Science.gov

Sample records for acid feed facilities

  1. Emissions of volatile fatty acids from feed at dairy facilities

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Alanis, Phillip; Ashkan, Shawn; Krauter, Charles; Campbell, Sean; Hasson, Alam S.

    2010-12-01

    Recent studies suggest that dairy operations may be a major source of non-methane volatile organic compounds in dairy-intensive regions such as Central California, with short chain carboxylic acids (volatile fatty acids or VFAs) as the major components. Emissions of four VFAs (acetic acid, propanoic acid, butanoic acid and hexanoic acid) were measured from two feed sources (silage and total mixed rations (TMR)) at six Central California Dairies over a fifteen-month period. Measurements were made using a combination of flux chambers, solid phase micro-extraction fibers coupled to gas chromatography mass spectrometry (SPME/GC-MS) and infra-red photoaccoustic detection (IR-PAD for acetic acid only). The relationship between acetic acid emissions, source surface temperature and four sample composition factors (acetic acid content, ammonia-nitrogen content, water content and pH) was also investigated. As observed previously, acetic acid dominates the VFA emissions. Fluxes measured by IR-PAD were systematically lower than SPME/GC-MS measurements by a factor of two. High signals in field blanks prevented emissions from animal waste sources (flush lane, bedding, open lot) from being quantified. Acetic acid emissions from feed sources are positively correlated with surface temperature and acetic acid content. The measurements were used to derive a relationship between surface temperature, acetic acid content and the acetic acid flux. The equation derived from SPME/GC-MS measurements predicts estimated annual average acetic acid emissions of (0.7 + 1/-0.4) g m -2 h -1 from silage and (0.2 + 0.3/-0.1) g m -2 h -1 from TMR using annually averaged acetic acid content and meteorological data. However, during the summer months, fluxes may be several times higher than these values.

  2. Design bases: Bauxite-sulfuric acid feed facilities 100-K Area

    SciTech Connect

    Etheridge, E.L.

    1993-06-10

    This document defines the objective, bases, and functional requirements governing the preparation of detail design of the bauxite-sulfuric acid feed facilities to be installed in the 183-KE and KW buildings. These facilities will produce the chemical coagulant used in the treatment of Columbia River water in the water plants; they will replace existing liquid alum feed systems. The treated water will be used as reactor coolant.

  3. Formic acid requirement for the Savannah River Site Defense Waste Processing Facility melter feed preparation

    SciTech Connect

    Hsu, C.W.

    1991-01-01

    The Westinghouse Savannah River Company (WSRC) will vitrify the high-level radioactive waste into a borosilicate glass wasteform using a slurry-fed, joule-heated melter. Formic acid is used to treat the sludge slurry for melter feed preparation. Both a minimum formate requirement and a maximum allowable formate level need to be established to adequately prepare the sludge for melter feed. The data from the Savannah River Laboratory (SRL) Scale Glass Melter (SGM), Integrated DWPF Melter System (IDMS), and research mini-melter runs were used for this purpose. The stoichiometry for major reactions during formic acid treatment was revised to reflect the more predominant chemical reactions and their yields. A minimum formic acid requirement was established according to this revised stoichiometry. Methods for determining the minimum level of formic acid were specified. An operating envelope that includes the maximum total formate level and the minimum nitrate levels, was also proposed. 5 refs., 3 figs., 4 tabs.

  4. Use of tocopherol with polyunsaturated fatty acids in poultry feeds

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Tocopherol can inhibit the oxidative degradation of polyunsaturated fatty acids by stabilizing lipid radicals that form at elevated temperatures or pro-oxidant conditions. This is particularly relevant for feeds formulated with fatty acids such as docosahexaenoic acid (DHA) or linolenic acid (ALA) T...

  5. Effect of feeding intensity and time on feed on intramuscular fatty acid composition of Simmental bulls.

    PubMed

    Sami, A S; Augustini, C; Schwarz, F J

    2004-06-01

    Seventy-two Simmental bulls, weighing 489 kg initially and approximately 15 months old, were divided into four groups to determine the effects of feeding intensity and time on feed on intramuscular fatty acid (FA) composition. Two groups of 18 bulls each were extensively (E) or intensively (I) fed on maize silage and concentrates with a daily gain of 943 g (E) or 1371 g (I). Half of each group were slaughtered after 100 days (S) or 138 days (L) on feed. In addition to carcass fatness parameters, intramuscular FA composition was also measured. Only small differences in the sum of saturated FA (SFA) percentages were found with 47.7 and 47.5% FA methyl esters (FAME) for SE and LE, respectively, and 48.7% FAME for each of SI and LI. Monounsaturated fatty acids (MUFA) significantly increased with longer, and higher feeding intensity to 44.2% FAME (LI), whereas the other groups had similar contents of 41.9, 42.2 and 42.0% FAME (SE, LE and SI respectively). Polyunsaturated FA (PUFA) decreased with higher feeding intensity to 8.39% (SI) and 6.71% (LI) FAME (p < 0.05) in comparison with 9.48% (SE) and 9.54% (LE). Intensive feeding decreased the ratio of PUFA : SFA to 0.17 (SI) and 0.14 (LI, p < 0.05) in comparison with 0.20 (SE and LE). The mean conjugated linoleic acid (CLA) concentration was 0.41% FAME. Time on feed had only a small effect on the FA composition compared with feeding intensity. No significant relationships were detected between meat quality attributes and the pattern of FA. PMID:15189422

  6. Presence and content of kynurenic acid in animal feed.

    PubMed

    Turski, M P; Zgrajka, W; Siwicki, A K; Paluszkiewicz, P

    2015-02-01

    Kynurenic acid (KYNA) was found to be an antagonist of iontropic glutamate receptors and alpha7 nicotinic acetylcholine receptors. Furthermore, it was documented that KYNA is an agonist of G-protein coupled GPR35 receptors which are mainly present in the gastrointestinal tract. It was also found that KYNA is present in the gastrointestinal tract and that its concentration gradually increases along it. The origin of KYNA in the gastrointestinal tract is not known. Both might be synthesized from tryptophan in it or absorbed from food and other dietary products. Therefore, the aim of the study was to investigate the concentration of KYNA in animal feed. The results indicate that the highest concentration of KYNA was found in animal feeds intended for livestock. The lower amount of KYNA was detected in animal feeds for fish. Interestingly, the lowest amount of KYNA was found in dog and cat feeds. Furthermore, an analysis of KYNA content in animal food ingredients was conducted. The concentration of KYNA found in one of the ingredients – rapeseed meal – was several times higher in comparison to animal feeds studied. The content of KYNA in the remaining feed ingredients tested was significantly lower. This is the first report on the concentration of KYNA in animal feeds. There is a need for further detailed analysis leading to establishing a set of guidelines for animal feeding. PMID:25040314

  7. Effects of feeding bile acids and a bile acid sequestrant on hepatic bile acid composition in mice.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Youcai; Klaassen, Curtis D

    2010-11-01

    An improved ultra performance liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (UPLC/MS/MS) method was established for the simultaneous analysis of various bile acids (BA) and applied to investigate liver BA content in C57BL/6 mice fed 1% cholic acid (CA), 0.3% deoxycholic acid (DCA), 0.3% chenodeoxycholic acid (CDCA), 0.3% lithocholic acid (LCA), 3% ursodeoxycholic acid (UDCA), or 2% cholestyramine (resin). Results indicate that mice have a remarkable ability to maintain liver BA concentrations. The BA profiles in mouse livers were similar between CA and DCA feedings, as well as between CDCA and LCA feedings. The mRNA expression of Cytochrome P450 7a1 (Cyp7a1) was suppressed by all BA feedings, whereas Cyp7b1 was suppressed only by CA and UDCA feedings. Gender differences in liver BA composition were observed after feeding CA, DCA, CDCA, and LCA, but they were not prominent after feeding UDCA. Sulfation of CA and CDCA was found at the 7-OH position, and it was increased by feeding CA or CDCA more in male than female mice. In contrast, sulfation of LCA and taurolithocholic acid (TLCA) was female-predominant, and it was increased by feeding UDCA and LCA. In summary, the present systematic study on BA metabolism in mice will aid in interpreting BA-mediated gene regulation and hepatotoxicity. PMID:20671298

  8. Effects of feeding bile acids and a bile acid sequestrant on hepatic bile acid composition in mice[S

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Youcai; Klaassen, Curtis D.

    2010-01-01

    An improved ultra performance liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (UPLC/MS/MS) method was established for the simultaneous analysis of various bile acids (BA) and applied to investigate liver BA content in C57BL/6 mice fed 1% cholic acid (CA), 0.3% deoxycholic acid (DCA), 0.3% chenodeoxycholic acid (CDCA), 0.3% lithocholic acid (LCA), 3% ursodeoxycholic acid (UDCA), or 2% cholestyramine (resin). Results indicate that mice have a remarkable ability to maintain liver BA concentrations. The BA profiles in mouse livers were similar between CA and DCA feedings, as well as between CDCA and LCA feedings. The mRNA expression of Cytochrome P450 7a1 (Cyp7a1) was suppressed by all BA feedings, whereas Cyp7b1 was suppressed only by CA and UDCA feedings. Gender differences in liver BA composition were observed after feeding CA, DCA, CDCA, and LCA, but they were not prominent after feeding UDCA. Sulfation of CA and CDCA was found at the 7-OH position, and it was increased by feeding CA or CDCA more in male than female mice. In contrast, sulfation of LCA and taurolithocholic acid (TLCA) was female-predominant, and it was increased by feeding UDCA and LCA. In summary, the present systematic study on BA metabolism in mice will aid in interpreting BA-mediated gene regulation and hepatotoxicity. PMID:20671298

  9. High Fat Feeding Induces Hepatic Fatty Acid Elongation in Mice

    PubMed Central

    Oosterveer, Maaike H.; van Dijk, Theo H.; Tietge, Uwe J. F.; Boer, Theo; Havinga, Rick; Stellaard, Frans; Groen, Albert K.; Kuipers, Folkert; Reijngoud, Dirk-Jan

    2009-01-01

    Background High-fat diets promote hepatic lipid accumulation. Paradoxically, these diets also induce lipogenic gene expression in rodent liver. Whether high expression of these genes actually results in an increased flux through the de novo lipogenic pathway in vivo has not been demonstrated. Methodology/Principal Findings To interrogate this apparent paradox, we have quantified de novo lipogenesis in C57Bl/6J mice fed either chow, a high-fat or a n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acid (PUFA)-enriched high-fat diet. A novel approach based on mass isotopomer distribution analysis (MIDA) following 1-13C acetate infusion was applied to simultaneously determine de novo lipogenesis, fatty acid elongation as well as cholesterol synthesis. Furthermore, we measured very low density lipoprotein-triglyceride (VLDL-TG) production rates. High-fat feeding promoted hepatic lipid accumulation and induced the expression of lipogenic and cholesterogenic genes compared to chow-fed mice: induction of gene expression was found to translate into increased oleate synthesis. Interestingly, this higher lipogenic flux (+74 µg/g/h for oleic acid) in mice fed the high-fat diet was mainly due to an increased hepatic elongation of unlabeled palmitate (+66 µg/g/h) rather than to elongation of de novo synthesized palmitate. In addition, fractional cholesterol synthesis was increased, i.e. 5.8±0.4% vs. 8.1±0.6% for control and high fat-fed animals, respectively. Hepatic VLDL-TG production was not affected by high-fat feeding. Partial replacement of saturated fat by fish oil completely reversed the lipogenic effects of high-fat feeding: hepatic lipogenic and cholesterogenic gene expression levels as well as fatty acid and cholesterol synthesis rates were normalized. Conclusions/Significance High-fat feeding induces hepatic fatty acid synthesis in mice, by chain elongation and subsequent desaturation rather than de novo synthesis, while VLDL-TG output remains unaffected. Suppression of lipogenic fluxes

  10. Activated carbon cleanup of the acid gas feed to Claus sulfur plants

    SciTech Connect

    Harruff, L.G.; Bushkuhl, S.J.

    1996-12-31

    This paper presents the details of a recently developed novel process using activated carbon to remove hydrocarbon contaminants from the acid gas feed to Claus sulfur recovery units. Heavy hydrocarbons, particularly benzene, toluene and xylene (BTX) have been linked to coke formation and catalyst deactivation in Claus converters. This deactivation results in reduced sulfur recovery and increased sulfur emissions from these plants. This effect is especially evident in split flow Claus plants which bypass some of the acid gas feed stream around the initial combustion step because of a low hydrogen sulfide concentration. This new clean-up process was proven to be capable of removing 95% of the BTX and other C{sub 6}{sup +} hydrocarbons from acid gas over a wide range of actual plant conditions. Following the adsorption step, the activated carbon was easily regenerated using low pressure steam. A post regeneration drying step using plant fuel gas also proved beneficial. This technology was extensively pilot tested in Saudi Aramco`s facilities in Saudi Arabia. Full scale commercial units are planned for two plants in the near future with the first coming on-line in 1997. The process described here represents the first application of activated carbon in this service, and a patent has been applied for. The paper will discuss the pilot plant results and the issues involved in scale-up to commercial size.

  11. Phase Equilibrium Studies of Savannah River Tanks and Feed Streams for the Salt Waste Processing Facility

    SciTech Connect

    Weber, C.F.

    2001-06-19

    A chemical equilibrium model is developed and used to evaluate supersaturation of tanks and proposed feed streams to the Salt Waste Processing Facility. The model uses Pitzer's model for activity coefficients and is validated by comparison with a variety of thermodynamic data. The model assesses the supersaturation of 13 tanks at the Savannah River Site (SRS), indicating that small amounts of gibbsite and or aluminosilicate may form. The model is also used to evaluate proposed feed streams to the Salt Waste Processing Facility for 13 years of operation. Results indicate that dilutions using 3-4 M NaOH (about 0.3-0.4 L caustic per kg feed solution) should avoid precipitation and reduce the Na{sup +} ion concentration to 5.6 M.

  12. Composition of amino acids in feed ingredients for animal diets.

    PubMed

    Li, Xilong; Rezaei, Reza; Li, Peng; Wu, Guoyao

    2011-04-01

    Dietary amino acids (AA) are crucial for animal growth, development, reproduction, lactation, and health. However, there is a scarcity of information regarding complete composition of "nutritionally nonessential AA" (NEAA; those AA which can be synthesized by animals) in diets. To provide a much-needed database, we quantified NEAA (including glutamate, glutamine, aspartate, and asparagine) in feed ingredients for comparison with "nutritionally essential AA" (EAA; those AA whose carbon skeletons cannot be formed by animals). Except for gelatin and feather meal, animal and plant ingredients contained high percentages of glutamate plus glutamine, branched-chain AA, and aspartate plus asparagine, which were 10-32, 15-25, and 8-14% of total protein, respectively. In particular, leucine and glutamine were most abundant in blood meal and casein (13% of total protein), respectively. Notably, gelatin, feather meal, fish meal, meat and bone meal, and poultry byproduct had high percentages of glycine, proline plus hydroxyproline, and arginine, which were 10-35, 9.6-35, and 7.2-7.9% of total protein, respectively. Among plant products, arginine was most abundant in peanut meal and cottonseed meal (14-16% of total protein), whereas corn and sorghum had low percentages of cysteine, lysine, methionine, and tryptophan (0.9-3% of total protein). Overall, feed ingredients of animal origin (except for gelatin) are excellent sources of NEAA and EAA for livestock, avian, and aquatic species, whereas gelatin provides highest amounts of arginine, glycine, and proline plus hydroxyproline. Because casein, corn, soybean, peanut, fish, and gelatin are consumed by children and adults, our findings also have important implications for human nutrition. PMID:20842395

  13. Teaching Paleontology with an Acid-Leaching Facility.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Talent, John A.; And Others

    1987-01-01

    Described is an acid-leaching facility at Macquarie University in Australia for teaching paleontology. The facility is used for teaching both undergraduate and graduate students and for research by staff and graduate students. Drawings of the facility are included and courses are described. (Author/RH)

  14. 105-K Basin material design basis feed description for spent nuclear fuel project facilities. Volume 2: Sludge

    SciTech Connect

    Pearce, K.L.

    1998-08-30

    Volume 2 provides the design feed compositions for the baseline K East and K West Basin sludge process streams expected to be generated during Spent Nuclear Fuel (SNF) Project activities. Four types of feeds are required to support evaluation of specific facility and process considerations during the development of new facilities and processes. These four design feeds provide nominal and bounding conditions for design evaluations. Volume 2 includes definition of inventories for: (1) KE and KW Basins sludge locations (pit sludges, floor sludge, canister.sludge, and wash sludge components), (2) nominal feed for each of five process feed streams, (3) shielding design feed, (4) safety/regulatory assessment feed, and (5) criticality assessment feed.

  15. 76 FR 7106 - Food Additives Permitted in Feed and Drinking Water of Animals; Formic Acid

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-02-09

    ... notice published in the Federal Register of December 7, 2009 (74 FR 64091), FDA announced that a food... agent in swine feed. This action is in response to a food additive petition filed by Kemira Oyj of... safe use of formic acid as an acidifying agent at levels not to exceed 1.2 percent in swine feed....

  16. CHARACTERIZATION OF A PRECIPITATE REACTOR FEED TANK (PRFT) SAMPLE FROM THE DEFENSE WASTE PROCESSING FACILITY (DWPF)

    SciTech Connect

    Crawford, C.; Bannochie, C.

    2014-05-12

    A sample of from the Defense Waste Processing Facility (DWPF) Precipitate Reactor Feed Tank (PRFT) was pulled and sent to the Savannah River National Laboratory (SRNL) in June of 2013. The PRFT in DWPF receives Actinide Removal Process (ARP)/ Monosodium Titanate (MST) material from the 512-S Facility via the 511-S Facility. This 2.2 L sample was to be used in small-scale DWPF chemical process cell testing in the Shielded Cells Facility of SRNL. A 1L sub-sample portion was characterized to determine the physical properties such as weight percent solids, density, particle size distribution and crystalline phase identification. Further chemical analysis of the PRFT filtrate and dissolved slurry included metals and anions as well as carbon and base analysis. This technical report describes the characterization and analysis of the PRFT sample from DWPF. At SRNL, the 2.2 L PRFT sample was composited from eleven separate samples received from DWPF. The visible solids were observed to be relatively quick settling which allowed for the rinsing of the original shipping vials with PRFT supernate on the same day as compositing. Most analyses were performed in triplicate except for particle size distribution (PSD), X-ray diffraction (XRD), Scanning Electron Microscopy (SEM) and thermogravimetric analysis (TGA). PRFT slurry samples were dissolved using a mixed HNO3/HF acid for subsequent Inductively Coupled Plasma Atomic Emission Spectroscopy (ICPAES) and Inductively Coupled Plasma Mass Spectroscopy (ICP-MS) analyses performed by SRNL Analytical Development (AD). Per the task request for this work, analysis of the PRFT slurry and filtrate for metals, anions, carbon and base were primarily performed to support the planned chemical process cell testing and to provide additional component concentrations in addition to the limited data available from DWPF. Analysis of the insoluble solids portion of the PRFT slurry was aimed at detailed characterization of these solids (TGA, PSD

  17. Impact of potato psyllid (Hemiptera: Triozide) feeding on free amino acid composition in potato

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Foliage feeding impacts of potato psyllid (Bactericera cockerelli) on the free amino acids (FAAs) composition in potato leaf and tuber were determined under the greenhouse conditions. The free amino acids in plant extracts were separated by HPLC, and in both leaf and tuber samples, at least, 17 FAAs...

  18. Uranium-Loaded Water Treatment Resins: 'Equivalent Feed' at NRC and Agreement State-Licensed Uranium Recovery Facilities - 12094

    SciTech Connect

    Camper, Larry W.; Michalak, Paul; Cohen, Stephen; Carter, Ted

    2012-07-01

    Community Water Systems (CWSs) are required to remove uranium from drinking water to meet EPA standards. Similarly, mining operations are required to remove uranium from their dewatering discharges to meet permitted surface water discharge limits. Ion exchange (IX) is the primary treatment strategy used by these operations, which loads uranium onto resin beads. Presently, uranium-loaded resin from CWSs and mining operations can be disposed as a waste product or processed by NRC- or Agreement State-licensed uranium recovery facilities if that licensed facility has applied for and received permission to process 'alternate feed'. The disposal of uranium-loaded resin is costly and the cost to amend a uranium recovery license to accept alternate feed can be a strong disincentive to commercial uranium recovery facilities. In response to this issue, the NRC issued a Regulatory Issue Summary (RIS) to clarify the agency's policy that uranium-loaded resin from CWSs and mining operations can be processed by NRC- or Agreement State-licensed uranium recovery facilities without the need for an alternate feed license amendment when these resins are essentially the same, chemically and physically, to resins that licensed uranium recovery facilities currently use (i.e., equivalent feed). NRC staff is clarifying its current alternate feed policy to declare IX resins as equivalent feed. This clarification is necessary to alleviate a regulatory and financial burden on facilities that filter uranium using IX resin, such as CWSs and mine dewatering operations. Disposing of those resins in a licensed facility could be 40 to 50 percent of the total operations and maintenance (O and M) cost for a CWS. Allowing uranium recovery facilities to treat these resins without requiring a license amendment lowers O and M costs and captures a valuable natural resource. (authors)

  19. 105-K Basin Material Design Basis Feed Description for Spent Nuclear Fuel (SNF) Project Facilities VOL 1 Fuel

    SciTech Connect

    PACKER, M.J.

    1999-11-04

    Metallic uranium Spent Nuclear Fuel (SNF) is currently stored within two water filled pools, 105-KE Basin (KE Basin) and 105-KW Basin (KW Basin), at the United States Department of Energy (U.S. DOE) Hanford Site, in southeastern Washington State. The Spent Nuclear Fuel Project (SNF Project) is responsible to DOE for operation of these fuel storage pools and for the 2100 metric tons of SNF materials that they contain. The SNF Project mission includes safe removal and transportation of all SNF from these storage basins to a new storage facility in the 200 East Area. To accomplish this mission, the SNF Project modifies the existing KE Basin and KW Basin facilities and constructs two new facilities: the 100 K Area Cold Vacuum Drying Facility (CVDF), which drains and dries the SNF; and the 200 East Area Canister Storage Building (CSB), which stores the SNF. The purpose of this document is to describe the design basis feed compositions for materials stored or processed by SNF Project facilities and activities. This document is not intended to replace the Hanford Spent Fuel Inventory Baseline (WHC 1994b), but only to supplement it by providing more detail on the chemical and radiological inventories in the fuel (this volume) and sludge. A variety of feed definitions is required to support evaluation of specific facility and process considerations during the development of these new facilities. Six separate feed types have been identified for development of new storage or processing facilities. The approach for using each feed during design evaluations is to calculate the proposed facility flowsheet assuming each feed. The process flowsheet would then provide a basis for material compositions and quantities which are used in follow-on calculations.

  20. Feed Acceptance for the Defense Waste Processing Facility at the Savannah River Site

    SciTech Connect

    Jacobs, R.A.; Elder, H.H.

    1998-03-01

    The DWPF at the Department of Energy`s (DOE) Savannah River Site (SRS) began radioactive operations in December of 1995. The High Level Waste Tank Farm at SRS contains approximately thirty three million gallons of salt, supernate, and insoluble sludge wastes accumulated during more than three decades of weapons manufacture. In the DWPF, the radioactive components from this waste will ultimately be processed into a stable, borosilicate glass for long-term storage in a geological repository.The feeds to the DWPF are pretreated in a number of steps. Insoluble sludges, primarily aluminum, iron and other transition metals, are combined from several tanks, treated by caustic dissolution of aluminum and washed to remove soluble salts; these materials are removed to increase waste loading in the glass produced by the DWPF.The water soluble radioactive species in the salt and supernate, primarily cesium and actinides, are precipitated by sodium tetraphenylborate (NaTPB) or adsorbed onto sodium titanate. The resulting solids are also washed to remove excessive soluble salts before feeding to the DWPF. The soluble species removed by washing are disposed of as low level radioactive waste in a concrete form known as Saltstone. The presentation includes a brief overview of the High Level Waste system, pretreatment, and disposition of the various streams.The washed tetraphenylborate precipitates of cesium and potassium are hydrolyzed by copper catalyzed formic acid hydrolysis in the Salt Processing Cell (SPC) to yield soluble formates, boric acid, benzene and minor organic byproducts.The benzene and most of the organic byproducts are then steam stripped. The resulting aqueous hydrolysis product, including the still insoluble actinides adsorbed onto sodium titanate, is combined in the Chemical Processing Cell (CPC) with the insoluble sludge which has been treated with nitric acid and formic acid to remove mercury and to adjust the glass redox. Borosilicate glass frit is added and

  1. Use of tocopherol with polyunsaturated fatty acids in poultry feeds.

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The ability of a-tocopherol to prevent the degradation docosahexaenoic acid (DHA) at elevated temperatures was investigated in a series of laboratory experiments. DHA is known to promote nervous system function and health, however, DHA and similar highly unsaturated compounds are readily oxidized wi...

  2. Inhibition of sham feeding-stimulated acid secretion in dogs by immunoneutralization of gastrin.

    PubMed

    Kovacs, T O; Lloyd, K C; Lawson, D C; Pappas, T N; Walsh, J H

    1997-08-01

    A monoclonal antibody to gastrin was used to study the role of circulating gastrin in mediating acid secretion stimulated by sham feeding in dogs. On separate days, four conscious, fasted, adult mongrel dogs with esophageal and gastric fistulae were pretreated intravenously with either 7 mg of gastrin monoclonal antibody (MAb 28.2), 7 mg of keyhole limpet hemocyanin monoclonal antibody as control, or 12.5 micrograms/kg atropine sulfate. Thirty minutes later, acid secretion was stimulated first by sham feeding for 5 min, then, 60 min later, by an intravenous infusion of a maximum stimulatory dose of histamine (40 micrograms/kg) for 60 min, and after returning to basal, by intravenous infusion of a submaximal stimulatory dose of gastrin (200 pmol.kg-1.h-1) for 60 min. Acid output from secretions collected every 15 min by gravity drainage was determined by titration to pH 7.0 with 0.2 N NaOH. Sham feeding-stimulated acid output (17.7 +/- 5.5 mmol/h) was significantly inhibited by administration of either MAb 28.2 (0 mmol/h) or atropine (1.7 +/- 1.1 mmol/h). Histamine-stimulated acid output (19.6 +/- 3.4 mmol/h) was not reduced by either pretreatment. Gastrin-stimulated acid output (3.9 +/- 0.6 mmol/h) was significantly reduced only by pretreatment with MAb 28.2 (0.1 +/- 0.1 mmol/h) and not by atropine (2.2 +/- 1.4 mmol/h). A background intravenous infusion of pentagastrin (0.5 microgram.kg-1.h-1) restored sham feeding-stimulated acid output blocked by administration of MAb 28.2, although the intrinsic acid response to sham feeding could not be seen with the background pentagastrin infusion. Furthermore, the plasma gastrin response to sham feeding was not blocked by atropine pretreatment. Because immunoneutralization of both gastrin and cholinergic blockade significantly inhibited acid output during sham feeding, circulating gastrin and cholinergic pathways are involved in mediating the cephalic phase of gastric acid secretion in dogs. PMID:9277419

  3. Recent advances in the risk assessment of melamine and cyanuric acid in animal feed

    SciTech Connect

    Dorne, Jean Lou; Vandenbroeck, Marc; Mennes, Wim; Knutsen, Helle K.; Vernazza, Francesco; Edler, Lutz; Benford, Diane

    2013-08-01

    Melamine can be present at low levels in food and feed mostly from its legal use as a food contact material in laminates and plastics, as a trace contaminant in nitrogen supplements used in animal feeds, and as a metabolite of the pesticide cyromazine. The mechanism of toxicity of melamine involves dose-dependent formation of crystals with either endogenous uric acid or a structural analogue of melamine, cyanuric acid, in renal tubules resulting in potential acute kidney failure. Co-exposure to melamine and cyanuric acid in livestock, fish, pets and laboratory animals shows higher toxicity compared with melamine or cyanuric acid alone. Evidence for crystal formation between melamine and other structural analogs i.e. ammelide and ammeline is limited. Illegal pet food adulterations with melamine and cyanuric acid and adulteration of milk with melamine resulted in melamine–cyanuric acid crystals, kidney damage and deaths of cats and dogs and melamine–uric acid stones, hospitalisation and deaths of children in China respectively. Following these incidents, the tolerable daily intake for melamine was re-evaluated by the U.S. Food and Drug Administration, the World Health Organisation, and the Scientific Panel on Contaminants in the Food Chain of the European Food Safety Authority (EFSA). This review provides an overview of toxicology, the adulteration incidents and risk assessments for melamine and its structural analogues. Particular focus is given to the recent EFSA risk assessment addressing impacts on animal and human health of background levels of melamine and structural analogues in animal feed. Recent research and future directions are discussed. - Highlights: ► Melamine in food and feed. ► Forms crystals in kidney with uric acid or cyanuric acid. ► Toxicity higher with cyanuric acid. ► Recent EFSA risk assessment. ► Animal and human health.

  4. Greenhouse gas reduction and improved sustainability of animal husbandry using amino acids in swine, poultry feeds.

    PubMed

    Tsujimoto, Susumu; Takagi, Tomo; Osada, Takashi; Ogino, Akifumi

    2013-05-01

    In Annex 1 countries, nitrous oxide (N2 O) emissions from swine and poultry excreta have been calculated and the N2 O reduction potential of each country by using amino acids in feed could also be calculated, then a comparison made among the countries. The N2 O reduction rates were approximately 25% for these Annex 1 countries and amino acids were able to make a large contribution to that reduction. Greenhouse gases (GHG) which are N2 O combined with methane (CH4 ) were estimated to reduce by 24.8% in Japan when amino acids were introduced into the feed, but only a 7.2% reduction was estimated in France. Purification, which is mainly used for manure treatment in Japan, emits much more N2 O and less CH4 , whereas the liquid system which is mainly used in France emits more CH4 and less N2 O based on the emission factors from the United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change data base. Changing the French manure treatment system to the Japanese style with amino acids in feed would reduce GHG emissions by 23.4%. Reduction of the arable land use in Japan by changing crop formulations supported by adding amino acids to feed was also quantified as about 10% and led to an increase in the production of meat using the same arable land area. PMID:23607750

  5. Single amino acids in sucrose rewards modulate feeding and associative learning in the honeybee

    PubMed Central

    Simcock, Nicola K.; Gray, Helen E.; Wright, Geraldine A.

    2014-01-01

    Obtaining the correct balance of nutrients requires that the brain integrates information about the body’s nutritional state with sensory information from food to guide feeding behaviour. Learning is a mechanism that allows animals to identify cues associated with nutrients so that they can be located quickly when required. Feedback about nutritional state is essential for nutrient balancing and could influence learning. How specific this feedback is to individual nutrients has not often been examined. Here, we tested how the honeybee’s nutritional state influenced the likelihood it would feed on and learn sucrose solutions containing single amino acids. Nutritional state was manipulated by pre-feeding bees with either 1 M sucrose or 1 M sucrose containing 100 mM of isoleucine, proline, phenylalanine, or methionine 24 h prior to olfactory conditioning of the proboscis extension response. We found that bees pre-fed sucrose solution consumed less of solutions containing amino acids and were also less likely to learn to associate amino acid solutions with odours. Unexpectedly, bees pre-fed solutions containing an amino acid were also less likely to learn to associate odours with sucrose the next day. Furthermore, they consumed more of and were more likely to learn when rewarded with an amino acid solution if they were pre-fed isoleucine and proline. Our data indicate that single amino acids at relatively high concentrations inhibit feeding on sucrose solutions containing them, and they can act as appetitive reinforcers during learning. Our data also suggest that select amino acids interact with mechanisms that signal nutritional sufficiency to reduce hunger. Based on these experiments, we predict that nutrient balancing for essential amino acids during learning requires integration of information about several amino acids experienced simultaneously. PMID:24819203

  6. Lactic acid fermentation of food waste for swine feed.

    PubMed

    Yang, S Y; Ji, K S; Baik, Y H; Kwak, W S; McCaskey, T A

    2006-10-01

    This study was conducted to determine the effects of lactic acid bacteria (LAB, Lactobacillus salivarius) inoculation on the microbial, physical and chemical properties of food waste mixture (FWM) stored at ambient temperature (25 degrees C) for 10 and 30 days. A complete pig diet including restaurant food waste, bakery by-product, barley and wheat bran, and broiler poultry litter was amended with LAB at the levels of 0.1%, 0.2%, 0.5% and 1.0% and fermented anaerobically. These treatments were compared with intact FWM before storage and non-anaerobically stored FWM. Non-anaerobic storage of FWM showed microbial putrefaction with the loss (P < 0.05) of water and water soluble carbohydrate (WSC) and increases (P < 0.005) in protein and fiber. Anaerobic fermentation of FWM with or without LAB seemed effective in both 10- and 30-day-storage. The addition of LAB inoculants to FWM showed a linear trend (P < 0.05) toward an increase in the number of total and lactic acid bacteria and toward the nutritional improvement with WSC increased and fiber decreased. Long-term (30 days) storage resulted in consistent reduction (P < 0.05) in numbers of total and lactic acid bacteria and pH and showed little change in chemical components, compared with short-term (10 days) storage. On the basis of these results, LAB inoculation improved fermentative characteristics of FWM. Among anaerobic treatments, further WSC increase and NDF reduction did not occur (P > 0.05) when LAB-added levels were over 0.2%. Based on these observations the optimum level of LAB addition to FWM was 0.2%. PMID:16257200

  7. Feeding ecology of Ammothella longipes (Arthropoda: Pycnogonida) in the Mediterranean Sea: A fatty acid biomarker approach

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Soler-Membrives, Anna; Rossi, Sergio; Munilla, Tomás

    2011-05-01

    Fatty acid analysis has proved valuable in determining seasonal trophic links and the feeding behavior in organisms in which these diet and trophic links cannot be inferred from stomach content analyses. Seasonal variations in total free fatty acid content (TFFA) and fatty acid composition of seston (<250 μm), the brown macroalgae Stypocaulon spp., polychaetes (Nereididae) and the pycnogonid Ammothella longipes have been used to establish their trophic links, with particular focus on seasonality and feeding ecology of A. longipes. Samples were collected in a coastal environment (NW Mediterranean Sea) at 7-10 m depth, in five different periods (August and October 2008, February, June and September 2009). Seston and Stypocaulon spp. samples did not show significant seasonal variations in TFFA content, while nereids showed a significant variation. Analysis of fatty acid profile showed high similarities of fatty acid composition between seston and Stypocaulon spp. Nereids were closer to seston and Stypocaulon spp. than A. longipes, which seemed to follow a seasonal trend. The results of this study reveal that A. longipes may change its feeding behavior depending on the season and available food. This pycnogonid species appears to be carnivore during spring and early summer but seems to feed on detritus when availability of prey diminishes during winter. Notable high amounts of odd-chain fatty acids are found in summer-autumn for this species, which may come from bacteria acquired from the detrital diet or from de novo biosynthesis from propionate. The results obtained provide new and valuable data on the understudied feeding biology of pycnogonids in general, and contribute to the understanding of their functioning of Mediterranean shallow oligotrophic systems and their trophic links.

  8. Stable Isotope and Signature Fatty Acid Analyses Suggest Reef Manta Rays Feed on Demersal Zooplankton

    PubMed Central

    Couturier, Lydie I. E.; Rohner, Christoph A.; Richardson, Anthony J.; Marshall, Andrea D.; Jaine, Fabrice R. A.; Bennett, Michael B.; Townsend, Kathy A.; Weeks, Scarla J.; Nichols, Peter D.

    2013-01-01

    Assessing the trophic role and interaction of an animal is key to understanding its general ecology and dynamics. Conventional techniques used to elucidate diet, such as stomach content analysis, are not suitable for large threatened marine species. Non-lethal sampling combined with biochemical methods provides a practical alternative for investigating the feeding ecology of these species. Stable isotope and signature fatty acid analyses of muscle tissue were used for the first time to examine assimilated diet of the reef manta ray Manta alfredi, and were compared with different zooplankton functional groups (i.e. near-surface zooplankton collected during manta ray feeding events and non-feeding periods, epipelagic zooplankton, demersal zooplankton and several different zooplankton taxa). Stable isotope δ15N values confirmed that the reef manta ray is a secondary consumer. This species had relatively high levels of docosahexaenoic acid (DHA) indicating a flagellate-based food source in the diet, which likely reflects feeding on DHA-rich near-surface and epipelagic zooplankton. However, high levels of ω6 polyunsaturated fatty acids and slightly enriched δ13C values in reef manta ray tissue suggest that they do not feed solely on pelagic zooplankton, but rather obtain part of their diet from another origin. The closest match was with demersal zooplankton, suggesting it is an important component of the reef manta ray diet. The ability to feed on demersal zooplankton is likely linked to the horizontal and vertical movement patterns of this giant planktivore. These new insights into the habitat use and feeding ecology of the reef manta ray will assist in the effective evaluation of its conservation needs. PMID:24167562

  9. METHODS FOR DETERMINING AGITATOR MIXING REQUIREMENTS FOR A MIXING & SAMPLING FACILITY TO FEED WTP (WASTE TREATMENT PLANT)

    SciTech Connect

    GRIFFIN PW

    2009-08-27

    The following report is a summary of work conducted to evaluate the ability of existing correlative techniques and alternative methods to accurately estimate impeller speed and power requirements for mechanical mixers proposed for use in a mixing and sampling facility (MSF). The proposed facility would accept high level waste sludges from Hanford double-shell tanks and feed uniformly mixed high level waste to the Waste Treatment Plant. Numerous methods are evaluated and discussed, and resulting recommendations provided.

  10. Formulation of poultry feed with polyunsaturated fatty acids and natural antioxidants to improve meat quality

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Formulation of poultry feed with polyunsaturated fatty acids and natural antioxidants to improve meat quality Ronald Alan Holser* and Arthur Hinton, Jr Russell Research Center, USDA-ARS, 950 College Station Road, Athens, Georgia, 30605 USA *Corresponding author: Tel. +1 706-546-3361; Fax +1 706-546-...

  11. Use of vitamin E to protect highly unsaturated fatty acids in poultry feeds

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Vitamin E can protect sensitive compounds from oxidative degradation but at high concentrations it acts as a prooxidant to accelerate oxidative degradation process. The addition of polyunsaturated acids to poultry feeds provides a straightforward approach to improve the nutritional quality of poultr...

  12. Pilot-plant testing of materials proposed for use as NWCF feed and fuel nozzle caps. [New Waste Calcining Facility

    SciTech Connect

    Birrer, S.A.

    1980-12-01

    Results of a series of tests performed on materials proposed for use at New Waste Calcining Facility (NWCF) fuel and feed nozzle caps are described. Results show that Haynes Alloys 25 and 188 and Inconel Alloys 617, 625, and 690 have acceptable corrosion and erosion rates based upon the high-temperature oxidation, erosion, and corrosion tests conducted.

  13. Effects of feeding camelina (seeds or meal) on milk fatty acid composition and butter spreadability.

    PubMed

    Hurtaud, C; Peyraud, J L

    2007-11-01

    The nutritional and rheological properties of butter depend on the fatty acid composition of milk. Therefore, feeding oilseeds rich in unsaturated fatty acids is likely to affect butter properties. The aim of this trial was to examine to what extent feeding the linolenic acid-rich cruciferous plant camelina can affect the fatty acid composition of dairy products and the properties of butter. A control diet composed of 60% corn silage-based ration and completed with high-energy and nitrogenous concentrates was compared with 2 experimental diets designed to provide the same amount of polyunsaturated fatty acids via either camelina seed (630 g/d, CS diet) or camelina meal (2 kg/d, CM diet). The diets were isoenergetic and isonitrogenous. The trial followed a double 3 x 3 Latin-square design with 4-wk periods on 6 Holstein dairy cows. The camelina diets tended to decrease dry matter intake but did not have a significant effect on milk production. They generated a slight decrease in milk protein and a strong decrease in milk fat yield and content. The CM diet led to a stronger decrease in fat content. Camelina generated a greater proportion of monounsaturated fatty acids, notably C18:1 trans isomers, including trans-10 and trans-11 C18:1, which increased by 11.0- and 2.6-fold, respectively, with the CM diet. Camelina also led to an increase in conjugated linoleic acids, particularly rumenic acid, cis-9, trans-11 C18:2. Camelina did not affect parameters of buttermaking except churning time with milk from CM fed cows, which was longer. The butters of camelina diets were softer at all temperatures tested, especially with the CM diet. In conclusion, feeding camelina can modify milk fatty acid profile and butter spreadability. PMID:17954754

  14. 28. Naval Facilities Engineering Command Drawing 6072429 (463M4) (1975), 'Acid ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    28. Naval Facilities Engineering Command Drawing 6072429 (463-M-4) (1975), 'Acid Piping Replacement & Pump Transfer System (Tank Area)' - Mare Island Naval Shipyard, Acid Mixing Facility, California Avenue & E Street, Vallejo, Solano County, CA

  15. Influence of pasture-based feeding systems on fatty acids, organic acids and volatile organic flavour compounds in yoghurt.

    PubMed

    Akbaridoust, Ghazal; Plozza, Tim; Trenerry, V Craige; Wales, William J; Auldist, Martin J; Ajlouni, Said

    2015-08-01

    The influence of different pasture-based feeding systems on fatty acids, organic acids and volatile organic flavour compounds in yoghurt was studied. Pasture is the main source of nutrients for dairy cows in many parts of the world, including southeast Australia. Milk and milk products produced in these systems are known to contain a number of compounds with positive effects on human health. In the current study, 260 cows were fed supplementary grain and forage according to one of 3 different systems; Control (a traditional pasture based diet offered to the cows during milking and in paddock), PMR1 (a partial mixed ration which contained the same supplement as Control but was offered to the cows as a partial mixed ration on a feedpad), PMR 2 (a differently formulated partial mixed ration compared to Control and PMR1 which was offered to the cows on a feedpad). Most of the yoghurt fatty acids were influenced by feeding systems; however, those effects were minor on organic acids. The differences in feeding systems did not lead to the formation of different volatile organic flavour compounds in yoghurt. Yet, it did influence the relative abundance of these components. PMID:26143651

  16. Transport, metabolism, and effect of chronic feeding of lagodeoxycholic acid. A new, natural bile acid.

    PubMed

    Schmassmann, A; Angellotti, M A; Clerici, C; Hofmann, A F; Ton-Nu, H T; Schteingart, C D; Marcus, S N; Hagey, L R; Rossi, S S; Aigner, A

    1990-10-01

    Ursodeoxycholic acid, the 7 beta-hydroxy epimer of chenodeoxycholic acid, is more hydrophilic and less hepatotoxic than chenodeoxycholic acid. Because "lagodeoxycholic acid," the 12 beta-hydroxy epimer of deoxycholic acid, is also more hydrophilic than deoxycholic acid, it was hypothesized that it should also be less hepatotoxic than deoxycholic acid. To test this, lagodeoxycholic acid was synthesized, and its transport and metabolism were examined in the rat, rabbit, and hamster. The taurine conjugate of lagodeoxycholic acid was moderately well transported by the perfused rat ileum (Tmax = 2 mumol/min.kg). In rats and hamsters with biliary fistulas, the taurine conjugate of lagodeoxycholic acid was well transported by the liver with a Tmax greater than 20 mumol/min.kg; for the taurine conjugate of deoxycholic acid, doses infused at a rate greater than 2.5 mumol/min.kg are known to cause cholestasis and death. Hepatic biotransformation of lagodeoxycholic acid in the rabbit was limited to conjugation with glycine; in the hamster, lagodeoxycholic acid was conjugated with glycine or taurine; in addition, 7-hydroxylation occurred to a slight extent (approximately 10%). When lagodeoxycholic acid was instilled in the rabbit colon, it was absorbed as such although within hours it was progressively epimerized by bacteria to deoxycholic acid. When injected intravenously and allowed to circulate enterohepatically, lagodeoxycholic acid was largely epimerized to deoxycholic acid in 24 hours. Surgical creation of a distal ileostomy abolished epimerization in the rabbit, indicating that exposure to colonic bacterial enzymes was required for the epimerization. Lagodeoxycholic acid was administered for 3 weeks at a dose of 180 mumol/day (0.1% by weight of a chow diet; 2-4 times the endogenous bile acid synthesis rate); other groups received identical doses of deoxycholic acid (hamster) or cholyltaurine, a known precursor of deoxycholic acid (rabbit). After 3 weeks of

  17. The time effect of chronic ethanol feeding on phospholipid fatty acids

    SciTech Connect

    Nakamura, M.T.; Tang, A.B.; Halsted, C.H.; Phinney, S.D. )

    1992-02-26

    The authors have previously shown that chronic ethanol feeding reduces arachidonic acid (AA) and other products of {delta}6 and {delta}5 desaturases in various tissues including muscle, the largest phospholipid (PL) pool. In this study they investigated the time-course effect of ethanol feeding on tissue fatty acid (FA) profiles. Five Yucatan micropigs were fed 89 kcal/kg body wt of diet containing ethanol and fat as 40 and 34% of energy, respectively. Five control pigs were pairfed corn starch instead of ethanol. Corn oil, 61% linoleic acid (LA), supplied most of dietary fat. PL fatty acids were quantitated by thin layer and gas chromatography. Below are FA profiles of control/ethanol groups by wt%. Underlined values differ p<0.05. In liver PL, ethanol resulted in increased LA but decreased palmitic acid, AA and docosahexaenoic acid (DHA) at 2 months. These changes remained constant for 12 months, whereas alpha-linolenic acid and DHA showed a progressive decline. For muscle, however, significant differences were not seen until 12 months. These results indicate time differences in ethanol effect on w6 and w3 FA composition, and that liver and muscle differ in their rates of response to ethanol. Their findings suggest that ethanol affects both desaturase activity and the precursor pool, and thus may alter membrane function.

  18. Enteral feeding as sole treatment for Crohn's disease: controlled trial of whole protein v amino acid based feed and a case study of dietary challenge.

    PubMed Central

    Raouf, A H; Hildrey, V; Daniel, J; Walker, R J; Krasner, N; Elias, E; Rhodes, J M

    1991-01-01

    A controlled trial was performed to compare enteral feeding with either an amino acid based feed or a whole protein feed as sole treatment for active Crohn's disease. Twenty four patients were studied (nine with ileal, 11 with ileocolonic, and four with colonic disease). Both feeds proved effective; nine of 13 patients randomised to receive the amino acid based feed were in clinical remission within three weeks as defined by a simple activity index compared with eight of 11 treated with the whole protein feed. Patients in clinical remission were then crossed over onto the other feed. None of the six patients who were changed to the whole protein feed relapsed over the subsequent three week period compared with three of seven patients who were changed to the amino acid based feed. In responders the median serum C reactive protein concentration fell from 21 mg/l (range 9-82) on entry to 6 mg/l (range 3-19) at six weeks. Seven patients relapsed within eight months of starting solid food (mean 3.7 months), while nine were still in remission (follow up period 3-9 months, median six months). Detailed studies of staged reintroduction of food and permitted food additives were carried out over a four year period in a patient with extensive stricturing small bowel Crohn's disease who had been brought into remission by open treatment with enteral feeding. Carrageenan, other permitted emulsifiers, bread, meat, potatoes, oranges, refined sugar, dairy produce, flour, and rice were all reintroduced without any objective ill effect, but green vegetables provoked a clinical and biochemical relapse within one week of introduction. Remission was rapidly achieved by switching back to the enteral feed but reintroduction of the low residue diet that had been previously tolerated produced a brisk relapse. Clinical and biochemical remission was again achieved by a return to the enteral feed but relapse again occurred with reintroduction of the low residue diet. These studies confirm the

  19. Feeding strategies for enhanced lactobionic acid production from whey by Pseudomonas taetrolens.

    PubMed

    Alonso, Saúl; Rendueles, Manuel; Díaz, Mario

    2013-04-01

    High-level production of lactobionic acid from whey by Pseudomonas taetrolens under fed-batch fermentation was achieved in this study. Different feeding strategies were evaluated according to the physiological status and fermentation performance of P. taetrolens. A lactobionic acid titer of 164 g/L was obtained under co-feeding conditions affording specific and volumetric productivities of 1.4 g/g h and 2.05 g/L h, respectively. Flow cytometry assessment revealed that P. taetrolens cells exhibited a robust physiological status, which makes them particularly well-suited for employing concentrated nutrient solutions to further prolong the growth and production phases. Such detailed knowledge of the physiological status has been revealed to be a key issue to further support the development of high-yield lactobionic acid production processes under feeding strategies. The present study has demonstrated the feasibility of P. taetrolens to achieve high-level bio-production of lactobionic acid from whey through fed-batch cultivation, suggesting its major potential for industrial-scale implementation. PMID:23500570

  20. Options for converting excess plutonium to feed for the MOX fuel fabrication facility

    SciTech Connect

    Watts, Joe A; Smith, Paul H; Psaras, John D; Jarvinen, Gordon D; Costa, David A; Joyce, Jr., Edward L

    2009-01-01

    The storage and safekeeping of excess plutonium in the United States represents a multibillion-dollar lifecycle cost to the taxpayers and poses challenges to National Security and Nuclear Non-Proliferation. Los Alamos National Laboratory is considering options for converting some portion of the 13 metric tons of excess plutonium that was previously destined for long-term waste disposition into feed for the MOX Fuel Fabrication Facility (MFFF). This approach could reduce storage costs and security ri sks, and produce fuel for nuclear energy at the same time. Over the course of 30 years of weapons related plutonium production, Los Alamos has developed a number of flow sheets aimed at separation and purification of plutonium. Flow sheets for converting metal to oxide and for removing chloride and fluoride from plutonium residues have been developed and withstood the test oftime. This presentation will address some potential options for utilizing processes and infrastructure developed by Defense Programs to transform a large variety of highly impure plutonium into feedstock for the MFFF.

  1. Recent advances in the risk assessment of melamine and cyanuric acid in animal feed.

    PubMed

    Dorne, Jean Lou; Doerge, Daniel R; Vandenbroeck, Marc; Fink-Gremmels, Johanna; Mennes, Wim; Knutsen, Helle K; Vernazza, Francesco; Castle, Laurence; Edler, Lutz; Benford, Diane

    2013-08-01

    Melamine can be present at low levels in food and feed mostly from its legal use as a food contact material in laminates and plastics, as a trace contaminant in nitrogen supplements used in animal feeds, and as a metabolite of the pesticide cyromazine. The mechanism of toxicity of melamine involves dose-dependent formation of crystals with either endogenous uric acid or a structural analogue of melamine, cyanuric acid, in renal tubules resulting in potential acute kidney failure. Co-exposure to melamine and cyanuric acid in livestock, fish, pets and laboratory animals shows higher toxicity compared with melamine or cyanuric acid alone. Evidence for crystal formation between melamine and other structural analogs i.e. ammelide and ammeline is limited. Illegal pet food adulterations with melamine and cyanuric acid and adulteration of milk with melamine resulted in melamine-cyanuric acid crystals, kidney damage and deaths of cats and dogs and melamine-uric acid stones, hospitalisation and deaths of children in China respectively. Following these incidents, the tolerable daily intake for melamine was re-evaluated by the U.S. Food and Drug Administration, the World Health Organisation, and the Scientific Panel on Contaminants in the Food Chain of the European Food Safety Authority (EFSA). This review provides an overview of toxicology, the adulteration incidents and risk assessments for melamine and its structural analogues. Particular focus is given to the recent EFSA risk assessment addressing impacts on animal and human health of background levels of melamine and structural analogues in animal feed. Recent research and future directions are discussed. PMID:22306862

  2. The vertical transmission of salmonellas and formic acid treatment of chicken feed. A possible strategy for control.

    PubMed Central

    Humphrey, T. J.; Lanning, D. G.

    1988-01-01

    The treatment of feed given to laying hens with 0.5% formic acid reduced significantly the isolation rate of salmonellas and was associated with a reduction in the incidence of infection in newly hatched chicks. These improvements were not sustained until slaughter, however, as growing birds acquired salmonellas, probably from feed which was not acid treated. The data indicate that formic acid treatment of chicken food could have important benefits for the public health. PMID:3338506

  3. Evaluation of hippuric acid content in goat milk as a marker of feeding regimen.

    PubMed

    Carpio, A; Bonilla-Valverde, D; Arce, C; Rodríguez-Estévez, V; Sánchez-Rodríguez, M; Arce, L; Valcárcel, M

    2013-09-01

    Organic producers, traders, and consumers must address 2 issues related to milk: authentication of the production system and nutritional differentiation. The presence of hippuric acid (HA) in goat milk samples has been proposed as a possible marker to differentiate the feeding regimen of goats. The objective of this work is to check the hypothesis that HA could be a marker for the type of feeding regimen of goats by studying the influence of production system (conventional or organic) and feeding regimen (with or without grazing fodder). With this purpose, commercial cow and goat milk samples (n=27) and raw goat milk samples (n=185; collected from different breeds, localizations, and dates) were analyzed. Samples were grouped according to breed, feeding regimen, production system, and origin to compare HA content by ANOVA and honestly significant difference Tukey test at a confidence level of ≥95%. Hippuric acid content was obtained by analyzing milk samples with capillary electrophoresis. This method was validated by analyzing part of the samples with HPLC as a reference technique. Sixty-nine raw goat milk samples (of the total 158 samples analyzed in this work) were quantified by capillary electrophoresis. In these samples, the lowest average content for HA was 7±3 mg/L. This value corresponds to a group of conventional raw milk samples from goats fed with compound feed. The highest value of this group was 28±10 mg/L, corresponding to goats fed compound feed plus grass. Conversely, for organic raw goat milk samples, the highest concentration was 67±14 mg/L, which corresponds to goats fed grass. By contrast, the lowest value of this organic group was 26±10 mg/L, which belongs to goats fed organic compounds. Notice that the highest HA average content was found in samples from grazing animals corresponding to the organic group. This result suggests that HA is a good marker to determine the type of goats feeding regimen; a high content of HA represents a diet

  4. INHIBITION OF FATTY ACID DESATURASES IN Drosophila melanogaster LARVAE BLOCKS FEEDING AND DEVELOPMENTAL PROGRESSION.

    PubMed

    Wang, Yiwen; da Cruz, Tina Correia; Pulfemuller, Alicia; Grégoire, Stéphane; Ferveur, Jean-François; Moussian, Bernard

    2016-05-01

    Fatty acid desaturases are metabolic setscrews. To study their systemic impact on growth in Drosophila melanogaster, we inhibited fatty acid desaturases using the inhibitor CAY10566. As expected, the amount of desaturated lipids is reduced in larvae fed with CAY10566. These animals cease feeding soon after hatching, and their growth is strongly attenuated. A starvation program is not launched, but the expression of distinct metabolic genes is activated, possibly to mobilize storage material. Without attaining the normal size, inhibitor-fed larvae molt to the next stage indicating that the steroid hormone ecdysone triggers molting correctly. Nevertheless, after molting, expression of ecdysone-dependent regulators is not induced. While control larvae molt a second time, these larvae fail to do so and die after few days of straying. These effects are similar to those observed in experiments using larvae deficient for the fatty acid desaturase1 gene. Based on these data, we propose that the ratio of saturated to unsaturated fatty acids adjusts a sensor system that directs feeding behavior. We also hypothesize that loss of fatty acid desaturase activity leads to a block of the genetic program of development progression indirectly by switching on a metabolic compensation program. PMID:27037621

  5. LITHOCHOLIC ACID FEEDING RESULTS IN DIRECT HEPATO-TOXICITY INDEPENDENT OF NEUTROPHIL FUNCTION IN MICE

    PubMed Central

    Woolbright, Benjamin L.; Li, Feng; Xie, Yuchao; Farhood, Anwar; Fickert, Peter; Trauner, Michael; Jaeschke, Hartmut

    2014-01-01

    Lithocholic acid (LCA) supplementation in the diet results in intrahepatic cholestasis and bile infarcts. Previously we showed that an innate immune response is critical for cholestatic liver injury in the bile duct ligated mice. Thus, the purpose of this study was to investigate the role of neutrophils in the mechanism of liver injury caused by feeding mice a diet containing LCA. C57BL/6 mice were given control or 1% LCA containing diet for 24–96h and then examined for parameters of hepatotoxicity. Plasma ALT levels were significantly increased by 48h after LCA feeding, which correlated with both neutrophil recruitment to the liver and upregulation of numerous pro-inflammatory genes. The injury was confirmed by histology. Deficiency in intercellular adhesion molecule-1 (ICAM-1) expression or inhibition of neutrophil function failed to protect against the injury. Bile acid levels were quantified in plasma and bile of LCA-fed mice after 48 and 96h. Only the observed biliary levels of taurochenodeoxycholic acid and potentially tauro-LCA caused direct cytotoxicity in mouse hepatocytes. These data support the conclusion that neutrophil recruitment occurs after the onset of bile acid-induced necrosis in LCA-fed animals, and is not a primary mechanism of cell death when cholestasis occurs through accumulation of hydrophobic bile acids. PMID:24742700

  6. Lithocholic acid feeding results in direct hepato-toxicity independent of neutrophil function in mice.

    PubMed

    Woolbright, Benjamin L; Li, Feng; Xie, Yuchao; Farhood, Anwar; Fickert, Peter; Trauner, Michael; Jaeschke, Hartmut

    2014-07-01

    Lithocholic acid (LCA) supplementation in the diet results in intrahepatic cholestasis and bile infarcts. Previously we showed that an innate immune response is critical for cholestatic liver injury in the bile duct ligated mice. Thus, the purpose of this study was to investigate the role of neutrophils in the mechanism of liver injury caused by feeding mice a diet containing LCA. C57BL/6 mice were given control or 1% LCA containing diet for 24-96 h and then examined for parameters of hepatotoxicity. Plasma ALT levels were significantly increased by 48 h after LCA feeding, which correlated with both neutrophil recruitment to the liver and upregulation of numerous pro-inflammatory genes. The injury was confirmed by histology. Deficiency in intercellular adhesion molecule-1 (ICAM-1) expression or inhibition of neutrophil function failed to protect against the injury. Bile acid levels were quantified in plasma and bile of LCA-fed mice after 48 and 96 h. Only the observed biliary levels of taurochenodeoxycholic acid and potentially tauro-LCA caused direct cytotoxicity in mouse hepatocytes. These data support the conclusion that neutrophil recruitment occurs after the onset of bile acid-induced necrosis in LCA-fed animals, and is not a primary mechanism of cell death when cholestasis occurs through accumulation of hydrophobic bile acids. PMID:24742700

  7. Acupuncture inhibits vagal gastric acid secretion stimulated by sham feeding in healthy subjects.

    PubMed

    Lux, G; Hagel, J; Bäcker, P; Bäcker, G; Vogl, R; Ruppin, H; Domschke, S; Domschke, W

    1994-08-01

    In a prospective randomised study, the effect of acupuncture on sham feeding stimulated gastric acid secretion was investigated. In eight healthy volunteers (five men, three women, mean (SEM) age 26.3 (4.7) years) various methods of acupuncture were performed. Apart from the sham procedure, the acupuncture was performed at the classic acupuncture points. Electroacupuncture reduced gastric acid secretion expressed as median (range) significantly during the first 30 minute period to 1.6 (0-5.2) mmol compared with 3.8 (2.3-14.5) mmol (p < 0.05) during control period (sham feeding without acupuncture). Inhibition of gastric acid secretion by electroacupuncture was also significant during the second 30 minute period (0.2 (0-5.6) v 3.6 (0.3-9.1) mmol; p < 0.05) and for peak acid output (0.8 (0.2-5.1) v 7.6 (3.4-12.1) mmol; p < 0.05). Transcutaneous electrical nerve stimulation also resulted in significant reduction of gastric acid secretion during the first 30 minute period (1.0 (0-3.6) mmol v 3.8 (2.3-14.5) mmol; p < 0.05), and peak acid output (3.6 (1.2-12.0) v 7.6 (3.4-12.1) mmol; p < 0.05). The classic needle acupuncture, laser acupuncture, and sham acupuncture had no significant effect on gastric acid secretion. This study shows firstly that in healthy volunteers, only the versions of acupuncture using more pronounced stimulation (electroacupuncture, transcutaneous electrical nerve stimulation), but not those with only mild stimulation of the nerves (classic needle acupuncture, laser acupuncture), and secondly only acupuncture performed at defined points lead to significant reduction in gastric acid secretion. PMID:7926899

  8. Acupuncture inhibits vagal gastric acid secretion stimulated by sham feeding in healthy subjects.

    PubMed Central

    Lux, G; Hagel, J; Bäcker, P; Bäcker, G; Vogl, R; Ruppin, H; Domschke, S; Domschke, W

    1994-01-01

    In a prospective randomised study, the effect of acupuncture on sham feeding stimulated gastric acid secretion was investigated. In eight healthy volunteers (five men, three women, mean (SEM) age 26.3 (4.7) years) various methods of acupuncture were performed. Apart from the sham procedure, the acupuncture was performed at the classic acupuncture points. Electroacupuncture reduced gastric acid secretion expressed as median (range) significantly during the first 30 minute period to 1.6 (0-5.2) mmol compared with 3.8 (2.3-14.5) mmol (p < 0.05) during control period (sham feeding without acupuncture). Inhibition of gastric acid secretion by electroacupuncture was also significant during the second 30 minute period (0.2 (0-5.6) v 3.6 (0.3-9.1) mmol; p < 0.05) and for peak acid output (0.8 (0.2-5.1) v 7.6 (3.4-12.1) mmol; p < 0.05). Transcutaneous electrical nerve stimulation also resulted in significant reduction of gastric acid secretion during the first 30 minute period (1.0 (0-3.6) mmol v 3.8 (2.3-14.5) mmol; p < 0.05), and peak acid output (3.6 (1.2-12.0) v 7.6 (3.4-12.1) mmol; p < 0.05). The classic needle acupuncture, laser acupuncture, and sham acupuncture had no significant effect on gastric acid secretion. This study shows firstly that in healthy volunteers, only the versions of acupuncture using more pronounced stimulation (electroacupuncture, transcutaneous electrical nerve stimulation), but not those with only mild stimulation of the nerves (classic needle acupuncture, laser acupuncture), and secondly only acupuncture performed at defined points lead to significant reduction in gastric acid secretion. PMID:7926899

  9. Some Organic Acids Acting as Stimulants of Recruitment and Feeding for the Formosan Subterranean Termite (Isoptera: Rhinotermitidae)

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The feeding stimulating properties of 3 organic acids (salicylic, oxalic, and glucuronic acids) and 2 nitrogen containing compounds (uric acid, and glucosamine) for the Formosan subterranean termite were tested. A two choice test between cellulosic matrices with the compounds and blanks showed that...

  10. Algae in Fish Feed: Performances and Fatty Acid Metabolism in Juvenile Atlantic Salmon

    PubMed Central

    Norambuena, Fernando; Hermon, Karen; Skrzypczyk, Vanessa; Emery, James A.; Sharon, Yoni; Beard, Alastair; Turchini, Giovanni M.

    2015-01-01

    Algae are at the base of the aquatic food chain, producing the food resources that fish are adapted to consume. Previous studies have proven that the inclusion of small amounts (<10% of the diet) of algae in fish feed (aquafeed) resulted in positive effects in growth performance and feed utilisation efficiency. Marine algae have also been shown to possess functional activities, helping in the mediation of lipid metabolism, and therefore are increasingly studied in human and animal nutrition. The aim of this study was to assess the potentials of two commercially available algae derived products (dry algae meal), Verdemin (derived from Ulva ohnoi) and Rosamin (derived from diatom Entomoneis spp.) for their possible inclusion into diet of Atlantic Salmon (Salmo salar). Fish performances, feed efficiency, lipid metabolism and final product quality were assessed to investigated the potential of the two algae products (in isolation at two inclusion levels, 2.5% and 5%, or in combination), in experimental diets specifically formulated with low fish meal and fish oil content. The results indicate that inclusion of algae product Verdemin and Rosamin at level of 2.5 and 5.0% did not cause any major positive, nor negative, effect in Atlantic Salmon growth and feed efficiency. An increase in the omega-3 long-chain polyunsaturated fatty acid (n-3 LC-PUFA) content in whole body of fish fed 5% Rosamin was observed. PMID:25875839

  11. Algae in fish feed: performances and fatty acid metabolism in juvenile Atlantic Salmon.

    PubMed

    Norambuena, Fernando; Hermon, Karen; Skrzypczyk, Vanessa; Emery, James A; Sharon, Yoni; Beard, Alastair; Turchini, Giovanni M

    2015-01-01

    Algae are at the base of the aquatic food chain, producing the food resources that fish are adapted to consume. Previous studies have proven that the inclusion of small amounts (<10% of the diet) of algae in fish feed (aquafeed) resulted in positive effects in growth performance and feed utilisation efficiency. Marine algae have also been shown to possess functional activities, helping in the mediation of lipid metabolism, and therefore are increasingly studied in human and animal nutrition. The aim of this study was to assess the potentials of two commercially available algae derived products (dry algae meal), Verdemin (derived from Ulva ohnoi) and Rosamin (derived from diatom Entomoneis spp.) for their possible inclusion into diet of Atlantic Salmon (Salmo salar). Fish performances, feed efficiency, lipid metabolism and final product quality were assessed to investigated the potential of the two algae products (in isolation at two inclusion levels, 2.5% and 5%, or in combination), in experimental diets specifically formulated with low fish meal and fish oil content. The results indicate that inclusion of algae product Verdemin and Rosamin at level of 2.5 and 5.0% did not cause any major positive, nor negative, effect in Atlantic Salmon growth and feed efficiency. An increase in the omega-3 long-chain polyunsaturated fatty acid (n-3 LC-PUFA) content in whole body of fish fed 5% Rosamin was observed. PMID:25875839

  12. Nutrient acquisition across a dietary shift: fruit feeding butterflies crave amino acids, nectivores seek salt.

    PubMed

    Ravenscraft, Alison; Boggs, Carol L

    2016-05-01

    Evolutionary dietary shifts have major ecological consequences. One likely consequence is a change in nutrient limitation-some nutrients become more abundant in the diet, others become more scarce. Individuals' behavior should change accordingly to match this new limitation regime: they should seek out nutrients that are deficient in the new diet. We investigated the relationship between diet and responses to nutrients using adult Costa Rican butterflies with contrasting feeding habits, testing the hypothesis that animals will respond more positively to nutrients that are scarcer in their diets. Via literature searches and our own data, we showed that nitrogen and sodium are both at lower concentration in nectar than in fruit. We therefore assessed butterflies' acceptance of sodium and four nitrogenous compounds that ranged in complexity from inorganic nitrogen (ammonium chloride) to protein (albumin). We captured wild butterflies, offered them aqueous solutions of each substance, and recorded whether they accepted (drank) or rejected each substance. Support for our hypothesis was mixed. Across the sexes, frugivores were four times more likely to accept amino acids (hydrolyzed casein) than nectivores, in opposition to expectation. In males, nectivores accepted sodium almost three times more frequently than frugivores, supporting expectations. Together, these results suggest that in butterflies, becoming frugivorous is associated with an increased receptivity to amino acids and decreased receptivity to sodium. Nectivory and frugivory are widespread feeding strategies in organisms as diverse as insects, birds, and bats; our results suggest that these feeding strategies may put different pressures on how animals fulfill their nutritional requirements. PMID:26267402

  13. Advanced nutrient root feeding system for conveyer-type cylindrical plant growth facilities developed for microgravity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Berkovich, Yuliy A.; Smolyanina, Svetlana O.; Krivobok, Anna; Krivobok, Nikolay

    A new brand of cylindrical conveyer-type space plant growth facilities (PGF) has been created to improve of cosmonauts’ diet in the microgravity conditions. Up to date several ground prototypes of the space PGF have been made and tested: “Phytocycle”, “Vitacycle”, “Phytocycle-LED”, “Phytoconveyer”; now the space PGF “Vitacycle-T” for the Russian segment of the ISS is under developing. In the PGFs the ion-exchange salt-saturated fibrous artificial soil (AS) is used as a root medium. We have proposed the system for enrichment of irrigation water by nutrients to decrease of the AS store required for PGF working during the long space mission. The system includes root modules filled in fibrous ion-exchange AS, the enrichment column with crumble salt-saturation ion-exchange resin and the cassette with slow releasing fertilizer (SRF). Both substrates (ion-exchange resin and SRF) are necessary because of the SRF contains mostly N, P and K but another three essential elements S, Ca, Mg are provided by the ion-exchange resin. In the system water goes throw the enrichment column with ion-exchange resin fertilizing by the nutrients and comes into the mixer cell fertilize equipped with the electrical conductivity sensor. When the signal of the conductivity sensor is coming to the controller it turns on the pump directed the water flow throw the cassette with SRF until the electric conductivity of the solution in the mixer cell will reach the setpoint. The nutrient root feeding system was tested during 88 days when Chinese cabbage grew in PGF “Phytocycle-LED”. The crop has been continuously illuminated by red and blue LEDs in the PPF ratio 7 to 1; an integral PPF level has been (240 ± 10) µmol/(m2×s). There was no renewal of the used fibrous AS during the experiment. The PGF total electric power consumption was of 0,45 kW. The average fresh biomass productivity of the PGF during steady state working mode was equal 135×g/day per m2 of the illuminated

  14. Feeding natural hydrophilic bile acids inhibits intestinal cholesterol absorption: studies in the gallstone-susceptible mouse.

    PubMed

    Wang, David Q-H; Tazuma, Susumu; Cohen, David E; Carey, Martin C

    2003-09-01

    We explored the influence of the hydrophilic-hydrophobic balance of a series of natural bile acids on cholesterol absorption in the mouse. Male C57L/J mice were fed standard chow or chow supplemented with 0.5% cholic; chenodeoxycholic; deoxycholic; dehydrocholic; hyocholic; hyodeoxycholic; alpha-, beta-, or omega-muricholic; ursocholic; or ursodeoxycholic acids for 7 days. Biliary bile salts were measured by reverse-phase HPLC, and hydrophobicity indices were estimated by Heuman's method. Cholesterol absorption efficiency was determined by a plasma dual-isotope ratio method. In mice fed chow, natural proportions of tauro-beta-muricholate (42 +/- 6%) and taurocholate (50 +/- 7%) with a hydrophobicity index of -0.35 +/- 0.04 produced cholesterol absorption of 37 +/- 5%. Because bacterial and especially hepatic biotransformations of specific bile acids occurred, hydrophobicity indices of the resultant bile salt pools differed from fed bile acids. We observed a significant positive correlation between hydrophobicity indices of the bile salt pool and percent cholesterol absorption. The principal mechanism whereby hydrophilic bile acids inhibit cholesterol absorption appears to be diminution of intraluminal micellar cholesterol solubilization. Gene expression of intestinal sterol efflux transporters Abcg5 and Abcg8 was upregulated by feeding cholic acid but not by hydrophilic beta-muricholic acid nor by hydrophobic deoxycholic acid. We conclude that the hydrophobicity of the bile salt pool predicts the effects of individual fed bile acids on intestinal cholesterol absorption. Natural alpha- and beta-muricholic acids are the most powerful inhibitors of cholesterol absorption in mice and might act as potent cholesterol-lowering agents for prevention of cholesterol deposition diseases in humans. PMID:12748061

  15. Oxalic acid: a signal molecule for fungus-feeding bacteria of the genus Collimonas?

    PubMed

    Rudnick, M B; van Veen, J A; de Boer, W

    2015-10-01

    Mycophagous (=fungus feeding) soil bacteria of the genus Collimonas have been shown to colonize and grow on hyphae of different fungal hosts as the only source of energy and carbon. The ability to exploit fungal nutrient resources might require a strategy for collimonads to sense fungi in the soil matrix. Oxalic acid is ubiquitously secreted by soil fungi, serving different purposes. In this study, we investigated the possibility that collimonads might use oxalic acid secretion to localize a fungal host and move towards it. We first confirmed earlier indications that collimonads have a very limited ability to use oxalic acid as growth substrate. In a second step, with using different assays, we show that oxalic acid triggers bacterial movement in such a way that accumulation of cells can be expected at micro-sites with high free oxalic acid concentrations. Based on these observations we propose that oxalic acid functions as a signal molecule to guide collimonads to hyphal tips, the mycelial zones that are most sensitive for mycophagous bacterial attack. PMID:25858310

  16. Lithocholic acid feeding induces segmental bile duct obstruction and destructive cholangitis in mice.

    PubMed

    Fickert, Peter; Fuchsbichler, Andrea; Marschall, Hanns-Ulrich; Wagner, Martin; Zollner, Gernot; Krause, Robert; Zatloukal, Kurt; Jaeschke, Hartmut; Denk, Helmut; Trauner, Michael

    2006-02-01

    We determined the mechanisms of hepatobiliary injury in the lithocholic acid (LCA)-fed mouse, an increasingly used model of cholestatic liver injury. Swiss albino mice received control diet or 1% (w/w) LCA diet (for 1, 2, and 4 days), followed by assessment of liver morphology and ultrastructure, tight junctions, markers of fibrosis and key proteins of hepatobiliary function, and bile flow and composition. As expected LCA feeding led to bile infarcts, which were followed by a destructive cholangitis with activation and proliferation of periductal myofibroblasts. At the ultrastructural level, small bile ducts were frequently obstructed by crystals. Biliary-excreted fluorescence-labeled ursodeoxycholic acid accumulated in bile infarcts, whereas most infarcts did not stain with India ink injected into the common bile duct; both findings are indicative of partial biliary obstruction. Expression of the main basolateral bile acid uptake proteins (sodium-taurocholate cotransporter and organic anion-transporting polypeptide 1) was reduced, the canalicular transporters bile salt export pump and multidrug-related protein 2 were preserved, and the basolateral transporter multidrug-related protein 3 and the detoxifying enzyme sulfotransferase 2a1 were induced. Thus, we demonstrate that LCA feeding in mice leads to segmental bile duct obstruction, destructive cholangitis, periductal fibrosis, and an adaptive transporter and metabolic enzyme response. PMID:16436656

  17. Addition of formic acid or starter cultures to liquid feed. Effect on pH, microflora composition, organic acid concentration and ammonia concentration.

    PubMed

    Canibe, N; Miquel, N; Miettinen, H; Jensen, B B

    2001-01-01

    Some of the charateristics of good quality fermented liquid feed (FLF) are low pH, high numbers of lactic acid bacteria, and low numbers of enterobacteria. In order to test strategies to avoid a proliferation of enterobacteria during the initial phase of FLF elaboration, two in vitro studies were carried out. Addition of various doses of formic acid or two different starter cultures were tested. Adding 0.1% formic acid or L. plantarum VTT E-78076 to the liquid feed seemed to be addecuate ways of inhibiting the growth of enterobacteria, without depleting the growth of lactic acid bacteria. PMID:15954629

  18. Improving the fatty acid profile of winter milk from housed cows with contrasting feeding regimes by oilseed supplementation.

    PubMed

    Stergiadis, S; Leifert, C; Seal, C J; Eyre, M D; Steinshamn, H; Butler, G

    2014-12-01

    Many studies show concentrations of nutritionally desirable fatty acids in bovine milk are lower when cows have no access to grazing, leading to seasonal fluctuations in milk quality if cows are housed for part of the year. This study investigated the potential to improve the fatty acid profiles of bovine milk by oilseed supplementation (rolled linseed and rapeseed) during a period of indoor feeding in both organic and conventional production systems. Both linseed and rapeseed increased the concentrations of total monounsaturated fatty acids, vaccenic acid, oleic acid and rumenic acid in milk, but decreased the concentration of the total and certain individual saturated fatty acids. Linseed resulted in greater changes than rapeseed, and also significantly increased the concentrations of α-linolenic acid, total polyunsaturated fatty acids and total omega-3 fatty acids. The response to oilseed supplementation, with respect to increasing concentrations of vaccenic acid and omega-3 fatty acids, appeared more efficient for organic compared with conventional diets. PMID:24996337

  19. 90-Day feeding and genotoxicity studies on a refined arachidonic acid-rich oil.

    PubMed

    Casterton, P L; Curry, L L; Lina, B A R; Wolterbeek, A P M; Kruger, C L

    2009-10-01

    The safety of a refined arachidonic acid-rich oil (RAO) was evaluated for reverse mutation, chromosome aberration and gene mutation, and in a 90-day Wistar rat feeding study with in utero exposure. The results of the genotoxicity assays were all negative. The in utero phase of the 90-day study involved dietary exposure to 0.5%, 1.5% and 5% RAO and two controls diets, a standard feed low-fat diet and a high-fat diet supplemented with 5% corn oil. This exposure covered four-weeks prior to mating, through mating, gestation and lactation until offspring (F(1)) weaning. A subsequent 90-day feeding study in the F(1) rats evaluated the same test and control diets. Statistically significant effects were seen for selected histopathology, clinical chemistry and organ weight endpoints; however, other than increased absolute and relative monocytes seen in both sexes of high-dose rats, the observations were not attributed to treatment for one or more reasons. Based on these findings, no adverse treatment-related effects for RAO were seen at up to 5% in the diet, equivalent to an overall average RAO intake of 3170 mg/kg bwt/day. These and similar findings for other refined ARA-rich oils establish a strong body of evidence for the safety of this RAO. PMID:19576260

  20. Evaluation of the environmental implications of the incorporation of feed-use amino acids in the manufacturing of pig and broiler feeds using Life Cycle Assessment.

    PubMed

    Mosnier, E; van der Werf, H M G; Boissy, J; Dourmad, J-Y

    2011-12-01

    The incorporation of feed-use (FU) amino acids (AAs) in diets results in a reduced use of protein-rich ingredients such as soybean meal, recognized to have elevated contributions to environmental impacts. This study investigated whether the incorporation of L-lysine.HCl, L-threonine and FU-methionine reduces the environmental impacts of pig and broiler feeds using Life Cycle Assessment. The following impact categories were considered: climate change, eutrophication, acidification, terrestrial ecotoxicity, cumulative energy demand and land occupation. Several feeds were formulated either to minimize the cost of the formulation (with or without AA utilization), to maximize AA incorporation (i.e. the cost of AA was considered to be similar to that of soybean meal), or to minimize greenhouse gas emissions. For both pig and broiler feeds, calculations were made first using only cereals and soybean meal as main ingredients and then using cereals and several protein-rich ingredients (soybean meal, rapeseed meal and peas). In addition, these calculations were performed using two types of soybean meal (from Brazil, associated with recent deforestation or not). For broiler feeds, two types of maize (from France, irrigated, with mineral fertilization v. not irrigated, with animal manure fertilization) were also tested. Regarding the feeds formulated to minimize cost, incorporation of AA decreased the values for eutrophication, terrestrial ecotoxicity and cumulative energy demand of both pig and broiler feeds, regardless of the base ingredients. Reduction in climate change and acidification due to the incorporation of AA depended on the nature of the feed ingredients, with the effect of AA incorporation being greater when combined with ingredients with high impacts such as soybean meal associated with deforestation. Feeds formulated to maximize AA incorporation generally had a similar composition to those formulated to minimize cost, suggesting that the costs of AA were not

  1. Deletion of GPR40 fatty acid receptor gene in mice blocks mercaptoacetate-induced feeding.

    PubMed

    Li, Ai-Jun; Wiater, Michael F; Wang, Qing; Wank, Stephen; Ritter, Sue

    2016-05-15

    Both increased and decreased fatty acid (FA) availability contribute to control of food intake. For example, it is well documented that intestinal FA reduces feeding by triggering enterondocrine secretion of satietogenic peptides, such as cholecystokinin (CCK) and glucagon-like peptide-1 (GLP-1). In contrast, mechanisms by which decreased FA availability increase feeding are not well understood. Over the past three decades substantial research related to FA availability and increased feeding has involved use of the orexigenic compound mercaptoacetate (MA). Because MA reportedly inhibits FA oxidation, it has been assumed that reduced FA oxidation accounts for the orexigenic action of MA. Recently, however, we demonstrated that MA antagonizes G protein-coupled receptor 40 (GPR40), a membrane receptor for long and medium chain FA. We also demonstrated that, by antagonizing GPR40, MA inhibits GLP-1 secretion and attenuates vagal afferent activation by FA. Because both vagal afferent activation and GLP-1 inhibit food intake, we postulated that inhibition of GPR40 by MA might underlie the orexigenic action of MA. We tested this hypothesis using male and female GPR40 knockout (KO) and wild-type (WT) mice. Using several testing protocols, we found that MA increased feeding in WT, but not GPR40 KO mice, and that GPR40 KO mice gained more weight than WT on a high-fat diet. Metabolic monitoring after MA or saline injection in the absence of food did not reveal significant differences in respiratory quotient or energy expenditure between treatment groups or genotypes. These results support the hypothesis that MA stimulates food intake by blocking FA effects on GPR40. PMID:26984894

  2. Oxidative stability of milk influenced by fatty acids, antioxidants, and copper derived from feed.

    PubMed

    Havemose, M S; Weisbjerg, M R; Bredie, W L P; Poulsen, H D; Nielsen, J H

    2006-06-01

    Differences in the oxidative stability of milk from cows fed grass-clover silage or hay were examined in relation to fatty acid composition and contents of antioxidants and copper in the milk. The oxidation processes were induced by exposing the milk to fluorescent light. Protein oxidation was measured as an accumulation of dityrosine, whereas lipid oxidation was measured as an accumulation of lipid hydroperoxides as the primary oxidation product, and as the secondary oxidation products, pentanal, hexanal, and heptanal. No differences were found in the protein oxidation of the 2 types of milk measured as accumulation of dityrosine, but there was an increased accumulation of lipid hydroperoxides and hexanal in milk from cows fed grass-clover silage, compared with milk from cows fed hay. The higher degree of lipid oxidation in milk from cows fed grass-clover silage could not be explained from the concentration of alpha-tocopherol, carotenoids, uric acid, and copper in the milk. However, it was thought to be highly influenced by the significantly higher concentration of linolenic acid present in milk from cows fed grass-clover silage. A larger part of alpha-tocopherol and beta-carotene was transferred from the feed to the milk when cows were fed grass-clover silage than when cows were fed hay as roughage. The significantly higher concentration of polyunsaturated fatty acids in milk from cows fed grass-clover silage may be important for the better transfer of alpha-tocopherol from the feed to the milk. Other circumstances, as the different conditions in the rumen may also play a role, due to the different types of roughages and their digestibility, or be related to the mechanisms during milk production for the higher yielding cows fed grass-clover silage. PMID:16702260

  3. Effect of feeding rolled flaxseed on milk fatty acid profiles and reproductive performance of dairy cows.

    PubMed

    Bork, N R; Schroeder, J W; Lardy, G P; Vonnahme, K A; Bauer, M L; Buchanan, D S; Shaver, R D; Fricke, P M

    2010-11-01

    The objectives were to study the effects of feeding rolled flaxseed (FLX) to early-lactation dairy cows on milk yield, milk components, and milk fatty acid profiles as well as on measures of cow reproduction. Lactating Holstein cows, on 3 commercial dairies, were fed either an early-lactation ration (CON) or a ration that was similar in protein, energy, and fat content but that included FLX (0.85 kg of DM/cow per day). Within each dairy, cows were allocated alternately to breeding pens upon leaving the fresh pen (approximately 10 ± 5 d postpartum). Pens (n = 4 to 5 pens/dairy) were randomized to treatment (n = 2 to 3 pens/treatment per dairy). Pen (CON, n = 6; FLX, n = 7) was considered the experimental unit and data were analyzed as a split plot with pen as the whole-plot error term. Cows fed FLX had greater (P ≤ 0.06) proportions of cis-9, trans-11 C18:2, C18:3n-3, and C20:0 fatty acids in milk fat and a lesser (P = 0.03) proportion of C20:3n-6 fatty acid when compared with cows fed the CON diet. Treatment did not affect (P ≥ 0.24) milk yield, milk protein, protein yield, milk fat, or milk fat yield. No interactions (P ≥ 0.52) were found between treatment and season of the year or parity, or between treatment and days open, pregnancies per AI at first or second service, or pregnancy loss. In conclusion, feeding FLX at 0.85 kg/cow per day (DM basis) altered the fatty acid profile of milk, but milk yield, milk composition, and reproductive performance of dairy cows were not affected. PMID:20622184

  4. Description of a model to optimise the feeding of amino acids to growing pullets.

    PubMed

    Bonato, M A; Sakomura, N K; Gous, R M; Silva, E P; Soares, L; Peruzzi, N J

    2016-01-01

    1. A nutrition model is described that may be used to optimise the amino acid nutrition of laying-type pullets prior to the onset of lay. It is not a method of optimising lifetime laying performance. 2. The potential growth and composition of the body, feathers, ovary and oviduct are described from hatching to the age at which sexual maturity is attained, from which the daily amino acid and energy requirements for the average individual in the population can be calculated. 3. There are two parts to the approach used, the first being a description of the model itself and the second being a description of how the required information was gathered. A number of assumptions made in developing the model are discussed. 4. The rates of maturing of the body, feather-free body and body protein of the DeKalb pullets used were shown to be constant at 0.017/d and those of feathers at 0.02/d. These are considerably slower than those of the oviduct and ovary (0.139 and 0.084/d respectively). The ovary attained a higher mature weight (78.4 vs. 58.7 g) than the oviduct. 5. The age at which the growth of the reproductive organs is initiated in the model is defined by the user. The daily amount of threonine required to meet the requirements for maintenance and potential growth of the developing tissues and organs is calculated for each day of the growing period from hatching to the age at which the first egg is laid. A method of calculating the required daily concentration of threonine in the feed is described, from which a feeding programme may be derived. 6. For the model to produce an optimum economic feeding programme for a population of laying-type pullets, more information than is available from this study is required. These issues are discussed in the paper. PMID:26927476

  5. Facile synthesis of acid-labile polymers with pendent ortho esters.

    PubMed

    Cheng, Jing; Ji, Ran; Gao, Shi-Juan; Du, Fu-Sheng; Li, Zi-Chen

    2012-01-01

    This work presents a facile approach for preparation of acid-labile and biocompatible polymers with pendent cyclic ortho esters, which is based on the efficient and mild reactions between cyclic ketene acetal (CKA) and hydroxyl groups. Three CKAs, 2-ethylidene-1,3-dioxane (EDO), 2-ethylidene-1,3-dioxolane (EDL), and 2-ethylidene-4- methyl-1,3-dioxolane (EMD) were prepared from the corresponding cyclic vinyl acetals by catalytic isomerization of the double bond. The reaction of CKAs with different alcohols and diols was examined using trace of p-toluenesulfonic acid as a catalyst. For the monohydroxyl alcohols, cyclic ortho esters were formed by simple addition of the hydroxyl group toward CKAs with ethanol showing a much greater reactivity than iso-propanol. When 1,2- or 1,3-diols were used to react with the CKAs, we observed the isomerized cyclic ortho esters besides the simple addition products. Biocompatible polyols, that is, poly(2-hydroxyethyl acrylate) (PHEA) and poly(vinyl alcohol) (PVA) were then modified with CKAs, and the degree of substitution of the pendent ortho esters can be easily tuned by changing feed ratio. Both the small molecule ortho esters and the CKA-modified polymers demonstrate the pH-dependent hydrolysis profiles, which depend also on the chemical structure of the ortho esters as well as the polymer hydrophobicity. PMID:22176024

  6. Corrosion/Erosion Resistance of Ultimet\\256 R31233 in a Simulated Feed for a Radioactive Vitrification Facility

    SciTech Connect

    Imrich, K.J.

    1999-05-21

    Corrosion, erosion and corrosion/erosion tests were performed to evaluate the performance of nickel and cobalt based alloys in a simulated sludge/borosilicate frit slurry representative of the feed preparation system for a radioactive waste vitrification facility. Alloys tested included Type 304L stainless steel, Hastelloy\\256 C-276, Stellite\\256 6B, and Ultimet\\256. Testing indicated that Ultimet\\256 had improved wear resistance and similar corrosion resistance compared to Hastelloy\\256 C-276 in the simulated sludge/frit environment.

  7. SRAT CHEMISTRY AND ACID CONSUMPTION DURING SIMULATED DWPF MELTER FEED PREPARATION

    SciTech Connect

    Koopman, D; David Best, D; Bradley Pickenheim, B

    2008-12-03

    Due to higher than expected hydrogen generation during the Tank 51-Sludge Batch 4 (SB4) qualification run, DWPF engineering requested the Savannah River National Laboratory (SRNL) to expand the ongoing catalytic hydrogen generation program. The work presented in this Technical Report was identified as part of SRNL/Liquid Waste Organization (LWO) meetings to define potential causes of catalytic hydrogen generation as well as from an external technical review panel commissioned to evaluate SRNL hydrogen related data and programs. New scope included improving the understanding of SRAT/SME process chemistry, particularly as it related to acid consumption and hydrogen generation. The expanded hydrogen program scope was covered under the technical task request (TTR): HLW-DWPF-TTR-2007-0016. A task technical and quality assurance plan (TT&QAP) was issued to cover focus areas raised in meetings with LWO plus a portion of the recommendations made by the review panel. A supporting analytical study plan was issued. It was also noted in the review of catalytic hydrogen generation that control of the DWPF acid stoichiometry was an important element in controlling hydrogen generation. A separate TTR was issued to investigate ways of improving the determination of the acid requirement during processing: HLWDWPF-TTR-0015. A separate TT&QAP was prepared for this task request. This report discusses some progress on this task related to developing alternative acid equations and to performing experimental work to supplement the existing database. Simulant preparation and preliminary flowsheet studies were already documented. The prior work produced a sufficient quantity of simulant for the hydrogen program and melter feed rheology testing. It also defined a suitable acid addition stoichiometry. The results presented in this report come from samples and process data obtained during sixteen 22-L SRAT/SME simulations that were performed in the second half of 2007 to produce eight SME

  8. Reproductive performance of dairy cows is influenced by prepartum feed restriction and dietary fatty acid source.

    PubMed

    Colazo, M G; Hayirli, A; Doepel, L; Ambrose, D J

    2009-06-01

    The objective of this study was to determine the effects of feed restriction and source of dietary fatty acids during the close-up dry period on postcalving reproductive performance of dairy cattle. Thirty-four days before expected calving, pregnant Holstein cows (n = 72; parity 1 to 5) were randomly assigned to 1 of 6 treatments. Treatments were ad libitum (AL) or 24% feed restriction (FR) in combination with 1 of 3 oilseed supplements at 8% of diet dry matter: canola, linola, or flax to enrich the rations with oleic, linoleic, or linolenic fatty acids, respectively. After calving, cows were fed a common lactation diet that contained no oilseeds. Measurements of uterus, corpus luteum, and follicles were obtained by ultrasonography twice weekly from 7 +/- 1 d after calving until the first ovulation. Cows (n = 66) were subjected to timed artificial insemination (TAI), and pregnancy was determined 32 d later. Feed-restricted cows had lower dry matter intake and lost more body weight prepartum. Energy balance (Mcal/d) was negative in FR cows prepartum but they had a less severe negative energy balance postpartum. The dietary source of fatty acid did not affect energy balance. Cows fed AL had a higher incidence of uterine infections (10/37 vs. 2/35) but tended to have fewer ovarian cysts (2/37 vs. 7/35) than FR cows. Mean (+/-SE) interval from calving to uterine involution did not differ among dietary treatments (26.8 +/- 1.8 d). Interval from calving to first ovulation was longer in cows fed canola than in those fed either linola or flax (34.7 +/- 3.1 vs. 23.7 +/- 3.2 and 21.0 +/- 3.1 d, respectively). A greater percentage of cows fed AL conceived to the first TAI (47.1 vs. 18.8) and tended to have fewer mean days open (157 +/- 10.8 vs. 191 +/- 10.1) than cows fed FR. In summary, FR cows had a lower incidence of uterine infections, but they were less fertile as reflected by a lower percent pregnancy to first TAI and increased days open. Cows fed diets enriched in

  9. Consummatory feeding behavior to amino acids in intact and anosmic channel catfish Ictalurus punctatus.

    PubMed

    Valentincic, T; Caprio, J

    1994-05-01

    The entire sequence of feeding behavior patterns exhibited by intact and anosmic channel catfish to food extracts was also released by single amino acids. L-arginine (> 10(-6) M), L-alanine (> 10(-6) M), and L-proline (> 10(-4) M) were each highly effective at releasing consummatory behavior patterns, such as turning, increasing pumping of water across the gill arches, and biting-snapping. Swallowing required solid objects, whereas rhythmic movement of the hyoid was released by > 10(-2) M L-arginine alone. For the biting-snapping behavior, the number of bites depended upon both the number of eddies containing the amino acid above the behavioral threshold concentration and the amino acid applied. Multiple eddies of > 10(-3) M L-proline and L-alanine provoked up to 25 bites per test; however, the most effective stimulus for releasing biting-snapping behavior at low concentrations was L-arginine (behavioral threshold 3 x 10(-7) M). In comparison to 10(-4) M L-alanine and L-arginine, other amino acids were less effective stimuli. PMID:8022905

  10. Biodegradable polymers from organic acids by using activated sludge enriched by aerobic periodic feeding.

    PubMed

    Dionisi, Davide; Majone, Mauro; Papa, Viviana; Beccari, Mario

    2004-03-20

    This article describes a new process for the production of biopolymers (polyhydroxyalkanoates, PHAs) based on the aerobic enrichment of activated sludge to obtain mixed cultures able to store PHAs at high rates and yields. Enrichment was obtained through the selective pressure established by feeding the carbon source in a periodic mode (feast and famine regime) in a sequencing batch reactor. A concentrated mixture of acetic, lactic, and propionic acids (overall concentration of 8.5 gCOD L(-1)) was fed every 2 h at 1 day(-1) overall dilution rate. Even at such high organic load (8.5 gCOD L(-1) day(-1)), the selective pressure due to periodic feeding was effective in obtaining a biomass with a storage ability much higher than activated sludges. The immediate biomass response to substrate excess (as determined thorough short-term batch tests) was characterized by a storage rate and yield of 649 mgPHA (as COD) g biomass (as COD)(-1) h(-1) and 0.45 mgPHA (as COD) mg removed substrates (as COD(-1)), respectively. When the substrate excess was present for more than 2 h (long-term batch tests), the storage rate and yield decreased, whereas growth rate and yield significantly increased due to biomass adaptation. A maximum polymer fraction in the biomass was therefore obtained at about 50% (on COD basis). As for the PHA composition, the copolymer poly(beta-hydroxybutyrate/beta-hydroxyvalerate) with 31% of hydroxyvalerate monomer was produced from the substrate mixture. Comparison of the tests with individual and mixed substrates seemed to indicate that, on removing the substrate mixture for copolymer production, propionic acid was fully utilized to produce propionylCoA, whereas the acetylCoA was fully provided by acetic and lactic acid. PMID:14966798

  11. Carbon dioxide generated from carbonates and acids for sampling blood-feeding arthropods.

    PubMed

    Burkett-Cadena, Nathan D; Blosser, Erik M; Young, Ryan M; Toé, Laurent D; Unnasch, Thomas R

    2015-09-01

    Carbon dioxide (CO2) is utilized to attract mosquitoes and other blood-feeding arthropods to traps around the world. Commercial forms of CO2 (e.g., dry ice and compressed gas) are often unavailable or extremely expensive in developing nations, where vector surveillance is essential to make life-saving decisions. We developed and tested inexpensive and reproducible methods of CO2 production from the combination of acids and carbonates, ranging from very basic (crushed seashells and vinegar) to relatively elaborate (a device that controls the timing of the acid-carbonate reaction and extends the reaction over several hours). When utilized with mosquito traps in Florida, USA and black fly traps in Region des Cascades, Burkina Faso, these carbonate-acid CO2 sources attracted significantly greater numbers of both vector groups, than did unbaited traps. CO2 was generated for more than four hours at levels sufficient to attract vectors over the entire period. The utility of this simple methodology in developing nations should be further evaluated. PMID:26103427

  12. Neuronal mitochondrial amelioration by feeding acetyl-L-carnitine and lipoic acid to aged rats

    PubMed Central

    Aliev, Gjumrakch; Liu, Jiankang; Shenk, Justin C; Fischbach, Kathryn; Pacheco, Gerardo J; Chen, Shu G; Obrenovich, Mark E; Ward, Walter F; Richardson, Arlan G; Smith, Mark A; Gasimov, Eldar; Perry, George; Ames, Bruce N

    2009-01-01

    Abstract Brain function declines with age and is associated with diminishing mitochondrial integrity. The neuronal mitochondrial ultrastructural changes of young (4 months) and old (21 months) F344 rats supplemented with two mitochondrial metabolites, acetyl-L-carnitine (ALCAR, 0.2%[wt/vol] in the drinking water) and R-α-lipoic acid (LA, 0.1%[wt/wt] in the chow), were analysed using qualitative and quantitative electron microscopy techniques. Two independent morphologists blinded to sample identity examined and scored all electron micrographs. Mitochondria were examined in each micrograph, and each structure was scored according to the degree of injury. Controls displayed an age-associated significant decrease in the number of intact mitochondria (P = 0.026) as well as an increase in mitochondria with broken cristae (P < 0.001) in the hippocampus as demonstrated by electron microscopic observations. Neuronal mitochondrial damage was associated with damage in vessel wall cells, especially vascular endothelial cells. Dietary supplementation of young and aged animals increased the proliferation of intact mitochondria and reduced the density of mitochondria associated with vacuoles and lipofuscin. Feeding old rats ALCAR and LA significantly reduced the number of severely damaged mitochondria (P = 0.02) and increased the number of intact mitochondria (P < 0.001) in the hippocampus. These results suggest that feeding ALCAR with LA may ameliorate age-associated mitochondrial ultrastructural decay and are consistent with previous studies showing improved brain function. PMID:18373733

  13. Neuronal mitochondrial amelioration by feeding acetyl-L-carnitine and lipoic acid to aged rats.

    PubMed

    Aliev, Gjumrakch; Liu, Jiankang; Shenk, Justin C; Fischbach, Kathryn; Pacheco, Gerardo J; Chen, Shu G; Obrenovich, Mark E; Ward, Walter F; Richardson, Arlan G; Smith, Mark A; Gasimov, Eldar; Perry, George; Ames, Bruce N

    2009-02-01

    Brain function declines with age and is associated with diminishing mitochondrial integrity. The neuronal mitochondrial ultrastructural changes of young (4 months) and old (21 months) F344 rats supplemented with two mitochondrial metabolites, acetyl-L-carnitine (ALCAR, 0.2%[wt/vol] in the drinking water) and R-alpha-lipoic acid (LA, 0.1%[wt/wt] in the chow), were analysed using qualitative and quantitative electron microscopy techniques. Two independent morphologists blinded to sample identity examined and scored all electron micrographs. Mitochondria were examined in each micrograph, and each structure was scored according to the degree of injury. Controls displayed an age-associated significant decrease in the number of intact mitochondria (P = 0.026) as well as an increase in mitochondria with broken cristae (P < 0.001) in the hippocampus as demonstrated by electron microscopic observations. Neuronal mitochondrial damage was associated with damage in vessel wall cells, especially vascular endothelial cells. Dietary supplementation of young and aged animals increased the proliferation of intact mitochondria and reduced the density of mitochondria associated with vacuoles and lipofuscin. Feeding old rats ALCAR and LA significantly reduced the number of severely damaged mitochondria (P = 0.02) and increased the number of intact mitochondria (P < 0.001) in the hippocampus. These results suggest that feeding ALCAR with LA may ameliorate age-associated mitochondrial ultrastructural decay and are consistent with previous studies showing improved brain function. PMID:18373733

  14. Protozoan, Bacterial, and Volatile Fatty Acid Changes Associated with Feeding Tylosin

    PubMed Central

    Satapathy, N.; Purser, D. B.

    1967-01-01

    Tylosin was fed to two of six wethers for 79 days, to a second two for only 28 days, and not at all to a third pair (controls). The addition of tylosin to the daily feed resulted in a rapid twofold increase in protozoal concentration and a change in the composition or characteristics, or both, of the bacterial population. The results indicate that the bacterial population was modified to the extent of about 80%. Total acid concentrations were initially depressed but appeared to be greater than those in control animals at the termination of the experiment. Deletion of tylosin from the ration resulted in a rapid decrease in protozoal concentrations, whereas changes in the bacterial population did not occur for a further 30 days. PMID:16349756

  15. Production of Penicillic Acid and Ochratoxin A on Poultry Feed by Aspergillus ochraceus: Temperature and Moisture Requirements

    PubMed Central

    Bacon, C. W.; Sweeney, J. G.; Robbins, J. D.; Burdick, D.

    1973-01-01

    A strain of Aspergillus ochraceus Wilhelm, isolated from poultry feed, produced both penicillic acid and ochratoxin A. Studies demonstrating the ability of this fungus to colonize poultry feed and produce these two mycotoxins under various temperatures and moistures indicated that the interaction was complex. The optimal temperature for conidial development did not vary with moisture, but accumulation of both toxins did. A combination of low temperature, 15 or 22 C, and low moisture favored the production of penicillic acid, whereas high temperature, 30 C, and high moisture favored the production of ochratoxin A. PMID:4795527

  16. Feeding nitrate and docosahexaenoic acid affects enteric methane production and milk fatty acid composition in lactating dairy cows.

    PubMed

    Klop, G; Hatew, B; Bannink, A; Dijkstra, J

    2016-02-01

    An experiment was conducted to study potential interaction between the effects of feeding nitrate and docosahexaenoic acid (DHA; C22:6 n-3) on enteric CH4 production and performance of lactating dairy cows. Twenty-eight lactating Holstein dairy cows were grouped into 7 blocks of 4 cows. Within blocks, cows were randomly assigned to 1 of 4 treatments: control (CON; urea as alternative nonprotein N source to nitrate), NO3 [21 g of nitrate/kg of dry matter (DM)], DHA (3 g of DHA/kg of DM and urea as alternative nonprotein N source to nitrate), or NO3 + DHA (21 g of nitrate/kg of DM and 3 g of DHA/kg of DM, respectively). Cows were fed a total mixed ration consisting of 21% grass silage, 49% corn silage, and 30% concentrates on a DM basis. Feed additives were included in the concentrates. Cows assigned to a treatment including nitrate were gradually adapted to the treatment dose of nitrate over a period of 21 d during which no DHA was fed. The experimental period lasted 17 d, and CH4 production was measured during the last 5d in climate respiration chambers. Cows produced on average 363, 263, 369, and 298 g of CH4/d on CON, NO3, DHA, and NO3 + DHA treatments, respectively, and a tendency for a nitrate × DHA interaction effect was found where the CH4-mitigating effect of nitrate decreased when combined with DHA. This tendency was not obtained for CH4 production relative to dry matter intake (DMI) or to fat- and protein corrected milk (FPCM). The NO3 treatment decreased CH4 production irrespective of the unit in which it was expressed, whereas DHA did not affect CH4 production per kilogram of DMI, but resulted in a higher CH4 production per kilogram of fat- and protein-corrected milk (FPCM) production. The FPCM production (27.9, 24.7, 24.2, and 23. 8 kg/d for CON, NO3, DHA, and NO3 + DHA, respectively) was lower for DHA-fed cows because of decreased milk fat concentration. The proportion of saturated fatty acids in milk fat was decreased by DHA, and the proportion of

  17. Standardized Ileal Amino Acid Digestibility of Commonly Used Feed Ingredients in Growing Broilers.

    PubMed

    Ullah, Zafar; Ahmed, Gulraiz; Nisa, Mehr Un; Sarwar, Muhammad

    2016-09-01

    This experiment was conducted to determine standardized ileal amino acid digestibility (SIAAD) of commonly used feed ingredients in poultry diets in Pakistan. These feed ingredients included corn, rice broken (RB), rice polishings (RP), wheat bran (WB), sunflower meal (SFM), cottonseed meal (CSM), guar meal (GM), soybean meal (SBM) from India and Argentine and fish meal (FM). The SIAAD of each ingredient was determined in triplicate using 21-days-old broilers. Day-old male broiler chicks (Hubbard× Hubbard) were reared on corn-SBM based diet from 1 to 13 days and thereafter birds were fed experimental diets from day 14 to 21. Each diet was fed to 36 birds kept in six replicate cages, each cage had six birds. In cereals, the SIAAD of corn's amino acid (AA) (90.1%) was similar (p>0.05) to RB (89.0%). Isoleucine (97.8%) and lysine (96.9%) were highly digestible AA in corn and RB, respectively. Among cereal-by products, WB's SIAAD (76.9%) was same (p>0.05) as RP (71.9%). Arginine from WB (82.5%) and RP (83.2%) was highly digestible. However, threonine in WB (72.7%) and leucine in RP (69.6%) were the lowest digestible AAs. In plant protein meals, AAs from Argentine-SBM (85.1%) and Indian-SBM (83.4%) had higher (p<0.5) SIAAD than other protein meals. However, SIAAD of SFM (77.1%) and CSM (71.7%) was intermediate while GM (60.3%) exhibited the lowest (p<0.05) SIAAD among all ingredients. Arginine from GM (76.9%), CSM (85.8%), SBM-India (89.5%) and SBM-Argentine (91.5%) was highly digestible from indispensable AAs. In SFM, methionine (91.4%) SIAAD was the greatest. The average SIAAD of FM was 77.6%. Alanine from FM had the highest (84.0%) but cysteine (62.8%) had the lowest SIAAD. In conclusion, cereals i.e. corn and RB had higher (p<0.05) SIAAD of the cereals by-products. The SIAAD of RP and WB was same (p>0.05). The SBM from plant protein meals had higher (p<0.05) SIAAD than other studied feed ingredients. However, the GM had the lowest (p<0.05) SIAAD among protein meals

  18. Standardized Ileal Amino Acid Digestibility of Commonly Used Feed Ingredients in Growing Broilers

    PubMed Central

    Ullah, Zafar; Ahmed, Gulraiz; Nisa, Mehr un; Sarwar, Muhammad

    2016-01-01

    This experiment was conducted to determine standardized ileal amino acid digestibility (SIAAD) of commonly used feed ingredients in poultry diets in Pakistan. These feed ingredients included corn, rice broken (RB), rice polishings (RP), wheat bran (WB), sunflower meal (SFM), cottonseed meal (CSM), guar meal (GM), soybean meal (SBM) from India and Argentine and fish meal (FM). The SIAAD of each ingredient was determined in triplicate using 21-days-old broilers. Day-old male broiler chicks (Hubbard× Hubbard) were reared on corn-SBM based diet from 1 to 13 days and thereafter birds were fed experimental diets from day 14 to 21. Each diet was fed to 36 birds kept in six replicate cages, each cage had six birds. In cereals, the SIAAD of corn’s amino acid (AA) (90.1%) was similar (p>0.05) to RB (89.0%). Isoleucine (97.8%) and lysine (96.9%) were highly digestible AA in corn and RB, respectively. Among cereal-by products, WB’s SIAAD (76.9%) was same (p>0.05) as RP (71.9%). Arginine from WB (82.5%) and RP (83.2%) was highly digestible. However, threonine in WB (72.7%) and leucine in RP (69.6%) were the lowest digestible AAs. In plant protein meals, AAs from Argentine-SBM (85.1%) and Indian-SBM (83.4%) had higher (p<0.5) SIAAD than other protein meals. However, SIAAD of SFM (77.1%) and CSM (71.7%) was intermediate while GM (60.3%) exhibited the lowest (p<0.05) SIAAD among all ingredients. Arginine from GM (76.9%), CSM (85.8%), SBM-India (89.5%) and SBM-Argentine (91.5%) was highly digestible from indispensable AAs. In SFM, methionine (91.4%) SIAAD was the greatest. The average SIAAD of FM was 77.6%. Alanine from FM had the highest (84.0%) but cysteine (62.8%) had the lowest SIAAD. In conclusion, cereals i.e. corn and RB had higher (p<0.05) SIAAD of the cereals by-products. The SIAAD of RP and WB was same (p>0.05). The SBM from plant protein meals had higher (p<0.05) SIAAD than other studied feed ingredients. However, the GM had the lowest (p<0.05) SIAAD among protein

  19. Expression of a reflex biting/snapping response to amino acids prior to first exogenous feeding in salmonid alevins.

    PubMed

    Valentincic, T; Lamb, C F; Caprio, J

    1999-10-01

    Five days prior to first exogenous feeding, amino acid stimuli released reflexive biting/snapping behavior in alevins of both rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss) and brook trout (Salvelinus fontinalis). The biting/snapping responses of salmonid larvae, which obtain nutrients solely from their yolk sacs, were videotaped during presentations of amino acids that are potent olfactory and taste stimuli to adult rainbow trout. The tested salmonid alevins possessed developed eyes and olfactory and taste organs several days prior to the start of spontaneous swimming and exogenous feeding. Five days prior to the first occurrence of complex feeding behavior, L-proline and L-alanine, which released swimming, turning, and biting/snapping (exaggerated biting) behaviors in adult rainbow trout, triggered reflexive biting/snapping behavior in the alevins of rainbow and brook trout, but did not induce swimming. In contrast, L-proline released vigorous swimming, but not biting/snapping activity in alevins of the European freshwater huchen (Hucho huncho), another salmonid species. Unlike in adult rainbow trout where visual and olfactory stimuli control all the successive behavior patterns of feeding behavior, taste stimuli released in alevins of rainbow and brook trout the early biting/snapping reflex independently from the complex feeding behavior. The independent biting/snapping reflex of rainbow and brook trout alevins ceased at the onset of spontaneous swimming activity several hours prior to the first exogenous feeding. PMID:10549895

  20. Effects of feeding Mediterranean buffalo sorghum silage versus maize silage on the rumen microbiota and milk fatty acid content.

    PubMed

    Ann Huws, Sharon; Chiariotti, Antonella; Sarubbi, Fiorella; Carfì, Francesca; Pace, Vilma

    2012-01-01

    Sorghum presents a sustainable feedstock for Mediterranean buffaloes due to its reduced water and nitrogen requirements compared with maize, which is currently fed primarily. We investigated the effects of feeding sorghum as opposed to maize on Mediterranean buffalo rumen microbial diversity and milk fatty acid content. Four cannulated lactating Mediterranean buffalo cows were fed a basal diet for one month before switching either to maize or sorghum-silage based diets for a 3-month period. Buffaloes were then changed over to the contrasting diet for a further one month. Rumen and milk samples were collected at the end of each month. DGGE- and T-RFLP-based dendrograms generated from rumen samples did not show an effect of diet on rumen bacterial diversity. Milk samples also did not differ in terms of their fatty acid content post sorghum feeding as compared with maize feeding. Thus, sorghum provides an environmentally beneficial alternative to maize for feeding Mediterranean buffalo with little effect on rumen microbial diversity or milk fatty acid composition compared with maize feeding. PMID:22688241

  1. Influence of different systems for feeding supplements to grazing dairy cows on milk fatty acid composition.

    PubMed

    Akbaridoust, Ghazal; Plozza, Tim; Trenerry, Victor C; Wales, William J; Auldist, Martin J; Dunshea, Frank R; Ajlouni, Said

    2014-05-01

    This study investigated the effects of different strategies for feeding supplements to grazing dairy cows on the proportions of fatty acids in milk. Two hundred and sixteen cows were fed supplementary grain and forage according to one of 3 different strategies; (1) CONTROL: cows grazed perennial ryegrass pasture (14 kg dry matter/d) supplemented with milled barley grain fed in the milking parlour and pasture silage offered in the paddock; (2) Partial mixed ration 1 (PMR1): same pasture allotment and supplement as CONTROL strategy, but the supplements presented as a mixed ration after each milking in feedpad, and; (3) Partial mixed ration 2 (PMR2): same pasture allotment, supplemented with a mixed ration of milled barley grain, alfalfa hay, corn silage and crushed corn grain fed in a feedpad. Within each strategy, cows were assigned to receive either 6, 8, 10 or 12 kg dry matter supplement/cow per d. Milk fatty acid proportions from cows fed CONTROL and PMR1 strategies were similar and different from those fed PMR2, particularly at 10 to 12 kg dry matter supplement/cow per d. The reduction in milk fat yield and concentration in cows fed high amounts of supplement as CONTROL and PMR1 was coincident with 4 × increase in 10t-18:1 proportion. The composition of the partial mixed ration (PMR) and the amount offered affected milk fatty acid proportions and milk fat content, however, the method of supplementation did not. PMID:24560061

  2. Essential Amino Acid Supplementation by Gut Microbes of a Wood-Feeding Cerambycid.

    PubMed

    Ayayee, Paul A; Larsen, Thomas; Rosa, Cristina; Felton, Gary W; Ferry, James G; Hoover, Kelli

    2016-02-01

    Insects are unable to synthesize essential amino acids (EAAs) de novo, thus rely on dietary or symbiotic sources for them. Wood is a poor resource of nitrogen in general, and EAAs in particular. In this study, we investigated whether gut microbiota of the Asian longhorned beetle, Anoplophora glabripennis (Motschulsky), a cerambycid that feeds in the heartwood of healthy host trees, serve as sources of EAAs to their host under different dietary conditions. δ(13)C-stable isotope analyses revealed significant δ(13)C-enrichment (3.4 ± 0.1‰; mean ± SEM) across five EAAs in wood-fed larvae relative to their woody diet. δ(13)C values for the consumers greater than 1‰ indicate significant contributions from non-dietary EAA sources (symbionts in this case). In contrast, δ(13)C-enrichment of artificial diet-fed larvae (controls) relative to their food source was markedly less (1.7 ± 0.1‰) than was observed in wood-fed larvae, yet still exceeded the threshold of 1‰. A predictive model based on δ(13)CEAA signatures of five EAAs from representative bacterial, fungal, and plant samples identified symbiotic bacteria and fungi as the likely supplementary sources of EAA in wood-fed larvae. Using the same model, but with an artificial diet as the dietary source, we identified minor supplementary bacterial sources of EAA in artificial diet-fed larvae. This study highlights how microbes associated with A. glabripennis can serve as a source of EAAs when fed on nutrient-limited diets, potentially circumventing the dietary limitations of feeding on woody substrates. PMID:26396228

  3. Advanced nutrient root-feeding system for conveyor-type cylindrical plant growth facilities for microgravity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Berkovich, Yu. A.; Krivobok, N. M.; Krivobok, A. S.; Smolyanina, S. O.

    2016-02-01

    A compact and reliable automatic method for plant nutrition supply is needed to monitor and control space-based plant production systems. The authors of this study have designed a nutrient root-feeding system that minimizes and regulates nutrient and water supply without loss of crop yields in a space greenhouse. The system involves an ion-exchange fibrous artificial soil (AS) BIONA-V3TM as the root-inhabited medium; a pack with slow-release fertilizer as the main source of nitrogen, phosphorus, and potassium; and a cartridge with granular mineral-rich ionite (GMRI) as a source of calcium, magnesium, sulfur, and iron. A controller equipped with an electrical conductivity meter controls the solution flow and concentration of the solution in the mixing tank at specified values. Experiments showed that the fibrous AS-stabilized pH of the substrate solution within the range of 6.0-6.6 is favorable to the majority of crops. The experimental data confirmed that this technique allowed solution preparation for crops in space greenhouses by means of pumping water through the cartridge and minimization of the AS stock onboard the space vehicle.

  4. Advanced nutrient root-feeding system for conveyor-type cylindrical plant growth facilities for microgravity.

    PubMed

    Berkovich, Yu A; Krivobok, N M; Krivobok, A S; Smolyanina, S O

    2016-02-01

    A compact and reliable automatic method for plant nutrition supply is needed to monitor and control space-based plant production systems. The authors of this study have designed a nutrient root-feeding system that minimizes and regulates nutrient and water supply without loss of crop yields in a space greenhouse. The system involves an ion-exchange fibrous artificial soil (AS) BIONA-V3(TM) as the root-inhabited medium; a pack with slow-release fertilizer as the main source of nitrogen, phosphorus, and potassium; and a cartridge with granular mineral-rich ionite (GMRI) as a source of calcium, magnesium, sulfur, and iron. A controller equipped with an electrical conductivity meter controls the solution flow and concentration of the solution in the mixing tank at specified values. Experiments showed that the fibrous AS-stabilized pH of the substrate solution within the range of 6.0-6.6 is favorable to the majority of crops. The experimental data confirmed that this technique allowed solution preparation for crops in space greenhouses by means of pumping water through the cartridge and minimization of the AS stock onboard the space vehicle. PMID:26948009

  5. Maintenance of essential amino acid synthesis pathways in the Blattabacterium cuenoti symbiont of a wood-feeding cockroach

    PubMed Central

    Tokuda, Gaku; Elbourne, Liam D. H.; Kinjo, Yukihiro; Saitoh, Seikoh; Sabree, Zakee; Hojo, Masaru; Yamada, Akinori; Hayashi, Yoshinobu; Shigenobu, Shuji; Bandi, Claudio; Paulsen, Ian T.; Watanabe, Hirofumi; Lo, Nathan

    2013-01-01

    In addition to harbouring intestinal symbionts, some animal species also possess intracellular symbiotic microbes. The relative contributions of gut-resident and intracellular symbionts to host metabolism, and how they coevolve are not well understood. Cockroaches and the termite Mastotermes darwiniensis present a unique opportunity to examine the evolution of spatially separated symbionts, as they harbour gut symbionts and the intracellular symbiont Blattabacterium cuenoti. The genomes of B. cuenoti from M. darwiniensis and the social wood-feeding cockroach Cryptocercus punctulatus are each missing most of the pathways for the synthesis of essential amino acids found in the genomes of relatives from non-wood-feeding hosts. Hypotheses to explain this pathway degradation include: (i) feeding on microbes present in rotting wood by ancestral hosts; (ii) the evolution of high-fidelity transfer of gut microbes via social behaviour. To test these hypotheses, we sequenced the B. cuenoti genome of a third wood-feeding species, the phylogenetically distant and non-social Panesthia angustipennis. We show that host wood-feeding does not necessarily lead to degradation of essential amino acid synthesis pathways in B. cuenoti, and argue that ancestral high-fidelity transfer of gut microbes best explains their loss in strains from M. darwiniensis and C. punctulatus. PMID:23515978

  6. Maintenance of essential amino acid synthesis pathways in the Blattabacterium cuenoti symbiont of a wood-feeding cockroach.

    PubMed

    Tokuda, Gaku; Elbourne, Liam D H; Kinjo, Yukihiro; Saitoh, Seikoh; Sabree, Zakee; Hojo, Masaru; Yamada, Akinori; Hayashi, Yoshinobu; Shigenobu, Shuji; Bandi, Claudio; Paulsen, Ian T; Watanabe, Hirofumi; Lo, Nathan

    2013-06-23

    In addition to harbouring intestinal symbionts, some animal species also possess intracellular symbiotic microbes. The relative contributions of gut-resident and intracellular symbionts to host metabolism, and how they coevolve are not well understood. Cockroaches and the termite Mastotermes darwiniensis present a unique opportunity to examine the evolution of spatially separated symbionts, as they harbour gut symbionts and the intracellular symbiont Blattabacterium cuenoti. The genomes of B. cuenoti from M. darwiniensis and the social wood-feeding cockroach Cryptocercus punctulatus are each missing most of the pathways for the synthesis of essential amino acids found in the genomes of relatives from non-wood-feeding hosts. Hypotheses to explain this pathway degradation include: (i) feeding on microbes present in rotting wood by ancestral hosts; (ii) the evolution of high-fidelity transfer of gut microbes via social behaviour. To test these hypotheses, we sequenced the B. cuenoti genome of a third wood-feeding species, the phylogenetically distant and non-social Panesthia angustipennis. We show that host wood-feeding does not necessarily lead to degradation of essential amino acid synthesis pathways in B. cuenoti, and argue that ancestral high-fidelity transfer of gut microbes best explains their loss in strains from M. darwiniensis and C. punctulatus. PMID:23515978

  7. Effects of weaning age and formic acid-based feed additives on pigs from weaning to slaughter.

    PubMed

    Partanen, Kirsi; Siljander-Rasi, Hilkka; Pentikäinen, Jaana; Pelkonen, Sinikka; Fossi, Marja

    2007-10-01

    Two hundred and forty piglets were used in a 2 x 6 factorial experiment to study the effects of weaning age (26 or 36 d) and four formic acid-based feed additives on the performance of pigs from weaning to slaughter. Either formic acid (F) or a mixture of formic acid, propionic acid, and potassium sorbate (FPS) or a mixture of formic acid, propionic acid, and sodium benzoate (FPB) or formic acid in a diatomaceous earth carrier (FD) were added to the diets of weaned piglets (from weaning to 60 d of age) and growing (18-46 kg) and finishing pigs (46-107 kg) to provide 8, 6, and 6 g acid per kg feed, respectively. The negative control treatment's (C) diets contained no growth promoters, whereas the positive control treatment's weaner and grower diets were supplemented with 40 mg/kg of avilamycin (A). The piglets weaned at the age of 26 and 36 d weighed 7.6 and 10.7 kg at weaning (p < 0.001), and 18.5 and 17.9 kg at the age of 60 d (p > 0.05), respectively. There was a weaning age x feed additive interaction in the weight gain of piglets after weaning (p < 0.05). The weight gain of piglets weaned on day 26 was enhanced by A, FPS, and FD (p < 0.05), and that of piglets weaned on day 36 by A and FPB (p < 0.05). The feed conversion ratio was not affected by weaning ages but was decreased in groups A, F, FBS, and FPB (p < 0.05). The severity of post-weaning diarrhoea was less in groups A, F, FPS, and FD than in C (p < 0.05). In piglets weaned on day 26, faecal water content and the total Escherichia coli count were highest 9 d after weaning. The total E. coli count was reduced only by FD (p < 0.05). Increased faecal water content was characterized by increased faecal Na+ and decreased K+ concentrations. Weaning age did not influence performance or carcass quality in the growing-finishing pigs. Feed additives did not affect weight gain in the growing pigs, but FPS and FPB enhanced weight gain during finishing period and total fattening (p < 0.05). In summary, the pigs

  8. Bio-desulfurization of biogas using acidic biotrickling filter with dissolved oxygen in step feed recirculation.

    PubMed

    Chaiprapat, Sumate; Charnnok, Boonya; Kantachote, Duangporn; Sung, Shihwu

    2015-03-01

    Triple stage and single stage biotrickling filters (T-BTF and S-BTF) were operated with oxygenated liquid recirculation to enhance bio-desulfurization of biogas. Empty bed retention time (EBRT 100-180 s) and liquid recirculation velocity (q 2.4-7.1 m/h) were applied. H2S removal and sulfuric acid recovery increased with higher EBRT and q. But the highest q at 7.1 m/h induced large amount of liquid through the media, causing a reduction in bed porosity in S-BTF and H2S removal. Equivalent performance of S-BTF and T-BTF was obtained under the lowest loading of 165 gH2S/m(3)/h. In the subsequent continuous operation test, it was found that T-BTF could maintain higher H2S elimination capacity and removal efficiency at 175.6±41.6 gH2S/m(3)/h and 89.0±6.8% versus S-BTF at 159.9±42.8 gH2S/m(3)/h and 80.1±10.2%, respectively. Finally, the relationship between outlet concentration and bed height was modeled. Step feeding of oxygenated liquid recirculation in multiple stages clearly demonstrated an advantage for sulfide oxidation. PMID:25569031

  9. Effect of feeding palm oil by-products based diets on muscle fatty acid composition in goats.

    PubMed

    Abubakr, Abdelrahim; Alimon, Abdul Razak; Yaakub, Halimatun; Abdullah, Norhani; Ivan, Michael

    2015-01-01

    The present study aims to evaluate the effects of feeding palm oil by-products based diets on different muscle fatty acid profiles in goats. Thirty-two Cacang × Boer goats were randomly assigned to four dietary treatments: (1) control diet (CD), (2) 80% decanter cake diet (DCD), (3) 80% palm kernel cake diet (PKCD) and (4) CD plus 5% palm oil (PO) supplemented diet (CPOD). After 100 days of feeding, four goats from each group were slaughtered and longissimus dorsi (LD), infraspinatus (IS) and biceps femoris (BF) were sampled for analysis of fatty acids. Goats fed the PKCD had higher (P<0.05) concentration of lauric acid (C12:0) than those fed the other diets in all the muscles tested. Compared to the other diets, the concentrations of palmitic acid (C16:0) and stearic acid (C18:0) were lower (P<0.05) and that of linoleic acid (C18:2 n-6) was higher (P<0.05) in the muscles from goats fed the CD. It was concluded that palm kernel cake and decanter cake can be included in the diet of goats up to 80% with more beneficial than detrimental effects on the fatty acid profile of their meat. PMID:25789610

  10. Effect of Feeding Palm Oil By-Products Based Diets on Muscle Fatty Acid Composition in Goats

    PubMed Central

    Abubakr, Abdelrahim; Alimon, Abdul Razak; Yaakub, Halimatun; Abdullah, Norhani; Ivan, Michael

    2015-01-01

    The present study aims to evaluate the effects of feeding palm oil by-products based diets on different muscle fatty acid profiles in goats. Thirty-two Cacang × Boer goats were randomly assigned to four dietary treatments: (1) control diet (CD), (2) 80% decanter cake diet (DCD), (3) 80% palm kernel cake diet (PKCD) and (4) CD plus 5% palm oil (PO) supplemented diet (CPOD). After 100 days of feeding, four goats from each group were slaughtered and longissimus dorsi (LD), infraspinatus (IS) and biceps femoris (BF) were sampled for analysis of fatty acids. Goats fed the PKCD had higher (P<0.05) concentration of lauric acid (C12:0) than those fed the other diets in all the muscles tested. Compared to the other diets, the concentrations of palmitic acid (C16:0) and stearic acid (C18:0) were lower (P<0.05) and that of linoleic acid (C18:2 n-6) was higher (P<0.05) in the muscles from goats fed the CD. It was concluded that palm kernel cake and decanter cake can be included in the diet of goats up to 80% with more beneficial than detrimental effects on the fatty acid profile of their meat. PMID:25789610

  11. Effects of conjugated linoleic acid supplementation and feeding level on dairy performance, milk fatty acid composition, and body fat changes in mid-lactation goats.

    PubMed

    Ghazal, S; Berthelot, V; Friggens, N C; Schmidely, P

    2014-11-01

    The objective of this trial was to study the interaction between the supplementation of lipid-encapsulated conjugated linoleic acid (CLA; 4.5 g of cis-9,trans-11 C18:2 and 4.5 g of trans-10,cis-12 C18:2) and feeding level to test if milk performance or milk fatty acid (FA) profile are affected by the interaction between CLA and feeding level. Twenty-four dairy goats were used in an 8-wk trial with a 3-wk adaptation to the experimental ration that contained corn silage, beet pulp, barley, and a commercial concentrate. During the third week, goats were assigned into blocks of 2 goats according to their dry matter intake (DMI), raw milk yield, and fat yield. Each block was randomly allocated to control (45 g of Ca salt of palm oil/d) or CLA treatment. Within each block, one goat was fed to cover 100% (FL100) of the calculated energy requirements and the other was fed 85% of the DMI of the first goat (FL85). Individual milk production and composition were recorded weekly, and milk FA composition was analyzed in wk 3, 5, and 7. Conjugated linoleic acid supplementation reduced milk fat content and fat yield by 17 and 19%, respectively, independent of the feeding level. It reduced both the secretion of milk FA synthesized de novo, and those taken up from the blood. No interaction between CLA and feeding level was observed on milk secretion of any group of FA. The CLA supplementation had no effect on DMI, milk yield, protein, and lactose yields but it improved calculated net energy for lactation balance. Goats fed the FL100 × CLA diet tended to have the highest DMI and protein yield. The interaction between CLA and feeding level was not significant for any other variables. Compared with the goats fed FL100, those fed FL85 had lower DMI, lower net energy for lactation balance, and lower digestible protein in the intestine balance. The body weight; milk yield; milk fat, protein, and lactose yields; and fat, protein, lactose, and urea contents in milk were not affected by

  12. Evaluation of formic acid and propionic acid feed additives on environmental and cecal Salmonella Typhimurium in broilers

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Three trials were performed to evaluate the effectiveness of formic acid and propionic acid on environmental and cecal recovery of Salmonella. Trial 1: Chicks (33/pen) were placed in one of 3 treatments with 8 reps, Trt A: 1 kg/ton formic acid, Trt B: 5 kg/ton formic acid, and Trt C: no formic acid....

  13. Velocity profile development for a poultry facility acid scrubber

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Determination of the air velocity profile for 12 experimental configurations (ECs) of an acid scrubber was carried out using an equal area traverse method with a vane axial anemometer. Four velocity profile plots were created for each configuration to determine the four optimal ECs. ECs were selecte...

  14. Source term evaluation for UF{sub 6} release event in feed facility at gaseous diffusion plants

    SciTech Connect

    Kim, S.H.; Taleyarkhan, R.P.

    1997-01-30

    An assessment of UF{sub 6} release accidents was conducted for the feed facility of a gaseous diffusion plant (GDP). Release rates from pig-tail connections were estimated from CYLIND code predictions, whereas, MELCOR was utilized for simulating reactions of UF{sub 6} with moisture and consequent transport of UO{sub 2}F{sub 2} aerosols and HF vapor through the building and to the environment. Two wind speeds were utilized. At the high end (Case 1) a wind speed of {approximately} 1 m/s (200 fpm) was assumed to flow parallel to the building length. At the low end (Case 2) to represent stagnant conditions a corresponding wind speed of 1 cm/s (2 fpm) was utilized. A further conservative assumption was made to specify no closure of crane and train doors at either end of the building. Relaxation of this assumption should provide for additional margins. Results indicated that, for the high (200 fpm) wind speed, close to 66% of the UO{sub 2}F{sub 2} aerosols and 100% of the HF gas get released to the environment over a 10-minute period. However, for the low (2 fpm) wind speed, negligible amount ({approximately} 1% UO{sub 2}F{sub 2}) of aerosols get released even over a 2 hour period.

  15. Effects of ractopamine hydrochloride on performance, rate and variation in feed intake, and acid-base balance in feedlot cattle.

    PubMed

    Abney, C S; Vasconcelos, J T; McMeniman, J P; Keyser, S A; Wilson, K R; Vogel, G J; Galyean, M L

    2007-11-01

    Two experiments evaluated effects of ractopamine hydrochloride (RAC) on performance, intake patterns, and acid-base balance of feedlot cattle. In Exp. 1, 360 crossbred steers (Brangus, British, and British x Continental breeding; initial BW = 545 kg) were used in a study with a 3 x 3 factorial design to study the effects of dose [0, 100, or 200 mg/(steer x d) of RAC] and duration (28, 35, or 42 d) of feeding of RAC in a randomized complete block design (9 treatments, 8 pens/treatment). No dose x duration interactions were detected (P > 0.10). As RAC dose increased, final BW (FBW; P = 0.01), ADG (P < 0.01), and G:F (P < 0.01) increased linearly. As duration of feeding increased, ADG increased quadratically (P = 0.04), with tendencies for quadratic effects for FBW (P = 0.06), DMI (P = 0.07), and G:F (P = 0.09). Hot carcass weight increased linearly (P = 0.02) as dose of RAC increased. Thus, increasing the dose of RAC from 0 to 200 mg/(steer x d) and the duration of feeding from 28 to 42 d improved feedlot performance, although quadratic responses for duration of feeding indicated little improvement as the duration was extended from 35 to 42 d. In Exp. 2, 12 crossbred beef steers (BW = 593 kg) were used in a completely random design to evaluate the effects of RAC [0 or 200 mg/(steer x d) for 30 d; 6 steers/treatment] on rate of intake, daily variation in intake patterns, and acid-base balance. To assess intake patterns, absolute values of daily deviations in feed delivered to each steer relative to the total quantity of feed delivered were analyzed as repeated measures. There were no differences (P > 0.10) in feedlot performance, urine pH, blood gas measurements, or variation in intake patterns between RAC and control cattle, but steers fed RAC had increased (P = 0.04) LM area, decreased (P = 0.03) yield grade, and increased (P < 0.10) time to consume 50 and 75% of daily intake relative to control steers. Our results suggest that feeding RAC for 35 d at 200 mg

  16. Efficient production of l-lactic acid using co-feeding strategy based on cane molasses/glucose carbon sources.

    PubMed

    Xu, Ke; Xu, Ping

    2014-02-01

    L-Lactic acid is an important platform chemical, which ought to be produced under cost control to meet its huge demand. Cane molasses, a waste from sugar manufacturing processes, is hopeful to be utilized as a cheap carbon source for L-lactic acid fermentation. Considering that cane molasses contains nutrients and hazardous substances, efficient production of L-lactic acid was developed by using a co-feeding strategy based on the utilization of cane molasses/glucose carbon sources. Based on the medium optimization with response surface method, 168.3g/L L-lactic acid was obtained by a Bacillus coagulans strain H-1 after 78h fed-batch fermentation, with a productivity of 2.1g/Lh and a yield of 0.88g/g. Since cane molasses is a feasible carbon source, the co-feeding fermentation might be a promising alternative for the economical production of L-lactic acid. PMID:24333698

  17. Effects of feeding fatty acid calcium and the interaction of forage quality on production performance and biochemical indexes in early lactation cow.

    PubMed

    Hu, Z Y; Yin, Z Y; Lin, X Y; Yan, Z G; Wang, Z H

    2015-10-01

    Multiparous early lactation Holstein cows (n = 16) were used in a randomized complete block design to determine the effects of feeding fatty acid calcium and the interaction of forage quality on production performance and biochemical indexes in early lactation cow. Treatments were as follows: (i) feeding low-quality forage without supplying fatty acid calcium (Diet A), (ii) feeding low-quality forage with supplying 400 g fatty acid calcium (Diet B), (iii) feeding high-quality forage without supplying fatty acid calcium (Diet C) and (iv) feeding high-quality forage with supplying 400 g fatty acid calcium. This experiment consisted 30 days. The milk and blood samples were collected in the last day of the trail. Intakes were recorded in the last 2 days of the trail. Supplementation of fatty acid calcium decreased significantly dry matter intake (DMI) (p < 0.01). Addition fatty acid calcium decreased milk protein percentage (p < 0.01) and milk SNF percentage (p < 0.01), but increased MUN (p < 0.05). Supplemented fatty acid decreased concentration of blood BHBA (p < 0.05), but increased TG, NEFA, glucagon, GLP-1, CCK, leptin, ApoA-IV, serotonin and MSH concentration in blood, the CCK concentration and feed intake showed a significant negative correlation (p < 0.05). PMID:25816839

  18. Emergency cooling experiments with aqueous boric acid solution in the REWET-II facility

    SciTech Connect

    Kervinen, T.; Tuunanen, J.

    1987-01-01

    Although boron is widely used as soluble neutron poison in nuclear reactors (boric acid in pressurized water reactors, sodium pentaborate in boiling water reactors), there is a lack of experimental data about aqueous boron solution behavior during loss-of-coolant accidents. The main aims of the REWET boric acid experiments were to study the behavior of aqueous boric acid solution during long-term cooling of a nuclear reactor and to find out the circumstances in which boric acid crystallization takes place. In the experiments, carried out in the facility of a 19-fuel-rod simulator bundle, boric acid crystallization caused the uncovering of the bundle, which always occurred on the water surface. However, crossflows and backflows in a reactor presumably make the concentrations uniform and thus retard crystallization. Therefore, experimental investigations of aqueous boric acid solution behavior will be carried out for the next 2 yr in a larger scale experimental facility. The new facility will be a simulator of the Loviisa VVER-440 reactor with a scaling factor of 1:349 for power and volumes and 1:1 for elevations. The facility will contain a full-scale rod bundle.

  19. Dietary amino acid levels and feed restriction affect small intestinal development, mortality, and weight gain of male broilers.

    PubMed

    Wijtten, P J A; Hangoor, E; Sparla, J K W M; Verstegen, M W A

    2010-07-01

    This study investigated the effect of 2 different dietary amino acid treatments and feed restriction in early life versus a control treatment on development of the small intestine segments (weights), mortality, and broiler performance. Each treatment was applied to 6 cages with Ross 308 male broilers and to 6 cages with Cobb 500 male broilers with 24 birds per cage. A control treatment (100% ideal protein) was compared with a treatment with 30% extra ideal protein, a treatment with daily adjustment of the dietary amino acid level and profile, and a feed restriction treatment. The protein treatments were applied from 0 to 14 d of age. The feed restriction was applied from 4 to 21 d of age. Restriction was 15% from d 4 to 14 of age and diminished with equal daily steps thereafter to 5% at 21 d of age. Birds were weighed and dissected for evaluation of small intestine weights at 6, 9, 14, and 36 d of age. Feed intake restriction reduced leg problems in Ross and Cobb broilers. Extra dietary protein reduced leg problems in Ross broilers only. The present experiment does not show that small intestinal weight development is related to mortality. Thirty percent extra dietary ideal protein increased duodenum weight between 6 and 9 d of age. This was not further increased by the daily optimization of the dietary amino acid level and profile. The increased duodenum weights coincided with an improved BW gain. This indicates that duodenum weight may be important in facilitating BW gain in young broilers. Thus, it may be worthwhile to pay more attention to the relation between nutrition and duodenum weight and duodenum function in further studies. PMID:20548070

  20. Substrate interaction in intravenous feeding: comparative effects of carbohydrate and fat on amino acid utilization in fasting man.

    PubMed

    Wolfe, B M; Culebras, J M; Sim, A J; Ball, M R; Moore, F D

    1977-10-01

    Data are presented on the metabolic and endocrine effects of intravenous infusions in normal fasting man observed under highly controlled conditions over a period of six to eight days duration. There are comparative data on a variety of intravenous feeding programs. The data on total starvation are based on studies from the literature, some of which were carried out in this laboratory. The data on low dose glucose, high dose glucose, glycerol, fat emulsion, and amino acids, each given separately, demonstrate changes seen with simple infusion of a single substrate in fasting. These data are now compared with the utilization of amino acid infusions when accompanied by low dose glucose, high dose glucose, glycerol, and fat emulsion. In all, nine experimental intravenous feeding programs are presented, based on data from 35 subjects observed over a total of 370 subject-days. The findings show a strong interaction between glucose or lipid and protein metabolism. In fasting, glucose had protein sparing effect, most evident when given at high dose. Glycerol, in an amount equal to that contained in 2000 ml of ten per cent fat emulsion, had a mild protein sparing effect. Fat emulsion was no more effective. When amino acids were given alone, normal fasting human subjects were always in negative nitrogen balance with the daily nitrogen loss half that seen in starvation alone. Although amino acids given alone have a protein sparing effect, this is accomplished only at the expense of a high nitrogen excretion including an amount equivalent to the entire infusion plus an additional loss from the body's native proteins. The provision of energy yielding non-protein substrates with the amino acids markedly improved nitrogen economy in the following order: glycerol, low dose glucose, fat emulsion and high dose glucose. When caloric provision with glucose approached the isocaloric level for normal diet, the utilization of amino acids was maximized. When given with amino acids, fat

  1. Improving the Reliability of Optimal In-Feed Amino Acid Ratios Based on Individual Amino Acid Efficiency Data from N Balance Studies in Growing Chicken.

    PubMed

    Wecke, Christian; Liebert, Frank

    2013-01-01

    Three consecutive nitrogen balance experiments with fast-growing male broiler chickens (ROSS 308), both during starter and grower periods, were conducted to determine the ideal ratios of several indispensable amino acids relative to lysine. The control diets based on corn, wheat, fishmeal, field peas, wheat gluten and soybean oil were formulated by computer optimizing to meet the assumed ideal amino acid ratios and to fulfill both the energy and nutrient requirements of growing chicken. According to principles of the diet dilution technique, balanced control diets were diluted by wheat starch and refilled by crystalline amino acids and remaining feed ingredients, except the amino acid under study. The lysine, threonine, tryptophan, arginine, isoleucine and valine diluted diets resulted in significantly lower protein quality as compared to control diet, especially following increased dietary lysine supply (experiments II and III) and stronger amino acid dilution (experiment III). Accordingly, the limiting position of individual amino acids was confirmed, and the derived amino acid efficiency data were utilized to derive ideal amino acid ratios for the starter period: Lys (100): Thr (60): Trp (19): Arg (105): Ile (55): Val (63); and the grower period: Lys (100): Thr (62): Trp (17): Arg (105): Ile (65): Val (79). PMID:26479521

  2. The amino acid's backup bone - storage solutions for proteomics facilities.

    PubMed

    Meckel, Hagen; Stephan, Christian; Bunse, Christian; Krafzik, Michael; Reher, Christopher; Kohl, Michael; Meyer, Helmut Erich; Eisenacher, Martin

    2014-01-01

    Proteomics methods, especially high-throughput mass spectrometry analysis have been continually developed and improved over the years. The analysis of complex biological samples produces large volumes of raw data. Data storage and recovery management pose substantial challenges to biomedical or proteomic facilities regarding backup and archiving concepts as well as hardware requirements. In this article we describe differences between the terms backup and archive with regard to manual and automatic approaches. We also introduce different storage concepts and technologies from transportable media to professional solutions such as redundant array of independent disks (RAID) systems, network attached storages (NAS) and storage area network (SAN). Moreover, we present a software solution, which we developed for the purpose of long-term preservation of large mass spectrometry raw data files on an object storage device (OSD) archiving system. Finally, advantages, disadvantages, and experiences from routine operations of the presented concepts and technologies are evaluated and discussed. This article is part of a Special Issue entitled: Computational Proteomics in the Post-Identification Era. Guest Editors: Martin Eisenacher and Christian Stephan. PMID:23722089

  3. The challenges of incorporation of omega-3 fatty acids into ration components and their prevalence in garrison feeding.

    PubMed

    Davis, Betty A; Prall, Brian C

    2014-11-01

    Increasingly, private and military consumers are becoming aware of the positive benefits of a diet rich in omega-3 fatty acids (FAs) as health claims range from reducing inflammation to improving mood. The number of positive scientific articles supporting these claims is rapidly increasing, leading the military to examine the possibility of omega-3 supplementation for personnel. A variety of menus used either in shipboard or garrison feeding include fatty fishes that are rich in omega-3 FAs. However, omega-3 FAs have shelf-stability issues because of their susceptibility to oxidize; therefore, they create a challenge in terms of incorporation into ration components in nutritionally significant amounts. As a result, the Department of Defense Combat Feeding Directorate is investigating methods, technologies, and emerging products for incorporation of omega-3s into ration components. Based on existing research, fortification of foods with omega-3 FAs would improve nutritional quality as well as provide added benefit to the Warfighters. PMID:25373101

  4. Feeding reduced crude protein diets with crystalline amino acids supplementation reduce air gas emissions from housing.

    PubMed

    Li, Q-F; Trottier, N; Powers, W

    2015-02-01

    The objective of this study was to test the hypothesis that reducing dietary CP by 1.5% and supplementing crystalline AA (CAA) to meet the standardized ileal digestible (SID) AA requirements for growing and finishing pigs decreases air emissions of ammonia (NH), nitrous oxide (NO), and carbon dioxide (CO) compared with an industry standard diet, without reducing growth performance. Seventy-two pigs were allocated to 12 rooms (6 pigs per room) and 2 diets (6 rooms per diet) formulated according to a 5-phase feeding program across the grow-finish period (107 d total). The diets consisted of a standard diet containing 18.5 to 12.2% CP or a reduced CP diet containing 17.5 to 11.0% CP + CAA over the course of the 5-phase feeding program. Gases (NH, NO, hydrogen sulfide, methane, nonmethane total hydrocarbon, and CO) and ventilation rates were measured continuously from the rooms. Compared with standard diet, ADG and feed conversion of pigs fed reduced CP + CAA diets did not differ (2.7 kg gain/d and 0.37 kg gain/kg feed, respectively). Compared with standard diet, feeding reduced CP + CAA diets decreased ( < 0.01) NH emissions by 46% over the 107-d period (5.4 and 2.9 g · pig · d, respectively). Change in NH emissions for each percentage unit reduction in dietary CP concentration corresponded with 47.9, 53.2, 26.8, 26.5, and 51.6% during Phases 1 through 5, respectively. Emissions of other gases did not differ between diets. Feeding reduced CP diets formulated based on SID AA requirements for grow-finisher swine is effective in reducing NH emissions from housing compared with recent industry formulations and does not impact growth performances. PMID:26020753

  5. Effect of feeding extruded flaxseed with different grains on the performance of dairy cows and milk fatty acid profile.

    PubMed

    Neveu, C; Baurhoo, B; Mustafa, A

    2014-03-01

    Sixteen Holsteins cows were used in a Latin square design experiment to determine the effects of extruded flaxseed (EF) supplementation and grain source (i.e., corn vs. barley) on performance of dairy cows. Extruded flaxseed diets contained 10% [dry matter (DM) basis] of an EF product that consisted of 75% flaxseed and 25% ground alfalfa meal. Four lactating Holsteins cows fitted with rumen fistulas were used to determine the effects of dietary treatments on ruminal fermentation. Intakes of DM (23.2 vs. 22.2 kg/d), crude protein (4.2 vs. 4.0 kg/d), and neutral detergent fiber (8.3 vs. 7.9 kg/d) were greater for cows fed EF diets than for cows fed diets without EF. Milk yield and composition were not affected by dietary treatments. However, 4% fat-corrected milk (30.5% vs. 29.6 kg/d) and solids-corrected milk (30.7 vs. 29.9 kg/d) were increased by EF supplementation. Ruminal pH and total volatile fatty acid concentration were not influenced by EF supplementation. However, feeding barley relative to corn increased molar proportions of acetate and butyrate and decreased that of propionate. Ruminal NH3-N was lower for cows fed barley than for cows fed corn. Milk fatty acid composition was altered by both grain source and EF supplementation. Cows fed EF produced milk with higher polyunsaturated and lower saturated fatty acid concentrations than cows fed diets without EF. Feeding EF or corn increased the milk concentration of C18:0, whereas that of C16:0 was decreased by EF supplementation only. Extruded flaxseed supplementation increased milk fat α-linolenic acid content by 60% and conjugated linoleic acid content by 29%. Feeding corn relative to barley increased milk conjugated linoleic acid by 29% but had no effect on milk α-linolenic concentration. Differences in animal performance and milk fatty acid composition were mainly due to EF supplementation, whereas differences in ruminal fermentation were mostly due to grain source. PMID:24418278

  6. Production of medium-chain-length polyhydroxyalkanoates by activated sludge enriched under periodic feeding with nonanoic acid.

    PubMed

    Lee, Sun Hee; Kim, Jae Hee; Mishra, Debaraj; Ni, Yu-Yang; Rhee, Young Ha

    2011-05-01

    The potential use of activated sludge for the production of medium-chain-length polyhydroxyalkanoates (MCL-PHAs) was investigated. The enrichment of bacterial populations capable of producing MCL-PHAs was achieved by periodic feeding with nonanoic acid in a sequencing batch reactor (SBR). Denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis analysis revealed Pseudomonas aeruginosa strains to be predominant in the bacterial community during the SBR process. The composition of PHA synthesized by the enriched biomass from nonanoic acid consisted of a large concentration (>89 mol%) of MCL monomer units and a small amount of short-chain-length monomer units. Under fed-batch fermentation with continuous feeding of nonanoic acid at a flow rate of 0.225 g/L/h and a C/N ratio of 40, a maximum PHA content of 48.6% dry cell weight and a conversion yield (Y(p/s)) of 0.94 g/g were achieved. These results indicate that MCL-PHA production by activated sludge is a promising alternative to typical pure culture approaches. PMID:21463934

  7. Effects of feed access after hatch and inclusion of fish oil and medium chain fatty acids in a pre-starter diet on broiler chicken growth performance and humoral immunity.

    PubMed

    Lamot, D M; van der Klein, S A S; van de Linde, I B; Wijtten, P J A; Kemp, B; van den Brand, H; Lammers, A

    2016-09-01

    Delayed feed and water access is known to impair growth performance of day old broiler chickens. Although effects of feed access on growth performance and immune function of broilers have been examined before, effects of dietary composition and its potential interaction with feed access are hardly investigated. This experiment aimed to determine whether moment of first feed and water access after hatch and pre-starter composition (0 to 7 days) affect growth rate and humoral immune function in broiler chickens. Direct fed chickens received feed and water directly after placement in the grow-out facility, whilst delayed fed chickens only after 48 h. Direct and delayed fed chickens received a control pre-starter diet, or a diet containing medium chain fatty acids (MCFA) or fish oil. At 21 days, chickens were immunized by injection of sheep red blood cells. The mortality rate depended on an interaction between feed access and pre-starter composition (P=0.014). Chickens with direct feed access fed the control pre-starter diet had a higher risk for mortality than chickens with delayed feed access fed the control pre-starter diet (16.4% v. 4.2%) whereas the other treatment groups were in-between. BW gain and feed intake till 25 days in direct fed chickens were higher compared with delayed fed chickens, whilst gain to feed ratio was lower. Within the direct fed chickens, the control pre-starter diet resulted in the highest BW at 28 days and the MCFA pre-starter diet the lowest (Δ=2.4%), whereas this was opposite for delayed fed chickens (Δ=3.0%; P=0.033). Provision of MCFA resulted in a 4.6% higher BW gain and a higher gain to feed ratio compared with other pre-starter diets, but only during the period it was provided (2 to 7 days). Minor treatment effects were found for humoral immune response by measuring immunoglobulins, agglutination titers, interferon gamma (IFN- γ ), and complement activity. Concluding, current inclusion levels of fish oil (5 g/kg) and MCFA (30 g

  8. Structural activity of bovidic acid and related compounds as feeding deterrents against Aedes aegypti.

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    5-(1-hydroxynonyl)-2-tetrahydrofuranpentanoic acid (18-Bovidic acid), a compound recently identified as a mosquito deterrent from the hair of gaur, has been evaluated for its efficacy compared to known synthetic repellents. In the present study we have evaluated analogs of Bovidic acid, related hydr...

  9. Feed-forward regulation of bile acid detoxification by CYP3A4: studies in humanized transgenic mice.

    PubMed

    Stedman, Catherine; Robertson, Graham; Coulter, Sally; Liddle, Christopher

    2004-03-19

    Bile acids are potentially toxic end products of cholesterol metabolism and their concentrations must be tightly regulated. Homeostasis is maintained by both feed-forward regulation and feedback regulation. We used humanized transgenic mice incorporating 13 kb of the 5' regulatory flanking sequence of CYP3A4 linked to a lacZ reporter gene to explore the in vivo relationship between bile acids and physiological adaptive CYP3A gene regulation in acute cholestasis after bile duct ligation (BDL). Male transgenic mice were subjected to BDL or sham surgery prior to sacrifice on days 3, 6, and 10, and others were injected with intraperitoneal lithocholic acid (LCA) or vehicle alone. BDL resulted in marked hepatic activation of the CYP3A4/lacZ transgene in pericentral hepatocytes, with an 80-fold increase in transgene activation by day 10. Individual bile acids were quantified by liquid chromatography/mass spectrometry. Serum 6beta-hydroxylated bile acids were increased following BDL, confirming the physiological relevance of endogenous Cyp3a induction to bile acid detoxification. Although concentrations of conjugated primary bile acids increased after BDL, there was no increase in LCA, a putative PXR ligand, indicating that this cannot be the only endogenous bile acid mediating this protective response. Moreover, in LCA-treated animals, 5-bromo-4-chloro-3-indolyl-beta-d-galactopyranoside staining showed hepatic activation of the CYP3A4 transgene only on the liver capsular surface, and minimal parenchymal induction, despite significant liver injury. This study demonstrates that CYP3A up-regulation is a significant in vivo adaptive response to cholestasis. However, this up-regulation is not dependent on increases in circulating LCA and the role of other bile acids as regulatory molecules requires further exploration. PMID:14681232

  10. Prophylactic Supplementation of Caprylic Acid in Feed Reduces Salmonella Enteritidis Colonization in Commercial Broiler Chicks

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Salmonella Enteritidis is a major foodborne pathogen for which chickens serve as reservoir hosts. Reducing Salmonella Enteritidis carriage in chickens would reduce contamination of poultry meat and eggs with this pathogen. We investigated the prophylactic efficacy of feed supplemented with caprylic ...

  11. Feed supplemented with organic acids does not affect starch digestibility, nor intestinal absorptive or secretory function in broiler chickens.

    PubMed

    Ruhnke, I; Röhe, I; Goodarzi Boroojeni, F; Knorr, F; Mader, A; Hafeez, A; Zentek, J

    2015-04-01

    The current study aimed to determine the impact of acidified feed on apparent ileal starch digestibility, intestinal transport and barrier function and intestinal glucose transporter expression. The experiment included a control group and a treatment group with broilers fed a standard diet without or with 1.5% of a commercial organic acid product (64% formic acid, 25% propionic acid, 11% water). Broilers were fed with the experimental diets from hatching until days 32-35. Starch digestibility was determined using 0.2% titanium dioxide as ingestible marker. Gene expressions of the intestinal sodium glucose transporter 1 (SGLT-1) and glucose transporter 2 (GLUT-2) were analysed using qPCR analysis. Additionally, SGLT-1 function and chloride secretion were analysed in Ussing chamber experiments. Jejunal samples were sequentially exposed to 10 mm glucose, 100 μm phloridzin, 100 μm histamine and 100 μm carbachol. Apparent ileal starch digestibility (±SEM) of the control group (97.5 ± 0.35%) and the acid-treated group (97.0 ± 0.59%) did not differ (p = 0.674). The mean tissue conductance of intestinal samples obtained from the control group and the treatment group was similar [10.6 mS/cm(2) (±0.68) and 9.4 mS/cm(2) (±0.80) respectively (p = 0.147)]. The mean short-circuit currents (ΔIsc ) of the samples exposed to glucose, phloridzin, histamine and carbachol did not differ (p > 0.05). Additionally, no differences in the expression of SGLT-1 and GLUT-2 could be observed (p = 0.942, p = 0.413). Based on this study, the consumption of feed supplemented with organic acids was not associated with effects on ileal starch digestibility and functional traits of jejunal tissues, indicating that these additives have no major impact on the small intestinal function in broilers. PMID:25865420

  12. Synthesis of sulfonated porous carbon nanospheres solid acid by a facile chemical activation route

    SciTech Connect

    Chang, Binbin Guo, Yanzhen; Yin, Hang; Zhang, Shouren; Yang, Baocheng

    2015-01-15

    Generally, porous carbon nanospheres materials are usually prepared via a template method, which is a multi-steps and high-cost strategy. Here, we reported a porous carbon nanosphere solid acid with high surface area and superior porosity, as well as uniform nanospheical morphology, which prepared by a facile chemical activation with ZnCl{sub 2} using resorcinol-formaldehyde (RF) resins spheres as precursor. The activation of RF resins spheres by ZnCl{sub 2} at 400 °C brought high surface area and large volume, and simultaneously retained numerous oxygen-containing and hydrogen-containing groups due to the relatively low processing temperature. The presence of these functional groups is favorable for the modification of –SO{sub 3}H groups by a followed sulfonation treating with sulphuric acid and organic sulfonic acid. The results of N{sub 2} adsorption–desorption and electron microscopy clearly showed the preservation of porous structure and nanospherical morphology. Infrared spectra certified the variation of surface functional groups after activation and the successful modification of –SO{sub 3}H groups after sulfonation. The acidities of catalysts were estimated by an indirect titration method and the modified amount of –SO{sub 3}H groups were examined by energy dispersive spectra. The results suggested sulfonated porous carbon nanospheres catalysts possessed high acidities and –SO{sub 3}H densities, which endowed their significantly catalytic activities for biodiesel production. Furthermore, their excellent stability and recycling property were also demonstrated by five consecutive cycles. - Graphical abstract: Sulfonated porous carbon nanospheres with high surface area and superior catalytic performance were prepared by a facile chemical activation route. - Highlights: • Porous carbon spheres solid acid prepared by a facile chemical activation. • It owns high surface area, superior porosity and uniform spherical morphology. • It possesses

  13. Feeding a Diet Enriched in Docosahexaenoic Acid to Lactating Dams Improves the Tolerance Response to Egg Protein in Suckled Pups

    PubMed Central

    Richard, Caroline; Lewis, Erin D.; Goruk, Susan; Field, Catherine J.

    2016-01-01

    The objective of this study was to determine the effect of feeding a maternal diet supplemented with docosahexaenoic acid (DHA) during the suckling period on the development of the immune system and oral tolerance (OT) in offspring. Dams were randomized to consume one of two nutritionally adequate diets throughout the suckling period: control (N = 12, 0% DHA) or DHA (N = 8, 0.9% DHA) diet. At 11 days, pups from each dam were randomly assigned to a mucosal OT challenge: the placebo or the ovalbumin (OVA) treatment. At three weeks, plasma immunoglobulins and splenocyte cytokine production ex vivo were measured. OVA-tolerized pups had a lower Th2 (IL-13) response to OVA despite the presence of more activated T cells and memory cells (CD27+, all p < 0.05). Feeding a high DHA diet improved the ability of splenocytes to respond to mitogens toward a skewed Th1 response and led to a higher IL-10 and a lower TGF-β production after stimulation with OVA (all p < 0.05). Untolerized DHA-fed pups had lower plasma concentrations of OVA-specific immunoglobulin E (p for interaction < 0.05). Overall, feeding a high DHA maternal diet improves the tolerance response in untolerized suckled pups in a direction that is thought to be beneficial for the establishment of OT. PMID:26907333

  14. Feeding rolled barley grain steeped in lactic acid modulated energy status and innate immunity in dairy cows.

    PubMed

    Iqbal, S; Zebeli, Q; Mazzolari, A; Dunn, S M; Ametaj, B N

    2010-11-01

    Feeding dairy cows large proportions of cereal grain is commonly associated with rumen acidosis, activation of innate immunity, and perturbation of intermediary metabolism. We previously showed that steeping barley grain in 0.5% lactic acid (LA) decreased the rate of starch degradation, lowered the risk of subacute rumen acidosis, modulated rumen fermentation profile, and increased milk fat content in dairy cows. This study sought to investigate whether feeding of LA-treated barley grain would affect carbohydrate and lipid metabolism as well as innate immunity. Eight rumen-fistulated late-lactation (approximately 217 d in milk, DIM) Holstein cows were randomly assigned, in a 2 × 2 crossover design, to 1 of the 2 dietary treatments consisting of 27% (dry matter basis) rolled barley grain steeped for 48 h in an equal volume (wt/vol) of tap water (CTR) or 0.5% LA (TRT). Each experimental period lasted 21 d, with the first 11 d for diet adaptation. Blood and rumen samples were collected on d 12, 15, 17, and 21 of the experimental period before the morning feeding to evaluate the effects of dietary treatment on preprandial day-to-day variation of plasma and rumen variables. To establish the effect of treatment on diurnal variation of plasma variables, blood samples were collected on the last day of each period at 0, 2, 4, 6, 8, 10, and 12h after the morning feeding (i.e., 0800 h). Results of the day-to-day study showed that cows fed the TRT diet had greater overall preprandial concentrations of glucose, cholesterol, and insulin, and a lower concentration of haptoglobin in plasma. Diurnal data indicated lower concentrations of haptoglobin and serum amyloid A and a tendency for greater plasma lactate in cows fed the TRT diet. A treatment by time interaction was observed for glucose, lactate, insulin, haptoglobin, and lipopolysaccharide-binding protein, suggesting a role for both the processing of grain and the time of sampling on those variables. No effect of diet on

  15. Elucidation of noble metal/formic acid chemistry during DWPF feed preparation

    SciTech Connect

    Landon, L.F.

    1991-01-01

    Eleven reports are included: evaluation of noble metal compounds as catalysts for aerobic decomposition of formic acid; reaction of NaNO[sub 3] and NaNO[sub 2] with formic acid under argon; effects of Ru, Rh, Pd chlorides on formic acid decomposition in presence of IDMS (pH=11.0) sludge; effects of additives on catalysts on decomposition of formic acid to hydrogen; Rh-catalyzed decomposition of formic acid; the question of whether this decomposition can be heterogeneous catalysis; inhibition of this reaction by additives; nitrilotriacetic acid inhibitor; uses of gelatin and other water soluble polymers to control flocculation rate; comparison of catalytic activities of Rh, Ru, Pd in Purex and HM sludges; experiments on homogeneous vs heterogeneous nature of Rh catalyst. Figs, refs, tabs.

  16. Elucidation of noble metal/formic acid chemistry during DWPF feed preparation. Revision 1

    SciTech Connect

    Landon, L.F.

    1991-12-31

    Eleven reports are included: evaluation of noble metal compounds as catalysts for aerobic decomposition of formic acid; reaction of NaNO{sub 3} and NaNO{sub 2} with formic acid under argon; effects of Ru, Rh, Pd chlorides on formic acid decomposition in presence of IDMS (pH=11.0) sludge; effects of additives on catalysts on decomposition of formic acid to hydrogen; Rh-catalyzed decomposition of formic acid; the question of whether this decomposition can be heterogeneous catalysis; inhibition of this reaction by additives; nitrilotriacetic acid inhibitor; uses of gelatin and other water soluble polymers to control flocculation rate; comparison of catalytic activities of Rh, Ru, Pd in Purex and HM sludges; experiments on homogeneous vs heterogeneous nature of Rh catalyst. Figs, refs, tabs.

  17. Assessment of the non-protein amino acid BMAA in Mediterranean mussel Mytilus galloprovincialis after feeding with estuarine cyanobacteria.

    PubMed

    Baptista, Mafalda S; Vasconcelos, Rita G W; Ferreira, Paula C; Almeida, C Marisa R; Vasconcelos, Vitor M

    2015-08-01

    To determine whether 2-amino-3-methylaminopropanoic acid (BMAA) could be taken up by marine organisms from seawater or their diet mussels Mytilus galloprovincialis, collected from the North Atlantic Portuguese shore, were exposed to seawater doped with BMAA standard (for up to 48 h) or fed with cyanobacteria (for up to 15 days). Mussels were able to uptake BMAA when exposed to seawater. Mussels fed with cyanobacteria Synechocystis salina showed a rise in BMAA concentration during feeding and a decline in concentration during the subsequent depuration period. Cells from the gills and hepatopancreas of mussels fed with S. salina showed lessened metabolic activity in mussels fed for longer periods of time. A hot acidic digestion (considered to account for total BMAA) was compared with a proteolytic digestion, using pepsin, trypsin and chymotrypsin. The latter was able to extract from mussels approximately 30% of total BMAA. Implications for BMAA trophic transfers in marine ecosystems are discussed. PMID:25903181

  18. Ruthenium volatility from the vitrification of melter feeds prepared using the Nitric Acid Flowsheet

    SciTech Connect

    Hutson, N.D.

    1992-10-22

    The present DWPF flowsheet calls for the chemical treatment of waste sludge with 90 wt% formic acid prior to the addition of the Precipitate Hydrolysis Aqueous (PHA) product. An alternative processing methodology, denoted the ``Nitric Acid Flowsheet``, has been proposed. In the application of this flowsheet, nitric acid would be used to neutralize sludge base components (hydroxides and carbonates) prior to the addition of late wash PHA. The late wash PHA will contain sufficient quantities of formic acid to adequately complete necessary reduction-oxidation (REDOX) reactions.

  19. Ruthenium volatility from the vitrification of melter feeds prepared using the Nitric Acid Flowsheet

    SciTech Connect

    Hutson, N.D.

    1992-10-22

    The present DWPF flowsheet calls for the chemical treatment of waste sludge with 90 wt% formic acid prior to the addition of the Precipitate Hydrolysis Aqueous (PHA) product. An alternative processing methodology, denoted the Nitric Acid Flowsheet'', has been proposed. In the application of this flowsheet, nitric acid would be used to neutralize sludge base components (hydroxides and carbonates) prior to the addition of late wash PHA. The late wash PHA will contain sufficient quantities of formic acid to adequately complete necessary reduction-oxidation (REDOX) reactions.

  20. Phenotypic and genetic relationships between growth and feed intake curves and feed efficiency and amino acid requirements in the growing pig.

    PubMed

    Saintilan, R; Brossard, L; Vautier, B; Sellier, P; Bidanel, J; van Milgen, J; Gilbert, H

    2015-01-01

    Improvement of feed efficiency in pigs has been achieved essentially by increasing lean growth rate, which resulted in lower feed intake (FI). The objective was to evaluate the impact of strategies for improving feed efficiency on the dynamics of FI and growth in growing pigs to revisit nutrient recommendations and strategies for feed efficiency improvement. In 2010, three BWs, at 35±2, 63±9 and 107±7 kg, and daily FI during this period were recorded in three French test stations on 379 Large White and 327 French Landrace from maternal pig populations and 215 Large White from a sire population. Individual growth and FI model parameters were obtained with the InraPorc® software and individual nutrient requirements were computed. The model parameters were explored according to feed efficiency as measured by residual feed intake (RFI) or feed conversion ratio (FCR). Animals were separated in groups of better feed efficiency (RFI- or FCR-), medium feed efficiency and poor feed efficiency. Second, genetic relationships between feed efficiency and model parameters were estimated. Despite similar average daily gains (ADG) during the test for all RFI groups, RFI- pigs had a lower initial growth rate and a higher final growth rate compared with other pigs. The same initial growth rate was found for all FCR groups, but FCR- pigs had significantly higher final growth rates than other pigs, resulting in significantly different ADG. Dynamic of FI also differed between RFI or FCR groups. The calculated digestible lysine requirements, expressed in g/MJ net energy (NE), showed the same trends for RFI or FCR groups: the average requirements for the 25% most efficient animals were 13% higher than that of the 25% least efficient animals during the whole test, reaching 0.90 to 0.95 g/MJ NE at the beginning of the test, which is slightly greater than usual feed recommendations for growing pigs. Model parameters were moderately heritable (0.30±0.13 to 0.56±0.13), except for the

  1. Feeding ecology of mesopelagic zooplankton of the subtropical and subarctic North Pacific Ocean determined with fatty acid biomarkers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wilson, S. E.; Steinberg, D. K.; Chu, F.-L. E.; Bishop, J. K. B.

    2010-10-01

    Mesopelagic zooplankton may meet their nutritional and metabolic requirements in a number of ways including consumption of sinking particles, carnivory, and vertical migration. How these feeding modes change with depth or location, however, is poorly known. We analyzed fatty acid (FA) profiles to characterize zooplankton diet and large particle (>51 μm) composition in the mesopelagic zone (base of euphotic zone -1000 m) at two contrasting time-series sites in the subarctic (station K2) and subtropical (station ALOHA) Pacific Ocean. Total FA concentration was 15.5 times higher in zooplankton tissue at K2, largely due to FA storage by seasonal vertical migrators such as Neocalanus and Eucalanus. FA biomarkers specific to herbivory implied a higher plant-derived food source at mesotrophic K2 than at oligotrophic ALOHA. Zooplankton FA biomarkers specific to dinoflagellates and diatoms indicated that diatoms, and to a lesser extent, dinoflagellates were important food sources at K2. At ALOHA, dinoflagellate FAs were more prominent. Bacteria-specific FA biomarkers in zooplankton tissue were used as an indicator of particle feeding, and peaks were recorded at depths where known particle feeders were present at ALOHA (e.g., ostracods at 100-300 m). In contrast, depth profiles of bacterial FA were relatively constant with depth at K2. Diatom, dinoflagellate, and bacterial biomarkers were found in similar proportions in both zooplankton and particles with depth at both locations, providing additional evidence that mesopelagic zooplankton consume sinking particles. Carnivory indices were higher and increased significantly with depth at ALOHA, and exhibited distinct peaks at K2, representing an increase in dependence on other zooplankton for food in deep waters. Our results indicate that feeding ecology changes with depth as well as by location. These changes in zooplankton feeding ecology from the surface through the mesopelagic zone, and between contrasting environments

  2. Comparison of fatty acid profile in the chicken meat after feeding with narasin, nicarbazin and salinomycin sodium and phyto-additive substances.

    PubMed

    Angelovičová, Mária; Kunová, Simona; Čapla, Jozef; Zajac, Peter; Bučko, Ondřej; Angelovič, Marek

    2016-06-01

    The purpose of this study was an experimental investigation and a statistical evaluation of the influence of various additives in feed mixtures of broiler chickens on fatty acids content and their ratio in breast and thigh muscles. First feed additive consisted of narasin, nicarbasin and salinomycin sodium, and other five additives were of phytogenic origin. In vivo experiment was realized on the poultry experimental station with deep litter breeding system. A total of 300 one-day-old hybrid chickens Cobb 500 divided into six groups were used for the experiment. The experimental period was divided into four phases, i.e. Starter, Grower 1, Grower 2 and Final, according to the application of commercial feed mixture of soy cereal type. Additive substances used in feed mixtures were different for each group. Basic feed mixtures were equal for all groups. Fatty acid profile of breast and thigh muscles was measured by the method of FT IR Nicolet 6700. Investigated additive substances in the feed mixtures did not have statistically significant effect on fatty acid content and omega-6/omega-3 polyunsaturated fatty acid (PUFA) ratio in breast and thigh muscles. Strong statistically significant relation between omega-6 PUFAs and total PUFAs were proved by experiment. A relation between omega-3 PUFAs and total PUFAs was found only in the group with Biocitro additive. PMID:26950416

  3. Use of algae or algal oil rich in n-3 fatty acids as a feed supplement for dairy cattle.

    PubMed

    Stamey, J A; Shepherd, D M; de Veth, M J; Corl, B A

    2012-09-01

    Fish oil is used as a ration additive to provide n-3 fatty acids to dairy cows. Fish do not synthesize n-3 fatty acids; they must consume microscopic algae or other algae-consuming fish. New technology allows for the production of algal biomass for use as a ration supplement for dairy cattle. Lipid encapsulation of the algal biomass protects n-3 fatty acids from biohydrogenation in the rumen and allows them to be available for absorption and utilization in the small intestine. Our objective was to examine the use of algal products as a source for n-3 fatty acids in milk. Four mid-lactation Holsteins were assigned to a 4×4 Latin square design. Their rations were supplemented with 1× or 0.5× rumen-protected (RP) algal biomass supplement, 1× RP algal oil supplement, or no supplement for 7 d. Supplements were lipid encapsulated (Balchem Corp., New Hampton, NY). The 1× supplements provided 29 g/d of docosahexaenoic acid (DHA), and 0.5× provided half of this amount. Treatments were analyzed by orthogonal contrasts. Supplementing dairy rations with rumen-protected algal products did not affect feed intake, milk yield, or milk component yield. Short- and medium-chain fatty acid yields in milk were not influenced by supplements. Both 0.5× and 1× RP algae supplements increased daily milk fat yield of DHA (0.5 and 0.6±0.10 g/d, respectively) compared with 1× RP oil (0.3±0.10 g/d), but all supplements resulted in milk fat yields greater than that of the control (0.1±0.10g/d). Yield of trans-18:1 fatty acids in milk fat was also increased by supplementation. Trans-11 18:1 yield (13, 20, 27, and 15±3.0 g/d for control, 0.5× RP algae, 1× RP algae, and 1× RP oil, respectively) was greater for supplements than for control. Concentration of DHA in the plasma lipid fraction on d 7 showed that the DHA concentration was greatest in plasma phospholipid. Rumen-protected algal biomass provided better DHA yield than algal oil. Feeding lipid-encapsulated algae supplements

  4. Fecal losses of sterols and bile acids induced by feeding rats guar gum are due to greater pool size and liver bile acid secretion.

    PubMed

    Moundras, C; Behr, S R; Rémésy, C; Demigné, C

    1997-06-01

    The effect of dietary guar gum (GG, 7.5%) on lipid metabolism and on bile acid secretion and reabsorption was investigated in rats adapted to cholesterol-free or 0.3% cholesterol diets. Compared with controls (fiber-free/cholesterol-free), rats fed cholesterol had significantly elevated plasma and liver cholesterol and triglyceride. In these rats, GG had a potent plasma cholesterol-lowering effect and also counteracted the liver accumulation of triglyceride and cholesterol esters. Fecal excretion of sterols, the major route of cholesterol elimination, was markedly enhanced by GG, especially in rats fed the cholesterol-containing diet (P < 0.001). The biliary bile acid flux into the small intestine was enhanced by dietary cholesterol (+30%) or GG (+52%) or both (P < 0.001). The fecal excretion of bile acids was significantly elevated by GG alone (+74%) and by dietary cholesterol (+190%). Small intestine reabsorption of bile acids appears to be significantly enhanced by GG, which also enhanced the transfer of bile acids into the large intestine, hence a greater fecal loss of steroids, although bile acid reabsorption was very effective in the cecum. GG feeding induced liver hydroxymethyl-glutaryl coenzyme A (HMG CoA) reductase, even in cholesterol-fed rats, as well as cholesterol 7 alpha-hydroxylase (P < 0.001). The cholesterol-lowering effect of GG thus appears to be mediated by an accelerated fecal excretion of steroids and a rise in the intestinal pool and biliary production of bile acids. Although liver HMG CoA reductase and cholesterol 7 alpha-hydroxylase are induced in parallel, this is not sufficient to compensate for fecal steroid losses. PMID:9187619

  5. Concomitant increase in hepatic triacylglycerol biosynthesis and cytosolic fatty-acid-binding-protein content after feeding rats with a cholestyramine-containing diet.

    PubMed Central

    Kempen, H J; Glatz, J F; de Lange, J; Veerkamp, J H

    1983-01-01

    Cholestyramine feeding of rats increased the rate of palmitate and glycerol incorporation into triacylglycerols of isolated hepatocytes. Concomitantly an increase of fatty-acid binding by hepatic cytosolic proteins was observed, which could be attributed to an elevation of the content of the fatty-acid-binding protein (Mr 12000). The involvement of this protein in cholesterol, bile-acid and triacylglycerol metabolism is discussed. PMID:6661214

  6. Routing of Fatty Acids from Fresh Grass to Milk Restricts the Validation of Feeding Information Obtained by Measuring (13)C in Milk.

    PubMed

    Auerswald, Karl; Schäufele, Rudi; Bellof, Gerhard

    2015-12-01

    Dairy production systems vary widely in their feeding and livestock-keeping regimens. Both are well-known to affect milk quality and consumer perceptions. Stable isotope analysis has been suggested as an easy-to-apply tool to validate a claimed feeding regimen. Although it is unambiguous that feeding influences the carbon isotope composition (δ(13)C) in milk, it is not clear whether a reported feeding regimen can be verified by measuring δ(13)C in milk without sampling and analyzing the feed. We obtained 671 milk samples from 40 farms distributed over Central Europe to measure δ(13)C and fatty acid composition. Feeding protocols by the farmers in combination with a model based on δ(13)C feed values from the literature were used to predict δ(13)C in feed and subsequently in milk. The model considered dietary contributions of C3 and C4 plants, contribution of concentrates, altitude, seasonal variation in (12/13)CO2, Suess's effect, and diet-milk discrimination. Predicted and measured δ(13)C in milk correlated closely (r(2) = 0.93). Analyzing milk for δ(13)C allowed validation of a reported C4 component with an error of <8% in 95% of all cases. This included the error of the method (measurement and prediction) and the error of the feeding information. However, the error was not random but varied seasonally and correlated with the seasonal variation in long-chain fatty acids. This indicated a bypass of long-chain fatty acids from fresh grass to milk. PMID:26567466

  7. [B-vitamins (thiamine, vitamin b6, pantothenic acid) in lean muscle tissue of growing cattle of the German Simmental breed under different feeding intensities].

    PubMed

    Kirchgessner, M; Roth-Maier, D A; Heindl, U; Schwarz, F J

    1995-07-01

    In a comparative slaughter experiment the thiamin, vitamin B6 and pantothenic acid content of lean tissue of foreloin of growing cattle was determined by whole body analyses. 54 bulls, 45 heifers and 45 steers were fed until a live mass of 200 kg, 350 kg, 425 kg (only heifers) 500 kg and 575 kg, 650 kg, respectively (only bulls and steers). One half of each carcass was divided into 13 cuts and afterwards the cuts were each divided into lean, adipose and bone tissue and tendons. The lean tissue of the foreloin was subjected to analysis of thiamin, vitamin B6 and pantothenic acid. The mean thiamin content of 0.75 mg kg-1 fresh matter (200 kg live mass) decreased with rising live mass and under intensive feeding conditions in bulls and steers to 0.53 mg and in heifers to 0.61 mg. Restrictively feeding caused a mean thiamin content of 0.60 mg per kg fresh matter in bulls, steers and heifers. Under both feeding conditions in the lean tissue of the foreloin on average a vitamin B6 content of 2.6 mg (bulls), 3.1 mg (heifers) and 3.0 mg kg-1 fresh matter (steers) was analysed. A mean content of pantothenic acid of 2.6 mg kg-1 fresh matter was determined in bulls independent of live mass and feeding intensity. In heifers the content of pantothenic acid on average was 3.0 mg under intensive feeding system and 2.6 mg under low feeding conditions, whereas steers reached contents of 2.7 mg (high feeding) and 2.2 mg kg-1 fresh matter (low feeding). PMID:7571861

  8. Effect of feeding buckwheat and chicory silages on fatty acid profile and cheese-making properties of milk from dairy cows.

    PubMed

    Kälber, Tasja; Kreuzer, Michael; Leiber, Florian

    2013-02-01

    Fresh buckwheat (Fagopyrum esculentum) and chicory (Cichorium intybus) had been shown to have the potential to improve certain milk quality traits when fed as forages to dairy cows. However, the process of ensiling might alter these properties. In the present study, two silages, prepared from mixtures of buckwheat or chicory and ryegrass, were compared with pure ryegrass silage (Lolium multiflorum) by feeding to 3 × 6 late-lactating cows. The dietary dry matter proportions realised for buckwheat and chicory were 0.46 and 0.34 accounting also for 2 kg/d of concentrate. Data and samples were collected from days 10 to 15 of treatment feeding. Buckwheat silage was richest in condensed tannins. Proportions of polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFA) and α-linoleic acid in total fatty acids (FA) were highest in the ryegrass silage. Feed intake, milk yield and milk gross composition did not differ among the groups. Feeding buckwheat resulted in the highest milk fat concentrations (g/kg) of linoleic acid (15.7) and total PUFA (40.5; both P < 0.05 compared with ryegrass). The concentration of α-linolenic acid in milk fat was similar across treatments, but its apparent recovery in milk relative to the amounts ingested was highest with buckwheat. The same was true for the occurrence of FA biohydrogenation products in milk relative to α-linolenic acid intake. Recovery of dietary linoleic acid in milk remained unaffected. Feeding buckwheat silage shortened rennet coagulation time by 26% and tended (P < 0.1) to increase curd firmness by 29%. In conclusion, particularly buckwheat silage seems to have a certain potential to modify the transfer of FA from feed to milk and to contribute to improved cheese-making properties. PMID:23253429

  9. Copper-mediated arylation with arylboronic acids: Facile and modular synthesis of triarylmethanes

    PubMed Central

    Rao, A Veera Bhadra

    2016-01-01

    Summary A facile and modular synthesis of triarylmethanes was achieved in good yield via a two-step sequence in which the final step is the copper(II)-catalyzed arylation of diarylmethanols with arylboronic acids. By using this protocol a variety of symmetrical and unsymmetrical triarylmethanes were synthesized. As an application of the newly developed methodology, we demonstrate a high-yielding synthesis of the triarylmethane intermediate towards an anti-breast-cancer drug candidate. PMID:27340442

  10. Fatty acid composition and interrelationships among eight retail cuts of grass-feed beef.

    PubMed

    Pavan, Enrique; Duckett, Susan K

    2013-03-01

    The aim of this research was to evaluate: 1) fatty acid (FA) profile of eight retail cuts (eye of round, ribeye, top round, striploin, tenderloin, top-sirloin, underblade, ground beef) from grass-fed steers, 2) the association between striploin (longissimus muscle) FA profile and that from the other retail cuts, and 3) the changes in FA profile associated with retail cut total FA content. All of the retail cuts, except underblade and ground beef, would be considered lean (<10 g) based on total FA content. Total saturated fatty acids were positively correlated to total FA content; whereas, negative correlations were observed with total FA content and total monounsaturated and polyunsaturated fatty acids. No correlation was observed between total FA and CLA cis-9, trans-11. Striploin trans-11 C18:1 and CLA cis-9, trans-11 proportions, and n-6:n-3 ratio were positive and highly correlated with those in the other retail cuts. PMID:23273439

  11. Differential effects of short- and long-term high-fat diet feeding on hepatic fatty acid metabolism in rats.

    PubMed

    Ciapaite, Jolita; van den Broek, Nicole M; Te Brinke, Heleen; Nicolay, Klaas; Jeneson, Jeroen A; Houten, Sander M; Prompers, Jeanine J

    2011-01-01

    Imbalance in the supply and utilization of fatty acids (FA) is thought to contribute to intrahepatic lipid (IHL) accumulation in obesity. The aim of this study was to determine the time course of changes in the liver capacity to oxidize and store FA in response to high-fat diet (HFD). Adult male Wistar rats were fed either normal chow or HFD for 2.5weeks (short-term) and 25weeks (long-term). Short-term HFD feeding led to a 10% higher palmitoyl-l-carnitine-driven ADP-stimulated (state 3) oxygen consumption rate in isolated liver mitochondria indicating up-regulation of β-oxidation. This adaptation was insufficient to cope with the dietary FA overload, as indicated by accumulation of long-chain acylcarnitines, depletion of free carnitine and increase in FA content in the liver, reflecting IHL accumulation. The latter was confirmed by in vivo((1))H magnetic resonance spectroscopy and Oil Red O staining. Long-term HFD feeding caused further up-regulation of mitochondrial β-oxidation (24% higher oxygen consumption rate in state 3 with palmitoyl-l-carnitine as substrate) and stimulation of mitochondrial biogenesis as indicated by 62% higher mitochondrial DNA copy number compared to controls. These adaptations were paralleled by a partial restoration of free carnitine levels and a decrease in long-chain acylcarnitine content. Nevertheless, there was a further increase in IHL content, accompanied by accumulation of lipid peroxidation and protein oxidation products. In conclusion, partially effective adaption of hepatic FA metabolism to long-term HFD feeding came at a price of increased oxidative stress, caused by a combination of higher FA oxidation capacity and oversupply of FA. PMID:21621638

  12. Trophic Dynamics of Filter Feeding Bivalves in the Yangtze Estuarine Intertidal Marsh: Stable Isotope and Fatty Acid Analyses

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Sikai; Jin, Binsong; Qin, Haiming; Sheng, Qiang; Wu, Jihua

    2015-01-01

    Benthic bivalves are important links between primary production and consumers, and are essential intermediates in the flow of energy through estuarine systems. However, information on the diet of filter feeding bivalves in estuarine ecosystems is uncertain, as estuarine waters contain particulate matter from a range of sources and as bivalves are opportunistic feeders. We surveyed bivalves at different distances from the creek mouth at the Yangtze estuarine marsh in winter and summer, and analyzed trophic dynamics using stable isotope (SI) and fatty acid (FA) techniques. Different bivalve species had different spatial distributions in the estuary. Glauconome chinensis mainly occurred in marshes near the creek mouth, while Sinonovacula constricta preferred the creek. Differences were found in the diets of different species. S. constricta consumed more diatoms and bacteria than G. chinensis, while G. chinensis assimilated more macrophyte material. FA markers showed that plants contributed the most (38.86 ± 4.25%) to particular organic matter (POM) in summer, while diatoms contributed the most (12.68 ± 1.17%) during winter. Diatoms made the largest contribution to the diet of S. constricta in both summer (24.73 ± 0.44%) and winter (25.51 ± 0.59%), and plants contributed no more than 4%. This inconsistency indicates seasonal changes in food availability and the active feeding habits of the bivalve. Similar FA profiles for S. constricta indicated that the bivalve had a similar diet composition at different sites, while different δ13C results suggested the diet was derived from different carbon sources (C4 plant Spartina alterniflora and C3 plant Phragmites australis and Scirpus mariqueter) at different sites. Species-specific and temporal and/or spatial variability in bivalve feeding may affect their ecological functions in intertidal marshes, which should be considered in the study of food webs and material flows in estuarine ecosystems. PMID:26261984

  13. 76 FR 29767 - Preventive Controls for Registered Human Food and Animal Food/Feed Facilities; Request for Comments

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-05-23

    ... HUMAN SERVICES Food and Drug Administration Preventive Controls for Registered Human Food and Animal... ] manufacture, process, pack, or hold human food or animal food/feed (including pet food). DATES: Submit either... Group (FSWG), chaired by the Secretaries of the Department of Health and Human Services and...

  14. Accumulation and depuration of okadaic acid esters in the European green crab (Carcinus maenas) during a feeding study.

    PubMed

    Jørgensen, Kevin; Cold, Ulrik; Fischer, Knud

    2008-03-01

    Soft shell crab is a seafood delicacy in many parts of the world. In Denmark, it has been investigated whether a commercial production of soft shell European green crabs (Carcinus maenas) would be feasible. In relation to this, a feeding study was performed to examine if occurrence of DSP toxins in the product could be a food safety problem. The crabs were fed with mussels containing DSP toxins (2500 microg total okadaic acid equivalents/kg) for 17 days and then fasted for 19 days. The content of total okadaic acid equivalents in the digestive organs was on average 27 times higher than the corresponding content in the body meat. The highest level of total okadaic acid equivalents measured was 12 microg/kg in body meat and 503 microg/kg in digestive organs. The results show that the content of DSP toxins in a commercial product of soft shell European green crab (without digestive organs) could be regarded as negligible. PMID:17983637

  15. Enrichment of eggs in n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids by feeding hens with different amount of linseed oil in diet.

    PubMed

    Petrović, Marinko; Gačić, Milica; Karačić, Veseljko; Gottstein, Zeljko; Mazija, Hrvoje; Medić, Helga

    2012-12-01

    The production of n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acid enriched eggs by addition of linseed oil to the laying hens' diet has been evaluated in terms of production parameters and n-6/n-3 ratio. A total of 150 18weeks old Lohmann Brown laying hens were housed in cages and fed with basal diet and four experimental diets containing 1%, 2%, 3% or 4% of linseed oil added to the basal diet. The effect of the altered level of linseed oil on hens laying performance, fatty acid content and composition and cholesterol content in egg yolk has been evaluated during 13weeks of experiment. Egg weight, yolk fat content, yolk weight, yolk percentage and shape index were not influenced by dietary treatment. The ratio between n-6 and n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids in eggs decreased in first 5weeks and then remained stable until the end of the experiment for all experimental groups. Different contents of linseed oil in feed highly influenced the n-6/n-3 ratio (P<0.0001). Addition of linseed oil did not influence the cholesterol content in yolks (P=0.5200) while the only factor affecting the cholesterol content was the hens age (P<0.0001). PMID:22953894

  16. Facile synthesis of PtAu alloy nanoparticles with high activity for formic acid oxidation

    SciTech Connect

    Zhang, Sheng; Shao, Yuyan; Yin, Geping; Lin, Yuehe

    2010-02-15

    We report the facile synthesis of carbon supported PtAu alloy nanoparticles with high electrocatalytic activity as the anode catalyst for direct formic acid fuel cells (DFAFCs). PtAu alloy nanopaticles are synthesized by co-reducing HAuCl4 and H2PtCl6 with NaBH4 in the presence of sodium citrate and then the nanoparticles are deposited on Vulcan XC-72R carbon support (PtAu/C). The obtained catalysts are characterized with X-ray diffraction (XRD) and transmission electron microscope (TEM), which reveal PtAu alloy formation with an average diameter of 4.6 nm. PtAu/C exhibits 8 times higher catalytic activity toward formic acid oxidation than Pt/C. The enhanced activity of PtAu/C catalyst is attributed to noncontinuous Pt sites formed in the presence of the neighbored Au sites, which promotes direct oxidation of formic acid by avoiding poison CO.

  17. Impact of mash feeding versus pellets on propionic/butyric acid levels and on total load in the gastrointestinal tract of growing pigs.

    PubMed

    Longpré, J; Fairbrother, J M; Fravalo, P; Arsenault, J; LeBel, P; Laplante, B; Surprenant, C; Massé, D; Letellier, A

    2016-03-01

    Feed characteristics may influence the bacterial community composition and metabolic activities in the pig gastrointestinal tract, known to be associated with positive effects on the gut. Use of mash feed is associated with reduced excretion, but little is known of its effect on the population or of the mechanism of action. Our objectives were to assess the effect of feed texture combined with feed particle size on VFA profiles and levels, total count, and the presence of genes encoding virulence factors of pathogenic strains in the digestive tract along with their impact on pig performance of fattening pigs. Pigs ( = 840) on a commercial farm received mash or pellet diets of different particle sizes during the fattening period. Caecal and colon contents from 164 pigs were sampled at the slaughterhouse for enumeration of by quantitative PCR (qPCR) and for VFA quantification by capillary gas chromatography. The gene was used to enumerate total . Improved pig performances associated with pellet texture and a 500-μm size were observed. Caecal ( = 0.02) and colon ( < 0.01) propionic acid concentrations were lower for pigs receiving pellet rather than mash feed. Similarly, caecal ( = 0.01) and colon ( < 0.001) butyric acid concentrations were also lower for pigs receiving pellet rather than mash feed, as determined by capillary gas chromatography. Moreover, caecal ( = 0.03) and colon ( < 0.001) butyric acid concentrations were higher for pigs receiving a feed with a 1,250-μm particle size rather than a 500-μm particle size. On the other hand, total caecal and colon levels were higher for pigs receiving pellet feed than for those receiving mash feed. For total enumeration, caecal ( < 0.01) and colon ( < 0.01) gene copies were higher for pigs receiving pellet rather than mash feed. No effect of particle size on fatty acid concentrations or on numbers was observed. Virulence gene quantification revealed no trend. Taken together, results showed that mash feed is

  18. Effects of Feeding Garlic and Juniper Berry Essential Oils on Milk Fatty Acid Composition of Dairy Cows

    PubMed Central

    Yang, Wen Zhu; He, Mao Long

    2016-01-01

    Essential oils (EOs) from plant extracts have been reported to have an antibacterial activity against gram-negative and gram-positive bacteria. Several of the gram-positive bacteria are involved in ruminal biohydrogenation of fatty acids (FAs), thus suggesting that feeding EOs could lower biohydrogenation of FA because of a decrease in the number of bacteria involved in that process. As a result, milk FA profiles are expected to be modified. In addition, monensin was approved as an antibiotic to be fed in dairy cattle, and it was reported that dairy cows supplemented with monensin produced milk containing higher concentration of 18:1 t10 and 18:1 t11. The objective of this study was to evaluate the effects of two EOs (garlic and juniper berry oils) and monensin on FA profiles of milk fat. Four ruminally fistulated Holstein dairy cows were used in a 4 × 4 Latin square experiment. Cows were fed for ad libitum intake a total mixed ration without supplementation (control), or supplemented with monensin (330 mg/head per day), garlic oil (5 g/head per day), or juniper berry oil (2 g/head per day). The FA composition of saturated, monounsaturated, or polyunsaturated was not affected by supplementation of EO and monensin. However, proportion of conjugated linoleic acid trans 10, cis 12 (CLA t10, c12) was higher (P < 0.05) for cows fed EO or monensin than for control cows. Supplementation of monensin increased (P < 0.05) the proportion of total trans FA compared with the control. These results indicate that supplementation of the dairy cow diet with garlic or juniper berry EO or monensin had the potential to increase the proportion of CLA t10, c12 in milk fat with minimal overall effects on FA of milk fat. The results also confirm the increase of 18:1 t10 in milk fat by feeding monensin to dairy cows. PMID:27127411

  19. Facile one-pot preparation and functionalization of luminescent chitosan-poly(methacrylic acid) microspheres based on polymer monomer pairs

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Guo, Jia; Wang, Changchun; Mao, Weiyong; Yang, Wuli; Liu, Changjia; Chen, Jiyao

    2008-08-01

    In this paper, we present a facile and robust approach to synthesize multifunctional organic/inorganic composite microspheres with chitosan-poly(methacrylic acid) (CS-PMAA) shells and cadmium tellurium/iron oxide nanoparticle cores. Due to the strong electrostatic interaction between the negatively charged nanoparticles and the protonated CS polymers, the CS/nanoparticle complexes were utilized as templates for the subsequent polymerization of methacrylic acid. The resulting composite microspheres with luminescence and magnetic properties have regular morphologies and narrow size distributions. In contrast to previous reports, this route was based on a one-pot strategy without the aid of surfactants, organic solvent, or polymerizable ligands in aqueous solution. The encapsulated CdTe semiconductor nanocrystals inside the microspheres exhibited strong and stable photoluminescence properties in the pH range 5.0-11.0. When the pH was adjusted below 4, the photoluminescence decreased sharply and even quenched completely. However, the weakened fluorescence emission could be recovered to some degree upon an increase of pH above 5. Additionally, when both Fe3O4 and CdTe nanoparticles were encapsulated within CS-PMAA microspheres, the magnetic content of the microspheres could be efficiently controlled by tuning the feeding molar ratio of MAA monomers and glucosamine units of CS. From the preliminary attempts, it was found that the multifunctional microspheres as imaging agents could improve the rate and extent of cellular uptake under short-term exposure to an applied magnetic field, and so exhibit a great potential as bioactive molecule carriers.

  20. Change of plasma volume, osmolality, and acid-base status in healthy calves after feeding of milk and water- and milk-based oral rehydration solutions.

    PubMed

    Bachmann, L; Schmidt, B; Rauwolf, U; Wenge, J; Coenen, M

    2012-10-01

    Oral rehydration solutions (ORS) are a simple and cheap method to treat diarrheal dehydration and acidosis. To maintain the energy supply of diarrheic calves, it is necessary to continue milk feeding. Suckling of milk or milk-based or hypertonic water-based ORS produces a slower rate of abomasal emptying than suckling isotonic water-based ORS. The faster abomasal passage of isotonic water-based ORS implies that efficacious electrolytes reach the gut more quickly, possibly providing a faster rate of rehydration. The aim of the study was to verify when and to what extent milk and water- and milk-based ORS increase plasma volume and affect plasma osmolality and acid-base status in healthy suckling calves. Eleven calves were fed with milk and with an ORS that was prepared in water or milk. Moreover, for one experiment, the calves remained fasting without suckling milk or ORS. During the experimental phase, the calves were deprived of water, hay, and concentrates. Blood samples were taken before and at various time points after feeding. Total plasma protein, osmolality, [Na(+)], [K(+)], [Cl(-)], and albumin were determined. In 6 of 11 experiments, blood gas analysis was also performed. The calculated change in plasma volume after feeding was assessed from the plasma protein concentration before feeding (P(t=0)) and the plasma protein concentration after feeding (P(t=x)): (P(t=0)- P(t=x)) × 100/P(t=x). Water- and milk-based ORS produced equal rates of plasma expansion in healthy calves. After milk feeding, the change in plasma volume was decelerated. Because of water influx, we did not observe a significant effect of feeding regimen on plasma osmolality. Acid-base status was little affected by feeding regimen. Feeding of milk-based ORS increased plasma strong ion difference, an alkaline response, which could potentially also reduce acidosis in calves suffering from diarrhea. PMID:22863100

  1. Conversion of distiller's grain into fuel alcohol and a higher-value animal feed by dilute-acid pretreatment.

    PubMed

    Tucker, Melvin P; Nagle, Nicholas J; Jennings, Edward W; Ibsen, Kelly N; Aden, Andy; Nguyen, Quang A; Kim, Kyoung H; Noll, Sally L

    2004-01-01

    Over the past three decades ethanol production in the United States has increased more than 10-fold, to approx 2.9 billion gal/yr (mid-2003), with ethanol production expected to reach 5 billion gal/yr by 2005. The simultaneous coproduction of 7 million t/yr of distiller's grain (DG) may potentially drive down the price of DG as a cattle feed supplement. The sale of residual DG for animal feed is an important part of corn dry-grind ethanol production economics; therefore, dry-grind ethanol producers are seeking ways to improve the quality of DG to increase market penetration and help stabilize prices. One possible improvement is to increase the protein content of DG by converting the residual starch and fiber into ethanol. We have developed methods for steam explosion, SO2, and dilute-sulfuric acid pretreatment of DG for evaluation as a feedstock for ethanol production. The highest soluble sugar yields (approximately 77% of available carbohydrate) were obtained by pretreatment of DG at 140 degrees C for 20 min with 3.27 wt% H2SO4. Fermentation protocols for pretreated DG were developed at the bench scale and scaled to a working volume of 809 L for production of hydrolyzed distiller's grain (HDG) for feeding trials. The pretreated DG was fermented with Saccharomyces cerevisiae D5A, with ethanol yields of 73% of theoretical from available glucans. The HDG was air-dried and used for turkey-feeding trials. The inclusion of HDG into turkey poult (as a model non-ruminant animal) diets at 5 and 10% levels, replacing corn and soybean meal, showed weight gains in the birds similar to controls, whereas 15 and 20% inclusion levels showed slight decreases (-6%) in weight gain. At the conclusion of the trial, no negative effects on internal organs or morphology, and no mortality among the poults, was found. The high protein levels (58-61%) available in HDG show promising economics for incorporation of this process into corn dry-grind ethanol plants. PMID:15054259

  2. Size-resolved sulfuric acid mist concentrations at phosphate fertilizer manufacturing facilities in Florida.

    PubMed

    Hsu, Yu-Mei; Wu, Chang-Yu; Lundgren, Dale A; Birky, Brian K

    2007-01-01

    Strong inorganic acid mists containing sulfuric acid were identified as a 'known human carcinogen' in a National Toxicology Program (NTP) report where phosphate fertilizer manufacture was listed as one of many occupational exposures to strong acids. To properly assess the occupational exposure to sulfuric acid mists in modern facilities, approved National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health (NIOSH) Method 7903 and a cascade impactor were used for measuring the total sulfuric acid mist concentration and size-resolved sulfuric acid mist concentration, respectively. Sampling was conducted at eight phosphate fertilizer plants and two background sites in Florida and there were 24 sampling sites in these plants. Samples were analyzed by ion chromatography (IC) to quantify the water-soluble ion species. The highest sulfuric acid concentrations by the cascade impactor were obtained at the sulfuric acid pump tank area. When high aerosol mass concentrations (100 micro g m(-3)) were observed at this area, the sulfuric acid mists were in the coarse mode. The geometric mean sulfuric acid concentrations (+/-geometric standard deviation) of PM(23) (aerodynamic cut size smaller than 23 micro m), PM(10) and PM(2.5) from the cascade impactor were 41.7 (+/-5.5), 37.9 (+/-5.8) and 22.1 (+/-4.5) micro g m(-3), respectively. The geometric mean (+/-geometric standard deviation) for total sulfuric acid concentration from the NIOSH method samples was 143 (+/-5.08) micro g m(-3). Sulfuric acid mist concentrations varied significantly among the plants and even at the same location. The measurements by the NIOSH method were 1.5-229 times higher than those by the cascade impactor. Moreover, using the NIOSH method, the sulfuric acid concentrations measured at the lower flow rate (0.30 Lpm) were higher than those at the higher flow rate (0.45 Lpm). One possible reason for the significant differences between the results from the cascade impactor and the NIOSH method is the potential

  3. Protein feeding and balancing for amino acids in lactating dairy cattle.

    PubMed

    Patton, Robert A; Hristov, Alexander N; Lapierre, Hélène

    2014-11-01

    This article summarizes the current literature as regards metabolizable protein (MP) and essential amino acid (EAA) nutrition of dairy cattle. Emphasis has been placed on research since the publication of the National Research Council Nutrient Requirements of Dairy Cattle, Seventh Revised Edition (2001). Postruminal metabolism of EAA is discussed in terms of the effect on requirements. This article suggests methods for practical application of MP and EAA balance in milking dairy cows. PMID:25245615

  4. A facile nanoaggregation strategy for oral delivery of hydrophobic drugs by utilizing acid base neutralization reactions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, Huabing; Wan, Jiangling; Wang, Yirui; Mou, Dongsheng; Liu, Hongbin; Xu, Huibi; Yang, Xiangliang

    2008-09-01

    Nanonization strategies have been used to enhance the oral availability of numerous drugs that are poorly soluble in water. Exploring a facile nanonization strategy with highly practical potential is an attractive focus. Here, we report a novel facile nanoaggregation strategy for constructing drug nanoparticles of poorly soluble drugs with pH-dependent solubility by utilizing acid-base neutralization in aqueous solution, thus facilitating the exploration of nanonization in oral delivery for general applicability. We demonstrate that hydrophobic itraconazole dissolved in acid solution formed a growing core and aggregated into nanoparticles in the presence of stabilizers. The nanoparticles, with an average diameter of 279.3 nm and polydispersity index of 0.116, showed a higher dissolution rate when compared with the marketed formulation; the average dissolution was about 91.3%. The in vivo pharmacokinetic studies revealed that the nanoparticles had a rapid absorption and enhanced oral availability. The diet state also showed insignificant impact on the absorption of itraconazole from nanoparticles. This nanoaggregation strategy is a promising nanonization method with a facile process and avoidance of toxic organic solvents for oral delivery of poorly soluble drugs with pH-dependent solubility and reveals a highly practical potential in the pharmaceutical and chemical industries.

  5. Effect of DL-malic acid supplementation on feed intake, methane emission, and rumen fermentation in beef cattle.

    PubMed

    Foley, P A; Kenny, D A; Callan, J J; Boland, T M; O'Mara, F P

    2009-03-01

    The objective of this study was to determine the effect of dietary concentration of dl-malic acid (MA) on DMI, CH(4) emission, and rumen fermentation in beef cattle. Two Latin square experiments were conducted. In Exp. 1, six beef heifers (19 +/- 1 mo old) were assigned in a duplicated Latin square to 1 of 3 dietary concentrations of MA on a DMI basis (0%, MA-0; 3.75%, MA-3.75; or 7.5%, MA-7.5) over 3 periods. In Exp. 2, four rumen-fistulated steers (48 +/- 1 mo old) were assigned to 1 of 4 dietary concentrations of MA (0%, MA-0; 2.5%, MA-2.5; 5.0%, MA-5.0; or 7.5%, MA-7.5) on a DMI basis, over 4 periods. Both experimental diets consisted of grass silage and pelleted concentrate (containing MA). Silage was fed ad libitum once daily (a.m.), whereas concentrate was fed twice daily (a.m. and p.m.) with the aim of achieving a total DMI of 40:60 silage:concentrate. In both Exp. 1 and 2, experimental periods consisted of 28 d, incorporating a 13-d acclimatization, a 5-d measurement period, and a 10-d washout period. In Exp. 1, enteric CH(4), feed apparent digestibility, and feed intake were measured over the 5-d measurement period. In Exp. 2, rumen fluid was collected on d 16 to 18, immediately before (a.m.) feeding and 2, 4, 6, and 8 h thereafter. Rumen pH was determined and samples were taken for protozoa count, VFA, and ammonia analysis. Enteric CH(4) emissions were estimated by using the sulfur hexafluoride tracer technique and feed apparent digestibility was estimated by using chromic oxide as an external marker for fecal output. In Exp. 1, increasing dietary MA led to a linear decrease in total DMI (P < 0.001) and total daily CH(4) emissions (P < 0.001). Compared with the control diet, the greatest concentration of MA decreased total daily CH(4) emissions by 16%, which corresponded to a 9% reduction per unit of DMI. Similarly, in Exp. 2, inclusion of MA reduced DMI in a linear (P = 0.002) and quadratic (P < 0.001) fashion. Increasing dietary MA led to a linear

  6. Hybrid striped bass feeds based on fish oil, beef tallow, and eicosapentaenoic acid/docosahexaenoic acid supplements: Insight regarding fish oil sparing and demand for -3 long-chain polyunsaturated fatty acids.

    PubMed

    Bowzer, J; Jackson, C; Trushenski, J

    2016-03-01

    Previous research suggests that saturated (SFA) and monounsaturated fatty acid (MUFA) rich lipids, including beef tallow, can make utilization or diet-to-tissue transfer of long-chain polyunsaturated fatty acids (LC-PUFA) more efficient. We hypothesized that using beef tallow as an alternative to fish oil may effectively reduce the LC-PUFA demand of hybrid striped bass × and allow for greater fish oil sparing. Accordingly, we evaluated growth performance and tissue fatty acid profiles of juvenile fish (23.7 ± 0.3 g) fed diets containing menhaden fish oil (considered an ideal source of LC-PUFA for this taxon), beef tallow (BEEF ONLY), or beef tallow amended with purified sources of eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA) and/or docosahexaenoic acid (DHA) to achieve levels corresponding to 50 or 100% of those observed in the FISH ONLY feed. Diets were randomly assigned to quadruplicate tanks of fish ( = 4; 10 fish/tank), and fish were fed assigned diets to apparent satiation once daily for 10 wk. Survival (98-100%) was equivalent among treatments, but weight gain (117-180%), specific growth rate (1.1-1.5% BW/d), feed intake (1.4-1.8% BW/d), thermal growth coefficient (0.50-0.70), and feed conversion ratio (FCR; 1.1-1.4, DM basis) varied. Except for FCR, no differences were observed between the FISH ONLY and BEEF ONLY treatments, but performance was generally numerically superior among fish fed the diets containing beef tallow supplemented with DHA at the 100% or both EPA and DHA at the 50% or 100% level. Tissue fatty acid composition was significantly distorted in favor among fish fed the beef tallow-based feeds; however, profile distortion was most overt in peripheral tissues. Results suggest that beef tallow may be used as a primary lipid source in practical diets for hybrid striped bass, but performance may be improved by supplementation with LC-PUFA, particularly DHA. Furthermore, our results suggest that -3 LC-PUFA requirements reported for hybrid striped bass may not be

  7. Synthesis of sulfonated porous carbon nanospheres solid acid by a facile chemical activation route

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chang, Binbin; Guo, Yanzhen; Yin, Hang; Zhang, Shouren; Yang, Baocheng

    2015-01-01

    Generally, porous carbon nanospheres materials are usually prepared via a template method, which is a multi-steps and high-cost strategy. Here, we reported a porous carbon nanosphere solid acid with high surface area and superior porosity, as well as uniform nanospheical morphology, which prepared by a facile chemical activation with ZnCl2 using resorcinol-formaldehyde (RF) resins spheres as precursor. The activation of RF resins spheres by ZnCl2 at 400 °C brought high surface area and large volume, and simultaneously retained numerous oxygen-containing and hydrogen-containing groups due to the relatively low processing temperature. The presence of these functional groups is favorable for the modification of -SO3H groups by a followed sulfonation treating with sulphuric acid and organic sulfonic acid. The results of N2 adsorption-desorption and electron microscopy clearly showed the preservation of porous structure and nanospherical morphology. Infrared spectra certified the variation of surface functional groups after activation and the successful modification of -SO3H groups after sulfonation. The acidities of catalysts were estimated by an indirect titration method and the modified amount of -SO3H groups were examined by energy dispersive spectra. The results suggested sulfonated porous carbon nanospheres catalysts possessed high acidities and -SO3H densities, which endowed their significantly catalytic activities for biodiesel production. Furthermore, their excellent stability and recycling property were also demonstrated by five consecutive cycles.

  8. Neonatal lamb vigour is improved by feeding docosahexaenoic acid in the form of algal biomass during late gestation.

    PubMed

    Pickard, R M; Beard, A P; Seal, C J; Edwards, S A

    2008-08-01

    To determine whether feeding a sustainable, algal source of docosahexaenoic acid (DHA) to sheep during late pregnancy would improve neonatal lamb vigour, 48 English mule ewes, of known conception date, were divided into four treatment groups. For the last 9 weeks of gestation, ewes received one of two dietary supplements: either a DHA-rich algal biomass providing 12 g DHA/ewe per day, or a control supplement based on vegetable oil. The four dietary treatment groups (n = 12) were: control supplement for the duration of the trial (C), DHA supplement from 9 to 6 weeks before parturition (3 week), DHA supplement from 9 to 3 weeks before parturition (6 week) and DHA supplement for the duration of the trial (9 week). Dietary supplements were fed alongside grass silage and commercial concentrate. There was a tendency for gestation length to be extended with increased duration of DHA supplementation (P = 0.08). After parturition, the concentrations of eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA) and DHA in ewe and lamb plasma and colostrum were elevated in line with increased periods of DHA supplementation. Lambs from the 6-week and 9-week groups stood significantly sooner after birth than lambs from the C group (P < 0.05). These data show that neonatal vigour may be improved by the supplementation of maternal diets with DHA-rich algal biomass and that this beneficial effect depends upon the timing and/or duration of DHA allocation. PMID:22443731

  9. Determination of caffeoylquinic acids in feed and related products by focused ultrasound solid-liquid extraction and ultra-high performance liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry.

    PubMed

    Tena, M T; Martínez-Moral, M P; Cardozo, P W

    2015-06-26

    A method to determine caffeoylquinic acids (CQAs) in three sources (herbal extract, feed additive and finished feed) using for the first time focused ultrasound solid-liquid extraction (FUSLE) followed by ultra-high performance liquid chromatography (UPLC) coupled to quadrupole-time of flight mass spectrometry is presented. Pressurized liquid extraction (PLE) was also tested as extraction technique but it was discarded because cynarin was not stable under temperature values used in PLE. The separation of the CQAs isomers was carried out in only seven minutes. FUSLE variables such as extraction solvent, power and time were optimized by a central composite design. Under optimal conditions, FUSLE extraction was performed with 8mL of an 83:17 methanol-water mixture for 30s at a power of 60%. Only two extraction steps were found necessary to recover analytes quantitatively. Sensitivity, linearity, accuracy and precision were established. Matrix effect was studied for each type of sample. It was not detected for mono-CQAs, whereas the cynarin signal was strongly decreased due to ionization suppression in presence of matrix components; so the quantification by standard addition was mandatory for the determination of di-caffeoylquinic acids. Finally, the method was applied to the analysis of herbal extracts, feed additives and finished feed. In all samples, chlorogenic acid was the predominant CQA, followed by criptochlorogenic acid, neochlorogenic acid and cynarin. The method allows an efficient determination of chlorogenic acid with good recovery rates. Therefore, it may be used for screening of raw material and for process and quality control in feed manufacture. PMID:25981290

  10. Effect of acetic acid feeding on the circadian changes in glycogen and metabolites of glucose and lipid in liver and skeletal muscle of rats.

    PubMed

    Fushimi, Takashi; Sato, Yuzo

    2005-11-01

    The aim of the present study is to investigate the effect of acetic acid feeding on the circadian changes in glycogen concentration in liver and skeletal muscle. Rats were provided meal once daily (09.00-13.00 hours) for 10 d. On the 11th day, they were either killed immediately or given 9 g diet containing either 0 (control) or 0.7 g/kg-diet acetic acid beginning at 09.00 hours for 4 h, as in the previous regimen. Rats in the fed group were killed at 4, 8 or 24 h after the start of feeding. At 4 h after the start of feeding, the acetic acid group had significantly greater liver and gastrocnemius muscle glycogen concentrations (P<0.05). Also, at this same point, liver xylulose-5-phosphate, a key stimulator of glycolysis, the ratio of fructose-1,6-bisphosphate to fructose-6-phosphate in skeletal muscle, which reflects phosphofructokinase-1 activity, and liver malonyl-CoA, an allosteric inhibitor of carnitine palmitoyl-transferase, were significantly lower in the acetic acid group than in the control group (P<0.05). In addition, the acetic acid group had a significantly lower serum lactate concentration and lower ratio of insulin to glucagon than the control group at the same point (P<0.05). We conclude that a diet containing acetic acid may enhance glycogen repletion but not induce supercompensation, a large increase in the glycogen level that is beneficial in improving performance, in liver and skeletal muscle by transitory inhibition of glycolysis. Further, we indicate the possibility of a transient enhancement of fatty acid oxidation in liver by acetic acid feeding. PMID:16277773

  11. The dominant detritus-feeding invertebrate in Arctic peat soils derives its essential amino acids from gut symbionts.

    PubMed

    Larsen, Thomas; Ventura, Marc; Maraldo, Kristine; Triadó-Margarit, Xavier; Casamayor, Emilio O; Wang, Yiming V; Andersen, Nils; O'Brien, Diane M

    2016-09-01

    Supplementation of nutrients by symbionts enables consumers to thrive on resources that might otherwise be insufficient to meet nutritional demands. Such nutritional subsidies by intracellular symbionts have been well studied; however, supplementation of de novo synthesized nutrients to hosts by extracellular gut symbionts is poorly documented, especially for generalists with relatively undifferentiated intestinal tracts. Although gut symbionts facilitate degradation of resources that would otherwise remain inaccessible to the host, such digestive actions alone cannot make up for dietary insufficiencies of macronutrients such as essential amino acids (EAA). Documenting whether gut symbionts also function as partners for symbiotic EAA supplementation is important because the question of how some detritivores are able to subsist on nutritionally insufficient diets has remained unresolved. To answer this poorly understood nutritional aspect of symbiont-host interactions, we studied the enchytraeid worm, a bulk soil feeder that thrives in Arctic peatlands. In a combined field and laboratory study, we employed stable isotope fingerprinting of amino acids to identify the biosynthetic origins of amino acids to bacteria, fungi and plants in enchytraeids. Enchytraeids collected from Arctic peatlands derived more than 80% of their EAA from bacteria. In a controlled feeding study with the enchytraeid Enchytraeus crypticus, EAA derived almost exclusively from gut bacteria when the worms fed on higher fibre diets, whereas most of the enchytraeids' EAA derived from dietary sources when fed on lower fibre diets. Our gene sequencing results of gut microbiota showed that the worms harbour several taxa in their gut lumen absent from their diets and substrates. Almost all gut taxa are candidates for EAA supplementation because almost all belong to clades capable of biosynthesizing EAA. Our study provides the first evidence of extensive symbiotic supplementation of EAA by microbial

  12. Facile synthesis and shape evolution of oleic acid decorated Cu2O microcrystals

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xu, Bin; Cao, Xiaohai; Zhu, Bingchun; Lou, Baiyang; Ma, Xiaocun; Li, Xiao; Wang, Yuguang

    2015-11-01

    A facile synthetic method of oleic acid decorated Cu2O microcrystals has been developed by thermal decomposition of copper formate-octylamine complexes in paraffin using oleic acid as dispersing agent. This new method showed many advantages, which include free-reducing agent, enhancing antioxidant properties of Cu2O and good dispersity in paraffin, etc. The phase structure and morphology were investigated by means of XRD, SEM and TEM. It is found that the reaction time and temperature play the important roles in the crystallite morphology. With the increase of the reaction time, the Cu2O rhombic dodecahedron is gradually transformed into the spherical particle by intraparticle ripening. The shape evolution of Cu2O microcrystals can be accelerated with the increase of temperature.

  13. Phytopigments and fatty acids in the gut of the deposit-feeding heart urchin Echinocardium cordatum in the southern North Sea: Selective feeding and its contribution to the benthic carbon budget

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Boon, Arjen R.; Duineveld, Gerard C. A.

    2012-01-01

    As part of a broader study on benthic-pelagic coupling in the southern North Sea, specimens of the common heart urchin Echinocardium cordatum were sampled for analyses on phytopigments and fatty acids in their guts. Results were interpreted in the context of feeding and ecological functioning of the heart urchins in the benthic system. Ingestion selection factors for both component groups were relatively high, 5 to 9 for chlorophyll a and 9 to 130 for total fatty acids. The data point to at least partially different sources of the pigments and of the fatty acids. Next to algal detritus, small infauna relatively rich in fatty acids might be preferentially co-ingested with the detritus. Due to digestive breakdown and absorption, the concentrations of pigments and fatty acids were importantly decreased, indicating a rather high digestion efficiency for this subsurface deposit feeder, up to 80%. The results indicate that E. cordatum increases its energy acquisition by strong selectivity and a high digestive efficiency. Optimal foraging is likely to apply on deposit-feeding invertebrates in relatively food-rich coastal environments as much as it does in the food-poor deep-sea environment. Using chlorophyll a as a proxy for carbon, the contribution of the urchin population to the momentary benthic carbon budget was calculated at 7% to 42%.

  14. Major acid endopeptidases of the blood-feeding monogenean Eudiplozoon nipponicum (Heteronchoinea: Diplozoidae).

    PubMed

    Jedličková, Lucie; Dvořáková, Hana; Kašný, Martin; Ilgová, Jana; Potěšil, David; Zdráhal, Zbyněk; Mikeš, Libor

    2016-04-01

    In parasitic flatworms, acid endopeptidases are involved in crucial processes, including digestion, invasion, interactions with the host immune system, etc. In haematophagous monogeneans, however, no solid information has been available about the occurrence of these enzymes. Here we aimed to identify major cysteine and aspartic endopeptidase activities in Eudiplozoon nipponicum, an invasive haematophagous parasite of common carp. Employing biochemical, proteomic and molecular tools, we found that cysteine peptidase activities prevailed in soluble protein extracts and excretory/secretory products (ESP) of E. nipponicum; the major part was cathepsin L-like in nature supplemented with cathepsin B-like activity. Significant activity of the aspartic cathepsin D also occurred in soluble protein extracts. The degradation of haemoglobin in the presence of ESP and worm protein extracts was completely inhibited by a combination of cysteine and aspartic peptidase inhibitors, and diminished by particular cathepsin L, B and D inhibitors. Mass spectrometry revealed several tryptic peptides in ESP matching to two translated sequences of cathepsin L genes, which were amplified from cDNA of E. nipponicum and bioinformatically annotated. The dominance of cysteine peptidases of cathepsin L type in E. nipponicum resembles the situation in, e.g. fasciolid trematodes. PMID:26888494

  15. The effects of different thermal treatments and organic acid levels in feed on microbial composition and activity in gastrointestinal tract of broilers.

    PubMed

    Goodarzi Boroojeni, F; Vahjen, W; Mader, A; Knorr, F; Ruhnke, I; Röhe, I; Hafeez, A; Villodre, C; Männer, K; Zentek, J

    2014-06-01

    Thermal treatments of feed and organic acids are known to affect the gastrointestinal microbiota in chickens. The present study evaluated the effect of different thermal processes including pelleting (P), long-term conditioning at 85°C for 3 min (L), expanding at 110°C (E110), and 130°C for 3 to 5 s (E130) as well as organic acid (63.75% formic acid, 25.00% propionic acid, and 11.25% water) inclusion levels (0, 0.75, and 1.5%) on gastrointestinal microbiota in broilers. In total, 960 one-day-old chicks were randomly assigned to 8 replicates using a 3 × 4 factorial arrangement. At d 35, bacterial cell numbers in the crop, ileum, and cecum, and bacterial metabolites in the crop, gizzard, ileum, and cecum were determined. The inclusion of 1.5% organic acids increased cell numbers of all clostridial clusters in the crop. The organic acid supplementation increased the propionic acid concentration in the crop and gizzard and there was a decrease in lactic acid concentration. In the ileum, the 0% organic acid group had the highest numbers of Lactobacillus spp. and enterobacteria. Inclusion of 1.5% organic acids increased ileal acetate concentration. Increasing the feed processing temperature led to an increase of lactobacilli in the crop and ileum, whereas clostridia and enterobacteria seemed unaffected. Similarly, lactate concentrations increased in the ileum, but short-chain fatty acids remained identical. In the crop, an increase for acetate was found for the E130 group compared with all other thermal treatments. In conclusion, our study demonstrated that thermal treatments and organic acid supplementation to broiler diets more markedly influenced the bacterial status of the crop compared with the downstream segments and their effects decreased along the length of gastrointestinal tract. Whereas organic acids markedly modified bacterial composition and activity in the crop, expansion increased lactobacilli and lactate in the crop and ileum. PMID:24879694

  16. Kinetic model-based feed-forward controlled fed-batch fermentation of Lactobacillus rhamnosus for the production of lactic acid from Arabic date juice.

    PubMed

    Choi, Minsung; Al-Zahrani, Saeed M; Lee, Sang Yup

    2014-06-01

    Arabic date is overproduced in Arabic countries such as Saudi Arabia and Iraq and is mostly composed of sugars (70-80 wt%). Here we developed a fed-batch fermentation process by using a kinetic model for the efficient production of lactic acid to a high concentration from Arabic date juice. First, a kinetic model of Lactobacillus rhamnosus grown on date juice in batch fermentation was constructed in EXCEL so that the estimation of parameters and simulation of the model can be easily performed. Then, several fed-batch fermentations were conducted by employing different feeding strategies including pulsed feeding, exponential feeding, and modified exponential feeding. Based on the results of fed-batch fermentations, the kinetic model for fed-batch fermentation was also developed. This new model was used to perform feed-forward controlled fed-batch fermentation, which resulted in the production of 171.79 g l(-1) of lactic acid with the productivity and yield of 1.58 and 0.87 g l(-1) h(-1), respectively. PMID:24100793

  17. Wheat germ oil enrichment in broiler feed with α-lipoic acid to enhance the antioxidant potential and lipid stability of meat

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Lipid peroxidation is the cause of declining the meat quality. Natural antioxidants plays a vital role in enhancing the stability and quality of meat. The supplementation of natural antioxidants in feed decreases lipid peroxidation and improves the stability of meat. Methods The present research was conducted to determine the effect of α-lipoic acid, α-tocopherol and wheat germ oil on the status of antioxidants, quality and lipid stability of broiler meat. One day old male broilers were fed with different feeds containing antioxidants i.e. natural (wheat germ oil) and synthetic α-tocopherol and α-lipoic acid during the two experimental years. Results The feed treatments have significant variation on the body weight and feed conversion ratio (FCR) while having no influence on the feed intake. The broilers fed on wheat germ oil (natural α-tocopherol) gained maximum body weight (2451.97 g & 2466.07 g) in the experimental years 2010–11 & 2011–12, respectively. The higher total phenolic contents were found in the broilers fed on wheat germ oil plus α-lipoic acid in breast (162.73±4.8 mg Gallic acid equivalent/100 g & 162.18±4.5 mg Gallic acid equivalent/100 g) and leg (149.67±3.3 mg Gallic acid equivalent/100 g & 146.07±3.2 mg Gallic acid equivalent/100 g) meat during both experimental years. Similar trend was observed for the 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) and ferric reducing antioxidant power assay (FRAP). The production of malondialdehydes in the breast and leg meat increased with progressive increase in the time period. The deposition of α-tocopherol (AT) and α-lipoic acid (ALA) contents were found to be higher in the broilers fed on wheat germ oil plus α-lipoic acid in breast and leg meat during the both experimental years. Conclusion In conclusion, the combination of wheat germ oil and α-lipoic acid has more beneficial for stability and the quality of the broiler meat and more work should be needed in future for the bio

  18. Investigation of Rheological Impacts on the Defense Waste Processing Facility's Sludge Slurry Feed as Insoluble Solids and Wash Endpoints are Adjusted

    SciTech Connect

    Fellinger, T. L.; Howard, S.J.; Lee, M.C.; Galloway, R.H.

    2006-07-01

    The Savannah River Site (SRS) is currently pursuing an aggressive program to empty its High Level Waste (HLW) tanks and immobilize its radioactive waste into a durable borosilicate glass in the Defense Waste Processing Facility (DWPF). To create a batch of feed for the DWPF, several tanks of radioactive sludge slurry are combined into one of the million gallon (i.e. 3.79 E06 liters) feed tanks for DWPF. Once these sludge slurries are combined, the soluble sodium and weight percent total solids are adjusted by a 'washing' process. The 'washing' process involves diluting the soluble sodium of the sludge slurry with inhibited water (0.015 M NaOH and 0.015 M NaNO{sub 2}) and allowing the sludge slurry to settle into two layers. The two layers in the tank consist of a clear supernate on top and a layer of settled sludge solids on the bottom. The clear supernate layer is then decanted to another hold tank. This 'washing' process is repeated until the desired wash endpoint (i.e. sodium concentration in the supernate) and weight percent total solids are achieved. A final washed batch of feed consists of approximately 500,000 gallons (i.e. 1.89 E06 liters). DWPF has already processed three batches of feed and is currently processing a fourth. Prior to processing a batch of feed in the DWPF, it must be well characterized. Samples of the prepared feed batch are sent to the Savannah River National Laboratory (SRNL) for this characterization. As a part of the SRNL characterization for the fourth batch, rheology measurements were performed. Measurements were performed at different weight percent insoluble solids loadings to mimic potential facility processing scenarios (i.e. mixing/pumping of concentrated sludge slurry). In order to determine the influence of the soluble Na on the rheological properties of the sample, the supernate of the 'as received' sample was adjusted from 1 M soluble Na to 0.5 M soluble Na by using a lab scale version of the 'washing' process. Rheology

  19. Attenuation of uremia by orally feeding alpha-lipoic acid on acetaminophen induced uremic rats.

    PubMed

    Pradhan, Shrabani; Mandal, Shreya; Roy, Suchismita; Mandal, Arpita; Das, Koushik; Nandi, Dilip K

    2013-04-01

    Uremia means excess nitrogenous waste products in the blood & their toxic effects. An acute acetaminophen (paracetamol, N-acetyl p-aminophenol; APAP) overdose may result into potentially fatal hepatic and renal necrosis in humans and experimental animals. The aims of this present study were to investigate the protective effect of alpha-lipoic acid (ALA) on oxidative stress & uremia on male albino rats induced by acetaminophen. The study was performed by 24 albino male Wister strain rats which were randomly divided into four groups: Group I, control - receives normal food and water, Groups II, III & IV receive acetaminophen interperitoneally at the dose of 500 mg/kg/day for 10 days, from 11th day Groups III & IV were treated with ALA at the dose of 5 mg & 10 mg/100 g/day for 15 days, respectively. After 25 days of treatment, it was observed that there was a significant increase in plasma urea, creatinine, sodium and malondialdehyde (MDA) levels (p < 0.05) but a significant decrease in super oxide dismutase (SOD) & catalase activity & potassium level in uremic group is compared with control group & there was a significant increase in SOD & catalase (p < 0.05) & a significant decrease in serum urea, creatinine & Na and MDA (p < 0.05) in Group III & Group IV is compared with Group II & significant changes were observed in high ALA dose group. In conclusion it was observed that the ALA has nephroprotective activities by biochemical observations against acetaminophen induced uremic rats. PMID:23960834

  20. Homo-fermentative production of D-lactic acid by Lactobacillus sp. employing casein whey permeate as a raw feed-stock.

    PubMed

    Prasad, Saurav; Srikanth, Katla; Limaye, Anil M; Sivaprakasam, Senthilkumar

    2014-06-01

    Casein whey permeate (CWP), a lactose-enriched dairy waste effluent, is a viable feed stock for the production of value-added products. Two lactic acid bacteria were cultivated in a synthetic casein whey permeate medium with or without pH control. Lactobacillus lactis ATCC 4797 produced D-lactic acid (DLA) at 12.5 g l(-1) in a bioreactor. The values of Leudking-Piret model parameters suggested that lactate was a growth-associated product. Batch fermentation was also performed employing CWP (35 g lactose l(-1)) with casein hydrolysate as a nitrogen supplement in a bioreactor. After 40 h, L. lactis produced 24.3 g lactic acid l(-1) with an optical purity >98 %. Thus CWP may be regarded as a potential feed-stock for DLA production. PMID:24563313

  1. Effects of feeding flaxseed or sunflower-seed in high-forage diets on beef production, quality and fatty acid composition.

    PubMed

    Mapiye, C; Aalhus, J L; Turner, T D; Rolland, D C; Basarab, J A; Baron, V S; McAllister, T A; Block, H C; Uttaro, B; Lopez-Campos, O; Proctor, S D; Dugan, M E R

    2013-09-01

    Yearling steers were fed 70:30 forage:concentrate diets for 205 d, with either grass hay (GH) or red clover silage (RC) as the forage source, and concentrates containing either sunflower-seed (SS) or flaxseed (FS), each providing 5.4% oil to diets. Feeding diets containing SS versus FS significantly improved growth and carcass attributes (P<0.05), significantly reduced meat off-flavor intensity (P<0.05), and significantly increased intramuscular proportions of vaccenic (t11-18:1), rumenic (c9,t11-CLA) and n-6 fatty acids (FA, P<0.05). Feeding diets containing FS versus SS produced significantly darker and redder meat with greater proportions of atypical dienes (P<0.05). A significant forage × oilseed type interaction (P<0.05) was found for n-3 FA, α-linolenic acid, and conjugated linolenic acid, with their greatest intramuscular proportions found when feeding the RC-FS diet. Feeding GH versus RC also significantly improved growth and carcass attributes, sensory tenderness (P<0.05) and significantly influenced intramuscular FA composition (P<0.05), but overall, forage effects on FA profiles were limited compared to effects of oilseed. PMID:23669875

  2. High feeding intensity increases the severity of fatty liver in the American mink (Neovison vison) with potential ameliorating role for long-chain n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Rapid body fat mobilization, obesity, and an inadequate supply of n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFA) have been suggested to play roles in the etiology of fatty liver in the American mink (Neovison vison). This study examined the effects of feeding intensity and dietary fat source on fatty liver induced by fasting. In a multi-factorial design, 3 different fat sources (herring oil, rich in n-3 PUFA, soya oil, rich in n-6 PUFA, and canola oil, rich in n-9 monounsaturated fatty acids) were fed to mink at a low and high feeding intensity for 10 weeks, followed by an overnight or a 5-day fasting treatment to induce fatty liver. Results Fasting led to the development of fatty liver with increased severity in the mink fed at the high feeding intensity. The herring oil diet, high in long-chain n-3 PUFA, was found to decrease the severity of fatty liver in the mink at the high feeding intensity. Conclusion Preventing excessive weight gain and increasing dietary intake of n-3 long-chain PUFA may help prevent excessive lipid accumulation during prolonged periods of fasting or inappetence by promoting hepatic fatty acid oxidation. PMID:24438337

  3. Effect of Alcohol Fermented Feed on Lactating Performance, Blood Metabolites, Milk Fatty Acid Profile and Cholesterol Content in Holstein Lactating Cows

    PubMed Central

    Li, X. Z.; Park, B. K.; Yan, C. G.; Choi, J. G.; Ahn, J. S.; Shin, J. S.

    2012-01-01

    A feeding experiment with 40 lactating Holstein cows and 4 dietary treatments was conducted to investigate supplementation with different levels of alcohol fermented feed to the TMR on lactating performance, blood metabolites, milk fatty acid profile and cholesterol concentration of blood and milk. Forty Holstein lactating cows (106±24 d post-partum; mean±SD) were distributed into four groups and randomly assigned to one of four treatments with each containing 10 cows per treatment. The treatment supplemented with TMR (DM basis) as the control (CON), and CON mixed with alcohol-fermented feeds (AFF) at a level of 5%, 10% and 15% of the TMR as T1, T2 and T3, respectively. Dry matter intake and milk yield were not affected by supplementation of AFF. An increased 4% FCM in the milk occurred in cows fed T3 diet compared with CON, while T1 and T2 diets decreased 4% FCM in a dose dependent manner. Supplementation of AFF increased the concentration of albumin, total protein (TP), ammonia, and high density lipoprotein-cholesterol in serum compared with CON. In contrast, supplementation with AFF clearly decreased concentration of blood urea nitrogen (BUN) and total cholesterol (TC) compare with CON. AFF supplementation increased the proportion of C18:1n9 and C18:2n6 compared to CON. A decrease in the concentration of saturated fatty acid (SFA) for T1, T2 and T3 resulted in an increased unsaturated fatty acid (USFA) to SFA ratio compared to CON. Concentration of cholesterol in milk fat was reduced in proportion to the supplemental level of AFF. Feeding a diet supplemented with a moderate level AFF to lactating cows could be a way to alter the feed efficiency and fatty acid profile of milk by increasing potentially human consumer healthy fatty acid without detrimental effects on feed intake and milk production. A substantially decreased cholesterol proportion in milk induced by supplementation AFF suggests that alcohol fermented feed may improve milk cholesterol levels

  4. Feeding strategies of four dominant copepod species in Prydz Bay, Antarctica: Insights from a combined fatty acid biomarker and stable isotopic approach

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yang, Guang; Li, Chaolun; Guilini, Katja; Peng, Quancai; Wang, Yanqing; Zhang, Ye; Zhang, Yongshan

    2016-08-01

    Using fatty acid biomarkers and stable isotopic signatures, we investigated the feeding strategies and dietary preferences of four dominant copepod species (Calanoides acutus, Calanus propinquus, Metridia gerlachei and Rhincalanus gigas) sampled during the late austral summer in Prydz Bay, Antarctica. Our results show that diatoms, dinoflagellates and ciliates dominated copepod food sources (hypothesized to be phytoplankton and particulate organic matter) in the inner bay regions more than in the oceanic regions of Prydz Bay. Regional differences in the composition and abundance of food sources were also reflected in the fatty acid biomarkers and stable isotopic values. In the inner bay region, the total fatty acid contents of these food sources were nearly twofold higher, including greater contributions from fatty acids of dinoflagellate origin; these samples also had higher δ13C and δ15N values. Fatty acid biomarkers and stable isotopic values in copepod species roughly mirrored the spatial patterns in food sources. As found in the primary producers, the concentrations of dinoflagellate fatty acids and δ13C and δ15N values were higher in copepods from the inner bay regions. Additionally, there were inter-species differences in the fatty acids and stable isotopic values of copepods. C. acutus and C. propinquus did not exhibit significant regional differences in their total fatty acid contents. In contrast, M. gerlachei from the inner bay region had higher fatty acid values. C. acutus and C. propinquus had higher compositions of the long chain fatty acids 20:1n-9, 22:1n-9 and 22:1n-1, while docosahexaenoic acid (DHA) was higher in M. gerlachei. The δ15N values indicate that C. acutus occupies a higher trophic level than the other copepod species. Similarly, higher fatty acid ratios in M. gerlachei, including DHA/EPA(eicosapntemacnioc acid) and 18:1n-9/18:1n-7, indicate that this species feeds more opportunistically and prefers a carnivorous diet. Insights from

  5. Simulation of Targets Feeding Pipe Rupture in Wendelstein 7-X Facility Using RELAP5 and COCOSYS Codes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kaliatka, T.; Povilaitis, M.; Kaliatka, A.; Urbonavicius, E.

    2012-10-01

    Wendelstein nuclear fusion device W7-X is a stellarator type experimental device, developed by Max Planck Institute of plasma physics. Rupture of one of the 40 mm inner diameter coolant pipes providing water for the divertor targets during the "baking" regime of the facility operation is considered to be the most severe accident in terms of the plasma vessel pressurization. "Baking" regime is the regime of the facility operation during which plasma vessel structures are heated to the temperature acceptable for the plasma ignition in the vessel. This paper presents the model of W7-X cooling system (pumps, valves, pipes, hydro-accumulators, and heat exchangers), developed using thermal-hydraulic state-of-the-art RELAP5 Mod3.3 code, and model of plasma vessel, developed by employing the lumped-parameter code COCOSYS. Using both models the numerical simulation of processes in W7-X cooling system and plasma vessel has been performed. The results of simulation showed, that the automatic valve closure time 1 s is the most acceptable (no water hammer effect occurs) and selected area of the burst disk is sufficient to prevent pressure in the plasma vessel.

  6. Facile synthesis of graphene from graphite using ascorbic acid as reducing agent

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Andrijanto, Eko; Shoelarta, Shoerya; Subiyanto, Gatot; Rifki, Sadur

    2016-04-01

    Graphene has attracted a tremendous attention in recent years due to its unique properties such as mechanical, thermal, optical and electrical properties. However, a large scale production of this material is still an issue and subjected to intense research efforts. Here, we show a simple and green approach of the graphene synthesis from graphene oxide using ascorbic acid as reduction agent. A facile synthesis of graphene (rGO) through chemical oxidation of graphite into graphene oxide (GO) was described using modified Hummers method (Improved Tour Method/ITM). The ITM method does not produce toxic gas and the temperature of the oxidation is easily controlled using ice bath. The synthesized of graphene oxide was highly soluble and stable in water. The reduction of graphene oxide into graphene was performed using ascorbic acid (AA) in mild condition. The combined ITM method and green reduction using ascorbic acid open the avenue of replacing hydrazine in the reduction of graphite oxide into graphene and may be very important step for bulk production of graphene.

  7. Inactivation of stable viruses in cell culture facilities by peracetic acid fogging.

    PubMed

    Gregersen, Jens-Peter; Roth, Bernhard

    2012-07-01

    Looking for a robust and simple method to replace formaldehyde fumigation for the disinfection of virus-handling laboratories and facilities, we tested peracetic acid fogging as a method to inactivate stable viruses under practical conditions. Peracetic acid/hydrogen peroxide (5.8%/27.5%, 2.0 mL/m³) was diluted in sufficient water to achieve ≥ 70% relative humidity and was vaporized as <10 μm droplets in a fully equipped 95 m³ laboratory unit. High titers of reovirus 3, MVM parvovirus and an avian polyomavirus were coated on frosted glass carriers and were exposed to the peracetic acid fog in various positions in the laboratory. After vaporization, a 60 min exposure time, and venting of the laboratory, no residual virus was detected on any of the carriers (detection limit <1 infectious unit/sample volume tested). The log reduction values were 9.0 for reovirus, 6.4 for MVM parvovirus, and 7.65 for the polyomavirus. After more than 10 disinfection runs within 12 months, no damage or functional impairment of electrical and electronic equipment was noted. PMID:22424718

  8. Probiotics Blunt the Anti-Hypertensive Effect of Blueberry Feeding in Hypertensive Rats without Altering Hippuric Acid Production

    PubMed Central

    2015-01-01

    Previously we showed that feeding polyphenol-rich wild blueberries to hypertensive rats lowered systolic blood pressure. Since probiotic bacteria produce bioactive metabolites from berry polyphenols that enhance the health benefits of berry consumption, we hypothesized that adding probiotics to a blueberry-enriched diet would augment the anti-hypertensive effects of blueberry consumption. Groups (n = 8) of male spontaneously hypertensive rats were fed one of four AIN ‘93G-based diets for 8 weeks: Control (CON); 3% freeze-dried wild blueberry (BB); 1% probiotic bacteria (PRO); or 3% BB + 1% PRO (BB+PRO). Blood pressure was measured at weeks 0, 2, 4, 6, and 8 by the tail-cuff method, and urine was collected at weeks 4 and 8 to determine markers of oxidative stress (F2-isoprostanes), nitric oxide synthesis (nitrites), and polyphenol metabolism (hippuric acid). Data were analyzed using mixed models ANOVA with repeated measures. Diet had a significant main effect on diastolic blood pressure (p = 0.046), with significantly lower measurements in the BB- vs. CON-fed rats (p = 0.035). Systolic blood pressure showed a similar but less pronounced response to diet (p = 0.220), again with the largest difference between the BB and CON groups. Absolute increase in blood pressure between weeks 0 and 8 tended to be smaller in the BB and PRO vs. CON and BB+PRO groups (systolic increase, p = 0.074; diastolic increase, p = 0.185). Diet had a significant main effect on hippuric acid excretion (p<0.0001), with 2- and ~1.5-fold higher levels at weeks 4 and 8, respectively, in the BB and BB+PRO vs. PRO and CON groups. Diet did not have a significant main effect on F2-isoprostane (p = 0.159) or nitrite excretion (p = 0.670). Our findings show that adding probiotics to a blueberry-enriched diet does not enhance and actually may impair the anti-hypertensive effect of blueberry consumption. However, probiotic bacteria are not interfering with blueberry polyphenol metabolism into hippuric

  9. Probiotics Blunt the Anti-Hypertensive Effect of Blueberry Feeding in Hypertensive Rats without Altering Hippuric Acid Production.

    PubMed

    Blanton, Cynthia; He, Zhengcheng; Gottschall-Pass, Katherine T; Sweeney, Marva I

    2015-01-01

    Previously we showed that feeding polyphenol-rich wild blueberries to hypertensive rats lowered systolic blood pressure. Since probiotic bacteria produce bioactive metabolites from berry polyphenols that enhance the health benefits of berry consumption, we hypothesized that adding probiotics to a blueberry-enriched diet would augment the anti-hypertensive effects of blueberry consumption. Groups (n = 8) of male spontaneously hypertensive rats were fed one of four AIN '93G-based diets for 8 weeks: Control (CON); 3% freeze-dried wild blueberry (BB); 1% probiotic bacteria (PRO); or 3% BB + 1% PRO (BB+PRO). Blood pressure was measured at weeks 0, 2, 4, 6, and 8 by the tail-cuff method, and urine was collected at weeks 4 and 8 to determine markers of oxidative stress (F2-isoprostanes), nitric oxide synthesis (nitrites), and polyphenol metabolism (hippuric acid). Data were analyzed using mixed models ANOVA with repeated measures. Diet had a significant main effect on diastolic blood pressure (p = 0.046), with significantly lower measurements in the BB- vs. CON-fed rats (p = 0.035). Systolic blood pressure showed a similar but less pronounced response to diet (p = 0.220), again with the largest difference between the BB and CON groups. Absolute increase in blood pressure between weeks 0 and 8 tended to be smaller in the BB and PRO vs. CON and BB+PRO groups (systolic increase, p = 0.074; diastolic increase, p = 0.185). Diet had a significant main effect on hippuric acid excretion (p<0.0001), with 2- and ~1.5-fold higher levels at weeks 4 and 8, respectively, in the BB and BB+PRO vs. PRO and CON groups. Diet did not have a significant main effect on F2-isoprostane (p = 0.159) or nitrite excretion (p = 0.670). Our findings show that adding probiotics to a blueberry-enriched diet does not enhance and actually may impair the anti-hypertensive effect of blueberry consumption. However, probiotic bacteria are not interfering with blueberry polyphenol metabolism into hippuric acid

  10. Effects of feeding diets rich in α-linolenic acid and copper on performance, carcass characteristics, and fatty acid profiles of feedlot heifers.

    PubMed

    Alvarado-Gilis, C A; Aperce, C C; Miller, K A; Van Bibber-Krueger, C L; Uwituze, S; Drouillard, J S; Higgins, J J

    2014-12-01

    Our objective was to evaluate whether feeding elevated Cu concentrations in conjunction with Linpro, a co-extruded blend of field peas and flaxseed, affected in vitro fermentation, performance, and plasma lipid profiles of fattening beef heifers. In study 1, 2 in vitro trials were conducted as randomized complete experiments with a 2×2 factorial treatment arrangement (10 or 100 mg/kg added Cu and 0 or 10% Linpro, DM basis) to determine VFA/gas production and IVDMD. Linpro contains 12% α-linolenic acid and added vitamins and minerals. In study 2, a randomized complete block experiment with a 2×2 factorial treatment arrangement was conducted with the same previously described treatment. Crossbred yearling heifers (n=261; 351±23 kg initial BW) were blocked by weight into heavy and light groups and randomly assigned to experimental pens containing 10 or 11 heifers each. In study 1, no interactions between levels of Cu and Linpro were observed. Copper concentration did not affect IVDMD (P>0.2) but increased (P<0.05) by 1.2% when Linpro was included. Final pH was not effected by added Cu (P>0.05), but pH increased when Linpro was added (P<0.05). Total VFA were greater in high-Cu treatments (P=0.038) and molar proportions were not affected (P>0.34). Linpro had no effect on total VFA (P=0.46) and molar proportions of propionate and isobutyrate increased whereas acetate and the acetate:propionate ratio decreased (P<0.01). Linpro increased the production of H2S (30% higher; P=0.05), and Cu inclusion slightly increased CO2 proportion (64.06 vs. 67.58% for Linpro vs. Cu treatments, respectively). In study 2, there were no interactions between levels of Linpro and supplemental Cu except for plasma n-6:n-3 ratio (P<0.01). Final BW were similar for cattle fed 0 and 10% Linpro (581 vs. 588 kg; P>0.20), but cattle fed diets with Linpro consumed less feed (14.08 vs. 13.59 kg/d; P<0.05) and were therefore more efficient (0.129 vs. 0.137 for 0 vs. 10% Linpro, respectively; P<0

  11. Feeding laying hens seal blubber oil: effects on egg yolk incorporation, stereospecific distribution of omega-3 fatty acids, and sensory aspects.

    PubMed

    Schreiner, M; Hulan, H W; Razzazi-Fazeli, E; Böhm, J; Iben, C

    2004-03-01

    Seventy-two 26-wk-old Single Comb White Leghorn laying hens were randomly assigned to 36 cages (2 per cage) in a 3-orthogonal 4 x 4 latin square, with the fourth row suppressed, to assess the effect of feeding refined seal blubber oil (SBO, containing 22.2% omega-3 fatty acids) on the fatty acid composition and position in the egg yolk lipids. The experiment was conducted over a period of 9 wk. Eggs were collected and numbered, and the weights were recorded for each week and cage. Eggs collected at wk 5 and 9 were used for total lipid, lipid class, fatty acid, and positional analyses. Sensory evaluation was carried out on eggs collected at wk 6 and 7. Feeding SBO at 1.25% led to an increase (P < 0.0001) in the long-chain omega-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids (LCn3PUFA) and a concomitant decrease (P < 0.0001) in arachidonic acid (ARA) in the egg yolk lipids. Yet this amount of SBO in the diet had no effect (P > 0.1) on the sensory attributes of the egg and on production parameters such as egg weight, number of eggs laid, and feed intake (P > 0.05). When feeding SBO in amounts higher than 1.25% proportionately, a plateau effect of the LCn3PUFA content of the eggs was observed. This appears to be because the PUFA content in the sn-2 position of the phospholipids cannot exceed a certain amount. When this amount is reached, the LCn3PUFA will be increasingly stored in triglycerides. The results presented here clearly indicate how eggs can be produced with optimized composition of LCn3PUFA without affecting (P > 0.1) the sensory properties of the eggs. The procedures elaborated herein provide directly applicable consequences for the food industry. PMID:15049501

  12. A case study in the treatment of spent pickling acids for fluoride compliance at a metals finishing facility

    SciTech Connect

    Francis, J.T.; Walters, J.; Evans, D.

    1995-12-31

    A metal finishing facility located in the Los Angeles area processes coiled steel sheets (300 and 400 series) and other sheet metal alloys by annealing, pickling and cold rolling operations. The facility acquires steel from large manufacturers or mills and finishes to a prescribed thickness, hardness, and grade depending on customers needs, for sale to metal product manufacturers such as can manufacturers and prefabricated steel building industries. Specialty metal alloys such as nickel-cobalt or titanium are also processed for use in aerospace industry applications. The facility produces about 10,000 tons of metal sheets per year and in the process generates about 40,000 gallons per day (gpd) of wastewater that is pretreated for metals removal and discharged to the sewer. About 30,000 gallons per month of spent acid are generated--much of which is used for pH adjustment in the pretreatment system. Acids of concern are sulfuric acid, hydrofluoric acid and nitric acid. The wastewater treatment system (WWTS) is equipped for chromium reduction and metals precipitation and handles the wastewater, the spent acids and other alkaline wastes generated at the facility. An estimated 50 tons of hazardous waste sludge are generated and disposed of on a monthly basis.

  13. Impact of feeding and short-term temperature stress on the content and isotopic signature of fatty acids, sterols, and alcohols in the scleractinian coral Turbinaria reniformis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tolosa, I.; Treignier, C.; Grover, R.; Ferrier-Pagès, C.

    2011-09-01

    This study assesses the combined effect of feeding and short-term thermal stress on various physiological parameters and on the fatty acid, sterol, and alcohol composition of the scleractinian coral Turbinaria reniformis. The compound-specific carbon isotope composition of the lipids was also measured. Under control conditions (26°C), feeding with Artemia salina significantly increased the symbiont density and chlorophyll content and the growth rates of the corals. It also doubled the concentrations of almost all fatty acid (FA) compounds and increased the n-alcohol and sterol contents. δ13C results showed that the feeding enhancement of FA concentrations occurred either via a direct pathway, for one of the major polyunsaturated fatty acid (PUFA) compounds of the food (18:3n-3 FA), or via an enhancement of photosynthate transfer (indirect pathway), for the other coral FAs. Cholesterol (C27Δ5) was also directly acquired from the food. Thermal stress (31°C) affected corals, but differently according to their feeding status. Chlorophyll, protein content, and maximal photosynthetic efficiency of photosystem II (PSII) decreased to a greater extent in starved corals. In such corals, FA concentrations were reduced by 33%, (especially C16, C18 FAs, and n-3 PUFA) and the sterol content by 27% (especially the C28∆5,22 and C28∆5). The enrichment in the δ13C signature of the storage and structural FAs suggests that they were the main compounds respired during the stress to maintain the coral metabolism. Thermal stress had less effect on the lipid concentrations of fed corals, as only FA levels were reduced by 13%, with no major changes in their isotope carbon signatures. In conclusion, feeding plays an essential role in sustaining T. reniformis metabolism during the thermal stress.

  14. Facile method to prepare silk fibroin/hyaluronic acid films for vascular endothelial growth factor release.

    PubMed

    Zhou, Juan; Zhang, Bin; Liu, Xunwei; Shi, Lijun; Zhu, Jun; Wei, Daixu; Zhong, Jian; Sun, Gang; He, Dannong

    2016-06-01

    A facile approach was proposed to prepare silk fibroin (SF) and hyaluronic acid (HA) composite films from aqueous solution without crosslinking or any post treatment. Only by controlling the HA content and film formation temperature during the film casting, the HA/SF films with different composition were prepared. The films were then characterized by structural characteristics, thermal stability, morphology, water stability, water absorption, mechanical properties. After immersing in water for 24h, all of the films showed good structural integrity. The degradation rate of the HA/SF films in protease XIV can be controlled by changing the film formation temperature and HA content. Decreasing the temperature and adding HA resulted in the rapid release of VEGF (vascular endothelial growth factor) from the HA/SF films. Overall, the 5% HA/SF films formed at 37°C with more rapid VEGF release exhibited great potential in drug delivery, especially when the rapid vascularization was needed. PMID:27083373

  15. Facile Carbon Fixation to Performic Acids by Water-Sealed Dielectric Barrier Discharge.

    PubMed

    Kawasaki, Mitsuo; Morita, Tatsuo; Tachibana, Kunihide

    2015-01-01

    Carbon fixation refers to the conversion of carbon dioxide (CO2) to organic materials, as commonly performed in nature through photosynthesis by plants and other autotrophic organisms. The creation of artificial carbon fixation processes is one of the greatest challenges for chemistry to solve the critical environmental issue concerning the reduction of CO2 emissions. We have developed an electricity-driven facile CO2 fixation process that yields performic acid, HCO2OH, from CO2 and water at neutral pH by dielectric barrier discharge with an input electric power conversion efficiency of currently 0.2-0.4%. This method offers a promising future technology for artificial carbon fixation on its own, and may also be scaled up in combination with e.g., the post-combustion CO2 capture and storage technology. PMID:26439402

  16. Facile Carbon Fixation to Performic Acids by Water-Sealed Dielectric Barrier Discharge

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kawasaki, Mitsuo; Morita, Tatsuo; Tachibana, Kunihide

    2015-10-01

    Carbon fixation refers to the conversion of carbon dioxide (CO2) to organic materials, as commonly performed in nature through photosynthesis by plants and other autotrophic organisms. The creation of artificial carbon fixation processes is one of the greatest challenges for chemistry to solve the critical environmental issue concerning the reduction of CO2 emissions. We have developed an electricity-driven facile CO2 fixation process that yields performic acid, HCO2OH, from CO2 and water at neutral pH by dielectric barrier discharge with an input electric power conversion efficiency of currently 0.2-0.4%. This method offers a promising future technology for artificial carbon fixation on its own, and may also be scaled up in combination with e.g., the post-combustion CO2 capture and storage technology.

  17. Facile Carbon Fixation to Performic Acids by Water-Sealed Dielectric Barrier Discharge

    PubMed Central

    Kawasaki, Mitsuo; Morita, Tatsuo; Tachibana, Kunihide

    2015-01-01

    Carbon fixation refers to the conversion of carbon dioxide (CO2) to organic materials, as commonly performed in nature through photosynthesis by plants and other autotrophic organisms. The creation of artificial carbon fixation processes is one of the greatest challenges for chemistry to solve the critical environmental issue concerning the reduction of CO2 emissions. We have developed an electricity-driven facile CO2 fixation process that yields performic acid, HCO2OH, from CO2 and water at neutral pH by dielectric barrier discharge with an input electric power conversion efficiency of currently 0.2−0.4%. This method offers a promising future technology for artificial carbon fixation on its own, and may also be scaled up in combination with e.g., the post-combustion CO2 capture and storage technology. PMID:26439402

  18. Betaxanthin formation and free amino acids in hairy roots of Beta vulgaris var. lutea depending on nutrient medium and glutamate or glutamine feeding.

    PubMed

    Böhm, Hartmut; Mäck, Gisela

    2004-05-01

    Feeding of amino acids to hairy roots of the yellow beet (Beta vulgaris var. lutea) usually results in the formation of the respective betaxanthins. One exception is (S)-glutamate whose feeding leads to an increase in the betaxanthin vulgaxanthin I (glutamine as amino-acid moiety) instead of vulgaxanthin II (glutamate as amino-acid moiety). To elucidate this phenomenon, hairy roots were cultivated in modified standard medium and (S)-glutamate was fed. Under most nutrient conditions tested, glutamine and vulgaxanthin I in the tissue dominated over glutamate and vulgaxanthin II. Glutamate, opposed to glutamine, was readily metabolized so that its concentration was lower than that of glutamine. Maximum concentrations of glutamate were reached when the activity of glutamine synthetase was low. Even then, however, vulgaxanthin II stayed on a low level. In contrast, the level of vulgaxanthin I increased with increasing concentrations of glutamine in the tissue. Also 4-aminobutyric acid (GABA) was a major amino acid in the hairy roots. Its concentration reached maximum levels when (S)-glutamate, a GABA precursor, was fed, or when sucrose, the C source of the roots, was replaced by glucose. The respective GABA-betaxanthin, however, was hardly detectable. When both (S)-glutamate and glucose were supplied, the GABA concentration exceeded that of all other amino acids. Only then the GABA-betaxanthin could be characterized in small amounts. Interestingly, the level of the main betaxanthin, miraxanthin V, consisting of betalamic acid and dopamine, was most markedly reduced by a replacement of sucrose with glucose. We conclude that the reaction of betalamic acid with glutamate and GABA was considerably lower than with glutamine and dopamine, irrespective of the concentration of the amino acid in the tissue. Possible reasons will be discussed, also with respect to the occurrence of species-specific patterns of betaxanthins. PMID:15231409

  19. Effects of Feeding of Two Potentially Probiotic Preparations from Lactic Acid Bacteria on the Performance and Faecal Microflora of Broiler Chickens

    PubMed Central

    Fajardo, Paula; Pastrana, Lorenzo; Méndez, Jesús; Rodríguez, Isabel; Fuciños, Clara; Guerra, Nelson P.

    2012-01-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the potential of two probiotic preparations, containing live lactic acid bacteria (Lactococcus lactis CECT 539 and Lactobacillus casei CECT 4043) and their products of fermentation (organic acids and bacteriocins), as a replacement for antibiotics in stimulating health and growth of broiler chickens. The effects of the supplementation of both preparations (with proven probiotic effect in weaned piglets) and an antibiotic (avilamycin) on body weight gain (BWG), feed intake (FI), feed consumption efficiency (FCE), relative intestinal weight, and intestinal microbiota counts were studied in 1-day posthatch chickens. The experiments were conducted with medium-growth Sasso X44 chickens housed in cages and with nutritional stressed Ross 308 broiler distributed in pens. Consumption of the different diets did not affect significantly the final coliform counts in Sasso X44 chickens. However, counts of lactic acid bacteria and mesophilic microorganisms were higher in the animals receiving the two probiotic preparations (P < 0.05). In the second experiment, although no differences in BWG were observed between treatments, Ross 308 broilers receiving the probiotic Lactobacillus preparation exhibited the lowest FCE values and were considered the most efficient at converting feed into live weight. PMID:22666137

  20. Natural (15)N Abundance in Key Amino Acids from Lamb Muscle: Exploring a New Horizon in Diet Authentication and Assessment of Feed Efficiency in Ruminants.

    PubMed

    Cantalapiedra-Hijar, Gonzalo; Ortigues-Marty, Isabelle; Schiphorst, Anne-Marie; Robins, Richard J; Tea, Illa; Prache, Sophie

    2016-05-25

    Natural (15)N abundance (δ(15)N) varies between individual amino acids (AAs). We hypothesized that δ(15)N of nontransaminating and essential AAs ("source" AAs, such as phenylalanine) present in animal tissues could be used as a marker of dietary origin, whereas δ(15)N of transaminating AAs ("trophic" AAs, such as glutamic acid) could give more detailed insights into animal feed efficiency. Two diets based on dehydrated Lucerne pellets were tested in growing lambs, which promoted different feed efficiencies. No dietary effects were noted on δ(15)N of any AAs analyzed in lamb muscle. In addition, δ(15)N of phenylalanine was unexpectedly similar to that of glutamic acid, suggesting that δ(15)N of AAs is significantly derived from the metabolism of the rumen microbiota and, thus, are not suited for diet authentication in ruminants. In contrast, the δ(15)N of transaminating AAs facilitates an improved prediction of animal feed efficiency compared to the classical isotopic bulk N analysis. PMID:27148901

  1. Effect of milk replacer feeding rate and functional fatty acids on dairy calf performance and digestion of nutrients.

    PubMed

    Hill, T M; Quigley, J D; Suarez-Mena, F X; Bateman, H G; Schlotterbeck, R L

    2016-08-01

    Calves fed large amounts of milk replacer (MR) gain more body weight preweaning than calves fed less MR; however, postweaning growth may be reduced because of impaired digestion of nutrients. This was explored in the current research, as was the inclusion of functional fatty acids (NT) that could ameliorate some poor growth and digestion issues in calves fed large amounts of MR. Two MR rates [moderate (MOD) or aggressive (AGG)] with and without NT were compared using 48 male Holstein calves initially 3d old (43±1.5kg of body weight) randomly assigned to treatments. The MOD rate was fed at 0.66kg of dry matter (DM) for 49d. The AGG rate was fed for 4d at 0.66kg of DM, 4d at 0.96kg of DM, then 34d at 1.31kg of DM, followed by 0.66kg of DM for the last 7d. Calves were completely weaned at 49d. The MR contained 27% crude protein and 17% fat. The textured starter was 20% crude protein. Starter and water were fed free-choice for the first 56d when calves were housed in individual pens. From 56 to 112d, calves were grouped (4 calves/pen), maintaining the same MR rate and NT treatments, and fed starter blended with 5% chopped grass hay free-choice with free-choice water. Digestibility was estimated from fecal collections made on d 19 to 23, 40 to 44, and 52 to 56. Data were analyzed as a completely randomized design with a factorial arrangement of MR rate and NT using repeated measures with a mixed procedure. Fiber and starch digestion increased with age and was lower for AGG versus MOD. Calf average daily gain and hip width change were greater before approximately 6wk of age for AGG versus MOD, but this was reversed from approximately 6 to 16wk. Calves fed AGG had lower average daily gain per unit intake of DM, crude protein, and metabolizable energy from 8 to 16wk than calves fed MOD. Preweaning starter intake was less for calves fed AGG versus MOD. Calves fed AGG had greater body weight gain than MOD over 112d, but hip width change did not differ. Feeding NT improved

  2. Changes in ruminal bacterial community composition following feeding of alfalfa ensiled with a lactic acid bacterial inoculant.

    PubMed

    Mohammed, R; Stevenson, D M; Beauchemin, K A; Muck, R E; Weimer, P J

    2012-01-01

    Some silage inoculants help to improve silage quality and promote an increase in milk production, possibly through altering the rumen microflora. We hypothesized that rumen bacterial community composition (BCC) would be different in cows fed alfalfa ensiled with the inoculant Lactobacillus plantarum MTD/1 (LP) compared with those fed alfalfa ensiled without the inoculant (Ctrl). Eight ruminally cannulated Holstein cows were allotted to 2 diets (Ctrl or LP) in a double crossover design with four 28-d periods. Diets were formulated to contain (% dry matter basis) 28.0% neutral detergent fiber and 16.2% crude protein, and contained alfalfa silage, 50.9; corn silage, 20.6; high-moisture shelled corn, 21.4; soy hulls, 4.7; plus minerals and vitamins, 2.4. Ruminal digesta were collected just before feeding on 3 consecutive days near the end of each period, and were separated into solid and liquid phases. Microbial DNA was extracted from each phase, amplified by PCR using domain-level bacterial primers, and subjected to automated ribosomal intergenic spacer analysis. The pH was 4.56 and 4.86 and the lactate-to-acetate ratio 9.8 and 4.4, respectively, for the treated and untreated alfalfa silages. Dry matter intakes and milk production data were not influenced by diets but showed a cow effect. Total volatile fatty acids (mM) tended to be greater for LP compared with Ctrl. Individual volatile fatty acids were not influenced by diets but showed a significant cow effect. Ruminal acetate (mol/100 mol) and acetate-to-propionate ratio were lower and propionate (mol/100 mol) greater for the 2 milk fat-depressed (MFD; <3.2% fat content) cows compared with the other 6 cows. Correspondence analysis of the 265 peaks in the automated ribosomal intergenic spacer analysis profile across the 188 samples revealed that the first 2 components contributed 7.1 and 3.8% to the total variation in the profile. The ordination points representing the liquid and solid phases clustered separately

  3. Effects of steam-treated rice straw feeding on growth, digestibility, and plasma volatile fatty acids of goats under different housing systems.

    PubMed

    Muhammad, Naeem; Nasir, Rajput; Li, Dong; Lili, Zhang; Tian, Wang

    2014-12-01

    In order to use rice straw as forage in livestock feeding, the effects of steam-treated rice straw (at 15.5 kgf/cm(2) for 120 s) feeding on growth performance, plasma volatile fatty acid profile, and nutrient digestibility of goats were determined. Twenty male goats (18.69 ± 0.34 kg) were used in an 84-day trial. The goats were divided into four groups of five goats each to receive steam-treated (STRS) or untreated (UTRS) rice straw diet under closed house (CH) and open house (OH) systems. The results revealed that the goats fed with STRS had significantly higher dry matter (DM), organic matter (OM), crude protein (CP), neutral detergent fiber (NDF), and acid detergent fiber (ADF) digestibility; similarly, the average daily weight gain and feed conversion ratio were higher for STRS groups under both CH and OH systems than those for UTRS. The plasma protein and insulin in STRS and cholesterol in UTRS groups was higher (P < 0.05) at 60 days but found not different (P > 0.05) at 30 days. The plasma amylase, lipase, T3, T4 and glucagon at 30 and 60 days were not different (P > 0.05) among the groups. The plasma acetate, propionate, butyrate, and total volatile fatty acid were higher (P < 0.05) in STRS groups at 30 and 60 days. The housing conditions had no effects (P > 0.05) on these parameters. It could be concluded that steam treatment of rice straw at 15.5 kgf/cm(2) for 120 s increased apparent nutrient digestibility, hence increased the growth and feed efficiency of growing goats. PMID:25277493

  4. Combined moist airtight storage and feed fermentation of barley by the yeast Wickerhamomyces anomalus and a lactic acid bacteria consortium

    PubMed Central

    Borling Welin, Jenny; Lyberg, Karin; Passoth, Volkmar; Olstorpe, Matilda

    2015-01-01

    This study combined moist airtight storage of moist grain with pig feed fermentation. Starter cultures with the potential to facilitate both technologies were added to airtight stored moist crimped cereal grain, and the impact on storage microflora and the quality of feed fermentations generated from the grain was investigated. Four treatments were compared: three based on moist barley, either un-inoculated (M), inoculated with Wickerhamomyces anomalus (W), or inoculated with W. anomalus and LAB starter culture, containing Pediococcus acidilactici DSM 16243, Pediococcus pentosaceus DSM 12834 and Lactobacillus plantarum DSM 12837 (WLAB); and one treatment based on dried barley (D). After 6 weeks of storage, four feed fermentations FM, FW, FWLAB, and FD, were initiated from M, W, WLAB, and D, respectively, by mixing the grain with water to a dry matter content of 30%. Each treatment was fermented in batch initially for 7 days and then kept in a continuous mode by adding new feed daily with 50% back-slop. During the 6 week storage period, the average water activity decreased in M, W and WLAB from 0.96 to 0.85, and cereal pH decreased from approximately 6.0 at harvest to 4.5. Feed fermentation conferred a further pH decrease to 3.8–4.1. In M, W and WLAB, molds and Enterobacteriaceae were mostly below detection limit, whereas both organism groups were detected in D. In fermented feed, Enterobacteriaceae were below detection limit in almost all conditions. Molds were detected in FD, for most of the fermentation time in FM and at some sampling points in FW and FWLAB. Starter organisms, especially W. anomalus and L. plantarum comprised a considerable proportion of the yeast and LAB populations, respectively, in both stored grain and fermented feed. However, autochthonous Pichia kudriavzevii and Kazachstania exigua partially dominated the yeast populations in stored grain and fermented feed, respectively. PMID:25954295

  5. Combined moist airtight storage and feed fermentation of barley by the yeast Wickerhamomyces anomalus and a lactic acid bacteria consortium.

    PubMed

    Borling Welin, Jenny; Lyberg, Karin; Passoth, Volkmar; Olstorpe, Matilda

    2015-01-01

    This study combined moist airtight storage of moist grain with pig feed fermentation. Starter cultures with the potential to facilitate both technologies were added to airtight stored moist crimped cereal grain, and the impact on storage microflora and the quality of feed fermentations generated from the grain was investigated. Four treatments were compared: three based on moist barley, either un-inoculated (M), inoculated with Wickerhamomyces anomalus (W), or inoculated with W. anomalus and LAB starter culture, containing Pediococcus acidilactici DSM 16243, Pediococcus pentosaceus DSM 12834 and Lactobacillus plantarum DSM 12837 (WLAB); and one treatment based on dried barley (D). After 6 weeks of storage, four feed fermentations FM, FW, FWLAB, and FD, were initiated from M, W, WLAB, and D, respectively, by mixing the grain with water to a dry matter content of 30%. Each treatment was fermented in batch initially for 7 days and then kept in a continuous mode by adding new feed daily with 50% back-slop. During the 6 week storage period, the average water activity decreased in M, W and WLAB from 0.96 to 0.85, and cereal pH decreased from approximately 6.0 at harvest to 4.5. Feed fermentation conferred a further pH decrease to 3.8-4.1. In M, W and WLAB, molds and Enterobacteriaceae were mostly below detection limit, whereas both organism groups were detected in D. In fermented feed, Enterobacteriaceae were below detection limit in almost all conditions. Molds were detected in FD, for most of the fermentation time in FM and at some sampling points in FW and FWLAB. Starter organisms, especially W. anomalus and L. plantarum comprised a considerable proportion of the yeast and LAB populations, respectively, in both stored grain and fermented feed. However, autochthonous Pichia kudriavzevii and Kazachstania exigua partially dominated the yeast populations in stored grain and fermented feed, respectively. PMID:25954295

  6. A facile one pot strategy for the synthesis of well-defined polyacrylates from acrylic acid via RAFT polymerization.

    PubMed

    Li, Qianbiao; Wang, Taisheng; Dai, Jingwen; Ma, Chao; Jin, Bangkun; Bai, Ruke

    2014-03-28

    A facile one pot strategy for the preparation of linear and hyperbranched polyacrylates has been successfully developed by the combination of in situ esterification of acrylic acid with halogenated compounds promoted by 1,1,3,3-tetramethylguanidine (TMG) and RAFT polymerization. PMID:24534953

  7. ADIPIC ACID-ENHANCED LIME AND LIMESTONE TESTING AT THE EPA ALKALI SCRUBBING TEST FACILITY. VOLUME 1

    EPA Science Inventory

    The report gives results of an advanced test program on a prototype lime/limestone wet-scrubbing test facility for removing SO2 and particulates from coal-fired boiler flue gases. Major effort during the tests was concentrated on evaluating adipic acid as an additive for enhancin...

  8. ADIPIC ACID-ENHANCED LIME AND LIMESTONE TESTING AT THE EPA ALKALI SCRUBBING TEST FACILITY. VOLUME 2: APPENDICES

    EPA Science Inventory

    The report gives results of an advanced test program on a prototype lime/limestone wet-scrubbing test facility for removing SO2 and particulates from coal-fired boiler flue gases. Major effort during the tests was concentrated on evaluating adipic acid as an additive for enhancin...

  9. Electrodialysis recovery of boric acid and potassium hydroxide from eluates of SWC facilities at NPP with VVER

    SciTech Connect

    Dudnik, S.N.; Virich, P.M.; Kramskikh, E.Y.; Masanov, O.L.; Turovsky, I.P.

    1993-12-31

    To extract boric acid and potassium hydroxide from regenerates of SWC-2-46 facilities, an electrodialysis-sorption process has been devised consisting of the following operations: separation of boron-alkaline regenerate solution into desorbate and wash water; filling of desalination and concentration chambers, respectively, with desorbate and was water of electrodialysis equipment; production of boric acid and potassium hydroxide from desorbate by electrodialysis; removal of chloride-ion from boric acid solution on ion-exchange filter AB-17-18. The flow-sheet was tested and boron containing alkaline regeneration solutions were recovered from Novovoronezh NPP.

  10. Use of recovered frying oils in chicken and rabbit feeds: effect on the fatty acid and tocol composition and on the oxidation levels of meat, liver and plasma.

    PubMed

    Tres, A; Bou, R; Guardiola, F; Nuchi, C D; Magrinyà, N; Codony, R

    2013-03-01

    The addition of some fat co- and by-products to feeds is usual nowadays; however, the regulations of their use are not always clear and vary between countries. For instance, the use of recycled cooking oils is not allowed in the European Union, but they are used in other countries. However, oils recovered from industrial frying processes could show satisfactory quality for this purpose. Here we studied the effects of including oils recovered from the frying industry in rabbit and chicken feeds (at 30 and 60 g/kg, respectively) on the fatty acid (FA) and tocol (tocopherol + tocotrienol) compositon of meat, liver and plasma, and on their oxidative stability. Three dietary treatments (replicated eight times) were compared: fresh non-used oil (LOX); oil discarded from the frying industry, having a high content of secondary oxidation compounds (HOX); and an intermediate level (MOX) obtained by mixing 50 : 50 of LOX and HOX. The FA composition of oil diets and tissues was assessed by GC, their tocol content by HPLC, the thiobarbituric acid value was used to assess tissue oxidation status, and the ferrous oxidation-xylenol orange method was used to assess the susceptibility of tissues to oxidation. Our results indicate that FA composition of rabbit and chicken meat, liver and plasma was scarcely altered by the addition of recovered frying oils to feed. Differences were encountered in the FA composition between species, which might be attributed mainly to differences in the FA digestion, absorption and metabolism between species, and to some physiological dietary factors (i.e. coprophagy in rabbits that involves fermentation with FA structure modification). The α-tocopherol (αT) content of tissues was reduced in response to the lower αT content in the recovered frying oil. Differences in the content of other tocols were encountered between chickens and rabbits, which might be attributable to the different tocol composition of their feeds, as well as to species

  11. Pig feeds rich in rapeseed products and organic selenium increased omega-3 fatty acids and selenium in pork meat and backfat

    PubMed Central

    Gjerlaug-Enger, Eli; Haug, Anna; Gaarder, Mari; Ljøkjel, Kari; Stenseth, Ragna Sveipe; Sigfridson, Kerstin; Egelandsdal, Bjørg; Saarem, Kristin; Berg, Per

    2015-01-01

    The concentration of omega-3 fatty acids and selenium (Se) is generally too low in the Western diet. But as the nutrient composition of pork meat and adipose tissue is influenced by the feed given to the animals, the product can be changed to support nutrient demands. Half (297/594) the pigs were given a feed concentrate based on low-glucosinolate rapeseed products (RS), while the other half was fed a traditional concentrate (Contr): The RS feed had an omega-6/omega-3 ratio of 3.6:1, and the Contr feed had a ratio of 8.9:1, and both feeds were supplemented with 0.4 mg Se/kg (organic Se: inorganic Se, 1:1). There was a small difference in growth rate, but no differences in feed conversion ratio, lean meat percentage, carcass value, and margin per pig for the two groups. There were no differences in meat quality between the two groups, but there were differences in technological fat quality. The RS pigs contained about 2 times more alpha-linolenic acid in the backfat and 41% more in the meat (M. longissimus dorsi) compared to the controls. The concentration of EPA, DPA, and DHA were 42% and 20% higher in backfat and meat of the RS pigs compared to the control pigs respectively. The ratio between omega-6/omega-3 fatty acids were 4.7 in the meat and 4.0 in the backfat in the RS pigs, and the corresponding values were 6.6 and 8.0 in the control pigs. The selenium content was 0.3 mg/kg meat in both groups. The study showed that a portion of the present pig meat (175 g) provided the daily recommended intake of Se for men and women and about 1/6 of proposed reference intake of omega-3 LCPUFA (250 mg/day) to reduce the risk of CVD thereby providing a meat that is somewhat healthier for the consumer. PMID:25838890

  12. Testing Feeds for Salmonella.

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Human salmonellosis outbreaks have been linked to contamination of animal feeds. Thus it is crucial to employ sensitive Salmonella detection methods for animal feeds. Based on a review of the literature, Salmonella sustains acid injury at about pH 4.0 to5.0. Low pH can also alter the metabolism of S...

  13. Overexpression of an Acidic Endo-β-1,3-1,4-glucanase in Transgenic Maize Seed for Direct Utilization in Animal Feed

    PubMed Central

    Zhou, Xiaojin; Chen, Rumei; Yang, Peilong; Meng, Qingchang; Meng, Kun; Luo, Huiying; Yuan, Jianhua; Yao, Bin; Zhang, Wei

    2013-01-01

    Background Incorporation of exogenous glucanase into animal feed is common practice to remove glucan, one of the anti-nutritional factors, for efficient nutrition absorption. The acidic endo-β-1,3-1,4-glucanase (Bgl7A) from Bispora sp. MEY-1 has excellent properties and represents a potential enzyme supplement to animal feed. Methodology/Principal Findings Here we successfully developed a transgenic maize producing a high level of Bgl7AM (codon modified Bgl7A) by constructing a recombinant vector driven by the embryo-specific promoter ZM-leg1A. Southern and Western blot analysis indicated the stable integration and specific expression of the transgene in maize seeds over four generations. The β-glucanase activity of the transgenic maize seeds reached up to 779,800 U/kg, about 236-fold higher than that of non-transgenic maize. The β-glucanase derived from the transgenic maize seeds had an optimal pH of 4.0 and was stable at pH 1.0–8.0, which is in agreement with the normal environment of digestive tract. Conclusion/Significance Our study offers a transgenic maize line that could be directly used in animal feed without any glucanase production, purification and supplementation, consequently simplifying the feed enzyme processing procedure. PMID:24391711

  14. Impact of carbon and nitrogen feeding strategy on high production of biomass and docosahexaenoic acid (DHA) by Schizochytrium sp. LU310.

    PubMed

    Ling, Xueping; Guo, Jing; Liu, Xiaoting; Zhang, Xia; Wang, Nan; Lu, Yinghua; Ng, I-Son

    2015-05-01

    A new isolated Schizochytrium sp. LU310 from the mangrove forest of Wenzhou, China, was found as a high producing microalga of docosahexaenoic acid (DHA). In this study, the significant improvements for DHA fermentation by the batch mode in the baffled flasks (i.e. higher oxygen supply) were achieved. By applied the nitrogen-feeding strategy in 1000 mL baffled flasks, the biomass, DHA concentration and DHA productivity were increased by 110.4%, 117.9% and 110.4%, respectively. Moreover, DHA concentration of 21.06 g/L was obtained by feeding 15 g/L of glucose intermittently, which was an increase of 41.25% over that of the batch mode. Finally, an innovative strategy was carried out by intermittent feeding carbon and simultaneously feeding nitrogen. The maximum DHA concentration and DHA productivity in the fed-batch cultivation reached to 24.74 g/L and 241.5 mg/L/h, respectively. PMID:25451778

  15. Determining the functional role of waterborne amino acid uptake in hagfish nutrition: a constitutive pathway when fasting or a supplementary pathway when feeding?

    PubMed

    Glover, Chris N; Blewett, Tamzin A; Wood, Chris M

    2016-10-01

    Hagfish are unique among aquatic "vertebrates" in their ability to absorb amino acids directly from the water via skin and gill epithelia, but it is unknown whether this phenomenon extends beyond a few studied substrates; what effect fed state has on absorption; and what functional role this may play in hagfish nutrition. Using in vivo and in vitro transport assays, uptake and tissue distribution of the waterborne amino acids L-alanine, L-lysine, and L-phenylalanine were examined as a function of fed state. All three amino acids were shown to be taken up from the water (lysine and phenylalanine for the first time). Following immersion in radiolabelled solutions for 24 h, phenylalanine was the amino acid that accumulated at the highest levels in almost all tissues, with the highest accumulation noted in red blood cells and bile, followed by gill and liver. In general, tissues of fed hagfish displayed a significantly reduced phenylalanine accumulation compared to tissues of hagfish fasted for 3 weeks. An in vitro assay showed that phenylalanine was transported across the skin at the highest rate, with the uptake of lysine occurring at the lowest rate. Feeding status had no significant effect on in vitro transport. These data indicate that dissolved organic nutrients are a significant source of nutrition to hagfish, and may be relatively more important during periods of fasting than during periods of feeding when immersed in decaying carcasses. PMID:27215782

  16. Tissue deposition and residue depletion in rainbow trout following continuous voluntary feeding with various levels of melamine or a blend of melamine and cyanuric acid.

    PubMed

    Liu, Haiyan; Xue, Min; Wang, Jia; Qiu, Jing; Wu, Xiufeng; Zheng, Yinhua; Li, Junguo; Qin, Yuchang

    2014-11-01

    This study determined the deposition and depletion in rainbow trout after continuous administration of melamine (MEL) alone or a blend of MEL and cyanuric acid (CYA). The plasma, muscles, kidneys, liver and gills were sampled at 0, 3, 7, 13, 21, 28 and 42d. After the final sampling at 42d, fish from the MEL0.05, MEL20 and MCA groups were fed the control diet (MEL0) for the depletion test. Co-administration with cyanuric acid accelerated the deposition time to the Css for melamine; during the withdrawal phrase, the melamine and CYA concentrations in the tissues decreased exponentially. Compared to the t(½) for single oral administration, the t(½) for melamine and cyanuric acid after 42d continuous feeding was prolonged. The presence of trace CYA in the plasma and kidneys of trout was detected in the MEL20 group, indicating that MEL can convert into CYA in rainbow trout. PMID:25038476

  17. Facile Synthesis of Gold Nanoparticles by Amino Acid Asparagine: Selective Sensing of Arsenic.

    PubMed

    Ghodake, Gajanan; Vassiliadis, Vassilios S; Choi, Jeong-Hak; Jang, Jiseon; Lee, Dae Sung

    2015-09-01

    The amino acid asparagine (ASP) was used as a benign reducing and stabilizing agent for the production of monodisperse gold nanoparticles (AuNPs) using green chemistry principles. With an increasing concentration of ASP (0.5 to 10 mM), the absorbance intensity at 525 nm increased; however, no effects on the color, size, or shape of the AuNPs were observed. Transmission electron microscope (TEM) images showed that the AuNPs were either hexagonal or spherical in shape and had an average size of approximately 10 ± 5 nm. Facile colorimetric assays of the AuNPs were applied to detect a variety of heavy metal ion species in water. In this study, the selective detection of arsenic ions (As (III) ions) by quenching, aggregation, and/or red-shifting of the surface plasmon resonance (SPR) was successfully achieved. The AuNPs sensor was sustainable as a visual colorimetric detection system and spectral assay of hazardous As (III) ions in the reaction medium; thus, it will be useful for aqueous assessment without using any sophisticated or expensive instruments. PMID:26716315

  18. Maternal Obesity in Sheep Increases Fatty Acid Synthesis, Upregulates Nutrient Transporters, and Increases Adiposity in Adult Male Offspring after a Feeding Challenge

    PubMed Central

    Long, Nathan M.; Rule, Daniel C.; Tuersunjiang, Nuermaimaiti; Nathanielsz, Peter W.; Ford, Stephen P.

    2015-01-01

    Maternal obesity in women is increasing worldwide. The objective of this study was to evaluate differences in adipose tissue metabolism and function in adult male offspring from obese and control fed mothers subjected to an ad libitum feeding challenge. We developed a model in which obese ewes were fed 150% of feed provided for controls from 60 days before mating to term. All ewes were fed to requirements during lactation. After weaning, F1 male offspring were fed only to maintenance requirements until adulthood (control = 7, obese = 6), when they were fed ad libitum for 12 weeks with intake monitored. At the end of the feeding challenge offspring were given an intravenous glucose tolerance test (IVGTT), necropsied, and adipose tissue collected. During the feeding trial F1obese males consumed more (P < 0.01), gained more weight (P < 0.01) and became heavier (P < 0.05) than F1control males. During IVGTT, Obese F1 offspring were hyperglycemic and hypoinsulinemic (P < 0.01) compared to F1 control F1. At necropsy perirenal and omental adipose depots weights were 47% and 58% greater respectively and subcutaneous fat thickness 41% greater in F1obese vs F1control males (P < 0.05). Adipocyte diameters were greater (P ≤ 0.04) in perirenal, omental and subcutaneous adipose depots in F1obese males (11, 8 and 7% increase vs. control, respectively). When adipose tissue was incubated for 2 hrs with C-14 labeled acetate, subcutaneous, perirenal, and omental adipose tissue of F1 obese males exhibited greater incorporation (290, 83, and 90% increase vs. control, respectively P < 0.05) of acetate into lipids. Expression of fatty acid transporting, binding, and syntheses mRNA and protein was increased (P < 0.05) compared to F1 control offspring. Maternal obesity increased appetite and adiposity associated with increased adipocyte diameters and increased fatty acid synthesis in over-nourished adult male offspring. PMID:25875659

  19. Voluntary feed intake, acid-base balance and partitioning of urinary nitrogen in lambs fed corn silage with added sodium bicarbonate or sodium sesquicarbonate.

    PubMed

    Phillip, L E; Hidalgo, V

    1989-08-01

    An experiment with growing lambs was designed to test the hypothesis that alterations in blood acid-base status would influence intake of corn silage. Six wethers (29 kg) were fed a diet of corn silage (36% DM, 8% CP) supplemented with 1.25% urea and .2% sulfur. At feeding time, sodium bicarbonate (NaHCO3) and sodium sesquicarbonate (NaSC) were added to the silage at levels of 0, 2% or 4% of diet DM. The treatments were arranged as a 2 x 3 factorial, and the study was conducted as a 6 x 4 incomplete latin square with four 17-d periods. Voluntary intake of OM was not different (P greater than .05) between NaHCO3 (1,008 g/d) and NaSC (1,041 g/d). There was no significant interaction between type of buffer (NaHCO3 or NaSC) and level of buffer on any of the variables measured. The progressive increase in buffer load did not alter feed intake (P greater than .05), although there was a quadratic response (P less than .05) in urine pH and a linear increase (P less than .01) in blood HCO3- 2 h after feeding. There was no evidence that lambs fed corn silage experienced metabolic acid stress. Urinary excretion of ammonia and urea were indicative of changes, although not pronounced, in ammoniuria and ureapoiesis in response to bicarbonate loading. This study implies that corn silage imposes no "acid stress" on lambs and, consequently, that there is no nutritional benefit in adding buffers to corn silage for sheep. PMID:2551870

  20. Optimal dietary energy and amino acids for gilt development: Growth, body composition, feed intake, and carcass composition traits

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The objective of this study was to manipulate the lean to fat ratio by feeding diets differing in lysine and metabolizable energy (ME) content to replacement gilts from 100 d to 260 d of age. A secondary objective was to evaluate lysine and caloric efficiency between dietary treatments fed to develo...

  1. Maturation of poultry G-I microbiome during 42d of growth is independent of organic acid feed additives

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Poultry remains a major source of foodborne infections in the U.S. and globally. A variety of additives with presumed anti-microbial and/or growth-promoting effects are commonly added to poultry feed, yet the effects of these additives on the ecology of the gastro-intestinal microbial community (th...

  2. Effect of in ovo feeding of folic acid on the folate metabolism, immune function and epigenetic modification of immune effector molecules of broiler.

    PubMed

    Li, Shizhao; Zhi, Lihui; Liu, Yanli; Shen, Jing; Liu, Lei; Yao, Junhu; Yang, Xiaojun

    2016-02-14

    This study was conducted to investigate the effect of in ovo feeding (IOF) of folic acid on the folate metabolism, immune function and the involved epigenetic modification of broilers. A total of 400 (Cobb) hatching eggs were randomly divided into four groups (0, 50, 100 and 150 µg injection of folic acid at embryonic age 11 d), and chicks hatched from each treatment were randomly divided into six replicates with 12 broilers/replicate after incubation. The results indicated that, in ovo, 100- and 150-µg folic acid injections improved the hatchability. The average daily gain and feed conversion ratio increased in the 150-µg group during the late growth stage. Simultaneously, in the 100- and 150-µg groups, an increase was observed in hepatic folate content and the expression of methylenetetrahydrofolate reductase (d1 and 42) and methionine synthase reductase (d21). IgG and IgM concentrations, as well as plasma lysozyme activity of broilers, showed a marked increase along with increasing folic acid levels. The splenic expression levels of IL-2 and IL-4 were up-regulated, whereas that of IL-6 was down-regulated, in the 100- and 150-µg folic acid treatment groups. In addition, histone methylation in IL-2 and IL-4 promoters exhibited an enrichment of H3K4m2 but a loss of H3K9me2 with the increased amount of folic acid additive. In contrast, a decrease in H3K4m2 and an increase in H3K9me2 were observed in the IL-6 promoter in folic acid treatments. Furthermore, in ovo, the 150-µg folic acid injection improved the chromatin tightness of the IL-2 and IL-4 promoter regions. Our findings suggest that IOF of 150 µg of folic acid can improve the growth performance and folate metabolism of broilers, and enhance the relationship between immune function and epigenetic regulation of immune genes, which are involved with the alterations in chromatin conformation and histone methylation in their promoters. PMID:26586196

  3. Graphene decorated with PtAu alloy nanoparticles: facile synthesis and promising application for formic acid oxidation

    SciTech Connect

    Zhang, Sheng; Shao, Yuyan; Liao, Honggang; Liu, Jun; Aksay, Ilhan A.; Yin, Geping; Lin, Yuehe

    2011-03-01

    PtAu alloy nanoparticles (~ 3.2 nm in diameter) are synthesized in poly(diallyldimethylammonium chloride) (PDDA) aqueous solution and uniformly dispersed on graphene nanosheets. PtAu/graphene exhibits high electrocatalytic activity and stability for formic acid oxidation, which is attributed to the high dispersion of PtAu nanoparticles and the specific interaction between PtAu and graphene, indicating a promising catalyst for direct formic acid fuel cells. The facile method can be readily extended to the synthesis of other alloy nanoparticles.

  4. Profile of Hanwoo Steer Carcass Characteristics, Meat Quality and Fatty Acid Composition after Feeding Italian Ryegrass Silage.

    PubMed

    Kim, Won Ho; Kang, Suk-Nam; Arasu, Mariadhas Valan; Chu, Gyo-Moon; Kim, Da Hye; Park, Jae-Hong; Oh, Young Kyoon; Choi, Ki Choon

    2015-01-01

    The objective of this work was to evaluate the growth performance, feed intake, slaughter characteristics, meat quantity and quality characteristics of Hanwoo steers fed with Italian ryegrass (IRG) silage (TRT). IRG silage consisted 11.70% protein, 2.84% ether extract, 53.50% dry matter digestibility and 63.34% total digestible nutrients. The daily weight gain and feed conversion ratio of TRT were significantly (p<0.01) higher than that of control diet (CON; fed rice straw) in the whole periods. However, the slaughter weight, dressing percentage, quantity grade and quantity traits (marbling score, meat color, fat color, and quality grade) of either TRT or CON were similar. Meat fed TRT diet showed higher crude fat and lightness (L*) value and lower moisture content and pH value compared with the CON diet (p<0.05). Overall the carcass yield was 12.5% higher than CON diet. PMID:26761843

  5. Profile of Hanwoo Steer Carcass Characteristics, Meat Quality and Fatty Acid Composition after Feeding Italian Ryegrass Silage

    PubMed Central

    Kang, Suk-Nam; Chu, Gyo-Moon; Kim, Da Hye; Park, Jae-Hong; Oh, Young Kyoon

    2015-01-01

    The objective of this work was to evaluate the growth performance, feed intake, slaughter characteristics, meat quantity and quality characteristics of Hanwoo steers fed with Italian ryegrass (IRG) silage (TRT). IRG silage consisted 11.70% protein, 2.84% ether extract, 53.50% dry matter digestibility and 63.34% total digestible nutrients. The daily weight gain and feed conversion ratio of TRT were significantly (p<0.01) higher than that of control diet (CON; fed rice straw) in the whole periods. However, the slaughter weight, dressing percentage, quantity grade and quantity traits (marbling score, meat color, fat color, and quality grade) of either TRT or CON were similar. Meat fed TRT diet showed higher crude fat and lightness (L*) value and lower moisture content and pH value compared with the CON diet (p<0.05). Overall the carcass yield was 12.5% higher than CON diet. PMID:26761843

  6. Effect of wheat dried distillers grains and enzyme supplementation on growth rates, feed conversion ratio and beef fatty acid profile in feedlot steers.

    PubMed

    He, Z X; He, M L; Zhao, Y L; Xu, L; Walker, N D; Beauchemin, K A; McAllister, T A; Yang, W Z

    2015-10-01

    The objectives of this study were to determine: (1) the effect of wheat dried distillers grain with solubles (DDGS) inclusion, and (2) dietary feed enzyme (FE; Econase XT) supplementation in a finishing diet containing wheat DDGS on fatty acid profile of the pars costalis diaphragmatis muscle of beef cattle. A total of 160 crossbred yearling steers with initial BW of 495 ± 38 kg were blocked by BW and randomized into 16 pens (10 head/pen). The pens were randomly assigned to one of the four treatments: (1) control (CON; 10% barley silage and 90% barley grain-based concentrate, dry matter (DM) basis); (2) diet containing 30% wheat DDGS in place of barley grain without FE (WDG); (3) WDG diet supplemented with low FE (WDGL; 1 ml FE/kg DM); and (4) WDG diet supplemented with high FE (2 ml FE/kg DM). The pars costalis diaphragmatis muscle samples were collected from cattle at slaughter at the end of the finishing period (120 days) with a targeted live weight of 650 kg. No differences in organic matter intake, final BW and average daily gain were observed among treatments. However, steers fed WDG had greater (P<0.01) feed conversion ratio than those fed CON, and increasing FE application in wheat DDGS-based diets tended (P<0.10) to linearly decrease feed conversion ratio. In assessing the effects of including WDG diets without FE, concentration of total polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFA) in muscle tended to be greater (P<0.10) for steers fed WDG than steers fed CON. In addition, inclusion of wheat DDGS into the diet increased (P<0.05) concentration of CLA and vaccenic acid (VA) in muscle and also resulted in a higher (P<0.05) ratio of n-6/n-3 PUFA compared with that from steers fed CON diet. Increasing FE application in wheat DDGS-based diets did not modify the concentrations of individual or total fatty acids. These results suggest that inclusion of wheat DDGS in finishing diets may improve fatty acid profile of beef muscle which could benefit human health. PMID

  7. Enhancement of lipid stability of broiler breast meat and meat products fed on alpha lipoic acid and alpha tocopherol acetate supplemented feed

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    This study was designed to investigate the effect of alpha lipoic acid (ALA) and alpha tocopherol acetate (ATA) on the antioxidant potential, lipid stability and the quality of the broiler breast meat and meat products. The treatment plan was as (T1 = control feed, T2 = 200 mg ATA + 25 mg ALA/kg feed, T3 = 200 mg ATA + 75 mg ALA/kg feed, T4 = 200 mg ATA + 150 mg ALA/kg feed, T5 = Oxidized oil (4%), T6 = 200 mg ATA + 150 mg ALA + Oxidized oil (4%)/kg feed). After two weeks of acclimatization the birds were fed with ALA and ATA enriched diet. The results revealed that maximum deposition of ALA took place in T4 which contain maximum dose of ALA. The TBARS and DPPH values of the broiler breast meat were in T4 (0.14 ± 0.01 MDA/kg of meat, 76.69 ± 0.14%) and in T5 were (0.24 ± 0.15 MDA/Kg of meat, 44.98 ± 0.04%) accordingly. ATA concentration were also highest in T4 (206.43 ± 0.22 mg/g of meat) and lowest in T5 (79.09 ± 0.06 mg/g of meat). Sensory evaluation results showed that nuggets and patties made of T5 containing oxidized oil were least liked and T4 got highest score. In a nutshell, 150 mg/kg feed dietary supplementation of ALA with constant level of ATA can ameliorate the antioxidant potential, lipid stability and nutritional qualities of broiler breast meat and meat products. PMID:22640892

  8. Characterization of GdFFD, a d-Amino Acid-containing Neuropeptide That Functions as an Extrinsic Modulator of the Aplysia Feeding Circuit*

    PubMed Central

    Bai, Lu; Livnat, Itamar; Romanova, Elena V.; Alexeeva, Vera; Yau, Peter M.; Vilim, Ferdinand S.; Weiss, Klaudiusz R.; Jing, Jian; Sweedler, Jonathan V.

    2013-01-01

    During eukaryotic translation, peptides/proteins are created using l-amino acids. However, a d-amino acid-containing peptide (DAACP) can be produced through post-translational modification via an isomerase enzyme. General approaches to identify novel DAACPs and investigate their function, particularly in specific neural circuits, are lacking. This is primarily due to the difficulty in characterizing this modification and due to the limited information on neural circuits in most species. We describe a multipronged approach to overcome these limitations using the sea slug Aplysia californica. Based on bioinformatics and homology to known DAACPs in the land snail Achatina fulica, we targeted two predicted peptides in Aplysia, GFFD, similar to achatin-I (GdFAD versus GFAD, where dF stands for d-phenylalanine), and YAEFLa, identical to fulyal (YdAEFLa versus YAEFLa), using stereoselective analytical methods, i.e. MALDI MS fragmentation analysis and LC-MS/MS. Although YAEFLa in Aplysia was detected only in an all l-form, we found that both GFFD and GdFFD were present in the Aplysia CNS. In situ hybridization and immunolabeling of GFFD/GdFFD-positive neurons and fibers suggested that GFFD/GdFFD might act as an extrinsic modulator of the feeding circuit. Consistent with this hypothesis, we found that GdFFD induced robust activity in the feeding circuit and elicited egestive motor patterns. In contrast, the peptide consisting of all l-amino acids, GFFD, was not bioactive. Our data indicate that the modification of an l-amino acid-containing neuropeptide to a DAACP is essential for peptide bioactivity in a motor circuit, and thus it provides a functional significance to this modification. PMID:24078634

  9. MODELING THE IMPACT OF ELEVATED MERCURY IN DEFENSE WASTE PROCESSING FACILITY MELTER FEED ON THE MELTER OFF-GAS SYSTEM - PRELIMINARY REPORT

    SciTech Connect

    Zamecnik, J.; Choi, A.

    2009-03-25

    The Defense Waste Processing Facility (DWPF) is currently evaluating an alternative Chemical Process Cell (CPC) flowsheet to increase throughput. It includes removal of the steam-stripping step, which would significantly reduce the CPC processing time and lessen the sampling needs. However, its downside would be to send 100% of the mercury that come in with the sludge straight to the melter. For example, the new mercury content in the Sludge Batch 5 (SB5) melter feed is projected to be 25 times higher than that in the SB4 with nominal steam stripping of mercury. This task was initiated to study the impact of the worst-case scenario of zero-mercury-removal in the CPC on the DWPF melter off-gas system. It is stressed that this study is intended to be scoping in nature, so the results presented in this report are preliminary. In order to study the impact of elevated mercury levels in the feed, it is necessary to be able to predict how mercury would speciate in the melter exhaust under varying melter operating conditions. A homogeneous gas-phase oxidation model of mercury by chloride was developed to do just that. The model contains two critical parameters pertaining to the partitioning of chloride among HCl, Cl, Cl{sub 2}, and chloride salts in the melter vapor space. The values for these parameters were determined at two different melter vapor space temperatures by matching the calculated molar ratio of HgCl (or Hg{sub 2}Cl{sub 2}) to HgCl{sub 2} with those measured during the Experimental-Scale Ceramic Melter (ESCM) tests run at the Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL). The calibrated model was then applied to the SB5 simulant used in the earlier flowsheet study with an assumed mercury stripping efficiency of zero; the molar ratio of Cl-to-Hg in the resulting melter feed was only 0.4, compared to 12 for the ESCM feeds. The results of the model run at the indicated melter vapor space temperature of 650 C (TI4085D) showed that due to excessive shortage of

  10. MODELING THE IMPACT OF ELEVATED MERCURY IN DEFENSE WASTE PROCESSING FACILITY MELTER FEED ON THE MELTER OFF-GAS SYSTEM-PRELIMINARY REPORT

    SciTech Connect

    Zamecnik, J.; Choi, A.

    2010-08-18

    The Defense Waste Processing Facility (DWPF) is currently evaluating an alternative Chemical Process Cell (CPC) flowsheet to increase throughput. It includes removal of the steam-stripping step, which would significantly reduce the CPC processing time and lessen the sampling needs. However, its downside would be to send 100% of the mercury that comes in with the sludge straight to the melter. For example, the new mercury content in the Sludge Batch 5 (SB5) melter feed is projected to be 25 times higher than that in the SB4 with nominal steam stripping of mercury. This task was initiated to study the impact of the worst-case scenario of zero-mercury-removal in the CPC on the DWPF melter offgas system. It is stressed that this study is intended to be scoping in nature, so the results presented in this report are preliminary. In order to study the impact of elevated mercury levels in the feed, it is necessary to be able to predict how mercury would speciate in the melter exhaust under varying melter operating conditions. A homogeneous gas-phase oxidation model of mercury by chloride was developed to do just that. The model contains two critical parameters pertaining to the partitioning of chloride among HCl, Cl, Cl{sub 2}, and chloride salts in the melter vapor space. The values for these parameters were determined at two different melter vapor space temperatures by matching the calculated molar ratio of HgCl (or Hg{sub 2}Cl{sub 2}) to HgCl{sub 2} with those measured during the Experimental-Scale Ceramic Melter (ESCM) tests run at the Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL). The calibrated model was then applied to the SB5 simulant used in the earlier flowsheet study with an assumed mercury stripping efficiency of zero; the molar ratio of Cl-to-Hg in the resulting melter feed was only 0.4, compared to 12 for the ESCM feeds. The results of the model run at the indicated melter vapor space temperature of 650 C (TI4085D) showed that due to excessive shortage of

  11. Effect of zeolite (clinoptilolite) as feed additive in Tunisian broilers on the total flora, meat texture and the production of omega 3 polyunsaturated fatty acid

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background Increasing consumer demand for healthier food products has led to the development of governmental policies regarding health claims in many developed countries. In this context, contamination of poultry by food-borne pathogens is considered one of the major problems facing the progress of the poultry industry in Tunisia. Result Zeolite (Clinoptilolites) was added to chicken feed at concentrations 0,5% or 1% and was evaluated for its effectiveness to reduce total flora in chickens and its effects on performance of the production. The broilers were given free and continuous access to a nutritionally non-limiting diet (in meal form)that was either a basal diet or a' zeolite diet' (the basal diet supplemented with clinoptilolite at a level of 0,5% or 1%). It was found that adding zeolite in the broiler diet significantly (p < 0,05) reduced total flora levels, as compared to the control, on the chicken body. In addition, it was found that zeolite treatment had a positive effect on performance production and organoleptic parameters that were measured and mainly on the increase level of Omega 3 fatty acid. Conclusion This study showed the significance of using zeolite, as a feed additive for broilers, as part of a comprehensive program to control total flora at the broiler farm and to increase level of Omega 3 fatty acid on the chicken body. PMID:22394592

  12. Facile synthesis of highly efficient and recyclable magnetic solid acid from biomass waste

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Wu-Jun; Tian, Ke; Jiang, Hong; Yu, Han-Qing

    2013-01-01

    In this work, sawdust, a biomass waste, is converted into a magnetic porous carbonaceous (MPC) solid acid catalyst by an integrated fast pyrolysis–sulfonation process. The resultant magnetic solid acid has a porous structure with high surface area of 296.4 m2 g−1, which can be attributed to the catalytic effect of Fe. The catalytic activity and recyclability of the solid acid catalyst are evaluated during three typical acid-catalyzed reactions: esterification, dehydration, and hydrolysis. The favorable catalytic performance in all three reactions is attributed to the acid's high strength with 2.57 mmol g−1 of total acid sites. Moreover, the solid acid can be reused five times without a noticeable decrease in catalytic activity, indicating the stability of the porous carbon (PC)–sulfonic acid group structure. The findings in the present work offer effective alternatives for environmentally friendly utilization of abundant biomass waste. PMID:23939253

  13. Facile synthesis of highly efficient and recyclable magnetic solid acid from biomass waste.

    PubMed

    Liu, Wu-Jun; Tian, Ke; Jiang, Hong; Yu, Han-Qing

    2013-01-01

    In this work, sawdust, a biomass waste, is converted into a magnetic porous carbonaceous (MPC) solid acid catalyst by an integrated fast pyrolysis-sulfonation process. The resultant magnetic solid acid has a porous structure with high surface area of 296.4 m(2) g(-1), which can be attributed to the catalytic effect of Fe. The catalytic activity and recyclability of the solid acid catalyst are evaluated during three typical acid-catalyzed reactions: esterification, dehydration, and hydrolysis. The favorable catalytic performance in all three reactions is attributed to the acid's high strength with 2.57 mmol g(-1) of total acid sites. Moreover, the solid acid can be reused five times without a noticeable decrease in catalytic activity, indicating the stability of the porous carbon (PC)-sulfonic acid group structure. The findings in the present work offer effective alternatives for environmentally friendly utilization of abundant biomass waste. PMID:23939253

  14. Facile synthesis of highly efficient and recyclable magnetic solid acid from biomass waste

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Wu-Jun; Tian, Ke; Jiang, Hong; Yu, Han-Qing

    2013-08-01

    In this work, sawdust, a biomass waste, is converted into a magnetic porous carbonaceous (MPC) solid acid catalyst by an integrated fast pyrolysis-sulfonation process. The resultant magnetic solid acid has a porous structure with high surface area of 296.4 m2 g-1, which can be attributed to the catalytic effect of Fe. The catalytic activity and recyclability of the solid acid catalyst are evaluated during three typical acid-catalyzed reactions: esterification, dehydration, and hydrolysis. The favorable catalytic performance in all three reactions is attributed to the acid's high strength with 2.57 mmol g-1 of total acid sites. Moreover, the solid acid can be reused five times without a noticeable decrease in catalytic activity, indicating the stability of the porous carbon (PC)-sulfonic acid group structure. The findings in the present work offer effective alternatives for environmentally friendly utilization of abundant biomass waste.

  15. Impact of thermal and organic acid treatment of feed on apparent ileal mineral absorption, tibial and liver mineral concentration, and tibia quality in broilers.

    PubMed

    Hafeez, A; Mader, A; Boroojeni, F Goodarzi; Ruhnke, I; Röhe, I; Männer, K; Zentek, J

    2014-07-01

    Minerals play an important role for growth and bone stability in broilers. Thermal treatment and inclusion of organic acids in feed may affect the mineral absorption and tibial quality in broilers. The study was conducted to investigate the effect of thermal processing of feed including pelleting (P), long-term conditioning at 85°C (L), and expanding at 130°C (E) without and with 1.5% of an acid mixture containing 64% formic and 25% propionic acid on the apparent ileal absorption (AIA) of calcium, phosphorus, magnesium, potassium, sodium, iron, copper, manganese, and zinc, their concentrations in liver and tibia, as well as various tibial quality parameters in broilers. In total, 480 one-day-old Cobb broiler chicks were assigned using a completely randomized design with a 3 × 2 factorial arrangement. The ileal digesta, liver, and tibia were collected at d 35. The AIA of calcium and sodium was improved in group E compared with L (P ≤ 0.02 and P ≤ 0.01). Group P and E showed higher AIA for potassium than L (P ≤ 0.01). Bone ash content was increased in group E compared with L (P ≤ 0.04). The BW to bone weight ratio was lower and tibial zinc content was higher in group P compared with E (P ≤ 0.05). Tibial iron content was higher in group L than E (P ≤ 0.03). Acid addition did not affect AIA, mineral content in tibia, or tibial quality parameters. Thermal and acid treatment did not affect mineral concentrations in the liver, except an inconsistent interaction effect for DM content and sodium (P ≤ 0.03 and P ≤ 0.04, respectively). In conclusion, long-term thermal treatment reduced AIA of some minerals compared with short-term thermal treatments, but had no impact on tibia composition. Acid inclusion had no effect on AIA of minerals and tibia quality. Thermal treatment and the use of organic acids can therefore be considered as safe with regard to their impact on bone development in broilers. PMID:24864282

  16. Thermophile-fermented compost as a fish feed additive modulates lipid peroxidation and free amino acid contents in the muscle of the carp, Cyprinus carpio.

    PubMed

    Tanaka, Ryusuke; Miyamoto, Hirokuni; Inoue, Shin-Ichi; Shigeta, Kazuhiro; Kondo, Masakazu; Ito, Toshiyuki; Kodama, Hiroaki; Miyamoto, Hisashi; Matsushita, Teruo

    2016-05-01

    Recently, a compost fermented with marine animals with thermophilic Bacillaceae in a clean and exclusive process at high temperature was reported as a possible feed additive to improve the healthy balance in sea fish and mammals (i.e., pigs and rodents). Here, the effects of the oral administration of the compost on the muscle and internal organs of carp (Cyprinus carpio) as a freshwater fish model were investigated. The fatty acid composition was different in the muscle of the carp fed with or without the compost extract, but there was little difference in the hepatopancreas. The accumulation of triacylglycerols, cholesterol, lipid peroxide and hydroxyl lipids decreased in the muscle after the oral administration of the compost extract in the carps over 12 weeks, but the accumulation did not always decrease in the hepatopancreas. In contrast, free-radical-scavenging activities and the concentrations of free amino acids in the muscle did not always increase and was dependent on the dose of the compost at 12 weeks. The scavenging activities and part of free amino acid levels in the muscle of the carp were improved at 24 weeks after a high dose of compost exposure, and then the survival rates of the carp were maintained. Thus, the oral administration of thermophile-fermented compost can prevent peroxidation and increase the content of free amino acids in the muscle of the freshwater fish, depending on the dose and term of the administration, and may be associated with the viability of the fish. PMID:26702954

  17. Suppression of Growth Rate of Colony-Associated Fungi by High Fructose Corn Syrup Feeding Supplement, Formic Acid, and Oxalic Acid

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Select colony-associated fungi (bee isolates). Absidia sp., Ascosphaera apis, Aspergillus flavus, Fusarium sp., Penicillium glabrum, Mucor sp., showed a 40% reduction in radial growth rate with formic acid, a 28% reduction with oxalic acid, and a 15% reduction with fructose and high fructose corn sy...

  18. Effect of feeding lipids recovered from fish processing waste by lactic acid fermentation and enzymatic hydrolysis on antioxidant and membrane bound enzymes in rats.

    PubMed

    Rai, Amit Kumar; Bhaskar, N; Baskaran, V

    2015-06-01

    Fish oil recovered from fresh water fish visceral waste (FVW-FO) through lactic acid fermentation (FO-LAF) and enzymatic hydrolysis (FO-EH) were fed to rats to study their influence on lipid peroxidation and activities of antioxidant and membrane bound enzyme in liver, heart and brain. Feeding of FO-LAF and FO-EH resulted in increase (P < 0.05) in lipid peroxides level in serum, liver, brain and heart tissues compared to ground nut oil (control). Activity of catalase (40-235 %) and superoxide dismutase (17-143 %) also increased (P < 0.05) with incremental level of EPA + DHA in diet. The increase was similar to cod liver oil fed rats at same concentration of EPA + DHA. FO-LAF and FO-EH increased (P < 0.05) the Na(+)K(+) ATPase activity in liver and brain microsomes, Ca(+)Mg(+) ATPase in heart microsome and acetylcholine esterase in brain microsomes when fed with 5 % EPA + DHA. There was also significant change in fatty acid composition and cholesterol/phospholipid ratio in microsomes of rat fed with FVW-FO. Feeding FVW-FO recovered by biotechnological approaches enhanced the activity of antioxidant enzymes in tissues, modulates the activities of membrane bound enzymes and improved the fatty acid composition in microsomes of tissues similar to CLO. Utilization of these processing wastes for the production of valuable biofunctional products can reduce the mounting economic values of fish oil and minimize the environmental pollution problems. PMID:26028754

  19. Impact of sustainable feeds on omega-3 long-chain fatty acid levels in farmed Atlantic salmon, 2006-2015.

    PubMed

    Sprague, M; Dick, J R; Tocher, D R

    2016-01-01

    As the global population and its demand for seafood increases more of our fish will come from aquaculture. Farmed Atlantic salmon are a global commodity and, as an oily fish, contain a rich source of the health promoting long-chain omega-3 fatty acids, eicosapentaenoic (EPA) and docosahexaenoic (DHA) acids. Replacing the traditional finite marine ingredients, fishmeal and fish oil, in farmed salmon diets with sustainable alternatives of terrestrial origin, devoid of EPA and DHA, presents a significant challenge for the aquaculture industry. By comparing the fatty acid composition of over 3,000 Scottish Atlantic salmon farmed between 2006 and 2015, we find that terrestrial fatty acids have significantly increased alongside a decrease in EPA and DHA levels. Consequently, the nutritional value of the final product is compromised requiring double portion sizes, as compared to 2006, in order to satisfy recommended EPA + DHA intake levels endorsed by health advisory organisations. Nevertheless, farmed Scottish salmon still delivers more EPA + DHA than most other fish species and all terrestrial livestock. Our findings highlight the global shortfall of EPA and DHA and the implications this has for the human consumer and examines the potential of microalgae and genetically modified crops as future sources of these important fatty acids. PMID:26899924

  20. Impact of sustainable feeds on omega-3 long-chain fatty acid levels in farmed Atlantic salmon, 2006–2015

    PubMed Central

    Sprague, M.; Dick, J.R.; Tocher, D.R.

    2016-01-01

    As the global population and its demand for seafood increases more of our fish will come from aquaculture. Farmed Atlantic salmon are a global commodity and, as an oily fish, contain a rich source of the health promoting long-chain omega-3 fatty acids, eicosapentaenoic (EPA) and docosahexaenoic (DHA) acids. Replacing the traditional finite marine ingredients, fishmeal and fish oil, in farmed salmon diets with sustainable alternatives of terrestrial origin, devoid of EPA and DHA, presents a significant challenge for the aquaculture industry. By comparing the fatty acid composition of over 3,000 Scottish Atlantic salmon farmed between 2006 and 2015, we find that terrestrial fatty acids have significantly increased alongside a decrease in EPA and DHA levels. Consequently, the nutritional value of the final product is compromised requiring double portion sizes, as compared to 2006, in order to satisfy recommended EPA + DHA intake levels endorsed by health advisory organisations. Nevertheless, farmed Scottish salmon still delivers more EPA + DHA than most other fish species and all terrestrial livestock. Our findings highlight the global shortfall of EPA and DHA and the implications this has for the human consumer and examines the potential of microalgae and genetically modified crops as future sources of these important fatty acids. PMID:26899924

  1. Long-term feeding of Atlantic salmon in seawater with low dietary long-chain n-3 fatty acids affects tissue status of the brain, retina and erythrocytes.

    PubMed

    Sissener, N H; Torstensen, B E; Stubhaug, I; Rosenlund, G

    2016-06-01

    In two long-term feeding trials in seawater, Atlantic salmon were fed EPA+DHA in graded levels, from 1·3 to 7·4 % of fatty acids (FA, 4-24 g/kg feed) combined with approximately 10 % 18 : 3n-3, at 6 and 12°C. Dietary EPA appeared to be sufficient in all diet groups, as no differences were seen in polar lipid tissue concentrations of either the brain, retina or erythrocytes. For DHA, a reduction in tissue levels was observed with low dietary supply. Effects on brain DHA at ≤1·4 % EPA+DHA of dietary FA and retina DHA at ≤2·7 % EPA+DHA of dietary FA were only observed in fish reared at 6°C, suggesting an effect of temperature, whereas tissue levels of n-6 FA increased as a response to increased dietary n-6 FA in both the brain and the retina at both temperatures. DHA levels in erythrocytes were affected by ≤2·7 % EPA+DHA at both temperatures. Therefore, DHA appears to be the limiting n-3 FA in diets where EPA and DHA are present in the ratios found in fishmeal and fish oil. To assess the physiological significance of FA differences in erythrocytes, the osmotic resistance was tested, but it did not vary between dietary groups. In conclusion, ≤2·7 % EPA+DHA of FA (≤9 g/kg feed) is not sufficient to maintain tissue DHA status in important tissues of Atlantic salmon throughout the seawater production cycle despite the presence of dietary 18 : 3n-3, and effects may be more severe at low water temperatures. PMID:27044510

  2. Arsenic Metabolites, Including N-Acetyl-4-hydroxy-m-arsanilic Acid, in Chicken Litter from a Roxarsone-Feeding Study Involving 1600 Chickens.

    PubMed

    Yang, Zonglin; Peng, Hanyong; Lu, Xiufen; Liu, Qingqing; Huang, Rongfu; Hu, Bin; Kachanoski, Gary; Zuidhof, Martin J; Le, X Chris

    2016-07-01

    The poultry industry has used organoarsenicals, such as 3-nitro-4-hydroxyphenylarsonic acid (Roxarsone, ROX), to prevent disease and to promote growth. Although previous studies have analyzed arsenic species in chicken litter after composting or after application to agricultural lands, it is not clear what arsenic species were excreted by chickens before biotransformation of arsenic species during composting. We describe here the identification and quantitation of arsenic species in chicken litter repeatedly collected on days 14, 24, 28, 30, and 35 of a Roxarsone-feeding study involving 1600 chickens of two strains. High performance liquid chromatography separation with simultaneous detection by both inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry and electrospray ionization tandem mass spectrometry provided complementary information necessary for the identification and quantitation of arsenic species. A new metabolite, N-acetyl-4-hydroxy-m-arsanilic acid (N-AHAA), was identified, and it accounted for 3-12% of total arsenic. Speciation analyses of litter samples collected from ROX-fed chickens on days 14, 24, 28, 30, and 35 showed the presence of N-AHAA, 3-amino-4-hydroxyphenylarsonic acid (3-AHPAA), inorganic arsenite (As(III)), arsenate (As(V)), monomethylarsonic acid (MMA(V)), dimethylarsinic acid (DMA(V)), and ROX. 3-AHPAA accounted for 3-19% of the total arsenic. Inorganic arsenicals (the sum of As(III) and As(V)) comprised 2-6% (mean 3.5%) of total arsenic. Our results on the detection of inorganic arsenicals, methylarsenicals, 3-AHPAA, and N-AHAA in the chicken litter support recent findings that ROX is actually metabolized by the chicken or its gut microbiome. The presence of the toxic metabolites in chicken litter is environmentally relevant as chicken litter is commonly used as fertilizer. PMID:26876684

  3. Evaluation of the proximate, fatty acid and mineral composition of representative green, brown and red seaweeds from the Persian Gulf of Iran as potential food and feed resources.

    PubMed

    Rohani-Ghadikolaei, Kiuomars; Abdulalian, Eessa; Ng, Wing-Keong

    2012-12-01

    The proximate, fatty acid and mineral composition were determined for green (Ulva lactuca and Enteromorpha intestinalis), brown (Sargassum ilicifolium and Colpomenia sinuosa) and red (Hypnea valentiae and Gracilaria corticata) seaweeds collected from the Persian Gulf of Iran. Results showed that the seaweeds were high in carbohydrate (31.8-59.1%, dry weight) and ash (12.4-29.9%) but low in lipid content (1.5-3.6%). The protein content of red or green seaweeds was significantly higher (p < 0.05) compared to brown seaweeds. The fatty acid composition of various seaweed lipids varied considerably with 51.9-67.4% of saturates, 22.0-32.9% of monoenes and 9.2-19.1% of polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFA). E. intestinalis contained the highest total n-3 PUFA content with the lowest n-6/n-3 ratio. Persian Gulf seaweeds contained higher concentrations of all the minerals examined (K, Mg, Fe, Mn, Cu, Zn and Co) compared to terrestrial vegetables. Seaweeds could potentially be used as a food or feed additive in Iran. PMID:24293698

  4. Effects of feeding lauric acid or coconut oil on ruminal protozoa numbers, fermentation pattern, digestion, omasal nutrient flow, and milk production in dairy cows.

    PubMed

    Faciola, A P; Broderick, G A

    2014-01-01

    The objectives of this study were to evaluate the feeding of coconut oil (CO), in which lauric acid (La) comprises about 50% of the fatty acid composition, as a practical rumen protozoa (RP) suppressing agent, to assess whether the source of La affects ruminal fermentation and animal performance and to test whether suppressing RP improves N utilization, nutrient digestion, nutrient flow at the omasal canal, and milk production. Fifteen multiparous Holstein cows (3 fitted with ruminal cannulas) and 15 primiparous Holstein cows (3 fitted with ruminal cannulas) were used in a replicated 3×3 Latin square experiment with 14d of adaptation and 14d of sample collection. Diets were fed as total mixed ration and contained (dry matter basis) 10% corn silage, 50% alfalfa silage, and 40% concentrate. The control diet contained 3% (dry matter basis) calcium soaps of palm oil fatty acids (Megalac, Church & Dwight Co. Inc., Princeton, NJ) as a ruminally inert fat source and had no added La or CO. Diets with La and CO were formulated to contain equal amounts of La (1.3%, dry matter basis). Dry matter intake was not affected by treatment. Both CO and La reduced RP numbers by about 40%. Lauric acid reduced yield of milk and milk components; however, CO did not affect yield of milk and yields of milk components. Both La and CO caused small reductions in total VFA concentration; CO increased molar proportion of ruminal propionate, reduced ruminal ammonia and branched-chain volatile fatty acids, suggesting reduced protein degradation, and reduced milk urea N and blood urea N concentrations, suggesting improved protein efficiency. Lauric acid reduced total-tract apparent digestibility of neutral detergent fiber and acid detergent fiber as well as ruminal apparent digestibility of neutral detergent fiber and acid detergent fiber as measured at the omasal canal; however, CO did not alter fiber digestion. Microbial protein flow at the omasal canal, as well as the flow of N fractions at

  5. Providing a diet deficient in valine but with excess leucine results in a rapid decrease in feed intake and modifies the postprandial plasma amino acid and α-keto acid concentrations in pigs.

    PubMed

    Gloaguen, M; Le Floc'h, N; Corrent, E; Primot, Y; van Milgen, J

    2012-09-01

    Indispensable AA are involved in the control of feed intake. When a diet deficient in Val is offered to pigs, feed intake is typically reduced. This effect is aggravated when dietary Leu is supplied in excess of the requirement. If an unbalanced supply of branched-chain AA (BCAA) is harmful, an anorectic response may serve as a mechanism to prevent this situation. We verified this hypothesis by measuring the voluntary feed intake of a balanced diet offered during the 30-min period 1 h after ingestion of a test meal deficient or not in Val (Val- and Val+) with an excess of Leu. Twelve and four 6-wk-old crossbred female pigs were used in Exp. 1 and 2, respectively. Prior ingestion of the Val- test meal resulted in a 14% reduction in feed intake compared with that observed after ingestion of the Val+ test meal (P = 0.06) in Exp. 1, indicating that the signal to reduce feed intake occurred within 1 h. It is possible that the plasma concentration of the limiting AA serves as a signal for the dietary AA deficiency. We therefore determined the postprandial plasma concentrations of BCAA and their α-keto acids after ingestion of Val- and Val+ in 4 pigs in Exp. 2. After ingestion of the Val- diet, plasma concentrations of Val and its keto acid were reduced compared with values observed after ingestion of the Val+ diet. The peak concentration occurred earlier after ingestion of the Val- diet compared with that of the Val+ diet. Although the plasma concentration increased after the meal, it declined rapidly in pigs offered Val-, and the Val concentration 4 h after ingestion of the meal was even less than that observed in the fasted state. In conclusion, it appears that the pig is able to detect a deficient supply of Val within 1 h after ingestion. The plasma concentration of Val or its concentration relative to the other BCAA during the postprandial period may act as a signal indicating the AA deficiency. PMID:22585822

  6. Amino acid availability from select feed ingredients in the euryhaline Florida pompano Trachinotus carolinus adapted to seawater and low salinity

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    As with most marine carnivores, Florida pompano require relatively high crude protein diets to obtain optimal growth. Precision formulations to match the dietary indispensable amino acid pattern to a species' requirements can be used to increase protein efficiency and lower overall dietary protein...

  7. Effect of feeding system and breed on n-3 and n-6 polyunsaturated fatty acid content of lamb muscles

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Katahdin (KK, n=6), Katahdin x Suffolk (KS, n=6), Suffolk x Katahdin (SK, n=6) and Suffolk (SS, n=6) wethers were used to evaluate omega-3 (n-3) and omega-6 (n-6) polyunsaturated fatty acid content, and the ratio of n-6 to n-3 in muscles of these lambs, raised on concentrate or forage diets. Lambs ...

  8. Evaluation of feeding glycerol on free-fatty acid production and fermentation kinetics of mixed ruminal microbes in vitro

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Strategies to enrich ruminant-derived foods with unsaturated fatty acids are desired as these are considered beneficial for good human health. Ruminant-derived foods contain high proportions of saturated fats, a result of ruminal biohydrogenation, which rapidly saturates and thus limits the availab...

  9. Effects of feeding lauric acid on ruminal protozoa numbers, fermentation, and digestion and on milk production in dairy cows

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The objectives of this study were: (1) to determine the level of lauric acid (LA) addition to the diet necessary to effectively suppress ruminal protozoa (RP) to the extent observed when a single dose was given directly into the rumen; (2) to assess its effects on production and ruminal metabolism; ...

  10. Feeding behavior and trophic relationship of earthworms and other predators in vermifiltration system for liquid-state sludge stabilization using fatty acid profiles.

    PubMed

    Xing, Meiyan; Zhao, Chunhui; Yang, Jian; Lv, Baoyi

    2014-10-01

    The sludge reduction capability (VSS reduction) of vermifilter (VF) was 14.7% higher than that of conventional biofilter (BF) due to the fact that there was a net loss of biomass and energy when the food web in VF is extended. Therefore, feeding behavior and trophic relationship of earthworms and other predators (leeches, lymnaeidaes and limaxes) in VF were investigated using fatty acid (FA) profiles for the first time. Compared with BF biofilm, microbial community structure of VF biofilm got optimized by earthworms that the percentage of protozoa increased from 14.2% to 20.4%. Furthermore, analysis of specific microbial FAs composition in each predator suggested different trophic level of predators resulted from their selective ingestion of different microorganisms, and earthworms were at the second high trophic level in VF food web. Overall findings indicated earthworms modified microbial community and extended the food web of VF and thus enhanced the sludge reduction. PMID:25043348

  11. Feeding infant piglets formula with long-chain polyunsaturated fatty acids as triacylglycerols or phospholipids influences the distribution of these fatty acids in plasma lipoprotein fractions.

    PubMed

    Amate, L; Gil, A; Ramírez, M

    2001-04-01

    Several sources of long-chain polyunsaturated fatty acids (LCP) are currently available for infant formula supplementation. These oils differ in their fatty acid composition, the chemical form of the fatty acid esters [triacylglycerols (TG) or phospholipids (PL)] and presence of other lipid components. These differences may affect LCP absorption, distribution and metabolic fate after ingestion. The purpose of the present study was to evaluate the influence of different chemical forms of dietary LCP on the composition of plasma, plasma lipoproteins, liver and jejunum in infant piglets. Thirty pigs (5 d old) were bottle-fed different diets for 4 wk: a control diet (C), a diet containing LCP as TG from tuna and fungal oils (TF-TG) or a diet containing LCP as PL from egg yolk (E-PL). We measured lipid and fatty acid composition of plasma and lipoproteins, as well as lipid composition of liver and intestinal mucosa. The arachidonic and docosahexaenoic acids in HDL-PL were significantly higher in piglets fed the E-PL diet than in those fed the TF-TG diet. Opposite results were found in the LDL-PL diet. No significant differences were found between groups in TG or cholesterol concentrations of plasma or lipoproteins. Arachidonic acid in plasma PL and cholesteryl esters was significantly higher in the E-PL group than in the TF-TG group. The chemical form in which LCP esters are present in different dietary sources influences their distribution in plasma lipoproteins. This may be important for infant nutrition and suggests that not all LCP sources may be biologically equivalent. PMID:11285334

  12. Acid mine drainage risks - A modeling approach to siting mine facilities in Northern Minnesota USA

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Myers, Tom

    2016-02-01

    Most watershed-scale planning for mine-caused contamination concerns remediation of past problems while future planning relies heavily on engineering controls. As an alternative, a watershed scale groundwater fate and transport model for the Rainy Headwaters, a northeastern Minnesota watershed, has been developed to examine the risks of leaks or spills to a pristine downstream watershed. The model shows that the risk depends on the location and whether the source of the leak is on the surface or from deeper underground facilities. Underground sources cause loads that last longer but arrive at rivers after a longer travel time and have lower concentrations due to dilution and attenuation. Surface contaminant sources could cause much more short-term damage to the resource. Because groundwater dominates baseflow, mine contaminant seepage would cause the most damage during low flow periods. Groundwater flow and transport modeling is a useful tool for decreasing the risk to downgradient sources by aiding in the placement of mine facilities. Although mines are located based on the minerals, advance planning and analysis could avoid siting mine facilities where failure or leaks would cause too much natural resource damage. Watershed scale transport modeling could help locate the facilities or decide in advance that the mine should not be constructed due to the risk to downstream resources.

  13. Preparative production of colominic acid oligomers via a facile microwave hydrolysis

    PubMed Central

    Patane, Jonathan; Trapani, Vincent; Villavert, Janice; McReynolds, Katherine Dawn

    2009-01-01

    The hydrolysis of colominic acid via microwave irradiation was studied for the production of short chain oligomers with a degree of polymerization (DP) of 1–6. This method was compared to the traditional acid hydrolytic method for the production of preparative quantities of short colominic acid oligomers. The oligomers were purified by size exclusion chromatography and characterized by 1H NMR. Optimal conditions for producing the dimer were found to be 12 minutes at 10% power in a 1000 Watt domestic microwave. This method is advantageous over the traditional technique in that the hydrolysis can be completed in just a few minutes, rather than hours, it is reproducible, and yields large quantities of the desirable short chain oligomers of colominic acid. PMID:19281967

  14. Dietary Supplementation of Benzoic Acid and Essential Oil Compounds Affects Buffering Capacity of the Feeds, Performance of Turkey Poults and Their Antioxidant Status, pH in the Digestive Tract, Intestinal Microbiota and Morphology

    PubMed Central

    Giannenas, I.; Papaneophytou, C. P.; Tsalie, E.; Pappas, I.; Triantafillou, E.; Tontis, D.; Kontopidis, G. A.

    2014-01-01

    Three trials were conducted to evaluate the effect of supplementation of a basal diet with benzoic acid or thymol or a mixture of essential oil blends (MEO) or a combination of benzoic acid with MEO (BMEO) on growth performance of turkey poults. Control groups were fed a basal diet. In trial 1, benzoic acid was supplied at levels of 300 and 1,000 mg/kg. In trial 2, thymol or the MEO were supplied at levels of 30 mg/kg. In trial 3, the combination of benzoic acid with MEO was evaluated. Benzoic acid, MEO and BMEO improved performance, increased lactic acid bacteria populations and decreased coliform bacteria in the caeca. Thymol, MEO and BMEO improved antioxidant status of turkeys. Benzoic acid and BMEO reduced the buffering capacity compared to control feed and the pH values of the caecal content. Benzoic acid and EOs may be suggested as an effective alternative to AGP in turkeys. PMID:25049947

  15. High Fat Diet Feeding Exaggerates Perfluorooctanoic Acid-Induced Liver Injury in Mice via Modulating Multiple Metabolic Pathways

    PubMed Central

    Tan, Xiaobing; Xie, Guoxiang; Sun, Xiuhua; Li, Qiong; Zhong, Wei; Qiao, Peter; Sun, Xinguo; Jia, Wei; Zhou, Zhanxiang

    2013-01-01

    High fat diet (HFD) is closely linked to a variety of health issues including fatty liver. Exposure to perfluorooctanoic acid (PFOA), a synthetic perfluorinated carboxylic acid, also causes liver injury. The present study investigated the possible interactions between high fat diet and PFOA in induction of liver injury. Mice were pair-fed a high-fat diet (HFD) or low fat control with or without PFOA administration at 5 mg/kg/day for 3 weeks. Exposure to PFOA alone caused elevated plasma alanine aminotransferase (ALT) and alkaline phosphatase (ALP) levels and increased liver weight along with reduced body weight and adipose tissue mass. HFD alone did not cause liver damage, but exaggerated PFOA-induced hepatotoxicity as indicated by higher plasma ALT and AST levels, and more severe pathological changes including hepatocyte hypertrophy, lipid droplet accumulation and necrosis as well as inflammatory cell infiltration. These additive effects of HFD on PFOA-induced hepatotoxicity correlated with metabolic disturbance in liver and blood as well as up-regulation of hepatic proinflammatory cytokine genes. Metabolomic analysis demonstrated that both serum and hepatic metabolite profiles of PFOA, HFD, or HFD-PFOA group were clearly differentiated from that of controls. PFOA affected more hepatic metabolites than HFD, but HFD showed positive interaction with PFOA on fatty acid metabolites including long chain fatty acids and acylcarnitines. Taken together, dietary high fat potentiates PFOA-induced hepatic lipid accumulation, inflammation and necrotic cell death by disturbing hepatic metabolism and inducing inflammation. This study demonstrated, for the first time, that HFD increases the risk of PFOA in induction of hepatotoxicity. PMID:23626681

  16. Facile one-pot synthesis of gold nanoparticles using tannic acid and its application in catalysis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Aswathy Aromal, S.; Philip, Daizy

    2012-04-01

    The paper reports a simple and efficient method for the synthesis of stable, nearly spherical gold nanoparticles using tannic acid as both the reducing and stabilizing agent. The nanoparticles are characterized by UV-visible spectroscopy, transmission electron microscopy (TEM), EDX and X-ray diffraction (XRD) analysis. The influence of tannic acid on the control of size and shape of gold nanoparticles is reported. Upon an increase in the concentration of tannic acid, there is a shift in the shape of nanoparticles as evidenced by the change in bandwidth and peak position of the surface plasmon resonance (SPR) band. Also, it is found that tannic acid ceases to act as a reducing agent beyond the limit of 10 mL (6×10-3 M) for 30 mL of HAuCl4 (1.3×10-3 M). On increasing the quantity of tannic acid, nucleation is favored in the initial stages and thereafter growth supersedes nucleation. The stable colloids obtained by this method are found to consist of nanoparticles with average size 8 and 12 nm. The crystallinity of the sample with fcc phase is observed from TEM, SAED and XRD pattern. Involvement of carboxylic acid group in capping of gold nanoparticles is evident from the FTIR spectrum. The application of the synthesized nanoparticles as catalyst in the reduction of 4-Nitrophenol to 4-Aminophenol is also reported.

  17. Effect of feeding CLA on plasma and granules fatty acid composition of eggs and prepared mayonnaise quality.

    PubMed

    Shinn, Sara Elizabeth; Proctor, Andrew; Gilley, Alex D; Cho, Sungeun; Martin, Elizabeth; Anthony, Nicholas B

    2016-04-15

    Eggs rich in trans, trans conjugated linoleic acid (CLA) are significantly more viscous, have more phospholipids containing linoleic acid (LA), and more saturated triacylglycerol species than control eggs. However, the fatty acid (FA) composition of yolk plasma and granule fractions are unreported. Furthermore, there are no reports of mayonnaise rheological properties or emulsion stability by using CLA-rich eggs. Therefore, the objectives were (1) compare the FA composition of CLA-rich yolk granules and plasma, relative to standard control and LA-rich control yolks, (2) compare the rheological properties of mayonnaise prepared with CLA-rich eggs to control eggs and (3) compare the emulsion stability of CLA-yolk mayonnaise. CLA-rich eggs and soy control eggs were produced by adding 10% CLA-rich soy oil or 10% of control unmodified soy oil to the hen's diet. The eggs were used in subsequent mayonnaise preparation. CLA-yolk mayonnaise was more viscous, had greater storage modulus, resisted thinning, and was a more stable emulsion, relative to mayonnaise prepared with control yolks or soy control yolks. PMID:26616924

  18. Facile transition from hydrophilicity to superhydrophilicity and superhydrophobicity on aluminum alloy surface by simple acid etching and polymer coating

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Wenyong; Sun, Linyu; Luo, Yuting; Wu, Ruomei; Jiang, Haiyun; Chen, Yi; Zeng, Guangsheng; Liu, Yuejun

    2013-09-01

    The transition from the hydrophilic surface to the superhydrophilic and superhydrophobic surface on aluminum alloy via hydrochloric acid etching and polymer coating was investigated by contact angle (CA) measurements and scanning electron microscope (SEM). The effects of etching and polymer coating on the surface were discussed. The results showed that a superhydrophilic surface was facilely obtained after acid etching for 20 min and a superhydrophobic surface was readily fabricated by polypropylene (PP) coating after acid etching. When the etching time was 30 min, the CA was up to 157̊. By contrast, two other polymers of polystyrene (PS) and polypropylene grafting maleic anhydride (PP-g-MAH) were used to coat the aluminum alloy surface after acid etching. The results showed that the CA was up to 159̊ by coating PP-g-MAH, while the CA was only 141̊ by coating PS. By modifying the surface with the silane coupling agent before PP coating, the durability and solvent resistance performance of the superhydrophobic surface was further improved. The micro-nano concave-convex structures of the superhydrophilic surface and the superhydrophobic surface were further confirmed by scanning electron microscope (SEM). Combined with the natural hydrophilicity of aluminum alloy, the rough micro-nano structures of the surface led to the superhydrophilicity of the aluminum alloy surface, while the rough surface structures led to the superhydrophobicity of the aluminum alloy surface by combination with the material of PP with the low surface free energy.

  19. Long-Term Effect of Docosahexaenoic Acid Feeding on Lipid Composition and Brain Fatty Acid-Binding Protein Expression in Rats

    PubMed Central

    Elsherbiny, Marwa E.; Goruk, Susan; Monckton, Elizabeth A.; Richard, Caroline; Brun, Miranda; Emara, Marwan; Field, Catherine J.; Godbout, Roseline

    2015-01-01

    Arachidonic (AA) and docosahexaenoic acid (DHA) brain accretion is essential for brain development. The impact of DHA-rich maternal diets on offspring brain fatty acid composition has previously been studied up to the weanling stage; however, there has been no follow-up at later stages. Here, we examine the impact of DHA-rich maternal and weaning diets on brain fatty acid composition at weaning and three weeks post-weaning. We report that DHA supplementation during lactation maintains high DHA levels in the brains of pups even when they are fed a DHA-deficient diet for three weeks after weaning. We show that boosting dietary DHA levels for three weeks after weaning compensates for a maternal DHA-deficient diet during lactation. Finally, our data indicate that brain fatty acid binding protein (FABP7), a marker of neural stem cells, is down-regulated in the brains of six-week pups with a high DHA:AA ratio. We propose that elevated levels of DHA in developing brain accelerate brain maturation relative to DHA-deficient brains. PMID:26506385

  20. Review of nucleic acid amplification tests and clinical prediction rules for diagnosis of tuberculosis in acute care facilities.

    PubMed

    Chitnis, Amit S; Davis, J Lucian; Schecter, Gisela F; Barry, Pennan M; Flood, Jennifer M

    2015-10-01

    Tuberculosis (TB) remains an important cause of hospitalization and mortality in the United States. Prevention of TB transmission in acute care facilities relies on prompt identification and implementation of airborne isolation, rapid diagnosis, and treatment of presumptive pulmonary TB patients. In areas with low TB burden, this strategy may result in inefficient utilization of airborne infection isolation rooms (AIIRs). We reviewed TB epidemiology and diagnostic approaches to inform optimal TB detection in low-burden settings. Published clinical prediction rules for individual studies have a sensitivity ranging from 81% to 100% and specificity ranging from 14% to 63% for detection of culture-positive pulmonary TB patients admitted to acute care facilities. Nucleic acid amplification tests (NAATs) have a specificity of >98%, and the sensitivity of NAATs varies by acid-fast bacilli sputum smear status (positive smear, ≥95%; negative smear, 50%-70%). We propose an infection prevention strategy using a clinical prediction rule to identify patients who warrant diagnostic evaluation for TB in an AIIR with an NAAT. Future studies are needed to evaluate whether use of clinical prediction rules and NAATs results in optimized utilization of AIIRs and improved detection and treatment of presumptive pulmonary TB patients. PMID:26166303

  1. Effect of lithocholic acid feeding on plasma lipoproteins and binding of radioiodinated human lipoproteins to hepatic membranes in rats.

    PubMed

    Loo, G; Kessie, G; Berlin, E; Nair, P P

    1992-06-01

    1. Male Sprague-Dawley rats fed diets containing 0.25% lithocholic acid for 6 weeks exhibited elevated serum cholesterol. 2. The rats were fed diets containing 5 or 20% fat with and without the lithocholate and/or oxytetracycline-HCl. 3. The cholesterol elevation was associated with high density lipoprotein (HDL) and not very low density lipoprotein (VLDL) or low density lipoprotein (LDL). 4. Specific binding of human [125I]HDL to hepatic membranes was lowered in lithocholate-fed rats, but binding of human [125I]LDL to these membranes was not affected. PMID:1354585

  2. Feeding response of subterranean termites Coptotermes curvignathus and Coptotermes gestroi (Blattodea: Rhinotermitidae) to baits supplemented with sugars, amino acids, and cassava.

    PubMed

    Castillo, Venite Pesigan; Sajap, Ahmad Said; Sahri, Mohd Hamami

    2013-08-01

    Feeding responses of subterranean termites Coptotermes curvignathus (Holmgren) and Coptotermes gestroi (Wasmann) (Blattodea: Rhinotermitidae) to bait matrices supplemented with various sugars, amino acids, and cassava were evaluated both in the laboratory and field. The results indicated that the two termite species consumed significantly different amount of filter papers that had been treated with various types and concentrations of sugars and amino acids. Based on consumption and survival data, filter papers with 3% glucose and 3% xylose were among the most consumed by C. curvignathus and C. gestroi, respectively. Both termite species consumed more of the filter papers treated with 3% casein than filter papers treated with L-alanine. Both species had a comparable survival rate compared with those in the controls. Results from laboratory and field trials on bait prototypes indicated that C. gestroi consumed more bait prototypes containing cellulose, 3% xylose, 3% casein, and cassava, whereas C curvignathus consumed more bait prototype containing cellulose, 3% glucose, and cassava, than on pure crystalline cellulose baits. Thus, with an improved and cost-effective bait formulation, a much wider control of subterranean termite colonies could be achieved. PMID:24020295

  3. Feeding into old age: long-term effects of dietary fatty acid supplementation on tissue composition and life span in mice

    PubMed Central

    Ruf, Thomas

    2010-01-01

    Smaller mammals, such as mice, possess tissues containing more polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFAs) than larger mammals, while at the same time live shorter lives. These relationships have been combined in the ‘membrane pacemaker hypothesis of aging’. It suggests that membrane PUFA content might determine an animal’s life span. PUFAs in general and certain long-chain PUFAs in particular, are highly prone to lipid peroxidation which brings about a high rate of reactive oxygen species (ROS) production. We hypothesized that dietary supplementation of either n-3 or n-6 PUFAs might affect (1) membrane phospholipid composition of heart and liver tissues and (2) life span of the animals due to the altered membrane composition, and subsequent effects on lipid peroxidation. Therefore, we kept female laboratory mice from the C57BL/6 strain on three diets (n-3 PUFA rich, n-6 PUFA rich, control) and assessed body weights, life span, heart, and liver phospholipid composition after the animals had died. We found that while membrane phospholipid composition clearly differed between feeding groups, life span was not directly affected. However, we were able to observe a positive correlation between monounsaturated fatty acids in cardiac muscle and life span. PMID:20981551

  4. Implementing a two-layer feed-forward catalytic DNA circuit for enzyme-free and colorimetric detection of nucleic acids.

    PubMed

    Ravan, Hadi

    2016-03-01

    In the present study, a highly sensitive and specific bio-sensing platform for enzyme-free and colorimetric detection of nucleic acids has been developed. The biosensor is composed of two DNA nanostructures and two fuel strands that construct the foundation of a feed-forward catalytic DNA circuit. Upon binding the target strand to a specific DNA nanostructure, the circuit is run in order that at the end a hemin-binding aptamer, with the ability to convert a colorless substrate into a colored substance is released. Based on this strategy, 4 pM of the target DNA can be easily detected in serum samples by naked eyes after only a two-hour incubation with the circuit; meanwhile, if the incubation time is extended to 3 h, the biosensor can detect 1 pM of the target DNA. Besides the elevated sensitivity, the circuit can truly discriminate a spurious target containing one nucleotide mismatch with high specificity. Overall, the enzyme-free catalytic DNA circuit can be used as a sensitive alternative method to enzyme-based biosensors for the specific and cost-effective detection of nucleic acids. PMID:26873470

  5. Improvement of the poly(3-hydroxybutyrate-co-3-hydroxyvalerate) (PHBV) production by dual feeding with levulinic acid and sodium propionate in Cupriavidus necator.

    PubMed

    Berezina, Nathalie; Yada, Bopha

    2016-01-25

    In the context of increasing volatility of oil prices, replacement of petroleum based plastics by bioplastics is a topic of increasing interest. Poly(hydroxyalkanoate)s (PHAs) are among the most promising families in this field. Controlling composition of the polymer on the monomeric level remains a pivotal issue. This control is even more difficult to achieve when the polymer is not synthesized by chemists, but produced by nature, in this case, bacteria. In this study mechanism and role of two 3-hydroxyvalerate (3-HV) inducing substrates on the production of PHBV with high, 80%, 3-HV content were evaluated. It was found that levulinic acid contributes to biomass and bio-polymer content enhancement, whereas sodium propionate mainly contributes to 3-HV enhancement. Optimized proportions of feeding substrates at 1 g/L and 2.5 g/L, respectively for levulinic acid and sodium propionate allowed a 100% productivity enhancement, at 3.9 mg/L/hour, for the production of PHBV with 80% 3-HV. PMID:26141376

  6. Facile synthesis of boronic acid-functionalized magnetic carbon nanotubes for highly specific enrichment of glycopeptides

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ma, Rongna; Hu, Junjie; Cai, Zongwei; Ju, Huangxian

    2014-02-01

    A stepwise strategy was developed to synthesize boronic acid functionalized magnetic carbon nanotubes (MCNTs) for highly specific enrichment of glycopeptides. The MCNTs were synthesized by a solvothermal reaction of Fe3+ loaded on the acid-treated CNTs and modified with 1-pyrenebutanoic acid N-hydroxysuccinimidyl ester (PASE) to bind aminophenylboronic acid (APBA) via an amide reaction. The introduction of PASE could bridge the MCNT and APBA, suppress the nonspecific adsorption and reduce the steric hindrance among the bound molecules. Due to the excellent structure of the MCNTs, the functionalization of PASE and then APBA on MCNTs was quite simple, specific and effective. The glycopeptides enrichment and separation with a magnetic field could be achieved by their reversible covalent binding with the boronic group of APBA-MCNTs. The exceptionally large specific surface area and the high density of boronic acid groups of APBA-MCNTs resulted in rapid and highly efficient enrichment of glycopeptides, even in the presence of large amounts of interfering nonglycopeptides. The functional MCNTs possessed high selectivity for enrichment of 21 glycopeptides from the digest of horseradish peroxidase demonstrated by MALDI-TOF mass spectrometric analysis showing more glycopeptides detected than the usual 9 glycopeptides with commercially available APBA-agarose. The proposed system showed better specificity for glycopeptides even in the presence of non-glycopeptides with 50 times higher concentration. The boronic acid functionalized MCNTs provide a promising selective enrichment platform for precise glycoproteomic analysis.A stepwise strategy was developed to synthesize boronic acid functionalized magnetic carbon nanotubes (MCNTs) for highly specific enrichment of glycopeptides. The MCNTs were synthesized by a solvothermal reaction of Fe3+ loaded on the acid-treated CNTs and modified with 1-pyrenebutanoic acid N-hydroxysuccinimidyl ester (PASE) to bind aminophenylboronic acid

  7. Interactions between the jasmonic and salicylic acid pathway modulate the plant metabolome and affect herbivores of different feeding types.

    PubMed

    Schweiger, R; Heise, A-M; Persicke, M; Müller, C

    2014-07-01

    The phytohormones jasmonic acid (JA) and salicylic acid (SA) mediate induced plant defences and the corresponding pathways interact in a complex manner as has been shown on the transcript and proteine level. Downstream, metabolic changes are important for plant-herbivore interactions. This study investigated metabolic changes in leaf tissue and phloem exudates of Plantago lanceolata after single and combined JA and SA applications as well as consequences on chewing-biting (Heliothis virescens) and piercing-sucking (Myzus persicae) herbivores. Targeted metabolite profiling and untargeted metabolic fingerprinting uncovered different categories of plant metabolites, which were influenced in a specific manner, indicating points of divergence, convergence, positive crosstalk and pronounced mutual antagonism between the signaling pathways. Phytohormone-specific decreases of primary metabolite pool sizes in the phloem exudates may indicate shifts in sink-source relations, resource allocation, nutrient uptake or photosynthesis. Survival of both herbivore species was significantly reduced by JA and SA treatments. However, the combined application of JA and SA attenuated the negative effects at least against H. virescens suggesting that mutual antagonism between the JA and SA pathway may be responsible. Pathway interactions provide a great regulatory potential for the plant that allows triggering of appropriate defences when attacked by different antagonist species. PMID:24372400

  8. Integration of Succinic Acid Production in a Dry Mill Ethanol Facility

    SciTech Connect

    2006-08-01

    This project seeks to address both issues for a dry mill ethanol biorefinery by lowering the cost of sugars with the development of an advanced pretreatment process, improving the economics of succinic acid (SA), and developing a model of an ethanol dry mill to evaluate the impact of adding different products and processes to a dry mill.

  9. A comparison of the effect of water-delivered direct fed microbials or organic acids with an in-feed antibiotic on weanling pig growth performance, intestinal morphology, gut microbiota and immune status following a...

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Pigs (n=88) weaned at 19 days of age were used in a 14-days experiment to compare the effects of water delivered direct fed microbials (DFM) or a propionic acid (PA) based blend with an in-feed antibiotic on growth performance, intestinal morphology, gut microbiota and immune status following a Salm...

  10. Infant feeding and vision

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Over the past several years, a number of randomized controlled trials have compared the effects of breastfeeding and formula feeding and the effects of docosahexaenoic acid (DHA)–supplemented and non-supplemented formulas on visual function in both preterm and term infants. Some studies have shown b...

  11. Influence of feeding graded levels of canned sardines on the inflammatory markers and tissue fatty acid composition of Wistar rats.

    PubMed

    Rodrigues, Pedro O; Martins, Susana V; Lopes, Paula A; Ramos, Cristina; Miguéis, Samuel; Alfaia, Cristina M; Pinto, Rui M A; Rolo, Eva A; Bispo, Paulo; Batista, Irineu; Bandarra, Narcisa M; Prates, José A M

    2014-08-14

    Canned sardines are a ready-to-use fish product with excellent nutritional properties owing to its high n-3 long-chain PUFA content, mainly EPA (20 : 5n-3) and DHA (22 : 6n-3). The present study aimed to assess the effect of two dosages of canned sardines, recommended for the primary and secondary prevention of human CVD, on the inflammatory marker concentrations and fatty acid composition of erythrocytes and key metabolic tissues (liver, muscle, adipose tissue and brain) in the rat model. Wistar rats were fed a diet containing 11 % (w/w) of canned sardines (low-sardine (LS) diet) and a diet containing 22 % (w/w) of canned sardines (high-sardine (HS) diet) for 10 weeks. Daily food intake, weight gain, and organ and final body weights were not affected by the dietary treatments. The concentrations of total cholesterol, HDL-cholesterol and LDL-cholesterol decreased in both the LS and HS groups, while those of alanine aminotransferase and adiponectin increased. The concentrations of IL-1β increased only with the highest dosage of sardine. The dose-dependent influence of the graded levels of EPA+DHA was tissue specific. Compared with that of other tissues and erythrocytes, the fatty acid composition of the brain was less affected by the canned sardine-supplemented diets. In contrast, the retroperitoneal adipose tissue was highly responsive. The deposition ratios of EPA and DHA indicated that the LS diet was optimal for DHA deposition across the tissues, except in the retroperitoneal adipose tissue. Taken together, our findings indicate that a LS diet positively affects plasma lipid profiles and inflammatory mediators, whereas a HS diet has contradictory effects on IL-1β, which, in turn, is not associated with variations in the concentrations of other pro-inflammatory cytokines. This finding requires further investigation and pathophysiological understanding. PMID:24775714

  12. Effectiveness of Aquaflor (50% florfenicol) administered in feed to control mortality associated with Streptococcus iniae in tilapia at a commercial tilapia production facility

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Gaikowski, Mark P.; Schleis, Susan M.; Leis, Eric; Lasee, Becky A.; Endris, Richard G.

    2014-01-01

    The efficacy of Aquaflor (florfenicol; FFC) to control mortality caused by Streptococcus iniae in tilapia was evaluated under field conditions. The trial was initiated following presumptive diagnosis of S. iniae infection in a mixed group of fingerling (mean, 4.5 g) Nile Tilapia Oreochromis niloticus and a hybrid of Nile Tilapia×Blue Tilapia O. aureus. Diagnoses included mortality in source tank; examination of clinical signs and presence or absence of gram-positive cocci in brain, and collection of samples for microbiological review and disease confirmation of 60 moribund fish. Following presumptive diagnosis, tilapia (83/tank) were randomly transferred to each of 20 test tanks receiving the same water as the source tank (test tank water was not reused). Tilapia were offered either nonmedicated control feed or FFC-medicated feed (FFC at 15 mg/kg body weight/d; 10 tanks per regimen) for 10 consecutive days followed by a 14-d observation period during which only the nonmedicated control feed was offered. Streptococcus iniae was presumptively identified during pretreatment necropsy and confirmed by polymerase chain reaction assay; S. iniae was confirmed in samples taken during the dosing period but was not detected during the postdosing period. The FFC disk diffusion zone of inhibition ranged from 29 to 32 mm, while the minimum inhibitory concentration of FFC ranged from 2 to 4 μg/mL for the S. iniae isolates collected. Survival of tilapia assigned to the FFC-dose group was significantly greater at 14 d posttreatment than that of the nonmedicated controls. The odds of tilapia assigned to the FFC-dose group surviving to the end of the postdosing period were 1.34 times the odds of survival of tilapia assigned to the nonmedicated control group. There were no clinically apparent adverse effects associated with the administration of FFC-medicated feed in this study.

  13. Using Fatty-Acid Profile Analysis as an Ecologic Indicator in the Management of Tourist Impacts on Marine Wildlife: A Case of Stingray-Feeding in the Caribbean

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Semeniuk, Christina A. D.; Speers-Roesch, Ben; Rothley, Kristina D.

    2007-10-01

    Feeding marine wildlife as a tourism experience has become a popular means by which to attract both people and wildlife, although management efforts are still in their infancy. “Stingray City Sandbar” in the Cayman Islands, where visitors can hand feed free-ranging Southern Stingrays ( Dasyatis americana), is a world-famous attraction currently undergoing visitor and wildlife management. One plan is to decrease the amount of nonnatural food provided by tourists with the intention of decreasing stingray habituation to the artificial food source and promoting stingray health. However, the effectiveness of this action is uncertain given that neither the extent of squid composition in the stingray diet nor the degree of nutrient similarity between the fed and natural diets is unknown. We used fatty acid (FA) profile analysis to address these questions by assessing the serum nonesterified FA composition of fed and unfed stingrays around the island and compared them with FA profiles of (1) the provisioned food source (squid) and (2) other warm- and cold-water elasmobranchs (sharks and rays). Our results indicated that fed stingrays were distinct. The FA profiles of the fed stingray population were expressly different from those of the unfed populations and showed a remarkable similarity to the FA composition of squid, suggesting that squid is the main food source. The tropical fed stingrays also exhibited essential FA ratios, specific to both species and habitat, comparable with those of elasmobranchs and squid from cold-water environs, implying that the provisioned food does not provide a similar nutritional lipid composition to that eaten in the wild. Our results suggest that FA profiles are a valuable indicator for the management and monitoring of fed Southern Stingrays because they can be used to assess differences in diet composition and provide an index of nutritional similarity. Our findings are currently being used by Caymanian stakeholders in designing

  14. Rumen papillae morphology of beef steers relative to gain and feed intake and the association of volatile fatty acids with kallikrein gene expression

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Feed costs are the most expensive input in beef production. Improvement in the feed efficiency of beef cattle would lower feed inputs and reduce the cost of production. The rumen epithelium is responsible for absorption and metabolism of nutrients and microbial by-products, and may play a significan...

  15. A facile microwave-assisted protocol for rapid synthesis of N-acetylneuraminic acid congeners

    PubMed Central

    Saludes, Jonel P.; Sahoo, Dhananjaya; Monreal, I. Abrrey

    2014-01-01

    We developed a simple, rapid and efficient microwave irradiation-assisted protocol that is 1- to 2-orders of magnitude faster than conventional techniques, providing an expedient access to the sialic acid congeners Neu5Ac1Me (1), Neu5Acβ1,2Me2 (2), Neu5Ac1Me O-peracetate (3) and 4,5-oxazoline of Neu5Ac2en1Me O-peracetate (4). PMID:24678239

  16. A facile assay to monitor secretory phospholipase A₂ using 8-anilino-1-naphthalenesulfonic acid.

    PubMed

    Vivek, Hamse K; Swamy, Supritha G; Priya, Babu S; Sethi, Gautam; Rangappa, Kanchugarakoppal S; Swamy, S Nanjunda

    2014-09-15

    Secretory phospholipases A2 (sPLA2s) are present in snake venoms, serum, and biological fluids of patients with various inflammatory, autoimmune and allergic disorders. Lipid mediators in the inflammatory processes have potential value for controlling phospholipid metabolism through sPLA2 inhibition. Thus, it demands the need for screening of potential leads for sPLA2 inhibition. To date, sPLA2 activity has been assayed using expensive radioactive or chromogenic substrates, thereby limiting a large number of assays. In this study, a simple and sensitive NanoDrop assay was developed using non-fluorogenic and non-chromogenic phospholipid substrate 1,2-dimyristoyl-sn-glycero-3-phosphocholine (DMPC) and 8-anilino-1-naphthalenesulfonic acid (ANS) as interfacial hydrophobic probe. The modified assay required a 10ng concentration of sPLA2. ANS, as a strong anion, binds predominantly to cationic group of choline head of DMPC through ion pair formation, imparting hydrophobicity and lipophilicity and resulting in an increase in fluorescence. Triton X-100 imparts correct geometrical space during sPLA2 catalyzing DMPC, releasing lysophospholipid and acidic myristoyl acid, which in turn alters the hydrophobic environment prevailing around ANS-DMPC, which leads to weakening of the electrostatic ion pair interaction between DMPC and ANS ensuing decrease in fluorescence. These characteristic fluorescence changes between DMPC and ANS in response to sPLA2 catalysis are well documented and validated in this study. PMID:24915638

  17. The nature of peptide interactions with acid end-group PLGAs and facile aqueous-based microencapsulation of therapeutic peptides

    PubMed Central

    Sophocleous, Andreas M.; Desai, Kashappa-Goud H.; Mazzara, J. Maxwell; Tong, Ling; Cheng, Ji-Xin; Olsen, Karl F.; Schwendeman, Steven P.

    2013-01-01

    An important poorly understood phenomenon in controlled-release depots involves the strong interaction between common cationic peptides and low Mw free acid end-group poly(lactic-co-glycolic acids) (PLGAs) used to achieve continuous peptide release kinetics. The kinetics of peptide sorption to PLGA was examined by incubating peptide solutions of 0.2-4 mM octreotide or leuprolide acetate salts in 0.1 M HEPES buffer, pH 7.4, with polymer particles or films at 4-37 °C for 24 h. The extent of absorption/loading of peptides in PLGA particles/films was assayed by two-phase extraction and amino acid analysis. Confocal Raman microspectroscopy and stimulated Raman scattering (SRS) and laser scanning confocal imaging techniques were used to examine peptide penetration in the polymer phase. The release of sorbed peptide from leuprolide-PLGA particles was evaluated both in vitro (PBST + 0.02% sodium azide, 37 °C) and in vivo (male Sprague-Dawley rats). We found that when the PLGA-COOH chains are sufficiently mobilized, therapeutic peptides not only bind at the surface, a common belief to date, but can also internalized and distributed throughout the polymer phase at physiological temperature forming a salt with low-molecular weight PLGA-COOH. Importantly, absorption of leuprolide into low MW PLGA-COOH particles yielded ~17 wt% leuprolide loading in the polymer (i.e., ~70% of PLGA-COOH acids occupied), and the absorbed peptide was released from the polymer for > 2 weeks in a controlled fashion in vitro and as indicated by sustained testosterone suppression in male Sprague-Dawley rats. This new approach, which bypasses the traditional encapsulation method and associated production cost, opens up the potential for facile production of low-cost controlled-release injectable depots for leuprolide and related peptides. PMID:24021356

  18. Exploring Jupiter's icy moons with old techniques and big facilities - new insights on sulfuric acid hydrates

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Maynard-Casely, H. E.; Avdeev, M.; Brand, H.; Wallwork, K.

    2013-12-01

    Sulfuric acid hydrates have been proposed to be abundant on the surface of Europa [1], and hence would be important planetary forming materials for this moon and its companions Ganymede and Callisto. Understanding of the surface features and subsurface of these moons could be advanced by firmer knowledge of the icy materials that comprise them [2], insight into which can be drawn from firmer knowledge of physical properties and phase behaviour of the candidate materials. We wish to present results from a study that started with the question ';What form of sulfuric acid hydrate would form on the surface of Europa'. The intrinsic hydrogen-domination of planetary ices, makes studying these materials with laboratory powder diffraction very challenging. Insights into their crystalline phase behavior and the extraction of a number of thermal and mechanical properties is often only accessible with high-flux synchrotron x-ray diffraction and utilization of the large scattering cross section with neutron diffraction. We have used the Powder Diffraction beamline at Australian synchrotron [4] and the Echidna (High-resolution neutron powder diffraction) instrument of the Australian Nuclear Science and Technology Organization, [5] to obtain an number of new insights into the crystalline phases formed from sulfruic acid and water mixtures. These instruments have enabled the discovery a new water-rich sulfuric acid hydrate form [6], improved structural characterisation of existing forms [7] and a charting the phase diagram of this fundamental binary system [8]. This has revealed exciting potential for understanding more about the surface of Europa from space, perhaps even providing a window into its past. [1] Carlson, R.W., R.E. Johnson, and M.S. Anderson, Science, 1999. 286(5437): p. 97-99. [2] Fortes, A.D. and M. Choukroun. Space Sci Rev, 2010. 153(1-4): p. 185-218. [3] Blake, D., et al., Space Sci Rev,, 2012. 170(1-4): p. 341-399. [4] Wallwork, K.S., Kennedy B. J. and Wang, D

  19. Reproductive and feeding spatial dynamics of the black scabbardfish, Aphanopus carbo Lowe, 1839, in NE Atlantic inferred from fatty acid and stable isotope analyses

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Farias, Inês; Figueiredo, Ivone; Janeiro, Ana Isabel; Bandarra, Narcisa Maria; Batista, Irineu; Morales-Nin, Beatriz

    2014-07-01

    The black scabbardfish (Aphanopus carbo) is a benthopelagic species widely distributed across the NE Atlantic, where it is admitted to perform a clockwise migration throughout its life cycle stimulated by feeding and reproduction. To overcome the limitations of direct observation of this species, fatty acids profile (FA) and δ15N and δ13C stable isotopes (SI) were analyzed in the muscle tissue of the black scabbardfish and related with diet and maturity. Specimens were collected in four geographic areas in the NE Atlantic: Iceland, the west of the British Isles, mainland Portugal, and Madeira. For all areas, the FA profile was related with the different phases of the reproductive cycle and with diet, whereas the SI were related with diet, environmental characteristics, such as latitude and depth, and particulate organic matter (POM). Stomach content of black scabbardfish caught off mainland Portugal was analyzed and the most frequent prey item identified was the lophogastrid crustacean Gnathophausia zoea, followed by the cephalopod Mastigotheutis spp. and the teleost Rouleina maderensis. For specimens from Iceland and the west of the British Isles, monounsaturated fatty acids (MUFA) were the most important FA, followed by polyunsaturated (PUFA) and saturated FA (SFA), whereas for specimens from mainland Portugal and from Madeira the sequences were PUFA>MUFA>SFA and PUFA>SFA>MUFA, respectively. Immature specimens from the first three areas were found to be accumulating oleic acid which is an intermediate product of the metabolic pathway that transforms SFA to MUFA and these into PUFA. Specimens caught off Madeira were mature and showed a significant prevalence of ARA and DHA which are PUFA with an important role in reproduction. δ15N was significantly higher in the muscle of black scabbardfish from Madeira, whereas δ13C was significantly lower in specimens from Iceland. The low isotopic ratios as well as the prevalence of certain fatty acid trophic markers (FATM

  20. Novel fully protected muramic acid: A facile synthesis and structural study

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kovačević, Monika; Rapić, Vladimir; Lukač, Iva; Molčanov, Krešimir; Kodrin, Ivan; Barišić, Lidija

    2013-09-01

    Synthesis and structural characterisation of novel fully protected muramic acid 2 (N-Boc-Mur-OMe, Mur = muramic acid) has been reported. N-Ac-Mur-OMe (1) prepared starting from commercially available N-acetylglucosamine, was treated with di-tert-butyl dicarbonate (Boc2O) and N,N-dimethyl-4-aminopyridine (DMAP) in tetrahydrofuran. The intermediate mixed imide N-Ac-N-Boc-Mur-OMe was converted to N-Boc-Mur-OMe (2) upon in situ treatment with hydrazine hydrate in methanol. The structural analysis of 2, performed by IR and NMR spectroscopic methods and X-ray crystallography, was augmented by computational calculations including molecular and density functional theory studies (DFT) using M06/6-31G(d) computational model. The spectroscopic and DFT data obtained for novel Boc-protected 2 were compared with corresponding experimental values of its previously described Ac-protected analogue 1 in order to examine if the replacement of the protecting groups influences the conformational properties.

  1. Salicylic acid-induced changes in physiological parameters and genes of the flavonoid biosynthesis pathway in Artemisia vulgaris and Dendranthema nankingense during aphid feeding.

    PubMed

    Sun, Y; Xia, X L; Jiang, J F; Chen, S M; Chen, F D; Lv, G S

    2016-01-01

    Phloem-feeding aphids cause serious damage to plants. The mechanisms of plant-aphid interactions are only partially understood and involve multiple pathways, including phytohormones. In order to investigate whether salicylic acid (SA) is involved and how it plays a part in the defense response to the aphid Macrosiphoniella sanbourni, physiological changes and gene expression profiles in response to aphid inoculation with or without SA pretreatment were compared between the aphid-resistant Artemisia vulgaris 'Variegata' and the susceptible chrysanthemum, Dendranthema nankingense. Changes in levels of reactive oxygen species, malondialdehyde (MDA), and flavonoids, and in the expression of genes involved in flavonoid biosynthesis, including PAL (phenylalanine ammonia-lyase), CHS (chalcone synthase), CHI (chalcone isomerase), F3H (flavanone 3-hydroxylase), F3'H (flavanone 3'-hydroxylase), and DFR (dihydroflavonol reductase), were investigated. Levels of hydrogen peroxide, superoxide anions, MDA, and flavonoids, and their related gene expression, increased after aphid infestation and SA pretreatment followed by aphid infestation; the aphid-resistant A. vulgaris exhibited a more rapid response than the aphid-susceptible D. nankingense to SA treatment and aphid infestation. Taken together, our results suggest that SA could be used to increase aphid resistance in the chrysanthemum. PMID:26909993

  2. Feeding Tubes

    MedlinePlus

    ... administer the TPN. Tubes Used for Enteral Feeds NG (Nasogastric Tube) A flexible tube is placed via ... down through the esophagus into the stomach. The NG tube can be used to empty the stomach ...

  3. Upregulation of bile acid receptor TGR5 and nNOS in gastric myenteric plexus is responsible for delayed gastric emptying after chronic high-fat feeding in rats.

    PubMed

    Zhou, Hui; Zhou, Shiyi; Gao, Jun; Zhang, Guanpo; Lu, Yuanxu; Owyang, Chung

    2015-05-15

    Chronic high-fat feeding is associated with functional dyspepsia and delayed gastric emptying. We hypothesize that high-fat feeding upregulates gastric neuronal nitric oxide synthase (nNOS) expression, resulting in delayed gastric emptying. We propose this is mediated by increased bile acid action on bile acid receptor 1 (TGR5) located on nNOS gastric neurons. To test this hypothesis, rats were fed regular chow or a high-fat diet for 2 wk. Rats fed the high-fat diet were subjected to concurrent feeding with oral cholestyramine or terminal ileum resection. TGR5 and nNOS expression in gastric tissue was measured by immunohistochemistry, PCR, and Western blot. Gastric motility was assessed by organ bath and solid-phase gastric emptying studies. The 2-wk high-fat diet caused a significant increase in neurons coexpressing nNOS and TGR5 in the gastric myenteric plexus and an increase in nNOS and TGR5 gene expression, 67 and 111%, respectively. Enhanced nonadrenergic, noncholinergic (NANC) relaxation, deoxycholic acid (DCA)-induced inhibition in fundic tissue, and a 26% delay in gastric emptying accompanied these changes. A 24-h incubation of whole-mount gastric fundus with DCA resulted in increased nNOS and TGR5 protein expression, 41 and 37%, respectively. Oral cholestyramine and terminal ileum resection restored the enhanced gastric relaxation, as well as the elevated nNOS and TGR5 expression evoked by high-fat feeding. Cholestyramine also prevented the delay in gastric emptying. We conclude that increased levels of circulatory bile acids induced by high-fat feeding upregulate nNOS and TGR5 expression in the gastric myenteric plexus, resulting in enhanced NANC relaxation and delayed gastric emptying. PMID:25540233

  4. Responses of feeding prebiotics on nutrient digestibility, faecal microbiota composition and short-chain fatty acid concentrations in dogs: a meta-analysis.

    PubMed

    Patra, A K

    2011-09-01

    The effects of prebiotics on digestibility, short-chain fatty acid (SCFA) concentrations and bacterial populations in the faeces and immunity in dogs were evaluated by meta-analyses. Overall, data from 15 published studies containing 65 different treatment means of 418 observations from different breeds of dogs were included in the data set. Feeding of prebiotics to dogs did not affect the nutrient intake (P > 0.10), nor did prebiotics change (P > 0.10) the digestibility of dry matter (DM) and fat. However, crude protein (CP) digestibility tended to decrease quadratically (P = 0.06) with increasing dosages of prebiotics, although the degree of prediction was low (R(2) = 0.33). The concentration of total SCFA (P = 0.08; R(2) = 0.90) tended to increase linearly, whereas concentration of acetate (R(2) = 0.25), propionate (R(2) = 0.88) and butyrate (R(2) = 0.85) increased quadratically with increasing dosage of prebiotics in the faeces of dogs. The numbers of beneficial bifidobacteria (P < 0.01; R(2) = 0.62) increased quadratically, but lactobacilli (P < 0.01; R(2) = 0.66) increased linearly with increasing supplementation of prebiotics. The changes in healthy bacterial numbers were affected by the interaction of initial bacterial numbers and dose of prebiotics; bacterial numbers increased relatively more when initial bacterial numbers were low. Dietary composition did not influence the response of prebiotics on lactobacilli and bifidobacterial numbers in this study. The numbers of pathogenic Clostridium perfringens and Escherichia coli were not affected by prebiotics. Prebiotics did not affect the serum immunoglobulin (Ig) concentrations such as IgG, IgA and IgM in dogs. Although prebiotics may tend to have an adverse effect on CP digestibility, prebiotics at doses up to 1.40% food intake (DM basis) might increase the beneficial bacterial populations and SCFA concentrations in the faeces of dogs. Thus, the feeding of prebiotics has a great prospective to improve the

  5. The effects of blood feeding and exogenous supply of tryptophan on the quantities of xanthurenic acid in the salivary glands of Anopheles stephensi (Diptera: Culicidae).

    PubMed

    Okech, Bernard; Arai, Meiji; Matsuoka, Hiroyuki

    2006-03-24

    Xanthurenic acid (XA), produced as a byproduct during the biosynthesis of insect eye pigment (ommochromes), is a strong inducer of Plasmodium gametogenesis at very low concentrations. In previous studies, it was shown that XA is present in Anopheles stephensi (Diptera: Culicidae) mosquito salivary glands and that during blood feeding the mosquitoes ingested their own saliva into the midgut. Considering these two facts together, it is therefore likely that XA is discharged with saliva during blood feeding and is swallowed into the midgut where it exerts its effect on Plasmodium gametocytes. However, the quantities of XA in the salivary glands and midgut are unknown. In this study, we used high performance liquid chromatography with electrochemical detection to detect and quantify XA in the salivary glands and midgut. Based on the results of this study, we found 0.28+/-0.05 ng of XA in the salivary glands of the mosquitoes, accounting for 10% of the total XA content in the mosquito whole body. The amounts of XA in the salivary glands reduced to 0.13+/-0.06 ng after mosquitoes ingested a blood meal. Approximately 0.05+/-0.01 ng of XA was detected in the midgut of nonblood fed An. stephensi mosquitoes. By adding synthetic tryptophan as a source of XA into larval rearing water (2 mM) or in sugar meals (10 mM), we evaluated whether XA levels in the mosquito (salivary glands, midgut, and whole body) were boosted and the subsequent effect on infectivity of Plasmodium berghei in the treated mosquito groups. A female specific increase in XA content was observed in the whole body and in the midgut of mosquito groups where tryptophan was added either in the larval water or sugar meals. However, XA in the salivary glands was not affected by tryptophan addition to larval water, and surprisingly it reduced when tryptophan was added to sugar meals. The P. berghei oocyst loads in the mosquito midguts were lower in mosquitoes fed tryptophan treated sugar meals than in mosquitoes

  6. Effect of feeding hemp seed and hemp seed oil on laying hen performance and egg yolk fatty acid content: evidence of their safety and efficacy for laying hen diets.

    PubMed

    Gakhar, N; Goldberg, E; Jing, M; Gibson, R; House, J D

    2012-03-01

    Forty-eight 19-wk-old Bovan White laying hens were fed 1 of 5 diets containing either hemp seed (HS) or hemp seed oil (HO). The level of HO was 4, 8, or 12%, whereas the level was 10 or 20% for the HS. A set of 8 birds fed wheat-, barley-, and corn oil-based diets served as the control. Performance was monitored over 12 wk. Average hen-day egg production was not affected upon feeding of either HS or HO diets. Egg weight was higher than that of the controls for hens consuming the 20% HS diet (P < 0.05). Feed intake was lower than that of the controls for birds consuming the 4% HO diet but similar across other treatments. Final BW were not affected by diet, with the exception of being lower than that of the controls (P < 0.05) in hens consuming the 12% HO diet. The total egg yolk n-3 fatty acid content increased linearly (P < 0.05) with increasing dietary α-linolenic acid provision with the HS- or HO-based diets. A quadratic response (P < 0.05) was observed for docosahexaenoic acid levels in egg yolk in response to increasing dietary α-linolenic acid supply. The expression of hepatic fatty acid desaturase 1 and 2, key genes for the desaturation of long-chain polyunsaturated fatty acids, was significantly decreased (50-60% of controls; P < 0.05) as a result of feeding HS or HO diets. Based on the results from the current study, the inclusion of the hemp products HS or HO in the diets of laying hens up to a maximum level of 20 and 12%, respectively, does not adversely effect the performance of laying hens and leads to the enrichment of the n-3 fatty acid content of eggs. PMID:22334746

  7. Facile synthesis and characterization of trimesic acid-Cu based metal organic frameworks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sahiner, Nurettin; Sel, Kivanc; Ozturk, Omer Faruk; Demirci, Sahin; Terzi, Gozde

    2014-09-01

    Metal-organic frameworks based on trimesic acid (TMA) as organic linker and Cu (II) as metal ions from different metal salts such as CuCl2, Cu(NO3)2, CuSO4 and Cu(CH3COOH)2 were prepared in relatively environmentally friendly media e.g., at room temperature in DI water and at the boiling point of ethanol. The prepared TMA-Cu MOFs showed very interesting porosity and optical coloring based on the source of the used metal salts and preparation medium. The prepared MOFs were characterized in terms of their porosity with BET measurements and it was found that about 850 m2/g for the MOF prepared from Cu(NO3)2 salt in ethanol. The amounts of metal ions connected to TMA were determined by atomic absorption spectroscopy measurements (AAS) after dissolution of TMA-Cu MOFs by concentrated HCl treatments. From AAS measurements the mole ratio of Cu(II) to TMA was found to vary between 1.5 and 2, depending on the source of metal ions and the solvent used during preparation. The structural analysis and thermal characterization of the prepared MOFs were done by using FT-IR and TGA analysis, respectively. Additionally, TMA-Cu based MOF disks were prepared and their conductivities were determined by I-V measurements. The conductivity of TMA-Cu MOFs was calculated to be between 8.26E-08 and 5.29E-11 S/cm.

  8. Compliance testing of phosphoric acid anodizing line wet scrubber, metal bonding facility, Building 375, Kelly AFB, Texas. Final report, 5 January-10 January 1989

    SciTech Connect

    Garrison, J.A.

    1989-06-01

    At the request of HQ-SA-ALC/EM, personnel of the AFOEHL Air-Quality Function conducted source-emission testing of the exhaust from the phosphoric acid anodizing tank line, metal-bonding facility, Bldg 375, Kelly AFB TX. The survey was conducted to satisfy special conditions of Texas Air Control Board (TACB) Permit Exemption X-16361 which required determination of phosphoric acid, sulfuric acid, total chromium, and hexavalent chromium emissions from the wet scrubber control device on the anodizing-line exhaust system. TACB will analyze the emission results and make the final determination as to whether additional control is needed on the anodizing-line exhaust.

  9. Feeding guilt.

    PubMed

    Byrom, Anna

    2013-03-01

    Breastfeeding is increasingly equated to ideologies of the 'good mother' in our society in response to a growing body of evidence identifying its benefits. Women who choose not to or are unable to breastfeed can experience a sense of guilt in response to cultural expectations that 'breast is best'. These negative feelings can impact upon their adaptation to and enjoyment of motherhood. This discussion paper examines the experience of maternal guilt with specific reference to infant feeding. An exploration of the reasons mothers may feel guilty about their feeding experiences is offered. Finally some suggestions are made about how midwives and breastfeeding advocates might improve care for mothers' emotional wellbeing. PMID:23590082

  10. Effect of feeding guanidinoacetic acid and L-arginine on the fertility rate and sperm penetration in the perivitelline layer of aged broiler breeder hens.

    PubMed

    Sharideh, H; Esmaeile Neia, L; Zaghari, M; Zhandi, M; Akhlaghi, A; Lotfi, L

    2016-04-01

    Two experiments were conducted to evaluate the effects of feeding guanidinoacetic acid (GAA) and L-arginine (ARG) on fertility and sperm penetration (SP) rate of broiler breeder hens. In the first experiment, a total of 200 broiler breeder hens (Ross 308) aged 53 weeks were randomly allotted to four dietary treatments (0, 0.6, 1.2 and 1.8 g GAA/kg diet) with five replicates of 10 birds each. In the second experiment, 320 broiler breeder hens (Ross 308) were used from 53 to 62 weeks of age in a 2 × 4 factorial arrangement (0 or 1.2 g GAA/kg diet along with 0, 3, 6 or 9 g ARG/kg diet). The hens received a diet containing 2800 kcal ME/kg and 14% CP. Sixteen sexually mature Ross 308 breeder roosters (34 weeks old) were used to artificially inseminate the hens. Fertility of the hens was determined in 61 and 62 weeks of age. The sperm penetration holes in the inner perivitelline layer (IPL) overlying the germinal disc were enumerated on days 3 and 7 following each insemination. Adding GAA to the breeder diet increased the number of SPs in the IPL and fertility in both experiments (p < 0.01). The interactive effect of ARG and GAA on the SP and fertility was significant. Supplementary ARG increased the SP rate in the IPL (p < 0.01). In conclusion, dietary supplementation of GAA and ARG might be potentially used to improve the fertility of broiler breeder hens at the later phase of the egg production period. PMID:26216477

  11. Investigation of gene expressions related to cholesterol metabolism in rats fed diets enriched in n-6 or n-3 fatty acid with a cholesterol after long-term feeding using quantitative-competitive RT-PCR analysis.

    PubMed

    Fukushima, M; Shimada, K; Ohashi, E; Saitoh, H; Sonoyama, K; Sekikawa, M; Nakano, M

    2001-06-01

    We have developed a method to quantitate hepatic apolipoprotein (apo) B, LDL receptor, 3-hydroxy-3-methylglutary coenzyme A reductase (HMG-CoA reductase) and cholesterol 7alpha-hydroxylase mRNA expression in rats fed a cholesterol-enriched diet after long-term feeding using competitive RT-RCR. Rats (8 wk of age) fed a conventional diet were shifted to diets containing 10% perilla oil (PEO, oleic acid+linoleic acid+alpha-linolenic acid), borage oil (BRO, oleic acid+linoleic acid+gamma-linolenic acid), evening primrose oil (EPO, linoleic acid+gamma-linolenic acid), mixed oil (MIO, oleic acid+linoleic acid+gamma-linolenic acid+alpha-linolenic acid), or palm oil (PLO, palmitic acid+oleic acid+linoleic acid) with 0.5% cholesterol for 15 wk. There were no significant differences in the food intake and body weight gain among the groups. The liver weight in the PEO and PLO groups was significantly higher than other groups. The serum total cholesterol and very low density lipoprotein (VLDL)+intermediate density lipoprotein (IDL)+low density lipoprotein (LDL)-cholesterol concentrations were consistently higher in PLO group than in the other groups. The serum high density lipoprotein cholesterol concentration was significantly lower in the PEO group than in the other groups. The liver cholesterol concentration group was significantly higher in the PEO than in the other groups. There were no significant differences in the hepatic LDL receptor mRNA level among the groups. Hepatic apo B, HMG-CoA reductase and cholesterol 7alpha-hydroxylase mRNA levels were not affected by the experimental conditions. However, hepatic cholesterol 7alpha-hydroxylase mRNA level in the PEO and MIO groups tended to be higher than in the other groups. The fecal cholesterol extraction was significantly higher in the MIO and PLO groups than in the PEO and EPO groups and the total bile acid extraction was significantly higher in the PEO and MIO groups than in the PLO group. The results of this study

  12. Occurrence and transport of 17 perfluoroalkyl acids in 12 coastal rivers in south Bohai coastal region of China with concentrated fluoropolymer facilities.

    PubMed

    Wang, Pei; Lu, Yonglong; Wang, Tieyu; Fu, Yaning; Zhu, Zhaoyun; Liu, Shijie; Xie, Shuangwei; Xiao, Yang; Giesy, John P

    2014-07-01

    Perfluoroalkyl acids (PFAAs) are emerging contaminants that have raised great concern in recent years. While PFAAs manufacturing becomes regulated in developed countries, production has been partly shifted to China. Eight fluoropolymer manufacturing facilities located in the South Bohai coastal region, one of the most populated areas of China, have been used to manufacture PFAA-related substances since 2001. The environmental consequence of the intensive production of PFAAs in this region remains largely unknown. We analyzed 17 PFAAs in twelve coastal rivers of this region, and found staggeringly high concentrations of perfluorooctanoic acid (PFOA) ranging from 0.96 to 4534.41 ng/L. The highest concentration was observed in the Xiaoqing River which received effluents from certain fluoropolymer facilities. Principal component analysis indicated similar sources of several perfluoroalkyl carboxylic acids (PFCAs) in all rivers, which indicated that atmospheric transport, wastewater treatment and surface runoff also acted as important supplements to direct discharge to surface water. PMID:24747105

  13. Effects of an essential fatty acid deficiency, pair-feeding and level of dietary corn oil on the hypothalamic-pituitary-gonadal axis and other physiological parameters in the male chicken.

    PubMed

    Engster, H M; Carew, L B; Cunningham, F J

    1978-06-01

    Two studies were conducted to observe the effects of an essential fatty acid (EFA) deficiency, added dietary corn oil and pair-feeding on growth, reproduction and other physiological parameters in the mature cockerel. A purified, linoleic acid (LA)-deficient diet (0.01% LA), or additions of 5% (3.01% LA) or 15% (9.04% LA) corn oil, were fed ad libitum from hatching through 24 weeks of age. Reductions in growth, feed consumption, and comb, and testes size, incomplete spermatogenesis, increased tissue eicosatrienoic acid (20: 3 omega 9) and changes in weights of selected internal organs were observed in deficient cockerels. Total pituitary gonadotropic activity was measured by two bioassay procedures and blood luteinizing hormone was measured by radioimmunoassay. By maturity both of these parameters were significantly reduced in deficient chickens. When these chickens were fed diets with 5% or 15% corn oil under pair-feeding or ad libitum conditions from 20 to 24 weeks, the reduced growth, comb and testes size and gonadotropin metabolism appeared to be caused by depressions in appetite and energy intake rather than EFA per se. The degenerate testicular histology of the 20-week old deficient cockerels, while responding fully to the ad libitum intake of the diets containing corn oil, showed only partial rehabilitation of spermatogenesis when diets with either 5% or 15% corn oil were pair-fed. In general, increasing the level of dietary fat from 5% to 15% did not cause many physiological changes. PMID:650291

  14. Breast Feeding.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    International Children's Centre, Paris (France).

    This set of documents consists of English, French, and Spanish translations of four pamphlets on breast-feeding. The pamphlets provide information designed for lay persons, academics and professionals, health personnel and educators, and policy-makers. The contents cover health-related differences between breast and bottle milk; patterns of…

  15. Tube Feedings.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Plummer, Nancy

    This module on tube feedings is intended for use in inservice or continuing education programs for persons who work in long-term care. Instructor information, including teaching suggestions and a listing of recommended audiovisual materials and their sources appear first. The module goal and objectives are then provided. A brief discussion follows…

  16. LOW ACTIVITY WASTE FEED SOLIDS CARACTERIZATION AND FILTERABILITY TESTS

    SciTech Connect

    McCabe, D.; Crawford, C.; Duignan, M.; Williams, M.; Burket, P.

    2014-04-03

    a Supplemental LAW feed simulant has previously been prepared, this feed composition differs from that simulant because those tests examined only the fully soluble aqueous solution at room temperature, not the composition formed after evaporation, including the insoluble solids that precipitate after it cools. The conceptual flow sheet for Supplemental LAW immobilization has an option for removal of {sup 99}Tc from the feed stream, if needed. Elutable ion exchange has been selected for that process. If implemented, the stream would need filtration to remove the insoluble solids prior to processing in an ion exchange column. The characteristics, chemical speciation, physical properties, and filterability of the solids are important to judge the feasibility of the concept, and to estimate the size and cost of a facility. The insoluble solids formed during these tests were primarily natrophosphate, natroxalate, and a sodium aluminosilicate compound. At the elevated temperature and 8 M [Na+], appreciable insoluble solids (1.39 wt%) were present. Cooling to room temperature and dilution of the slurry from 8 M to 5 M [Na+] resulted in a slurry containing 0.8 wt% insoluble solids. The solids (natrophosphate, natroxalate, sodium aluminum silicate, and a hydrated sodium phosphate) were relatively stable and settled quickly. Filtration rates were in the range of those observed with iron-based simulated Hanford tank sludge simulants, e.g., 6 M [Na+] Hanford tank 241-AN-102, even though their chemical speciation is considerably different. Chemical cleaning of the crossflow filter was readily accomplished with acid. As this simulant formulation was based on an average composition of a wide range of feeds using an integrated computer model, this exact composition may never be observed. But the test conditions were selected to enable comparison to the model to enable improving its chemical prediction capability.

  17. Environmental fate and transport modeling for perfluorooctanoic acid emitted from the Washington Works Facility in West Virginia.

    PubMed

    Shin, Hyeong-Moo; Vieira, Verónica M; Ryan, P Barry; Detwiler, Russell; Sanders, Brett; Steenland, Kyle; Bartell, Scott M

    2011-02-15

    Perfluorooctanoic acid (PFOA) has been detected in environmental samples in Ohio and West Virginia near the Washington Works Plant in Parkersburg, West Virginia. This paper describes retrospective fate and transport modeling of PFOA concentrations in local air, surface water, groundwater, and six municipal water systems based on estimates of historic emission rates from the facility, physicochemical properties of PFOA, and local geologic and meteorological data beginning in 1951. We linked several environmental fate and transport modeling systems to model PFOA air dispersion, transit through the vadose zone, surface water transport, and groundwater flow and transport. These include AERMOD, PRZM-3, BreZo, MODFLOW, and MT3DMS. Several thousand PFOA measurements in municipal well water have been collected in this region since 1998. Our linked modeling system performs better than expected, predicting water concentrations within a factor of 2.1 of the average observed water concentration for each of the six municipal water districts after adjusting the organic carbon partition coefficient to fit the observed data. After model calibration, the Spearman's rank correlation coefficient for predicted versus observed water concentrations is 0.87. These models may be useful for estimating past and future public well water PFOA concentrations in this region. PMID:21226527

  18. Facile formation of dendrimer-stabilized gold nanoparticles modified with diatrizoic acid for enhanced computed tomography imaging applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Peng, Chen; Li, Kangan; Cao, Xueyan; Xiao, Tingting; Hou, Wenxiu; Zheng, Linfeng; Guo, Rui; Shen, Mingwu; Zhang, Guixiang; Shi, Xiangyang

    2012-10-01

    We report a facile approach to forming dendrimer-stabilized gold nanoparticles (Au DSNPs) through the use of amine-terminated fifth-generation poly(amidoamine) (PAMAM) dendrimers modified by diatrizoic acid (G5.NH2-DTA) as stabilizers for enhanced computed tomography (CT) imaging applications. In this study, by simply mixing G5.NH2-DTA dendrimers with gold salt in aqueous solution at room temperature, dendrimer-entrapped gold nanoparticles (Au DENPs) with a mean core size of 2.5 nm were able to be spontaneously formed. Followed by an acetylation reaction to neutralize the dendrimer remaining terminal amines, Au DSNPs with a mean size of 6 nm were formed. The formed DTA-containing [(Au0)50-G5.NHAc-DTA] DSNPs were characterized via different techniques. We show that the Au DSNPs are colloid stable in aqueous solution under different pH and temperature conditions. In vitro hemolytic assay, cytotoxicity assay, flow cytometry analysis, and cell morphology observation reveal that the formed Au DSNPs have good hemocompatibility and are non-cytotoxic at a concentration up to 3.0 μM. X-ray absorption coefficient measurements show that the DTA-containing Au DSNPs have enhanced attenuation intensity, much higher than that of [(Au0)50-G5.NHAc] DENPs without DTA or Omnipaque at the same molar concentration of the active element (Au or iodine). The formed DTA-containing Au DSNPs can be used for CT imaging of cancer cells in vitro as well as for blood pool CT imaging of mice in vivo with significantly improved signal enhancement. With the two radiodense elements of Au and iodine incorporated within one particle, the formed DTA-containing Au DSNPs may be applicable for CT imaging of various biological systems with enhanced X-ray attenuation property and detection sensitivity.We report a facile approach to forming dendrimer-stabilized gold nanoparticles (Au DSNPs) through the use of amine-terminated fifth-generation poly(amidoamine) (PAMAM) dendrimers modified by diatrizoic acid

  19. Clogging of feeding tubes.

    PubMed

    Marcuard, S P; Perkins, A M

    1988-01-01

    This is a report of an in vitro study evaluating clotting ability of some formulas with intact protein and hydrolyzed protein sources in a series of buffers ranging from a pH of 1 thru 10. The following 10 products were tested: Ensure Plus, Ensure, Enrich, Osmolite, Pulmocare, Citrotein, Resource, Vivonex TEN, Vital, and Hepatic Acid II. Protein (10 and 20 g/liter) was added to Citrotein and Ensure Plus. All formulas were tested at full and some at half strength. Clotting occurred only in premixed intact protein formulas (Pulmocare, Ensure Plus, Osmolite, Enrich, Ensure) and in Resource. No clotting was observed for Citrotein (intact protein formula in powder form), Vital, Vivonex TEN, and Hepatic Aid II. Adding protein did not cause or increase clotting. In summary, clotting of some liquid formula diet appears to be an important factor causing possible gastric feeding tube occlusion. The following measures may help in preventing this problem: flushing before and after aspirating for gastric residuals to eliminate acid precipitation of formula in the feeding tube, advance the nasogastric feeding tube into the duodenum if possible, and avoid mixing these products with liquid medications having a pH value of 5.0 or less. PMID:3138452

  20. Private Drinking Water Wells as a Source of Exposure to Perfluorooctanoic Acid (PFOA) in Communities Surrounding a Fluoropolymer Production Facility

    PubMed Central

    Hoffman, Kate; Webster, Thomas F.; Bartell, Scott M.; Weisskopf, Marc G.; Fletcher, Tony; Vieira, Verónica M.

    2011-01-01

    Background The C8 Health Project was established in 2005 to collect data on perfluorooctanoic acid (PFOA, or C8) and human health in Ohio and West Virginia communities contaminated by a fluoropolymer production facility. Objective We assessed PFOA exposure via contaminated drinking water in a subset of C8 Health Project participants who drank water from private wells. Methods Participants provided demographic information and residential, occupational, and medical histories. Laboratory analyses were conducted to determine serum-PFOA concentrations. PFOA data were collected from 2001 through 2005 from 62 private drinking water wells. We examined the relationship between drinking water and PFOA levels in serum using robust regression methods. As a comparison with regression models, we used a first-order, single-compartment pharmacokinetic model to estimate the serum:drinking-water concentration ratio at steady state. Results The median serum PFOA concentration in 108 study participants who used private wells was 75.7 μg/L, approximately 20 times greater than the levels in the U.S. general population but similar to those of local residents who drank public water. Each 1 μg/L increase in PFOA levels in drinking water was associated with an increase in serum concentrations of 141.5 μg/L (95% confidence interval, 134.9–148.1). The serum:drinking-water concentration ratio for the steady-state pharmacokinetic model was 114. Conclusions PFOA-contaminated drinking water is a significant contributor to PFOA levels in serum in the study population. Regression methods and pharmacokinetic modeling produced similar estimates of the relationship. PMID:20920951

  1. Feeding cotton products to cattle.

    PubMed

    Rogers, Glenn M; Poore, Matthew H; Paschal, Joe C

    2002-07-01

    Despite the potential for gossypol toxicosis (particularly in pre-ruminants) and risk factors associated with impaired fertility in bulls, cottonseed products offer a safe alternative feed for cattle producers when fed at recommended levels. Beef producers seeking to lower production costs should consider using cotton byproducts in their feeding programs. If carefully incorporated, cotton byproduct feeds can reduce feed costs while maintaining or increasing the level of cattle performance. Cottonseed meal will remain a standard protein supplement for beef cattle throughout the country. Whole cottonseed has much potential for Southern producers near cotton gins if it is purchased in a timely fashion and fed according to recommendations. Cotton gin trash, cottonseed hulls, and cotton textile mill waste also have potential economic benefits, especially to producers located near cotton and cottonseed processing facilities. PMID:12235661

  2. Variations in preenrichment pH of poultry feed and feed ingredients after incubation periods up to 48 hours

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Human salmonellosis outbreaks have been linked to contaminated animal feed. The literature indicates that Salmonella sustains acid injury at about pH 4.0, so we determined the pH of various preenrichment media during incubation of feed and feed ingredient samples. Five poultry finished feeds were...

  3. Feed Formulation and Manufacture

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    This chapter provides information on feed formulation and manufacture. To formulate and manufacture high quality fish feeds, including tilapia feeds, one should have knowledge of nutrient requirements, nutrient composition, digestibility, and availability of feed ingredients; impacts of manufacturin...

  4. Lactational passage of fusaric acid from the feed of nursing dams to the neonate rat and effects on pineal neurochemistry in the F1 and F2 generations at weaning.

    PubMed

    Porter, J K; Wray, E M; Rimando, A M; Stancel, P C; Bacon, C W; Voss, K A

    1996-10-11

    Fusaric acid is produced by several species of Fusarium and is found in corn, corn-based foods and feeds, wheat, barley, and other cereal grains. Given parenterally to rats, the mycotoxin affects neurochemical parameters in the pineal gland associated with growth and maturation. Since little information exists concerning the dietary effects of fusaric acid, the mycotoxin was mixed with feed at 10, 75, and 200 ppm and fed ad libitum to pregnant rats (F0 dams) from d 11-12 of gestation, through parturition and weaning (F1 generation). On d 4 postpartum, F1 pups were culled to 9-10 pups/litter; the stomach colostrum was collected from the culls and analyzed for fusaric acid. The mycotoxin in the colostrum (ng fusaric acid/100 mg colostrum) was directly related to the amount consumed by the nursing dams (i.e., 200 ppm pups, 3547 ng; 75 ppm pups, 1449 ng; 10 ppm pups, 80 ng; controls pups, 18 ng). All other animals survived, and appeared normal, healthy, and in good pelage. F0 dam feed consumption and dam and pup weights were not statistically different, but there was an inverse relation between pup average weight gain and amount of fusaric acid in the diets (i.e., weight gains: control pup > 10 ppm pup > 75 ppm pups > 200 ppm pups). At weaning, the F1 pups were randomly assigned to two groups per treatment: one group (F1A) for reproduction and fusaric acid effects on the F2 generation, and another group (F1B) for neurochemical comparisons. The F1A rats were maintained on their respective diets to age 13-14 wk; animals were bred (i.e., control males x control females, 10 ppm x 10 ppm, etc.) and the F1A dams and F2 pups were monitored as already described. Weight gains and fusaric acid in stomach colostrum from the F2-culls were analogous to the F1 generation. On d 5-6 and 7-8 postpartum, using litter weight gains as an indication of milk production in the F1A dams (controls vs. 200 ppm), the controls gained 32.5% (p < .01) and 13.3% (p < .02), respectively, more than

  5. Effect of the long-term feeding of dietary lipids on the learning ability, fatty acid composition of brain stem phospholipids and synaptic membrane fluidity in adult mice: a comparison of sardine oil diet with palm oil diet.

    PubMed

    Suzuki, H; Park, S J; Tamura, M; Ando, S

    1998-03-16

    The effect of 12 month feeding of 5% palm oil or sardine oil diet on the maze-learning ability, fatty acid composition of brain stem phospholipids and synaptic membrane fluidity in mice was studied. The time required to reach the maze exit and the number of times that a mouse strayed into blind alleys in the maze were measured three times every 4 days. The time and number of mice fed on the sardine oil diet were less than those of animals fed on the palm oil diet in the first and second trials. The results of fatty acid composition analysis of brain stem phosphatidylethanolamine showed that the percentage of docosahexaenoic acid (22:6, n-3; DHA) was higher, but the arachidonic acid (20:4, n-6; AA) and docosatetraenoic acid (22:4, n-6; DTA) were lower in the sardine oil diet fed-mice than in the palm oil diet fed-animals. Moreover, the microviscosity of the synaptic plasma membrane in the sardine oil diet group was lower than that in the palm oil diet group. These results suggest that the adult mice fed on the sardine oil diet for a long period maintain higher levels of docosahe xaenoic acid in brain phospholipids, synaptic membrane fluidity and maze-learning ability than animals fed on the palm oil diet. PMID:9593318

  6. Techno-economic analysis of a food waste valorization process via microalgae cultivation and co-production of plasticizer, lactic acid and animal feed from algal biomass and food waste.

    PubMed

    Kwan, Tsz Him; Pleissner, Daniel; Lau, Kin Yan; Venus, Joachim; Pommeret, Aude; Lin, Carol Sze Ki

    2015-12-01

    A techno-economic study of food waste valorization via fungal hydrolysis, microalgae cultivation and production of plasticizer, lactic acid and animal feed was simulated and evaluated by Super-Pro Designer®. A pilot-scale plant was designed with a capacity of 1 metric ton day(-1) of food waste with 20 years lifetime. Two scenarios were proposed with different products: Scenario (I) plasticizer & lactic acid, Scenario (II) plasticizer & animal feed. It was found that only Scenario I was economically feasible. The annual net profits, net present value, payback period and internal rate of return were US$ 422,699, US$ 3,028,000, 7.56 years and 18.98%, respectively. Scenario II was not economic viable due to a deficit of US$ 42,632 per year. Sensitivity analysis showed that the price of lactic acid was the largest determinant of the profitability in Scenario I, while the impact of the variables was very close in Scenario II. PMID:26402872

  7. Effect of Dietary Levels of Menhaden Fish Oil and Feeding Duration on Growth Performance, and Proximate and Fatty Acid Composition of Channel Catfish, Ictalurus punctatus

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Omega-3 highly unsaturated fatty acids (HUFA n-3), which consist mainly of eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA, 20:5 n-3) and docosahexaenoic acid (DHA, 22:6 n-3), plays vital roles in human nutrition, disease prevention and health promotion. As the general public becomes aware of the health benefits of cons...

  8. Facile one-pot surfactant-free synthesis of uniform Pd6Co nanocrystals on 3D graphene as an efficient electrocatalyst toward formic acid oxidation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Lian Ying; Zhao, Zhi Liang; Yuan, Weiyong; Li, Chang Ming

    2016-01-01

    Ultrasmall and uniform Pd6Co nanocrystals were deposited on 3D graphene by a facile one-pot surfactant-free route for a catalyst toward formic acid oxidation, showing a much higher electrocatalytic activity, larger peak current density and better stability than Pd/3DG, Pd/C as well as commercial Pd-C, and thus offering great potential for an efficient anode catalyst toward high performance direct formic acid fuel cells.Ultrasmall and uniform Pd6Co nanocrystals were deposited on 3D graphene by a facile one-pot surfactant-free route for a catalyst toward formic acid oxidation, showing a much higher electrocatalytic activity, larger peak current density and better stability than Pd/3DG, Pd/C as well as commercial Pd-C, and thus offering great potential for an efficient anode catalyst toward high performance direct formic acid fuel cells. Electronic supplementary information (ESI) available: Experimental section and supplementary figures. See DOI: 10.1039/c5nr08512h

  9. Effect of in-feed supplementation of trans-cinnamaldehyde and caprylic acid on chicken cecal microbiome in response to Salmonella Enteritidis

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Salmonella Enteritidis (SE) is a major foodborne pathogen causing enteric illnesses in humans, with undercooked eggs and poultry meat as the primary sources of infection. Our previous research revealed that in-feed supplementation of two GRAS (generally recognized as safe)-status, natural compounds,...

  10. Plutonium immobilization feed batching system concept report

    SciTech Connect

    Erickson, S.

    2000-07-19

    The Plutonium Immobilization Facility will encapsulate plutonium in ceramic pucks and seal the pucks inside welded cans. Remote equipment will place these cans in magazines and the magazines in a Defense Waste Processing Facility (DWPF) canister. The DWPF will fill the canister with high level waste glass for permanent storage. Feed batching is one of the first process steps involved with first stage plutonium immobilization. It will blend plutonium oxide powder before it is combined with other materials to make pucks. This report discusses the Plutonium Immobilization feed batching process preliminary concept, batch splitting concepts, and includes a process block diagram, concept descriptions, a preliminary equipment list, and feed batching development areas.

  11. Detection of aristolochic acids I and II in "Chiniy-trèf", a traditional medicinal preparation containing caterpillars feeding on Aristolochia trilobata L. in Martinique, French West Indies.

    PubMed

    Cachet, Xavier; Langrand, Jerome; Bottai, Cecile; Dufat, Hanh; Locatelli-Jouans, Corinne; Nossin, Emmanuel; Boucaud-Maitre, Denis

    2016-05-01

    "Chiniy-trèf" is a traditional medicinal preparation used in Martinique, French West Indies, for the prevention of all kinds of attempted poisoning and hex. It is produced by the maceration in alcohol (mostly rum) of larvae (caterpillars) of the butterfly Battus polydamas ssp. cebriones, feeding on the leaves of Aristolochia trilobata. Aristolochic acids I and II that are well-known nephrotoxic and carcinogenic substances were identified on two samples of "chiniy-trèfl" by chromatographic methods. PMID:26879332

  12. Tuning Lewis acidity using the reactivity of "frustrated Lewis pairs": facile formation of phosphine-boranes and cationic phosphonium-boranes.

    PubMed

    Welch, Gregory C; Cabrera, Lourdes; Chase, Preston A; Hollink, Emily; Masuda, Jason D; Wei, Pingrong; Stephan, Douglas W

    2007-08-21

    The concept of "frustrated Lewis pairs" involves donor and acceptor sites in which steric congestion precludes Lewis acid-base adduct formation. In the case of sterically demanding phosphines and boranes, this lack of self-quenching prompts nucleophilic attack at a carbon para to B followed by fluoride transfer affording zwitterionic phosphonium borates [R(3)P(C(6)F(4))BF(C(6)F(5))(2)] and [R(2)PH(C(6)F(4))BF(C(6)F(5))(2)]. These can be easily transformed into the cationic phosphonium-boranes [R(3)P(C(6)F(4))B(C(6)F(5))(2)](+) and [R(2)PH(C(6)F(4))B(C(6)F(5))(2)](+) or into the neutral phosphino-boranes R(2)P(C(6)F(4))B(C(6)F(5))(2). This new reactivity provides a modular route to a family of boranes in which the steric features about the Lewis acidic center remains constant and yet the variation in substitution provides a facile avenue for the tuning of the Lewis acidity. Employing the Gutmann-Beckett and Childs methods for determining Lewis acid strength, it is demonstrated that the cationic boranes are much more Lewis acidic than B(C(6)F(5))(3), while the acidity of the phosphine-boranes is diminished. PMID:17664977

  13. Particulate emissions from concentrated animal feeding operations

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Concentrated animal feeding operations (CAFOs), including open beef cattle feedlots, swine facilities, and poultry facilities, can emit large amounts of particulate matter, including TSP (total suspended particulates), PM10 (particulate matter with equivalent aerodynamic diameter of 10 mm or less) a...

  14. Measurement of lipid supplements in poultry feed by infrared spectroscopy

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Rapid measurement of a fatty acid supplement in poultry feed formulations was performed using near infrared (NIR) spectroscopy with chemometric analysis. A standard feed formulation was amended with up to 10 wt% fatty acid supplement containing docosahexaenoic acid (DHA) and scanned from 10,000 cm-1...

  15. Gas chromatographic measurement of 3- and 4-thia fatty acids incorporated into various classes of rat liver lipids during feeding experiments.

    PubMed

    Grav, H J; Asiedu, D K; Berge, R K

    1994-08-01

    A practical procedure is described for the quantitative measurement of the amount of acyl units derived from tetradecylthioacetic acid (effecting hypolipemia in rats) and tetradecylthiopropionic acid (effecting hyperlipidemia). The procedure involves three main successive steps: (1) extraction; (2) solid-phase lipid class separation yielding free fatty acids, phospholipids, triacylglycerides, cholesterol esters, and diacylglycerides without crosscontamination; and (3) gas chromatography of hydrolyzed lipids derivatized to picolinyl esters, combined with unambiguous identification by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry. The overall recoveries of heptadecanoyl lipids added as internal standards during extraction were 94-96%, except for cholesteryl heptadecanoate where the recovery was 60% owing to incomplete hydrolysis. Recoveries of thia fatty acids from samples spiked with these compounds were 95%. Flame-ionization response factors were found to be 0.92 and 0.81 for the tetradecylthioacetic acid and tetradecylthiopropionic acid picolinyl esters, respectively, compared to that of heptadecanoic acid. The lower limit of quantitation was 25 pmol as injected. Measurement of the amount of thia fatty acyl units in rat plasma and in liver lipids 4 h after administration of single doses by gastric intubation indicated efficient absorbtion and rapid incorporation into liver lipids, particularly in the phospholipid fraction. Both plasma clearance and channelling into lipids was slower for the 4-thia fatty acid. PMID:7952108

  16. A facile method to synthesize polypyrrole nanoparticles in the presence of natural organic phosphate

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yang, Chao; Mo, Haodao; Zang, Limin; Qiu, Jianhui; Sakai, Eiichi; Wu, Xueli

    2014-09-01

    The conductive polymers with unique nanostructures have attracted intense interest due to their potential application. Here the well-defined polypyrrole nanoparticles were facile fabricated via the facile chemical oxidative polymerization of pyrrole with high feeding ratio of phytic acid. Phytic acid is a renewable resource and a natural carbohydrate compound with a vast number of phosphate groups from plant which was used as the template and dopant for the nanostructured conductive polymer for the first time. The samples exhibit the well-defined nanoparticles observed by scanning electron microscope (SEM) and atomic force microscope (AFM). The PPy nanoparticles were achieved and outstanding electrical conductivity as high as 5263 S m-1 was obtained with the feeding mass ratio of phytic acid: pyrrole=3:7. Furthermore, the polypyrrole nanoparticles were characterized with Fourier transform infrared (FTIR), thermogravimetric analysis (TGA), and electrical conductivity techniques.

  17. Toxicology and Carcinogenesis Studies of 4,4'-Diamino-2,2'-Stilbenedisulfonic Acid Disodium Salt (CAS No. 7336-20-1) in F344 Rats and B6C3F1 Mice (Feed Studies).

    PubMed

    1992-08-01

    4,4'-Diamino-2,2'-stilbenedisulfonic acid, disodium salt, is used in the synthesis of dyes and optical brighteners or fluorescent whitening agents. Toxicology and carcinogenesis studies were conducted by administering the chemical (approximately 14% water, 6% sodium chloride, 4% impurities, and 76% 4,4'-diamino-2,2'-stilbenedisulfonic acid) in feed to groups of F344/N rats and B6C3F1 mice of each sex for 14 days, 13 weeks, and 2 years. Genetic toxicology studies were conducted in Salmonella typhimurium and Chinese hamster ovary cells. 14-Day Studies: Groups of five rats and five mice of each sex were given 0, 6,250, 12,500, 25,000, 50,000, or 100,000 ppm 4,4'-diamino-2,2'-stilbenedisulfonic acid, disodium salt, in feed for 14 days. All rats and mice survived to the end of the studies. The mean body weight gain of male rats receiving 50,000 or 100,000 ppm and of female rats and male and female mice receiving 100,000 ppm was significantly lower than those of the respective controls. Clinical findings included diarrhea in the rats and mice receiving 100,000 ppm. There were no chemical-related changes in absolute or relative organ weights in rats or mice. There were no gross or microscopic lesions related to chemical administration in rats or mice. 13-Week Studies: Groups of 10 rats and 10 mice of each sex were given 0, 6,250, 12,500, 25,000, 50,000, or 100,000 ppm 4,4'-diamino-2,2'-stilbenedisulfonic acid, disodium salt, in feed for 13 weeks. One female rat, six male mice, and one female mouse in the 100,000 ppm dose groups died during the studies. Mean body weight gain was significantly decreased in male rats and female mice receiving 50,000 or 100,000 ppm, in male mice receiving 25,000, 50,000, or 100,000 ppm, and in female rats receiving 100,000 ppm. Clinical findings in rats that received 50,000 or 100,000 ppm and in mice that received 100,000 ppm included diarrhea, emaciation, and hyperemia of the perineum. There were no biologically significant changes in

  18. Response of laying hens to feeding low-protein amino acid-supplemented diets under high ambient temperature: performance, egg quality, leukocyte profile, blood lipids, and excreta pH

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Torki, Mehran; Mohebbifar, Ahmad; Ghasemi, Hossein Ali; Zardast, Afshin

    2015-05-01

    An experiment was conducted to determine whether, by using a low-protein amino acid-supplemented diet, the health status, stress response, and excreta quality could be improved without affecting the productive performance of heat-stressed laying hens. The requirements for egg production, egg mass, and feed conversion ratio were also estimated using second-order equations and broken-line regression. A total of 150 Lohmann Selected Leghorn (LSL-Lite) hens were divided randomly into five groups of 30 with five replicates of six hens. The hens were raised for an 8-week period (52 to 60 weeks) in wire cages situated in high ambient temperature in an open-sided housing system. The five experimental diets (ME; 2,720 kcal/kg) varied according to five crude protein (CP) levels: normal-CP diet (control, 16.5 % CP) and low-CP diets containing 15.0, 13.5, 12.0, or 10.5 % CP. All experimental diets were supplemented with crystalline amino acids at the levels sufficient to meet their requirements. The results showed that under high temperature conditions, all productive performance and egg quality parameters in the birds fed with 15.0, 13.5, and 12.0 % CP diets were similar to those of birds fed with control diet (16.5 % CP), whereas feeding 10.5 % CP diet significantly decreased egg production and egg mass. Estimations of requirements were of 13.93 and 12.77 % CP for egg production, 14.62 and 13.22 % CP for egg mass, and 12.93 and 12.26 % CP for feed conversion ratio using quadratic and broken-line models, respectively. Egg yolk color index, blood triglyceride level, and excreta acidity were also significantly higher in birds fed with 12.0 and 10.5 % CP diets compared with those of control birds. The heterophil to lymphocyte ratio, as a stress indicator, was significantly decreased by 15.0, 13.5, and 12 % CP diets. On the basis of our findings, reducing dietary CP from 16.5 to 12.0 % and supplementing the diets with the essential amino acids showed merit for improving the

  19. Response of laying hens to feeding low-protein amino acid-supplemented diets under high ambient temperature: performance, egg quality, leukocyte profile, blood lipids, and excreta pH.

    PubMed

    Torki, Mehran; Mohebbifar, Ahmad; Ghasemi, Hossein Ali; Zardast, Afshin

    2015-05-01

    An experiment was conducted to determine whether, by using a low-protein amino acid-supplemented diet, the health status, stress response, and excreta quality could be improved without affecting the productive performance of heat-stressed laying hens. The requirements for egg production, egg mass, and feed conversion ratio were also estimated using second-order equations and broken-line regression. A total of 150 Lohmann Selected Leghorn (LSL-Lite) hens were divided randomly into five groups of 30 with five replicates of six hens. The hens were raised for an 8-week period (52 to 60 weeks) in wire cages situated in high ambient temperature in an open-sided housing system. The five experimental diets (ME; 2,720 kcal/kg) varied according to five crude protein (CP) levels: normal-CP diet (control, 16.5 % CP) and low-CP diets containing 15.0, 13.5, 12.0, or 10.5 % CP. All experimental diets were supplemented with crystalline amino acids at the levels sufficient to meet their requirements. The results showed that under high temperature conditions, all productive performance and egg quality parameters in the birds fed with 15.0, 13.5, and 12.0 % CP diets were similar to those of birds fed with control diet (16.5 % CP), whereas feeding 10.5 % CP diet significantly decreased egg production and egg mass. Estimations of requirements were of 13.93 and 12.77 % CP for egg production, 14.62 and 13.22 % CP for egg mass, and 12.93 and 12.26 % CP for feed conversion ratio using quadratic and broken-line models, respectively. Egg yolk color index, blood triglyceride level, and excreta acidity were also significantly higher in birds fed with 12.0 and 10.5 % CP diets compared with those of control birds. The heterophil to lymphocyte ratio, as a stress indicator, was significantly decreased by 15.0, 13.5, and 12 % CP diets. On the basis of our findings, reducing dietary CP from 16.5 to 12.0 % and supplementing the diets with the essential amino acids showed merit for improving the

  20. Facile synthesis and enhanced visible light photocatalytic activity of N and Zr co-doped TiO2 nanostructures from nanotubular titanic acid precursors

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Zr/N co-doped TiO2 nanostructures were successfully synthesized using nanotubular titanic acid (NTA) as precursors by a facile wet chemical route and subsequent calcination. These Zr/N-doped TiO2 nanostructures made by NTA precursors show significantly enhanced visible light absorption and much higher photocatalytic performance than the Zr/N-doped P25 TiO2 nanoparticles. Impacts of Zr/N co-doping on the morphologies, optical properties, and photocatalytic activities of the NTA precursor-based TiO2 were thoroughly investigated. The origin of the enhanced visible light photocatalytic activity is discussed in detail. PMID:24369051

  1. Feeding rainbow trout with a lipid-enriched diet: effects on fatty acid sensing, regulation of food intake and cellular signaling pathways.

    PubMed

    Librán-Pérez, Marta; Geurden, Inge; Dias, Karine; Corraze, Genevieve; Panserat, Stephane; Soengas, José L

    2015-08-01

    Using rainbow trout fed with low-fat or high-fat diets, we aimed to determine whether the response of food intake, mRNA abundance of hypothalamic neuropeptides involved in the metabolic regulation of food intake and fatty acid sensing systems in the hypothalamus and liver are similar to results previously observed when levels of specific fatty acids were raised by injection. Moreover, we also aimed to determine if the phosphorylation state of intracellular energy sensor 5'-AMP-activated protein kinase (AMPK), and proteins involved in cellular signaling such as protein kinase B (Akt) and target of rapamycin (mTOR) display changes that could be related to fatty acid sensing and the control of food intake. The increased levels of fatty acids in the hypothalamus and liver of rainbow trout fed with a high-fat diet only partially activated fatty acid sensing systems and did not elicit changes in food intake, suggesting that the fatty acid sensing response in fish is more dependent on the presence of specific fatty acids, such as oleate or octanoate, rather than to the global increase in fatty acids. We also obtained, for the first time in fish, evidence for the presence and function of energy sensors such as AMPK and proteins involved in cellular signaling, like mTOR and Akt, in the hypothalamus. These proteins in the hypothalamus and liver were generally activated in fish fed the high-fat versus low-fat diet, suggesting that cellular signaling pathways are activated in response to the increased availability of fatty acids. PMID:26089527

  2. Nasogastric feeding tube

    MedlinePlus

    Feeding - nasogastric tube; NG tube; Bolus feeding; Continuous pump feeding; Gavage tube ... A nasogastric tube (NG tube) is a special tube that carries food and medicine to the stomach through the nose. It can be ...

  3. Supplementation of branched-chain amino acids to a reduced-protein diet improves growth performance in piglets: involvement of increased feed intake and direct muscle growth-promoting effect.

    PubMed

    Zheng, Liufeng; Wei, Hongkui; Cheng, Chuanshang; Xiang, Quanhang; Pang, Jiaman; Peng, Jian

    2016-06-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate whether supplementing branched-chain amino acids (AA) (BCAA) along with a reduced-protein diet increases piglet growth, and whether elevated feed intake and muscle growth-promoting effect contribute to this improvement. In Expt 1, twenty-eight weanling piglets were randomly fed one of the following four diets: a positive control (PC) diet, a reduced-protein negative control (NC) diet, an NC diet supplemented with BCAA to the same levels as in the PC diet (test 1 (T1)) and an NC diet supplemented with a 2-fold dose of BCAA in T1 diet (test 2 (T2)) for 28 d. In Expt 2, twenty-one weanling piglets were randomly assigned to NC, T1 and pair-fed T1 (P) groups. NC and T1 diets were the same as in Expt 1, whereas piglets in the P group were individually pair-fed with the NC group. In Expt 1, the NC group had reduced piglet growth and feed intake compared with the PC group, which were restored in T1 and T2 groups, but no differences were detected between T1 and T2 groups. In Expt 2, T1 and P groups showed increases in growth and mass of some muscles compared with the NC group. Increased feed intake after BCAA supplementation was associated with increased mRNA expressions of agouti-related peptide and co-express neuropeptide Y (NPY) and phosphorylation of mammalian target of rapamycin (mTOR) and ribosomal protein S6 kinase 1 (S6K1), as well as decreased mRNA expressions of melanocortin-4 receptor and cocaine- and amphetamine-regulated transcript and phosphorylation of eukaryotic initiation factor 2α in the hypothalamus. No differences were observed among PC, T1 and T2 groups except for higher NPY mRNA expression in the T2 group than in the PC group (Expt 1). Phosphorylation of mTOR and S6K1 in muscle was enhanced after BCAA supplementation, which was independent of change in feed intake (Expt 2). In conclusion, supplementing BCAA to reduced-protein diets increases feed intake and muscle mass, and contributes to better growth

  4. First-pass uptake and oxidation of glucose by the splanchnic tissue in young goats fed soy protein-based milk diets with or without amino acid supplementation: glucose metabolism in goat kids after soy feeding.

    PubMed

    Schönhusen, U; Junghans, P; Flöter, A; Steinhoff-Wagner, J; Görs, S; Schneider, F; Metges, C C; Hammon, H M

    2013-04-01

    The study was designed to examine whether feeding soy protein isolate as partial replacement of casein (CN) affects glucose metabolism in young goats and whether effects may be ameliorated by supplementation of those AA known to be lower concentrated in soy than in CN. Goat kids (d 20 of age) were fed comparable milk protein diets, in which 50% of the crude protein was either CN (control, CON), soy protein isolate (SPI), or soy protein isolate supplemented with AA (SPIA) for 43 d (n=8 per group). On d 62 of age, a single bolus dose of d-[(13)C6]glucose (10mg/kg of BW) was given with the morning diet, and simultaneously, a single bolus dose of d-[6,6-(2)H2]glucose (5mg/kg of BW) was injected into a jugular vein. Blood samples were collected between -30 and +420 min relative to the tracer administration to measure the (13)C and (2)H enrichments of plasma glucose and the (13)C enrichment of blood CO2. Glucose first-pass uptake by the splanchnic tissues was calculated from the rate of appearance of differentially labeled glucose tracer in plasma. Glucose oxidation was calculated from (13)C enrichment in blood CO2. In addition, plasma concentrations of triglycerides, nonesterified fatty acids, glucose, insulin, and glucagon were measured. On d 63 of age, kids were killed and jejunal mucosa and liver samples were collected to measure lactase mRNA levels and lactase and maltase activities in the jejunum and activities of pyruvate carboxylase and phosphoenolpyruvate carboxykinase (PEPCK) in the liver. Basal plasma glucose concentration tended to be higher in the CON than the SPIA group, whereas basal insulin was higher in the CON group than the SPI and SPIA groups, and glucagon was higher in the CON than the SPIA group. Plasma glucose and insulin concentrations increased during the first hour after feeding, whereas plasma glucagon increased immediately after feeding and after 1h of feeding. First-pass uptake and glucose oxidation were not affected by diet. Maltase

  5. Transport of short-chain perfluoroalkyl acids from concentrated fluoropolymer facilities to the Daling River estuary, China.

    PubMed

    Wang, Pei; Lu, Yonglong; Wang, Tieyu; Zhu, Zhaoyun; Li, Qifeng; Zhang, Yueqing; Fu, Yaning; Xiao, Yang; Giesy, John P

    2015-07-01

    After global commercialization of short-chain perfluoroalkyl acids (PFAAs) as substitutes to conventional long-chain PFAAs by the major manufacturers, two fluorine industry parks for production of short-chain PFAAs located in the Daling River Basin of northern China have developed rapidly in the last few years. This study provides a systematic assessment of sources, emissions, transportation, and potential risks of the PFAAs in this area. The C4 perfluorobutane sulfonic acid (PFBS) and perfluorobutanoic acid (PFBA) were the predominant short-chain PFAAs in river water, with maximum concentrations of 2.90 and 1.35 μg/L, respectively. Park 1 equipped with a telomerization process was identified to be the source of linear and branched mixtures of PFBS, PFBA, and perfluorooctanoic acid (PFOA), while park 2 with an electrochemical fluorination process (ECF) was identified to be the source of linear and branched mixtures of PFBS and PFOA. Partition coefficients between water and sediment were consistent for C4-C8 perfluoroalkyl carboxylic acids (PFCAs) but directly proportional to C9-C11 PFCAs and perfluoroalkyl sulfonic acids (PFSAs). Analysis on the health risk of PFBS and PFBA suggested that they were not without risk since short chain PFAAs are known to be recalcitrant during water treatment. PMID:25616381

  6. [Changes in the amino acid levels in hydrolysates of bacteria adhering to the rumen in sheep during feeding with high and low nitrogen diets].

    PubMed

    Legáth, J

    1992-01-01

    The effects of low and high nitrogen diets on amino acid levels were studied in hydrolyzates of ruminal bacteria adhered to four topographically different anatomic parts of the ruminal wall (dorsal, ventral and caudal parts as well as reticulum) in 18 sheep + of the Slovak Merino breed divided into three experimental groups. The epimural bacteria of the dorsal and ventral parts of the ovine rumen revealed the most sensitive reaction to the varying amounts of nitrogen ingested with the diet. In hydrolyzates of ruminal bacteria adhered to the dorsal and ventral epithelium, 15 and 14 amino acids were changing (Figs. 1, 2). In hydrolyzates of epimural bacteria, a sensitive reaction was observed in the following amino acids: alanine, histidine, thyroxin, arginine and proline (Tabs. I-IV). In all topographical and anatomical parts of the rumen, both alanine and histidine levels in hydrolyzates of epimural ruminal bacteria significantly increased with the diet with high-nitrogen content fed, but was falling in sheep fed with low-nitrogen diet. Changes in alanine concentrations may be explained by the fact that alanine forms a part of the mechanism for short-time storage of ammonia in bacterial cells (Bartos, 1987). The fact that alanine is in its lack deaminated to pyruvate (Havassy, 1976) is explained by significant fall in alanine contained in hydrolyzates of bacterial proteins when fed low nitrogen diets. Significant fall in alanine in shortage of amino acid bound nitrogen can be explained by the fact that under these conditions, the alanine skeleton is being incorporated in to 80% of amino acids synthetized de novo by ruminal bacteria (Syväoja and Kreula, 1980). When sheep flock was fed the high-nitrogen diet, thyroxin and proline levels were significantly reduced in hydrolyzates of epimural bacteria from all parts of the rumen, while low-nitrogen diet significantly increased the concentrations of both given amino acids in comparison with the control. Bartos (1987

  7. Changes in Sediment Fatty Acid Composition during Passage through the Gut of Deposit Feeding Holothurians: Holothuria atra (Jaeger, 1883) and Holothuria leucospilota (Brandt, 1835)

    PubMed Central

    Tsuchiya, Makoto

    2016-01-01

    Sea cucumbers Holothuria atra and Holothuria leucospilota play an important role in the bioturbation of sediment in coral reef and rocky intertidal ecosystems. This study investigated changes in sediment fatty acid (FA) composition during gut passage in H. atra and H. leucospilota. The FA composition did not differ significantly between species. Comparison of FA composition in ambient sediment (AS), foregut (FG), midgut (MG), hindgut (HG), and faecal pellets (FPs) indicated that marked changes in FA composition occurred during passage through the gut of H. atra and H. leucospilota. Saturated fatty acids (SAFAs), monounsaturated fatty acids (MUFAs), polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFAs), and branched fatty acids (BrFAs) were significantly higher in FG than in AS, suggesting that both species selectively ingested nutrient rich particles. Significant reduction of SAFAs, MUFAs, PUFAs, and BrFAs occurred in MD and HD, with complete elimination of most PUFAs in FPs. A decrease in PUFAs 20:5ω3, 18:4ω3, 22:5ω3, 22:6ω3, 18:2ω6, 18:3ω3, 18:3ω6, odd-numbered BrFAs, and MUFA 18:1ω7 indicated that algal detritus and bacteria were important part of diet. These results have implications for the fate of specific dietary FAs, especially ω3 and ω6, and the contribution holothurian FPs make to the FA composition of coral reef and rocky intertidal ecosystems. PMID:27042355

  8. Changes in Sediment Fatty Acid Composition during Passage through the Gut of Deposit Feeding Holothurians: Holothuria atra (Jaeger, 1883) and Holothuria leucospilota (Brandt, 1835).

    PubMed

    Mfilinge, Prosper L; Tsuchiya, Makoto

    2016-01-01

    Sea cucumbers Holothuria atra and Holothuria leucospilota play an important role in the bioturbation of sediment in coral reef and rocky intertidal ecosystems. This study investigated changes in sediment fatty acid (FA) composition during gut passage in H. atra and H. leucospilota. The FA composition did not differ significantly between species. Comparison of FA composition in ambient sediment (AS), foregut (FG), midgut (MG), hindgut (HG), and faecal pellets (FPs) indicated that marked changes in FA composition occurred during passage through the gut of H. atra and H. leucospilota. Saturated fatty acids (SAFAs), monounsaturated fatty acids (MUFAs), polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFAs), and branched fatty acids (BrFAs) were significantly higher in FG than in AS, suggesting that both species selectively ingested nutrient rich particles. Significant reduction of SAFAs, MUFAs, PUFAs, and BrFAs occurred in MD and HD, with complete elimination of most PUFAs in FPs. A decrease in PUFAs 20:5ω3, 18:4ω3, 22:5ω3, 22:6ω3, 18:2ω6, 18:3ω3, 18:3ω6, odd-numbered BrFAs, and MUFA 18:1ω7 indicated that algal detritus and bacteria were important part of diet. These results have implications for the fate of specific dietary FAs, especially ω3 and ω6, and the contribution holothurian FPs make to the FA composition of coral reef and rocky intertidal ecosystems. PMID:27042355

  9. A Facile Method for Oxidation of Primary Alcohols to Carboxylic Acids and Its Application in Glycosaminoglycan Syntheses

    PubMed Central

    Huang, Lijun; Teumelsan, Nardos; Huang, Xuefei

    2006-01-01

    A convenient two-step, one-pot procedure was developed for the conversion of primary alcohols to carboxylic acids. The alcohol was first treated with NaOCl and TEMPO under phase-transfer conditions, followed by NaClO2 oxidation in one pot. This reaction is applicable to a wide range of alcohols and the mild reaction conditions are compatible with many sensitive functional groups, including electron-rich aromatic rings, acid-labile isopropylidene ketal and glycosidic linkages, and oxidation-prone thioacetal, p-methoxybenzyl, and allyl moieties. Several glycosaminoglycans such as heparin, chondroitin, and hyaluronic acid oligosaccharides have been synthesized in high yields by using this new oxidation protocol. PMID:16637084

  10. Facile, room-temperature pre-treatment of rice husks with tetrabutylphosphonium hydroxide: Enhanced enzymatic and acid hydrolysis yields.

    PubMed

    Lau, B B Y; Luis, E T; Hossain, M M; Hart, W E S; Cencia-Lay, B; Black, J J; To, T Q; Aldous, L

    2015-12-01

    Aqueous solutions of tetrabutylphosphonium hydroxide have been evaluated as pretreatment media for rice husks, prior to sulphuric acid hydrolysis or cellulase enzymatic hydrolysis. Varying the water:tetrabutylphosphonium hydroxide ratio varied the rate of delignification, as well as silica, lignin and cellulose solubility. Pre-treatment with 60wt% hydroxide dissolved the rice husk and the regenerated material was thus heavily disrupted. Sulphuric acid hydrolysis of 60wt%-treated samples yielded the highest amount of glucose per gram of rice husk. Solutions with good lignin and silica solubility but only moderate to negligible cellulose solubility (10-40wt% hydroxide) were equally effective as pre-treatment media for both acid and enzymatic hydrolysis. However, pre-treatment with 60wt% hydroxide solutions was incompatible with downstream enzymatic hydrolysis. This was due to significant incorporation of phosphonium species in the regenerated biomass, which significantly inhibited the activity of the cellulase enzymes. PMID:26342336

  11. Feeding patterns of migratory and non-migratory fourth instar larvae of two coexisting Chaoborus species in an acidic and metal contaminated lake: Importance of prey ingestion rate in predicting metal bioaccumulation

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Croteau, M.-N.; Hare, L.; Marcoux, P.

    2003-01-01

    We studied diel variations in the feeding habits and migratory behaviors of two coexisting Chaoborus species in an acidic and metal contaminated lake (Lake Turcotte, QC, Canada). We found that although the zooplankton community was dominated by rotifers, both Chaoborus species fed mostly on chironomids and crustaceans despite the relatively low abundance of these prey types in the lake plankton. Chaoborus americanus larvae fed on those of Chaoborus punctipennis, but not vice versa. The non-migratory species (C. americanus) fed throughout the day and night whereas the migratory species (C. punctipennis) fed only at night while in the water column. The larger-bodied C. americanus consumed more prey and had a more diverse diet than did the smaller-bodied C. punctipennis. Differences in feeding habits between the Chaoborus species inhabiting Lake Turcotte (prey biomass, prey types) likely explain in part their ability to coexist. Attempts to predict Cd in the Chaoborus species using our measurements of Cd in their prey and their prey ingestion rates met with mixed success; although we correctly predicted higher Cd concentrations for C. americanus larvae than for C. punctipennis larvae, we under-predicted absolute Cd concentrations. We suggest that studies such as ours that are based on analyses of gut contents of larvae collected at intervals of 4h or longer likely underestimate prey ingestion rates.

  12. Effect of dietary fat and omega-3 fatty acids on urinary eicosanoids and sex hormone concentrations in postmenopausal women: a randomized controlled feeding trial

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Substantial evidence relates increased sex hormone concentrations with increased breast cancer risk. Varying omega-3 fatty acid (n-3) intake may lead to alterations in eicosanoid balance and subsequent changes in circulating sex hormones that reduce risk. To clarify effects of dietary fat and n-3 i...

  13. Effects of feeding level and sexual maturation on fatty acid composition of energy stores in diploid and triploid rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss)

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Sexual maturation is an energy demanding, physiological process that alters growth efficiency and compromises muscle quality in many food-fish species. Lipid mobilization supplies energy required for this process. To study the effect of ration level on fatty acid mobilization, diploid (2N) rainbow t...

  14. Effects of feeding extruded full-fat cottonseed pellets in place of tallow as a fat source for finishing heifers on feedlot performance, carcass characteristics, sensory traits, display color, and fatty acid profiles.

    PubMed

    Stelzleni, A M; Froetschel, M A; Pringle, T D

    2013-09-01

    The objective of this study was to examine the effects of supplemental feeding of full-fat extruded cottonseed pellets (FFECS) compared with tallow on carcass characteristics, sensory traits, retail display color, and fatty acid profiles, especially CLA isomers in finishing heifers. Twenty-one Angus heifers (450 ± 5 kg) were assigned randomly to 1 of 3 experimental diets: 1) 100% supplemental fat from tallow at 4.1% of ration DM (TAL), 2) a 50:50 ratio of supplemental fat from a combination of tallow at 2.1% and FFECS at 12.8% of ration DM (TAL/ECS), and 3) 100% supplemental fat from FFECS at 25.6% ration DM (ECS). All rations were formulated to contain 7.5% fat on a DM basis. Heifers were individually fed, ad libitum, for 82 d, and BW, G:F, DMI, ADG, and body composition via ultrasound were collected at 3 to 4 wk intervals. After 82 d on feed heifers were slaughtered under federal inspection, and carcass characteristics were measured (at 24 h). The LM was removed for retail display color (1, 3, 6, 10 d), Warner-Bratzler shear force (1, 3, 7, 14, 21 d postmortem aging), sensory analysis (1, 7, 14, 21 d postmortem aging), and fatty acid profile analysis. Subcutaneous fat, including all layers, was removed from the LM for fatty acid profile analysis, and ground beef patties (80:20) were produced with lean from the brisket and fat from the plate for retail color analysis (1, 2, 4, 7 d). Supplemental fat source did not influence feedlot performance for any of the traits measured (P > 0.12) or any carcass traits related to yield, quality, or LM color at the 12th- to 13th-rib interface (P > 0.15). Supplemental fat source did not affect Warner-Bratzler shear force or any sensory traits (P > 0.20), but LM steaks became more tender as postmortem aging time increased up to 14 d (P < 0.01). During retail display of LM steaks and beef patties, the only difference was LM steaks from ECS were darker (lower L* value) than TAL or TAL/ECS steaks (P < 0.02). As display time

  15. Evaluation of a commercially available organic acid product on body weight loss, carcass yield, and meat quality during preslaughter feed withdrawal in broiler chickens: a poultry welfare and economic perspective.

    PubMed

    Menconi, A; Kuttappan, V A; Hernandez-Velasco, X; Urbano, T; Matté, F; Layton, S; Kallapura, G; Latorre, J; Morales, B E; Prado, O; Vicente, J L; Barton, J; Andreatti Filho, R L; Lovato, M; Hargis, B M; Tellez, G

    2014-02-01

    The effect of a commercial organic acid (OA) product on BW loss (BWL) during feed withdrawal and transportation, carcass yield, and meat quality was evaluated in broiler chickens. Two experiments were conducted in Brazil. Commercial houses were paired as control groups receiving regular water and treated groups receiving OA in the water. Treated birds had a reduction in BWL of 37 g in experiment 1 and 32.2 g in experiment 2. In experiment 2, no differences were observed in carcass yield between groups. Estimation of the cost benefit suggested a 1:16 ratio by using the OA. In experiment 3, conducted in Mexico, significant differences on water consumption, BWL, and meat quality characteristics were observed in chickens that were treated with the OA (P < 0.05). These data suggest this OA product may improve animal welfare and economic concerns in the poultry industry by reducing BWL and improving meat quality attributes. PMID:24570468

  16. Evaluation of a commercially available organic acid product on body weight loss, carcass yield, and meat quality during preslaughter feed withdrawal in broiler chickens: A poultry welfare and economic perspective1

    PubMed Central

    Menconi, A.; Kuttappan, V. A.; Hernandez-Velasco, X.; Urbano, T.; Matté, F.; Layton, S.; Kallapura, G.; Latorre, J.; Morales, B. E.; Prado, O.; Vicente, J. L.; Barton, J.; Filho, R. L. Andreatti; Lovato, M.; Hargis, B. M.; Tellez, G.

    2014-01-01

    The effect of a commercial organic acid (OA) product on BW loss (BWL) during feed withdrawal and transportation, carcass yield, and meat quality was evaluated in broiler chickens. Two experiments were conducted in Brazil. Commercial houses were paired as control groups receiving regular water and treated groups receiving OA in the water. Treated birds had a reduction in BWL of 37 g in experiment 1 and 32.2 g in experiment 2. In experiment 2, no differences were observed in carcass yield between groups. Estimation of the cost benefit suggested a 1:16 ratio by using the OA. In experiment 3, conducted in Mexico, significant differences on water consumption, BWL, and meat quality characteristics were observed in chickens that were treated with the OA (P < 0.05). These data suggest this OA product may improve animal welfare and economic concerns in the poultry industry by reducing BWL and improving meat quality attributes. PMID:24570468

  17. Lipid, fatty acid and energy density profiles of white sharks: insights into the feeding ecology and ecophysiology of a complex top predator.

    PubMed

    Pethybridge, Heidi R; Parrish, Christopher C; Bruce, Barry D; Young, Jock W; Nichols, Peter D

    2014-01-01

    Lipids are major sources of metabolic energy in sharks and are closely linked to environmental conditions and biological cycles, such as those related to diet, reproduction and migration. In this study, we report for the first time, the total lipid content, lipid class composition and fatty acid profiles of muscle and liver tissue of white sharks, Carcharodon carcharias, of various lengths (1.5-3.9 m), sampled at two geographically separate areas off southern and eastern Australia. Muscle tissue was low in total lipid content (<0.9% wet mass, wm) and was dominated by phospholipids (>90% of total lipid) and polyunsaturated fatty acids (34±12% of total fatty acids). In contrast, liver was high in total lipid which varied between 51-81% wm and was dominated by triacylglycerols (>93%) and monounsaturated fatty acids (36±12%). With knowledge of total lipid and dry tissue mass, we estimated the energy density of muscle (18.4±0.1 kJ g-1 dm) and liver (34.1±3.2 kJ g-1 dm), demonstrating that white sharks have very high energetic requirements. High among-individual variation in these biochemical parameters and related trophic markers were observed, but were not related to any one biological or environmental factor. Signature fatty acid profiles suggest that white sharks over the size range examined are generalist predators with fish, elasmobranchs and mammalian blubber all contributing to the diet. The ecological applications and physiological influences of lipids in white sharks are discussed along with recommendations for future research, including the use of non-lethal sampling to examine the nutritional condition, energetics and dietary relationships among and between individuals. Such knowledge is fundamental to better understand the implications of environmental perturbations on this iconic and threatened species. PMID:24871223

  18. Lipid, Fatty Acid and Energy Density Profiles of White Sharks: Insights into the Feeding Ecology and Ecophysiology of a Complex Top Predator

    PubMed Central

    Pethybridge, Heidi R.; Parrish, Christopher C.; Bruce, Barry D.; Young, Jock W.; Nichols, Peter D.

    2014-01-01

    Lipids are major sources of metabolic energy in sharks and are closely linked to environmental conditions and biological cycles, such as those related to diet, reproduction and migration. In this study, we report for the first time, the total lipid content, lipid class composition and fatty acid profiles of muscle and liver tissue of white sharks, Carcharodon carcharias, of various lengths (1.5–3.9 m), sampled at two geographically separate areas off southern and eastern Australia. Muscle tissue was low in total lipid content (<0.9% wet mass, wm) and was dominated by phospholipids (>90% of total lipid) and polyunsaturated fatty acids (34±12% of total fatty acids). In contrast, liver was high in total lipid which varied between 51–81% wm and was dominated by triacylglycerols (>93%) and monounsaturated fatty acids (36±12%). With knowledge of total lipid and dry tissue mass, we estimated the energy density of muscle (18.4±0.1 kJ g−1 dm) and liver (34.1±3.2 kJ g−1 dm), demonstrating that white sharks have very high energetic requirements. High among-individual variation in these biochemical parameters and related trophic markers were observed, but were not related to any one biological or environmental factor. Signature fatty acid profiles suggest that white sharks over the size range examined are generalist predators with fish, elasmobranchs and mammalian blubber all contributing to the diet. The ecological applications and physiological influences of lipids in white sharks are discussed along with recommendations for future research, including the use of non-lethal sampling to examine the nutritional condition, energetics and dietary relationships among and between individuals. Such knowledge is fundamental to better understand the implications of environmental perturbations on this iconic and threatened species. PMID:24871223

  19. 21 CFR 515.21 - Refusal to approve a medicated feed mill license application.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... animal feed are not adequate to preserve the identity, strength, quality, and purity of the new animal drug therein; or (3) The facility manufactures animal feeds bearing or containing new animal drugs in a... SERVICES (CONTINUED) ANIMAL DRUGS, FEEDS, AND RELATED PRODUCTS MEDICATED FEED MILL LICENSE...

  20. 21 CFR 515.21 - Refusal to approve a medicated feed mill license application.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... animal feed are not adequate to preserve the identity, strength, quality, and purity of the new animal drug therein; or (3) The facility manufactures animal feeds bearing or containing new animal drugs in a... SERVICES (CONTINUED) ANIMAL DRUGS, FEEDS, AND RELATED PRODUCTS MEDICATED FEED MILL LICENSE...

  1. 21 CFR 515.21 - Refusal to approve a medicated feed mill license application.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... animal feed are not adequate to preserve the identity, strength, quality, and purity of the new animal drug therein; or (3) The facility manufactures animal feeds bearing or containing new animal drugs in a... SERVICES (CONTINUED) ANIMAL DRUGS, FEEDS, AND RELATED PRODUCTS MEDICATED FEED MILL LICENSE...

  2. 21 CFR 515.21 - Refusal to approve a medicated feed mill license application.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... animal feed are not adequate to preserve the identity, strength, quality, and purity of the new animal drug therein; or (3) The facility manufactures animal feeds bearing or containing new animal drugs in a... SERVICES (CONTINUED) ANIMAL DRUGS, FEEDS, AND RELATED PRODUCTS MEDICATED FEED MILL LICENSE...

  3. 21 CFR 515.21 - Refusal to approve a medicated feed mill license application.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... animal feed are not adequate to preserve the identity, strength, quality, and purity of the new animal drug therein; or (3) The facility manufactures animal feeds bearing or containing new animal drugs in a... SERVICES (CONTINUED) ANIMAL DRUGS, FEEDS, AND RELATED PRODUCTS MEDICATED FEED MILL LICENSE...

  4. 21 CFR 515.23 - Voluntary revocation of medicated feed mill license.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... SERVICES (CONTINUED) ANIMAL DRUGS, FEEDS, AND RELATED PRODUCTS MEDICATED FEED MILL LICENSE Administrative... grounds that the facility no longer manufactures any animal feed covered under § 558.4(b) of this chapter... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Voluntary revocation of medicated feed...

  5. 21 CFR 515.23 - Voluntary revocation of medicated feed mill license.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... SERVICES (CONTINUED) ANIMAL DRUGS, FEEDS, AND RELATED PRODUCTS MEDICATED FEED MILL LICENSE Administrative... grounds that the facility no longer manufactures any animal feed covered under § 558.4(b) of this chapter... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Voluntary revocation of medicated feed...

  6. Accurate Analysis and Evaluation of Acidic Plant Growth Regulators in Transgenic and Nontransgenic Edible Oils with Facile Microwave-Assisted Extraction-Derivatization.

    PubMed

    Liu, Mengge; Chen, Guang; Guo, Hailong; Fan, Baolei; Liu, Jianjun; Fu, Qiang; Li, Xiu; Lu, Xiaomin; Zhao, Xianen; Li, Guoliang; Sun, Zhiwei; Xia, Lian; Zhu, Shuyun; Yang, Daoshan; Cao, Ziping; Wang, Hua; Suo, Yourui; You, Jinmao

    2015-09-16

    Determination of plant growth regulators (PGRs) in a signal transduction system (STS) is significant for transgenic food safety, but may be challenged by poor accuracy and analyte instability. In this work, a microwave-assisted extraction-derivatization (MAED) method is developed for six acidic PGRs in oil samples, allowing an efficient (<1.5 h) and facile (one step) pretreatment. Accuracies are greatly improved, particularly for gibberellin A3 (-2.72 to -0.65%) as compared with those reported (-22 to -2%). Excellent selectivity and quite low detection limits (0.37-1.36 ng mL(-1)) are enabled by fluorescence detection-mass spectrum monitoring. Results show the significant differences in acidic PGRs between transgenic and nontransgenic oils, particularly 1-naphthaleneacetic acid (1-NAA), implying the PGRs induced variations of components and genes. This study provides, for the first time, an accurate and efficient determination for labile PGRs involved in STS and a promising concept for objectively evaluating the safety of transgenic foods. PMID:26309068

  7. Asymmetric Synthesis, Structure, and Reactivity of Unexpectedly Stable Spiroepoxy-β-Lactones Including Facile Conversion to Tetronic Acids: Application to (+)-Maculalactone A

    PubMed Central

    Duffy, Richard J.; Morris, Kay A.; Vallakati, Ravikrishna; Zhang, Wei; Romo, Daniel

    2009-01-01

    A novel class of small spirocyclic heterocycles, spiroepoxy-β-lactones (1,4-dioxaspiro[2.3]-hexan-5-ones), is described that exhibit a number of interesting reactivity patterns. These spiroheterocycles, including an optically active series, are readily synthesized by epoxidation of ketene dimers (4-alkylidene-2-oxetanones) available from homo- or heteroketene dimerization. An analysis of bond lengths in these systems by X-ray crystallography and comparison to data for known spirocycles and those determined computationally, suggest that anomeric effects in these systems may be more pronounced due to their rigidity and may contribute to their surprising stability. The synthetic utility of spiroepoxy-β-lactones was explored and one facile rearrangement identified under several conditions provides a 3-step route from acid chlorides to optically active tetronic acids, ubiquitous heterocycles in bioactive natural products. The addition of various nucleophiles to these spirocycles leads primarily to addition at C5 and C2. The utility of an optically active spiroepoxy-β-lactone was demonstrated in the concise, enantioselective synthesis of the anti-fouling agent, (+)-maculalactone A, which proceeds in 5 steps from hydrocinnamoyl chloride by way of a tetronic acid intermediate. PMID:19453152

  8. Asymmetric synthesis, structure, and reactivity of unexpectedly stable spiroepoxy-beta-lactones including facile conversion to tetronic acids: application to (+)-maculalactone A.

    PubMed

    Duffy, Richard J; Morris, Kay A; Vallakati, Ravikrishna; Zhang, Wei; Romo, Daniel

    2009-07-01

    A novel class of small spirocyclic heterocycles, spiroepoxy-beta-lactones (1,4-dioxaspiro[2.3]-hexan-5-ones), is described that exhibit a number of interesting reactivity patterns. These spiroheterocycles, including an optically active series, are readily synthesized by epoxidation of ketene dimers (4-alkylidene-2-oxetanones) available from homo- or heteroketene dimerization. An analysis of bond lengths in these systems by X-ray crystallography and comparison to data for known spirocycles and those determined computationally suggest that anomeric effects in these systems may be more pronounced due to their rigidity and may contribute to their surprising stability. The synthetic utility of spiroepoxy-beta-lactones was explored, and one facile rearrangement identified under several conditions provides a three-step route from acid chlorides to optically active tetronic acids, ubiquitous heterocycles in bioactive natural products. The addition of various nucleophiles to these spirocycles leads primarily to addition at C5 and C2. The utility of an optically active spiroepoxy-beta-lactone was demonstrated in the concise, enantioselective synthesis of the antifouling agent, (+)-maculalactone A, which proceeds in five steps from hydrocinnamoyl chloride by way of a tetronic acid intermediate. PMID:19453152

  9. Effects of sexual maturation and feeding level on fatty acid metabolism gene expression in muscle, liver, and visceral adipose tissue of diploid and triploid rainbow trout, Oncorhynchus mykiss.

    PubMed

    Manor, Meghan L; Cleveland, Beth M; Weber, Gregory M; Kenney, P Brett

    2015-01-01

    In many cultured fish species, such as salmonids, gonadal development occurs at the expense of stored energy and nutrients, including lipids. However, mechanisms regulating nutrient repartitioning during sexual maturation are not well understood. This study compared sexually maturing diploid (2N) and sterile triploid (3N) female rainbow trout to investigate effects of sexual maturation on expression of 35 genes involved in fatty acid metabolism, including genes within fatty acid synthesis, β-oxidation, and cofactors of the mTOR and PPAR signaling pathways, in liver, white muscle, and visceral adipose tissue. Diploid fish were fed at different rations (0.25% and 0.50% tank biomass, and satiation) to determine effects of ration on gene expression. Gene expression was affected by ration level only in white muscle; erk and acat2 had higher expression in fish fed higher rations. On the other hand, sexual maturation affected gene expression across all three tissue types. Data indicate 2N fish have higher expression of β-oxidation genes within white muscle and within visceral adipose tissue. These findings support enhanced fatty acid mobilization within these tissues during sexual maturation. Higher expression of fatty acid synthesis genes in 3N female liver is associated with higher expression of mTOR cofactors and pparγ, which reflects continued deposition of lipids in these fish. Furthermore, greater expression of genes involved in β-oxidation pathways across ration levels in 2N females suggests that sexual maturation and the associated maturation-related signals are stronger regulators of lipid metabolism-related genes rather the rations applied in the current study. PMID:25242626

  10. Amino acid composition of the bushcricket spermatophore and the function of courtship feeding: Variable composition suggests a dynamic role of the nuptial gift.

    PubMed

    Jarrige, Alicia; Body, Mélanie; Giron, David; Greenfield, Michael D; Goubault, Marlène

    2015-11-01

    Nuptial gifts are packages of non-gametic material transferred by males to females at mating. These gifts are common in bushcrickets, where males produce a complex spermatophore consisting in a sperm-containing ampulla and an edible sperm-free spermatophylax. Two non-mutually exclusive hypotheses have been suggested to explain the function of the spermatophylax: the paternal investment hypothesis proposes that it represents a male nutritional investment in offspring; the mating effort hypothesis proposes that the spermatophylax maximizes the male's sperm transfer. Because gift production may represent significant energy expenditure, males are expected to adjust their investment relative to the perceived quality of the female. In this study, we first examined the free amino acid composition and protein-bound amino acid composition of the nuptial gift in the bushcricket, Ephippiger diurnus (Orthoptera: Tettigoniidae). Second, we investigated whether this composition was altered according to female age and body weight. Our study represents the first investigation of both free and protein-bound amino acid fractions of a bushcricket spermatophylax. We found that composition of the nuptial gift varied both qualitatively and quantitatively with respect to traits of the receiving female: older females received larger amounts of protein-bound amino acids (both essential and non-essential), less water and less free glycine. This result suggests that gift composition is highly labile in E. diurnus, and we propose that gift allocation might represent a form of cryptic male mate choice, allowing males to maximize their chances of paternity according to the risk of sperm competition that is associated with mate quality. PMID:26255124

  11. The facile surface chemical modification of a single glass nanopore and its use in the nonenzymatic detection of uric acid.

    PubMed

    He, Haili; Xu, Xiaolong; Wang, Ping; Chen, Lizhen; Jin, Yongdong

    2015-02-01

    A conical glass nanopore was first modified with ultrathin gold nanofilm via a simple and innovative chemical reduction of HAuCl4 on a surface-attached poly(L-histidine) monolayer in the presence of a mild reductant, NH2OH·HCl, followed by surface functionalization with 2-thiouracil, and exploited for the selective nonenzymatic detection of uric acid and especially for serum sample detection. PMID:25531580

  12. Identification and structural characterization of two peroxisome proliferator activated receptors and their transcriptional changes at different developmental stages and after feeding with different fatty acids.

    PubMed

    Liang, Xiao; Zhao, Yuntong; Li, Yang; Gao, Jian

    2016-03-01

    Peroxisome proliferator activated receptors beta1 (PPARβ1) and beta2 (PPARβ2) were investigated in loach (Misgurnus anguillicaudatus). The PPARβ1 and PPARβ2 were widely distributed in loach tissues. Multiple alignments of deduced amino acid sequences revealed homologous characteristics of the two subtypes of PPARβ with 88% identity. PPARβ1 was markedly expressed in the liver, about 100-fold higher than liver PPARβ2. The two subtypes in unfertilized ovum (UO) showed the highest transcriptions in early life stages, and there were great divergences in expression between unfertilized and fertilized stages. The regulation of PPARβ1 and PPARβ2 in response to dietary fatty acids was studied in liver of loach fed with diets containing fish oil (FO, rich in n-3 highly unsaturated fatty acid) or soybean oil (SO, rich in 18:2n-6) for 75days. Results showed that hepatic transcription of PPARβ1 in the SO group was higher than in the FO group. However, PPARβ2 expression was similar. The differences of molecular characterization, tissue expressions in early life stages, and transcriptional regulation by lipid resources indicated that PPARβ1 and PPARβ2 were functionally different. This is the first report of differential expression of PPARβ1 and PPARβ2 in various tissues and early life stages of loach are regulated by lipid resources. These results will stimulate further studies to better understand the functional characterization of PPARβ1 and PPARβ2. PMID:26654955

  13. Direct comparison of mice null for liver or intestinal fatty acid-binding proteins reveals highly divergent phenotypic responses to high fat feeding.

    PubMed

    Gajda, Angela M; Zhou, Yin Xiu; Agellon, Luis B; Fried, Susan K; Kodukula, Sarala; Fortson, Walter; Patel, Khamoshi; Storch, Judith

    2013-10-18

    The enterocyte expresses two fatty acid-binding proteins (FABP), intestinal FABP (IFABP; FABP2) and liver FABP (LFABP; FABP1). LFABP is also expressed in liver. Despite ligand transport and binding differences, it has remained uncertain whether these intestinally coexpressed proteins, which both bind long chain fatty acids (FA), are functionally distinct. Here, we directly compared IFABP(-/-) and LFABP(-/-) mice fed high fat diets containing long chain saturated or unsaturated fatty acids, reasoning that providing an abundance of dietary lipid would reveal unique functional properties. The results showed that mucosal lipid metabolism was indeed differentially modified, with significant decreases in FA incorporation into triacylglycerol (TG) relative to phospholipid (PL) in IFABP(-/-) mice, whereas LFABP(-/-) mice had reduced monoacylglycerol incorporation in TG relative to PL, as well as reduced FA oxidation. Interestingly, striking differences were found in whole body energy homeostasis; LFABP(-/-) mice fed high fat diets became obese relative to WT, whereas IFABP(-/-) mice displayed an opposite, lean phenotype. Fuel utilization followed adiposity, with LFABP(-/-) mice preferentially utilizing lipids, and IFABP(-/-) mice preferentially metabolizing carbohydrate for energy production. Changes in body weight and fat may arise, in part, from altered food intake; mucosal levels of the endocannabinoids 2-arachidonoylglycerol and arachidonoylethanolamine were elevated in LFABP(-/-), perhaps contributing to increased energy intake. This direct comparison provides evidence that LFABP and IFABP have distinct roles in intestinal lipid metabolism; differential intracellular functions in intestine and in liver, for LFABP(-/-) mice, result in divergent downstream effects at the systemic level. PMID:23990461

  14. Electrochemical detection of nanomolar dopamine in the presence of neurophysiological concentration of ascorbic acid and uric acid using charge-coated carbon nanotubes via facile and green preparation.

    PubMed

    Oh, Jeong-Wook; Yoon, Yeo Woon; Heo, Jihye; Yu, Joonhee; Kim, Hasuck; Kim, Tae Hyun

    2016-01-15

    Negatively charged multi-walled carbon nanotubes (MWCNTs) were prepared using simple sonication technique with non-toxic citric acid (CA) for the electrochemical detection of dopamine (DA). CA/MWCNTs were placed on glassy carbon (GC) electrodes by drop-casting method and then electrochemical determinations of DA were performed in the presence of highly concentrated ascorbic acid (AA). For the comparison of the charge effect on MWCNTs surface, positively charged polyethyleneimine (PEI)/MWCNT/GC electrode and pristine MWCNT/GC electrode were also prepared. Contrary to conventional GC electrode, all three types of MWCNT modified electrodes (CA/MWCNT/GC, PEI/MWCNT/GC, and pristine MWCNT/GC) can discriminate ~μM of DA from 1mM AA using cyclic voltammetry (CV) and differential pulse voltammetry (DPV) due to the inherent electrocatalytic effect of MWCNTs. Compared to positively charged PEI/MWCNT/GC and pristine MWCNT/GC electrodes, negatively charged CA/MWCNT/GC electrode remarkably enhanced the electrochemical sensitivity and selectivity of DA, showing the linear relationship between DPV signal and DA concentration in the range of 10-1000nM even in the presence of ~10(5) times concentrated AA, which is attributed to the synergistic effect of the electrostatic interaction between cationic DA molecules and negatively charged MWCNTs and the inherent electrocatalytic property of MWCNT. As a result, the limit of detection (LOD) of DA for CA/MWCNT/GC electrode was 4.2nM, which is 5.2 and 16.5 times better than those for MWCNT/GC electrode and PEI/MWCNT/GC electrode even in the presence of 1mM AA. This LOD value for DA at CA/MWCNT/GC electrode is one of the lowest values compared to the previous reports and is low enough for the early diagnosis of neurological disorder in the presence of physiological AA concentration (~0.5mM). In addition, the high selectivity and sensitivity of DA at CA/MWCNT/GC electrode were well kept even in the presence of both 1mM AA and 10μM uric acid

  15. Direct Comparison of Mice Null for Liver or Intestinal Fatty Acid-binding Proteins Reveals Highly Divergent Phenotypic Responses to High Fat Feeding*

    PubMed Central

    Gajda, Angela M.; Zhou, Yin Xiu; Agellon, Luis B.; Fried, Susan K.; Kodukula, Sarala; Fortson, Walter; Patel, Khamoshi; Storch, Judith

    2013-01-01

    The enterocyte expresses two fatty acid-binding proteins (FABP), intestinal FABP (IFABP; FABP2) and liver FABP (LFABP; FABP1). LFABP is also expressed in liver. Despite ligand transport and binding differences, it has remained uncertain whether these intestinally coexpressed proteins, which both bind long chain fatty acids (FA), are functionally distinct. Here, we directly compared IFABP−/− and LFABP−/− mice fed high fat diets containing long chain saturated or unsaturated fatty acids, reasoning that providing an abundance of dietary lipid would reveal unique functional properties. The results showed that mucosal lipid metabolism was indeed differentially modified, with significant decreases in FA incorporation into triacylglycerol (TG) relative to phospholipid (PL) in IFABP−/− mice, whereas LFABP−/− mice had reduced monoacylglycerol incorporation in TG relative to PL, as well as reduced FA oxidation. Interestingly, striking differences were found in whole body energy homeostasis; LFABP−/− mice fed high fat diets became obese relative to WT, whereas IFABP−/− mice displayed an opposite, lean phenotype. Fuel utilization followed adiposity, with LFABP−/− mice preferentially utilizing lipids, and IFABP−/− mice preferentially metabolizing carbohydrate for energy production. Changes in body weight and fat may arise, in part, from altered food intake; mucosal levels of the endocannabinoids 2-arachidonoylglycerol and arachidonoylethanolamine were elevated in LFABP−/−, perhaps contributing to increased energy intake. This direct comparison provides evidence that LFABP and IFABP have distinct roles in intestinal lipid metabolism; differential intracellular functions in intestine and in liver, for LFABP−/− mice, result in divergent downstream effects at the systemic level. PMID:23990461

  16. Reclamation of acid pickling waste: A facile route for preparation of single-phase Fe3O4 nanoparticle

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Wenxue; Lu, Bin; Tang, Huihui; Zhao, Jingxiang; Cai, Qinghai

    2015-05-01

    Using an alternative method of dropwise addition of iron salt in NaOH aqueous solution, nanocrystalline Fe3O4 materials were prepared from acid pickling waste as a starting material with ultrasonic enhancement and polyethylene glycol as a dispersant, as proved by XRD, TEM, TG-DSC and ICP-MS. The results showed that the Fe3O4 material was a well-crystallized magnetite with an average size of about 25 nm and purity 99.15%. Magnetic measurement revealed the nanocrystals were stronger superparamagnetic with a saturation magnetization of 82.1 emu/g.

  17. Lactose and fatty acid synthesis in lactating-rat mammary gland. Effects of starvation, re-feeding, and administration of insulin, adrenaline, streptozotocin and 2-bromo-alpha-ergocryptine.

    PubMed Central

    Bussmann, L E; Ward, S; Kuhn, N J

    1984-01-01

    Lactose synthesis and fatty acid synthesis in intact lactating-rat mammary gland were measured simultaneously by incorporation of [U-14C]glucose and of both [U-14C]glucose and 3H2O respectively. Both processes were almost abolished by overnight starvation. Self-re-feeding caused recovery of lipogenesis to 100% of normal by 2 h and to 170% by 5 h. Lactose synthesis recovered to 80% of normal by 5 h. Food intubated to starved rats caused partial recovery in 3 h, standard diet favouring lactose synthesis and sugars favouring lipogenesis. Casein and starch were ineffective. Olive oil intubated to fed rats suppressed lipogenesis greatly and lactose synthesis slightly. Paraffin oil or water partly mimicked these effects. Adrenaline (subcutaneous) decreased lipogenesis from glucose, whereas insulin (subcutaneous) caused hypoglycaemia associated with loss of lactose synthesis but unchanged fatty acid synthesis. Streptozotocin and 2-bromo-alpha-ergocryptine (CB-154) impaired lipogenesis but not lactose synthesis. The results are interpreted in terms of competition for intracellular glucose by biosynthetic pathways for lactose and fat, and the possible implications for variations in milk composition are discussed. PMID:6232923

  18. Feeding underground: kinematics of feeding in caecilians.

    PubMed

    Herrel, Anthony; Measey, G John

    2012-11-01

    Caecilians are limbless amphibians that have evolved distinct cranial and postcranial specializations associated with a burrowing lifestyle. Observations on feeding behavior are rare and restricted to above-ground feeding in laboratory conditions. Here we report data on feeding in tunnels using both external video and X-ray recordings of caecilians feeding on invertebrate prey. Our data show feeding kinematics similar to those previously reported, including the pronounced neck bending observed during above-ground feeding. Our data illustrate, however, that caecilians may be much faster than previously suspected, with lunge speeds of up to 7 cm sec(-1). Although gape cycles are often slow (0.67 ± 0.29 sec), rapid jaw closure is observed during prey capture, with cycle times and jaw movement velocities similar to those observed in other terrestrial tetrapods. Finally, our data suggest that gape angles may be large (64.8 ± 18°) and that gape profiles are variable, often lacking distinct slow and fast opening and closing phases. These data illustrate the importance of recording naturalistic feeding behavior and shed light on how these animals are capable of capturing and processing prey in constrained underground environments. Additional data on species with divergent cranial morphologies would be needed to better understand the co-evolution between feeding, burrowing, and cranial design in caecilians. PMID:22927194

  19. High levels of perfluoroalkyl acids in sport fish species downstream of a firefighting training facility at Hamilton International Airport, Ontario, Canada.

    PubMed

    Gewurtz, Sarah B; Bhavsar, Satyendra P; Petro, Steve; Mahon, Chris G; Zhao, Xiaoming; Morse, Dave; Reiner, Eric J; Tittlemier, Sheryl A; Braekevelt, Eric; Drouillard, Ken

    2014-06-01

    A recent study reported elevated concentrations of perfluorooctane sulfonic acid (PFOS) and other perfluoroalkyl acids (PFAAs) in surface water, snapping turtles, and amphipods in Lake Niapenco, downstream of Hamilton International Airport, Ontario, Canada. Here, our goals were to 1) determine the extent of PFAA contamination in sport fish species collected downstream of the airport, 2) explore if the airport could be a potential source, and 3) compare fish PFOS concentrations to consumption advisory benchmarks. The PFOS levels in several sport fish collected from the three locations closest to the airport (<40km) were among the highest previously published in the peer-reviewed literature and also tended to exceed consumption benchmarks. The only other fish that had comparable concentrations were collected in a region affected by inputs from a major fluorinated chemical production facility. In contrast, PFOS concentrations in the two most downstream locations (>70km) were comparable to or below the average concentrations in fish as observed in the literature and were generally below the benchmarks. With regards to perfluorocarboxylates (PFCAs), there was no significant decrease in concentrations in fish with distance from the airport and levels were comparable to or below the average concentrations observed in the literature, suggesting that the airport is not a significant source of PFCAs in these fish species. PFOS-based aqueous film-forming foam (AFFF) was used at a firefighting training facility at the airport in the 1980s to mid-1990s. Taken together, our results provide evidence that the historical use of AFFF at the airport has resulted in fish PFOS concentrations that exceed the 95th percentile concentration of values reported in the literature to date. PMID:24632327

  20. A facile and effective immobilization of glucose oxidase on tannic acid modified CoFe2O4 magnetic nanoparticles.

    PubMed

    Altun, Seher; Çakıroğlu, Bekir; Özacar, Münteha; Özacar, Mahmut

    2015-12-01

    This article presents a study of glucose oxidase (GOx) immobilization by employing tannic acid (TA) modified-CoFe2O4 (CFO) magnetic nanoparticles which demonstrates novel aspect for enzyme immobilization. By using the strong protein and tannic acid binding, GOx immobilization was carried out via physical adsorption in a simpler way compared with the other immobilization methods which require various chemicals and complicated procedures which is difficult, expensive, time-consuming, and destructive to the enzyme structure. CFO was synthesized by hydrothermal synthesis and modified with TA to immobilize GOx. The immobilized GOx demonstrated maximum catalytic activity at pH 6.5 and 45 °C. The samples were characterized by vibrating sample magnetometer (VSM), thermogravimetric analysis (TGA), zeta potential, and fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR), all of which confirm the surface modification of CFO and GOx immobilization. Also, field emission scanning electron microscope (FESEM) and X-ray diffraction (XRD) were performed to demonstrate the surface morphology and chemical structure of samples. According to the Lineweaver-Burk plot, GOx possessed lower affinity to glucose after immobilization, and the Michelis-Menten constant (KM) of immobilized and free GOx were found to be 50.05 mM and 28.00 mM, respectively. The immobilized GOx showed excellent reusability, and even after 8 consecutive activity assay runs, the immobilized GOx maintained ca. 60% of its initial activity. PMID:26562188

  1. Facile Probe Design: Fluorescent Amphiphilic Nucleic Acid Probes without Quencher Providing Telomerase Activity Imaging Inside Living Cells.

    PubMed

    Jia, Yongmei; Gao, Pengcheng; Zhuang, Yuan; Miao, Mao; Lou, Xiaoding; Xia, Fan

    2016-06-21

    Nowadays, the probe with fluorophore but no quencher is promising for its simple preparation, environmental friendliness, and wide application scope. This study designs a new amphiphilic nucleic acid probe (ANAP) based on aggregation-caused quenching (ACQ) effect without any quencher. Upon binding with targets, the dispersion of hydrophobic part (conjugated fluorene, CF) in ANAP is enhanced as a signal-on model for proteins, nucleic acids, and small molecules detection or the aggregation of CF is enhanced as a signal-off model for ion detection. Meanwhile, because of the high specificity of ANAP, a one-step method is developed powerfully for monitoring the telomerase activity not only from the cell extracts but also from 50 clinic urine samples (positive results from 45 patients with bladder cancer and negative results from 5 healthy people). ANAPs can also readily enter into cells and exhibit a good performance for distinguishing natural tumor cells from the tumor cells pretreated by telomerase-related drugs or normal cells. In contrast to our previous results ( Anal. Chem. 2015 , 87 , 3890 - 3894 ), the present CF is a monomer which is just the structure unit of the previous fluorescent polymer. Since the accurate molecular structure and high DNA/CF ratio of the present CF, these advanced experiments obtain an easier preparation of probes, an improved sensitivity and specificity, and broader detectable targets. PMID:27223599

  2. Effects of feeding increasing dietary levels of high oleic or regular sunflower or linseed oil on fatty acid profile of goat milk.

    PubMed

    Martínez Marín, A L; Gómez-Cortés, P; Gómez Castro, G; Juárez, M; Pérez Alba, L; Pérez Hernández, M; de la Fuente, M A

    2012-04-01

    In this work, the effects of increasing amounts of 3 plant oils in diets on the fatty acid (FA) profile of goat milk were studied. The study consisted of 3 experiments, one per oil tested (linseed oil, LO; high oleic sunflower oil, HOSFO; and regular sunflower oil, RSFO). The 3 experiments were conducted successively on 12 Malagueña goats, which were assigned at random to 1 of 4 treatments: 0, 30, 48, and 66 (H) g of added oil/d. A basal diet made of alfalfa hay and pelleted concentrate (33:67) was used in all of the experiments. For each animal, milk samples collected after 15 d on treatments were analyzed for fat, protein, lactose, and FA composition, whereas individual milk yield was measured the last 3 d of each experiment. Oil supplementation affected neither dry matter intake nor milk production traits. Increasing the oil supplementation decreased the content of saturated FA (especially 16:0) in milk fat and increased mono- and polyunsaturated FA in a linear manner. Vaccenic acid content linearly increased with the oil supplementation by 370, 217, and 634% to 5.32, 2.66, and 5.09 g/100 g of total FA methyl esters with the H diet in LO, HOSFO, and RSFO experiments, respectively. Rumenic acid content linearly increased with LO and RSFO supplementation by 298 and 354% from 0.53 and 0.41 g/100 g of total FA methyl esters with the 0 g of added oil/d diet. The content of trans-10-18:1 was not affected by LO supplementation but showed an increasing linear trend with HOSFO supplementation and linearly increased with RSFO supplementation. The ratio of n-6 to n-3 polyunsaturated FA in milk fat was decreased by about 70% with the H diet in the LO experiment and it was increased by 54 and 82% with the H diet in the HOSFO and RSFO experiments. In conclusion, LO supplementation in this work seemed to be the most favorable alternative compared with HOSFO or RSFO supplementation. PMID:22459841

  3. Development Of Ion Chromatography Methods To Support Testing Of The Glycolic Acid Reductant Flowsheet In The Defense Waste Processing Facility

    SciTech Connect

    Wiedenman, B. J.; White, T. L.; Mahannah, R. N.; Best, D. R.; Stone, M. E.; Click, D. R.; Lambert, D. P.; Coleman, C. J.

    2013-10-01

    Ion Chromatography (IC) is the principal analytical method used to support studies of Sludge Reciept and Adjustment Tank (SRAT) chemistry at DWPF. A series of prior analytical ''Round Robin'' (RR) studies included both supernate and sludge samples from SRAT simulant, previously reported as memos, are tabulated in this report.2,3 From these studies it was determined to standardize IC column size to 4 mm diameter, eliminating the capillary column from use. As a follow on test, the DWPF laboratory, the PSAL laboratory, and the AD laboratory participated in the current analytical RR to determine a suite of anions in SRAT simulant by IC, results also are tabulated in this report. The particular goal was to confirm the laboratories ability to measure and quantitate glycolate ion. The target was + or - 20% inter-lab agreement of the analyte averages for the RR. Each of the three laboratories analyzed a batch of 12 samples. For each laboratory, the percent relative standard deviation (%RSD) of the averages on nitrate, glycolate, and oxalate, was 10% or less. The three laboratories all met the goal of 20% relative agreement for nitrate and glycolate. For oxalate, the PSAL laboratory reported an average value that was 20% higher than the average values reported by the DWPF laboratory and the AD laboratory. Because of this wider window of agreement, it was concluded to continue the practice of an additional acid digestion for total oxalate measurement. It should also be noted that large amounts of glycolate in the SRAT samples will have an impact on detection limits of near eluting peaks, namely Fluoride and Formate. A suite of scoping experiments are presented in the report to identify and isolate other potential interlaboratory disceprancies. Specific ion chromatography inter-laboratory method conditions and differences are tabulated. Most differences were minor but there are some temperature control equipment differences that are significant leading to a recommendation of

  4. Chain-length dependency of interactions of medium-chain fatty acids with glucose metabolism in acini isolated from lactating rat mammary glands. A putative feed-back to control milk lipid synthesis from glucose.

    PubMed Central

    Heesom, K J; Souza, P F; Ilic, V; Williamson, D H

    1992-01-01

    The effects of a series of medium-chain fatty acids (C6-C12) on glucose metabolism in isolated acini from lactating rat mammary glands have been studied. Hexanoate (C6) octanoate (C8) and decanoate (C10), but not laurate (C12), decreased [1-14C]glucose conversion into [14C]lipid and the production of 14CO2 (an index of the pentose phosphate pathway). With hexanoate and octanoate, glucose utilization was decreased, whereas decanoate had a slight stimulatory effect on glucose utilization, but there was a large accumulation of lactate. Addition of dichloroacetate (an inhibitor of pyruvate dehydrogenase kinase) decreased this accumulation of lactate and stimulated the conversion of [1-14C]glucose into [14C]lipid and 14CO2. Insulin had no effect on the rate of glucose utilization in the presence of hexanoate. It stimulated the rate in the presence of octanoate and laurate and increased the conversion of [1-14C]glucose into [14C]lipid in the presence of octanoate, decanoate or laurate. The major fate of 1-14C-labelled medium-chain fatty acids (C6, C8 and C12) was conversion into [14C]lipid. The proportion converted into 14CO2 decreased with increasing chain length, whereas the rate of [14C]lipid formation increased. It is concluded that the interactions between medium-chain fatty acids and glucose metabolism represent a feed-back mechanism to control milk lipid synthesis, and this may be important when milk accumulates in the gland. PMID:1731763

  5. Evaluation of a high-EPA oil from transgenic Camelina sativa in feeds for Atlantic salmon (Salmo salar L.): Effects on tissue fatty acid composition, histology and gene expression

    PubMed Central

    Betancor, M.B.; Sprague, M.; Sayanova, O.; Usher, S.; Campbell, P.J.; Napier, J.A.; Caballero, M.J.; Tocher, D.R.

    2015-01-01

    Currently, one alternative for dietary fish oil (FO) in aquafeeds is vegetable oils (VO) that are devoid of omega-3 (n-3) long-chain polyunsaturated fatty acids (LC-PUFAs). Entirely new sources of n-3 LC-PUFA such as eicosapentaenoic (EPA) and docosahexaenoic (DHA) acids through de novo production are a potential solution to fill the gap between supply and demand of these important nutrients. Camelina sativa was metabolically engineered to produce a seed oil (ECO) with > 20% EPA and its potential to substitute for FO in Atlantic salmon feeds was tested. Fish were fed with one of the three experimental diets containing FO, wild-type camelina oil (WCO) or ECO as the sole lipid sources for 7 weeks. Inclusion of ECO did not affect any of the performance parameters studied and enhanced apparent digestibility of individual n-6 and n-3 PUFA compared to dietary WCO. High levels of EPA were maintained in brain, liver and intestine (pyloric caeca), and levels of DPA and DHA were increased in liver and intestine of fish fed ECO compared to fish fed WCO likely due to increased LC-PUFA biosynthesis based on up-regulation of the genes. Fish fed ECO showed slight lipid accumulation within hepatocytes similar to that with WCO, although not significantly different to fish fed FO. The regulation of a small number of genes could be attributed to the specific effect of ECO (311 features) with metabolism being the most affected category. The EPA oil from transgenic Camelina (ECO) could be used as a substitute for FO, however it is a hybrid oil containing both FO (EPA) and VO (18:2n-6) fatty acid signatures that resulted in similarly mixed metabolic and physiological responses. PMID:26146421

  6. FY95 limited energy study area B nitric acid production facilities, Holston Army Ammunition Plant, Kingsport, Tennessee. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    1996-04-02

    The purpose of this study is to identify and evaluate the technical and economic feasibility of process or equipment modifications pursuant to conservation of energy and reduction of water consumption at the Ammonia Oxidation Process Facilities in Building 302, Area B. An adjunct requirement is to avoid proposed modifications which would impose additional maintenance and operation requirements. The following ECO`s specifically identified by scope documents, were investigated: 1. Convert air compressor drive turbine from tailgas to steam or to steam augmentation. 2. Recover heat from product gas leaving the air preheater to produce steam. 3. Water conservation. Additional ECOs selected by the A/E to be studied include the following: 1. Insulate heat exchangers and tailgas piping. 2. Install preformed plate heat exchangers inside insulation on air preheater and tailgas heater vessels for heat recovery to a 30 psig steam system. 3. Inject air compressor intercooler and aftercooler condensate and steam condensate from the ammonia vaporizer into tailgas entering compressor drive turbine for increased power.

  7. Fabrication of Uniform DNA-Conjugated Hydrogel Microparticles via Replica Molding for Facile Nucleic Acid Hybridization Assays

    PubMed Central

    Lewis, Christina L.; Choi, Chang-Hyung; Lin, Yan; Lee, Chang-Soo; Yi, Hyunmin

    2010-01-01

    We identify and investigate several critical parameters in the fabrication of single-stranded DNA conjugated poly(ethylene glycol) (PEG) microparticles based on replica molding (RM) for highly uniform and robust nucleic acid hybridization assays. The effects of PEG-diacrylate, probe DNA, and photoinitiator concentrations on the overall fluorescence and target DNA penetration depth upon hybridization are examined. Fluorescence and confocal microscopy results illustrate high conjugation capacity of probe and target DNA, femtomole sensitivity, and sequence specificity. Combined these findings demonstrate a significant step toward simple, robust, and scalable procedures to manufacture highly uniform and high capacity hybridization assay particles in a well-controlled manner by exploiting many advantages that the batch processing-based RM technique offers. We envision that the results presented here may be readily applied to rapid and high throughput hybridization assays for a wide variety of applications in bioprocess monitoring, food safety, and biological threat detection. PMID:20527819

  8. Fabrication of uniform DNA-conjugated hydrogel microparticles via replica molding for facile nucleic acid hybridization assays.

    PubMed

    Lewis, Christina L; Choi, Chang-Hyung; Lin, Yan; Lee, Chang-Soo; Yi, Hyunmin

    2010-07-01

    We identify and investigate several critical parameters in the fabrication of single-stranded DNA conjugated poly(ethylene glycol) (PEG) microparticles based on replica molding (RM) for highly uniform and robust nucleic acid hybridization assays. The effects of PEG-diacrylate, probe DNA, and photoinitiator concentrations on the overall fluorescence and target DNA penetration depth upon hybridization are examined. Fluorescence and confocal microscopy results illustrate high conjugation capacity of the probe and target DNA, femtomole sensitivity, and sequence specificity. Combined, these findings demonstrate a significant step toward simple, robust, and scalable procedures to manufacture highly uniform and high-capacity hybridization assay particles in a well-controlled manner by exploiting many advantages that the batch processing-based RM technique offers. We envision that the results presented here may be readily applied to rapid and high-throughput hybridization assays for a wide variety of applications in bioprocess monitoring, food safety, and biological threat detection. PMID:20527819

  9. Breastfeeding vs. Formula Feeding

    MedlinePlus

    ... breastfeed your baby or bottle feed using infant formula . Health experts agree that breastfeeding is the healthiest ... is hungry. You do not need to make formula before feeding, worry about clean water, or carry ...

  10. Gastrostomy feeding tube - bolus

    MedlinePlus

    ... jaw muscles. Feeding Your Child with the Gravity Method Your provider will show you the best way ... the button. Feeding Your Child with the Syringe Method Your provider will teach you the best way ...

  11. Facile synthesis of nano-sized agarose based amino acid-Its pH-dependent protein-like behavior and interactions with bovine serum albumin.

    PubMed

    Chudasama, Nishith A; Siddhanta, A K

    2015-11-19

    In a facile synthesis agarose was amphoterically functionalized to afford nano-sized agarose amino acids, aminoagarose succinate half-esters (AAE) containing one pendant carboxyl group. Nano-sized AAEs (<10 nm; DLS) were characterized and they had three various degrees of substitution [overall DSs 0.88, 0.89 and 0.96], both the amino and half-ester groups were placed on C-6 positions of the 1,3 beta-d-galactopyranose moieties of agarose backbone ((13)C NMR). AAEs performed like large protein molecules exhibiting pH-responsive structural variations (optical rotatory dispersion), presenting a mixed solubility pattern like random coil (soluble) and aggregate (precipitation) formations. Circular dichroism studies showed their pH-dependent associative interactions with bovine serum albumin, which indicated complexation at acidic and basic pHs, and decomplexation at pH 6.8 with AAE (DS 0.96). Thus, these nano-sized AAE based systems may be of potential utility in the domains demanding the merits of preferential protein bindings e.g. pH-responsive cationic/anionic drug carrier, separations or chiral sensing applications. PMID:26413976

  12. Characterization of sounds in maize produced by internally feeding insects:investigations to develop inexpensive devices for detection of Prostephanus truncatus& Sitophilus zeamais in small-scale storage facilities in Africa

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The detectability and spectral characteristics of sounds produced by internally feeding stored product insects in Zea mays L. (maize or corn) were investigated in a noise-free laboratory setting to consider the feasibility of constructing a low-cost acoustic detection device that would assist pest m...

  13. Rapid switch of hepatic fatty acid metabolism from oxidation to esterification during diurnal feeding of meal-fed rats correlates with changes in the properties of acetyl-CoA carboxylase, but not of carnitine palmitoyltransferase I.

    PubMed Central

    Moir, A M; Zammit, V A

    1993-01-01

    The effects of the ingestion of a meal on the partitioning of hepatic fatty acids between oxidation and esterification were studied in vivo for meal-fed rats. The time course for the reversal of the starved state was extremely rapid and the process was complete within 2 h, in marked contrast with the reversal of the effects of starvation in rats fed ad libitum [A. M. B. Moir and V. A. Zammit (1993) Biochem. J. 289, 49-55]. This rapid reversal occurred in spite of the fact that, in the liver of the meal-fed animals before feeding, a similar degree of partitioning of fatty acids in favour of oxidation was observed as in 24 h-starved rats (previously fed ad libitum). This suggested that the lower degree of ketonaemia observed in meal-fed rats before a meal is not due to the inability of acylcarnitine formation to compete successfully with esterification of fatty acids to the glycerol moiety. Investigation of the possible mechanisms that could contribute towards the rapid switching-off of fatty acid oxidation revealed that this was correlated with a very rapid rise and overshoot in hepatic malonyl-CoA concentration, but not with any change in the activity, or sensitivity to malonyl-CoA, of the mitochondrial overt carnitine palmitoyltransferase (CPT I). The role of these two parameters in the reversal of fasting-induced hepatic fatty acid oxidation was thus the inverse of that observed previously for refed 24 h-starved rats. The rapid increase in [malonyl-CoA] was accompanied by an immediate and complete reversion of the kinetic characteristics (Ka for citrate, expressed/total activity ratio) of acetyl-CoA carboxylase to those found in the post-meal animals, again in contrast with the time course observed in refed 24 h-starved rats [A. M. B. Moir and V. A. Zammit (1990) Biochem. J. 272, 511-517]. The rapidity with which these changes occurred was specific to the partitioning of acyl-CoA; the meal-induced diversion of glycerolipids towards phospholipid synthesis and the

  14. Monitoring emissions from animal feeding operations

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The EPA air consent agreement with animal feeding operations (AFO) specifies the use of EPA TO-15 for the speciation of VOCs emitted from these facilities. Sorbent tube sampling may be a more effective technique in the speciation of VOCs from AFOs due to its ability to capture both volatile and hig...

  15. Speciation of VOCs from Animal Feeding Operations

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The Environmental Pollution Agency (EPA) air consent agreement with animal feeding operations (AFO) specifies the use of EPA TO-15 for the speciation of volatile organic compounds (VOC) emitted from these facilities. However, compounds emitted from AFO are often both volatile and highly polar chara...

  16. Coal feed component testing for CDIF

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Pearson, C. V.; Snyder, B. K.; Fornek, T. E.

    1977-01-01

    Investigations conducted during the conceptual design of the Montana MHD Component Development and Integration Facility (CDIF) identified commercially available processing and feeding equipment potentially suitable for use in a reference design. Tests on sub-scale units of this equipment indicated that they would perform as intended.

  17. Composite polymeric beads containing N,N,N',N'-tetraoctyldiglycolamide for actinide ion uptake from nitric acid feeds: Batch uptake, kinetic modelling and column studies.

    PubMed

    Gujar, R B; Mohapatra, P K; Lakshmi, D Shanthana; Figoli, A

    2015-11-27

    Polyethersulphone (PES) based composite polymeric beads (CPB) containing TODGA (N,N,N',N'-tetraoctyldiglycolamide) as the extractant were prepared by conventional phase inversion technique and were tested for the uptake of actinide ions such as Am(3+), UO2(2+), Pu(4+), Np(4+) and fission product ions such as Eu(3+) and Sr(2+). The CPBs containing 2.5-10wt.% TODGA were characterized by various physical methods and their porosity, size, surface morphology, surface area and the degradation profile by thermogravimetry were analyzed. The batch uptake studies involved kinetics of metal ion sorption, uptake as a function of nitric acid concentration, kinetic modelling and adsorption isotherms and most of the studies involved the Am(3+) ions. The batch saturation sorption capacities for Eu(3+) loading at 3M HNO3 were determined to be 6.6±0.02, 9.1±0.02 and 22.3±0.04mgg(-1) of CRBs with 2.5wt.%, 5wt.% and 10wt.% TODGA, respectively. The sorption isotherm analysis with Langmuir, D-R and Freundlisch isotherms indicated chemisorption monolayer mechanism. Chromatographic studies indicated breakthrough of Eu(3+) (using a solution containing Eu carrier) after about 0.75 bed volume (3.5-4mL). Elution of the loaded Eu was carried out using 0.01M EDTA as the eluent. PMID:26518494

  18. Feeding, drinking, urine osmolality in DI Brattleboro rats: changes by morphine, naloxone, D-amino acids, prolyl-leucyl-glycinamide (PLG).

    PubMed

    Koyuncuoğlu, H; Berkman, K; Sabuncu, H

    1984-01-01

    Brattleboro rats placed in metabolism cages were injected with morphine (Mor), naloxone (Nal), D- and L-aspartic acid (D- and L-Asp), D-phenylalanine (D-Phe), D-leucine (D-Leu) and prolyl-leucyl-glycinamide (PLG), alone and in suitable combinations. Food and fluid intake, urine outflow, faeces weight, rectal temperature and urinary osmolality were determined at the end of seven hours period of time. Mor, Nal, D-Asp and PLG alone caused a significant decrease in food and fluid intake, urine volume and faeces weight and a significant increase in urinary osmolality being the osmolality of the Mor, D-Asp and PLG injected groups higher than 300 mOsmol/kg. The combination of Nal with Mor, D-Asp and PLG appeared to intensify the changes induced by Mor, D-Asp and PLG whereas L-Asp antagonized the majority of changes caused by Mor or PLG. The results were discussed in the light of the previous experimental findings. PMID:6694997

  19. Feeding rumen-protected gamma-aminobutyric acid enhances the immune response and antioxidant status of heat-stressed lactating dairy cows.

    PubMed

    Cheng, Jianbo; Zheng, Nan; Sun, Xianzhi; Li, Songli; Wang, Jiaqi; Zhang, Yangdong

    2016-08-01

    This experiment was conducted to investigate the effects of rumen-protected gamma-aminobutyric acid (GABA) on immune function and antioxidant status in heat-stressed dairy cows. Sixty Holstein dairy cows were randomly assigned to 1 of 4 treatments according to a completely randomized block design. The treatments consisted of 0 (control), 40, 80, or 120mg of GABA/kg DM from rumen-protected GABA. The trial lasted 10 weeks. The average temperature-humidity indices at 0700, 1400 and 2200h were 78.4, 80.2 and 78.7, respectively. Rectal temperatures decreased linearly at 0700, 1400, and 2200h with increasing GABA. As the GABA increased, the immunoglobulin (Ig) A and IgG contents and the proportions of CD4(+) and CD8(+) T lymphocytes increased linearly (P<0.05), whereas concentrations of interleukin (IL)-2, IL-4, IL-6 and tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α) decreased linearly (P<0.05). The activities of superoxide dismutase (SOD), glutathione-peroxidase (GSH-PX) and total antioxidant capacity (T-AOC) increased linearly (P<0.05), whereas malondialdehyde (MDA) content decreased linearly (P<0.05) with increasing GABA. These results indicate that rumen-protected GABA supplementation to heat-stressed dairy cows can improve their immune function and antioxidant activity. PMID:27503722

  20. Facile fabrication of self-assembled polyaniline nanotubes doped with D-tartaric acid for high-performance supercapacitors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mu, Jingjing; Ma, Guofu; Peng, Hui; Li, Jiajia; Sun, Kanjun; Lei, Ziqiang

    2013-11-01

    Polyaniline (PANI) nanotubes with outstanding electrochemical properties have been successfully synthesized via a simple chemical template-free method in the presence of D-tartaric acid (D-TA) as the dopant, and ammonium persulfate ((NH4)2S2O8) as the oxidant. The morphologies and structures of PANI-(D-TA) with different [D-TA]/[aniline] molar ratios are characterized using scanning electron microscopy (SEM), transmission electron microscopy (TEM), Fourier transform infrared (FT-IR) and X-ray diffraction (XRD). To assess the electrochemical properties of PANI-(D-TA) materials, cyclic voltammetry (CV) and galvanostatic charging-discharging measurements are performed. The PANI-(D-TA) nanotubes electrode, with [D-TA]/[aniline] molar ratio of 1:1, exhibits larger specific capacitance (as high as 625 F g-1 at 1 A g-1) and higher capacitance retention (77% of its initial capacitance after 500 cycles) in 1 M H2SO4 aqueous solution. The remarkable electrochemical characteristics of PANI-(D-TA) are mainly attributed to their unique nanotubular structures, which provide a high electrode/electrolyte contact area and short ions diffusion path. These novel PANI-(D-TA) nanotubes will be promising electrode materials for high-performance supercapacitors.

  1. Fe(3+)-functionalized carbon quantum dots: A facile preparation strategy and detection for ascorbic acid in rat brain microdialysates.

    PubMed

    Li, Linbo; Wang, Chao; Luo, Jingxuan; Guo, Quanwei; Liu, Kangyu; Liu, Kun; Zhao, Wenji; Lin, Yuqing

    2015-11-01

    This study reports an Fe(3+)-functionalized carbon quantum dots (Fe(3+)-functionalized CQDs) for the highly sensitive and selective detection of ascorbic acid (AA) in rat brain microdialysates based on the specific redox reaction between iron(III) ions and AA. The carbon quantum dots (CQDs) were synthesized by one-step pyrolysis of a small organic molecules i.e. tris(hydroxymethyl)aminomethane (Tris). Fe(3+) can tightly chelate to the surface of CQDs by the hydroxyl group to form Fe(3+)-functionalized CQDs while the fluorescence of CQDs can be effectively quenched by Fe(3+) via Fluorescence resonance energy transfer (FRET). The fluorescence of the Fe(3+)-functionalized CQDs can be sensitively turned on by AA to give an "on-off-on" fluorescence response through the oxidation-reduction between Fe(3+) and AA since the produced Fe(2+) has much lower chelating ability to CQDs and the fluorescence of CQDs can be restored. This Fe(3+)-functionalized CQDs based nanoprobe shows high selective and sensitive response in the concentration of AA ranging from 0.1 μM to 50 μM with the detection limit as lower as 9.1 nM, which is lower than other assays. Finally, the proposed fluorescent probe was successfully applied to direct analysis of AA in biological fluids, i.e. rat brain microdialysates, and may pave a new route to the design of effective carbon quantum dots-based fluorescence probes for other bioassay. PMID:26452962

  2. Temperature-induced changes in fatty acid dynamics of the intertidal grazer Platychelipus littoralis (Crustacea, Copepoda, Harpacticoida): Insights from a short-term feeding experiment.

    PubMed

    Werbrouck, Eva; Van Gansbeke, Dirk; Vanreusel, Ann; Mensens, Christoph; De Troch, Marleen

    2016-04-01

    Dietary lipids, and in particular the essential fatty acids (EFA), EPA (20:5ω3) and DHA (22:6ω3), guarantee the well-being of animals and are recognized for their potential bottom-up control on animal populations. They are introduced in marine ecosystems through primary producers and when grazed upon, they are consumed, incorporated or modified by first-level consumers. As the availability of EFA in the ecosystem is affected by ambient temperature, the predicted rise in ocean temperature might alter the availability of these EFA at the basis of marine food webs. Despite the FA bioconversion capacity of certain benthic copepod species, their lipid (FA) response to varying temperatures is understudied. Therefore, the temperate, intertidal copepod Platychelipus littoralis was offered a mono and mixed diatom diet at 4, 15 °C (normal range) and at 24 °C (elevated temperature) to investigate the combined effects of temperature and resource availability on its FA content and composition. P. littoralis showed a flexible thermal acclimation response. Cold exposure increased the degree of FA unsaturation and the EPA%, and induced a shift towards shorter chain FA in the copepod's membranes. Furthermore, a mixed diet reduced the impact of heat stress on the copepod's membrane FA composition. Temperature affected the trophic transfer of EPA and DHA differently. While dietary resources could fully compensate for the temperature effects on total lipid and EPA content in the copepods, no such counterweigh was observed for the DHA dynamics. Heat stress lowered the DHA concentration in copepods regardless of the resources available and this implies negative effects for higher trophic levels. PMID:27033038

  3. A Facile Synthesis of MPd (M=Co, Cu) Nanoparticles and Their Catalysis for Formic Acid Oxidation

    SciTech Connect

    Mazumder, Vismadeb; Chi, Miaofang; Mankin, Max; Liu, Yi; Metin, Onder; Sun, Daohua; More, Karren Leslie; Sun, Shouheng

    2012-01-01

    Monodisperse CoPd nanoparticles (NPs) were synthesized and studied for catalytic formic acid (HCOOH) oxidation (FAO). The NPs were prepared by coreduction of Co(acac)2 (acac = acetylacetonate) and PdBr2 at 260 C in oleylamine and trioctylphosphine, and their sizes (5-12 nm) and compositions (Co10Pd90 to Co60Pd40) were controlled by heating ramp rate, metal salt concentration, or metal molar ratios. The 8 nm CoPd NPs were activated for HCOOH oxidation by a simple ethanol wash. In 0.1 M HClO4 and 2 M HCOOH solution, their catalytic activities followed the trend of Co50Pd50 > Co60Pd40 > Co10Pd90 > Pd. The Co50Pd50 NPs had an oxidation peak at 0.4 V with a peak current density of 774 A/gPd. As a comparison, commercial Pd catalysts showed an oxidation peak at 0.75 V with peak current density of only 254 A/gPd. The synthesis procedure could also be extended to prepare CuPd NPs when Co(acac)2 was replaced by Cu(ac)2 (ac = acetate) in an otherwise identical condition. The CuPd NPs were less active catalysts than CoPd or even Pd for FAO in HClO4 solution. The synthesis provides a general approach to Pd-based bimetallic NPs and will enable further investigation of Pd-based alloy NPs for electro-oxidation and other catalytic reactions.

  4. Proline control of the feeding reaction of Cordylophora.

    PubMed

    FULTON, C

    1963-03-01

    The colonial hydroid Cordylophora is a carnivore whose feeding is induced by substances released from captured prey. An active molecule, probably the only one, has been isolated from a fraction of the laboratory food of Cordylophora, brine shrimp larvae, and identified on paper chromatograms as the imino acid proline. Reagent proline induces the feeding reaction at 10(-5)M. The reaction is specific in that only two alpha-imino acids very closely related to proline were found to possess significant activity: azetidine-2-carboxylic acid and pipecolic acid. The response to proline is inhibited by magnesium ions and enhanced by phosphate. Since previous studies have shown that the feeding reactions of Hydra, Physalia, and Campanularia are controlled by reduced glutathione, the phylogenetic implications of the proline control of feeding in Cordylophora are discussed. The feeding reactions of both Cordylophora and Hydra are also induced by proteases, suggesting similar mechanisms of induction in the two hydroids. PMID:13960251

  5. 31 CFR 540.317 - Uranium feed; natural uranium feed.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 31 Money and Finance:Treasury 3 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Uranium feed; natural uranium feed...) AGREEMENT ASSETS CONTROL REGULATIONS General Definitions § 540.317 Uranium feed; natural uranium feed. The term uranium feed or natural uranium feed means natural uranium in the form of UF6 suitable for...

  6. 31 CFR 540.317 - Uranium feed; natural uranium feed.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 31 Money and Finance: Treasury 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Uranium feed; natural uranium feed...) AGREEMENT ASSETS CONTROL REGULATIONS General Definitions § 540.317 Uranium feed; natural uranium feed. The term uranium feed or natural uranium feed means natural uranium in the form of UF6 suitable for...

  7. Gastrostomy feeding tube - pump - child

    MedlinePlus

    ... supplies: Feeding pump (electronic or battery powered) Feeding set that matches the feeding pump (includes a feeding ... drip chamber, roller clamp, and long tube) Extension set, for a Bard Button or MIC-KEY (this ...

  8. Two single group, prospective, baseline-controlled feeding studies in infants and children with chronic diarrhea fed a hypoallergenic free amino acid-based formula

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Infants and children with chronic diarrhea (CD) often require specialized foods or parenteral nutrition (PN) to achieve adequate nutrient intakes to support growth and development. We assessed the efficacy of an amino acid-based formula (AAF) in supporting growth and improving symptoms in infants and children with CD from multiple etiologies. Methods Two studies were conducted: CD study in children (CD-C) and CD study in infants (CD-I). Each was a single group, baseline-controlled study in which each subject served as his/her own control. At enrollment, all subjects had CD lasting > 2 weeks and had ≥ 4 stools/day. Subjects were fed an AAF for 80 days starting at SD5, and were assessed at SD 28 and 84. Results CD-C: 18 of 19 subjects completed the study. At enrollment, the mean age was 5.6 ± 0.7 years, the most common diagnosis was short bowel syndrome (SBS) (n = 13), and 5 subjects with SBS were on PN. Subjects achieved significant increases in weight-for-age z-scores (p = 0.026). Over 50% of subjects achieved improvements in clinical outcomes targeted most frequently by their physicians. Of the five subjects on PN at enrollment, four had substantial weight gain and four had their PN requirements decreased. CD-I: 22 of 27 subjects completed the study. At enrollment, the mean age was 3.3 ± 0.3 months, the most common diagnosis was food allergy (n = 20), and no subjects were on PN. Subjects achieved significant increases in weight-for-age z-scores (p = 0.0023), significant decreases in the number of stools/day (p = 0.0012), and improvements in stool consistency (p = 0.0024). Over 80% of subjects achieved improvements in the clinical outcomes targeted most frequently by their physicians. Conclusions Infants and children with CD fed an AAF for three months displayed significant improvements in weight-for-age z-scores and clinical symptoms. Children dependent on PN also grew well and four of five decreased their

  9. Larval starvation reduces responsiveness to feeding stimuli and does not affect feeding preferences in a butterfly.

    PubMed

    Kehl, Tobias; Fischer, Klaus

    2012-07-01

    It is commonly assumed that holometabolic insects such as Lepidoptera rely primarily on larval storage reserves for reproduction. Recent studies though have documented a prominent role of adult-derived carbohydrates for butterfly reproduction. Moreover, a few studies have shown that adult butterflies may also benefit from adult-derived amino acids, at least when larval storage reserves are reduced. Given that in holometabolous insects larval deficiencies are carried over into the adult stage, reduced storage reserves have the potential to modulate adult feeding preferences and responses in order to allow for a successful compensation. We tested this hypothesis here in the fruit-feeding butterfly Bicyclus anynana using larval food stress to manipulate storage reserves. Alcohols (methanol, ethanol, butanol, propanol), sugars (maltose, glucose, fructose, sucrose), and acetic acid acted as feeding stimuli, while butterflies did not respond to other substances such as amino acids, yeast, salts, or vitamins. Contrary to expectations, stressed butterflies showed a weaker response than controls to several feeding stimuli. In preference tests, butterflies preferred sugar solutions containing proline, arginine, glutamic acid, acetic acid, or ethanol over plain sugar solutions, but discriminated against salts. However, there were no general differences among starved and control butterflies. We conclude that larval food-stress does not elicit compensatory feeding behavior such as a stronger preference for amino acids or other essential nutrients in B. anynana. Instead, the stress imposed by a period of starvation yielded negative effects. PMID:22634044

  10. A facile one-pot synthesis of carbon nitride dots-reduced graphene oxide nanocomposites for simultaneous enhanced detecting of dopamine and uric acid.

    PubMed

    Yang, Ziyin; Zheng, Xiaohui; Li, Zhi; Zheng, Jianbin

    2016-08-01

    In this study, we described the facile synthesis of carbon nitride dots-reduced graphene oxide nanocomposites (CNDs-rGO) and their application for the enhanced electrochemical determination of dopamine (DA) and uric acid (UA). CNDs-rGO were synthesized for the first time through a green and facile one-step approach, carried out by hydrothermal heat-treatment of an aqueous solution containing GO and chitosan without introduction of other reducing agents or surface modifier. Then, the morphology and composition of CNDs-rGO nanocomposites were characterized by transmission electron microscopy (TEM), Raman spectroscopy, X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy and Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy. TEM observations revealed that CNDs with a size of about 5.0 nm were homogeneously and densely distributed on the surface of rGO. Electrochemical investigations indicated that CNDs-rGO nanocomposites exhibited an excellent performance toward DA and UA. The linear range for DA was estimated to be from 80 nM to 227 μM with a sensitivity of 154.3 μA mM(-1) cm(-2) and a low detection limit of 0.03 μM. Meanwhile, the linear range for UA was estimated to be from 80 nM to 328 μM with a high sensitivity of 178.1 μA mM(-1) cm(-2) and a low detection limit of 0.05 μM. Therefore, CNDs-rGO nanocomposites showed great application potential for constructing electrochemical sensors for the detection of DA and UA. PMID:27284588

  11. S-Nitrosoglutathione reductase (GSNOR) mediates the biosynthesis of jasmonic acid and ethylene induced by feeding of the insect herbivore Manduca sexta and is important for jasmonate-elicited responses in Nicotiana attenuata

    PubMed Central

    Wünsche, Hendrik; Baldwin, Ian T.; Wu, Jianqiang

    2011-01-01

    S-nitrosoglutathione reductase (GSNOR) reduces the nitric oxide (NO) adduct S-nitrosoglutathione (GSNO), an essential reservoir for NO bioactivity. In plants, GSNOR has been found to be important in resistance to bacterial and fungal pathogens, but whether it is also involved in plant–herbivore interactions was not known. Using a virus-induced gene silencing (VIGS) system, the activity of GSNOR in a wild tobacco species, Nicotiana attenuata, was knocked down and the function of GSNOR in defence against the insect herbivore Manduca sexta was examined. Silencing GSNOR decreased the herbivory-induced accumulation of jasmonic acid (JA) and ethylene, two important phytohormones regulating plant defence levels, without compromising the activity of two mitogen-activated protein kinases (MAPKs), salicylic acid-induced protein kinase (SIPK) and wound-induced protein kinase (WIPK). Decreased activity of trypsin proteinase inhibitors (TPIs) were detected in GSNOR-silenced plants after simulated M. sexta feeding and bioassays indicated that GSNOR-silenced plants have elevated susceptibility to M. sexta attack. Furthermore, GSNOR is required for methyl jasmonate (MeJA)-induced accumulation of defence-related secondary metabolites (TPI, caffeoylputrescine, and diterpene glycosides) but is not needed for the transcriptional regulation of JAZ3 (jasmonate ZIM-domain 3) and TD (threonine deaminase), indicating that GSNOR mediates certain but not all jasmonate-inducible responses. This work highlights the important role of GSNOR in plant resistance to herbivory and jasmonate signalling and suggests the potential involvement of NO in plant–herbivore interactions. Our data also suggest that GSNOR could be a target of genetic modification for improving crop resistance to herbivores. PMID:21622839

  12. A noncalibration spectroscopic method to estimate ether extract and fatty acid digestibility of feed and its validation with flaxseed and field pea in pigs.

    PubMed

    Wang, L F; Swift, M L; Zijlstra, R T

    2014-10-01

    Digestibility of ether extract (EE) or fatty acids (FA) is traditionally measured by chemical analyses for EE or GLC methods for FA combined with marker concentration in diet and digesta or feces. Digestibility of EE or FA may be predicted by marker concentrations and spectral analyses of diet and digesta or feces. On the basis of Beer's law, a noncalibration spectroscopic method, which used functional group digestibility (FGD) determined with marker concentration and peak intensity of spectra of diets and undigested residues (digesta or feces), was developed to predict the apparent ileal digestibility (AID) of total FA and apparent total tract digestibility (ATTD) of EE. To validate, 4 diets containing 30% flaxseed and field pea coextruded with 4 extruder treatments and a wheat and soybean basal diet with predetermined AID of total FA and ATTD of EE were used. Samples of ingredients, diets, and freeze-dried digesta and feces were scanned on a Fourier transform infrared (FT-IR) instrument with a single-reflection attenuated total reflection (ATR) accessory. The intensity of either the methylene (CH2) antisymmetric stretching peak at 2,923 cm(-1) (R(2) = 0.90, P < 0.01) or the symmetric stretching peak at 2,852 cm(-1) (R(2) = 0.86, P < 0.01) of ingredients, diet, and digesta spectra was related strongly to the concentration of total FA. The AID of total FA of diets measured using GLC was predicted by the spectroscopic method using FGD at 2,923 and 2,852 cm(-1) (R(2) = 0.75, P < 0.01) with a bias of 0.54 (SD = 3.78%) and -1.35 (SD = 3.74%), respectively. The accumulated peak intensity in the region between 1,766 and 1,695 cm(-1) of spectra was related to EE concentration in ingredients and diets (R(2) = 0.61, P = 0.01) and feces (R(2) = 0.88, P < 0.01). The relation was improved by using second-derivative spectra of the sum of peak intensities at 1,743 and 1,710 cm(-1) for ingredients and diets (R(2) = 0.90, P = 0.01) and at 1,735 and 1,710 cm(-1) for feces (R(2) = 0

  13. Facile fabrication of poly(L-lactic acid) microsphere-incorporated calcium alginate/hydroxyapatite porous scaffolds based on Pickering emulsion templates.

    PubMed

    Hu, Yang; Ma, Shanshan; Yang, Zhuohong; Zhou, Wuyi; Du, Zhengshan; Huang, Jian; Yi, Huan; Wang, Chaoyang

    2016-04-01

    In this study, we develop a facile one-pot approach to the fabrication of poly(L-lactic acid) (PLLA) microsphere-incorporated calcium alginate (ALG-Ca)/hydroxyapatite (HAp) porous scaffolds based on HAp nanoparticle-stabilized oil-in-water Pickering emulsion templates, which contain alginate in the aqueous phase and PLLA in the oil phase. The emulsion aqueous phase is solidified by in situ gelation of alginate with Ca(2+) released from HAp by decreasing pH with slow hydrolysis of d-gluconic acid δ-lactone (GDL) to produce emulsion droplet-incorporated gels, followed by freeze-drying to form porous scaffolds containing microspheres. The pore structure of porous scaffolds can be adjusted by varying the HAp or GDL concentration. The compressive tests show that the increase of HAp or GDL concentration is beneficial to improve the compressive property of porous scaffolds, while the excessive HAp can lead to the decrease in compressive property. Moreover, the swelling behavior studies display that the swelling ratios of porous scaffolds reduce with increasing HAp or GDL concentration. Furthermore, hydrophobic drug ibuprofen (IBU) and hydrophilic drug bovine serum albumin (BSA) are loaded into the microspheres and scaffold matrix, respectively. In vitro drug release results indicate that BSA has a rapid release while IBU has a sustained release in the dual drug-loaded scaffolds. In vitro cell culture experiments verify that mouse bone mesenchymal stem cells can proliferate on the porous scaffolds well, indicating the good biocompatibility of porous scaffolds. All these results demonstrate that the PLLA microsphere-incorporated ALG-Ca/HAp porous scaffolds have a promising potential for tissue engineering and drug delivery applications. PMID:26774574

  14. Extending the cross-linking/mass spectrometry strategy: Facile incorporation of photo-activatable amino acids into the model protein calmodulin in Escherichia coli cells.

    PubMed

    Piotrowski, Christine; Ihling, Christian H; Sinz, Andrea

    2015-11-01

    Photo-induced cross-linking is a highly promising technique to investigate protein conformations and protein-protein interactions in their natural cellular environment. One strategy relies on the non-directed incorporation of diazirine-containing photo-activatable amino acids into proteins and a subsequent cross-link formation induced by UV-A irradiation. The advantage of this photo-cross-linking strategy is that it is not restricted to lysine residues and that hydrophobic regions in proteins can also be targeted, which is advantageous for investigating membrane proteins. Here, we present a simplified protocol that relies on the use of mineral salts medium without any special requirements for the incorporation of photo-methionines into proteins in Escherichia coli cells. The possibility to perform these experiments in E. coli is especially valuable as it is the major system for recombinant protein production. The method is exemplified for the Ca(2+) regulating protein calmodulin containing nine methionines, which were found to be replaced by their photo-activatable analogues. Our protocol allows the facile and stochastic incorporation of photo-methionines as the basis for conducting photo-cross-linking experiments in E. coli in an efficient manner. PMID:25726908

  15. Mixed feed evaporator

    DOEpatents

    Vakil, Himanshu B.; Kosky, Philip G.

    1982-01-01

    In the preparation of the gaseous reactant feed to undergo a chemical reaction requiring the presence of steam, the efficiency of overall power utilization is improved by premixing the gaseous reactant feed with water and then heating to evaporate the water in the presence of the gaseous reactant feed, the heating fluid utilized being at a temperature below the boiling point of water at the pressure in the volume where the evaporation occurs.

  16. Infectious waste feed system

    DOEpatents

    Coulthard, E. James

    1994-01-01

    An infectious waste feed system for comminuting infectious waste and feeding the comminuted waste to a combustor automatically without the need for human intervention. The system includes a receptacle for accepting waste materials. Preferably, the receptacle includes a first and second compartment and a means for sealing the first and second compartments from the atmosphere. A shredder is disposed to comminute waste materials accepted in the receptacle to a predetermined size. A trough is disposed to receive the comminuted waste materials from the shredder. A feeding means is disposed within the trough and is movable in a first and second direction for feeding the comminuted waste materials to a combustor.

  17. VLBI2010 Feed Comparison

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Petrachenko, Bill

    2013-01-01

    VLBI2010 requires a feed that simultaneously has high efficiency over the full 2.2-14 GHz frequency range. The simultaneity requirement implies that the feed must operate at high efficiency over the full frequency range without the need to adjust its focal position to account for frequency dependent phase centre variations. Two feeds meet this specification: The Eleven Feed developed at Chalmers University. (For more information, contact Miroslav Pantaleev, miroslav.pantaleev@chalmers.se. The Eleven Feed, integrated with LNA's in a cryogenic receiver, is available as a product from Omnisys Instruments, info@omnisys.se). The Quadruple Ridged Flared Horn (QRFH) developed at the California Institute of Technology. (For more information please contact Ahmed Akgiray, aakgiray@ieee.org or Sander Weinreb, sweinreb@caltech.edu) Although not VLBI2010 compliant, two triband S/X/Ka feeds are also being developed for the commissioning of VLBI2010 antennas, for S/X observations during the VLBI2010 transition period, and to support X/Ka CRF observations. The two feeds are: The Twin Telescopes Wettzell (TTW) triband feed developed by Mirad Microwave. (For more information please contact Gerhard Kronschnabl, Gerhard.Kronschnabl@bkg.bund.de) The RAEGE (Spain) triband feed developed at Yebes Observatory. (For more information please contact Jose Antonio Lopez Perez, ja.lopezperez@oan.es)

  18. Feeding responses and food preferences in the tropical, fruit-feeding butterfly, Bicyclus anynana.

    PubMed

    Dierks, Anneke; Fischer, Klaus

    2008-09-01

    In the tropical butterfly Bicyclus anynana (Nymphalidae) essential components of fitness (such as fecundity and longevity) depend to a large degree on exogenous adult-derived nutrients, particularly carbohydrates. We investigated which of the nutrients/compounds found in the adult diet act as feeding stimuli, and whether butterflies show preferences for particular nutrients or combinations. Only sugars and alcohols acted as feeding stimuli, the highest responses being found for sucrose, glucose, ethanol, butanol and propanol. Various other compounds (e.g. amino acids, acetic acid, vitamins, lipids, salts, and yeast) did not elicit any probing or feeding responses. Behavioural tests revealed a clear preference hierarchy for sugars (sucrose>glucose>fructose>maltose), but not for alcohols. Butterflies did not discriminate between sucrose solutions enriched with different nutrients and plain sucrose solutions, although they showed a preference for acetic acid and an aversion to salts and ascorbic acid when offered in combination with sucrose. Throughout, both sexes showed very similar patterns. We conclude that locating carbohydrate sources seems sufficient to cover all the butterflies' nutritional needs, while alcohols function primarily as long range signals, guiding the butterflies to food sources. Thus, fruit-feeding butterflies, in contrast to nectar-feeding butterflies, appear not to have distinctive preferences for e.g. amino acids or salts, but do share a common primary preference for sucrose. PMID:18706418

  19. The prevalence of Salmonella enterica in Spanish feed mills and potential feed-related risk factors for contamination.

    PubMed

    Torres, Gregorio J; Piquer, F Javier; Algarra, Leonor; de Frutos, Cristina; Sobrino, Odón J

    2011-02-01

    A cross-sectional study was conducted in Spain to estimate the prevalence of Salmonella enterica in feed mills and to identify and evaluate potential risk factors associated with feed contamination. A total of 3844 samples were collected from 523 different feed mills using a stratified sampling method. Samples were tested for the presence of Salmonella using conventional culture methods. When the presence of Salmonella was detected, samples were further characterised using serotyping at the National Reference Laboratory (NRL) for animal feed. Additional data about the biosecurity and hygiene measures, feed material used and compound feed produced, were collected by official veterinarians using a questionnaire in situ. In 144 of the feed mills visited (28%), Salmonella were present. However, it was only isolated from 4.8% of samples taken from all of the feed mills (3.5% from feed materials, 3.2% from compound feed and 12.5% from dust of the feed mill facilities). Salmonella serovars of public health importance (Enteritidis, Typhimurium, Infantis, Virchow and Hadar), were detected in only 2.7% of feed mills and in 0.3% of the samples studied. Logistic regression was used to investigate potential feed-mill risk factors for the isolation of Salmonella. Feed mill intake pits were demonstrated to have an increased risk of culture-positive dust samples (OR=6.4; 95% CI: 2.7-15.1). The feed material used in the production of compound feed was associated with recovery of Salmonella. Of the feed material used, cotton seeds were identified as having the highest odds of contamination (OR=3.8; 95% CI: 1.7-8.3). Pelleting appears to reduce the chance of contamination because non-pelleted compound feed is 8 times more likely to be contaminated than pelleted compound feed (OR=8.2; 95% CI: 2.5-26.6). The role of the feed itself in the epidemiology of Salmonella seems to be of limited importance as compound feed is not frequently contaminated at the feed mill level. This should not

  20. YIELD STRESS REDUCTION OF DWPF MELTER FEED SLURRIES

    SciTech Connect

    Stone, M; Michael02 Smith, M

    2006-12-28

    The Defense Waste Processing Facility (DWPF) at the Savannah River Site vitrifies High Level Waste for repository internment. The process consists of three major steps: waste pretreatment, vitrification, and canister decontamination/sealing. The HLW consists of insoluble metal hydroxides (primarily iron, aluminum, magnesium, manganese, and uranium) and soluble sodium salts (carbonate, hydroxide, nitrite, nitrate, sulfate). The pretreatment process acidifies the sludge with nitric and formic acids, adds the glass formers as glass frit, then concentrates the resulting slurry to approximately 50 weight percent (wt%) total solids. This slurry is fed to the joule-heated melter where the remaining water is evaporated followed by calcination of the solids and conversion to glass. The Savannah River National Laboratory (SRNL) is currently assisting DWPF efforts to increase throughput of the melter. As part of this effort, SRNL has investigated methods to increase the solids content of the melter feed to reduce the heat load required to complete the evaporation of water and allow more of the energy available to calcine and vitrify the waste. The process equipment in the facility is fixed and cannot process materials with high yield stresses, therefore increasing the solids content will require that the yield stress of the melter feed slurries be reduced. Changing the glass former added during pretreatment from an irregularly shaped glass frit to nearly spherical beads was evaluated. The evaluation required a systems approach which included evaluations of the effectiveness of beads in reducing the melter feed yield stress as well as evaluations of the processing impacts of changing the frit morphology. Processing impacts of beads include changing the settling rate of the glass former (which effects mixing and sampling of the melter feed slurry and the frit addition equipment) as well as impacts on the melt behavior due to decreased surface area of the beads versus frit

  1. Yes to breast feeding, but...how?

    PubMed

    Savane, M A

    1980-01-01

    Although the health and nutritional benefits of breastfeeding are recognized, social and economic constraints discourage the practice in developing countries. Outside employment of women, an image of breast feeding as representing a constraint on women's freedom, and the lack of facilities to aid working mothers are all factors. More affluent women are often pressured not to breast feed by stereotypes of feminine beauty, in order to maintain a certain lifestyle, and because of conflicts with their wifely duties. Many women holding good jobs are also practically unable to breast feed, but such women are usually able to provide adequate substitutes for their children. Women working in the service sector are often unable to breast feed because their place of work is too far away from their home, and they are often forced to leave their young children with inexpensive but unqualified caretakers. Women from the poorest sectors often most wean their children early because of employment, but are unable to afford a substitute formula in sufficient quantity. Undernourished women who breast feed are often pushed toward further depletion. Bottle feeding will remain a problem until societal structures are created which provide adequate support for women in their multiple roles. PMID:12233382

  2. Feed up, Feedback, and Feed Forward

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fisher, Douglas; Frey, Nancy

    2011-01-01

    "Feeding up" establishes a substantive line of inquiry that compels learners to engage in investigation and inquire. It also forms the basis for the assessments that follow. Once students understand the purpose and begin to work, they receive "feedback" that is timely and scaffolds their understanding. Based on their responses, the teacher gains a…

  3. By-Product Feeds

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    By-product feeds are generated from the production of food, fiber, and bio-energy products for human consumption. They include plant feedstuffs such as hulls, stalks, peels, and oil seed meals, and animal by-products such as blood meal, fats, bone meal, or processed organ meats. Some feed by-product...

  4. Infant Feeding and Attachment.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ainsworth, Mary D. Salter; Tracy, Russel L.

    This paper has two major purposes: first, to consider how infant feeding behavior may fit into attachment theory; and second, to cite some evidence to show how an infant's early interaction with his mother in the feeding situation is related to subsequent development. It was found that sucking and rooting are precursor attachment behaviors that…

  5. Tube Feeding Transition Plateaus

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Klein, Marsha Dunn

    2007-01-01

    The journey children make from tube feeding to oral feeding is personal for each child and family. There is a sequence of predictable plateaus that children climb as they move toward orally eating. By better understanding this sequence, parents and children can maximize the development, learning, enjoyment and confidence at each plateau. The…

  6. Development of Wideband Feed

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ujihara, Hideki; Takefuji, Kazuhiro; Sekido, Mamoru; Kondo, Tetsuro

    2015-08-01

    Wideband feeds have developed for Kashima 34m antenna and new 2.4m portable VLBI antennas. Prototypes of the wideband feeds are multimode horns, first one was set on 34m in the end of 2013, and then replaced next one with 6.5-15.0GHz receiving frequency. Now, a new feed for 3.2GHz-14.4GHz will be installed in 2.4m and 34m antennas in this spring, which are named NINJA feed, because of its design flexibility in beam shpae. Next, IGUANA feed is now under design and fabrication, which is aimed for 2.2-22GHz and covers VGOS(VLBI2010) specification. This has coaxial structure, the smaller "daughter feed" for 6.4-22GHz is placed in the center of the larger "Mother feed" for 2.2-6.4GHz.They are used for our project of time and frequency transfer between remote atomic clocks by wideband VLBI, named Gala-V(Garapagos VLBI), and will also be used wideband VLBI observation for astronmy and geodesy.Prototype feeds were tested in measurement of aperture efficiency, SEFD and Tsys of 34m "Super Kashima Antenna" and both 6.7/12.2GHz methanol maser detection in one reciever system, and then better one is used for wideband VLBI observations.

  7. Modification of polyurethane to reduce occlusion of enteral feeding tubes

    SciTech Connect

    Gaither, Kari A.; Tarasevich, Barbara J.; Goheen, Steven C.

    2009-04-27

    Feeding tubes are used to supply nutritional formula to immobilized patients. The most common cause for failure of enteral feeding tubes is their occlusion. The purpose of this study was to examine whether occlusion of enteral feeding tubes could be minimized using an additive. An open, intermittent enteral feeding system was simulated in the laboratory and data was collected over a period ranging from 2 to 6 days. Feeding formula was cycled through a feeding tube in either the presence or absence of simulated gastric acid in an effort to generate a reproducible occlusion. Pressures in the tube were measured frequently throughout these cycles. We observed pressure spikes with each cycle, but never a complete occlusion. Pressure spikes formed only when simulated gastric acid was mixed with the feeding solution. Large amounts of feeding formula adsorbed onto polyurethane surfaces in the presence of gastric acid. The maximum pressure was reduced by about half from 2.0 psi to 0.8 psi when polyvinyl alcohol (PVA) was added. The addition of PVA to polyurethane also reduced the contact angle from 83° (untreated) to approximately 64° in the presence of PVA. Furthermore, when formula was added to polyurethane in the presence of PVA the thickness of the layer that remained on the surface was almost 10 times greater in controls than on PVA-treated surfaces. These results suggest that a treatment that increases the hydrophilicity of the feeding tube may help minimize clogging.

  8. Civil Liberties in Mental Health Facilities

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kelley, Verne R.; Weston, Hanna B.

    1974-01-01

    Mental health facilities that feed data about their patients into computers should be careful to follow civil liberties standards and those of professional ethics, so that they do not unwittingly contribute to unathorized breaches of privacy. (Authors)

  9. Periparturient effects of feeding a low dietary cation-anion difference diet on acid-base, calcium, and phosphorus homeostasis and on intravenous glucose tolerance test in high-producing dairy cows.

    PubMed

    Grünberg, W; Donkin, S S; Constable, P D

    2011-02-01

    Feeding rations with low dietary cation-anion difference (DCAD) to dairy cows during late gestation is a common strategy to prevent periparturient hypocalcemia. Although the efficacy of low-DCAD rations in reducing the incidence of clinical hypocalcemia is well documented, potentially deleterious effects have not been explored in detail. The objective of the study presented here was to determine the effect of fully compensated metabolic acidosis on calcium and phosphorus homeostasis, insulin responsiveness, and insulin sensitivity as well as on protein metabolism. Twenty multiparous Holstein-Friesian dairy cows were assigned to 1 of 2 treatment groups and fed a low-DCAD ration (DCAD = -9 mEq/100g, group L) or a control ration (DCAD = +11 mEq/100g, group C) for the last 3 wk before the expected calving date. Blood and urine samples were obtained periodically between 14 d before to 14 d after calving. Intravenous glucose tolerance tests and 24-h volumetric urine collection were conducted before calving as well as 7 and 14 d postpartum. Cows fed the low-DCAD ration had lower urine pH and higher net acid excretion, but unchanged blood pH and bicarbonate concentration before calving. Protein-corrected plasma Ca concentration 1 d postpartum was higher in cows on the low-DCAD diet when compared with control animals. Urinary Ca and P excretion was positively associated with urine net acid excretion and negatively associated with urine pH. Whereas metabolic acidosis resulted in a 6-fold increase in urinary Ca excretion, the effect on renal P excretion was negligible. A more pronounced decline of plasma protein and globulin concentration in the periparturient period was observed in cows on the low-DCAD diets resulting in significantly lower total protein and globulin concentrations after calving in cows on low-DCAD diets. Intravenous glucose tolerance tests conducted before and after calving did not reveal group differences in insulin response or insulin sensitivity. Our

  10. Gastrostomy feeding tube - pump - child

    MedlinePlus

    Feeding - gastrostomy tube - pump; G-tube - pump; Gastrostomy button - pump; Bard Button - pump; MIC-KEY - pump ... Gather supplies: Feeding pump (electronic or battery powered) Feeding set that matches the feeding pump (includes a feeding bag, drip chamber, roller clamp, ...

  11. Variations in preenrichment pH of poultry feed and feed ingredients after incubation periods up to 48 hours

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Salmonella sustains acid injury at about pH 4.0-5.0. Since most Salmonella present in feed and feed ingredients are already stressed by desiccation (and heat if pelleted), exposure to low pH may cause death and/or injury and result in contamination going undetected. The objective of this study was ...

  12. Control of DWPF melter feed composition

    SciTech Connect

    Brown, K.G.; Edwards, R.E.; Postles, R.L.; Randall, C.T.

    1989-01-01

    The Defense Waste Processing Facility will be used to immobilize Savannah River Site high-level waste into a stable borosilicate glass for disposal in a geologic repository. Proper control of the melter feed composition in this facility is essential to the production of glass which meets product durability constraints dictated by repository regulations and facility processing constraints dictated by melter design. A technique has been developed which utilizes glass property models to determine acceptable processing regions based on the multiple constraints imposed on the glass product and to display these regions graphically. This system along with the batch simulation of the process is being used to form the basis for the statistical process control system for the facility.

  13. Control of DWPF melter feed composition

    SciTech Connect

    Brown, K.G.; Edwards, R.E.; Postles, R.L.; Randall, C.T.

    1989-12-31

    The Defense Waste Processing Facility will be used to immobilize Savannah River Site high-level waste into a stable borosilicate glass for disposal in a geologic repository. Proper control of the melter feed composition in this facility is essential to the production of glass which meets product durability constraints dictated by repository regulations and facility processing constraints dictated by melter design. A technique has been developed which utilizes glass property models to determine acceptable processing regions based on the multiple constraints imposed on the glass product and to display these regions graphically. This system along with the batch simulation of the process is being used to form the basis for the statistical process control system for the facility.

  14. GENERAL VIEW OF TUMALO FEED CANAL (RIGHT) AND BEND FEED ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    GENERAL VIEW OF TUMALO FEED CANAL (RIGHT) AND BEND FEED CANAL (LEFT) INTERSECTION. LOOKING SOUTHEAST - Tumalo Irrigation District, Tumalo Project, West of Deschutes River, Tumalo, Deschutes County, OR

  15. FRACTIONAL CRYSTALLIZATION FEED ENVELOPE

    SciTech Connect

    HERTING DL

    2008-03-19

    Laboratory work was completed on a set of evaporation tests designed to establish a feed envelope for the fractional crystallization process. The feed envelope defines chemical concentration limits within which the process can be operated successfully. All 38 runs in the half-factorial design matrix were completed successfully, based on the qualitative definition of success. There is no feed composition likely to be derived from saltcake dissolution that would cause the fractional crystallization process to not meet acceptable performance requirements. However, some compositions clearly would provide more successful operation than other compositions.

  16. Coal feed lock

    DOEpatents

    Pinkel, I. Irving

    1978-01-01

    A coal feed lock is provided for dispensing coal to a high pressure gas producer with nominal loss of high pressure gas. The coal feed lock comprises a rotor member with a diametral bore therethrough. A hydraulically activated piston is slidably mounted in the bore. With the feed lock in a charging position, coal is delivered to the bore and then the rotor member is rotated to a discharging position so as to communicate with the gas producer. The piston pushes the coal into the gas producer. The rotor member is then rotated to the charging position to receive the next load of coal.

  17. Evaluation of alternative chemical additives for high-level waste vitrification feed preparation processing

    SciTech Connect

    Seymour, R.G.

    1995-06-07

    During the development of the feed processing flowsheet for the Defense Waste Processing Facility (DWPF) at the Savannah River Site (SRS), research had shown that use of formic acid (HCOOH) could accomplish several processing objectives with one chemical addition. These objectives included the decomposition of tetraphenylborate, chemical reduction of mercury, production of acceptable rheological properties in the feed slurry, and controlling the oxidation state of the glass melt pool. However, the DEPF research had not shown that some vitrification slurry feeds had a tendency to evolve hydrogen (H{sub 2}) and ammonia (NH{sub 3}) as the result of catalytic decomposition of CHOOH with noble metals (rhodium, ruthenium, palladium) in the feed. Testing conducted at Pacific Northwest Laboratory and later at the Savannah River Technical Center showed that the H{sub 2} and NH{sub 3} could evolve at appreciable rates and quantities. The explosive nature of H{sub 2} and NH{sub 3} (as ammonium nitrate) warranted significant mitigation control and redesign of both facilities. At the time the explosive gas evolution was discovered, the DWPF was already under construction and an immediate hardware fix in tandem with flowsheet changes was necessary. However, the Hanford Waste Vitrification Plant (HWVP) was in the design phase and could afford to take time to investigate flowsheet manipulations that could solve the problem, rather than a hardware fix. Thus, the HWVP began to investigate alternatives to using HCOOH in the vitrification process. This document describes the selection, evaluation criteria, and strategy used to evaluate the performance of the alternative chemical additives to CHOOH. The status of the evaluation is also discussed.

  18. Tube Feeding Troubleshooting Guide

    MedlinePlus

    ... profile tube also has a stem length). Note: NG and NJ tubes (that go through a person’s ... Immediate Action: • Discontinue feeding. • If you have an NG or NJ tube, and the tube is curled ...

  19. Breastfeeding vs. Formula Feeding

    MedlinePlus

    ... Story" 5 Things to Know About Zika & Pregnancy Breastfeeding vs. Formula Feeding KidsHealth > For Parents > Breastfeeding vs. ... for you and your baby. continue All About Breastfeeding Nursing can be a wonderful experience for both ...

  20. Feeding Your Newborn

    MedlinePlus

    ... you choose to breastfeed or formula feed. About Breastfeeding Breastfeeding your newborn has many advantages. Perhaps most ... to care for her newborn. continue Limitations of Breastfeeding With all the good things known about breastfeeding, ...

  1. A Comparison of Diets Supplemented with a Feed Additive Containing Organic Acids, Cinnamaldehyde and a Permeabilizing Complex, or Zinc Oxide, on Post-Weaning Diarrhoea, Selected Bacterial Populations, Blood Measures and Performance in Weaned Pigs Experimentally Infected with Enterotoxigenic E. coli †

    PubMed Central

    Stensland, Ingunn; Kim, Jae Cheol; Bowring, Bethany; Collins, Alison M.; Mansfield, Josephine P.; Pluske, John R.

    2015-01-01

    Simple Summary This experiment was conducted to assess the effects of three diets on diarrhoea, performance (weight change, feed intake and feed conversion ratio), selected bacterial populations and blood measures of weaner pigs infected with enterotoxigenic E. coli. The three diets were: base diet (no antimicrobial compounds), base diet containing zinc oxide, and base diet containing a feed additive (blend of organic acids, cinnamaldehyde and permeabilizing complex). Only feeding zinc oxide decreased diarrhoea, with zinc oxide-fed pigs performing better than base diet-fed pigs. Zinc oxide-fed pigs performed similarly to pigs fed the organic acids, cinnamaldehyde and permeabilizing complex. Significant interactions between treatment and day after weaning were found for some bacterial populations, although the implications of such findings require further examination. Abstract The effects of feeding a diet supplemented with zinc oxide (ZnO) or a blend of organic acids, cinnamaldehyde and a permeabilizing complex (OACP) on post-weaning diarrhoea (PWD) and performance in pigs infected with enterotoxigenic E. coli (ETEC) were examined. Additionally, changes in selected bacterial populations and blood measures were assessed. A total of 72 pigs weaned at 22 d of age and weighing 7.2 ± 1.02 kg (mean ± SEM) was used. Treatments were: base diet (no antimicrobial compounds); base diet + 3 g ZnO/kg; base diet + 1.5 g OACP/kg. Dietary treatments started on the day of weaning and were fed ad libitum for 3 weeks. All pigs were infected with an F4 ETEC on d 4, 5 and 6 after weaning. The incidence of PWD was lower in pigs fed ZnO (p = 0.026). Overall, pigs fed ZnO grew faster (p = 0.013) and ate more (p = 0.004) than the base diet-fed pigs, with OACP-fed pigs performing the same (p > 0.05) as both the ZnO- and base diet-fed pigs. Feed conversion ratio was similar for all diets (p > 0.05). The percentage of E. coli with F4 fimbriae was affected a day by treatment interaction (p

  2. 31 CFR 540.317 - Uranium feed; natural uranium feed.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 31 Money and Finance:Treasury 3 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Uranium feed; natural uranium feed... (Continued) OFFICE OF FOREIGN ASSETS CONTROL, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY HIGHLY ENRICHED URANIUM (HEU) AGREEMENT ASSETS CONTROL REGULATIONS General Definitions § 540.317 Uranium feed; natural uranium feed....

  3. 31 CFR 540.317 - Uranium feed; natural uranium feed.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 31 Money and Finance:Treasury 3 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Uranium feed; natural uranium feed... (Continued) OFFICE OF FOREIGN ASSETS CONTROL, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY HIGHLY ENRICHED URANIUM (HEU) AGREEMENT ASSETS CONTROL REGULATIONS General Definitions § 540.317 Uranium feed; natural uranium feed....

  4. 31 CFR 540.317 - Uranium feed; natural uranium feed.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 31 Money and Finance:Treasury 3 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Uranium feed; natural uranium feed... (Continued) OFFICE OF FOREIGN ASSETS CONTROL, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY HIGHLY ENRICHED URANIUM (HEU) AGREEMENT ASSETS CONTROL REGULATIONS General Definitions § 540.317 Uranium feed; natural uranium feed....

  5. Subtherapeutic levels of antibiotics in poultry feeds and their effects on weight gain, feed efficiency, and bacterial cholyltaurine hydrolase activity.

    PubMed Central

    Feighner, S D; Dashkevicz, M P

    1987-01-01

    A radiochemical method was developed to estimate cholyltaurine hydrolase potentials and rates of cholyltaurine hydrolysis in chicken intestinal homogenates. This method was used to monitor the effects of antibiotic feed additives on cholyltaurine hydrolase activity. Avoparcin, bacitracin methylenedisalisylic acid, efrotomycin, lincomycin, penicillin G procaine, and virginiamycin improved rate of weight gain and feed conversion of chicks and decreased cholyltaurine hydrolase activity in ileal homogenates relative to those of nonmedicated control birds. The results provided the first evidence that feeding selected antibiotics at subtherapeutic levels can affect bile acid-transforming enzymes in small-intestinal homogenates. The inverse relationship between growth performance and cholyltaurine hydrolase activity raises the possibility that specific inhibitors of this enzyme may promote weight gain and feed conversion in livestock and thereby reduce or eliminate the need for antibiotic feed additives. PMID:3566269

  6. Nitric acid-formic acid compatibility in DWPF

    SciTech Connect

    Eibling, R.E.

    1992-10-20

    The addition of the Nitric Acid Flowsheet to the DWPF feed preparation process introduces nitric acid into a vessel which will subsequently receive a formic acid solution. The combination of these two acids suggests that a denitration reaction might occur. This memorandum reviews the conditions under which a denitration reaction is possible and compares these conditions to DWPF operating conditions.

  7. Xanthophylls in Poultry Feeding

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Breithaupt, Diemar R.

    Since most consumers associate an intense colour of food with healthy animals and high food quality, xanthophylls are widely used as feed additives to generate products that meet consumers' demands. An important large-scale application is in poultry farming, where xanthophylls are added to feed to give the golden colour of egg yolk that is so much appreciated. Now, with numerous new applications in human food, in the pharmaceutical industry, and in cosmetic products, there is an increasing demand for xanthophylls on the international market (Volume 5, Chapter 4).

  8. Health Facilities

    MedlinePlus

    Health facilities are places that provide health care. They include hospitals, clinics, outpatient care centers, and specialized care centers, ... psychiatric care centers. When you choose a health facility, you might want to consider How close it ...

  9. Feeding of Diarmis Proboscis

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Young, Jocelyn

    2005-01-01

    The feeding of Diarmis proboscis is an exciting outdoor laboratory activity that demonstrates a single concept of adaptations--cryptic colorations. The students are "transformed" into D. proboscis (no Harry Potter magic needed) in order to learn how adaptations work in the natural world. Prior to beginning this activity, students should have a…

  10. Dust feed mechanism

    DOEpatents

    Milliman, Edward M.

    1984-01-01

    The invention is a dust feed device for delivery of a uniform supply of dust for long periods of time to an aerosolizing means for production of a dust suspension. The device utilizes at least two tandem containers having spiral brushes within the containers which transport the dust from a supply to the aerosolizer means.

  11. Feed Your Brain!

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Failmezger, Tammie L.

    2006-01-01

    Language arts teachers and library media specialists bear the responsibility of teaching students how to properly feed their brains. In this article, the author describes how she teaches her students to make wise choices when selecting books. Furthermore, she presents the "Brain Food Pyramid" model that looks similar to the food pyramid but it…

  12. ASDC RSS Feeds

    Atmospheric Science Data Center

    2013-03-08

    ... having to visit each one of them to see what's new. When you sign up, you receive breaking news on your computer as soon as it is released. How can I sign up? Select the link(s) above to view our "raw" RSS feed. In ...

  13. Feeding DDGS to Finfish

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Globally, aquaculture has been growing at a rapid pace (currently 8.5% per year) over the past two decades, and is recognized as the fastest growing food production sector of agriculture in the U.S. Growth of aquaculture and other industries (e.g., other monogastric and ruminant livestock feed appl...

  14. Dioxins contamination in the feed additive (feed grade cupric sulfate) tied to chlorine industry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Pu; Zhang, Qinghua; Lan, Yonghui; Xu, Shiai; Gao, Renfu; Li, Gang; Zhang, Haidong; Shang, Hongtao; Ren, Daiwei; Zhu, Chaofei; Li, Yingming; Li, Xiaomin; Jiang, Guibin

    2014-08-01

    The sources of polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins/dibenzofurans (PCDD/Fs) found in animal feed additive (feed grade cupric sulfate, CuSO4) were investigated and traced back to the formation of chlorinated organic compounds in the chlor-alkali industry. PCDD/Fs could be transported through the supply chain: hydrochloric acid (HCl) by-produced during formation of chlorinated organic compounds in chlor-alkali industry --> spent acid etching solution (acid-SES) generated in printed circuit board production --> industrial cupric salt --> CuSO4 in animal feed, and finally enter the food chain. The concentration ranges in HCl and acid-SES were similar, of which the level in acid-SES was also consistent with that in various cupric salt products including CuSO4 based on Cu element content. PCDD/Fs also showed very similar congener profiles in all the sample types. This indicates a probable direct transport pathway of PCDD/Fs into the food chain, which may eventually be exposed to humans through consumption. To date this is the first study in China that systematically reports on the PCDD/Fs transport from industrial pollution sources to industrial processes and finally enters the human food chain.

  15. Dioxins contamination in the feed additive (feed grade cupric sulfate) tied to chlorine industry.

    PubMed

    Wang, Pu; Zhang, Qinghua; Lan, Yonghui; Xu, Shiai; Gao, Renfu; Li, Gang; Zhang, Haidong; Shang, Hongtao; Ren, Daiwei; Zhu, Chaofei; Li, Yingming; Li, Xiaomin; Jiang, Guibin

    2014-01-01

    The sources of polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins/dibenzofurans (PCDD/Fs) found in animal feed additive (feed grade cupric sulfate, CuSO4) were investigated and traced back to the formation of chlorinated organic compounds in the chlor-alkali industry. PCDD/Fs could be transported through the supply chain: hydrochloric acid (HCl) by-produced during formation of chlorinated organic compounds in chlor-alkali industry → spent acid etching solution (acid-SES) generated in printed circuit board production → industrial cupric salt → CuSO4 in animal feed, and finally enter the food chain. The concentration ranges in HCl and acid-SES were similar, of which the level in acid-SES was also consistent with that in various cupric salt products including CuSO4 based on Cu element content. PCDD/Fs also showed very similar congener profiles in all the sample types. This indicates a probable direct transport pathway of PCDD/Fs into the food chain, which may eventually be exposed to humans through consumption. To date this is the first study in China that systematically reports on the PCDD/Fs transport from industrial pollution sources to industrial processes and finally enters the human food chain. PMID:25102073

  16. Feed efficiency, blood parameters, and ingestive behavior of young Nellore males and females.

    PubMed

    Bonilha, Sarah Figueiredo Martins; Cyrillo, Joslaine Noely dos Santos Gonçalves; dos Santos, Guilherme Pinheiro; Branco, Renata Helena; Ribeiro, Enilson Geraldo; Mercadante, Maria Eugênia Zerlotti

    2015-10-01

    This study aimed to evaluate differences in efficiency of feed utilization between young Nellore males and females by comparing growth traits, feed intake, blood parameters, and ingestive behavior of the animals. Data from 768 Nellore males and females that participated in eight performance tests for individual feed intake evaluation were used. Performance and feed efficiency measures, efficiency-related hematological, metabolic and hormonal variables, and data regarding ingestive behavior were collected. Feed efficiency measures were defined by the relationship between performance and feed intake. Data were analyzed using mixed models that included the fixed effects of sex, herd, and the covariate age within sex and the random effects of facility within year, year, and residual. Significant differences between males and females were observed for traits related to weight gain and feed intake. Although individual dynamics of feed efficiency measures differed between males and females, no significant differences in residual feed intake, feed efficiency, or relative growth rate were observed between sexes. Significant differences between sexes were found for platelets, red blood cells, hemoglobin, creatinine, glucose, urea, triglycerides, insulin, cortisol, and IGF-I. Females spent more time feeding and less time ruminating when compared to males. However, males exhibited higher feeding efficiency and lower rumination efficiency than females. Growing Nellore males and females are efficient in feed utilization, and the differences in blood variables observed are probably due to differences in body size and feed intake. Males spend less time eating, consume more food, and spend more time ruminating than females. PMID:26141747

  17. Morphology controls of GeO 2 particles precipitated by a facile acid-induced decomposition of germanate ions in aqueous medium

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jing, Chengbin; Hou, Jinxia; Zhang, Yongheng

    2008-01-01

    GeO 2 single crystals with various morphologies were synthesized at room temperature by an acid-induced homogenous liquid phase precipitation technique without using any surfactants as studied previously. With addition of aqueous ammonia, the solubility of hexagonal GeO 2 in water was significantly increased by formation of soluble germanate ions as confirmed by IR spectra analyses. Supersaturated GeO 2 solution could be produced by adding acid into the GeO 2-ammonia solution through the acid-induced transformation of germinate ions into GeO 2. GeO 2 spheres were obtained with phosphoric acid addition. Truncated cubic-like and cubic-like GeO 2 single crystals could be produced in the solutions with hydrochloric acid and ascorbic acid (vitamin C) additions, respectively. The morphology developments of the GeO 2 particles induced by various acids were discussed and the growth mechanism conforms to BFDH and HP crystal growth models.

  18. Tank waste remediation system phase I high-level waste feed processability assessment report

    SciTech Connect

    Lambert, S.L.; Stegen, G.E., Westinghouse Hanford

    1996-08-01

    This report evaluates the effects of feed composition on the Phase I high-level waste immobilization process and interim storage facility requirements for the high-level waste glass.Several different Phase I staging (retrieval, blending, and pretreatment) scenarios were used to generate example feed compositions for glass formulations, testing, and glass sensitivity analysis. Glass models and data form laboratory glass studies were used to estimate achievable waste loading and corresponding glass volumes for various Phase I feeds. Key issues related to feed process ability, feed composition, uncertainty, and immobilization process technology are identified for future consideration in other tank waste disposal program activities.

  19. Feeding gastrostomy. Assistant or assassin?

    PubMed

    Burtch, G D; Shatney, C H

    1985-04-01

    Following several deaths from pulmonary aspiration in severely ill or chronically debilitated patients receiving nasogastric tube feedings, a study was undertaken to determine the incidence of aspiration pneumonitis in patients with feeding gastrostomies. During a 15-month interval, 22 feeding gastrostomies and nine feeding jejunostomies were performed. In the former group, eight patients experienced aspiration pneumonitis, with two deaths. Six patients with Stamm gastrostomies and two patients with permanent mucosal-lined gastrostomies experienced pulmonary aspiration. In contrast, aspiration pneumonia did not occur in our small series of patients with feeding jejunostomies. The high incidence of pulmonary aspiration in patients with feeding gastrostomies strongly suggests that, for chronic enteral nutrition in patients who are unable to protect their airway, a feeding jejunostomy is preferable to a feeding gastrostomy. PMID:3920939

  20. Pollen Feeding and Reproductive Biology of Heliconius Butterflies

    PubMed Central

    Gilbert, Lawrence E.

    1972-01-01

    Butterflies of the neotropical Genus Heliconius feed on pollen. This is the first known instance in butterflies of a habit that is well known for other insects. The butterflies remove amino acids and proteins from pollen; this feeding innovation plays a role in the reproductive and population biology of these insects. It is suggested that other animals may use pollen in a similar fashion. Images PMID:16591992

  1. Dual wire weld feed proportioner

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Nugent, R. E.

    1968-01-01

    Dual feed mechanism enables proportioning of two different weld feed wires during automated TIG welding to produce a weld alloy deposit of the desired composition. The wires are fed into the weld simultaneously. The relative feed rates of the wires and the wire diameters determine the weld deposit composition.

  2. Milk traits of lactating cows submitted to feed restriction.

    PubMed

    Gabbi, Alexandre Mossate; McManus, Concepta Margareth; Zanela, Maira Balbinotti; Stumpf, Marcelo Tempel; Barbosa, Rosângela Silveira; Fruscalso, Vilmar; Thaler Neto, André; Schmidt, Fernando André; Fischer, Vivian

    2016-01-01

    Data from five experiments with dairy cows where feed was restricted to 0, 40, and 50% of the ad libitum amount, with 259 observations, were subjected to multivariate analyses to determine the effects of severity and duration of feed restriction on production, physical-chemical characteristics, ethanol stability, and somatic cell score of milk. A negative relationship was seen between the severity and duration of feed restriction with milk production, lactose content, titratable acidity, and milk stability to the ethanol test. The milk stability to the ethanol test, protein content, milk yield, and somatic cells score were the most important attributes retained by the discriminant analysis. Milk stability to the ethanol test, live weight, days in restriction, and pH were the most important characteristics explaining the variance within the different levels of feed restriction. Milk production and ethanol stability were significantly lower in both levels of feed restriction compared with the group fed ad libitum. When feed restriction was followed by refeeding, the difference observed in ethanol stability was the first discriminant variable, followed by the difference in unstable milk frequency and titratable acidity. Increments in the severity and duration of feed restriction negatively affect milk production and milk ethanol stability. PMID:26385460

  3. Feeding scenario of the silkworm Bombyx Mori, L. in the BLSS

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yu, XiaoHui; Liu, Hong; Tong, Ling

    A simple subunit of the bioregenerative life support system (BLSS) consisting of the ground-controlled mulberry ( Morus alba L.) and the silkworms was set up on the ground. The mulberry tree could provide nutrient mulberry fruits for astronauts and its leaves as the main feedstuff for the silkworms until their third instar. Astronauts utilized curled lettuce ( Lactuca sativa L.) stem as vegetables and the silkworms over third instar could be fed on 65% of inedible leaves of the lettuce. About 71.4% of protein were detected in the silkworm larval powder; thus, 105 silkworms could satisfy the requirement of one person per day. Besides, 18 kinds of amino acids were determined in the obtained silkworm powder. Moreover, the R-criterion was suggested to estimate and optimize the animal feeding facilities. The scenario of treating the wastes is also proposed in this paper. Our results may be valuable for the establishment of a complex BLSS in the future.

  4. REMOTE SENSING FOR DETECTING SWINE ANIMAL FEEDING OPERATIONS

    EPA Science Inventory

    Surface runoff from animal feeding operations (AFO's) and its infiltration into ground water can
    pose a number of risks to water quality mainly because of the amount of animal manure and wastewater they produce. Excess nutrients generated by livestock facilities can lead to a...

  5. Spatial Data Analysis of Animal Feeding Operations and Water Quality in Iowa

    EPA Science Inventory

    Wastes from animal feeding operations (AFOs) contain nutrients, pathogens, and pharmaceuticals posing potential risks to ecosystems and community health. Runoff from AFOs may enter nearby surface waters, contributing to local and downstream impairments. Facility-scale analyses re...

  6. Low-activity waste feed delivery -- Minimum duration between successive batches

    SciTech Connect

    Peters, B.B.

    1998-08-25

    The purpose of this study is to develop a defensible basis for establishing what ``minimum duration`` will provide acceptable risk mitigation for low-activity waste feed delivery to the privatization vendors. The study establishes a probabilistic-based duration for staging of low-activity waste feed batches. A comparison is made of the durations with current feed delivery plans and potential privatization vendor facility throughput rates.

  7. Hydrogen generation during treatment of simulated high-level radioactive waste with formic acid

    SciTech Connect

    Ritter, J.A.; Zamecnik, J.R.; Hsu, C.W.

    1992-01-01

    The Integrated Defense Waste Processing Facility (DWPF) Melter System (IDMS), operated by the Savannah River Laboratory, is a one-fifth scale pilot facility used in support of the start-up and operation of the Department of Energy's DWPF. Five IDMS runs determined the effect of the presence of noble metals in HLW sludge on the H{sub 2} generation rate during the preparation of melter feed with formic acid. Overall, the results clearly showed that H{sub 2} generation in the DWPF SRAT could, at times, exceed the lower flammable limit of H{sub 2} in air (4 vol%), depending on such factors as offgas generation and air inleakage of the DWPF vessels. Therefore, the installation of a forced air purge system and H{sub 2} monitors were recommended to the DWPF to control the generation of H{sub 2} during melter feed preparation by fuel dilution.

  8. Hydrogen generation during treatment of simulated high-level radioactive waste with formic acid

    SciTech Connect

    Ritter, J.A.; Zamecnik, J.R.; Hsu, C.W.

    1992-05-01

    The Integrated Defense Waste Processing Facility (DWPF) Melter System (IDMS), operated by the Savannah River Laboratory, is a one-fifth scale pilot facility used in support of the start-up and operation of the Department of Energy`s DWPF. Five IDMS runs determined the effect of the presence of noble metals in HLW sludge on the H{sub 2} generation rate during the preparation of melter feed with formic acid. Overall, the results clearly showed that H{sub 2} generation in the DWPF SRAT could, at times, exceed the lower flammable limit of H{sub 2} in air (4 vol%), depending on such factors as offgas generation and air inleakage of the DWPF vessels. Therefore, the installation of a forced air purge system and H{sub 2} monitors were recommended to the DWPF to control the generation of H{sub 2} during melter feed preparation by fuel dilution.

  9. 76 FR 60941 - Policy Regarding Submittal of Amendments for Processing of Equivalent Feed at Licensed Uranium...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-09-30

    ... treated as alternate feed at conventional mills (57 FR 20532). These license amendments were required... industry. \\1\\ For the purposes of this RIS, equivalent feed is: ion exchange (IX) resin that is loaded with... conventional mills/heap leach facilities using ion exchange circuits). In the ISR method, ore is not...

  10. CONCENTRATED ANIMAL FEEDING OPERATIONS AS A SOURCE OF EDCS AND THEIR MANAGEMENT

    EPA Science Inventory

    In the United States, there is an estimated 376,000 animal feed operations, generating approximately 128 billion pounds of waste each year. A facility is an animal feed operation (AFO) if animals are stabled/confined, or fed/maintained, for 45 days or more within any 12-month per...

  11. Consolidated incineration facility technical support

    SciTech Connect

    Burns, D.; Looper, M.G.

    1993-12-31

    In 1996, the Savannah River Site plans to begin operation of the Consolidated Incineration Facility (CIF) to treat solid and liquid RCRA hazardous and mixed wastes. The Savannah River Technology Center (SRTC) leads an extensive technical support program designed to obtain incinerator and air pollution control equipment performance data to support facility start-up and operation. Key components of this technical support program include recently completed waste burn tests at both EPA`s Incineration Research Facility and at Energy and Environmental Research Corporation`s Solid Waste Incineration Test Facility. The main objectives for these tests were determining the fate of heavy metals, measuring organics destruction and removal efficiencies, and quantifying incinerator offgas particulate loading and size distribution as a function of waste feed characteristics and incineration conditions. In addition to these waste burning tests, the SRTC has recently completed installations of the Offgas Components Test Facility (OCTF), a 1/10 scale CIF offgas system pilot plant. This pilot facility will be used to demonstrate system operability and maintainability, evaluate and optimize equipment and instrument performance, and provide direct CIF start-up support. Technical support programs of this type are needed to resolve technical issues related with treatment and disposal of combustible hazardous, mixed, and low-level radioactive waste. Implementation of this program will minimize facility start-up problems and help insure compliance with all facility performance requirements.

  12. Current trends in infant feeding.

    PubMed

    van der Elst, C W; Pick, W; Isaacs, S; Malan, A F

    1989-10-21

    This study examined aspects of newborn feeding in a maternity hospital and also investigated feeding practices during the first 6 months of life. Four hundred and fifty mothers were interviewed while in the maternity hospital. The majority (93%) had booked for their confinement and had attended antenatal clinics regularly. Most had had early contact with the baby at birth and stated that they thought breast-milk was best for the baby. Despite this only 54.6% had given breast-milk as the first feed and only 10% had done so within the first hour. Most mothers (54%) stated that they preferred a timed feeding routine to demand-feeding, while 86% planned to give water between feeds. The majority indicated they would change to formula feeds should they experience problems with breast-feeding. A follow-up visit of 78 mothers 6 months later showed that 50% breast-fed exclusively for 3 - 4 months and 23% for 6 - 7 months. When feeding problems occurred only 27% of the mothers utilised the local authority baby clinic for help. The main reasons given for stopping breast-feeds were insufficient milk, the need for employment and feeding problems. The implications of these findings are discussed. PMID:2799597

  13. 21 CFR 573.500 - Condensed, extracted glutamic acid fermentation product.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) ANIMAL DRUGS, FEEDS, AND RELATED PRODUCTS FOOD ADDITIVES PERMITTED IN FEED... fermentation product. Condensed, extracted glutamic acid fermentation product may be safely used in animal feed... glutamic acid. (b) It is used or intended for use as follows: (1) In poultry feed as a source of protein...

  14. 21 CFR 573.500 - Condensed, extracted glutamic acid fermentation product.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) ANIMAL DRUGS, FEEDS, AND RELATED PRODUCTS FOOD ADDITIVES PERMITTED IN FEED... fermentation product. Condensed, extracted glutamic acid fermentation product may be safely used in animal feed... glutamic acid. (b) It is used or intended for use as follows: (1) In poultry feed as a source of protein...

  15. 21 CFR 573.500 - Condensed, extracted glutamic acid fermentation product.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) ANIMAL DRUGS, FEEDS, AND RELATED PRODUCTS FOOD ADDITIVES PERMITTED IN FEED... fermentation product. Condensed, extracted glutamic acid fermentation product may be safely used in animal feed... glutamic acid. (b) It is used or intended for use as follows: (1) In poultry feed as a source of protein...

  16. 21 CFR 573.500 - Condensed, extracted glutamic acid fermentation product.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) ANIMAL DRUGS, FEEDS, AND RELATED PRODUCTS FOOD ADDITIVES PERMITTED IN FEED... fermentation product. Condensed, extracted glutamic acid fermentation product may be safely used in animal feed... glutamic acid. (b) It is used or intended for use as follows: (1) In poultry feed as a source of protein...

  17. BLENDING ANALYSIS FOR RADIOACTIVE SALT WASTE PROCESSING FACILITY

    SciTech Connect

    Lee, S.

    2012-05-10

    Savannah River National Laboratory (SRNL) evaluated methods to mix and blend the contents of the blend tanks to ensure the contents are properly blended before they are transferred from the blend tank such as Tank 21 and Tank 24 to the Salt Waste Processing Facility (SWPF) feed tank. The tank contents consist of three forms: dissolved salt solution, other waste salt solutions, and sludge containing settled solids. This paper focuses on developing the computational model and estimating the operation time of submersible slurry pump when the tank contents are adequately blended prior to their transfer to the SWPF facility. A three-dimensional computational fluid dynamics approach was taken by using the full scale configuration of SRS Type-IV tank, Tank 21H. Major solid obstructions such as the tank wall boundary, the transfer pump column, and three slurry pump housings including one active and two inactive pumps were included in the mixing performance model. Basic flow pattern results predicted by the computational model were benchmarked against the SRNL test results and literature data. Tank 21 is a waste tank that is used to prepare batches of salt feed for SWPF. The salt feed must be a homogeneous solution satisfying the acceptance criterion of the solids entrainment during transfer operation. The work scope described here consists of two modeling areas. They are the steady state flow pattern calculations before the addition of acid solution for tank blending operation and the transient mixing analysis during miscible liquid blending operation. The transient blending calculations were performed by using the 95% homogeneity criterion for the entire liquid domain of the tank. The initial conditions for the entire modeling domain were based on the steady-state flow pattern results with zero second phase concentration. The performance model was also benchmarked against the SRNL test results and literature data.

  18. RCRA FACILITIES

    EPA Science Inventory

    Points represent facilities that are regulated by the EPA under the Resource Conservation and Recovery Act (RCRA). Facilities regulated under RCRA generate, dispose of, treate or transport hazardous waste. RCRA is a law enacted by Congress in 1976 and amended in 1984 to include ...

  19. Hydrocracker feeds olefin unit

    SciTech Connect

    Goossens, A.G.

    1986-11-01

    An ethylene plant integrated with a selective hydrocracker in a complex refinery can give an attractive payout, bearing in mind that results depend on the refinery's configuration and business environment. Feedstock and operating conditions are more flexible from only a moderate investment, particularly that to modify the steam cracker. Total product upgrading is high. Low grade vacuum-flashed distillates passed through a selective hydrocracker produce hydrogenated residue (hydrowax) having a value close to a naphtha as a feed to a steam cracker. The technology and economics of the concept are confirmed in a large industrial installations.

  20. Rheological Properties of Defense Waste processing Facility Melter Feeds

    SciTech Connect

    Mao, F.; Ebadian, M.A.

    1998-10-20

    In the present investigation, viscosity measurements have been carried out for two types of simulated Defense waste slurries, a Savannah River slurry and a Hanford slurry. The measurements were conducted in two experimental options. A rotational viscometer was used to measure viscosity under well-defined temperature and pH value operating conditions. The solids concentration used for this option was lower than 15 wt.%. Both the slurries have been investigated using this experimental option. The Savannah River slurry has also been investigated in a pipeline flow system, which measured the pressure drop as the slurry flowed through the pipe. The slurry's viscosity can be extracted from the pressure drop information. These investigations have been performed in relatively wide parameter ranges. The solids concentration of the slurry tested in the pipeline system was as high as 25 wt.%.The slurry pH in both experimental options covered a range of 4 to 13.5. The highest operating temperature was 66 C for the rotational viscometer and 55 C for the pipeline system. In FY97, the experiments for the Hanford slurry in the pipeline system will be performed.

  1. [Investigation of As, Cu and Zn species and concentrations in animal feeds].

    PubMed

    Yao, Li-Xian; Huang, Lian-Xi; Jiang, Zong-Yong; He, Zhao-Huan; Zhou, Chang-Min; Li, Guo-Liang

    2013-02-01

    Seventy chicken and seventy-six pig feeds were collected from the feed stores in Guangdong province, and the species and concentrations of As, Cu and Zn were determined. We also examined the stability of roxarsone (ROX), one of the most widely used organoarsenical additives, either in the additive or in the feed at room temperature. The results showed that, averagely, the chicken and pig feeds contained 3.6 and 6.5 mg.kg-1 (As), 18.2 and 119.4 mg.kg-1 (Cu),and 124.6 and 486.2 mg.kg-1 (Zn), respectively. The excessive dosages of As, Cu and As in animal feeds will lead to higher residue of As, Cu and Zn in animal manures. Based on the national limit criteria for feed or feed additive, it was supposed that organoarsenicals had been used, only few feed samples exceeded the As limit, however, the excessive Cu and Zn in pig feeds were much more common. Organoarsenicals were found in 25.4% of the total feed samples, and As(Ill) and As(V) were the two most commonly detected As impurities in feeds bearing organoarsenicals. The mean detectable ROX and arsenilic acid were 7.0 and 21.2 mg.kg-1, respectively. Organoarsenicals were detectable in 24. 3% of the chicken feed samples and 26. 3% of the pig feed samples. Moreover, ROX was commonly used in chicken feeds, while p-ASA in pig feeds. ROX and the inorganic As impurities, either in the commercial additive or in the feed, remained stable for at least 30 days at room temperature, indicating the higher As impurities in feeds probably originated from the As impurities in organoarsenical additives. This is a new As exposure pathway for the producer and user of organoarsenicals and feeds amending organoarsenicals. PMID:23668148

  2. Control of acetic acid concentration by pH-stat continuous substrate feeding in heterotrophic culture phase of two-stage cultivation of Alcaligenes eutrophus for production of P(3HB) from CO2, H2, and O2 under non-explosive conditions.

    PubMed

    Sugimoto; Tsuge; Tanaka; Ishizaki

    1999-03-01

    A-two stage culture method of hydrogen-oxidizing bacterium, Alcaligenes eutrophus, is used to produce poly-D-3-hydroxybutyrate, P(3HB) from CO2, O2, and H2 without using a very high oxygen transfer rate while maintaining the O2 concentration in gas phase below 6.9 (v/v)% to prevent detonation of the gas mixture. The two-stage method consists of a heterotrophic culture using fructose as carbon source for exponential cell growth and an autotrophic culture for P(3HB) accumulation. We investigated the use of acetic acid as a cheaper carbon source than fructose for the heterotrophic culture in the two-stage method. However, the acetate concentration in the culture system must be maintained at 1.0 g. dm-3 since its inhibitory effect on the cell growth is very strong. Then, high cell density cultivation of A. eutrophus was investigated by pH-stat continuous feeding of acetic acid to control acetate concentration. As a result, acetate concentration was automatically maintained around 1.0 g. dm-3 by using a feed with a composition in CH3COOH/CH3COONH4/KH2PO4 molar ratio of 5:1:0.084. Cell concentration increased to 48.6 g. dm-3 after 21 h of cultivation. The cell mass grown in the fed-batch culture on acetic acid was useful for P(3HB) production from CO2 in the subsequent autotrophic culture stage. Copyright 1999 John Wiley & Sons, Inc. PMID:10099572

  3. Transcript abundance of the pig stearoyl-CoA desaturase gene has no effect on fatty acid composition in muscle and fat tissues, but its polymorphism within the putative microRNA target site is associated with daily body weight gain and feed conversion ratio.

    PubMed

    Bartz, M; Szydlowski, M; Kociucka, B; Salamon, S; Jeleń, H H; Switonski, M

    2013-01-01

    Fatty acid composition in porcine intramuscular fat affects the dietetic value and technological properties of meat. The stearoyl-CoA desaturase (SCD) gene is a strong positional and functional candidate for fatty acid composition. Our sequence analysis in 4 breeds (Duroc, Pietrain, Polish Landrace, and Polish Large White) revealed a novel SNP in the 5'-flanking sequence and 9 novel SNP and 2 novel indels in the 3' untranslated region (UTR). Transcript level of the SCD in subcutaneous fat was significantly greater than in muscle tissue (n=83; P<0.001) and the interbreed comparison revealed a greater transcript level in the fat tissue of Polish Landrace (P<0.01). We found no association between the abundance of the SCD transcript and fatty acid composition in any of the tissues. We performed an association analysis between 4 SNP (c.-353C>T, c.-233T>C, c.*164A>G, and c.*928G>C), 1 indel (c.*2574_2576delGTC), and production traits in Polish Large White (n=185) and synthetic line 990 (n=243). The most pronounced associations were observed for the c.*928G>C polymorphism, which occurs within a predicted target site for 2 microRNA (ssc-miR-185 and ssc-miR-491). In line 990, this polymorphism was significantly associated with daily BW gain (P<0.04 under the general model) and feed conversion ratio (P<0.0004) but not with fatness traits. The same tendency, but not significant, was observed in the Polish Large White breed. When both breeds were analyzed together, these associations were again highly significant (daily BW gain P<0.003; feed conversion ratio P<0.0001). We conclude that c.*928G>C is a promising marker for both porcine traits. PMID:23048140

  4. Copper-catalyzed tandem phosphination-decarboxylation-oxidation of alkynyl acids with H-phosphine oxides: a facile synthesis of β-ketophosphine oxides.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Pengbo; Zhang, Liangliang; Gao, Yuzhen; Xu, Jian; Fang, Hua; Tang, Guo; Zhao, Yufen

    2015-05-01

    The general method for the tandem phosphination-decarboxylation-oxidation of alkynyl acids under aerobic conditions has been developed. In the presence of CuSO4·5H2O and TBHP, the reactions provide a novel access to β-ketophosphine oxides in good to excellent yields. This transformation allows the direct formation of a P-C bond and the construction of a keto group in one reaction. PMID:25855268

  5. Data Quality Objectives for WTP Feed Acceptance Criteria - 12043

    SciTech Connect

    Arakali, Aruna V.; Benson, Peter A.; Duncan, Garth; Johnston, Jill C.; Lane, Thomas A.; Matis, George; Olson, John W.; Banning, Davey L.; Greer, Daniel A.; Seidel, Cary M.; Thien, Michael G.

    2012-07-01

    The Hanford Tank Waste Treatment and Immobilization Plant (WTP) is under construction for the U.S. Department of Energy by Bechtel National, Inc. and subcontractor URS Corporation (contract no. DE-AC27-01RV14136). The plant when completed will be the world's largest nuclear waste treatment facility. Bechtel and URS are tasked with designing, constructing, commissioning, and transitioning the plant to the long term operating contractor to process the legacy wastes that are stored in underground tanks (from nuclear weapons production between the 1940's and the 1980's). Approximately 56 million gallons of radioactive waste is currently stored in these tanks at the Hanford Site in southeastern Washington. There are three major WTP facilities being constructed for processing the tank waste feed. The Pretreatment (PT) facility receives feed where it is separated into a low activity waste (LAW) fraction and a high level waste (HLW) fraction. These fractions are transferred to the appropriate (HLW or LAW) facility, combined with glass former material, and sent to high temperature melters for formation of the glass product. In addition to PT, HLW and LAW, other facilities in WTP include the Laboratory (LAB) for analytical services and the Balance of Facilities (BOF) for plant maintenance, support and utility services. The transfer of staged feed from the waste storage tanks and acceptance in WTP receipt vessels require data for waste acceptance criteria (WAC) parameters from analysis of feed samples. The Data Quality Objectives (DQO) development was a joint team effort between WTP and Tank Operations Contractor (TOC) representatives. The focus of this DQO effort was to review WAC parameters and develop data quality requirements, the results of which will determine whether or not the staged feed can be transferred from the TOC to WTP receipt vessels. The approach involved systematic planning for data collection consistent with EPA guidance for the seven-step DQO process

  6. Advanced Liquid Feed Experiment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Distefano, E.; Noll, C.

    1993-06-01

    The Advanced Liquid Feed Experiment (ALFE) is a Hitchhiker experiment flown on board the Shuttle of STS-39 as part of the Space Test Payload-1 (STP-1). The purpose of ALFE is to evaluate new propellant management components and operations under the low gravity flight environment of the Space Shuttle for eventual use in an advanced spacecraft feed system. These components and operations include an electronic pressure regulator, an ultrasonic flowmeter, an ultrasonic point sensor gage, and on-orbit refill of an auxiliary propellant tank. The tests are performed with two transparent tanks with dyed Freon 113, observed by a camera and controlled by ground commands and an on-board computer. Results show that the electronic pressure regulator provides smooth pressure ramp-up, sustained pressure control, and the flexibility to change pressure settings in flight. The ultrasonic flowmeter accurately measures flow and detects gas ingestion. The ultrasonic point sensors function well in space, but not as a gage during sustained low-gravity conditions, as they, like other point gages, are subject to the uncertainties of propellant geometry in a given tank. Propellant transfer operations can be performed with liquid-free ullage equalization at a 20 percent fill level, gas-free liquid transfer from 20-65 percent fill level, minimal slosh, and can be automated.

  7. Research Animal Holding Facility Prevents Space Lab Contamination

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Savage, P. D., Jr.; Jahns, G. C.; Dalton, B. P.; Hogan, R. P.; Wray, A. E.

    1991-01-01

    Healthy environment for both rodents and human researchers maintained. Research animal holding facility (RAHF) and rodent cage prevent solid particles (feces, food bits, hair), micro-organisms, ammonia, and odors from escaping into outside environment during spaceflight. Rodent cage contains compartments for two animals. Provides each drinking-water dispenser, feeding alcove, and activity-monitoring port. Feeding and waste trays removable.

  8. Toxicity of adipic acid.

    PubMed

    Kennedy, Gerald L

    2002-05-01

    Adipic acid has very low acute toxicity in rats with an LD50 > 5000 mg/kg. Adipic acid produced mild to no skin irritation on intact guinea pig skin as a 50% concentration in propylene glycol; it was not a skin sensitizer. Adipic acid caused mild conjunctival irritation in washed rabbit eyes; in unwashed rabbit eyes, there was mild conjunctival irritation, minimal iritis, but no corneal effects. Adipic acid dust may irritate the mucous membranes of the lungs and nose. In a 2-year feeding study, rats fed adipic acid at concentrations up to 5% in the diet exhibited only weight loss. Adipic acid is not genetically active in a wide variety of assay systems. Adipic acid caused no developmental toxicity in mice, rats, rabbits, or hamsters when administered orally. Adipic acid is partially metabolized in humans; the balance is eliminated unchanged in the urine. Adipic acid is slightly to moderately toxic to fish, daphnia, and algae in acute tests. PMID:12024802

  9. 21 CFR 558.62 - Arsanilic acid.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Arsanilic acid. 558.62 Section 558.62 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) ANIMAL DRUGS, FEEDS, AND RELATED PRODUCTS NEW ANIMAL DRUGS FOR USE IN ANIMAL FEEDS Specific New Animal Drugs for Use in Animal Feeds § 558.62 Arsanilic acid....

  10. Health Facilities

    MedlinePlus

    Health facilities are places that provide health care. They include hospitals, clinics, outpatient care centers, and specialized care centers, such as birthing centers and psychiatric care centers. When you ...

  11. Facility Planning.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Graves, Ben E.

    1984-01-01

    This article reviews recommendations on policies for leasing surplus school space made during the Council of Educational Facility Planners/International conference. A case study presentation of a Seattle district's use of lease agreements is summarized. (MJL)

  12. Production facilities

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1989-01-01

    This book presents a cross section of different solutions to the many unique production problems operators face. Sections address benefit vs. cost options for production facility designs, oil and gas separation processes and equipment, oil treating and desalting systems, and water treating methods and equipment. Papers were selected to give an overall view of factors involved in optimizing the design of cost-effective production facilities.

  13. Development of Wide Band Feeds

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ujihara, H.; Ichikawa, R.

    2012-12-01

    Wide Band feeds are being developed at NICT, NAOJ, and some universities in Japan for VLBI2010, SKA, and MARBLE. SKA, the Square Kilometre Array, will comprise thousands of radio telescopes with square kilometer aperture size for radio astronomy. MARBLE consists of small portable VLBI stations developed at NICT and GSI in Japan. They all need wide band feeds with a greater than 1:10 frequency ratio. Thus we have been studying wide band feeds with dual linear polarization for these applications.

  14. Fuel cell with electrolyte feed system

    DOEpatents

    Feigenbaum, Haim

    1984-01-01

    A fuel cell having a pair of electrodes at the sites of electrochemical reactions of hydrogen and oxygen and a phosphoric acid electrolyte provided with an electrolyte supporting structure in the form of a laminated matrix assembly disposed between the electrodes. The matrix assembly is formed of a central layer disposed between two outer layers, each being permeable to the flow of the electrolyte. The central layer is provided with relatively large pores while the outer layers are provided with relatively small pores. An external reservoir supplies electrolyte via a feed means to the central layer to compensate for changes in electrolyte volume in the matrix assembly during the operation of fuel cell.

  15. Organic and Nonorganic Feeding Disorders.

    PubMed

    Rybak, Anna

    2015-01-01

    Feeding is one of the most important interactions between caregiver and child in the first few years of life and even later on in handicapped children. Feeding disorders can present as food refusal or low quantity of food intake due to behavioral issues or underlying organic conditions. This situation concerns mostly infants and children below 6 years of age; however, feeding problems can appear also later on in life. Feeding disorders are a concern for over 10-25% of parents of otherwise healthy children below 3 years of age, but only 1-5% of infants and toddlers suffer from severe feeding problems resulting in failure to thrive. In case of premature infants or neurologically disabled children, this rate is much higher. Feeding disorders may appear as an isolated problem, mainly due to negative behaviors during feeding, or as a concomitant disorder with an underlying organic disease or structural anomaly. The newest classification also includes the feeding style presented by the caregiver (responsive, controlling, indulgent or neglectful) as a separate cause of feeding disorders. PMID:26226993

  16. How to Feed Cleft Patient?

    PubMed Central

    Khan, Saima Yunus

    2013-01-01

    ABSTRACT Cleft lip and palate patients have all rights like other normal individuals, to enjoy the benefits of nourishment. Knowledge has to be there about the different feeding positions like straddle, dancer hand position along with the use of specially designed bottles and nipples. Parent's should be trained about the correct positions of feeding, in extreme of the cases in which parents are not able to follow these instructions, feeding obturators can be given. How to cite this article: Jindal MK, Khan SY. How to Feed Cleft Patient? Int J Clin Pediatr Dent 2013;6(2):100-103. PMID:25206201

  17. Misaligned feeding impairs memories

    PubMed Central

    Loh, Dawn H; Jami, Shekib A; Flores, Richard E; Truong, Danny; Ghiani, Cristina A; O’Dell, Thomas J; Colwell, Christopher S

    2015-01-01

    Robust sleep/wake rhythms are important for health and cognitive function. Unfortunately, many people are living in an environment where their circadian system is challenged by inappropriate meal- or work-times. Here we scheduled food access to the sleep time and examined the impact on learning and memory in mice. Under these conditions, we demonstrate that the molecular clock in the master pacemaker, the suprachiasmatic nucleus (SCN), is unaltered while the molecular clock in the hippocampus is synchronized by the timing of food availability. This chronic circadian misalignment causes reduced hippocampal long term potentiation and total CREB expression. Importantly this mis-timed feeding resulted in dramatic deficits in hippocampal-dependent learning and memory. Our findings suggest that the timing of meals have far-reaching effects on hippocampal physiology and learned behaviour. DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.7554/eLife.09460.001 PMID:26652002

  18. Multiple feed powder splitter

    DOEpatents

    Lewis, Gary K.; Less, Richard M.

    2001-01-01

    A device for providing uniform powder flow to the nozzles when creating solid structures using a solid fabrication system such as the directed light fabrication (DLF) process. In the DLF process, gas entrained powders are passed through the focal point of a moving high-power laser light which fuses the particles in the powder to a surface being built up in layers. The invention is a device providing uniform flow of gas entrained powders to the nozzles of the DLF system. The device comprises a series of modular splitters which are slidably interconnected and contain an integral flow control mechanism. The device can take the gas entrained powder from between one to four hoppers and split the flow into eight tubular lines which feed the powder delivery nozzles of the DLF system.

  19. Multiple feed powder splitter

    DOEpatents

    Lewis, Gary K.; Less, Richard M.

    2002-01-01

    A device for providing uniform powder flow to the nozzles when creating solid structures using a solid fabrication system such as the directed light fabrication (DLF) process. In the DLF process, gas entrained powders are passed through the focal point of a moving high-power laser light which fuses the particles in the powder to a surface being built up in layers. The invention is a device providing uniform flow of gas entrained powders to the nozzles of the DLF system. The device comprises a series of modular splitters which are slidably interconnected and contain an integral flow control mechanism. The device can take the gas entrained powder from between one to four hoppers and split the flow into eight tubular lines which feed the powder delivery nozzles of the DLF system.

  20. Facile "one-pot" synthesis of poly(methacrylic acid)-based hybrid monolith via thiol-ene click reaction for hydrophilic interaction chromatography.

    PubMed

    Lv, Xumei; Tan, Wangming; Chen, Ye; Chen, Yingzhuang; Ma, Ming; Chen, Bo; Yao, Shouzhuo

    2016-07-01

    A novel sol-gel "one-pot" approach in tandem with a radical-mediated thiol-ene reaction for the synthesis of a methacrylic acid-based hybrid monolith was developed. The polymerization monomers, tetramethoxysilane (TMOS) and 3-mercaptopropyl trimethoxysilane (MPTS), were hydrolyzed in high-concentration methacrylic acid solution that also served as a hydrophilic functional monomer. The resulting solution was then mixed with initiator (2, 2'-azobis (2-methylpropionamide) dihydrochloride) and porogen (urea, polyethylene glycol 20,000) in a capillary column and polymerized in water bath. The column had a uniform porous structure and a good permeability. The evaluation of the monolith was performed by separation of small molecules including nucleosides, phenols, amides, bases and Triton X-100. The calibration curves for uridine, inosine, adenosine and cytidine were determined. All the calibration curves exhibited good linear regressions (R(2)≥0.995) within the test ranges of 0.5-40μg/mL for four nucleosides. Additionaliy, atypical hydrophilic mechanism was proved by elution order from low to high according to polarity retention time increased with increases in the content of the organic solvent in the mobile phase. Further studies indicated that hydrogen bond and electrostatic interactions existed between the polar analytes and the stationary phase. This was the mechanism of retention. The excellent separation of the BSA digest showed good hydrophility of the column and indicated the potential in separation of complex biological samples. PMID:27264742

  1. Feeding a future world.

    PubMed

    Hinrichsen, D

    1998-01-01

    This article provides an overview of future prospects for feeding the world's growing population. The discussion focuses on obstacles such as limited agricultural land, degraded soil and water, and water shortages. The evidence suggests that sustainability is declining, especially in poor, food-deficit countries with growing populations. The world is segregated into the haves, the poor have-nots, and the rich have-nots. North America, Europe, and Australia have enough cropland to feed their populations. The poor have-nots are located mostly in sub-Saharan Africa, 7 countries each in the Middle East and Latin America, 6 in Oceania, and the rest in Central and South Asia. The poor have-nots amount to 3 billion out of 6 billion total population. The rich have-nots include countries such as Japan and Singapore, plus China, Indonesia, Peru, Chile, and Saudi Arabia and other Gulf states. The rich have-nots must import food. The world grain harvest is no longer tripling. Per person yields have declined. Increasing food productivity must rely on existing lands. The size of family farms has declined. Almost 2 billion hectares of crop and grazing land is degraded. Yields from irrigated land that are 33% of world food supply have declined. In 1990, 28 countries with 335 million people faced chronic water shortages or scarcity. Water is being polluted. Fish stocks are being depleted. Genetic diversity is being lost. In 182 food deficit countries, population growth must be slowed, and agriculture must be sustainable. Food is neither produced nor consumed equitably. Malnutrition is caused by poverty. Food security cannot be achieved if land and water become increasingly degraded or lost. PMID:12348766

  2. An overview: biomolecules from microalgae for animal feed and aquaculture.

    PubMed

    Yaakob, Zahira; Ali, Ehsan; Zainal, Afifi; Mohamad, Masita; Takriff, Mohd Sobri

    2014-12-01

    Despite being more popular for biofuel, microalgae have gained a lot of attention as a source of biomolecules and biomass for feed purposes. Algae farming can be established using land as well as sea and strategies can be designed in order to gain the products of specific interest in the optimal way. A general overview of the contributions of Algae to meet the requirements of nutrients in animal/aquaculture feed is presented in this study. In addition to its applications in animal/aquaculture feed, algae can produce a number of biomolecules including astaxanthin, lutein, beta-carotene, chlorophyll, phycobiliprotein, Polyunsaturated Fatty Acids (PUFAs), beta-1,3-glucan, and pharmaceutical and nutraceutical compounds which have been reviewed with respect to their commercial importance and current status. The review is further extended to highlight the adequate utilization of value added products in the feeds for livestock, poultry and aquaculture (with emphasis in shrimp farming). PMID:25984489

  3. Acute phase proteins response to feed deprivation in broiler chickens.

    PubMed

    Najafi, P; Zulkifli, I; Soleimani, A F; Goh, Y M

    2016-04-01

    Feed deprivation in poultry farming imposes some degree of stress to the birds, and adversely affects their well -being. Serum levels of acute phase proteins (APP) are potential physiological indicators of stress attributed to feed deprivation. However, it has not been determined how long it takes for a measurable APP response to stressors to occur in avian species. An experiment was designed to delineate the APP and circulating levels of corticosterone responses in commercial broiler chickens to feed deprivation for 30 h. It was hypothesized that feed deprivation would elicit both APP and corticosterone (CORT) reactions within 30 h that is probably associated with stress of hunger. Twenty-one day old birds were subjected to one of 5 feed deprivation periods: 0 (ad libitum, AL), 6, 12, 18, 24, and 30 h. Upon completion of the deprivation period, blood samples were collected to determine serum CORT, ovotransferrin (OVT), α1-acid glycoprotein (AGP), and ceruloplasmin (CP) concentrations. Results showed that feed deprivation for 24 h or more caused a marked elevation in CORT (P=0.002 and P<0.0001, respectively) when compared to AL. However, increases in AGP (P=0.0005), CP (P=0.0002), and OVT (P=0.0003) were only noted following 30 h of feed deprivation. It is concluded that elicitation of AGP, CP, and OVT response may represent a more chronic stressful condition than CORT response in assessing the well-being of broiler chickens. PMID:26908886

  4. Waste Receiving and Processing, Module 2A, feed specification: Revision 1

    SciTech Connect

    Kruger, O.L.; Sheriff, M.L.

    1994-11-14

    Detailed descriptions of the various mixed low-level waste feed streams that will be processed in the Waste Receiving and Processing Facility, Module 2A (WRAP 2A) are provided. Feed stream descriptions are based on available reports, the solid waste information tracking system database, and the 1993 solid waste forecast data. Available chemical and physical attributes, radionuclide data, waste codes, and packaging information are shown for 15 feed streams. The information sources and methodology for obtaining projections for WRAP 2A expected feed stream volumes also are described.

  5. REAL WASTE TESTING OF SLUDGE BATCH 5 MELTER FEED RHEOLOGY

    SciTech Connect

    Reboul, S.; Stone, M.

    2010-03-17

    Clogging of the melter feed loop at the Defense Waste Processing Facility (DWPF) has reduced the throughput of Sludge Batch 5 (SB5) processing. After completing a data review, DWPF attributed the clogging to the rheological properties of the Slurry Mix Evaporator (SME) project. The yield stress of the SB5 melter feed material was expected to be high, based on the relatively high pH of the SME product and the rheological results of a previous Chemical Process Cell (CPC) demonstration performed at the Savannah River National Laboratory (SRNL).

  6. Reductively degradable α-amino acid-based poly(ester amide)-graft-galactose copolymers: facile synthesis, self-assembly, and hepatoma-targeting doxorubicin delivery.

    PubMed

    Lv, Jiaolong; Sun, Huanli; Zou, Yan; Meng, Fenghua; Dias, Aylvin A; Hendriks, Marc; Feijen, Jan; Zhong, Zhiyuan

    2015-07-01

    Novel reductively degradable α-amino acid-based poly(ester amide)-graft-galactose (SSPEA-Gal) copolymers were designed and developed to form smart nano-vehicles for active hepatoma-targeting doxorubicin (DOX) delivery. SSPEA-Gal copolymers were readily synthesized via solution polycondensation reaction of di-p-toluenesulfonic acid salts of bis-l-phenylalanine 2,2-thiodiethanol diester and bis-vinyl sulfone functionalized cysteine hexanediol diester with dinitrophenyl ester of adipic acid, followed by conjugating with thiol-functionalized galactose (Gal-SH) via the Michael addition reaction. SSPEA-Gal formed unimodal nanoparticles (PDI = 0.10 - 0.12) in water, in which average particle sizes decreased from 138 to 91 nm with increasing Gal contents from 31.6 wt% to 42.5 wt%. Notably, in vitro drug release studies showed that over 80% DOX was released from SSPEA-Gal nanoparticles within 12 h under an intracellular mimicking reductive conditions, while low DOX release (<20%) was observed for reduction-insensitive PEA-Gal nanoparticles under otherwise the same conditions and SSPEA-Gal nanoparticles under non-reductive conditions. Notably, SSPEA-Gal nanoparticles exhibited high specificity to asialoglycoprotein receptor (ASGP-R)-overexpressing HepG2 cells. MTT assays using HepG2 cells showed that DOX-loaded SSPEA-Gal had a low half maximal inhibitory concentration (IC50) of 1.37 μg mL(-1), approaching that of free DOX. Flow cytometry and confocal laser scanning microscopy studies confirmed the efficient uptake of DOX-loaded SSPEA-Gal nanoparticles by HepG2 cells as well as fast intracellular DOX release. Importantly, SSPEA-Gal and PEA-Gal nanoparticles were non-cytotoxic to HepG2 and MCF-7 cells up to a tested concentration of 1.0 mg mL(-1). These tumor-targeting and reduction-responsive degradable nanoparticles have appeared as an interesting multi-functional platform for advanced drug delivery. PMID:26221946

  7. Yield Stress Reduction of DWPF Melter Feed Slurries

    SciTech Connect

    Stone, M.E.; Smith, M.E.

    2007-07-01

    The Defense Waste Processing Facility (DWPF) at the Savannah River Site vitrifies High Level Waste for repository internment. The process consists of three major steps: waste pretreatment, vitrification, and canister decontamination/sealing. The HLW consists of insoluble metal hydroxides and soluble sodium salts. The pretreatment process acidifies the sludge with nitric and formic acids, adds the glass formers as glass frit, then concentrates the resulting slurry to approximately 50 weight percent (wt%) total solids. This slurry is fed to the joule-heated melter where the remaining water is evaporated followed by calcination of the solids and conversion to glass. The Savannah River National Laboratory (SRNL) is currently assisting DWPF efforts to increase throughput of the melter. As part of this effort, SRNL has investigated methods to increase the solids content of the melter feed to reduce the heat load required to complete the evaporation of water and allow more of the energy available to calcine and vitrify the waste. The process equipment in the facility is fixed and cannot process materials with high yield stresses, therefore increasing the solids content will require that the yield stress of the melter feed slurries be reduced. Changing the glass former added during pretreatment from an irregularly shaped glass frit to nearly spherical beads was evaluated. The evaluation required a systems approach which included evaluations of the effectiveness of beads in reducing the melter feed yield stress as well as evaluations of the processing impacts of changing the frit morphology. Processing impacts of beads include changing the settling rate of the glass former (which effects mixing and sampling of the melter feed slurry and the frit addition equipment) as well as impacts on the melt behavior due to decreased surface area of the beads versus frit. Beads were produced from the DWPF process frit by fire polishing. The frit was allowed to free fall through a flame

  8. Facile synthesis of Fe₃O₄@polyethyleneimine modified with 4-formylphenylboronic acid for the highly selective extraction of major catecholamines from human urine.

    PubMed

    Qin, Qian; Li, Hua; Shi, Xianzhe; Xu, Guowang

    2015-08-01

    The levels of catecholamines, especially dopamine, epinephrine and norepinephrine in urine and plasma have been used to assist the diagnosis and treatment of psychosis. Due to their low endogenous concentrations, the determination of the three major catecholamines is very difficult. Boronate adsorbents are often employed to extract these cis-diol compounds from complex matrices. In this work, a novel type of magnetic nanoparticles modified with 4-formylphenylboronic named Fe3O4@PEI-FPBA was synthesized by a facile two-step approach. The abundant amino groups of polyethyleneimine provided the rich binding sites for boronate ligands. Herein, the adsorption capacity of Fe3O4@PEI-FPBA is greatly improved with a value of 3.45 mg/g towards epinephrine, which is much larger than that of analogous material without polyethyleneimine. The magnetic nanoparticles also exhibited high magnetization (72.25 emu/g) and specific selectivity towards the catecholamines. Finally, a liquid chromatography tandem mass spectrometry method based on Fe3O4@PEI-FPBA nanoparticles was successfully used to determine the three catecholamines from human urine samples. The linearity, limit of quantitation, recovery and precision of the method were satisfactory. Based on the method, it is found that the levels of dopamine, epinephrine and norepinephrine in depressive patients are higher than those in healthy controls. PMID:26017668

  9. Post-synthetic preparation of Sn-, Ti- and Zr-beta: a facile route to water tolerant, highly active Lewis acidic zeolites.

    PubMed

    Wolf, Patrick; Hammond, Ceri; Conrad, Sabrina; Hermans, Ive

    2014-03-21

    A two-step procedure for the post-synthetic preparation of Lewis acidic Sn-, Zr- and Ti-zeolite β is reported. Dealumination of a commercially available Al-β zeolite leads to the formation of highly siliceous material containing silanol nests, which can be filled in a second step via the solid-state ion-exchange or impregnation of an appropriate metal precursor. Spectroscopic studies indicate that each metal is subsequently coordinated within the zeolite framework, and that little or no bulk oxides are formed--despite the high metal loadings. The synthesised catalysts demonstrate excellent activity for the isomerisation of glyceraldehyde to dihydroxyacetone, a key model reaction for the upgrading of bio-renewable feedstocks, and the epoxidation of bulky olefins. PMID:24407516

  10. Off-gas chemistry study of melter feed by Springborn Laboratories. [Sludge-only and sludge-precipitate feed samples

    SciTech Connect

    Crow, K.R.

    1985-06-05

    The purpose of the off-gas chemistry study of melter feed samples was to support and help substantiate glass melter thermochemistry models developed for the DWPF. Both sludge-only and sludge-precipitate feed samples were analyzed. Each slurry sample was pyrolyzed at temperatures from 150 to 1000/sup 0/C in air and inert atmospheres, and the head space products were analyzed by chromatographic and mass spectrometric methods. Thermogravimetric, differential scanning calorimetric and Fourier transform infrared analyses were also performed on each sample. There were no unusually high exothermic reactions that would be cause for concern in the DWPF melter. Results for two types of sludge-precipitate feed were compared. One type contained simulated precipitate hydrolysis aqueous (PHA) product as fed to the SCM-2 melter. The second type contained PHA from the lab-scale acid hydrolysis reactor in 677-T. A major difference between the two types was a small, but distinct, presence of higher aromatics in gas from feed with reactor-produced PHA. This feed also evolved more CO and CO/sub 2/ than feed with simulated PHA at high pyrolytic temperatures (>750/sup 0/C). Recent analyses have identified the higher boiling aromatics in reactor-produced PHA as primarily diphenylamine and p-terphenyl. These compounds will be included in future PHA simulations that are fed to research melters. Under an inert atmosphere, benzene and phenol were the two most abundant organics evolved during pyrolysis of sludge-precipitate feed.

  11. High levels, partitioning and fish consumption based water guidelines of perfluoroalkyl acids downstream of a former firefighting training facility in Canada.

    PubMed

    Bhavsar, Satyendra P; Fowler, Craig; Day, Sarah; Petro, Steve; Gandhi, Nilima; Gewurtz, Sarah B; Hao, Chunyan; Zhao, Xiaoming; Drouillard, Ken G; Morse, Dave

    2016-09-01

    High levels of perfluoroalkyl acids (PFAAs), especially perfluorooctane sulfonic acid (PFOS), have been observed at locations in/around/downstream of the sites where PFOS-based firefighting foam was used repeatedly for a prolonged period. In this study, we conducted a detailed investigation of PFAA contamination in the Lake Niapenco area in Ontario, Canada, where among the highest ever reported levels of PFOS were recently measured in amphipods, fish and snapping turtle plasma. Levels and distribution of PFAAs in water, sediment and fish samples collected from the area varied widely. An upstream pond beside a former firefighting training area (FFTA) was confirmed as the source of PFAAs even 20years after the last use of the foam at the FFTA. Recent PFOS concentration in water (~60ng/L) at Lake Niapenco, about 14km downstream of the pond, was still 3-7× higher than the background levels. For PFOS, Log KD ranged 1.3-2.5 (mean±SE: 1.7±0.1), Log BAFs ranged 2.4-4.7 (3.4±0.05), and Log BSAFs ranged 0.7-2.9 (1.7±0.05). Some fish species-specific differences in BAF and BSAF were observed. At Log BAF of 4.7, fish PFOS levels at Lake Niapenco could reach 15,000ng/g, 100× greater than a "do not eat" advisory benchmark, without exceeding the current drinking water guideline of 300ng/L. A fish consumption based water guideline was estimated at 1-15ng/L, which is likely applicable worldwide given that the Log BAFs observed in this study were comparable to those previously reported in the literature. It appears that PFAA in the downstream waters increased between 2011 and 2015; however, further monitoring is required to confirm this trend. PMID:27302846

  12. A facile, sensitive, and highly specific trinitrophenol assay based on target-induced synergetic effects of acid induction and electron transfer towards DNA-templated copper nanoclusters.

    PubMed

    Li, Haiyin; Chang, Jiafu; Hou, Ting; Ge, Lei; Li, Feng

    2016-11-01

    Reliable, selective and sensitive approaches for trinitrophenol (TNP) detection are highly desirable with respect to national security and environmental protection. Herein, a simple and novel fluorescent strategy for highly sensitive and specific TNP assay has been successfully developed, which is based on the quenching of the fluorescent poly(thymine)-templated copper nanoclusters (DNA-CuNCs), through the synergetic effects of acid induction and electron transfer. Upon the addition of TNP, donor-acceptor complexes between the electron-deficient nitro-groups in TNP and the electron-donating DNA templates are formed, resulting in the close proximity between TNP and CuNCs. Moreover, the acidity of TNP contributes to the pH decrease of the system. These factors combine to dramatically quench the fluorescence of DNA-CuNCs, providing a "signal-off" strategy for TNP sensing. The as-proposed strategy demonstrates high sensitivity for TNP assay, and a detection limit of 0.03μM is obtained, which is lower than those reported by using organic fluorescent materials. More significantly, this approach shows outstanding selectivity over a number of TNP analogues, such as 2,4,6-trinitrotoluene (TNT), 2,4-dinitrotoluene (DNT), 2,4-dinitrophenol (DNP), 3-nitrophenol (NP), nitrobenzene (NB), phenol (BP), and toluene (BT). Compared with previous studies, this method does not need complex DNA sequence design, fluorescent dye labeling, or sophisticated organic reactions, rendering the strategy with additional advantages of simplicity and cost-effectiveness. In addition, the as-proposed strategy has been adopted for the detection of TNP in natural water samples, indicating its great potential to be applied in the fields of public safety and environmental monitoring. PMID:27591641

  13. Breast-feeding counselling in a diarrhoeal disease hospital.

    PubMed Central

    Haider, R.; Islam, A.; Hamadani, J.; Amin, N. J.; Kabir, I.; Malek, M. A.; Mahalanabis, D.; Habte, D.

    1996-01-01

    Lactation counsellors were trained to advise mothers of partially breast-fed infants who were admitted to hospital because of diarrhoea, so that they could start exclusive breast-feeding during their hospital stay. Infants (n = 250) up to 12 weeks of age were randomized to intervention and control groups. Mothers in the intervention group were individually advised by the counsellors while mothers in the control group received only routine group health education. During follow-up at home by the counsellors a week later, only the mothers in the intervention group were counselled. All the mothers were evaluated for infant feeding practices at home two weeks after discharge. Among the 125 mother-infant pairs in each group, 60% of mothers in the intervention group were breast-feeding exclusively at discharge compared with only 6% in the control group (P < 0.001); two weeks later, these rates rose to 75% and 8% in the intervention and control groups, respectively (P < 0.001). However, 49% of mothers in the control group reverted back to bottle-feeding compared with 12% in the intervention group (P < 0.001). Thus, individual counselling had a positive impact on mothers to start exclusive breast-feeding during hospitalization and to continue the practice at home. Maternal and child health facilities should include lactation counselling as an integral part of their programme to improve infant feeding practices. PMID:8706233

  14. Differential gene expression in the duodenum, jejunum and ileum among crossbred beef steers with divergent gain and feed intake phenotypes

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Small intestine mass and cellularity have previously been associated with cattle feed efficiency. The small intestine is responsible for digestion of nutrients and absorption of fatty acids, amino acids and sugars and contributes to the overall feed efficiency of cattle. The objective of this study ...

  15. Infant Feeding: An Annotated Bibliography.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Crowhurst, Christine Marie, Comp.; Kumer, Bonnie Lee, Comp.

    Intended for parents, health professionals and allied health workers, and others involved in caring for infants and young children, this annotated bibliography brings together in one selective listing a review of over 700 current publications related to infant feeding. Reflecting current knowledge in infant feeding, the bibliography has as its…

  16. Feed analyses and their interpretation

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Compositional analysis is central to determining the nutritional value of feedstuffs. The utility of the values and how they should be used depends on how representative the feed subsample is, the nutritional relevance of the assays, analytical variability of the analyses, and whether a feed is suit...

  17. Enteral Tube Feeding and Pneumonia

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gray, David Sheridan; Kimmel, David

    2006-01-01

    To determine the effects of enteral tube feeding on the incidence of pneumonia, we performed a retrospective review of all clients at our institution who had gastrostomy or jejunostomy tubes placed over a 10-year period. Ninety-three subjects had a history of pneumonia before feeding tube insertion. Eighty had gastrostomy and 13, jejunostomy…

  18. Aquaculture feed and food safety.

    PubMed

    Tacon, Albert G J; Metian, Marc

    2008-10-01

    The ultimate objective of an aquaculture feed manufacturer and aquaculture food supplier is to ensure that the feed or food produced is both safe and wholesome. Reported food safety risks, which may be associated with the use of commercial animal feeds, including compound aquaculture feeds, usually result from the possible presence of unwanted contaminants, either within the feed ingredients used or from the external contamination of the finished feed on prolonged storage. The major animal feed contaminants that have been reported to date have included Salmonellae, mycotoxins, veterinary drug residues, persistent organic pollutants, agricultural and other chemicals (solvent residues, melamine), heavy metals (mercury, lead, cadmium) and excess mineral salts (hexavalent chromium, arsenic, selenium, flourine), and transmissible spongiform encephalopathies. Apart from the direct negative effect of these possible contaminants on the health of the cultured target species, there is a risk that the feed contaminants may be passed along the food chain, via contaminated aquaculture produce, to consumers. In recent years, public concern regarding food safety has increased as a consequence of the increasing prevalence of antibiotic residues, persistent organic pollutants, and chemicals in farmed seafood. The important role played by the Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations (FAO) and the Codex Alimentarius Commission in the development of international standards, guidelines, and recommendations to protect the health of consumers and ensure fair practices in the food trade is discussed. PMID:18991902

  19. Critical Protection Item classification for a waste processing facility at Savannah River Site

    SciTech Connect

    Ades, M.J.; Garrett, R.J.

    1993-10-01

    This paper describes the methodology for Critical Protection Item (CPI) classification and its application to the Structures, Systems and Components (SSC) of a waste processing facility at the Savannah River Site (SRS). The WSRC methodology for CPI classification includes the evaluation of the radiological and non-radiological consequences resulting from postulated accidents at the waste processing facility and comparison of these consequences with allowable limits. The types of accidents considered include explosions and fire in the facility and postulated accidents due to natural phenomena, including earthquakes, tornadoes, and high velocity straight winds. The radiological analysis results indicate that CPIs are not required at the waste processing facility to mitigate the consequences of radiological release. The non-radiological analysis, however, shows that the Waste Storage Tank (WST) and the dike spill containment structures around the formic acid tanks in the cold chemical feed area and waste treatment area of the facility should be identified as CPIs. Accident mitigation options are provided and discussed.

  20. A game of keep-away: feeding the fish and not the pond

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Phytic acid is a storage form of phosphorus in many plants. Its levels rise in the diet along with the inclusion rate of plant-based materials. Our measurements have found that phytic acid levels can be as high as 2% of catfish diets (40 lbs/ton of feed). However, phytic acid is largely indigestib...

  1. NTP Carcinogenesis Bioassay of L-Ascorbic Acid (Vitamin C) (CAS No. 50-81-7) in F344/N Rats and B6C3F1 Mice (Feed Study).

    PubMed

    1983-03-01

    L-Ascorbic acid is essential for many physiologic functions in animals and humans, mostly biochemical reactions involving oxidation. L-Ascorbic acid is approved for use as a dietary supplement and chemical preservative by the U.S. Food and Drug Administration and is on the FDA's list of substances generally recognized as safe. L-Ascorbic acid may be used in soft drinks as an antioxidant for flavor ingredients, in meat and meat-containing products, for curing and pickling, in flour to improve baking quality, in beer as a stabilizer, in fats and oils as an antioxidant, and in a wide variety of foods for vitamin C enrichment. L-Ascorbic acid may also find use in stain removers, hair waving preparations; plastics manufacture, photography, and water treatment. A NTP Carcinogenesis bioassay of L-ascorbic acid (>97% pure) was conducted by administering diets containing 25,000 or 50,000 ppm L-ascorbic acid to groups of 50 F344/N rats and 50 B6C3F1 mice of each sex for 103 weeks. Controls consisted of 50 untreated rats and untreated mice of each sex. Fifty-thousand ppm is the highest dose recommended for chronic studies. Survival of dosed and control female rats and of dosed and control female mice were comparable. Survival of high-dose male rats was slightly greater than that of the controls (P=0.087). Survival of high-dose male mice was significantly greater (P=0.009) than that of the controls. Throughout most of the study, mean body weights of dosed female rats and dosed female mice were lower than those of the controls. Final body weights were comparable among groups, except for the high-dose female rats (<13%); marginal differences (<8%) were observed for low-dose female rats and for dosed female mice (8%-11%). Food consumption was equivalent among groups. Most observational differences were confined to the female rat. The incidence of low-dose female rats with undifferentiated (mononuclear-cell) leukemias (control, 6/50, 12%; low-dose, 17/50, 34%; high-dose, 12/50, 24

  2. Breast feeding: success or failure.

    PubMed

    Houston, M J

    1981-11-01

    Awareness of the important role of breast feeding in child health and the reproductive cycle, which is well documented elsewhere, necessitates an examination of the changing practice of breast feeding. This paper reviews these changing practices both in Western and developing societies, examines the problems which lead to lactation failure, and looks at factors related to success in breast feeding. In the light of the need for practical help for successful breast feeding. the present system of support both in hospital and at home is then discussed. An alternative system of structured home support for post-natal women, which has been shown to increase the success rate of breast feeding, is outlined. The way in which this system acts is discussed and the implications for both mothers and health staff are considered. PMID:6915047

  3. A History of Infant Feeding

    PubMed Central

    Stevens, Emily E; Patrick, Thelma E; Pickler, Rita

    2009-01-01

    The historical evolution of infant feeding includes wet nursing, the feeding bottle, and formula use. Before the invention of bottles and formula, wet nursing was the safest and most common alternative to the natural mother's breastmilk. Society's negative view of wet nursing, combined with improvements of the feeding bottle, the availability of animal's milk, and advances in formula development, gradually led to the substitution of artificial feeding for wet nursing. In addition, the advertising and safety of formula products increased their popularity and use among society. Currently, infant formula-feeding is widely practiced in the United States and appears to contribute to the development of several common childhood illnesses, including atopy, diabetes mellitus, and childhood obesity. PMID:20190854

  4. Transcriptome differences in the rumen of beef steers with variation in feed intake and gain

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Feed efficiency is an economically important trait in beef production. The rumen wall interacts with feed, microbial populations and volatile fatty acids important to ruminant nutrition indicating it may play a critical role in the beef steer’s ability to utilize feedstuffs efficiently. To identif...

  5. Evaluation of a newly developed triple buffered peptone broth for detection of Salmonella in broiler feed

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Lactose broth (LB) and buffered peptone (BP) are used as pre-enrichment media to recover Salmonella from feed. Bacterial utilization of feed carbohydrates results in the production of acidic byproducts causing a drop in the media pH which can injure or kill Salmonella and yield false negative resul...

  6. Pollen feeding, resource allocation and the evolution of chemical defence in passion vine butterflies.

    PubMed

    Cardoso, M Z; Gilbert, L E

    2013-06-01

    Evolution of pollen feeding in Heliconius has allowed exploitation of rich amino acid sources and dramatically reorganized life-history traits. In Heliconius, eggs are produced mainly from adult-acquired resources, leaving somatic development and maintenance to larva effort. This innovation may also have spurred evolution of chemical defence via amino acid-derived cyanogenic glycosides. In contrast, nonpollen-feeding heliconiines must rely almost exclusively on larval-acquired resources for both reproduction and defence. We tested whether adult amino acid intake has an immediate influence on cyanogenesis in Heliconius. Because Heliconius are more distasteful to bird predators than close relatives that do not utilize pollen, we also compared cyanogenesis due to larval input across Heliconius species and nonpollen-feeding relatives. Except for one species, we found that varying the amino acid diet of an adult Heliconius has negligible effect on its cyanide concentration. Adults denied amino acids showed no decrease in cyanide and no adults showed cyanide increase when fed amino acids. Yet, pollen-feeding butterflies were capable of producing more defence than nonpollen-feeding relatives and differences were detectable in freshly emerged adults, before input of adult resources. Our data points to a larger role of larval input in adult chemical defence. This coupled with the compartmentalization of adult nutrition to reproduction and longevity suggests that one evolutionary consequence of pollen feeding, shifting the burden of reproduction to adults, is to allow the evolution of greater allocation of host plant amino acids to defensive compounds by larvae. PMID:23662837

  7. Folic acid bio-inspired route for facile synthesis of AuPt nanodendrites as enhanced electrocatalysts for methanol and ethanol oxidation reactions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Ai-Jun; Ju, Ke-Jian; Zhang, Qian-Li; Song, Pei; Wei, Jie; Feng, Jiu-Ju

    2016-09-01

    Folic acid (FA), as an important biomolecule in cell division and growth, is firstly employed as the structure director and stabilizing agent for controlled synthesis of uniform Au65Pt35 nanodendrites (NDs) by a one-pot wet-chemical bio-inspired route at room temperature. No pre-seed, template, organic solvent, polymer, surfactant or complex instrument is involved. The products are mainly characterized by transmission electron microscopy (TEM), high angle annular dark-field scanning transmission electron microscopy (HAADF-STEM), X-ray diffraction (XRD), and X-Ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS). The architectures have enlarged electrochemically active surface area (60.6 m2 gPt-1), enhanced catalytic activity and durability for methanol and ethanol oxidation in contrast with commercial Pt black and the other AuPt alloys by tuning the molar ratios of Au to Pt (e.g., Au31Pt69 and Au82Pt18 nanoparticles). This strategy would be applied to fabricate other bimetallic nanocatalysts in fuel cells.

  8. Feed Structure For Antennas

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Fink, Patrick W. (Inventor); Chu, Andrew W. (Inventor); Dobbins, Justin A. (Inventor); Lin, Greg Y. (Inventor)

    2005-01-01

    A novel feed structure, for an antenna having a resonant electric field structure, comprising a patch element, an integrated circuit attached to the patch element, at least one inner conductor electrically connected to and terminating at the integrated circuit on a first end of the at least one inner conductor, wherein the at least one inner conductor extends through and is not electrically connected to the patch element, and wherein the at least one inner conductor is available for electrical connectivity on a second end of the at least one inner conductor, and an outer conductor electrically connected to and terminating at the patch element on a first end of the outer conductor, wherein the outer conductor is available for electrical connectivity on a second end of the outer conductor, and wherein the outer conductor concentrically surrounds the at least one inner conductor from the second end of the at least one inner conductor available for electrical connectivity to the first end of the outer conductor terminating at the patch element.

  9. Feeding At-Risk Infants and Toddlers.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jaffe, Mata B.

    1989-01-01

    Speech-language pathologists working with infants or toddlers with feeding problems should obtain a feeding history, conduct an assessment of feeding practices, set appropriate preliminary and long-range goals, and investigate treatment options and appropriate feeding techniques. Feeding techniques for premature, neurologically impaired, Down…

  10. Updating the Cornell Net Carbohydrate and Protein System feed library and analyzing model sensitivity to feed inputs.

    PubMed

    Higgs, R J; Chase, L E; Ross, D A; Van Amburgh, M E

    2015-09-01

    The Cornell Net Carbohydrate and Protein System (CNCPS) is a nutritional model that evaluates the environmental and nutritional resources available in an animal production system and enables the formulation of diets that closely match the predicted animal requirements. The model includes a library of approximately 800 different ingredients that provide the platform for describing the chemical composition of the diet to be formulated. Each feed in the feed library was evaluated against data from 2 commercial laboratories and updated when required to enable more precise predictions of dietary energy and protein supply. A multistep approach was developed to predict uncertain values using linear regression, matrix regression, and optimization. The approach provided an efficient and repeatable way of evaluating and refining the composition of a large number of different feeds against commercially generated data similar to that used by CNCPS users on a daily basis. The protein A fraction in the CNCPS, formerly classified as nonprotein nitrogen, was reclassified to ammonia for ease and availability of analysis and to provide a better prediction of the contribution of metabolizable protein from free AA and small peptides. Amino acid profiles were updated using contemporary data sets and now represent the profile of AA in the whole feed rather than the insoluble residue. Model sensitivity to variation in feed library inputs was investigated using Monte Carlo simulation. Results showed the prediction of metabolizable energy was most sensitive to variation in feed chemistry and fractionation, whereas predictions of metabolizable protein were most sensitive to variation in digestion rates. Regular laboratory analysis of samples taken on-farm remains the recommended approach to characterizing the chemical components of feeds in a ration. However, updates to the CNCPS feed library provide a database of ingredients that are consistent with current feed chemistry information and

  11. 40 CFR 60.30d - Designated facilities.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ...) STANDARDS OF PERFORMANCE FOR NEW STATIONARY SOURCES Emissions Guidelines and Compliance Times for Sulfuric Acid Production Units § 60.30d Designated facilities. Sulfuric acid production units. The designated facility to which §§ 60.31d and 60.32d apply is each existing “sulfuric acid production unit” as defined...

  12. 40 CFR 60.30d - Designated facilities.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ...) STANDARDS OF PERFORMANCE FOR NEW STATIONARY SOURCES Emissions Guidelines and Compliance Times for Sulfuric Acid Production Units § 60.30d Designated facilities. Sulfuric acid production units. The designated facility to which §§ 60.31d and 60.32d apply is each existing “sulfuric acid production unit” as defined...

  13. 40 CFR 60.30d - Designated facilities.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ...) STANDARDS OF PERFORMANCE FOR NEW STATIONARY SOURCES Emissions Guidelines and Compliance Times for Sulfuric Acid Production Units § 60.30d Designated facilities. Sulfuric acid production units. The designated facility to which §§ 60.31d and 60.32d apply is each existing “sulfuric acid production unit” as defined...

  14. 40 CFR 60.30d - Designated facilities.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ...) STANDARDS OF PERFORMANCE FOR NEW STATIONARY SOURCES Emissions Guidelines and Compliance Times for Sulfuric Acid Production Units § 60.30d Designated facilities. Sulfuric acid production units. The designated facility to which §§ 60.31d and 60.32d apply is each existing “sulfuric acid production unit” as defined...

  15. 40 CFR 60.30d - Designated facilities.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ...) STANDARDS OF PERFORMANCE FOR NEW STATIONARY SOURCES Emissions Guidelines and Compliance Times for Sulfuric Acid Production Units § 60.30d Designated facilities. Sulfuric acid production units. The designated facility to which §§ 60.31d and 60.32d apply is each existing “sulfuric acid production unit” as defined...

  16. Planning Facilities.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Flynn, Richard B., Ed.; And Others

    1983-01-01

    Nine articles give information to help make professionals in health, physical education, recreation, dance, and athletics more knowledgeable about planning facilities. Design of natatoriums, physical fitness laboratories, fitness trails, gymnasium lighting, homemade play equipment, indoor soccer arenas, and dance floors is considered. A…

  17. Facilities Management.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bete, Tim, Ed.

    1998-01-01

    Presents responses from Matt McGovern, "School Planning and Management's" Maintenance and Operations columnist, on the issue of school facility maintenance. McGovern does not believe schools will ever likely meet acceptable levels of maintenance, nor use infrared thermography for assessing roofs, outsource all maintenance work, nor find a pressing…

  18. Idaho Waste Vitrification Facilities Project Vitrified Waste Interim Storage Facility

    SciTech Connect

    Bonnema, Bruce Edward

    2001-09-01

    This feasibility study report presents a draft design of the Vitrified Waste Interim Storage Facility (VWISF), which is one of three subprojects of the Idaho Waste Vitrification Facilities (IWVF) project. The primary goal of the IWVF project is to design and construct a treatment process system that will vitrify the sodium-bearing waste (SBW) to a final waste form. The project will consist of three subprojects that include the Waste Collection Tanks Facility, the Waste Vitrification Facility (WVF), and the VWISF. The Waste Collection Tanks Facility will provide for waste collection, feed mixing, and surge storage for SBW and newly generated liquid waste from ongoing operations at the Idaho Nuclear Technology and Engineering Center. The WVF will contain the vitrification process that will mix the waste with glass-forming chemicals or frit and turn the waste into glass. The VWISF will provide a shielded storage facility for the glass until the waste can be disposed at either the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant as mixed transuranic waste or at the future national geological repository as high-level waste glass, pending the outcome of a Waste Incidental to Reprocessing determination, which is currently in progress. A secondary goal is to provide a facility that can be easily modified later to accommodate storage of the vitrified high-level waste calcine. The objective of this study was to determine the feasibility of the VWISF, which would be constructed in compliance with applicable federal, state, and local laws. This project supports the Department of Energy’s Environmental Management missions of safely storing and treating radioactive wastes as well as meeting Federal Facility Compliance commitments made to the State of Idaho.

  19. Status report on the Erlangen AMS facility

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Scharf, A.; Uhl, T.; Luppold, W.; Rottenbach, A.; Kritzler, K.; Ohneiser, A.; Kretschmer, W.

    2007-06-01

    The Erlangen AMS facility has been in routine operation since 1995. We present the current status of the facility and recent developments in our laboratory. The main focuses of our research are further improvement and automation of the sample preparation, the development of new sample preparation techniques like the dating of iron artefacts, and the development of an efficient automated gas feeding system for a gas ion source for the measurement of microgram samples for, e.g. environmental or future biomedical applications. The current background level and the long term stability of the facility are presented and discussed.

  20. Studies on the biodegradation of fosfomycin: synthesis of 13C-labeled intermediates, feeding experiments with Rhizobium huakuii PMY1, and isolation of labeled amino acids from cell mass by HPLC.

    PubMed

    McGrath, John W; Hammerschmidt, Friedrich; Kählig, Hanspeter; Wuggenig, Frank; Lamprecht, Günther; Quinn, John P

    2011-11-18

    Racemic (1R*,2R*)-1,2-dihydroxy-[1-(13)C(1)]propylphosphonic acid and 1-hydroxy-[1-(13)C(1)]acetone were synthesized and fed to R. huakuii PMY1. Alanine and a mixture of valine and methionine were isolated as their N-acetyl derivatives from the cell hydrolysate by reversed-phase HPLC and analyzed by NMR spectroscopy. It was found that the carbon atoms of the respective carboxyl groups were highly (13)C-labeled (up to 65 %). Hydroxyacetone is therefore considered an obligatory intermediate of the biodegradation of fosfomycin by R. huakuii PMY1. PMID:22012897