrik; Pedersen-Bjergaard, Stig

    2015-12-18

    The first part of the current work systematically described the screening of different types of organic solvents as the supported liquid membrane (SLM) for electromembrane extraction (EME) of acidic drugs, including different alcohols, ketones, and ethers. Seven acidic drugs with a wide logP range (1.01-4.39) were selected as model substances. For the first time, the EME recovery of acidic drugs and system-current across the SLM with each organic solvent as SLM were investigated and correlated to relevant solvent properties such as viscosity and Kamlet and Taft solvatochromic parameters. Solvents with high hydrogen bonding acidity (α) and dipolarity-polarizability (π*) were found to be successful SLMs, and 1-heptanol was the most efficient candidate, which provided EME recovery in the range of 94-110%. Both hydrogen bonding interactions, dipole-dipole interactions, and hydrophobic interactions were involved in stabilizing the deprotonated acidic analytes (with high hydrogen bonding basicity and high dipole moment) during mass transfer across the SLM. The efficiency of the extraction normally decreased with increasing hydrocarbon chain length of the SLM, which was mainly due to increasing viscosity and decreasing α and π* values. The system-current during EME was found to be dependent on the type and the volume of the SLM. In contact with human plasma, an SLM of pure 1-heptanol was unstable, and to improve stability, 1-heptanol was mixed with 2-nitrophenyl octyl ether (NPOE). With this SLM, exhaustive EME was performed from diluted human plasma, and the recoveries of five out of seven analytes were over 91% after 10min EME. This approach was evaluated using HPLC-UV, and the evaluation data were found to be satisfactory. PMID:26632516

  17. Cleaner production of citric acid by recycling its extraction wastewater treated with anaerobic digestion and electrodialysis in an integrated citric acid-methane production process.

    PubMed

    Xu, Jian; Su, Xian-Feng; Bao, Jia-Wei; Chen, Yang-Qiu; Zhang, Hong-Jian; Tang, Lei; Wang, Ke; Zhang, Jian-Hua; Chen, Xu-Sheng; Mao, Zhong-Gui

    2015-01-01

    To solve the pollution problem of extraction wastewater in citric acid production, an integrated citric acid-methane production process was proposed. Extraction wastewater was treated through anaerobic digestion and the anaerobic digestion effluent (ADE) was recycled for the next batch of citric acid fermentation, thus eliminating wastewater discharge and reducing water consumption. Excessive Na(+) contained in ADE could significantly inhibit citric acid fermentation in recycling and was removed by electrodialysis in this paper. Electrodialysis performance was improved after pretreatment of ADE with air stripping and activated carbon adsorption to remove precipitable metal ions and pigments. Moreover, the concentrate water was recycled and mixed with feed to improve the water recovery rate above 95% in electrodialysis treatment, while the dilute water was collected for citric acid fermentation. The removal rate of Na(+) in ADE was above 95% and the citric acid production was even higher than that with tap water. PMID:25898079

  18. Molecularly imprinted polymer for caffeic acid by precipitation polymerization and its application to extraction of caffeic acid and chlorogenic acid from Eucommia ulmodies leaves.

    PubMed

    Miura, Chitose; Matsunaga, Hisami; Haginaka, Jun

    2016-08-01

    Molecularly imprinted polymers (MIPs) for caffeic acid (CA) were prepared using 4-vinylpyridine and methacrylamide (MAM) as functional monomers, divinylbenzene as a crosslinker and acetonitrile-toluene (3:1, v/v) as a porogen by precipitation polymerization. The use of MAM as the co-monomer resulted in the formation of microsphere MIPs and non-imprinted polymers (NIPs) with ca. 3- and 5-μm particle diameters, respectively. Binding experiments and Scatchard analyses revealed that the binding capacity and affinity of the MIP to CA are higher than those of the NIP. The retention and molecular-recognition properties of the prepared MIPs were evaluated using water-acetonitrile and sodium phosphate buffer-acetonitrile as mobile phases in hydrophilic interaction chromatography (HILIC) and reversed-phase chromatography, respectively. In HILIC mode, the MIP showed higher molecular-recognition ability for CA than in reversed-phase mode. In addition to shape recognition, hydrophilic interactions seem to work for the recognition of CA on the MIP in HILIC mode, while hydrogen bonding and hydrophobic interactions seem to work for the recognition of CA in reversed-phase mode. The MIP had a specific molecular-recognition ability for CA in HILIC mode, while other structurally related compounds, such as chlorogenic acid (CGA), gallic acid, protocatechuic acid and vanillic acid, could not be recognized by the MIP. Furthermore, the MIP was successfully applied for extraction of CA and CGA in the leaves of Eucommia ulmodies in HILIC mode. PMID:26776340

  19. The GEMS Kit Builder's Handbook.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Goodman, Jan; Sneider, Cary; Gould, Alan; Barber, Jacqueline; Hosoume, Kimi; Tucker, Laura; Willard, Carolyn

    For many educators, gathering, organizing, and maintaining materials involved in inquiry-based science and math activities can seem daunting. This handbook is designed to help teachers in the task of gathering and maintaining materials to make kits for 42 activities derived from the Great Explorations in Math and Science (GEMS) Program at the…

  20. Organization Charts. SPEC Kit 129.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hoadley, Irene B.

    This kit is based on a review of the organization charts of 86 member libraries of the Association of Research Libraries (ARL) gathered in spring 1986, compared with two earlier sets of charts published in 1973 and 1977, and contains charts of 61 of the libraries. Nearly one-fourth of the charts studied are under revision, indicating that changes…

  1. Vocational Education Assessment Kit. Revised.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Foster, Jan; Simonds, Betty

    This assessment kit has been designed to assist local school districts in Michigan in evaluating their vocational education programs for compliance with Title IX. The information that is collected and tabulated can be used by the districts in planning efforts to achieve Title IX compliance and sex equity in vocational education. The assessment kit…

  2. Evaluation of America's Career Kit.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Office of Inspector General (DOL), Washington, DC.

    The Employment and Training Administration's (ETA's) development and implementation of America's Career Kit (ACK), which is an online career development resource for individuals needing job search assistance, career guidance, salary data, and training and educational resources, was evaluated. The evaluation was designed to determine whether ACK…

  3. Small Business Incubator Resource Kit.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Small Business Administration, Washington, DC.

    This kit consists of a set of resources to assist those interested in the start-up and management (incubation) of a new business. A guide to starting and managing a small business incubator (SBI) is provided. Included in the guide are the following: a discussion of the role and characteristics of the SBI concept; guidelines for carrying out the…

  4. Human Conflict: A Resource Kit.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    J.B. Speed Art Museum, Louisville, KY.

    Conflict, in one form or another, eventually makes its way into the daily life of every human being. It is not just a modern problem but has existed as long as humanity itself. This classroom resource kit is designed to be used by educators wishing to teach skills of conflict avoidance, management, and resolution in their classrooms. The kit…

  5. Work and Family Resource Kit.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Women's Bureau (DOL), Washington, DC.

    This kit is designed to help employers understand the range of family needs emerging in the workplace and the numerous options for a company response. An introduction discusses the need for child care services, dependent care problems, and how employers respond and benefit. Sections address the following: selecting the right option in relation to…

  6. Instructional Support Services. SPEC Kit.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Snyder, Carolyn A., Comp.; Logue, Susan, Comp.; Carter, Howard, Comp.; Soltys, Mickey, Comp.

    2001-01-01

    This SPEC (Systems and Procedures Exchange Center) Kit presents the results of a survey of Association of Research Libraries (ARL) member libraries. The survey was designed to gather information about the changes that have taken place in the last five years in the services libraries offer to support instruction on campus and in the library, as…

  7. Active Parenting Now: Program Kit.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Popkin, Michael H.

    Based largely on the theories of Alfred Adler and Rudolf Dreikurs, this parent education curriculum is a video-based interactive learning experience that teaches a comprehensive model of parenting to parents of children ages 5 to 12 years. The kit provides parents with the skills needed to help their children develop courage, responsibility, and…

  8. Natural Gas Energy Educational Kit.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    American Gas Association, Arlington, VA. Educational Services.

    Prepared by energy experts and educators to introduce middle school and high school students to natural gas and its role in our society, this kit is designed to be incorporated into existing science and social studies curricula. The materials and activities focus on the origin, discovery, production, delivery, and use of natural gas. The role of…

  9. Sharing the Earth, Kit II.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    1971

    Introducing the pupil to the science of ecology is the purpose of Scholastic's Earth Corps Ecology/Conservation Study Kits for grades 3-6. Simple terms are used to show how all living things are inter-related to their environment, to demonstrate the intricate and delicate balance of nature, and to point out how man's interference with nature's…

  10. Higher Education Salary Evaluation Kit.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Scott, Elizabeth L.

    The kit is the result of a study undertaken to provide a method for flagging women and minority faculty members whose salaries appear to be low compared to the salaries of white males in the same faculty who have the same attributes and experience. The recommended method also provides an estimate of what the woman's or minority individual's salary…

  11. Johnny Horizon Environmental Test Kit.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bentley, Richard; Bentley, William

    Derived from tests presently used by state and federal agencies involved with pollution detection, this Environmental Test Kit contains materials and instructions for ten experiments. Each experiment is designed to test a different aspect of air and water, to find out whether or not the air and water in the tester's immediate area has been…

  12. Cubic Unit Cell Construction Kit.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mattson, Bruce

    2000-01-01

    Presents instructions for building a simple interactive unit-cell construction kit that allows for the construction of simple, body-centered, and face-centered cubic lattices. The lit is built from inexpensive and readily available materials and can be built in any number of sizes. (WRM)

  13. Extraction and carrier-facilitated transport of amino acids using synthetic non-cyclic receptors through bulk liquid membrane.

    PubMed

    Joshi, Pratibha; Joshi, Nidhi; Sharma, Uma

    2006-10-01

    The extraction and carrier-facilitated transport of amino acids (leucine, valine and glycine) was studied through chloroform bulk liquid membrane system using a series of non-cyclic receptors such as diethylene glycol (1), diethylene glycol dimethyl ether (2), diethylene glycol dibutyl ether (3), diethylene glycol dibenzoate (4), triethylene glycol (5) and tetraethylene glycol (6). The amount of amino acid extracted and transported depends mainly upon the structure and the concentration of the receptors and also on the concentration of amino acid. The receptors 1 to 4, having small chain length and flexible end groups, formed stable complexes with amino acids, and the flexibility of receptors in different conformational forms was responsible for their carrier ability, while the receptors 5 and 6, having larger chain length showed poor carrier ability. Hydrophobicity of amino acids also play an important role in the extraction as well as transport process. PMID:17133741

  14. Extraction of phenol using sulfuric acid salts of trioctylamine in a supported liquid membrane

    SciTech Connect

    Wang, M.L.; Hu, K.H. )

    1994-04-01

    The extraction of phenol by trioctylamine sulfate salts in a supported-liquid membrane (SLM) process was investigated. In the extraction process, a transport model, which included the film diffusion of phenol in the aqueous phase, the membrane diffusion within the SLM, and the interfacial chemical reaction, was built. The experimental parameters, such as the cell constant ([beta]), the diffusivity of (TOA)[sub 2]H[sub 2]SO[sub 4][center dot]PhOH in the SLM (D[sub c,b]), and the mass-transfer coefficient of phenol in the aqueous solution (K[sub L]), were determined from experiments. On the basis of the experimental data and the results obtained from the transport model, the rate-controlling step of the extraction of phenol by an SLM during permeation is discussed. The effects of the operating variables and parameters, such as the initial concentration of phenol in the aqueous phase, sulfuric acid, sodium hydroxide, and trioctylamine sulfate salts, on the extraction of phenol were examined.

  15. Solvent extraction of holmium and yttrium with bis(2-ethylhexyl)phosphoric acid

    SciTech Connect

    Yoshizuka, K.; Sakamoto, Y.; Baba, Y.; Inoue, K. ); Nakashio, F. )

    1992-05-01

    This paper discusses a kinetic study on the solvent extraction of holmium(III) and yttrium(III) with bis(2-ethylhexyl) phosphoric acid (D2EHPA) from nitrate media conducted at 303 K using a hollow fiber membrane extractor. Also studied were the distribution equilibria of these metals and interfacial adsorption equilibria of D2EHPA and its metal complexes between the organic and aqueous phases. It was found that the metals (M{sup 3+}) were extracted with D2EHPA (HR) ad MR{sub 3} {center dot} 3HR into the organic phase, and the extraction equilibrium constants were evaluated. Furthermore, it was established that dimeric D2EHPA can be adsorbed at the interface between the organic and aqueous phases, while the interfacial activities of D2EHPA-metal complexes were negligibly small. The apparent orders 2, 1, and 2 of the permeabilities for the extraction of both metals were found with respect to the pH of the aqueous solution and the concentrations of the metal ion and dimeric D2EHPA, while the orders 1, 1, and {minus}1 of the permeabilities for the stripping of both metals were found with respect to the hydrogen ion activity and the concentrations of the metal complex and dimeric D2EHPA, respectively. The diffusional effects were reasonably explained by the diffusion model accompanied by an interfacial reaction, taking into account the velocity distributions of the aqueous and organic phases through the inner and outer sides of a hollow fiber.

  16. Carob pod water extracts as feedstock for succinic acid production by Actinobacillus succinogenes 130Z.

    PubMed

    Carvalho, Margarida; Roca, Christophe; Reis, Maria A M

    2014-10-01

    Carob pods are a by-product of locust bean gum industry containing more than 50% (w/w) sucrose, glucose and fructose. In this work, carob pod water extracts were used, for the first time, for succinic acid production by Actinobacillus succinogenes 130Z. Kinetic studies of glucose, fructose and sucrose consumption as individual carbon sources till 30g/L showed no inhibition on cell growth, sugar consumption and SA production rates. Sugar extraction from carob pods was optimized varying solid/liquid ratio and extraction time, maximizing sugar recovery while minimizing the extraction of polyphenols. Batch fermentations containing 10-15g/L total sugars resulted in a maximum specific SA production rate of 0.61Cmol/Cmol X.h, with a yield of 0.55Cmol SA/Cmol sugar and a volumetric productivity of 1.61g SA/L.h. Results demonstrate that carob pods can be a promising low cost feedstock for bio-based SA production. PMID:25164341

  17. Fluorometric quantification of polyphosphate in environmental plankton samples: extraction protocols, matrix effects, and nucleic acid interference.

    PubMed

    Martin, Patrick; Van Mooy, Benjamin A S

    2013-01-01

    Polyphosphate (polyP) is a ubiquitous biochemical with many cellular functions and comprises an important environmental phosphorus pool. However, methodological challenges have hampered routine quantification of polyP in environmental samples. We tested 15 protocols to extract inorganic polyphosphate from natural marine samples and cultured cyanobacteria for fluorometric quantification with 4',6-diamidino-2-phenylindole (DAPI) without prior purification. A combination of brief boiling and digestion with proteinase K was superior to all other protocols, including other enzymatic digestions and neutral or alkaline leaches. However, three successive extractions were required to extract all polyP. Standard addition revealed matrix effects that differed between sample types, causing polyP to be over- or underestimated by up to 50% in the samples tested here. Although previous studies judged that the presence of DNA would not complicate fluorometric quantification of polyP with DAPI, we show that RNA can cause significant interference at the wavelengths used to measure polyP. Importantly, treating samples with DNase and RNase before proteinase K digestion reduced fluorescence by up to 57%. We measured particulate polyP along a North Pacific coastal-to-open ocean transect and show that particulate polyP concentrations increased toward the open ocean. While our final method is optimized for marine particulate matter, different environmental sample types may need to be assessed for matrix effects, extraction efficiency, and nucleic acid interference. PMID:23104409

  18. Simultaneous extraction and HPLC determination of 3-indole butyric acid and 3-indole acetic acid in pea plant by using ionic liquid-modified silica as sorbent.

    PubMed

    Sheikhian, Leila; Bina, Sedigheh

    2016-01-15

    In this study, ionic liquid-modified silica was used as sorbent for simultaneous extraction and preconcentration of 3-indole butyric acid and 3-indole acetic acid in pea plants. The effect of some parameters such as pH and ionic strength of sample solution, amount of sorbent, flow rate of aqueous sample solution and eluent solution, concentration of eluent solution, and temperature were studied for each hormone solution. Percent extraction of 3-indole butyric acid and 3-indole acetic acid was strongly affected by pH of aqueous sample solution. Ionic strength of aqueous phase and temperature showed no serious effects on extraction efficiency of studied plant hormones. Obtained breakthrough volume was 200mL for each of studied hormones. Preconcentration factor for spectroscopic and chromatographic determination of studied hormones was 100 and 4.0×10(3) respectively. Each solid sorbent phase was reusable for almost 10 times of extraction/stripping procedure. Relative standard deviations of extraction/stripping processes of 3-indole butyric acid and 3-indole acetic acid were 2.79% and 3.66% respectively. The calculated limit of detections for IBA and IAA were 9.1×10(-2)mgL(-1) and 1.6×10(-1)mgL(-1) respectively. PMID:26701202

  19. A Reliable and Inexpensive Method of Nucleic Acid Extraction for the PCR-Based Detection of Diverse Plant Pathogens

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    A reliable extraction method is described for the preparation of total nucleic acids from several plant genera for subsequent detection of plant pathogens by PCR-based techniques. By the combined use of a modified CTAB (cetyltrimethylammonium bromide) extraction protocol and a semi-automatic homogen...

  20. Selective extraction of trivalent actinides from lanthanides with dithiophosphinic acids and tributylphosphate

    SciTech Connect

    Jarvinen, G.; Barrans, R.; Schroeder, N.; Wade, K.; Jones, M.; Smith, B.F.; Mills, J.; Howard, G.; Freiser, H.; Muralidharan, S.

    1995-01-01

    A variety of chemical systems have been developed to separate trivalent actinides from lanthanides based on the slightly stronger complexation of the trivalent actinides with ligands that contain soft donor atoms. The greater stability of the actinide complexes in these systems has often been attributed to a slightly greater covalent bonding component for the actinide ions relative to the lanthanide ions. The authors have investigated several synergistic extraction systems that use ligands with a combination of oxygen and sulfur donor atoms that achieve a good group separation of the trivalent actinides and lanthanides. For example, the combination of dicyclohexyldithiophosphinic acid and tributylphosphate has shown separation factors of up to 800 for americium over europium in a single extraction stage. Such systems could find application in advanced partitioning schemes for nuclear waste.

  1. Evaluation of different solvent extraction methods for removing actinides from high acid waste streams

    SciTech Connect

    Yarbro, S.L.; Schreiber, S.B.; Dunn, S.L. ); Rogers, J. )

    1991-01-01

    At the Los Alamos National Laboratory Plutonium Facility, anion exchange is used to recover plutonium from nitric acid solutions. Although this approach recovers >99%, trace amounts of plutonium and other actinides remain the effluent and require additional processing. Currently, a ferric hydroxide carrier precipitation is used to remove the trace actinides and the resulting sludge is cemented. Because it costs approximately $10,000 per drum for disposal, we are developing an additional polishing step so that the effluent actinide levels are reduced to below 100 nCi/g. This would allow the resulting waste sludge to disposed as low-level waste at approximately $200 per drum. We are investigating various solvent extraction techniques for removing actinides. The most promising are chelating resins and membrane-based liquid-liquid solvent extraction. This report details some of our preliminary results. 4 refs., 3 tabs.

  2. Production of citric acid using its extraction wastewater treated by anaerobic digestion and ion exchange in an integrated citric acid-methane fermentation process.

    PubMed

    Xu, Jian; Chen, Yang-Qiu; Zhang, Hong-Jian; Tang, Lei; Wang, Ke; Zhang, Jian-Hua; Chen, Xu-Sheng; Mao, Zhong-Gui

    2014-08-01

    In order to solve the problem of extraction wastewater pollution in citric acid industry, an integrated citric acid-methane fermentation process is proposed in this study. Extraction wastewater was treated by mesophilic anaerobic digestion and then used to make mash for the next batch of citric acid fermentation. The recycling process was done for seven batches. Citric acid production (82.4 g/L on average) decreased by 34.1 % in the recycling batches (2nd-7th) compared with the first batch. And the residual reducing sugar exceeded 40 g/L on average in the recycling batches. Pigment substances, acetic acid, ammonium, and metal ions in anaerobic digestion effluent (ADE) were considered to be the inhibitors, and their effects on the fermentation were studied. Results indicated that ammonium, Na(+) and K(+) in the ADE significantly inhibited citric acid fermentation. Therefore, the ADE was treated by acidic cation exchange resin prior to reuse to make mash for citric acid fermentation. The recycling process was performed for ten batches, and citric acid productions in the recycling batches were 126.6 g/L on average, increasing by 1.7 % compared with the first batch. This process could eliminate extraction wastewater discharge and reduce water resource consumption. PMID:24522611

  3. Role of fumaric acid in anti-inflammatory and analgesic activities of a Fumaria indica extracts

    PubMed Central

    Shakya, Anshul; Singh, Gireesh Kumar; Chatterjee, Shyam Sunder; Kumar, Vikas

    2014-01-01

    Aim: The aim was to test whether the ethanolic extract of Fumaria indica (FI) possesses anti-inflammatory and analgesic activities, and fumaric acid (FA) could be one of its bioactive constituent involved in such activities of the extract. Materials and Methods: For anti-inflammatory activity, carrageenan-induced edema and cotton pellet induced granuloma tests in rats and for analgesic activity rat tail flick test and hot plate and acetic acid writhing tests in mice were used. All tests were performed after seven daily oral doses of the FI extract (100, 200, and 400 mg/kg/day) and pure FA (1.25, 2.50, and 5.00 mg/kg/day). Results: Anti-inflammatory activities of FI and FA were observed in carrageenan-induced edema and cotton pallet granuloma even after their lowest tested doses. No analgesic activity of lowest tested dose of FA was observed in the acetic acid writhing test, but likewise, all tested dose levels of FI, higher tested dose levels of FA were also possess significant analgesic activity in this test. Further, significant analgesic activities of both FI and FA in hot plate and tale flick tests were observed after all their tested doses. Conclusions: These observations are in agreement with our working hypothesis on the connection of FA in mode(s) of action(s) of FI, and reaffirm the conviction that FI could be an herbal alternative against fibromyalgia and other pathologies often associate with, or caused by, inflammatory processes. PMID:26401369

  4. 47 CFR 15.25 - Kits.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 1 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Kits. 15.25 Section 15.25 Telecommunication FEDERAL COMMUNICATIONS COMMISSION GENERAL RADIO FREQUENCY DEVICES General § 15.25 Kits. A TV interface device, including a cable system terminal device, which is marketed as a kit shall comply with...

  5. 47 CFR 15.25 - Kits.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 1 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Kits. 15.25 Section 15.25 Telecommunication FEDERAL COMMUNICATIONS COMMISSION GENERAL RADIO FREQUENCY DEVICES General § 15.25 Kits. A TV interface device, including a cable system terminal device, which is marketed as a kit shall comply with...

  6. 47 CFR 15.25 - Kits.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Kits. 15.25 Section 15.25 Telecommunication FEDERAL COMMUNICATIONS COMMISSION GENERAL RADIO FREQUENCY DEVICES General § 15.25 Kits. A TV interface device, including a cable system terminal device, which is marketed as a kit shall comply with...

  7. 47 CFR 15.25 - Kits.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 1 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Kits. 15.25 Section 15.25 Telecommunication FEDERAL COMMUNICATIONS COMMISSION GENERAL RADIO FREQUENCY DEVICES General § 15.25 Kits. A TV interface device, including a cable system terminal device, which is marketed as a kit shall comply with...

  8. 47 CFR 15.25 - Kits.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 1 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Kits. 15.25 Section 15.25 Telecommunication FEDERAL COMMUNICATIONS COMMISSION GENERAL RADIO FREQUENCY DEVICES General § 15.25 Kits. A TV interface device, including a cable system terminal device, which is marketed as a kit shall comply with...

  9. 21 CFR 876.5210 - Enema kit.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Enema kit. 876.5210 Section 876.5210 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES GASTROENTEROLOGY-UROLOGY DEVICES Therapeutic Devices § 876.5210 Enema kit. (a) Identification. An enema kit is...

  10. Basic Teaching Kit on Consumer Advertising.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Proctor and Gamble Co., Cincinnati, OH.

    This advertising kit was developed by Procter and Gamble in response to requests from teachers and consumer educators who asked for materials from business about business. The kit is not intended to cover the entire field of advertising. Rather, it centers on advertising as it is known and practiced by Procter and Gamble. The purpose of the kit is…

  11. Extraction and Analysis of Mycosporine-Like Amino Acids in Marine Algae.

    PubMed

    Rosic, Nedeljka N; Braun, Christoph; Kvaskoff, David

    2015-01-01

    Marine organisms use mycosporine-like amino acids (MAAs) as biological sunscreens for the protection from damaging ultraviolet (UV) radiation and the prevention of oxidative stress. MAAs have been discovered in many different marine and freshwater species including cyanobacteria, fungi, and algae, but also in animals like cnidarian and fishes. Here, we describe a general method for the isolation and characterization of MAA compounds from red algae and symbiotic dinoflagellates isolated from coral hosts. This method is also suitable for the extraction and analyses of MAAs from a range of other algal and marine biota. PMID:26108501

  12. Endothelium-dependent vasodilator effects of the extract from Salviae Miltiorrhizae radix. A study on the identification of lithospermic acid B in the extracts.

    PubMed

    Kamata, K; Iizuka, T; Nagai, M; Kasuya, Y

    1993-07-01

    1. The aqueous extract of Salviae Miltiorrhizae radix (Chinese crude drug named "dan-shen") relaxed the noradrenaline-precontracted aorta with endothelium. 2. Vasodilation by the extract disappeared in aorta without endothelium, and was inhibited by pretreatment with 10(-4) M NG-monomethyl-L-arginine (L-NMMA) or 10(-5) M methylene blue. 3. The inhibition of the extract-induced vasodilation by L-NMMA was reversed by L-arginine (3 x 10(-4) M). 4. The component of the extract was analyzed by chromatography, fast atom bombardment mass spectroscopy (FAB-MS) and 1H-NMR. 5. An active component of the extract, which showed endothelium-dependent vasodilation, was found to be identical with lithospermic acid B. PMID:8224751

  13. Extraction and quantification of phenolic acids and flavonols from Eugenia pyriformis using different solvents.

    PubMed

    Haminiuk, Charles Windson Isidoro; Plata-Oviedo, Manuel Salvador Vicente; de Mattos, Gisely; Carpes, Solange Teresinha; Branco, Ivanise Guilherme

    2014-10-01

    The recovery of phenolic compounds of Eugenia pyriformis using different solvents was investigated in this study. The compounds were identified and quantified by reverse-phase high-performance liquid chromatography coupled with ultraviolet-visible diode-array detector (RP-HPLC-DAD/UV-vis). Absolute methanol was the most effective extraction agent of phenolic acids and flavonols (588.31 mg/Kg) from Eugenia pyriformis, although similar results (p ≤ 0.05) were observed using methanol/water (1:1 ratio). Our results clearly showed that higher contents of phenolic compounds were not obtained either with the most or the least polar solvents used. Several phenolic compounds were identified in the samples whereas gallic acid and quercetin were the major compounds recovered. PMID:25328239

  14. Isolation and extraction of ruberythric acid from Rubia tinctorum L. and crystal structure elucidation.

    PubMed

    Ford, Lauren; Rayner, Christopher M; Blackburn, Richard S

    2015-09-01

    Madder (Rubia tinctorum L.) has been exploited as a dye throughout history. The roots of the plant are very rich in the highly coloured glycosidic compounds ruberythric acid and lucidin primeveroside, alongside the corresponding aglycons which can be readily formed by deglycosylation, particularly during extraction. Supported by (1)H and (13)C NMR data, the conclusive X-ray crystal structure of the natural dye ruberythric acid is presented for the first time. The solid state structure revealed extensive intermolecular hydrogen bonding interactions between the sugar moieties in the unit cell, but only intramolecular hydrogen bonding through the hydroxyquinone groups. There is also some additional π-π stacking from the anthraquinone moiety. PMID:26091962

  15. Epoxyeicosatrienoic acids attenuate cigarette smoke extract-induced interleukin-8 production in bronchial epithelial cells.

    PubMed

    Ma, Wen-Jiang; Sun, Yan-Hong; Jiang, Jun-Xia; Dong, Xin-Wei; Zhou, Jian-Ying; Xie, Qiang-Min

    2015-03-01

    In response to endothelial cell activation, arachidonic acid can be converted by cytochrome P450 (CYP) epoxygenases to epoxyeicosatrienoic acids (EETs), which have potent vasodilator and anti-inflammatory properties. In this study, we investigated the effects of exogenous EETs on cigarette smoke extract (CSE)-induced inflammation in human bronchial epithelial cells (NCI-H292). We found that CSE inhibited the expression of CYP2C8 and mildly stimulated the expression of epoxide hydrolase 2 (EPHX2) but did not change the expression of CYP2J2. Treatment with 11,12-EET or 14,15-EET attenuated the CSE-induced release of interleukin (IL)-8 by inhibiting the phosphorylation of p38 mitogen-activated protein kinases (MAPKs). Our results demonstrated that CSE may reduce the anti-inflammatory ability of epithelial cells themselves by lowering the EET level. EETs from pulmonary epithelial cells may play a critical protective role on epithelial cell injury. PMID:25467970

  16. Effects of Ethanol Addition on the Efficiency of Subcritical Water Extraction of Proteins and Amino Acids from Porcine Placenta

    PubMed Central

    2015-01-01

    In a previous study, hydrolysates of porcine placenta were obtained and the extraction efficiency for proteins and amino acids was compared between sub- and super-critical water extraction systems; optimum efficiency was found to be achieved using subcritical water (170℃, 10 bar). In this study, the effects of adding ethanol to the subcritical water system were investigated. The lowest-molecular-weight extraction product detected weighed 434 Da, and the efficiency of extraction for low-molecular-weight products was increased when either the concentration of ethanol was decreased, or the extraction time was lengthened from 10 min to 30 min. The highest concentration of free amino acids (approximately 8 mM) was observed following 30 min extraction using pure distilled water. The concentration of free amino acids was significantly lower when ethanol was added or a shorter extraction time was used (p<0.05). Color change of the solution following extraction was measured. There were no significant differences in color between lysates produced with different extraction times when using distilled water (p>0.05); however, using different extraction times produced significant differences in color when using 20% or 50% ethanol solution for subcritical extraction (p<0.05). The range of pH for the hydrolysate solutions was 6.4-7.5. In conclusion, the investigated extraction system was successful in the extraction of ≤ 500 Da hydrolysates from porcine placenta, but addition of ethanol did not yield higher production of low-molecular-weight hydrolysates than that achieved by DW alone. PMID:26761837

  17. New method for the rapid extraction of natural products: efficient isolation of shikimic acid from star anise.

    PubMed

    Just, Jeremy; Deans, Bianca J; Olivier, Wesley J; Paull, Brett; Bissember, Alex C; Smith, Jason A

    2015-05-15

    A new, practical, rapid, and high-yielding process for the pressurized hot water extraction (PHWE) of multigram quantities of shikimic acid from star anise (Illicium verum) using an unmodified household espresso machine has been developed. This operationally simple and inexpensive method enables the efficient and straightforward isolation of shikimic acid and the facile preparation of a range of its synthetic derivatives. PMID:25938329

  18. Effect of acidity on the energy level of curcumin dye extracted from Curcuma longa L.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Agustia, Yuda Virgantara; Suyitno, Arifin, Zainal; Sutanto, Bayu

    2016-03-01

    The purpose of this research is to investigate the effect of acidity on the energy level of curcumin dye. The natural dye, curcumin, was synthesized from Curcuma longa L. using a simple extraction technique. The purification of curcumin dye was conducted in a column of chromatography and its characteristics were studied. Next, the purified curcumin dye was added by benzoic acids until various acidities of 3.0, 3.5, 4.0, 4.5, and 5.0. The absorbance spectra and the functionality groups found in the dyes were detected by ultraviolet-visible spectroscopy and Fourier-transform infrared spectroscopy, respectively. Meanwhile, the energy level of the dyes, EHOMO and ELUMO was measured by cyclic voltammetry. The best energy level of curcumin dye was achieved at pH 3.5 where Ered = -0.37V, ELUMO = -4.28 eV, Eox = 1.15V, EHOMO = -5.83 eV, and Eband gap = 1.55 eV. Therefore, the purified curcumin dye added by benzoic acid was promising for sensitizing the dye-sensitized solar cells.

  19. Production of (R)-3-hydroxybutyric acid by Burkholderia cepacia from wood extract hydrolysates

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    (R)-hydroxyalkanoic acids (R-HAs) are valuable building blocks for the synthesis of fine chemicals and biopolymers because of the chiral center and the two active functional groups. Hydroxyalkanoic acids fermentation can revolutionize the polyhydroxyalkanoic acids (PHA) production by increasing efficiency and enhancing product utility. Modifying the fermentation conditions that promotes the in vivo depolymerization and secretion to fermentation broth in wild type bacteria is a novel and promising approach to produce R-HAs. Wood extract hydrolysate (WEH) was found to be a suitable substrate for R-3-hydroxybutyric acid (R-3-HB) production by Burkholderia cepacia. Using Paulownia elongate WEH as a feedstock, the R-3-HB concentration in fermentation broth reached as high as 14.2 g/L after 3 days of batch fermentation and the highest concentration of 16.8 g/L was obtained at day 9. Further investigation indicated that the composition of culture medium contributed to the enhanced R-3-HB production. PMID:24949263

  20. Effect of Ginger Extract and Citric Acid on the Tenderness of Duck Breast Muscles

    PubMed Central

    2015-01-01

    The objective of this study was to examine the effect of ginger extract (GE) combined with citric acid on the tenderness of duck breast muscles. Total six marinades were prepared with the combination of citric acid (0 and 0.3 M citric acid) and GE (0, 15, and 30%). Each marinade was sprayed on the surface of duck breasts (15 mL/100 g), and the samples were marinated for 72 h at 4℃. The pH and proteolytic activity of marinades were determined. After 72 h of marination, Warner Bratzler shear force (WBSF), myofibrillar fragmentation index (MFI), pH, cooking loss, moisture content, sodium dodecyl sulfate-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis (SDS-PAGE), and protein solubility were evaluated. There was no significant (p>0.05) difference in moisture content or cooking loss among all samples. However, GE marination resulted in a significant (p<0.05) decrease in WBSF but a significant (p<0.05) increase in pH and MFI. In addition, total protein and myofibrillar protein solubility of GE-marinated duck breast muscles in both WOC (without citric acid) and WC (with citric acid) conditions were significantly (p<0.05) increased compared to non-GE-marinated duck breast muscles. SDS-PAGE showed an increase of protein degradation (MHC and actin) in WC condition compared to WOC condition. There was a marked actin reduction in GE-treated samples in WC. The tenderization effect of GE combined with citric acid may be attributed to various mechanisms such as increased MFI and myofibrillar protein solubility. PMID:26877631

  1. Effect of Ginger Extract and Citric Acid on the Tenderness of Duck Breast Muscles.

    PubMed

    He, Fu-Yi; Kim, Hyun-Wook; Hwang, Ko-Eun; Song, Dong-Heon; Kim, Yong-Jae; Ham, Youn-Kyung; Kim, Si-Young; Yeo, In-Jun; Jung, Tae-Jun; Kim, Cheon-Jei

    2015-01-01

    The objective of this study was to examine the effect of ginger extract (GE) combined with citric acid on the tenderness of duck breast muscles. Total six marinades were prepared with the combination of citric acid (0 and 0.3 M citric acid) and GE (0, 15, and 30%). Each marinade was sprayed on the surface of duck breasts (15 mL/100 g), and the samples were marinated for 72 h at 4℃. The pH and proteolytic activity of marinades were determined. After 72 h of marination, Warner Bratzler shear force (WBSF), myofibrillar fragmentation index (MFI), pH, cooking loss, moisture content, sodium dodecyl sulfate-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis (SDS-PAGE), and protein solubility were evaluated. There was no significant (p>0.05) difference in moisture content or cooking loss among all samples. However, GE marination resulted in a significant (p<0.05) decrease in WBSF but a significant (p<0.05) increase in pH and MFI. In addition, total protein and myofibrillar protein solubility of GE-marinated duck breast muscles in both WOC (without citric acid) and WC (with citric acid) conditions were significantly (p<0.05) increased compared to non-GE-marinated duck breast muscles. SDS-PAGE showed an increase of protein degradation (MHC and actin) in WC condition compared to WOC condition. There was a marked actin reduction in GE-treated samples in WC. The tenderization effect of GE combined with citric acid may be attributed to various mechanisms such as increased MFI and myofibrillar protein solubility. PMID:26877631

  2. EFFECT OF PERILLA FRUTESCENS EXTRACTS AND ROSMARINIC ACID ON RAT HEART MITOCHONDRIAL FUNCTIONS.

    PubMed

    Raudone, Lina; Burdulis, Deividas; Raudonis, Raimondas; Janulis, Valdimaras; Jankauskiene, Laima; Viskelis, Pranas; Trumbeckaite, Sonata

    2016-01-01

    Perilla frutescens L. due to its aromatic, antibacterial, anti-inflammatory and antioxidant traits has been traditionally used as medicinal plant in Eastern Asia. Alterations of mitochondria are interconnected with many chronic diseases. Bioactives of herbal extracts can modulate mitochondrial effects and be beneficial in prevention of mitochondrial related chronic diseases. Direct effects of the red-leaf form P. frutescens extract (PFE) and the green-leaf form P. frutescens var. crispa f. viridis extract (PCE) were evaluated investigating activities on the oxidative phosphorylation and antioxidant activity in the rat heart mitochondria in vitro. HPLC-MS analysis was applied for the identification of phenolic compounds. Cell with a Clark-type oxygen electrode was used for mitochondrial respiration measurement. The generation of reactive oxygen species was estimated in isolated rat heart mitochondria and determined fluorimetrically. State 3 respiration rate was not affected by lower concentrations, however, it was inhibited at higher concentrations by 22-70% for PFE and by 45-55% for PCE. PFE containing anthocyanins induced the concentration-dependent stimulation (by 23-76%) of the State 4 respiration rate after addition of cytochrome c due to reducing properties. Significant reduction of H₂O₂ pro- duction was observed with investigated concentrations of rosmarinic acid and both perilla extracts. Our results demonstrate that the effect of PFE and PCE extracts on rat heart mitochondria depend on the qualitative characteristics of complex of biologically active compounds. Selective effects on mitochondrial function could enable the regulation of apoptosis or another mechanisms occurring in cells. PMID:27008808

  3. Detection of Chlorogenic Acid in Honeysuckle Using Infrared-Assisted Extraction Followed by Capillary Electrophoresis with UV Detector

    PubMed Central

    Tang, Zhuxing; Zang, Shuliang; Zhang, Xiangmin

    2012-01-01

    In this study, a novel infrared-assisted extraction method coupled capillary electrophoresis (CE) is employed to determine chlorogenic acid from a traditional Chinese medicine (TCM), honeysuckle. The effects of pH and the concentration of the running buffer, separation voltage, injection time, IR irradiation time, and anhydrous ethanol in the extraction concentration were investigated. The optimal conditions were as follows: extraction time, 30 min; extraction solvent, 80% (v/v) ethanol in water solution; and 50 mmol/L borate buffer (pH 8.7) was used as the running buffer at a separation voltage of 16 kV. The samples were injected electrokinetically at 16 kV for 8 s. Good linearity (r2 > 0.9996) was observed over the concentration ranges investigated, and the stability of the solutions was high. Recoveries of the chlorogenic acid were from 95.53% to 106.62%, and the relative standard deviation was below 4.1%. By using this novel IR-assisted extraction method, a higher extraction efficiency than those extracted with conventional heat-reflux extraction was found. The developed IR-assisted extraction method is simple, low-cost, and efficient, offering a great promise for the quick determination of active compounds in TCM. The results indicated that IR-assisted extraction followed by CE is a reliable method for quantitative analysis of active ingredient in TCM. PMID:22291060

  4. Fatty acid profile and elemental content of avocado (Persea americana Mill.) oil--effect of extraction methods.

    PubMed

    Reddy, Mageshni; Moodley, Roshila; Jonnalagadda, Sreekanth B

    2012-01-01

    Interest in vegetable oil extracted from idioblast cells of avocado fruit is growing. In this study, five extraction methods to produce avocado oil have been compared: traditional solvent extraction using a Soxhlet or ultrasound, Soxhlet extraction combined with microwave or ultra-turrax treatment and supercritical fluid extraction (SFE). Traditional Soxhlet extraction produced the most reproducible results, 64.76 ± 0.24 g oil/100 g dry weight (DW) and 63.67 ± 0.20 g oil/100 g DW for Hass and Fuerte varieties, respectively. Microwave extraction gave the highest yield of oil (69.94%) from the Hass variety. Oils from microwave extraction had the highest fatty acid content; oils from SFE had wider range of fatty acids. Oils from Fuerte variety had a higher monounsaturated: saturated FA ratio (3.45-3.70). SFE and microwave extraction produced the best quality oil, better than traditional Soxhlet extraction, with the least amount of oxidizing metals present. PMID:22494376

  5. Soybean extract showed modulation of retinoic acid-related gene expression of skin and photo-protective effects in keratinocytes.

    PubMed

    Park, N-H; Park, J-S; Kang, Y-G; Bae, J-H; Lee, H-K; Yeom, M-H; Cho, J-C; Na, Y J

    2013-04-01

    Soy extracts are well known as medicinal and nutritional ingredients, and exhibit benefits towards human skin including depigmenting or anti-ageing effects. Despite the wrinkle decreasing effects of retinoids on skin as an anti-ageing ingredient, retinoid application can causes photo-sensitive responses such as skin irritation. Thus, their daytime usage is not recommended. The aim of this study is the investigation into the activities of soybean extract as an anti-ageing ingredient and their comparison to retinoids in this respect. Soybean extract decreased the relative ratio of MMP-1/TIMP-1 mRNA to the same degree as retinoic acid in normal human fibroblasts. It also affected mRNA levels of HAS2 and CRABP2 in normal human keratinocytes. Furthermore, we investigated its effect on mRNA expression of histidase, an enzyme that converts histidine into urocanic acid, the main UV light absorption factor of the stratum corneum. Unlike the complete inhibition of histidase exhibited by the mRNA expression of retinoic acid, the effect of soybean extract on histidase gene expression was weaker in normal human keratinocytes. Also, soybean extract pretreatment inhibited UVB-induced cyclobutane pyrimidine dimer formation dose-dependently in normal human keratinocytes. In this study, we found that soybean extract modulated retinoic acid-related genes and showed photo-protective effects. Our findings suggest that soybean extract could be an anti-ageing ingredient that can be safely used under the sunlight. PMID:23075113

  6. DIAMIDE DERIVATIVES OF DIPICOLINIC ACID AS ACTINIDE AND LANTHANIDE EXTRACTANTS IN A VARIATION OF THE UNEX PROCESS

    SciTech Connect

    D. R. Peterman; R. S. Herbst; J. D. Law; R. D. Tillotson; T. G. Garn; T. A. Todd; V. N. Romanovskiy; V. A. Babain; M. Yu. Alyapyshev; I. V. Smirnov

    2007-09-01

    The Universal Extraction (UNEX) process has been developed for simultaneous extraction of cesium, strontium, and actinides from acidic solutions. This process utilizes an extractant consisting of 0.08 M chlorinated cobalt dicarbollide (HCCD), 0.007-0.02 M polyethylene glycol (PEG-400), and 0.02 M diphenyl-N,N-di-n-butylcarbamoylmethylphosphine oxide (Ph2CMPO) in the diluent trifluoromethylphenyl sulfone (CF3C6H5SO2, designated FS-13) and provides simultaneous extraction of Cs, Sr, actinides, and lanthanides from HNO3 solutions. The UNEX process is of limited utility for processing acidic solutions containing large quantities of lanthanides and/or actinides, such as dissolved spent nuclear fuel solutions. These constraints are primarily attributed to the limited concentrations of CMPO (a maximum of ~0.02 M) in the organic phase and limited solubility of the CMPO-metal complexes. As a result, alternative actinide and lanthanide extractants are being investigated for use with HCCD as an improvement for waste processing and for applications where higher concentrations of the metals are present. Our preliminary results indicate that diamide derivatives of dipicolinic acid may function as efficient actinide and lanthanide extractants. The results to be presented indicate that, of the numerous diamides studied to date, the tetrabutyldiamide of dipicolinic acid, TBDPA, shows the most promise as an alternative actinide/lanthanide extractant in the UNEX process.

  7. Ultrasound-assisted extraction of pectins from grape pomace using citric acid: a response surface methodology approach.

    PubMed

    Minjares-Fuentes, R; Femenia, A; Garau, M C; Meza-Velázquez, J A; Simal, S; Rosselló, C

    2014-06-15

    An ultrasound-assisted procedure for the extraction of pectins from grape pomace with citric acid as the extracting agent was established. A Box-Behnken design (BBD) was employed to optimize the extraction temperature (X1: 35-75°C), extraction time (X2: 20-60 min) and pH (X3: 1.0-2.0) to obtain a high yield of pectins with high average molecular weight (MW) and degree of esterification (DE) from grape pomace. Analysis of variance showed that the contribution of a quadratic model was significant for the pectin extraction yield and for pectin MW whereas the DE of pectins was more influenced by a linear model. An optimization study using response surface methodology was performed and 3D response surfaces were plotted from the mathematical model. According to the RSM model, the highest pectin yield (∼32.3%) can be achieved when the UAE process is carried out at 75°C for 60 min using a citric acid solution of pH 2.0. These pectic polysaccharides, composed mainly by galacturonic acid units (<97% of total sugars), have an average MW of 163.9 kDa and a DE of 55.2%. Close agreement between experimental and predicted values was found. These results suggest that ultrasound-assisted extraction could be a good option for the extraction of functional pectins with citric acid from grape pomace at industrial level. PMID:24721067

  8. Study on solvent extraction of propionic acid from simulated discharged water in vitamin B12 production by anaerobic fermentation.

    PubMed

    Wang, Kang; Chang, Zhidong; Ma, Yinchen; Lei, Chao; Wang, Jing; Zhu, Tingyu; Liu, Huizhou; Zuo, Yanjun; Li, Xin

    2009-06-01

    The potential of recovering propionic acid from discharged water in vitamin B(12) production by anaerobic fermentation was investigated in this paper. A primary amine, N(1923), was used as the extractant, kerosene as diluter and n-octanol as modifier. The influences of the content of N(1923) in the organic phase, the phase ratio and the pH of aqueous phase on the extraction yield of propionic acid were studied. The organic phase composition with the volume ratio was proposed of N(1923):kerosene:n-octanol as 45:35:20. Under conditions of the phase ratio (o/w) as 1:4, the pH of aqueous phase of 3.0 and after 5 min extraction, the extraction yield of propionic acid can be over 97%. PMID:19201188

  9. Stimulation of delta-Aminolevulinic Acid Formation in Algal Extracts by Heterologous RNA.

    PubMed

    Weinstein, J D; Mayer, S M; Beale, S I

    1986-12-01

    Formation of the chlorophyll and heme precursor delta-aminolevulinic acid (ALA) from glutamate in soluble extracts of Chlorella vulgaris, Euglena gracilis, and Cyanidium caldarium was stimulated by addition of low molecular weight RNA derived from greening algae or plant tissue. Enzyme extracts were prepared for the ALA formation assay by high-speed centrifugation, partial RNA depletion, and gel filtration through Sephadex G-25. RNA was extracted from greening barley epicotyls, greening cucumber cotyledon chloroplasts, and growing cells of Chlorella, Euglena, Chlamydomonas reinhardtii, and Anacystis nidulans, freed of protein, and fractionated on DEAE-cellulose to yield an active component corresponding to the tRNA-containing fraction. RNA from homologous and heterologous species stimulated ALA formation when added to enzyme extracts, and the degree of stimulation was proportional to the amount of RNA added. Algal enzyme extracts were stimulated by algal RNAs interchangeably, with the exception of RNA prepared from aplastidic Euglena, which did not stimulate ALA production. RNA from greening cucumber cotyledon chloroplasts and greening barley epicotyls stimulated ALA formation in algal enzyme incubations. In contrast, tRNA from Escherichia coli, both nonspecific and glutamate-specific, as well as wheat germ, bovine liver, and yeast tRNA, failed to reconstitute ALA formation. Moreover, E. coli tRNA inhibited ALA formation by algal extracts, both in the presence and absence of added algal RNA. Chlorella extracts were capable of catalyzing aminoacyl bond formation between glutamate and both the activity reconstituting and nonreconstituting RNAs, indicating that the inability of some RNAs to stimulate ALA formation was not due to their inability to serve as glutamyl acceptors. The first step in the ALA-forming reaction sequence has been proposed to be activation of glutamate via aminoacyl bond formation with a specific tRNA, analogous to the first step in peptide bond

  10. Neodymium(III) Complexes of Dialkylphosphoric and Dialkylphosphonic Acids Relevant to Liquid-Liquid Extraction Systems.

    PubMed

    Lumetta, Gregg J; Sinkov, Sergey I; Krause, Jeanette A; Sweet, Lucas E

    2016-02-15

    The complexes formed during the extraction of neodymium(III) into hydrophobic solvents containing acidic organophosphorus extractants were probed by single-crystal X-ray diffractometry, visible spectrophotometry, and Fourier-transform infrared spectroscopy. The crystal structure of the compound Nd(DMP)3 (1, DMP = dimethyl phosphate) revealed a polymeric arrangement in which each Nd(III) center is surrounded by six DMP oxygen atoms in a pseudo-octahedral environment. Adjacent Nd(III) ions are bridged by (MeO)2POO(-) anions, forming the polymeric network. The diffuse reflectance visible spectrum of 1 is nearly identical to that of the solid that is formed when an n-dodecane solution of di(2-ethylhexyl)phosphoric acid (HA) is saturated with Nd(III), indicating a similar coordination environment around the Nd center in the NdA3 solid. The visible spectrum of the HA solution fully loaded with Nd(III) is very similar to that of the NdA3 material, both displaying hypersensitive bands characteristic of an pseudo-octahedral coordination environment around Nd. These spectral characteristics persisted across a wide range of organic Nd concentrations, suggesting that the pseudo-octahedral coordination environment is maintained from dilute to saturated conditions. PMID:26815878

  11. Fatty acids composition of Tunisian Ziziphus lotus L. (Desf.) fruits and variation in biological activities between leaf and fruit extracts.

    PubMed

    Ghazghazi, Hanene; Aouadhi, Chedia; Riahi, Leila; Maaroufi, Abderrazak; Hasnaoui, Brahim

    2014-01-01

    This study was conceived to evaluate the essential fatty acids, secondary metabolites, antiradical and antimicrobial activities of unexploited Tunisian Ziziphus lotus L. The obtained results indicated that the major components of fatty acids were oleic acid (88.12%) and elaidic acid (7.88%). Leaves contained higher amount of total phenols, flavonoids and tannins than fruits, although both methanolic extracts had significant antioxidant activities. Significant correlations were observed between the total phenol or flavonoid contents in methanolic extracts and antioxidant activity estimated by using both 2,2'-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl and 2,2'-azino-bis-3-ethylbenzothiazoline-6-sulfonic radical-scavenging methods. In addition, both methanolic extracts exhibited strong antibacterial and antifungal activities. The inhibition zone diameters and the minimal inhibition concentration values were in the range of 10-17 mm and 3.1-50 mg/mL, respectively. PMID:24805194

  12. Optimization of polyphenol extraction from red grape pomace using aqueous glycerol/tartaric acid mixtures and response surface methodology.

    PubMed

    Makris, Dimitris P; Passalidi, Vassiliki; Kallithraka, Stamatina; Mourtzinos, Ioannis

    2016-01-01

    Grape pomace is a food industry waste containing a high burden of antioxidant polyphenols and several methodologies have been developed for their efficient extraction. However, a sustainable and environmentally friendly process should involve recovery means composed of benign, non-toxic solvents, such as tartaric acid and glycerol, which are natural food constituents. In this line, this study examined the extraction of polyphenols using aqueous tartaric acid/glycerol solutions. The aim was to assess the role of acid and glycerol concentration in the extraction yield, employing a Box-Behnken experimental design and response surface methodology. The results showed that solutions containing only glycerol (20%, w/v) are more suitable for retrieving polyphenols, flavonoids, and pigments from grape pomace, while tartaric acid exerted a negative effect in this regard, when tested at concentrations up to 2% (w/v). PMID:25806718

  13. Pharmacokinetics, Safety and Tolerability of Melissa officinalis Extract which Contained Rosmarinic Acid in Healthy Individuals: A Randomized Controlled Trial

    PubMed Central

    Noguchi-Shinohara, Moeko; Ono, Kenjiro; Hamaguchi, Tsuyoshi; Iwasa, Kazuo; Nagai, Toshitada; Kobayashi, Shoko; Nakamura, Hiroyuki; Yamada, Masahito

    2015-01-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the safety, tolerability and pharmacokinetics of single dose of Melissa officinalis extract which contained rosmarinic acid, including food-effects in healthy individuals. A total of eleven healthy individuals were randomly assigned to treatment arms in the two studies [Study 1 (fasted state) and Study 2 (fed state)]. Rosmarinic acid in serum was measured by a coulometric detection method using High-Performance Liquid Chromatography electrochemical detector. The serum concentration of total rosmarinic acid peaked at 1 hour after administration of Melissa officinalis extract containing 500mg rosmarinic acid in fasted state, with a maximum serum concentration 162.20 nmol/ L. The area under the curve for intact rosmarinic acid was calculated from the serum concentration-time profile to be 832.13 nmol • hour/ L. Food intake increases area under the curve and delayed time at which the maximum serum concentration. Rosmarinic acid supplementation did not affect liver, kidney, or blood cell function parameters. No adverse event was reported by any of the participants due to the study treatment. Single dose of Melissa officinalis extract containing 500 mg rosmarinic acid appears to be safe and tolerable in healthy individuals. Food intake increased the exposure of rosmarinic acid and delayed absorption of rosmarinic acid in healthy individuals. Trial Registration Trial Registration: UMIN-CTR UMIN000004997 PMID:25978046

  14. KIT mutations are common in testicular seminomas.

    PubMed

    Kemmer, Kathleen; Corless, Christopher L; Fletcher, Jonathan A; McGreevey, Laura; Haley, Andrea; Griffith, Diana; Cummings, Oscar W; Wait, Cecily; Town, Ajia; Heinrich, Michael C

    2004-01-01

    Expression of KIT tyrosine kinase is critical for normal germ cell development and is observed in the majority of seminomas. Activating mutations in KIT are common in gastrointestinal stromal tumors and mastocytosis. In this study we examined the frequency and spectrum of KIT mutations in 54 testicular seminomas, 1 ovarian dysgerminoma and 37 non-seminomatous germ cell tumors (NSGCT). Fourteen seminomas (25.9%) contained exon 17 point mutations including D816V (6 cases), D816H (3 cases), Y823D (2 cases), and single examples of Y823C, N822K, and T801I. No KIT mutations were found in the ovarian dysgerminoma or the NSGCTs. In transient transfection assays, mutant isoforms D816V, D816H, Y823D, and N822K were constitutively phosphorylated in the absence of the natural ligand for KIT, stem cell factor (SCF). In contrast, activation of T801I and wild-type KIT required SCF. Mutants N822K and Y823D were inhibited by imatinib mesylate (Gleevec, previously STI571) whereas D816V and D816H were both resistant to imatinib mesylate. Biochemical evidence of KIT activation, as assessed by KIT phosphorylation and KIT association with phosphatidylinositol (PI) 3-kinase in tumor cell lysates, was largely confined to seminomas with a genomic KIT mutation. These findings suggest that activating KIT mutations may contribute to tumorigenesis in a subset of seminomas, but are not involved in NSGCT. PMID:14695343

  15. Differential Use of Elementary Science Kits

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jones, Gail; Robertson, Laura; Gardner, Grant E.; Dotger, Sharon; Blanchard, Margaret R.

    2012-10-01

    The use of kits in elementary science classes is a growing trend in some countries. Kits provide materials and inquiry lessons in a ready-to-teach format for teachers to use in their science instruction. This study examined elementary teachers' instructional strategies, classroom practices, and assessment types in relation to the frequency of science kit use. A total of 503 elementary teachers from an urban school district received professional development, implemented kits in their classrooms for a year, and then completed a survey about science kit use and teaching practices. Despite similarities in demographic characteristics (gender, ethnicity, certification/educational level), there were significant differences in teachers' use of inquiry-based teaching and assessment practices by kit use. Teachers who reported using kits the most often were significantly more likely to report that their students designed and implemented laboratory investigations as well recorded, represented, and analyzed data. In addition, the high kit users indicated that they were more likely to use student groups, require students to use evidence to support claims, and use alternative assessments of student work including portfolios, notebooks, and long-term projects than those teachers who used kits less frequently. Those teachers who reported using kits the least often were significantly more likely to report having students practice for standardized tests. The role of kits in promoting reform-based teaching practices is discussed.

  16. Studies on the Inhibitive Effect of Datura Stramonium Extract on the Acid Corrosion of Mild Steel

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Raja, Pandian Bothi; Sethuraman, Mathur Gopalakrishnan

    The extract of Datura stramonium has been studied as a possible source of green inhibitor for corrosion of mild steel (MS) in HCl and H2SO4 media at different temperatures. The anticorrosion effect was evaluated by conventional weight loss studies, electrochemical studies viz., Tafel polarization, ac impedance, and SEM studies. The studies reveal that the plant extract acts as a good inhibitor in both the acid media and better in H2SO4 medium. Tafel polarization method indicate that the plant extract behaves as a mixed mode inhibitor. Double layer capacitance and charge transfer resistance values derived from Nyquist plots obtained from ac impedance studies give supporting evidence for the anticorrosive effect. The inhibitive effect may be attributed to the adsorption of the inhibitor on the surface of MS, following Temkin adsorption isotherm. Increase of inhibition efficiency with increase of temperature along with Ea values serve as a proof for chemisorption. SEM studies provide the confirmatory evidence for the protection of MS by the green inhibitor. The study reveals the potential of D. stramonium for combating corrosion which may be due to the adsorption of alkaloids and other phytoconstituents.

  17. Kainic Acid-Induced Excitotoxicity Experimental Model: Protective Merits of Natural Products and Plant Extracts

    PubMed Central

    Mohd Sairazi, Nur Shafika; Sirajudeen, K. N. S.; Asari, Mohd Asnizam; Muzaimi, Mustapha; Mummedy, Swamy; Sulaiman, Siti Amrah

    2015-01-01

    Excitotoxicity is well recognized as a major pathological process of neuronal death in neurodegenerative diseases involving the central nervous system (CNS). In the animal models of neurodegeneration, excitotoxicity is commonly induced experimentally by chemical convulsants, particularly kainic acid (KA). KA-induced excitotoxicity in rodent models has been shown to result in seizures, behavioral changes, oxidative stress, glial activation, inflammatory mediator production, endoplasmic reticulum stress, mitochondrial dysfunction, and selective neurodegeneration in the brain upon KA administration. Recently, there is an emerging trend to search for natural sources to combat against excitotoxicity-associated neurodegenerative diseases. Natural products and plant extracts had attracted a considerable amount of attention because of their reported beneficial effects on the CNS, particularly their neuroprotective effect against excitotoxicity. They provide significant reduction and/or protection against the development and progression of acute and chronic neurodegeneration. This indicates that natural products and plants extracts may be useful in protecting against excitotoxicity-associated neurodegeneration. Thus, targeting of multiple pathways simultaneously may be the strategy to maximize the neuroprotection effect. This review summarizes the mechanisms involved in KA-induced excitotoxicity and attempts to collate the various researches related to the protective effect of natural products and plant extracts in the KA model of neurodegeneration. PMID:26793262

  18. Simultaneous separation and detection of actinides in acidic solutions using an extractive scintillating resin.

    PubMed

    Roane, J E; DeVol, T A

    2002-11-01

    An extractive scintillating resin was evaluated for the simultaneous separation and detection of actinides in acidic solutions. The transuranic extractive scintillating (TRU-ES) resin is composed of an inert macroporous polystyrene core impregnated with organic fluors (diphenyloxazole and 1,4-bis-(4-methyl-5-phenyl-2-oxazolyl)benzene) and an extractant (octyl(phenyl)-N,N-diisobutylcarbamoylmethylphosphine oxide in tributyl phosphate). The TRU-ES resin was packed into FEP Teflon tubing to produce a flow cell (0.2-mL free column volume), which is placed into a scintillation detection system to obtain pulse height spectra and time series data during loading and elution of actinides onto/from the resin. The alpha-particle absolute detection efficiencies ranged from 77% to 96.5%, depending on the alpha energy and quench. In addition to the on-line analyses, off-line analyses of the effluent can be conducted using conventional detection methods. The TRU-ES resin was applied to the quantification of a mixed radionuclide solution and two actual waste samples. The on-line characterization of the mixed radionuclide solution was within 10% of the reported activities whereas the agreement with the waste samples was not as good due to sorption onto the sample container walls and the oxidation state of plutonium. Agreement between the on-line and off-line analyses was within 35% of one another for both waste samples. PMID:12433098

  19. Production of biodiesel from vegetable oil and microalgae by fatty acid extraction and enzymatic esterification.

    PubMed

    Castillo López, Beatriz; Esteban Cerdán, Luis; Robles Medina, Alfonso; Navarro López, Elvira; Martín Valverde, Lorena; Hita Peña, Estrella; González Moreno, Pedro A; Molina Grima, Emilio

    2015-06-01

    The aim of this work was to obtain biodiesel (methyl esters) from the saponifiable lipids (SLs) fraction of the microalga Nannochloropsis gaditana, whose biomass dry weight contains 12.1 wt% of these lipids. SLs were extracted from the microalga as free fatty acids (FFAs) for subsequent transformation to methyl esters (biodiesel) by enzymatic esterification. Extraction as FFAs rather than as SLs allows them to be obtained with higher purity. Microalgal FFAs were obtained by direct saponification of lipids in the biomass and subsequent extraction-purification with hexane. Esterification of FFAs with methanol was catalysed by lipase Novozym 435 from Candida antarctica. Stability studies of this lipase in the operational conditions showed that the esterification degree (ED) attained with the same batch of lipase remained constant over six reaction cycles (36 h total reaction time). The optimal conditions attained for 4 g of FFAs were 25°C, 200 rpm, methanol/FFA molar ratio of 1.5:1, Novozym 435/FFA ratio of 0.025:1 w/w and 4 h reaction time. In these conditions the ED attained was 92.6%, producing a biodiesel with 83 wt% purity from microalgal FFAs. Several experimental scales were tested (from 4 to 40 g FFAs), and in all cases similar EDs were obtained. PMID:25575971

  20. Filtration Isolation of Nucleic Acids: A Simple and Rapid DNA Extraction Method.

    PubMed

    McFall, Sally M; Neto, Mário F; Reed, Jennifer L; Wagner, Robin L

    2016-01-01

    FINA, filtration isolation of nucleic acids, is a novel extraction method which utilizes vertical filtration via a separation membrane and absorbent pad to extract cellular DNA from whole blood in less than 2 min. The blood specimen is treated with detergent, mixed briefly and applied by pipet to the separation membrane. The lysate wicks into the blotting pad due to capillary action, capturing the genomic DNA on the surface of the separation membrane. The extracted DNA is retained on the membrane during a simple wash step wherein PCR inhibitors are wicked into the absorbent blotting pad. The membrane containing the entrapped DNA is then added to the PCR reaction without further purification. This simple method does not require laboratory equipment and can be easily implemented with inexpensive laboratory supplies. Here we describe a protocol for highly sensitive detection and quantitation of HIV-1 proviral DNA from 100 µl whole blood as a model for early infant diagnosis of HIV that could readily be adapted to other genetic targets. PMID:27583575

  1. The carbon distribution among the functional groups of humic acids isolated by sequential alkaline extraction from gray forest soil

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kholodov, V. A.; Konstantinov, A. I.; Perminova, I. V.

    2009-11-01

    Preparations of humic acids (HAs) were isolated from a gray forest soil by sequential alkaline extraction. From a sample of 500 g, HA preparations of 2.24, 0.23, and 0.20 g were obtained from the first, second, and third alkaline extracts, respectively. The structure of the preparations was determined by 13C NMR spectroscopy. At each next extraction step, the portion of aliphatic fragments in the HA preparations increased and the content of aromatic structures decreased. The conclusion was drawn that a single extraction is sufficient for obtaining a representative HA sample.

  2. Adsorption and corrosion-inhibiting effect of Dacryodis edulis extract on low-carbon-steel corrosion in acidic media.

    PubMed

    Oguzie, E E; Enenebeaku, C K; Akalezi, C O; Okoro, S C; Ayuk, A A; Ejike, E N

    2010-09-01

    The inhibition of low-carbon-steel corrosion in 1M HCl and 0.5M H(2)SO(4) by extracts of Dacryodis edulis (DE) was investigated using gravimetric and electrochemical techniques. DE extract was found to inhibit the uniform and localized corrosion of carbon steel in the acidic media, affecting both the cathodic and anodic partial reactions. The corrosion process was inhibited by adsorption of the extracted organic matter onto the steel surface in a concentration-dependent manner and involved both protonated and molecular species. Molecular dynamics simulations were performed to illustrate the process of adsorption of some specific components of the extract. PMID:20609846

  3. Effects of Fruit Ellagitannin Extracts, Ellagic Acid, and Their Colonic Metabolite, Urolithin A, on Wnt Signaling

    PubMed Central

    Sharma, Meenakshi; Li, Liya; Celver, Jeremy; Killian, Caroline; Kovoor, Abraham; Seeram, Navindra P.

    2010-01-01

    Recent data suggest that ellagitannins (ETs), a class of hydrolyzable tannins found in some fruits and nuts, may have beneficial effects against colon cancer. In the stomach and gut, ETs hydrolyze to release ellagic acid (EA) and are converted by gut microbiota to urolithin-A (UA; 3,8-dihydroxy-6H-dibenzopyran-6-one) type metabolites which may persist in the colon through enterohepatic circulation. However, little is known about the mechanisms of action of either the native compounds or their metabolites on colon carcinogenesis. Components of Wnt signaling pathways are known to play a pivotal role in human colon carcinogenesis and inappropriate activation of the signaling cascade is observed in 90% of colorectal cancers. Here we investigated the effects of UA, EA, and ET rich fruit extracts on Wnt signaling in a human 293T cell line using a luciferase reporter of canonical Wnt pathway-mediated transcriptional activation. The ET extracts were obtained from strawberry (Fragaria annassa), Jamun berry (Eugenia jambolana), and pomegranate (Punica granatum) fruit and were all standardized to phenolic content (as gallic acid equivalents, GAEs, by the Folin Ciocalteau method) and to EA content (by high performance liquid chromatography methods): strawberry=20.5% GAE, 5.0% EA; Jamun berry= 20.5% GAE, 4.2% EA; pomegranate= 55% GAE, 3.5% EA. The ET-extracts (IC50=28.0-30.0 μg/mL), EA (IC50=19.0 μg/mL; 63 μM) and UA (IC50=9.0 μg/mL; 39 μM) inhibited Wnt signaling suggesting that ET-rich foods have potential against colon carcinogenesis and that urolithins are relevant bioactive constituents in the colon. PMID:20014760

  4. Stability Test and Quantitative and Qualitative Analyses of the Amino Acids in Pharmacopuncture Extracted from Scolopendra subspinipes mutilans

    PubMed Central

    Cho, GyeYoon; Han, KyuChul; Yoon, JinYoung

    2015-01-01

    Objectives: Scolopendra subspinipes mutilans (S. subspinipes mutilans) is known as a traditional medicine and includes various amino acids, peptides and proteins. The amino acids in the pharmacopuncture extracted from S. subspinipes mutilans by using derivatization methods were analyzed quantitatively and qualitatively by using high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) over a 12 month period to confirm its stability. Methods: Amino acids of pharmacopuncture extracted from S. subspinipes mutilans were derived by using O-phthaldialdehyde (OPA) & 9-fluorenyl methoxy carbonyl chloride (FMOC) reagent and were analyzed using HPLC. The amino acids were detected by using a diode array detector (DAD) and a fluorescence detector (FLD) to compare a mixed amino acid standard (STD) to the pharmacopuncture from centipedes. The stability tests on the pharmacopuncture from centipedes were done using HPLC for three conditions: a room temperature test chamber, an acceleration test chamber, and a cold test chamber. Results: The pharmacopuncture from centipedes was prepared by using the method of the Korean Pharmacopuncture Institute (KPI) and through quantitative analyses was shown to contain 9 amino acids of the 16 amino acids in the mixed amino acid STD. The amounts of the amino acids in the pharmacopuncture from centipedes were 34.37 ppm of aspartate, 123.72 ppm of arginine, 170.63 ppm of alanine, 59.55 ppm of leucine and 57 ppm of lysine. The relative standard deviation (RSD %) results for the pharmacopuncture from centipedes had a maximum value of 14.95% and minimum value of 1.795% on the room temperature test chamber, the acceleration test chamber and the cold test chamber stability tests. Conclusion: Stability tests on and quantitative and qualitative analyses of the amino acids in the pharmacopuncture extracted from centipedes by using derivatization methods were performed by using HPLC. Through research, we hope to determine the relationship between time and the

  5. The FOT tool kit concept

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Fatig, Michael

    1993-01-01

    Flight operations and the preparation for it has become increasingly complex as mission complexities increase. Further, the mission model dictates that a significant increase in flight operations activities is upon us. Finally, there is a need for process improvement and economy in the operations arena. It is therefore time that we recognize flight operations as a complex process requiring a defined, structured, and life cycle approach vitally linked to space segment, ground segment, and science operations processes. With this recognition, an FOT Tool Kit consisting of six major components designed to provide tools to guide flight operations activities throughout the mission life cycle was developed. The major components of the FOT Tool Kit and the concepts behind the flight operations life cycle process as developed at NASA's GSFC for GSFC-based missions are addressed. The Tool Kit is therefore intended to increase productivity, quality, cost, and schedule performance of the flight operations tasks through the use of documented, structured methodologies; knowledge of past lessons learned and upcoming new technology; and through reuse and sharing of key products and special application programs made possible through the development of standardized key products and special program directories.

  6. Effect of lime on the availability of residual phosphorus and its extractability by dilute acid

    SciTech Connect

    Rhue, R.D.; Hensel, D.R.

    1983-01-01

    The objective of this study was to determine the long-term effects of liming an acid, P-deficient Placid sand (sandy, siliceous, hyperthermic Typic Humaquept) on the availability of residual fertilizer P to potatoes (Solanum tuberosum L.). Dolomitic limestone was applied in November 1977, at rates of 0, 2240, 4480, and 8960 kg/ha in a split-plot design with lime as main plots and P treatments as subplots. Phosphorus was applied at rates of 0, 56, 112, and 168 kg/ha in 1978. In 1979 and 1980, P plots were split with one-half fertilized with 56 kg P/ha and the other one-half not fertilized with P (residual). In 1978, maximum tuber yields and top dry weights occurred at the 2240 kg/ha lime rate which resulted in a soil pH of 5.8. Plant P concentrations were unaffected by lime at any sampling rate. In 1979, availability of residual soil P decreased with lime rates > 2240 kg/ha but not enough to significantly affect yields. However, in 1980, overliming injury was observed for tuber yields at the higher lime rates which was the result of P deficiency. Application of P at planting eliminated the overliming injury with maximum yields occurring in the pH range of 6.0 to 6.5. It appears that liming to pH 6.5 in this study resulted in fertilizer reaction products that were more soluble in dilute acid but less plant available than those formed under more acid conditions. However, the Mehlich I extractant appeared to be a suitable extractant for P on this soil if pH was taken into account when interpreting soil-test P. 23 references, 4 figures, 2 tables.

  7. Effect of nucleic acid binding dyes on DNA extraction, amplification, and STR typing.

    PubMed

    Haines, Alicia M; Tobe, Shanan S; Kobus, Hilton J; Linacre, Adrian

    2015-10-01

    We report on the effects of six dyes used in the detection of DNA on the process of DNA extraction, amplification, and detection of STR loci. While dyes can be used to detect the presence of DNA, their use is restricted if they adversely affect subsequent DNA typing processes. Diamond™ Nucleic Acid Dye, GelGreen™, GelRed™, RedSafe™, SYBR(®) Green I, and EvaGreen™ were evaluated in this study. The percentage of dye removed during the extraction process was determined to be: 70.3% for SYBR(®) Green I; 99.6% for RedSafe™; 99.4% for EvaGreen™; 52.7% for Diamond™ Dye; 50.6% for GelRed™, and; could not be determined for GelGreen™. It was then assumed that the amount of dye in the fluorescent quantification assay had no effect on the DNA signal. The presence of all six dyes was then reviewed for their effect on DNA extraction. The t-test showed no significant difference between the dyes and the control. These extracts were then STR profiled and all dyes and control produced full DNA profiles. STR loci in the presence of GelGreen(TM) at 1X concentration showed increased amplification products in comparison to the control samples. Full STR profiles were detected in the presence of EvaGreen™ (1X), although with reduced amplification products. RedSafe™ (1X), Diamond™ Dye (1X), and SYBR(®) Green I (1X) all exhibited varying degrees of locus drop-out with GelRed™ generating no loci at all. We provide recommendations for the best dye to visualize the presence of DNA profile as a biological stain and its subsequent amplification and detection. PMID:26202628

  8. Investigating organic molecules responsible of auxin-like activity of humic acid fraction extracted from vermicompost.

    PubMed

    Scaglia, Barbara; Nunes, Ramom Rachide; Rezende, Maria Olímpia Oliveira; Tambone, Fulvia; Adani, Fabrizio

    2016-08-15

    This work studied the auxin-like activity of humic acids (HA) obtained from vermicomposts produced using leather wastes plus cattle dung at different maturation stages (fresh, stable and mature). Bioassays were performed by testing HA concentrations in the range of 100-6000mgcarbonL(-1). (13)C CPMAS-NMR and GC-MS instrumental methods were used to assess the effect of biological processes and starting organic mixtures on HA composition. Not all HAs showed IAA-like activity and in general, IAA-like activity increased with the length of the vermicomposting process. The presence of leather wastes was not necessary to produce the auxin-like activity of HA, since HA extracted from a mix of cattle manure and sawdust, where no leather waste was added, showed IAA-like activity as well. CPMAS (13)CNMR revealed that HAs were similar independently of the mix used and that the humification process involved the increasing concentration of pre-existing alkali soluble fractions in the biomass. GC/MS allowed the identification of the molecules involved in IAA-like effects: carboxylic acids and amino acids. The concentration of active molecules, rather than their simple presence in HA, determined the bio-stimulating effect, and a good linear regression between auxin-like activity and active stimulating molecules concentration was found (R(2)=-0.85; p<0.01, n=6). PMID:27100009

  9. Determination of free phenolic acids and antioxidant activity of methanolic extracts obtained from fruits and leaves of Chenopodium album.

    PubMed

    Laghari, Abdul Hafeez; Memon, Shahabuddin; Nelofar, Aisha; Khan, Khalid Mohammed; Yasmin, Arfa

    2011-06-15

    In this study, determination of phenolic acids as well as investigation of antioxidant activity of methanolic extracts from the fruits and leaves of Chenopodium album is described. Extracts were subjected to acidic hydrolysis in order to obtain total free phenolic acids. However, some of phenolic acids were identified and quantified by HPLC-DAD. The results were confirmed by LC-MS equipped with MS-ESI. In addition, Folin-Ciocalteu method was applied to determine the total phenolic contents. The antioxidant activity of C. album extracts was examined by using DPPH and hydroxyl radical-scavenging activity assays. Results revealed that the leaves extract exhibits better performance in antioxidant assays and in the higher total phenolic contents (3066mg of GAE/100g) when compared to fruits extract (1385mg of GAE/100g). From these results it has been revealed that the methanolic extracts of C. album from fruits and leaves have great potential as a source for natural health products. PMID:25213967

  10. Chromolithic method development, validation and system suitability analysis of ultra-sound assisted extraction of glycyrrhizic acid and glycyrrhetinic acid from Glycyrrhiza glabra.

    PubMed

    Gupta, Suphla; Sharma, Rajni; Pandotra, Pankaj; Jaglan, Sundeep; Gupta, Ajai Prakash

    2012-08-01

    An ultrasound-assisted extraction and chromolithic LC method was developed for simultaneous determination of glycyrrhizic acid (GA) and glycyrrhetinic acid (GL) from the root extract of Glycyrrhizza glabra using RPLC-PDA. The developed method was validated according to the International Conference on Harmonisation. The method exhibited good linearity (r2 > 0.9989) with high precision and achieved good accuracies between 97.5 to 101.3% of quantitative results. The method is more sensitive and faster (resolved within ten minutes) than the earlier developed methods using normal LC columns. PMID:22978213

  11. Mechanisms of cholesterol and saturated fatty acid lowering by Quillaja saponaria extract, studied by in vitro digestion model.

    PubMed

    Vinarova, Liliya; Vinarov, Zahari; Damyanova, Borislava; Tcholakova, Slavka; Denkov, Nikolai; Stoyanov, Simeon

    2015-04-01

    Quillaja saponin extracts are known to reduce plasma cholesterol levels in humans. Here we study the mechanism of this effect with Quillaja Dry saponin extract (QD). In vitro model of triglyceride lipolysis is used to quantify the effect of QD on the solubilization of cholesterol and of the lipolysis products (fatty acids and monoglycerides) in the dietary mixed micelles (DMM). We found that QD extract decreases significantly both the cholesterol (from 80% to 20%) and saturated fatty acids (SFA, from 70% to 10%) solubilised in DMM. Series of dedicated experiments prove that QD may act by two mechanisms: (1) direct precipitation of cholesterol and (2) displacement of cholesterol from the DMM. Both mechanisms lead to increased cholesterol precipitation and, thus, render cholesterol bio-inaccessible. We prove also that the saponin molecules are not the active component of QD, because highly purified Quillaja extract with very similar saponin composition does not exhibit cholesterol-lowering or SFA-lowering effect. The effect of QD extract on cholesterol solubilisation is most probably caused by the high-molecular weight polyphenol molecules, present in this extract. The reduced SFA solubilisation is caused by Ca(2+) ions of relatively high concentration (1.25 wt%), also present in QD extract, which precipitate the fatty acids into calcium soaps. PMID:25773645

  12. Application of the NucliSENS easyMAG system for nucleic acid extraction: optimization of DNA extraction for molecular diagnosis of parasitic and fungal diseases.

    PubMed

    Jeddi, Fakhri; Piarroux, Renaud; Mary, Charles

    2013-01-01

    During the last 20 years, molecular biology techniques have propelled the diagnosis of parasitic diseases into a new era, as regards assay speed, sensitivity, and parasite characterization. However, DNA extraction remains a critical step and should be adapted for diagnostic and epidemiological studies. The aim of this report was to document the constraints associated with DNA extraction for the diagnosis of parasitic diseases and illustrate the adaptation of an automated extraction system, NucliSENS easyMAG, to these constraints, with a critical analysis of system performance. Proteinase K digestion of samples is unnecessary with the exception of solid tissue preparation. Mechanically grinding samples prior to cell lysis enhances the DNA extraction rate of fungal cells. The effect of host-derived nucleic acids on the extraction efficiency of parasite DNA varies with sample host cell density. The optimal cell number for precise parasite quantification ranges from 10 to 100,000 cells. Using the NucliSENS easyMAG technique, the co-extraction of inhibitors is reduced, with an exception for whole blood, which requires supplementary extraction steps to eliminate inhibitors. PMID:24331004

  13. A novel automated device for rapid nucleic acid extraction utilizing a zigzag motion of magnetic silica beads.

    PubMed

    Yamaguchi, Akemi; Matsuda, Kazuyuki; Uehara, Masayuki; Honda, Takayuki; Saito, Yasunori

    2016-02-01

    We report a novel automated device for nucleic acid extraction, which consists of a mechanical control system and a disposable cassette. The cassette is composed of a bottle, a capillary tube, and a chamber. After sample injection in the bottle, the sample is lysed, and nucleic acids are adsorbed on the surface of magnetic silica beads. These magnetic beads are transported and are vibrated through the washing reagents in the capillary tube under the control of the mechanical control system, and thus, the nucleic acid is purified without centrifugation. The purified nucleic acid is automatically extracted in 3 min for the polymerase chain reaction (PCR). The nucleic acid extraction is dependent on the transport speed and the vibration frequency of the magnetic beads, and optimizing these two parameters provided better PCR efficiency than the conventional manual procedure. There was no difference between the detection limits of our novel device and that of the conventional manual procedure. We have already developed the droplet-PCR machine, which can amplify and detect specific nucleic acids rapidly and automatically. Connecting the droplet-PCR machine to our novel automated extraction device enables PCR analysis within 15 min, and this system can be made available as a point-of-care testing in clinics as well as general hospitals. PMID:26772121

  14. Deproteinization of water-soluble ß-glucan during acid extraction from fruiting bodies of Pleurotus ostreatus mushrooms.

    PubMed

    Szwengiel, Artur; Stachowiak, Barbara

    2016-08-01

    Some ß-glucans can be easily extracted from Basidiomycete mushrooms but commonly used extraction procedures are not satisfactory. A simultaneous method for acid extraction and deproteinization in the case of Pleurotus ostreatus was developed using response surface methodology. The optimized extraction conditions proposed here (30°C, 3.8% HCl, 300min, stirring) allow for the simultaneous extraction and deproteinization of polysaccharides. Additionally, the acid extraction yield was 7 times greater than that of hot water extraction. The combined enzymatic digestion with lyticase, ß-glucanase, exo-1,3-ß-d-glucanase, and ß-glucosidase results elucidated that an extract containing ß-1,3-ß-1,6-ß-1,4-glucan. The gel permeation chromatography (GPC) results showed that the two glucan fractions obtained do not contain linked proteins. The weight average molecular weight of the first fraction (Mw=1137kDa) was 60 times higher than that of the second fraction (Mw=19kDa). PMID:27112879

  15. The extraction of water, nitric acid, and uranyl nitrate by di-2-ethylhexyl sulfoxide in dodecane

    SciTech Connect

    Moyer, B.A.; Baes, C.F. Jr.; McDowell, W.J.; Caley, C.E.; Case, G.N. )

    1989-01-01

    The extraction of water, nitric acid, and uranyl nitrate by di-2-ethylhexyl sulfoxide (DEHSO) in dodecane has been measured. Using the program SXLSQA, the data were modeled with correction for nonideality effects (treatments of Hildebrand and Scott and of Pitzer) in terms of the organic-phase species (DEHSO)(H{sub 2}O), (DEHSO){sub 2}(H{sub 2}O), (DEHSO)(HNO{sub 3}), (DEHSO){sub 2}(HNO{sub 3})(H{sub 2}O), (DEHSO)(HNO{sub 3}){sub 2}(H{sub 2}O), and UO{sub 2}(NO{sub 3}){sub 2}(DEHSO){sub 2}(H{sub 2}O){sub w}. 11 refs., 4 figs.

  16. Fluorescence, spectroscopic and NLO properties of green tea extract in deoxyribonucleic acid

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Manea, Ana-Maria; Rau, Ileana; Kajzar, Francois; Meghea, Aurelia

    2013-11-01

    Natural, purely biological deoxyribonucleic acid (DNA)-green tea extract (GTE) complexes at different concentrations were prepared and characterized for their spectroscopic, fluorescent, linear and nonlinear optical properties. The complexes can be processed into good optical quality thin films by solution casting. They fluoresce when excited in UV absorption band, with a significantly larger quantum yield for the DNA-GTE complex than for a pure GTE solution. The thin film refractive indices were determined by Fabry-Perot (FP) interference patterns. The third-order nonlinear optical (NLO) properties of thin films were determined by the optical third-harmonic generation technique at 1064.2 nm fundamental wavelength. The phase of THG susceptibility was determined from the concentration variation of THG susceptibility. It reveals presence of a two-photon resonance with a band lying in the optical gap.

  17. Polymeric Cryogel-Based Boronate Affinity Chromatography for Separation of Ribonucleic Acid from Bacterial Extracts.

    PubMed

    Shakya, Akhilesh Kumar; Srivastava, Akshay; Kumar, Ashok

    2015-01-01

    Three-dimensional monolithic columns are preferred stationary phase in column chromatography. Conventional columns based on silica or particles are efficient in bioseparation though associated with limitations of nonspecific interaction and uneven porosity that causes high mass transfer resistance for the movement of big molecules. Cryogels as a monolith column have shown promising application in bioseparation. Cryogels column can be synthesized in the form of a monolith at sub-zero temperature through gelation of pre-synthesized polymers or polymerization of monomers. Cryogels are macroporous and mechanically stable materials. They have open interconnected micron-sized pores with a wide range of porosity (10-200 μm). Current protocol demonstrated the ability of poly(hydroxymethyl methacrylate)-co-vinylphenyl boronic acid p(HEMA-co-VPBA) cryogel matrix for selective separation of RNA from the bacterial crude extract. PMID:26623972

  18. Extraction fatty acid as a source to produce biofuel in microalgae Chlorella sp. and Spirulina sp. using supercritical carbon dioxide

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tai, Do Chiem; Hai, Dam Thi Thanh; Vinh, Nguyen Hanh; Phung, Le Thi Kim

    2016-06-01

    In this research, the fatty acids of isolated microalgae were extracted by some technologies such as maceration, Soxhlet, ultrasonic-assisted extraction and supercritical fluid extraction; and analyzed for biodiesel production using GC-MS. This work deals with the extraction of microalgae oil from dry biomass by using supercritical fluid extraction method. A complete study at laboratory of the influence of some parameters on the extraction kinetics and yields and on the composition of the oil in terms of lipid classes and profiles is proposed. Two types of microalgae were studied: Chlorella sp. and Spirulina sp. For the extraction of oil from microalgae, supercritical CO2 (SC-CO2) is regarded with interest, being safer than n-hexane and offering a negligible environmental impact, a short extraction time and a high-quality final product. Whilst some experimental papers are available on the supercritical fluid extraction (SFE) of oil from microalgae, only limited information exists on the kinetics of the process. These results demonstrate that supercritical CO2 extraction is an efficient method for the complete recovery of the neutral lipid phase.

  19. Evaluation and optimization of downstream process parameters for extraction of betulinic acid from the bark of Ziziphus jujubae L.

    PubMed

    Dubey, Kashyap Kumar; Goel, Nitika

    2013-01-01

    Present work investigated an apposite and efficient method for extraction of betulinic acid (BA) from the bark of Ziziphus jujubae. Various extraction methods like stirring extraction, soxhlet extraction, ultrasonic extraction, and microwave assisted extraction (MAE) were evaluated for increasing recovery percentage of BA. From the raffinate so obtained, BA was isolated. Thin layer chromatography (TLC) was used to analyze the extract and high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) for quantification. The results revealed that the percentage extraction of BA from Z. jujubae by MAE was more proficient. As recovery percentage of BA by MAE technique turned out to be maximum, by using response surface methodology (RSM), three process parameters (pH, temperature, and time) were optimized by MAE and it was observed that the optimum parameters (pH 6.5, temp. 70.23°C, and time 3.5 min) gave the maximum recovery of BA (0.44% w/w). To validate the RSM model, experiments were performed and the highest recovery of BA was found to be 0.4% w/w which is ±0.04% to the predicted value. Henceforth the extraction efficiency and the substantial saving of time by MAE was more capable than the other extraction techniques. PMID:24324374

  20. Evaluation and Optimization of Downstream Process Parameters for Extraction of Betulinic Acid from the Bark of Ziziphus jujubae L.

    PubMed Central

    Dubey, Kashyap Kumar; Goel, Nitika

    2013-01-01

    Present work investigated an apposite and efficient method for extraction of betulinic acid (BA) from the bark of Ziziphus jujubae. Various extraction methods like stirring extraction, soxhlet extraction, ultrasonic extraction, and microwave assisted extraction (MAE) were evaluated for increasing recovery percentage of BA. From the raffinate so obtained, BA was isolated. Thin layer chromatography (TLC) was used to analyze the extract and high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) for quantification. The results revealed that the percentage extraction of BA from Z. jujubae by MAE was more proficient. As recovery percentage of BA by MAE technique turned out to be maximum, by using response surface methodology (RSM), three process parameters (pH, temperature, and time) were optimized by MAE and it was observed that the optimum parameters (pH 6.5, temp. 70.23°C, and time 3.5 min) gave the maximum recovery of BA (0.44% w/w). To validate the RSM model, experiments were performed and the highest recovery of BA was found to be 0.4% w/w which is ±0.04% to the predicted value. Henceforth the extraction efficiency and the substantial saving of time by MAE was more capable than the other extraction techniques. PMID:24324374

  1. Effects of different biomass drying and lipid extraction methods on algal lipid yield, fatty acid profile, and biodiesel quality.

    PubMed

    Hussain, Javid; Liu, Yan; Lopes, Wilson A; Druzian, Janice I; Souza, Carolina O; Carvalho, Gilson C; Nascimento, Iracema A; Liao, Wei

    2015-03-01

    Three lipid extraction methods of hexane Soxhlet (Sox-Hex), Halim (HIP), and Bligh and Dyer (BD) were applied on freeze-dried (FD) and oven-dried (OD) Chlorella vulgaris biomass to evaluate their effects on lipid yield, fatty acid profile, and algal biodiesel quality. Among these three methods, HIP was the preferred one for C. vulgaris lipid recovery considering both extraction efficiency and solvent toxicity. It had the highest lipid yields of 20.0 and 22.0% on FD and OD biomass, respectively, with corresponding neutral lipid yields of 14.8 and 12.7%. The lipid profiling analysis showed that palmitic, oleic, linoleic, and α-linolenic acids were the major fatty acids in the algal lipids, and there were no significant differences on the amount of these acids between different drying and extraction methods. Correlative models applied to the fatty acid profiles concluded that high contents of palmitic and oleic acids in algal lipids contributed to balancing the ratio of saturated and unsaturated fatty acids and led to a high-quality algal biodiesel. PMID:25588528

  2. Field turbidity method for the determination of lead in acid extracts of dried paint.

    PubMed

    Studabaker, William B; McCombs, Michelle; Sorrell, Kristen; Salmons, Cynthia; Brown, G Gordon; Binstock, David; Gutknecht, William F; Harper, Sharon L

    2010-07-01

    Lead, which can be found in old paint, soil, and dust, has been clearly shown to have adverse health effects on the neurological systems of both children and adults. As part of an ongoing effort to reduce childhood lead poisoning, the US Environmental Protection Agency promulgated the Lead Renovation, Repair, and Painting Program (RRP) rule requiring that paint in target housing built prior to 1978 be tested for lead before any renovation, repair, or painting activities are initiated. This rule has led to a need for a rapid, relatively easy, and an inexpensive method for measuring lead in paint. This paper presents a new method for measuring lead extracted from paint that is based on turbidimetry. This method is applicable to paint that has been collected from a surface and extracted into 25% (v/v) of nitric acid. An aliquot of the filtered extract is mixed with an aliquot of solid potassium molybdate in 1 M ammonium acetate to form a turbid suspension of lead molybdate. The lead concentration is determined using a portable turbidity meter. This turbidimetric method has a response of approximately 0.9 NTU per microg lead per mL extract, with a range of 1-1000 Nephelometric Turbidity Units (NTUs). Precision at a concentration corresponding to the EPA-mandated decision point of 1 mg of lead per cm(2) is <2%. This method is insensitive to the presence of other metals common to paint, including Ba(2+), Ca(2+), Mg(2+), Fe(3+), Co(2+), Cu(2+), and Cd(2+), at concentrations of 10 mg mL(-1) or to Zn(2+) at 50 mg mL(-1). Analysis of 14 samples from six reference materials with lead concentrations near 1 mg cm(-2) yielded a correlation to inductively coupled plasma-atomic emission spectroscopy (ICP-AES) analysis of 0.97, with an average bias of 2.8%. Twenty-four sets of either 6 or 10 paint samples each were collected from different locations in old houses, a hospital, tobacco factory, and power station. Half of each set was analyzed using rotor/stator-25% (v/v) nitric acid

  3. Standardization of DNA extraction from methanol acetic acid fixed cytogenetic cells of cattle and buffalo.

    PubMed

    Kotikalapudi, Rosaiah; Patel, Rajesh K; Katragadda, Sanghamitra

    2013-12-01

    The aim of the study is to standardize the simple method for extracting DNA from cells fixed in fixative (3:1 ratio of methanol and acetic acid glacial) mostly used for chromosomal studies in cattle and buffaloes. These fixed cells were stored for more than 6 months at refrigerated temperature. The fixed cells were washed 2-3 times by the ice cold 1x Phosphate Buffer Saline (PBS) with pH 7.4, so that effect of fixative may be eliminated. The genomic DNA was extracted by adding cell lysis and nucleus lysis buffers. The quality and quantity of DNA were estimated. The readings of nano drop and agarose gel electrophoresis indicate good quality DNA isolated with a rapid and simple protocol routinely using in our laboratory. The method enables us to study the DNA of a cattle and buffaloes after completing cytogenetic investigation or in cases where DNA samples are otherwise not available. This protocol may be useful for molecular analysis of DNA from fixed cells palettes. PMID:24506057

  4. In Vitro Acylation of Okadaic Acid in the Presence of Various Bivalves’ Extracts

    PubMed Central

    Konoki, Keiichi; Onoda, Tatsuya; Watanabe, Ryuichi; Cho, Yuko; Kaga, Shinnosuke; Suzuki, Toshiyuki; Yotsu-Yamashita, Mari

    2013-01-01

    The dinoflagellate Dinophysis spp. is responsible for diarrhetic shellfish poisoning (DSP). In the bivalves exposed to the toxic bloom of the dinoflagellate, dinophysistoxin 3 (DTX3), the 7-OH acylated form of either okadaic acid (OA) or DTX1, is produced. We demonstrated in vitro acylation of OA with palmitoyl CoA in the presence of protein extract from the digestive gland, but not other tissues of the bivalve Mizuhopecten yessoensis. The yield of 7-O-palmitoyl OA reached its maximum within 2 h, was the highest at 37 °C followed by 28 °C, 16 °C and 4 °C and was the highest at pH 8 in comparison with the yields at pH 6 and pH 4. The transformation also proceeded when the protein extract was prepared from the bivalves Corbicula japonica and Crassostrea gigas. The OA binding protein OABP2 identified in the sponge Halichondria okadai was not detected in the bivalve M. yessoensis, the bivalve Mytilus galloprovincialis and the ascidian Halocynthia roretzi, though they are known to accumulate diarrhetic shellfish poisoning toxins. Since DTX3 does not bind to protein phosphatases 1 and 2A, the physiological target for OA and DTXs in mammalian cells, the acylation of DSP toxins would be related to a detoxification mechanism for the bivalve species. PMID:23434830

  5. Removal of plutonium and Americium from hydrochloric acid waste streams using extraction chromatography

    SciTech Connect

    Schulte, L.D.; FitzPatrick, J.R.; Salazar, R.R.; Schake, B.S.; Martinez, B.T.

    1995-01-01

    Extraction chromatography is under development as a method to lower actinide activity levels in hydrochloric acid (HCl) effluent streams. Successful application of this technique for radioactive liquid waste treatment would provide a low activity feedstream for HCl recycle, reduce the loss of radioactivity to the environment in aqueous effluents, and lower the quantity and improve the form of solid waste generated. The extraction of plutonium and americium from HCl solutions was examined for several commercial and laboratory-produced sorbed resin materials. Polymer beads were coated with n-octyl(phenyl)-N,N-diisobutylcarbamoyl- methylphosphine oxide (CMPO) and either tributyl phosphate (TBP), or diamyl amylphosphonate (DAAP). Distribution coefficients for Pu and Am were measured by contact studies in 1-10 M HCl, while varying REDOX conditions, actinide loading levels, and resin formulations. Flow experiments were run to evaluate actinide loading and elution under varied conditions. Significant differences in the actinide distribution coefficients in contact experiments, and in actinide retention in flow experiments were observed as a function of resin formulation.

  6. Efficient Nucleic Acid Extraction and 16S rRNA Gene Sequencing for Bacterial Community Characterization.

    PubMed

    Anahtar, Melis N; Bowman, Brittany A; Kwon, Douglas S

    2016-01-01

    There is a growing appreciation for the role of microbial communities as critical modulators of human health and disease. High throughput sequencing technologies have allowed for the rapid and efficient characterization of bacterial communities using 16S rRNA gene sequencing from a variety of sources. Although readily available tools for 16S rRNA sequence analysis have standardized computational workflows, sample processing for DNA extraction remains a continued source of variability across studies. Here we describe an efficient, robust, and cost effective method for extracting nucleic acid from swabs. We also delineate downstream methods for 16S rRNA gene sequencing, including generation of sequencing libraries, data quality control, and sequence analysis. The workflow can accommodate multiple samples types, including stool and swabs collected from a variety of anatomical locations and host species. Additionally, recovered DNA and RNA can be separated and used for other applications, including whole genome sequencing or RNA-seq. The method described allows for a common processing approach for multiple sample types and accommodates downstream analysis of genomic, metagenomic and transcriptional information. PMID:27168460

  7. Efficient Nucleic Acid Extraction and 16S rRNA Gene Sequencing for Bacterial Community Characterization

    PubMed Central

    Anahtar, Melis N.; Bowman, Brittany A.; Kwon, Douglas S.

    2016-01-01

    There is a growing appreciation for the role of microbial communities as critical modulators of human health and disease. High throughput sequencing technologies have allowed for the rapid and efficient characterization of bacterial communities using 16S rRNA gene sequencing from a variety of sources. Although readily available tools for 16S rRNA sequence analysis have standardized computational workflows, sample processing for DNA extraction remains a continued source of variability across studies. Here we describe an efficient, robust, and cost effective method for extracting nucleic acid from swabs. We also delineate downstream methods for 16S rRNA gene sequencing, including generation of sequencing libraries, data quality control, and sequence analysis. The workflow can accommodate multiple samples types, including stool and swabs collected from a variety of anatomical locations and host species. Additionally, recovered DNA and RNA can be separated and used for other applications, including whole genome sequencing or RNA-seq. The method described allows for a common processing approach for multiple sample types and accommodates downstream analysis of genomic, metagenomic and transcriptional information. PMID:27168460

  8. Residual cadmium forms in acid-extracted anaerobically digested sewage sludge

    SciTech Connect

    Feltz, R.E.; Logan, T.J.

    1985-01-01

    The effects of phosphorus and lime additions after acid extraction on residual Cd solubility and chemical forms in an anaerobically digested sewage sludge were investigated. High Cd content anaerobically digested sewage sludge was aerated and then acidified to pH 2 to solubilize Cd. After 18 h of acidification, the sludge was dewatered and the supernatant and solids separated. Seventy or more percent of the Cd was removed from the solids. Similar amounts of Ni, Mn and Zn were also removed, but Cu removal was only 26% and that of Pb was < 5%. Before liming the sludge was amended with rock phosphate (RP) or monocalcium phosphate (MCP). The RP was insoluble while MCP dissolved, providing a high level of phosphate ligand for Cd precipitation or coprecipitation. Estimated sludge solution solubility products for major Fe, Al and Ca phosphates showed that several of these minerals could have precipitated with P addition, especially with MCP, and Cd may have coprecipitated with these solid phases. Cadmium phosphate may also have been formed in the MCP sludge. Chemical fractionation indicated that 50% of the Cd in the aerated unextracted sludge existed as inorganic precipitates with another 40% Na/sub 4/P/sub 2/O/sub 7/ extractable. Acidification solubilized 98% of the inorganic Cd and 86% of the organically bound Cd. Seventy-nine percent of the Cd remaining in the dewatered acidified sludge was in the KNO/sub 3/ extractable (exchangeable) fraction. Liming redistributed the Cd with 13 to 19% as inorganic precipitates, 70 to 85% organically bound and < 3% in the exchangeable fraction. Phosphate addition had no significant effect on Cd fractionation.

  9. Variations of carnosic acid and carnosol concentrations in ethanol extracts of wild Lepechinia salviae in Spring (2008-2011).

    PubMed

    Labbé, Cecilia; Faini, Francesca; Calderón, Daniela; Molina, Juanita; Arredondo, Susana

    2014-10-01

    Ethanol extracts from dried leaves of wild Lepechinia salvia (Lindl) Epling, collected during the flowering period (September-November), contained 15% to 25% carnosic acid and 2 to 8% carnosol, depending on the month of collection. The highest concentration of carnosic acid in extracts was in October, while carnosol concentration had a peak in September, which suggests that it is not a product of carnosic acid oxidation. A comparison of extracts obtained in September 2008 to 2011 shows that the production of both abietanes increased in years with less winter rainfall and higher temperatures, which induced an early blooming. EC50 values in DPPH radical scavenging and antiproliferative (CCRF-CEM tumor cells) bioassays confirm that the high bioactivity of the extracts of rosemary, sage and L. salviae does not arise only from carnosol and carnosic acid. The cytotoxic activity was significantly higher in extracts of L. salviae, probably due to water stress differences between the cultivars and the wild species. These results correlate well with the close phylogenetic relationship between the three species, and their similar medicinal uses. PMID:25522527

  10. Permeability of rosmarinic acid in Prunella vulgaris and ursolic acid in Salvia officinalis extracts across Caco-2 cell monolayers

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Rosmarinic acid (RA), a caffeic acid derivative found in high concentrations in Prunella vulgaris (self-heal), and ursolic acid (UA), a pentacyclic triterpene acid concentrated in Salvia officinalis (sage), have been traditionally used to treat inflammation in the mouth, and may also be of benefit t...

  11. Effect of aluminum, zinc, copper, and lead on the acid-base properties of water extracts from soils

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Motuzova, G. V.; Makarychev, I. P.; Petrov, M. I.

    2013-01-01

    The potentiometric titration of water extracts from the upper horizons of taiga-zone soils by salt solutions of heavy metals (Pb, Cu, and Zn) showed that their addition is an additional source of the extract acidity because of the involvement of the metal ions in complexation with water-soluble organic substances (WSOSs). At the addition of 0.01 M water solutions of Al(NO3)3 to water extracts from soils, Al3+ ions are also involved in complexes with WSOSs, which is accompanied by stronger acidification of the extracts from the upper horizon of soddy soils (with a near-neutral reaction) than from the litter of bog-podzolic soil (with a strongly acid reaction). The effect of the Al3+ hydrolysis on the acidity of the extracts is insignificantly low in both cases. A quantitative relationship was revealed between the release of protons and the ratio of free Cu2+ ions to those complexed with WSOSs at the titration of water extracts from soils by a solution of copper salt.

  12. Estimates of Soil Bacterial Ribosome Content and Diversity Are Significantly Affected by the Nucleic Acid Extraction Method Employed.

    PubMed

    Wüst, Pia K; Nacke, Heiko; Kaiser, Kristin; Marhan, Sven; Sikorski, Johannes; Kandeler, Ellen; Daniel, Rolf; Overmann, Jörg

    2016-05-01

    Modern sequencing technologies allow high-resolution analyses of total and potentially active soil microbial communities based on their DNA and RNA, respectively. In the present study, quantitative PCR and 454 pyrosequencing were used to evaluate the effects of different extraction methods on the abundance and diversity of 16S rRNA genes and transcripts recovered from three different types of soils (leptosol, stagnosol, and gleysol). The quality and yield of nucleic acids varied considerably with respect to both the applied extraction method and the analyzed type of soil. The bacterial ribosome content (calculated as the ratio of 16S rRNA transcripts to 16S rRNA genes) can serve as an indicator of the potential activity of bacterial cells and differed by 2 orders of magnitude between nucleic acid extracts obtained by the various extraction methods. Depending on the extraction method, the relative abundances of dominant soil taxa, in particularActinobacteriaandProteobacteria, varied by a factor of up to 10. Through this systematic approach, the present study allows guidelines to be deduced for the selection of the appropriate extraction protocol according to the specific soil properties, the nucleic acid of interest, and the target organisms. PMID:26896137

  13. Synergistic selective extraction of actinides(III) over lanthanides from nitric acid using new aromatic diorganyldithiophosphinic acids and neutral organophosphorus compounds

    SciTech Connect

    Modolo, G.; Odoj, R.

    1999-01-01

    New aromatic dithiophosphinic acids (R{sub 2}PSSH) with R = C{sub 6}H{sub 5{sup {minus}}}, ClC{sub 6}H{sub 4{sup {minus}}}, FC{sub 6}H{sub 4{sup {minus}}} and CH{sub 3}C{sub 6}H{sub 4{sup {minus}}} were synthesized, characterized and tested as potential separating agents for trivalent actinides over lanthanides. The extraction of Am(III), Eu(III) and other lanthanides was carried out from nitric acid medium with mixtures of R{sub 2}PSSHs and neutral organophosphorus compounds. There was no detectable extraction when R{sub 2}PSSHs were used alone as extractants for either Am(III) or Eu(III) (D{sub Am,Eu} < 10{sup {minus}3}) under the experimental conditions used in this study. High separation factors (D{sub Am}/D{sub Eu} > 20) with D{sub Am} > 1 were achieved in the nitric acid range 0.1--1 mol/L by means of a synergistic mixture of bis(chlorophenyl)dithiophosphinic acid + tributylphosphate (TBP), trioctylphosphine oxide (TOPO) or tributylphosphine oxide (TBPO). The high radiation resistance (up to 10{sup 6} Gy absorbed {gamma}-doses) of the extractants was also demonstrated.

  14. Rosmarinic Acid-Rich Extracts of Summer Savory (Satureja hortensis L.) Protect Jurkat T Cells against Oxidative Stress

    PubMed Central

    Chkhikvishvili, Irakli; Sanikidze, Tamar; Gogia, Nunu; Mchedlishvili, Tamar; Enukidze, Maia; Machavariani, Marine; Vinokur, Yakov

    2013-01-01

    Summer savory (Satureja hortensis L., Lamiaceae) is used in several regions of the world as a spice and folk medicine. Anti-inflammatory and cytoprotective effects of S. hortensis and of its rosmarinic acid-rich phenolic fraction have been demonstrated in animal trials. However, previous studies of rosmarinic acid in cell models have yielded controversial results. In this study, we investigated the effects of summer savory extracts on H2O2-challenged human lymphoblastoid Jurkat T cells. LC-MS analysis confirmed the presence of rosmarinic acid and flavonoids such as hesperidin and naringin in the phenolic fraction. Adding 25 or 50 µM of H2O2 to the cell culture caused oxidative stress, manifested as generation of superoxide and peroxyl radicals, reduced cell viability, G0/G1 arrest, and enhanced apoptosis. This stress was significantly alleviated by the ethanolic and aqueous extracts of S. hortensis and by the partially purified rosmarinic acid fraction. The application of an aqueous S. hortensis extract doubled the activity of catalase and superoxide dismutase in the cells. The production of IL-2 and IL-10 interleukins was stimulated by H2O2 and was further enhanced by the addition of the S. hortensis extract or rosmarinic acid fraction. The H2O2-challenged Jurkat cells may serve as a model for investigating cellular mechanisms of cytoprotective phytonutrient effects. PMID:24349613

  15. Separation of Technetium in Nitric Acid Solution With an Extractant Impregnated Resin

    SciTech Connect

    Jei Kwon Moon; Eil Hee Lee; Chong-Hun Jung; Byung Chul Lee

    2006-07-01

    An extractant impregnated resin (EIR) was prepared by impregnation of Aliquat 336 into Amberlite XAD-4 for separation of technetium from rhodium in nitric acid solution. The prepared EIR showed high preference for rhenium (chemical analogue of technetium) over rhodium. The adsorption isotherms for rhenium were described well by Langmuir equation in both the single and multi-component systems. Maximum adsorption capacities obtained by modelling the isotherms of rhenium were 2.01 meq g{sup -1} and 1.97 meq g{sup -1} for the single and the multi-component systems, respectively. Column tests were also performed to confirm the separation efficiency of rhenium using a jacketed glass column (diam. 11 x L 150). The EIR column showed successful separation of rhenium with the breakthrough volume of about 122 BV for the breakthrough concentration of 0.08. Also the breakthrough data were modelled successfully by assuming a homogeneous diffusion model in the particle phase. The diffusivities obtained from the modelling were in the order of 10{sup -7} cm{sup 2} min{sup -1} for a rhenium. The rhenium adsorbed on the bed could be eluted with a high purity by using a nitric acid solution. (authors)

  16. Dietary supplementation of an ellagic acid-enriched pomegranate extract attenuates chronic colonic inflammation in rats.

    PubMed

    Rosillo, Maria Angeles; Sánchez-Hidalgo, Marina; Cárdeno, Ana; Aparicio-Soto, Marina; Sánchez-Fidalgo, Susana; Villegas, Isabel; de la Lastra, Catalina Alarcón

    2012-09-01

    Dietary polyphenols present in Punica granatum (pomegranate), such as ellagitannins and ellagic acid (EA) have shown to exert anti-inflammatory and antioxidant properties. This study was designed to evaluate the effects of a dietary EA-enriched pomegranate extract (PE) in a murine chronic model of Cronh's disease (CD). Colonic injury was induced by intracolonic instillation of trinitrobenzensulfonic acid (TNBS). Rats were fed with different diets during 30 days before TNBS instillation and 2 weeks before killing: (i) standard, (ii) PE 250 mg/kg/day, (iii) PE 500 mg/kg/day, (iv) EA 10 mg/kg/day and (v) EA 10 mg/kg/day enriched-PE 250 mg/kg/day. Inflammation response was assessed by histology and MPO activity and TNF-α production. Besides, colonic expressions of iNOS, COX-2, p38, JNK, pERK1/2 MAPKs, IKBα and nuclear p65 NF-κB were studied by western blotting. MPO activity and the TNF-α levels were significantly reduced in dietary fed rats when compared with TNBS group. Similarly, PE and an EA-enriched PE diets drastically decreased COX-2 and iNOS overexpression, reduced MAPKs phosporylation and prevented the nuclear NF-κB translocation. Dietary supplementation of EA contributes in the beneficial effect of PE in this experimental colitis model and may be a novel therapeutic strategy to manage inflammatory bowel disease (IBD). PMID:22677088

  17. Fourier transform infrared characterization of the acidic phosphoric extractant system containing lanthanide

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shen, Y.-H.; Yao, S.-K.; Wang, D.-J.; Zhou, Weijin; Li, Ying Xue; Peng, Q.; Wu, JinGuang; Xu, Guang-Xian

    1994-01-01

    The aggregation states and FTIR spectra of the extractive organic phases of saponified HDEHP [di(2-ethylhexyl) phosphoric acid] (1). DMHPA [di(1-methylheptyl) phosphoric acid] (2) and (HDEHP + DMHPA) (3) containing lanthanides were studied, respectively. Transparent solution formed in system (1) while transparent gel formed in system (2) when the loading of lanthanides was more than 50%. The aggregation state of system (3) depends on the molar ratio of HDEHP:DMHPA and the loading percentage of lanthanide. From their FTIR spectra, it can be seen that the P equals O band of gel split into 1164, 1199, and 1232 cm-1, and the P-O-C band split into 1015, 1076, and 1083 cm-1 as well. The results suggested that the aggregation state of lanthanide complex changes considerably in the three systems, and multiple coordination states of p equals o with lanthanide result in the band split. Multiple interactions between P equals O, P-O-C and lanthanide ions form 3-D network in the gel.

  18. Nanoencapsulation of Red Ginseng Extracts Using Chitosan with Polyglutamic Acid or Fucoidan for Improving Antithrombotic Activities.

    PubMed

    Kim, Eun Suh; Lee, Ji-Soo; Lee, Hyeon Gyu

    2016-06-15

    The potential of nanoencapsulation using bioactive coating materials for improving antithrombotic activities of red ginseng extract (RG) was examined. RG-loaded chitosan (CS) nanoparticles were prepared using antithrombotic materials, polyglutamic acid (PGA) or fucoidan (Fu). Both CS-PGA (P-NPs, 360 ± 67 nm) and CS-Fu nanoparticles (F-NPs, 440 ± 44 nm) showed sustained ginsenoside release in an acidic environment and improved ginsenoside solubility by approximately 122.8%. Both in vitro rabbit and ex vivo rat platelet aggregation of RG (22.3 and 41.5%) were significantly (p < 0.05) decreased within P-NPs (14.4 and 30.0%) and F-NPs (12.3 and 30.3%), respectively. Although RG exhibited no effect on in vivo carrageenan-induced mouse tail thrombosis, P-NPs and F-NPs demonstrated significant effects, likely the anticoagulation activity of PGA and Fu. Moreover, in the in vivo rat arteriovenous shunt model, P-NPs (156 ± 6.8 mg) and F-NPs (160 ± 3.2 mg) groups showed significantly lower thrombus formation than that of RG (190 ± 5.5 mg). Therefore, nanoencapsulation using CS, PGA, and Fu is a potential for improving the antithrombotic activity of RG. PMID:27181678

  19. Solvent-extraction and purification of uranium(VI) and molybdenum(VI) by tertiary amines from acid leach solutions

    SciTech Connect

    La Gamma, Ana M.G.; Becquart, Elena T.; Chocron, Mauricio

    2008-07-01

    Considering international interest in the yellow-cake price, Argentina is seeking to exploit new uranium ore bodies and processing plants. A study of similar plants would suggest that solvent- extraction with Alamine 336 is considered the best method for the purification and concentration of uranium present in leaching solutions. In order to study the purification of these leach liquors, solvent-extraction tests under different conditions were performed with simulated solutions which containing molybdenum and molybdenum-uranium mixtures. Preliminary extraction tests carried out on mill acid-leaching liquors are also presented. (authors)

  20. Extraction of actinides and fission products by octyl(phenyl)-N,N-diisobutylcarbamoylmethyl-phosphine oxide from nitric acid media.

    PubMed

    Mathur, J N; Murali, M S; Natarajan, P R; Badheka, L P; Banerji, A

    1992-05-01

    Extraction of promethium(III), uranium(VI), plutonium(IV), americium(III), zirconium(IV), ruthenium(III), iron(III) and palladium(II) has been carried out with a mixture of octyl(phenyl)-N,N-diisobutylcarbamoylmethylphosphine oxide (CMPO) and tributyl phosphate (TBP) in dodecane. The effects of nitric acid, TBP and CMPO concentrations on the extraction of these metal ions have been studied. The nature of the species of the above metal ions extracted into the organic phase has been suggested. PMID:18965406