Science.gov

Sample records for acid fa intake

  1. Moderately high intake of folic acid has a negative impact on mouse embryonic development

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The incidence of neural tube defects has diminished considerably since the implementation of food fortification with folic acid (FA). However, the impact of excess FA intake, particularly during pregnancy, requires investigation. In a recent study, we reported that a diet supplemented with 20-fold h...

  2. Essential fatty acid intake and serum fatty acid composition among adolescent girls in central Mozambique.

    PubMed

    Freese, Riitta; Korkalo, Liisa; Vessby, Bengt; Tengblad, Siv; Vaara, Elina M; Hauta-alus, Helena; Selvester, Kerry; Mutanen, Marja

    2015-04-14

    Many African diets are low in fat but are currently changing because of nutrition transition. We studied fat and fatty acid (FA) intake and the essential fatty acid (EFA) status of adolescent girls (aged 14-19 years, n 262) in Zambezia Province, central Mozambique. A cross-sectional study was carried out in a city as well as in the towns and rural villages of a coastal and an inland district. Dietary intake and FA sources were studied in a 24 h dietary recall. FA compositions of cholesteryl esters and phospholipids of non-fasting serum samples were analysed by GLC. Fat intake was low (13-18 % of energy) in all areas. Coconut and palm oil were the main sources of fat, and soyabean oil and maize were the main sources of PUFA. Compared to Food and Agriculture Organization/WHO 2010 recommendations, intake of linoleic acid (LA, 18 : 2n-6) was inadequate in the coastal district, and intakes of n-3 PUFA were inadequate in all areas. FA compositions of serum lipids differed between areas. The proportions of LA tended to be highest in the city and lowest in the rural areas. The phospholipid mead (20 : 3n-9):arachidonic acid (20 : 4n-6) ratio did not indicate EFA insufficiency. LA proportions in phospholipids were low, but those of long-chain n-6 and n-3 PUFA were high in comparison with Western adolescents. To conclude, fat sources, FA intake and EFA status differed between adolescent girls living in different types of communities. Fat intake was low, but EFA insufficiency was not indicated. PMID:25772191

  3. Fatty acids intake in the Mexican population. Results of the National Nutrition Survey 2006

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Background There is growing evidence that quality, rather that quantity of fat is the determinant of cardiovascular risk. The objective of the study is to describe quantitatively the intake and adequacy of fatty acid classes among the Mexican population aged 5-90 years from a probabilistic survey. Methods Dietary intake of individual and classes of fatty acids was computed from the dataset of the 2006 Mexican National Health and Nutrition Survey (ENSANUT2006), collected by a food frequency questionnaire. Adequacy was calculated in reference to authoritative recommendations. Results The mean intake of total fatty acids (TFA ≈ 25%E) fell within WHO recommendations; the intakes of saturated fatty acids (SFA) among all age-groups (45-60%) and of trans fatty acids (TrFA) in 30% of school-age children and adolescents and 20% of adults exceeded international recommendations. The mean intake of polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFA) and particularly of n6 and n3 PUFAS, was inadequately insufficient in 50% of the sample. Conclusions The main public health concerns are the high intake of SFA and the suboptimal intake of PUFA in Mexican population. The TrFA intake represents a low public health risk. PMID:21651771

  4. Trans fatty acid intake and emotion regulation.

    PubMed

    Holt, Megan E; Lee, Jerry W; Morton, Kelly R; Tonstad, Serena

    2015-06-01

    We examined whether there is a relationship between trans fatty acid intakes and emotion regulation, mediated by positive or negative affect. Archival data on 1699 men and 3293 women were used to measure trans fatty acid intake at baseline, positive, and negative affects and emotion regulation at follow-up. Higher trans fatty acid intake related to subsequent difficulties with emotional awareness (p = 0.045), clarity (p = 0.012), and regulation strategies (p = 0.009). Affect mediated these relationships. Lower trans fatty acid intake associated with increased positive and decreased negative affects which, in turn, associated with improved emotion regulation. Trans fatty acid intakes may be associated with subsequent ability to regulate emotions. PMID:26032795

  5. A ferulic acid (FA)-eluting system for biodegradable magnesium stent: Cells response of HUVECs.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Erlin; Shen, Feng

    2015-08-01

    A new drug-eluting system was designed for biodegradable magnesium stents, in which ferulic acid (FA) was used as drug due to its promotion function to endothelial cells and PHBHHx as drug delivery due to its biodegradability and biocompatibility. A 5 and 10% FA were added in PHBHHx to prepare FA containing PHBHHX films. The cell adhesion, spreading and proliferation on these films was investigated in order to assess cell response of HUVECs. It was also found that FA enhanced the adhesion, spreading and proliferation of HUVECs in a dose-dependent manner. Cell viability after H2 O2 injury and NO production of HUVECs were also studied. The results indicated that FA effectively inhibited H2 O2 -induced injury and promotes NO production. It was also shown that alkali treatment improved the cell adhesion, spreading and proliferation while the treatment reduces the FA release and in turn reduces the inhibition on H2 O2 -induced injury and NO production. However, alkali treatment itself had no influence on the H2 O2 induced injure and NO production. The tensile shear strength between the FA containing coating and Mg substrate was also tested. All results demonstrated that FA containing PHBHHx films exhibited strong promotion to the endothelialization and could be a choice for surface modification of magnesium stent. PMID:25630748

  6. Dietary intake of fats and fatty acids in the Korean population: Korea National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey, 2013

    PubMed Central

    Baek, Yeji; Hwang, Ji-Yun; Kim, Kirang; Moon, Hyun-Kyung; Kweon, Sanghui; Yang, Jieun

    2015-01-01

    BACKGROUND/OBJECTIVES The aim of this study was to estimate average total fat and fatty acid intakes as well as identify major food sources using data from the Korea National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (KNHANES) VI-1 (2013). SUBJECTS/METHODS Total fat and fatty acid intakes were estimated using 24-hour dietary recall data on 7,048 participants aged ≥ 3 years from the KNHANES VI-1 (2013). Data included total fat, saturated fatty acid (SFA), monounsaturated fatty acid (MUFA), polyunsaturated fatty acid (PUFA), n-3 fatty acid (n-3 FA), and n-6 fatty acid (n-6 FA) levels. Population means and standard errors of the mean were weighted in order to produce national estimates and separated based on sex, age, income, as well as residential region. Major food sources of fat, SFA, MUFA, PUFA, n-3 FA, and n-6 FA were identified based on mean consumption amounts of fat and fatty acids in each food. RESULTS The mean intake of total fat was 48.0 g while mean intakes of SFA, MUFA, PUFA, n-3 FA, and n-6 FA were 14.4 g, 15.3 g, 11.6 g, 1.6 g, and 10.1 g, respectively. Intakes of MUFA and SFA were each higher than that of PUFA in all age groups. Pork was the major source of total fat, SFA, and MUFA, and soybean oil was the major source of PUFA. Milk and pork were major sources of SFA in subjects aged 3-11 years and ≥ 12 years, respectively. Perilla seed oil and soybean oil were main sources of n-3 FA in subjects aged ≥ 50 years and aged < 50 years, respectively. CONCLUSIONS Estimation of mean fatty acid intakes of this study using nationally represented samples of the Korean population could be useful for developing and evaluating national nutritional policies. PMID:26634055

  7. Life extension of F/A 18 intake nacelle using add-on dampers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chiu, W. K.; Siovitz, U.; Galea, Stephen C.; Koss, Leonard L.

    1998-06-01

    Acoustic fatigue is due to very high intensity excitation as a result of pressure waves caused by either engine/or aerodynamic effects. Currently a large portion of the F/A-18 fleet has suffered from acoustic fatigue cracking in skin panel on the lower external surface of the inlet nacelle. There has been a long history of cracking in this region, which is attributed to fatigue caused by acoustic excitation of the panel during the operation of the aircraft. Efforts to alleviate these fatigue crack growth with traditional boron/epoxy patches was not successful. This paper seek to select a set of damping material suitable for the reinforcement/damping treatment to alleviate the acoustic fatigue damage of the nacelle panel of the F/A-18 aircraft. This experimental study will address the relevance of constrained layer damping reducing the incidence of acoustic fatigue problems in the nacelle region.

  8. Fatty acid-induced astrocyte ketone production and the control of food intake.

    PubMed

    Le Foll, Christelle; Levin, Barry E

    2016-06-01

    Obesity and Type 2 diabetes are major worldwide public health issues today. A relationship between total fat intake and obesity has been found. In addition, the mechanisms of long-term and excessive high-fat diet (HFD) intake in the development of obesity still need to be elucidated. The ventromedial hypothalamus (VMH) is a major site involved in the regulation of glucose and energy homeostasis where "metabolic sensing neurons" integrate metabolic signals from the periphery. Among these signals, fatty acids (FA) modulate the activity of VMH neurons using the FA translocator/CD36, which plays a critical role in the regulation of energy and glucose homeostasis. During low-fat diet (LFD) intake, FA are oxidized by VMH astrocytes to fuel their ongoing metabolic needs. However, HFD intake causes VMH astrocytes to use FA to generate ketone bodies. We postulate that these astrocyte-derived ketone bodies are exported to neurons where they produce excess ATP and reactive oxygen species, which override CD36-mediated FA sensing and act as a signal to decrease short-term food intake. On a HFD, VMH astrocyte-produced ketones reduce elevated caloric intake to LFD levels after 3 days in rats genetically predisposed to resist (DR) diet-induced obesity (DIO), but not leptin-resistant DIO rats. This suggests that, while VMH ketone production on a HFD can contribute to protection from obesity, the inherent leptin resistance overrides this inhibitory action of ketone bodies on food intake. Thus, astrocytes and neurons form a tight metabolic unit that is able to monitor circulating nutrients to alter food intake and energy homeostasis. PMID:27122369

  9. Dietary fatty acid intake, its food sources and determinants in European adolescents: the HELENA (Healthy Lifestyle in Europe by Nutrition in Adolescence) Study.

    PubMed

    Vyncke, Krishna E; Libuda, Lars; De Vriendt, Tineke; Moreno, Luis A; Van Winckel, Myriam; Manios, Yannis; Gottrand, Frederic; Molnar, Denes; Vanaelst, Barbara; Sjöström, Michael; González-Gross, Marcela; Censi, Laura; Widhalm, Kurt; Michels, Nathalie; Gilbert, Chantal C; Xatzis, Christos; Cuenca García, Magdalena; de Heredia, Fátima Pérez; De Henauw, Stefaan; Huybrechts, Inge

    2012-12-28

    Dietary fatty acids (FA) play a role in several (patho)physiological processes at any age, and different FA have different effects on lipid status and health outcome. The present study aims to describe the FA intake and its main food sources in a population of healthy European adolescents and to assess the variation in intake as a function of non-dietary factors. FA intake was assessed with 24 h recall interviews in 1804 adolescents aged 12·5-17·5 years. Usual intakes were calculated using the multiple source method. Multilevel analyses, adjusting for study centre, were used to investigate the influence of non-dietary factors. The mean total fat intake was 33·3 (sd 1·2) % of total energy intake (%E). The mean SFA intake was 13·8 (sd 1·2) %E, with 99·8 % of the population exceeding the recommendations. SFA was mainly delivered by meat and cake, pies and biscuits. In most adolescents, the PUFA intake was too low, and 35·5 % of the population did not achieve the minimum recommended intake for α-linolenic acid (ALA). The main determinants of FA intake in the present study population were age and sex, as well as physical activity in the male subgroup. No contributions of body composition, socio-economic status or sexual maturation to the variance in FA intake were observed. In conclusion, the most important public health concerns regarding FA intake in this adolescent population were the low intake of ALA and the high intake of SFA, mainly seen in the younger-aged boys. In this group the major contributor to SFA was meat. PMID:22370331

  10. Recommended dairy product intake modulates circulating fatty acid profile in healthy adults: a multi-centre cross-over study.

    PubMed

    Abdullah, Mohammad M H; Cyr, Audrey; Lépine, Marie-Claude; Labonté, Marie-Ève; Couture, Patrick; Jones, Peter J H; Lamarche, Benoît

    2015-02-14

    Dairy products are rich sources of an array of fatty acids (FA) that have been shown individually and in certain clusters to exert varying effects on cardiovascular health, for which the circulating lipid profile is a powerful biomarker. Whether the profile of these FA is reflected in blood upon short terms of intake, possibly contributing to the lipid-related health impacts of dairy products, remains to be fully established. The objectives of the present study were to assess a recommended dairy product consumption in relation to circulating FA and lipid profiles, and to evaluate certain FA in dairy fat as potential biomarkers of intake. In a free-living, multi-centre, cross-over design, 124 healthy individuals consumed 3 servings/d of commercial dairy (DAIRY; 1% fat milk, 1·5% fat yogurt and 34% fat cheese) or energy-equivalent control (CONTROL; fruit and vegetable juice, cashews and a cookie) products for 4 weeks each, separated by a 4-week washout period. Plasma FA and serum lipid profiles were assessed by standard methods at the end of each dietary phase. After 4 weeks of intake, plasma levels of FA pentadecanoic acid (15 : 0) and heptadecanoic acid (17 : 0) were higher (0·26 v. 0·22% and 0·42 v. 0·39% of the total identified FA, respectively) after the DAIRY phase than after the CONTROL phase (P< 0·0001). This was accompanied by a small but significant increase in serum LDL-cholesterol levels after the DAIRY phase compared with the CONTROL phase (+0·08 mmol/l; P= 0·04). In conclusion, intake of 3 servings/d of conventional dairy products may modify certain circulating FA and lipid profiles within 4 weeks, where 15 : 0 and 17 : 0 may be potential short-term biomarkers of intake. PMID:25609231

  11. Modeling the binding of fulvic acid by goethite: the speciation of adsorbed FA molecules

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Filius, Jeroen D.; Meeussen, Johannes C. L.; Lumsdon, David G.; Hiemstra, Tjisse; van Riemsdijk, Willem H.

    2003-04-01

    Under natural conditions, the adsorption of ions at the solid-water interface may be strongly influenced by the adsorption of organic matter. In this paper, we describe the adsorption of fulvic acid (FA) by metal(hydr)oxide surfaces with a heterogeneous surface complexation model, the ligand and charge distribution (LCD) model. The model is a self-consistent combination of the nonideal competitive adsorption (NICA) equation and the CD-MUSIC model. The LCD model can describe simultaneously the concentration, pH, and salt dependency of the adsorption with a minimum of only three adjustable parameters. Furthermore, the model predicts the coadsorption of protons accurately for an extended range of conditions. Surface speciation calculations show that almost all hydroxyl groups of the adsorbed FA molecules are involved in outer sphere complexation reactions. The carboxylic groups of the adsorbed FA molecule form inner and outer sphere complexes. Furthermore, part of the carboxylate groups remain noncoordinated and deprotonated.

  12. Dietary fat intake and red blood cell fatty acid composition of children and women from three different geographical areas in South Africa.

    PubMed

    Ford, Rosalyn; Faber, Mieke; Kunneke, Ernesta; Smuts, Cornelius M

    2016-06-01

    Dietary fat intake, particularly the type of fat, is reflected in the red blood cell (RBC) fatty acid (FA) profile and is vital in growth, development and health maintenance. The FA profile (%wt/wt) of RBC membrane phospholipids (as determined by gas chromatography) and dietary intake (as determined by 24h recall) was assessed in 2-6y old South African children and their caregivers randomly selected from three communities, i.e. an urban Northern Cape community (urban-NC; n=104), an urban coastal Western Cape community (urban-WC; n=93) and a rural Limpopo Province community (rural-LP; n=102). Mean RBC FA values across groups were compared using ANOVA and Bonferroni post-hoc test while controlling for age and gender (children); median dietary intake values were compared using a Kruskal-Wallis test. Dietary intakes for total fat, saturated FAs and polyunsaturated FAs were higher in the two urban areas compared to the rural area. Total fat intake in rural-LP, and omega-3 FA dietary intake in all three areas were lower than the South African adopted guidelines. Dietary SFA intake in both urban areas was higher than recommended by South African guidelines; this was reflected in the RBC membrane FA profile. Rural-LP children had the lowest intake of omega-3 and omega-6 FAs yet presented with the highest RBC docosahexaenoic acid (DHA) profile and highest arachidonic acid percentage. Although differences observed in dietary fat intake between the two urban and the rural area were reflected in the RBC membrane total phospholipid FA profile, the lowest total fat and α-linolenic acid (ALA) intake by rural children that presented with the highest RBC DHA profile warrants further investigation. PMID:27269709

  13. Maternal intake of fatty acids during pregnancy and allergies in the offspring.

    PubMed

    Nwaru, Bright I; Erkkola, Maijaliisa; Lumia, Mirka; Kronberg-Kippilä, Carina; Ahonen, Suvi; Kaila, Minna; Ilonen, Jorma; Simell, Olli; Knip, Mikael; Veijola, Riitta; Virtanen, Suvi M

    2012-08-01

    Fatty acids (FA) are known to have a number of immunological effects and, accordingly, may play a role in the development of allergic diseases. We investigated the effect of maternal intake of FA during pregnancy on the risk of allergic rhinitis, wheeze and atopic eczema in children aged 5 years. The present study analysed data from the Finnish Type 1 Diabetes Prediction and Prevention Nutrition Study, a population-based birth cohort study with a 5-year follow-up. Complete information on maternal diet (assessed by a validated FFQ) and International Study of Asthma and Allergies in Childhood-based allergic outcomes was available for 2441 children. Cox proportional regression and logistic regression were used for the analyses. After adjusting for potential confounding variables, high maternal consumption of butter and butter spreads (hazard ratio (HR) 1.33; 95 % CI 1.03, 1.71) and higher ratio of n-6:n-3 FA (HR 1.37; 95 % CI 1.07, 1.77) during pregnancy were associated with an increased risk of allergic rhinitis in the offspring by 5 years of age. High maternal intakes of total PUFA (HR 0.71; 95 % CI 0.52, 0.96) and α-linolenic FA (HR 0.73; 95 % CI 0.54, 0.98) were associated with a decreased risk of allergic rhinitis. However, these results lost their significance after adjustment for multiple comparisons. Overall, our data suggest that maternal consumption of butter, the ratio of n-6:n-3 FA and intake of PUFA and α-linolenic FA during pregnancy may be potential determinants of allergic rhinitis in the offspring. PMID:22067943

  14. Ascorbic acid intake and oxalate synthesis.

    PubMed

    Knight, John; Madduma-Liyanage, Kumudu; Mobley, James A; Assimos, Dean G; Holmes, Ross P

    2016-08-01

    In humans, approximately 60 mg of ascorbic acid (AA) breaks down in the body each day and has to be replaced by a dietary intake of 70 mg in women and 90 mg in men to maintain optimal health and AA homeostasis. The breakdown of AA is non-enzymatic and results in oxalate formation. The exact amount of oxalate formed has been difficult to ascertain primarily due to the limited availability of healthy human tissue for such research and the difficulty in measuring AA and its breakdown products. The breakdown of 60 mg of AA to oxalate could potentially result in the formation of up to 30 mg oxalate per day. This exceeds our estimates of the endogenous production of 10-25 mg oxalate per day, indicating that degradative pathways that do not form oxalate exist. In this review, we examine what is known about the pathways of AA metabolism and how oxalate forms. We further identify how gaps in our knowledge may be filled to more precisely determine the contribution of AA breakdown to oxalate production in humans. The use of stable isotopes of AA to directly assess the conversion of vitamin to oxalate should help fill this void. PMID:27002809

  15. Inductions of the fatty acid 2-hydroxylase (FA2H) gene by Δ9-tetrahydrocannabinol in human breast cancer cells

    PubMed Central

    Takeda, Shuso; Harada, Mari; Su, Shengzhong; Okajima, Shunsuke; Miyoshi, Hiroko; Yoshida, Kazutaka; Nishimura, Hajime; Okamoto, Yoshiko; Amamoto, Toshiaki; Watanabe, Kazuhito; Omiecinski, Curtis J; Aramaki, Hironori

    2014-01-01

    To investigate gene(s) being regulated by Δ9-tetrahydrocannabinol (Δ9-THC), we performed DNA microarray analysis of human breast cancer MDA-MB-231 cells, which are poorly differentiated breast cancer cells, treated with Δ9-THC for 48 hr at an IC50 concentration of approximately 25 μM. Among the highly up-regulated genes (> 10-fold) observed, fatty acid 2-hydroxylase (FA2H) was significantly induced (17.8-fold). Although the physiological role of FA2H has not yet been fully understood, FA2H has been shown to modulate cell differentiation. The results of Oil Red O staining after Δ9-THC exposure showed the distribution of lipid droplets (a sign of the differentiated phenotype) in cells. Taken together, the results obtained here indicate that FA2H is a novel Δ9-THC-regulated gene, and that Δ9-THC induces differentiation signal(s) in poorly differentiated MDA-MB-231 cells. PMID:23535410

  16. Dietary Monounsaturated Fatty Acids Intake and Risk of Skin Photoaging

    PubMed Central

    Latreille, Julie; Kesse-Guyot, Emmanuelle; Malvy, Denis; Andreeva, Valentina; Galan, Pilar; Tschachler, Erwin; Hercberg, Serge; Guinot, Christiane; Ezzedine, Khaled

    2012-01-01

    Background Intake of monounsaturated fatty acids has been reported to reduce oxidative stress, insulin resistance and related inflammatory processes and may thus protect from skin photoaging. The objective of this study was to investigate the association between the risk of photoaging, monounsaturated fatty acids intake and the sources of monounsaturated fatty acids. Methodology/Principal Findings A cross sectional study was conducted within the framework of the SUVIMAX cohort. The survey included 1264 women and 1655 men aged between 45 and 60 years old. Dietary monounsaturated fatty acids intakes were estimated by dietary source through at least ten 24-h diet records completed during the first 2.5 years of the follow-up period. Severity of facial skin photoaging was graded by trained investigators at baseline during a clinical examination using a 6-grade scale illustrated by photographs. A lower risk of severe photoaging was associated with higher intakes of monounsaturated fatty acids from olive oil in both sexes. Strikingly, no association was found with intake of monounsaturated fatty acids from animal sources whether from dairy products, meat or processed meat. Conclusion/Significance These findings support the beneficial effect of dietary olive oil or healthy diet habits associated with olive oil consumption on the severity of facial photoaging. PMID:22970231

  17. Maternal fatty acid intake and fetal growth: evidence for an association in overweight women. The 'EDEN mother-child' cohort (study of pre- and early postnatal determinants of the child's development and health)

    PubMed Central

    Drouillet, Peggy; Forhan, Anne; De Lauzon-Guillain, Blandine; Thiébaugeorges, Olivier; Goua, Valérie; Magnin, Guillaume; Schweitzer, Michel; Kaminski, Monique; Ducimetière, Pierre; Charles, Marie-Aline

    2009-01-01

    Background Recent studies suggest a benefit of seafood and n-3 Fatty Acids (FA) intake on fetal growth and infant development. Objectives To study the association between FA intake and fetal growth in French pregnant women. Design Pregnant women included in the EDEN mother-child cohort study answered food frequency questionnaires on their usual diet 1) in the year prior to pregnancy and 2) during the last three months of pregnancy (n=1439). Conversion into nutrient intakes was performed using data on portion size and a French food composition table. Associations between maternal FA intakes and several neonatal anthropometric measurements were studied using linear regressions adjusted for center, mother’s age, smoking habits, height, parity, gestational age and newborn’s sex. Due to significant interaction, analyses were stratified according to maternal pre-pregnancy overweight status. Results Neither total lipid nor saturated, monounsaturated or polyunsaturated (PUFA) fat intake were significantly associated with newborn size. In overweight women only (n=366), a high pre-pregnancy n-3FA intake (% n-3FA/PUFA) was positively associated with newborn’s birthweight (p=0.01), head, arm and wrist circumferences and sum of skinfolds (p<0.04). A substitution of one percent of n-3FA per day before pregnancy by other PUFA was related to an average decrease in birthweight of 60 g (p=0.01). Relationships with n-3FA intake at the end of pregnancy were weaker and not significant. Conclusions A high pre-pregnancy ratio n-3FA/PUFA may sustain fetal growth in overweight women. Follow-up of the children may help determine whether this has beneficial consequences for the child’s health and development. PMID:18631416

  18. Lipids and FA analysis of canine prostate tissue.

    PubMed

    Attar-Bashi, Nadia M; Orzeszko, Karyn; Slocombe, Ronald F; Sinclair, Andrew J

    2003-06-01

    It is widely reported that an association exists between dietary fat intake and the incidence of prostate cancer in humans. To study this association, there is a need for an animal model where prostate carcinogenesis occurs spontaneously. The canine prostate is considered a suitable experimental model for prostate cancer in humans since it is morphologically similar to the human prostate and both humans and dogs have a predisposition to benign and malignant prostate disease. In this study, the FA and lipids profiles of the normal canine prostate tissue from nine dogs were examined. The total lipid content of the canine prostate tissue was 1.7 +/- 0.5% (wet weight). The lipid composition analysis using TLC-FID showed that the two major lipid classes were phospholipids and TAG. Total FA, phospholipid, and TAG FA analysis showed that the major FA were palmitic acid (16:0), stearic acid (18:0), oleic acid (18:1), linoleic acid (18:2n-6), and arachidonic acid (20:4n-6). The n-3 FA were present at <3% of total FA and included alpha-linolenic acid (18:3n-3) (in total and TAG tissue FA), EPA (20:5n-3) (not in TAG), and DHA (22:6n-3) (not in TAG). The n-3/n-6 ratio was 1:11, 1:13, and 1:8 in total, phospholipid, and TAG FA, respectively. This study shows the canine prostate has a low level of n-3 FA and a low n-3/n-6 ratio. This is perhaps due to low n-3 content of the diet of the dogs. FA analysis of dogfoods available in Australia showed that the n-3 content in both supermarket and premium brand dogfoods was <3% (wet weight), and the n-3/n-6 ratio was low. PMID:12934677

  19. Design of an effective bifunctional catalyst organotriphosphonic acid-functionalized ferric alginate (ATMP-FA) and optimization by Box-Behnken model for biodiesel esterification synthesis of oleic acid over ATMP-FA.

    PubMed

    Liu, Wei; Yin, Ping; Liu, Xiguang; Qu, Rongjun

    2014-12-01

    Biodiesel production has become an intense research area because of rapidly depleting energy reserves and increasing petroleum prices together with environmental concerns. This paper focused on the optimization of the catalytic performance in the esterification reaction of oleic acid for biodiesel production over the bifunctional catalyst organotriphosphonic acid-functionalized ferric alginate ATMP-FA. The reaction parameters including catalyst amount, ethanol to oleic acid molar ratio and reaction temperature have been optimized by response surface methodology (RSM) using the Box-Behnken model. It was found that the reaction temperature was the most significant factor, and the best conversion ratio of oleic acid could reach 93.17% under the reaction conditions with 9.53% of catalyst amount and 8.62:1 of ethanol to oleic acid molar ratio at 91.0 °C. The research results show that two catalytic species could work cooperatively to promote the esterification reaction, and the bifunctional ATMP-FA is a potential catalyst for biodiesel production. PMID:25310862

  20. Parenteral amino acid intakes in critically ill children

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Parenteral amino acid formulas used in parenteral nutrition have a variable composition. To determine the amino acid intake of parenterally fed, critically ill children, and compare it with recommended dietary allowances (RDA) established by the Institute of Medicine (IOM), we retrospectively review...

  1. Intake of n-3 Polyunsaturated Fatty Acids Increases Omega-3 Index in Aged Male and Female Spontaneously Hypertensive Rats

    PubMed Central

    Bačová, Barbara; Seč, Peter; Čertik, Milan

    2013-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine whether n-3 PUFA intake affects n-3 and n-6 FA levels in plasma and red blood cells as well as omega-3 index in old male and female spontaneously hypertensive (SHR) and healthy rats. Plasma linoleic acid and eicosapentaenoic acid increased due to n-3 PUFA intake in SHR and healthy rats. Comparing to healthy rats the levels of PUFA in red blood cells of SHR were lower in males and higher in females with exception of arachidonic acid, which was high in males and low in females. Feeding of rats with n-3 PUFA resulted in increase of red blood cells levels of eicosapentaenoic acid and/or docosahexaenoic acid in a sex- and strain-dependent manner. Moreover, n-3 PUFA intake decreased arachidonic acid in healthy female rats but increased it in SHR and did not affect it in males. Omega-3 index was lower in SHR comparing to healthy rats and it increased due to the consumption of n-3 PUFA. Results point out sex- and strain-related differences in red blood cells levels of n-3 and n-6 PUFA in basal conditions as well as in response to n-3 PUFA intake. PMID:24967252

  2. Dietary fat and fatty acid intake and epithelial ovarian cancer risk: evidence from epidemiological studies.

    PubMed

    Hou, Rui; Wu, Qi-Jun; Gong, Ting-Ting; Jiang, Luo

    2015-12-15

    The associations between dietary fat and fatty acid (FA) intakes and epithelial ovarian cancer (EOC) risk have been inconsistent in previous studies. We conducted a meta-analysis of epidemiological studies to evaluate these associations. We identified relevant studies by searching PubMed, EMBASE, and Web of Science databases. We used random-effects models to estimate summary relative risks (RRs) and 95% confidence intervals (CIs). Overall, the search yielded 20 studies (1 pooled analysis of 12 cohort studies, 5 cohorts, and 14 case-control studies). The summary RR for EOC for the highest versus lowest categories of total dietary fat intake was 1.12 (95%CI= 0.95-1.33; I2 = 77.4%; n = 14). The RRs were not significant when fats were divided into plant-based fats (RR = 0.93, 95%CI = 0.77-1.13; n = 6), animal-based fats (RR = 1.15, 95%CI = 0.95-1.39; n = 8), dairy-based fats (RR = 1.02, 95%CI = 0.88-1.18; n = 3), saturated FAs (RR = 1.04, 95%CI = 0.93-1.17; n = 12), monounsaturated FAs (RR = 0.98, 95%CI = 0.84-1.13; n = 10), polyunsaturated FAs (RR = 0.96, 95%CI = 0.81-1.12; n = 10), and trans-unsaturated FAs (RR = 1.15, 95%CI = 0.98-1.36; n = 3). Similar non-significant results were also observed in most of the subgroup and sensitivity analyses. The findings of this meta-analysis suggest a lack of evidence for associations between dietary fat and FA intakes and EOC risk. Further analyses should be conducted to assess the associations with other types of fat, and the results should be stratified by tumor invasiveness and EOC histology. PMID:26515595

  3. Dietary fat and fatty acid intake and epithelial ovarian cancer risk: evidence from epidemiological studies

    PubMed Central

    Hou, Rui; Wu, Qi-Jun; Gong, Ting-Ting; Jiang, Luo

    2015-01-01

    The associations between dietary fat and fatty acid (FA) intakes and epithelial ovarian cancer (EOC) risk have been inconsistent in previous studies. We conducted a meta-analysis of epidemiological studies to evaluate these associations. We identified relevant studies by searching PubMed, EMBASE, and Web of Science databases. We used random-effects models to estimate summary relative risks (RRs) and 95% confidence intervals (CIs). Overall, the search yielded 20 studies (1 pooled analysis of 12 cohort studies, 5 cohorts, and 14 case-control studies). The summary RR for EOC for the highest versus lowest categories of total dietary fat intake was 1.12 (95%CI= 0.95–1.33; I2 = 77.4%; n = 14). The RRs were not significant when fats were divided into plant-based fats (RR = 0.93, 95%CI = 0.77–1.13; n = 6), animal-based fats (RR = 1.15, 95%CI = 0.95–1.39; n = 8), dairy-based fats (RR = 1.02, 95%CI = 0.88–1.18; n = 3), saturated FAs (RR = 1.04, 95%CI = 0.93–1.17; n = 12), monounsaturated FAs (RR = 0.98, 95%CI = 0.84–1.13; n = 10), polyunsaturated FAs (RR = 0.96, 95%CI = 0.81–1.12; n = 10), and trans-unsaturated FAs (RR = 1.15, 95%CI = 0.98–1.36; n = 3). Similar non-significant results were also observed in most of the subgroup and sensitivity analyses. The findings of this meta-analysis suggest a lack of evidence for associations between dietary fat and FA intakes and EOC risk. Further analyses should be conducted to assess the associations with other types of fat, and the results should be stratified by tumor invasiveness and EOC histology. PMID:26515595

  4. Effect of α-linolenic acid and DHA intake on lipogenesis and gene expression involved in fatty acid metabolism in growing-finishing pigs.

    PubMed

    De Tonnac, A; Labussière, E; Vincent, A; Mourot, J

    2016-07-01

    The regulation of lipogenesis mechanisms related to consumption of n-3 PUFA is poorly understood. The aim of the present study was to find out whether α-linolenic acid (ALA) or DHA uptake can have an effect on activities and gene expressions of enzymes involved in lipid metabolism in the liver, subcutaneous adipose tissue and longissimus dorsi (LD) muscle of growing-finishing pigs. Six groups of ten pigs received one of six experimental diets supplemented with rapeseed oil in the control diet, extruded linseed, microalgae or a mixture of both to implement different levels of ALA and DHA with the same content in total n-3. Results were analysed for linear and quadratic effects of DHA intake. The results showed that activities of malic enzyme (ME) and fatty acid synthase (FAS) decreased linearly in the liver with dietary DHA. Although the expression of the genes of these enzymes and their activities were poorly correlated, ME and FAS expressions also decreased linearly with DHA intake. The intake of DHA down-regulates the expressions of other genes involved in fatty acid (FA) metabolism in some tissues of pigs, such as fatty acid desaturase 2 and sterol-regulatory element binding transcription factor 1 in the liver and 2,4-dienoyl CoA reductase 2 in the LD muscle. FA oxidation in the LD muscle and FA synthesis decreased in the liver with increasing amount of dietary DHA, whereas a retroconversion of DHA into EPA seems to be set up in this last tissue. PMID:27181335

  5. National Diet and Nutrition Survey: fat and fatty acid intake from the first year of the rolling programme and comparison with previous surveys.

    PubMed

    Pot, Gerda K; Prynne, Celia J; Roberts, Caireen; Olson, Ashley; Nicholson, Sonja K; Whitton, Clare; Teucher, Birgit; Bates, Beverley; Henderson, Helen; Pigott, Sarah; Swan, Gillian; Stephen, Alison M

    2012-02-01

    High saturated fat intake is an established risk factor for several chronic diseases. The objective of the present study is to report dietary intakes and main food sources of fat and fatty acids (FA) from the first year of the National Diet and Nutrition Survey (NDNS) rolling programme in the UK. Dietary data were collected using 4 d estimated food diaries (n 896) and compared with dietary reference values (DRV) and previous NDNS results. Total fat provided 34-36 % food energy (FE) across all age groups, which was similar to previous surveys for adults. Men (19-64 years) and older girls (11-18 years) had mean intakes just above the DRV, while all other groups had mean total fat intakes of < 35 % FE. SFA intakes were lower compared with previous surveys, ranging from 13 to 15 % FE, but still above the DRV. Mean MUFA intakes were 12·5 % FE for adults and children aged 4-18 years and all were below the DRV. Mean n-3 PUFA intake represented 0·7-1·1 % FE. Compared with previous survey data, the direction of change for n-3 PUFA was upwards for all age groups, although the differences in absolute terms were very small. Trans-FA intakes were lower than in previous NDNS and were less than 2 g/d for all age groups, representing 0·8 % FE and lower than the DRV in all age groups. In conclusion, dietary intake of fat and FA is moving towards recommended levels for the UK population. However, there remains room for considerable further improvement. PMID:21767448

  6. Intake of trans fatty acid in Japanese university students.

    PubMed

    Kawabata, Terue; Shigemitsu, Sachiko; Adachi, Naoko; Hagiwara, Chie; Miyagi, Shigeji; Shinjo, Sumie; Maruyama, Takenori; Sugano, Michihiro

    2010-01-01

    Because trans fatty acids (TFAs) are a potent risk factor for coronary heart disease, it is important to know the amount of TFA consumed. We estimated TFA intakes of Japanese university students by direct measurement. Subjects included 118 students (57 males and 61 females) in two regions of Japan: Kanto (Tokyo area) and Okinawa. A dietary survey was conducted over six consecutive days using dietary records and photographic records. A single-day meal in the survey period was reproduced to measure TFA content by gas chromatography. The median values of TFA intakes (and energy percentage) estimated by the contents of reproduced meals for men were 0.43 g/d (0.22%) in Kanto and 0.30 g/d (0.14%) in Okinawa. Corresponding values for women were 0.49 g/d (0.29%) and 0.73 g/d (0.35%), respectively. Compared to the group with a low TFA intake, the subjects with a high TFA intake consumed significantly more energy from total fat and saturated fatty acids, and had a high ratio of TFA/linoleic acid. In addition, multiple regression analysis showed the intakes of TFA were positively associated with those of saturated fatty acids and groups of nonessential groceries such as cookies, cakes and pastries. In conclusion, the TFA intakes of these survey subjects were relatively lower than the WHO recommended energy ratio (<1%). However, nutritional education on dietary habits seems indispensable for those subjects who are consuming high volumes of TFA. PMID:20651456

  7. Excessive folic acid intake and relation to adverse health outcome.

    PubMed

    Selhub, Jacob; Rosenberg, Irwin H

    2016-07-01

    The recent increase in the intake of folic acid by the general public through fortified foods and supplements, has raised safety concern based on early reports of adverse health outcome in elderly with low B12 status who took high doses of folic acid. These safety concerns are contrary to the 2015 WHO statement that "high folic acid intake has not reliably been shown to be associated with negative healeffects". In the folic acid post-fortification era, we have shown that in elderly participants in NHANES 1999-2002, high plasma folate level is associated with exacerbation of both clinical (anemia and cognitive impairment) and biochemical (high MMA and high Hcy plasma levels) signs of vitamin B12 deficiency. Adverse clinical outcomes in association with high folate intake were also seen among elderly with low plasma B12 levels from the Framingham Original Cohort and in a study from Australia which combined three elderly cohorts. Relation between high folate and adverse biochemical outcomes were also seen in the Sacramento Area Latino Study on Aging (High Hcy, high MMA and lower TC2) and at an outpatient clinic at Yale University where high folate is associated with higher MMA in the elderly but not in the young. Potential detrimental effects of high folic acid intake may not be limited to the elderly nor to those with B12 deficiency. A study from India linked maternal high RBC folate to increased insulin resistance in offspring. Our study suggested that excessive folic acid intake is associated with lower natural killer cells activity in elderly women. In a recent study we found that the risk for unilateral retinoblastoma in offspring is 4 fold higher in women that are homozygotes for the 19 bp deletion in the DHFR gene and took folic acid supplement during pregnancy. In the elderly this polymorphism is associated with lower memory and executive scores, both being significantly worse in those with high plasma folate. These and other data strongly imply that

  8. Dissolution Profile of Mefenamic Acid Solid Dosage Forms in Two Compendial and Biorelevant (FaSSIF) Media.

    PubMed

    Nurhikmah, Wilda; Sumirtapura, Yeyet Cahyati; Pamudji, Jessie Sofia

    2016-01-01

    Mefenamic acid is a non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drug (NSAID) that is widely used for the treatment of mild-to-moderate pain. Mefenamic acid belongs to the Biopharmaceutical Classification System (BCS) class II drug which has lower water solubility but high permeability. There are two different compendial methods available for dissolution tests of mefenamic acid solid dosage forms, i.e. methods of United States Pharmacopeia 37 (USP) and Pharmacopoeia of the People's Republic of China 2010 (PPRC). Indonesian Pharmacopeia V ed. (FI) adopted the USP method. On the other hand, many researches focused on the use of a 'biorelevant' medium to develop the dissolution test method. The aim of this research was to study the dissolution profile of mefenamic acid from its solid dosage forms (caplet and capsule) available in the Indonesian market with three different dissolution medium: USP, PPRC, and biorelevant fasted simulated small intestinal fluid (FaSSIF) media. The tested products consisted of the innovator's product (available only in caplet dosage form, FN caplet) and generic products (available as caplet and capsule). The dissolution test of the drug products in all dissolution media was performed in 900 mL of medium using apparatus II (paddle) at a temperature of 37°C and rotation speed of 75 rpm, except for the capsule product and for USP medium, both of which tests were done using apparatus I (basket) with rotation speed of 100 rpm. The solubility test of mefenamic acid was carried out in all media at temperature of 37°C. The result obtained from the solubility test showed that the the highest solubility of mefenamic acid was obtained in USP medium (approximately 2 mg/mL), followed by PPRC medium (about 0.5 mg/mL), and FaSSIF medium (approximately 0.06 mg/ml). In the dissolution test, percentage of drug dissolved in in the USP and PPRC media after 45 min for all products reached more than 75%, except for the PN caplet in USP medium which reached only about 44

  9. Dissolution Profile of Mefenamic Acid Solid Dosage Forms in Two Compendial and Biorelevant (FaSSIF) Media

    PubMed Central

    Nurhikmah, Wilda; Sumirtapura, Yeyet Cahyati; Pamudji, Jessie Sofia

    2016-01-01

    Mefenamic acid is a non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drug (NSAID) that is widely used for the treatment of mild-to-moderate pain. Mefenamic acid belongs to the Biopharmaceutical Classification System (BCS) class II drug which has lower water solubility but high permeability. There are two different compendial methods available for dissolution tests of mefenamic acid solid dosage forms, i.e. methods of United States Pharmacopeia 37 (USP) and Pharmacopoeia of the People’s Republic of China 2010 (PPRC). Indonesian Pharmacopeia V ed. (FI) adopted the USP method. On the other hand, many researches focused on the use of a ‘biorelevant’ medium to develop the dissolution test method. The aim of this research was to study the dissolution profile of mefenamic acid from its solid dosage forms (caplet and capsule) available in the Indonesian market with three different dissolution medium: USP, PPRC, and biorelevant fasted simulated small intestinal fluid (FaSSIF) media. The tested products consisted of the innovator’s product (available only in caplet dosage form, FN caplet) and generic products (available as caplet and capsule). The dissolution test of the drug products in all dissolution media was performed in 900 mL of medium using apparatus II (paddle) at a temperature of 37°C and rotation speed of 75 rpm, except for the capsule product and for USP medium, both of which tests were done using apparatus I (basket) with rotation speed of 100 rpm. The solubility test of mefenamic acid was carried out in all media at temperature of 37°C. The result obtained from the solubility test showed that the the highest solubility of mefenamic acid was obtained in USP medium (approximately 2 mg/mL), followed by PPRC medium (about 0.5 mg/mL), and FaSSIF medium (approximately 0.06 mg/ml). In the dissolution test, percentage of drug dissolved in in the USP and PPRC media after 45 min for all products reached more than 75%, except for the PN caplet in USP medium which reached only

  10. Intake and sources of dietary fatty acids in Europe: Are current population intakes of fats aligned with dietary recommendations?

    PubMed Central

    Eilander, Ans; Harika, Rajwinder K.

    2015-01-01

    1 The development of food‐based dietary guidelines for prevention of cardiovascular diseases requires knowledge of the contribution of common foods to SFA and PUFA intake. We systematically reviewed available data from European countries on population intakes and dietary sources of total fat, SFA, and PUFA. Data from national dietary surveys or population studies published >1995 were searched through Medline, Web of Science, and websites of national public health institutes. Mean population intakes were compared with FAO/WHO dietary recommendations, and contributions of major food groups to overall intakes of fat and fatty acids were calculated. Fatty acid intake data from 24 European countries were included. Reported mean intakes ranged from 28.5 to 46.2% of total energy (%E) for total fat, from 8.9 to 15.5%E for SFA, from 3.9 to 11.3%E for PUFA. The mean intakes met the recommendation for total fat (20–35%E) in 15 countries, and for SFA (<10%E) in two countries, and for PUFA (6–11%E) in 15 of the 24 countries. The main three dietary sources of total fat and SFA were dairy, added fats and oils, and meat and meat products. The majority of PUFA in the diet was provided by added fats and oils, followed by cereals and cereal products, and meat and meat products. Practical applications: While many European countries meet the recommended intake levels for total fat and PUFA, a large majority of European population exceeds the widely recommended maximum 10%E for SFA. In particular animal based products, such as dairy, animal fats, and fatty meat contribute to SFA intake. Adhering to food‐based dietary guidelines for prevention of CHD and other chronic diseases in Europe, including eating less fatty meats, low‐fat instead of full‐fat dairy, and more vegetable fats and oils will help to reduce SFA intake and at the same time increase PUFA intake. In European countries, SFA intakes are generally higher than the recommended <10%E and PUFA intakes lower than the

  11. Characteristics of U.S. Adults with Usual Daily Folic Acid Intake above the Tolerable Upper Intake Level: National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey, 2003–2010

    PubMed Central

    Orozco, Angela M.; Yeung, Lorraine F.; Guo, Jing; Carriquiry, Alicia; Berry, Robert J.

    2016-01-01

    The Food and Drug Administration mandated that by 1998, all enriched cereal grain products (ECGP) be fortified with folic acid in order to prevent the occurrence of neural tube defects. The Institute of Medicine established the tolerable upper intake level (UL) for folic acid (1000 µg/day for adults) in 1998. We characterized U.S. adults with usual daily folic acid intake exceeding the UL. Using NHANES 2003–2010 data, we estimated the percentage of 18,321 non-pregnant adults with usual daily folic acid intake exceeding the UL, and among them, we calculated the weighted percentage by sex, age, race/ethnicity, sources of folic acid intake, supplement use and median usual daily folic acid intakes. Overall, 2.7% (standard error 0.6%) of participants had usual daily intake exceeding the UL for folic acid; 62.2% were women; 86.3% were non-Hispanic whites; and 98.5% took supplements containing folic acid. When stratified by sex and age groups among those with usual daily folic acid intake exceeding the UL, 20.8% were women aged 19–39 years. Those with usual daily intake exceeding the folic acid UL were more likely to be female, non-Hispanic white, supplement users or to have at least one chronic medical condition compared to those not exceeding the folic acid UL. Among those with usual daily folic acid intake exceeding the UL who also took supplements, 86.6% took on average >400 µg of folic acid/day from supplements. Everyone with usual daily folic acid intake exceeding the UL consumed folic acid from multiple sources. No one in our study population had usual daily folic acid intake exceeding the UL through consumption of mandatorily-fortified enriched cereal grain products alone. Voluntary consumption of supplements containing folic acid is the main factor associated with usual daily intake exceeding the folic acid UL. PMID:27043623

  12. Body Weight Reducing Effect of Oral Boric Acid Intake

    PubMed Central

    Aysan, Erhan; Sahin, Fikrettin; Telci, Dilek; Yalvac, Mehmet Emir; Emre, Sinem Hocaoglu; Karaca, Cetin; Muslumanoglu, Mahmut

    2011-01-01

    Background: Boric acid is widely used in biology, but its body weight reducing effect is not researched. Methods: Twenty mice were divided into two equal groups. Control group mice drank standard tap water, but study group mice drank 0.28mg/250ml boric acid added tap water over five days. Total body weight changes, major organ histopathology, blood biochemistry, urine and feces analyses were compared. Results: Study group mice lost body weight mean 28.1% but in control group no weight loss and also weight gained mean 0.09% (p<0.001). Total drinking water and urine outputs were not statistically different. Cholesterol, LDL, AST, ALT, LDH, amylase and urobilinogen levels were statistically significantly high in the study group. Other variables were not statistically different. No histopathologic differences were detected in evaluations of all resected major organs. Conclusion: Low dose oral boric acid intake cause serious body weight reduction. Blood and urine analyses support high glucose, lipid and middle protein catabolisms, but the mechanism is unclear. PMID:22135611

  13. Dietary fatty acid composition affects food intake and gut-brain satiety signaling in Senegalese sole (Solea senegalensis, Kaup 1858) larvae and post-larvae.

    PubMed

    Bonacic, Kruno; Campoverde, Cindy; Gómez-Arbonés, Javier; Gisbert, Enric; Estevez, Alicia; Morais, Sofia

    2016-03-01

    Little is known how dietary lipids affect food intake during larval development of fish, especially with regard to fatty acid (FA) composition. In fact, very little work has been done on appetite regulation and food intake in fish larvae in general, due to biological and technical difficulties associated with this type of studies. A new method using fluorescent microspheres as markers was developed in this study to evaluate food intake and prey selectivity of Senegalese sole larvae and post-larvae. Food intake was quantified in fish fed Artemia metanauplii enriched with oils differing in FA profile: cod liver oil (CLO), linseed oil (LSO), soybean oil (SBO) or olive oil (OO). The fish did not preferentially ingest a specific diet when presented with a choice. However, pre-metamorphic larvae from the CLO treatment ingested more metanauplii per g body weight, while differences in post-larvae were not significant. These findings were developed further by analyzing mRNA levels of a range of putative anorexigenic (pyya, pyyb, glp1, cckl, cart1a, cart1b, cart2a, cart4, pomca, pomcb, crf) and orexigenic (gal, npy, agrp2) genes, to identify those which are significantly affected by feeding and/or dietary FA composition. The variety of expression patterns observed highlighted the complexity of appetite regulatory mechanisms. In general, fish fed the CLO diet tended to show gene expression patterns most dissimilar to the remaining treatments. Expression in pre-metamorphic larvae was generally less in accordance with the putative function of the genes than in post-larvae, which could suggest a yet underdeveloped regulatory system. PMID:26851305

  14. Dietary intake of folate by adolescents and the potential effect of flour fortification with folic acid.

    PubMed

    Moynihan, P J; Rugg-Gunn, A J; Butler, T J; Adamson, A J

    2001-10-01

    The UK Department of Health recently recommended that flour be fortified with folic acid, at 2400 microg/kg. The objectives of the present paper were: to determine the consequence of this on folic acid intake of adolescents; to determine the level of fortification necessary to achieve an intake of 400 microg/d in adolescent girls (the amount recommended periconceptionally); to estimate the consequence of fortification on folic acid intake of high flour consumers; and to report on folate intake of adolescents. Dietary intake of folate and flour were determined by analysis of an existing database of the diets of 379 English adolescents. The folic acid intake that would result from white flour fortification with folic acid at 2400 microg/kg was determined and the level of folic acid fortification necessary to achieve an intake of 400 microg/d in girls from this source was also calculated. Without flour fortification, 6.9 % of girls failed to reach the UK lower reference nutrient intake for total folate. Fortification of white flour with folic acid at 2400 microg/kg would result in an additional folic acid intake of 191(sem 6) microg/d in girls. To ensure 97 % of girls received 400 microg/d from white flour, white flour would need to be fortified at a level of 10 430 microg/kg, resulting in intakes of 1260 microg/d from flour in the highest (97.5 centile) female white flour consumers and 1422 microg/d from flour in the highest (97.5 centile) male white flour consumers. PMID:11591241

  15. Prevention of spina bifida: folic acid intake during pregnancy in Gulu district, northern Uganda

    PubMed Central

    Bannink, Femke; Larok, Rita; Kirabira, Peter; Bauwens, Lieven; van Hove, Geert

    2015-01-01

    Introduction The intake of folic acid before conception and during the first trimester of pregnancy can prevent spina bifida. This paper describes folic acid intake in women in Gulu district in northern Uganda. Methods Structured interviews were held with 394 women attending antenatal care (ANC), 15 mothers of children with spina bifida, and 35 health workers in 2012 and 2013. SPSS16 was used for data analysis. Results 1/4 mothers of children with spina bifida took folic acid during late pregnancy, none preconception. None had knowledge about folic acid and spina bifida prevention. 33.5% of women attending ANC had ever heard about spina bifida, 1% knew folic acid intake can prevent spina bifida. 42.4% took folic acid supplements in late pregnancy, 8.1% during the first trimester, none preconception. All women said to have eaten food rich in folic acid. None were aware about fortified foods. 7% of health workers understood the importance of early folic acid intake. All health workers recommended folic acid intake to women attending ANC. 20% of the health workers and 25% of the women said folic acid supplements are not always available. Conclusion Folic acid intake is limited in northern Uganda. This is attributed to limited education and understanding of women and health workers about the importance of early folic acid intake, late presentation of women at ANC, poor supply chain and dilapidated health services caused by war and poverty. A combination of food fortification, sensitization of health workers, women, and improving folic acid supply is recommended. PMID:26090048

  16. Ghrelin modulates hypothalamic fatty acid-sensing and control of food intake in rainbow trout.

    PubMed

    Velasco, Cristina; Librán-Pérez, Marta; Otero-Rodiño, Cristina; López-Patiño, Marcos A; Míguez, Jesús M; Cerdá-Reverter, José Miguel; Soengas, José L

    2016-01-01

    There is no information available on fish as far as the possible effects of ghrelin on hypothalamic fatty acid metabolism and the response of fatty acid-sensing systems, which are involved in the control of food intake. Therefore, we assessed in rainbow trout the response of food intake, hypothalamic fatty acid-sensing mechanisms and expression of neuropeptides involved in the control of food intake to the central treatment of ghrelin in the presence or absence of a long-chain fatty acid such as oleate. We observed that the orexigenic actions of ghrelin in rainbow trout are associated with changes in fatty acid metabolism in the hypothalamus and an inhibition of fatty acid-sensing mechanisms, which ultimately lead to changes in the expression of anorexigenic and orexigenic peptides resulting in increased orexigenic potential and food intake. Moreover, the response to increased levels of oleate of hypothalamic fatty acid-sensing systems (activation), expression of neuropeptides (enhanced anorexigenic potential) and food intake (decrease) were counteracted by the simultaneous treatment with ghrelin. These changes provide evidence for the first time in fish of a possible modulatory role of ghrelin on the metabolic regulation by fatty acid of food intake occurring in the hypothalamus. PMID:26459641

  17. Higher Intakes of Antioxidants and Unsaturated Fatty Acid Reduce the Cardiac Autonomic Effects of Particles

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Higher intakes of antioxidants (vitamins C and E, carotene) found in foods such as cruciferous vegetables, and unsaturated fatty acids, including omega-3 from fish and monounsaturated fats from nuts and seeds, may prevent cardiovascular disease. We examined whether higher intake of such antioxidants...

  18. FADS2 Genetic Variance in Combination with Fatty Acid Intake Might Alter Composition of the Fatty Acids in Brain.

    PubMed

    Rizzi, Thais S; van der Sluis, Sophie; Derom, Catherine; Thiery, Evert; van Kesteren, Ronald E; Jacobs, Nele; Van Gestel, Sofie; Vlietinck, Robert; Verhage, Matthijs; Heutink, Peter; Posthuma, Danielle

    2013-01-01

    Multiple lines of evidence suggest that fatty acids (FA) play an important role in cognitive function. However, little is known about the functional genetic pathways involved in cognition. The main goals of this study were to replicate previously reported interaction effects between breast feeding (BF) and FA desaturase (FADS) genetic variation on IQ and to investigate the possible mechanisms by which these variants might moderate BF effect, focusing on brain expression. Using a sample of 534 twins, we observed a trend in the moderation of BF effects on IQ by FADS2 variation. In addition, we made use of publicly available gene expression databases from both humans (193) and mice (93) and showed that FADS2 variants also correlate with FADS1 brain expression (P-value<1.1E-03). Our results provide novel clues for the understanding of the genetic mechanisms regulating FA brain expression and improve the current knowledge of the FADS moderation effect on cognition. PMID:23826354

  19. Safe use of high intakes of folic acid: research challenges and paths forward.

    PubMed

    Boyles, Abee L; Yetley, Elizabeth A; Thayer, Kristina A; Coates, Paul M

    2016-07-01

    Adequate folic acid intake is an effective dietary-based prevention tool for reducing the risk of neural tube defects. Achieving adequate intake for the prevention of neural tube defects frequently requires the consumption of foods fortified with folic acid and/or the use of folic acid-containing dietary supplements. To date, research on the potential for adverse effects of high intakes of folic acid has been limited. Without such research, it is difficult to define a value for high intake. In May 2015, an expert panel was tasked with examining the available scientific literature and making research recommendations within 4 general categories of potential folate-related adverse health effects: cancer, cognition in conjunction with vitamin B12 deficiency, hypersensitivity-related outcomes, and thyroid and diabetes-related disorders. This article summarizes the expert panel's conclusions, outlines the challenges faced when reviewing the literature, and examines some of the panel's recommendations for research. PMID:27272334

  20. Fatty acid intakes of children and adolescents are not in line with the dietary intake recommendations for future cardiovascular health: a systematic review of dietary intake data from thirty countries.

    PubMed

    Harika, Rajwinder K; Cosgrove, Maeve C; Osendarp, Saskia J M; Verhoef, Petra; Zock, Peter L

    2011-08-01

    Fatty acid composition of the diet may influence cardiovascular risk from early childhood onwards. The objective of the present study was to perform a systematic review of dietary fat and fatty acid intakes in children and adolescents from different countries around the world and compare these with the population nutrient intake goals for prevention of chronic diseases as defined by the WHO (2003). Data on fat and fatty acid intake were mainly collected from national dietary surveys and from population studies all published during or after 1995. These were identified by searching PubMed, and through nutritionists at local Unilever offices in different countries. Fatty acid intake data from thirty countries mainly from developed countries were included. In twenty-eight of the thirty countries, mean SFA intakes were higher than the recommended maximum of 10 % energy, whereas in twenty-one out of thirty countries mean PUFA intakes were below recommended (6-10 % energy). More and better intake data are needed, in particular for developing regions of the world, and future research should determine the extent to which improvement of dietary fatty acid intake in childhood translates into lower CHD risk in later life. Despite these limitations, the available data clearly indicate that in the majority of the countries providing data on fatty acid intake, less than half of the children and adolescents meet the SFA and PUFA intake goals that are recommended for the prevention of chronic diseases. PMID:21554818

  1. Fish intake, marine omega-3 fatty acids, and mortality in a cohort of postmenopausal women.

    PubMed

    Folsom, Aaron R; Demissie, Zewditu

    2004-11-15

    Intake of fish or omega-3 fatty acids may decrease risk of total and coronary heart disease death, but evidence from low-risk populations is less convincing. The authors assessed intake by using a food frequency questionnaire at baseline in a cohort of Iowa women aged 55-69 years. Among women initially free of heart disease and cancer (4,653 deaths over 442,965 person-years), there was an inverse age- and energy-adjusted association between total mortality and fish intake, with a relative risk of 0.82 (95% confidence interval: 0.74, 0.91) for the highest versus lowest quintile. Age- and energy-adjusted associations also were inverse (p for trend < 0.05), although not entirely monotonic, for cardiovascular, coronary heart disease, and cancer mortality. Adjustment for multiple other risk factors attenuated all associations to statistically nonsignificant levels. Estimated marine omega-3 fatty acid intake also was not associated with total or cause-specific mortality. In comparison, plant-derived alpha-linolenic acid was inversely associated with mortality after multivariable adjustment. Intake of neither fish nor marine omega-3 fatty acids was associated with breast cancer incidence. These findings do not argue against recommending fish as part of a healthy diet, as other evidence suggests benefit. Nevertheless, the authors of this 1986-2000 study could not verify that fish and marine omega-3 fatty acid intake had independent health benefits in these postmenopausal women. PMID:15522857

  2. The relationship between different fatty acids intake and frequency of migraine attacks

    PubMed Central

    Sadeghi, Omid; Maghsoudi, Zahra; Khorvash, Fariborz; Ghiasvand, Reza; Askari, Gholamreza

    2015-01-01

    Background: Migraine is a primary headache disorder that affects the neurovascular system. Recent studies have shown that consumption of some fatty acids such as omega-3 fatty acids improves migraine symptoms. The aim of the present study is to assess the association between usual intake of fatty acids such as eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA), docosahexaenoic acid (DHA), and saturated fatty acids (SFA) with the frequency of migraine attacks. Materials and Methods: 105 migraine patients with age ranging from 15 to 50 years participated in this cross-sectional study. Usual dietary consumption was assessed by using a semi-quantitative food frequency questionnaire (FFQ). Moreover, frequency of migraine attacks during 1 month period was determined in all participants. Data had been analyzed using independent sample t-test and linear regression test with adjustment of confounding variables. Results: In this study, we found that lower intake of EPA (β = −335.07, P = 0.006) and DHA (β = −142.51, P = 0.001) was associated with higher frequency of migraine attacks. In addition, we observed similar relationship either in men or women. No significant association was found between dietary intake of SFA and the frequency of migraine attacks (β = −0.032, P = 0.85). Conclusions: Frequency of migraine attacks was negatively associated with dietary intake of omega-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids. No significant relationship was found between SFA intake and migraine frequency. Further studies are required to shed light on our findings. PMID:26120333

  3. Folic acid conjugated cross-linked acrylic polymer (FA-CLAP) hydrogel for site specific delivery of hydrophobic drugs to cancer cells

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background The hydrogel based system is found to be rarely reported for the delivery of hydrophobic drug due to the incompatibility of hydrophilicity of the polymer network and the hydrophobicity of drug. This problem can be solved by preparing semi-interpenetrating network of cross-linked polymer for tuning the hydrophilicity so as to entrap the hydrophobic drugs. The current study is to develop a folic acid conjugated cross-linked pH sensitive, biocompatible polymeric hydrogel to achieve a site specific drug delivery. For that, we have synthesized a folic acid conjugated PEG cross-linked acrylic polymer (FA-CLAP) hydrogel and investigated its loading and release of curcumin. The formed polymer hydrogel was then conjugated with folic acid for the site specific delivery of curcumin to cancer cells and then further characterized and conducted the cell uptake and cytotoxicity studies on human cervical cancer cell lines (HeLa). Results In this study, we synthesized folic acid conjugated cross-linked acrylic hydrogel for the delivery of hydrophobic drugs to the cancer site. Poly (ethyleneglycol) (PEG) diacrylate cross-linked acrylic polymer (PAA) was prepared via inverse emulsion polymerization technique and later conjugated it with folic acid (FA-CLAP). Hydrophobic drug curcumin is entrapped into it and investigated the entrapment efficiency. Characterization of synthesized hydogel was done by using Fourier Transform-Infrared spectroscopy (FT-IR), Transmission Electron Microscopy (TEM), Differential Scanning Calorimetry (DSC). Polymerization and folate conjugation was confirmed by FT-IR spectroscopy. The release kinetics of drug from the entrapped form was studied which showed initial burst release followed by sustained release due to swelling and increased cross-linking. In vitro cytotoxicity and cell uptake studies were conducted in human cervical cancer (HeLa) cell lines. Conclusions Results showed that curcumin entrapped folate conjugated cross-linked acrylic

  4. Plasma oxylipin profiling identifies polyunsaturated vicinal diols as responsive to arachidonic acid and docosahexaenoic acid intake in growing piglets.

    PubMed

    Bruins, Maaike J; Dane, Adrie D; Strassburg, Katrin; Vreeken, Rob J; Newman, John W; Salem, Norman; Tyburczy, Cynthia; Brenna, J Thomas

    2013-06-01

    The dose-responsiveness of plasma oxylipins to incremental dietary intake of arachidonic acid (20:4n-6; ARA) and docosahexaenoic acid (22:6n-3; DHA) was determined in piglets. Piglets randomly received one of six formulas (n = 8 per group) from days 3 to 27 postnatally. Diets contained incremental ARA or incremental DHA levels as follows (% fatty acid, ARA/DHA): (A1) 0.1/1.0; (A2) 0.53/1.0; (A3-D3) 0.69/1.0; (A4) 1.1/1.0; (D1) 0.66/0.33; and (D2) 0.67/0.62, resulting in incremental intake (g/kg BW/day) of ARA: 0.07 ± 0.01, 0.43 ± 0.03, 0.55 ± 0.03, and 0.82 ± 0.05 at constant DHA intake (0.82 ± 0.05), or incremental intake of DHA: 0.27 ± 0.02, 0.49 ± 0.03, and 0.81 ± 0.05 at constant ARA intake (0.54 ± 0.04). Plasma oxylipin concentrations and free plasma PUFA levels were determined at day 28 using LC-MS/MS. Incremental dietary ARA intake dose-dependently increased plasma ARA levels. In parallel, ARA intake dose-dependently increased ARA-derived diols 5,6- and 14,15-dihydroxyeicosatrienoic acid (DiHETrE) and linoleic acid-derived 12,13-dihydroxyoctadecenoic acid (DiHOME), downstream metabolites of cytochrome P450 expoxygenase (CYP). The ARA epoxide products from CYP are important in vascular homeostatic maintenance. Incremental DHA intake increased plasma DHA and most markedly raised the eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA) metabolite 17,18-dihydroxyeicosatetraenoic acid (DiHETE) and the DHA metabolite 19,20-dihydroxydocosapentaenoic acid (DiHDPE). In conclusion, increasing ARA and DHA intake dose-dependently influenced endogenous n-6 and n-3 oxylipin plasma concentrations in growing piglets, although the biological relevance of these findings remains to be determined. PMID:23543770

  5. Estimated daily intake of benzoic acid through food additives in adult population of South East Serbia.

    PubMed

    Lazarević, Konstansa; Stojanović, Dusica; Rancić, Natasa

    2011-12-01

    The aim of this study is to estimate dietary intake of benzoic acid and its salts through food additives in adult population of South East Serbia. Information on dietary intake among 620 adults (aged 18-65) was collected using a food frequency questionnaire, and 748 food samples were analyzed. The mean estimated intake of benzoic acid -0.32 mg/kg of body weight (bw) per day was below acceptable daily intake (ADI). Dietary exposure to benzoic acid (0.36 mg/kg of bw/day; 7.2% ADI) (consumer only), also did not exceed ADI. The main contributors of benzoic acid to dietary intake were non alcoholic beverages (43.1%), ketchup and tomato products (36.1%), and domestic pickled vegetables (19.4%). The results of this study indicate that dietary exposure to benzoic acid and its salts through food preservatives does not represent a public health risk for the adult population of South East Serbia. PMID:22432399

  6. Branched Chain Fatty Acid (BCFA) Content of Foods and Estimated Intake in the United States

    PubMed Central

    Bae, SangEun; Lawrence, Peter; Wang, Dong Hao

    2015-01-01

    Branched chain fatty acids (BCFA) are bioactive food components that constitute about 2% of fatty acids in cow’s milk fat. Little systematic information on the BCFA content of other foods is available to estimate dietary intakes. We report BCFA distribution and content of fresh and processed foods representing the major foods of Americans and estimate BCFA intake. BCFA are primarily components of dairy and ruminant foods, and were absent from chicken, pork, and salmon. Dairy and beef delivered most of the 500 mg per day mean intake; in comparison, intake of the widely studied long chain polyunsaturates eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA) and docosahexaenoic acid (DHA) is estimated to average 100 mg per day. Common adjustments in diet can double BCFA daily intake. The fermented foods sauerkraut and miso had appreciable fractions of BCFA but overall are low fat foods providing very small amounts in the diet, and other fermented foods did not contain BCFA as might have been expected from microbial exposure. These data support the quantitative importance of BCFA delivered primarily from dairy and beef and highlight the need for research into their health effects. PMID:24830474

  7. Fatty Acids Composition of Vegetable Oils and Its Contribution to Dietary Energy Intake and Dependence of Cardiovascular Mortality on Dietary Intake of Fatty Acids

    PubMed Central

    Orsavova, Jana; Misurcova, Ladislava; Vavra Ambrozova, Jarmila; Vicha, Robert; Mlcek, Jiri

    2015-01-01

    Characterizations of fatty acids composition in % of total methylester of fatty acids (FAMEs) of fourteen vegetable oils—safflower, grape, silybum marianum, hemp, sunflower, wheat germ, pumpkin seed, sesame, rice bran, almond, rapeseed, peanut, olive, and coconut oil—were obtained by using gas chromatography (GC). Saturated (SFA), monounsaturated (MUFA) and polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFA), palmitic acid (C16:0; 4.6%–20.0%), oleic acid (C18:1; 6.2%–71.1%) and linoleic acid (C18:2; 1.6%–79%), respectively, were found predominant. The nutritional aspect of analyzed oils was evaluated by determination of the energy contribution of SFAs (19.4%–695.7% ERDI), PUFAs (10.6%–786.8% ERDI), n-3 FAs (4.4%–117.1% ERDI) and n-6 FAs (1.8%–959.2% ERDI), expressed in % ERDI of 1 g oil to energy recommended dietary intakes (ERDI) for total fat (ERDI—37.7 kJ/g). The significant relationship between the reported data of total fat, SFAs, MUFAs and PUFAs intakes (% ERDI) for adults and mortality caused by coronary heart diseases (CHD) and cardiovascular diseases (CVD) in twelve countries has not been confirmed by Spearman’s correlations. PMID:26057750

  8. Fatty Acids Composition of Vegetable Oils and Its Contribution to Dietary Energy Intake and Dependence of Cardiovascular Mortality on Dietary Intake of Fatty Acids.

    PubMed

    Orsavova, Jana; Misurcova, Ladislava; Ambrozova, Jarmila Vavra; Vicha, Robert; Mlcek, Jiri

    2015-01-01

    Characterizations of fatty acids composition in % of total methylester of fatty acids (FAMEs) of fourteen vegetable oils--safflower, grape, silybum marianum, hemp, sunflower, wheat germ, pumpkin seed, sesame, rice bran, almond, rapeseed, peanut, olive, and coconut oil--were obtained by using gas chromatography (GC). Saturated (SFA), monounsaturated (MUFA) and polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFA), palmitic acid (C16:0; 4.6%-20.0%), oleic acid (C18:1; 6.2%-71.1%) and linoleic acid (C18:2; 1.6%-79%), respectively, were found predominant. The nutritional aspect of analyzed oils was evaluated by determination of the energy contribution of SFAs (19.4%-695.7% E(RDI)), PUFAs (10.6%-786.8% E(RDI)), n-3 FAs (4.4%-117.1% E(RDI)) and n-6 FAs (1.8%-959.2% E(RDI)), expressed in % E(RDI) of 1 g oil to energy recommended dietary intakes (E(RDI)) for total fat (E(RDI)--37.7 kJ/g). The significant relationship between the reported data of total fat, SFAs, MUFAs and PUFAs intakes (% E(RDI)) for adults and mortality caused by coronary heart diseases (CHD) and cardiovascular diseases (CVD) in twelve countries has not been confirmed by Spearman's correlations. PMID:26057750

  9. Trans fatty acid intake is related to emotional affect in the Adventist Health Study-2.

    PubMed

    Ford, Patricia A; Jaceldo-Siegl, Karen; Lee, Jerry W; Tonstad, Serena

    2016-06-01

    Trans fatty acids in Western diets increase health risks, and have been associated with the risk of depression. We hypothesized that intakes of trans fatty acids (primarily from margarines and baked goods) were inversely associated with positive affect and positively associated with negative affect in a longitudinal study. Church attendees residing in North America completed a food frequency questionnaire in 2002-6 as part of the Adventist Health Study-2. A subset in which we excluded participants with established cardiovascular disease (n=8,771) completed the Positive and Negative Affect Schedule (PANAS) in 2006-7. The associations between dietary intakes of fatty acids to positive and negative affect were tested with linear regression analysis controlling for age, gender, ethnicity, education, body mass index, exercise, sleep, sleep squared, Mediterranean diet, total energy intake and alcohol. Intakes of trans fatty acids were inversely associated with positive affect (β=-0.06, B=-0.27 [95% CI -0.37, -0.17], p<.001) and positively associated with negative affect (β=0.05, B=0.21 [95% CI 0.11, 0.31], p<.001). In comparison, we found no association between n-3 polyunsatured fatty acids (PUFA) intakes with affect. The n-6:n-3 PUFA ratio was inversely associated with positive affect (β=-0.03, B=-0.34 [95% CI -0.58, -0.10], p=0.006). The findings suggest that a lower dietary trans fatty acid intake has beneficial effects on emotional affect while the n-6: n-3 ratio is detrimental to positive affect. PMID:27188896

  10. Estimated phytanic acid intake and prostate cancer risk: a prospective cohort study.

    PubMed

    Wright, Margaret E; Bowen, Phyllis; Virtamo, Jarmo; Albanes, Demetrius; Gann, Peter H

    2012-09-15

    Phytanic acid is a saturated fatty acid found predominantly in red meat and dairy products and may contribute to increases in prostate cancer risk that are observed with higher intakes of these foods. We constructed a novel summary measure of phytanic acid intake and prospectively examined its association with prostate cancer risk in the Alpha-Tocopherol, Beta-Carotene Cancer Prevention Study--a cohort of Finnish male smokers aged 50-69 years. Diet was assessed at baseline in 27,111 participants using a validated 276-item dietary questionnaire. Since phytanic acid is not currently included in food composition tables, we used the published phytanic acid content of 151 major food items to estimate total daily intake. During up to 21 years of follow-up, a total of 1,929 incident prostate cancer cases (including 438 advanced cases) were identified. Higher phytanic acid intake, though unrelated to the risk of localized disease [relative risks (RR) and 95% confidence intervals (CI) for increasing quartiles of intake = 1.00 (ref), 0.83 (0.68-1.01), 0.76 (0.62-0.94) and 0.91 (0.74-1.13); p trend = 0.23], was associated with increased risks of advanced prostate cancer [RR and 95% CI = 1.00 (ref), 1.43 (1.09-1.89), 1.31 (0.99-1.75) and 1.38 (1.02-1.89); p trend = 0.06]. This association appeared to be driven predominantly by phytanic acid obtained from dairy products (particularly butter). Our study indicates that phytanic acid may contribute to previously observed associations between high-fat animal foods (particularly dairy products) and prostate cancer risk, although some caution is warranted as it may be acting as a surrogate marker of dairy fat. PMID:22120496

  11. Estimated Phytanic Acid Intake and Prostate Cancer Risk: a Prospective Cohort Study

    PubMed Central

    Wright, Margaret E.; Bowen, Phyllis; Virtamo, Jarmo; Albanes, Demetrius; Gann, Peter H.

    2013-01-01

    Phytanic acid is a saturated fatty acid found predominantly in red meat and dairy products and may contribute to increases in prostate cancer risk that are observed with higher intakes of these foods. We constructed a novel summary measure of phytanic acid intake and prospectively examined its association with prostate cancer risk in the Alpha-Tocopherol, Beta-Carotene Cancer Prevention Study – a cohort of Finnish male smokers ages 50–69 years. Diet was assessed at baseline in 27,111 participants using a validated 276-item dietary questionnaire. Since phytanic acid is not currently included in food composition tables, we used the published phytanic acid content of 151 major food items to estimate total daily intake. During up to 20 years of follow-up, a total of 1,929 incident prostate cancer cases (including 438 advanced cases) were identified. Higher phytanic acid intake, though unrelated to the risk of localized disease [relative risks and 95% confidence intervals for increasing quartiles of intake = 1.00 (ref), 0.83 (0.68–1.01), 0.76 (0.62–0.94), and 0.91 (0.74–1.13); p trend = 0.23], was associated with increased risks of advanced prostate cancer [RR and 95% CI = 1.00 (ref), 1.43 (1.09–1.89), 1.31 (0.99–1.75), and 1.38 (1.02–1.89); p trend = 0.06]. This association appeared to be driven predominantly by phytanic acid obtained from dairy products (particularly butter). Our study indicates that phytanic acid may contribute to previously observed associations between high-fat animal foods (particularly dairy products) and prostate cancer risk, although some caution is warranted as it may be acting as a surrogate marker of dairy fat. PMID:22120496

  12. Reproducibility and relative validity of a FFQ to estimate the intake of fatty acids.

    PubMed

    Praagman, Jaike; Adolphs, Anda P J; van Rossum, Caroline T M; Sluijs, Ivonne; van der Schouw, Yvonne T; Beulens, Joline W J

    2016-06-01

    We investigated the validity and reproducibility of the FFQ used in the Dutch European Investigation of Cancer and Nutrition cohort, in order to rank subjects according to intakes of fatty acid classes and individual fatty acids. In total, 121 men and women (23-72 years) filled out three FFQ at 6-month intervals between 1991 and 1992. As a reference method, they filled out twelve monthly 24-h dietary recalls (24HDR) during the same year. Intra-class correlation coefficients for the FFQ showed moderate to good reproducibility across all fatty acids (classes and individual) in men (0·56-0·81) and women (0·57-0·83). In men, Spearman's correlation coefficients (r s) for the FFQ compared with the 24HDR indicated moderate to good relative validity (r s=0·45-0·71) for all fatty acids, except for arachidonic acid and marine PUFA (r s<0·40). In women, relative validity was moderate to good for MUFA and trans-fatty acids (TFA) and the majority of SFA (r s=0·40-0·66), was fair for the short-chain SFA and lauric acid (r s=0·30-0·33) and was fair to moderate for PUFA (r s=0·22-0·47). Bland-Altman plots showed good agreement between the FFQ and 24HDR, and proportional bias for fatty acids with very low intakes. In conclusion, the FFQ showed good reproducibility for subject ranking based on intakes of fatty acids (classes and individual). The relative validity measures indicated that the FFQ is an adequate tool to rank subjects according to intakes of high-abundant fatty acids, but less for low-abundant fatty acids. PMID:27080748

  13. Δ(9)-THC modulation of fatty acid 2-hydroxylase (FA2H) gene expression: possible involvement of induced levels of PPARα in MDA-MB-231 breast cancer cells.

    PubMed

    Takeda, Shuso; Ikeda, Eriko; Su, Shengzhong; Harada, Mari; Okazaki, Hiroyuki; Yoshioka, Yasushi; Nishimura, Hajime; Ishii, Hiroyuki; Kakizoe, Kazuhiro; Taniguchi, Aya; Tokuyasu, Miki; Himeno, Taichi; Watanabe, Kazuhito; Omiecinski, Curtis J; Aramaki, Hironori

    2014-12-01

    We recently reported that Δ(9)-tetrahydrocannabinol (Δ(9)-THC), a major cannabinoid component in Cannabis Sativa (marijuana), significantly stimulated the expression of fatty acid 2-hydroxylase (FA2H) in human breast cancer MDA-MB-231 cells. Peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor α (PPARα) was previously implicated in this induction. However, the mechanisms mediating this induction have not been elucidated in detail. We performed a DNA microarray analysis of Δ(9)-THC-treated samples and showed the selective up-regulation of the PPARα isoform coupled with the induction of FA2H over the other isoforms (β and γ). Δ(9)-THC itself had no binding/activation potential to/on PPARα, and palmitic acid (PA), a PPARα ligand, exhibited no stimulatory effects on FA2H in MDA-MB-231 cells; thus, we hypothesized that the levels of PPARα induced were involved in the Δ(9)-THC-mediated increase in FA2H. In support of this hypothesis, we herein demonstrated that; (i) Δ(9)-THC activated the basal transcriptional activity of PPARα in a concentration-dependent manner, (ii) the concomitant up-regulation of PPARα/FA2H was caused by Δ(9)-THC, (iii) PA could activate PPARα after the PPARα expression plasmid was introduced, and (iv) the Δ(9)-THC-induced up-regulation of FA2H was further stimulated by the co-treatment with L-663,536 (a known PPARα inducer). Taken together, these results support the concept that the induced levels of PPARα may be involved in the Δ(9)-THC up-regulation of FA2H in MDA-MB-231 cells. PMID:25291031

  14. Δ9-THC modulation of fatty acid 2-hydroxylase (FA2H) gene expression: Possible involvement of induced levels of PPARα in MDA-MB-231 breast cancer cells

    PubMed Central

    Takeda, Shuso; Ikeda, Eriko; Su, Shengzhong; Harada, Mari; Okazaki, Hiroyuki; Yoshioka, Yasushi; Nishimura, Hajime; Ishii, Hiroyuki; Kakizoe, Kazuhiro; Taniguchi, Aya; Tokuyasu, Miki; Himeno, Taichi; Watanabe, Kazuhito; Omiecinski, Curtis J.; Aramaki, Hironori

    2014-01-01

    We recently reported that Δ9-tetrahydrocannabinol (Δ9-THC), a major cannabinoid component in Cannabis Sativa (marijuana), significantly stimulated the expression of fatty acid 2 hydroxylase (FA2H) in human breast cancer MDA-MB-231 cells. Peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor α (PPARα) was previously implicated in this induction. However, the mechanisms mediating this induction have not been elucidated in detail. We performed a DNA microarray analysis of Δ9-THC treated samples and showed the selective up-regulation of the PPARα isoform coupled with the induction of FA2H over the other isoforms (β and γ). Δ-THC itself had no binding/activation potential to/on PPARα, and palmitic acid (PA), a PPARα ligand, exhibited no stimulatory effects on FA2H in MDA MB 231 cells; thus, we hypothesized that the levels of PPARα induced were involved in the Δ9-THC mediated increase in FA2H. In support of this hypothesis, we herein demonstrated that; (i) Δ9 THC activated the basal transcriptional activity of PPARα in a concentration-dependent manner, (ii) the concomitant up-regulation of PPARα/FA2H was caused by Δ9-THC, (iii) PA could activate PPARα after the PPARα expression plasmid was introduced, and (iv) the Δ9-THC induced up regulation of FA2H was further stimulated by the co-treatment with L-663,536 (a known PPARα inducer). Taken together, these results support the concept that the induced levels of PPARα may be involved in the Δ9 THC up-regulation of FA2H in MDA-MB-231 cells. PMID:25291031

  15. MONOUNSATURATED FATTY ACID INTAKE BY CHILDREN AND ADULTS: TEMPORAL TRENDS AND DEMOGRAPHIC DIFFERENCES

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Epidemiologic evidence suggests that dietary monounsaturated fatty acids (MUFA) may have a beneficial health effect. Twenty-four hour dietary intake data collected on 10-year-olds (n=1311) from 1978-1994 (Bogalusa Heart Study) and on children and adults (ages 0 to 30 years; CSFII 1994-96; n=7318) w...

  16. Changes in mean intake of fatty acids and intake of saturated and trans fats from potatoes: NHANES 2005-2006, 2007-2008, and 2009-2010.

    PubMed

    Storey, Maureen L; Anderson, Patricia A

    2015-05-01

    Studies have shown that higher than usual intakes of trans fatty acids (TFAs) have adverse effects on blood lipids. Because of this, in 2006 the US FDA mandated labeling of TFAs on food packages. The food and restaurant industries, including the potato industry, reformulated their foods to reduce or eliminate partially hydrogenated vegetable oils and TFAs. Before mandatory labeling, grain-based desserts, yeast breads, and French-fried potatoes (FFPs) were the top sources of TFAs in the food supply; by 2007, potato food manufacturers and quick-service restaurants had reduced or eliminated TFAs without increasing saturated fatty acids (SFAs). FFPs are no longer a source of TFAs in the food supply. This study examined energy and fatty acid intake among children aged 6-11 y, adolescents aged 12-18 y, and adults aged ≥19 y across 3 time periods by using data from the NHANES 2005-2006, 2007-2008, and 2009-2010. On average, intakes of total energy, total fat, SFAs, and monounsaturated fatty acids (MUFAs) decreased significantly between 2005-2006 and 2009-2010 among children and adolescents; however, the intake of polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFAs) did not change. Among adults, intakes of total fat, SFAs, and MUFAs decreased; however, total energy and PUFA intake did not change. On the day of the 2009-2010 survey, ∼13% of children and 10% of adolescents reported consuming fried FFPs, whereas <7% of adults reported consumption of fried FFPs. Intakes of SFAs and TFAs from fried FFPs decreased significantly between 2005-2006 and 2009-2010 among children, adolescents, and adults. This study confirms that intake of TFAs from FFPs is trivial. PMID:25979511

  17. Changes in Mean Intake of Fatty Acids and Intake of Saturated and trans Fats from Potatoes: NHANES 2005–2006, 2007–2008, and 2009–201012

    PubMed Central

    Storey, Maureen L; Anderson, Patricia A

    2015-01-01

    Studies have shown that higher than usual intakes of trans fatty acids (TFAs) have adverse effects on blood lipids. Because of this, in 2006 the US FDA mandated labeling of TFAs on food packages. The food and restaurant industries, including the potato industry, reformulated their foods to reduce or eliminate partially hydrogenated vegetable oils and TFAs. Before mandatory labeling, grain-based desserts, yeast breads, and French-fried potatoes (FFPs) were the top sources of TFAs in the food supply; by 2007, potato food manufacturers and quick-service restaurants had reduced or eliminated TFAs without increasing saturated fatty acids (SFAs). FFPs are no longer a source of TFAs in the food supply. This study examined energy and fatty acid intake among children aged 6–11 y, adolescents aged 12–18 y, and adults aged ≥19 y across 3 time periods by using data from the NHANES 2005–2006, 2007–2008, and 2009–2010. On average, intakes of total energy, total fat, SFAs, and monounsaturated fatty acids (MUFAs) decreased significantly between 2005–2006 and 2009–2010 among children and adolescents; however, the intake of polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFAs) did not change. Among adults, intakes of total fat, SFAs, and MUFAs decreased; however, total energy and PUFA intake did not change. On the day of the 2009–2010 survey, ∼13% of children and 10% of adolescents reported consuming fried FFPs, whereas <7% of adults reported consumption of fried FFPs. Intakes of SFAs and TFAs from fried FFPs decreased significantly between 2005–2006 and 2009–2010 among children, adolescents, and adults. This study confirms that intake of TFAs from FFPs is trivial. PMID:25979511

  18. Plasma oxylipin profiling identifies polyunsaturated vicinal diols as responsive to arachidonic acid and docosahexaenoic acid intake in growing piglets

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The dose-responsiveness of plasma oxylipins to incremental dietary intake of arachidonic (20:4n-6; ARA) and docosahexaenoic (22:6n-3; DHA) acid was determined in piglets. Piglets randomly received one of six formulas (n=8 per group) from day 3 to 27 postnatally. Diets contained varying ARA and DHA l...

  19. DNA methylation patterns are associated with n-3 fatty acid intake in Yup'ik people.

    PubMed

    Aslibekyan, Stella; Wiener, Howard W; Havel, Peter J; Stanhope, Kimber L; O'Brien, Diane M; Hopkins, Scarlett E; Absher, Devin M; Tiwari, Hemant K; Boyer, Bert B

    2014-04-01

    A large body of evidence links a high dietary intake of n-3 (ω-3) polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFAs) with improved cardiometabolic outcomes. Recent studies suggested that the biologic processes underlying the observed associations may involve epigenetic changes, specifically DNA methylation. To evaluate changes in methylation associated with n-3 PUFA intake, we conducted an epigenome-wide methylation association study of long-chain n-3 PUFA intake and tested associations between the diabetes- and cardiovascular disease-related traits. We assessed DNA methylation at ∼470,000 cytosine-phosphate-guanine (CpG) sites in a cross-sectional study of 185 Yup'ik Alaska Native individuals representing the top and bottom deciles of PUFA intake. Linear regression models were used to test for the associations of interest, adjusting for age, sex, and community group. We identified 27 differentially methylated CpG sites at biologically relevant regions that reached epigenome-wide significance (P < 1 × 10⁻⁷). Specifically, regions on chromosomes 3 (helicase-like transcription factor), 10 (actin α 2 smooth muscle/Fas cell surface death receptor), and 16 (protease serine 36/C16 open reading frame 67) each harbored 2 significant correlates of n-3 PUFA intake. In conclusion, we present promising evidence of association between several biologically relevant epigenetic markers and long-term intake of marine-derived n-3 PUFAs. PMID:24477300

  20. Response of plasma fatty acid profiles to changes in dietary n-3 fatty acids and its correlation with erythrocyte fatty acid profiles in dogs.

    PubMed

    Stoeckel, K; Bachmann, L; Dobeleit, G; Fuhrmann, H

    2013-12-01

    An elevated level of long-chain n-3 fatty acids (FA) in tissue membranes has a positive influence on the progression and treatment of many diseases. Therefore, dietary supplementation of n-3 FA is recommended in some diseases. Even though n-3 FA are absorbed readily from the diet, their incorporation into tissues may be compromised in diseased animals. In a clinical setting, it is desirable to monitor the success of dietary intervention. Plasma FA as well as erythrocyte membrane (EM) FA can be used to monitor dietary FA intake. This study compares FA from EM and plasma with regard to their reaction time and reliability for monitoring dietary changes of tissue FA profiles in dogs. Thirty dogs were divided into three groups and fed for 12 weeks. The control group (CONT) was fed a commercial standard diet low in n-3 FA. One group received the standard diet and 85 mg/kg body weight of a docosahexaenoic acid (DHA) concentrate (ADD). The third group was fed a commercial dog food containing fish oil (FO), which is rich in eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA). EM and plasma FA profiles were analysed by GC separately. Data on EM FA were published recently. n-3 FA in plasma reached the new level after 2 weeks (8 weeks in EM). Dietary differences between DHA and EPA are obvious after 1 week already. The concomitant decrease in plasma n-6 FA differed between ADD and FO. In general, the correlation of n-6 FA between plasma and EM was low. We therefore conclude that analysis of plasma FA is sufficient for monitoring a diet-induced increase in tissue n-3 FA in dogs. However, EM FA should be analysed if the effect of dietary intervention on tissue n-6 FA is important. PMID:23279610

  1. Effect of increased protein intake on renal acid load and renal hemodynamic responses.

    PubMed

    Teunissen-Beekman, Karianna F M; Dopheide, Janneke; Geleijnse, Johanna M; Bakker, Stephan J L; Brink, Elizabeth J; de Leeuw, Peter W; van Baak, Marleen A

    2016-03-01

    Increased protein intake versus maltodextrin intake for 4 weeks lowers blood pressure. Concerns exist that high-protein diets reduce renal function. Effects of acute and 4-week protein intake versus maltodextrin intake on renal acid load, glomerular filtration rate and related parameters were compared in this study. Seventy-nine overweight individuals with untreated elevated blood pressure and normal kidney function were randomized to consume a mix of protein isolates (60 g/day) or maltodextrin (60 g/day) for 4 weeks in energy balance. Twenty-four-hour urinary potential renal acid load (uPRAL) was compared between groups. A subgroup (maltodextrin N = 27, protein mix N = 25) participated in extra test days investigating fasting levels and postprandial effects of meals supplemented with a moderate protein- or maltodextrin-load on glomerular filtration rate, effective renal plasma flow, plasma renin, aldosterone, pH, and bicarbonate. uPRAL was significantly higher in the protein group after 4 weeks (P ≤ 0.001). Postprandial filtration fraction decreased further after the protein-supplemented breakfast than after the maltodextrin-supplemented breakfast after 4 weeks of supplementation (P ≤ 0.001). Fasting and postprandial levels of glomerular filtration rate, effective renal plasma flow, renin, aldosterone, angiotensin-converting enzyme, pH and bicarbonate did not differ between groups. In conclusion, 4 weeks on an increased protein diet (25% of energy intake) increased renal acid load, but did not affect renal function. Postprandial changes, except for filtration fraction, also did not differ between groups. These data suggest that a moderate increase in protein intake by consumption of a protein mix for 4 weeks causes no (undesirable) effects on kidney function in overweight and obese individuals with normal kidney function. PMID:26997623

  2. Voluntary fortification of breakfast cereals with folic acid: contribution to dietary intake in Australia.

    PubMed

    Japar, Devina; Chandra-Hioe, Maria V; Shrestha, Ashok; Arcot, Jayashree

    2016-05-01

    Ready-to-eat breakfast cereals have been voluntarily fortified with folic acid since 1995, with the purpose of reducing the prevalence of neural tube defects in utero. Using data from the recent Australian Health Survey, this study aimed to estimate folate intake from one serving of breakfast cereals (median amount). Various commercial brands were purchased in 2002 (n = 19) and in 2014 (n = 14); folate was determined by microbiological assay and high-pressure liquid chromatography (HPLC). Total folate (μg/100 g) in 2002 and 2014 selections were 144-633 and 147-564, respectively, and mostly comparable to nutrition labels. Folic acid (2014 selection) using HPLC, ranged from 85 to 411 μg/100 g. Intake of 51 g cereals/serving by individuals ≥2 years could contribute 75-288 μg dietary folate equivalent. It seems that folic acid intake among children (2-3 years) exceeds the recommended dietary intake, when certain brands of breakfast cereals are consumed. Accordingly, the benefits and potential detrimental effects of the voluntary fortification need to be further explored. PMID:26903206

  3. Biomonitoring the intake of garlic via urinary excretion of allyl mercapturic acid.

    PubMed

    Verhagen, H; Hageman, G J; Rauma, A L; Versluis-de Haan, G; van Herwijnen, M H; de Groot, J; Törrönen, R; Mykkänen, H

    2001-08-01

    Allium vegetables (onions, leeks, chives) and in particular garlic have been claimed to have health-promoting potential. This study was conducted to get insight into the perspectives for monitoring the intake of garlic by a biomarker approach. Chemically, the biomarker results from exposure to gamma-glutamyl-S-allyl-l-cysteine, which is first hydrolysed by gamma-glutamine-transpeptidase resulting in the formation of S-allyl-l-cysteine. The latter compound is subsequently N-acetylated by N-acetyltransferase into S-allyl-mercapturic acid (ALMA) and excreted into urine. The mercapturic acid was measured in urine using gaschromatography with mass spectrometry. Thus the intake of garlic was determined to check the compliance of garlic intake in a placebo-controlled intervention study. Results indicate that S-allyl-mercapturic acid could be detected in 15 out of 16 urine samples of garlic supplement takers, indicating good compliance. In addition, the intake of garlic was also monitored in a cross-section study of vegans versus controls in Finland, in which no differences in garlic consumption nor in ALMA output were recorded between vegans and controls. These data indicate good possibilities for further studies in the field of biomarkers to investigate the putative chemopreventive effects of garlic and garlic-containing products. PMID:11520428

  4. Intake of essential fatty acids in Indonesian children: secondary analysis of data from a nationally representative survey.

    PubMed

    Neufingerl, Nicole; Djuwita, Ratna; Otten-Hofman, Anke; Nurdiani, Reisi; Garczarek, Ursula; Sulaeman, Ahmad; Zock, Peter L; Eilander, Ans

    2016-02-28

    Essential fatty acids (EFA) such as α-linolenic acid (ALA) and linoleic acid (LA) are needed for healthy growth and development of children. Worldwide, reliable intake data of EFA are often lacking. The objective of this study was to investigate dietary intake of EFA in Indonesian children. Dietary intake data of 4-12-year-old children (n 45,821) from a nationally representative Indonesian survey were used to estimate median intake and distribution of population fatty acid intake. Missing data on individual fatty acids in the Indonesian food composition table were complemented through chemical analyses of national representative food samples and imputation of data from the US nutrient database. Nutrient adequacy ratios were calculated as a percentage of FAO/WHO intake recommendations. The medians of total fat intake of the children was 26·7 (10th-90th percentile 11·2-40·0) percentage of total daily energy (%E). Intakes of fatty acids were 4·05 (10th-90th percentile 1·83-7·22) %E for total PUFA, 3·36 (10th-90th percentile 1·14-6·29) %E for LA and 0·20 (10th-90th percentile 0·07-0·66) %E for ALA. Median intake of PUFA was 67 % and that of ALA 40 % of the minimum amounts recommended by FAO/WHO. These data indicate that a majority of Indonesian children has intakes of PUFA and specifically ALA that are lower than recommended intake levels. Total fat and LA intakes may be suboptimal for a smaller yet considerable proportion of children. Public health initiatives should provide practical guidelines to promote consumption of PUFA-rich foods. PMID:26824732

  5. Influence of Salt Intake on Association of Blood Uric Acid with Hypertension and Related Cardiovascular Risk

    PubMed Central

    Hou, Lei; Zhang, Mingtao; Han, Wei; Tang, Yong; Xue, Fang; Liang, Shaohua; Zhang, Biao; Wang, Weizhi; Asaiti, Kuliqian; Wang, Yanhong; Pang, Haiyu; Wang, Zixing; Wang, Yuyan; Qiu, Changchun; Jiang, Jingmei

    2016-01-01

    Background A relationship of blood uric acid (UA) with hypertension and cardiovascular risk is under debate thus salt intake is hypothesized to contribute to such associations. Methods In this cross-sectional study, stratified cluster random sampling elicited a sample of 1805 Kazakhs with 92.4% compliance. Hypertension and moderate-or-high total cardiovascular risk (mTCR) were defined according to guidelines. Sodium intake was assessed by urinary sodium excretion. Prevalence ratios (PRs) were used to express associations of UA with hypertension and mTCR. Results In the highest tertile of sodium intake in women, the adjusted PRs (95% confidence intervals) of low to high quartiles compared with the lowest quartile of UA, were 1.22(0.78–1.91), 1.18(0.75–1.85), and 1.65(1.09–2.51) for hypertension and 1.19(0.74–1.90), 1.39(0.91–2.11), and 1.65(1.10–2.47) for mTCR (P for trend <0.05). However, these findings were not shown for other sodium intake levels. There were similar results in men. PRs markedly increased with a concomitant increase in UA and sodium intake and there was a significant interaction (P = 0.010) for mTCR with PRs of 1.69(1.10–2.60) for men and 3.70(2.09–6.52) for women in those with the highest compared with the lowest quartile of UA and tertile of sodium intake. Similar findings were shown for hypertension. Conclusions This study implied that a high salt intake may enhance the associations of UA with hypertension and cardiovascular risk. PMID:27042828

  6. Fatigue, Inflammation, and ω-3 and ω-6 Fatty Acid Intake Among Breast Cancer Survivors

    PubMed Central

    Alfano, Catherine M.; Imayama, Ikuyo; Neuhouser, Marian L.; Kiecolt-Glaser, Janice K.; Smith, Ashley Wilder; Meeske, Kathleen; McTiernan, Anne; Bernstein, Leslie; Baumgartner, Kathy B.; Ulrich, Cornelia M.; Ballard-Barbash, Rachel

    2012-01-01

    Purpose Evidence suggests that inflammation may drive fatigue in cancer survivors. Research in healthy populations has shown reduced inflammation with higher dietary intake of ω-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFAs), which could potentially reduce fatigue. This study investigated fatigue, inflammation, and intake of ω-3 and ω-6 PUFAs among breast cancer survivors. Methods Six hundred thirty-three survivors (mean age, 56 years; stage I to IIIA) participating in the Health, Eating, Activity, and Lifestyle Study completed a food frequency/dietary supplement questionnaire and provided a blood sample assayed for C-reactive protein (CRP) and serum amyloid A (30 months after diagnosis) and completed the Piper Fatigue Scale and Short Form-36 (SF-36) vitality scale (39 months after diagnosis). Analysis of covariance and logistic regression models tested relationships between inflammation and fatigue, inflammation and ω-3 and ω-6 PUFA intake, and PUFA intake and fatigue, controlling for three incremental levels of confounders. Fatigue was analyzed continuously (Piper scales) and dichotomously (SF-36 vitality ≤ 50). Results Behavioral (P = .003) and sensory (P = .001) fatigue scale scores were higher by increasing CRP tertile; relationships were attenuated after adjustment for medication use and comorbidity. Survivors with high CRP had 1.8 times greater odds of fatigue after full adjustment (P < .05). Higher intake of ω-6 relative to ω-3 PUFAs was associated with greater CRP (P = .01 after full adjustment) and greater odds of fatigue (odds ratio, 2.6 for the highest v lowest intake; P < .05). Conclusion Results link higher intake of ω-3 PUFAs, decreased inflammation, and decreased physical aspects of fatigue. Future studies should test whether ω-3 supplementation may reduce fatigue among significantly fatigued breast cancer survivors. PMID:22412148

  7. Effects of gamma-hydroxybutyric acid and flunitrazepam on ethanol intake in male rats.

    PubMed

    Leonard, Stuart T; Gerak, Lisa R; Gurkovskaya, Olga; Moerschbaecher, Joseph M; Winsauer, Peter J

    2006-12-01

    Both gamma-hydroxybutyric acid (GHB) and flunitrazepam are often used illicitly in combination with ethanol. Nevertheless, the effects that these and other drugs of abuse have on the reinforcing effects of ethanol remain inconclusive. To test the effects of GHB and flunitrazepam on contingent ethanol intake, twelve male Long-Evans rats were trained to orally consume ethanol using a saccharin-fading procedure. After training, all animals preferentially consumed ethanol instead of water at each of five ethanol concentrations (0-32%) when tested with a two-bottle preference test in the homecage. Animals then received a noncontingent dose of ethanol (0.32, 0.56, 1, and 1.33 g/kg), flunitrazepam (0.032, 0.1, and 0.32 mg/kg), or GHB (100, 180, 320, and 560 mg/kg) prior to each subject's daily access to ethanol (18% v/v). Noncontingent doses of ethanol decreased ethanol intake, however, the subjects consumed enough ethanol to maintain a consistent total ethanol dose in g/kg. Flunitrazepam did not affect ethanol intake at any dose tested, whereas GHB only affected intake at the highest dose (560 mg/kg), a dose that also produced sedation. These data suggest that there are perceptible or qualitative differences between GHB, flunitrazepam, and ethanol in terms of their capacity for modulating oral ethanol intake in outbred rats. PMID:17208286

  8. Folic Acid Intake and Neural Tube Defects: Two Egyptian Centers Experience.

    PubMed

    El-Shabrawi, Mortada H; Kamal, Naglaa Mohamed; Elhusseini, Mona Abbas; Hussein, Laila; Abdallah, Enas Abdallah Ali; Ali, Yahia Zakaria Abdelalim; Azab, Ahmed Abelfattah; Salama, Mostafa Abdelazim; Kassab, Muna; Krawinkel, Michael

    2015-09-01

    Neural tube defects (NTDs) are a group of congenital malformations with worldwide distribution and complex etiopathogenesis. Folic acid plays a pivotal role in their prevention. We aimed to identify the protective effect of folic acid intake against NTDs and its dependence on different socioeconomic and environmental factors in a cohort of mothers in Egypt. A cross-sectional study was carried over a period of 12 months on mothers who gave birth to babies with NTDs (group 1) and a control group with healthy offsprings (group 2). Both groups completed 2 questionnaires: food frequency questionnaire targeting the daily folate intake, and socioeconomic status and medical history questionnaire. Both groups of mothers received folate <800 μg/day, recommended for pregnant women. A strong association was detected between NTDs and urban residency with medium educated mothers, with negative consanguinity, who had folate intake < 400 μg daily, and who had their food long cooked. Each of these factors separately had a limited impact to cause NTDs, but when present together they did augment each other. Interestingly enough is the role of fava bean, cauliflower, spinach, and mango in predisposing of NTDs in the presence of the above-mentioned factors. The protective effect of folic acid intake against NTDs may depend on the synergism of different socioeconomic and environmental factors (which differ from country to another). In Egypt, females especially the medium-educated who live in urban areas should be well-informed with the value of folate intake in the periconceptional period. PMID:26376380

  9. Folic Acid Intake and Neural Tube Defects: Two Egyptian Centers Experience

    PubMed Central

    El-Shabrawi, Mortada H.; Kamal, Naglaa Mohamed; Elhusseini, Mona Abbas; Hussein, Laila; Abdallah, Enas Abdallah Ali; Ali, Yahia Zakaria Abdelalim; Azab, Ahmed Abelfattah; Salama, Mostafa Abdelazim; Kassab, Muna; Krawinkel, Michael

    2015-01-01

    Abstract Neural tube defects (NTDs) are a group of congenital malformations with worldwide distribution and complex etiopathogenesis. Folic acid plays a pivotal role in their prevention. We aimed to identify the protective effect of folic acid intake against NTDs and its dependence on different socioeconomic and environmental factors in a cohort of mothers in Egypt. A cross-sectional study was carried over a period of 12 months on mothers who gave birth to babies with NTDs (group 1) and a control group with healthy offsprings (group 2). Both groups completed 2 questionnaires: food frequency questionnaire targeting the daily folate intake, and socioeconomic status and medical history questionnaire. Both groups of mothers received folate <800 μg/day, recommended for pregnant women. A strong association was detected between NTDs and urban residency with medium educated mothers, with negative consanguinity, who had folate intake < 400 μg daily, and who had their food long cooked. Each of these factors separately had a limited impact to cause NTDs, but when present together they did augment each other. Interestingly enough is the role of fava bean, cauliflower, spinach, and mango in predisposing of NTDs in the presence of the above-mentioned factors. The protective effect of folic acid intake against NTDs may depend on the synergism of different socioeconomic and environmental factors (which differ from country to another). In Egypt, females especially the medium-educated who live in urban areas should be well-informed with the value of folate intake in the periconceptional period. PMID:26376380

  10. Oleic acid content of a meal promotes oleoylethanolamide response and reduces subsequent energy intake in humans.

    PubMed

    Mennella, Ilario; Savarese, Maria; Ferracane, Rosalia; Sacchi, Raffaele; Vitaglione, Paola

    2015-01-01

    Animal data suggest that dietary fat composition may influence endocannabinoid (EC) response and dietary behavior. This study tested the hypothesis that fatty acid composition of a meal can influence the short-term response of ECs and subsequent energy intake in humans. Fifteen volunteers on three occasions were randomly offered a meal containing 30 g of bread and 30 mL of one of three selected oils: sunflower oil (SO), high oleic sunflower oil (HOSO) and virgin olive oil (VOO). Plasma EC concentrations and appetite ratings over 2 h and energy intake over 24 h following the experimental meal were measured. Results showed that after HOSO and VOO consumption the circulating oleoylethanolamide (OEA) was significantly higher than after SO consumption; a concomitantly significant reduction of energy intake was found. For the first time the oleic acid content of a meal was demonstrated to increase the post-prandial response of circulating OEA and to reduce energy intake at subsequent meals in humans. PMID:25347552

  11. The effect of addition of linoleic acid on food intake regulation in linoleic acid tasters and linoleic acid non-tasters.

    PubMed

    Kamphuis, Marleen M J W; Saris, Wim H M; Westerterp-Plantenga, Margriet S

    2003-07-01

    In a randomised, single blind, placebo-controlled crossover design study, we investigated whether healthy, non-smoking, dietary unrestrained women (n 24), divided into linoleic acid tasters (LAT, n 14) and linoleic acid non-tasters (LANT, n 10), differed in food intake regulation when linoleic acid was added to ice creams. The determination of subjects as LAT or LANT was done using a 10 microm-linoleic acid solution. The ice creams were characterised by the subjects and a taste perception test using the triangle test was conducted three times. Food intake and appetite were measured using the universal eating monitor. LAT and LANT did not differ in characterisation or in taste perception of the ice creams, even though LAT were able to increase their ability to discriminate between the ice cream with linoleic acid from the one containing oleic acid. No effect of LAT status or type of ice cream was found for hedonic value of the ice creams. Linoleic acid taster status did affect food intake regulation. For LAT, but not LANT, the amount eaten was a function of Deltasatiety. Subjects ate by weight of food and not by energy content. In conclusion, differences in food intake regulation were seen between LAT and LANT, in that the amount eaten by LAT was a function of Deltasatiety, but was not for LANT. PMID:12844392

  12. THE COMBINATION OF α-LIPOIC ACID INTAKE WITH ECCENTRIC EXERCISE MODULATES ERYTHROPOIETIN RELEASE

    PubMed Central

    Morawin, B.; Turowski, D.; Naczk, M.; Siatkowski, I.

    2014-01-01

    The generation of reactive nitrogen/oxygen species (RN/OS) represents an important mechanism in erythropoietin (EPO) expression and skeletal muscle adaptation to physical and metabolic stress. RN/OS generation can be modulated by intense exercise and nutrition supplements such as α-lipoic acid, which demonstrates both anti- and pro-oxidative action. The study was designed to show the changes in the haematological response through the combination of α-lipoic acid intake with running eccentric exercise. Sixteen healthy young males participated in the randomised and placebo-controlled study. The exercise trial involved a 90-min run followed by a 15-min eccentric phase at 65% VO2max (-10% gradient). It significantly increased serum concentrations of nitric oxide (NO), hydrogen peroxide (H2O2) and pro-oxidative products such as 8-isoprostanes (8-iso), lipid peroxides (LPO) and protein carbonyls (PC). α-Lipoic acid intake (Thiogamma: 1200 mg daily for 10 days prior to exercise) resulted in a 2-fold elevation of serum H2O2 concentration before exercise, but it prevented the generation of NO, 8-iso, LPO and PC at 20 min, 24 h, and 48 h after exercise. α-Lipoic acid also elevated serum EPO level, which highly correlated with NO/H2O2 ratio (r = 0.718, P < 0.01). Serum total creatine kinase (CK) activity, as a marker of muscle damage, reached a peak at 24 h after exercise (placebo 732 ± 207 IU · L-1, α-lipoic acid 481 ± 103 IU · L-1), and correlated with EPO (r = 0.478, P < 0.01) in the α-lipoic acid group. In conclusion, the intake of high α-lipoic acid modulates RN/OS generation, enhances EPO release and reduces muscle damage after running eccentric exercise. PMID:25177095

  13. Perfluorinated carboxylic acids in human breast milk from Spain and estimation of infant's daily intake.

    PubMed

    Motas Guzmàn, Miguel; Clementini, Chiara; Pérez-Cárceles, Maria Dolores; Jiménez Rejón, Sandra; Cascone, Aurora; Martellini, Tania; Guerranti, Cristiana; Cincinelli, Alessandra

    2016-02-15

    Human milk samples were collected from 67 mothers in 2014 at a Primary Care Centre in Murcia (Spain) and analyzed for perfluorinated carboxylic acids (PFCAs). Concentrations measured for perfluorooctanoic acid (PFOA), perfluorononanoic acid (PFNA), perfluorodecanoic acid (PFDA), perfluoroundecanoic acid (PFUnDA) and perfluorododecanoic acid (PFDoDA) ranged from intakes and risk index (RI) were estimated for the first six months of life and we found that ingestion rates of PFOA did not exceed the tolerable daily intake (TDI) recommended by the European Food Safety Authority (EFSA). PMID:26674688

  14. Intake of Polyunsaturated Fatty Acids and Distal Large Bowel Cancer Risk in Whites and African Americans

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Sangmi; Sandler, Dale P.; Galanko, Joseph; Martin, Christopher; Sandler, Robert S.

    2010-01-01

    Long-chain ω-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFAs) may have antineoplastic properties in the colon. The authors examined the association between intakes of different PUFAs and distal large bowel cancer in a population-based case-control study of 1,503 whites (716 cases; 787 controls) and 369 African Americans (213 cases; 156 controls) in North Carolina (2001–2006). Unconditional logistic regression was used to estimate odds ratios and 95% confidence intervals for distal large bowel cancer risk in relation to quartiles of PUFA intake. Increased consumption of long-chain ω-3 PUFAs was associated with reduced risk of distal large bowel cancer in whites (multivariable odds ratios = 0.88 (95% confidence interval (CI): 0.63, 1.22), 0.69 (95% CI: 0.49, 0.98), and 0.49 (95% CI: 0.34, 0.71) for second, third, and highest vs. lowest quartile) (Ptrend < 0.01). Intake of individual eicosapentaenoic acids and docosahexaenoic acids was inversely related to distal large bowel cancer risk, whereas the ratio of ω-6 to long-chain ω-3 PUFAs was associated with increased risk of distal large bowel cancer in whites, but not among African Americans (Pinteraction < 0.05). Study results support the hypothesis that long-chain ω-3 PUFAs have beneficial effects in colorectal carcinogenesis. Whether or not the possible benefit of long-chain ω-3 PUFAs varies by race warrants further evaluation. PMID:20392864

  15. UNMETABOLIZED FOLIC ACID IN PLASMA IS ASSOCIATED WITH REDUCED NATURAL KILLER CELL CYTOTOXICITY AMONG POSTMENOPAUSAL WOMEN

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Folic acid (FA) supplements and food fortification are used to prevent neural tube defects and to lower plasma homocysteine. Through exposure to food fortification and vitamin supplement use, large populations in the USA and elsewhere have an unprecedented high FA intake. We evaluated dietary and su...

  16. Macronutrient intake, plasma large neutral amino acids and mood during weight-reducing diets.

    PubMed

    Schweiger, U; Laessle, R; Kittl, S; Dickhaut, B; Schweiger, M; Pirke, K M

    1986-01-01

    Influence of diet composition on mood during weight-reducing diets was studied in healthy young women of normal weight. A broad range of macronutrient intake was achieved by means of divergent dietary instructions for the composition of a 1,000 kcal per day diet adhered to for six weeks. Global mood during the last three weeks of the diet was significantly better in the "vegetarian" than in the "mixed" diet group. During this time a significant correlation was observed between relative carbohydrate intake and global mood (r = -0.74; p less than 0.01) and between the ratio of plasma tryptophan to other large neutral amino acids (a predictor of tryptophan flow into brain) and global mood (r = -0.52; p less than 0.05). Results suggest that group differences are related to differences in carbohydrate intake. It is hypothesized that impairment of central serotonergic function due to reduced tryptophan availability can prompt mood deterioration in situations of relatively low carbohydrate intake. PMID:3783150

  17. The Effects of Hempseed Meal Intake and Linoleic Acid on Drosophila Models of Neurodegenerative Diseases and Hypercholesterolemia

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Min Jung; Park, Seung Hwan; Han, Ju Hua; Hong, Yoon Ki; Hwang, Soojin; Lee, Soojin; Kim, Darae; Han, Seung Yeop; Kim, Eun Soo; Cho, Kyoung Sang

    2011-01-01

    Hempseed is rich in polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFAs), which have potential as therapeutic compounds for the treatment of neurodegenerative and cardiovascular dis-ease. However, the effect of hempseed meal (HSM) intake on the animal models of these diseases has yet to be elucidated. In this study, we assessed the effects of the intake of HSM and PUFAs on oxidative stress, cytotoxicity and neurological phenotypes, and cholesterol uptake, using Drosophila models. HSM intake was shown to reduce H2O2 toxicity markedly, indicating that HSM exerts a profound antioxidant effect. Meanwhile, intake of HSM, as well as linoleic or linolenic acids (major PUFA components of HSM) was shown to ameliorate Aβ42-induced eye degeneration, thus suggesting that these compounds exert a protective effect against Aβ42 cytotoxicity. On the contrary, locomotion and longevity in the Parkinson’s disease model andeye degeneration in the Huntington’s disease model were unaffected by HSM feeding. Additionally, intake of HSM or linoleic acid was shown to reduce cholesterol uptake significantly. Moreover, linoleic acid intake has been shown to delay pupariation, and cholesterol feeding rescued the linoleic acid-induced larval growth delay, thereby indicating that linoleic acid acts antagonistically with cholesterol during larval growth. In conclusion, our results indicate that HSM and linoleic acid exert inhibitory effects on both Aβ42 cytotoxicity and cholesterol uptake, and are potential candidates for the treatment of Alzheimer’s disease and cardiovasculardisease. PMID:21331775

  18. Hypothesis: Could Excessive Fructose Intake and Uric Acid Cause Type 2 Diabetes?

    PubMed Central

    Johnson, Richard J.; Perez-Pozo, Santos E.; Sautin, Yuri Y.; Manitius, Jacek; Sanchez-Lozada, Laura Gabriela; Feig, Daniel I.; Shafiu, Mohamed; Segal, Mark; Glassock, Richard J.; Shimada, Michiko; Roncal, Carlos; Nakagawa, Takahiko

    2009-01-01

    We propose that excessive fructose intake (>50 g/d) may be one of the underlying etiologies of metabolic syndrome and type 2 diabetes. The primary sources of fructose are sugar (sucrose) and high fructose corn syrup. First, fructose intake correlates closely with the rate of diabetes worldwide. Second, unlike other sugars, the ingestion of excessive fructose induces features of metabolic syndrome in both laboratory animals and humans. Third, fructose appears to mediate the metabolic syndrome in part by raising uric acid, and there are now extensive experimental and clinical data supporting uric acid in the pathogenesis of metabolic syndrome. Fourth, environmental and genetic considerations provide a potential explanation of why certain groups might be more susceptible to developing diabetes. Finally, we discuss the counterarguments associated with the hypothesis and a potential explanation for these findings. If diabetes might result from excessive intake of fructose, then simple public health measures could have a major impact on improving the overall health of our populace. PMID:19151107

  19. Estimated macronutrient and fatty acid intakes from an East African Paleolithic diet.

    PubMed

    Kuipers, Remko S; Luxwolda, Martine F; Dijck-Brouwer, D A Janneke; Eaton, S Boyd; Crawford, Michael A; Cordain, Loren; Muskiet, Frits A J

    2010-12-01

    Our genome adapts slowly to changing conditions of existence. Many diseases of civilisation result from mismatches between our Paleolithic genome and the rapidly changing environment, including our diet. The objective of the present study was to reconstruct multiple Paleolithic diets to estimate the ranges of nutrient intakes upon which humanity evolved. A database of, predominantly East African, plant and animal foods (meat/fish) was used to model multiple Paleolithic diets, using two pathophysiological constraints (i.e. protein < 35 energy % (en%) and linoleic acid (LA) >1.0 en%), at known hunter-gatherer plant/animal food intake ratios (range 70/30-30/70 en%/en%). We investigated selective and non-selective savannah, savannah/aquatic and aquatic hunter-gatherer/scavenger foraging strategies. We found (range of medians in en%) intakes of moderate-to-high protein (25-29), moderate-to-high fat (30-39) and moderate carbohydrates (39-40). The fatty acid composition was SFA (11.4-12.0), MUFA (5.6-18.5) and PUFA (8.6-15.2). The latter was high in α-linolenic acid (ALA) (3.7-4.7 en%), low in LA (2.3-3.6 en%), and high in long-chain PUFA (LCP; 4.75-25.8 g/d), LCP n-3 (2.26-17.0 g/d), LCP n-6 (2.54-8.84 g/d), ALA/LA ratio (1.12-1.64 g/g) and LCP n-3/LCP n-6 ratio (0.84-1.92 g/g). Consistent with the wide range of employed variables, nutrient intakes showed wide ranges. We conclude that compared with Western diets, Paleolithic diets contained consistently higher protein and LCP, and lower LA. These are likely to contribute to the known beneficial effects of Paleolithic-like diets, e.g. through increased satiety/satiation. Disparities between Paleolithic, contemporary and recommended intakes might be important factors underlying the aetiology of common Western diseases. Data on Paleolithic diets and lifestyle, rather than the investigation of single nutrients, might be useful for the rational design of clinical trials. PMID:20860883

  20. Hippuric acid in 24 h urine collections as a biomarker of fruits and vegetables intake in kidney stone formers.

    PubMed

    Guerra, Angela; Folesani, Giuseppina; Mena, Pedro; Ticinesi, Andrea; Allegri, Franca; Nouvenne, Antonio; Pinelli, Silvana; Del Rio, Daniele; Borghi, Loris; Meschi, Tiziana

    2014-12-01

    This work aimed to underline the prospects of hippuric acid, a product of the metabolism of polyphenols, as a new biomarker of fruits and vegetables intake associated with lithogenic risk. Biochemical parameters of lithogenic risk and hippuric acid were measured in the 24 h urine collections of a cohort of 696 Italian kidney stone formers divided into two subgroups according to their different dietary habits. The link between lithogenic risk parameters and hippuric acid was assessed and this compound was revealed as a valuable biomarker of fruits and vegetables intake in kidney stone formers. A cut-off value of urinary excretion of hippuric acid, 300 mg/24 h, was set as the threshold of discrimination between low and high intake of fruits and vegetables for these patients. These results highlight the importance of monitoring of the excretion hippuric acid in urine to address proper dietary guidelines for the management of stone former patients. PMID:25198158

  1. Effects of increasing docosahexaenoic acid intake in human healthy volunteers on lymphocyte activation and monocyte apoptosis

    PubMed Central

    Mebarek, Saïda; Ermak, Natalia; Benzaria, Amal; Vicca, Stéphanie; Dubois, Madeleine; Némoz, Georges; Laville, Martine; Lacour, Bernard; Véricel, Evelyne; Lagarde, Michel; Prigent, Annie-France

    2009-01-01

    Dietary intake of long-chain n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids (n-3 PUFA) has been reported to decrease several markers of lymphocyte activation and modulate monocyte susceptibility to apoptosis. However most human studies examined the combined effect of docosahexaenoic acid (DHA) and eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA) using relatively high daily amounts of n-3 PUFA. The present study investigated the effects of increasing doses of DHA added to the regular diet of human healthy volunteers on lymphocyte response to tetradecanoylphorbol acetate (TPA) plus ionomycin activation, and on monocyte apoptosis induced by oxidized LDL (oxLDL). Eight subjects were supplemented with increasing daily doses of DHA (200, 400, 800 and 1600mg) in a triacylglycerol form containing DHA as the only PUFA, for two weeks each dose. DHA intake dose-dependently increased the proportion of DHA in mononuclear cell phospholipids, the augmentation being significant after 400mg DHA/day. The TPA plus ionomycin-stimulated IL-2 mRNA level started to increase after ingestion of 400mg DHA/day, with a maximum after 800mg intake, and was positively correlated (P<0.003) with DHA enrichment in cell phospholipids. The treatment of monocytes by oxLDL before DHA supplementation drastically reduced mitochondrial membrane potential as compared with native LDL treatment. OxLDL apoptotic effect was significantly attenuated after 400mg DHA/day and the protective effect was maintained throughout the experiment, although to a lesser extent at higher doses. The present results show that supplementation of the human diet with low DHA dosages improves lymphocyte activability. It also increases monocyte resistance to oxLDL-induced apoptosis, which may be beneficial in the prevention of atherosclerosis. PMID:18710607

  2. Folate/Folic Acid Knowledge, Intake, and Self-Efficacy of College-Aged Women: Impact of Text Messaging and Availability of a Folic Acid-Containing Supplement

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rampersaud, Gail C.; Sokolow, Andrew; Gruspe, Abigail; Colee, James C.; Kauwell, Gail P. A.

    2016-01-01

    Objective: To evaluate the impact of educational text messages (TMs) on folate/folic acid knowledge and consumption among college-aged women, and to evaluate the impact of providing folic acid supplements on folate/folic acid intake among college-aged women. Participants: A total of 162 women (18-24 years) recruited from a university. Methods: The…

  3. Meta-Analysis of Saturated Fatty Acid Intake and Breast Cancer Risk.

    PubMed

    Xia, Hui; Ma, Shushu; Wang, Shaokang; Sun, Guiju

    2015-12-01

    The associations between saturated fatty acid (SFA) consumption and risk of breast cancer (BC) remains inconclusive. Therefore, we conducted this meta-analysis to determine the quantitative relations between dietary SFA intake and incidence of BC.Literatures published up to April 2015 were systematically screened through Pubmed and Web of Science. Relevant publication quality was evaluated by conducting the Newcastle-Ottawa scale. We used fixed effects models or random effect models to calculate the summary relative risks (RRs) and odds ratios (ORs), and conducted sensitivity analyses and evaluated the publication bias.We identified a total of 52 studies (24 cohort studies and 28 case-control studies), with over 50,000 females diagnosed with BC. The associations between dietary SFA intake and risk of BC were 1.18 for case-control studies (high vs low intake, 95% confidence interval [CI] = 1.03-1.34) and 1.04 for cohort studies (95% CI = 0.97-1.11). When restricted analyses to population-based studies, positive associations were observed for both cohort (RR [95% CI] = 1.11 [1.01-1.21]) and case-control studies (OR [95% CI] = 1.26 [1.03-1.53]). Additionally, for case-control studies, significant positive associations between higher SFA intake and BC risk were observed for Asian (OR [95% CI] = 1.17 [1.02-1.34]) and Caucasian (OR [95% CI] = 1.19 [1.00-1.41]), as well as for postmenopausal women (OR = 1.33, 95% CI: 1.02-1.73). In contrast, higher dietary SFA intake was not associated with risk of BC among premenopausal women, in cohort studies or hospital-based studies.A positive association between higher dietary SFA intake and postmenopausal BC risk was observed in case-control but not in cohort studies. More studies are warranted to confirm these findings. PMID:26717389

  4. Folic acid supplementation in pregnancy and implications in health and disease

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Maternal exposure to dietary factors during pregnancy can influence embryonic development and may modulate the phenotype of offspring through epigenetic programming. Folate is critical for nucleotide synthesis, and preconceptional intake of dietary folic acid (FA) is credited with reduced incidences of neural tube defects in infants. While fortification of grains with FA resulted in a positive public-health outcome, concern has been raised for the need for further investigation of unintended consequences and potential health hazards arising from excessive FA intakes, especially following reports that FA may exert epigenetic effects. The objective of this article is to discuss the role of FA in human health and to review the benefits, concerns and epigenetic effects of maternal FA on the basis of recent findings that are important to design future studies. PMID:25135350

  5. The Relationship Between Dietary Intakes of Amino Acids and Bone Mineral Density Among Individuals with Spinal Cord Injury

    PubMed Central

    Sabour, Hadis; Nazari, Maryam; Latifi, Sahar; Soltani, Zahra; Shakeri, Hania; Larijani, Bagher; Ghodsi, Seyed-Mohammad; Razavi, Seyed-Hassan Emami

    2016-01-01

    Objectives The effect of dietary protein intake on bone mineral density (BMD) has not been explained in patients with spinal cord injury (SCI). In this study, we looked at the relationship between BMD and higher protein intake in patients with SCI while controlling for possible confounders. Methods Patients with SCI, who were referred to the Brain and Spinal Cord Injury Research Center between November 2010 and April 2012, were included in the study. In total, the dietary intakes of 103 patients were assessed by 24–hour dietary recall interviews. We used dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry to measure BMD in the femoral neck, trochanter, intertrochanteric zone, hip, and lumbar vertebras. Results Eighty-six men and 17 women participated in this study. Protein intake was negatively associated with the BMD of lumbar vertebrae (p = 0.001, r = –0.37 for T-score and p = 0.030, r = –0.24 for Z-score). The BMD of lumbar vertebrae were negatively associated with intake of tryptophan, isoleucine, lysine, cysteine, and tyrosine (p = 0.007, 0.005, 0.009, 0.008, and 0.008 for T-score, respectively). Higher intakes of threonine, leucine, methionine, phenylalanine, valine, and histidine were related to a lower BMD of lumbar vertebrae (p = 0.006, 0.010, 0.009, 0.010, 0.009, and 0.008 respectively for T-scores). Conclusions We found that high protein intake led to a lower BMD of lumbar vertebrae in patients with SCI after controlling for confounders including demographic and injury-related characteristics and calcium intake. No relationship between higher amino acids intake and BMD of the femur and hip was detected. Intake of alanine, arginine, and aspartic acid were not related to BMD. PMID:26816565

  6. Trans fatty acid intakes and food sources in the U.S. population: NHANES 1999-2002.

    PubMed

    Kris-Etherton, Penny M; Lefevre, Michael; Mensink, Ronald P; Petersen, Barbara; Fleming, Jennifer; Flickinger, Brent D

    2012-10-01

    Because of efforts to decrease trans fatty acids (TFA) in the food supply, intake should be assessed in the population to establish a baseline TFA intake. The 1999-2002 National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES) was used to identify a benchmark for TFA intake. TFA was estimated by mean, median, and quintile of intake, TFA intake data were weighted using the NHANES 4-year sample weights. The main outcome measures included TFA intake in grams per day and percentage of energy in the top 25 food sources of TFA. Data are reported for 16,669 individuals ≥ 3 years of age. Median TFA intake was 2.3 % of calories (5 g/day) with 0.9-4.5 % of energy (1.5-13.1 g/day) over different quintiles of intake. Mean TFA intake was 2.5 % of energy (6.1 g/day). The range of TFA intake in the fifth quintile was very large, i.e., 3.5-12.5 % of energy or 8.8-92.4 g/day. Increasing quintiles of TFA intake were associated with increases in total fat (26.7-37.6 % of energy), saturated fat (7.6-10.5 % of energy), and calories (for those >20 years of age: 2,416-2,583 for men and 1,679-1,886 for women). Major food sources of dietary TFA were cakes, cookies, pies, and pastries. Based on current dietary guidance to consume as little industrial TFA as possible, much progress is needed to attain this goal, including food industry efforts to remove TFA from the food supply and educating the public about making healthy food choices. PMID:22903556

  7. Keloids in rural black South Africans. Part 2: dietary fatty acid intake and total phospholipid fatty acid profile in the blood of keloid patients.

    PubMed

    Louw, L; Dannhauser, A

    2000-11-01

    In the second part of this study, emphasis is placed on nutritional intakes (fatty acids and micronutrients) and fatty acid intake and metabolism in the blood, respectively, according to a combined 24 h recall and standardized food frequency questionnaire analyses of keloid prone patients (n=10), compared with normal black South Africans (n=80), and total phospholipid blood (plasma and red blood cell ) analyses of keloid patients (n=20), compared with normal individuals (n=20). Lipid extraction and fractionation by standard procedures, total phospholipid (TPL) separation with thin layer chromatography, and fatty acid methyl ester analyses with gas liquid chromatography techniques were used. Since nutrition may play a role in several disease disorders, the purpose of this study was to confirm or refute a role for essential fatty acids (EFAs) in the hypothesis of keloid formations stated in part 1 of this study. (1)According to the Canadian recommendation (1991), we observed that in keloid patients linoleic acid (LA) and arachidonic acid (AA) dietary intakes, as EFAs of the omega-6-series, are higher than the recommended 7-11 g/d. However, the a-linolenic acid (ALA), eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA) and docosahexaenoic acid (DHA) dietary intakes, as EFAs of the omega-3 series, are lower than the recommendation of 1.1-1.5 g/d. This was also the case in the control group, where a higher dietary intake of the omega-6 fatty acids and a slightly lower dietary intake of the omega-3 fatty acids occurred. Thus, we confirm a high dietary intake of LA (as a product of organ meats, diary products and many vegetable oils) and AA (as a product of meats and egg yolks), as well as lower dietary intakes of ALA (as a product of grains, green leafy vegetables, soy oil, rapeseed oil and linseed), and EPA and DHA (as products of marine oils). Lower micronutrient intakes than the recommended dietary allowances were observed in the keloid group that may influence EFA metabolism and/or collagen

  8. Intake of small-to-medium-chain saturated fatty acids is associated with peripheral leukocyte telomere length in postmenopausal women.

    PubMed

    Song, Yan; You, Nai-Chieh Y; Song, Yiqing; Kang, Mo K; Hou, Lifang; Wallace, Robert; Eaton, Charles B; Tinker, Lesley F; Liu, Simin

    2013-06-01

    Dietary factors, including dietary fat, may affect the biological aging process, as reflected by the shortening of telomere length (TL), by affecting levels of oxidative stress and inflammatory responses. We examined the direct relations of total and types of dietary fats and fat-rich foods to peripheral leukocyte TL. In 4029 apparently healthy postmenopausal women who participated in the Women's Health Initiative, intakes of total fat, individual fatty acids, and fat-rich foods were assessed by a questionnaire. TL was measured by quantitative polymerase chain reaction. Intake of short-to-medium-chain saturated fatty acids (SMSFAs; aliphatic tails of ≤ 12 carbons) was inversely associated with TL. Compared with participants in other quartiles of SMSFA intake, women who were in the highest quartile (median: 1.29% of energy) had shorter TLs [mean: 4.00 kb (95% CI: 3.89, 4.11 kb)], whereas women in the lowest quartile of intake (median: 0.29% of energy) had longer TLs [mean: 4.13 kb (95% CI: 4.03, 4.24 kb); P-trend = 0.046]. Except for lauric acid, all other individual SMSFAs were inversely associated with TL (P < 0.05). In isoenergetic substitution models, the substitution of 1% of energy from SMSFAs with any other energy source was associated with 119 bp longer TLs (95% CI: 21, 216 bp). Intakes of nonskim milk, butter, and whole-milk cheese (major sources of SMSFAs) were all inversely associated with TL. No significant associations were found with long-chain saturated fatty acids, monounsaturated fatty acids, and polyunsaturated fatty acids. In conclusion, we found that higher intakes of SMSFAs and SMSFA-rich foods were associated with shorter peripheral leukocyte TL among postmenopausal women. These findings suggest the potential roles of SMSFAs in the rate of biological aging. PMID:23616516

  9. Comparison between omega-3 and omega-6 polyunsaturated fatty acid intakes as assessed by a food frequency questionnaire and erythrocyte membrane fatty acid composition in young children

    PubMed Central

    Orton, Heather D.; Szabo, Nancy J.; Clare-Salzler, Michael; Norris, Jill M.

    2010-01-01

    Objective We conducted a dietary validation study in youth aged 1 to 11 years by comparing dietary intake of omega-3 and omega-6 polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFA) as assessed by a parent-completed semi-quantitative food frequency questionnaire (FFQ) over time to erythrocyte membrane composition of the same fatty acids. Design The study population included youth aged 1 to 11 years who were participants in the Diabetes Autoimmunity Study in the Young (DAISY), a longitudinal study in Denver, Colorado that is following a cohort of youth at risk for developing Type I diabetes. Four hundred four children who had erythrocyte membrane fatty acid data matched to an FFQ corresponding to the same time frame for a total of 917 visits (matches) were included. PUFA intake was expressed as both g/day (adjusted for total energy) and as percent of total fat intake. We used mixed models to test the association and calculate the correlation between the erythrocyte membrane estimates and PUFA intake using all records of data for each youth. Results Intakes of total omega-3 fatty acids (β=0.52, p<0.0001, ρ=0.23) and marine PUFAs (β=1.62, p<0.0001, ρ=0.42), as a percent of total fat in the diet, were associated with percent of omega-3 and marine PUFAs in the erythrocyte membrane. Intakes of omega-6 PUFAs (β=0.04, p=0.418, ρ=0.05) and arachidonic acid (β=0.31, p=0.774, ρ=0.01) were not associated. Conclusions In these young children, a FFQ using parental report provided estimates of average long-term intakes of marine PUFAs that correlated well with their erythrocyte cell membrane fatty acid status. PMID:17440518

  10. Mass spectrometry of the lithium adducts of diacylglycerols containing hydroxy FA in castor oil and two normal FA

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Castor oil can be used in industry. The molecular species of triacylglycerols containing hydroxy fatty acids (FA) in castor oil have been identified. We report here the identification of twelve diacylglycerols (DAG) containing hydroxy FA in castor oil using positive ion electrospray ionization mass ...

  11. The effects of changing dairy intake on trans and saturated fatty acid levels- results from a randomized controlled study

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Dairy food is an important natural source of saturated and trans fatty acids in the human diet. This study evaluates the effect of dietary advice to change dairy food intake on plasma fatty acid levels known to be present in milk in healthy volunteers. Methods Twenty one samples of whole fat dairy milk were analyzed for fatty acids levels. Changes in levels of plasma phospholipid levels were evaluated in 180 healthy volunteers randomized to increase, not change or reduce dairy intake for one month. Fatty acids were measured by gas chromatography–mass spectrometry and levels are normalized to d-4 alanine. Results The long chain fatty acids palmitic (13.4%), stearic (16.7%) and myristic (18.9%) acid were most common saturated fats in milk. Four trans fatty acids constituted 3.7% of the total milk fat content. Increased dairy food intake by 3.0 (± 1.2) serves/ day for 1 month was associated with small increases in plasma levels of myristic (+0.05, 95% confidence level-0.08 to 0.13, p = 0.07), pentadecanoic (+0.014, 95% confidence level -0.016 to 0.048, p = 0.02) and margaric acid (+0.02, -0.03 to 0.05, p = 0.03). There was no significant change in plasma levels of 4 saturated, 4 trans and 10 unsaturated fatty acids. Decreasing dairy food intake by 2.5 (± 1.2) serves per day was not associated with change in levels of any plasma fatty acid levels. Conclusion Dietary advice to change dairy food has a minor effect on plasma fatty acid levels. Trial registration ACTRN12612000574842. PMID:24708591

  12. Lower vegetable protein intake and higher dietary acid load associated with lower carbohydrate intake are risk factors for metabolic syndrome in patients with type 2 diabetes: Post-hoc analysis of a cross-sectional study

    PubMed Central

    Iwase, Hiroya; Tanaka, Muhei; Kobayashi, Yukiko; Wada, Sayori; Kuwahata, Masashi; Kido, Yasuhiro; Hamaguchi, Masahide; Asano, Mai; Yamazaki, Masahiro; Hasegawa, Goji; Nakamura, Naoto; Fukui, Michiaki

    2015-01-01

    Aims/Introduction A low-carbohydrate diet based on animal sources is associated with higher all-cause mortality, whereas a vegetable-based low-carbohydrate diet is associated with lower cardiovascular disease mortality. It has been suggested that acid/base imbalance might play an important role in some cardiometabolic abnormalities. The aims of the present study were to evaluate whether carbohydrate intake is associated with quality of dietary protein and acid load, and whether these are related to metabolic syndrome in patients with type 2 diabetes. Materials and Methods The present cross-sectional study involved 149 patients with type 2 diabetes. Dietary intake was assessed using a validated self-administered diet history questionnaire. Dietary acid load was assessed by potential renal acid load and net endogenous acid production. Results Mean daily total energy intake, carbohydrate intake, animal protein intake and vegetable protein intake were 1821.5 kcal, 248.8 g, 36.1 g and 31.1 g, respectively. Carbohydrate energy/total energy was negatively correlated with animal protein energy/total energy, potential renal acid load or net endogenous acid production score, and was positively correlated with vegetable protein energy/total energy. Logistic regression analyses showed that the subgroup of patients with a lower vegetable protein energy/total energy or higher potential renal acid load or net endogenous acid production score was significantly associated with the prevalence of metabolic syndrome. Conclusions The present study showed that carbohydrate intake was associated with the quality of dietary protein and dietary acid load. Furthermore, decreased vegetable protein intake and increased dietary acid load were associated with the prevalence of metabolic syndrome. PMID:26221526

  13. Medium-chain triglycerides and conjugated linoleic acids in beverage form increase satiety and reduce food intake in humans.

    PubMed

    Coleman, Hannah; Quinn, Paul; Clegg, Miriam E

    2016-06-01

    Both developed and developing countries are seeing increasing trends of obesity in people young and old. It is thought that satiety may play a role in the prevention of obesity by increasing satiety and reducing energy intake. We hypothesized that medium-chain triglycerides (MCT) would increase satiety and decrease food intake compared with conjugated linoleic acid (CLA) and a control oil. Nineteen healthy participants were tested on 3 separate occasions, where they consumed a beverage test breakfast containing (1) vegetable oil (control), (2) CLA, or (3) MCT. Participants self-requested an ad libitum sandwich buffet lunch. Time between meals, satiety from visual analog scales, energy intake at lunch, and intake for the rest of the day using weighed food diaries were measured. The results indicated that the time until a meal request was significantly different between the 3 meals (P=.016); however, there were no differences in intakes at the ad libitum lunch (P>.05). The CLA breakfast generated the greatest delay in meal time request. There was a difference between the control lipid compared with both the CLA and MCT for energy intake over the remainder of the test day and for total energy intake on the test day (P<.001 for both), with the CLA and MCT resulting in a lower intake than the control throughout the day. There were no significant differences in satiety from visual analog scale scores (P>.05). Both CLA and MCT increased satiety and reduced energy intake, indicating a potential role in aiding the maintenance of energy balance. PMID:27188898

  14. Long-chain ω-3 fatty acid intake and endometrial cancer risk in the Women’s Health Initiative12345

    PubMed Central

    Brasky, Theodore M; Rodabough, Rebecca J; Liu, Jingmin; Kurta, Michelle L; Wise, Lauren A; Orchard, Tonya S; Cohn, David E; Belury, Martha A; White, Emily; Manson, JoAnn E; Neuhouser, Marian L

    2015-01-01

    Background: Inflammation may be important in endometrial cancer development. Long-chain ω-3 (n–3) polyunsaturated fatty acids (LCω-3PUFAs) may reduce inflammation and, therefore, reduce cancer risk. Because body mass is associated with both inflammation and endometrial cancer risk, it may modify the association of fat intake on risk. Objective: We examined whether intakes of LCω-3PUFAs were associated with endometrial cancer risk overall and stratified by body size and histologic subtype. Design: Women were n = 87,360 participants of the Women’s Health Initiative Observational Study and Clinical Trials who were aged 50–79 y, had an intact uterus, and completed a baseline food-frequency questionnaire. After 13 y of follow-up, n = 1253 incident invasive endometrial cancers were identified. Cox regression models were used to estimate HRs and 95% CIs for the association of intakes of individual ω-3 fatty acids and fish with endometrial cancer risk. Results: Intakes of individual LCω-3PUFAs were associated with 15–23% linear reductions in endometrial cancer risk. In women with body mass index (BMI; in kg/m2) <25, those in the upper compared with lowest quintiles of total LCω-3PUFA intake (sum of eicosapentaenoic, docosapentaenoic, and docosahexaenoic acids) had significantly reduced endometrial cancer risk (HR: 0.59; 95% CI: 0.40, 0.82; P-trend = 0.001), whereas there was little evidence of an association in overweight or obese women. The reduction in risk observed in normal-weight women was further specific to type I cancers. Conclusions: Long-chain ω-3 intake was associated with reduced endometrial cancer risk only in normal-weight women. Additional studies that use biomarkers of ω-3 intake are needed to more accurately estimate their effects on endometrial cancer risk. This trial was registered at clinicaltrials.gov as NCT00000611. PMID:25739930

  15. Validity of a Self-Administered Food-Frequency Questionnaire for Assessing Amino Acid Intake in Japan: Comparison With Intake From 4-Day Weighed Dietary Records and Plasma Levels

    PubMed Central

    Iwasaki, Motoki; Ishihara, Junko; Takachi, Ribeka; Todoriki, Hidemi; Yamamoto, Hiroshi; Miyano, Hiroshi; Yamaji, Taiki; Tsugane, Shoichiro

    2016-01-01

    Background Interest in the physiological roles of amino acids and their impact on health outcomes is substantial and growing. This interest has prompted assessment of the habitual intake of amino acids for use in epidemiologic studies and in clarifying the association between habitual intake and plasma levels of amino acids. Here, we investigated the validity of ranking individuals according to dietary amino acid intake as estimated using a food frequency questionnaire (FFQ) in comparison with intakes from dietary records (DRs) and plasma levels. Methods A total of 139 men and women selected from examinees of the cancer screening program at the Research Center for Cancer Prevention and Screening, National Cancer Center, Japan, provided 4-day weighed DRs, a semi-quantitative FFQ, and plasma samples. Plasma levels of amino acids were measured using the UF-Amino Station system. Results Spearman rank correlation coefficients of energy-adjusted intake of amino acids from the DR and FFQ ranged from 0.40 to 0.65 for men and from 0.35 to 0.46 for women. Correlation coefficients of energy-adjusted intake from the DR and plasma levels ranged from −0.40 to 0.25 for men and from −0.16 to 0.11 for women. Similarly, no significant positive correlation coefficients were observed between intake from the FFQ and plasma levels for either men or women. Conclusions We confirmed that this FFQ has moderate validity in estimating amino acid intake when 4-day weighed DRs are used as a reference method, suggesting that it is suitable for ranking individuals living in urban areas in Japan by amino acid intake. PMID:26277881

  16. BRAIN-SPECIFIC CARNITINE PALMITOYLTRANSFERASE-1C: ROLE IN CNS FATTY ACID METABOLISM, FOOD INTAKE AND BODY WEIGHT

    PubMed Central

    Wolfgang, Michael J.; Cha, Seung Hun; Millington, David S.; Cline, Gary; Shulman, Gerald I; Suwa, Akira; Asaumi, Makoto; Kurama, Takeshi; Shimokawa, Teruhiko; Lane, M. Daniel

    2014-01-01

    While the brain does not utilize fatty acids as a primary energy source, recent evidence shows that intermediates of fatty acid metabolism serve as hypothalamic sensors of energy status. Increased hypothalamic malonyl-CoA, an intermediate in fatty acid synthesis, is indicative of energy surplus and leads to the suppression of food intake and increased energy expenditure. Malonyl-CoA functions as an inhibitor of CPT1, a mitochondrial outer membrane enzyme that initiates translocation of fatty acids into mitochondria for oxidation. The mammalian brain expresses a unique homologous CPT1, CPT1c, that binds malonyl-CoA tightly but does not support fatty acid oxidation in vivo, in hypothalamic explants or in heterologous cell culture systems. CPT1c KO mice under fasted or refed conditions do not exhibit an altered CNS transcriptome of genes known to be involved in fatty acid metabolism. CPT1c KO mice exhibit normal levels of metabolites and of hypothalamic malonyl-CoA and fatty acyl-CoA levels either in the fasted or refed states. However, CPT1c KO mice exhibit decreased food intake and lower body weight than WT littermates. In contrast, CPT1c KO mice gain excessive body weight and body fat when fed a high-fat diet while maintaining lower or equivalent food intake. Heterozygous mice display an intermediate phenotype. These findings provide further evidence that CPT1c plays a role in maintaining energy homeostasis, but not through altered fatty acid oxidation. PMID:18248603

  17. Altered Preconception Fatty Acid Intake Is Associated with Improved Pregnancy Rates in Overweight and Obese Women Undertaking in Vitro Fertilisation.

    PubMed

    Moran, Lisa J; Tsagareli, Victoria; Noakes, Manny; Norman, Robert

    2016-01-01

    Maternal preconception diet is proposed to affect fertility. Prior research assessing the effect of altering the fatty acid profile on female fertility is conflicting. The aim of this study was to assess the effect of preconception maternal diet, specifically fatty acid profile, on pregnancies and live births following in vitro fertilisation (IVF). Forty-six overweight and obese women undergoing IVF were randomised to a diet and physical activity intervention (intervention) or standard care (control). Outcome measures included pregnancy, live birth and pre-study dietary intake from food frequency questionnaire. Twenty pregnancies (n = 12/18 vs. n = 8/20, p = 0.12) and 12 live births (n = 7/18 vs. n = 5/20, p = 0.48) occurred following the intervention with no differences between the treatment groups. On analysis adjusted for BMI and smoking status, women who became pregnant had higher levels of polyunsaturated fatty acid (PUFA) intake (p = 0.03), specifically omega-6 PUFA and linoleic acid (LA) (p = 0.045) with a trend for an elevated intake of omega-3 PUFA (p = 0.06). There were no dietary differences for women who did or did not have a live birth. Maternal preconception PUFA, and specifically omega-6 and LA intake, are associated with improved pregnancy rates in overweight and obese women undergoing IVF. This has implications for optimising fertility through preconception nutrition. PMID:26742065

  18. Intake of Fish and Omega-3 (n-3) Fatty Acids: Effect on Humans During Actual and Simulated Weightlessness

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Smith, S. M.; Pierson, D. L.; Mehta, S. K.; Zwart, S. R.

    2011-01-01

    Space flight has many negative effects on human physiology, including bone and muscle loss. Bone and muscle are two systems that are positively affected by dietary intake of fish and n-3 fatty acids. The mechanism is likely to be related to inhibition by n-3 fatty acids of inflammatory cytokines (such as TNF) and thus inhibition of downstream NF-kB activation. We have documented this effect in a 3-dimensional cell culture model, where NF-kB activation in osteoclasts was inhibited by eicosapentaenoic acid, an n-3 fatty acid. We have also indentified that NF-kB activation in peripheral blood mononuclear cells of Space Shuttle crews. We found that after Shuttle flights of 2 wk, expression of the protein p65 (evidence of NF-kB activation) was increased at landing (P less than 0.001). When evaluating the effects of n-3 fatty acid intake on bone breakdown after 60 d of bed rest (a weightlessness analog). We found that after 60 d of bed rest, greater intake of n-3 fatty acids was associated with less N-telopeptide excretion (Pearson r = -0.62, P less than 0.05). We also evaluated the relationship of fish intake and bone loss in astronauts after 4 to 6 mo missions on the International Space Station. Higher consumption of fish during flight was associated with higher bone mineral density (Pearson r = 0.46, P less than 0.05). Together, these findings provide evidence of the cellular mechanism by which n-3 fatty acids can inhibit bone loss, and preliminary human evidence of the potential for n-3 fatty acids to counteract bone loss associated with space flight. This study was supported by the NASA Human Research Program.

  19. Estimation of Trans Fatty Acid Intake in Japanese Adults Using 16-Day Diet Records Based on a Food Composition Database Developed for the Japanese Population

    PubMed Central

    Yamada, Mai; Sasaki, Satoshi; Murakami, Kentaro; Takahashi, Yoshiko; Okubo, Hitomi; Hirota, Naoko; Notsu, Akiko; Todoriki, Hidemi; Miura, Ayako; Fukui, Mitsuru; Date, Chigusa

    2010-01-01

    Background The Standard Tables of Food Composition in Japan do not include information on trans fatty acids. Previous studies estimating trans fatty acid intake among Japanese have limitations regarding the databases utilized and diet assessment methodologies. We developed a comprehensive database of trans fatty acid food composition, and used this database to estimate intake among a Japanese population. Methods The database was developed using analytic values from the literature and nutrient analysis software encompassing foods in the US, as well as values estimated from recipes or nutrient compositions. We collected 16-day diet records from 225 adults aged 30 to 69 years living in 4 areas of Japan. Trans fatty acid intake was estimated based on the database and the 16-day diet records. Results Mean total fat and trans fatty acid intake was 56.9 g/day (27.7% total energy) and 1.7 g/day (0.8% total energy), respectively, for women and 66.8 g/day (25.5% total energy) and 1.7 g/day (0.7% total energy) for men. Trans fatty acid intake accounted for greater than 1% of total energy intake, which is the maximum recommended according to the World Health Organization, in 24.4% of women and 5.7% of men, and was particularly high among women living in urban areas and those aged 30–49 years. The largest contributors to trans fatty acid intake were confectionaries in women and fats and oils in men. Conclusions Although mean trans fatty acid intake was below the maximum recommended intake of the World Health Organization, intake among subgroups was of concern. Further public health efforts to reduce trans fatty acid intake should be encouraged. PMID:20037259

  20. Plasma phospholipid pentadecanoic acid, EPA, and DHA, and the frequency of dairy and fish product intake in young children

    PubMed Central

    Lund-Blix, Nicolai A.; Rønningen, Kjersti S.; Bøås, Håkon; Tapia, German; Andersen, Lene F.

    2016-01-01

    Background There is a lack of studies comparing dietary assessment methods with the biomarkers of fatty acids in children. Objective The objective was to evaluate the suitability of a food frequency questionnaire (FFQ) to rank young children according to their intake of dairy and fish products by comparing food frequency estimates to the plasma phospholipid fatty acids pentadecanoic acid, eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA), and docosahexaenoic acid (DHA). Design Cross-sectional data for the present study were derived from the prospective cohort ‘Environmental Triggers of Type 1 Diabetes Study’. Infants were recruited from the Norwegian general population during 2001–2007. One hundred and ten (age 3–10 years) children had sufficient volumes of plasma and FFQ filled in within 2 months from blood sampling and were included in this evaluation study. The quantitative determination of plasma phospholipid fatty acids was done by fatty acid methyl ester analysis. The association between the frequency of dairy and fish product intake and the plasma phospholipid fatty acids was assessed by a Spearman correlation analysis and by investigating whether participants were classified into the same quartiles of distribution. Results Significant correlations were found between pentadecanoic acid and the intake frequency of total dairy products (r=0.29), total fat dairy products (r=0.39), and cheese products (r=0.36). EPA and DHA were significantly correlated with the intake frequency of oily fish (r=0.26 and 0.37, respectively) and cod liver/fish oil supplements (r=0.47 for EPA and r=0.50 DHA). To a large extent, the FFQ was able to classify individuals into the same quartile as the relevant fatty acid biomarker. Conclusions The present study suggests that, when using the plasma phospholipid fatty acids pentadecanoic acid, EPA, and DHA as biomarkers, the FFQ used in young children showed a moderate capability to rank the intake frequency of dairy products with a high-fat content

  1. Effect of high sodium intake during 14 days of bed-rest on acid-base balance

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Frings, P.; Baecker, N.; Heer, M.

    Lowering mechanical load like in microgravity is the dominant stimulus leading to bone loss However high dietary sodium intake is also considered as a risk factor for osteoporosis and thereby might exacerbate the microgravity induced bone loss In a metabolic balance non bed-rest study we have recently shown that a very high sodium intake leads to an increased bone resorption most likely because of a mild metabolic acidosis Frings et al FASEB J 19 5 A1345 2005 To test if mild metabolic acidosis also occurs during immobilization we examined the effect of increased dietary sodium on bone metabolism and acid-base balance in eight healthy male test subjects mean age 26 25 pm 3 49 years body weight 77 98 pm 4 34 kg in our metabolic ward during a 14-day head-down tilt HDT bed-rest study The study was designed as a randomized crossover study with two study periods Each period was divided into three parts 4 ambulatory days with 200 mmol sodium intake 14 days of bed-rest with either 550 mmol or 50 mmol sodium intake and 3 recovery days with 200 mmol sodium intake The sodium intake was altered by variations in dietary sodium chloride content Blood pH P CO2 and P O2 were analyzed in fasting morning fingertip blood samples several times during the entire study Bicarbonate HCO 3 - and base excess BE were calculated according to the Henderson-Hasselbach equation Preliminary results in the acid-base balance from the first study period 4 subjects with 550 mmol and 4 subjects with 50 mmol sodium intake strongly

  2. MAN or FA from n-butane

    SciTech Connect

    Di Cio, A.; Verde, L.

    1985-08-01

    Unsaturated polyester resins were first produced mostly from fumaric acid (FA) rather than from maleic anhydride (MAN). This is perfectly understandable if we consider that, using fumaric acid as raw material, polycondensates with a more homogeneous (less branched) structure are obtained, thus producing resins characterized by a more uniform and reproducible chemical and mechanical properties. Presently, for economical reasons, fumaric acid is used marginally as a MAN substitute in the production of polyester resins. These resins account for a major share (50%) of the overall MAN consumption in the U.S. and in Western Europe.

  3. Human apolipoprotein E allele and docosahexaenoic acid intake modulate peripheral cholesterol homeostasis in mice.

    PubMed

    Pinçon, Anthony; Coulombe, Jean-Denis; Chouinard-Watkins, Raphaël; Plourde, Mélanie

    2016-08-01

    Carrying at least one apolipoprotein E ε4 allele (E4+) is the main genetic risk factor for Alzheimer's disease (AD). Epidemiological studies support that consuming fatty fish rich in docosahexaenoic acid (DHA; 22:6ω3) is protective against development of AD. However, this protective effect seems not to hold in E4+. The involvement of APOE genotype on the relationship between DHA intake and cognitive decline could be mediated through cholesterol. Many studies show a link between cholesterol metabolism and AD progression. In this study, we investigated whether cholesterol metabolism is improved in E3+ and E4+ mice consuming a diet rich in DHA. Plasma cholesterol was 36% lower in E4+ mice compared to E3+ mice fed the control diet (P=.02), and in the liver, there was a significant genotype effect where cholesterol levels were 18% lower in E4+ mice than E3+ mice. The low-density lipoprotein receptor was overexpressed in the liver of E4+ mice. Plasma cholesterol levels were 33% lower after the DHA diet (P=.02) in E3+ mice only, and there was a significant diet effect where cholesterol level was 67% lower in the liver of mice fed DHA. Mice fed the DHA diet also had 62% less lipolysis stimulated lipoprotein receptor expression in the liver compared to mice fed the control diet (P<.0001), but there was no genotype effect. These findings suggest that plasma and liver cholesterol homeostasis and the receptors regulating uptake of cholesterol in the liver are modulated differently and independently by APOE allele and DHA intake. PMID:27239755

  4. Maternal dietary fatty acid intake during pregnancy and the risk of preclinical and clinical type 1 diabetes in the offspring.

    PubMed

    Niinistö, Sari; Takkinen, Hanna-Mari; Uusitalo, Liisa; Rautanen, Jenna; Nevalainen, Jaakko; Kenward, Michael G; Lumia, Mirka; Simell, Olli; Veijola, Riitta; Ilonen, Jorma; Knip, Mikael; Virtanen, Suvi M

    2014-03-14

    The aim of the present study was to examine the associations between the maternal intake of fatty acids during pregnancy and the risk of preclinical and clinical type 1 diabetes in the offspring. The study included 4887 children with human leucocyte antigen (HLA)-conferred type 1 diabetes susceptibility born during the years 1997-2004 from the Finnish Type 1 Diabetes Prediction and Prevention Study. Maternal diet was assessed with a validated FFQ. The offspring were observed at 3- to 12-month intervals for the appearance of type 1 diabetes-associated autoantibodies and development of clinical type 1 diabetes (average follow-up period: 4·6 years (range 0·5-11·5 years)). Altogether, 240 children developed preclinical type 1 diabetes and 112 children developed clinical type 1 diabetes. Piecewise linear log-hazard survival model and Cox proportional-hazards regression were used for statistical analyses. The maternal intake of palmitic acid (hazard ratio (HR) 0·82, 95 % CI 0·67, 0·99) and high consumption of cheese during pregnancy (highest quarter v. intermediate half HR 0·52, 95 % CI 0·31, 0·87) were associated with a decreased risk of clinical type 1 diabetes. The consumption of sour milk products (HR 1·14, 95 % CI 1·02, 1·28), intake of protein from sour milk (HR 1·15, 95 % CI 1·02, 1·29) and intake of fat from fresh milk (HR 1·43, 95 % CI 1·04, 1·96) were associated with an increased risk of preclinical type 1 diabetes, and the intake of low-fat margarines (HR 0·67, 95 % CI 0·49, 0·92) was associated with a decreased risk. No conclusive associations between maternal fatty acid intake or food consumption during pregnancy and the development of type 1 diabetes in the offspring were detected. PMID:24589042

  5. Folic acid supplementation, dietary folate intake during pregnancy and risk for spontaneous preterm delivery: a prospective observational cohort study

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Health authorities in numerous countries recommend periconceptional folic acid to pregnant women to prevent neural tube defects. The objective of this study was to examine the association of folic acid supplementation during different periods of pregnancy and of dietary folate intake with the risk of spontaneous preterm delivery (PTD). Methods The Norwegian Mother and Child Cohort Study is a population-based prospective cohort study. A total of 65,668 women with singleton pregnancies resulting in live births in 1999–2009 were included. Folic acid supplementation was self-reported from 26 weeks before pregnancy until week 24 during pregnancy. At gestational week 22, the women completed a food frequency questionnaire, which allowed the calculation of their average total folate intake from foods and supplements for the first 4–5 months of pregnancy. Spontaneous PTD was defined as the spontaneous onset of delivery between weeks 22+0 and 36+6 (n = 1,628). Results The median total folate intake was 266 μg/d (interquartile range IQR 154–543) in the overall population and 540 μg/d (IQR 369–651) in the supplement users. Eighty-three percent reported any folic acid supplementation from <8 weeks before to 24 weeks after conception while 42% initiated folic acid supplementation before their pregnancy. Cox regression analysis showed that the amount of folate intake from the diet (hazard ratio HR 1.16; confidence interval CI 0.65-2.08) and from the folic acid supplements (HR 1.04; CI 0.95-1.13) was not significantly associated with the risk of PTD. The initiation of folic acid supplementation more than 8 weeks before conception was associated with an increased risk for PTD (HR 1.19; CI 1.05-1.34) compared to no folic acid supplementation pre-conception. There was no significant association with PTD when supplementation was initiated within 8 weeks pre-conception (HR 1.01; CI 0.88-1.16). All analyses were adjusted for maternal characteristics and

  6. Plasma Fatty Acids in Zambian Adults with HIV/AIDS: Relation to Dietary Intake and Cardiovascular Risk Factors

    PubMed Central

    Nyirenda, Christopher K.; Kabagambe, Edmond K.; Koethe, John R.; Kiage, James N.; Chi, Benjamin H.; Musonda, Patrick; Blevins, Meridith; Bosire, Claire N.; Tsai, Michael Y.; Heimburger, Douglas C.

    2015-01-01

    Objective. To determine whether 24 hr dietary recalls (DR) are a good measure of polyunsaturated fatty acid (PUFA) intake when compared to plasma levels, and whether plasma PUFA is associated with markers of HIV/AIDS progression and cardiovascular disease (CVD) risk. Methods. In a cross-sectional study among 210 antiretroviral therapy-naïve HIV-infected adults from Lusaka, Zambia, we collected data on medical history and dietary intake using 24 hr DR. We measured fatty acids and markers of AIDS progression and CVD risk in fasting plasma collected at baseline. Results. PUFA intakes showed modest correlations with corresponding plasma levels; Spearman correlations were 0.36 (p < 0.01) for eicosapentaenoic acid and 0.21 (p = 0.005) for docosahexaenoic acid. While there were no significant associations (p > 0.05) between total plasma PUFA and C-reactive protein (CRP) or lipid levels, plasma arachidonic acid was inversely associated with CRP and triglycerides and positively associated with HDL-C, CD4+ T-cell count, and plasma albumin (p < 0.05). Plasma saturated fatty acids (SFA) were positively associated with CRP (β = 0.24; 95% CI: 0.08 to 0.40, p = 0.003) and triglycerides (β = 0.08; 95% CI: 0.03 to 0.12, p < 0.01). Conclusions. Our data suggest that a single DR is inadequate for assessing PUFA intake and that plasma arachidonic acid levels may modulate HIV/AIDS progression and CVD risk. PMID:26161268

  7. Dietary total fat and fatty acids intake, serum fatty acids and risk of breast cancer: A meta-analysis of prospective cohort studies.

    PubMed

    Cao, Yi; Hou, Lin; Wang, Weijing

    2016-04-15

    Results from prospective cohort studies on the association between dietary total fat and fatty acids intake and risk of breast cancer remain controversial. Pertinent prospective cohort studies were identified by a search of Embase and PubMed from inception to September 2015. Study-specific relative risks (RRs) with 95% confidence intervals were pooled using a random-effect model. Between-study heterogeneity and publication bias were assessed, and sensitivity analysis was conducted. Twenty-four independent studies on dietary total fat and fatty acids intake and seven studies on serum fatty acids were included. The pooled RR of breast cancer for the highest vs. lowest category of dietary total fat intake was 1.10 (1.02-1.19); however, no association was observed in studies adjusting for traditional risk factors of breast cancer. No association was observed between animal fat, vegetable fat, saturated fatty acids (SFA), monounsaturated fatty acids (MUFA), polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFA), n-3 PUFA, n-6 PUFA, eicosapentaenoic acid, docosahexaenoic acid, alpha-linolenic acid, oleic acid, linoleic acid and arachidonic acid and risk of breast cancer. The pooled RRs of breast cancer for the highest vs. lowest category of serum SFA, MUFA, PUFA, n-3 PUFA and n-6 PUFA were 1.00 (0.78-1.28), 1.41 (0.99-2.03), 0.59 (0.27-1.30), 0.81 (0.60-1.10) and 0.84 (0.60-1.18), respectively. Results from this meta-analysis suggested that dietary total fat and fatty acids might be not associated with risk of breast cancer. PMID:26595162

  8. Dietary Crude Lecithin Increases Systemic Availability of Dietary Docosahexaenoic Acid with Combined Intake in Rats.

    PubMed

    van Wijk, Nick; Balvers, Martin; Cansev, Mehmet; Maher, Timothy J; Sijben, John W C; Broersen, Laus M

    2016-07-01

    Crude lecithin, a mixture of mainly phospholipids, potentially helps to increase the systemic availability of dietary omega-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids (n-3 PUFA), such as docosahexaenoic acid (DHA). Nevertheless, no clear data exist on the effects of prolonged combined dietary supplementation of DHA and lecithin on RBC and plasma PUFA levels. In the current experiments, levels of DHA and choline, two dietary ingredients that enhance neuronal membrane formation and function, were determined in plasma and red blood cells (RBC) from rats after dietary supplementation of DHA-containing oils with and without concomitant dietary supplementation of crude lecithin for 2-3 weeks. The aim was to provide experimental evidence for the hypothesized additive effects of dietary lecithin (not containing any DHA) on top of dietary DHA on PUFA levels in plasma and RBC. Dietary supplementation of DHA-containing oils, either as vegetable algae oil or as fish oil, increased DHA, eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA), and total n-3 PUFA, and decreased total omega-6 PUFA levels in plasma and RBC, while dietary lecithin supplementation alone did not affect these levels. However, combined dietary supplementation of DHA and lecithin increased the changes induced by DHA supplementation alone. Animals receiving a lecithin-containing diet also had a higher plasma free choline concentration as compared to controls. In conclusion, dietary DHA-containing oils and crude lecithin have synergistic effects on increasing plasma and RBC n-3 PUFA levels, including DHA and EPA. By increasing the systemic availability of dietary DHA, dietary lecithin may increase the efficacy of DHA supplementation when their intake is combined. PMID:27038174

  9. No protein intake compensation for insufficient indispensable amino acid intake with a low-protein diet for 12 days

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Protein quality evaluation aims to determine the capacity of food sources and diets to meet protein and indispensable amino acid (IAA) requirements. This study determined whether nitrogen balance was affected and whether dietary IAA were adequately obtained from the ad libitum consumption of diets at three levels of protein from different primary sources for 12 days. Methods Two 12-day randomized crossover design trials were conducted in healthy subjects [n = 70/67 (M/F); age: 19-70 y; BMI: 18.2-38.7 kg/m2]. The relative dietary protein content was lower than [5% of energy (En%)], similar to (15En%), and higher than (30En%) customary diets. These diets had a limited variety of protein sources, containing wheat protein as a single protein source (5En%-protein diet) or 5En% from wheat protein with 10En% (15En%-protein diets) or 25En% (30En%-protein diets) added from whey with α-lactalbumin, soy or beef protein. Results There was a dose-dependent increase in nitrogen excretion with increasing dietary protein content, irrespective of the protein sources (P = 0.001). Nitrogen balance was maintained on the 5En%-protein diet, and was positive on the 15En%- and 30En%-protein diets (P < 0.001) over 12 days. Protein intake from the 5En%-protein diet did not reach the amount necessary to meet the calculated minimal IAA requirements, but IAA were sufficiently obtained from the 15En%- and 30En%-protein diets. In the 15En%- and 30En%-protein conditions, a higher protein intake from the soy-containing diets than from the whey with α-lactalbumin or beef containing diets was needed to meet the minimal IAA requirements. Conclusion Protein intake did not compensate for an insufficient indispensable amino acid intake with a low-protein diet for 12 days. Trial registration These trials were registered at clinicaltrials.gov as NCT01320189 and NCT01646749. PMID:25183991

  10. Intake of Fish and Omega-3 (N-3) Fatty Acid: Effect on Humans during Actual and Simulated Weightlessness

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Smith, Scott M.; Mehta, Satish K.; Pierson, Duane L.; Zwart, Sara R.

    2009-01-01

    Space flight has many negative effects on human physiology, including bone and muscle loss. These are some of the systems on which intakes of fish and n-3 fatty acids have positive effects. These effects are likely to occur through inhibition of inflammatory cytokines (such as TNFalpha) and thus inhibition of downstream NF-KB activation. We documented this effect in a 3D cell culture model, where NF-KB activation in osteoclasts was inhibited by eicosapentaenoic acid, an n-3 fatty acid. We have extended these studies and report here (a) NF-KB expression in peripheral blood mononuclear cells of Space Shuttle crews on 2-wk missions, (b) the effects of n-3 fatty acid intake after 60 d of bed rest (a weightlessness analog), and (c) the effects of fish intake in astronauts after 4 to 6 mo on the International Space Station. After Shuttle flights of 2 wk, NFKB p65 expression at landing was increased (P less than 0.001). After 60 d of bed rest, higher intake of n-3 fatty acids was associated with less N-telopeptide excretion (Pearson r = -0.62, P less than 0.05). Higher consumption of fish during flight was associated with higher bone mineral density (Pearson r = -0.46, P less than 0.05). Together with our earlier findings, these data provide mechanistic cellular and preliminary human evidence of the potential for n-3 fatty acids to counteract bone loss associated with spaceflight. This study was supported by the NASA Human Research Program.

  11. Intakes of total fat, saturated, monounsaturated and polyunsaturated fatty acids in Irish children, teenagers and adults.

    PubMed

    Joyce, Triona; Wallace, Alison J; McCarthy, Sinead N; Gibney, Michael J

    2009-02-01

    Recommendations limiting the intake of total fat, SFA, MUFA and PUFA have been established in several countries with the aim of reducing the risk of chronic diseases such as CVD. Studies have shown that intakes of total fat and SFA are above desired recommended intake levels across a wide range of age and sex groups. In addition, intakes of PUFA and MUFA are often reported to be less than the desired recommended intake levels. The aims of the present paper are to provide the first data on estimates of current intakes and main food sources of SFA, MUFA and PUFA in Irish children (aged 5-12 years), teenagers (aged 13-17 years) and adults (aged 18-64 years) and to analyse compliance with current dietary recommendations. Data for this analysis were based on the North/South Ireland Food Consumption Survey (n 1379, 18-64 years), the National Children's Food Survey (n 594, 5-12 years) and the National Teen Food Survey (n 441, 13-17 years). Results showed that SFA intakes in Irish children, teenagers and adults are high, with only 6 % of children, 11 % of teenagers and 21 % of adults in compliance with the recommended daily intake. The main food groups that contributed to SFA intakes were whole milk; fresh meat; meat products; biscuits, cakes, buns and pastries; and sugars, confectionery and preserves. PMID:19026091

  12. Whole Blood Levels of the n-6 Essential Fatty Acid Linoleic Acid Are Inversely Associated with Stunting in 2-to-6 Year Old Tanzanian Children: A Cross-Sectional Study

    PubMed Central

    Jumbe, Theresia; Comstock, Sarah S.; Hahn, Samantha L.; Harris, William S.; Kinabo, Joyce; Fenton, Jenifer I.

    2016-01-01

    Background In Tanzania, 35% of all children below five years of age are stunted. Dietary fatty acids (FA) are critical for growth and development. However, whole blood FA levels in Tanzanian children are poorly described. Objective The objectives of this cross-sectional study were to assess 1) whole blood levels of essential fatty acids and 2) the association between whole blood FA levels and growth parameters in Tanzanian children 2–6 years of age. Methods A drop of blood was collected on an antioxidant treated card and analyzed for FA composition. Weight and height were measured and z-scores calculated. Relationships between FAs and growth parameters were analyzed by linear regression. Results Of the 334 children that participated, 30.3% were stunted. The average whole blood level of Mead acid was 0.15%. The anthropometric z-score height-for-age (HAZ) was inversely associated with Mead acid, the Mead acid to arachidonic acid (T/T) ratio, and total n-9 FA. Additionally, HAZ was positively associated with linoleic acid and total n-6 FA. BMI-for-age was positively associated with oleic acid, total n-9 FA and T/T ratio but inversely associated with arachidonic acid and total n-6 FA. Weight-for-height was inversely associated with arachidonic acid and total n-6 FAs and positively associated with oleic acid and total n-9 FA. Weight-for-age was not associated with any FA tested. Total n-3 FAs were not associated with any growth parameters measured. Conclusions The EFA linoleic acid and the markers of FA deficiency were associated with HAZ, an indicator for stunting in 2–6 year old Tanzanian children. Total n-6, total n-9, and a number of individual FAs were associated with growth. Increasing dietary intake of EFA and n-6 FAs may be a strategy to combat stunting in this population. PMID:27137223

  13. Branched-chain amino acid interactions with reference to amino acid requirements in adult men: Valine metabolism at different leucine intakes

    SciTech Connect

    Pelletier, V.; Marks, L.; Wagner, D.A.; Hoerr, R.A.; Young, V.R. )

    1991-08-01

    The authors explored whether the oxidation of valine and by implication the physiological requirement for this amino acid are affected by changes in leucine intake over a physiological range. Six young adult men received, in random order, four L-amino acid-based diets for 5 d supplying either 20 or 10 mg valine.kg body wt-1.d-1, each in combination with 80 or 40 mg leucine.kg-1.d-1. On day 6 subjects were studied with an 8-h continuous intravenous infusion of (1-13C)valine (and (2H3)leucine) to determine valine oxidation in the fasted state (first 3 h) and fed state (last 5 h). Valine oxidation in the fasted state was similar among all diets but was lower (P less than 0.05) in the fed state for the 10 vs 20 mg valine.kg-1.d-1 intake. Leucine intake did not affect valine oxidation. Mean daily valine balance approximated +1.3 mg.kg-1.d-1 for the 20-mg intake and -1.6 mg.kg-1.d-1 for the 10-mg intake. These findings support our previously suggested mean valine requirement estimate of approximately 20 mg.kg-1.d-1.

  14. BMI Affects the Relationship between Long Chain N-3 Polyunsaturated Fatty Acid Intake and Stroke Risk: a Meta-Analysis.

    PubMed

    Cheng, Pengfei; Huang, Wen; Bai, Shunjie; Wu, Yu; Yu, Jia; Zhu, Xiaofeng; Qi, Zhiguo; Shao, Weihua; Xie, Peng

    2015-01-01

    We performed a meta-analysis to clarify the relationship between long chain n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acid (PUFA) intake and stroke risk. Relevant studies were identified by searching online databases through May 2015. Log relative risks (RRs) of the highest versus the lowest for cohort studies were weighed by the inverse variance method to obtain pooled RRs. Fourteen prospective cohort studies including 514,483 individuals and 9,065 strokes were included. The pooled RR of overall stroke risk for long chain n-3 PUFA intake was 0.87 [95% confidence interval (CI), 0.79-0.95]. Stratification analysis showed that higher long chain n-3 PUFAs intake was associated with reduced fatal stroke risk (RR = 0.84; 95% CI, 0.73-0.97), reduced stroke risk for BMI < 24 (RR = 0.86; 95% CI, 0.75-0.98) and reduced stroke risk for females (RR = 0.81; 95% CI, 0.71-0.92), but was not associated with stroke risk for either BMI ≥ 24 or men. This meta-analysis reveals that higher long chain n-3 PUFA intake is inversely associated with risk of stroke morbidity and mortality with BMI and sex as key factors influencing this risk. Individuals should be encouraged to manage their body weight while increasing their intake of long chain n-3 PUFAs. PMID:26369699

  15. BMI Affects the Relationship between Long Chain N-3 Polyunsaturated Fatty Acid Intake and Stroke Risk: a Meta-Analysis

    PubMed Central

    Cheng, Pengfei; Huang, Wen; Bai, Shunjie; Wu, Yu; Yu, Jia; Zhu, Xiaofeng; Qi, Zhiguo; Shao, Weihua; Xie, Peng

    2015-01-01

    We performed a meta-analysis to clarify the relationship between long chain n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acid (PUFA) intake and stroke risk. Relevant studies were identified by searching online databases through May 2015. Log relative risks (RRs) of the highest versus the lowest for cohort studies were weighed by the inverse variance method to obtain pooled RRs. Fourteen prospective cohort studies including 514,483 individuals and 9,065 strokes were included. The pooled RR of overall stroke risk for long chain n-3 PUFA intake was 0.87 [95% confidence interval (CI), 0.79–0.95]. Stratification analysis showed that higher long chain n-3 PUFAs intake was associated with reduced fatal stroke risk (RR = 0.84; 95% CI, 0.73–0.97), reduced stroke risk for BMI < 24 (RR = 0.86; 95% CI, 0.75–0.98) and reduced stroke risk for females (RR = 0.81; 95% CI, 0.71–0.92), but was not associated with stroke risk for either BMI ≥ 24 or men. This meta-analysis reveals that higher long chain n-3 PUFA intake is inversely associated with risk of stroke morbidity and mortality with BMI and sex as key factors influencing this risk. Individuals should be encouraged to manage their body weight while increasing their intake of long chain n-3 PUFAs. PMID:26369699

  16. Effects of ractopamine hydrochloride on performance, rate and variation in feed intake, and acid-base balance in feedlot cattle.

    PubMed

    Abney, C S; Vasconcelos, J T; McMeniman, J P; Keyser, S A; Wilson, K R; Vogel, G J; Galyean, M L

    2007-11-01

    Two experiments evaluated effects of ractopamine hydrochloride (RAC) on performance, intake patterns, and acid-base balance of feedlot cattle. In Exp. 1, 360 crossbred steers (Brangus, British, and British x Continental breeding; initial BW = 545 kg) were used in a study with a 3 x 3 factorial design to study the effects of dose [0, 100, or 200 mg/(steer x d) of RAC] and duration (28, 35, or 42 d) of feeding of RAC in a randomized complete block design (9 treatments, 8 pens/treatment). No dose x duration interactions were detected (P > 0.10). As RAC dose increased, final BW (FBW; P = 0.01), ADG (P < 0.01), and G:F (P < 0.01) increased linearly. As duration of feeding increased, ADG increased quadratically (P = 0.04), with tendencies for quadratic effects for FBW (P = 0.06), DMI (P = 0.07), and G:F (P = 0.09). Hot carcass weight increased linearly (P = 0.02) as dose of RAC increased. Thus, increasing the dose of RAC from 0 to 200 mg/(steer x d) and the duration of feeding from 28 to 42 d improved feedlot performance, although quadratic responses for duration of feeding indicated little improvement as the duration was extended from 35 to 42 d. In Exp. 2, 12 crossbred beef steers (BW = 593 kg) were used in a completely random design to evaluate the effects of RAC [0 or 200 mg/(steer x d) for 30 d; 6 steers/treatment] on rate of intake, daily variation in intake patterns, and acid-base balance. To assess intake patterns, absolute values of daily deviations in feed delivered to each steer relative to the total quantity of feed delivered were analyzed as repeated measures. There were no differences (P > 0.10) in feedlot performance, urine pH, blood gas measurements, or variation in intake patterns between RAC and control cattle, but steers fed RAC had increased (P = 0.04) LM area, decreased (P = 0.03) yield grade, and increased (P < 0.10) time to consume 50 and 75% of daily intake relative to control steers. Our results suggest that feeding RAC for 35 d at 200 mg

  17. Maternal Docosahexaenoic Acid Intake Levels during Pregnancy and Infant Performance on a Novel Object Search Task at 22 Months

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rees, Alison; Sirois, Sylvain; Wearden, Alison

    2014-01-01

    This study investigated maternal prenatal docosahexaenoic acid (DHA) intake and infant cognitive development at 22 months. Estimates for second- and third-trimester maternal DHA intake levels were obtained using a comprehensive Food Frequency Questionnaire. Infants (n = 67) were assessed at 22 months on a novel object search task. Mothers'…

  18. Effect of unsaturated fatty acids and triglycerides from soybeans on milk fat synthesis and biohydrogenation intermediates in dairy cattle.

    PubMed

    Boerman, J P; Lock, A L

    2014-11-01

    Increased rumen unsaturated fatty acid (FA) load is a risk factor for milk fat depression. This study evaluated if increasing the amount of unsaturated FA in the diet as triglycerides or free FA affected feed intake, yield of milk and milk components, and feed efficiency. Eighteen Holstein cows (132 ± 75 d in milk) were used in a replicated 3 × 3 Latin square design. Treatments were a control (CON) diet, or 1 of 2 unsaturated FA (UFA) treatments supplemented with either soybean oil (FA present as triglycerides; TAG treatment) or soybean FA distillate (FA present as free FA; FFA treatment). The soybean oil contained a higher concentration of cis-9 C18:1 (26.0 vs. 11.8 g/100g of FA) and lower concentrations of C16:0 (9.6 vs. 15.0 g/100g of FA) and cis-9,cis-12 C18:2 (50.5 vs. 59.1g/100g of FA) than the soybean FA distillate. The soybean oil and soybean FA distillate were included in the diet at 2% dry matter (DM) to replace soyhulls in the CON diet. Treatment periods were 21 d, with the final 4 d used for sample and data collection. The corn silage- and alfalfa silage-based diets contained 23% forage neutral detergent fiber and 17% crude protein. Total dietary FA were 2.6, 4.2, and 4.3% of diet DM for CON, FFA, and TAG treatments, respectively. Total FA intake was increased 57% for UFA treatments and was similar between FFA and TAG. The intakes of individual FA were similar, with the exception of a 24 g/d lower intake of C16:0 and a 64 g/d greater intake of cis-9 C18:1 for the TAG compared with the FFA treatment. Compared with CON, the UFA treatments decreased DM intake (1.0 kg/d) but increased milk yield (2.2 kg/d) and milk lactose concentration and yield. The UFA treatments reduced milk fat concentration, averaging 3.30, 3.18, and 3.11% for CON, FFA, and TAG treatments, respectively. Yield of milk fat, milk protein, and 3.5% fat-corrected milk remained unchanged when comparing CON with the UFA treatments. No differences existed in the yield of milk or milk

  19. Folic acid and primary prevention of birth defects.

    PubMed

    Taruscio, Domenica; Carbone, Pietro; Granata, Orietta; Baldi, Francesca; Mantovani, Alberto

    2011-01-01

    Birth defects (BDs) are an important public health problem, due to their overall incidence, occurring in 2-3% of live births in European Union. Neural tube defects (NTDs) are among major NTDs, due to their severity and relatively high incidence; in the meanwhile NTDs are also the most effectively preventable BDs to date. In particular, an adequate folic acid (FA) intake reduces both the occurrence and the recurrence of NTDs; FA is the synthetic form of folates, naturally occurring vitamins in a number of foods, especially vegetables. The daily intake of 0.4 mg of FA should be recommended to all women of childbearing age who plan to become pregnant. The Italian Network for Primary Prevention of BDs through FA Promotion has achieved a significant improvement in FA awareness and use in the periconceptional period. Nevertheless, primary prevention of BDs needs to make further progress; the Italian National Centre for Rare Diseases participates in european sureveillance of congenital anomalies (EUROCAT) Joint Action as coordinator of activities on the effectiveness of BDs prevention. Mandatory food fortification with FA has not been introduced in any European country. The health benefits of FA in reducing the risk of NTDs are undisputed; however mechanistic and animal studies suggest a relationship between high FA intakes and increased cancer promotion, while human studies are still inconsistent and inconclusive. A Working Group organized by the European Food Safety Authority pointed out significant uncertainties about fortification safety and the need for more studies; currently, FA intake from fortified foods and supplements should not exceed 1 mg/day in adults. In conclusion, based on up-to-date scientific evidence, the Italian Network strategy pivots on periconceptional supplementation integrated with promotion of healthy eating habits, support to health education, enhancing the role of women in managing life choices about their health and pregnancy and increasing

  20. Central nervous system dysfunction in a mouse model of FA2H deficiency.

    PubMed

    Potter, Kathleen A; Kern, Michael J; Fullbright, George; Bielawski, Jacek; Scherer, Steven S; Yum, Sabrina W; Li, Jian J; Cheng, Hua; Han, Xianlin; Venkata, Jagadish Kummetha; Khan, P Akbar Ali; Rohrer, Bärbel; Hama, Hiroko

    2011-07-01

    Fatty acid 2-hydroxylase (FA2H) is responsible for the synthesis of myelin galactolipids containing hydroxy fatty acid (hFA) as the N-acyl chain. Mutations in the FA2H gene cause leukodystrophy, spastic paraplegia, and neurodegeneration with brain iron accumulation. Using the Cre-lox system, we developed two types of mouse mutants, Fa2h(-/-) mice (Fa2h deleted in all cells by germline deletion) and Fa2h(flox/flox) Cnp1-Cre mice (Fa2h deleted only in oligodendrocytes and Schwann cells). We found significant demyelination, profound axonal loss, and abnormally enlarged axons in the CNS of Fa2h(-/-) mice at 12 months of age, while structure and function of peripheral nerves were largely unaffected. Fa2h(-/-) mice also exhibited histological and functional disruption in the cerebellum at 12 months of age. In a time course study, significant deterioration of cerebellar function was first detected at 7 months of age. Further behavioral assessments in water T-maze and Morris water maze tasks revealed significant deficits in spatial learning and memory at 4 months of age. These data suggest that various regions of the CNS are functionally compromised in young adult Fa2h(-/-) mice. The cerebellar deficits in 12-month-old Fa2h(flox/flox) Cnp1-Cre mice were indistinguishable from Fa2h(-/-) mice, indicating that these phenotypes likely stem from the lack of myelin hFA-galactolipids. In contrast, Fa2h(flox/flox) Cnp1-Cre mice did not show reduced performance in water maze tasks, indicating that oligodendrocytes are not involved in the learning and memory deficits found in Fa2h(-/-) mice. These findings provide the first evidence that FA2H has an important function outside of oligodendrocytes in the CNS. PMID:21491498

  1. Gastrointestinal bleeding after high intake of omega-3 fatty acids, cortisone and antibiotic therapy: a case study.

    PubMed

    Detopoulou, Paraskevi; Papamikos, Vasilios

    2014-06-01

    Omega-3 fatty acids exert a plethora of physiological actions including triglycerides lowering, reduction of inflammatory indices, immunomodulation, anti- thrombotic effects and possibly promotion of exercise performance. Their use is widespread and for commonly ingested doses their side- effects are minimal. We report a case of a 60 y amateur athlete who consumed about 20 g omega-3 fatty acids daily from supplements and natural sources for a year. After the intake of cortisone and antibiotics he presented duodenum ulcer and bleeding although he had no previous history of gastrointestinal problems. Although several animal data support gastro-protective effects of omega-3 fatty acids in the present case they were not able to prevent ulcer generation. The present observation may be explained by (i) the high dose of omega-3 fatty acids and their effect on bleeding, (ii) the fact that cortisone increases their oxidation and may render them proinflammatory, (iii) other antithrombotic microconstituents included in the consumed cod-oil and/or the diet of the subject and (iv) the differences in the coagulation and fibrinolytic systems of well- trained subjects. Further studies are needed to substantiate any possible interaction of cortisone and omega-3 fatty acids in wide ranges of intake. PMID:24281788

  2. Reducing dietary intake of linoleic acid of mouse dams during lactation increases offspring brain n-3 LCPUFA content.

    PubMed

    Schipper, L; Oosting, A; Scheurink, A J W; van Dijk, G; van der Beek, E M

    2016-07-01

    Omega (n-)3 and n-6 long chain polyunsaturated fatty acids (LCPUFA) accumulation in the infant brain after birth is strongly driven by dietary supply of n-3 and n-6 LCPUFAs and their C18 precursors through breast milk or infant formula. n-3 LCPUFA accretion is associated with positive effects on neurodevelopmental outcome whereas high n-6 LCPUFA accumulation is considered disadvantageous. Maternal diet is crucial for breast milk fatty acid composition. Unfortunately, global increases in linoleic acid (C18:2n-6; LA) intake have dramatically increased n-6 LCPUFA and reduced n-3 LCPUFA availability for breastfed infants. We investigated the effects of reducing maternal dietary LA, or increasing n-3 LCPUFA, during lactation on milk and offspring brain fatty acids in mice. Offspring brain n-3 LCPUFA was higher following both interventions, although effects were mediated by different mechanisms. Because of competitive interactions between n-3 and n-6 fatty acids, lowering maternal LA intake may support neurodevelopment in breastfed infants. PMID:27255638

  3. Low Plasma N-3 Fatty Acids and Dementia in Older Persons: The InCHIANTI Study

    PubMed Central

    Cherubini, Antonio; Andres-Lacueva, Cristina; Martin, Antonio; Lauretani, Fulvio; Di Iorio, Angelo; Bartali, Benedetta; Corsi, Annamaria; Bandinelli, Stefania; Mattson, Mark P.; Ferrucci, Luigi

    2009-01-01

    Background N-3 fatty acids (FA) have an important role in brain development and function. However, there is conflicting evidence concerning the relationship between n-3 FA and dementia in older persons. Methods In the Invecchiare in Chianti (InCHIANTI) study, we measured plasma FA by gas chromatography in 935 community-dwelling older persons randomly extracted from the population of two towns near Florence, Italy. Cognitive impairment was measured using the Mini-Mental Status Examination. Participants who scored ≤26 underwent a detailed clinical and neuropsychological evaluation. The diagnosis of dementia was based on Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders, Third Revision (DSM-III-R) criteria. The population was divided in three groups: persons with normal cognitive function, persons with cognitive impairment not demented, and persons with dementia. Results After adjustment for age, gender, education, body mass index, weight loss, smoking status, cholesterol and triglycerides levels, daily intake of alcohol, FA and total energy, cardiovascular disease, depression and other FA levels, participants with dementia had significantly lower n-3 FA levels (2.9% vs 3.2%; p < .05), particularly alpha-linolenic acid levels (0.34% vs 0.39%; p < .05), than did participants with normal cognitive function. Conclusions Dementia is associated with low plasma n-3 FA relative concentrations. The possibility that higher n-3 FA intake is associated with a lower risk of cognitive impairment should be further investigated in prospective studies. PMID:17921425

  4. Sources of variability in fatty acid (FA) biomarkers in the application of compound-specific stable isotopes (CSSIs) to soil and sediment fingerprinting and tracing: A review.

    PubMed

    Reiffarth, D G; Petticrew, E L; Owens, P N; Lobb, D A

    2016-09-15

    Determining soil redistribution and sediment budgets in watersheds is often challenging. One of the methods for making such determinations employs soil and sediment fingerprinting techniques, using sediment properties such as geochemistry, fallout radionuclides, and mineral magnetism. These methods greatly improve the estimation of erosion and deposition within a watershed, but are limited when determining land use-based soil and sediment movement. Recently, compound-specific stable isotopes (CSSIs), which employ fatty acids naturally occurring in the vegetative cover of soils, offer the possibility of refining fingerprinting techniques based on land use, complementing other methods that are currently in use. The CSSI method has been met with some success; however, challenges still remain with respect to scale and resolution due to a potentially large degree of biological, environmental and analytical uncertainty. By better understanding the source of tracers used in CSSI work and the inherent biochemical variability in those tracers, improvement in sample design and tracer selection is possible. Furthermore, an understanding of environmental and analytical factors affecting the CSSI signal will lead to refinement of the approach and the ability to generate more robust data. This review focuses on sources of biological, environmental and analytical variability in applying CSSI to soil and sediment fingerprinting, and presents recommendations based on past work and current research in this area for improving the CSSI technique. A recommendation, based on current information available in the literature, is to use very-long chain saturated fatty acids and to avoid the use of the ubiquitous saturated fatty acids, C16 and C18. PMID:27155260

  5. Hypothalamic fatty acid sensing in Senegalese sole (Solea senegalensis): response to long-chain saturated, monounsaturated, and polyunsaturated (n-3) fatty acids.

    PubMed

    Conde-Sieira, Marta; Bonacic, Kruno; Velasco, Cristina; Valente, Luisa M P; Morais, Sofia; Soengas, José L

    2015-12-15

    We assessed the presence of fatty acid (FA)-sensing mechanisms in hypothalamus of Senegalese sole (Solea senegalensis) and investigated their sensitivity to FA chain length and/or level of unsaturation. Stearate (SA, saturated FA), oleate (OA, monounsaturated FA of the same chain length), α-linolenate [ALA, a n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acid (PUFA) of the same chain length], and eicosapentanoate (EPA, a n-3 PUFA of a larger chain length) were injected intraperitoneally. Parameters related to FA sensing and neuropeptide expression in the hypothalamus were assessed after 3 h and changes in accumulated food intake after 4, 24, and 48 h. Three FA sensing systems characterized in rainbow trout were also found in Senegalese sole and were activated by OA in a way similar to that previously characterized in rainbow trout and mammals. These hypothalamic FA sensing systems were also activated by ALA, differing from mammals, where n-3 PUFAs do not seem to activate FA sensors. This might suggest additional roles and highlights the importance of n-3 PUFA in fish diets, especially in marine species. The activation of FA sensing seems to be partially dependent on acyl chain length and degree of saturation, as no major changes were observed after treating fish with SA or EPA. The activation of FA sensing systems by OA and ALA, but not SA or EPA, is further reflected in the expression of hypothalamic neuropeptides involved in the control of food intake. Both OA and ALA enhanced anorexigenic capacity compatible with the activation of FA sensing systems. PMID:26468264

  6. Intake levels of dietary long-chain PUFAs modify the association between genetic variation in FADS and LDL-C.

    PubMed

    Hellstrand, S; Sonestedt, E; Ericson, U; Gullberg, B; Wirfält, E; Hedblad, B; Orho-Melander, M

    2012-06-01

    Polymorphisms of the FA desaturase (FADS) gene cluster have been associated with LDL, HDL, and triglyceride concentrations. Because FADS converts α-linolenic acid (ALA) and linoleic acid into PUFAs, we investigated the interaction between different PUFA intakes and the FADS polymorphism rs174547 (T>C) on fasting blood lipid and lipoprotein concentrations. We included 4,635 individuals (60% females, 45-68 years) from the Swedish population-based Malmö Diet and Cancer cohort. Dietary intakes were assessed by a modified diet history method including 7-day registration of cooked meals. The C-allele of rs174547 was associated with lower LDL concentration (P = 0.03). We observed significant interaction between rs174547 and long-chain ω-3 PUFA intakes on LDL (P = 0.01); the C-allele was only associated with lower LDL among individuals in the lowest tertile of long-chain ω-3 PUFA intakes (P < 0.001). In addition, significant interaction was observed between rs174547 and the ratio of ALA and linoleic FA intakes on HDL (P = 0.03). However, no significant associations between the C-allele and HDL were detected within the intake tertiles of the ratio. Our findings suggest that dietary intake levels of different PUFAs modify the associated effect of genetic variation in FADS on LDL and HDL. PMID:22451038

  7. Maternal dietary folate, folic acid and vitamin D intakes during pregnancy and lactation and the risk of cows' milk allergy in the offspring.

    PubMed

    Tuokkola, Jetta; Luukkainen, Päivi; Kaila, Minna; Takkinen, Hanna-Mari; Niinistö, Sari; Veijola, Riitta; Virta, Lauri J; Knip, Mikael; Simell, Olli; Ilonen, Jorma; Virtanen, Suvi M

    2016-08-01

    Maternal nutrient intake during pregnancy and lactation potentially influences the development of allergic diseases. Cows' milk allergy (CMA) is often the first manifestation of atopic diseases, but the impact of early nutritional influences on CMA has not been explored. The associations between maternal intakes of folate, folic acid and vitamin D during pregnancy and lactation were addressed in a prospective, population-based birth cohort within the Finnish Type 1 Diabetes Prediction and Prevention Study. Mothers of 4921 children during pregnancy and 2940 children during lactation provided information on maternal dietary intake during the 8th month of pregnancy and the 3rd month of lactation using a detailed, validated FFQ. Information on diagnosed CMA in the offspring was obtained from a medical registry as well as queried from the parents. The Finnish food composition database was used to calculate nutrient intake. Logistic regression was applied for statistical analyses. Folate intake and folic acid and vitamin D supplement use were associated with an increased risk of CMA in the offspring, whereas vitamin D intake from foods during pregnancy was associated with a decreased risk of CMA. Thus, maternal nutrient intake during pregnancy and lactation may affect the development of CMA in offspring. Supplementation with folic acid may not be beneficial in terms of CMA development, especially in children of allergic mothers. The association between dietary supplement use and CMA risk can at least partly be explained by increased health-seeking behaviour among more educated mothers who also use more dietary supplements. PMID:27350011

  8. Amino Acid Intakes Are Associated With Bone Mineral Density and Prevalence of Low Bone Mass in Women: Evidence From Discordant Monozygotic Twins.

    PubMed

    Jennings, Amy; MacGregor, Alexander; Spector, Tim; Cassidy, Aedín

    2016-02-01

    Although a higher protein intake, particularly from vegetable sources, has been shown to be associated with higher bone mineral density (BMD) the relative impact of specific amino acids on BMD and risk of osteoporosis remains to be determined. Mechanistic research suggests that a number of specific amino acids, including five nonessential amino acids--alanine, arginine, glutamic acid, glycine, and proline--may play a role in bone health, principally through improved production of insulin and insulin-like growth factor 1 and the synthesis of collagen and muscle protein. However to date, no previous studies have examined the associations between habitual intake of amino acids and direct measures of BMD and prevalence of osteoporosis or osteopenia, and no studies have examined this relationship in discordant identical twin-pairs. In these analyses of female monozygotic twin-pairs discordant for amino acid intake (n = 135), twins with higher intakes of alanine and glycine had significantly higher BMD at the spine than their co-twins with within-pair differences in spine-BMD of 0.012 g/cm(2) (SE 0.01; p = 0.039) and 0.014 g/cm(2) (SE 0.01; p = 0.026), respectively. Furthermore, in cross-sectional multivariable analyses of 3160 females aged 18 to 79 years, a higher intake of total protein was significantly associated with higher DXA-measured BMD at the spine (quartile Q4 to quartile Q1: 0.017 g/cm(2), SE 0.01, p = 0.035) and forearm (Q4 to Q1: 0.010 g/cm(2), SE 0.003, p = 0.002). Intake of six amino acids (alanine, arginine, glutamic acid, leucine, lysine, and proline) were associated with higher BMD at the spine and forearm with the strongest association observed for leucine (Q4 to Q1: 0.024 g/cm(2), SE 0.01, p = 0.007). When intakes were stratified by protein source, vegetable or animal, prevalence of osteoporosis or osteopenia was 13% to 19% lower comparing extreme quartiles of vegetable intake for five amino acids (not glutamic acid or proline). These data provide

  9. Intakes of long-chain n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids and fish in relation to measurements of subclinical atherosclerosis

    PubMed Central

    He, Ka; Liu, Kiang; Daviglus, Martha L.; Mayer-Davis, Elisabeth; Jenny, Nancy Swords; Jiang, Rui; Ouyang, Pamela; Steffen, Lyn M.; Siscovick, David; Wu, Colin; Barr, R. Graham; Tsai, Michael; Burke, Gregory L.

    2014-01-01

    Background Data on the relations of different types of fish meals and long-chain n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids (n-3 PUFAs) with measures of atherosclerosis are sparse. Objective We examined intakes of long-chain n-3 PUFAs and fish in relation to clinical measures of subclinical atherosclerosis. Design A cross-sectional study was conducted in 5,488 multiethnic adults aged 45–84 years and free of clinical cardiovascular disease. Diet was assessed using self-administered food frequency questionnaires. Subclinical atherosclerosis was determined by common carotid intima-media thickness (cCIMT, >80th percentile), internal CIMT (iCIMT, >80th percentile), coronary artery calcium score (CAC, >0) or ankle-brachial index (ABI, <0.90), respectively. Results After adjustment for potential confounders, intakes of long-chain n-3 PUFAs and non-fried (broiled, steamed, baked or raw) fish were inversely related to subclinical atherosclerosis determined by cCIMT but not iCIMT, CAC or ABI. The multivariable odds ratio comparing the highest to the lowest quartile of dietary exposures in relation to subclinical atherosclerosis determined by cCIMT was 0.69 (95% CI: 0.55, 0.86; p for trend<0.01) for n-3 PUFA intake, 0.80 (95% CI: 0.64, 1.01; p=0.054) for non-fried fish and 0.90 (95% CI: 0.73, 1.10; p=0.33) for fried fish consumption. Conclusions This study indicates that dietary intake of long-chain n-3 PUFAs or non-fried fish is associated with lower prevalence of subclinical atherosclerosis classified by cCIMT although significant changes in iCIMT, CAC and ABI were not observed. Our findings also suggest that the association of fish and atherosclerosis may vary depending on the type of fish meal consumed and the measures of atherosclerosis. PMID:18842801

  10. Folic acid alone or multivitamin containing folic acid intake during pregnancy and the risk of gestational hypertension and preeclampsia through meta-analyses

    PubMed Central

    Shim, Sang-Min; Yun, Yeo-Ul

    2016-01-01

    Objective The objective of this study was to assess the effect of folic acid and multivitamin use during pregnancy on the risk of developing of hypertensive disorder of pregnancy. Methods Two reviewers independently determined all prospective cohort study, retrospective cohort study, large population based cohort study, retrospective secondary analysis, and double blinded, placebo-controlled, randomized clinical trial published using PubMed Medline database, KERIS (Korea Education and Research Information Service), Scopus, and the Cochrane Central Register of controlled trials comparing before conception throughout pregnancy intake oral multivitamin containing folic acid or folic acid alone. Meta-analyses were estimated with odds ratios and 95% confidence intervals (CIs) using random effect analysis according to heterogeneity of studies. Results Data from six effect sizes from six studies involving 201,661 patients were enrolled. These meta-analyses showed multivitamin containing folic acid or folic acid alone was not significantly effective in reducing gestational hypertension or preeclampsia incidence (odds ratio, 0.91; 95% CI, 0.81 to 1.03) than the placebo. And the difference of effective sizes of preeclampsia and gestational hypertension according to two dependent variables, multivitamin and folic acid were not significant, respectively (point estimate, 0.66; 95% CI, 0.46 to 0.96). Conclusion These meta-analyses demonstrate multivitamin containing folic acid or folic acid alone was not significantly effective in reducing gestational hypertension or preeclampsia incidence. PMID:27004201

  11. Effects of n3 Intake on Plasma Phospholipid Fatty Acids and Sex Hormone Profiles in Postmenopausal Women: Potential for Breast Cancer Risk Reduction

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Breast cancer risk is associated with dietary fat intake. Omega-6 fatty acids (n6) promote while omega-3 fatty acids (n3) inhibit tumorigenesis. Increased sex hormone (SH) concentrations are associated with risk of breast cancer. The effects of total fat and n3 on SH and PLFA were assessed in a f...

  12. Early intake of long-chain polyunsaturated fatty acids preserves brain structure and function in diet-induced obesity.

    PubMed

    Arnoldussen, Ilse A C; Zerbi, Valerio; Wiesmann, Maximilian; Noordman, Rikko H J; Bolijn, Simone; Mutsaers, Martina P C; Dederen, Pieter J W C; Kleemann, Robert; Kooistra, Teake; van Tol, Eric A F; Gross, Gabriele; Schoemaker, Marieke H; Heerschap, Arend; Wielinga, Peter Y; Kiliaan, Amanda J

    2016-04-01

    Worldwide, the incidence of obesity is increasing at an alarming rate, and the number of children with obesity is especially worrisome. These developments raise concerns about the physical, psychosocial and cognitive consequences of obesity. It was shown that early dietary intake of arachidonic acid (ARA) and docosahexaenoic acid (DHA) can reduce the detrimental effects of later obesogenic feeding on lipid metabolism and adipogenesis in an animal model of mild obesity. In the present study, the effects of early dietary ARA and DHA on cognition and brain structure were examined in mildly obesogenic ApoE*3Leiden mouse model. We used cognitive tests and neuroimaging during early and later life. During their early development after weaning (4-13weeks of age), mice were fed a chow diet or ARA and DHA diet for 8 weeks and then switched to a high-fat and high-carbohydrate (HFHC) diet for 12weeks (14-26weeks of age). An HFHC-diet led to increased energy storage in white adipose tissue, increased cholesterol levels, decreased triglycerides levels, increased cerebral blood flow and decreased functional connectivity between brain regions as well as cerebrovascular and gray matter integrity. ARA and DHA intake reduced the HFHC-diet-induced increase in body weight, attenuated plasma triglycerides levels and improved cerebrovasculature, gray matter integrity and functional connectivity in later life. In conclusion, an HFHC diet causes adverse structural brain and metabolic adaptations, most of which can be averted by dietary ARA and DHA intake early in life supporting metabolic flexibility and cerebral integrity later in life. PMID:27012634

  13. Effect of Lipid Sources with Different Fatty Acid Profiles on Intake, Nutrient Digestion and Ruminal Fermentation of Feedlot Nellore Steers

    PubMed Central

    Fiorentini, Giovani; Carvalho, Isabela P. C.; Messana, Juliana D.; Canesin, Roberta C.; Castagnino, Pablo S.; Lage, Josiane F.; Arcuri, Pedro B.; Berchielli, Telma T.

    2015-01-01

    The present study was conducted to determine the effect of lipid sources with different fatty acid profiles on nutrient digestion and ruminal fermentation. Ten rumen and duodenal fistulated Nellore steers (268 body weight±27 kg) were distributed in a duplicated 5×5 Latin square. Dietary treatments were as follows: without fat (WF), palm oil (PO), linseed oil (LO), protected fat (PF; Lactoplus), and whole soybeans (WS). The roughage feed was corn silage (600 g/kg on a dry matter [DM] basis) plus concentrate (400 g/kg on a DM basis). The higher intake of DM and organic matter (OM) (p<0.001) was found in animals on the diet with PF and WF (around 4.38 and 4.20 kg/d, respectively). Treatments with PO and LO decreased by around 10% the total digestibility of DM and OM (p<0.05). The addition of LO decreased by around 22.3% the neutral detergent fiber digestibility (p = 0.047) compared with other diets. The higher microbial protein synthesis was found in animals on the diet with LO and WS (33 g N/kg OM apparently digested in the rumen; p = 0.040). The highest C18:0 and linolenic acid intakes occurred in animals fed LO (p<0.001), and the highest intake of oleic (p = 0.002) and C16 acids (p = 0.022) occurred with the diets with LO and PF. Diet with PF decreased biohydrogenation extent (p = 0.05) of C18:1 n9,c, C18:2 n6,c, and total unsaturated fatty acids (UFA; around 20%, 7%, and 13%, respectively). The diet with PF and WF increased the concentration of NH3-N (p<0.001); however, the diet did not change volatile fatty acids (p>0.05), such as the molar percentage of acetate, propionate, butyrate and the acetate:propionate ratio. Treatments PO, LO and with WS decreased by around 50% the concentration of protozoa (p<0.001). Diets with some type of protection (PF and WS) decreased the effects of lipid on ruminal fermentation and presented similar outflow of benefit UFA as LO. PMID:26580282

  14. Hepatic denervation and dyslipidemia in obese Zucker (fa/fa) rats.

    PubMed

    Bruinstroop, E; Eliveld, J; Foppen, E; Busker, S; Ackermans, M T; Fliers, E; Kalsbeek, A

    2015-11-01

    Human and animal studies increasingly point toward a neural pathogenesis of the metabolic syndrome, involving hypothalamic and autonomic nervous system dysfunction. We hypothesized that increased very-low-density lipoprotein-triglyceride (VLDL-TG) secretion by the liver in a rat model for dyslipidemia, that is, the obese Zucker (fa/fa) rat, is due to relative hyperactivity of sympathetic, and/or hypoactivity of parasympathetic hepatic innervation. To test the involvement of the autonomic nervous system, we surgically denervated the sympathetic or parasympathetic hepatic nerve in obese Zucker rats. Our results show that cutting the sympathetic hepatic nerve lowers VLDL-TG secretion in obese rats, finally resulting in lower plasma TG concentrations after 6 weeks. In contrast, a parasympathetic denervation results in increased plasma total cholesterol concentrations. The effect of a sympathetic or parasympathetic denervation of the liver was independent of changes in humoral factors or changes in body weight or food intake. In conclusion, a sympathetic denervation improves the lipid profile in obese Zucker rats, whereas a parasympathetic denervation increases total cholesterol levels. We believe this is a novel treatment target, which should be further investigated. PMID:26134416

  15. Xanthohumol lowers body weight and fasting plasma glucose in obese male Zucker fa/fa rats.

    PubMed

    Legette, Leecole L; Luna, Arlyn Y Moreno; Reed, Ralph L; Miranda, Cristobal L; Bobe, Gerd; Proteau, Rosita R; Stevens, Jan F

    2013-07-01

    Obesity contributes to increased risk for several chronic diseases including cardiovascular disease and type 2 diabetes. Xanthohumol, a prenylated flavonoid from hops (Humulus lupulus), was tested for efficacy on biomarkers of metabolic syndrome in 4 week old Zucker fa/fa rats, a rodent model of obesity. Rats received daily oral doses of xanthohumol at 0, 1.86, 5.64, and 16.9 mg/kg BW for 6 weeks. All rats were maintained on a high fat (60% kcal) AIN-93G diet for 3 weeks to induce severe obesity followed by a normal AIN-93G (15% kcal fat) diet for the last 3 weeks of the study. Weekly food intake and body weight were recorded. Plasma cholesterol, glucose, insulin, triglyceride, and monocyte chemoattractant protein-1 (MCP-1) levels were assessed using commercial assay kits. Plasma and liver tissue levels of XN and its metabolites were determined by liquid-chromatography tandem mass spectrometry. Plasma and liver tissue levels of xanthohumol were similar between low and medium dose groups and significantly (p<0.05) elevated in the highest dose group. There was a dose-dependent effect on body weight and plasma glucose levels. The highest dose group (n=6) had significantly lower plasma glucose levels compared to the control group (n=6) in male but not female rats. There was also a significant decrease in body weight for male rats in the highest dose group (16.9 mg/kg BW) compared to rats that received no xanthohumol, which was also not seen for female rats. Plasma cholesterol, insulin, triglycerides, and MCP-1 as well as food intake were not affected by treatment. The findings suggest that xanthohumol has beneficial effects on markers of metabolic syndrome. PMID:22640929

  16. LC-MS/MS quantification of N-acetylneuraminic acid, N-glycolylneuraminic acid and ketodeoxynonulosonic acid levels in the urine and potential relationship with dietary sialic acid intake and disease in 3- to 5-year-old children.

    PubMed

    Chen, Yue; Pan, Lili; Liu, Ni; Troy, Frederic A; Wang, Bing

    2014-01-28

    Red meat and dairy products contain high sialic acid (Sia) levels, but the metabolic fate and health impact in children remain unknown. The aims of the present study were to quantify the levels of urinary Sia N-acetylneuraminic acid (Neu5Ac), N-glycolylneuraminic acid (Neu5Gc) and ketodeoxynonulosonic acid (KDN) and to determine their relationship with dietary Sia intake. Spot urine samples were collected from 386 healthy children aged 3 (n 108), 4 (n 144) and 5 (n 134) years at 06.30-07.00, 11.30-12.00 and 16.30-17.00 hours. Food intake levels were recorded on the day of urine sample collection. Sia levels were quantified using LC-MS/MS with [13C3]Sia as an internal standard. We found that (1) total urinary Sia levels in healthy pre-school children ranged from 40 to 79 mmol Sia/mol creatinine; (2) urinary Sia levels were independent of age and consisted of conjugated Neu5Ac (approximately 70·8 %), free Neu5Ac (approximately 21·3 %), conjugated KDN (approximately 4·2 %) and free KDN (approximately 3·7 %); Neu5Gc was detected in the urine of only one 4-year-old girl; (3) total urinary Sia levels were highest in the morning and declined over time in 4- and 5-year-old children (P< 0·05), but not in 3-year-old children; (4) Sia intake levels at breakfast and lunch were approximately 2·5 and 0·16 mg Sia/kg body weight; and (5) there was no significant correlation between dietary Sia intake levels and urinary Sia levels. Urinary Sia levels varied with age and time of day, but did not correlate with Sia intake in 3- to 5-year-old children. The difference in urinary Sia levels in children of different age groups suggests that the metabolism and utilisation rates of dietary Sia are age dependent. PMID:23915700

  17. Influence of the intake and composition of elemental diets on bile acid metabolism and hepatic lipids in the rat.

    PubMed

    Nelson, L M; Russell, R I

    1986-01-01

    The effects of the elemental diets Vivonex (V) and Flexical (F) on bile acid metabolism and hepatic lipids in the rat has been investigated both with ad libitum feeding and when calorie intake was limited to that of control rats (C) fed a standard diet (Oxoid 41B). Ad libitum feeding of V and F for 9 weeks resulted in a weight gain in excess of that for the control diet. After 9 weeks of isocaloric feeding the V-fed rats were significantly lighter than those fed F and C. Fecal bile acid excretion (FBA) and the fractional turnover rates for cholic acid (CA) and chenodeoxycholic acid (CDC) were measured. The elemental diets significantly reduced FBA when fed both ad libitum and isocalorically compared with the control diet, the reduction with V being significantly greater than for F. In the isocaloric feeding study both elemental diets significantly increased the half life of CA and CDC. The increase for CA was significantly greater for V than F but for CDC the effect of the two diets was the same. Thus the percentage of CDC-derived 6 substituted bile acids was greater with V than F feeding. There was a strong negative correlation between bile acid half-life and fecal excretion of metabolites for the three dietary groups indicating that bile acid pool size was unchanged by the elemental diets. A gross increase in liver lipid both histologically and chemically was found for the ad libitum fed V rats with a marked but lesser increase for F.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS) PMID:3755773

  18. High intake of dietary long-chain ω-3 fatty acids is associated with lower blood pressure in children born with low birth weight: NHANES 2003-2008.

    PubMed

    Skilton, Michael R; Raitakari, Olli T; Celermajer, David S

    2013-05-01

    Reduced fetal growth is associated with increased systolic blood pressure. Recently, we found an inverse association between serum ω-3 fatty acids and systolic blood pressure in young adults born with impaired fetal growth. We investigated the associations of dietary intake in childhood of the long-chain ω-3 fatty acids eicosapentaenoic acid and docosahexaenoic acid with blood pressure parameters in children born with reduced birth weight. We analyzed data from 3457 children aged 8 to 15 years participating in the continuous National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey 2003-2004, 2005-2006, and 2007-2008. Dietary intake was assessed by two 24-hour dietary recalls, birth weight by questionnaire, and blood pressure was measured. Systolic blood pressure was 1.1 mm Hg higher in those with reduced (<10th centile) compared with normal birth weight (≥ 10th centile), consistent with previous findings, although not statistically significant (P=0.40); however, pulse pressure was significantly higher in these children (3.4 mm Hg). In the 354 participants with reduced birth weight, when compared with children with the lowest tertile of intake, those who had the highest tertile of dietary eicosapentaenoic acid and docosahexaenoic acid intake had significantly lower systolic blood pressure (-4.9 mm Hg [95% confidence interval, -9.7 to -0.1]) and pulse pressure (-7.7 mm Hg [95% confidence interval, -15.0 to -0.4]). High-dietary intakes of eicosapentaenoic acid and docosahexaenoic acid are associated with lower systolic blood pressure and pulse pressure in children born with reduced birth weight. These data are consistent with the hypothesis that long-chain ω-3 fatty acids reduce blood pressure in those with impaired fetal growth. PMID:23460284

  19. Fat intake leads to differential response of rat adipocytes to glucose, insulin and ascorbic acid.

    PubMed

    Garcia-Diaz, Diego F; Campion, Javier; Arellano, Arianna V; Milagro, Fermin I; Moreno-Aliaga, Maria J; Martinez, J Alfredo

    2012-04-01

    Antioxidant-based treatments have emerged as novel and interesting approaches to counteract fat accumulation in obesity and associated metabolic disturbances. Adipocytes from rats that were fed on chow or high-fat diet (HFD) for 50 d were isolated (primary adipocytes) and incubated (72 h) on low (LG; 5.6 mmol/L) or high (HG; 25 mmol/L) glucose levels, in the presence or absence of 1.6 nmol/L insulin and 200 μmol/L vitamin C (VC). Adipocytes from HFD-fed animals presented lower insulin-induced glucose uptake, lower lactate and glycerol release, and lower insulin-induced secretion of some adipokines as compared with controls. HG treatment restored the blunted response to insulin regarding apelin secretion in adipocytes from HFD-fed rats. VC treatment inhibited the levels of nearly all variables, irrespective of the adipocytes' dietary origin. The HG treatment reduced adipocyte viability, and VC protected from this toxic effect, although more drastically in control adipocytes. Summing up, in vivo chow or HFD intake determines a differential response to insulin and glucose treatments that appears to be dependent on the insulin-resistance status of the adipocytes, while VC modifies some responses from adipocytes independently of the previous dietary intake of the animals. PMID:22454546

  20. Facilitated neurogenesis in the developing hippocampus after intake of theanine, an amino acid in tea leaves, and object recognition memory.

    PubMed

    Takeda, Atsushi; Sakamoto, Kazuhiro; Tamano, Haruna; Fukura, Kotaro; Inui, Naoto; Suh, Sang Won; Won, Seok-Joon; Yokogoshi, Hidehiko

    2011-10-01

    Theanine, γ-glutamylethylamide, is one of the major amino acid components in green tea. In this study, cognitive function and the related mechanism were examined in theanine-administered young rats. Newborn rats were fed theanine through dams, which were fed water containing 0.3% theanine, and then fed water containing 0.3% theanine after weaning. Theanine level in the brain was under the detectable limit 6 weeks after the start of theanine administration. Theanine administration did not influence locomotor activity in the open-field test. However, rearing behavior was significantly increased in theanine-administered rats, suggesting that exploratory activity is increased by theanine intake. Furthermore, object recognition memory was enhanced in theanine-administered rats. The increase in exploratory activity in the open-field test seems to be associated with the enhanced object recognition memory after theanine administration. On the other hand, long-term potentiation (LTP) induction at the perforant path-granule cell synapse was not changed by theanine administration. To check hippocampal neurogenesis, BrdU was injected into rats 3 weeks after the start of theanine administration, and brain-derived neurotropic factor (BDNF) level was significantly increased at this time. Theanine intake significantly increased the number of BrdU-, Ki67-, and DCX-labeled cells in the granule cell layer 6 weeks after the start of theanine administration. This study indicates that 0.3% theanine administration facilitates neurogenesis in the developing hippocampus followed by enhanced recognition memory. Theanine intake may be of benefit to the postnatal development of hippocampal function. PMID:21604187

  1. Incorporation of eicosapentaenoic and docosahexaenoic acids into lipid pools when given as supplements providing doses equivalent to typical intakes of oily fish1234

    PubMed Central

    Browning, Lucy M; Walker, Celia G; Mander, Adrian P; West, Annette L; Madden, Jackie; Gambell, Joanna M; Young, Stephen; Wang, Laura; Jebb, Susan A

    2012-01-01

    Background: Estimation of the intake of oily fish at a population level is difficult. The measurement of eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA) and docosahexaenoic acid (DHA) in biological samples may provide a useful biomarker of intake. Objective: We identified the most appropriate biomarkers for the assessment of habitual oily fish intake and changes in intake by elucidating the dose- and time-dependent response of EPA and DHA incorporation into various biological samples that represent roles in fatty acid transport, function, and storage. Design: This was a double-blind, randomized, controlled intervention trial in 204 men and women that lasted 12 mo. EPA and DHA capsules were provided in a manner to reflect sporadic consumption of oily fish (ie, 1, 2, or 4 times/wk). EPA and DHA were assessed at 9 time points over 12 mo in 9 sample types (red blood cells, mononuclear cells, platelets, buccal cells, adipose tissue, plasma phosphatidylcholine, triglycerides, cholesteryl esters, and nonesterified fatty acids). Results: A dose response (P < 0.05) was observed for EPA and DHA in all pools except for red blood cell EPA (P = 0.057). EPA and DHA measures in plasma phosphatidylcholine and platelets were best for the discrimination between different intakes (P < 0.0001). The rate of incorporation varied between sample types, with the time to maximal incorporation ranging from days (plasma phosphatidylcholine) to months (mononuclear cells) to >12 mo (adipose tissue). Conclusions: Plasma phosphatidylcholine EPA plus DHA was identified as the most suitable biomarker of acute changes in EPA and DHA intake, and platelet and mononuclear cell EPA plus DHA were the most suitable biomarkers of habitual intake. This trial was registered at Current Controlled Trials (www.controlled-trials.com) as ISRCTN48398526. PMID:22932281

  2. Dietary intake of polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFA) among breastfeeding and non-breastfeeding 24–48 month old children in Bangladesh1,2,3

    PubMed Central

    Yakes, Elizabeth A.; Arsenault, Joanne E.; Islam, M. Munirul; Ahmed, Tahmeed; German, J. Bruce; Drake, Christiana; Hossain, Mohammad B.; Lewis, Bess L.; Rahman, Ahmed Shafiqur; Jamil, Kazi M.; Brown, Kenneth H.

    2010-01-01

    Objective To assess the adequacy of polyunsaturated fatty acid intake by rural Bangladeshi children 24–48 months of age in relation to their breastfeeding status. Methods Multi-stage sampling was used to select a representative sample of children 24–48 mo of age from two rural districts in Bangladesh (n=479). Two non-consecutive 24 h periods of dietary data were collected via 12 h daytime in-home observations and recall. Breast milk intake was estimated using test weighing. The National Cancer Institute method for episodically consumed foods was used to estimate distributions of usual food and nutrient intakes. Results Based on the estimated intake distributions, more than 95% of the children had usual fat intakes less than 30% of total energy. Among 24–35 mo (younger) and 36–48 mo (older) children, respectively, 4% and 16% of breastfeeding children and 31% and 41% of non-breastfeeding children were estimated to consume less than 10% of total energy from fat. An estimated 80% of all children consumed less than 4% of total energy as linoleic acid, and 99% consumed less than 1% of energy as alpha-linolenic acid. Younger breastfeeding children had higher estimated average docosahexaenoic acid (DHA) intakes (0.04 g DHA/d) than their non-breastfeeding counterparts (0.01 g DHA/d; p = 0.0005). Both breastfeeding and non-breastfeeding older children had estimated mean DHA intakes of 0.02 g/d (p=0.74). Conclusions Rural Bangladeshi children 24–48 months of age, and especially those who have discontinued breastfeeding, may benefit from increased fat consumption. PMID:21336160

  3. Polyunsaturated fatty acid content is increased in the milk of women with pregnancy associated breast cancer

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Background: Pregnancy associated breast cancer (PABC) is aggressive and difficult to diagnose. High intake of most types of dietary fat is thought to increase breast cancer risk, however results in humans supporting this premise remain equivocal. Fatty acid (FA) concentrations in the body comprise b...

  4. Long-term Effects of Prenatal Omega-3 Fatty Acid Intake on Visual Function in School-Age Children

    PubMed Central

    Jacques, Caroline; Levy, Emile; Muckle, Gina; Jacobson, Sandra W.; Bastien, Célyne; Dewailly, Éric; Ayotte, Pierre; Jacobson, Joseph L.; Saint-Amour, Dave

    2010-01-01

    Objective To assess the long-term effect of omega-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids (n-3 PUFA) intake during gestation on visual development. Study design We examined the long-term effects in 136 school-age Inuit children exposed to high levels of n-3 PUFAs during gestation using visual evoked potentials (VEPs). VEP protocols using color and motion stimuli were used to assess parvo- and magnocellular responses. Concentrations of the two major n-3 PUFAs (DHA and EPA) were measured in umbilical cord and child plasma phospholipids, reflecting pre- and postnatal exposure, respectively. Results After adjustment for confounders, cord plasma DHA was associated with shorter latencies of the N1 and P1 components of the color VEPs. No effects were found for current n-3 PUFA body burden or motion-onset VEPs. Conclusion This study demonstrates beneficial effects of DHA intake during gestation on visual system function at school age. DHA is particularly important for the early development and long-term function of the visual parvocellular pathway. PMID:20797725

  5. Estimating pasture intake and nutrient digestibility of growing pigs fed a concentrate-forage diet by n-alkane and acid-insoluble ash markers.

    PubMed

    Kanga, Jean Serge; Kanengoni, Arnold Tapera; Makgothi, Onkabetswe Gogakgamatsamang; Baloyi, Joseph Jimu

    2012-10-01

    A study was carried out to determine voluntary forage intake and nutrient digestibility in growing pigs fed a mixed forage and concentrate diet. Twenty-five 8-week-old Large White × Landrace crossbred male pigs (27 ± 3.8 kg) were blocked by weight into five groups, and each was randomly allocated to four indoor treatments (A, B, C, and D), which received 100, 90, 80, and 70 % of ad lib concentrated intake and an outdoor treatment (E) that received 80 % of ad lib concentrate. Indoor treatments were either fed the concentrate only (A) or also received freshly cut Kikuyu grass (Pennissetum clandestinum) ad libitum (B, C, and D), while pigs on treatment E were reared outdoors in Kikuyu grass paddocks. There was a significant correlation between the amount of concentrate offered and its intake (P < 0.01). The intake of Kikuyu was similar among treatments (P > 0.05). Mean acid-insoluble ash digestibility estimates of organic and dry matter were superior to C(32) estimates (P < 0.05). Kikuyu intake was higher (P < 0.05) than the estimated intake by 0.076 ± 0.03 kg. It was concluded that Kikuyu intake was not affected by the reduction of the concentrate allowance, and this should be taken into consideration when feeding pigs on pasture. PMID:22467043

  6. Folate Catabolites in Spot Urine as Non-Invasive Biomarkers of Folate Status during Habitual Intake and Folic Acid Supplementation

    PubMed Central

    Niesser, Mareile; Demmelmair, Hans; Weith, Thea; Moretti, Diego; Rauh-Pfeiffer, Astrid; van Lipzig, Marola; Vaes, Wouter; Koletzko, Berthold; Peissner, Wolfgang

    2013-01-01

    Background Folate status, as reflected by red blood cell (RCF) and plasma folates (PF), is related to health and disease risk. Folate degradation products para-aminobenzoylglutamate (pABG) and para-acetamidobenzoylglutamate (apABG) in 24 hour urine have recently been shown to correlate with blood folate. Aim Since blood sampling and collection of 24 hour urine are cumbersome, we investigated whether the determination of urinary folate catabolites in fasted spot urine is a suitable non-invasive biomarker for folate status in subjects before and during folic acid supplementation. Study Design and Methods Immediate effects of oral folic acid bolus intake on urinary folate catabolites were assessed in a short-term pre-study. In the main study we included 53 healthy men. Of these, 29 were selected for a 12 week folic acid supplementation (400 µg). Blood, 24 hour and spot urine were collected at baseline and after 6 and 12 weeks and PF, RCF, urinary apABG and pABG were determined. Results Intake of a 400 µg folic acid bolus resulted in immediate increase of urinary catabolites. In the main study pABG and apABG concentrations in spot urine correlated well with their excretion in 24 hour urine. In healthy men consuming habitual diet, pABG showed closer correlation with PF (rs = 0.676) and RCF (rs = 0.649) than apABG (rs = 0.264, ns and 0.543). Supplementation led to significantly increased folate in plasma and red cells as well as elevated urinary folate catabolites, while only pABG correlated significantly with PF (rs = 0.574) after 12 weeks. Conclusion Quantification of folate catabolites in fasted spot urine seems suitable as a non-invasive alternative to blood or 24 hour urine analysis for evaluation of folate status in populations consuming habitual diet. In non-steady-state conditions (folic acid supplementation) correlations between folate marker (RCF, PF, urinary catabolites) decrease due to differing kinetics. PMID:23457526

  7. Dietary intake of isoflavones and polyunsaturated fatty acids associated with lung function, breathlessness and the prevalence of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease: possible protective effect of traditional Japanese diet.

    PubMed

    Hirayama, Fumi; Lee, Andy H; Binns, Colin W; Hiramatsu, Naoko; Mori, Mitsuru; Nishimura, Koichi

    2010-07-01

    The Japanese diet is high in soy products and fish. A case-control study was conducted in Japan to investigate the relationship between dietary intake of isoflavones and fatty acids and lung function, breathlessness and chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD). A total of 278 referred patients aged 50-75 years with COPD diagnosed within the past 4 years, and 340 community-based controls were assessed for respiratory symptoms and undertook spirometric measurements of lung function. A validated food frequency questionnaire was administered face-to-face to obtain information on habitual food consumption. Dietary intakes of isoflavones and fatty acids were derived from the Japanese food composition tables. The COPD patients had significantly lower habitual intakes of isoflavones (genistein and daidzein) and polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFA; both omega-3 and omega-6) than control subjects. Lung function measures were found to be positively associated with isoflavones and PUFA intake. Substantial reductions in prevalence of COPD and breathlessness were observed for isoflavones, the respective adjusted odds ratio being 0.36 (95% confidence interval 0.19-0.68) and 0.60 (95% confidence interval 0.33-1.10) for the highest versus lowest levels of total isoflavone intake. The corresponding tests for linear trend were significant. High intakes of PUFA and omega-6 fatty acids (derived from foods excluding oils and fats as seasonings) also appeared to reduce the risks of COPD and breathlessness symptom, but no evidence of association was found for other types of fatty acids. The study provided evidence of possible protective effect of traditional Japanese diet against tobacco carcinogens. PMID:20112297

  8. What is the safe upper intake level of folic acid for the nervous system? Implications for folic acid fortification policies.

    PubMed

    Reynolds, E H

    2016-05-01

    Between 1945 and 1959 it was convincingly documented that folic acid can precipitate or aggravate the neurological and haematological consequences of vitamin B12 deficiency by increasing the demand for vitamin B12. Since then there has been much misunderstanding of the issues, mainly by advocates of folic acid fortification who have been inclined to minimise or even dismiss the risks by misinterpreting the evidence as only a 'masking' of the anaemia of pernicious anaemia. Recent studies in the era of fortification are rediscovering the risks to the nervous system, especially cognitive function, of excess folate in the presence of vitamin B12 deficiency. I have reviewed the Reports of four Expert Advisory Committees in Europe and the USA, which suggest that the safe upper tolerable limit (UL) for folic acid is 1 mg in adults. These reports are unsound and there is already evidence of neurological harm from long-term exposure to doses of folic acid between 0.5 and 1 mg in the presence of vitamin B12 deficiency. There is an urgent need to review the safe UL for folic acid and to consider the addition of vitamin B12 to folic acid fortification policies. PMID:26862004

  9. Effects of whole flaxseed, raw soybeans, and calcium salts of fatty acids on measures of cellular immune function of transition dairy cows.

    PubMed

    Gandra, J R; Barletta, R V; Mingoti, R D; Verdurico, L C; Freitas, J E; Oliveira, L J; Takiya, C S; Kfoury, J R; Wiltbank, M C; Renno, F P

    2016-06-01

    The objective of the current study was to evaluate the effects of supplemental n-3 and n-6 fatty acid (FA) sources on cellular immune function of transition dairy cows. Animals were randomly assigned to receive 1 of 4 diets: control (n=11); whole flaxseed (n-3 FA source; n=11), 60 and 80g/kg of whole flaxseed [diet dry matter (DM) basis] during pre- and postpartum, respectively; whole raw soybeans (n-6 FA source; n=10), 120 and 160g/kg of whole raw soybeans (diet DM basis) during pre- and postpartum, respectively; and calcium salts of unsaturated FA (Megalac-E, n-6 FA source; n=10), 24 and 32g/kg of calcium salts of unsaturated FA (diet DM basis) during pre- and postpartum, respectively. Supplemental FA did not alter DM intake and milk yield but increased energy balance during the postpartum period. Diets containing n-3 and n-6 FA sources increased phagocytosis capacity of leukocytes and monocytes and phagocytosis activity of monocytes. Furthermore, n-3 FA source increased phagocytic capacity of leukocytes and neutrophils and increased phagocytic activity in monocytes and neutrophils when compared with n-6 FA sources. Supplemental FA effects on adaptive immune system included increased percentage of T-helper cells, T-cytotoxic cells, cells that expressed IL-2 receptors, and CD62 adhesion molecules. The results of this study suggest that unsaturated FA can modulate innate and adaptive cellular immunity and trigger a proinflammatory response. The n-3 FA seems to have a greater effect on phagocytic capacity and activity of leukocytes when compared with n-6 FA. PMID:27060809

  10. Feeding rainbow trout with a lipid-enriched diet: effects on fatty acid sensing, regulation of food intake and cellular signaling pathways.

    PubMed

    Librán-Pérez, Marta; Geurden, Inge; Dias, Karine; Corraze, Genevieve; Panserat, Stephane; Soengas, José L

    2015-08-01

    Using rainbow trout fed with low-fat or high-fat diets, we aimed to determine whether the response of food intake, mRNA abundance of hypothalamic neuropeptides involved in the metabolic regulation of food intake and fatty acid sensing systems in the hypothalamus and liver are similar to results previously observed when levels of specific fatty acids were raised by injection. Moreover, we also aimed to determine if the phosphorylation state of intracellular energy sensor 5'-AMP-activated protein kinase (AMPK), and proteins involved in cellular signaling such as protein kinase B (Akt) and target of rapamycin (mTOR) display changes that could be related to fatty acid sensing and the control of food intake. The increased levels of fatty acids in the hypothalamus and liver of rainbow trout fed with a high-fat diet only partially activated fatty acid sensing systems and did not elicit changes in food intake, suggesting that the fatty acid sensing response in fish is more dependent on the presence of specific fatty acids, such as oleate or octanoate, rather than to the global increase in fatty acids. We also obtained, for the first time in fish, evidence for the presence and function of energy sensors such as AMPK and proteins involved in cellular signaling, like mTOR and Akt, in the hypothalamus. These proteins in the hypothalamus and liver were generally activated in fish fed the high-fat versus low-fat diet, suggesting that cellular signaling pathways are activated in response to the increased availability of fatty acids. PMID:26089527

  11. Deletion of GPR40 fatty acid receptor gene in mice blocks mercaptoacetate-induced feeding.

    PubMed

    Li, Ai-Jun; Wiater, Michael F; Wang, Qing; Wank, Stephen; Ritter, Sue

    2016-05-15

    Both increased and decreased fatty acid (FA) availability contribute to control of food intake. For example, it is well documented that intestinal FA reduces feeding by triggering enterondocrine secretion of satietogenic peptides, such as cholecystokinin (CCK) and glucagon-like peptide-1 (GLP-1). In contrast, mechanisms by which decreased FA availability increase feeding are not well understood. Over the past three decades substantial research related to FA availability and increased feeding has involved use of the orexigenic compound mercaptoacetate (MA). Because MA reportedly inhibits FA oxidation, it has been assumed that reduced FA oxidation accounts for the orexigenic action of MA. Recently, however, we demonstrated that MA antagonizes G protein-coupled receptor 40 (GPR40), a membrane receptor for long and medium chain FA. We also demonstrated that, by antagonizing GPR40, MA inhibits GLP-1 secretion and attenuates vagal afferent activation by FA. Because both vagal afferent activation and GLP-1 inhibit food intake, we postulated that inhibition of GPR40 by MA might underlie the orexigenic action of MA. We tested this hypothesis using male and female GPR40 knockout (KO) and wild-type (WT) mice. Using several testing protocols, we found that MA increased feeding in WT, but not GPR40 KO mice, and that GPR40 KO mice gained more weight than WT on a high-fat diet. Metabolic monitoring after MA or saline injection in the absence of food did not reveal significant differences in respiratory quotient or energy expenditure between treatment groups or genotypes. These results support the hypothesis that MA stimulates food intake by blocking FA effects on GPR40. PMID:26984894

  12. Effects of one-seed juniper on intake, rumen fermentation, and plasma amino acids in sheep and goats fed supplemental protein

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    We tested the effect of feeding one-seed juniper on total intake, VFA profile, and plasma amino acids (AA) of 12 does and 12 ewes fed sudangrass and a basal diet with no protein supplement (Control; 5% CP) or rumen degradable (SBM; RDP 15% CP) or undegradable (FM; RUP 15% CP) protein supplement. Aft...

  13. Effects of one-seed juniper and polyethylene glycol on intake, rumen fermentation, and plasma amino acids in sheep and goats fed supplemental protein and tannins.

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    We tested the effect of polyethylene glycol (PEG) on juniper and total intake, rumen fermentation, and plasma amino acids (AA) of 12 does and 12 ewes fed sudangrass and basal diets containing 10% quebracho tannins with no protein supplement (Control; 5% CP) or high rumen degradable (RDP 15% CP) or u...

  14. Preconceptional and Prenatal Supplementary Folic Acid and Multivitamin Intake and Autism Spectrum Disorders

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Virk, Jasveer; Liew, Zeyan; Olsen, Jørn; Nohr, Ellen A.; Catov, Janet M.; Ritz, Beate

    2016-01-01

    Objective: To evaluate whether early folic acid supplementation during pregnancy prevents diagnosis of autism spectrum disorders in offspring. Methods: Information on autism spectrum disorder diagnosis was obtained from the National Hospital Register and the Central Psychiatric Register. We estimated risk ratios for autism spectrum disorders for…

  15. Pros and cons of increasing folic acid and vitamin B12 intake by fortification

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    There is no doubt that folic acid fortification can be effective for reducing the incidence of neural tube defects (NTDs). The degree of efficacy depends on both the level of folate depletion and other, yet to be fully characterized, genetic and/or environmental factors. This article summarizes brie...

  16. Fanconi anemia (FA) and crosslinker sensitivity: Re-appraising the origins of FA definition.

    PubMed

    Pagano, Giovanni; d'Ischia, Marco; Pallardó, Federico V

    2015-07-01

    The commonly accepted definition of Fanconi anemia (FA) relying on DNA repair deficiency is submitted to a critical review starting from the early reports pointing to mitomycin C bioactivation and to the toxicity mechanisms of diepoxybutane and a group of nitrogen mustards causing DNA crosslinks in FA cells. A critical analysis of the literature prompts revisiting the FA phenotype and crosslinker sensitivity in terms of an oxidative stress (OS) background, redox-related anomalies of FA (FANC) proteins, and mitochondrial dysfunction. This re-appraisal of FA basic defect might lead to innovative approaches both in elucidating FA phenotypes and in clinical management. PMID:25732180

  17. Liver fatty acid binding protein (L-Fabp) modifies intestinal fatty acid composition and adenoma formation in ApcMin/+ mice

    PubMed Central

    Dharmarajan, Sekhar; Newberry, Elizabeth P.; Montenegro, Grace; Nalbantoglu, ILKe; Davis, Victoria R.; Clanahan, Michael J.; Blanc, Valerie; Xie, Yan; Luo, Jianyang; Fleshman, James W.; Kennedy, Susan; Davidson, Nicholas O.

    2013-01-01

    Evidence suggests a relationship between dietary fat intake, obesity and colorectal cancer, implying a role for fatty acid (FA) metabolism in intestinal tumorigenesis that is incompletely understood. Liver fatty acid binding protein (L-Fabp), a dominant intestinal FA binding protein, regulates intestinal FA trafficking and metabolism and L-Fabp deletion attenuates diet-induced obesity. Here we examined whether changes in intestinal FA metabolism following L-Fabp deletion modify adenoma development in ApcMin/+ mice. Compound L-Fabp−/−ApcMin/+ mice were generated and fed a 10% fat diet balanced equally between saturated, monounsaturated and polyunsaturated fat. L-Fabp−/−ApcMin/+ mice displayed significant reductions in adenoma number and total polyp area compared to ApcMin/+controls, reflecting a significant shift in distribution toward smaller polyps. Adenomas from L-Fabp−/−ApcMin/+ mice exhibited reductions in cellular proliferation, high-grade dysplasia and nuclear β-catenin translocation. Intestinal FA content was increased in L-Fabp−/−ApcMin/+ mice and lipidomic profiling of intestinal mucosa revealed significant shifts to polyunsaturated FA species with reduced saturated FA species. L-Fabp−/−ApcMin/+mice also demonstrated corresponding changes in mRNA expression of enzymes involved in FA elongation and desaturation. Furthermore, adenomas from L-Fabp−/−ApcMin/+mice displayed significant reductions in mRNA abundance of nuclear hormone receptors involved in cellular proliferation and in enzymes involved in lipogenesis. These findings collectively implicate L-Fabp as an important genetic modifier of intestinal tumorigenesis and identify FA trafficking and metabolic compartmentalization as an important pathway linking dietary fat intake, obesity and intestinal tumor formation. PMID:23921281

  18. Effect of extruded linseeds alone or in combination with fish oil on intake, milk production, plasma metabolite concentrations and milk fatty acid composition in lactating goats.

    PubMed

    Bernard, L; Leroux, C; Rouel, J; Delavaud, C; Shingfield, K J; Chilliard, Y

    2015-05-01

    Based on the potential benefits for long-term human health, there is interest in developing sustainable nutritional strategies for lowering medium-chain saturated fatty acids (FA) and increasing specific unsaturated FA in ruminant milk. Dietary supplements of extruded linseeds (EL), fish oil (FO) or a mixture of EL and FO increase cis-9,trans-11 CLA and long-chain n-3 polyunsaturated FA in bovine milk. Supplements of FO cause milk fat depression in lactating cows, but information for dairy goats is limited. A total of 14 Alpine goats were used in a replicated 3×3 Latin square with 28-days experimental periods to examine the effects of EL alone or in combination with FO on animal performance, milk fat synthesis and milk FA composition. Treatments comprised diets based on natural grassland hay supplemented with no additional oil (control), 530 of EL or 340 g/day of EL and 39 g/day of FO (ELFO). Compared with the control, ELFO tended (P=0.08) to lower milk fat yield, whereas EL increased (P<0.01) milk fat content and yield (15% and 10%, respectively). Relative to EL, ELFO decreased (P<0.01) milk fat content and yield (19% and 17%, respectively). Relative to the control and ELFO, EL decreased (P<0.05) milk 10:0 to 16:0 and odd- and branched-chain FA content and increased 18:0, cis-18:1, trans-13 18:1 (and their corresponding ∆-9 (desaturase products), trans-12,cis-14 CLA, cis-13,trans-15 CLA, cis-12,trans-14 CLA and trans-11,cis-13 CLA and 18:3n-3 concentrations. ELFO was more effective for enriching (P<0.05) milk cis-9, trans-11 CLA and trans-11 18:1 concentrations (up to 5.4- and 7.1-fold compared with the control) than EL (up to 1.7- and 2.5-fold increases). Furthermore, ELFO resulted in a substantial increase in milk trans-10 18:1 concentration (5.4% total FA), with considerable variation between individual animals. Relative to the control and EL, milk fat responses to ELFO were characterized by increases (P<0.05) in milk trans-16:1 (Δ9 to 11), trans-18:1 (Δ6

  19. Dietary Intake of Fish, ω-3 and ω-6 Fatty Acids and Risk of Colorectal Cancer: A Prospective Study in U.S. Men and Women

    PubMed Central

    Song, Mingyang; Chan, Andrew T.; Fuchs, Charles S.; Ogino, Shuji; Hu, Frank B.; Mozaffarian, Dariush; Ma, Jing; Willett, Walter C.; Giovannucci, Edward L.; Wu, Kana

    2014-01-01

    The association between fish, ω-3 and ω-6 polyunsaturated fatty acid (PUFA) intake and risk of colorectal cancer (CRC) remains inconclusive. Recent prospective studies suggest that the relationship may vary by gender, subsite and duration of follow-up. We followed 123,529 US adults (76,386 women and 47,143 men) without a history of cancer at baseline for 24 to 26 years. Fish and PUFA intake was assessed at baseline and updated every 4 years by using a validated food-frequency questionnaire. We found no overall association between fish, ω-3 and ω-6 PUFA intake and CRC risk with hazard ratio (HR) of 1.03 (95% confidence interval (CI): 0.89-1.20) comparing marine ω-3 intake of ≥0.30 g/d versus <0.15 g/d among women and 1.05 (95% CI: 0.85-1.30) comparing intake of ≥0.41 g/d versus <0.16 g/d among men. However, fish and marine ω-3 PUFA intake appeared to be positively associated with risk of distal colon cancer in both men and women, and inversely with risk of rectal cancer in men. In an analysis based on a limited number of cases, marine ω-3 PUFA intake assessed 12-16 years before diagnosis tended to be inversely associated with CRC risk in men (HR: 0.76; 95% CI: 0.52-1.10). In conclusion, although no overall association between fish, ω-3 or ω-6 PUFA intake was observed with CRC risk, marine ω-3 PUFA may be differentially associated with risk of distal colon and rectal cancers, and a long latency may be needed for its protection against CRC in men. PMID:24706410

  20. Effect of Different Dietary n-6 to n-3 Fatty Acid Ratios on the Performance and Fatty Acid Composition in Muscles of Broiler Chickens

    PubMed Central

    Mandal, G. P.; Ghosh, T. K.; Patra, A. K.

    2014-01-01

    The objective of this study was to investigate the different dietary ratios of n-6 to n-3 (n-6/n-3) fatty acid (FA) on performance and n-6/n-3 FA in muscles of broiler chickens. A total of 300 one-day-old Cobb chicks were randomly assigned to 3 treatments of 10 replicates in each (10 birds/replicate). Birds were fed on a corn-soybean meal-based diet containing 1% oil during starter (day 1 to 21) and 2% oil during finisher (day 22 to 39) phases, respectively. Treatments of high, medium and low dietary n-6/n-3 FA were formulated by replacing rice bran oil with linseed oil to achieve n-6/n-3 FA close to >20:1, 10:1 and 5:1, respectively. Average daily gain, average daily feed intake, and feed conversion ratio were similar (p>0.05) among the treatments. Serum glucose, cholesterol and triglycerides concentrations were not affected (p>0.05) by dietary treatments. In breast, concentration of C18:3n-3 was significantly greater (p = 0.001) for medium and low vs high n-6/n-3 FA, while concentrations of C20:5n-3, C22:6n-3, total n-3 FA, and n-6/n-3 FA were significantly higher for low vs medium, and medium vs high dietary n-6/n-3 FA. In contrast, concentrations of C18:2 and mono-unsaturated FA (MUFA) were lower for low vs high dietary n-6/n-3 FA. In thigh muscles, concentrations of C20:5n-3 were higher (p<0.05) for medium and low vs high dietary n-6/n-3 FA, and concentrations of C18:3n-3, C22:6, and n-3 FA were greater (p<0.05) for medium vs high, low vs medium dietary n-6/n-3 FA. However, concentrations of C18:1, MUFA, n-6/n-3 were lower (p<0.05) for low and medium vs high dietary n-6/n-3 FA. In conclusion, lowering the dietary n-6/n-3 FA did not affect the performance of chickens, but enhanced beneficial long-chain n-3 FA and decreased n-6/n-3 FA in chicken breast and thigh, which could be advantageous for obtaining healthy chicken products. PMID:25358321

  1. Genetic Variants in the FADS Gene: Implications for Dietary Recommendations for Fatty Acid Intake.

    PubMed

    Mathias, Rasika A; Pani, Vrindarani; Chilton, Floyd H

    2014-06-01

    Unequivocally, genetic variants within the fatty acid desaturase (FADS) cluster are determinants of long chain polyunsaturated fatty acid (LC-PUFA) levels in circulation, cells and tissues. A recent series of papers have addressed these associations in the context of ancestry; evidence clearly supports that the associations are robust to ethnicity. However ∼80% of African Americans carry two copies of the alleles associated with increased levels of arachidonic acid, compared to only ∼45% of European Americans raising important questions of whether gene-PUFA interactions induced by a modern western diet are differentially driving the risk of diseases of inflammation in diverse populations, and are these interactions leading to health disparities. We highlight an important aspect thus far missing in the debate regarding dietary recommendations; we content that current evidence from genetics strongly suggest that an individual's, or at the very least the population from which an individual is sampled, genetic architecture must be factored into dietary recommendations currently in place. PMID:24977108

  2. Pyridoxic acid excretion during low vitamin B-6 intake, total fasting, and bed rest

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Coburn, S. P.; Thampy, K. G.; Lane, H. W.; Conn, P. S.; Ziegler, P. J.; Costill, D. L.; Mahuren, J. D.; Fink, W. J.; Pearson, D. R.; Schaltenbrand, W. E.

    1995-01-01

    Vitamin B-6 metabolism in 10 volunteers during 21 d of total fasting was compared with results from 10 men consuming a diet low only in vitamin B-6 (1.76 mumol/d) and with men consuming a normal diet during bed rest. At the end of the fast mean plasma concentrations of vitamin B-6 metabolites and urinary excretion of 4-pyridoxic acid tended to be higher in the fasting subjects than in the low-vitamin B-6 group. The fasting subjects lost approximately 10% of their total vitamin B-6 pool and approximately 13% of their body weight. The low-vitamin B-6 group lost only approximately 4% of their vitamin B-6 pool. Compared with baseline, urinary excretion of pyridoxic acid was significantly increased during 17 wk of bed rest. There was no increase in pyridoxic acid excretion during a second 15-d bed rest study. These data suggest the possibility of complex interactions between diet and muscle metabolism that may influence indexes that are frequently used to assess vitamin B-6 status.

  3. Associations of long-chain ω-3 fatty acids and fish intake with endometrial cancer risk in the VITamins And Lifestyle cohort123

    PubMed Central

    Brasky, Theodore M; Neuhouser, Marian L; Cohn, David E; White, Emily

    2014-01-01

    Background: Inflammation plays an important role in endometrial cancer etiology. Long-chain ω-3 (n−3) polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFAs), derived from marine sources, are thought to be antiinflammatory; however, several studies of fish consumption suggest an increase in risk. Objective: This study examined whether intakes of long-chain ω-3 PUFAs, including eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA; 20:5ω-3) and docosahexaenoic acid (DHA; 22:6ω-3), from diet and supplements and intake of fish are associated with endometrial cancer risk. Design: Between 2000 and 2002, 22,494 women aged 50–76 y, living in western Washington State, were recruited to the VITamins And Lifestyle cohort study. Incident endometrial cancers (n = 263) were identified through the Surveillance, Epidemiology, and End Results cancer registry after 9 y of follow-up. Multivariable-adjusted HRs and 95% CIs for the association of intakes of individual long-chain ω-3 PUFAs and fish with endometrial cancer risk were estimated by using Cox proportional hazards. Results: Women in the highest compared with the lowest quintile of dietary EPA + DHA intake had a 79% increased risk of endometrial cancer (95% CI: 16%, 175%; P-trend = 0.026). Results were similar for EPA and DHA measured individually and for fish intake. When data were stratified by body mass index (in kg/m2; <25 or ≥25), increases in risk of long-chain ω-3 PUFAs were restricted to overweight and obese women, and statistically significant reductions in risk were observed for normal-weight women. Conclusions: The overall increased risk reported here confirms the findings of several prior observational studies of fish intake, which observed similar increases in risk. Randomized trials are needed to confirm these findings. PMID:24500149

  4. Intake of fatty acids and antioxidants and pancreatic cancer in a large population-based case-control study in the San Francisco Bay Area.

    PubMed

    Gong, Zhihong; Holly, Elizabeth A; Wang, Furong; Chan, June M; Bracci, Paige M

    2010-10-15

    There are no well-established modifiable risk factors for pancreatic cancer except smoking. Some dietary factors have been associated with pancreatic cancer risk and require further study. We examined the associations among intake of specific fatty acids and antioxidants and risk of pancreatic cancer in a large population-based case-control study in the San Francisco Bay Area. Unconditional logistic regression models were used to compute odds ratios (ORs) and 95% confidence intervals (CI) as estimates of relative risk. Positive associations were observed for high levels of the 8 individual saturated fatty acids (4th vs. 1st quartile: ORs ranged from 1.6 to 2.6; all p(trend) < 0.01), monounsaturated palmitoleic and oleic fatty acids [OR = 1.6 (95% CI: 1.2-2.1) and 1.4 (95% CI: 1.1-1.9); both p(trend) < 0.01], and polyunsaturated linolenic acid [OR = 1.5 (95% CI: 1.1-2.0); p(trend) = 0.02]. Inverse associations were observed for high levels of gadolic acid [4th vs. 1st quartile: OR = 0.68 (95% CI: 0.50-0.92); p(trend) = 0.007] and omega-3 fatty acids [>or=0.85 g/day vs. 1st quartile: OR = 0.47 (95% CI: 0.25-0.90)]. An inverse association was also observed for high total intake of vitamin C [4th vs. 1st quartile: OR = 0.69 (95% CI: 0.51-0.94); p(trend) = 0.004] and of vitamin E [OR = 0.67 (95% CI: 0.49-0.92); p(trend) = 0.01]. Although similar decreased risks were also observed for high supplemental intake of these 2 vitamins (both p(trend) < 0.01), no association was observed for intake from food alone. These results support the hypotheses that a high intake of saturated and certain monounsaturated fatty acids may increase the risk of pancreatic cancer, whereas greater intake of omega-3 fatty acids, vitamins C and E may reduce the risk. PMID:20104522

  5. Renal cortex taurine content regulates renal adaptive response to altered dietary intake of sulfur amino acids.

    PubMed Central

    Chesney, R W; Gusowski, N; Dabbagh, S

    1985-01-01

    Rats fed a reduced sulfur amino acid diet (LTD) or a high-taurine diet (HTD) demonstrate a renal adaptive response. The LTD results in hypotaurinuria and enhanced brush border membrane vesicle (BBMV) accumulation of taurine. The HTD causes hypertaurinuria and reduced BBMV uptake. This adaptation may relate to changes in plasma or renal cortex taurine concentration. Rats were fed a normal-taurine diet (NTD), LTD, or HTD for 14 d or they underwent: (a) 3% beta-alanine for the last 8 d of each diet; (b) 3 d of fasting; or (c) a combination of 3% beta-alanine added for 8 d and 3 d of fasting. Each maneuver lowered the cortex taurine concentration, but did not significantly lower plasma taurine values compared with controls. Increased BBMV taurine uptake occurred after each manipulation. Feeding 3% glycine did not alter the plasma, renal cortex, or urinary taurine concentrations, or BBMV uptake of taurine. Feeding 3% methionine raised plasma and urinary taurine excretion but renal tissue taurine was unchanged, as was initial BBMV uptake. Hence, nonsulfur-containing alpha-amino acids did not change beta-amino acid transport. The increase in BBMV uptake correlates with the decline in renal cortex and plasma taurine content. However, since 3% methionine changed plasma taurine without altering BBMV uptake, it is more likely that the change in BBMV uptake and the adaptive response expressed at the brush border surface relate to changes in renal cortex taurine concentrations. Finally, despite changes in urine and renal cortex taurine content, brain taurine values were unchanged, which suggests that this renal adaptive response maintains stable taurine concentrations where taurine serves as a neuromodulator. PMID:3935668

  6. High fat intake lowers hepatic fatty acid synthesis and raises fatty acid oxidation in aerobic muscle in Shetland ponies.

    PubMed

    Geelen, S N; Blázquez, C; Geelen, M J; Sloet van Oldruitenborgh-Oosterbaan, M M; Beynen, A C

    2001-07-01

    The metabolic effects of feeding soyabean oil instead of an isoenergetic amount of maize starch plus glucose were studied in ponies. Twelve adult Shetland ponies were given a control diet (15 g fat/kg DM) or a high-fat diet (118 g fat/kg DM) according to a parallel design. The diets were fed for 45 d. Plasma triacylglycerol (TAG) concentrations decreased by 55 % following fat supplementation. Fat feeding also reduced glycogen concentrations significantly by up to 65 % in masseter, gluteus and semitendinosus muscles (P < 0.05 and P < 0.01 and P < 0.01 respectively). The high-fat diet significantly increased the TAG content of semitendinosus muscle by 80 % (P < 0.05). Hepatic acetyl-CoA carboxylase and fatty acid synthase activities were 53 % (P < 0.01) and 56 % (P < 0.01) lower respectively in the high-fat group, but diacylglycerol acyltransferase activity was unaffected. Although carnitine palmitoyltransferase-I (CPT-I) activity in liver mitochondria was not influenced, fat supplementation did render CPT-I less sensitive to inhibition by malonyl-CoA. There was no significant effect of diet on the activity of phosphofructokinase in the different muscles. The activity of citrate synthase was raised significantly (by 25 %; P < 0.05) in the masseter muscle of fat-fed ponies, as was CPT-I activity (by 46 %; P < 0.01). We conclude that fat feeding enhances both the transport of fatty acids through the mitochondrial inner membrane and the oxidative capacity of highly-aerobic muscles. The higher oxidative ability together with the depressed rate of de novo fatty acid synthesis in liver may contribute to the dietary fat-induced decrease in plasma TAG concentrations in equines. PMID:11432762

  7. Reduced food intake and body weight in mice treated with fatty acid synthase inhibitors.

    PubMed

    Loftus, T M; Jaworsky, D E; Frehywot, G L; Townsend, C A; Ronnett, G V; Lane, M D; Kuhajda, F P

    2000-06-30

    With the escalation of obesity-related disease, there is great interest in defining the mechanisms that control appetite and body weight. We have identified a link between anabolic energy metabolism and appetite control. Both systemic and intracerebroventricular treatment of mice with fatty acid synthase (FAS) inhibitors (cerulenin and a synthetic compound C75) led to inhibition of feeding and dramatic weight loss. C75 inhibited expression of the prophagic signal neuropeptide Y in the hypothalamus and acted in a leptin-independent manner that appears to be mediated by malonyl-coenzyme A. Thus, FAS may represent an important link in feeding regulation and may be a potential therapeutic target. PMID:10875926

  8. GPM Video of In-fa

    NASA Video Gallery

    On Nov. 19 GPM saw a few towering storms in In-fa's eye wall were reaching heights of up to 17.3 km (10.7 miles). The most intense precipitation was measured in In-fa's eye wall by DPR where it was...

  9. The effect of a controlled manipulation of maternal dietary fat intake on medium and long chain fatty acids in human breast milk in Saskatoon, Canada

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    Background Few studies in recent years have demonstrated the effect of maternal diet on fatty acid composition of human milk. Methods Fourteen free-living lactating women participated in a cross-over dietary intervention study, consuming a low fat diet (17.6% of energy as fat, 14.4% of energy as protein, 68.0% of energy as carbohydrate) and a high fat diet (40.3% of energy as fat, 14.4% of energy as protein, 45.3% of energy as carbohydrate) each for periods of 4 days, in randomised order. Each mother was her own control. Mature milk samples were collected during each period and analysed for medium and long chain fatty acids. Results The concentration of medium chain fatty acids (MCFA), was 13.6% in breast milk for the low fat diet compared to 11.4% for the high fat (p < 0.05). Arachidonic acid (C20:4n-6) levels were significantly higher in breast milk when women consumed the low fat diet. Increased dietary intake of stearic acid (C18:0) and alpha-linolenic acid (C18:3n-3) on the high fat diet significantly increased proportions of these fatty acids in breast milk (p < 0.05) in 4 days. Conclusions Changing maternal dietary fat intake has a rapid response in terms of changes to fatty acids in breast milk. PMID:20170476

  10. Dietary Patterns, n-3 Fatty Acids Intake from Seafood and High Levels of Anxiety Symptoms during Pregnancy: Findings from the Avon Longitudinal Study of Parents and Children

    PubMed Central

    Vaz, Juliana dos Santos; Kac, Gilberto; Emmett, Pauline; Davis, John M.; Golding, Jean; Hibbeln, Joseph R.

    2013-01-01

    Background Little is known about relationships between dietary patterns, n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFA) intake and excessive anxiety during pregnancy. Objective To examine whether dietary patterns and n-3 PUFA intake from seafood are associated with high levels of anxiety during pregnancy. Design Pregnant women enrolled from 1991–1992 in ALSPAC (n 9,530). Dietary patterns were established from a food frequency questionnaire using principal component analysis. Total intake of n-3 PUFA (grams/week) from seafood was also examined. Symptoms of anxiety were measured at 32 weeks of gestation with the Crown-Crisp Experiential Index; scores ≥9 corresponding to the 85th percentile was defined as high anxiety symptoms. Multivariate logistic regression models were used to estimate the OR and 95% CI, adjusted by socioeconomic and lifestyle variables. Results Multivariate results showed that women in the highest tertile of the health-conscious (OR 0.77; 0.65–0.93) and the traditional (OR 0.84; 0.73–0.97) pattern scores were less likely to report high levels of anxiety symptoms. Women in the highest tertile of the vegetarian pattern score (OR 1.25; 1.08–1.44) were more likely to have high levels of anxiety, as well as those with no n-3 PUFA intake from seafood (OR 1.53; 1.25–1.87) when compared with those with intake of >1.5 grams/week. Conclusions The present study provides evidence of a relationship between dietary patterns, fish intake or n-3 PUFA intake from seafood and symptoms of anxiety in pregnancy, and suggests that dietary interventions could be used to reduce high anxiety symptoms during pregnancy. PMID:23874437

  11. Australians are not Meeting the Recommended Intakes for Omega-3 Long Chain Polyunsaturated Fatty Acids: Results of an Analysis from the 2011–2012 National Nutrition and Physical Activity Survey

    PubMed Central

    Meyer, Barbara J.

    2016-01-01

    Health benefits have been attributed to omega-3 long chain polyunsaturated fatty acids (n-3 LCPUFA). Therefore it is important to know if Australians are currently meeting the recommended intake for n-3 LCPUFA and if they have increased since the last National Nutrition Survey in 1995 (NNS 1995). Dietary intake data was obtained from the recent 2011–2012 National Nutrition and Physical Activity Survey (2011–2012 NNPAS). Linoleic acid (LA) intakes have decreased whilst alpha-linolenic acid (LNA) and n-3 LCPUFA intakes have increased primarily due to n-3 LCPUFA supplements. The median n-3 LCPUFA intakes are less than 50% of the mean n-3 LCPUFA intakes which highlights the highly-skewed n-3 LCPUFA intakes, which shows that there are some people consuming high amounts of n-3 LCPUFA, but the vast majority of the population are consuming much lower amounts. Only 20% of the population meets the recommended n-3 LCPUFA intakes and only 10% of women of childbearing age meet the recommended docosahexaenoic acid (DHA) intake. Fish and seafood is by far the richest source of n-3 LCPUFA including DHA. PMID:26927162

  12. Potato chip intake increases ascorbic acid levels and decreases reactive oxygen species in SMP30/GNL knockout mouse tissues.

    PubMed

    Kondo, Yoshitaka; Sakuma, Rui; Ichisawa, Megumi; Ishihara, Katsuyuki; Kubo, Misako; Handa, Setsuko; Mugita, Hiroyuki; Maruyama, Naoki; Koga, Hidenori; Ishigami, Akihito

    2014-09-24

    Potato chips (PC) contain abundant amounts of the free radical scavenger ascorbic acid (AA) due to the rapid dehydration of potato tubers (Solanum tuberosum) that occurs during frying. To evaluate the antioxidant activity of PC, this study examined reactive oxygen species (ROS) levels in tissues from SMP30/GNL knockout (KO) mice that cannot synthesize AA and determined AA and ROS levels after the animals were fed 20 and 10% PC diets for 7 weeks. Compared with AA-sufficient mice, AA-depleted SMP30/GNL KO mice showed high ROS levels in tissues. SMP30/GNL KO mice fed a PC diet showed high AA and low ROS levels in the brain, heart, lung, testis, soleus muscle, plantaris muscle, stomach, small intestine, large intestine, eyeball, and epididymal fat compared with AA-depleted mice. The data suggest that PC intake increases AA levels and enhances ROS scavenging activity in tissues of SMP30/GNL KO mice, which are a promising model for evaluating the antioxidant activity of foods. PMID:25180784

  13. Effects of continuous infusion of tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNF) into adipose tissue on glucose and fatty acid metabolism in lactating dairy cattle

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Late-lactation Holstein cows (n=9/treatment) were used to evaluate effects of TNF-alpha administration on glucose and fatty acid (FA) metabolism. Cows were blocked by feed intake and milk yield and randomly assigned within block to 1 of 3 treatments: control, TNF-alpha, and pair-fed control. Treatme...

  14. Gender-related amino acid intake of adult wild Red-legged Partridge (Alectoris rufa).

    PubMed

    Fernández-Fígares, I; Lachica, M

    2016-06-01

    The Red-legged Partridge (Alectoris rufa) is under an enormous hunting pressure. It is bred intensively in game farms. The hunting season is during the non-reproductive resting period when partridges are at maintenance conditions. There is a lack of information about the amino acid (AA) composition of the natural diet of the adult birds in their habitat or differences in dietary AA composition related to gender. The objective of this work was to establish a first approach to the AA composition of the natural diet of adult wild Red-legged Partridge. Food content in crops and gizzards of female and male birds hunted in the same hunting season and area was analysed for AA composition. Females food had higher concentrations of individual essential AA (EAA) and non-essential AA (NEAA) than males. There are important differences in the concentration of AA in the natural diet of wild females and males. It may be advisable to use diets differing in the proportion of individual AA in the game farms during the non-reproductive resting period. PMID:27137762

  15. Severe nose bleeding after intake of acetylsalicylic acid: von Willebrand disease type 2A. Case 9.

    PubMed

    von der Weid, N X; Mansouri Taleghani, B; Wuillemin, W A

    2003-08-01

    This case report of a school boy with a history of severe and repeated episodes of epistaxis presents a short overview of the clinical and laboratory findings which lead to confirm the suspected diagnosis of von Willebrand disease (vWD). Suspicion of defective primary haemostasis should arise when unusual (because of their number or duration) mucosal bleeds appear in an otherwise normal and healthy patient. Because of its definitive inhibitory effect on platelet aggregation, acetylsalicylic acid (more than other non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs exerting unselective inhibition of cyclooxygenase) is a strong factor in triggering or sustaining the bleeding disorders in these patients. Among the congenital disorder of primary haemostasis, vWD is by far the most frequent one. The difficulties of laboratory diagnosis of vWD are stressed; the promises and pitfalls of new in vitro methods for measuring primary haemostasis (PFA-100 analyzer) are discussed. An accurate diagnosis of the specific type of vWD is of critical importance for correct patient management as well as for genetic counseling. PMID:12923584

  16. Intake port

    DOEpatents

    Mendler, Edward Charles

    2005-02-01

    The volumetric efficiency and power of internal combustion engines is improved with an intake port having an intake nozzle, a venturi, and a surge chamber. The venturi is located almost halfway upstream the intake port between the intake valves and the intake plenum enabling the venturi throat diameter to be exceptionally small for providing an exceptionally high ram velocity and an exceptionally long and in turn high efficiency diffuser flowing into the surge chamber. The intake port includes an exceptionally large surge chamber volume for blow down of the intake air into the working cylinder of the engine.

  17. Long-chain polyunsaturated fatty acid supplementation had no effect on body weight but reduced energy intake in overweight and obese women.

    PubMed

    Harden, Charlotte J; Dible, Victoria A; Russell, Jean M; Garaiova, Iveta; Plummer, Sue F; Barker, Margo E; Corfe, Bernard M

    2014-01-01

    Longer-chain polyunsaturated fatty acids may have greater appetite-suppressing effects than shorter-chain, monosaturated, and saturated fatty acids. Because fish oils are predominantly composed of n-3 long-chain polyunsaturated fatty acid and may assist in the treatment of obesity comorbidities, their effect on body weight and body mass index is of interest. We hypothesized that daily supplementation with docosahexaenoic acid (DHA)-rich oil would reduce energy intake and body weight in overweight and obese women compared with supplementation with oleic acid (OA) rich oil. A double-blinded, randomized, parallel intervention was conducted. Body mass index (in kilograms per meter squared), body weight (in kilograms), body fat (in percent), and lean tissue (in kilograms) were measured at baseline and 12 weeks after intervention with DHA or OA. Diet diaries were also completed at these time points for estimation of energy and macronutrient intake. Subjects reported significantly lower energy (P = .020), carbohydrate (g) (P = .037), and fat (g) (P = .045) intake after DHA compared with OA. Body mass or composition was not affected by treatment, although a fall in body weight in the DHA group approached statistical significance (P = .089). Daily ingestion of DHA over a 12-week period may reduce energy intake in overweight and obese females, but longer-term and adequately powered studies using subjects of both sexes are needed. Other factors that should be considered include the following: the choice of control, the body mass index category of subjects, and ways of improving the compliancy and accuracy of dietary assessment. PMID:24418242

  18. Short-term comparative study of the influence of fried edible oils intake on the metabolism of essential fatty acids in obese individuals.

    PubMed

    Ferreiro-Vera, Carlos; Priego-Capote, Feliciano; Mata-Granados, José M; Luque de Castro, María D

    2013-01-15

    The effect of breakfast intake of fried oils containing natural antioxidants or a synthetic autooxidation inhibitor on the metabolism of essential fatty acids focused on obese individuals. Serum levels of eicosanoids were compared in individuals before and after intake of different breakfasts. Univariate descriptive analysis was used to characterise the cohort selected for this study and multivariate analysis to reveal statistical differences of normalised eicosanoids concentrations (determined by solid-phase extraction coupled to LC-MS/MS) depending on the edible oil used for breakfast preparation. The results showed that the intake of breakfast prepared with pure sunflower oil subjected to deep frying causes an effect over the eicosanoids profile that enables discrimination versus the rest of individuals. The effect was a significant increase in the concentration of hydroxyoctadecadienoic acid (HODE) metabolites, indicative markers of the intake of fried oils. The concentration of HODE metabolites was lower when the oil contained either natural antioxidants from olive-oil pomace or a synthetic autooxidation inhibitor as dimethylsiloxane. The comparison of the effect of fried sunflower oils with fried extra virgin olive oil shows the benefits associated to the consumption of the latter. PMID:23122100

  19. Cellular Uptake and Antitumor Activity of DOX-hyd-PEG-FA Nanoparticles

    PubMed Central

    Na, Ren; Song, Yan-feng; Mei, Qi-bing; Zhao, Ming-gao; Zhou, Si-yuan

    2014-01-01

    A PEG-based, folate mediated, active tumor targeting drug delivery system using DOX-hyd-PEG-FA nanoparticles (NPs) were prepared. DOX-hyd-PEG-FA NPs showed a significantly faster DOX release in pH 5.0 medium than in pH 7.4 medium. Compared with DOX-hyd-PEG NPs, DOX-hyd-PEG-FA NPs increased the intracellular accumulation of DOX and showed a DOX translocation from lysosomes to nucleus. The cytotoxicity of DOX-hyd-PEG-FA NPs on KB cells was much higher than that of free DOX, DOX-ami-PEG-FA NPs and DOX-hyd-PEG NPs. The cytotoxicity of DOX-hyd-PEG-FA NPs on KB cells was attenuated in the presence of exogenous folic acid. The IC50 of DOX-hyd-PEG-FA NPs and DOX-hyd-PEG NPs on A549 cells showed no significant difference. After DOX-hyd-PEG-FA NPs were intravenously administered, the amount of DOX distributed in tumor tissue was significantly increased, while the amount of DOX distributed in heart was greatly decreased as compared with free DOX. Compared with free DOX, NPs yielded improved survival rate, prolonged life span, delayed tumor growth and reduced the cardiotoxicity in tumor bearing mice model. These results indicated that the acid sensitivity, passive and active tumor targeting abilities were likely to act synergistically to enhance the drug delivery efficiency of DOX-hyd-PEG-FA NPs. Therefore, DOX-hyd-PEG-FA NPs are a promising drug delivery system for targeted cancer therapy. PMID:24828815

  20. Omega-6 and omega-3 fatty acids metabolism pathways in the body of pigs fed diets with different sources of fatty acids.

    PubMed

    Skiba, Grzegorz; Poławska, Ewa; Sobol, Monika; Raj, Stanisława; Weremko, Dagmara

    2015-01-01

    This study was carried out on 24 gilts (♀ Polish Large White × ♂ Danish Landrace) grown with body weight (BW) of 60 to 105 kg. The pigs were fed diets designed on the basis of a standard diet (appropriate for age and BW of pigs) where a part of the energy content was replaced by different fat supplements: linseed oil in Diet L, rapeseed oil in Diet R and fish oil in Diet F (6 gilts per dietary treatment). The fat supplements were sources of specific fatty acids (FA): in Diet L α-linolenic acid (C18:3 n-3, ALA); in Diet R linoleic acid (C18:2 n-6, LA) and in Diet F eicosapentaenoic acid (C20:5 n-3, EPA), docosapentaenoic acid (C22:5 n-3, DPA) and docosahexaenoic acid (C22:6 n-3, DHA). The protein, fat and total FA contents in the body did not differ among groups of pigs. The enhanced total intake of LA and ALA by pigs caused an increased deposition of these FA in the body (p < 0.01) and an increased potential body pool of these acids for further metabolism/conversions. The conversion efficiency of LA and ALA from the feed to the pig's body differed among groups (p < 0.01) and ranged from 64.4% to 67.2% and from 69.4% to 81.7%, respectively. In Groups L and R, the level of de novo synthesis of long-chain polyunsaturated FA was higher than in Group F. From the results, it can be concluded that the efficiency of deposition is greater for omega-3 FA than for omega-6 FA and depends on their dietary amount. The level of LA and ALA intake influences not only their deposition in the body but also the end products of the omega-3 and omega-6 pathways. PMID:25530317

  1. Analysis of esterified and nonesterified fatty acids in serum from obese individuals after intake of breakfasts prepared with oils heated at frying temperature.

    PubMed

    Orozco-Solano, M I; Priego-Capote, F; Luque de Castro, M D

    2013-07-01

    In this study, levels of esterified and nonesterified fatty acids (EFAs and NEFAs, respectively) were compared in obese individuals (body mass index between 30 and 47 kg m(-2)) in basal state and after intake of four different breakfasts prepared with oils heated at frying temperature. The target oils were three sunflower oils--pure, enriched with dimethylsiloxane (400 μg mL(-1)) as lipophilic oxidation inhibitor, and enriched with phenolic compounds (400 μg mL(-1)) as hydrophilic oxidation inhibitors--and virgin olive oil with a natural content of phenolic compounds of 400 μg mL(-1). The intake of breakfasts was randomized to avoid trends associated to this variability source. EFAs and NEFAs were subjected to a sequential derivatization step for independent gas chromatography-mass spectrometry analysis of both fractions of metabolites in human serum. Derivatization was assisted by ultrasonic energy to accelerate the reaction kinetics, as required for high-throughput analysis. Statistical analysis supported on univariate (multifactor ANOVA) and multivariate approaches (principal component analysis and partial least squares-discriminant analysis) allowed identification of the main variability sources and also discriminating between individuals after intake of each breakfast. Individuals' samples after intake of breakfasts prepared with virgin olive oil were clearly separated from those who ingested the remaining breakfasts. The main compounds contributing to discrimination were omega-3 and omega-6 EFAs with special emphasis on arachidonic acid and eicosapentaenoic acid. These two polyunsaturated fatty acids are the precursors of eicosanoid metabolites, which are of vital importance as they play important roles in inflammation and in the pathogenesis of vascular and malignant diseases as cancer. PMID:23657457

  2. Ligand Binding to the FA3-FA4 Cleft Inhibits the Esterase-Like Activity of Human Serum Albumin

    PubMed Central

    Ascenzi, Paolo; Leboffe, Loris; di Masi, Alessandra; Trezza, Viviana; Fanali, Gabriella; Gioia, Magda; Coletta, Massimo; Fasano, Mauro

    2015-01-01

    The hydrolysis of 4-nitrophenyl esters of hexanoate (NphOHe) and decanoate (NphODe) by human serum albumin (HSA) at Tyr411, located at the FA3-FA4 site, has been investigated between pH 5.8 and 9.5, at 22.0°C. Values of Ks, k+2, and k+2/Ks obtained at [HSA] ≥ 5×[NphOXx] and [NphOXx] ≥ 5×[HSA] (Xx is NphOHe or NphODe) match very well each other; moreover, the deacylation step turns out to be the rate limiting step in catalysis (i.e., k+3 << k+2). The pH dependence of the kinetic parameters for the hydrolysis of NphOHe and NphODe can be described by the acidic pKa-shift of a single amino acid residue, which varies from 8.9 in the free HSA to 7.6 and 7.0 in the HSA:NphOHe and HSA:NphODe complex, respectively; the pK>a-shift appears to be correlated to the length of the fatty acid tail of the substrate. The inhibition of the HSA-Tyr411-catalyzed hydrolysis of NphOHe, NphODe, and 4-nitrophenyl myristate (NphOMy) by five inhibitors (i.e., diazepam, diflunisal, ibuprofen, 3-indoxyl-sulfate, and propofol) has been investigated at pH 7.5 and 22.0°C, resulting competitive. The affinity of diazepam, diflunisal, ibuprofen, 3-indoxyl-sulfate, and propofol for HSA reflects the selectivity of the FA3-FA4 cleft. Under conditions where Tyr411 is not acylated, the molar fraction of diazepam, diflunisal, ibuprofen, and 3-indoxyl-sulfate bound to HSA is higher than 0.9 whereas the molar fraction of propofol bound to HSA is ca. 0.5. PMID:25790235

  3. Ligand binding to the FA3-FA4 cleft inhibits the esterase-like activity of human serum albumin.

    PubMed

    Ascenzi, Paolo; Leboffe, Loris; di Masi, Alessandra; Trezza, Viviana; Fanali, Gabriella; Gioia, Magda; Coletta, Massimo; Fasano, Mauro

    2015-01-01

    The hydrolysis of 4-nitrophenyl esters of hexanoate (NphOHe) and decanoate (NphODe) by human serum albumin (HSA) at Tyr411, located at the FA3-FA4 site, has been investigated between pH 5.8 and 9.5, at 22.0°C. Values of Ks, k+2, and k+2/Ks obtained at [HSA] ≥ 5×[NphOXx] and [NphOXx] ≥ 5×[HSA] (Xx is NphOHe or NphODe) match very well each other; moreover, the deacylation step turns out to be the rate limiting step in catalysis (i.e., k+3 < k+2). The pH dependence of the kinetic parameters for the hydrolysis of NphOHe and NphODe can be described by the acidic pKa-shift of a single amino acid residue, which varies from 8.9 in the free HSA to 7.6 and 7.0 in the HSA:NphOHe and HSA:NphODe complex, respectively; the pK>a-shift appears to be correlated to the length of the fatty acid tail of the substrate. The inhibition of the HSA-Tyr411-catalyzed hydrolysis of NphOHe, NphODe, and 4-nitrophenyl myristate (NphOMy) by five inhibitors (i.e., diazepam, diflunisal, ibuprofen, 3-indoxyl-sulfate, and propofol) has been investigated at pH 7.5 and 22.0°C, resulting competitive. The affinity of diazepam, diflunisal, ibuprofen, 3-indoxyl-sulfate, and propofol for HSA reflects the selectivity of the FA3-FA4 cleft. Under conditions where Tyr411 is not acylated, the molar fraction of diazepam, diflunisal, ibuprofen, and 3-indoxyl-sulfate bound to HSA is higher than 0.9 whereas the molar fraction of propofol bound to HSA is ca. 0.5. PMID:25790235

  4. Case–control and prospective studies of dietary α-linolenic acid intake and prostate cancer risk: a meta-analysis

    PubMed Central

    Carleton, Amanda J; Sievenpiper, John L; de Souza, Russell; McKeown-Eyssen, Gail; Jenkins, David J A

    2013-01-01

    Objective α-Linolenic acid (ALA) is considered to be a cardioprotective nutrient; however, some epidemiological studies have suggested that dietary ALA intake increases the risk of prostate cancer. The main objective was to conduct a systematic review and meta-analysis of case–control and prospective studies investigating the association between dietary ALA intake and prostate cancer risk. Design A systematic review and meta-analysis were conducted by searching MEDLINE and EMBASE for relevant prospective and case–control studies. Included studies We included all prospective cohort, case–control, nested case-cohort and nested case–control studies that investigated the effect of dietary ALA intake on the incidence (or diagnosis) of prostate cancer and provided relative risk (RR), HR or OR estimates. Primary outcome measure Data were pooled using the generic inverse variance method with a random effects model from studies that compared the highest ALA quantile with the lowest ALA quantile. Risk estimates were expressed as RR with 95% CIs. Heterogeneity was assessed by χ2 and quantified by I2. Results Data from five prospective and seven case–control studies were pooled. The overall RR estimate showed ALA intake to be positively but non-significantly associated with prostate cancer risk (1.08 (0.90 to 1.29), p=0.40; I2=85%), but the interpretation was complicated by evidence of heterogeneity not explained by study design. A weak, non-significant protective effect of ALA intake on prostate cancer risk in the prospective studies became significant (0.91 (0.83 to 0.99), p=0.02) without evidence of heterogeneity (I2=8%, p=0.35) on removal of one study during sensitivity analyses. Conclusions This analysis failed to confirm an association between dietary ALA intake and prostate cancer risk. Larger and longer observational and interventional studies are needed to define the role of ALA and prostate cancer. PMID:23674441

  5. The cathepsin B inhibitor, z-FA-CMK is toxic and readily induced cell death in human T lymphocytes

    SciTech Connect

    Liow, K.Y.; Chow, S.C.

    2013-11-01

    The cathepsin B inhibitor, benzyloxycarbonyl-phenylalanine-alanine-chloromethylketone (z-FA-CMK) was found to be toxic and readily induced cell death in the human T cell line, Jurkat, whereas two other analogs benzyloxycarbonyl-phenylalanine-alanine-fluoromethylketone (z-FA-FMK) and benzyloxycarbonyl-phenylalanine-alanine-diazomethylketone (z-FA-DMK) were not toxic. The toxicity of z-FA-CMK requires not only the CMK group, but also the presence of alanine in the P1 position and the benzyloxycarbonyl group at the N-terminal. Dose–response studies showed that lower concentrations of z-FA-CMK induced apoptosis in Jurkat T cells whereas higher concentrations induced necrosis. In z-FA-CMK-induced apoptosis, both initiator caspases (-8 and -9) and effector caspases (-3, -6 and -7) were processed to their respective subunits in Jurkat T cells. However, only the pro-form of the initiator caspases were reduced in z-FA-CMK-induced necrosis and no respective subunits were apparent. The caspase inihibitor benzyloxycarbonyl-valine-alanine-aspartic acid-(O-methyl)-fluoromehylketone (z-VAD-FMK) inhibits apoptosis and caspase processing in Jurkat T cells treated with low concentration of z-FA-CMK but has no effect on z-FA-CMK-induced necrosis and the loss of initiator caspases. This suggests that the loss of initiator caspases in Jurkat T cells during z-FA-CMK-induced necrosis is not a caspase-dependent process. Taken together, we have demonstrated that z-FA-CMK is toxic to Jurkat T cells and induces apoptosis at low concentrations, while at higher concentrations the cells die of necrosis. - Highlights: • z-FA-CMK is toxic and induce cell death in the human T cells. • z-FA-CMK toxicity requires the CMK group, alanine and the benzyloxycarbonyl group. • z-FA-CMK induced apoptosis at low concentration and necrosis at high concentration.

  6. Flaxseed fed pork: n-3 fatty acid enrichment and contribution to dietary recommendations.

    PubMed

    Turner, T D; Mapiye, C; Aalhus, J L; Beaulieu, A D; Patience, J F; Zijlstra, R T; Dugan, M E R

    2014-01-01

    The potential to increase n-3 fatty acid (FA) intake via flaxseed fed pork is underestimated when restricted to pure longissimus muscle, whereas a combination of muscle and adipose tissue is typically consumed. Presently, the FA content of pigs fed 0%, 5% and 10% dietary flaxseed for 11 weeks was measured in loin, picnic and butt primals (lean muscle with epimysium (L), L plus seam fat (LS), and LS plus 5 mm backfat (LSS)). The n-3 FA content necessary for an enrichment claim in Canada (300 mg/100 g serving) was exceeded in L from all primals when feeding 5% flaxseed, being 4 fold that of controls (P<0.001), with further enrichment from inclusion of associated adipose tissues (P<0.001). Increasing flaxseed feeding levels in combination with adipose tissue inclusion amplified total long chain n-3 FA (P<0.05), particularly 20:5n-3 and 22:5n-3. Flaxseed-fed n-3 FA enriched pork can contribute substantially to daily long chain n-3 FA intakes, particularly for societies with typically low seafood consumption. PMID:24012977

  7. Increased Dietary Intake of Saturated Fatty Acid Heptadecanoic Acid (C17:0) Associated with Decreasing Ferritin and Alleviated Metabolic Syndrome in Dolphins.

    PubMed

    Venn-Watson, Stephanie K; Parry, Celeste; Baird, Mark; Stevenson, Sacha; Carlin, Kevin; Daniels, Risa; Smith, Cynthia R; Jones, Richard; Wells, Randall S; Ridgway, Sam; Jensen, Eric D

    2015-01-01

    Similar to humans, bottlenose dolphins (Tursiops truncatus) can develop metabolic syndrome and associated high ferritin. While fish and fish-based fatty acids may protect against metabolic syndrome in humans, findings have been inconsistent. To assess potential protective factors against metabolic syndrome related to fish diets, fatty acids were compared between two dolphin populations with higher (n = 30, Group A) and lower (n = 19, Group B) mean insulin (11 ± 12 and 2 ± 5 μIU/ml, respectively; P < 0.0001) and their dietary fish. In addition to higher insulin, triglycerides, and ferritin, Group A had lower percent serum heptadecanoic acid (C17:0) compared to Group B (0.3 ± 0.1 and 1.3 ± 0.4%, respectively; P < 0.0001). Using multivariate stepwise regression, higher percent serum C17:0, a saturated fat found in dairy fat, rye, and some fish, was an independent predictor of lower insulin in dolphins. Capelin, a common dietary fish for Group A, had no detectable C17:0, while pinfish and mullet, common in Group B's diet, had C17:0 (41 and 67 mg/100g, respectively). When a modified diet adding 25% pinfish and/or mullet was fed to six Group A dolphins over 24 weeks (increasing the average daily dietary C17:0 intake from 400 to 1700 mg), C17:0 serum levels increased, high ferritin decreased, and blood-based metabolic syndrome indices normalized toward reference levels. These effects were not found in four reference dolphins. Further, higher total serum C17:0 was an independent and linear predictor of lower ferritin in dolphins in Group B dolphins. Among off the shelf dairy products tested, butter had the highest C17:0 (423mg/100g); nonfat dairy products had no detectable C17:0. We hypothesize that humans' movement away from diets with potentially beneficial saturated fatty acid C17:0, including whole fat dairy products, could be a contributor to widespread low C17:0 levels, higher ferritin, and metabolic syndrome. PMID:26200116

  8. Increased Dietary Intake of Saturated Fatty Acid Heptadecanoic Acid (C17:0) Associated with Decreasing Ferritin and Alleviated Metabolic Syndrome in Dolphins

    PubMed Central

    Venn-Watson, Stephanie K.; Parry, Celeste; Baird, Mark; Stevenson, Sacha; Carlin, Kevin; Daniels, Risa; Smith, Cynthia R.; Jones, Richard; Wells, Randall S.; Ridgway, Sam; Jensen, Eric D.

    2015-01-01

    Similar to humans, bottlenose dolphins (Tursiops truncatus) can develop metabolic syndrome and associated high ferritin. While fish and fish-based fatty acids may protect against metabolic syndrome in humans, findings have been inconsistent. To assess potential protective factors against metabolic syndrome related to fish diets, fatty acids were compared between two dolphin populations with higher (n = 30, Group A) and lower (n = 19, Group B) mean insulin (11 ± 12 and 2 ± 5 μIU/ml, respectively; P < 0.0001) and their dietary fish. In addition to higher insulin, triglycerides, and ferritin, Group A had lower percent serum heptadecanoic acid (C17:0) compared to Group B (0.3 ± 0.1 and 1.3 ± 0.4%, respectively; P < 0.0001). Using multivariate stepwise regression, higher percent serum C17:0, a saturated fat found in dairy fat, rye, and some fish, was an independent predictor of lower insulin in dolphins. Capelin, a common dietary fish for Group A, had no detectable C17:0, while pinfish and mullet, common in Group B’s diet, had C17:0 (41 and 67 mg/100g, respectively). When a modified diet adding 25% pinfish and/or mullet was fed to six Group A dolphins over 24 weeks (increasing the average daily dietary C17:0 intake from 400 to 1700 mg), C17:0 serum levels increased, high ferritin decreased, and blood-based metabolic syndrome indices normalized toward reference levels. These effects were not found in four reference dolphins. Further, higher total serum C17:0 was an independent and linear predictor of lower ferritin in dolphins in Group B dolphins. Among off the shelf dairy products tested, butter had the highest C17:0 (423mg/100g); nonfat dairy products had no detectable C17:0. We hypothesize that humans’ movement away from diets with potentially beneficial saturated fatty acid C17:0, including whole fat dairy products, could be a contributor to widespread low C17:0 levels, higher ferritin, and metabolic syndrome. PMID:26200116

  9. The effect of modifying dietary LA and ALA intakes on omega-3 long chain polyunsaturated fatty acid (n-3 LCPUFA) status in human adults: a systematic review and commentary.

    PubMed

    Wood, K E; Mantzioris, E; Gibson, R A; Ramsden, C E; Muhlhausler, B S

    2015-04-01

    This paper presents a systematic review of human studies investigating the effect of altering dietary omega-3 polyunsaturated fatty acid (n-3 PUFA) alpha-linolenic acid (ALA) and omega-6 polyunsaturated fatty acid (n-6 PUFA) linoleic acid (LA) intakes on n-3 long-chain polyunsaturated fatty acid (LCPUFA) status in adult humans. The results suggest that it is possible to increase n-3 LCPUFA status by reducing LA and/or increasing ALA intake in humans, although decreasing LA intake to below 2.5%E may be required to specifically increase levels of the n-3 LCPUFA docosahexaenoic acid (DHA). The majority of studies in this area to date have been relatively poor in quality, which limits the ability to draw robust conclusions, and we present a series of recommendations to improve the quality of future studies in fatty acid nutrition in humans. PMID:25687496

  10. Risk of retinoblastoma is associated with a maternal polymorphism in dihydrofolatereductase (DHFR) and prenatal folic acid intake

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The incidence of unilateral retinoblastoma varies globally, suggesting possible environmental contributors to disease incidence. Maternal intake of naturally occurring folate from vegetables during pregnancy is associated inversely with the risk of retinoblastoma in offspring. The authors used a ca...

  11. Effects of flaxseed, raw soybeans and calcium salts of fatty acids on apparent total tract digestibility, energy balance and milk fatty acid profile of transition cows.

    PubMed

    Gandra, J R; Mingoti, R D; Barletta, R V; Takiya, C S; Verdurico, L C; Freitas, J E; Paiva, P G; Jesus, E F; Calomeni, G D; Rennó, F P

    2016-08-01

    Oilseeds offer some protection to the access of ruminal microorganisms and may be an alternative to calcium salts of fatty acids (FA), which are not fully inert in the ruminal environment. This study aimed to evaluate the effects of different sources of FA supplementation on apparent total tract nutrient digestibility, milk yield and composition, and energy balance (EB) of cows during the transition period and early lactation. We compared diets rich in C18:2 and C18:3 FA. Multiparous Holstein cows were randomly assigned to receive one of the four diets: control (n=11); whole flaxseed (WF, n=10), 60 and 80 g/kg (diet dry matter (DM) basis) of WF during the prepartum and postpartum periods, respectively; whole raw soybeans (WS, n=10), 120 and 160 g/kg (diet DM basis) of WS during the prepartum and postpartum periods, respectively; and calcium salts of unsaturated fatty acids (CSFA, n=11), 24 and 32 g/kg (diet DM basis) of CSFA during the prepartum and postpartum periods, respectively. Dry cows fed WF had higher DM and net energy of lactation (NEL) intake than those fed WS or CSFA. The FA supplementation did not alter DM and NDF apparent total tract digestibility, dry cows fed WF exhibited greater NDF total tract digestion than cows fed WS or CSFA. Feeding WS instead of CSFA did not alter NEL intake and total tract digestion of nutrients, but increased milk fat yield and concentration. Calculated efficiency of milk yield was not altered by diets. FA supplementation increased EB during the postpartum period. Experimental diets increased long-chain FA (saturated and unsaturated FA) in milk. In addition, cows fed WS and CSFA had higher C18:1 trans-11 FA and C18:2 cis, and lower C18:3 FA in milk than those fed WF. Furthermore, cows fed CSFA had higher C18:1 trans-11 and cis-9, trans-11 FA than cows fed WS. Although supplemental C18:2 and C18:3 FA did not influence the milk yield of cows, they positively affected EB and increased unsaturated long-chain FA in milk fat. PMID

  12. Food sources of arachidonic acid (PFA 20:4), listed in descending order by percentages of their contribution to intake, based on data from the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey 2005-2006

    Cancer.gov

    Food sources of arachidonic acid (PFA 20:4), listed in descending order by percentages of their contribution to intake, based on data from the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey 2005-2006

  13. Food sources of alpha-linolenic acid (PFA 18:3), listed in descending order by percentages of their contribution to intake, based on data from the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey 2005-2006

    Cancer.gov

    Food sources of alpha-linolenic acid (PFA 18:3), listed in descending order by percentages of their contribution to intake, based on data from the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey 2005-2006

  14. Food sources of total omega 6 fatty acids (18:2 + 20:4), listed in descending order by percentages of their contribution to intake, based on data from the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey 2005-2006

    Cancer.gov

    Food sources of total omega 6 fatty acids (18:2 + 20:4), listed in descending order by percentages of their contribution to intake, based on data from the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey 2005-2006

  15. Serum pentadecanoic acid (15:0), a short-term marker of dairy food intake, is inversely associated with incident type 2 diabetes and its underlying disorders123

    PubMed Central

    Santaren, Ingrid D; Watkins, Steven M; Liese, Angela D; Wagenknecht, Lynne E; Rewers, Marian J; Haffner, Steven M; Lorenzo, Carlos

    2014-01-01

    Background: Growing evidence suggests that dairy consumption is associated with lower type 2 diabetes risk. However, observational studies have reported inconsistent results, and few have examined dairy's association with the underlying disorders of insulin resistance and β-cell dysfunction. Objective: We investigated the association of the dairy fatty acid biomarkers pentadecanoic acid (15:0) and trans-palmitoleic acid (trans 16:1n−7) with type 2 diabetes traits by evaluating 1) prospective associations with incident diabetes after 5 y of follow-up and 2) cross-sectional associations with directly measured insulin resistance and β-cell dysfunction. Design: The study analyzed 659 adults without diabetes at baseline from the triethnic multicenter Insulin Resistance Atherosclerosis Study (IRAS). Diabetes status was assessed by using oral-glucose-tolerance tests. Frequently sampled intravenous-glucose-tolerance tests measured insulin sensitivity (SI) and β-cell function [disposition index (DI)]. Serum fatty acids were quantified by using gas chromatography. Logistic and linear regression models were adjusted for demographic, lifestyle, and dietary variables. Results: Serum 15:0 was a significant biomarker for total dairy intake in the IRAS cohort. It was associated with a decreased incident diabetes risk (OR: 0.73, P = 0.02) and was positively associated with log SI (β: 0.84, P = 0.03) and log DI (β: 2.21, P = 0.02) in fully adjusted models. trans 16:1n−7 was a marker of total partially hydrogenated dietary fat intake and was not associated with outcomes in fully adjusted models. Conclusions: Serum 15:0, a marker of short-term intake of this fatty acid, was inversely associated with diabetes risk in this multiethnic cohort. This study may contribute to future recommendations regarding the benefits of dairy products on type 2 diabetes risk. PMID:25411288

  16. Compared with Daily, Weekly n–3 PUFA Intake Affects the Incorporation of Eicosapentaenoic Acid and Docosahexaenoic Acid into Platelets and Mononuclear Cells in Humans123

    PubMed Central

    Browning, Lucy M.; Walker, Celia G.; Mander, Adrian P.; West, Annette L.; Gambell, Joanna; Madden, Jackie; Calder, Philip C.; Jebb, Susan A.

    2014-01-01

    Consumption of oily fish is sporadic, whereas controlled intervention studies of n–3 (ω-3) fatty acids usually provide capsules containing eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA) and docosahexaenoic acid (DHA) as a daily dose. This methodologic study explored whether there are differences in the short-, medium-, and long-term incorporation of EPA and DHA into blood plasma and cells with the provision of identical amounts of EPA and DHA, equivalent to 2 oily fish servings per week (or 6.54 g/wk EPA and DHA), either intermittently (i.e., 1 portion twice per week) or continuously (i.e., divided into daily amounts). The study was part of a randomized, double-blind controlled intervention lasting 12 mo, with participants stratified by age and sex. There were 5 intervention groups, 2 of which are reported here: the 2 intermittent portions (2I) and 2 continuous portions (2C) groups. EPA and DHA were measured in plasma phosphatidylcholine, platelets, and blood mononuclear cells (MNCs) at 9 time points. Sixty-five participants completed the study (2I group, n = 30, mean age of 49.2 y; 2C group, n = 35, mean age of 50.6 y). The incorporation pattern over the 12-mo intervention was different between the 2 groups in all samples (P < 0.0001, time × treatment interaction). At the end of the 12-mo intervention, the 2C group had higher EPA, DHA, and EPA + DHA in platelets (all P < 0.01) and higher EPA and EPA + DHA in MNCs (both P < 0.05) compared with the 2I group. No significant differences were shown for plasma phosphatidylcholine EPA (P = 0.1), DHA (P = 0.15), EPA + DHA (P = 0.07), or MNC DHA (P = 0.06). In conclusion, the pattern of consumption does affect the incorporation of EPA and DHA into cells used as biomarkers of intake. The differences identified here need to be considered in the design of studies and when extrapolating results from continuous capsule-based intervention studies to dietary guidelines for oily fish consumption. This trial was registered at www

  17. Both FA- and mPEG-conjugated chitosan nanoparticles for targeted cellular uptake and enhanced tumor tissue distribution

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Both folic acid (FA)- and methoxypoly(ethylene glycol) (mPEG)-conjugated chitosan nanoparticles (NPs) had been designed for targeted and prolong anticancer drug delivery system. The chitosan NPs were prepared with combination of ionic gelation and chemical cross-linking method, followed by conjugation with both FA and mPEG, respectively. FA-mPEG-NPs were compared with either NPs or mPEG-/FA-NPs in terms of their size, targeting cellular efficiency and tumor tissue distribution. The specificity of the mPEG-FA-NPs targeting cancerous cells was demonstrated by comparative intracellular uptake of NPs and mPEG-/FA-NPs by human adenocarcinoma HeLa cells. Mitomycin C (MMC), as a model drug, was loaded to the mPEG-FA-NPs. Results show that the chitosan NPs presented a narrow-size distribution with an average diameter about 200 nm regardless of the type of functional group. In addition, MMC was easily loaded to the mPEG-FA-NPs with drug-loading content of 9.1%, and the drug releases were biphasic with an initial burst release, followed by a subsequent slower release. Laser confocal scanning imaging proved that both mPEG-FA-NPs and FA-NPs could greatly enhance uptake by HeLa cells. In vivo animal experiments, using a nude mice xenograft model, demonstrated that an increased amount of mPEG-FA-NPs or FA-NPs were accumulated in the tumor tissue relative to the mPEG-NPs or NPs alone. These results suggest that both FA- and mPEG-conjugated chitosan NPs are potentially prolonged drug delivery system for tumor cell-selective targeting treatments. PMID:22027239

  18. Effect of DL-malic acid supplementation on feed intake, methane emission, and rumen fermentation in beef cattle.

    PubMed

    Foley, P A; Kenny, D A; Callan, J J; Boland, T M; O'Mara, F P

    2009-03-01

    The objective of this study was to determine the effect of dietary concentration of dl-malic acid (MA) on DMI, CH(4) emission, and rumen fermentation in beef cattle. Two Latin square experiments were conducted. In Exp. 1, six beef heifers (19 +/- 1 mo old) were assigned in a duplicated Latin square to 1 of 3 dietary concentrations of MA on a DMI basis (0%, MA-0; 3.75%, MA-3.75; or 7.5%, MA-7.5) over 3 periods. In Exp. 2, four rumen-fistulated steers (48 +/- 1 mo old) were assigned to 1 of 4 dietary concentrations of MA (0%, MA-0; 2.5%, MA-2.5; 5.0%, MA-5.0; or 7.5%, MA-7.5) on a DMI basis, over 4 periods. Both experimental diets consisted of grass silage and pelleted concentrate (containing MA). Silage was fed ad libitum once daily (a.m.), whereas concentrate was fed twice daily (a.m. and p.m.) with the aim of achieving a total DMI of 40:60 silage:concentrate. In both Exp. 1 and 2, experimental periods consisted of 28 d, incorporating a 13-d acclimatization, a 5-d measurement period, and a 10-d washout period. In Exp. 1, enteric CH(4), feed apparent digestibility, and feed intake were measured over the 5-d measurement period. In Exp. 2, rumen fluid was collected on d 16 to 18, immediately before (a.m.) feeding and 2, 4, 6, and 8 h thereafter. Rumen pH was determined and samples were taken for protozoa count, VFA, and ammonia analysis. Enteric CH(4) emissions were estimated by using the sulfur hexafluoride tracer technique and feed apparent digestibility was estimated by using chromic oxide as an external marker for fecal output. In Exp. 1, increasing dietary MA led to a linear decrease in total DMI (P < 0.001) and total daily CH(4) emissions (P < 0.001). Compared with the control diet, the greatest concentration of MA decreased total daily CH(4) emissions by 16%, which corresponded to a 9% reduction per unit of DMI. Similarly, in Exp. 2, inclusion of MA reduced DMI in a linear (P = 0.002) and quadratic (P < 0.001) fashion. Increasing dietary MA led to a linear

  19. Cheek cell fatty acids reflect n-3 PUFA in blood fractions during linseed oil supplementation: a controlled human intervention study

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Adequate biomarkers for the dietary supply of fatty acids (FA) are FA of adipose tissue and blood fractions. In human studies, invasive sample collection is unpleasant for subjects. In contrast, cheek cell sampling can be considered as a non-invasive alternative to investigate FA status. The aim of this study was to analyze whether cheek cell FA composition reflect the supplementation of alpha-linolenic acid (ALA) using a linseed oil mixture compared to olive oil supplementation. Additionally, it was investigated if cheek cell FA composition correlates with the FA composition of plasma, red blood cells (RBC) and peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMC) before and during both interventions. Methods During a 10-week randomized, controlled, double-blind human intervention study, 38 subjects provided cheek cell and blood samples. After a two-week run-in period, the test group (n = 23) received 17 g/d of an ALA-rich linseed oil mixture, while the control group (n = 15) received 17 g/d of an omega-3 (n-3) polyunsaturated FA (PUFA)-free olive oil. Cheek cells and blood were collected on days 0, 7 and 56 of the 8-week intervention period. Results Compared to olive oil, the linseed oil intervention increased ALA and also the endogenously converted long-chain n-3 metabolites eicosatetraenoic-, eicosapentaenoic- and docosapentaenoic acid in cheek cells (P ≤ 0.05). Docosahexaenoic acid remained unchanged. Reflecting the treatment, the n-6/n-3 ratio decreased in the test group. In general, cheek cell FA reflected the changes of FA in blood fractions. Independent of treatment, significant correlations (P ≤ 0.05) of n-6 PUFA and n-3 PUFA between cheek cells and plasma, RBC and PBMC were found, except for linoleic acid and ALA. Conclusions The changes in FA composition of cheek cells confirmed that ALA from linseed oil increased endogenously derived n-3 PUFA in cheek cell lipids. These changes in cheek cells and their correlation to the respective

  20. Short term tolvaptan increases water intake and effectively decreases urinary calcium oxalate, calcium phosphate, and uric acid supersaturations

    PubMed Central

    Cheungpasitporn, Wisit; Erickson, Stephen B.; Rule, Andrew D.; Enders, Felicity; Lieske, John C.

    2016-01-01

    Purpose Many patients cannot effectively increase water intake and urine volume to prevent urinary stones. Tolvaptan, a V2 receptor antagonist, blocks water reabsorption in the collecting duct and should reduce urinary supersaturation (SS) of stone forming solutes, but this has never been proven. Materials and Methods We conducted a double blind, randomized, placebo-controlled, crossover study in 21 adult calcium urinary stone formers stratified as majority calcium oxalate(CaOx, n=10) or calcium phosphate(CaP, n=11). Patients received tolvaptan 45 mg/day or placebo for 1 week, followed by a washout week and crossover to tolvaptan or placebo for week 3. A 24h urines was collected at the end of weeks 1 and 3. Results Tolvaptan vs. placebo decreased urinary osmolality (204±96 vs 529±213 mOsm/kg, P<0.001) and increased urinary volume (4.8±2.9 vs 1.8±0.9 L, P<0.001). The majority of urinary solute excretion rates including sodium and calcium did not significantly change, although oxalate secretion slightly increased (23±8 to 15±8 mg/24h, P = 0.009). Urinary CaOx SS (−0.01±1.14 vs 0.95±0.87 DG, P<0.001), CaP SS (−1.66±1.17 vs −0.13±1.02 DG, P<0.001) and Uric Acid SS (−2.05±4.05 vs −5.24±3.12 DG, P=0.04) all dramatically decreased. Effects did not differ between CaOx and CaP groups (P>0.05 for all interactions). Conclusions Tolvaptan increases urine volume and decreases urinary SS in calcium stone formers. Further study is needed to determine if long term use of V2 receptor antagonists results in fewer stone events. PMID:26598423

  1. Intakes of dietary docosahexaenoic acid ethyl ester and egg phosphatidylcholine improve maze-learning ability in young and old mice.

    PubMed

    Lim, S Y; Suzuki, H

    2000-06-01

    The effect of dietary docosahexaenoic acid (DHA) [22:6 (n-3)] ethyl ester (EE) and egg-phosphatidylcholine (PC) on maze-learning ability in young and old mice was studied. Male Crj:CD-1 mice aged either 3 wk or 14 mo were fed a diet containing 2 g DHA-EE/100 g diet plus 3 g palm oil/100 g diet (DHA-EE Group), 5 g egg-PC/100 g diet (egg-PC Group), 1 g DHA-EE/100 g diet plus 2.5 g egg-PC/100 g diet plus 1.5 g palm oil/100 g diet (DHA-EE + egg-PC Group) or 5 g palm oil/100 g diet (Control Group) for 5 mo. Maze-learning ability was assessed 4 mo after the start of the experiment. The time required to reach the maze exit and the number of times that a mouse strayed into blind alleys in the maze were measured in three trials every 4 d. In trial 2 of young mice, performed on d 4 after the first trial, the DHA-EE group required less (P < 0.05) time to reach the maze exit and DHA-EE and egg-PC groups strayed (P < 0.05) into blind alleys fewer times than the control group. In trial 2 of old mice, the DHA-EE, egg-PC and DHA-EE + egg-PC groups needed less (P < 0.05) time to find the exit and spent a fewer (P < 0.05) number of times in blind alleys than did the control group. The DHA-EE, DHA-EE + egg-PC and egg-PC groups strayed into blind alleys fewer times than the control group in trial 3 of old mice (P < 0.05). Our results suggest that the intake of DHA-EE and the egg-PC diet effectively enhances maze-learning ability and brain functions in old mice. PMID:10827221

  2. Glucomannan and glucomannan plus spirulina added to pork significantly block dietary cholesterol effects on lipoproteinemia, arylesterase activity, and CYP7A1 expression in Zucker fa/fa rats.

    PubMed

    González-Torres, Laura; Vázquez-Velasco, Miguel; Olivero-David, Raúl; Bastida, Sara; Benedí, Juana; González, Rafaela Raposo; González-Muñoz, Ma José; Sánchez-Muniz, Francisco J

    2015-12-01

    Zucker fa/fa rats easily develop dyslipidemia and obesity. Restructured pork (RP) is a suitable matrix for including functional ingredients. The effects of glucomannan- RP or glucomannan plus spirulina-enriched RP on plasma lipid/lipoprotein levels, cytochrome P450 7A1 (CYP7A1) expression, and arylesterase activity in growing fa/fa rats fed high-energy, high-fat cholesterol-enriched diets were tested. Groups of six rats each received diet containing 15% control-RP (C), 15% glucomannan-RP diet (G), 15% glucomannan + spirulina-RP diet (GS), and same diets enriched with 2.4% cholesterol and 0.49% cholic acid (cholesterol-enriched control (HC), cholesterol-enriched glucomannan (HG), and cholesterol-enriched glucomannan + spirulina (HGS) diets) over a 7-week period. C diet induced obesity, severe hyperglycemia, moderate hypercholesterolemia, and hypertriglyceridemia. Those facts were not significantly modified by G or GS diets. G diet increased CYP7A1 expression but decreased the total cholesterol/high density lipoproteins (HDL)-cholesterol ratio (p < 0.05) vs. C diet. GS vs. G diet increased (p < 0.05) CYP7A1 expression. HC vs. C diet reduced food intake, body weight gain, and plasma glucose (p < 0.01) but increased cholesterolemia (p < 0.01), lipidemia (plasma cholesterol plus triglycerides) (p < 0.001), cholesterol/triglyceride ratio in very low density lipoproteins (VLDL), and HDL (p < 0.05), cholesterol transported by VLDL and intermediate density lipoproteins (IDL) + low density lipoproteins (LDL), total cholesterol/HDL-cholesterol ratio and CYP7A1 expression (at least p < 0.05). HG and HGS diets vs. HC noticeably reduced lipidemia (p < 0.001), normalized VLDL and IDL + LDL lipid composition, and increased CYP7A1 expression (p < 0.01) but did not modify the cholesterol/HDL-cholesterol ratio. HGS vs. HG decreased triglyceridemia, the triglyceride-glucose (TyG) index and increased arylesterase/HDL-cholesterol activity (p < 0

  3. When folic acid fails: Insights from 20 years of neural tube defect surveillance in South Carolina.

    PubMed

    Bupp, Caleb P; Sarasua, Sara M; Dean, Jane H; Stevenson, Roger E

    2015-10-01

    Neural tube defects (NTDs) are the most common of the severe malformations of the brain and spinal cord. Increased maternal intake of folic acid (FA) during the periconceptional period is known to reduce NTD risk. Data from 1046 NTD cases in South Carolina were gathered over 20 years of surveillance. It was possible to determine maternal periconceptional FA use in 615 NTD-affected pregnancies. In 163 occurrent (26.9%) and two recurrent (22%) NTD cases, the mothers reported periconceptional FA use. These women were older and more likely to be white. Maternal periconceptional FA usage was reported in 40.4% of cases of spina bifida with other anomalies but in only 25.2% of isolated spina bifida cases (P = 0.02). This enrichment for associated anomalies was not noted among cases of anencephaly or of encephalocele. Among the 563 subsequent pregnancies to mothers with previous NTD-affected pregnancies, those taking FA had a 0.4% NTD recurrence rate, but the recurrence without FA was 8.5%. NTDs with other associated findings were less likely to be prevented by FA, suggesting there is a background NTD rate that cannot be further reduced by FA. Nonetheless, the majority (73.9%) of NTDs in pregnancies in which the mothers reported periconceptional FA use were isolated NTDs of usual types. Cases in which FA failed in prevention of NTDs provide potential areas for further study into the causation of NTDs. The measures and techniques implemented in South Carolina can serve as an effective and successful model for prevention of NTD occurrence and recurrence. PMID:26108864

  4. Molecular Characterization of a Strawberry FaASR Gene in Relation to Fruit Ripening

    PubMed Central

    Jiang, Yue-ming; Zhao, Ming-lei; Shan, Wei; Kuang, Jian-fei; Lu, Wang-jin

    2011-01-01

    Background ABA-, stress- and ripening-induced (ASR) proteins have been reported to act as a downstream component involved in ABA signal transduction. Although much attention has been paid to the roles of ASR in plant development and stress responses, the mechanisms by which ABA regulate fruit ripening at the molecular level are not fully understood. In the present work, a strawberry ASR gene was isolated and characterized (FaASR), and a polyclonal antibody against FaASR protein was prepared. Furthermore, the effects of ABA, applied to two different developmental stages of strawberry, on fruit ripening and the expression of FaASR at transcriptional and translational levels were investigated. Methodology/Principal Findings FaASR, localized in the cytoplasm and nucleus, contained 193 amino acids and shared common features with other plant ASRs. It also functioned as a transcriptional activator in yeast with trans-activation activity in the N-terminus. During strawberry fruit development, endogenous ABA content, levels of FaASR mRNA and protein increased significantly at the initiation of ripening at a white (W) fruit developmental stage. More importantly, application of exogenous ABA to large green (LG) fruit and W fruit markedly increased endogenous ABA content, accelerated fruit ripening, and greatly enhanced the expression of FaASR transcripts and the accumulation of FaASR protein simultaneously. Conclusions These results indicate that FaASR may be involved in strawberry fruit ripening. The observed increase in endogenous ABA content, and enhanced FaASR expression at transcriptional and translational levels in response to ABA treatment might partially contribute to the acceleration of strawberry fruit ripening. PMID:21915355

  5. Opuntia ficus indica (nopal) attenuates hepatic steatosis and oxidative stress in obese Zucker (fa/fa) rats.

    PubMed

    Morán-Ramos, Sofía; Avila-Nava, Azalia; Tovar, Armando R; Pedraza-Chaverri, José; López-Romero, Patricia; Torres, Nimbe

    2012-11-01

    Nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) is associated with multiple factors such as obesity, insulin resistance, and oxidative stress. Nopal, a cactus plant widely consumed in the Mexican diet, is considered a functional food because of its antioxidant activity and ability to improve biomarkers of metabolic syndrome. The aim of this study was to assess the effect of nopal consumption on the development of hepatic steatosis and hepatic oxidative stress and on the regulation of genes involved in hepatic lipid metabolism. Obese Zucker (fa/fa) rats were fed a control diet or a diet containing 4% nopal for 7 wk. Rats fed the nopal-containing diet had ∼50% lower hepatic TG than the control group as well as a reduction in hepatomegaly and biomarkers of hepatocyte injury such as alanine and aspartate aminotransferases. Attenuation of hepatic steatosis by nopal consumption was accompanied by a higher serum concentration of adiponectin and a greater abundance of mRNA for genes involved in lipid oxidation and lipid export and production of carnitine palmitoyltransferase-1 and microsomal TG transfer proteins in liver. Hepatic reactive oxygen species and lipid peroxidation biomarkers were significantly lower in rats fed nopal compared with the control rats. Furthermore, rats fed the nopal diet had a lower postprandial serum insulin concentration and a greater liver phosphorylated protein kinase B (pAKT):AKT ratio in the postprandial state. This study suggests that nopal consumption attenuates hepatic steatosis by increasing fatty acid oxidation and VLDL synthesis, decreasing oxidative stress, and improving liver insulin signaling in obese Zucker (fa/fa) rats. PMID:23014486

  6. Protein labeling with the labeling precursor [(18)F]SiFA-SH for positron emission tomography.

    PubMed

    Wängler, Björn; Kostikov, Alexey P; Niedermoser, Sabrina; Chin, Joshua; Orchowski, Katy; Schirrmacher, Esther; Iovkova-Berends, Liuba; Jurkschat, Klaus; Wängler, Carmen; Schirrmacher, Ralf

    2012-11-01

    Proteins previously derivatized with the cross-coupling reagent sulfo-SMCC (4-(N-maleimidomethyl)cyclohexane-1-carboxylic acid 3-sulfo-N-hydroxy-succinimide ester sodium salt) can be easily labeled in high radiochemical yields with the silicon-fluoride acceptor (SiFA) reagent [(18)F]SiFA-SH, obtained via isotopic exchange, by thiol-maleimide coupling chemistry (n = 10). The specific activity of SiFA-SH obtained in a one-step labeling reaction was > 18.5 GBq μmol(-1) (> 500 Ci mmol(-1)). The number of SiFA building blocks per protein molecule is defined by the previously introduced number of maleimide groups, which can be determined by a simple and convenient Ellman's assay. Not more than two maleimide groups are introduced using sulfo-SMCC, thereby keeping the modification of the protein low and preserving its biological activity. PMID:23037311

  7. High content of long-chain n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids in red blood cells of Kenyan Maasai despite low dietary intake

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Background Increasing land restrictions and a reduced livestock-to-human ratio during the 20th century led the Maasai to lead a more sedentary, market-orientated lifestyle. Although plant-derived food nowadays contributes substantially to their diet, dairy products being high in saturated fatty acids (SFA) and low in polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFA) still are an important energy source. Since reliable data regarding the Maasai diet date back to the 1980s, the study objective was to document current diet practices in a Kenyan Maasai community and to investigate the fatty acid distribution in diet and red blood cells. Methods A cross-sectional study was conducted among 26 Maasai (20 women, 6 men) from Loodokilani, Kajiado District, Kenya. Food intake was described by the subjects via 24-h recall, and both food and blood samples were analysed. Results Two main foods - milk and ugali - constituted the Maasai diet in this region. A total of 0.9 L of milk and 0.6 kg of ugali were consumed per person and day to yield an energy intake of 7.6 MJ/d per person. A major proportion of ingested food contributing 58.3% to the total dietary energy (en%) was plant-derived, followed by dairy products representing 41.1 en%. Fat consumed (30.5 en%) was high in SFA (63.8%) and low in PUFA (9.2%). Long-chain n-3 PUFA (EPA, DPA and DHA) made up only 0.15% of the ingested fatty acids, but 5.9% of red blood cell fatty acids. Conclusion The study indicates the Maasai diet is rich in SFA and low in PUFA. Nevertheless, red blood cells are composed of comparable proportions of long-chain n-3 PUFA to populations consuming higher amounts of this fatty acid group. PMID:21854590

  8. Maternal and postweaning folic acid supplementation interact to influence body weight, insulin resistance, and food intake regulatory gene expression in rat offspring in a sex-specific manner.

    PubMed

    Huot, Pedro S P; Ly, Anna; Szeto, Ignatius M Y; Reza-López, Sandra A; Cho, Daniel; Kim, Young-In; Anderson, G Harvey

    2016-04-01

    Maternal intake of multivitamins or folic acid above the basal dietary requirement alters the growth and metabolic trajectory of rat offspring. We hypothesized that a modest increase in the folic acid content of maternal diets would alter the offspring's metabolic phenotype, and that these effects could be corrected by matching the folic acid content of the offspring's diet with that of the maternal diet. Female Sprague-Dawley rats were placed on a control or a 2.5× folic acid-supplemented diet prior to mating and during pregnancy and lactation. At weaning, pups from each maternal diet group were randomized to the control or to the 2.5× folic acid-supplemented diet for 25 weeks. Male pups from dams fed the folic acid-supplemented diet were 3.7% heavier than those from control-fed dams and had lower mRNA expression for leptin receptor Obrb isoform (Lepr) (11%) and Agouti-related protein (Agrp) (14%). In contrast, female pups from folic acid-supplemented dams were 5% lighter than those from control-fed dams and had lower proopiomelanocortin (Pomc) (42%), Lepr (32%), and Agrp (13%), but higher neuropeptide Y (Npy) (18%) mRNA expression. Folic acid supplementation ameliorated the alterations induced by maternal folic acid supplementation in male pups and led to the lowest insulin resistance, but the effects were smaller in female pups and led to the highest insulin resistance. In conclusion, maternal folic acid supplementation at 2.5× the control level was associated with alterations in body weight and hypothalamic gene expression in rat offspring in a sex-specific manner, and some of these effects were attenuated by postweaning folic acid supplementation. PMID:26989972

  9. Voluntary feed intake, acid-base balance and partitioning of urinary nitrogen in lambs fed corn silage with added sodium bicarbonate or sodium sesquicarbonate.

    PubMed

    Phillip, L E; Hidalgo, V

    1989-08-01

    An experiment with growing lambs was designed to test the hypothesis that alterations in blood acid-base status would influence intake of corn silage. Six wethers (29 kg) were fed a diet of corn silage (36% DM, 8% CP) supplemented with 1.25% urea and .2% sulfur. At feeding time, sodium bicarbonate (NaHCO3) and sodium sesquicarbonate (NaSC) were added to the silage at levels of 0, 2% or 4% of diet DM. The treatments were arranged as a 2 x 3 factorial, and the study was conducted as a 6 x 4 incomplete latin square with four 17-d periods. Voluntary intake of OM was not different (P greater than .05) between NaHCO3 (1,008 g/d) and NaSC (1,041 g/d). There was no significant interaction between type of buffer (NaHCO3 or NaSC) and level of buffer on any of the variables measured. The progressive increase in buffer load did not alter feed intake (P greater than .05), although there was a quadratic response (P less than .05) in urine pH and a linear increase (P less than .01) in blood HCO3- 2 h after feeding. There was no evidence that lambs fed corn silage experienced metabolic acid stress. Urinary excretion of ammonia and urea were indicative of changes, although not pronounced, in ammoniuria and ureapoiesis in response to bicarbonate loading. This study implies that corn silage imposes no "acid stress" on lambs and, consequently, that there is no nutritional benefit in adding buffers to corn silage for sheep. PMID:2551870

  10. Intake of branched-chain or essential amino acids attenuates the elevation in muscle levels of PGC-1α4 mRNA caused by resistance exercise.

    PubMed

    Samuelsson, Hedvig; Moberg, Marcus; Apró, William; Ekblom, Björn; Blomstrand, Eva

    2016-07-01

    The transcriptional coactivator peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor-γ coactivator (PGC)-1α is recognized as the master regulator of mitochondrial biogenesis. However, recently a novel isoform, PGC-1α4, that specifically regulates muscle hypertrophy was discovered. Because stimulation of mechanistic target of rapamycin complex 1 (mTORC1) activity is tightly coupled to hypertrophy, we hypothesized that activation of this pathway would upregulate PGC-1α4. Eight male subjects performed heavy resistance exercise (10 × 8-12 repetitions at ∼75% of 1 repetition maximum in leg press) on four different occasions, ingesting in random order a solution containing essential amino acids (EAA), branched-chain amino acids (BCAA), leucine, or flavored water (placebo) during and after the exercise. Biopsies were taken from the vastus lateralis muscle before and immediately after exercise, as well as following 90 and 180 min of recovery. Signaling through mTORC1, as reflected in p70S6 kinase phosphorylation, was stimulated to a greater extent by the EAA and BCAA than the leucine or placebo supplements. Unexpectedly, intake of EAA or BCAA attenuated the stimulatory effect of exercise on PGC-1α4 expression by ∼50% (from a 10- to 5-fold increase with BCAA and EAA, P < 0.05) 3 h after exercise, whereas intake of leucine alone did not reduce this response. The 60% increase (P < 0.05) in the level of PGC-1α1 mRNA 90 min after exercise was uninfluenced by amino acid intake. Muscle glycogen levels were reduced and AMP-activated protein kinase α2 activity and phosphorylation of p38 mitogen-activated protein kinase enhanced to the same extent with all four supplements. In conclusion, induction of PGC-1α4 does not appear to regulate the nutritional (BCAA or EAA)-mediated activation of mTORC1 in human muscle. PMID:27245337

  11. Burden of Ischemic Heart Disease Attributable to Low Omega-3 Fatty Acids Intake in Iran: Findings from the Global Burden of Disease Study 2010

    PubMed Central

    Nejatinamini, Sara; Ataie-Jafari, Asal; Ghasemian, Anoosheh; Kelishadi, Roya; Khajavi, Alireza; Kasaeian, Amir; Djalalinia, Shirin; Saqib, Fahad; Majidi, Somayye; Abdolmaleki, Roxana; Hosseini, Mehrnaz; Asayesh, Hamid; Qorbani, Mostafa

    2016-01-01

    Background: Dietary risk factors constitute some of the leading risk factors for cardiovascular disease in Iran. The current study reports the burden of ischemic heart disease (IHD) attributable to a low omega-3 fatty acids intake in Iran using the data of the Global Burden of Disease (GBD) Study 2010. Methods: We used data on Iran for the years 1990, 2005, and 2010 derived from the GBD Study conducted by the Institute for Health Metrics and Evaluation (IHME) in 2010. Using the comparative risk assessment, we calculated the proportion of death, years of life lost, years lived with disability, and disability-adjusted life years (DALYs) caused by IHD attributable to a low omega-3 fatty acids intake in the GBD studies from 1990 to 2010. Results: In 1990, a dietary pattern low in seafood omega-3 fatty acids intake was responsible for 423 (95% uncertainty interval [UI], 300 to 559), 3000 (95% UI, 2182 to 3840), and 4743 (95% UI, 3280 to 6047) DALYs per 100000 persons in the age groups of 15 to 49 years, 50 to 69 years, and 70+ years — respectively — in both sexes. The DALY rates decreased to 250 (95% UI, 172 to 331), 2078 (95% UI, 1446 to 2729), and 3911 (95% UI, 2736 to 5142) in 2010. The death rates per 100000 persons in the mentioned age groups were 9 (95% UI, 6 to 12), 113 (95% UI, 82 to 144), and 366 (95% UI, 255 to 469) in 1990 versus 6 (95% UI, 4 to 7), 76 (95% UI, 53 to 99), and 344 (95% UI, 241 to 453) in 2010. The burden of IHD attributable to diet low in seafood omega-3 was 1.3% (95% UI, 0.97 to 1.7) of the total DALYs in 1990 and 2.0% (95% UI, 1.45 to 2.63) in 2010 for Iran. Conclusion: The findings of the GBD Study 2010 showed a declining trend in the burden of IHD attributable to a low omega-3 fatty acids intake in a period of 20 years. Additional disease burden studies at national and sub-national levels in Iran using more data sources are suggested for public health priorities and planning public health strategies. PMID:27403186

  12. GPM Video of In-fa

    NASA Video Gallery

    On Nov. 23, GPM saw In-fa dropping rain at an extreme rate of over 266 mm (10.5 inches) per hour in storms just to the northwest of the typhoon's eye where thunderstorms reached altitudes of over 1...

  13. Prophylactic and abundant intake of α-lipoic acid causes hepatic steatosis and should be reconsidered in usage as an anti-aging drug.

    PubMed

    Kuhla, Angela; Derbenev, Margarita; Shih, Hao Yu; Vollmar, Brigitte

    2016-01-01

    The majority of research has suggested that α-lipoic acid (ALA) is a potential therapeutic agent for chronic diseases associated with oxidative stress, including atherosclerosis, diabetes, and neurodegeneration. Therefore, a nutritional supplementation with ALA is recommended although the effects of a short- and long-term intake of ALA on central organs in healthy individuals are not studied in detail yet. Therefore, liver tissue of 4 and 74 weeks ALA-treated healthy C57BL6/J mice with respect to lipid metabolism was analyzed. In doing so, it was shown that short-term and long-term ALA treatment caused a marked increase of β-oxidation, as indicated by a significant rise of mRNA expression of fgf21, pparα, and its target genes, for example, acox1, cpt1α, and cpt2, as well as of Fgf21 plasma concentration. Glycolytic activity, as assessed by pklr1 mRNA expression and pyruvate kinase activity, was also found increased. In addition, it was shown that both short- and long-term ALA treatment increased cholesterol content, induced systemic triglyceridemia, and enhanced rxrα and lxrα mRNA expression. Despite the fact that short-term ALA intake reduced lipogenesis, as given by significant declines of fas and srebp1c mRNA expression, and that a long-term ALA intake induced a significant rise of these lipogenic genes, both treatment regimen caused fat accumulation. This, however, was more pronounced upon long-term ALA intake, leading to hepatic steatosis and liver injury, as indicated by increased inflammation and disruption of the general hepatic architecture. In summary, the prophylactic and abundant use of ALA under healthy conditions should be considered with caution. © 2016 BioFactors, 42(2):179-189, 2016. PMID:26876280

  14. Neurophysiologic and neurobehavioral evidence of beneficial effects of prenatal omega-3 fatty acid intake on memory function at school age123

    PubMed Central

    Boucher, Olivier; Burden, Matthew J; Muckle, Gina; Saint-Amour, Dave; Ayotte, Pierre; Dewailly, Eric; Nelson, Charles A; Jacobson, Sandra W

    2011-01-01

    Background: The beneficial effects of prenatal and early postnatal intakes of omega-3 (n−3) polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFAs) on cognitive development during infancy are well recognized. However, few studies have examined the extent to which these benefits continue to be evident in childhood. Objective: The aim of this study was to examine the relation of n−3 PUFAs and seafood-contaminant intake with memory function in school-age children from a fish-eating community. Design: In a prospective, longitudinal study in Arctic Quebec, we assessed Inuit children (n = 154; mean age: 11.3 y) by using a continuous visual recognition task to measure 2 event-related potential components related to recognition memory processing: the FN400 and the late positive component (LPC). Children were also examined by using 2 well-established neurobehavioral assessments of memory: the Digit span forward from Wechsler Intelligence Scales for Children, 4th edition, and the California Verbal Learning Test–Children's Version. Results: Repeated-measures analyses of variance revealed that children with higher cord plasma concentrations of docosahexaenoic acid (DHA), which is an important n−3 PUFA, had a shorter FN400 latency and a larger LPC amplitude; and higher plasma DHA concentrations at the time of testing were associated with increased FN400 amplitude. Cord DHA–related effects were observed regardless of seafood-contaminant amounts. Multiple regression analyses also showed positive associations between cord DHA concentrations and performance on neurobehavioral assessments of memory. Conclusion: To our knowledge, this study provides the first neurophysiologic and neurobehavioral evidence of long-term beneficial effects of n−3 PUFA intake in utero on memory function in school-age children. PMID:21389181

  15. Reduced linoleic acid intake in early postnatal life improves metabolic outcomes in adult rodents following a Western-style diet challenge.

    PubMed

    Oosting, Annemarie; Kegler, Diane; van de Heijning, Bert J M; Verkade, Henkjan J; van der Beek, Eline M

    2015-09-01

    The global increase in dietary n-6 polyunsaturated fatty acid (PUFA) intake has been suggested to contribute to the rise in obesity incidence. We hypothesized that reduced n-6 PUFA intake during early postnatal life improves adult body composition and metabolic phenotype upon a Western diet challenge. Male offspring of C57Bl/6j mice and Wistar rats were subjected to a control diet (CTRL; 3.16 En% linoleic acid [LA]) or a low n-6 PUFA diet (low LA; 1.36 En% LA) from postnatal days (PNs) 2 to 42. Subsequently, all animals were switched to a Western-style diet (2.54 En% LA) until PN98. We monitored body composition by dual-energy x-ray absorptiometry and glucose homeostasis by an intravenous glucose and insulin tolerance test in rats and by the homeostasis model assessment of insulin resistance (HOMA-IR) in mice. At PN98, plasma lipids, glucose, insulin, and adipokines were measured and adipocyte number and size were analyzed. In mice, the postnatal low-LA diet decreased fat accumulation during the adult Western-style diet challenge (-27% compared with CTRL, P < .001). Simultaneously, it reduced fasting triglyceride levels and lowered fasting resistin and leptin levels. In rats, the low-LA diet did not affect adult body composition, but decreased the number of retroperitoneal adipocytes and increased the number of large adipocytes. In conclusion, lowering dietary n-6 PUFA intake in early life protected against detrimental effects of an obesogenic diet in adulthood on metabolic homeostasis and fat mass accumulation. PMID:26239950

  16. Recovery of n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids and conjugated linoleic acids in ripened cheese obtained from milk of cows fed different levels of extruded flaxseed.

    PubMed

    Cattani, M; Mantovani, R; Schiavon, S; Bittante, G; Bailoni, L

    2014-01-01

    The aim of the study was to investigate whether the addition of extruded flaxseed (EF) in dairy cow diets had an effect on milk fat and individual fatty acids (FA) recovery in cheese after 90 d of ripening. Eighteen Holstein-Friesian cows, divided into 3 experimental groups (6 cows/group), were fed 3 isonitrogenous and isoenergetic diets with 0 (CTR), 500 (EF500), or 1,000 g/d (EF1000) of EF in 3 subsequent periods (2 wk/each), following a 3 × 3 Latin square design. Dry matter intake (DMI) and milk yield were recorded daily. Individual milk samples were collected on d 7 and 13 of each period to determine proximate and FA composition. Eighteen cheese-making sessions (2 for each group and period) were carried out, using a representative pooled milk sample obtained from the 6 cows of each group (10L). At 90 d of ripening, cheeses were analyzed for proximate and FA composition. Cheese yield was computed as the ratio between the weights of ripened cheese and processed milk. Recoveries of fat, individual FA, and grouped FA were computed as the ratio between the corresponding weights in cheese and in milk. Inclusion of EF did not affect DMI, milk yield, or milk composition. Compared with CTR, the 2 diets containing EF increased the proportion of C18:3n-3 and total n-3 FA, in both milk and cheese. Cheese yield and cheese fat percentage did not differ among diets. Likewise, milk fat recovery in cheese was comparable in the 3 treatments and averaged 0.85. The recoveries of individual FA were, for the most part, not dissimilar from fat recovery, except for short-chain saturated FA (from 0.38 for C4:0 to 0.80 for C13:0), some long-chain saturated FA (0.56 and 0.62 for C20:0 and C21:0, respectively), and for C18:3n-6 (1.65). The recovery of saturated FA was lower than that of monounsaturated FA, whereas recovery of polyunsaturated FA was intermediate. Compared with medium- and long-chain FA, short-chain FA were recovered to a smaller extent in cheese. No differences in

  17. Oral intake of γ-aminobutyric acid affects mood and activities of central nervous system during stressed condition induced by mental tasks.

    PubMed

    Yoto, A; Murao, S; Motoki, M; Yokoyama, Y; Horie, N; Takeshima, K; Masuda, K; Kim, M; Yokogoshi, H

    2012-09-01

    γ-Aminobutyric acid (GABA) is a kind of amino acid contained in green tea leaves and other foods. Several reports have shown that GABA might affect brain protein synthesis, improve many brain functions such as memory and study capability, lower the blood pressure of spontaneously hypertensive rats, and may also have a relaxation effect in humans. However, the evidence for its mood-improving function is still not sufficient. In this study, we investigated how the oral intake of GABA influences human adults psychologically and physiologically under a condition of mental stress. Sixty-three adults (28 males, 35 females) participated in a randomized, single blind, placebo-controlled, crossover-designed study over two experiment days. Capsules containing 100 mg of GABA or dextrin as a placebo were used as test samples. The results showed that EEG activities including alpha band and beta band brain waves decreased depending on the mental stress task loads, and the condition of 30 min after GABA intake diminished this decrease compared with the placebo condition. That is to say, GABA might have alleviated the stress induced by the mental tasks. This effect also corresponded with the results of the POMS scores. PMID:22203366

  18. Fatty acid profile of biscuits and salty snacks consumed by Brazilian college students.

    PubMed

    Dias, Flávia da Silva Lima; Passos, Maria Eliza Assis; do Carmo, Maria das Graças Tavares; Lopes, Maria Lúcia Mendes; Valente Mesquita, Vera Lúcia

    2015-03-15

    High levels of biscuit and salty snack consumption have an effect on human health. This aim of this study was to determine the fatty acid (FA) composition of 19 different biscuits and 10 types of salty snacks by gas chromatography. Palmitic acid was predominant in 79% of biscuits and represented more than 55% of the total saturated fatty acids (SFAs) in salty snacks. Low concentrations of trans fatty acids were observed in biscuits (0.86% of total FAs), and the highest values were observed in salty snacks (7.94% of total FAs). The results indicate a high daily intake of SFAs and trans fatty acids, which may have an unfavourable effect on health. Changes in dietary habits and appropriate food choices by students are strongly recommended to prevent the risk of chronic disease. Furthermore, knowledge of the FA profile of food can help to establish health programs targeted to this population. PMID:25308679

  19. Vitamin K Intake and Atherosclerosis

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    It has been hypothesized that insufficient intake of vitamin K may increase soft tissue calcification due to impaired gamma-carboxylation of the vitamin K-dependent protein, matrix gamma-carboxyglutamic acid (MGP). The evidence to support this putative role of vitamin K intake in atherosclerosis is ...

  20. Ascorbic acid, calcium, phosphorus and magnesium intake variations: effects on calcium, phosphorus and magnesium utilization by human adults

    SciTech Connect

    Kies, C.; Brennan, M.A.; Parks, S.K.; Stauffer, D.J.; Wang, H.Y.; Young, S.F.; Fox, H.M.

    1986-03-01

    The objective of the study was to determine the effects of feeding two levels of ascorbic acid, calcium, phosphorus, magnesium and ascorbic acid on the apparent utilization of calcium, phosphorus and magnesium by healthy, human adult subjects. During 4 randomly-arranged experimental periods of 7 days each, a laboratory-controlled diet alone or with supplements of ascorbic acid, dicalcium phosphate or magnesium oxide was fed to the 18 subjects. Results indicated that ascorbic acid supplementation tended to reduce urinary phosphorus loss and to slightly increase fecal phosphorus loss so that overall phosphorus balances became more positive. Conversely, under these conditions, urinary calcium losses were little affected but fecal calcium losses were increased resulting in an overall decrease in calcium balance with ascorbic acid supplementation. Ascorbic acid supplementation resulted in decreased urine and fecal losses of magnesium and more positive magnesium balances. Magnesium supplementation resulted in more positive calcium and phosphorus balances as did calcium phosphate supplementation on magnesium balance.

  1. Short communication: Intake, milk production, and milk fatty acid profile of dairy cows fed diets combining fresh forage with a total mixed ration.

    PubMed

    Mendoza, A; Cajarville, C; Repetto, J L

    2016-03-01

    To establish the effects of access time to high-quality temperate fresh forage (FF) on intake and performance of cows fed a total mixed ration (TMR), 9 Holstein cows were assigned to three 3 × 3 Latin squares with 20-d periods with sampling in the last 10 d. The following treatments were evaluated: 0 (T0), 4 (T4), and 8 (T8) h of daily access to FF. Forage (Lolium multiflorum) was cut daily and offered ad libitum beginning at 0800 h in individual stalls, and a TMR was offered ad libitum during the period when cows had no access to FF. Fresh forage dry matter intake (DMI) increased and TMR DMI decreased with the access time to FF, whereas total DMI was 3.0 kg higher for T4 than for T8; no differences were detected with T0. Compared with T0, 8h/d of access to FF decreased milk, protein, and casein yields, and tended to decrease fat and lactose yields, but treatment had no effect on milk composition or feed efficiency. The milk fatty acid profile in T8 had a higher content of rumenic, vaccenic, and linolenic acids compared with T0. We concluded that cows with 4h of access to high-quality FF had similar DMI and milk yields as cows fed only the TMR, but more than 4h of access reduced DMI and performance without changes in feed efficiency, although milk fat had enhanced levels of beneficial fatty acids. PMID:26778319

  2. Plasma concentrations and intakes of amino acids in male meat-eaters, fish-eaters, vegetarians and vegans: a cross-sectional analysis in the EPIC-Oxford cohort

    PubMed Central

    Schmidt, J A; Rinaldi, S; Scalbert, A; Ferrari, P; Achaintre, D; Gunter, M J; Appleby, P N; Key, T J; Travis, R C

    2016-01-01

    Background/Objectives: We aimed to investigate the differences in plasma concentrations and in intakes of amino acids between male meat-eaters, fish-eaters, vegetarians and vegans in the Oxford arm of the European Prospective Investigation into Cancer and Nutrition. Subjects/Methods: This cross-sectional analysis included 392 men, aged 30–49 years. Plasma amino acid concentrations were measured with a targeted metabolomic approach using mass spectrometry, and dietary intake was assessed using a food frequency questionnaire. Differences between diet groups in mean plasma concentrations and intakes of amino acids were examined using analysis of variance, controlling for potential confounding factors and multiple testing. Results: In plasma, concentrations of 6 out of 21 amino acids varied significantly by diet group, with differences of −13% to +16% between meat-eaters and vegans. Concentrations of methionine, tryptophan and tyrosine were highest in fish-eaters and vegetarians, followed by meat-eaters, and lowest in vegans. A broadly similar pattern was seen for lysine, whereas alanine concentration was highest in fish-eaters and lowest in meat-eaters. For glycine, vegans had the highest concentration and meat-eaters the lowest. Intakes of all 18 dietary amino acids differed by diet group; for the majority of these, intake was highest in meat-eaters followed by fish-eaters, then vegetarians and lowest in vegans (up to 47% lower than in meat-eaters). Conclusions: Men belonging to different habitual diet groups have significantly different plasma concentrations of lysine, methionine, tryptophan, alanine, glycine and tyrosine. However, the differences in plasma concentrations were less marked than and did not necessarily mirror those seen for amino acid intakes. PMID:26395436

  3. Folic acid supplementation of pregnant mice suppresses heat-induced neural tube defects in the offspring.

    PubMed

    Shin, J H; Shiota, K

    1999-11-01

    Neural tube defects (NTD) are a group of malformations that result from the failure of the neural tube to close early in embryonic development and among the most common congenital malformations in humans. It has been reported that a substantial proportion of NTD in humans can be prevented by folic acid (FA) supplementation prior to conception and during the first months of pregnancy, and myo-inositol (MI) was shown to reduce the incidence of NTD in curly tail mice which are not prevented by FA. Brief maternal hyperthermia (HT) early in pregnancy has been implicated in NTD both in humans and laboratory animals, and anterior NTD including exencephaly and anencephaly are induced frequently when pregnant mice are exposed to HT. We examined the effect of FA or MI supplementation of pregnant mice on the occurrence of heat-induced NTD in the offspring. When pregnant mice were treated with FA (3 mg/kg) daily from gestational day (GD) 0.5 through GD 9.5 and heated at GD 8.5, the prevalence of NTD in the fetuses (26.6%) was significantly lower than the corresponding figure in the HT alone group (38.6%; P < 0.05). However we failed to detect the preventive effect of MI (500 mg/kg). The results of this study suggest that prenatal FA supplementation decreases HT-induced NTD in mice and sufficient FA intake during early pregnancy may be recommended to avoid the birth of malformed children. PMID:10539786

  4. Postprandial Differences in the Amino Acid and Biogenic Amines Profiles of Impaired Fasting Glucose Individuals after Intake of Highland Barley

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Liyan; Wang, Xinyang; Li, Ying; Sun, Changhao

    2015-01-01

    The aim of this study was to measure the postprandial changes in amino acid and biogenic amine profiles in individuals with impaired fasting glucose (IFG) and to investigate the changes of postprandial amino acid and biogenic amine profiles after a meal of highland barley (HB). Firstly, 50 IFG and 50 healthy individuals were recruited for the measurement of 2 h postprandial changes of amino acid and biogenic amine profiles after a glucose load. Secondly, IFG individuals received three different loads: Glucose (GL), white rice (WR) and HB. Amino acid and biogenic amine profiles, glucose and insulin were assayed at time zero and 30, 60, 90 and 120 min after the test load. The results showed fasting and postprandial amino acid and biogenic amine profiles were different between the IFG group and the controls. The level of most amino acids and their metabolites decreased after an oral glucose tolerance test, while the postprandial level of γ-aminobutyric acid (GABA) increased significantly in IFG individuals. After three different test loads, the area under the curve for glucose, insulin, lysine and GABA after a HB load decreased significantly compared to GL and WR loads. Furthermore, the postprandial changes in the level of GABA between time zero and 120 min during a HB load were associated positively with 2 h glucose and fasting insulin secretion in the IFG individuals. Thus, the HB load produced low postprandial glucose and insulin responses, which induced changes in amino acid and biogenic amine profiles and improved insulin sensitivity. PMID:26184292

  5. 2 CFR 200.414 - Indirect (F&A) costs.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... indirect costs. If an extension is granted the non-Federal entity may not request a rate review until the... REQUIREMENTS FOR FEDERAL AWARDS Cost Principles Direct and Indirect (f&a) Costs § 200.414 Indirect (F&A) costs... the types of cost which may be classified as indirect (F&A) cost in all situations....

  6. Maternal periconceptional folic acid intake and risk of autism spectrum disorders and developmental delay in the CHARGE (CHildhood Autism Risks from Genetics and Environment) case-control study123

    PubMed Central

    Schmidt, Rebecca J; Tancredi, Daniel J; Ozonoff, Sally; Hansen, Robin L; Hartiala, Jaana; Allayee, Hooman; Schmidt, Linda C; Tassone, Flora; Hertz-Picciotto, Irva

    2012-01-01

    Background: Periconceptional folate is essential for proper neurodevelopment. Objective: Maternal folic acid intake was examined in relation to the risk of autism spectrum disorder (ASD) and developmental delay (DD). Design: Families enrolled in the CHARGE (CHildhood Autism Risks from Genetics and Environment) Study from 2003 to 2009 were included if their child had a diagnosis of ASD (n = 429), DD (n = 130), or typical development (TD; n = 278) confirmed at the University of California Davis Medical Investigation of Neurodevelopmental Disorders Institute by using standardized clinical assessments. Average daily folic acid was quantified for each mother on the basis of dose, brands, and intake frequency of vitamins, supplements, and breakfast cereals reported through structured telephone interviews. Results: Mean (±SEM) folic acid intake was significantly greater for mothers of TD children than for mothers of children with ASD in the first month of pregnancy (P1; 779.0 ± 36.1 and 655.0 ± 28.7 μg, respectively; P < 0.01). A mean daily folic acid intake of ≥600 μg (compared with <600 μg) during P1 was associated with reduced ASD risk (adjusted OR: 0.62; 95% CI: 0.42, 0.92; P = 0.02), and risk estimates decreased with increased folic acid (P-trend = 0.001). The association between folic acid and reduced ASD risk was strongest for mothers and children with MTHFR 677 C>T variant genotypes. A trend toward an association between lower maternal folic acid intake during the 3 mo before pregnancy and DD was observed, but not after adjustment for confounders. Conclusions: Periconceptional folic acid may reduce ASD risk in those with inefficient folate metabolism. The replication of these findings and investigations of mechanisms involved are warranted. PMID:22648721

  7. Effects of cigarette smoke and ethanol intake on mouse oesophageal mucosa changes induced by dietary zinc deficiency and deoxycholic acid supplementation.

    PubMed

    Zapaterini, Joyce R; de Moura, Nelci A; Ribeiro, Daniel A; Rodrigues, Maria A M; Barbisan, Luis F

    2012-08-01

    The noxious effects of dietary zinc deficiency (ZD) and deoxycholic bile acid (DCA) supplementation in the oesophagus were investigated. The additional influence of cigarette smoke and ethanol intake on the changes in the oesophageal mucosa induced by dietary ZD plus DCA was also assessed. Male C57BL/6 mice were allocated into four groups: Group 1 was fed control diet and groups 2-4 were fed ZD plus DCA diet. After 5 weeks, groups 3 and 4 were exposed to 10% ethanol intake or cigarette smoke for 15 weeks, respectively. All animals were euthanized at the end of week 20, and the oesophagus, lung, liver and colon were collected and analysed by conventional morphology. Cell proliferation was assessed in the oesophageal mucosa by Ki-67 immunohistochemistry and cyclooxygenase 2 (COX-2) protein by Western blotting. Dietary ZD plus DCA treatment induced mild hyperkeratosis and hyperplasia, increased cell proliferation index and COX-2 protein expression in the oesophagus, and intranuclear inclusion, karyocytomegaly and microvesicular fatty change in the liver. Cigarette smoke increased COX-2 protein expression in oesophageal mucosa and irregular enlargement of alveolus and alveolar ductal air spaces, while ethanol enhanced liver damage induced by ZD plus DCA diet. These findings indicate that dietary ZD plus DCA treatment during 20 weeks induces a pattern of chemical oesophageal injury but not Barrett's-like lesions. PMID:22380924

  8. Providing a diet deficient in valine but with excess leucine results in a rapid decrease in feed intake and modifies the postprandial plasma amino acid and α-keto acid concentrations in pigs.

    PubMed

    Gloaguen, M; Le Floc'h, N; Corrent, E; Primot, Y; van Milgen, J

    2012-09-01

    Indispensable AA are involved in the control of feed intake. When a diet deficient in Val is offered to pigs, feed intake is typically reduced. This effect is aggravated when dietary Leu is supplied in excess of the requirement. If an unbalanced supply of branched-chain AA (BCAA) is harmful, an anorectic response may serve as a mechanism to prevent this situation. We verified this hypothesis by measuring the voluntary feed intake of a balanced diet offered during the 30-min period 1 h after ingestion of a test meal deficient or not in Val (Val- and Val+) with an excess of Leu. Twelve and four 6-wk-old crossbred female pigs were used in Exp. 1 and 2, respectively. Prior ingestion of the Val- test meal resulted in a 14% reduction in feed intake compared with that observed after ingestion of the Val+ test meal (P = 0.06) in Exp. 1, indicating that the signal to reduce feed intake occurred within 1 h. It is possible that the plasma concentration of the limiting AA serves as a signal for the dietary AA deficiency. We therefore determined the postprandial plasma concentrations of BCAA and their α-keto acids after ingestion of Val- and Val+ in 4 pigs in Exp. 2. After ingestion of the Val- diet, plasma concentrations of Val and its keto acid were reduced compared with values observed after ingestion of the Val+ diet. The peak concentration occurred earlier after ingestion of the Val- diet compared with that of the Val+ diet. Although the plasma concentration increased after the meal, it declined rapidly in pigs offered Val-, and the Val concentration 4 h after ingestion of the meal was even less than that observed in the fasted state. In conclusion, it appears that the pig is able to detect a deficient supply of Val within 1 h after ingestion. The plasma concentration of Val or its concentration relative to the other BCAA during the postprandial period may act as a signal indicating the AA deficiency. PMID:22585822

  9. In vitro effects of fat, FA, and cholesterol on sphingomyelin hydrolysis induced by rat intestinal alkaline sphingomyelinase.

    PubMed

    Liu, Jian-Jun; Nilsson, Ake; Duan, Rui-Dong

    2002-05-01

    Dietary sphingomyelin (SM) may have regulatory effects on cell proliferation and tumorigenesis in the colon. Alkaline sphingomyelinase (SMase) is the major enzyme responsible for hydrolysis of SM in the gut. Previously we purified the enzyme and showed that the presence of glycerophospholipids inhibited SM hydrolysis induced by alkaline SMase in vitro. In the present work, we studied the effects of TG, DG, FA, ceramide, and cholesterol on SM hydrolysis catalyzed by purified alkaline SMase. The results showed that both TG (triolein and tristearin) and DG (1,2-dioleoyl-sn-glycerol and 1,2-distearoyl-rac-glycerol) inhibited the activity of alkaline SMase. 1-Monooleoyl-rac-glycerol, 1-monostearoyl-rac-glycerol, stearic acid, oleic acid, linoleic acid, linolenic acid, and arachidonic acid stimulated the activity of alkaline SMase at 0.4-0.8 mM concentrations but inhibited the enzyme at higher concentrations. There was no difference between the effects induced by saturated and unsaturated FA. A short-chain FA such as lauric acid had a stronger stimulatory effect at low concentrations and weaker inhibitory effect at high concentrations than long-chain FA. Choosing linoleic acid as an example, we found that FA had similar effects on both alkaline SMase and neutral SMase. Cholesterol and ceramide when mixed with FA to increase its solubility in bile salt micelles inhibited SMase activity. In conclusion, glycerides, FA, ceramide, and cholesterol influence SM hydrolysis catalyzed by intestinal alkaline SMase. The presence of lipids in the diet may thus influence the course of SM digestion in the gut and thereby the exposure of colon to SM metabolites. PMID:12056588

  10. Fatty Acid Composition of Muscle, Adipose Tissue and Liver from Muskoxen (Ovibos moschatus) Living in West Greenland

    PubMed Central

    Alves, Susana P.; Raundrup, Katrine; Cabo, Ângelo; Bessa, Rui J. B.; Almeida, André M.

    2015-01-01

    Information about lipid content and fatty acid (FA) composition of muskoxen (Ovibos moschatos) edible tissues is very limited in comparison to other meat sources. Thus, this work aims to present the first in-depth characterization of the FA profile of meat, subcutaneous adipose tissue and liver of muskoxen living in West Greenland. Furthermore, we aim to evaluate the effect of sex in the FA composition of these edible tissues. Samples from muscle (Longissimus dorsi), subcutaneous adipose tissue and liver were collected from female and male muskoxen, which were delivered at the butchery in Kangerlussuaq (West Greenland) during the winter hunting season. The lipid content of muscle, adipose tissue and liver averaged 284, 846 and 173 mg/g of dry tissue, respectively. This large lipid contents confirms that in late winter, when forage availability is scarce, muskoxen from West Greenland still have high fat reserves, demonstrating that they are well adapted to seasonal feed restriction. A detailed characterization of FA and dimethylacetal composition of muskoxen muscle, subcutaneous adipose tissue and liver showed that there are little differences on FA composition between sexes. Nevertheless, the 18:1cis-9 was the most abundant FA in muscle and adipose tissue, reaching 43% of total FA in muscle. The high content of 18:1cis-9 suggests that it can be selectively stored in muskoxen tissues. Regarding the nutritional composition of muskoxen edible tissues, they are not a good source of polyunsaturated FA; however, they may contribute to a higher fat intake. Information about the FA composition of muskoxen meat and liver is scarce, so this work can contribute to the characterization of the nutritional fat properties of muskoxen edible tissues and can be also useful to update food composition databases. PMID:26678792

  11. Fatty Acid Composition of Muscle, Adipose Tissue and Liver from Muskoxen (Ovibos moschatus) Living in West Greenland.

    PubMed

    Alves, Susana P; Raundrup, Katrine; Cabo, Ângelo; Bessa, Rui J B; Almeida, André M

    2015-01-01

    Information about lipid content and fatty acid (FA) composition of muskoxen (Ovibos moschatos) edible tissues is very limited in comparison to other meat sources. Thus, this work aims to present the first in-depth characterization of the FA profile of meat, subcutaneous adipose tissue and liver of muskoxen living in West Greenland. Furthermore, we aim to evaluate the effect of sex in the FA composition of these edible tissues. Samples from muscle (Longissimus dorsi), subcutaneous adipose tissue and liver were collected from female and male muskoxen, which were delivered at the butchery in Kangerlussuaq (West Greenland) during the winter hunting season. The lipid content of muscle, adipose tissue and liver averaged 284, 846 and 173 mg/g of dry tissue, respectively. This large lipid contents confirms that in late winter, when forage availability is scarce, muskoxen from West Greenland still have high fat reserves, demonstrating that they are well adapted to seasonal feed restriction. A detailed characterization of FA and dimethylacetal composition of muskoxen muscle, subcutaneous adipose tissue and liver showed that there are little differences on FA composition between sexes. Nevertheless, the 18:1cis-9 was the most abundant FA in muscle and adipose tissue, reaching 43% of total FA in muscle. The high content of 18:1cis-9 suggests that it can be selectively stored in muskoxen tissues. Regarding the nutritional composition of muskoxen edible tissues, they are not a good source of polyunsaturated FA; however, they may contribute to a higher fat intake. Information about the FA composition of muskoxen meat and liver is scarce, so this work can contribute to the characterization of the nutritional fat properties of muskoxen edible tissues and can be also useful to update food composition databases. PMID:26678792

  12. High intakes of trans monounsaturated fatty acids taken for 2 weeks do not influence procoagulant and fibrinolytic risk markers for CHD in young healthy men.

    PubMed

    Sanders, Thomas A B; Oakley, Francesca R; Crook, David; Cooper, Jackie A; Miller, George J

    2003-06-01

    Dietary trans fatty acids are associated with increased risk of CHD. We hypothesized that the changes in plasma lipids associated with a high intake of trans fatty acids would cause adverse effects on procoagulant and fibrinolytic activities. A randomized crossover controlled feeding study was conducted in twenty-nine men. A trans-rich diet supplying 10 % energy as trans- 18:1 was compared with diets in which the trans fatty acids were replaced either with carbohydrate or oleate; each diet was taken for 2 weeks in random order. Fasting fibrinogen and d-dimer concentrations and factor VII coagulant, plasminogen activator inhibitor type 1 and tissue plasminogen activator did not differ between diets. Postprandially, tissue plasminogen activator activity increased and plasminogen activator inhibitor type 1 activity decreased on all diets. Factor VIIc increased postprandially by 15 and 17 % on the trans and oleate diets respectively, compared with an 11 % increase on the carbohydrate diet; the mean difference between oleate and carbohydrate diets was 6 (95 % CI 0.2, 11.9) %. The LDL-cholesterol:HDL-cholesterol and apolipoprotein B : apolipoprotein A-I ratios increased by 13 (95 % CI 5.7, 21.8) and 10 (95 % CI 3.1, 17.2) % respectively on the trans diet compared with the oleate diet and by 6 (95 % CI 0.1,12.7) and 7 (95 % CI 0, 13.5) % respectively compared with the carbohydrate diet. Plasma HDL2-cholesterol concentration was 18 (95 % CI 0.7, 35.9) % lower on the trans diet compared with the oleate diet. The results confirm adverse effects of trans fatty acids on HDL-cholesterol concentrations, but suggest that trans fatty acids do not have any specific effects on known haemostatic risk markers for cardiovascular disease in healthy young men in the short-term. PMID:12828793

  13. FA-loaded lipid drug delivery systems: preparation, characterization and biological studies.

    PubMed

    Carbone, Claudia; Campisi, Agata; Musumeci, Teresa; Raciti, Giuseppina; Bonfanti, Roberta; Puglisi, Giovanni

    2014-02-14

    The main purpose of this research was to prepare and to characterize ferulic acid-loaded nanostructured lipid carrier (FA-NLC) to evaluate the cytotoxic effect on human glioblastoma cancer U87MG cells. First of all, the influence of different materials on mean size and homogeneity of NLC prepared by a low energy organic solvent-free method was investigated. Technological characterization (encapsulation efficiency, mean particle size, homogeneity and in vitro release profile) was performed on the selected NLC in comparison to others lipid carriers, nanoemulsion and SLN. Furthermore, the thermal behavior of NLC and SLN was investigated using Differential Scanning Calorimetry (DSC) in order to evaluate their structure. Biological studies (MTT bioassay and caspase-3 cleavage) on the selected NLC showed no cytotoxic effects of the unloaded tested NLC. Besides, the effectiveness of FA-loaded NLC was higher compared to the free drug. Cells treated with FA or FA-loaded NLC showed a greater effect compared to idebenone (IDE) or IDE-loaded NLC, respectively. These results strongly support that FA-loaded NLC could be potentially used for the treatment of glioblastoma. PMID:24514450

  14. Omega-3 Polyunsaturated Fatty Acids Intake to Regulate Helicobacter pylori-Associated Gastric Diseases as Nonantimicrobial Dietary Approach

    PubMed Central

    Park, Jong-Min; Jeong, Migyeong; Kim, Eun-Hee; Han, Young-Min; Kwon, Sung Hun; Hahm, Ki-Baik

    2015-01-01

    Omega-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids (n-3 PUFAs), commonly eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA) and docosahexaenoic acid (DHA), have been acknowledged as essential long-chain fatty acids imposing either optimal health promotion or the rescuing from chronic inflammatory diseases such as atherosclerosis, fatty liver, and various inflammatory gastrointestinal diseases. Recent studies dealing with EPA and DHA have sparked highest interests because detailed molecular mechanisms had been documented with the identification of its receptor, G protein coupled receptor, and GPR120. In this review article, we have described clear evidences showing that n-3 PUFAs could reduce various Helicobacter pylori- (H. pylori-) associated gastric diseases and extended to play even cancer preventive outcomes including H. pylori-associated gastric cancer by influencing multiple targets, including proliferation, survival, angiogenesis, inflammation, and metastasis. Since our previous studies strongly concluded that nonantimicrobial dietary approach for reducing inflammation, for instance, application of phytoceuticals, probiotics, natural products including Korean red ginseng, and walnut plentiful of n-3 PUFAs, might be prerequisite step for preventing H. pylori-associated gastric cancer as well as facilitating the rejuvenation of precancerous atrophic gastritis, these beneficial lipids can restore or modify inflammation-associated lipid distortion and correction of altered lipid rafts to send right signaling to maintain healthy stomach even after chronic H. pylori infection. PMID:26339635

  15. Intake of Added Sugar and Sugar-Sweetened Drink and Serum Uric Acid Concentration in US Men and Women

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Fructose-induced hyperuricemia might have a causal role in metabolic syndrome, hypertension, and other chronic disease. However, no study has investigated whether sugar added to foods or sugar-sweetened beverages, which are major sources of fructose, are associated with serum uric acid concentration...

  16. Omega-3 Polyunsaturated Fatty Acids Intake to Regulate Helicobacter pylori-Associated Gastric Diseases as Nonantimicrobial Dietary Approach.

    PubMed

    Park, Jong-Min; Jeong, Migyeong; Kim, Eun-Hee; Han, Young-Min; Kwon, Sung Hun; Hahm, Ki-Baik

    2015-01-01

    Omega-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids (n-3 PUFAs), commonly eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA) and docosahexaenoic acid (DHA), have been acknowledged as essential long-chain fatty acids imposing either optimal health promotion or the rescuing from chronic inflammatory diseases such as atherosclerosis, fatty liver, and various inflammatory gastrointestinal diseases. Recent studies dealing with EPA and DHA have sparked highest interests because detailed molecular mechanisms had been documented with the identification of its receptor, G protein coupled receptor, and GPR120. In this review article, we have described clear evidences showing that n-3 PUFAs could reduce various Helicobacter pylori- (H. pylori-) associated gastric diseases and extended to play even cancer preventive outcomes including H. pylori-associated gastric cancer by influencing multiple targets, including proliferation, survival, angiogenesis, inflammation, and metastasis. Since our previous studies strongly concluded that nonantimicrobial dietary approach for reducing inflammation, for instance, application of phytoceuticals, probiotics, natural products including Korean red ginseng, and walnut plentiful of n-3 PUFAs, might be prerequisite step for preventing H. pylori-associated gastric cancer as well as facilitating the rejuvenation of precancerous atrophic gastritis, these beneficial lipids can restore or modify inflammation-associated lipid distortion and correction of altered lipid rafts to send right signaling to maintain healthy stomach even after chronic H. pylori infection. PMID:26339635

  17. Not all cases of neural-tube defect can be prevented by increasing the intake of folic acid

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The objective of this study was to evaluate the beneficial effects of different levels of folic acid administration on the prevalence of neural tube defects, with a concurrent assessment of other potential benefits or adverse effects. The evaluation was based on a systematic review of the published ...

  18. t-Bu2SiF-derivatized D2-receptor ligands: the first SiFA-containing small molecule radiotracers for target-specific PET-imaging.

    PubMed

    Iovkova-Berends, Ljuba; Wängler, Carmen; Zöller, Thomas; Höfner, Georg; Wanner, Klaus Theodor; Rensch, Christian; Bartenstein, Peter; Kostikov, Alexey; Schirrmacher, Ralf; Jurkschat, Klaus; Wängler, Björn

    2011-01-01

    The synthesis, radiolabeling and in vitro evaluation of new silicon-fluoride acceptor (SiFA) derivatized D(2)-receptor ligands is reported. The SiFA-technology simplifies the introduction of fluorine-18 into target specific biomolecules for Positron-Emission-Tomography (PET). However, one of the remaining challenges, especially for small molecules such as receptor-ligands, is the bulkiness of the SiFA-moiety. We therefore synthesized four Fallypride SiFA-conjugates derivatized either directly at the benzoic acid ring system (SiFA-DMFP, SiFA-FP, SiFA-DDMFP) or at the butyl-side chain (SiFA-M-FP) and tested their receptor affinities. We found D(2)-receptor affinities for all compounds in the nanomolar range (K(i(SiFA-DMFP)) = 13.6 nM, K(i(SiFA-FP)) = 33.0 nM, K(i(SiFA-DDMFP)) = 62.7 nM and K(i(SiFA-M-FP)) = 4.21 nM). The radiofluorination showed highest yields when 10 nmol of the precursors were reacted with [(18)F]fluoride/TBAHCO(3) in acetonitrile. After a reversed phased cartridge purification the desired products could be isolated as an injectable solution after only 10 min synthesis time with radiochemical yields (RCY) of more than 40% in the case of SiFA-DMFP resulting in specific activities >41 GBq/µmol (>1,100 Ci/mmol). Furthermore, the radiolabeled products were shown to be stable in the injectable solutions, as well as in human plasma, for at least 90 min. PMID:21892125

  19. Study of KAP with regard to taking folic acid supplements and factors affecting the recommendation and prescription of those supplements among obstetricians and specialists in women's health in six provinces of Northern China, 2009.

    PubMed

    Li, Ting; Zhu, Jun; Zeng, Ziqian; Wang, Yanping; Liang, Juan; Yuan, Ping

    2011-01-01

    Taking folic acid (FA) supplements reduces the risks of neural tube defects (NTDs) in early pregnancy. Obstetricians and specialists in women's health play important roles in promoting FA intake. However, surveys on their knowledge of, attitudes toward, and behavior regarding giving FA to pregnant women are limited. A cross-sectional study was conducted with 5,860 obstetricians and specialists in women's health using a self-administered questionnaire to collect information on participants' demographic characteristics and their knowledge of and attitudes toward and practices related to taking FA supplements. Chi-square analysis was used for rate comparison while logistic regression analysis was performed to predict influencing factors. For items on knowledge about FA and taking FA supplements the overall correct response rate was 60.3% (24,235/40,173). Questions about related practices and attitudes were correctly answered for the most part (more than 90%), but participants were less likely to follow the practice of prescribing FA tablets to women planning a pregnancy while working (77.2%). Statistical analysis indicated that the "Level of facility where the participant works" and "Rate of correct responses on a test of knowledge" were the main factors affecting participants' recommendation to take FA while "Job title", "Amount of professional work experience", and "Rate of correct responses on a test of knowledge" were the main factors affecting participants' prescription of FA. In conclusion, participants had a good deal of knowledge about NTDs and FA but the lack of some knowledge possibly led to the relatively low rate of correct behaviors. Therefore, educating obstetricians and specialists in women's health in this regard is crucial. PMID:21788695

  20. Efficacy of adding folic acid to foods.

    PubMed

    Fajardo, Violeta; Varela-Moreiras, Gregorio

    2012-06-01

    In the past, food fortification along with nutritional education and the decrease in food costs relative to income have proven successful in eliminating common nutritional deficiencies. These deficiencies such as goiter, rickets, beriberi, and pellagra have been replaced with an entirely new set of "emergent deficiencies" that were not previously considered a problem [e.g., folate and neural tube defects (NTDs)]. In addition, the different nutrition surveys in so-called affluent countries have identified "shortfalls" of nutrients specific to various age groups and/or physiological status. Complex, multiple-etiology diseases, such as atherosclerosis, diabetes, cancer, and obesity have emerged. Food fortification has proven an effective tool for tackling nutritional deficiencies in populations; but today a more reasonable approach is to use food fortification as a means to support but not replace dietary improvement strategies (i. e. nutritional education campaigns). Folic acid (FA) is a potential relevant factor in the prevention of a number of pathologies. The evidence linking FA to NTD prevention led to the introduction of public health strategies to increase folate intakes: pharmacological supplementation, mandatory or voluntary fortification of staple foods with FA, and the advice to increase the intake of folate-rich foods. It is quite contradictory to observe that, regardless of these findings, there is only limited information on food folate and FA content. Data in Food Composition Tables and Databases are scarce or incomplete. Fortification of staple foods with FA has added difficulty to this task. Globally, the decision to fortify products is left up to individual food manufacturers. Voluntary fortification is a common practice in many countries. Therefore, the "worldwide map of vitamin fortification" may be analyzed. It is important to examine if fortification today really answers to vitamin requirements at different ages and/or physiological states. The

  1. Differential effects of saturated versus unsaturated dietary fatty acids on weight gain and myocellular lipid profiles in mice

    PubMed Central

    Timmers, S; de Vogel-van den Bosch, J; de Wit, N; Schaart, G; van Beurden, D; Hesselink, M; van der Meer, R; Schrauwen, P

    2011-01-01

    Objective: In conditions of continuous high-fat (HF) intake, the degree of saturation of the fatty acids (FAs) in the diet might have a crucial role in the onset of obesity and its metabolic complications. In particular, the FA composition of the diet might influence the storage form of lipids inside skeletal muscle. The aim of the present study was to examine whether the FA composition of HF diets differentially affects weight gain and accumulation of myocellular triacylglycerol (TAG) and diacylglycerol (DAG). Furthermore, we examined whether the FA composition of the diet was reflected in the composition of the myocellular lipid intermediates. Design: C57Bl6 mice were fed HF diets (45% energy) mainly containing palm oil (PO), cocoa butter (CB), olive oil (OO) or safflower oil (SO; n=6 per group) for 8 weeks. A low-fat diet (10% energy, PO) was used as control. Body weight was monitored weekly. At the end of the dietary intervention, myocellular TAG and DAG content and profiles were measured. Results: We here show that HF_CB prevented weight gain after 8 weeks of HF feeding. Furthermore, the HF diet rich in SO prevented the accumulation of both myocellular TAG and DAG. Interestingly, the FA composition of DAG and TAG in skeletal muscle was a reflection of the dietary FA composition. Conclusion: Already after a relatively short period, the dietary FA intake relates to the FA composition of the lipid metabolites in the muscle. A diet rich in polyunsaturated FAs seems to prevent myocellular lipid accumulation. PMID:23449423

  2. Benefits and risks of fish consumption Part II. RIBEPEIX, a computer program to optimize the balance between the intake of omega-3 fatty acids and chemical contaminants.

    PubMed

    Domingo, José L; Bocio, Ana; Martí-Cid, Roser; Llobet, Juan M

    2007-02-12

    In recent years, and based on the importance of fish as a part of a healthy diet, there has been a notable promotion of fish and seafood consumption. However, a number of recent studies have shown that fish may be a potential source of exposure to chemical pollutants, some of them with well known adverse effects on human health. Recently, we determined in 14 edible marine species the concentrations of eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA) and docosohexaenoic acid (DHA), as well as those of a number of chemical contaminants: Cd, Hg, Pb, polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins and furans, polychlorinated biphenyls, hexachlorobenzene, polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons, polychlorinated naphthalenes, polybrominated diphenylethers and polychlorinated diphenylethers. To quantitative establish the intake of these pollutants (risks) versus that of EPA+DHA (benefits), we designed a simple computer program, RIBEPEIX. The concentrations of EPA, DHA, and the chemical pollutants were introduced into the program. We here present how RIBEPEIX may be used as an easy tool to optimize fish consumption: most suitable species, frequency of consumption, and size of meals. RIBEPEIX can be useful not only for professionals (cardiologists, general physicians, nutritionists, toxicologists, etc.), but also for the general population. It is available at: . PMID:17178182

  3. Fatty acid ethyl esters in hair: correlation with self-reported ethanol intake in 160 subjects and influence of estroprogestin therapy.

    PubMed

    Bertol, Elisabetta; Del Bravo, Ester; Vaiano, Fabio; Mari, Francesco; Favretto, Donata

    2014-09-01

    Fatty acid ethyl esters (FAEEs) are minor ethanol metabolites that can accumulate in hair. The performance of hair FAEEs as a biomarker that can discriminate null or moderate drinking from risky, excessive drinking was verified by evaluating the relationship between self-reported daily alcohol intake and FAEE concentration in hair. The study subjects were 160 healthy volunteers (52% female) that included teetotallers, moderate/social drinkers (< 60 g of ethanol per day), and heavy drinkers (≥ 60 g/day).The estimated daily alcohol intake (EDAI) was assessed by a specific written questionnaire aimed at estimating the measure and the frequency of alcohol drinking and at excluding confounding factors. FAEEs (ethyl myristate, ethyl palmitate, ethyl oleate, and ethyl stearate) were extracted from the hair matrix by overnight incubation in n-hexane/dimethylsulphoxide, purified by solid-phase extraction (SPE) and analyzed by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS) in selected ion monitoring and Electron ionization (EI) mode, using pentadeuterated internal standards. Hair samples exhibited FAEE concentrations (expressed as the sum of the four esters, CFAEE ) ranging from 0.01 to 10.78 ng/mg (average 1.16 and median 0.60 ng/mg). The EDAI was from 0 to 246 g of ethanol per day, average 28 g/day and median 15 g/day. A cut-off of 0.5 ng/mg in 3 cm of a proximal hair segment was adopted to discriminate social drinking from excessive ethanol consumption. False positive samples were identified in subjects using ethanol-containing hair lotions and women on estroprogestin therapy. Specificity of 87% was reached when the identified false positives were excluded from data elaboration. CFAEE in hair at a predetermined cut-off can be used to discriminate between moderate and excessive drinking only when confounding factors are meticulously removed. PMID:24431044

  4. Effect of dietary fatty acid supplements, varying in fatty acid composition, on milk fat secretion in dairy cattle fed diets supplemented to less than 3% total fatty acids.

    PubMed

    Stoffel, C M; Crump, P M; Armentano, L E

    2015-01-01

    Dietary fatty acids can affect both milk fat yield and fatty acid (FA) composition. This relationship is well established when the dietary level of FA exceeds 3% of diet dry matter (DM). We could find no reports directly examining the effects of dietary FA profile on milk fat at levels below 3%. Twenty-four primiparous and 36 multiparous lactating cows were paired by production (1 high with 1 low, within parity) to form 30 experimental units. Pairs were fed 6 diets in five 6×6 balanced Latin squares with 21-d periods, and data were collected during the last 5d of each period. Two control diets were fed: a corn control diet (CC; 29% corn silage, 16% alfalfa silage, 19% corn grain, and 8% distillers grain on a DM basis) containing 1.8% FA; and a low-oil control diet (LOC; 9% corn silage, 35% alfalfa silage, 20% food-grade corn starch, and 8% corn gluten feed on a DM basis) containing 1.2% FA. A portion of the food-grade corn starch in LOC was replaced with 4 different FA supplements to create the 4 treatment diets. Treatments were 1.7% (DM basis) of a 50:50 blend of corn oil and high-linoleic safflower oil (LO), 1.7% high-oleic sunflower oil (OO), 1.7% palm oil (PO), or 1.8% calcium salts of palm fatty acids (PFA). The resultant diets were thus enriched in linoleic (LO), oleic (OO), or palmitic acid (PO and PFA). Dietary treatments did not affect dry matter intake. Addition of any of the fat sources to LOC resulted in increased milk yield, but milk fat yields and milk FA composition were variable for the different treatments. The LO treatment resulted in lower milk fat yield, fat concentration, and C16:0 yield but increased both trans-10 C18:1 and trans-10,cis-12 C18:2 yields compared with the other added FA treatments. Diets PO and PFA resulted in increased milk C16:0 yield and decreased total milk C18 yield compared with OO. Regression analysis revealed a negative coefficient for dietary linoleic acid content over basal (LOC) for both milk short-chain FA yield and

  5. Mercaptoacetate blocks fatty acid-induced GLP-1 secretion in male rats by directly antagonizing GPR40 fatty acid receptors.

    PubMed

    Li, Ai-Jun; Wang, Qing; Dinh, Thu T; Simasko, Steve M; Ritter, Sue

    2016-04-15

    Mercaptoacetate (MA) is an orexigenic agent reported to block fatty acid (FA) oxidation. Recently, however, we reported evidence from isolated nodose ganglion neurons that MA antagonizes the G protein-coupled long- and medium-chain FA receptor GPR40. GPR40 mediates FA-induced secretion of the satietogenic incretin peptide glucagon-like peptide 1 (GLP-1), by enteroendocrine L cells, as well as FA-induced enhancement of glucose-stimulated insulin secretion. Our results in cultured nodose neurons suggest that MA would also block GPR40 in enteroendocrine cells controlling GLP-1 secretion. If so, this would suggest an alternative mechanism by which MA increases food intake. We tested the hypothesis that MA blocks FA-induced GLP-1 secretion in vitro using cultured STC-1 cells (a murine enteroendocrine cell line) and in vivo in adult male rats. In vitro, MA blocked the increase in both cytosolic Ca(2+)and GLP-1 release stimulated by FAs and also reduced (but less effectively) the response of STC-1 cells to grifolic acid, a partial agonist of the GPR120 FA receptor. In vivo, MA reduced GLP-1 secretion following olive oil gavage while also increasing glucose and decreasing insulin levels. The carnitine palmatoyltransferase 1 antagonist etomoxir did not alter these responses. Results indicate that MA's actions, including its orexigenic effect, are mediated by GPR40 (and possibly GPR120) receptor antagonism and not by blockade of fat oxidation, as previously believed. Analysis of MA's interaction with GPR40 may facilitate understanding of the multiple functions of this receptor and the manner in which FAs participate in the control of hunger and satiety. PMID:26791830

  6. Plant and soil intake by organic broilers reared in tree- or grass-covered plots as determined by means of n-alkanes and of acid-insoluble ash.

    PubMed

    Jurjanz, S; Germain, K; Juin, H; Jondreville, C

    2015-05-01

    Free-range birds such as organic broilers may ingest soil and plants during exploration. The estimation of such intakes is of great interest to quantify possible nutritional supplies and also to evaluate the risk of exposure to parasites or to environmental contaminants. Marker-based techniques are now available and would allow to quantify plant and, especially, soil intake in free-range birds, and this quantification was the aim of this study. Methodologically, the proportion of plants in diet intake was determined first using a method based on n-alkanes. Subsequently, the fraction of soil in the total intake was estimated with a second marker, acid-insoluble ash. This approach was carried out to estimate ingested amounts of plants and soil for five successive flocks of organic broilers, exploring grass-covered yards or those under trees, at two time points for each yard: 51 and 64 days of age. Each factor combination (yard type×period=flock number×age) was repeated on two different yards of 750 broilers each. The birds' plant intake varied widely, especially on grass-covered yards. The proportion of plant intake was significantly higher on grass-covered plots than under trees and was also affected, but to a lesser extent, by age or flock number. The ingestion of plants would generally not exceed 11 g of DM daily, except two extreme outliers of nearly 30 g. The daily plant intake under trees tended to be lower and never exceeded 7 g of DM. The amount of ingested plants increased significantly for spring flocks. It increased slightly but significantly with age. The proportion of ingested soil was significantly higher under trees than on grass-covered yards. Dry soil intake was generally low with not more than 3 g per day. Only in adverse conditions - that is, older birds exploring yards under trees in winter - soil intake reached the extreme value of nearly 5 g. Broilers on yards under trees ingested significantly more soil than on grass-covered yards with least

  7. Identification and characterization of FaSOC1, a homolog of SUPPRESSOR OF OVEREXPRESSION OF CONSTANS1 from strawberry.

    PubMed

    Lei, Heng-Jiu; Yuan, Hua-Zhao; Liu, Yun; Guo, Xin-Wei; Liao, Xiong; Liu, Lin-Lin; Wang, Qi; Li, Tian-Hong

    2013-12-01

    A MADS-box gene SUPPRESSOR OF OVEREXPRESSION OF CONSTANS1 (SOC1) integrates multiple flowering signals to regulate floral transition in Arabidopsis. Strawberry (Fragaria spp.) is an economically important fruit crop, but its molecular control of flowering is largely unknown. In this study, a SOC1-like gene, FaSOC1, was isolated and characterized from strawberry. The open reading frame of FaSOC1 was 648bp, encoding a protein of 215 amino acids. Sequence alignment and phylogenetic analysis showed that the FaSOC1 protein contained a highly conserved MADS domain and a SOC1 motif, and that it was a member of the SOC1-like genes of dicots. The FaSOC1 protein mainly localized in the cytoplasm of onion epidermal cells and Arabidopsis protoplasts, and showed no transcriptional activation activity in yeast cells. Under the floral induction conditions, the expression of FaSOC1 increased during the first 2weeks of short-day treatment, but declined dramatically during three to 4weeks. FaSOC1 was highly expressed in reproductive organs, including shoot apices, floral buds, flowers, stamens and sepals. Overexpression of FaSOC1 in wild-type Arabidopsis caused early flowering and upregulated the expression of flowering time genes LFY and AP1. In addition, the yeast two-hybrid and BiFC assays confirmed that FaSOC1 could interact with AGL24. In conclusion, these results suggest that FaSOC1 is a flowering promoter in strawberry. PMID:24055423

  8. Raised dietary n-6 polyunsaturated fatty acid intake increases 2-series prostaglandin production during labour in the ewe

    PubMed Central

    Elmes, M; Green, LR; Poore, K; Newman, J; Burrage, D; Abayasekara, DRE; Cheng, Z; Hanson, MA; Wathes, DC

    2005-01-01

    Preterm labour is the major cause of perinatal morbidity and mortality in humans. The incidence is around 10% and the causes are often unknown. Consumption of dietary n-6 polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFAs) in western societies is increasing. These are metabolized to arachidonic acid, the precursor for 2-series prostaglandins (PGs), major signalling molecules during labour. This study investigated the effect of dietary supplementation with linoleic acid (LA, 18 : 2, n-6) on parturition. Ewes were fed a control or LA-supplemented diet from 100 days gestation. Labour was induced using a standardized glucocorticoid challenge (dexamethasone, Dex) to the fetus, starting on day 139. Electromyographic (EMG) activity and fetal and maternal circulating PG concentrations were monitored. One third of LA-fed ewes delivered early (pre-Dex) although basal uterine EMG activity preceding Dex was higher in control ewes (P < 0.05). A steep increase in EMG activity occurred 18–38 h after the start of Dex infusion. Twice basal EMG activity (defined as established labour) occurred on average 7 h earlier in the LA-supplemented ewes (P < 0.05). The basal concentrations of maternal and fetal PGFM and fetal PGE2 were approximately doubled in LA-supplemented ewes before the start of Dex infusion (P < 0.01). The rise in fetal PGE2 and maternal oestradiol concentrations post-Dex occurred earlier in the LA-supplemented ewes. All PG measurements remained significantly higher in the LA-supplemented ewes during labour onset. This study suggests that consumption of a high LA diet in late pregnancy can enhance placental PG production and may thus increase the risk of preterm labour. PMID:15513945

  9. The Influence of Manganese and Glutamine Intake on Antioxidants and Neurotransmitter Amino Acids Levels in Rats' Brain.

    PubMed

    Szpetnar, Maria; Luchowska-Kocot, Dorota; Boguszewska-Czubara, Anna; Kurzepa, Jacek

    2016-08-01

    Depending on the concentration, Mn can exert protective or toxic effect. Potential mechanism for manganese neurotoxicity is manganese-induced oxidative stress. Glutamine supplementation could reduce manganese-induced neurotoxicity and is able to influence the neurotransmission processes. The aim of this study was to investigate whether the long term administration of manganese (alone or in combination with glutamine) in dose and time dependent manner could affect the selected parameters of oxidative-antioxidative status (superoxide dismutase and glutathione peroxidase activities, concentrations of vitamin C and malonic dialdehyde) and concentrations of excitatory (Asp, Glu) and inhibitory amino acids (GABA, Gly) in the brain of rats. The experiments were carried out on 2-months-old albino male rats randomly divided into 6 group: Mn300 and Mn500-received solution of MnCl2 to drink (dose 300 and 500 mg/L, respectively), Gln group-solution of glutamine (4 g/L), Mn300-Gln and Mn500-Gln groups-solution of Mn at 300 and 500 mg/L and Gln at 4 g/L dose. The control group (C) received deionized water. Half of the animals were euthanized after three and the other half-after 6 weeks of experiment. The exposure of rats to Mn in drinking water contributes to diminishing of the antioxidant enzymes activity and the increase in level of lipid peroxidation. Glutamine in the diet admittedly increases SOD and GPx activity, but it is unable to restore the intracellular redox balance. The most significant differences in the examined amino acids levels in comparison to both control and Gln group were observed in the group of rats receiving Mn at 500 mg/L dose alone or with Gln. It seems that Gln is amino acid which could improve antioxidant status and affect the concentrations of the neurotransmitters. PMID:27161372

  10. Docosahexaenoic acid intake ameliorates ketamine-induced impairment of spatial cognition and learning ability in ICR mice.

    PubMed

    Huang, Shucai; Dai, Yuanyuan; Zhang, Zhiwen; Hao, Wei; Chen, Hongxian

    2014-09-19

    Several studies have reported the ketamine-induced cognitive impairment. Docosahexaenoic acid (DHA) supplementation improves cognitive function in human infants and protects against learning impairment in patients with Alzheimer's disease (AD). In this study, we investigated the effect of DHA on ketamine-induced impairment of spatial cognition and learning ability in Institute of Cancer Research (ICR) mice. Morris water maze (MWM) was used to assess spatial learning and memory. Gamma-aminobutyric acid (GABA) levels in the hippocampus and prefrontal cortex were measured using high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC). The results showed that intraperitoneal injection of ketamine (30mg/kg, twice per day) for 4 weeks led to the decline of spatial cognitive ability in mice, and 420mg/(kgd) DHA supplementation for 6 weeks improved ketamine-induced spatial cognitive impairment to a certain extent. The up-regulation of GABA levels in the hippocampus and prefrontal cortex was related to the improvement in spatial learning. Our results suggested that DHA supplementation would be a promising intervention to improve ketamine-induced spatial memory and cognitive dysfunction, and this effect of DHA might be correlated with the up-regulation of GABA levels. PMID:25123439

  11. The effect of fatty acid positioning in dietary triacylglycerols and intake of long-chain n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids on bone mineral accretion in growing piglets.

    PubMed

    Andersen, Anders D; Ludvig, Stine E; Damsgaard, Camilla T; Pulkkinen, Pasi; Finnilä, Mikko; Mu, Huiling; Thymann, Thomas; Michaelsen, Kim F; Mølgaard, Christian; Lauritzen, Lotte

    2013-09-01

    Long-chain n-3 PUFA (LCPUFA) and palmitate (16:0) positioning in the triacylglycerol (TAG) of infant formula may affect calcium-uptake which could affect bone health. We investigated if a human milk fat substitute (HMFS) with a modified TAG structure holding 16:0 predominantly in the sn-2-position compared with a control (CONT) and if increasing n-3LCPUFA intake giving fish oil (FO) compared with sunflower oil (SO) would affect bone parameters in piglets in two sets of controlled 14d-interventions (n=12/group). We assessed this by dual-energy x-ray absorptiometry, and ex vivo peripheral quantitative computed tomography and mechanical strength. Bone mineral content (BMC) was higher in the FO compared to the SO-group (p=0.03). Despite similar weight gain in HMFS- and CONT-groups, body fat accumulation was higher with HMFS (p<0.001), and BMC, bone area (BA) and cortical BA in femur were lower (p=0.002, p=0.005, and p=0.02, respectively), indicating importance of both n-3LCPUFA and 16:0 TAG-positioning in infant formulas. PMID:23867727

  12. Effects of amino acids and energy intake during late gestation of high-performing gilts and sows on litter and reproductive performance under commercial conditions.

    PubMed

    Gonçalves, M A D; Gourley, K M; Dritz, S S; Tokach, M D; Bello, N M; DeRouchey, J M; Woodworth, J C; Goodband, R D

    2016-05-01

    The objective of this study was to determine the effects of AA and energy intake during late gestation on piglet birth weight and reproductive performance of high-performing (14.5 total born) gilts and sows housed under commercial conditions. At d 90 of gestation, a total of 1,102 females (PIC 1050) were housed in pens by parity group (gilts or sows) with approximately 63 gilts and 80 sows in each pen, blocked by BW within each pen, and each female was randomly assigned to dietary treatments within BW block. Dietary treatments consisted of combinations of 2 standardized ileal digestible (SID) AA intakes (10.7 or 20.0 g/d SID Lys and other AA met or exceeded the NRC [2012] recommendations) and 2 energy intakes (4.50 or 6.75 Mcal/d intake of NE) in a 2 × 2 factorial arrangement. Data were analyzed using generalized linear mixed models specified to recognize pen as the experimental unit for parity and the individual female as the experimental unit for dietary treatments. Results indicate an overall positive effect of high energy intake on BW gain during late gestation, although this effect was more manifest under conditions of high, as opposed to low, AA intake (interaction, < 0.001). Furthermore, the magnitude of BW gain response to increased energy intake was greater ( < 0.001) for sows compared with gilts. Sows fed high energy intake had a reduced probability of piglets born alive ( < 0.004) compared with those fed low energy, but no evidence for differences was found in gilts. This can be explained by an increased probability ( = 0.002) of stillborns in sows fed high energy intake vs. sows fed low energy intake. There were no evidences for differences among dietary treatments in litter birth weight and individual piglet birth weight of total piglets born. However, individual born alive birth weight was approximately 30 ± 8.2 g heavier ( = 0.011) for females fed high, as opposed to low, energy intake. Furthermore, piglets born alive were approximately 97 ± 9.5 g

  13. Interactions between dietary oil treatments and genetic variants modulate fatty acid ethanolamides in plasma and body weight composition.

    PubMed

    Pu, Shuaihua; Eck, Peter; Jenkins, David J A; Connelly, Philip W; Lamarche, Benoît; Kris-Etherton, Penny M; West, Sheila G; Liu, Xiaoran; Jones, Peter J H

    2016-03-28

    Fatty acid ethanolamides (FAE), a group of lipid mediators derived from long-chain fatty acids (FA), mediate biological activities including activation of cannabinoid receptors, stimulation of fat oxidation and regulation of satiety. However, how circulating FAE levels are influenced by FA intake in humans remains unclear. The objective of the present study was to investigate the response of six major circulating FAE to various dietary oil treatments in a five-period, cross-over, randomised, double-blind, clinical study in volunteers with abdominal obesity. The treatment oils (60 g/12 552 kJ per d (60 g/3000 kcal per d)) provided for 30 d were as follows: conventional canola oil, high oleic canola oil, high oleic canola oil enriched with DHA, flax/safflower oil blend and corn/safflower oil blend. Two SNP associated with FAE degradation and synthesis were studied. Post-treatment results showed overall that plasma FAE levels were modulated by dietary FA and were positively correlated with corresponding plasma FA levels; minor allele (A) carriers of SNP rs324420 in gene fatty acid amide hydrolase produced higher circulating oleoylethanolamide (OEA) (P=0·0209) and docosahexaenoylethanolamide (DHEA) levels (P=0·0002). In addition, elevated plasma DHEA levels in response to DHA intake tended to be associated with lower plasma OEA levels and an increased gynoid fat mass. In summary, data suggest that the metabolic and physiological responses to dietary FA may be influenced via circulating FAE. Genetic analysis of rs324420 might help identify a sub-population that appears to benefit from increased consumption of DHA and oleic acid. PMID:26806592

  14. Impact of sensory feed additives on feed intake, feed preferences, and growth of female piglets during the early postweaning period.

    PubMed

    Clouard, C; Val-Laillet, D

    2014-05-01

    Our study aimed at investigating the effect of feed supplementation, from weaning, with 3 sensory feed additives (FA1, FA2, and FA3) on feed preferences, feed intake, and growth of piglets. The FA1 contained extract of Stevia rebaudiana (10 to 20%), extract of high-saponin plants (5 to 10%), and excipients (70 to 85%), the FA2 was mainly composed of a natural extract of Citrus sinensis (60 to 80%), and the FA3 was made of a blend of extracts of hot-flavored spices (5 to 15%) and excipients (85 to 95%). At weaning (d 1), a total of 32 female piglets housed in individual pens were allocated to 4 treatments (FA1, FA2, FA3, and control [CON]) of equivalent mean weight. The pigs were fed a standard pelleted prestarter diet from weaning (d 1) to d 15 and a starter diet from d 16 to 28. The diets were supplemented with the feed additives (FA) corresponding to their treatment, while the CON treatment was the standard diets with no additive. Feed refusals were weighed daily and piglets were weighed weekly on d 1, 7, 14, 21, and 28. On the day of feed transition (d 16) as well as 7 (d 23) and 10 d (d 26) later, the animals were consecutively subjected to 1- and 22-h double-choice feeding tests to investigate their preferences during a short period and a longer period of time for the CON starter diet and the starter diet added with the FA corresponding to their treatment. No overall effect of the feed additives was observed on ADFI, ADG, G:F, and final BW. No overall preference was highlighted for the FA1 treatment, except for a preference for the FA1 starter diet during the 1-h test on d 23 (78% of total feed intake; P < 0.01). For the FA2 treatment, the pigs consumed the FA2 starter diet more than the CON starter diet during the 22-h tests on d 16 (67% of total feed intake; P < 0.05) and 26 (62% of total feed intake; P < 0.01). For the FA3 treatment, on d 26, the FA3 starter diet was and tended to be consumed more than the CON starter diet during 1- (69% of total intake; P

  15. Functional characterization of FaNIP1;1 gene, a ripening-related and receptacle-specific aquaporin in strawberry fruit.

    PubMed

    Molina-Hidalgo, Francisco J; Medina-Puche, Laura; Gelis, Samuel; Ramos, José; Sabir, Farzana; Soveral, Graça; Prista, Catarina; Iglesias-Fernández, Raquel; Caballero, José L; Muñoz-Blanco, Juan; Blanco-Portales, Rosario

    2015-09-01

    Strawberry fruit (Fragaria × ananassa) is a soft fruit with high water content at ripe stage (more than 90% of its fresh weight). Aquaporins play an important role in plant water homeostasis, through the facilitation of water transport and solutes. We report the role played by FaNIP1;1 in the receptacle ripening process. The analysis by qRT-PCR of FaNIP1;1 showed that this gene is mainly expressed in fruit receptacle and has a ripening-related expression pattern that was accompanied by an increase in both the abscisic acid and water content of the receptacle throughout fruit ripening. Moreover, FaNIP1;1 was induced in situations of water deficit. Additionally, we show that FaNIP1;1 expression was positively regulated by abscisic acid and negatively regulated by auxins. The water transport capacity of FaNIP1;1 was determined by a stopped-flow spectroscopy in yeast over-expressing FaNIP1;1. Glycerol, H2O2 and boron transport were also demonstrated in yeast. On the other hand, GFP-FaNIP1;1 fusion protein was located in plasma membrane. In conclusion, FaNIP1;1 seems to play an important role increasing the plasma membrane permeability, that allows the water accumulation in the strawberry fruit receptacle throughout the ripening process. PMID:26259188

  16. Lipid Profiling following Intake of the Omega 3 Fatty Acid DHA Identifies the Peroxidized Metabolites F4-Neuroprostanes as the Best Predictors of Atherosclerosis Prevention

    PubMed Central

    Gladine, Cécile; Newman, John W.; Durand, Thierry; Pedersen, Theresa L.; Galano, Jean-Marie; Demougeot, Céline; Berdeaux, Olivier; Pujos-Guillot, Estelle; Mazur, Andrzej; Comte, Blandine

    2014-01-01

    Abstract The anti-atherogenic effects of omega 3 fatty acids, namely eicosapentaenoic (EPA) and docosahexaenoic acids (DHA) are well recognized but the impact of dietary intake on bioactive lipid mediator profiles remains unclear. Such a profiling effort may offer novel targets for future studies into the mechanism of action of omega 3 fatty acids. The present study aimed to determine the impact of DHA supplementation on the profiles of polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFA) oxygenated metabolites and to investigate their contribution to atherosclerosis prevention. A special emphasis was given to the non-enzymatic metabolites knowing the high susceptibility of DHA to free radical-mediated peroxidation and the increased oxidative stress associated with plaque formation. Atherosclerosis prone mice (LDLR−/−) received increasing doses of DHA (0, 0.1, 1 or 2% of energy) during 20 weeks leading to a dose-dependent reduction of atherosclerosis (R2 = 0.97, p = 0.02), triglyceridemia (R2 = 0.97, p = 0.01) and cholesterolemia (R2 = 0.96, p<0.01). Targeted lipidomic analyses revealed that both the profiles of EPA and DHA and their corresponding oxygenated metabolites were substantially modulated in plasma and liver. Notably, the hepatic level of F4-neuroprostanes, a specific class of DHA peroxidized metabolites, was strongly correlated with the hepatic DHA level. Moreover, unbiased statistical analysis including correlation analyses, hierarchical cluster and projection to latent structure discriminate analysis revealed that the hepatic level of F4-neuroprostanes was the variable most negatively correlated with the plaque extent (p<0.001) and along with plasma EPA-derived diols was an important mathematical positive predictor of atherosclerosis prevention. Thus, oxygenated n-3 PUFAs, and F4-neuroprostanes in particular, are potential biomarkers of DHA-associated atherosclerosis prevention. While these may contribute to the anti-atherogenic effects of DHA

  17. Marine n-3 fatty acid intake, glutathione S-transferase polymorphisms and breast cancer risk in post-menopausal Chinese women in Singapore.

    PubMed

    Gago-Dominguez, Manuela; Castelao, J Esteban; Sun, Can-Lan; Van Den Berg, David; Koh, Woon-Puay; Lee, Hin-Peng; Yu, Mimi C

    2004-11-01

    We have previously found marine n-3 fatty acids to be inversely related to post-menopausal breast cancer in Chinese women from Singapore. Post-menopausal women with high [quartiles 2-4 (Q2-Q4)] versus low [quartile 1 (Q1)] intake exhibited a statistically significant reduction in risk of breast cancer after adjustment for potential confounders [relative risk (RR) = 0.66, 95% confidence interval (CI) = 0.50, 0.87]. Experimental studies have demonstrated a direct role for the peroxidation products of marine n-3 fatty acids in breast cancer protection. There is a suggestion that the glutathione S-transferases (GSTs) may be major catalysts in the elimination of these beneficial by-products. Therefore, we hypothesized that individuals possessing the low activity genotypes of GSTM1, GSTT1 and/or GSTP1 (i.e. the GSTM1 null, GSTT1 null and GSTP1 AB/BB genotypes, respectively) may exhibit a stronger marine n-3 fatty acid-breast cancer association than their high activity counterparts. The Singapore Chinese Health Study is a prospective investigation involving 35,298 middle-aged and older women, who were enrolled between April 1993 and December 1998. In this case-control analysis, nested within the Singapore Chinese Health Study, we compared 258 incident breast cancer cases with 670 cohort controls. Overall, breast cancer risk was unrelated to GSTM1 and GSTP1 genotypes. However, the GSTT1 null genotype was associated with a 30% reduced risk of breast cancer [odds ratio (OR) = 0.71, 95% CI = 0.52, 0.96]. Among women with high activity GST genotypes (i.e. GSTM1 positive, GSTT1 positive and GSTP1 AA), no marine n-3 fatty acid-breast cancer relationships were observed in either pre-menopausal or post-menopausal women at baseline. However, post-menopausal women possessing the combined GSTM1 null and GSTP1 AB/BB genotypes showed a statistically significant reduction in risk after adjustment for potential confounders (Q2-Q4 versus Q1, OR = 0.36, 95% CI = 0.14, 0.94). A similar

  18. Effects of arachidonic acid intake on inflammatory reactions in dextran sodium sulphate-induced colitis in rats.

    PubMed

    Naito, Yukiko; Ji, Xu; Tachibana, Shigehiro; Aoki, Satoko; Furuya, Mami; Tazura, Yoshiyuki; Miyazawa, Daisuke; Harauma, Akiko; Moriguchi, Toru; Nagata, Tomoko; Iwai, Naoharu; Ohara, Naoki

    2015-09-14

    The aim of this study was to investigate the effects of the administration of oral arachidonic acid (AA) in rats with or without dextran sulphate sodium (DSS)-induced inflammatory bowel disease. Male Wistar rats were administered AA at 0, 5, 35 or 240 mg/kg daily by gavage for 8 weeks. Inflammatory bowel disease was induced by replacing drinking water with 3 % DSS solution during the last 7 d of the AA dosing period. These animals passed loose stools, diarrhoea and red-stained faeces. Cyclo-oxygenase-2 concentration and myeloperoxidase activity in the colonic tissue were significantly increased in the animals given AA at 240 mg/kg compared with the animals given AA at 0 mg/kg. Thromboxane B2 concentration in the medium of cultured colonic mucosae isolated from these groups was found to be dose-dependently increased by AA, and the increase was significant at 35 and 240 mg/kg. Leukotriene B4 concentration was also significantly increased and saturated at 5 mg/kg. In addition, AA at 240 mg/kg promoted DSS-induced colonic mucosal oedema with macrophage infiltration. In contrast, administration of AA for 8 weeks, even at 240 mg/kg, showed no effects on the normal rats. These results suggest that in rats with bowel disease AA metabolism is affected by oral AA, even at 5 mg/kg per d, and that excessive AA may aggravate inflammation, whereas AA shows no effects in rats without inflammatory bowel disease. PMID:26234346

  19. Carbohydrate intake.

    PubMed

    Leturque, Armelle; Brot-Laroche, Edith; Le Gall, Maude

    2012-01-01

    Carbohydrates represent more than 50% of the energy sources present in most human diets. Sugar intake is regulated by metabolic, neuronal, and hedonic factors, and gene polymorphisms are involved in determining sugar preference. Nutrigenomic adaptations to carbohydrate availability have been evidenced in metabolic diseases, in the persistence of lactose digestion, and in amylase gene copy number. Furthermore, dietary oligosaccharides, fermentable by gut flora, can modulate the microbiotal diversity to the benefit of the host. Genetic diseases linked to mutations in the disaccharidase genes (sucrase-isomaltase, lactase) and in sugar transporter genes (sodium/glucose cotransporter 1, glucose transporters 1 and 2) severely impact carbohydrate intake. These diseases are revealed upon exposure to food containing the offending sugar, and withdrawal of this sugar from the diet prevents disease symptoms, failure to thrive, and premature death. Tailoring the sugar composition of diets to optimize wellness and to prevent the chronic occurrence of metabolic diseases is a future goal that may yet be realized through continued development of nutrigenetics and nutrigenomics approaches. PMID:22656375

  20. The effects of diet and caloric restriction on adipose tissue fatty acid signatures of tufted puffin (Fratercula cirrhata) nestlings.

    PubMed

    Williams, Cory T; Iverson, Sara J; Buck, C Loren

    2009-08-01

    Fatty acid (FA) signature analysis is a powerful tool to investigate foraging ecology and food web dynamics in marine ecosystems. However, use of FA signatures to qualitatively or quantitatively infer diets is potentially complicated by effects of nutritional state on lipid metabolism. Estimation of diets using the quantitative fatty acid signature analysis (QFASA) model requires the use of calibration coefficients to account for predator metabolism of individual FAs. We conducted a captive feeding experiment to determine the effects of a 50% reduction in food intake on growth rate and adipose tissue FA signatures of tufted puffin (Fratercula cirrhata) nestlings, a species that routinely experiences food restriction during growth. FA signatures of chicks fed low- and high-calorie diets both exhibited a change in composition in response to the dietary shift with the direction of change in the composition of individual FAs matching the direction of change in the dietary FAs. Despite a growth rate in the restricted nestlings that was 38% of those in the well-fed group, rates of FA turnover were not different between high and low-calorie treatments, and turnover was close to, but not entirely complete, after 27 days on both high-calorie and restricted diets. FA signatures of tufted puffin nestlings were significantly affected by caloric restriction, but these effects were much less pronounced than those of dietary turnover, and calibration coefficients of puffins fed low and high-calorie diets were highly correlated. Our results demonstrate that changes in physiological state can affect FA metabolism, but future research is required to better understand whether the size of these effects is sufficient to substantially alter diet estimation using the QFASA model. PMID:19350253

  1. Time to Detection with BacT/Alert FA Plus Compared to BacT/Alert FA Blood Culture Media.

    PubMed

    Nutman, A; Fisher Even-Tsur, S; Shapiro, G; Braun, T; Schwartz, D; Carmeli, Y

    2016-09-01

    Rapid identification of the causative pathogen in patients with bacteremia allows adjustment of antibiotic therapy and improves patient outcomes. We compared in vitro and real-life time to detection (TTD) of two blood culture media, BacT/Alert FA (FA) and BacT/Alert FA Plus (FA Plus), for the nine most common species of bacterial pathogens recovered from blood samples. Experimental data from simulated cultures was compared with microbiology records of TTD for both culture media with growth of the species of interest in clinical blood cultures. In the experimental conditions, median TTD was 3.8 hours (23.9 %) shorter using FA Plus media. The magnitude of reduction differed between species. Similarly, in real life data, FA Plus had shorter TTD than FA media; however, the difference between culture media was smaller, and median TTD was only 1 hour (8.5 %) less. We found shorter TTD with BacT/Alert FA Plus culture media, both experimentally and in real-life conditions and unrelated to antibiotic neutralization, highlighting the importance of appropriate blood culture media selection. PMID:27272123

  2. Non-alcoholic fatty liver disease in HIV infection associated with altered hepatic fatty acid composition.

    PubMed

    Arendt, Bianca M; Mohammed, Saira S; Ma, David W L; Aghdassi, Elaheh; Salit, Irving E; Wong, David K H; Guindi, Maha; Sherman, Morris; Heathcote, E Jenny; Allard, Johane P

    2011-03-01

    Hepatic fatty acid (FA) composition, especially a reduction in n-3 polyunsaturated FA (PUFA) may contribute to the pathogenesis of non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD), which is common in HIV-infection.. In a cross-sectional study we compared hepatic FA composition between 20 HIV-infected men with NAFLD (HIV/NAFLD), 21 HIV-negative men with NAFLD (NAFLD), and 7 healthy controls. Within HIV/NAFLD we compared simple steatosis (HIV/SS) to steatohepatitis (HIV/NASH). FA composition in liver and erythrocytes, oxidative stress, diet, and exercise were assessed. Major findings (P<0.05) were: 1) higher hepatic n-6/n-3 ratio in HIV/NAFLD [median (range)] [8.08 (1.08-21.52)] compared to controls [5.83 (3.58-6.93)] and NAFLD [5.97 (1.46-10.40)], with higher n-6 PUFA in HIV/NAFLD compared to NAFLD; 2) lower n-3 PUFA in erythrocytes (mol%), a marker for dietary intake, in HIV/NAFLD [5.26 (1.04-11.75)] compared to controls [8.92 (4.79-12.67)]; 3) the ratios of long-chain PUFA products to essential FA precursors of the n-6 and n-3 series were lower in HIV/NAFLD and NAFLD compared to controls. In contrast, the ratio of oleic/stearic acid was higher in HIV/NAFLD compared to the other groups. These ratios are indirect markers of enzymatic FA desaturation and elongation. Hepatic PUFA, especially biologically active long-chain PUFA, were also lower in HIV/NASH compared to HIV/SS. Oxidative stress was not different among the groups. We conclude that HIV/NAFLD is associated with altered hepatic FA composition. Changes may be due to impaired FA metabolism or suboptimal n-3 PUFA intake. The potential role of n-3 PUFA (e.g. fish oil) to treat or prevent HIV/NAFLD warrants further investigation. PMID:21434863

  3. Trans isomeric octadecenoic acids are related inversely to arachidonic acid and DHA and positively related to mead acid in umbilical vessel wall lipids.

    PubMed

    Decsi, Tamás; Boehm, Günther; Tjoonk, H M Ria; Molnár, Szilárd; Dijck-Brouwer, D A Janneke; Hadders-Algra, Mijna; Martini, Ingrid A; Muskiet, Frits A J; Boersma, E Rudy

    2002-10-01

    Long-chain PUFA play an important role in early human neurodevelopment. Significant inverse correlations were reported between values of trans isomeric and long-chain PUFA in plasma lipids of preterm infants and children aged 1-15 yr as well as in venous cord blood lipids of full-term infants. Here we report FA compositional data of cord blood vessel wall lipids in 308 healthy, full-term infants (gestational age: 39.7 +/- 1.2 wk, birth weight: 3528 +/- 429 g, mean +/- SD). The median (interquartile range) of the sum of 18-carbon trans FA was 0.22 (0.13) % w/w in umbilical artery and 0.16 (0.10) % w/w in umbilical vein lipids. Nonparametric correlation analysis showed significant inverse correlations between the sum of 18-carbon trans FA and both arachidonic acid and DHA in artery (r = -0.38, P < 0.01, and r = -0.20, P < 0.01) and vein (r = -0.36, P < 0.01, and -0.17, P < 0.01) wall lipids. In addition, the sum of 18-carbon trans FA was significantly positively correlated to Mead acid, a general indicator of EFA deficiency, in both artery (r = +0.35, P < 0.01) and vein (r = +0.31, P< 0.01) wall lipids. The present results obtained in a large group of full-term infants suggest that maternal trans FA intake is inversely associated with long-chain PUFA status of the infant at birth. PMID:12530555

  4. Fatty acid signatures of stomach oil and adipose tissue of northern fulmars (Fulmarus glacialis) in Alaska: Implications for diet analysis of Procellariiform birds

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Wang, S.W.; Iverson, S.J.; Springer, A.M.; Hatch, Shyla A.

    2007-01-01

    Procellariiforms are unique among seabirds in storing dietary lipids in both adipose tissue and stomach oil. Thus, both lipid sources are potentially useful for trophic studies using fatty acid (FA) signatures. However, little is known about the relationship between FA signatures in stomach oil and adipose tissue of individuals or whether these signatures provide similar information about diet and physiology. We compared the FA composition of stomach oil and adipose tissue biopsies of individual northern fulmars (N = 101) breeding at three major colonies in Alaska. Fatty acid signatures differed significantly between the two lipid sources, reflecting differences in dietary time scales, metabolic processing, or both. However, these signatures exhibited a relatively consistent relationship between individuals, such that the two lipid sources provided a similar ability to distinguish foraging differences among individuals and colonies. Our results, including the exclusive presence of dietary wax esters in stomach oil but not adipose tissue, are consistent with the notion that stomach oil FA signatures represent lipids retained from prey consumed during recent foraging and reflect little metabolic processing, whereas adipose tissue FA signatures represent a longer-term integration of dietary intake. Our study illustrates the potential for elucidating short- versus longer-term diet information in Procellariiform birds using different lipid sources. ?? 2007 Springer-Verlag.

  5. Functional assessment of zinc nutriture using changes in plasma zinc after exercise in men supplemented with folic acid

    SciTech Connect

    Lukaski, H.C.; Bolonchuk, W.W.; Milne, D.B.

    1986-03-05

    Recently, the authors proposed that changes in plasma zinc (Zn) and copper (Cu) content after maximal exercise could be a functional test of human trace element nutriture. To test this hypothesis, they studied the effect of folic acid (FA) supplements, previously shown to affect zinc absorption on the exercise-induced changes in plasma Zn and Cu in 7 men aged 28.6 +/- 1.2 yr (mean +/- SEM). The men were fed a constant diet with intakes of Cu (1.01 +/- 0.06 mg/d), Zn (12.7 +/- 0.3 mg/d) and FA (200 mg/d) for two 4 wk periods. This basal diet was supplemented with 400 or 800 mg/d FA and it was fed for 4 wk periods alternating with the unsupplemented diet. Pre and post-exercise hematocrit (Hct), hemoglobin (Hb), and plasma Zn and Cu were not affected by FA supplements. To correct for hemoconcentration during exercise, the van Beaumont quotient was calculated from pre and post-exercise Hct, Hb, and plasma Zn and Cu. When the basal diet was fed, the quotient for Zn was 3.4 +/- 1.4 and 2.3 +/- 1.4%, and it declined (p < 0.05) to -5.93 +/- 1.9% and -7.4 +/- 1.8% with 400 and 800 mg/d supplementation, resp. FA supplementation had no effect on the quotient for plasma Cu. These data suggest that Zn mobilization from stores during exercise is impaired with high intakes of FA.

  6. Epigenetics and development of food allergy (FA) in early childhood.

    PubMed

    Hong, Xiumei; Wang, Xiaobin

    2014-09-01

    This review aims to highlight the latest advance on epigenetics in the development of food allergy (FA) and to offer future perspectives. FA, a condition caused by an immunoglobulin (Ig) E-mediated hypersensitivity reaction to food, has emerged as a major clinical and public health problem worldwide in light of its increasing prevalence, potential fatality, and significant medical and economic impact. Current evidence supports that epigenetic mechanisms are involved in immune regulation and that the epigenome may represent a key "missing piece" of the etiological puzzle for FA. There are a growing number of population-based epigenetic studies on allergy-related phenotypes, mostly focused on DNA methylation. Previous studies mostly applied candidate-gene approaches and have demonstrated that epigenetic marks are associated with multiple allergic diseases and/or with early-life exposures relevant to allergy development (such as early-life smoking exposure, air pollution, farming environment, and dietary fat). Rapid technological advancements have made unbiased genome-wide DNA methylation studies highly feasible, although there are substantial challenge in study design, data analyses, and interpretation of findings. In conclusion, epigenetics represents both an important knowledge gap and a promising research area for FA. Due to the early onset of FA, epigenetic studies of FA in prospective birth cohorts have the potential to better understand gene-environment interactions and underlying biological mechanisms in FA during critical developmental windows (preconception, in utero, and early childhood) and may lead to new paradigms in the diagnosis, prevention, and management of FA and provide novel targets for future drug discovery and therapies for FA. PMID:25096861

  7. Development and validation of a quantitative LC-tandem MS assay for hexadeca-4,7,10,13-tetraenoic acid in human and mouse plasma.

    PubMed

    Stigter, Edwin C A; Letsiou, Sophia; vd Broek, Niels J F; Gerrits, Johan; Ishihara, Kenji; Voest, Emile E; Verhoeven-Duif, Nanda M; Brenkman, Arjan B

    2013-04-15

    Upon exposure to platinum analogs, mesenchymal stem cells were recently found to excrete minute amounts of specific lipid mediators that induce chemotherapy resistance. One of these lipids is hexadeca-4,7,10,13-tetraenoic acid (FA(16:4)n-3). Importantly, FA(16:4)n-3 is present in high concentrations in certain fish oils and algae and oral intake of these products also potently induced chemotherapy resistance. These findings suggested that certain foods could negatively affect clinical chemotherapy treatment. In order to allow further study of the relation between FA(16:4)n-3 and clinical chemotherapy resistance, a method for the detection and quantification of FA(16:4)n-3 in plasma is required. Therefore, a quantification method for FA(16:4)n-3 in human and mouse plasma was developed consisting of a liquid-liquid extraction, solid phase clean-up and LC-MS/MS (MRM) analysis. The method was fully validated over a period of three weeks according to the standard protocols and requirements. The linearity range of the method is 1-100 nmol/L (r(2)>0.99) using deuterated FA(16:3)n-3 as an internal standard. The limits of quantification and detection are 1.0 nmol/L and 0.8 nmol/L, respectively. Recoveries for spiked concentrations range from 103 to 108%. The intra-day and inter-day mean precision amounts to 98-106% and 100-108%, respectively. No significant loss of FA(16:4)n-3 is observed upon storage at -80 °C. The developed assay for the detection and quantification of FA(16:4)n-3 in human plasma is robust and reproducible. The validation parameters are within limits of acceptance. PMID:23502461

  8. Determination of fatty acid ethyl esters in dried blood spots by LC-MS/MS as markers for ethanol intake: application in a drinking study.

    PubMed

    Luginbühl, Marc; Schröck, Alexandra; König, Stefan; Schürch, Stefan; Weinmann, Wolfgang

    2016-05-01

    The forensic utility of fatty acid ethyl esters (FAEEs) in dried blood spots (DBS) as short-term confirmatory markers for ethanol intake was examined. An LC-MS/MS method for the determination of FAEEs in DBS was developed and validated to investigate FAEE formation and elimination in a drinking study, whereby eight subjects ingested 0.66-0.84 g/kg alcohol to reach blood alcohol concentrations (BAC) of 0.8 g/kg. Blood was taken every 1.5-2 h, BAC was determined, and dried blood spots were prepared, with 50 μL of blood, for the determination of FAEEs. Lower limits of quantitation (LLOQ) were between 15 and 37 ng/mL for the four major FAEEs. Validation data are presented in detail. In the drinking study, ethyl palmitate and ethyl oleate proved to be the two most suitable markers for FAEE determination. Maximum FAEE concentrations were reached in samples taken 2 or 4 h after the start of drinking. The following mean peak concentrations (c̅ max) were reached: ethyl myristate 14 ± 4 ng/mL, ethyl palmitate 144 ± 35 ng/mL, ethyl oleate 125 ± 55 ng/mL, ethyl stearate 71 ± 21 ng/mL, total FAEEs 344 ± 91 ng/mL. Detectability of FAEEs was found to be on the same time scale as BAC. In liquid blood samples containing ethanol, FAEE concentrations increase post-sampling. This study shows that the use of DBS fixation prevents additional FAEE formation in blood samples containing ethanol. Positive FAEE results obtained by DBS analysis can be used as evidence for the presence of ethanol in the original blood sample. Graphical Abstract Time courses for fatty acid ethyl ester (FAEE) concentrations in DBS and ethanol concentrations for subject 1 over a period of 7 h. Ethanol ingestion occured during the first hour of the time course. PMID:26968564

  9. Adequately Diversified Dietary Intake and Iron and Folic Acid Supplementation during Pregnancy Is Associated with Reduced Occurrence of Symptoms Suggestive of Pre-Eclampsia or Eclampsia in Indian Women

    PubMed Central

    Agrawal, Sutapa; Fledderjohann, Jasmine; Vellakkal, Sukumar; Stuckler, David

    2015-01-01

    Background/Objective Pre-eclampsia or Eclampsia (PE or E) accounts for 25% of cases of maternal mortality worldwide. There is some evidence of a link to dietary factors, but few studies have explored this association in developing countries, where the majority of the burden falls. We examined the association between adequately diversified dietary intake, iron and folic acid supplementation during pregnancy and symptoms suggestive of PE or E in Indian women. Methods Cross-sectional data from India’s third National Family Health Survey (NFHS-3, 2005-06) was used for this study. Self-reported symptoms suggestive of PE or E during pregnancy were obtained from 39,657 women aged 15-49 years who had had a live birth in the five years preceding the survey. Multivariable logistic regression analysis was used to estimate the association between adequately diversified dietary intake, iron and folic acid supplementation during pregnancy and symptoms suggestive of PE or E after adjusting for maternal, health and lifestyle factors, and socio-demographic characteristics of the mother. Results In their most recent pregnancy, 1.2% (n=456) of the study sample experienced symptoms suggestive of PE or E. Mothers who consumed an adequately diversified diet were 34% less likely (OR: 0.66; 95% CI: 0.51-0.87) to report PE or E symptoms than mothers with inadequately diversified dietary intake. The likelihood of reporting PE or E symptoms was also 36% lower (OR: 0.64; 95% CI: 0.47-0.88) among those mothers who consumed iron and folic acid supplementation for at least 90 days during their last pregnancy. As a sensitivity analysis, we stratified our models sequentially by education, wealth, antenatal care visits, birth interval, and parity. Our results remained largely unchanged: both adequately diversified dietary intake and iron and folic acid supplementation during pregnancy were associated with a reduced occurrence of PE or E symptoms. Conclusion Having a adequately diversified dietary

  10. F/A-18 FAST Offers Advanced System Test Capability

    NASA Video Gallery

    NASA's Dryden Flight Research Center has modified an F/A-18A Hornet aircraft with additional research flight control computer systems for use as a Full-scale Advanced Systems Test Bed. Previously f...

  11. NASA Researches the 'FaINT' Side of Sonic Booms

    NASA Video Gallery

    As the latest in a continuing progression of NASA supersonics research projects aimed at reducing or mitigating the effect of sonic booms, the Farfield Investigation of No Boom Threshold, or FaINT,...

  12. F/A-18 Automated Aerial Refueling (AAR) Phase 1

    NASA Video Gallery

    Engineers at NASA's Dryden Flight Research Center are evaluating the capability of an F/A-18A aircraft as an in-flight refueling tanker to develop analytical models for an automated aerial refuelin...

  13. Effects of Linseed Oil or Whole Linseed Supplementation on Performance and Milk Fatty Acid Composition of Lactating Dairy Cows

    PubMed Central

    Suksombat, Wisitiporn; Thanh, Lam Phuoc; Meeprom, Chayapol; Mirattanaphrai, Rattakorn

    2014-01-01

    The objective of this study was to determine the effects of linseed oil or whole linseed supplementation on performance and milk fatty acid composition of lactating dairy cows. Thirty six Holstein Friesian crossbred lactating dairy cows were blocked by milking days first and then stratified random balanced for milk yields and body weight into three groups of 12 cows each. The treatments consisted of basal ration (53:47; forage:concentrate ratio, on a dry matter [DM] basis, respectively) supplemented with 300 g/d of palm oil as a positive control diet (PO), or supplemented with 300 g/d of linseed oil (LSO), or supplemented with 688 g/d of top-dressed whole linseed (WLS). All cows were received ad libitum grass silage and individually fed according to the treatments. The experiment lasted for 10 weeks including the first 2 weeks as the adjustment period, followed by 8 weeks of measurement period. The results showed that LSO and WLS supplementation had no effects on total dry matter intake, milk yield, milk composition, and live weight change; however, the animals fed WLS had higher crude protein (CP) intake than those fed PO and LSO (p<0.05). To compare with the control diet, dairy cow’s diets supplemented with LSO and WLS significantly increased milk concentrations of cis-9, trans-11-conjugated linoleic acid (CLA) (p<0.05) and n-3 fatty acids (FA) (p<0.01), particularly, cis-9,12,15-C18:3, C20:5n-3 and C22:6n-3. Supplementing LSO and WLS induced a reduction of medium chain FA, especially, C12:0-C16:0 FA (p<0.05) while increasing the concentration of milk unsaturated fatty acids (UFA) (p<0.05). Milk FA proportions of n-3 FA remarkably increased whereas the ratio of n-6 to n-3 decreased in the cows supplemented with WLS as compared with those fed the control diet and LSO (p<0.01). In conclusion, supplementing dairy cows’ diet based on grass silage with WLS had no effect on milk yield and milk composition; however, trans-9- C18:1, cis-9, trans-11-CLA, n-3 FA and

  14. Low Dietary c9t11-Conjugated Linoleic Acid Intake from Dairy Fat or Supplements Reduces Inflammation in Collagen-Induced Arthritis.

    PubMed

    Huebner, Shane M; Olson, Jake M; Campbell, James P; Bishop, Jeffrey W; Crump, Peter M; Cook, Mark E

    2016-07-01

    Dietary cis-9,trans-11 (c9t11) conjugated linoleic acid (CLA) fed at 0.5 % w/w was previously shown to attenuate inflammation in the murine collagen-induced (CA) arthritis model, and growing evidence implicates c9t11-CLA as a major anti-inflammatory component of dairy fat. To understand c9t11-CLA's contribution to dairy fat's anti-inflammatory action, the minimum amount of dietary c9t11-CLA needed to reduce inflammation must be determined. This study had two objectives: (1) determine the minimum dietary anti-inflammatory c9t11-CLA intake level in the CA model, and (2) compare this to anti-inflammatory effects of dairy fat (non-enriched, naturally c9t11-CLA-enriched, or c9t11-CLA-supplemented). Mice received the following dietary fat treatments (w/w) post arthritis onset: corn oil (6 % CO), 0.125, 0.25, 0.375, and 0.5 % c9t11-CLA, control butter (6 % CB), c9t11-enriched butter (6 % EB), or c9t11-CLA-supplemented butter (6 % SB, containing 0.2 % c9t11-CLA). Paw arthritic severity and pad swelling were scored and measured, respectively, over an 84-day study period. All c9t11-CLA and butter diets decreased the arthritic score (25-51 %, P < 0.01) and paw swelling (8-11 %, P < 0.01). Throughout the study, plasma tumor necrosis factor (TNFα) was elevated in CO-fed arthritic mice compared to non-arthritic (NA) mice but was reduced in 0.5 % c9t11-CLA- and EB-fed mice. Interleukin-1β and IL-6 were increased in arthritic CO-fed mice compared to NA mice but were reduced in 0.5 % c9t11-CLA- and EB-fed mice through day 42. In conclusion, 0.125 % c9t11-CLA reduced clinical arthritis as effectively as higher doses, and decreased arthritis in CB-fed mice suggested that the minimal anti-inflammatory levels of c9t11-CLA might be below 0.125 %. PMID:27270404

  15. The catalytic kinetic method for the determination of trace formaldehyde (FA) base on a bromate-eosin Y system.

    PubMed

    Tang, Yufang; Chen, Hao; Weng, Chao; Tang, Xiaohui; Zhang, Miaoling; Yang, Qiongqiong; Hu, Tao; Cai, Changqun

    2014-05-01

    A new simple and highly sensitive catalytic kinetic method for the determination of trace amount of FA in food sample has been established. The method was based on the catalytic effect of FA on the oxidation of eosin Y by potassium bromate in present of phosphoric acid. The reaction was monitored spectrophotometrically by measuring the decrease in absorbance of eosin Y at 518 nm. Under the optimized experimental conditions, the developed method allowed the determination of FA in the range of 0.03-0.6 μg mL(-1) with a good precision, and the limit of detection was down to 0.00988 μg mL(-1). The relative standard deviation of five replicate measurements for the determination of FA in concentration 0.12 μg mL(-1) was 1.8%. The proposed method was successfully applied to the determination of FA in food directly and satisfactory results were obtained. PMID:24531542

  16. Impact of US Brown Swiss genetics on milk quality from low-input herds in Switzerland: interactions with grazing intake and pasture type.

    PubMed

    Stergiadis, S; Bieber, A; Franceschin, E; Isensee, A; Eyre, M D; Maurer, V; Chatzidimitriou, E; Cozzi, G; Bapst, B; Stewart, G; Gordon, A; Butler, G

    2015-05-15

    This study investigated the effect of, and interactions between, contrasting crossbreed genetics (US Brown Swiss [BS] × Improved Braunvieh [BV] × Original Braunvieh [OB]) and feeding regimes (especially grazing intake and pasture type) on milk fatty acid (FA) profiles. Concentrations of total polyunsaturated FAs, total omega-3 FAs and trans palmitoleic, vaccenic, α-linolenic, eicosapentaenoic and docosapentaenoic acids were higher in cows with a low proportion of BS genetics. Highest concentrations of the nutritionally desirable FAs, trans palmitoleic, vaccenic and eicosapentaenoic acids were found for cows with a low proportion of BS genetics (0-24% and/or 25-49%) on high grazing intake (75-100% of dry matter intake) diets. Multivariate analysis indicated that the proportion of OB genetics is a positive driver for nutritionally desirable monounsaturated and polyunsaturated FAs while BS genetics proportion was positive driver for total and undesirable individual saturated FAs. Significant genetics × feeding regime interactions were also detected for a range of FAs. PMID:25577126

  17. Inflammatory bowel disease: can omega-3 fatty acids really help?

    PubMed

    Barbalho, Sandra Maria; Goulart, Ricardo de Alvares; Quesada, Karina; Bechara, Marcelo Dib; de Carvalho, Antonely de Cássio Alves

    2016-01-01

    Adjuvants to the traditional therapy of inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) have been studied to enhance the efficacy of the treatment and improve patients' quality of life. Omega-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids (ω3FA) have been associated with attenuation of the inflammatory responses in IBD, possibly acting as substrates for anti-inflammatory eicosanoid production, similar to prostaglandins and leukotrienes. ω3FA also act as substrates for the synthesis of resolvins, maresins and protectins, indispensable in resolving inflammation processes. These acids may influence the development or course of IBD by: reducing oxidative stress, production of tumor necrosis factor-α and proinflammatory cytokines; working as chemopreventive agents; and decreasing the expression of adhesion molecules. There are numerous controversies in the literature on the effects of ω3FA in the prevention or treatment of IBD, but their effects in reducing inflammation is incontestable. Therefore, more studies are warranted to elucidate the pathophysiological mechanisms and establish the recommended daily intake to prevent or induce remission in IBD patients. PMID:26752948

  18. Inflammatory bowel disease: can omega-3 fatty acids really help?

    PubMed Central

    Barbalho, Sandra Maria; Goulart, Ricardo de Alvares; Quesada, Karina; Bechara, Marcelo Dib; de Carvalho, Antonely de Cássio Alves

    2016-01-01

    Adjuvants to the traditional therapy of inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) have been studied to enhance the efficacy of the treatment and improve patients’ quality of life. Omega-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids (ω3FA) have been associated with attenuation of the inflammatory responses in IBD, possibly acting as substrates for anti-inflammatory eicosanoid production, similar to prostaglandins and leukotrienes. ω3FA also act as substrates for the synthesis of resolvins, maresins and protectins, indispensable in resolving inflammation processes. These acids may influence the development or course of IBD by: reducing oxidative stress, production of tumor necrosis factor-α and proinflammatory cytokines; working as chemopreventive agents; and decreasing the expression of adhesion molecules. There are numerous controversies in the literature on the effects of ω3FA in the prevention or treatment of IBD, but their effects in reducing inflammation is incontestable. Therefore, more studies are warranted to elucidate the pathophysiological mechanisms and establish the recommended daily intake to prevent or induce remission in IBD patients. PMID:26752948

  19. Direct comparison of mice null for liver or intestinal fatty acid-binding proteins reveals highly divergent phenotypic responses to high fat feeding.

    PubMed

    Gajda, Angela M; Zhou, Yin Xiu; Agellon, Luis B; Fried, Susan K; Kodukula, Sarala; Fortson, Walter; Patel, Khamoshi; Storch, Judith

    2013-10-18

    The enterocyte expresses two fatty acid-binding proteins (FABP), intestinal FABP (IFABP; FABP2) and liver FABP (LFABP; FABP1). LFABP is also expressed in liver. Despite ligand transport and binding differences, it has remained uncertain whether these intestinally coexpressed proteins, which both bind long chain fatty acids (FA), are functionally distinct. Here, we directly compared IFABP(-/-) and LFABP(-/-) mice fed high fat diets containing long chain saturated or unsaturated fatty acids, reasoning that providing an abundance of dietary lipid would reveal unique functional properties. The results showed that mucosal lipid metabolism was indeed differentially modified, with significant decreases in FA incorporation into triacylglycerol (TG) relative to phospholipid (PL) in IFABP(-/-) mice, whereas LFABP(-/-) mice had reduced monoacylglycerol incorporation in TG relative to PL, as well as reduced FA oxidation. Interestingly, striking differences were found in whole body energy homeostasis; LFABP(-/-) mice fed high fat diets became obese relative to WT, whereas IFABP(-/-) mice displayed an opposite, lean phenotype. Fuel utilization followed adiposity, with LFABP(-/-) mice preferentially utilizing lipids, and IFABP(-/-) mice preferentially metabolizing carbohydrate for energy production. Changes in body weight and fat may arise, in part, from altered food intake; mucosal levels of the endocannabinoids 2-arachidonoylglycerol and arachidonoylethanolamine were elevated in LFABP(-/-), perhaps contributing to increased energy intake. This direct comparison provides evidence that LFABP and IFABP have distinct roles in intestinal lipid metabolism; differential intracellular functions in intestine and in liver, for LFABP(-/-) mice, result in divergent downstream effects at the systemic level. PMID:23990461

  20. Erythrocyte Saturated Fatty Acids and Systemic Inflammation in Adults

    PubMed Central

    Mu, Lin; Mukamal, Kenneth J.; Naqvi, Asghar Z.

    2014-01-01

    Objective The role of saturated fatty acids (SFAs) in chronic disease remains controversial; inflammation is one pathway by which SFAs influence the risk of chronic disease. We aim to investigate the associations between red blood cell (RBC) phospholipid SFAs and systemic inflammation. Methods As part of a randomized controlled trial, we measured RBC phospholipid FA composition among 55 generally healthy adults twice at three-month intervals. We estimated associations of RBC total SFAs and two major SFA subtypes, palmitic and stearic acids, with C-reactive protein (CRP), interleukin-6 (IL-6), white blood count (WBC), and a composite inflammation measure using generalized estimating equations in multivariable FA substitution models. Results Mean (±SD) SFA level across both visits was 45±3% of the total RBC FAs, mainly palmitic (21±1%) and stearic (17±3%) acids. In models adjusted for age, sex, race, smoking, BMI, statin use, aspirin use, transunsaturated FAs, and ω3FAs, SFAs were significantly associated with IL-6 (20% increase per 1 SD increment; 95% CI: 0.03%, 43%; P=0.05) and the composite inflammation measure (P=0.05) and marginally associated with CRP (34% increase; − 1%, 81%; P=0.06), but not associated with WBC. Stearic acid was positively associated with CRP (35% increase; 2%, 79%; P=0.04). Palmitic acid was marginally associated with the composite inflammation measure (P=0.06) and, upon additional ω6FA adjustment, significantly associated with IL-6 (15% increase; 0.4%, 27%; P=0.006). Conclusions RBC SFAs, which represent longer-term dietary intake, are positively associated with inflammation. In particular, palmitic acid was associated with IL-6, and stearic acid was associated with CRP after multivariable adjustment. PMID:25280420

  1. Effects of Feeding Garlic and Juniper Berry Essential Oils on Milk Fatty Acid Composition of Dairy Cows

    PubMed Central

    Yang, Wen Zhu; He, Mao Long

    2016-01-01

    Essential oils (EOs) from plant extracts have been reported to have an antibacterial activity against gram-negative and gram-positive bacteria. Several of the gram-positive bacteria are involved in ruminal biohydrogenation of fatty acids (FAs), thus suggesting that feeding EOs could lower biohydrogenation of FA because of a decrease in the number of bacteria involved in that process. As a result, milk FA profiles are expected to be modified. In addition, monensin was approved as an antibiotic to be fed in dairy cattle, and it was reported that dairy cows supplemented with monensin produced milk containing higher concentration of 18:1 t10 and 18:1 t11. The objective of this study was to evaluate the effects of two EOs (garlic and juniper berry oils) and monensin on FA profiles of milk fat. Four ruminally fistulated Holstein dairy cows were used in a 4 × 4 Latin square experiment. Cows were fed for ad libitum intake a total mixed ration without supplementation (control), or supplemented with monensin (330 mg/head per day), garlic oil (5 g/head per day), or juniper berry oil (2 g/head per day). The FA composition of saturated, monounsaturated, or polyunsaturated was not affected by supplementation of EO and monensin. However, proportion of conjugated linoleic acid trans 10, cis 12 (CLA t10, c12) was higher (P < 0.05) for cows fed EO or monensin than for control cows. Supplementation of monensin increased (P < 0.05) the proportion of total trans FA compared with the control. These results indicate that supplementation of the dairy cow diet with garlic or juniper berry EO or monensin had the potential to increase the proportion of CLA t10, c12 in milk fat with minimal overall effects on FA of milk fat. The results also confirm the increase of 18:1 t10 in milk fat by feeding monensin to dairy cows. PMID:27127411

  2. Does protein intake alter the precursors for synthesis of lactose and non-essential amino acids by the mammary glands of lactating mice?

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The aims were to: 1) develop a [U-13C]glucose tracer approach to establish the pathways of and substrates used for milk lactose and casein synthesis in the mouse mammary gland and 2) determine the influence of protein intake on this partition and use for milk synthesis. In Study 1, we determined th...

  3. Effect of supplementing essential fatty acids to pregnant nonlactating Holstein cows and their preweaned calves on calf performance, immune response, and health.

    PubMed

    Garcia, M; Greco, L F; Favoreto, M G; Marsola, R S; Wang, D; Shin, J H; Block, E; Thatcher, W W; Santos, J E P; Staples, C R

    2014-01-01

    The objective was to evaluate the effect of supplementing saturated or unsaturated fatty acids (FA) during late gestation of cows and during the preweaning period of calves on growth, health, and immune responses of calves. During the last 8wk of pregnancy, Holstein cattle (n=96) were fed no fat supplement (control), a saturated FA (SFA) supplement enriched in C18:0, or an unsaturated FA supplement enriched in the essential FA linoleic acid. Newborn calves were fed a milk replacer (MR) with either low linoleic acid (LLA; coconut oil) or high linoleic acid (HLA; coconut oil and porcine lard) concentration as the sole feedstuff during the first 30d. A grain mix with minimal linoleic acid was offered between 31 and 60d of life. At 30 and 60d of life, concentrations of linoleic acid in plasma were increased in calves born from dams supplemented with essential FA compared with SFA (44.0 vs. 42.5% of total FA) and in calves consuming HLA compared with LLA MR (46.3 vs. 40.8% of total FA). Total n-3 FA concentration was increased in plasma of calves fed HLA compared with LLA MR (1.44 vs. 1.32%) primarily due to increased α-linolenic acid. Prepartum supplementation with SFA tended to improve dry matter intake (48.8 vs. 46.7kg) and improved average daily gain (0.50 vs. 0.46kg/d) by calves without affecting efficiency of gain or circulating concentrations of anabolic metabolites or hormones. Increasing mean intake of linoleic acid from approximately 4.6 to 11.0g/d during the first 60d of life increased average daily gain (0.50 vs. 0.45kg/d) without a change in dry matter intake, thus improving feed efficiency (0.63 vs. 0.59kg of gain/kg of dry matter intake). Improved weight gain in calves fed HLA MR was accompanied by increased or tendency to increase plasma concentrations of glucose (92.7 vs. 89.9g/dL) and insulin-like growth factor I (59.5 vs. 53.2g/dL), increased hematocrit (36.0 vs. 34.4%) and concentration of blood lymphocytes (4.61 vs. 4.21×10(3)/μL), lowered plasma

  4. Dietary reference intakes for DHA and EPA.

    PubMed

    Kris-Etherton, Penny M; Grieger, Jessica A; Etherton, Terry D

    2009-01-01

    Various organizations worldwide have made dietary recommendations for eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA), docosahexaenoic acid (DHA), and fish intake that are primarily for coronary disease risk reduction and triglyceride (TG) lowering. Recommendations also have been made for DHA intake for pregnant women, infants, and vegetarians/vegans. A Dietary Reference Intake (DRI), specifically, an Adequate Intake (AI), has been set for alpha-linolenic acid (ALA) by the Institute of Medicine (IOM) of The National Academies. This amount is based on an intake that supports normal growth and neural development and results in no nutrient deficiency. Although there is no DRI for EPA and DHA, the National Academies have recommended that approximately 10% of the Acceptable Macronutrient Distribution Range (AMDR) for ALA can be consumed as EPA and/or DHA. This recommendation represents current mean intake for EPA and DHA in the United States ( approximately 100mg/day), which is much lower than what many groups worldwide are currently recommending. Global recommendations for long-chain omega-3 fatty acids underscore the pressing need to establish DRIs for DHA and EPA because DRIs are recognized as the "official" standard by which federal agencies issue dietary guidance or policy directives for the health and well-being of individuals in the United States and Canada. Because of the many health benefits of DHA and EPA, it is important and timely that the National Academies establish DRIs for the individual long-chain (20 carbons or greater) omega-3 fatty acids. PMID:19525100

  5. Cross-sectional associations of food consumption with plasma fatty acid composition and estimated desaturase activities in Finnish children.

    PubMed

    Venäläinen, Taisa; Schwab, Ursula; Ågren, Jyrki; de Mello, Vanessa; Lindi, Virpi; Eloranta, Aino-Maija; Kiiskinen, Sanna; Laaksonen, David; Lakka, Timo A

    2014-05-01

    Plasma fatty acid (FA) composition is known to be an indicator of dietary fat quality, but the associations of other dietary factors with plasma FA composition remain unknown in children. We investigated the cross-sectional associations of food consumption with the proportions of FA and estimated desaturase activities in plasma cholesteryl esters (CE) and phospholipids (PL) among children. The subjects were a population sample of 423 children aged 6–8 years examined at baseline of The Physical Activity and Nutrition in Children (PANIC) Study. We assessed food consumption by food records and plasma FA composition by gas chromatography. We used linear regression models adjusted for age, sex, physical activity and total energy intake to analyze the associations. A higher consumption of vegetable oil-based margarine (fat 60–80 %) was associated with a higher proportion of linoleic and α-linolenic acids in plasma CE and PL. A higher consumption of high-fiber grain products was related to a lower proportion of oleic acid in CE and PL. The consumption of candy was directly associated with the proportion of palmitoleic and oleic acid in plasma CE. The consumption of vegetable oil-based margarine was inversely associated with estimated stearoyl-CoA-desaturase activity in plasma CE and PL and the consumption of candy was directly related to it in plasma CE. The results of our study suggest that plasma FA composition is not only a biomarker for dietary fat quality but also reflects the consumption of high-fiber grain products and foods high in sugar among children. PMID:24659110

  6. ω-3 Fatty Acids and Cardiovascular Diseases: Effects, Mechanisms and Dietary Relevance

    PubMed Central

    Maehre, Hanne K.; Jensen, Ida-Johanne; Elvevoll, Edel O.; Eilertsen, Karl-Erik

    2015-01-01

    ω-3 fatty acids (n-3 FA) have, since the 1970s, been associated with beneficial health effects. They are, however, prone to lipid peroxidation due to their many double bonds. Lipid peroxidation is a process that may lead to increased oxidative stress, a condition associated with adverse health effects. Recently, conflicting evidence regarding the health benefits of intake of n-3 from seafood or n-3 supplements has emerged. The aim of this review was thus to examine recent literature regarding health aspects of n-3 FA intake from fish or n-3 supplements, and to discuss possible reasons for the conflicting findings. There is a broad consensus that fish and seafood are the optimal sources of n-3 FA and consumption of approximately 2–3 servings per week is recommended. The scientific evidence of benefits from n-3 supplementation has diminished over time, probably due to a general increase in seafood consumption and better pharmacological intervention and acute treatment of patients with cardiovascular diseases (CVD). PMID:26393581

  7. Association of trans fatty acids (vegetable ghee) and clarified butter (Indian ghee) intake with higher risk of coronary artery disease in rural and urban populations with low fat consumption.

    PubMed

    Singh, R B; Niaz, M A; Ghosh, S; Beegom, R; Rastogi, V; Sharma, J P; Dube, G K

    1996-10-25

    These cross-sectional surveys included 1769 rural (894 men and 875 women) and 1806 urban (904 men and 902 women) randomly selected subjects between 25-64 years of age from Moradabad in North India. The total prevalence of coronary artery disease based on clinical history and electrocardiogram was significantly higher in urban compared to rural men (11.0 vs. 3.9%) and women (6.9 vs. 2.6%), respectively. Food consumption patterns showed that important differences in relation to coronary artery disease were higher intake of total visible fat, milk and milk products, meat, eggs, sugar and jaggery in urban compared to rural subjects. Prevalence of coronary artery disease in relation to visible fat intake showed a higher prevalence rate with higher visible fat intake in both sexes and the trend was significant for total prevalence rates both for rural and urban men and women. Subgroup analysis among urban (694 men and 694 women) and rural (442 men and 435 women) subjects consuming moderate to high fat diets showed that subjects eating trans fatty acids plus clarified butter or those consuming clarified butter as total visible fat had a significantly higher prevalence of coronary artery disease compared to those consuming clarified butter plus vegetable oils in both rural (9.8, 7.1 vs. 3.0%) and urban (16.2, 13.5 vs. 11.0%) men as well as in rural (9.2, 4.5 vs. 1.5%) and urban (10.7, 8.8 vs. 6.4%) women. Univariate and multivariate regression analysis with adjustment for age showed that sedentariness in women, body mass index in urban men and women, milk and clarified butter plus trans fatty acids in both rural and urban in both sexes were significantly associated with coronary artery disease. It is possible that lower intake of total visible fat (20 g/day), decreased intake of milk, increased physical activity and cessation of smoking may benefit some populations in the prevention of coronary artery disease. PMID:8910075

  8. ω-3 Fatty Acids in the Prevention of Cognitive Decline in Humans123

    PubMed Central

    Cederholm, Tommy; Salem, Norman; Palmblad, Jan

    2013-01-01

    The brain is a lipid-rich organ where docosahexaenoic acid (DHA) is enriched and where eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA) may have anti-inflammatory effects. The potential role for n–3 (ω-3) fatty acids such as DHA and EPA in the prevention of cognitive decline, including Alzheimer’s disease (AD) has attracted major interest for the past 20 y. This review presents our understanding of recent observational, interventional, and experimental studies, with the aim of providing some answers to the following question: Can n–3 FA intake modulate cognitive function during aging? In longitudinal observation studies we mainly observe inverse relations between fish intake or serum concentrations of DHA and cognitive impairment. Intervention studies of EPA and DHA supplementation in healthy old individuals have been negative so far (i.e., after up to 2 years of treatment, no differences in cognitive decline between treated and nontreated participants have been observed). In studies that provided EPA and DHA to adults with mild cognitive impairment or age-related cognitive impairment the data seem to be positive. However, when patients with established AD were supplemented with EPA and DHA it appears no benefit was gained. For studies on healthy individuals, a major concern is that the treatment periods may have been too short. There might also be subgroup effects because of the carriage of apolipoprotein Eε4 alleles or risk factor burden. Experimental studies appear to be consistently positive (i.e., n–3 FA supplementation in rodents over a substantial portion of their lives reduces amyloid-β deposition and hippocampal neuron loss and improves cognitive functioning). We are getting closer to providing evidence-based recommendations on fish and fish oil intake to facilitate memory function during old age. In the meantime it is advised to follow the general CDC dietary recommendations of 2–3 fish meals per week or the equivalent intake of long chain n–3 fatty acids

  9. Ileal flows and apparent ileal digestibility of fatty acids in growing gilts fed flaxseed containing diets.

    PubMed

    Martínez-Ramírez, H R; Kramer, J K G; de Lange, C F M

    2013-06-01

    An experiment was conducted to quantify the ileal flow and apparent ileal digestibility (AID) of fatty acids (FA) in growing gilts fed corn, wheat, and soybean meal based diets without (CON) or with ground flaxseed (FS). A total of 20 healthy purebred Yorkshire female pigs, weighing approximately 25 kg BW, were allotted to 1 of 3 feeding regimens: R1 (n = 5 pigs), feeding a diet containing 10% FS between 25 and 50 kg BW and CON diet thereafter, R2 (n = 10 pigs), feeding CON diet between 25 and 85 kg BW and a diet containing 6% FS thereafter, and R3 (n = 5 pigs), feeding CON diet between 25 and 110 kg BW. Titanium dioxide was used as an indigestible marker to assess AID and ileal flows of crude fat and FA. At 110 kg BW, pigs were slaughtered and representative digesta samples were obtained from the distal ileum. Ileal flows and AID of crude fat and individual FA did not differ (P > 0.10) between R1 and R3, and therefore, results from these 2 feeding regimens were combined to give 2 dietary treatments (CON and FS). There were no treatment effects on AID of crude fat and the sum of all FA, SFA, or MUFA. However, the AID of individual SFA decreased with chain length (linear; P < 0.05) for both FS and CON. The AID of myristic acid (14:0), individual trans-18:1 FA (6t-8t-18:1 to 12t-18:1), myristoleic acid (9c-14:1), and palmitoleic acid (9c-16:1) were greater for CON than FS (P < 0.05) whereas no diet effect was observed for the AID of linoleic acid (18:2n-6; 80.2 and 86.1% for FS and CON, respectively) and α-linolenic acid (18:3n-3; 86.7 and 89.8% for FS and CON, respectively). Ileal flows of rumenic acid (9c11t-CLA), n-3 PUFA, and highly unsaturated FA (HUFA; arachidonic, eicosatrienoic, eicosapentaenoic, docosapentaenoic, and docosahexaenoic acids) exceeded their intakes, indicating net appearance of these FA in the upper gut of the pig. It remains to be determined whether enteric microbiota can elongate and desaturate 18:2n-6 and 18:3n-3 and isomerize 18:2n-6. The

  10. Increasing Fatty Acid Oxidation Remodels the Hypothalamic Neurometabolome to Mitigate Stress and Inflammation

    PubMed Central

    McFadden, Joseph W.; Aja, Susan; Li, Qun; Bandaru, Veera V. R.; Kim, Eun-Kyoung; Haughey, Norman J.; Kuhajda, Francis P.; Ronnett, Gabriele V.

    2014-01-01

    Modification of hypothalamic fatty acid (FA) metabolism can improve energy homeostasis and prevent hyperphagia and excessive weight gain in diet-induced obesity (DIO) from a diet high in saturated fatty acids. We have shown previously that C75, a stimulator of carnitine palmitoyl transferase-1 (CPT-1) and fatty acid oxidation (FAOx), exerts at least some of its hypophagic effects via neuronal mechanisms in the hypothalamus. In the present work, we characterized the effects of C75 and another anorexigenic compound, the glycerol-3-phosphate acyltransferase (GPAT) inhibitor FSG67, on FA metabolism, metabolomics profiles, and metabolic stress responses in cultured hypothalamic neurons and hypothalamic neuronal cell lines during lipid excess with palmitate. Both compounds enhanced palmitate oxidation, increased ATP, and inactivated AMP-activated protein kinase (AMPK) in hypothalamic neurons in vitro. Lipidomics and untargeted metabolomics revealed that enhanced catabolism of FA decreased palmitate availability and prevented the production of fatty acylglycerols, ceramides, and cholesterol esters, lipids that are associated with lipotoxicity-provoked metabolic stress. This improved metabolic signature was accompanied by increased levels of reactive oxygen species (ROS), and yet favorable changes in oxidative stress, overt ER stress, and inflammation. We propose that enhancing FAOx in hypothalamic neurons exposed to excess lipids promotes metabolic remodeling that reduces local inflammatory and cell stress responses. This shift would restore mitochondrial function such that increased FAOx can produce hypothalamic neuronal ATP and lead to decreased food intake and body weight to improve systemic metabolism. PMID:25541737

  11. Combined omega-3 fatty acids, aerobic exercise and cognitive stimulation prevents decline in gray matter volume of the frontal, parietal and cingulate cortex in patients with mild cognitive impairment.

    PubMed

    Köbe, Theresa; Witte, A Veronica; Schnelle, Ariane; Lesemann, Anne; Fabian, Sonja; Tesky, Valentina A; Pantel, Johannes; Flöel, Agnes

    2016-05-01

    Previous studies in older adults suggested beneficial effects of omega-3 fatty acid (FA) supplementation, aerobic exercise, or cognitive stimulation on brain structure and function. However, combined effects of these interventions in patients suffering from mild cognitive impairment (MCI) are unknown. Using a randomized interventional design, we evaluated the effect of combined omega-3 FA supplementation, aerobic exercise and cognitive stimulation (target intervention) versus omega-3 FA supplementation and non-aerobic exercise (control intervention) on cognitive function and gray matter volume in patients with MCI. Moreover, we analyzed potential vascular, metabolic or inflammatory mechanisms underlying these effects. Twenty-two MCI patients (8 females; 60-80years) successfully completed six months of omega-3 FA intake, aerobic cycling training and cognitive stimulation (n=13) or omega-3 FA intake and non-aerobic stretching and toning (n=9). Before and after the interventions, cognitive performance, magnetic resonance imaging of the brain at 3T (n=20), intima-media thickness of the internal carotid artery and serum markers of glucose control, lipid and B-vitamin metabolism, and inflammation were assessed. Intervention-related changes in gray matter volume of Alzheimer's disease (AD)-related brain regions, i.e., frontal, parietal, temporal and cingulate cortex were examined using voxel-based morphometry of high resolution T1-weighted images. After the intervention period, significant differences emerged in brain structure between groups: Gray matter volume decreased in the frontal, parietal and cingulate cortex of patients in the control intervention, while gray matter volume in these areas was preserved or even increased after the target intervention. Decreases in homocysteine levels in the target intervention group were associated with increases in gray matter volume in the middle frontal cortex (p=0.010). No significant differences in cognitive performance or

  12. Inverse Association of Serum Docosahexaenoic Acid With Newly Diagnosed Hypertension

    PubMed Central

    Yang, Bo; Ding, Fang; Wang, Feng-Lei; Yu, Wei; Li, Duo

    2016-01-01

    Abstract Observational studies on circulating fatty acid (FA) and primary prevention of hypertension have yielded inconsistent results, and the association among the Chinese population is not fully clear. The aim of the study was to discern important FAs that can discriminate hypertensive patients from normotensive persons, and investigate associations between the important FAs and risk of hypertension. We conducted a case-control study nested within a community-based cohort of 2447 Chinese participants aged 35 to 79 years who completed a baseline assessment between October 2012 and April 2013. In all, 480 patients with newly diagnosed hypertension were identified at baseline and 480 normotensive individuals were randomly selected as matched normotensive controls. Controls were individually matched to cases by age (±2 y), sex, and recruitment center, with a 1:1 case-to-control ratio. Serum FA profile was compared between cases and controls by orthogonal partial least squares-discriminant analyses. Odds ratio (OR) with 95% confidence interval (CI) for newly diagnosed hypertension was estimated by a conditional logistical analysis. After adjustment for body mass index, education, profession, family history of hypertension, salt intake, heart rate, blood lipids, and fasting glucose levels, serum FA profile in hypertensive patients was typically characterized by higher 16:0 and 16:1n-7, and lower 18:2n-6 and 22:6n-3, compared with normotensive controls. Docosahexaenoic acid (22:6n-3) and palmitoleic acid (16:1n-7) were identified as the important FA contributing most to the intergroup separations. When comparing the highest and lowest quartile of FA composition, newly diagnosed hypertension was negatively associated with 22:6n-3 (OR 0.65; 95% CI, 0.45–0.93; P for trend = 0.02), but positively associated with 16:1n-7 (OR 2.14; 95% CI, 1.46–3.12; P for trend < 0.001). The associations remained pronounced after multiple adjustments and in further stratified

  13. "What D'ya Mean, Project SOL-FA?"

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hardman, Olga S.

    1981-01-01

    Since 1977, Project Sol-fa, funded with an ESEA Title IV-C grant has provided Harrison County primary teachers with inservice training in the Kodaly method of music education. This article provides information on program funding, costs, and accomplishments. Evaluation forms and the inservice syllabus are appended. (SJL)

  14. IRAC F/A-18 RFCS on NASA 853

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Pahli, Joseph

    2009-01-01

    F/A-18 testbed development and flight research are highlighted in this presentation. The current focus is on stability, specifically adaptive flight control, but soon the focus will move towards stability and maneuverability, examining flight planning and guidance, adaptive flight control, engine control and airframe and structures. Later research will additionally review V and V methods. Current and future IRAC plans are highlighted.

  15. F/A-18 tactical reconnaissance (tac recce) capability

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Heinz, David; Pugh, Gregory G.; Wolters, David

    1996-11-01

    In 1995 the F/A-18 TAC RECCE Program was expanded beyond the initial electro-optic and infrared image recording capability of the Advanced Tactical Air Reconnaissance System (ATARS). The program now also includes integration of new high-resolution Synthetic Aperture Radar (SAR) reconnaissance modes and air-to-ground data link of ATARS and SAR image data. Delivery of the first reconnaissance equipment production units and fleet release is scheduled for 1998. F/A-18D two-seat aircraft will be retrofit with the RECCE equipment and designated F/A-18D(RC) (Reconnaissance Capable). This presentation describes recent F/A-18D(RC) operational assessment results, tactical reconnaissance equipment, functions, and interfaces for the 1998 fleet release. The equipment consists of the ATARS, the aircraft RECCE kit (access door, sensor windows, fairings), the upgraded APG-73 radar, and the data link pod. Functions include mission planning, automatic and manual acquisition of RECCE targets, image data recording, crew-station image review and edit, and data link. Interfaces include those with the Tactical Automated Mission Planning System, ground exploitation stations, and the aircraft carrier environment.

  16. Supplementation of branched-chain amino acids to a reduced-protein diet improves growth performance in piglets: involvement of increased feed intake and direct muscle growth-promoting effect.

    PubMed

    Zheng, Liufeng; Wei, Hongkui; Cheng, Chuanshang; Xiang, Quanhang; Pang, Jiaman; Peng, Jian

    2016-06-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate whether supplementing branched-chain amino acids (AA) (BCAA) along with a reduced-protein diet increases piglet growth, and whether elevated feed intake and muscle growth-promoting effect contribute to this improvement. In Expt 1, twenty-eight weanling piglets were randomly fed one of the following four diets: a positive control (PC) diet, a reduced-protein negative control (NC) diet, an NC diet supplemented with BCAA to the same levels as in the PC diet (test 1 (T1)) and an NC diet supplemented with a 2-fold dose of BCAA in T1 diet (test 2 (T2)) for 28 d. In Expt 2, twenty-one weanling piglets were randomly assigned to NC, T1 and pair-fed T1 (P) groups. NC and T1 diets were the same as in Expt 1, whereas piglets in the P group were individually pair-fed with the NC group. In Expt 1, the NC group had reduced piglet growth and feed intake compared with the PC group, which were restored in T1 and T2 groups, but no differences were detected between T1 and T2 groups. In Expt 2, T1 and P groups showed increases in growth and mass of some muscles compared with the NC group. Increased feed intake after BCAA supplementation was associated with increased mRNA expressions of agouti-related peptide and co-express neuropeptide Y (NPY) and phosphorylation of mammalian target of rapamycin (mTOR) and ribosomal protein S6 kinase 1 (S6K1), as well as decreased mRNA expressions of melanocortin-4 receptor and cocaine- and amphetamine-regulated transcript and phosphorylation of eukaryotic initiation factor 2α in the hypothalamus. No differences were observed among PC, T1 and T2 groups except for higher NPY mRNA expression in the T2 group than in the PC group (Expt 1). Phosphorylation of mTOR and S6K1 in muscle was enhanced after BCAA supplementation, which was independent of change in feed intake (Expt 2). In conclusion, supplementing BCAA to reduced-protein diets increases feed intake and muscle mass, and contributes to better growth

  17. Palmitic Acid Reduces Circulating Bone Formation Markers in Obese Animals and Impairs Osteoblast Activity via C16-Ceramide Accumulation.

    PubMed

    Alsahli, Ahmad; Kiefhaber, Kathryn; Gold, Tziporah; Muluke, Munira; Jiang, Hongfeng; Cremers, Serge; Schulze-Späte, Ulrike

    2016-05-01

    Obesity and impaired lipid metabolism increase circulating and local fatty acid (FA) levels. Our previous studies showed that a high high-saturated -fat diet induced greater bone loss in mice than a high high-unsaturated-fat diet due to increased osteoclast numbers and activity. The impact of elevated FA levels on osteoblasts is not yet clear. We induced obesity in 4 week old male mice using a palmitic acid (PA)- or oleic acid (OA)-enriched high fat high-fat diet (HFD) (20 % of calories from FA), and compared them to mice on a normal (R) caloric diet (10 % of calories from FA). We collected serum to determine FA and bone metabolism marker levels. Primary osteoblasts were isolated; cultured in PA, OA, or control (C) medium; and assessed for mineralization activity, gene expression, and ceramide levels. Obese animals in the PA and OA groups had significantly lower serum levels of bone formation markers P1NP and OC compared to normal weight animals (*p < 0.001), with the lowest marker levels in animals on an PA-enriched HFD (*p < 0.001). Accordingly, elevated levels of PA significantly reduced osteoblast mineralization activity in vitro (*p < 0.05). Elevated PA intake significantly increased C16 ceramide accumulation. This accumulation was preventable through inhibition of SPT2 (serine palmitoyl transferase 2) using myriocin. Elevated levels of PA reduce osteoblast function in vitro and bone formation markers in vivo. Our findings suggest that saturated PA can compromise bone health by affecting osteoblasts, and identify a potential mechanism through which obesity promotes bone loss. PMID:26758875

  18. Profile of Free Fatty Acids and Fractions of Phospholipids, Cholesterol Esters and Triglycerides in Serum of Obese Youth with and without Metabolic Syndrome

    PubMed Central

    Bermúdez-Cardona, Juliana; Velásquez-Rodríguez, Claudia

    2016-01-01

    The study evaluated the profile of circulating fatty acids (FA) in obese youth with and without metabolic syndrome (MetS) to determine its association with nutritional status, lifestyle and metabolic variables. A cross-sectional study was conducted in 96 young people, divided into three groups: obese with MetS (OBMS), obese (OB) and appropriate weight (AW). FA profiles were quantified by gas chromatography; waist circumference (WC), fat folds, lipid profile, high-sensitivity C-reactive protein, glucose, insulin, the homeostasis model assessment (HOMA index), food intake and physical activity (PA) were assessed. The OBMS group had significantly greater total free fatty acids (FFAs), palmitic-16:0 in triglyceride (TG), palmitoleic-16:1n-7 in TG and phospholipid (PL); in the OB group, these FAs were higher than in the AW group. Dihomo-gamma-linolenic (DHGL-20:3n-6) was higher in the OBMS than the AW in PL and FFAs. Linoleic-18:2n-6 in TG and PL had the lowest proportion in the OBMS group. WC, PA, total FFA, linoleic-18:2n-6 in TG and DHGL-20:3n-6 in FFAs explained 62% of the HOMA value. The OB group presented some higher proportions of FA and biochemical values than the AW group. The OBMS had proportions of some FA in the TG, PL and FFA fractions that correlated with disturbances of MetS. PMID:26891317

  19. Dietary Fat Intake Is Differentially Associated with Risk of Paroxysmal Compared with Sustained Atrial Fibrillation in Women123

    PubMed Central

    Chiuve, Stephanie E; Sandhu, Roopinder K; Moorthy, M Vinayaga; Glynn, Robert J; Albert, Christine M

    2015-01-01

    Background: Dietary fats have effects on biological pathways that may influence the development and maintenance of atrial fibrillation (AF). However, associations between n–3 (ω-3) polyunsaturated fatty acids and AF are inconsistent, and data on other dietary fats and AF risk are sparse. Objectives: We examined the association between dietary fatty acid (FA) subclasses and risk of incident AF and explored whether these associations differed for sustained and paroxysmal AF. Methods: We conducted a prospective cohort study in 33,665 women ≥45 y old without cardiovascular disease (CVD) and AF at baseline in 1993. Fat intake was estimated from food frequency questionnaires at baseline and in 2004. Incident AF was confirmed by medical records through October 2013. AF patterns were classified according to the most sustained form of AF within 2 y of diagnosis. Cox proportional hazards models with the use of a competing risk model approach estimated the RR. Results: Over 19.2 y, 1441 cases of incident AF (929 paroxysmal and 467 persistent/chronic) were confirmed. Intakes of total fat and FA subclasses were not associated with risk of AF. Saturated fatty acids (SFAs) and monounsaturated fatty acids (MUFAs) were differentially associated with AF patterns. The RR for a 5% increment of energy from SFAs was 1.47 (95% CI: 1.04, 2.09) for persistent/chronic and 0.85 (95% CI: 0.66, 1.08) for paroxysmal AF (P-difference = 0.01). For MUFAs, the RR for a 5% increment was 0.67 (95% CI: 0.46, 0.98) for persistent/chronic and 1.03 (95% CI: 0.78, 1.34) for paroxysmal AF, although the difference between patterns was not significant (P-difference = 0.07). Conclusions: Dietary fat was not associated with risk of incident AF in women without established CVD or AF. High SFA and low MUFA intakes were associated with greater risk of persistent or chronic, but not paroxysmal, AF. Improving dietary fat quality may play a role in the prevention of sustained forms of AF. The Women’s Health

  20. Fatty acids exacerbate tubulointerstitial injury in protein-overload proteinuria.

    PubMed

    Thomas, Mark E; Harris, Kevin P G; Walls, John; Furness, Peter N; Brunskill, Nigel J

    2002-10-01

    The role of the albumin-carried fatty acids in the induction of tubulointerstitial injury was studied in protein-overload proteinuria. Rats were injected with fatty acid-carrying BSA [FA(+)BSA], fatty acid-depleted BSA [FA(-)BSA], or saline. Macrophage infiltration was measured by immunohistochemical staining, apoptotic cells were detected by in situ end labeling, and proliferating cells were identified by in situ hybridization for histone mRNA. Macrophage infiltration was significantly greater in the FA(+)BSA group than in the FA(-)BSA and saline groups. The infiltrate was largely restricted to the outer cortex. Apoptosis was greater in the FA(+)BSA group than in the FA(-)BSA and saline groups. Compared with the saline group, apoptosis was significantly increased in the FA(+)BSA group but not in the FA(-)BSA group. Cortical cells proliferated significantly more in the FA(+)BSA and FA(-)BSA groups than in the saline group. FA(+)BSA is therefore a more potent inducer of macrophage infiltration and cell death than FA(-)BSA. The fatty acids carried on albumin may be the chief instigators of tubulointerstitial injury in protein-overload proteinuria. PMID:12217854

  1. Incremental amounts of ground flaxseed decrease milk yield but increase n-3 fatty acids and conjugated linoleic acids in dairy cows fed high-forage diets(1).

    PubMed

    Resende, T L; Kraft, J; Soder, K J; Pereira, A B D; Woitschach, D E; Reis, R B; Brito, A F

    2015-07-01

    The objective of this study was to investigate the effect of incremental amounts of ground flaxseed (GFX) on milk yield and concentrations and yields of milk components, milk fatty acids (FA) profile, ruminal metabolism, and nutrient digestibility in dairy cows fed high-forage diets. Twelve multiparous Jersey cows averaging (mean ± SD) 112±68d in milk and 441±21kg of body weight and 8 primiparous Jersey cows averaging 98±43d in milk and 401±43kg of body weight were randomly assigned to treatment sequences in a replicated 4×4 Latin square design. Each period lasted 21d with 14d for diet adaptation and 7d for data and sample collection. Treatments were fed as a total mixed ration (63:37 forage-to-concentrate ratio) with corn meal and soybean meal replaced by incremental levels (i.e., 0, 5, 10, or 15% diet dry matter) of GFX. The ruminal molar proportions of acetate and butyrate decreased linearly with GFX supplementation, whereas the ruminal molar proportion of propionate increased linearly resulting in decreased acetate-to-propionate ratio. Apparent total-tract digestibilities of nutrients either decreased (dry matter) or tended to decrease (organic matter, neutral detergent fiber, acid detergent fiber) linearly in cows fed GFX. Milk yield decreased linearly in cows fed increasing amounts of GFX, which is explained by the linear reduction in dry matter intake. Except for the concentrations of milk protein and urea N, which decreased linearly with GFX supplementation, no other changes in the concentration of milk components were observed. However, yields of milk protein and fat decreased linearly with GFX supplementation. The linear decrease in the yields of milk fat and protein are explained by reduced milk yield, whereas that in milk urea N is explained by decreased crude protein intake. No treatment effects were observed for plasma urea N and nonesterified fatty acids, serum cortisol, and body weight change. Milk odd- and branched-chain FA and saturated FA

  2. Positional distribution of FA in TAG of enzymatically modified borage and evening primrose oils.

    PubMed

    Senanayake, S P J Namal; Shahidi, Fereidoon

    2002-08-01

    Stereospecific analysis was carried out to establish positional distribution of FA in the TAG of DHA, EPA, and (EPA + DHA)-enriched oils. In this study, TAG of enzymatically modified oils were purified using a silicic acid column. The TAG were then subjected to positional distribution analysis using a modified procedure involving reductive cleavage with Grignard reagent. The results showed that in DHA-enriched borage oil (BO), DHA was randomly distributed over the three positions of TAG, whereas gamma-linolenic acid (GLA) was mainly esterified at the sn-2 and -3 positions. In DHA-enriched evening primrose oil (EPO), however, DHA and GLA were concentrated in the sn-2 position. In EPA-enriched BO, EPA was randomly distributed over the three positions of TAG, similar to that observed for DHA. In EPA-enriched EPO, however, this FA was mainly located at the primary positions (sn-1 and sn-3) of TAG. In both oils, GLA was preferentially esterified at the sn-2 position. In (EPA + DHA)-enriched BO, EPA and DHA were mainly esterified at the sn-1 and -3 positions of TAG, whereas GLA was mainly located at the sn-2 position. In (EPA + DHA)-enriched EPO, GLA was mainly located at the sn-2 and -3 positions; EPA was preferentially esterified at the sn-1 and -3 positions, and DHA was found mainly at the sn-3 position. PMID:12371752

  3. A Hypomorphic PALB2 Allele Gives Rise to an Unusual Form of FA-N Associated with Lymphoid Tumour Development

    PubMed Central

    Byrd, Philip J.; Stewart, Grant. S.; Smith, Anna; Eaton, Charlotte; Taylor, Alexander J.; Guy, Chloe; Eringyte, Ieva; Fooks, Peggy; Last, James I.; Horsley, Robert; Oliver, Antony W.; Janic, Dragana; Dokmanovic, Lidija; Stankovic, Tatjana; Taylor, A. Malcolm R.

    2016-01-01

    Patients with biallelic truncating mutations in PALB2 have a severe form of Fanconi anaemia (FA-N), with a predisposition for developing embryonal-type tumours in infancy. Here we describe two unusual patients from a single family, carrying biallelic PALB2 mutations, one truncating, c.1676_1677delAAinsG;(p.Gln559ArgfsTer2), and the second, c.2586+1G>A; p.Thr839_Lys862del resulting in an in frame skip of exon 6 (24 amino acids). Strikingly, the affected individuals did not exhibit the severe developmental defects typical of FA-N patients and initially presented with B cell non-Hodgkin lymphoma. The expressed p.Thr839_Lys862del mutant PALB2 protein retained the ability to interact with BRCA2, previously unreported in FA-N patients. There was also a large increased chromosomal radiosensitivity following irradiation in G2 and increased sensitivity to mitomycin C. Although patient cells were unable to form Rad51 foci following exposure to either DNA damaging agent, U2OS cells, in which the mutant PALB2 with in frame skip of exon 6 was induced, did show recruitment of Rad51 to foci following damage. We conclude that a very mild form of FA-N exists arising from a hypomorphic PALB2 allele. PMID:26990772

  4. Effect of feeding buckwheat and chicory silages on fatty acid profile and cheese-making properties of milk from dairy cows.

    PubMed

    Kälber, Tasja; Kreuzer, Michael; Leiber, Florian

    2013-02-01

    Fresh buckwheat (Fagopyrum esculentum) and chicory (Cichorium intybus) had been shown to have the potential to improve certain milk quality traits when fed as forages to dairy cows. However, the process of ensiling might alter these properties. In the present study, two silages, prepared from mixtures of buckwheat or chicory and ryegrass, were compared with pure ryegrass silage (Lolium multiflorum) by feeding to 3 × 6 late-lactating cows. The dietary dry matter proportions realised for buckwheat and chicory were 0.46 and 0.34 accounting also for 2 kg/d of concentrate. Data and samples were collected from days 10 to 15 of treatment feeding. Buckwheat silage was richest in condensed tannins. Proportions of polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFA) and α-linoleic acid in total fatty acids (FA) were highest in the ryegrass silage. Feed intake, milk yield and milk gross composition did not differ among the groups. Feeding buckwheat resulted in the highest milk fat concentrations (g/kg) of linoleic acid (15.7) and total PUFA (40.5; both P < 0.05 compared with ryegrass). The concentration of α-linolenic acid in milk fat was similar across treatments, but its apparent recovery in milk relative to the amounts ingested was highest with buckwheat. The same was true for the occurrence of FA biohydrogenation products in milk relative to α-linolenic acid intake. Recovery of dietary linoleic acid in milk remained unaffected. Feeding buckwheat silage shortened rennet coagulation time by 26% and tended (P < 0.1) to increase curd firmness by 29%. In conclusion, particularly buckwheat silage seems to have a certain potential to modify the transfer of FA from feed to milk and to contribute to improved cheese-making properties. PMID:23253429

  5. Citrus Pulp as a Dietary Source of Antioxidants for Lactating Holstein Cows Fed Highly Polyunsaturated Fatty Acid Diets

    PubMed Central

    Santos, G. T.; Lima, L. S.; Schogor, A. L. B.; Romero, J. V.; De Marchi, F. E.; Grande, P. A.; Santos, N. W.; Santos, F. S.; Kazama, R.

    2014-01-01

    The effects of feeding pelleted citrus pulp (PCP) as a natural antioxidant source on the performance and milk quality of dairy cows fed highly polyunsaturated fatty acid (FA) diets were evaluated. Four lactating Holstein cows were assigned to a 4×4 Latin-square. Treatments, on a dry matter (DM) basis, were i) control diet; ii) 3% soybean oil; iii) 3% soybean oil and 9% PCP and; iv) 3% soybean oil and 18% PCP. When cows fed on citrus pulp, the DM intake tended to decrease. The total tract apparent digestibility of DM and ether extract decreased when cows fed on the control diet compared to other diets. Cows fed PCP had higher polyphenols and flavonoids content and higher total ferric reducing antioxidant power (FRAP) in milk compared to those fed no pelleted citrus pulp. Cows fed 18% PCP showed higher monounsaturated FA and lower saturated FA in milk fat compared with cows fed the other diets. The lowest n-6 FA proportion was in milk fat from cows fed control. The present study suggests that pelleted citrus pulp added to 9% to 18% DM increases total polyphenols and flavonoids concentration, and the FRAP in milk. PMID:25083104

  6. High Fat Diet Administration during Specific Periods of Pregnancy Alters Maternal Fatty Acid Profiles in the Near-Term Rat

    PubMed Central

    Cerf, Marlon E.; Herrera, Emilio

    2016-01-01

    Excessive fat intake is a global health concern as women of childbearing age increasingly ingest high fat diets (HFDs). We therefore determined the maternal fatty acid (FA) profiles in metabolic organs after HFD administration during specific periods of gestation. Rats were fed a HFD for the first (HF1), second (HF2), or third (HF3) week, or for all three weeks (HFG) of gestation. Total maternal plasma non-esterified fatty acid (NEFA) concentrations were monitored throughout pregnancy. At day 20 of gestation, maternal plasma, liver, adipose tissue, and placenta FA profiles were determined. In HF3 mothers, plasma myristic and stearic acid concentrations were elevated, whereas docosahexaenoic acid (DHA) was reduced in both HF3 and HFG mothers. In HF3 and HFG mothers, hepatic stearic and oleic acid proportions were elevated; conversely, DHA and linoleic acid (LA) proportions were reduced. In adipose tissue, myristic acid was elevated, whereas DHA and LA proportions were reduced in all mothers. Further, adipose tissue stearic acid proportions were elevated in HF2, HF3, and HFG mothers; with oleic acid increased in HF1 and HFG mothers. In HF3 and HFG mothers, placental neutral myristic acid proportions were elevated, whereas DHA was reduced. Further, placental phospholipid DHA proportions were reduced in HF3 and HFG mothers. Maintenance on a diet, high in saturated fat, but low in DHA and LA proportions, during late or throughout gestation, perpetuated reduced DHA across metabolic organs that adapt during pregnancy. Therefore a diet, with normal DHA proportions during gestation, may be important for balancing maternal FA status. PMID:26742067

  7. High Fat Diet Administration during Specific Periods of Pregnancy Alters Maternal Fatty Acid Profiles in the Near-Term Rat.

    PubMed

    Cerf, Marlon E; Herrera, Emilio

    2016-01-01

    Excessive fat intake is a global health concern as women of childbearing age increasingly ingest high fat diets (HFDs). We therefore determined the maternal fatty acid (FA) profiles in metabolic organs after HFD administration during specific periods of gestation. Rats were fed a HFD for the first (HF1), second (HF2), or third (HF3) week, or for all three weeks (HFG) of gestation. Total maternal plasma non-esterified fatty acid (NEFA) concentrations were monitored throughout pregnancy. At day 20 of gestation, maternal plasma, liver, adipose tissue, and placenta FA profiles were determined. In HF3 mothers, plasma myristic and stearic acid concentrations were elevated, whereas docosahexaenoic acid (DHA) was reduced in both HF3 and HFG mothers. In HF3 and HFG mothers, hepatic stearic and oleic acid proportions were elevated; conversely, DHA and linoleic acid (LA) proportions were reduced. In adipose tissue, myristic acid was elevated, whereas DHA and LA proportions were reduced in all mothers. Further, adipose tissue stearic acid proportions were elevated in HF2, HF3, and HFG mothers; with oleic acid increased in HF1 and HFG mothers. In HF3 and HFG mothers, placental neutral myristic acid proportions were elevated, whereas DHA was reduced. Further, placental phospholipid DHA proportions were reduced in HF3 and HFG mothers. Maintenance on a diet, high in saturated fat, but low in DHA and LA proportions, during late or throughout gestation, perpetuated reduced DHA across metabolic organs that adapt during pregnancy. Therefore a diet, with normal DHA proportions during gestation, may be important for balancing maternal FA status. PMID:26742067

  8. Inhibition of Photodegradation of Highly Dispersed Folic Acid Nanoparticles by the Antioxidant Effect of Transglycosylated Rutin.

    PubMed

    Kadota, Kazunori; Semba, Kumi; Shakudo, Ryosuke; Sato, Hideyuki; Deki, Yuto; Shirakawa, Yoshiyuki; Tozuka, Yuichi

    2016-04-20

    We developed highly dispersible and photostable nanoparticles of vitamin, folic acid (FA). FA was wet bead milled with milling and dispersing adjuvants and transglycosylated compounds such as α-glucosyl hesperidin (Hesperidin-G) and rutin (Rutin-G), which solubilized FA. The milled slurries of FA particles with transglycosylated compounds consisted of nanosized particles with a median diameter of <100 nm. The lyophilized formulations of these slurries retained their nanometer size after resuspension in water with no aggregation. The apparent solubility of FA in these formulations was 100-fold higher than that of untreated FA. The solubilizing effect of Rutin-G may affect the particle size reduction and dispersibility of FA. The photostability results showed that the strong antioxidant activity of Rutin-G substantially increased the photostability of FA solution. On the basis of these results, bead milling of FA with Rutin-G is a promising technique for developing highly dispersible, photostable nanoparticle FA formulations. PMID:27039660

  9. Joining silicon nitride to FA-129 iron aluminide

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Brochu, Mathieu

    Joints between dissimilar materials are characterized particularly by compositional gradients and microstructural changes, which yield large variations in chemical, physical and mechanical properties across the joint. The joining of dissimilar materials is therefore more complex than the joining of similar materials. In this project, the joining procedure, from the interaction between the different components in a joint to the determination of the mechanical properties was applied to the Si3N4/FA-129 system. This iron aluminide intermetallic alloy (FA-129), was developed by Oak Ridge National Laboratories (ORNL) to have high temperature properties with good room temperature ductility. This intermetallic is replacing high strength ferritic stainless steel (SS) in moderate strength applications due to cost and property reasons. Joints between SS and Si3N4 are already used industrially and this project was to evaluate the potential to replace these Si3N 4/SS joints by those of Si3N4/FA-129. Broadly stated, the results obtained during this project are as follows: (I) The E2 energy for Si3N4 ceramic was calculated to be 3.01 keV. (II) The wetting of iron aluminide alloy by copper has been achieved and the spreading and reaction kinetics are influenced by the presence of Cr as alloying element. (III) The penetration and decohesion of the FA-129 microstructure is significantly reduced by the utilization of a Cu alloy containing a high titanium concentration. (IV) An active brazing alloy containing a high active element content can be fabricated by an electroless deposition technique. (V) The melting behavior of the powder was characterized and complete melting occurs in a multi-step process at different temperatures, which are a function of the heating rate. (VI) The strength of joint produced by brazing Si3N4 to itself using the composite powder reached 400 MPa. (VII) Direct brazing of Si 3N4 to FA-129 was shown to be unsuccessful and therefore a soft Cu interlayer was

  10. Effect of camelina oil or live yeasts (Saccharomyces cerevisiae) on ruminal methane production, rumen fermentation, and milk fatty acid composition in lactating cows fed grass silage diets.

    PubMed

    Bayat, A R; Kairenius, P; Stefański, T; Leskinen, H; Comtet-Marre, S; Forano, E; Chaucheyras-Durand, F; Shingfield, K J

    2015-05-01

    The potential of dietary supplements of 2 live yeast strains (Saccharomyces cerevisiae) or camelina oil to lower ruminal methane (CH4) and carbon dioxide (CO2) production and the associated effects on animal performance, rumen fermentation, rumen microbial populations, nutrient metabolism, and milk fatty acid (FA) composition of cows fed grass silage-based diets were examined. Four Finnish Ayrshire cows (53±7 d in milk) fitted with rumen cannula were used in a 4×4 Latin square with four 42-d periods. Cows received a basal total mixed ration (control treatment) with a 50:50 forage-to-concentrate ratio [on a dry matter (DM) basis] containing grass silage, the same basal total mixed ration supplemented with 1 of 2 live yeasts, A or B, administered directly in the rumen at 10(10) cfu/d (treatments A and B), or supplements of 60g of camelina oil/kg of diet DM that replaced concentrate ingredients in the basal total mixed ration (treatment CO). Relative to the control, treatments A and B had no effects on DM intake, rumen fermentation, ruminal gas production, or apparent total-tract nutrient digestibility. In contrast, treatment CO lowered DM intake and ruminal CH4 and CO2 production, responses associated with numerical nonsignificant decreases in total-tract organic matter digestibility, but no alterations in rumen fermentation characteristics or changes in the total numbers of rumen bacteria, methanogens, protozoa, and fungi. Compared with the control, treatment CO decreased the yields of milk, milk fat, lactose, and protein. Relative to treatment B, treatment CO improved nitrogen utilization due to a lower crude protein intake. Treatment A had no influence on milk FA composition, whereas treatment B increased cis-9 10:1 and decreased 11-cyclohexyl 11:0 and 24:0 concentrations. Treatment CO decreased milk fat 8:0 to 16:0 and total saturated FA, and increased 18:0, 18:1, 18:2, conjugated linoleic acid, 18:3n-3, and trans FA concentrations. Decreases in ruminal CH4

  11. FaGT2: a multifunctional enzyme from strawberry (Fragaria x ananassa) fruits involved in the metabolism of natural and xenobiotic compounds.

    PubMed

    Landmann, Christian; Fink, Barbara; Schwab, Wilfried

    2007-07-01

    Fragaria x ananassa UDP-glucose:cinnamate glucosyltransferase (FaGT2) catalyzes the formation of cinnamic acid and p-coumaric acid glucose esters during strawberry fruit ripening. Here, the ripening and oxidative stress induced enzyme was further characterized by testing a range of structurally different substrates of natural and unnatural origin in vitro and comparing their kinetic parameters to elucidate its additional biological functions. The accepted substrates ranged from derivatives of cinnamic acid and benzoic acid to heterocyclic and aliphatic compounds resulting in the formation of O- and S-glucose esters, as well as O-glucosides. In planta assays confirmed the formation of glucose derivatives after injection of the substrates into strawberry fruits. Common chemical and structural features required for activity were the easy subtraction of a proton from the glucosylation site and the conjugation of the formed anion with pi-electrons as best realized in the simplest substrate sorbic acid. In addition to cinnamic acid, the natural compounds anthranilic acid, trans-2-hexenoic acid, nicotinic acid and 2,5-dimethyl-4-hydroxy-3[2H]-furanone were glucosylated in vitro. But FaGT2 was also capable of efficiently converting xenobiotic substances like the herbicide 2,4,5-trichlorophenol and the herbicide analogue 3,5-dichloro-4-hydroxybenzoic acid. The results suggest that FaGT2 is involved in the detoxification of xenobiotics in accordance to its induction by oxidative stress. PMID:17323078

  12. GNRs@SiO2-FA in combination with radiotherapy induces the apoptosis of HepG2 cells by modulating the expression of apoptosis-related proteins

    PubMed Central

    GAO, BIN; SHEN, LEI; HE, KE-WU; XIAO, WEI-HUA

    2015-01-01

    The aim of the present study was to examine the apoptosis of the hepatocellular carcinoma cell line, HepG2, induced by treatment with folic acid-conjugated silica-coated gold nanorods (GNRs@SiO2-FA) in combination with radiotherapy, and to determine the involvement of apoptosis-related proteins. An MTT colorimetric assay was used to assess the biocompatibility of GNRs@SiO2-FA. The distribution of GNRs@SiO2-FA into the cells was observed using transmission electron microscopy (TEM). HepG2 cells cultured in vitro were divided into the following 4 groups: i)the control group (untreated), ii) the GNRs@SiO2-FA group, iii) the radiotherapy group (iodine 125 seeds) and iv) the combination group (treated with GNRs@SiO2-FA and iodine 125 seeds) groups. The apoptosis of the HepG2 cells was detected by flow cytometry. The concentration range of <40 µg/ml GNRs@SiO2-FA was found to be safe for the biological activity of the HepG2 cells. GNRs@SiO2-FA entered the cytoplasm through endocytosis. The apoptotic rates of the HepG2 cells were higher in the GNRs@SiO2-FA and radiotherapy groups than in the control group (P<0.05). The apoptotic rate was also significantly higher in the combination group than the GNRs@SiO2-FA and radiotherapy groups (P<0.05). Taken together, these findings demonstrate that the combination of GNRs@SiO2-FA and radiotherapy more effectively induces the apoptosis of HepG2 cells. These apoptotic effects are achieved by increasing the protein expression of Bax and caspase-3, and inhibiting the protein expression of Bcl-2 and Ki-67. The combination of GNRs@SiO2-FA and radiotherapy may thus prove to be a new approach in the treatment of primary liver cancer. PMID:26648274

  13. GNRs@SiO₂-FA in combination with radiotherapy induces the apoptosis of HepG2 cells by modulating the expression of apoptosis-related proteins.

    PubMed

    Gao, Bin; Shen, Lei; He, Ke-Wu; Xiao, Wei-Hua

    2015-11-01

    The aim of the present study was to examine the apoptosis of the hepatocellular carcinoma cell line, HepG2, induced by treatment with folic acid-conjugated silica-coated gold nanorods (GNRs@SiO2-FA) in combination with radiotherapy, and to determine the involvement of apoptosis-related proteins. An MTT colorimetric assay was used to assess the biocompatibility of GNRs@SiO2-FA. The distribution of GNRs@SiO2-FA into the cells was observed using transmission electron microscopy (TEM). HepG2 cells cultured in vitro were divided into the following 4 groups: i)the control group (untreated), ii) the GNRs@SiO2-FA group, iii) the radiotherapy group (iodine 125 seeds) and iv) the combination group (treated with GNRs@SiO2-FA and iodine 125 seeds) groups. The apoptosis of the HepG2 cells was detected by flow cytometry. The concentration range of <40 µg/ml GNRs@SiO2-FA was found to be safe for the biological activity of the HepG2 cells. GNRs@SiO2-FA entered the cytoplasm through endocytosis. The apoptotic rates of the HepG2 cells were higher in the GNRs@SiO2-FA and radiotherapy groups than in the control group (P<0.05). The apoptotic rate was also significantly higher in the combination group than the GNRs@SiO2-FA and radiotherapy groups (P<0.05). Taken together, these findings demonstrate that the combination of GNRs@SiO2-FA and radiotherapy more effectively induces the apoptosis of HepG2 cells. These apoptotic effects are achieved by increasing the protein expression of Bax and caspase-3, and inhibiting the protein expression of Bcl-2 and Ki-67. The combination of GNRs@SiO2-FA and radiotherapy may thus prove to be a new approach in the treatment of primary liver cancer. PMID:26648274

  14. The V227A polymorphism at the PPARA locus is associated with serum lipid concentrations and modulates the association between dietary polyunsaturated fatty acid intake and serum high density lipoprotein concentrations in Chinese women.

    PubMed

    Chan, Edmund; Tan, Chuen Seng; Deurenberg-Yap, Mabel; Chia, Kee Seng; Chew, Suok Kai; Tai, E Shyong

    2006-08-01

    Peroxisome proliferators activated receptor alpha (PPARalpha) regulates the transcription of several proteins involved in human lipoprotein metabolism. We screened the PPARA locus for polymorphisms in 20 unrelated subjects from each of three ethnic groups (Chinese, Malays and Asian Indians). Only the V227A polymorphism was observed. We genotyped 4248 subjects (2899 Chinese, 761 Malay and 588 Asian Indians) and found allele frequencies for the A227 allele of 0.04 in Chinese, 0.006 in Malays and 0.003 in Asian Indians. We examined the associations between this polymorphism and serum lipid concentrations in Chinese. In women, but not in men, the presence of the A227 allele was associated with lower serum concentrations of total cholesterol [5.38mmol/l (95%CI: 5.22-5.54) versus 5.21mmol/l (95%CI: 4.99-5.43), p=0.047] and triglycerides [1.19mmol/l (95%CI: 1.10-1.28) versus 1.09mmol/l (95%CI: 0.98-1.21), p=0.048]. We also found that the V227A polymorphism modulates the association between dietary polyunsaturated fatty acid intake and serum high density lipoprotein concentration (p-value for interaction=0.049). Our findings implicate PPARalpha in the lipid lowering associated with diets high in PUFA and suggests that genetic variation at the PPARA locus may determine the lipid response to changes in PUFA intake. PMID:16288935

  15. Dietary fish oil supplements depress milk fat yield and alter milk fatty acid composition in lactating cows fed grass silage-based diets.

    PubMed

    Kairenius, P; Ärölä, A; Leskinen, H; Toivonen, V; Ahvenjärvi, S; Vanhatalo, A; Huhtanen, P; Hurme, T; Griinari, J M; Shingfield, K J

    2015-08-01

    The potential of dietary fish oil (FO) supplements to increase milk 20:5n-3 and 22:6n-3 concentrations and the associated effects on milk fatty acid (FA) composition, intake, and milk production were examined. Four multiparous lactating cows offered a grass silage-based diet (forage:concentrate ratio 58:42, on a dry matter basis) supplemented with 0, 75, 150, or 300g of FO/d (FO0, FO75, FO150, and FO300, respectively) were used in a 4×4 Latin square with 28-d experimental periods. Milk FA composition was analyzed by complementary silver-ion thin-layer chromatography, gas chromatography-mass spectrometry, and silver-ion HPLC. Supplements of FO decreased linearly dry matter intake, yields of energy-corrected milk, milk fat and protein, and milk fat content. Compared with FO0, milk fat content and yield were decreased by 30.1 and 40.6%, respectively, on the FO300 treatment. Supplements of FO linearly increased milk 20:5n-3 and 22:6n-3 concentrations from 0.07 to 0.18 and 0.03 to 0.10g/100g of FA, respectively. Enrichment of 20:5n-3 and 22:6n-3 was accompanied by decreases in 4- to 18-carbon saturated FA and increases in total conjugated linoleic acid (CLA), trans FA, and polyunsaturated FA concentrations. Fish oil elevated milk fat cis-9,trans-11 CLA content in a quadratic manner, reaching a maximum on FO150 (from 0.61 to 2.15g/100g of FA), whereas further amounts of FO increased trans-10 18:1 with no change in trans-11 18:1 concentration. Supplements of FO also resulted in a dose-dependent appearance of 37 unique 20- and 22-carbon intermediates in milk fat. Concentrations of 16-, 18-, 20-, and 22-carbon trans FA were all increased by FO, with enrichment of trans 18:1 and trans 18:2 being quantitatively the most important. Decreases in milk fat yield to FO were not related to changes in milk trans-10,cis-12 CLA concentration or estimated milk fat melting point. Partial least square regression analysis indicated that FO-induced milk fat depression was associated with

  16. Dietary arachidonic acid and docosahexaenoic acid regulate liver fatty acid desaturase (FADS) alternative transcript expression in suckling piglets.

    PubMed

    Wijendran, Vasuki; Downs, Ian; Srigley, Cynthia Tyburczy; Kothapalli, Kumar S D; Park, Woo Jung; Blank, Bryant S; Zimmer, J Paul; Butt, C M; Salem, Norman; Brenna, J Thomas

    2013-10-01

    Molecular regulation of fatty acid desaturase (Fads) gene expression by dietary arachidonic acid (ARA) and docosahexaenoic acid (DHA) during early post-natal period, when the demand for long chain polyunsaturated fatty acids (LC-PUFA) is very high, has not been well defined. The objective of the current study was to determine regulation of liver Fads1, Fads2 and Fads3 classical (CS) and alternative transcripts (AT) expression by dietary ARA and DHA, within the physiological range present in human breast milk, in suckling piglets. Piglets were fed one of six milk replacer formula diets (formula-reared groups, FR) with varying ARA and DHA content from days 3-28 of age. The ARA/DHA levels of the six formula diets were as follows (% total fatty acid, FA/FA): (A1) 0.1/1.0; (A2) 0.53/1.0; (A3-D3) 0.69/1.0; (A4) 1.1/1.0; (D2) 0.67/0.62; and (D1) 0.66/0.33. The control maternal-reared (MR) group remained with the dam. Fads1 expression was not significantly different between FR and MR groups. Fads2 expression was down-regulated significantly in diets with 1:1 ratio of ARA:DHA, compared to MR. Fads2 AT1 expression was highly correlated to Fads2 expression. Fads3 AT7 was the only Fads3 transcript sensitive to dietary LC-PUFA intake and was up-regulated in the formula diets with lowest ARA and DHA contents compared to MR. Thus, the present study provides evidence that the proportion of dietary ARA:DHA is a significant determinant of Fads2 expression and LC-PUFA metabolism during the early postnatal period. Further, the data suggest that Fads3 AT7 may have functional significance when dietary supply of ARA and DHA are low during early development. PMID:24075244

  17. North façade, entrance. The square tower has the remains of ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    North façade, entrance. The square tower has the remains of a sign, Kaiser Foundation Hospital. Horizontal ribbon windows continue on this façade. - Richmond Field Hospital, 1330 Cutting Boulevard, Richmond, Contra Costa County, CA

  18. Cancer Risk and Eicosanoid Production: Interaction between the Protective Effect of Long Chain Omega-3 Polyunsaturated Fatty Acid Intake and Genotype

    PubMed Central

    Lenihan-Geels, Georgia; Bishop, Karen S.; Ferguson, Lynnette R.

    2016-01-01

    Dietary inclusion of fish and fish supplements as a means to improve cancer prognosis and prevent tumour growth is largely controversial. Long chain omega-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids (LCn-3 PUFA), eicosapentaenoic acid and docosahexaenoic acid, may modulate the production of inflammatory eicosanoids, thereby influencing local inflammatory status, which is important in cancer development. Although in vitro studies have demonstrated inhibition of tumour cell growth and proliferation by LCn-3 PUFA, results from human studies have been mainly inconsistent. Genes involved in the desaturation of fatty acids, as well as the genes encoding enzymes responsible for eicosanoid production, are known to be implicated in tumour development. This review discusses the current evidence for an interaction between genetic polymorphisms and dietary LCn-3 PUFA in the risk for breast, prostate and colorectal cancers, in regards to inflammation and eicosanoid synthesis. PMID:26891335

  19. The intake of a hazelnut skin extract improves the plasma lipid profile and reduces the lithocholic/deoxycholic bile acid faecal ratio, a risk factor for colon cancer, in hamsters fed a high-fat diet.

    PubMed

    Caimari, Antoni; Puiggròs, Francesc; Suárez, Manuel; Crescenti, Anna; Laos, Sirle; Ruiz, Juan Antonio; Alonso, Virginia; Moragas, Josep; Del Bas, Josep Maria; Arola, Lluís

    2015-01-15

    The effects on lipid and glucose metabolism of a hazelnut skin extract (FIBEROX™) administrated during 8 weeks (HFD-FBX8w group) or during the last 4 weeks of the study (HFD-FBX4w group) to Golden Syrian hamsters fed a high-fat diet (HFD) for 8 weeks were investigated. FIBEROX™ consumption reversed the increase in total and LDL plasma cholesterol induced by the HFD feeding in both HFD-FBX groups and decreased the circulating levels of free fatty acids and triglycerides in the HFD-FBX4w animals. The higher excretion of bile acids found in the faeces of both groups of hamsters fed the FIBEROX™ suggests that this mechanism is involved in the cholesterol-lowering effects of the extract. Furthermore, FIBEROX™ intake sharply decreased the lithocholic/deoxycholic bile acid faecal ratio, a risk factor for colon cancer, in both HFD-FBX groups. In conclusion, the consumption of FIBEROX™ improves different risk factors associated with cardiovascular disease and colon cancer. PMID:25148970

  20. Pre-conceptional intake of folic acid supplements is inversely associated with risk of preterm birth and small-for-gestational-age birth: a prospective cohort study.

    PubMed

    Zheng, Ju-Sheng; Guan, Yuhong; Zhao, Yimin; Zhao, Wei; Tang, Xuejuan; Chen, Hua; Xu, Meilong; Wu, Lingping; Zhu, Shanlin; Liu, Huijuan; Huang, Tao; Li, Duo

    2016-02-14

    Associations of folic acid supplementation with risk of preterm birth (PTB) and small-for-gestational-age (SGA) birth were unclear for the Chinese populations. The aim of the present study was to investigate the associations in a large Chinese prospective cohort study: the Jiaxing Birth Cohort. In the Jiaxing Birth Cohort, 240 954 pregnant women visited local clinics or hospitals within their first trimester in Southeast China during 1999-2012. Information on anthropometric parameters, folic acid supplementation and other maternal characteristics were collected by in-person interviews during their first visit. Pregnancy outcomes were recorded during the follow-up of these participants. Multinomial logistic regression was used to examine the association of folic acid supplementation with pregnancy outcomes. The prevalence of folic acid supplementation was 24·9% in the cohort. The prevalence of PTB and SGA birth was 3·48 and 9·2%, respectively. Pre-conceptional folic acid supplementation was associated with 8% lower risk of PTB (relative risk (RR) 0·92; 95% CI 0·85, 1·00; P=0·04) and 19% lower risk of SGA birth (RR 0·81; 95% CI 0·70, 0·95; P=0·008), compared with non-users. Higher frequency of pre-conceptional folic acid use was associated with lower risk of PTB (P trend=0·032) and SGA birth (P trend=0·046). No significant association between post-conceptional initiation of folic acid supplementation and either outcome was observed. In conclusion, the present study suggests an association between pre-conceptional, but not post-conceptional, folic acid supplementation and lower risk of PTB and SGA birth in the Jiaxing Birth Cohort. Further research in other cohorts of large sample size is needed to replicate these findings. PMID:26651997

  1. Intake of farmed Atlantic salmon fed soybean oil increases hepatic levels of arachidonic acid-derived oxylipins and ceramides in mice.

    PubMed

    Midtbø, Lisa Kolden; Borkowska, Alison G; Bernhard, Annette; Rønnevik, Alexander Krokedal; Lock, Erik-Jan; Fitzgerald, Michael L; Torstensen, Bente E; Liaset, Bjørn; Brattelid, Trond; Pedersen, Theresa L; Newman, John W; Kristiansen, Karsten; Madsen, Lise

    2015-06-01

    Introduction of vegetable ingredients in fish feed has affected the fatty acid composition in farmed Atlantic salmon (Salmo salar L). Here we investigated how changes in fish feed affected the metabolism of mice fed diets containing fillets from such farmed salmon. We demonstrate that replacement of fish oil with rapeseed oil or soybean oil in fish feed had distinct spillover effects in mice fed western diets containing the salmon. A reduced ratio of n-3/n-6 polyunsaturated fatty acids in the fish feed, reflected in the salmon, and hence also in the mice diets, led to a selectively increased abundance of arachidonic acid in the phospholipid pool in the livers of the mice. This was accompanied by increased levels of hepatic ceramides and arachidonic acid-derived pro-inflammatory mediators and a reduced abundance of oxylipins derived from eicosapentaenoic acid and docosahexaenoic acid. These changes were associated with increased whole body insulin resistance and hepatic steatosis. Our data suggest that an increased ratio between n-6 and n-3-derived oxylipins may underlie the observed marked metabolic differences between mice fed the different types of farmed salmon. These findings underpin the need for carefully considering the type of oil used for feed production in relation to salmon farming. PMID:25776459

  2. Marine-derived omega-3 fatty acids: fishing for clues for cancer prevention.

    PubMed

    Fabian, Carol J; Kimler, Bruce F

    2013-01-01

    Omega-3 fatty acids (FA) are polyunsaturated essential FA with anti-inflammatory properties. The most potent are the marine-derived eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA) and docosahexaenoic acid (DHA), which counteract the pro-inflammatory omega-6 FA. Americans take in an average of only 100 mg of EPA plus DHA per day resulting in a low omega-3:omega-6 intake ratio of 1:10 favoring inflammation. Cohort and/or case control studies suggest EPA and DHA are promising for breast, colon, and prostate cancer risk reduction. Mechanistic studies largely in preclinical models suggest EPA and DHA reduce synthesis of prostaglandin E2 and other inflammatory cytokines, decrease aromatase activity and proliferation, promote differentiation and apoptosis, and enhance insulin sensitivity. Animal models using 7% to 20% omega-3 added to chow are promising; however, this amount of omega-3 in a diet is unlikely to be acceptable to humans. The optimal EPA:DHA ratio or the lowest effective dose of EPA and DHA for cancer prevention is unclear, but it is likely to be more than 600 mg/day, which is six times the average American intake. Most phase II prevention trials use 1 to 3.3 g of EPA and DHA, which is safe and well tolerated. Two grams of EPA was associated with fewer polyps in individuals with familial adenomatous polyposis in a randomized, placebo-controlled trial. Identification of serum risk biomarkers modulated by EPA and DHA in healthy humans has remained elusive, but phase II prevention trials with tissue obtained for risk and response biomarkers are ongoing. PMID:23714467

  3. This NASA Dryden F/A-18 is participating in the Automated Aerial Refueling (AAR) project. F/A-18 (No

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2002-01-01

    A NASA Dryden F/A-18 is participating in the Automated Aerial Refueling (AAR) project. F/A-18 (No. 847) is acting as an in-flight refueling tanker in the study to develop analytical models for an automated aerial refueling system for unmanned vehicles. A 300-gallon aerodynamic pod containing air-refueling equipment is seen beneath the fuselage. The hose and refueling basket are extended during an assessment of their dynamics on the F/A-18A.

  4. Phenotypic and genetic relationships between growth and feed intake curves and feed efficiency and amino acid requirements in the growing pig.

    PubMed

    Saintilan, R; Brossard, L; Vautier, B; Sellier, P; Bidanel, J; van Milgen, J; Gilbert, H

    2015-01-01

    Improvement of feed efficiency in pigs has been achieved essentially by increasing lean growth rate, which resulted in lower feed intake (FI). The objective was to evaluate the impact of strategies for improving feed efficiency on the dynamics of FI and growth in growing pigs to revisit nutrient recommendations and strategies for feed efficiency improvement. In 2010, three BWs, at 35±2, 63±9 and 107±7 kg, and daily FI during this period were recorded in three French test stations on 379 Large White and 327 French Landrace from maternal pig populations and 215 Large White from a sire population. Individual growth and FI model parameters were obtained with the InraPorc® software and individual nutrient requirements were computed. The model parameters were explored according to feed efficiency as measured by residual feed intake (RFI) or feed conversion ratio (FCR). Animals were separated in groups of better feed efficiency (RFI- or FCR-), medium feed efficiency and poor feed efficiency. Second, genetic relationships between feed efficiency and model parameters were estimated. Despite similar average daily gains (ADG) during the test for all RFI groups, RFI- pigs had a lower initial growth rate and a higher final growth rate compared with other pigs. The same initial growth rate was found for all FCR groups, but FCR- pigs had significantly higher final growth rates than other pigs, resulting in significantly different ADG. Dynamic of FI also differed between RFI or FCR groups. The calculated digestible lysine requirements, expressed in g/MJ net energy (NE), showed the same trends for RFI or FCR groups: the average requirements for the 25% most efficient animals were 13% higher than that of the 25% least efficient animals during the whole test, reaching 0.90 to 0.95 g/MJ NE at the beginning of the test, which is slightly greater than usual feed recommendations for growing pigs. Model parameters were moderately heritable (0.30±0.13 to 0.56±0.13), except for the

  5. Fatty acid composition and interrelationships among eight retail cuts of grass-feed beef.

    PubMed

    Pavan, Enrique; Duckett, Susan K

    2013-03-01

    The aim of this research was to evaluate: 1) fatty acid (FA) profile of eight retail cuts (eye of round, ribeye, top round, striploin, tenderloin, top-sirloin, underblade, ground beef) from grass-fed steers, 2) the association between striploin (longissimus muscle) FA profile and that from the other retail cuts, and 3) the changes in FA profile associated with retail cut total FA content. All of the retail cuts, except underblade and ground beef, would be considered lean (<10 g) based on total FA content. Total saturated fatty acids were positively correlated to total FA content; whereas, negative correlations were observed with total FA content and total monounsaturated and polyunsaturated fatty acids. No correlation was observed between total FA and CLA cis-9, trans-11. Striploin trans-11 C18:1 and CLA cis-9, trans-11 proportions, and n-6:n-3 ratio were positive and highly correlated with those in the other retail cuts. PMID:23273439

  6. Fatty acid composition of habitual omnivore and vegetarian diets.

    PubMed

    Mann, Neil; Pirotta, Yvonne; O'Connell, Stella; Li, Duo; Kelly, Fiona; Sinclair, Andy

    2006-07-01

    High-fat diets are implicated in the onset of cardiovascular disease (CVD), cancer, and obesity. Large intakes of saturated and trans FA, together with low levels of PUFA, particularly long-chain (LC) omega-3 (n-3) PUFA, appear to have the greatest impact on the development of CVD. A high n-6:n-3 PUFA ratio is also considered a marker of elevated risk of CVD, though little accurate data on dietary intake is available. A new Australian food composition database that reports FA in foods to two decimal places was used to assess intakes of FA in four habitual dietary groups. Analysis using the database found correlations between the dietary intakes of LC n-3 PUFA and the plasma phospholipid LC n-3 PUFA concentrations of omnivore and vegetarian subjects. High meat-eaters (HME), who consumed large amounts of food generally, had significantly higher LC n-3 PUFA intakes (0.29 g/d) than moderate meat-eaters (MME) (0.14 g/d), whose intakes in turn were significantly higher than those of ovolacto-vegetarians or vegans (both 0.01 g/d). The saturated FA intake of MME subjects (typical of adult male Australians) was not different from ovolacto-vegetarian intakes, whereas n-6:n-3 intake ratios in vegetarians were significantly higher than in omnivores. Thus, accurate dietary and plasma FA analyses suggest that regular moderate consumption of meat and fish maintains a plasma FA profile possibly more conducive to good health. PMID:17069347

  7. The Effect of Omega-3 Docosahexaenoic Acid Supplementation on Gestational Length: Randomized Trial of Supplementation Compared to Nutrition Education for Increasing n-3 Intake from Foods

    PubMed Central

    Harris, Mary A.; Reece, Melanie S.; McGregor, James A.; Wilson, John W.; Burke, Shannon M.; Wheeler, Marsha; Anderson, Jennifer E.; Auld, Garry W.; French, Janice I.; Allen, Kenneth G. D.

    2015-01-01

    Objective. DHA supplementation was compared to nutrition education to increase DHA consumption from fish and DHA fortified foods. Design. This two-part intervention included a randomized double-blind placebo controlled DHA supplementation arm and a nutrition education arm designed to increase intake of DHA from dietary sources by 300 mg per day. Setting. Denver Health Hospitals and Clinics, Denver, Colorado, USA. Population. 871 pregnant women aged 18–40 were recruited between16 and 20 weeks of gestation of whom 564 completed the study and complete delivery data was available in 505 women and infants. Methods. Subjects received either 300 or 600 mg DHA or olive oil placebo or nutrition education. Main Outcome Variable. Gestational length. Results. Gestational length was significantly increased by 4.0–4.5 days in women supplemented with 600 mg DHA per day or provided with nutrition education. Each 1% increase in RBC DHA at delivery was associated with a 1.6-day increase in gestational length. No significant effects on birth weight, birth length, or head circumference were demonstrated. The rate of early preterm birth (1.7%) in those supplemented with DHA (combined 300 and 600 mg/day) was significantly lower than in controls. Conclusion. Nutrition education or supplementation with DHA can be effective in increasing gestational length. PMID:26413500

  8. An Analytical Pipeline for Quantitative Characterization of Dietary Intake: Application To Assess Grape Intake.

    PubMed

    Garcia-Perez, Isabel; Posma, Joram M; Chambers, Edward S; Nicholson, Jeremy K; C Mathers, John; Beckmann, Manfred; Draper, John; Holmes, Elaine; Frost, Gary

    2016-03-23

    Lack of accurate dietary assessment in free-living populations requires discovery of new biomarkers reflecting food intake qualitatively and quantitatively to objectively evaluate effects of diet on health. We provide a proof-of-principle for an analytical pipeline to identify quantitative dietary biomarkers. Tartaric acid was identified by nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy as a dose-responsive urinary biomarker of grape intake and subsequently quantified in volunteers following a series of 4-day dietary interventions incorporating 0 g/day, 50 g/day, 100 g/day, and 150 g/day of grapes in standardized diets from a randomized controlled clinical trial. Most accurate quantitative predictions of grape intake were obtained in 24 h urine samples which have the strongest linear relationship between grape intake and tartaric acid excretion (r(2) = 0.90). This new methodological pipeline for estimating nutritional intake based on coupling dietary intake information and quantified nutritional biomarkers was developed and validated in a controlled dietary intervention study, showing that this approach can improve the accuracy of estimating nutritional intakes. PMID:26909845

  9. FaPOD27 functions in the metabolism of polyphenols in strawberry fruit (Fragaria sp.)

    PubMed Central

    Yeh, Su-Ying; Huang, Fong-Chin; Hoffmann, Thomas; Mayershofer, Mechthild; Schwab, Wilfried

    2014-01-01

    The strawberry (Fragaria × ananassa) is one of the most preferred fresh fruit worldwide, accumulates numerous flavonoids but has limited shelf life due to excessive tissue softening caused by cell wall degradation. Since lignin is one of the polymers that strengthen plant cell walls and might contribute to some extent to fruit firmness monolignol biosynthesis was studied in strawberry fruit. Cinnamoyl-CoA reductase (CCR), cinnamyl alcohol dehydrogenase (CAD), and a peroxidase (POD27) gene were strongly expressed in red, ripe fruit whereas a second POD gene was primarily expressed in green, immature fruit. Moreover, FaPOD27 transcripts were strongly and constitutively induced in fruits exposed to Agrobacterium infection. Gene expression levels and enzymatic activities of FaCCR and FaCAD were efficiently suppressed through RNAi in FaCCR- and FaCAD-silenced strawberries. Besides, significantly elevated FaPOD transcript levels were detected after agroinfiltration of pBI-FaPOD constructs in fruits. At the same time, levels of G-monomers were considerably reduced in FaCCR-silenced fruits whereas the proportion of both G- and S-monomers decisively decreased in FaCAD-silenced and pBI-FaPOD fruits. Development, firmness, and lignin level of the treated fruits were similar to pBI-intron control fruits, presumably attributed to increased expression levels of FaPOD27 upon agroinfiltration. Additionally, enhanced firmness, accompanied with elevated lignin levels, was revealed in chalcone synthase-deficient fruits (CHS−), independent of down- or up-regulation of individual and combined FaCCR. FaCAD, and FaPOD genes by agroinfiltration, when compared to CHS−/pBI-intron control fruits. These approaches provide further insight into the genetic control of flavonoid and lignin synthesis in strawberries. The results suggest that FaPOD27 is a key gene for lignin biosynthesis in strawberry fruit and thus to improving the firmness of strawberries. PMID:25346738

  10. Dietary Reference Intakes

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The Dietary Reference Intakes (DRI) are recommendations intended to provide a framework for nutrient intake evaluation, as well as meal planning on the basis of nutrient adequacy. They are nutrient, not food based recommendations, created with chronic disease risk reduction as the primary goal, as ...

  11. Food sources of total omega 3 fatty acids (18:3 + 20:5 + 22:6), listed in descending order by percentages of their contribution to intake, based on data from the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey 2005-2006

    Cancer.gov

    Food sources of total omega 3 fatty acids (18:3 + 20:5 + 22:6), listed in descending order by percentages of their contribution to intake, based on data from the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey 2005-2006

  12. Stereospecificity of fatty acid 2-hydroxylase and differential functions of 2-hydroxy fatty acid enantiomers[S

    PubMed Central

    Guo, Lin; Zhang, Xu; Zhou, Dequan; Okunade, Adewole L.; Su, Xiong

    2012-01-01

    FA 2-hydroxylase (FA2H) is an NAD(P)H-dependent enzyme that initiates FA α oxidation and is also responsible for the biosynthesis of 2-hydroxy FA (2-OH FA)-containing sphingolipids in mammalian cells. The 2-OH FA is chiral due to the asymmetric carbon bearing the hydroxyl group. Our current study performed stereochemistry investigation and showed that FA2H is stereospecific for the production of (R)-enantiomers. FA2H knockdown in adipocytes increases diffusional mobility of raft-associated lipids, leading to reduced GLUT4 protein level, glucose uptake, and lipogenesis. The effects caused by FA2H knockdown were reversed by treatment with exogenous (R)-2-hydroxy palmitic acid, but not with the (S)-enantiomer. Further analysis of sphingolipids demonstrated that the (R)-enantiomer is enriched in hexosylceramide whereas the (S)-enantiomer is preferentially incorporated into ceramide, suggesting that the observed differential effects are in part due to synthesis of sphingolipids containing different 2-OH FA enantiomers. These results may help clarify the mechanisms underlying the recently identified diseases associated with FA2H mutations in humans and may lead to potential pharmaceutical and dietary treatments. This study also provides critical information to help study functions of 2-OH FA enantiomers in FA α oxidation and possibly other sphingolipid-independent pathways. PMID:22517924

  13. Effect of lactic acid-lactobacillus preservative and moisture concentration at baling on intake and digestibility of crabgrass hay by lambs and in-situ digestibility by heifers

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Crabgrass is a warm-season annual forage that has greater nutritive value than most other warm-season grasses and is highly palatable, but curing time for crabgrass hay is typically longer than for bermudagrass. Crabgrass hay was either not treated or treated with a lactic acid-lactobacillus preserv...

  14. Effect of a lactic acid-lactobacillus product and bale moisture on forage quality, and voluntary intake and digestibility of crabgrass hay by lambs

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    A 1.6-ha field of common crabgrass (Digitaria ciliaris [Retz.] Koel.) was divided into 12 plots that were used in a randomized complete block design with a 2 x 2 factorial treatment arrangement to determine the impact of a lactobacillus-lactic acid hay preservative and moisture concentration at bali...

  15. Intake of farmed Atlantic salmon fed soybean oil increases hepatic levels of arachidonic acid-derived oxylipins and ceramides in mice

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Introduction of vegetable ingredients in fish feed has affected the fatty acid composition in farmed Atlantic salmon (Salmo salar L). Here we investigated how changes in fish feed affected the metabolism of mice fed diets containing fillets from such farmed salmon. We demonstrate that replacement of...

  16. Effect of early maternal docosahexaenoic acid intake on neuropsychological status and visual acuity at five years of age of breast-fed infants

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    We previously reported better psychomotor development at 30 months of age in infants whose mothers received a docosahexaenoic acid (DHA) supplement for the first 4 months of lactation. We now assess neuropsychological and visual function of the same children at 5 years of age. Breastfeeding women w...

  17. Characteristics of F/A-18 vertical tail buffeting

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sheta, E. F.; Huttsell, L. J.

    2003-03-01

    A time-accurate computational analysis of vertical tail buffeting of full F/A-18 aircraft is conducted at typical flight conditions to identify the buffet characteristics of fighter aircraft. The F/A-18 aircraft is pitched at wide range of high angles of attack at Mach number of 0.243 and Reynolds number of 11 millions. Strong coupling between the fluid and structure is considered in this investigation. Strong coupling occurs when the inertial effect of the motion of the vertical tail is fed back into the flow field. The aerodynamic flow field around the F/A-18 aircraft is computed using the Reynolds-averaged full Navier-Stokes equations. The dynamical structural response of the vertical tail is predicted using direct finite-element analysis. The interface between the fluid and structure is applied using conservative and consistent interfacing methodology. The motion of the computational grid due to the deflection of the vertical tail is computed using transfinite interpolation module. The investigation revealed that the vertical tail is subject to bending and torsional responses, mainly in the first modes of vibrations. The buffet loads increase significantly as the onset of vortex breakdown moves upstream of the vertical tails. The inboard surface of the vertical tail has more significant contribution in the buffet excitation than the outboard surface. In addition, the pressure on the outboard surface of the vertical tail is less sensitive to the angle of attack than the pressure on the inboard surface. The buffet excitation peaks shift to lower frequency as the angle of attack increases. The computational results are compared, and they are in close agreement, with several flight and experimental data.

  18. ERICA: intake of macro and micronutrients of Brazilian adolescents

    PubMed Central

    Souza, Amanda de Moura; Barufaldi, Laura Augusta; Abreu, Gabriela de Azevedo; Giannini, Denise Tavares; de Oliveira, Cecília Lacroix; dos Santos, Marize Melo; Leal, Vanessa Sá; Vasconcelos, Francisco de Assis Guedes

    2016-01-01

    ABSTRACT OBJECTIVE To describe food and macronutrient intake profile and estimate the prevalence of inadequate micronutrient intake of Brazilian adolescents. METHODS Data from 71,791 adolescents aged from 12 to 17 years were evaluated in the 2013-2014 Brazilian Study of Cardiovascular Risks in Adolescents (ERICA). Food intake was estimated using 24-hour dietary recall (24-HDR). A second 24-HDR was collected in a subsample of the adolescents to estimate within-person variability and calculate the usual individual intake. The prevalence of food/food group intake reported by the adolescents was also estimated. For sodium, the prevalence of inadequate intake was estimated based on the Tolerable Upper Intake Level (UL). The Estimated Average Requirement (EAR) method used as cutoff was applied to estimate the prevalence of inadequate nutrient intake. All the analyses were stratified according to sex, age group and Brazilian macro-regions. All statistical analyses accounted for the sample weight and the complex sampling design. RESULTS Rice, beans and other legume, juice and fruit drinks, breads and meat were the most consumed foods among the adolescents. The average energy intake ranged from 2,036 kcal (girls aged from 12 to 13 years) to 2,582 kcal (boy aged from14 to 17 years). Saturated fat and free sugar intake were above the maximum limit recommended (< 10.0%). Vitamins A and E, and calcium were the micronutrients with the highest prevalence of inadequate intake (> 50.0%). Sodium intake was above the UL for more than 80.0% of the adolescents. CONCLUSIONS The diets of Brazilian adolescents were characterized by the intake of traditional Brazilian food, such as rice and beans, as well as by high intake of sugar through sweetened beverages and processed foods. This food pattern was associated with an excessive intake of sodium, saturated fatty acids and free sugar. PMID:26910551

  19. ERICA: intake of macro and micronutrients of Brazilian adolescents.

    PubMed

    Souza, Amanda de Moura; Barufaldi, Laura Augusta; Abreu, Gabriela de Azevedo; Giannini, Denise Tavares; de Oliveira, Cecília Lacroix; dos Santos, Marize Melo; Leal, Vanessa Sá; Vasconcelos, Francisco de Assis Guedes

    2016-02-01

    OBJECTIVE To describe food and macronutrient intake profile and estimate the prevalence of inadequate micronutrient intake of Brazilian adolescents. METHODS Data from 71,791 adolescents aged from 12 to 17 years were evaluated in the 2013-2014 Brazilian Study of Cardiovascular Risks in Adolescents (ERICA). Food intake was estimated using 24-hour dietary recall (24-HDR). A second 24-HDR was collected in a subsample of the adolescents to estimate within-person variability and calculate the usual individual intake. The prevalence of food/food group intake reported by the adolescents was also estimated. For sodium, the prevalence of inadequate intake was estimated based on the Tolerable Upper Intake Level (UL). The Estimated Average Requirement (EAR) method used as cutoff was applied to estimate the prevalence of inadequate nutrient intake. All the analyses were stratified according to sex, age group and Brazilian macro-regions. All statistical analyses accounted for the sample weight and the complex sampling design. RESULTS Rice, beans and other legume, juice and fruit drinks, breads and meat were the most consumed foods among the adolescents. The average energy intake ranged from 2,036 kcal (girls aged from 12 to 13 years) to 2,582 kcal (boy aged from14 to 17 years). Saturated fat and free sugar intake were above the maximum limit recommended (< 10.0%). Vitamins A and E, and calcium were the micronutrients with the highest prevalence of inadequate intake (> 50.0%). Sodium intake was above the UL for more than 80.0% of the adolescents. CONCLUSIONS The diets of Brazilian adolescents were characterized by the intake of traditional Brazilian food, such as rice and beans, as well as by high intake of sugar through sweetened beverages and processed foods. This food pattern was associated with an excessive intake of sodium, saturated fatty acids and free sugar. PMID:26910551

  20. Fatty Acid 2-Hydroxylation in Mammalian Sphingolipid Biology

    PubMed Central

    Hama, Hiroko

    2010-01-01

    2-Hydroxy fatty acids (hFA) are important components of a subset of mammalian sphingolipids. The presence of hFA in sphingolipids is best described in the nervous system, epidermis, and kidney. However, the literature also indicates that various hFA-sphingolipids are present in additional tissues and cell types, as well as in tumors. Biosynthesis of hFA-sphingolipids requires fatty acid 2-hydroyxlase, and degradation of hFA-sphingolipids depends, at least in part, on lysosomal acid ceramidase and the peroxisomal fatty acid α-oxidation pathway. Mutations in the fatty acid 2-hydroxylase gene, FA2H, have been associated with leukodystrophy and spastic paraparesis in humans, underscoring the importance of hFA-sphingolipids in the nervous system. In the epidermis, hFA-ceramides are essential for the permeability barrier function. Physiological function of hFA-sphingolipids in other organs remains largely unknown. Recent evidence indicates that hFA-sphingolipids have specific roles in cell signaling. PMID:20026285

  1. Alimentary fluoride intake in preschool children

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Background The knowledge of background alimentary fluoride intake in preschool children is of utmost importance for introducing optimal and safe caries preventive measures for both individuals and communities. The aim of this study was to assess the daily fluoride intake analyzing duplicate samples of food and beverages. An attempt was made to calculate the daily intake of fluoride from food and swallowed toothpaste. Methods Daily alimentary fluoride intake was measured in a group of 36 children with an average age of 4.75 years and an average weight of 20.69 kg at baseline, by means of a double plate method. This was repeated after six months. Parents recorded their child's diet over 24 hours and collected duplicated portions of food and beverages received by children during this period. Pooled samples of food and beverages were weighed and solid food samples were homogenized. Fluoride was quantitatively extracted from solid food samples by a microdiffusion method using hexadecyldisiloxane and perchloric acid. The content of fluoride extracted from solid food samples, as well as fluoride in beverages, was measured potentiometrically by means of a fluoride ion selective electrode. Results Average daily fluoride intake at baseline was 0.389 (SD 0.054) mg per day. Six months later it was 0.378 (SD 0.084) mg per day which represents 0.020 (SD 0.010) and 0.018 (SD 0.008) mg of fluoride respectively calculated per kg bw/day. When adding the values of unwanted fluoride intake from the toothpaste shown in the literature (0.17-1.21 mg per day) the estimate of the total daily intake of fluoride amounted to 0.554-1.594 mg/day and recalculated to the child's body weight to 0.027-0.077 mg/kg bw/day. Conclusions In the children studied, observed daily fluoride intake reached the threshold for safe fluoride intake. When adding the potential fluoride intake from swallowed toothpaste, alimentary intake reached the optimum range for daily fluoride intake. These results showed that

  2. Depositional Environment of Permian Tak Fa Formation, Nakhonsawan, Northern Thailand

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ketwetsuriya, Chatchalerm; Nützel, Alexander; Kanjanapayont, Pitsanupong

    2016-04-01

    The carbonate rocks of the study area at Amphoe Tak Fa and Amphoe Takhli, Changwat Nakhon Sawan belong to the Tak Fa Formation, Saraburi Group. This formation crops out in the Khao Khwang Platform and consists of late Palaeozoic carbonate platform deposits. It reaches a thickness of 900 meters and crops out in a vast area. The exposures have been measured and samples were collected for petrographic study. The rock consists of limestones, argillaceous limestones, mudstones and dolomites with nodular and banded cherts, which comprise many invertebrate fossils such as fusulinids, ammonoid, pelecypod, gastropod, coral and bryozoa. Many of the fossils are silicified. The gastropod assemblage is currently under study and represents one of the most diverse faunas reported from SE Asia. The age of the rock is Yakhtashian or Artinskian (late Early Permian) to Midian or Capitanian (late Middle Permian). The study of carbonate facies and fauna indicates that the depositional environment was on shelf lagoon within the carbonate platform varying from shallow marine to barrier bar.

  3. Milk production responses to dietary stearic acid vary by production level in dairy cattle.

    PubMed

    Piantoni, P; Lock, A L; Allen, M S

    2015-03-01

    Effects of stearic acid supplementation on feed intake and metabolic and production responses of dairy cows with a wide range of milk production (32.2 to 64.4 kg/d) were evaluated in a crossover design experiment with a covariate period. Thirty-two multiparous Holstein cows (142±55 d in milk) were assigned randomly within level of milk yield to treatment sequence. Treatments were diets supplemented (2% of diet dry matter) with stearic acid (SA; 98% C18:0) or control (soyhulls). The diets were based on corn silage and alfalfa and contained 24.5% forage neutral detergent fiber, 25.1% starch, and 17.3% crude protein. Treatment periods were 21 d with the final 4 d used for data and sample collection. Compared with the control, SA increased dry matter intake (DMI; 26.1 vs. 25.2 kg/d) and milk yield (40.2 vs. 38.5 kg/d). Stearic acid had no effect on the concentration of milk components but increased yields of fat (1.42 vs. 1.35 kg/d), protein (1.19 vs. 1.14 kg/d), and lactose (1.96 vs. 1.87 kg/d). The SA treatment increased 3.5% fat-corrected milk (3.5% FCM; 40.5 vs. 38.6 kg/d) but did not affect feed efficiency (3.5% FCM/DMI, 1.55 vs. 1.53), body weight, or body condition score compared with the control. Linear interactions between treatment and level of milk yield during the covariate period were detected for DMI and yields of milk, fat, protein, lactose, and 3.5% FCM; responses to SA were positively related to milk yield of cows. The SA treatment increased crude protein digestibility (67.4 vs. 65.5%), tended to increase neutral detergent fiber digestibility (43.6 vs. 42.3%), decreased fatty acid (FA) digestibility (56.6 vs. 76.1%), and did not affect organic matter digestibility. Fatty acid yield response, calculated as the additional FA yield secreted in milk per unit of additional FA intake, was only 13.3% for total FA and 8.2% for C18:0 plus cis-9 C18:1. Low estimated digestibility of the SA supplement was at least partly responsible for the low FA yield response

  4. Intake of a Western diet containing cod instead of pork alters fatty acid composition in tissue phospholipids and attenuates obesity and hepatic lipid accumulation in mice.

    PubMed

    Liisberg, Ulrike; Fauske, Kristin Røen; Kuda, Ondrej; Fjære, Even; Myrmel, Lene Secher; Norberg, Nina; Frøyland, Livar; Graff, Ingvild Eide; Liaset, Bjørn; Kristiansen, Karsten; Kopecky, Jan; Madsen, Lise

    2016-07-01

    The content of the marine n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFAs), eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA) and docosahexaenoic acid (DHA) is far lower in lean than in fatty seafood. Cod filets contain less than 2g fat per kg, whereof approximately 50% is EPA and DHA. However, a large fraction of these n-3 PUFAs is present in the phospholipid (PL) fraction and may have high bioavailability and capacity to change the endocannabinoid profile. Here we investigated whether exchanging meat from a lean terrestrial animal with cod in a background Western diet would alter the endocannabinoid tone in mice and thereby attenuate obesity development and hepatic lipid accumulation. Accordingly, we prepared iso-caloric diets with 15.1 energy (e) % protein, 39.1 e% fat and 45.8 e% carbohydrates using freeze-dried meat from cod filets or pork sirloins, and using a combination of soybean oil, corn oil, margarine, milk fat, and lard as the fat source. Compared with mice receiving diets containing pork, mice fed cod gained less adipose tissue mass and had a lower content of hepatic lipids. This was accompanied by a lower n-6 to n-3 ratio in liver PLs and in red blood cells (RBCs) in the mice. Furthermore, mice receiving the cod-containing diet had lower circulating levels of the two major endocannabinoids, N-arachidonoylethanolamine and 2-arachidonoylglycerol. Together, our data demonstrate that despite the relatively low content of n-3 PUFAs in cod fillets, the cod-containing diet could exert beneficial metabolic effects. PMID:27155918

  5. Dietary intake in 6-year-old children from southern Poland: part 1 - energy and macronutrient intakes

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background The studies on dietary intake in Polish children are sparse and the information about dietary intake in 6-year-olds in Europe is limited. The published studies on dietary intake in children rarely provide information on the intake of animal protein, plant protein and water. The purpose of the study was to analyse energy and macronutrient intakes in 6-year-old children from southern Poland. Methods The studied population comprised 120 children, 64 girls and 56 boys. Energy and macronutrient intakes were estimated from a three-day food record. Weight and height were measured, and body mass index was calculated. Results Intakes of energy (kJ, kcal), plant protein (g), total fat (g), saturated fatty acids (g, % of energy, g/1000 kcal), monounsaturated fatty acids (g) and starch (g, % of energy, g/1000 kcal) were significantly higher in boys, while intakes of sucrose (% of energy, g/1000 kcal) and total water (g/1000 kcal) were significantly higher in girls. The children’s diets were characterised by excessive intake of total fat, saturated fatty acids, sucrose, and by inadequate intake of polyunsaturated fatty acids, available carbohydrates and starch. Conclusions The observed adverse characteristics of the children’s diets are similar to those observed in the diets of children in other European countries and show the need to work out a common educational programme to improve nutrition in young European children. It is also important to provide the lacking information about the intake of animal protein, plant protein and water in young children. PMID:25086600

  6. Intake of saturated and trans unsaturated fatty acids and risk of all cause mortality, cardiovascular disease, and type 2 diabetes: systematic review and meta-analysis of observational studies

    PubMed Central

    de Souza, Russell J; Mente, Andrew; Maroleanu, Adriana; Cozma, Adrian I; Kishibe, Teruko; Uleryk, Elizabeth; Budylowski, Patrick; Schünemann, Holger; Beyene, Joseph

    2015-01-01

    (1.28, 1.09 to 1.50), and total CHD (1.21, 1.10 to 1.33) but not ischemic stroke (1.07, 0.88 to 1.28) or type 2 diabetes (1.10, 0.95 to 1.27). Industrial, but not ruminant, trans fats were associated with CHD mortality (1.18 (1.04 to 1.33) v 1.01 (0.71 to 1.43)) and CHD (1.42 (1.05 to 1.92) v 0.93 (0.73 to 1.18)). Ruminant trans-palmitoleic acid was inversely associated with type 2 diabetes (0.58, 0.46 to 0.74). The certainty of associations between saturated fat and all outcomes was “very low.” The certainty of associations of trans fat with CHD outcomes was “moderate” and “very low” to “low” for other associations. Conclusions Saturated fats are not associated with all cause mortality, CVD, CHD, ischemic stroke, or type 2 diabetes, but the evidence is heterogeneous with methodological limitations. Trans fats are associated with all cause mortality, total CHD, and CHD mortality, probably because of higher levels of intake of industrial trans fats than ruminant trans fats. Dietary guidelines must carefully consider the health effects of recommendations for alternative macronutrients to replace trans fats and saturated fats. PMID:26268692

  7. Effects of feeding increasing dietary levels of high oleic or regular sunflower or linseed oil on fatty acid profile of goat milk.

    PubMed

    Martínez Marín, A L; Gómez-Cortés, P; Gómez Castro, G; Juárez, M; Pérez Alba, L; Pérez Hernández, M; de la Fuente, M A

    2012-04-01

    In this work, the effects of increasing amounts of 3 plant oils in diets on the fatty acid (FA) profile of goat milk were studied. The study consisted of 3 experiments, one per oil tested (linseed oil, LO; high oleic sunflower oil, HOSFO; and regular sunflower oil, RSFO). The 3 experiments were conducted successively on 12 Malagueña goats, which were assigned at random to 1 of 4 treatments: 0, 30, 48, and 66 (H) g of added oil/d. A basal diet made of alfalfa hay and pelleted concentrate (33:67) was used in all of the experiments. For each animal, milk samples collected after 15 d on treatments were analyzed for fat, protein, lactose, and FA composition, whereas individual milk yield was measured the last 3 d of each experiment. Oil supplementation affected neither dry matter intake nor milk production traits. Increasing the oil supplementation decreased the content of saturated FA (especially 16:0) in milk fat and increased mono- and polyunsaturated FA in a linear manner. Vaccenic acid content linearly increased with the oil supplementation by 370, 217, and 634% to 5.32, 2.66, and 5.09 g/100 g of total FA methyl esters with the H diet in LO, HOSFO, and RSFO experiments, respectively. Rumenic acid content linearly increased with LO and RSFO supplementation by 298 and 354% from 0.53 and 0.41 g/100 g of total FA methyl esters with the 0 g of added oil/d diet. The content of trans-10-18:1 was not affected by LO supplementation but showed an increasing linear trend with HOSFO supplementation and linearly increased with RSFO supplementation. The ratio of n-6 to n-3 polyunsaturated FA in milk fat was decreased by about 70% with the H diet in the LO experiment and it was increased by 54 and 82% with the H diet in the HOSFO and RSFO experiments. In conclusion, LO supplementation in this work seemed to be the most favorable alternative compared with HOSFO or RSFO supplementation. PMID:22459841

  8. High maternal intake of polyunsaturated fatty acids during pregnancy in mice alters offsprings' aggressive behavior, immobility in the swim test, locomotor activity and brain protein kinase C activity.

    PubMed

    Raygada, M; Cho, E; Hilakivi-Clarke, L

    1998-12-01

    Populations in Western countries consume an excess of polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFA), even during pregnancy. Since (n-6) PUFA is critical for brain development, we studied whether a high maternal consumption of this fatty acid alters offsprings' affective-like behaviors and (n-6) PUFA-induced protein kinase C (PKC) activity in the brain. Three different strains of pregnant mice were fed isocaloric diets containing either 16% (control) or 43% (high) energy derived from fat high in (n-6) PUFA (corn oil: Balb/c and CD-1 mice, or soybean oil: C3H mice) throughout gestation. From birth onward dams and offspring were fed a nonpurified diet containing 12% energy from a variety of fats. Two- to 12-month-old female and male offspring of dams exposed to a high (n-6) PUFA diet during pregnancy were significantly more active in an open field, more aggressive in the resident-intruder test and spent less time immobile in the swim test than offspring of dams exposed to a control (n-6) PUFA diet. Significantly greater PKC activity in the hypothalamus and moderately less PKC activity in the whole brain (P = 0.10) were seen in the 2-month-old female and male high (n-6) PUFA offspring compared to controls. Our findings indicate that in utero exposure to a high (n-6) PUFA diet subsequently increases locomotor activity and aggression, and reduces immobility in the swim test. The mechanism mediating these effects may be linked to an increased PKC activity in the hypothalamus. PMID:9868200

  9. Influence of fatty acid-free diet on mammary tumor development and growth rate in HER-2/Neu transgenic mice.

    PubMed

    Rossini, Anna; Zanobbio, Laura; Sfondrini, Lucia; Cavalleri, Adalberto; Secreto, Giorgio; Morelli, Daniele; Palazzo, Marco; Sommariva, Michele; Tagliabue, Elda; Rumio, Cristiano; Balsari, Andrea

    2013-01-01

    Numerous investigations have found a relationship between higher risk of cancer and increased intake of fats, while results of clinical studies of fat reduction and breast cancer recurrence have been mixed. A diet completely free of fats cannot be easily administered to humans, but experimental studies in mice can be done to determine whether this extreme condition influences tumor development. Here, we examined the effects of a FA-free diet on mammary tumor development and growth rate in female FVB-neu proto-oncogene transgenic mice that develop spontaneous multifocal mammary tumors after a long latency period. Mice were fed a fatty acid-free diet beginning at 112, 35, and 30 days of age. In all these experiments, tumor appearance was delayed, tumor incidence was reduced and the mean number of palpable mammary tumors per mouse was lower, as compared to standard diet-fed mice. By contrast, tumor growth rate was unaffected in mice fed the fatty acid-free diet. Plasma of mice fed the fatty acid-free diet revealed significantly higher contents of oleic, palmitoleic and 20:3ω9 acids and lower contents of linoleic and palmitic acids. In conclusion, these findings indicate that a FA-free diet reduces tumor incidence and latency but not tumor growth rate, suggesting that a reduction in dietary FAs in humans may have a protective effect on tumorigenesis but not on tumors once they appear. PMID:22689438

  10. Effect of fulvic acid on neodymium uptake by goethite.

    PubMed

    Armstrong, Christopher R; Wood, Scott A

    2012-12-01

    Experimental studies of the interaction of aqueous neodymium (Nd), Suwannee River fulvic acid (FA), and solid phase goethite were conducted. Results from blank systems (individual Nd and FA), binary systems (Nd-goethite, FA-goethite, and Nd-FA), and ternary systems (Nd-FA-goethite) at 0.1 mol/kg and 25°C are reported. In the binary Nd-goethite system a classic sorption edge is observed, whereby virtually all Nd is removed from solution above the goethite point of zero charge (PZC). Similarly, the binary FA-goethite system exhibits strong FA sorption; However in this system near complete removal of FA from solution is observed below the goethite PZC. In the binary Nd-FA system, both aqueous Nd and FA feature a sharp decrease in concentration at ca. pH 9. Various experiments in the ternary system were conducted. For all concentrations, FA enhanced Nd sorption below the goethite PZC, attributed to the formation of a Type B ternary surface complex (mineral-ligand-metal ion). Notably, the 100 ppm FA ternary system showed anomalously high dissolved Nd in solution above the PZC (i.e., Nd sorption suppression) and a concomitant increase in goethite dissolution (∼9 ppm total Fe(3+) observed above circa pH 9.5). Our results suggest that Nd-FA complexation plays a key role in Nd uptake by goethite, and that this process is largely governed by pH: Whereas at pHs below the goethite PZC, Nd-FA complexation facilitates Nd sorption, above the PZC, and particularly at elevated FA concentrations, the formation of aqueous Nd-FA complexes suppresses Nd removal. Moreover, under these conditions, goethite dissolution may also play a role in mitigating Nd uptake by goethite. PMID:22958855

  11. Solidification behavior of FA-129 iron-aluminide alloy

    SciTech Connect

    Viswanathan, S.; Maziasz, P.J.; Sikka, V.K.

    1992-07-01

    Samples of FA-129 iron-aluminide alloy have been processed by various casting processes, including vacuum arc-melting followed by chill casting into water-cooled copper molds, air melting followed by casting into graphite molds, and electroslag melting and casting into large ingots. The resulting microstructures obtained in these processes are examined and compared. Selected samples are homogenized at various temperatures and times. Optical and transmission electron microscopy (TEM) and energy dispersive spectroscopy (EDS) are used to identify the morphology, constituents, and compositions of various phases. Interrupted solidification experiments are used to study the evolution of cast structure. Some observations are made on the effect of dissolved hydrogen in the melt on as-cast soundness.

  12. Solidification behavior of FA-129 iron-aluminide alloy

    SciTech Connect

    Viswanathan, S.; Maziasz, P.J.; Sikka, V.K.

    1992-01-01

    Samples of FA-129 iron-aluminide alloy have been processed by various casting processes, including vacuum arc-melting followed by chill casting into water-cooled copper molds, air melting followed by casting into graphite molds, and electroslag melting and casting into large ingots. The resulting microstructures obtained in these processes are examined and compared. Selected samples are homogenized at various temperatures and times. Optical and transmission electron microscopy (TEM) and energy dispersive spectroscopy (EDS) are used to identify the morphology, constituents, and compositions of various phases. Interrupted solidification experiments are used to study the evolution of cast structure. Some observations are made on the effect of dissolved hydrogen in the melt on as-cast soundness.

  13. Acute oral intake of a higenamine-based dietary supplement increases circulating free fatty acids and energy expenditure in human subjects

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Higenamine, also known as norcoclaurine, is an herbal constituent thought to act as a beta-2 adrenergic receptor agonist—possibly stimulating lipolysis. It was the purpose of this study to determine the impact of a higenamine-based dietary supplement on plasma free fatty acids and energy expenditure following acute oral ingestion. Methods Sixteen healthy subjects (8 men; 26.1 ± 2.5 yrs; 8 women 22.4 ± 3.1 yrs) ingested a dietary supplement containing a combination of higenamine, caffeine (270 mg), and yohimbe bark extract or a placebo, on two separate occasions in a double-blind, randomized, cross-over design, separated by 6–8 days. Blood samples were collected immediately before ingestion, and at 30, 60, 120, and 180 minutes post ingestion, and analyzed for plasma free fatty acids (FFA) and glycerol. Breath samples were collected at the same times for a measure of kilocalorie expenditure and respiratory exchange ratio (RER) using indirect calorimetry. Heart rate and blood pressure were recorded at all times. Data collection occurred in the morning following a 10 hour overnight fast. Results A condition effect was noted for both FFA (p < 0.0001) and kilocalorie expenditure (p = 0.001), with values higher for supplement compared to placebo at 60, 120, and 180 minutes post ingestion. No statistically significant effects were noted for glycerol or RER (p > 0.05). A condition effect was noted for heart rate (p = 0.03) and systolic blood pressure (p < 0.0001), with values higher for supplement compared to placebo. Conclusion Ingestion of a higenamine-based dietary supplement stimulates lipolysis and energy expenditure, as evidenced by a significant increase in circulating FFA and kilocalorie expenditure. The same supplement results in a moderate increase in heart rate (~3 bpm) and systolic blood pressure (~12 mmHg), which is consistent with previous studies evaluating moderate doses of caffeine and yohimbine, suggesting that higenamine

  14. Protein intake and obesity in young adolescents

    PubMed Central

    XU, SHUMEI; XUE, YING

    2016-01-01

    The abundance of protein and its functional diversity in living systems makes it essential for virtually all life processes. Dietary protein and amino acid requirements are affected by age, body size, body composition, physiological state, and the level of energy output. The requirement for dietary protein is based on the indispensable amino acids under all conditions and under specific physiological and pathological conditions as well as the synthesis of dispensable amino acids and other nitrogen-containing compounds. Previous findings have shown the influence of early intake of proteins on the development of overweight in healthy children. The present review focused on the possible association (if any) between protein intake and later development of obesity. The aim is to benefit physicians, dieticians as well as parents to understand future consequences of incorrect dietary habits in young adolescents and encourage healthy dietary habits to avoid obesity. PMID:27168771

  15. Interesterified fat or palm oil as substitutes for partially hydrogenated fat during the perinatal period produces changes in the brain fatty acids profile and increases leukocyte-endothelial interactions in the cerebral microcirculation from the male offspring in adult life.

    PubMed

    Misan, Vanessa; Estato, Vanessa; de Velasco, Patricia Coelho; Spreafico, Flavia Brasil; Magri, Tatiana; Dos Santos, Raísa Magno de Araújo Ramos; Fragoso, Thaiza; Souza, Amanda S; Boldarine, Valter Tadeu; Bonomo, Isabela T; Sardinha, Fátima L C; Oyama, Lila M; Tibiriçá, Eduardo; Tavares do Carmo, Maria das Graças

    2015-08-01

    We investigated whether maternal intake of normolipidic diets with distinct fatty acid (FA) compositions alters the lipidic profile and influences the inflammatory status of the adult offsprings׳ brains. C57BL/6 female mice during pregnancy and lactation received diets containing either soybean oil (CG), partially hydrogenated vegetable fat rich in trans-fatty acids (TG), palm oil (PG), or interesterified fat (IG). After weaning, male offspring from all groups received control diet. The FA profile was measured in the offspring׳s brains at post-natal days 21 and 90. Brain functional capillary density as well as leukocyte-endothelial interactions in the cerebral post-capillary venules was assessed by intravital fluorescence microscopy at post-natal day 90. Inflammation signaling was evaluated through toll-like receptor 4 (TLR4) content in brain of the adult offspring. In the 21-day old offspring, the brains of the TG showed higher levels of trans FA and reduced levels of linoleic acid (LA) and total n-6 polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFA). At post-natal day 90, TG and IG groups showed reduced levels of eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA) and total n-3 PUFA tended to be lower compared to CG. The offspring׳s brains exhibited an altered microcirculation with increased leukocyte rolling in groups TG, PG and IG and in TG group increased leukocyte adhesion. The TLR4 content of TG, IG and PG groups only tended to increase (23%; 20% and 35%, respectively). Maternal consumption of trans FA, palm oil or interesterified fat during pregnancy and lactation can trigger the initial steps of inflammatory pathways in the brain of offspring in adulthood. PMID:25982597

  16. Antisense down-regulation of the strawberry β-galactosidase gene FaβGal4 increases cell wall galactose levels and reduces fruit softening

    PubMed Central

    Paniagua, Candelas; Blanco-Portales, Rosario; Barceló-Muñoz, Marta; García-Gago, Juan A.; Waldron, Keith W.; Quesada, Miguel A.; Muñoz-Blanco, Juan; Mercado, José A.

    2016-01-01

    Strawberry softening is characterized by an increase in the solubilization and depolymerization of pectins from cell walls. Galactose release from pectin side chains by β-galactosidase enzymes has been proposed as one reason for the increase in soluble pectins. A putative β-galactosidase gene, FaβGal4, has been identified using a custom-made oligonucleotide-based strawberry microarray platform. FaβGal4 was expressed mainly in the receptacle during fruit ripening, and was positively regulated by abscisic acid and negatively regulated by auxins. To ascertain the role of FaβGal4 in strawberry softening, transgenic plants containing an antisense sequence of this gene under the control of the CaMV35S promoter were generated. Phenotypic analyses were carried out in transgenic plants during three consecutive growing seasons, using non-transformed plants as control. Two out of nine independent transgenic lines yielded fruits that were 30% firmer than control at the ripe stage. FaβGal4 mRNA levels were reduced by 70% in ripe fruits from these selected transgenic lines, but they also showed significant silencing of FaβGal1, although the genes did not share significant similarity. These two transgenic lines also showed an increase in pectin covalently bound to the cell wall, extracted using Na2CO3. The amount of galactose in cell walls from transgenic fruits was 30% higher than in control; notably, the galactose increase was larger in the 1 M KOH fraction, which is enriched in hemicellulose. These results suggest that FaβGal4 participates in the solubilization of covalently bound pectins during ripening, reducing strawberry fruit firmness. PMID:26585222

  17. FaQR, Required for the Biosynthesis of the Strawberry Flavor Compound 4-Hydroxy-2,5-Dimethyl-3(2H)-Furanone, Encodes an Enone Oxidoreductase

    PubMed Central

    Raab, Thomas; López-Ráez, Juan Antonio; Klein, Dorothée; Caballero, Jose Luis; Moyano, Enriqueta; Schwab, Wilfried; Muñoz-Blanco, Juan

    2006-01-01

    The flavor of strawberry (Fragaria × ananassa) fruit is dominated by an uncommon group of aroma compounds with a 2,5-dimethyl-3(H)-furanone structure. We report the characterization of an enzyme involved in the biosynthesis of 4-hydroxy-2,5-dimethyl-3(2H)-furanone (HDMF; Furaneol), the key flavor compound in strawberries. Protein extracts were partially purified, and the observed distribution of enzymatic activity correlated with the presence of a single polypeptide of ∼37 kD. Sequence analysis of two peptide fragments showed total identity with the protein sequence of a strongly ripening-induced, auxin-dependent putative quinone oxidoreductase, Fragaria × ananassa quinone oxidoreductase (FaQR). The open reading frame of the FaQR cDNA consists of 969 bp encoding a 322–amino acid protein with a calculated molecular mass of 34.3 kD. Laser capture microdissection followed by RNA extraction and amplification demonstrated the presence of FaQR mRNA in parenchyma tissue of the strawberry fruit. The FaQR protein was functionally expressed in Escherichia coli, and the monomer catalyzed the formation of HDMF. After chemical synthesis and liquid chromatography–tandem mass spectrometry analysis, 4-hydroxy-5-methyl-2-methylene-3(2H)-furanone was confirmed as a substrate of FaQR and the natural precursor of HDMF. This study demonstrates the function of the FaQR enzyme in the biosynthesis of HDMF as enone oxidoreductase and provides a foundation for the improvement of strawberry flavor and the biotechnological production of HDMF. PMID:16517758

  18. FaQR, required for the biosynthesis of the strawberry flavor compound 4-hydroxy-2,5-dimethyl-3(2H)-furanone, encodes an enone oxidoreductase.

    PubMed

    Raab, Thomas; López-Ráez, Juan Antonio; Klein, Dorothée; Caballero, Jose Luis; Moyano, Enriqueta; Schwab, Wilfried; Muñoz-Blanco, Juan

    2006-04-01

    The flavor of strawberry (Fragaria x ananassa) fruit is dominated by an uncommon group of aroma compounds with a 2,5-dimethyl-3(H)-furanone structure. We report the characterization of an enzyme involved in the biosynthesis of 4-hydroxy-2,5-dimethyl-3(2H)-furanone (HDMF; Furaneol), the key flavor compound in strawberries. Protein extracts were partially purified, and the observed distribution of enzymatic activity correlated with the presence of a single polypeptide of approximately 37 kD. Sequence analysis of two peptide fragments showed total identity with the protein sequence of a strongly ripening-induced, auxin-dependent putative quinone oxidoreductase, Fragaria x ananassa quinone oxidoreductase (FaQR). The open reading frame of the FaQR cDNA consists of 969 bp encoding a 322-amino acid protein with a calculated molecular mass of 34.3 kD. Laser capture microdissection followed by RNA extraction and amplification demonstrated the presence of FaQR mRNA in parenchyma tissue of the strawberry fruit. The FaQR protein was functionally expressed in Escherichia coli, and the monomer catalyzed the formation of HDMF. After chemical synthesis and liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry analysis, 4-hydroxy-5-methyl-2-methylene-3(2H)-furanone was confirmed as a substrate of FaQR and the natural precursor of HDMF. This study demonstrates the function of the FaQR enzyme in the biosynthesis of HDMF as enone oxidoreductase and provides a foundation for the improvement of strawberry flavor and the biotechnological production of HDMF. PMID:16517758

  19. Antisense down-regulation of the strawberry β-galactosidase gene FaβGal4 increases cell wall galactose levels and reduces fruit softening.

    PubMed

    Paniagua, Candelas; Blanco-Portales, Rosario; Barceló-Muñoz, Marta; García-Gago, Juan A; Waldron, Keith W; Quesada, Miguel A; Muñoz-Blanco, Juan; Mercado, José A

    2016-02-01

    Strawberry softening is characterized by an increase in the solubilization and depolymerization of pectins from cell walls. Galactose release from pectin side chains by β-galactosidase enzymes has been proposed as one reason for the increase in soluble pectins. A putative β-galactosidase gene, FaβGal4, has been identified using a custom-made oligonucleotide-based strawberry microarray platform. FaβGal4 was expressed mainly in the receptacle during fruit ripening, and was positively regulated by abscisic acid and negatively regulated by auxins. To ascertain the role of FaβGal4 in strawberry softening, transgenic plants containing an antisense sequence of this gene under the control of the CaMV35S promoter were generated. Phenotypic analyses were carried out in transgenic plants during three consecutive growing seasons, using non-transformed plants as control. Two out of nine independent transgenic lines yielded fruits that were 30% firmer than control at the ripe stage. FaβGal4 mRNA levels were reduced by 70% in ripe fruits from these selected transgenic lines, but they also showed significant silencing of FaβGal1, although the genes did not share significant similarity. These two transgenic lines also showed an increase in pectin covalently bound to the cell wall, extracted using Na2CO3. The amount of galactose in cell walls from transgenic fruits was 30% higher than in control; notably, the galactose increase was larger in the 1 M KOH fraction, which is enriched in hemicellulose. These results suggest that FaβGal4 participates in the solubilization of covalently bound pectins during ripening, reducing strawberry fruit firmness. PMID:26585222

  20. Problems with estimating vitamin C intakes.

    PubMed

    Sinha, R; Block, G; Taylor, P R

    1993-04-01

    The vitamin C content of foods was examined from two national databases and new values were obtained by HPLC. HPLC values were lower in four of the five highest vitamin C contributors to the US diet (orange juice, grapefruit, tomatoes and tomato juice, and potatoes), as well as in broccoli, red peppers, and cooked collard and mustard greens, compared with values from the other databases. When HPLC values were substituted in the Health Habits and History Questionnaire, the resulting estimates of dietary intake of vitamin C in two studies were lower. Despite these lower estimates of absolute intake, in one study the correlation between dietary vitamin C and plasma ascorbic acid was similar. In conclusion, the accuracy of the vitamin C content of foods is important for estimating the absolute amount of vitamin C intake in the population but may not change the ranking of people in epidemiological studies. PMID:8460610

  1. Chromatographic and spectroscopic characterization of urolithins for their determination in biological samples after the intake of foods containing ellagitannins and ellagic acid.

    PubMed

    García-Villalba, Rocío; Espín, Juan Carlos; Tomás-Barberán, Francisco A

    2016-01-01

    Ellagitannins and ellagic acid (EA) are metabolized by the gut microbiota to produce urolithins that could be responsible for the health effects attributed to ellagitannin-containing food products. Several urolithin aglycones could be present in fecal samples while glucuronide and sulphate conjugates are mainly found in plasma and urine. So far, the lack of available standards has made difficult their correct identification and quantification. In the present study, UV and MS spectra characteristics of urolithins and their phase II metabolites have been determined using different systems based on liquid chromatography (LC) coupled with diode-array or mass spectrometer detectors with different analyzers (triple quadrupole (QqQ) and quadrupole time-of-flight (QTOF)). Chromatographic separation was achieved on a reversed-phase Poroshell C18 column (3×100mm, 2.7μm). Elution order, characteristic UV spectra, and relative response factors (RRFs) with respect to their parental compound (EA) and the most common metabolite urolithin A (Uro-A) were determined. This contribution, along with the most important mass spectra characteristics (MRM transitions, qualifier/quantifier ratio, accurate mass and fragmentation pattern) will allow the determination of urolithin metabolites in different biological samples and their quantification even if not all metabolites are commercially available. The methods developed in the three systems have been fully validated in terms of linearity, sensitivity, precision, recovery, matrix effect, selectivity and stability. After that, they were successfully applied to complex biological matrices (urine, feces and plasma) from two human studies in which volunteers consumed ellagitannin-containing foods, such as walnuts and pomegranate extracts. PMID:26341594

  2. Involvement of fertilization antigen (FA-1) in involuntary immunoinfertility in humans.

    PubMed Central

    Naz, R K

    1987-01-01

    Sera from immunoinfertile patients (n = 32) and fertile controls (n = 20) were analyzed for cross-reaction with a purified and characterized sperm-specific glycoprotein, the fertilization antigen (FA-1), employing an enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. The immunoinfertile sera demonstrated a strong reaction with FA-1 when compared with fertile control sera. There was no correlation between the reaction of sera with FA-1 and the titers obtained through the sperm agglutination technique and the sperm immobilization technique. Immunoinfertile sera showed binding with the protein bands in the regions corresponding to FA-1 on Western blots involving sodium deoxycholate-solubilized human sperm. Antigens isolated with immunoaffinity chromatography involving immunoinfertile sera also demonstrated antigen bands corresponding to FA-1 in sodium dodecyl sulfate-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis. Of the seven immunoinfertile couples, three that had antibodies to FA-1 in the male as well as female partners demonstrated a block of fertilization (IVF) due to antibodies bound on the sperm surface. The anti-FA-1 antibody activity was detected in serum as well as in follicular fluid and seminal plasma. Immunoinfertile sera that showed an inhibition of human sperm penetration of zona-free hamster ova showed a significant (P less than 0.001) increase in penetration rates after absorption with FA-1. These results indicate that sera from immunoinfertile patients had antibodies reacting with FA-1, and these antibodies are involved in the fertilization process. Images PMID:3316276

  3. Fatty acid composition and oxidative stability of breast meat from broiler chickens supplemented with Moringa oleifera leaf meal over a period of refrigeration.

    PubMed

    Nkukwana, T T; Muchenje, V; Masika, P J; Hoffman, L C; Dzama, K; Descalzo, A M

    2014-01-01

    Effects of diets supplemented with or without Moringa oleifera leaf meal (MOLM) on fatty acid (FA) composition and oxidative stability of broiler breast meat during refrigerated storage was determined. Dietary treatments (T) were as follows: T1, positive control, 668g/ton Salinomycin and 500g/ton Albac; T2, T3 and T4 contained graded levels of MOLM at 1%, 3% and 5% of dry matter (DM) intake, respectively; and T5, a negative control (0% additives). Oxidative stability was evaluated by thiobarbituric acid reactive substances (TBARS) on day (D) 1-8 of storage at 4°C; and FA analysis was done on samples obtained on D1 and D8. Significant effects on TBARS were noted on day (D) 1, 3, 4 and 7; increased with increasing storage time, and with increase in MOLM supplementation. Highest (P<0.05) C18:0 and C15:0 levels were noted on D1 in T2; C20:0 in T4 on D8; C20:2, C20:3n6 and C22:6n3 in T2; C18:3n6 and P/S ratio in T4 on D1; and n-3 in T3. Thus, despite the high SFA content, additive supplementation of M. oleifera leaf meal up to 5% of the bird's DMI improved the FA profile and reduced lipid oxidation in broiler breast meat. PMID:24001839

  4. Association between Dietary Magnesium Intake and Hyperuricemia

    PubMed Central

    Wei, Jie; Yang, Tuo; Li, Hui; Deng, Zhen-han; Yang, Ye; Zhang, Yi; Ding, Xiang; Xie, Dong-xing; Yang, Tu-bao; Lei, Guang-hua

    2015-01-01

    Objective To examine the cross-sectional associations between dietary magnesium (Mg) intake and hyperuricemia (HU). Methods 5168 subjects were included in this study. Dietary intake was assessed using a validated semi-quantitative food frequency questionnaire. Hyperuricemia (HU) was defined as uric acid ≥ 416 μmol/L for male population and ≥ 360 μmol/L for female. A multivariable logistic analysis model was applied to test the associations after adjusting a number of potential confounding factors. Results The relative odds of the overall prevalence of HU were decreased by 0.57 times in the fourth quintile of Mg intake (OR 0.57, 95% CI 0.35–0.94) and 0.55 times in the fifth quintile (OR 0.55, 95% CI 0.30–1.01) comparing with the lowest quintile, and P for trend was 0.091. The results of multivariable linear regression also suggested a significant inverse association between serum uric acid and Mg intake (β = -0.028, P = 0.022). For male, the relative odds of HU were decreased by 0.62 times in the third quintile of Mg intake (OR 0.62, 95% CI 0.40–0.97), 0.40 times in the fourth quintile (OR 0.40, 95% CI 0.23–0.72) and 0.35 times in the fifth quintile (OR 0.35, 95% CI 0.17–0.71) comparing with the lowest quintile, and P for trend was 0.006. Multivariable adjusted inverse association was also existed between serum uric acid and Mg intake in male population (β = -0.061, P = 0.002). However, no significant association was observed between dietary Mg intake and HU for female. Conclusions The findings of this cross-sectional study indicated that dietary Mg intake is inversely associated with HU, independent of some major confounding factors. In addition, this association remains valid for the male subgroup, but not for the female subgroup. Level of Evidence LevelIII, cross-sectional study. PMID:26536119

  5. Yamadazyma insecticola f.a., sp. nov. and Yamadazyma epiphylla f.a., sp. nov., two novel yeast species.

    PubMed

    Jindamorakot, Sasitorn; Am-In, Somjit; Kaewwichian, Rungluk; Limtong, Savitree

    2015-04-01

    Two yeast strains representing two novel yeast species were isolated from frass of an unidentified insect (ST-78(T)) and the external surfaces of rice leaves (YE170(T)) collected in Thailand. The two strains were genetically, morphologically and phenotypically distinct from recognized species and were found to represent two novel species of the genus Yamadazyma although formation of ascospores was not observed. In terms of pairwise sequence similarity of the D1/D2 region of the large subunit rRNA gene, the closest relative of strain ST-78(T) was Candida lessepsii CBS 9941(T) but with 3.8% nucleotide substitutions, while the closest relative of strain YE170(T) was strain ST-78(T) but with 4.3% nucleotide substitutions. Analysis of the sequences of the internal transcribed spacer 1 and 2 (ITS1-2) regions revealed that strain ST-78 differed from C. lessepsii CBS 9941(T) by 8.8% nucleotide substitutions and from strain YE170(T) by 9.4% nucleotide substitutions. The result of pairwise sequence similarity of the D1/D2 and ITS1-2 regions together with phylogenetic analysis indicated that strains ST-78(T) and YE170(T) represented two novel species within the Yamadazyma clade. The names Yamadazyma insecticola f.a., sp. nov. (type strain ST-78(T) = BCC 8314(T) = NBRC 110421(T) = CBS 13382(T); MycoBank no. MB810546) and Yamadazyma epiphylla f.a., sp. nov. (type strain YE170(T) = BCC 63466(T) = NBRC 110423(T) = CBS 13384(T); MycoBank no. MB810547) are proposed for the two novel yeast species. PMID:25644483

  6. Inverse Association of Serum Docosahexaenoic Acid With Newly Diagnosed Hypertension: A Community-based Case-control Study.

    PubMed

    Yang, Bo; Ding, Fang; Wang, Feng-Lei; Yu, Wei; Li, Duo

    2016-02-01

    Observational studies on circulating fatty acid (FA) and primary prevention of hypertension have yielded inconsistent results, and the association among the Chinese population is not fully clear. The aim of the study was to discern important FAs that can discriminate hypertensive patients from normotensive persons, and investigate associations between the important FAs and risk of hypertension.We conducted a case-control study nested within a community-based cohort of 2447 Chinese participants aged 35 to 79 years who completed a baseline assessment between October 2012 and April 2013. In all, 480 patients with newly diagnosed hypertension were identified at baseline and 480 normotensive individuals were randomly selected as matched normotensive controls. Controls were individually matched to cases by age (±2 y), sex, and recruitment center, with a 1:1 case-to-control ratio. Serum FA profile was compared between cases and controls by orthogonal partial least squares-discriminant analyses. Odds ratio (OR) with 95% confidence interval (CI) for newly diagnosed hypertension was estimated by a conditional logistical analysis.After adjustment for body mass index, education, profession, family history of hypertension, salt intake, heart rate, blood lipids, and fasting glucose levels, serum FA profile in hypertensive patients was typically characterized by higher 16:0 and 16:1n-7, and lower 18:2n-6 and 22:6n-3, compared with normotensive controls. Docosahexaenoic acid (22:6n-3) and palmitoleic acid (16:1n-7) were identified as the important FA contributing most to the intergroup separations. When comparing the highest and lowest quartile of FA composition, newly diagnosed hypertension was negatively associated with 22:6n-3 (OR 0.65; 95% CI, 0.45-0.93; P for trend = 0.02), but positively associated with 16:1n-7 (OR 2.14; 95% CI, 1.46-3.12; P for trend < 0.001). The associations remained pronounced after multiple adjustments and in further stratified analyses

  7. Intakes of (n-3) fatty acids and fatty fish are not associated with cognitive performance and 6-year cognitive change in men participating in the Veterans Affairs Normative Aging Study.

    PubMed

    van de Rest, Ondine; Spiro, Avron; Krall-Kaye, Elizabeth; Geleijnse, Johanna M; de Groot, Lisette C P G M; Tucker, Katherine L

    2009-12-01

    High intake of fish and (n-3) PUFA may protect against age-related cognitive decline. However, results are inconsistent and limited data exist regarding changes in multiple cognitive functions over a longer period of time. In this study, we assessed the association between fatty fish intake as well as (n-3) PUFA intake with cognitive performance and cognitive change over 6 y in 1025 elderly men. Participants were from the Veterans Affairs Normative Aging Study. Cognitive function was assessed with a battery of cognitive tests focusing on factors representing memory/language, speed, and visuospatial/attention. Dietary intakes were assessed with a validated FFQ. We used general linear models to assess cross-sectional associations and mixed models to assess the associations over time. Models were adjusted for age, education, BMI, smoking, diabetes, and intake of alcohol, saturated fat, vitamin C, and vitamin E. The mean age of participating men was 68 y at baseline. Median fish consumption ranged from 0.2 to 4.2 servings/wk across quartiles. Cross-sectional analyses showed no association between fatty fish or (n-3) PUFA intake and cognitive performance. Longitudinal analyses, over 6 y of follow-up, also did not show any significant associations between fatty fish or (n-3) PUFA intake and cognitive change. In this population of elderly men, intake of neither fatty fish nor (n-3) PUFA was associated with cognitive performance. PMID:19828689

  8. The effect of monensin concentration on dry matter intake, ruminal fermentation, short-chain fatty acid absorption, total tract digestibility, and total gastrointestinal barrier function in beef heifers.

    PubMed

    Wood, K M; Pinto, A C J; Millen, D D; Kanafany Guzman, R; Penner, G B

    2016-06-01

    In a 4 × 4 Latin square design (24-d periods), 4 ruminally cannulated Hereford × Angus/Simmental heifers were used to evaluate the effect of increasing levels of monensin concentration on DMI, ruminal fermentation, short-chain fatty acid (SCFA) absorption across the reticulorumen, and total tract barrier function. Heifers were fed a barley-based finishing diet (76% rolled barley grain, 12% barley silage, 8% mineral and vitamin supplement, and 4% canola meal) containing 0, 22, 33 or 48 mg/kg monensin. Urinary recovery of Cr-EDTA was used as an indicator of total tract barrier function (d 18 to 20). Days 20 to 23 were used to evaluate ruminal fermentation and total tract digestibility measurements, and SCFA absorption was measured using the temporarily isolated and washed reticulorumen technique on d 24. Data were analyzed using PROC MIXED of SAS with linear and quadratic contrasts to evaluate the effect of increasing monensin dose. Increasing monensin linearly decreased DMI (10.0, 9.9, 9.3, and 9.1 kg/d for diets containing 0, 22, 33 or 48 mg/kg monensin, respectively; = 0.01) but did not affect the variation in DMI among days. Urinary Cr-EDTA recovery was not ( ≥ 0. 61) affected by increasing dose of monensin, nor was ruminal pH (mean, minimum, maximum, duration less than 5.5, and area under curve; ≥ 0.21). The acetate-to-propionate ratio linearly decreased (1.9, 1.8, 1.4, and 1.3 for diets containing 0, 22, 33 or 48 mg/kg monensin, respectively; = 0.03) with increasing monensin. There was no response ( ≥ 0. 17) for the rate of SCFA absorption with monensin concentration. Total tract ethanol soluble carbohydrate digestibility linearly increased (77.2, 84.7, 88.0, and 94.0% for diets containing 0, 22, 33 or 48 mg/kg monensin, respectively; = 0.003) whereas starch digestibility quadratically responded (93.8, 93.9, 88.0, and 94.0% for diets containing 0, 22, 33 or 48 mg/kg monensin, respectively; < 0.001), where 33 mg/kg inclusion of monensin had a minimal

  9. Metal ion complexation properties of fulvic acids extracted from composted sewage sludge as compared to a soil fulvic acid.

    PubMed

    Esteves da Silva, Joaquim C G; Oliveira, César J S

    2002-07-01

    Complexation properties of an anthropogenic fulvic acid (FA) extracted from a composted sewage sludge (csFA) for Cu(II), Pb(II) and Cd(II) were studied at pH=6 and at a concentration of 25 mg L(-1). For the case of Cu(II), a particular analysis of the complexation phenomena was done at pH values of 3, 4, 5 and 6 and at aqueous FA concentrations of 25, 50 and 100 mg L(-1) by synchronous excitation molecular fluorescence spectroscopy (SyF). Potentiometric titrimetry with Cu(II), Pb(II), Cd(II) and H+ ion-selective electrodes and acid-base conductimetric titrations were used to obtain experimental information about the acid properties and complexation phenomena. A comparison of the results obtained for csFA with a natural soil FA (sFA) was made. Differences have been detected in the structural composition of the two samples and in the structure of the binding sites. In the csFA, binding site structures containing nitrogen probably play an important role in the complexation, besides oxygen containing structures. Complexation by sFA is mainly due to carboxylic and phenolic structures. Nevertheless, this work shows that csFA have macroscopic complexation properties (magnitude of the conditional stability constant and binding sites concentration) somewhat similar to the natural sFA samples. PMID:12188141

  10. N-3 fatty acid intake altered fat content and fatty acid distribution in chicken breast muscle, but did not influence mRNA expression of lipid-related enzymes

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background The conversions of the n-3 and n-6 fatty acid of plant origin to the C20 and C22 very long chain fatty acids (LCPUFAs) is regulated by several cellular enzymes such as elongases and desaturases. Methods Sixty-five male one-day old chickens (Ross 308) were randomly divided into four groups and given one of four diets; with or without linseed oil (LO), (the diets contained equal amounts of fat) and with low or high selenium (Se). Final body weight, amount of Se and fat in breast muscle, fatty acid profile, and gene expression for fatty acid desaturases (Fads1, Fads2, Fads9), HMG-CoA reductase, Acyl-CoA oxidase (Acox), carnitine palmitoyl transferase1 (Cpt1), superoxide dismutase (Sod) and glutathione peroxidase4 (Gpx4) were analyzed in all animals, and Gpx activity in whole blood was determined. Results mRNA expression of elongases and desaturases in chicken breast muscle was not affected by feed rich in C18:3n-3. The highly positive correlation between amount of fat in breast muscle and the product/precursor indices of monounsaturated fatty acid synthesis, and the negative correlation between muscle fat and indices of LCPUFA synthesis should be further studied. Conclusion mRNA expression in chicken breast muscle of elongases and desaturases was not affected by feed rich in C18:3n-3. The highly positive correlation between amount of fat in breast muscle and the product/precursor indices of monounsaturated fatty acid synthesis, and the negative correlation between muscle fat and indices of LCPUFA synthesis should be further studied. PMID:24894510

  11. Biotransformation of rice bran to ferulic acid by pediococcal isolates.

    PubMed

    Kaur, Baljinder; Chakraborty, Debkumar; Kaur, Gundeep; Kaur, Gaganjot

    2013-06-01

    Ferulic acid (FA) is widely used in foods, in beverages, and in various pharmaceutical industries as a precursor of vanillin. FA biotransformation can occur during the growth of lactic acid bacteria (LAB), and its conversion to other phenolic derivatives is observed by many scientists, where ferulic acid esterase (FAE) and ferulic acid decarboxylase (FDC) play significant roles. The present study aimed at screening a panel of LAB for their ability to release FA from rice bran, an agro waste material. FAE and FDC activities were analyzed for the preliminary screening of various dairy isolates. Two Pediococcus acidilactici isolates were selected for studying further the hydrolysis of FA from rice bran and its bioconversion into phenolic derivatives like 4-ethylphenol, vanillin, vanillic acid, and vanillyl alcohol. P. acidilactici M16, a probiotic isolate, has great potential for the production of FA from rice bran and could be exploited as starter culture in the food industry for the production of biovanillin. PMID:23615732

  12. Direct Comparison of Mice Null for Liver or Intestinal Fatty Acid-binding Proteins Reveals Highly Divergent Phenotypic Responses to High Fat Feeding*

    PubMed Central

    Gajda, Angela M.; Zhou, Yin Xiu; Agellon, Luis B.; Fried, Susan K.; Kodukula, Sarala; Fortson, Walter; Patel, Khamoshi; Storch, Judith

    2013-01-01

    The enterocyte expresses two fatty acid-binding proteins (FABP), intestinal FABP (IFABP; FABP2) and liver FABP (LFABP; FABP1). LFABP is also expressed in liver. Despite ligand transport and binding differences, it has remained uncertain whether these intestinally coexpressed proteins, which both bind long chain fatty acids (FA), are functionally distinct. Here, we directly compared IFABP−/− and LFABP−/− mice fed high fat diets containing long chain saturated or unsaturated fatty acids, reasoning that providing an abundance of dietary lipid would reveal unique functional properties. The results showed that mucosal lipid metabolism was indeed differentially modified, with significant decreases in FA incorporation into triacylglycerol (TG) relative to phospholipid (PL) in IFABP−/− mice, whereas LFABP−/− mice had reduced monoacylglycerol incorporation in TG relative to PL, as well as reduced FA oxidation. Interestingly, striking differences were found in whole body energy homeostasis; LFABP−/− mice fed high fat diets became obese relative to WT, whereas IFABP−/− mice displayed an opposite, lean phenotype. Fuel utilization followed adiposity, with LFABP−/− mice preferentially utilizing lipids, and IFABP−/− mice preferentially metabolizing carbohydrate for energy production. Changes in body weight and fat may arise, in part, from altered food intake; mucosal levels of the endocannabinoids 2-arachidonoylglycerol and arachidonoylethanolamine were elevated in LFABP−/−, perhaps contributing to increased energy intake. This direct comparison provides evidence that LFABP and IFABP have distinct roles in intestinal lipid metabolism; differential intracellular functions in intestine and in liver, for LFABP−/− mice, result in divergent downstream effects at the systemic level. PMID:23990461

  13. Ruminal fermentation, milk fatty acid profiles, and productive performance of Holstein dairy cows fed 2 different safflower seeds.

    PubMed

    Dschaak, C M; Noviandi, C T; Eun, J-S; Fellner, V; Young, A J; Zobell, D R; Israelsen, C E

    2011-10-01

    A lactation trial was conducted to determine the effects of supplementing whole safflower seeds (SS) on ruminal fermentation, lactational performance, and milk fatty acid (FA) profiles. Nine multiparous Holstein cows (days in milk = 110 ± 20) were used in a replicated 3 × 3 Latin square design. Each period lasted 21 d, with 14 d of adaptation and 7 d of data collection. Within square, cows were randomly assigned to a sequence of 3 dietary treatments as follows: cottonseed total mixed ration (TMR; CST), conventional SS (variety S-208) TMR (CSST), and NutraSaff SS (Safflower Technologies International, Sidney, MT) TMR (NSST). Diets contained approximately 63% forage (36% alfalfa hay, 4% grass hay, and 23% corn silage) and 37% concentrate supplemented with 2% cottonseed to the CST and 3% conventional or NutraSaff SS to the CSST or the NSST, respectively. Intake of dry matter (DM) averaged 21.8 kg/d and did not differ across diets, but feeding the NSST decreased intake of neutral detergent fiber (NDF) due to lower dietary concentration of NDF in the NSST. Digestibilities of DM and nutrients were similar among treatments. No differences in yields of milk or milk components were observed in response to supplementing SS. Dietary treatments did not affect ruminal pH, total or molar proportions of ruminal volatile FA, and ammonia-N. However, cows fed SS had a higher molar proportion of isobutyrate than those fed the CST diet. Ruminal C16:0 FA concentration increased with the CST, whereas C18:1 cis-9 and C18:2 n-6 tended to increase with SS supplementation, indicating that conventional and NutraSaff SS were partially protected from microbial biohydrogenation. Supplementing SS decreased milk C16:0 concentration, whereas it increased C18:1 cis-9 and C18:1 trans-9. Milk FA C18:1 trans-11 and cis-9, trans-11 conjugated linoleic acid increased and tended to increase with feeding the NSST, respectively, but not the CSST diet. In conclusion, supplementing diets with whole SS at 3

  14. Effects of the storage time on the folic acid added to ready-to-eat meat products manufactured by irradiation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Galán, I.; García, M. L.; Selgas, M. D.

    2013-04-01

    Three different meat products enriched with folic acid (FA) (2.4 mg/100 g) were manufactured: hamburgers, cooked and dry fermented sausages. They were prepared as ready-to-eat (RTE) products using E-beam radiation (2 and 3 kGy) to ensure their safety. The stability of FA and sensory properties of the irradiated meat products were studied during three months of storage under freezing conditions for hamburgers and refrigeration conditions for cooked and dry fermented sausages. FA content was stable in non-irradiated and irradiated hamburgers and cooked sausages over the storage period, whereas it decreased 20% in non-irradiated dry fermented sausages and 12-8% in irradiated samples at 2 and 3 kGy, respectively. Nevertheless, the final amount remained sufficient to provide the recommended daily intake. Panelists rated the sensory properties of the hamburger as satisfactory even after irradiation and 90 days of storage. The overall acceptability of RTE cooked and dry fermented sausages improved slightly with storage (P>0.05).

  15. Modelling of Usual Nutrient Intakes: Potential Impact of the Choices Programme on Nutrient Intakes in Young Dutch Adults

    PubMed Central

    Roodenburg, Annet J. C.; van Ballegooijen, Adriana J.; Dötsch-Klerk, Mariska; van der Voet, Hilko; Seidell, Jacob C.

    2013-01-01

    Introduction The Choices Programme is an internationally applicable nutrient profiling system with nutrition criteria for trans fatty acids (TFA), saturated fatty acids, sodium, added sugar and for some product groups energy and fibre. These criteria determine whether foods are eligible to carry a “healthier option” stamp. In this paper a nutrient intake modelling method is described to evaluate these nutritional criteria by investigating the potential effect on nutrient intakes. Methods Data were combined from the 2003 Dutch food consumption survey in young adults (aged 19–30) and the Dutch food composition table into the Monte Carlo Risk Assessment model. Three scenarios were calculated: the “actual intakes” (scenario 1) were compared to scenario 2, where all foods that did not comply were replaced by similar foods that did comply with the Choices criteria. Scenario 3 was the same as scenario 2 adjusted for the difference in energy density between the original and replacement food. Additional scenarios were calculated where snacks were not or partially replaced and stratified analyses for gender, age, Body Mass Index (BMI) and education. Results Calculated intake distributions showed that median energy intake was reduced by 16% by replacing normally consumed foods with Choices compliant foods. Intakes of nutrients with a maximal intake limit were also reduced (ranging from −23% for sodium and −62% for TFA). Effects on intakes of beneficial nutrients varied from an unintentional reduction in fat soluble vitamin intakes (−15 to −28%) to an increase of 28% for fibre and 17% calcium. Stratified analyses in this homogeneous study population showed only small differences across gender, age, BMI and education. Conclusions This intake modelling method showed that with consumption of Choices compliant foods, nutrient intakes shift towards population intake goals for the nutrients for which nutrition criteria were defined, while effects on beneficial

  16. Impact behavior of FeAl alloy FA-350

    SciTech Connect

    Alexander, D.J.

    1994-09-01

    The tensile properties and impact behavior of the iron aluminide FeAl-type alloy FA-350 [Fe-35.8Al-0.05Zr-0.24B (at. %)] have been studied over the temperature range of {minus}100 to 800C. Half-size Charpy specimens were either oil quenched from 700C or furnace cooled. The energy absorbed during the impact test showed a maximum value at 100 to 200C, with decreasing energy as the temperature was increased, for both heat treatments. The furnace-cooled material had greater energy absorption than the oil-quenched material. The tensile tests showed increasing ductility (as measured by total elongation) with increasing temperature. The furnace-cooled material had lower strength and higher ductility than the oil-quenched material. Fractographic examination of the oil-quenched impact specimens revealed that several different fracture modes operated, depending on the test temperature. Fracture occurred by intergranular and quasicleavage fracture at low temperatures, predominantly quasicleavage at intermediate temperatures, and intergranular fracture at 800C. For the furnace-cooled material fracture was predominantly quasicleavage at all temperatures. The higher ductility and energy absorption for the furnace-cooled material is believed to be the result of softening due to a decrease in the retained vacancy concentration.

  17. Clustering PPI data by combining FA and SHC method

    PubMed Central

    2015-01-01

    Clustering is one of main methods to identify functional modules from protein-protein interaction (PPI) data. Nevertheless traditional clustering methods may not be effective for clustering PPI data. In this paper, we proposed a novel method for clustering PPI data by combining firefly algorithm (FA) and synchronization-based hierarchical clustering (SHC) algorithm. Firstly, the PPI data are preprocessed via spectral clustering (SC) which transforms the high-dimensional similarity matrix into a low dimension matrix. Then the SHC algorithm is used to perform clustering. In SHC algorithm, hierarchical clustering is achieved by enlarging the neighborhood radius of synchronized objects continuously, while the hierarchical search is very difficult to find the optimal neighborhood radius of synchronization and the efficiency is not high. So we adopt the firefly algorithm to determine the optimal threshold of the neighborhood radius of synchronization automatically. The proposed algorithm is tested on the MIPS PPI dataset. The results show that our proposed algorithm is better than the traditional algorithms in precision, recall and f-measure value. PMID:25707632

  18. Exterior building details of Building D, east façade: painted concrete ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    Exterior building details of Building D, east façade: painted concrete east face façade, main entry has flat cement plaster surround, double door six light over panels, two light transom over double door; westerly view - San Quentin State Prison, Building 22, Point San Quentin, San Quentin, Marin County, CA

  19. POROUS DIKE INTAKE EVALUATION

    EPA Science Inventory

    The report gives results of an evaluation of a porous dike intake. A small-scale test facility was constructed and continuously operated for 2 years under field conditions. Two stone dikes of gabion construction were tested: one consisted of 7.5 cm stones; and the other, 20 cm st...

  20. Peptides and food intake.

    PubMed

    Sobrino Crespo, Carmen; Perianes Cachero, Aránzazu; Puebla Jiménez, Lilian; Barrios, Vicente; Arilla Ferreiro, Eduardo

    2014-01-01

    The mechanisms for controlling food intake involve mainly an interplay between gut, brain, and adipose tissue (AT), among the major organs. Parasympathetic, sympathetic, and other systems are required for communication between the brain satiety center, gut, and AT. These neuronal circuits include a variety of peptides and hormones, being ghrelin the only orexigenic molecule known, whereas the plethora of other factors are inhibitors of appetite, suggesting its physiological relevance in the regulation of food intake and energy homeostasis. Nutrients generated by food digestion have been proposed to activate G-protein-coupled receptors on the luminal side of enteroendocrine cells, e.g., the L-cells. This stimulates the release of gut hormones into the circulation such as glucagon-like peptide-1 (GLP-1), oxyntomodulin, pancreatic polypeptides, peptide tyrosine tyrosine, and cholecystokinin, which inhibit appetite. Ghrelin is a peptide secreted from the stomach and, in contrast to other gut hormones, plasma levels decrease after a meal and potently stimulate food intake. Other circulating factors such as insulin and leptin relay information regarding long-term energy stores. Both hormones circulate at proportional levels to body fat content, enter the CNS proportionally to their plasma levels, and reduce food intake. Circulating hormones can influence the activity of the arcuate nucleus (ARC) neurons of the hypothalamus, after passing across the median eminence. Circulating factors such as gut hormones may also influence the nucleus of the tractus solitarius (NTS) through the adjacent circumventricular organ. On the other hand, gastrointestinal vagal afferents converge in the NTS of the brainstem. Neural projections from the NTS, in turn, carry signals to the hypothalamus. The ARC acts as an integrative center, with two major subpopulations of neurons influencing appetite, one of them coexpressing neuropeptide Y and agouti-related protein (AgRP) that increases food

  1. Peptides and Food Intake

    PubMed Central

    Sobrino Crespo, Carmen; Perianes Cachero, Aránzazu; Puebla Jiménez, Lilian; Barrios, Vicente; Arilla Ferreiro, Eduardo

    2014-01-01

    The mechanisms for controlling food intake involve mainly an interplay between gut, brain, and adipose tissue (AT), among the major organs. Parasympathetic, sympathetic, and other systems are required for communication between the brain satiety center, gut, and AT. These neuronal circuits include a variety of peptides and hormones, being ghrelin the only orexigenic molecule known, whereas the plethora of other factors are inhibitors of appetite, suggesting its physiological relevance in the regulation of food intake and energy homeostasis. Nutrients generated by food digestion have been proposed to activate G-protein-coupled receptors on the luminal side of enteroendocrine cells, e.g., the L-cells. This stimulates the release of gut hormones into the circulation such as glucagon-like peptide-1 (GLP-1), oxyntomodulin, pancreatic polypeptides, peptide tyrosine tyrosine, and cholecystokinin, which inhibit appetite. Ghrelin is a peptide secreted from the stomach and, in contrast to other gut hormones, plasma levels decrease after a meal and potently stimulate food intake. Other circulating factors such as insulin and leptin relay information regarding long-term energy stores. Both hormones circulate at proportional levels to body fat content, enter the CNS proportionally to their plasma levels, and reduce food intake. Circulating hormones can influence the activity of the arcuate nucleus (ARC) neurons of the hypothalamus, after passing across the median eminence. Circulating factors such as gut hormones may also influence the nucleus of the tractus solitarius (NTS) through the adjacent circumventricular organ. On the other hand, gastrointestinal vagal afferents converge in the NTS of the brainstem. Neural projections from the NTS, in turn, carry signals to the hypothalamus. The ARC acts as an integrative center, with two major subpopulations of neurons influencing appetite, one of them coexpressing neuropeptide Y and agouti-related protein (AgRP) that increases food

  2. Yacon diet (Smallanthus sonchifolius, Asteraceae) improves hepatic insulin resistance via reducing Trb3 expression in Zucker fa/fa rats

    PubMed Central

    Satoh, H; Audrey Nguyen, M T; Kudoh, A; Watanabe, T

    2013-01-01

    Objective: Yacon is a perennial plant forming a clump of >20 big, edible underground tubers. Yacon, which originates from South America, has become increasingly popular in the Japanese diet for tubers have a lower caloric value and a high fiber content. Recent studies have suggested that yacon feeding ameliorates diabetes as indicated by reduced blood glucose. Methods: We fed male Zucker fa/fa rats for 5 weeks with isocaloric normal chow diet containing from 6.5% control aroid or 6.5% yacon. Insulin sensitivity was evaluated by euglycemic-hyperinsulinemic clamp study. Results: Body weight was comparable between yacon- and aroid-fed rats. In the basal state, yacon feeding had an effect to lower fasting glucose levels from 184.1±4.1 to 167.8±2.7 mg dl−1 (P<0.01), as well as basal hepatic glucose output (HGO) from 9.9±0.4 to 7.4 ± 0.2 mg kg−1 per min (P<0.01). During the clamp studies, the glucose infusion rate required to maintain euglycemia was increased by 12.3% in yacon-fed rat. The insulin suppression of HGO was also increased in yacon-fed rats compared with control rats (85.3±2.4% vs 77.0±3.0% P<0.05), whereas the glucose disposal rate was not different between the two groups. Consistent with the clamp data, the insulin-stimulated phosphorylation of Akt was significantly enhanced in liver but not in skeletal muscle. Furthermore, tribbles 3 (Trb3) expression, which is a negative regulator of Akt activity, was markedly reduced in the liver of yacon-fed rats compared with control rats. Conclusion: These results indicate that the effect of yacon feeding to reduce blood glucose is likely due to its beneficial effects on hepatic insulin sensitivity in the insulin resistant state. PMID:23712282

  3. The MS6001FA gas turbine in mid-size combined cycle and cogeneration applications

    SciTech Connect

    Ruegger, W.A.; Anderson, R.O.

    1994-12-31

    The MS6001FA gas turbine is the latest addition to the F-technology family of gas turbines. The design is based on an aerodynamic scaling of the proven MS7001FA and MS9001FA products and is available in both 50 and 60 Hz configurations. As a result of its higher F-technology firing temperature, the 6FA is ideally suited for combined cycle and other heat recovery applications where its performance represents a significant improvement over previously available mid-size gas turbines. This paper describes the basic design of the MS6001FA, including its auxiliary systems. The gas turbine`s performance in simple cycle, combined cycle, repowering, and cogeneration applications is also reviewed.

  4. Integrated Tail Buffet Loads on the F/A-18

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Meyn, Larry A.; James, Kevin D.

    1994-01-01

    The unsteady pressures acting on the vertical tails of a full-scale F/A-18 fighter aircraft were studied to gain a better understanding of tail-buffet loads that frequently occur on fighter aircraft operating at high angles-of-attack. Data for the study were acquired during two test entries in the 80- by 120-Foot Wind Tunnel wherein the aircraft was tested at wind speeds up to 100 knots and at angles-of-attack from 20deg to 40deg. For the purposes of this paper, the primary difference between the two tests is that, during the first wind-tunnel entry, the pressure transducers were more sparsely spaced and covered less of the fin than during the second entry. In addition to a brief description of the spectral analysis methods used for the unsteady aerodynamic pressures and loads, an analysis of the effects of sensor density on estimating integrated loads is presented. It was found that the integrated loads determined from sparse sensor arrays are significantly higher than actual loads. However, a modest increase in the number of sensors can greatly reduce the error and a method for correcting load estimates from sparse sensor arrays is also suggested. The results for the time-averaged, power-spectral analysis are then presented for the tail-fin bending moments. Power spectra are presented for the aircraft at zero sideslip over an angle-of-attack range from 20deg to 40deg and for the aircraft at an angle-of-attack of 30deg over a sideslip range from -16deg to 16deg. Since the aircraft was equipped with a removable leading-edge extension (LEX) fence to reduce tail-buffet loads, the tail-fin bending moment loads are also presented for that configuration. The LEX fence is shown to significantly reduce bending moment loads over a broad range frequencies, for all the aircraft attitudes presented.

  5. Folate Deficiency and Folic Acid Supplementation: The Prevention of Neural-Tube Defects and Congenital Heart Defects

    PubMed Central

    Czeizel, Andrew E.; Dudás, Istvan; Vereczkey, Attila; Bánhidy, Ferenc

    2013-01-01

    Diet, particularly vitamin deficiency, is associated with the risk of birth defects. The aim of this review paper is to show the characteristics of common and severe neural-tube defects together with congenital heart defects (CHD) as vitamin deficiencies play a role in their origin. The findings of the Hungarian intervention (randomized double-blind and cohort controlled) trials indicated that periconceptional folic acid (FA)-containing multivitamin supplementation prevented the major proportion (about 90%) of neural-tube defects (NTD) as well as a certain proportion (about 40%) of congenital heart defects. Finally the benefits and drawbacks of three main practical applications of folic acid/multivitamin treatment such as (i) dietary intake; (ii) periconceptional supplementation; and (iii) flour fortification are discussed. The conclusion arrived at is indeed confirmation of Benjamin Franklin’s statement: “An ounce of prevention is better than a pound of care”. PMID:24284617

  6. Ventilatory Function in Young Adults and Dietary Antioxidant Intake

    PubMed Central

    Garcia-Larsen, Vanessa; Amigo, Hugo; Bustos, Patricia; Bakolis, Ioannis; Rona, Roberto J.

    2015-01-01

    Dietary antioxidants may protect against poor ventilatory function. We assessed the relation between ventilatory function and antioxidant components of diet in young Chileans. Forced expiratory volume in 1 s (FEV1), forced vital capacity (FVC), and the ratio FEV1/FVC were measured in 1232 adults aged 22–28 years, using a Vitalograph device. Dietary intake was ascertained with a food frequency questionnaire (FFQ) designed for this study, from which nutrient and flavonoid intakes were estimated. Dietary patterns were derived with Principal Component Analysis (PCA). After controlling for potential confounders, dietary intake of total catechins was positively associated with FVC (Regression coefficient (RC) of highest vs. lowest quintile of intake 0.07; 95% CI 0.01 to 0.15; p per trend 0.006). Total fruit intake was related to FVC (RC of highest vs. lowest quintile 0.08; 95% CI 0.003 to 0.15; p per trend 0.02). Intake of omega 3 fatty acids was associated with a higher FEV1 (RC for highest vs. lowest quintile 0.08; 95% CI 0.01 to 0.15 L; p per trend 0.02) and with FVC 0.08 (RC in highest vs. lowest quintile of intake 0.08, 95% CI 0.001 to 0.16; p per trend 0.04). Our results show that fresh fruits, flavonoids, and omega 3 fatty acids may contribute to maintain ventilatory function. PMID:25884660

  7. Removing Potatoes from Children's Diets May Compromise Potassium Intake.

    PubMed

    Nicklas, Theresa A; Liu, Yan; Islam, Noemi; O'Neil, Carol E

    2016-01-01

    White potatoes are a forgotten source of nutrients. The goal of this study was to identify the nutritional implications of replacing a composite of white potatoes with a composite of vegetables commonly consumed by children aged 2-18 y (n = 3460) in a nationally representative sample. The NHANES 2005-2012 24-h dietary recall data were used to determine nutrient intake. Two replacement models were developed: one for potato consumers and another for those consuming vegetables other than potatoes. Analyses focused on 1) mean nutrient contributions per 1 cup equivalent vegetable composite (VC)/potato composite (PC) consumed by participants, and 2) mean daily nutrient intake when the nutrients per 1 cup equivalent PC replaced the nutrients per 1 cup equivalent VC. Covariate adjusted analysis was tested for statistical significance (P < 0.002). When 1 cup equivalent VC replaced 1 cup equivalent PC, significantly lower mean intakes were found for 20 of the 23 nutrients studied and higher mean intakes of total sugars, folate, and calcium. Differences were found including higher total intakes of monounsaturated fatty acids and potassium and lower total intakes of vitamins A and K. The percentage contribution of the PC to total daily nutrient intake was 6% for total energy, 8% for total fat, 5% for saturated fatty acids, 13% for dietary fiber, 4% for sodium, and 11% for potassium. Both composites contributed a variety of nutrients to the total diet; the consumption of white potatoes may be an important strategy to help meet the potassium recommendation. PMID:26773033

  8. Characterization of folic acid/native cyclodextrins host-guest complexes in solution

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ceborska, Magdalena; Zimnicka, Magdalena; Wszelaka-Rylik, Małgorzata; Troć, Anna

    2016-04-01

    The complexation of folic acid (FA) with native cyclodextrins was studied and this process was used for the comparison of 1H NMR, ITC and ESIMS for the evaluation of association constants. The stability increases in the series: α-cyclodextrin/FA < γ-cyclodextrin/FA < β-cyclodextrin/FA. 1H NMR and ITC gave comparable results in regard to association constant values, while results obtained for MS were considerably higher due to different interactions (electrostatic instead of hydrophobic) responsible for the stabilization of the complexes. The dimerization of FA in water was also studied, as well as its impact on the process of complexation with native cyclodextrins.

  9. Advantageous effect of theanine intake on cognition.

    PubMed

    Tamano, Haruna; Fukura, Kotaro; Suzuki, Miki; Sakamoto, Kazuhiro; Yokogoshi, Hidehiko; Takeda, Atsushi

    2014-11-01

    Theanine, γ-glutamylethylamide, is one of the major amino acid components in green tea. On the basis of the preventive effect of theanine intake after weaning on stress-induced impairment of recognition memory, the advantageous effect of theanine intake on recognition memory was examined in young rats, which were fed water containing 0.3% theanine for 3 weeks after weaning. The rats were subjected to object recognition test. Object recognition memory was maintained in theanine-administered rats 48 hours after the training, but not in the control rats. When in vivo dentate gyrus long-term potentiation (LTP) was induced, it was more greatly induced in theanine-administered rats than in the control rats. The levels of brain-derived neurotropic factor and nerve growth factor in the hippocampus were significantly higher in theanine-administered rats than in the control rats. The present study indicates the advantageous effect of theanine intake after weaning on recognition memory. It is likely that theanine intake is of advantage to the development of hippocampal function after weaning. PMID:24621060

  10. Rapid Quantitation of Ascorbic and Folic Acids in SRM 3280 Multivitamin/Multielement Tablets using Flow-Injection Tandem Mass Spectrometry

    SciTech Connect

    Bhandari, Deepak; Kertesz, Vilmos; Van Berkel, Gary J

    2013-01-01

    RATIONALE: Ascorbic acid (AA) and folic acid (FA) are water-soluble vitamins and are usually fortified in food and dietary supplements. For the safety of human health, proper intake of these vitamins is recommended. Improvement in the analysis time required for the quantitative determination of these vitamins in food and nutritional formulations is desired. METHODS: A simple and fast (~5 min) in-tube sample preparation was performed, independently for FA and AA, by mixing extraction solvent with a powdered sample aliquot followed by agitation, centrifugation, and filtration to recover an extract for analysis. Quantitative detection was achieved by flow-injection (1 L injection volume) electrospray ionization tandem mass spectrometry (ESI-MS/MS) in negative ion mode using the method of standard addition. RESULTS: Method of standard addition was employed for the quantitative estimation of each vitamin in a sample extract. At least 2 spiked and 1 non-spiked sample extract were injected in triplicate for each quantitative analysis. Given an injection-to-injection interval of approximately 2 min, about 18 min was required to complete the quantitative estimation of each vitamin. The concentration values obtained for the respective vitamins in the standard reference material (SRM) 3280 using this approach were within the statistical range of the certified values provided in the NIST Certificate of Analysis. The estimated limit of detections of FA and AA were 13 and 5.9 ng/g, respectively. CONCLUSIONS: Flow-injection ESI-MS/MS was successfully applied for the rapid quantitation of FA and AA in SRM 3280 multivitamin/multielement tablets.

  11. FaRe: A Mathematica package for tensor reduction of Feynman integrals

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Re Fiorentin, Michele

    2016-08-01

    In this paper, we present FaRe, a package for Mathematica that implements the decomposition of a generic tensor Feynman integral, with arbitrary loop number, into scalar integrals in higher dimension. In order for FaRe to work, the package FeynCalc is needed, so that the tensor structure of the different contributions is preserved and the obtained scalar integrals are grouped accordingly. FaRe can prove particularly useful when it is preferable to handle Feynman integrals with free Lorentz indices and tensor reduction of high-order integrals is needed. This can then be achieved with several powerful existing tools.

  12. Growth performance, carcass traits, physiochemical characteristics and intramuscular fatty acid composition of finishing Japanese black steers fed soybean curd residue and soy sauce cake.

    PubMed

    Yasuda, Kaori; Kitagawa, Masayuki; Oishi, Kazato; Hirooka, Hiroyuki; Tamura, Takemi; Kumagai, Hajime

    2016-07-01

    This study was conducted to determine the effects of dietary soybean curd residue (SCR) and soy sauce cake (SSC) on the growth performance, carcass traits and physiochemical and intramuscular fatty acid (FA) characteristics in Japanese Black steers. Ten steers (29.7 ± 0.3 months old, 856.6 ± 24.4 kg body weight) were assigned to either treatment C, fed a conventional concentrate or T, fed the test diet including dried SCR and SSC for 3 months. In growth performance, dry matter (DM) intake and average daily gain, and carcass traits did not differ significantly between the treatments. Color of beef was affected by the dietary treatments and meat samples from T showed higher a(*) value and chroma than those in C. On FA composition, there was no significant difference between the treatments in neutral lipids, whereas in polar lipids, meat samples from T had higher C16:1 (P < 0.05) and tended to have higher C16:0 (P = 0.05) and C18:1 (P = 0.08), but lower C17:0 (P = 0.098), C18:2 (P = 0.06) and C20:4 (P = 0.07) than those from C. The study suggested that SCR and SSC could be used as a substitute for conventional concentrate and would influence meat color and intramuscular FA composition of polar lipids. PMID:26663641

  13. Evaluation of the use of esterified fatty acid oils enriched in medium-chain fatty acids in weight loss diets for dogs.

    PubMed

    Fragua, V; Barroeta, A C; Manzanilla, E G; Codony, R; Villaverde, C

    2015-04-01

    Esterified fatty acid oils (EAOs) are obtained from esterification of vegetable acid oils with glycerol. These fat sources have the same fatty acid (FA) composition as their respective native oils but new chemical properties. Several studies have confirmed the potential of medium-chain fatty acids (MCFA) to reduce fat mass (FM) in humans and rodents. This study investigates the use of EAOs with different MCFA proportions on food preferences, digestibility and weight loss management in dogs. A basal diet was supplemented with 8% of three different fat sources: C0: soya bean-canola EAO, C20: soya bean-canola (80%) coconut (20%) EAO and C40: soya bean-canola (60%) coconut (40%) EAO. Food preference of these EAOs was tested using a two-pan preference test. Dogs presented a higher daily food intake of C20 and C40 compared to C0 (C20: 155 ± 18.6 g vs. C0: 17 ± 7.0 g, p < 0.001; C40: 117 ± 13.9 g vs. C0: 28 ± 10.5 g, p < 0.05 respectively). Also, the digestibility of the three experimental diets was tested. C20 and C40 showed higher ether extract, total FA and saturated FA digestibilities (p < 0.05) than C0 diet. Lastly, the three diets were investigated in a 14-week weight loss study, following 16 weeks of ad libitum feeding to induce overweight condition. Body weight (BW) reduction was lower (C0: 20.1 ± 2.32%, C20: 14.6 ± 1.43% and C40: 15.7 ± 1.23%, p < 0.05) and FM was higher (FM, 18.7 ± 3.42%, 27.9 ± 3.90% and 28.2 ± 2.88% for C0, C20 and C40, respectively, p < 0.05) for diets C20 and C40 than for C0. Feeding diets with MCFA at these inclusion levels to experimentally overweight dogs during 14 weeks do not result in faster weight loss compared to unsaturated long-chain FA. PMID:25865422

  14. Effects of conjugated linoleic acid supplementation and feeding level on dairy performance, milk fatty acid composition, and body fat changes in mid-lactation goats.

    PubMed

    Ghazal, S; Berthelot, V; Friggens, N C; Schmidely, P

    2014-11-01

    The objective of this trial was to study the interaction between the supplementation of lipid-encapsulated conjugated linoleic acid (CLA; 4.5 g of cis-9,trans-11 C18:2 and 4.5 g of trans-10,cis-12 C18:2) and feeding level to test if milk performance or milk fatty acid (FA) profile are affected by the interaction between CLA and feeding level. Twenty-four dairy goats were used in an 8-wk trial with a 3-wk adaptation to the experimental ration that contained corn silage, beet pulp, barley, and a commercial concentrate. During the third week, goats were assigned into blocks of 2 goats according to their dry matter intake (DMI), raw milk yield, and fat yield. Each block was randomly allocated to control (45 g of Ca salt of palm oil/d) or CLA treatment. Within each block, one goat was fed to cover 100% (FL100) of the calculated energy requirements and the other was fed 85% of the DMI of the first goat (FL85). Individual milk production and composition were recorded weekly, and milk FA composition was analyzed in wk 3, 5, and 7. Conjugated linoleic acid supplementation reduced milk fat content and fat yield by 17 and 19%, respectively, independent of the feeding level. It reduced both the secretion of milk FA synthesized de novo, and those taken up from the blood. No interaction between CLA and feeding level was observed on milk secretion of any group of FA. The CLA supplementation had no effect on DMI, milk yield, protein, and lactose yields but it improved calculated net energy for lactation balance. Goats fed the FL100 × CLA diet tended to have the highest DMI and protein yield. The interaction between CLA and feeding level was not significant for any other variables. Compared with the goats fed FL100, those fed FL85 had lower DMI, lower net energy for lactation balance, and lower digestible protein in the intestine balance. The body weight; milk yield; milk fat, protein, and lactose yields; and fat, protein, lactose, and urea contents in milk were not affected by

  15. Muscle fatigue resistance in the rat hindlimb in vivo from low dietary intakes of tuna fish oil that selectively increase phospholipid n-3 docosahexaenoic acid according to muscle fibre type.

    PubMed

    Henry, R; Peoples, G E; McLennan, P L

    2015-09-28

    Dietary fish oil (FO) modulates muscle O2 consumption and contractile function, predictive of effects on muscle fatigue. High doses unattainable through human diet and muscle stimulation parameters used engender uncertainty in their physiological relevance. We tested the hypothesis that nutritionally relevant FO doses can modulate membrane fatty acid composition and muscle fatigue. Male Sprague-Dawley rats were randomised to control (10% olive oil (OO) by weight) or low or moderate FO diet (LowFO and ModFO) (HiDHA tuna fish oil) for 15 weeks (LowFO: 0.3% FO, 9.7% OO, 0.25% energy as EPA+DHA; ModFO: 1.25% FO, 8.75% OO, 1.0% energy as EPA+DHA). Hindlimb muscle function was assessed under anaesthesia in vivo using repetitive 5 s burst sciatic nerve stimulation (0.05 ms, 7-12 V, 5 Hz, 10 s duty cycle, 300 s). There were no dietary differences in maximum developed muscle force. Repetitive peak developed force fell to 50% within 62 (SEM 10) s in controls and took longer to decline in FO-fed rats (LowFO 110 (SEM 15) s; ModFO 117 (sem 14) s) (P<0.05). Force within bursts was better sustained with FO and maximum rates of force development and relaxation declined more slowly. The FO-fed rats incorporated higher muscle phospholipid DHA-relative percentages than controls (P<0.001). Incorporation of DHA was greater in the fast-twitch gastrocnemius (Control 9.3 (SEM 0.8) %, LowFO 19.9 (SEM 0.4), ModFO 24.3 (SEM 1.0)) than in the slow-twitch soleus muscle (Control 5.1 (SEM 0.2), LowFO 14.3 (SEM 0.7), ModFO 18.0 (SEM 1.4)) (P<0.001), which was comparable with the myocardium, in line with muscle fibre characteristics. The LowFO and ModFO diets, emulating human dietary and therapeutic supplement intake, respectively, both elicited muscle membrane DHA enrichment and fatigue resistance, providing a foundation for translating these physiological effects to humans. PMID:26266774

  16. Fat source and dietary forage-to-concentrate ratio influences milk fatty-acid composition in lactating cows.

    PubMed

    Vazirigohar, M; Dehghan-Banadaky, M; Rezayazdi, K; Krizsan, S J; Nejati-Javaremi, A; Shingfield, K J

    2014-01-01

    On the basis of the potential benefits to human health there is an increased interest in producing milk containing lower-saturated fatty acid (SFA) and higher unsaturated fatty acid (FA) concentrations, including cis-9 18:1 and cis-9, trans-11-conjugated linoleic acid (CLA). Twenty-four multiparous Holstein cows were used in two experiments according to a completely randomized block design, with 21-day periods to examine the effects of incremental replacement of prilled palm fat (PALM) with sunflower oil (SFO) in high-concentrate diets containing 30 g/kg dry matter (DM) of supplemental fat (Experiment 1) or increases in the forage-to-concentrate (F : C) ratio from 39 : 61 to 48 : 52 of diets containing 30 g/kg DM of SFO (Experiment 2) on milk production, digestibility and milk FA composition. Replacing PALM with SFO had no effect on DM intake, but tended to increase organic matter digestibility, yields of milk, protein and lactose, and decreased linearly milk fat content. Substituting SFO for PALM decreased linearly milk fat 8:0 to 16:0 and cis-9 16:1, and increased linearly 18:0, cis-9 18:1, trans-18:1 (��4 to 16), 18:2 and CLA concentrations. Increases in the F : C ratio of diets containing SFO had no effect on intake, yields of milk, milk protein or milk lactose, lowered milk protein content in a quadratic manner, and increased linearly NDF digestion and milk fat secretion. Replacing concentrates with forages in diets containing SFO increased milk fat 4:0 to 10:0 concentrations in a linear or quadratic manner, decreased linearly cis-9 16:1, trans-6 to -10 18:1, 18:2n-6, trans-7, cis-9 CLA, trans-9, cis-11 CLA and trans-10, cis-12 CLA, without altering milk fat 14:0 to 16:0, trans-11 18:1, cis-9, trans-11 CLA or 18:3n-3 concentrations. In conclusion, replacing prilled palm fat on with SFO in high-concentrate diets had no adverse effects on intake or milk production, other than decreasing milk fat content, but lowered milk fat medium-chain SFA and increased

  17. Relationship between platelet phospholipid FA and mean platelet volume in healthy men.

    PubMed

    Li, Duo; Turner, Alan; Sinclair, Andrew J

    2002-09-01

    Increased mean platelet volume (MPV) has been suggested as an independent risk factor for acute myocardial infarction and the increased reactivity of large platelets. The aim of this study was to investigate the correlation between platelet phospholipid (PL) PUFA composition and MPV in 139 free-living healthy men ages 20-55 yr (vegans, n = 18; ovolacto vegetarians, n = 43; moderate meat-eaters, n = 60; and high meateaters, n = 18). Each subject completed a semiquantitative Food Frequency Questionnaire and gave a blood sample. Platelet PL FA composition and MPV were determined by standard methods. MPV was significantly greater in the vegans than in the ovolacto vegetarian, moderate, or high meat-eater groups (P < 0.01). Both vegan and ovolacto vegetarian groups had significantly higher platelet PL 18:2n-6 and 22:4n-6, and lower 20:5n-3 and 22:6n-3 compared with the moderate and high meat-eater groups. The vegans demonstrated a significant reduction in 20:4n-6 and 22:5n-3 compared with the ovolacto vegetarian, high meat-eater, and moderate meat-eater groups. Bivariate analysis results showed that MPV was significantly positively correlated with platelet PL 18:2n-6 (P = 0.048) and negatively correlated with 20:3n-6 (P = 0.02), 20:5n-3 (P = 0.005), and 22:5n-3 (P< 0.0001), respectively. In a multiple linear regression analysis, after controlling for potential confounding factors such as dietary group, age, exercise, body mass index, and dietary polyunsaturated and saturated fat, cholesterol, carbohydrate, and fiber intake, the MPV was still strongly negatively correlated with platelet PL 20:3n-6 (P = 0.003) and 22:5n-3 (P = 0.001). The present data suggest that 22:5n-3 and 20:3n-6 may play a role in the structural function of the platelet membrane. PMID:12458626

  18. Fatty Acids and Breast Cancer: Make Them on Site or Have Them Delivered.

    PubMed

    Kinlaw, William B; Baures, Paul W; Lupien, Leslie E; Davis, Wilson L; Kuemmerle, Nancy B

    2016-10-01

    Brisk fatty acid (FA) production by cancer cells is accommodated by the Warburg effect. Most breast and other cancer cell types are addicted to fatty acids (FA), which they require for membrane phospholipid synthesis, signaling purposes, and energy production. Expression of the enzymes required for FA synthesis is closely linked to each of the major classes of signaling molecules that stimulate BC cell proliferation. This review focuses on the regulation of FA synthesis in BC cells, and the impact of FA, or the lack thereof, on the tumor cell phenotype. Given growing awareness of the impact of dietary fat and obesity on BC biology, we will also examine the less-frequently considered notion that, in addition to de novo FA synthesis, the lipolytic uptake of preformed FA may also be an important mechanism of lipid acquisition. Indeed, it appears that cancer cells may exist at different points along a "lipogenic-lipolytic axis," and FA uptake could thwart attempts to exploit the strict requirement for FA focused solely on inhibition of de novo FA synthesis. Strategies for clinically targeting FA metabolism will be discussed, and the current status of the medicinal chemistry in this area will be assessed. J. Cell. Physiol. 231: 2128-2141, 2016. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. PMID:26844415

  19. Correlation of carnitine levels to methionine and lysine intake.

    PubMed

    Krajcovicová-Kudlácková, M; Simoncic, R; Béderová, A; Babinská, K; Béder, I

    2000-01-01

    Plasma carnitine levels were measured in two alternative nutrition groups--strict vegetarians (vegans) and lactoovovegetarians (vegetarians consuming limited amounts of animal products such as milk products and eggs). The results were compared to an average sample of probands on mixed nutrition (omnivores). Carnitine levels were correlated with the intake of essential amino acids, methionine and lysine (as substrates of its endogenous synthesis), since the intake of carnitine in food is negligible in the alternative nutrition groups (the highest carnitine content is in meat, lower is in milk products, while fruit, cereals and vegetables contain low or no carnitine at all). An average carnitine level in vegans was significantly reduced with hypocarnitinemia present in 52.9% of probands. Similarly, the intake of methionine and lysine was significantly lower in this group due to the exclusive consumption of plant proteins with reduced content of these amino acids. Carnitine level in lactoovovegetarians was also significantly reduced, but the incidence of values below 30 micromol/l was lower than in vegans representing 17.8% vs. 3.3% in omnivores. Intake of methionine and lysine was also significantly reduced in this group, but still higher compared to vegans (73% of protein intake covered by plant proteins). Significant positive correlation of carnitine levels with methionine and lysine intake in alternative nutrition groups indicates that a significant portion of carnitine requirement is covered by endogenous synthesis. Approximately two thirds of carnitine requirement in omnivores comes from exogenous sources. The results demonstrate the risks of alternative nutrition with respect to the intake of essential amino acids, methionine and lysine, and with respect to the intake and biosynthesis of carnitine. PMID:11043928

  20. 3. Historic American Buildings Survey, George F.A. Palmer, Photographer, June ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    3. Historic American Buildings Survey, George F.A. Palmer, Photographer, June 16, 1936 DETAIL OF HOPPER AND HOISTING MECHANISM (FOR REMOVAL OF MILL STONES. 1757, CUT IN STONE). - Benjamin Hammond Grist Mill, Hammond Hill Road, Kingston, Washington County, RI

  1. 4. Historic American Buildings Survey, George F.A. Palmer, Photographer, June ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    4. Historic American Buildings Survey, George F.A. Palmer, Photographer, June 16, 1936 DETAIL OF RECEIVING TROUGH (BASEMENT). - Benjamin Hammond Grist Mill, Hammond Hill Road, Kingston, Washington County, RI

  2. Exterior building details of Building D, west façade: brick arch ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    Exterior building details of Building D, west façade: brick arch lintel over historic entry that was brick infilled; easterly view - San Quentin State Prison, Building 22, Point San Quentin, San Quentin, Marin County, CA

  3. Exterior building details of Building D, west façade: doublehung wood ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    Exterior building details of Building D, west façade: double-hung wood window with brick arch lintel and brick sill; easterly view - San Quentin State Prison, Building 22, Point San Quentin, San Quentin, Marin County, CA

  4. Exterior building details of Building E, oblique west façade: brick ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    Exterior building details of Building E, oblique west façade: brick arch lintel and brick infilled window with brick sill; southeasterly view - San Quentin State Prison, Building 22, Point San Quentin, San Quentin, Marin County, CA

  5. North façade of crucible steel building; looking southwest Bethlehem ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    North façade of crucible steel building; looking southwest - Bethlehem Steel Corporation, South Bethlehem Works, Crucible Steel Plant, Along Lehigh River, North of Fourth Street, West of Minsi Trail Bridge, Bethlehem, Northampton County, PA

  6. Performance evaluation of a low-temperature solar Rankine cycle system utilizing R245fa

    SciTech Connect

    Wang, X.D.; Zhao, L.; Wang, J.L.; Zhang, W.Z.; Zhao, X.Z.; Wu, W.

    2010-03-15

    A low-temperature solar Rankine system utilizing R245fa as the working fluid is proposed and an experimental system is designed, constructed and tested. Both the evacuated solar collectors and the flat plate solar collectors are used in the experimental system; meanwhile, a rolling-piston R245fa expander is also mounted in the system. The new designed R245fa expander works stably in the experiment, with an average expansion power output of 1.73 kW and an average isentropic efficiency of 45.2%. The overall power generation efficiency estimated is 4.2%, when the evacuated solar collector is utilized in the system, and with the condition of flat plate solar collector, it is about 3.2%. The experimental results show that using R245fa as working fluid in the low-temperature solar power Rankine cycle system is feasible and the performance is acceptable. (author)

  7. Georgia Power Co. Quantities for F.A. P. 425G (Bridge) Contract ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    Georgia Power Co. Quantities for F.A. P. 425G (Bridge) Contract No. 1 and 2 - Tallulah Falls Bridge, Spanning Tallulah Falls River on U.S. Highway 23/State Route 15, Tallulah Falls, Habersham County, GA

  8. West façade of shop building, looking east Bethlehem Steel ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    West façade of shop building, looking east - Bethlehem Steel Corporation, South Bethlehem Works, Tool Steel-Electric Furnace Shop, Along Lehigh River, North of Fourth Street, West of Minsi Trail Bridge, Bethlehem, Northampton County, PA

  9. Exterior building details of Building B, east façade: second floor ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    Exterior building details of Building B, east façade: second floor entrance with cement plaster profiled surround and embedded wood beam end; westerly view - San Quentin State Prison, Building 22, Point San Quentin, San Quentin, Marin County, CA

  10. NASA F/A-18 Flight-Tests Mars Science Lab Radar

    NASA Video Gallery

    A NASA F/A-18 put the Jet Propulsion Laboratory's Mars Science Laboratory landing radar to the test during recent flights over Edwards Air Force Base, Calif. With the test radar housed in a pod und...

  11. View north detail of south façade showing damage to wall ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    View north detail of south façade showing damage to wall - Naval Base Philadelphia-Philadelphia Naval Shipyard, Foundry-Propeller Shop, North of Porter Avenue, west of Third Street West, Philadelphia, Philadelphia County, PA

  12. View northeast; detail of southwest corner showing damage to façade ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    View northeast; detail of southwest corner showing damage to façade - Naval Base Philadelphia-Philadelphia Naval Shipyard, Foundry-Propeller Shop, North of Porter Avenue, west of Third Street West, Philadelphia, Philadelphia County, PA

  13. Exterior building details of Building A; north façade: iron latticed ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    Exterior building details of Building A; north façade: iron latticed gate dungeon entrance, granite base; southerly view - San Quentin State Prison, Building 22, Point San Quentin, San Quentin, Marin County, CA

  14. MISCIBILITY, SOLUBILITY, VISCOSITY, AND DENSITY MEASUREMENTS FOR R-236FA WITH POTENTIAL LUBRICANTS.

    EPA Science Inventory

    Miscibility, solubility, viscosity, and density data are needed to determine the suitability of refrigerant/lubricant combinations for use in refrigeration systems. These property data have been obtained for HFC (hydrofluorocarbon) -236fa and two potential lubricants. The tested ...

  15. NASA Videographer Captures X-51 from F/A-18 Chase

    NASA Video Gallery

    A tiny dashcam video camera records NASA Dryden videographer Lori Losey capturing the historic launch of the Air Force's X-51 Waverider hypersonic vehicle from the rear cockpit of a NASA F/A-18 flo...

  16. East façade, Burton Park Club House, with Amphitheater in foreground, ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    East façade, Burton Park Club House, with Amphitheater in foreground, view to north from Amphitheater stage (90 mm lens). - Burton Park, Club House & Amphitheater, Adjacent ot south end of Chestnut Avenue, San Carlos, San Mateo County, CA

  17. Nearly monotonic problems: A key to effective FA/C distributed sensor interpretation?

    SciTech Connect

    Carver, N.; Lesser, V.; Whitehair, R.

    1996-12-31

    The functionally-accurate, cooperative (FA/C) distributed problem-solving paradigm is one approach for organizing distributed problem solving among homogeneous, cooperating agents. A key assumption of the FA/C model has been that the agents` local solutions can substitute for the raw data in determining the global solutions. This is not the case in general, however. Does this mean that researchers` intuitions have been wrong and/or that FA/C problem solving is not likely to be effective? We suggest that some domains have a characteristic that can account for the success of exchanging mainly local solutions. We call such problems nearly monotonic. This concept is discussed in the context of FA/C-based distributed sensor interpretation.

  18. East and north elevations (rear façade) of quarters no. 2, ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    East and north elevations (rear façade) of quarters no. 2, looking southwest. - Sacramento National Wildlife Refuge, Headquarters Complex, Quarters No. 2, 752 County Road 99W, Willows, Glenn County, CA

  19. Exterior building details of Building A; north façade: fouroverfour doublehung ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    Exterior building details of Building A; north façade: four-over-four double-hung wood sash window with concrete sill; southerly view - San Quentin State Prison, Building 22, Point San Quentin, San Quentin, Marin County, CA

  20. Exterior building details of Building D, west façade: second floor ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    Exterior building details of Building D, west façade: second floor metal multi-pane industrial-type sash windows; easterly view - San Quentin State Prison, Building 22, Point San Quentin, San Quentin, Marin County, CA

  1. View of W.I. Elliott Building, 16th Street façade, detail of ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    View of W.I. Elliott Building, 16th Street façade, detail of typical bay with storefront, view from 16th Street, facing west. - W.I. Elliott Building, 1530 J Street, Sacramento, Sacramento County, CA

  2. Dietary Intake In Adult Female Coeliac Disease Patients In Slovenia

    PubMed Central

    Mičetić-Turk, Dušanka

    2016-01-01

    Abstract Objectives The aim of the study was to assess dietary intake of coeliac disease (CD) patients and to determine if they are meeting the dietary reference values for a balanced diet. Subjects/Methods 40 women with CD, aged from 23 to 76 participated in our study. Total daily intake was assessed by a three-day food diary. Resting metabolic rate (RMR) was calculated using Harris-Benedict equation. Considering physical activity level (PAL) 1.4, the recommended total energy expenditure (TEE) value was determined. The data was evaluated with professional evaluation software Prodi and statistically analysed. Results 40 participants returned the food diary. The average energy intake was significantly too low to ensure the meeting of all-day energy needs (p<0.05). The meals contained a recommended proportion of protein, but a statistically significantly higher proportion of fat (p<0.05), lower proportion of carbohydrates and a significantly lower intake of dietary fibre (p<0.05). Regarding macro-, micro- elements and vitamins, there was a significant lack in the intake of calcium and iodine, folic acid, vitamin D and vitamin A (p<0.05), meanwhile iron intake was at the lower limit of the recommended intake, whereas zinc, potassium and vitamin K intake were significantly higher according to the recommended values, but were comparable with the intake of the general population in the Central European area. Conclusion Even in subjects with adequate or low daily energy intake, their meals contained too much fat, too few carbohydrates and dietary fibre as well as inorganic substances. The patients with CD should get regular nutritional monitoring and education on the quality and balance of a gluten-free diet. PMID:27284377

  3. Memory facilitation educed by food intake.

    PubMed

    Oomura, Y; Sasaki, K; Li, A J

    1993-09-01

    Acidic fibroblast growth factor (aFGF) in rat CSF increased 1000 times in the 2-h period after food intake, or IP, or ICV glucose infusion. The ICV application of aFGF dose dependently depresses and anti-aFGF antibody facilitates food intake. aFGF is produced in the ependymal cells and released into the CSF in response to increased glucose in the CSF caused by food intake. Released aFGF diffused into the brain parenchyma and was taken up into neurons in the hypothalamus, hippocampus, amygdala, etc. IP injection of glucose 2 h before a task that combined acquisition with passive avoidance significantly increased retention of avoidance by mice tested 24 h later. In a Morris water maze task, IP glucose injection 2 h before a first trial block reduced time to find and climb onto a platform hidden just below the water surface. The glucose facilitation of these affective and spatial memory were abolished by pretreatment with anti-aFGF antibody applied ICV. Continuous ICV infusion of aFGF into rats also significantly increased the reliability of passive avoidance for several days. After food intake, centrally released aFGF reaches the hippocampus and facilitates memory; peripherally released cholecystokinin reaches the endings of the afferent vagal nerves in the portal vein and changes their activity, which modulates hippocampal activity, to lead to memory facilitation. This, however, is blocked by vagotomy below the diaphragm. The results indicate the importance of food intake, not only to maintain homeostasis, but also to prepare a readiness state for memory facilitation. PMID:7692459

  4. Inhibition of food intake.

    PubMed

    Young, Andrew

    2005-01-01

    Over 100 publications, principally from five groups, describe an effect of amylin and amylin analogs in inhibition of food intake in animals and humans. The major groups contributing to this area are those of the following: Chance and Balasubramaniam (Balasubramaniam et al., 1991a,b; Chance et al., 1991a,b, 1992a,b, 1993). Morley, Flood, and Edwards (Edwards and Morley, 1992; Flood and Morley, 1992; Macintosh et al., 2000; Morley and Flood, 1991, 1994; Morley et al., 1992, 1993, 1994, 1995, 1996, 1997). Lutz, Geary, and others (Barth et al., 2003; Del Prete et al., 2002; Lutz et al., 1994, 1995a,b, 1996a,b, 1997a,b, 1998a,b,c, 2000a,b, 2001a,b,c, 2003; Mollet et al., 2001, 2003a,b, 2004; Riediger et al., 2002, 2004; Rushing et al., 2000a,b, 2001, 2002). Workers at Amylin Pharmaceuticals Inc., or their collaborators (Bhavsar et al., 1995, 1996, 1997a, 1998; Birkemo et al., 1995; Chapman et al., 2004a,b; Edwards et al., 1998; Feinle et al., 2002; Mack et al., 2003; Riediger et al., 1999; Roth et al., 2004; Watkins et al., 1996; Weyer et al., 2004; Young, 1997; Young and Bhavsar, 1996). Arnelo, Reidelberger, and others (Arnelo et al., 1996a,b, 1997a,b, 1998, 2000; Fruin et al., 1997; Granqvist et al., 1997; Reidelberger et al., 2001, 2002, 2004). The magnitude of amylin inhibition of food intake, and its potency for this effect when delivered peripherally, suggests a physiological role in satiogenesis. Increases in food intake following disruption of amylin signal-signaling (e.g., with amylin receptor blockade, or with amylin gene knock-out mice) further support a role of endogenous amylin to tonically restrict nutrient intake. In addition, synergies with other endogenous satiety agents may be present, and convey greater physiological importance than is conveyed by single signals. The anorectic effect of amylin is consistent with a classic amylin pharmacology. The anorectic effect of peripheral amylin appears principally due to a direct action at the area postrema

  5. Exterior building details of Building B, east façade: ellshaped south ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    Exterior building details of Building B, east façade: ell-shaped south facing concrete staircase with decorative pipe railing, second floor entrance with cement plaster profiled surround, dentil course cornice, truncated embedded wood beams, cream colored plaster-finished exterior façade, closed off window well with protruding vent; northwesterly view - San Quentin State Prison, Building 22, Point San Quentin, San Quentin, Marin County, CA

  6. A review of fatty acid profiles and antioxidant content in grass-fed and grain-fed beef.

    PubMed

    Daley, Cynthia A; Abbott, Amber; Doyle, Patrick S; Nader, Glenn A; Larson, Stephanie

    2010-01-01

    Growing consumer interest in grass-fed beef products has raised a number of questions with regard to the perceived differences in nutritional quality between grass-fed and grain-fed cattle. Research spanning three decades suggests that grass-based diets can significantly improve the fatty acid (FA) composition and antioxidant content of beef, albeit with variable impacts on overall palatability. Grass-based diets have been shown to enhance total conjugated linoleic acid (CLA) (C18:2) isomers, trans vaccenic acid (TVA) (C18:1 t11), a precursor to CLA, and omega-3 (n-3) FAs on a g/g fat basis. While the overall concentration of total SFAs is not different between feeding regimens, grass-finished beef tends toward a higher proportion of cholesterol neutral stearic FA (C18:0), and less cholesterol-elevating SFAs such as myristic (C14:0) and palmitic (C16:0) FAs. Several studies suggest that grass-based diets elevate precursors for Vitamin A and E, as well as cancer fighting antioxidants such as glutathione (GT) and superoxide dismutase (SOD) activity as compared to grain-fed contemporaries. Fat conscious consumers will also prefer the overall lower fat content of a grass-fed beef product. However, consumers should be aware that the differences in FA content will also give grass-fed beef a distinct grass flavor and unique cooking qualities that should be considered when making the transition from grain-fed beef. In addition, the fat from grass-finished beef may have a yellowish appearance from the elevated carotenoid content (precursor to Vitamin A). It is also noted that grain-fed beef consumers may achieve similar intakes of both n-3 and CLA through the consumption of higher fat grain-fed portions. PMID:20219103

  7. A review of fatty acid profiles and antioxidant content in grass-fed and grain-fed beef

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    Growing consumer interest in grass-fed beef products has raised a number of questions with regard to the perceived differences in nutritional quality between grass-fed and grain-fed cattle. Research spanning three decades suggests that grass-based diets can significantly improve the fatty acid (FA) composition and antioxidant content of beef, albeit with variable impacts on overall palatability. Grass-based diets have been shown to enhance total conjugated linoleic acid (CLA) (C18:2) isomers, trans vaccenic acid (TVA) (C18:1 t11), a precursor to CLA, and omega-3 (n-3) FAs on a g/g fat basis. While the overall concentration of total SFAs is not different between feeding regimens, grass-finished beef tends toward a higher proportion of cholesterol neutral stearic FA (C18:0), and less cholesterol-elevating SFAs such as myristic (C14:0) and palmitic (C16:0) FAs. Several studies suggest that grass-based diets elevate precursors for Vitamin A and E, as well as cancer fighting antioxidants such as glutathione (GT) and superoxide dismutase (SOD) activity as compared to grain-fed contemporaries. Fat conscious consumers will also prefer the overall lower fat content of a grass-fed beef product. However, consumers should be aware that the differences in FA content will also give grass-fed beef a distinct grass flavor and unique cooking qualities that should be considered when making the transition from grain-fed beef. In addition, the fat from grass-finished beef may have a yellowish appearance from the elevated carotenoid content (precursor to Vitamin A). It is also noted that grain-fed beef consumers may achieve similar intakes of both n-3 and CLA through the consumption of higher fat grain-fed portions. PMID:20219103

  8. Variability of Southern Valu Fa Ridge Magmatic Systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Goddard, C. I.; Christie, D. M.; Arculus, R.

    2004-12-01

    Valu Fa Ridge (VFR), which encompasses the southernmost segments of the East Lau Spreading Center (ELSC), is an important end-member in the spectrum of back-arc spreading centers because it is strongly affected in all aspects of the spreading process by inputs from the nearby active Tofua (Tonga) volcanic arc, and because its magma systems are rapidly evolving as the VFR propagates to the south. New lava samples collected by the TELVE Expedition of the R/V Southern Surveyor (Australia) from the four southernmost VFR segments have greatly increased the number and spatial distribution of fresh volcanic glass samples, quadrupling the availability of "primitive" (MgO > 6 wt.%) glass samples and encompassing significant along- and across-axis geochemical variability. These new data provide an opportunity to evaluate both the evolution of crustal magmatic processes relative to southward rift propagation and variability in mantle source inputs relative to the active volcanic arc. The four sampled segments of VFR are separated by left-stepping overlapping offsets that differ from their mid-ocean ridge counterparts in their longer, more parallel overlapping limbs and in the absence of an overlap basin. The TELVE glasses display considerable major element variability and the VFR is unusual among well-developed spreading centers in its strongly bimodal volcanism, in the abundance of evolved lavas and in the coexistence of two distinct liquid lines of descent. Dacites and rhyolites (SiO2 ~67-75 wt.%) are relatively abundant close to segment ends or discontinuities along the southernmost three ridge segments, but rare from the northernmost sampled segment and from off-axis seamounts. A "Daly Gap" from ~60-67 wt.% SiO2 and 1.75-0.75 wt.% MgO is present along the northern segments but absent near the southern propagating rift tip. Primitive (MgO > 6wt.%) glasses were recovered from all VFR segments and on 5 of the 9 sampled seamounts. Both high-silica glasses and FeTi basalt

  9. Architectural Kansei of ‘Wall’ in The Façade Design by Le Corbusier

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sendai, Shoichiro

    The purpose of this paper is to discuss the modern architect Le Corbusier's architectural Kansei (sensibility) on wall in site environment through the analysis of his façade design, using Œuvres complètes (1910-1965, 8 vols., Les éditions d'architecture, Artemis, Zurich) and Le Corbusier Archives (1982-1984, 32 vols., Garland Publishing, Inc. and Fondation Le Corbusier, New York, London, Paris). At first, I arrange five façade types, according to the explanation by Le Corbusier ; ‘fenêtre en longueur (strip window)’, ‘pan de verre (glass wall)’, ‘brise-soleil (sun-breaker)’, ‘loggia’ and ‘claustra’. Through the analysis of the relationship between these types and the design process of each building, we find that Le Corbusier's façade design includes the affirmation and the negation of the ‘wall’ at the same time. In fact, the nature of façade modification during design process is divers: increase in transparency, decrease in transparency and spatialization of façade. That means, Le Corbusier studied the environmental condition by these façade types, and tried to realize the phenomenal openness. This trial bases on the function of architectural Kansei as correspondence between body and environment beyond the physical design.

  10. Coriander Seed Oil Methyl Esters as Biodiesel Fuel: Unique Fatty Acid Composition and Excellent Oxidative Stability

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Coriander (Coriandrum sativum L.) seed oil methyl esters were prepared and evaluated as an alternative biodiesel fuel and contained an unusual fatty acid (FA) hitherto unreported as the principle component in biodiesel fuels: petroselinic (6Z-octadecenoic; 68.5 wt %) acid. Most of the remaining FA...

  11. Dietary fat intake and risk for Parkinson’s disease

    PubMed Central

    Dong, Jing; Beard, John D.; Umbach, David M.; Park, YikYung; Huang, Xuemei; Blair, Aaron; Kamel, Freya; Chen, Honglei

    2014-01-01

    BACKGROUND Previous epidemiological studies have generated inconsistent results regarding the associations between dietary fat intakes and risk for Parkinson’s disease (PD). We therefore prospectively examined these associations in the NIH-AARP Diet and Health Study. METHODS A 124-item food frequency questionnaire was administered at baseline in 1995–1996, and PD diagnosis was self-reported at the follow-up survey in 2004–2006. A total of 1,087 cases with a PD diagnosis between 2000 and 2006 and 299,617 controls were included in the analyses. RESULTS Overall, intakes of fats and other macronutrients were not associated with PD risk. However, we found a weak positive association between n-6 polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFA) and the risk for PD. After adjusting for potential confounders, the odds ratio (OR) and 95% confidence interval (CI) between extreme quintiles of n-6 PUFA intake was 1.23 (95% CI=1.02–1.49, P for trend=0.02). A similar association was observed for the intake of linoleic acid. Results were similar among men and among women. CONCLUSIONS Our study suggests that fat intake in general is not related to the risk for PD. The weak positive association between intake of n-6 PUFA and PD risk needs further investigation. PMID:25186946

  12. FANCI Regulates Recruitment of the FA Core Complex at Sites of DNA Damage Independently of FANCD2

    PubMed Central

    Castella, Maria; Jacquemont, Celine; Thompson, Elizabeth L.; Yeo, Jung Eun; Cheung, Ronald S.; Huang, Jen-Wei; Sobeck, Alexandra; Hendrickson, Eric A.; Taniguchi, Toshiyasu

    2015-01-01

    The Fanconi anemia (FA)-BRCA pathway mediates repair of DNA interstrand crosslinks. The FA core complex, a multi-subunit ubiquitin ligase, participates in the detection of DNA lesions and monoubiquitinates two downstream FA proteins, FANCD2 and FANCI (or the ID complex). However, the regulation of the FA core complex itself is poorly understood. Here we show that the FA core complex proteins are recruited to sites of DNA damage and form nuclear foci in S and G2 phases of the cell cycle. ATR kinase activity, an intact FA core complex and FANCM-FAAP24 were crucial for this recruitment. Surprisingly, FANCI, but not its partner FANCD2, was needed for efficient FA core complex foci formation. Monoubiquitination or ATR-dependent phosphorylation of FANCI were not required for the FA core complex recruitment, but FANCI deubiquitination by USP1 was. Additionally, BRCA1 was required for efficient FA core complex foci formation. These findings indicate that FANCI functions upstream of FA core complex recruitment independently of FANCD2, and alter the current view of the FA-BRCA pathway. PMID:26430909

  13. Folic acid supplementation influences the distribution of neural tube defect subtypes: A registry-based study.

    PubMed

    Bergman, J E H; Otten, E; Verheij, J B G M; de Walle, H E K

    2016-01-01

    Periconceptional folic acid (FA) reduces neural tube defect (NTD) risk, but seems to have a varying effect per NTD subtype. We aimed to study the effect of FA supplementation on NTD subtype distribution using data from EUROCAT Northern Netherlands. We included all birth types with non-syndromal NTDs born in 1997-2012. By Fisher's exact test we analyzed possible differences in NTD subtype distribution between a correct FA supplementation group and incorrect FA supplementation group. We found proportionally fewer cervical/thoracic spina bifida cases and more lumbar/sacral spina bifida cases in the correct FA supplementation group, irrespective of the presence of the main NTD risk factors. The effect on NTD subtype distribution was only seen when FA supplementation was started before conception. We conclude that FA not only prevents the occurrence of a significant proportion of NTDs, but might also decrease the severity of NTDs, as long as supplementation is started before conception. PMID:26627544

  14. Effects of sewage discharges on lipid and fatty acid composition of the Patagonian bivalve Diplodon chilensis.

    PubMed

    Rocchetta, Iara; Pasquevich, María Y; Heras, Horacio; Ríos de Molina, María del Carmen; Luquet, Carlos M

    2014-02-15

    Lipid and fatty acid (FA) composition and selected oxidative stress parameters of freshwater clams (Dipolodon chilensis), from a sewage-polluted (SMA) and a clean site, were compared. Trophic markers FA were analyzed in clams and sediment. Saturated FA (SAFA), and bacteria and sewage markers were abundant in SMA sediments, while diatom markers were 50% lower. Proportions of SAFA, branched FA, 20:5n-3 (EPA) and 22:6n-3 (DHA) were higher in SMA clams. Chronic exposure of D. chilensis to increasing eutrophication affected its lipid and FA composition. The increase in EPA and DHA proportions could be an adaptive response, which increases stress resistance but could also lead to higher susceptibility to lipid peroxidation TBARS, lipofuscins (20-fold) and GSH concentrations were higher in SMA clams. FA markers indicated terrestrial plant detritus and bacteria are important items in D. chilensis diet. Anthropogenic input in their food could be traced using specific FA as trophic markers. PMID:24373665

  15. Fatty acid composition in tissues of the farmed Siberian sturgeon (Acipenser baerii).

    PubMed

    Nieminen, Petteri; Westenius, Eini; Halonen, Toivo; Mustonen, Anne-Mari

    2014-09-15

    The fatty acid (FA) compositions of the diet and diverse tissues of the farmed Siberian sturgeon (Acipenser baerii) were analyzed in detail to assess their nutritional quality. Twelve male fish were sampled for muscle, fat, liver, brain, gill, kidney and gonad and the tissue FA measured by gas-liquid chromatography. The FA profile of the diet diverged from the FA signatures of the tissues, where the sturgeons accumulated particular highly-unsaturated FA (HUFA). They were probably derived from the diet but, as previous studies have shown that fish can also have desaturase enzymes, endogenous synthesis of these FA cannot be excluded. The sturgeon muscle tissue contained HUFA in proportions comparable to those of other fish species that are considered good sources of n-3 polyunsaturated FA. The indices of atherogenicity and thrombogenicity were also within the values considered to be health-promoting. PMID:24767029

  16. Fe3O4@mSiO2-FA-CuS-PEG nanocomposites for magnetic resonance imaging and targeted chemo-photothermal synergistic therapy of cancer cells.

    PubMed

    Gao, Zhifang; Liu, Xijian; Deng, Guoying; Zhou, Feng; Zhang, Lijuan; Wang, Qian; Lu, Jie

    2016-09-14

    In this work, a new multifunctional nanoplatform (Fe3O4@mSiO2-FA-CuS-PEG nanocomposite) for magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) and targeted chemo-photothermal therapy, was firstly fabricated on the basis of magnetic mesoporous silica nanoparticles (Fe3O4@mSiO2), on which folic acid (FA) was grafted as the targeting reagent, CuS nanocrystals were attached as the photothermal agent, and polyethylene glycol (PEG) was coupled to improve biocompatibility. The characterization results demonstrated that the fabricated Fe3O4@mSiO2-FA-CuS-PEG nanocomposites not only showed strong magnetism and excellent MRI performance, but also had a high doxorubicin (DOX, an anticancer drug) loading capacity (22.1%). The loaded DOX can be sustainably released, which was apt to be controlled by pH adjustment and near infrared (NIR) laser irradiation. More importantly, targeted delivery of the DOX-loaded Fe3O4@mSiO2-FA-CuS-PEG nanocomposites could be accomplished in HeLa cells via the receptor-mediated endocytosis pathway, and this exhibited synergistic effect of chemotherapy and photothermal therapy against HeLa cells under irradiation with a 915 nm laser. Therefore, the fabricated multifunctional Fe3O4@mSiO2-FA-CuS-PEG nanocomposite has a great potential in image-guided therapy of cancers. PMID:27493065

  17. Total tract nutrient digestion and milk fatty acid profile of dairy cows fed diets containing different levels of whole raw soya beans.

    PubMed

    Venturelli, B C; de Freitas Júnior, J E; Takiya, C S; de Araújo, A P C; Santos, M C B; Calomeni, G D; Gardinal, R; Vendramini, T H A; Rennó, F P

    2015-12-01

    with a linear decrease of cis-9-trans 11CLA and total saturated FA; and linear increase of total unsaturated and C18:3 FA. Energy balance was positively affected (p = 0.03) by whole raw soya beans as well as efficiency of NEL milk/DE intake (p = 0.02). Nitrogen balance and microbial protein synthesis were not affected by whole raw soya beans. Increasing doses of whole raw soya beans decreased dry matter intake and milk yield, however, led to an increase of unsaturated acids in milk and higher milk fat concentration. PMID:25846129

  18. Fatty acid profile of kenaf seed oil

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The fatty acid profile of kenaf (Hibiscus cannabinus L.) seed oil has been the subject of several previous reports in the literature. These reports vary considerably regarding the presence and amounts of specific fatty acids, notably epoxyoleic acid but also cyclic (cyclopropene and cyclopropane) fa...

  19. Milk volatile organic compounds and fatty acid profile in cows fed timothy as hay, pasture, or silage.

    PubMed

    Villeneuve, M-P; Lebeuf, Y; Gervais, R; Tremblay, G F; Vuillemard, J C; Fortin, J; Chouinard, P Y

    2013-01-01

    Nutrient composition and organoleptic properties of milk can be influenced by cow diets. The objective of this study was to evaluate the forage type effects on volatile organic compounds, fatty acid (FA) profile, and organoleptic properties of milk. Timothy grass was fed as hay, pasture, or silage during a period of 27 d to a group of 21 cows in a complete block design based on days in milk. Each cow also received 7.2 kg/d of a concentrate mix to meet their nutrient requirements. Forage dry matter intake averaged 13.9 kg/d and was not different among treatments. Milk yield was higher for cows fed pasture, intermediate for cows fed silage, and lowest for cows fed hay. However, milk fat content was higher for cows fed hay and silage, compared with cows fed pasture. As a result, fat-corrected milk and fat yield were not different among treatments. Increasing the supply of dietary cis-9,cis-12 18:2 (linoleic acid) and cis-9,cis-12,cis-15 18:3 (α-linolenic acid) when feeding pasture enhanced the concentration of these 2 essential FA in milk fat compared with feeding hay or silage. Moreover, the ratio of 16:0 (palmitic acid) to cis-9 18:1 (oleic acid), which is closely related to the melting properties of milk fat, was lower in milk from cows on pasture than in milk from cows fed hay or silage. Cows fed hay produced milk with higher levels of several free FA and γ-lactones, but less pentanal and 1-pentanol. More dimethyl sulfone and toluene were found in milk of cows on pasture. Cows fed silage produced milk with higher levels of acetone, 2-butanone, and α-pinene. Results from a sensory evaluation showed that panelists could not detect a difference in flavor between milk from cows fed hay compared with silage. However, a significant number of assessors perceived a difference between milk from cows fed hay compared with milk from cows fed pasture. In a sensory ranking test, the percentage of assessors ranking for the intensity of total (raw milk, fresh milk, and farm

  20. Berberine-induced anticancer activities in FaDu head and neck squamous cell carcinoma cells.

    PubMed

    Seo, Yo-Seob; Yim, Min-Ji; Kim, Bok-Hee; Kang, Kyung-Rok; Lee, Sook-Young; Oh, Ji-Su; You, Jae-Seek; Kim, Su-Gwan; Yu, Sang-Joun; Lee, Gyeong-Je; Kim, Do Kyung; Kim, Chun Sung; Kim, Jin-Soo; Kim, Jae-Sung

    2015-12-01

    In the present study, we investigated berberine‑induced apoptosis and the signaling pathways underlying its activity in FaDu head and neck squamous cell carcinoma cells. Berberine did not affect the viability of primary human normal oral keratinocytes. In contrast, the cytotoxicity of berberine was significantly increased in FaDu cells stimulated with berberine for 24 h. Furthermore, berberine increased nuclear condensation and apoptosis rates in FaDu cells than those in untreated control cells. Berberine also induced the upregulation of apoptotic ligands, such as FasL and TNF-related apoptosis-inducing ligand, and triggered the activation of caspase-8, -7 and -3, and poly(ADP ribose) polymerase, characteristic of death receptor-dependent extrinsic apoptosis. Moreover, berberine activated the mitochondria‑dependent apoptotic signaling pathway by upregulating pro-apoptotic factors, such as Bax, Bad, Apaf-1, and the active form of caspase-9, and downregulating anti-apoptotic factors, such as Bcl-2 and Bcl-xL. In addition, berberine increased the expression of the tumor suppressor p53 in FaDu cells. The pan-caspase inhibitor Z-VAD-fmk suppressed the activation of caspase-3 and prevented cytotoxicity in FaDu cells treated with berberine. Interestingly, berberine suppressed cell migration through downregulation of vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF), matrix metalloproteinase (MMP)-2, and MMP-9. Moreover, the phosphorylation of extracellular signal-regulated kinase (ERK1/2) and p38, components of the mitogen-activated protein kinase pathway that are associated with the expression of MMP and VEGF, was suppressed in FaDu cells treated with berberine for 24 h. Therefore, these data suggested that berberine exerted anticancer effects in FaDu cells through induction of apoptosis and suppression of migration. Berberine may have potential applications as a chemotherapeutic agent for the management of head and neck squamous carcinoma. PMID:26503508

  1. Prevention of congenital malformations and other adverse pregnancy outcomes with 4.0 mg of folic acid: community-based randomized clinical trial in Italy and the Netherlands

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background In 2010 a Cochrane review confirmed that folic acid (FA) supplementation prevents the first- and second-time occurrence of neural tube defects (NTDs). At present some evidence from observational studies supports the hypothesis that FA supplementation can reduce the risk of all congenital malformations (CMs) or the risk of a specific and selected group of them, namely cardiac defects and oral clefts. Furthermore, the effects on the prevention of prematurity, foetal growth retardation and pre-eclampsia are unclear. Although the most common recommendation is to take 0.4 mg/day, the problem of the most appropriate dose of FA is still open. The aim of this project is to assess the effect a higher dose of peri-conceptional FA supplementation on reducing the occurrence of all CMs. Other aims include the promotion of pre-conceptional counselling, comparing rates of selected CMs, miscarriage, pre-eclampsia, preterm birth, small for gestational age, abruptio placentae. Methods/Design This project is a joint effort by research groups in Italy and the Netherlands. Women of childbearing age, who intend to become pregnant within 12 months are eligible for the studies. Women are randomly assigned to receive 4 mg of FA (treatment in study) or 0.4 mg of FA (referent treatment) daily. Information on pregnancy outcomes are derived from women-and-physician information. We foresee to analyze the data considering all the adverse outcomes of pregnancy taken together in a global end point (e.g.: CMs, miscarriage, pre-eclampsia, preterm birth, small for gestational age). A total of about 1,000 pregnancies need to be evaluated to detect an absolute reduction of the frequency of 8%. Since the sample size needed for studying outcomes separately is large, this project also promotes an international prospective meta-analysis. Discussion The rationale of these randomized clinical trials (RCTs) is the hypothesis that a higher intake of FA is related to a higher risk reduction of

  2. Inhibition of Gastric Lipase as a Mechanism for Body Weight and Plasma Lipids Reduction in Zucker Rats Fed a Rosemary Extract Rich in Carnosic Acid

    PubMed Central

    Romo Vaquero, María; Yáñez-Gascón, María-Josefa; García Villalba, Rocío; Larrosa, Mar; Fromentin, Emilie; Ibarra, Alvin; Roller, Marc; Tomás-Barberán, Francisco; Espín de Gea, Juan Carlos; García-Conesa, María-Teresa

    2012-01-01

    Background Rosemary (Rosmarinus officinalis L.) extracts (REs) exhibit hepatoprotective, anti-obesity and anti-inflammatory properties and are widely used in the food industry. REs are rich in carnosic acid (CA) and carnosol which may be responsible for some of the biological activities of REs. The aim of this study was to investigate whether inhibition of lipase activity in the gut may be a mechanism by which a RE enriched in CA (40%) modulates body weight and lipids levels in a rat model of metabolic disorders and obesity. Methods and Principal Findings RE was administered for 64 days to lean (fa/+) and obese (fa/fa) female Zucker rats and body weight, food intake, feces weight and blood biochemical parameters were monitored throughout the study. Lipase activity (hydrolysis of p-nitrophenylbutyrate) was measured in the gastrointestinal tract at the end of the study and the contents of CA, carnosol and methyl carnosate were also determined. Sub-chronic administration of RE moderately reduced body weight gain in both lean and obese animals but did not affect food intake. Serum triglycerides, cholesterol and insulin levels were also markedly decreased in the lean animals supplemented with RE. Importantly, lipase activity was significantly inhibited in the stomach of the RE-supplemented animals where the highest content of intact CA and carnosol was detected. Conclusions Our results confirm that long-term administration of RE enriched in CA moderates weight gain and improves the plasma lipids profile, primarily in the lean animals. Our data also suggest that these effects may be caused, at least in part, by a significant inhibition of gastric lipase and subsequent reduction in fat absorption. PMID:22745826

  3. Folic Acid Determination Using Electrochemical Sensors

    PubMed Central

    Mirmoghtadaie, Leila; Shamaeizadeh, Nahal; Mirzanasiri, Nooshin

    2015-01-01

    Folic acid (FA) is a water soluble vitamin that exists in many natural species. The lack of FA causes some deficiencies in the human body, so finding a simple and sensitive method for determining the FA is important. One of the modern techniques which overcome the disadvantages of conventional determination methods is the sensors. Possibility of miniaturization, the development of microfabricated electrochemical (EC) sensors has resulted in high sensitivity, portability, improved performance and spatial resolution, low power consumption, and the opportunity for integration with other technologies made Micro-Electrical-Mechanical Systems-based EC sensors suitable to identify low concentration analytes and microorganisms in a variety of mediums. PMID:26605021

  4. Milk yield, gross composition and fatty acid profile of dual-purpose Aosta Red Pied cows fed separate concentrate-forage versus total mixed ration.

    PubMed

    Renna, Manuela; Cornale, Paolo; Lussiana, Carola; Battaglini, Luca Maria; Turille, Germano; Mimosi, Antonio

    2014-01-01

    This study was designed to evaluate the effects of two feeding methods on milk yield, composition and fatty acid (FA) profile obtained from dual-purpose cattle. Twenty-four Aosta Red Pied cows beyond peak of lactation were assigned to two groups and fed hay and concentrates in the proportions 0.69 and 0.31 on a dry matter basis for 10 weeks. Concentrates were offered separately from forages 6 times a day (separate ration, SR) or as a total mixed ration (TMR). The feeding method did not significantly influence dry matter intake (16.8 vs. 16.9 kg/head/day for SR- and TMR-fed cows, respectively), milk yield (17.4 vs. 17.5 kg/head/day), milk fat, protein and lactose contents (36.4 vs. 35.2, 33.5 vs. 32.8, and 47.3 vs. 47.4 g/kg) and yields (607.9 vs. 613.4, 567.4 vs. 572.7 and 805.5 vs. 829.7 g/head/day). The overall milk FA profile was very similar between groups. Milk concentrations of FA used as indirect markers of rumen function (C18:2 t10c12, odd- and branched-chain FA) and the extent of ruminal biohydrogenation were comparable (P > 0.05) between SR- and TMR-fed cows, suggesting that ruminal pH did not vary considerably as a consequence of the feeding strategy applied. PMID:23841857

  5. Combined iron and folic acid supplementation with or without zinc reduces time to walking unassisted among Zanzibari infants 5-11 months old

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Iron and zinc deficiencies have been associated with delayed motor development in nutritionally at-risk children, albeit inconsistently. In this community-based, randomized double-blind trial, iron+folic acid (FeFA) (12.5 mg Fe + 50 'g folic acid), zinc (Zn) (10 mg), and iron+folic acid+zinc (FeFA+Z...

  6. Power plant intake entrainment analysis

    SciTech Connect

    Edinger, J.E.; Kolluru, V.S.

    2000-04-01

    Power plant condenser cooling water intake entrainment of fish eggs and larvae is becoming an issue in evaluating environmental impacts around the plants. Methods are required to evaluate intake entrainment on different types of water bodies. Presented in this paper is a derivation of the basic relationships for evaluating entrainment from the standing crop of fish eggs and larvae for different regions of a water body, and evaluating the rate of entrainment from the standing crop. These relationships are coupled with a 3D hydrodynamic and transport model that provides the currents and flows required to complete the entrainment evaluation. Case examples are presented for a simple river system, and for the more complex Delaware River Estuary with multiple intakes. Example evaluations are made for individual intakes, and for the cumulative impacts of multiple intakes.

  7. Autophagy in the control of food intake.

    PubMed

    Singh, Rajat

    2012-04-01

    The cellular nutrient sensing apparatus detects nutritional depletion and transmits this information to downstream effectors that generate energy from alternate sources. Autophagy is a crucial catabolic pathway that turns over redundant cytoplasmic components in lysosomes to provide energy to the starved cell. Recent studies have described a role for hypothalamic autophagy in the control of food intake and energy balance. Activated autophagy in hypothalamic neurons during starvation mobilized neuron-intrinsic lipids to generate free fatty acids that increased AgRP levels. AgRP neuron-specific inhibition of autophagy decreased fasting-induced increases in AgRP levels and food intake. Deletion of autophagy in AgRP neurons led to constitutive increases in levels of proopiomelanocortin and its active processed product, α-melanocyte stimulating hormone that contributed to reduced adiposity in these rodents. The current manuscript discusses these new findings and raises additional questions that may help understand how hypothalamic autophagy controls food intake and energy balance. These studies may have implications for designing new therapies against obesity and insulin resistance. PMID:23700515

  8. Novel bioactive Co-based alloy/FA nanocomposite for dental applications

    PubMed Central

    Fathi, Mohammadhossein; Ahmadian, Mehdi; Bahrami, Mojgan

    2012-01-01

    Background: Dental cobalt base alloys are biocompatible dental materials and have been widely used in dentistry. However, metals are bioinert and may not present bioactivity in human body. Bioactivity is the especial ability to interact with human body and make a bonding to soft and hard tissues. The aim of the present research was fabrication and bioactivity evaluation of novel cobalt alloy/Fluorapatite nanocomposite (CoA/FaNC) with different amounts of Fluorapatite (FA) nanopowder. Materials and Methods: Co-Cr-Mo alloy (ASTM F75) powder was prepared and mixed in a planetary ball mill with different amounts of FA nanopowders (10, 15, 20% wt). Prepared composite powders were cold pressed and sintered at 1100°C for 4 h. X-ray diffraction (XRD), scanning electron microscopy and transition electron microscopy techniques were used for phase analysis, crystallite size determination of FA and also for phase analysis and evaluation of particle distribution of composites. Bioactivity behavior of prepared nanocomposites was evaluated in simulated body fluid (SBF) for 1 up to 28 days. Materials and Methods: Co-Cr-Mo alloy (ASTM F75) powder was prepared and mixed in a planetary ball mill with different amounts of FA nanopowders (10, 15, 20% wt). Prepared composite powders were cold pressed and sintered at 1100°C for 4 h. X-ray diffraction (XRD), scanning electron microscopy and transition electron microscopy techniques were used for phase analysis, crystallite size determination of FA and also for phase analysis and evaluation of particle distribution of composites. Bioactivity behavior of prepared nanocomposites was evaluated in simulated body fluid (SBF) for 1 up to 28 days. Results: Results showed that nucleus of apatite were formed on the surface of the prepared CoA/FaNC during 1 up to 28 days immersion in the SBF solution. On the other hand, CoA/FaNC unlike Co-base alloy possessed bone-like apatite-formation ability. Conclusion: It was concluded that bioinert Co

  9. Mechanism of fusidic acid inhibition of RRF- and EF-G-dependent splitting of the bacterial post-termination ribosome

    PubMed Central

    Borg, Anneli; Pavlov, Michael; Ehrenberg, Måns

    2016-01-01

    The antibiotic drug fusidic acid (FA) is commonly used in the clinic against gram-positive bacterial infections. FA targets ribosome-bound elongation factor G (EF-G), a translational GTPase that accelerates both messenger RNA (mRNA) translocation and ribosome recycling. How FA inhibits translocation was recently clarified, but FA inhibition of ribosome recycling by EF-G and ribosome recycling factor (RRF) has remained obscure. Here we use fast kinetics techniques to estimate mean times of ribosome splitting and the stoichiometry of GTP hydrolysis by EF-G at varying concentrations of FA, EF-G and RRF. These mean times together with previous data on uninhibited ribosome recycling were used to clarify the mechanism of FA inhibition of ribosome splitting. The biochemical data on FA inhibition of translocation and recycling were used to model the growth inhibitory effect of FA on bacterial populations. We conclude that FA inhibition of translocation provides the dominant cause of bacterial growth reduction, but that FA inhibition of ribosome recycling may contribute significantly to FA-induced expression of short regulatory open reading frames, like those involved in FA resistance. PMID:27001509

  10. Analysis of ATP-citrate lyase and malic enzyme mutants of Yarrowia lipolytica points out the importance of mannitol metabolism in fatty acid synthesis.

    PubMed

    Dulermo, Thierry; Lazar, Zbigniew; Dulermo, Rémi; Rakicka, Magdalena; Haddouche, Ramedane; Nicaud, Jean-Marc

    2015-09-01

    The role of the two key enzymes of fatty acid (FA) synthesis, ATP-citrate lyase (Acl) and malic enzyme (Mae), was analyzed in the oleaginous yeast Yarrowia lipolytica. In most oleaginous yeasts, Acl and Mae are proposed to provide, respectively, acetyl-CoA and NADPH for FA synthesis. Acl was mainly studied at the biochemical level but no strain depleted for this enzyme was analyzed in oleaginous microorganisms. On the other hand the role of Mae in FA synthesis in Y. lipolytica remains unclear since it was proposed to be a mitochondrial NAD(H)-dependent enzyme and not a cytosolic NADP(H)-dependent enzyme. In this study, we analyzed for the first time strains inactivated for corresponding genes. Inactivation of ACL1 decreases FA synthesis by 60 to 80%, confirming its essential role in FA synthesis in Y. lipolytica. Conversely, inactivation of MAE1 has no effects on FA synthesis, except in a FA overaccumulating strain where it improves FA synthesis by 35%. This result definitively excludes Mae as a major key enzyme for FA synthesis in Y. lipolytica. During the analysis of both mutants, we observed a negative correlation between FA and mannitol level. As mannitol and FA pathways may compete for carbon storage, we inactivated YlSDR, encoding a mannitol dehydrogenase converting fructose and NADPH into mannitol and NADP+. The FA content of the resulting mutant was improved by 60% during growth on fructose, demonstrating that mannitol metabolism may modulate FA synthesis in Y. lipolytica. PMID:25959598

  11. Water-Mediated Differential Binding of Strontium and Cesium Cations in Fulvic Acid.

    PubMed

    Sadhu, Biswajit; Sundararajan, Mahesh; Bandyopadhyay, Tusar

    2015-08-27

    The migration of potentially harmful radionuclides, such as cesium ((137)Cs) and strontium ((90)Sr), in soil is governed by the chemical and biological reactivity of soil components. Soil organic matter (SOM) that can be modeled through fulvic acid (FA) is known to alter the mobility of radionuclide cations, Cs(+) and Sr(2+). Shedding light on the possible interaction mechanisms at the atomic level of these two ions with FA is thus vital to explain their transport behavior and for the design of new ligands for the efficient extraction of radionuclides. Here we have performed molecular dynamics, metadynamics simulations, and density-functional-theory-based calculations to understand the binding mechanism of Sr(2+) and Cs(+) cations with FA. Our studies predict that interaction of Cs(+) to FA is very weak as compared with Sr(2+). While the water-FA interaction is largely responsible for the weak binding of Cs(+) to FA, leading to the outer sphere complexation of the ion with FA, the interaction between Sr(2+) and FA is stronger and thus can surpass the existing secondary nonbonding interaction between coordinated waters and FA, leading to inner sphere complexation of the ion with FA. We also find that entropy plays a dominant role for Cs(+) binding to FA, whereas Sr(2+) binding is an enthalpy-driven process. Our predicted results are found to be in excellent agreement with the available experimental data on complexation of Cs(+) and Sr(2+) with SOM. PMID:25794241

  12. Prediction of fatty acid profiles in cow, ewe, and goat milk by mid-infrared spectrometry.

    PubMed

    Ferrand-Calmels, M; Palhière, I; Brochard, M; Leray, O; Astruc, J M; Aurel, M R; Barbey, S; Bouvier, F; Brunschwig, P; Caillat, H; Douguet, M; Faucon-Lahalle, F; Gelé, M; Thomas, G; Trommenschlager, J M; Larroque, H

    2014-01-01

    Mid-infrared (MIR) spectrometry was used to estimate the fatty acid (FA) composition in cow, ewe, and goat milk. The objectives were to compare different statistical approaches with wavelength selection to predict the milk FA composition from MIR spectra, and to develop equations for FA in cow, goat, and ewe milk. In total, a set of 349 cow milk samples, 200 ewe milk samples, and 332 goat milk samples were both analyzed by MIR and by gas chromatography, the reference method. A broad FA variability was ensured by using milk from different breeds and feeding systems. The methods studied were partial least squares regression (PLS), first-derivative pretreatment + PLS, genetic algorithm + PLS, wavelets + PLS, least absolute shrinkage and selection operator method (LASSO), and elastic net. The best results were obtained with PLS, genetic algorithm + PLS and first derivative + PLS. The residual standard deviation and the coefficient of determination in external validation were used to characterize the equations and to retain the best for each FA in each species. In all cases, the predictions were of better quality for FA found at medium to high concentrations (i.e., for saturated FA and some monounsaturated FA with a coefficient of determination in external validation >0.90). The conversion of the FA expressed in grams per 100mL of milk to grams per 100g of FA was possible with a small loss of accuracy for some FA. PMID:24268398

  13. A novel unsaturated fatty acid hydratase toward C16 to C22 fatty