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Sample records for acid ferulic acid

  1. Bioconversions of ferulic acid, an hydroxycinnamic acid.

    PubMed

    Mathew, Sindhu; Abraham, T Emilia

    2006-01-01

    Ferulic acid is the most abundant hydroxycinnamic acid in the plant world and is ester linked to arabinose, in various plant polysaccharides such as arabinoxylans and pectins. It is a precursor to vanillin, one of the most important aromatic flavor compound used in foods, beverages, pharmaceuticals, and perfumes. This article presents an overview of the various biocatalytic routes, focusing on the relevant biotransformations of ferulic acid using plant sources, microorganisms, and enzymes.

  2. Amylose inclusion complexation of ferulic acid via lipophilization

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Ferulic acid is an interesting phytochemical that exhibits antioxidant, anti-inflammatory, antimicrobial, UV-absorber, and anticarcinogenic activities. These properties make it of interest in food formulations, cosmetics, polymer, and pharmaceutical applications. However, delivery of ferulic acid in...

  3. Antioxidant properties of ferulic acid and its related compounds.

    PubMed

    Kikuzaki, Hiroe; Hisamoto, Masashi; Hirose, Kanae; Akiyama, Kayo; Taniguchi, Hisaji

    2002-03-27

    Antioxidant activity of 24 ferulic acid related compounds together with 6 gallic acid related compounds was evaluated using several different physical systems as well as their radical scavenging activity. The radical scavenging activity on 1,1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) decreased in the order caffeic acid > sinapic acid > ferulic acid > ferulic acid esters > p-coumaric acid. In bulk methyl linoleate, test hydroxycinnamic acids and ferulic acid esters showed antioxidant activity in parallel with their radical scavenging activity. In an ethanol-buffer solution of linoleic acid, the activity of test compounds was not always associated with their radical scavenging activity. Ferulic acid was most effective among the tested phenolic acids. Esterification of ferulic acid resulted in increasing activity. The activity of alkyl ferulates was somewhat influenced by the chain length of alcohol moiety. When the inhibitory effects of alkyl ferulates against oxidation of liposome induced by AAPH were tested, hexyl, octyl, and 2-ethyl-1-hexyl ferulates were more active than the other alkyl ferulates. Furthermore, lauryl gallate is most effective among the tested alkyl gallates. These results indicated that not only the radical scavenging activity of antioxidants, but also their affinity with lipid substrates, might be important factors in their activity.

  4. Transepithelial transport of ferulic acid by monocarboxylic acid transporter in Caco-2 cell monolayers.

    PubMed

    Konishi, Yutaka; Shimizu, Makoto

    2003-04-01

    Our previous study (Biosci. Biotechnol. Biochem., 66, 2449-2457 (2002)), suggested that ferulic acid was transported via a monocarboxylic acid transporter (MCT). Transepithelial transport of ferulic acid was examined in this study by directly measuring the rate of its transport across Caco-2 cell monolayers. Ferulic acid transport was dependent on pH, and in a vectorical way in the apical-basolateral direction. The permeation of ferulic acid was concentration-dependent and saturable; the Michaelis constant was 16.2 mM and the maximum velocity was 220.4 nmol min-1 (mg protein)-1. Various substrates for MCTs, such as benzoic acid and acetic acid, strongly inhibited the permeation of ferulic acid, demonstrating that ferulic acid is obviously transported by MCT. Antioxidative phenolic acid compounds from dietary sources like ferulic acid would be recognized and transported by MCT by intestinal absorption.

  5. Physicochemical interactions of maize starch with ferulic acid.

    PubMed

    Karunaratne, Rusiru; Zhu, Fan

    2016-05-15

    Ferulic acid is widely present in diverse foods and has great health benefits. Starch is a major food component and can be flexibly employed to formulate various products. In this study, the effect of ferulic acid addition on various physicochemical properties of normal maize starch was explored. The properties including swelling, pasting, steady shear and dynamic oscillation rheology, gelatinization, retrogradation, and gel texture were affected by ferulic acid to various extents, depending on the addition level. Enzyme susceptibility of granular starch to α-amylase was not affected. These influences may be explained by the functions of solubilized as well as insoluble ferulic acid which was in the form of crystals in starch matrix. On the molecular level, V-type amylose-ferulic acid inclusion complex formation was not observed by both co-precipitation and acidification methods. The results of this study may inspire further studies on the interactions of phenolics with other food ingredients and their role in food quality.

  6. Biosynthesis of vanillin via ferulic acid in Vanilla planifolia.

    PubMed

    Negishi, Osamu; Sugiura, Kenji; Negishi, Yukiko

    2009-11-11

    (14)C-Labeled phenylalanine, 4-coumaric acid, 4-hydroxybenzaldehyde, 4-hydroxybenzyl alcohol, ferulic acid, and methionine were applied to disks of green vanilla pods 3 and 6 months after pollination (immature and mature pods), and the conversion of these compounds to vanillin or glucovanillin was investigated. In mature green vanilla pods, radioactivities of 11, 15, 29, and 24% from (14)C-labeled phenylalanine, 4-coumaric acid, ferulic acid, and methionine, respectively, were incorporated into glucovanillin within 24 h. In the incorporation processes of methionine and phenylalanine into glucovanillin, some of the (14)C labels were also trapped by the unlabeled ferulic acid. However, (14)C-labeled 4-hydroxybenzaldehyde and 4-hydroxybenzyl alcohol were not converted to glucovanillin. On the other hand, in immature green vanilla pods radioactivities of the above six compounds were not incorporated into glucovanillin. Although 4-coumaric acid, ferulic acid, 4-hydroxybenzaldehyde, and 4-hydroxybenzyl alcohol were converted to the respective glucose esters or glucosides and vanillin was converted to glucovanillin, their conversions were believed to be from the detoxication of the aglycones. These results suggest that the biosynthetic pathway for vanillin is 4-coumaric acid --> --> ferulic acid --> --> vanillin --> glucovanillin in mature vanilla pods.

  7. [Allelopathy effects of ferulic acid and coumarin on Microcystis aeruginosa].

    PubMed

    Guo, Ya-Li; Fu, Hai-Yan; Huang, Guo-He; Gao, Pan-Feng; Chai, Tian; Yan, Bin; Liao, Huan

    2013-04-01

    The inhibitory effects and allelopathy mechanism of ferulic acid and coumarin on Microcystis aeruginosa were investigated by measuring the D680 value, the content of chlorophyll-a, the electrical conductivity (EC) and superoxide anion radical O*- value. Ferulic acid and coumarin had allelopathic effects on the growth of M. aeruginosa and promoted the physiological metabolism at low concentrations while inhibited the metabolism at high concentrations. Obvious inhibitory effects were observed when the concentration of ferulic acid or coumarin was over 100 mg x L(-1). The average inhibitory rates reached 80.3% and 58.0% after six days when the concentration of ferulic acid or coumarin was 200 mg x L(-1). The content of chlorophyll-a was decreased while the EC value and O2*- concentration were promoted by higher concentrations of ferulic acid or coumarin, suggesting that the growth of algae was inhibited probably by the damage of cell membrane, increase in the content of O2*- and decrease in the content of chlorophyll-a. In addition, seed germination test elucidated that Ferulic acid was safer than Coumarin.

  8. [Allelopathy effects of ferulic acid and coumarin on Microcystis aeruginosa].

    PubMed

    Guo, Ya-Li; Fu, Hai-Yan; Huang, Guo-He; Gao, Pan-Feng; Chai, Tian; Yan, Bin; Liao, Huan

    2013-04-01

    The inhibitory effects and allelopathy mechanism of ferulic acid and coumarin on Microcystis aeruginosa were investigated by measuring the D680 value, the content of chlorophyll-a, the electrical conductivity (EC) and superoxide anion radical O*- value. Ferulic acid and coumarin had allelopathic effects on the growth of M. aeruginosa and promoted the physiological metabolism at low concentrations while inhibited the metabolism at high concentrations. Obvious inhibitory effects were observed when the concentration of ferulic acid or coumarin was over 100 mg x L(-1). The average inhibitory rates reached 80.3% and 58.0% after six days when the concentration of ferulic acid or coumarin was 200 mg x L(-1). The content of chlorophyll-a was decreased while the EC value and O2*- concentration were promoted by higher concentrations of ferulic acid or coumarin, suggesting that the growth of algae was inhibited probably by the damage of cell membrane, increase in the content of O2*- and decrease in the content of chlorophyll-a. In addition, seed germination test elucidated that Ferulic acid was safer than Coumarin. PMID:23798134

  9. Biotransformation of cinnamic acid, p-coumaric acid, caffeic acid, and ferulic acid by plant cell cultures of Eucalyptus perriniana.

    PubMed

    Katsuragi, Hisashi; Shimoda, Kei; Kubota, Naoji; Nakajima, Nobuyoshi; Hamada, Hatsuyuki; Hamada, Hiroki

    2010-01-01

    Biotransformations of phenylpropanoids such as cinnamic acid, p-coumaric acid, caffeic acid, and ferulic acid were investigated with plant-cultured cells of Eucalyptus perriniana. The plant-cultured cells of E. perriniana converted cinnamic acid into cinnamic acid β-D-glucopyranosyl ester, p-coumaric acid, and 4-O-β-D-glucopyranosylcoumaric acid. p-Coumaric acid was converted into 4-O-β-D-glucopyranosylcoumaric acid, p-coumaric acid β-D-glucopyranosyl ester, 4-O-β-D-glucopyranosylcoumaric acid β-D-glucopyranosyl ester, a new compound, caffeic acid, and 3-O-β-D-glucopyranosylcaffeic acid. On the other hand, incubation of caffeic acid with cultured E. perriniana cells gave 3-O-β-D-glucopyranosylcaffeic acid, 3-O-(6-O-β-D-glucopyranosyl)-β-D-glucopyranosylcaffeic acid, a new compound, 3-O-β-D-glucopyranosylcaffeic acid β-D-glucopyranosyl ester, 4-O-β-D-glucopyranosylcaffeic acid, 4-O-β-D-glucopyranosylcaffeic acid β-D-glucopyranosyl ester, ferulic acid, and 4-O-β-D-glucopyranosylferulic acid. 4-O-β-D-Glucopyranosylferulic acid, ferulic acid β-D-glucopyranosyl ester, and 4-O-β-D-glucopyranosylferulic acid β-D-glucopyranosyl ester were isolated from E. perriniana cells treated with ferulic acid.

  10. Photodynamics of potent antioxidants: ferulic and caffeic acids.

    PubMed

    Horbury, Michael D; Baker, Lewis A; Quan, Wen-Dong; Greenough, Simon E; Stavros, Vasilios G

    2016-07-14

    The dynamics of ferulic acid (3-(4-hydroxy-3-methoxyphenyl)-2-propenoic acid) and caffeic acid (3-(3,4-dihydroxyphenyl)-2-propenoic acid) in acetonitrile, dioxane and water at pH 2.2 following photoexcitation to the first excited singlet state are reported. These hydroxycinnamic acids display both strong ultraviolet absorption and potent antioxidant activity, making them promising sunscreen components. Ferulic and caffeic acids have previously been shown to undergo trans-cis photoisomerization via irradiation studies, yet time-resolved measurements were unable to observe formation of the cis-isomer. In the present study, we are able to observe the formation of the cis-isomer as well as provide timescales of relaxation following initial photoexcitation. PMID:27310931

  11. Skin delivery of ferulic acid from different vesicular systems.

    PubMed

    Chen, Ming; Liu, Xiangli; Fahr, Alfred

    2010-10-01

    The aim of the present research is to evaluate the skin delivery capabilities of different vesicular systems, including conventional liposomes (CL), Tween 80-based deformable liposomes (DL), invasomes (INS) and ethosomes bearing ferulic acid (FA) being an antioxidant exhibiting a wide range of therapeutic effects against various diseases. All of the test formulations were characterized for particle size distribution, zeta-potential, vesicular shape and surface morphology, in vitro human skin permeation and skin deposition. Dynamic Light Scattering (DLS) and Transmission Electron Microscopy (TEM) defined that all of liposomal vesicles were almost spherical, displaying unilamellar structures with low polydispersity (PDI < 0.2) and nanometric size range (z-average no more than 150 nm). In addition, all the vesicular systems except conventional liposomes were negatively charged to a certain extent. In vitro skin permeation and skin deposition experiments demonstrated that the permeation profile of ferulic acid through human stratum corneum epidermis membrane (SCE) and the drug deposition in skin were both improved significantly using these vesicular liposomal systems. Permeation and skin deposition enhancing effect was highlighted by the ethosomal system containing 18.0 mg/ml of ferulic acid with an significantly (P < 0.01) enhanced skin flux (267.8 +/- 16.77 microg/cm2/h) and skin drug deposition (51.67 +/- 1.94 microg/cm2), which was 75 times and 7.3 times higher than those of ferulic acid from saturated PBS (pH 7.4) solution, respectively. This study demonstrated that ethosomes are promising vesicular carriers for delivering ferulic acid into or across the skin. PMID:21329050

  12. In vitro genotoxicity assessment of caffeic, cinnamic and ferulic acids.

    PubMed

    Maistro, E L; Angeli, J P F; Andrade, S F; Mantovani, M S

    2011-06-14

    Phenols are a large and diverse class of compounds, many of which occur naturally in a variety of food plants; they exhibit a wide range of biological effects, including antibacterial, anti-inflammatory, antiallergic, hepatoprotective, antithrombotic, antiviral, anticarcinogenic, and vasodilatory actions. We examined the genotoxic and clastogenic potential of three phenolic compounds: caffeic, cinnamic and ferulic acids, using the comet and micronucleus assays in vitro. Drug-metabolizing rat hepatoma tissue cells (HTCs) were used. Three different concentrations (50, 500 and 1500 μM) of these phenolic acids were tested on the HTCs for 24 h. The caffeic, cinnamic and ferulic acids were not genotoxic by the comet assay (P > 0.05). However, the micronucleus test showed an increase in the frequency of micronucleated cells for the three compounds, indicating that these substances have clastogenic effects in HTC.

  13. Ferulic acid is esterified to glucuronoarabinoxylans in pineapple cell walls.

    PubMed

    Smith, B G; Harris, P J

    2001-03-01

    The ester-linkage of ferulic acid (mainly E) to polysaccharides in primary cell walls of pineapple fruit (Ananas comosus) (Bromeliaceae) was investigated by treating a cell-wall preparation with 'Driselase' which contains a mixture of endo- and exo-glycanases, but no hydroxycinnamoyl esterase activity. The most abundant feruloyl oligosaccharide released was O-[5-O-(E-feruloyl)-alpha-L-arabinofuranosyl](1-->3)-O-beta-D-xylopyranosyl-(1-->4)-D-xylopyranose (FAXX). This indicated that the ferulic acid is ester-linked to glucuronoarabinoxylans in the same way as in the primary walls of grasses and cereals (Poaceae). Glucuronoarabinoxylans are the major non-cellulosic polysaccharides in the pineapple cell walls.

  14. Biotransformation of ferulic acid to 4-vinylguaiacol by Enterobacter soli and E. aerogenes.

    PubMed

    Hunter, William J; Manter, Daniel K; van der Lelie, Daniel

    2012-12-01

    We investigated the conversion of ferulic acid to 4-vinylguaiacol (4-VG), vanillin, vanillyl alcohol, and vanillic acid by five Enterobacter strains. These high-value chemicals are usually synthesized by chemical methods but biological synthesis adds market value. Ferulic acid, a relatively inexpensive component of agricultural crops, is plentiful in corn hulls, cereal bran, and sugar-beet pulp. Two Enterobacter strains, E. soli, and E. aerogenes, accumulated 550-600 ppm amounts of 4-VG when grown in media containing 1,000 ppm ferulic acid; no accumulations were observed with the other strains. Decreasing the amount of ferulic acid present in the media increased the conversion efficiency. When ferulic acid was supplied in 500, 250, or 125 ppm amounts E. aerogenes converted ~72 % of the ferulic acid present to 4-VG while E. soli converted ~100 % of the ferulic acid to 4-VG when supplied with 250 or 125 ppm amounts of ferulic acid. Also, lowering the pH improved the conversion efficiency. At pH 5.0 E. aerogenes converted ~84 % and E. soli converted ~100 % of 1,000 ppm ferulic acid to 4-VG. Only small, 1-5 ppm, accumulations of vanillin, vanillyl alcohol, and vanillic acid were observed. E. soli has a putative phenolic acid decarboxylase (PAD) that is 168 amino acids long and is similar to PADs in other enterobacteriales; this protein is likely involved in the bioconversion of ferulic acid to 4-VG. E. soli or E. aerogenes might be useful as a means of biotransforming ferulic acid to 4-VG.

  15. Biotransformation of Ferulic acid to 4-Vinylguaiacol by Enterobacter soli and E. aerogenes

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    We investigated the conversion of ferulic acid to 4-vinylguaiacol (4-VG), vanillin, vanillyl alcohol and vanillic acid by five Enterobacter strains. These high-value chemicals are usually synthesized using chemical methods but biological synthesis adds value. Ferulic acid, a relatively inexpensive...

  16. Ferulic acid destabilizes preformed {beta}-amyloid fibrils in vitro

    SciTech Connect

    Ono, Kenjiro; Hirohata, Mie; Yamada, Masahito . E-mail: m-yamada@med.kanazawa-u.ac.jp

    2005-10-21

    Inhibition of the formation of {beta}-amyloid fibrils (fA{beta}), as well as the destabilization of preformed fA{beta} in the CNS, would be attractive therapeutic targets for the treatment of Alzheimer's disease (AD). We reported previously that curcumin (Cur) inhibits fA{beta} formation from A{beta} and destabilizes preformed fA{beta} in vitro. Using fluorescence spectroscopic analysis with thioflavin T and electron microscopic studies, we examined the effects of ferulic acid (FA) on the formation, extension, and destabilization of fA{beta} at pH 7.5 at 37 deg C in vitro. We next compared the anti-amyloidogenic activities of FA with Cur, rifampicin, and tetracycline. Ferulic acid dose-dependently inhibited fA{beta} formation from amyloid {beta}-peptide, as well as their extension. Moreover, it destabilized preformed fA{beta}s. The overall activity of the molecules examined was in the order of: Cur > FA > rifampicin = tetracycline. FA could be a key molecule for the development of therapeutics for AD.

  17. Release of ferulic acid and feruloylated oligosaccharides from sugar beet pulp by Streptomyces tendae.

    PubMed

    Ferreira, P; Diez, N; Faulds, C B; Soliveri, J; Copa-Patiño, J L

    2007-05-01

    Given several promising industrial applications of ferulic acid, this study was designed to identify actinomycete strains able to release high levels of this acid from sugar beet pulp (SBP). Out of 47 strains tested, 37% were found to release free ferulic acid from the growth substrate. One strain, identified as Streptomyces tendae by 16S RNA gene sequencing, was capable of releasing 80% of the ferulic acid ester-linked to the pectin in SBP after 5 days of growth. These data suggest that some actinomycetes are able to release ferulic acid and feruloylated oligosaccharides from SBP. During growth on SBP, it seems that Streptomyces species solubilize and release feruloylated oligosaccharides by specific carbohydrase activities before de-esterification and release of free ferulic acid.

  18. Heterologous Expression of Two Ferulic Acid Esterases from Penicillium funiculosum

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Knoshaug, Eric P.; Selig, Michael J.; Baker, John O.; Decker, Stephen R.; Himmel, Michael E.; Adney, William S.

    Two recombinant ferulic acid esterases from Penicillium funiculosum produced in Aspergillus awamori were evaluated for their ability to improve the digestibility of pretreated corn stover. The genes, faeA and faeB, were cloned from P. funiculosum and expressed in A. awamori using their native signal sequences. Both enzymes contain a catalytic domain connected to a family 1 carbohydrate-binding module by a threonine-rich linker peptide. Interestingly, the carbohydrate binding-module is N-terminal in FaeA and C-terminal in FaeB. The enzymes were purified to homogeneity using column chromatography, and their thermal stability was characterized by differential scanning microcalorimetry. We evaluated both enzymes for their potential to enhance the cellulolytic activity of purified Trichoderma reesei Cel7A on pretreated corn stover.

  19. Heterologous Expression of Two Ferulic Acid Esterases from Penicillium Funiculosum

    SciTech Connect

    Knoshaug, E. P.; Selig, M. J.; Baker, J. O.; Decker, S. R.; Himmel, M. E.; Adney, W. S.

    2008-01-01

    Two recombinant ferulic acid esterases from Penicillium funiculosum produced in Aspergillus awamori were evaluated for their ability to improve the digestibility of pretreated corn stover. The genes, faeA and faeB, were cloned from P. funiculosum and expressed in A. awamori using their native signal sequences. Both enzymes contain a catalytic domain connected to a family 1 carbohydrate-binding module by a threonine-rich linker peptide. Interestingly, the carbohydrate binding-module is N-terminal in FaeA and C-terminal in FaeB. The enzymes were purified to homogeneity using column chromatography, and their thermal stability was characterized by differential scanning microcalorimetry. We evaluated both enzymes for their potential to enhance the cellulolytic activity of purified Trichoderma reesei Cel7A on pretreated corn stover.

  20. Ferulic acid reverses ABCB1-mediated paclitaxel resistance in MDR cell lines.

    PubMed

    Muthusamy, Ganesan; Balupillai, Agilan; Ramasamy, Karthikeyan; Shanmugam, Mohana; Gunaseelan, Srithar; Mary, Beaulah; Prasad, N Rajendra

    2016-09-01

    Multidrug resistance (MDR) remains a major obstacle in cancer chemotherapy. The use of the dietary phytochemicals as chemosensitizing agents to enhance the efficacy of conventional cytostatic drugs has recently gained the attention as a plausible approach for overcoming the drug resistance. The aim of this study was to investigate whether a naturally occurring diet-based phenolic acid, ferulic acid, could sensitize paclitaxel efficacy in ABCB1 overexpressing (P-glycoprotein) colchicine selected KB Ch(R)8-5 cell line. In vitro drug efflux assays demonstrated that ferulic acid inhibits P-glycoprotein transport function in drug resistant KB Ch(R)8-5 cell lines. However, ferulic acid significantly downregulates ABCB1 expression in a concentration dependent manner. Cytotoxicity assay reveals that ferulic acid decreased paclitaxel resistance in KBCh(R)8-5 and HEK293/ABCB1 cells, which indicates its chemosensitizing potential. Clonogenic cell survival assay and apoptotic morphological staining further confirm the chemosensitizing potential of ferulic acid in drug resistant KB Ch(R)8-5 cell lines. Ferulic acid treatment enhances paclitaxel mediated cell cycle arrest and upregulates paclitaxel-induced apoptotic signaling in KB resistant cells. Hence, it has been concluded that downregulation of ABCB1 and subsequent induction of paclitaxel-mediated cell cycle arrest and apoptotic signaling may be the cause for the chemosensitizing potential of ferulic acid in P-gp overexpressing cell lines. PMID:27262378

  1. Phenyl propenoic side chain degradation of ferulic acid by Pycnoporus cinnabarinus - elucidation of metabolic pathways using [5-2H]-ferulic acid.

    PubMed

    Krings, U; Pilawa, S; Theobald, C; Berger, R G

    2001-02-23

    The white-rot fungus Pycnoporous cinnabarinus (DMS-1184) was submerged cultured for 22 days under controlled conditions in a bioreactor. After 6, 9, and 15 days of culture the growth medium was supplemented with [5-2H]-labelled ferulic acid (I). The major phenolic compounds identified labelled were four lignans, the methyl esters of ferulic (I) and vanillic acid (VIII), (E)-coniferyl aldehyde (II), (E)-coniferyl alcohol (III), vanillic acid (VIII), vanillin (IX) and vanillyl alcohol (X). The detection of considerable amounts of labelled 4-hydroxy-3-methoxyacetophenone (VII) in the late growth phase suggested the increasing formation and decarboxylation of free 4-hydroxy-3-methoxybenzoylacetic acid (VI) and, thus, a beta-oxidation-like degradation of ferulic acid (I) or its methyl ester to vanillic acid (VIII). 4-Hydroxy-3-methoxybenzoylacetic acid methyl ester (VI) and 3-hydroxy-(4-hydroxy-3-methoxyphenyl)-propanoic acid methyl ester (V) were synthesised and then identified as metabolites in the culture medium. The fungal degradation of the phenyl propenoic side chain of ferulic acid (I), a principal key step of lignin decomposition, appeared to proceed analogous to fatty acids. PMID:11173097

  2. Ferulic acid sugar esters are recovered in rat plasma and urine mainly as the sulfoglucuronide of ferulic acid.

    PubMed

    Zhao, Zhaohui; Egashira, Yukari; Sanada, Hiroo

    2003-05-01

    Ferulic acid sugar esters, the common form of ferulic acid (FA) in cereals, show a stronger antioxidant potential than FA in vitro. However, there is little information on their metabolism and excretion in vivo. In the present study, we investigated the metabolic derivatives of FA in the plasma, urine and feces of rats administered 70 micro mol/kg body of 5-O-feruloyl-L-arabinofuranose (FAA), feruloyl-arabinoxylan (FAXn) or the same molar amount of FA as a comparison. Administered FA and its sugar esters were recovered in rat plasma and urine in the form of free FA, FA-glucuronide, FA-sulfate and FA-sulfoglucuronide (FA-diconjugate with sulfate and glucuronide). The recovery of administered FA in urine was 72%, which was higher than that of administered FAA (54%) or FAXn (20%). Free FA and its derivatives were not recovered in rat feces after FA or FAA administration, but 20% of the administered FA moiety was recovered when FAXn was administered. Moreover, administered FA, in contrast to FA esters, was present in plasma in the free and conjugated forms at a higher concentration but for a shorter time. These results indicated that bioavailability of FA and its sugar esters is dependent on the absence or presence of the saccharide moiety and, in the latter case, its structure. This is the first study to show that FA-sulfoglucuronide is the main metabolite (60-70% of the total) in the plasma of rats administered FA or its sugar esters. Thus, the physiological functions of FA and its sugar esters found in vitro might require reconsideration in vivo. PMID:12730422

  3. Ferulic Acid-Based Polymers with Glycol Functionality as a Versatile Platform for Topical Applications.

    PubMed

    Ouimet, Michelle A; Faig, Jonathan J; Yu, Weiling; Uhrich, Kathryn E

    2015-09-14

    Ferulic acid-based polymers with aliphatic linkages have been previously synthesized via solution polymerization methods, yet they feature relatively slow ferulic acid release rates (∼11 months to 100% completion). To achieve a more rapid release rate as required in skin care formulations, ferulic acid-based polymers with ethylene glycol linkers were prepared to increase hydrophilicity and, in turn, increase ferulic acid release rates. The polymers were characterized using nuclear magnetic resonance and Fourier transform infrared spectroscopies to confirm chemical composition. The molecular weights, thermal properties (e.g., glass transition temperature), and contact angles were also obtained and the polymers compared. Polymer glass transition temperature was observed to decrease with increasing linker molecule length, whereas increasing oxygen content decreased polymer contact angle. The polymers' chemical structures and physical properties were shown to influence ferulic acid release rates and antioxidant activity. In all polymers, ferulic acid release was achieved with no bioactive decomposition. These polymers demonstrate the ability to strategically release ferulic acid at rates and concentrations relevant for topical applications such as skin care products. PMID:26258440

  4. Enzymatic cross-linking of carboxymethylpullulan grafted with ferulic acid.

    PubMed

    Dulong, Virginie; Hadrich, Ahdi; Picton, Luc; Le Cerf, Didier

    2016-10-20

    Carboxymethylpullulan (CMP) has been modified in a two-step grafting reaction of ferulic acid (FA). Acid adipic dihydrazyde (ADH) was first reacted with FA activated with 1-ethyl-3-(3-dimethylaminopropyl)carbodiimide hydrochloride (EDC). Then the product of this first reaction was reacted with CMP (activated with EDC). Grafted polysaccharides structure was confirmed by FTIR and (1)H NMR spectroscopy. Analyses by size-exclusion chromatography (SEC) coupling on-line with a multi-angle light scattering detector (MALS), a viscometer and a differential refractive index detector (DRI) (SEC/MALS/DRI/Visco) showed that associations between FA moieties occurred due to hydrophobic interactions. The grafting rates of FA were determined by the Folin-Ciocalteu method and were found between 1.0% and 11.2% (mol/mol anhydroglucose unit). The CMP-FA were then enzymatically cross-linked with laccase from Pleurotus ostreatus. The crosslinking reactions were followed by rheological measurements, demonstrating the influence of laccase concentration on kinetics. Elastic modulus and swelling rates of hydrogels depends on FA content only for low values. PMID:27474545

  5. Quantitative analysis of caffeic and ferulic acids in oatmeal. Comparison of a conventional method with a stable isotope dilution assay.

    PubMed

    Guth, H; Grosch, W

    1994-09-01

    [13C]Caffeic acid and [13C]ferulic acid were synthesized and then used as internal standards for the determination of these acids (free and esterified) in oatmeal. A comparative study indicated that 84% of the ferulic acid, but only 32% of the caffeic acid, which is more susceptible to oxidation than the former, could be found by a conventional analytical approach.

  6. The ferulic acid esterases of Chrysosporium lucknowense C1: purification, characterization and their potential application in biorefinery.

    PubMed

    Kühnel, S; Pouvreau, L; Appeldoorn, M M; Hinz, S W A; Schols, H A; Gruppen, H

    2012-01-01

    Three ferulic acid esterases from the filamentous fungus Chrysosporium lucknowense C1 were purified and characterized. The enzymes were most active at neutral pH and temperatures up to 45 °C. All enzymes released ferulic acid and p-coumaric acid from a soluble corn fibre fraction. Ferulic acid esterases FaeA1 and FaeA2 could also release complex dehydrodiferulic acids and dehydrotriferulic acids from corn fibre oligomers, but released only 20% of all ferulic acid present in sugar beet pectin oligomers. Ferulic acid esterase FaeB2 released almost no complex ferulic acid oligomers from corn fibre oligomers, but 60% of all ferulic acid from sugar beet pectin oligomers. The ferulic acid esterases were classified based on both, sequence similarity and their activities toward synthetic substrates. The type A ferulic acid esterases FaeA1 and FaeA2 are the first members of the phylogenetic subfamily 5 to be biochemically characterized. Type B ferulic acid esterase FaeB2 is a member of subfamily 6.

  7. Ferulic Acid: Therapeutic Potential Through Its Antioxidant Property

    PubMed Central

    Srinivasan, Marimuthu; Sudheer, Adluri R.; Menon, Venugopal P.

    2007-01-01

    There has been considerable public and scientific interest in the use of phytochemicals derived from dietary components to combat human diseases. They are naturally occurring substances found in plants. Ferulic acid (FA) is a phytochemical commonly found in fruits and vegetables such as tomatoes, sweet corn and rice bran. It arises from metabolism of phenylalanine and tyrosine by Shikimate pathway in plants. It exhibits a wide range of therapeutic effects against various diseases like cancer, diabetes, cardiovascular and neurodegenerative. A wide spectrum of beneficial activity for human health has been advocated for this phenolic compound, at least in part, because of its strong antioxidant activity. FA, a phenolic compound is a strong membrane antioxidant and known to positively affect human health. FA is an effective scavenger of free radicals and it has been approved in certain countries as food additive to prevent lipid peroxidation. It effectively scavenges superoxide anion radical and inhibits the lipid peroxidation. It possesses antioxidant property by virtue of its phenolic hydroxyl group in its structure. The hydroxy and phenoxy groups of FA donate electrons to quench the free radicals. The phenolic radical in turn forms a quinone methide intermediate, which is excreted via the bile. The past few decades have been devoted to intense research on antioxidant property of FA. So, the present review deals with the mechanism of antioxidant property of FA and its possible role in therapeutic usage against various diseases. PMID:18188410

  8. Ferulic acid inhibits proliferation and promotes apoptosis via blockage of PI3K/Akt pathway in osteosarcoma cell.

    PubMed

    Wang, Ting; Gong, Xia; Jiang, Rong; Li, Hongzhong; Du, Weimin; Kuang, Ge

    2016-01-01

    Ferulic acid, a ubiquitous phenolic acid abundant in corn, wheat and flax, has potent anti-tumor effect in various cancer cell lines. However, the anti-tumor effect of ferulic acid on osteosarcoma remains unclear. Therefore, we conduct current study to examine the effect of ferulic acid on osteosarcoma cells and explore the underlying mechanisms. In present study, ferulic acid inhibited proliferation and induced apoptosis in both 143B and MG63 osteosarcoma cells dose-dependently, indicated by MTT assay and Annexin V-FITC apoptosis detection. Additionally, ferulic acid induced G0/G1 phase arrest and down-regulated the expression of cell cycle-related protein, CDK 2, CDK 4, CDK 6, confirmed by flow cytometry assay and western blotting. Moreover, ferulic acid upregulated Bax, downregulated Bcl-2, and subsequently enhanced caspase-3 activity. More importantly, ferulic acid dose-dependently inhibited PI3K/Akt activation. Using adenoviruses expressing active Akt, the anti-proliferation and pro-apoptosis of ferulic acid were reverted. Our results demonstrated that ferulic acid might inhibit proliferation and induce apoptosis via inhibiting PI3K/Akt pathway in osteosarcoma cells. Ferulic acid is a novel therapeutic agent for osteosarcoma. PMID:27158383

  9. Synergistic interaction of ferulic acid with commercial hypoglycemic drugs in streptozotocin induced diabetic rats.

    PubMed

    Prabhakar, Pranav Kumar; Prasad, Ram; Ali, Shakir; Doble, Mukesh

    2013-04-15

    Diabetes mellitus is a chronic disorder characterized by increased blood glucose level. The available commercial oral antidiabetic drugs have some serious side effects; hence there is a need for new hypoglycemic agents which will have therapeutic efficacy as well as less side effects. Ferulic acid, a phytochemical, might be a good supplement to manage diabetes. We investigated the antidiabetic and antilipidemic effect of ferulic acid alone and in combination with oral antidiabetic drugs (metformin and Thiazolidinedione (THZ)). Blood glucose, plasma lipid profiles levels, liver function and kidney function markers were measured in control and streptozotocin induced diabetic rats three weeks after administrating ferulic acid and OHDs (oral hypoglycemic drugs) alone and in combinations. The histopathological analysis of the pancreas was also carried out. Ferulic acid and OHDs significantly reduced the blood glucose, lipid profile, urea, creatinine, serum glutamic pyruvic transaminases (SGPT) and serum glutamic oxaloacetate transaminases (SGOT) in diabetic rats. Same level of reduction in blood glucose levels was achieved when ferulic acid was used in combination with even reduced amounts of OHDs. It decreased most of the side effects when used in combination with THZ. Histopathological analysis showed that combinations increased the number of islets. Ferulic acid interacts synergistically with both the drugs. It might be a good supplement with the OHDs to manage diabetic complications as well as reduces the use of the later. PMID:23490007

  10. Anticonvulsant and behavioral effects observed in mice following treatment with an ester derivative of ferulic acid: Isopentyl ferulate.

    PubMed

    Machado, Keylla C; Oliveira, George Laylson S; Machado, Kátia C; Islam, Md Torequl; Junior, Antonio Luiz G; De Sousa, Damião P; Freitas, Rivelilson M

    2015-12-01

    The objective of this study was to evaluate the potential anticonvulsant effect of isopentyl ferulate, a new ester derived from ferulic acid in mice (Mus musculus) subjected to two models of induced seizures. According to the results obtained, the IF at doses of 25, 50 and 75 mg/kg (i.p.) showed protective effect against induced seizures by pilocarpine (400 mg/kg, i.p.) and pentylenetetrazole (70 mg/kg, i.p.). In the two animal models of seizures, the pretreatment of the IF (25, 50 and 75 mg/kg) with flumazenil blocked the anticonvulsant effect, suggesting that the mechanism of action of this ester derived of ferulic acid may be related to activity in the benzodiazepine-binding site of the GABAA receptor (γ-aminobutyric acid, type A). In addition to the anticonvulsant effect, behavioral changes as neurotoxicity indication were assessed by using the rota rod and open field tests. The results obtained showed that the IF (25, 50 and 75 mg/kg) does not induce significant changes in locomotor activity and motor coordination when compared with the control group, unlike the results presented by diazepam. Thus, these results demonstrate a new pharmacological knowledge of IF with potential application against epileptic seizures. However, further studies are needed to elucidate other neurobiological mechanisms underlying epilepsy.

  11. Cloning and characterization of the ferulic acid catabolic genes of Sphingomonas paucimobilis SYK-6.

    PubMed

    Masai, Eiji; Harada, Kyo; Peng, Xue; Kitayama, Hirotaka; Katayama, Yoshihiro; Fukuda, Masao

    2002-09-01

    Sphingomonas paucimobilis SYK-6 degrades ferulic acid to vanillin, and it is further metabolized through the protocatechuate 4,5-cleavage pathway. We obtained a Tn5 mutant of SYK-6, FA2, which was able to grow on vanillic acid but not on ferulic acid. A cosmid which complemented the growth deficiency of FA2 on ferulic acid was isolated. The 5.2-kb BamHI-EcoRI fragment in this cosmid conferred the transformation activity of ferulic acid to vanillin on Escherichia coli host cells. A sequencing analysis revealed the genes ferB and ferA in this fragment; these genes consist of 852- and 2,127-bp open reading frames, respectively. The deduced amino acid sequence of ferB showed 40 to 48% identity with that of the feruloyl-coenzyme A (CoA) hydratase/lyase genes of Pseudomonas and Amycolatopsis ferulic acid degraders. On the other hand, the deduced amino acid sequence of ferA showed no significant similarity to the feruloyl-CoA synthetase genes of other ferulic acid degraders. However, the deduced amino acid sequence of ferA did show 31% identity with pimeloyl-CoA synthetase of Pseudomonas mendocina 35, which has been classified as a new superfamily of acyl-CoA synthetase (ADP forming) with succinyl-CoA synthetase (L. B. Sánchez, M. Y. Galperin, and M. Müller, J. Biol. Chem. 275:5794-5803, 2000). On the basis of the enzyme activity of E. coli carrying each of these genes, ferA and ferB were shown to encode a feruloyl-CoA synthetase and feruloyl-CoA hydratase/lyase, respectively. p-coumaric acid, caffeic acid, and sinapinic acid were converted to their corresponding benzaldehyde derivatives by the cell extract containing FerA and FerB, thereby indicating their broad substrate specificities. We found a ferB homolog, ferB2, upstream of a 5-carboxyvanillic acid decarboxylase gene (ligW) involved in the degradation of 5,5'-dehydrodivanillic acid. The deduced amino acid sequence of ferB2 showed 49% identity with ferB, and its gene product showed feruloyl-CoA hydratase

  12. Microbial transformations of ferulic acid by Saccharomyces cerevisiae and Pseudomonas fluorescens.

    PubMed Central

    Huang, Z; Dostal, L; Rosazza, J P

    1993-01-01

    Saccharomyces cerevisiae (dry baker's yeast) and Pseudomonas fluorescens were used to convert trans-ferulic acid into 4-hydroxy-3-methoxystyrene in 96 and 89% yields, respectively. The metabolites were isolated by solid-phase extraction and analyzed by thin-layer chromatography and high-performance liquid chromatography. The identities of the metabolites were determined by 1H- and 13C-nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy and by mass spectrometry. The mechanism of the decarboxylation of ferulic acid was investigated by measuring the degree and position of deuterium incorporated into the styrene derivative from D2O by mass spectrometry and by both proton and deuterium nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopies. Resting cells of baker's yeast reduced ferulic acid to 4-hydroxy-3-methoxyphenylpropionic acid in 54% yield when incubations were under an argon atmosphere. PMID:8395165

  13. A complete enzymatic recovery of ferulic acid from corn residues with extracellular enzymes from Neosartorya spinosa NRRL185.

    PubMed

    Shin, Hyun-Dong; McClendon, Shara; Le, Tien; Taylor, Frank; Chen, Rachel Ruizhen

    2006-12-20

    An economic ferulic acid recovery from biomass via biological methods is of interest for a number of reasons. Ferulic acid is a precursor to vanillin synthesis. It is also a known antioxidant with potential food and medical applications. Despite its universal presence in all plant cell wall material, the complex structure of the plant cell wall makes ferulic acid recovery from biomass a challenging bioprocess. Previously, without pretreatment, very low (3-13%) recovery of ferulic acid from corn residues was achieved. We report here the discovery of a filamentous fungus Neosartorya spinosa NRRL185 capable of producing a full complement of enzymes to release ferulic acid and the development of an enzymatic process for a complete recovery of ferulic acid from corn bran and corn fibers. A partial characterization of the extracellular proteome of the microbe revealed the presence of at least seven cellulases and hemicellulases activities, including multiple iso-forms of xylanase and ferulic acid esterase. The recovered ferulic acid was bio-converted to vanillin, demonstrating its potential application in natural vanillin synthesis. The enzymatic ferulic acid recovery accompanied a significant release of reducing sugars (76-100%), suggesting much broader applications of the enzymes and enzyme mixtures from this organism.

  14. A microbial transformation using Bacillus subtilis B7-S to produce natural vanillin from ferulic acid.

    PubMed

    Chen, Peng; Yan, Lei; Wu, Zhengrong; Li, Suyue; Bai, Zhongtian; Yan, Xiaojuan; Wang, Ningbo; Liang, Ning; Li, Hongyu

    2016-01-01

    Bacillus subtilis strain B7-S screened from18 strains is an aerobic, endospore-forming, model organism of Gram-positive bacteria which is capable to form vanillin during ferulic acid bioconversion. The bioconversion of ferulic acid to vanillin by Bacillus subtilis B7-S (B. subtilis B7-S) was investigated. Based on our results, the optimum bioconversion conditions for the production of vanillin by B. subtilis B7-S can be summarized as follows: temperature 35 °C; initial pH 9.0; inoculum volume 5%; ferulic acid concentration 0.6 g/L; volume of culture medium 20%; and shaking speed 200 r/min. Under these conditions, several repeated small-scale batch experiments showed that the maximum conversion efficiency was 63.30% after 3 h of bioconversion. The vanillin products were confirmed by spectral data achieved from UV-vis, inductively coupled plasma atomic emission spectroscope (ICP-AES) and Fourier transform infrared spectrometer (FT-IR) spectra. Scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and transmission electron spectroscopy (TEM) results confirmed that the cell surface of B. subtilis plays a role in the induction of ferulic acid tolerance. These results demonstrate that B. subtilis B7-S has the potential for use in vanillin production through bioconversion of ferulic acid. PMID:26841717

  15. A microbial transformation using Bacillus subtilis B7-S to produce natural vanillin from ferulic acid.

    PubMed

    Chen, Peng; Yan, Lei; Wu, Zhengrong; Li, Suyue; Bai, Zhongtian; Yan, Xiaojuan; Wang, Ningbo; Liang, Ning; Li, Hongyu

    2016-02-04

    Bacillus subtilis strain B7-S screened from18 strains is an aerobic, endospore-forming, model organism of Gram-positive bacteria which is capable to form vanillin during ferulic acid bioconversion. The bioconversion of ferulic acid to vanillin by Bacillus subtilis B7-S (B. subtilis B7-S) was investigated. Based on our results, the optimum bioconversion conditions for the production of vanillin by B. subtilis B7-S can be summarized as follows: temperature 35 °C; initial pH 9.0; inoculum volume 5%; ferulic acid concentration 0.6 g/L; volume of culture medium 20%; and shaking speed 200 r/min. Under these conditions, several repeated small-scale batch experiments showed that the maximum conversion efficiency was 63.30% after 3 h of bioconversion. The vanillin products were confirmed by spectral data achieved from UV-vis, inductively coupled plasma atomic emission spectroscope (ICP-AES) and Fourier transform infrared spectrometer (FT-IR) spectra. Scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and transmission electron spectroscopy (TEM) results confirmed that the cell surface of B. subtilis plays a role in the induction of ferulic acid tolerance. These results demonstrate that B. subtilis B7-S has the potential for use in vanillin production through bioconversion of ferulic acid.

  16. A microbial transformation using Bacillus subtilis B7-S to produce natural vanillin from ferulic acid

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Peng; Yan, Lei; Wu, Zhengrong; Li, Suyue; Bai, Zhongtian; Yan, Xiaojuan; Wang, Ningbo; Liang, Ning; Li, Hongyu

    2016-01-01

    Bacillus subtilis strain B7-S screened from18 strains is an aerobic, endospore-forming, model organism of Gram-positive bacteria which is capable to form vanillin during ferulic acid bioconversion. The bioconversion of ferulic acid to vanillin by Bacillus subtilis B7-S (B. subtilis B7-S) was investigated. Based on our results, the optimum bioconversion conditions for the production of vanillin by B. subtilis B7-S can be summarized as follows: temperature 35 °C; initial pH 9.0; inoculum volume 5%; ferulic acid concentration 0.6 g/L; volume of culture medium 20%; and shaking speed 200 r/min. Under these conditions, several repeated small-scale batch experiments showed that the maximum conversion efficiency was 63.30% after 3 h of bioconversion. The vanillin products were confirmed by spectral data achieved from UV–vis, inductively coupled plasma atomic emission spectroscope (ICP-AES) and Fourier transform infrared spectrometer (FT-IR) spectra. Scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and transmission electron spectroscopy (TEM) results confirmed that the cell surface of B. subtilis plays a role in the induction of ferulic acid tolerance. These results demonstrate that B. subtilis B7-S has the potential for use in vanillin production through bioconversion of ferulic acid. PMID:26841717

  17. Polymerization of pentachlorophenol and ferulic acid by fungal extracellular lignin-degrading enzymes.

    PubMed Central

    Rüttimann-Johnson, C; Lamar, R T

    1996-01-01

    High-molecular-weight polymers were produced by a crude concentrated supernatant from ligninolytic Phanerochaete chrysosporium cultures in a reaction mixture containing pentachlorophenol and a humic acid precursor (ferulic acid) in the presence of a detergent and H2O2. Pure manganese peroxidase, lignin peroxidase, and laccase were also shown to catalyze the reaction. PMID:8967777

  18. Changes in Dehydrodiferulic Acids and Peroxidase Activity against Ferulic Acid Associated with Cell Walls during Growth of Pinus pinaster Hypocotyl.

    PubMed Central

    Sanchez, M.; Pena, M. J.; Revilla, G.; Zarra, I.

    1996-01-01

    Hydroxycinnamic acids associated with hypocotyl cell walls of dark-grown seedlings of Pinus pinaster Aiton were extracted with 1 N NaOH and identified by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry. The main hydroxycinnamic acid found was ferulic acid. Diferulic acid dehydrodimers were also found, with the 8,8-coupled isomer (compound 11) being the dehydrodiferulate present in the highest amount. However, the 5,5-coupled isomer, commonly referred to referred to as diferulic acid, was not detected. Two truxillic acids, 4-4[prime]-dihydroxy-3-3[prime]-dimethoxy-[alpha]-truxillic acids I and II, were tentatively identified. The 8,8-coupled dehydrodiferulic acid (compound 11) was the phenolic acid that showed the most conspicuous changes with hypocotyl age as well as along the hypocotyl axis. Peroxidase activity against ferulic acid was found in the apoplastic fluid as well as being ionically and covalently bound to the cell walls. The peroxidase activity increased with hypocotyl age as well as from the subapical toward the basal region of the hypocotyls. A key role in the cell-wall stiffening of 8,8 but not 5,5 dimerization of ferulic acid catalyzed by cell-wall peroxidases is proposed. PMID:12226339

  19. Ferulic acid, an efficient inhibitor of type B trichothecene biosynthesis and Tri gene expression in Fusarium liquid cultures.

    PubMed

    Boutigny, Anne-Laure; Barreau, Christian; Atanasova-Penichon, Vessela; Verdal-Bonnin, Marie-Noëlle; Pinson-Gadais, Laëtitia; Richard-Forget, Florence

    2009-01-01

    The effect of ferulic acid, the most abundant phenolic acid in wheat bran, was studied in vitro on type B trichothecene biosynthesis by Fusarium. It was demonstrated that ferulic acid is an efficient inhibitor of mycotoxin production by all strains of Fusarium tested, including different chemotypes and species. To analyse the mechanism of toxin biosynthesis inhibition by ferulic acid, expression of representative Tri genes, involved in the trichothecene biosynthesis pathway, was monitored by real-time RT-PCR. A decrease in the level of Tri gene expression was measured, suggesting that inhibition of toxin synthesis by ferulic acid could be regulated at the transcriptional level. Moreover, toxin production was shown to be reduced proportionally to the initial amount of ferulic acid added in the culture medium. Addition of ferulic acid either at the spore germination step or to a mycelial culture resulted in the same final inhibitory effect on mycotoxin accumulation. A cumulative inhibitory effect on trichothecene biosynthesis was even observed with successive supplementation of ferulic acid. Ferulic acid, which content varies among wheat varieties, could then play an important role in modulating trichothecene biosynthesis by Fusarium in some wheat varieties.

  20. Polydopamine-coated magnetic molecularly imprinted polymer for the selective solid-phase extraction of cinnamic acid, ferulic acid and caffeic acid from radix scrophulariae sample.

    PubMed

    Yin, Yuli; Yan, Liang; Zhang, Zhaohui; Wang, Jing; Luo, Ningjing

    2016-04-01

    We describe novel cinnamic acid polydopamine-coated magnetic imprinted polymers for the simultaneous selective extraction of cinnamic acid, ferulic acid and caffeic acid from radix scrophulariae sample. The novel magnetic imprinted polymers were synthesized by surface imprinting polymerization using magnetic multi-walled carbon nanotubes as the support material, cinnamic acid as the template and dopamine as the functional monomer. The magnetic imprinted polymers were characterized by transmission electron microscopy, scanning electron microscopy, Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy and vibrating sample magnetometry. The results revealed that the magnetic imprinted polymers had outstanding magnetic properties, high adsorption capacity, selectivity and fast kinetic binding toward cinnamic acid, ferulic acid and caffeic acid. Coupled with high-performance liquid chromatography, the extraction conditions of the magnetic imprinted polymers as a magnetic solid-phase extraction sorbent were investigated in detail. The proposed imprinted magnetic solid phase extraction procedure has been used for the purification and enrichment of cinnamic acid, ferulic acid and caffeic acid successfully from radix scrophulariae extraction sample with recoveries of 92.4-115.0% for cinnamic acid, 89.4-103.0% for ferulic acid and 86.6-96.0% for caffeic acid.

  1. Novel Halomonas sp. B15 isolated from Larnaca Salt Lake in Cyprus that generates vanillin and vanillic acid from ferulic acid.

    PubMed

    Vyrides, Ioannis; Agathangelou, Maria; Dimitriou, Rodothea; Souroullas, Konstantinos; Salamex, Anastasia; Ioannou, Aristostodimos; Koutinas, Michalis

    2015-08-01

    Vanillin is a high value added product with many applications in the food, fragrance and pharmaceutical industries. A natural and low-cost method to produce vanillin is by microbial bioconversions through ferulic acid. Until now, limited microorganisms have been found capable of bioconverting ferulic acid to vanillin at high yield. This study aimed to screen halotolerant strains of bacteria from Larnaca Salt Lake which generate vanillin and vanillic acid from ferulic acid. From a total of 50 halotolenant/halophilic strains 8 grew in 1 g/L ferulic acid and only 1 Halomonas sp. B15 and 3 Halomonas elognata strains were capable of bioconverting ferulic acid to vanillic acid at 100 g NaCl/L. The highest vanillic acid (365 mg/L) at these conditions generated by Halomonas sp. B15 which corresponds to ferulic acid bioconversion yield of 36.5%. Using the resting cell technique with an initial ferulic acid concentration of 0.5 g/L at low salinity, the highest production of vanillin (245 mg/L) took place after 48 h, corresponding to a bioconversion yield of 49%. This is the first reported Halomonas sp. with high yield of vanillin production from ferulic acid at low salinity.

  2. Ferulic acid transformation into the main vanilla aroma compounds by Amycolatopsis sp. ATCC 39116.

    PubMed

    Pérez-Rodríguez, Noelia; Oliveira, Ricardo Pinheiro de Souza; Agrasar, Ana María Torrado; Domínguez, José Manuel

    2016-02-01

    The wild strain Amycolatopsis sp. ATCC 39116 was explored in ferulic acid-based media to produce naturally the aroma components of the cured vanilla pod, namely vanillin,vanillic acid, and vanillyl alcohol. Other phenolic compounds(4-vinyl guaiacol, guaiacol, and protocatechuic acid) were also evaluated. The influence of medium composition,fermentation technology (batch or fed-batch), supplementation with vanillic acid, and inoculum concentration on ferulic acid biotransformation were evaluated. The results postulate the initial concentration of cell mass as the variable with the strongest impact on ferulic acid metabolization under the studied conditions. The highest amounts of vanillin and vanillic acid were achieved at intermediate values of cell mass.Vanillyl alcohol and protocatechuic acid were more closely linked to high cell mass concentrations. Conversely, 4-vinyl guaiacol reached its highest amount at the lowest amount of cell mass. Guaiacol was not detected in any case. Therefore,the initial cell concentration must be considered a critical parameter when using Amycolaptosis sp. ATCC 39116 for the production of vanillin and related compounds. PMID:26476645

  3. Ferulic acid transformation into the main vanilla aroma compounds by Amycolatopsis sp. ATCC 39116.

    PubMed

    Pérez-Rodríguez, Noelia; Oliveira, Ricardo Pinheiro de Souza; Agrasar, Ana María Torrado; Domínguez, José Manuel

    2016-02-01

    The wild strain Amycolatopsis sp. ATCC 39116 was explored in ferulic acid-based media to produce naturally the aroma components of the cured vanilla pod, namely vanillin,vanillic acid, and vanillyl alcohol. Other phenolic compounds(4-vinyl guaiacol, guaiacol, and protocatechuic acid) were also evaluated. The influence of medium composition,fermentation technology (batch or fed-batch), supplementation with vanillic acid, and inoculum concentration on ferulic acid biotransformation were evaluated. The results postulate the initial concentration of cell mass as the variable with the strongest impact on ferulic acid metabolization under the studied conditions. The highest amounts of vanillin and vanillic acid were achieved at intermediate values of cell mass.Vanillyl alcohol and protocatechuic acid were more closely linked to high cell mass concentrations. Conversely, 4-vinyl guaiacol reached its highest amount at the lowest amount of cell mass. Guaiacol was not detected in any case. Therefore,the initial cell concentration must be considered a critical parameter when using Amycolaptosis sp. ATCC 39116 for the production of vanillin and related compounds.

  4. Overexpression of Aspergillus tubingensis faeA in protease-deficient Aspergillus niger enables ferulic acid production from plant material.

    PubMed

    Zwane, Eunice N; Rose, Shaunita H; van Zyl, Willem H; Rumbold, Karl; Viljoen-Bloom, Marinda

    2014-06-01

    The production of ferulic acid esterase involved in the release of ferulic acid side groups from xylan was investigated in strains of Aspergillus tubingensis, Aspergillus carneus, Aspergillus niger and Rhizopus oryzae. The highest activity on triticale bran as sole carbon source was observed with the A. tubingensis T8.4 strain, which produced a type A ferulic acid esterase active against methyl p-coumarate, methyl ferulate and methyl sinapate. The activity of the A. tubingensis ferulic acid esterase (AtFAEA) was inhibited twofold by glucose and induced twofold in the presence of maize bran. An initial accumulation of endoglucanase was followed by the production of endoxylanase, suggesting a combined action with ferulic acid esterase on maize bran. A genomic copy of the A. tubingensis faeA gene was cloned and expressed in A. niger D15#26 under the control of the A. niger gpd promoter. The recombinant strain has reduced protease activity and does not acidify the media, therefore promoting high-level expression of recombinant enzymes. It produced 13.5 U/ml FAEA after 5 days on autoclaved maize bran as sole carbon source, which was threefold higher than for the A. tubingensis donor strain. The recombinant AtFAEA was able to extract 50 % of the available ferulic acid from non-pretreated maize bran, making this enzyme suitable for the biological production of ferulic acid from lignocellulosic plant material. PMID:24664515

  5. Overexpression of Aspergillus tubingensis faeA in protease-deficient Aspergillus niger enables ferulic acid production from plant material.

    PubMed

    Zwane, Eunice N; Rose, Shaunita H; van Zyl, Willem H; Rumbold, Karl; Viljoen-Bloom, Marinda

    2014-06-01

    The production of ferulic acid esterase involved in the release of ferulic acid side groups from xylan was investigated in strains of Aspergillus tubingensis, Aspergillus carneus, Aspergillus niger and Rhizopus oryzae. The highest activity on triticale bran as sole carbon source was observed with the A. tubingensis T8.4 strain, which produced a type A ferulic acid esterase active against methyl p-coumarate, methyl ferulate and methyl sinapate. The activity of the A. tubingensis ferulic acid esterase (AtFAEA) was inhibited twofold by glucose and induced twofold in the presence of maize bran. An initial accumulation of endoglucanase was followed by the production of endoxylanase, suggesting a combined action with ferulic acid esterase on maize bran. A genomic copy of the A. tubingensis faeA gene was cloned and expressed in A. niger D15#26 under the control of the A. niger gpd promoter. The recombinant strain has reduced protease activity and does not acidify the media, therefore promoting high-level expression of recombinant enzymes. It produced 13.5 U/ml FAEA after 5 days on autoclaved maize bran as sole carbon source, which was threefold higher than for the A. tubingensis donor strain. The recombinant AtFAEA was able to extract 50 % of the available ferulic acid from non-pretreated maize bran, making this enzyme suitable for the biological production of ferulic acid from lignocellulosic plant material.

  6. Development and in vitro evaluation of a transdermal hydrogel patch for ferulic acid.

    PubMed

    Bai, Jie; Lu, Yang; Li, Peng-yue; Liu, Cong-min; Wu, Hui-chao; Wen, Ran; Du, Shou-ying

    2014-03-01

    Current work aimed to develop and evaluate a transdermal delivery system of hydrogel patch for ferulic acid to treat skin damage induced by UV radiation. VISCOMATE(TM) NP700, dihydroxy aluminium aminoacetate, glycerine, tartaric acid were used in combination in different ratios to design the hydrogel patch. In vitro release rate was selected as an index to optimize the formulation. The formulated hydrogel patch was evaluated by several parameters like tacking strength, cohesive strength, peeling strength, residuals after peeling and drug content determination. The in vitro penetration was determined by Franz diffusion technology with hairless mouse skin as permeability media. Different kinetics models were employed to simulate the release and penetrate patterns of ferulic acid from patches in order to investigate the drug transport mechanism. The residual drugs in the patch and skin were determined after the penetration experiment. The optimized preparation was dihydroxy aluminium aminoacetate: NP700: glycerine: ferulic acid as a ratio of 0.02:0.4:1.5:1.25:0.25. The cumulative percentage of release was 60.4465±1.7679% for 24h, which results from a combination of diffusion effect and polymer erosion effect. For the barrier of stratum corneum, the cumulative penetrate rate was only 1.3156±0.3588% and the release mechanism turn out to be the effect of erosion of polymer surface. The residual drugs in the patch were 97.5949±1.4932%. The in vitro data revealed that it was easy for ferulic acid to release from the paste while difficult to permeate through the skin barrier, which resulted in most of drugs residued in the paste. Hence, further experiments will be necessary for finding the penetration enhancer in ferulic acid transdermal delivery.

  7. Engineering Clostridium beijerinckii with the Cbei_4693 gene knockout for enhanced ferulic acid tolerance.

    PubMed

    Liu, Jun; Guo, Ting; Shen, Xiaoning; Xu, Jiahui; Wang, Junzhi; Wang, Yanyan; Liu, Dong; Niu, Huanqing; Liang, Lei; Ying, Hanjie

    2016-07-10

    A mutant strain of Clostridium beijerinckii NCIMB 8052, C. beijerinckii M11, which exhibited ferulic acid tolerance up to 0.9g/L, was generated using atmospheric pressure glow discharge and high-throughput screening. Comparative genomic analysis revealed that this strain harbored a mutation of the Cbei_4693 gene, which encodes a hypothetical protein suspected to be an NADPH-dependent FMN reductase. After disrupting the Cbei_4693 gene in C. beijerinckii NCIMB 8052 using the ClosTron group II intron-based gene inactivation system, we obtained the Cbei_4693 gene inactivated mutant strain, C. beijerinckii 4693::int. Compared with C. beijerinckii NCIMB 8052, 6.23g/L of butanol was produced in P2 medium containing 0.5g/L of ferulic acid by 4693::int, and the ferulic acid tolerance was also significantly increased up to 0.8g/L. These data showed, for the first time, that the Cbei_4693 gene plays an important role in regulating ferulic acid tolerance in ABE fermentation by C. beijerinckii. PMID:27164255

  8. Engineering Saccharomyces cerevisiae to produce feruloyl esterase for the release of ferulic acid from switchgrass

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The Aspergillus niger ferulic acid esterase gene (faeA) was cloned into Saccharomyces cerevisiae via a yeast expression vector, resulting in efficient expression and secretion of the enzyme in the medium. The recombinant enzyme was purified to homogeneity by anion-exchange and hydrophobic interactio...

  9. Cold water fish gelatin modification by a natural phenolic cross-linker (ferulic acid and caffeic acid)

    PubMed Central

    Araghi, Maryam; Moslehi, Zeinab; Mohammadi Nafchi, Abdorreza; Mostahsan, Amir; Salamat, Nima; Daraei Garmakhany, Amir

    2015-01-01

    Nowadays use of edible films and coatings is increasing due to their biodegradability and environment friendly properties. Fish gelatin obtained from fish skin wastage can be used as an appropriate protein compound for replacing pork gelatin to produce edible film. In this study films were prepared by combination of fish gelatin and different concentration (0%, 1%, 3%, and 5%) of two phenolic compounds (caffeic acid and ferulic acid). The film was prepared at pH > 10 and temperature of 60˚c under continuous injection of O2 and addition of the plasticizer sorbitol/glycerol. Results showed that solubility, oxygen permeability, and water vapor permeability were decreased for caffeic acid and the highest effect was observed at concentration of 5%. Solubility had a linear relationship with concentration of phenolic compound in film containing ferulic acid, however, no significant change was observed in vapor and O2 permeability. A comparison between two phenolic compounds showed that caffeic acid had the highest effect in decreasing solubility, water vapor permeability, and oxygen permeability. Caffeic acid is more effective phenolic compound compared with Ferulic acid that can increase safety of biodegradable packaging by improving their barrier and physicochemical properties. PMID:26405523

  10. Role of protein and ferulic acid in the emulsification properties of sugar beet pectin.

    PubMed

    Siew, Chee Kiong; Williams, Peter A

    2008-06-11

    The ability of sugar beet pectin to stabilize 20% w/w limonene oil-in-water emulsions has been investigated. The size of the oil droplets as determined by laser diffraction measurements decreased from about 15 mum to about 6 mum when the pectin concentration increased from 0.05% to 2% w/w but leveled off thereafter, suggesting complete coverage of the oil droplets by the polymer at this optimum concentration. Isotherms for the adsorption of pectin, protein, and ferulic acid were constructed. The adsorption capacities at the oil-water interface of approximately 1.4 and approximately 0.2 mg/m (2) for protein and ferulic acid, respectively, compared to approximately 9.5 mg/m (2) for pectin revealed that the adsorbed fractions of the pectin sample were rich in protein (14.7%) and ferulic acid (2.1%) given that there were only 2.7% protein and 1.06% ferulic acid present in the whole pectin sample. Direct measurements on the adsorbed fraction recovered from the oil droplets via desorption with SDS confirmed that it contained 11.1% protein and 2.16% ferulic acid. The results suggest that one or both of these two functional groups adsorb onto the surface of the oil droplets and stabilize the emulsions. High molecular mass fractions adsorbed preferentially onto oil droplets during emulsification. As compared to those made with gum arabic, the emulsion samples made with sugar beet pectin samples exhibited similar (or even slightly higher) stability.

  11. Characterization of two Streptomyces enzymes that convert ferulic acid to vanillin.

    PubMed

    Yang, Wenwen; Tang, Hongzhi; Ni, Jun; Wu, Qiulin; Hua, Dongliang; Tao, Fei; Xu, Ping

    2013-01-01

    Production of flavors from natural substrates by microbial transformation has become a growing and expanding field of study over the past decades. Vanillin, a major component of vanilla flavor, is a principal flavoring compound used worldwide. Streptomyces sp. strain V-1 is known to be one of the most promising microbial producers of natural vanillin from ferulic acid. Although identification of the microbial genes involved in the biotransformation of ferulic acid to vanillin has been previously reported, purification and detailed characterization of the corresponding enzymes with important functions have rarely been studied. In this study, we isolated and identified 2 critical genes, fcs and ech, encoding feruloyl-CoA synthetase and enoyl-CoA hydratase/aldolase, respectively, which are involved in the vanillin production from ferulic acid. Both genes were heterologously expressed in Escherichia coli, and the resting cell reactions for converting ferulic acid to vanillin were performed. The corresponding crucial enzymes, Fcs and Ech, were purified for the first time and the enzymatic activity of each purified protein was studied. Furthermore, Fcs was comprehensively characterized, at an optimal pH of 7.0 and temperature of 30°C. Kinetic constants for Fcs revealed the apparent Km, kcat, and Vmax values to be 0.35 mM, 67.7 s(-1), and 78.2 U mg(-1), respectively. The catalytic efficiency (kcat/Km) value of Fcs was 193.4 mM(-1) s(-1) for ferulic acid. The characterization of Fcs and Ech may be helpful for further research in the field of enzymatic engineering and metabolic regulation.

  12. Characterization of Two Streptomyces Enzymes That Convert Ferulic Acid to Vanillin

    PubMed Central

    Yang, Wenwen; Tang, Hongzhi; Ni, Jun; Wu, Qiulin; Hua, Dongliang; Tao, Fei; Xu, Ping

    2013-01-01

    Production of flavors from natural substrates by microbial transformation has become a growing and expanding field of study over the past decades. Vanillin, a major component of vanilla flavor, is a principal flavoring compound used worldwide. Streptomyces sp. strain V-1 is known to be one of the most promising microbial producers of natural vanillin from ferulic acid. Although identification of the microbial genes involved in the biotransformation of ferulic acid to vanillin has been previously reported, purification and detailed characterization of the corresponding enzymes with important functions have rarely been studied. In this study, we isolated and identified 2 critical genes, fcs and ech, encoding feruloyl-CoA synthetase and enoyl-CoA hydratase/aldolase, respectively, which are involved in the vanillin production from ferulic acid. Both genes were heterologously expressed in Escherichia coli, and the resting cell reactions for converting ferulic acid to vanillin were performed. The corresponding crucial enzymes, Fcs and Ech, were purified for the first time and the enzymatic activity of each purified protein was studied. Furthermore, Fcs was comprehensively characterized, at an optimal pH of 7.0 and temperature of 30°C. Kinetic constants for Fcs revealed the apparent Km, kcat, and Vmax values to be 0.35 mM, 67.7 s−1, and 78.2 U mg−1, respectively. The catalytic efficiency (kcat/Km) value of Fcs was 193.4 mM−1 s−1 for ferulic acid. The characterization of Fcs and Ech may be helpful for further research in the field of enzymatic engineering and metabolic regulation. PMID:23840666

  13. Simple and Rapid Determination of Ferulic Acid Levels in Food and Cosmetic Samples Using Paper-Based Platforms

    PubMed Central

    Tee-ngam, Prinjaporn; Nunant, Namthip; Rattanarat, Poomrat; Siangproh, Weena; Chailapakul, Orawon

    2013-01-01

    Ferulic acid is an important phenolic antioxidant found in or added to diet supplements, beverages, and cosmetic creams. Two designs of paper-based platforms for the fast, simple and inexpensive evaluation of ferulic acid contents in food and pharmaceutical cosmetics were evaluated. The first, a paper-based electrochemical device, was developed for ferulic acid detection in uncomplicated matrix samples and was created by the photolithographic method. The second, a paper-based colorimetric device was preceded by thin layer chromatography (TLC) for the separation and detection of ferulic acid in complex samples using a silica plate stationary phase and an 85:15:1 (v/v/v) chloroform: methanol: formic acid mobile phase. After separation, ferulic acid containing section of the TLC plate was attached onto the patterned paper containing the colorimetric reagent and eluted with ethanol. The resulting color change was photographed and quantitatively converted to intensity. Under the optimal conditions, the limit of detection of ferulic acid was found to be 1 ppm and 7 ppm (S/N = 3) for first and second designs, respectively, with good agreement with the standard HPLC-UV detection method. Therefore, these methods can be used for the simple, rapid, inexpensive and sensitive quantification of ferulic acid in a variety of samples. PMID:24077320

  14. [Preparation of ferulic acid, senkyunolide I and senkyunolide H from Ligusticum chuanxiong by preparative HPLC].

    PubMed

    Xiong, Yao-Kun; Liang, Shuang; Hong, Yan-Long; Yang, Xiu-Juan; Shen, Lan; Du, Yan; Feng, Yi

    2013-06-01

    Preparative HPLC was used to prepare ferulic acid, senkyunolide I and senkyunolide H from Ligusticum chuanxiong. The separation was conducted on a Shim-Pack Prep-ODS (20.0 mm x 250 mm, 5 microm) column with the mobile phase of methanol-0.2% glacial acetic acid (50:50)at the flow rate of 5 mL x min(-1). The detection wavelength was 278 nm, and the purity of each compound was detected by HPLC analysis. Spectral data analyses including UV, ESI-MS and NMR were used to identify their structures. This method is simple, fast, which is suitable for preparation of standard reference of ferulic acid, senkyunolide I and senkyunolide H from L. chuanxiong and can meet the requirement of new drug research and development. PMID:24066590

  15. Development of novel ferulic acid derivatives as potent histone deacetylase inhibitors.

    PubMed

    Wang, Fang; Lu, Wen; Zhang, Tao; Dong, Jinyun; Gao, Hongping; Li, Pengfei; Wang, Sicen; Zhang, Jie

    2013-11-15

    Histone deacetylase inhibitors (HDACIs) offer a promising strategy for cancer therapy. The discovery of potent ferulic acid-based HDACIs with hydroxamic acid or 2-aminobenzamide group as zinc binding group was reported. The halogeno-acetanilide was introduced as novel surface recognition moiety (SRM). The majority of title compounds displayed potent HDAC inhibitory activity. In particular, FA6 and FA16 exhibited significant enzymatic inhibitory activities, with IC50 values of 3.94 and 2.82 μM, respectively. Furthermore, these compounds showed moderate antiproliferative activity against a panel of human cancer cells. FA17 displayed promising profile as an antitumor candidate. The results indicated that these ferulic acid derivatives could serve as promising lead compounds for further optimization. PMID:24095016

  16. Butyric acid increases transepithelial transport of ferulic acid through upregulation of the monocarboxylate transporters SLC16A1 (MCT1) and SLC16A3 (MCT4).

    PubMed

    Ziegler, Kerstin; Kerimi, Asimina; Poquet, Laure; Williamson, Gary

    2016-06-01

    Ferulic acid is released by microbial hydrolysis in the colon, where butyric acid, a major by-product of fermentation, constitutes the main energy source for colonic enterocytes. We investigated how varying concentrations of this short chain fatty acid may influence the absorption of the phenolic acid. Chronic treatment of Caco-2 cells with butyric acid resulted in increased mRNA and protein abundance of the monocarboxylate transporters SLC16A1 (MCT1) and SLC16A3 (MCT4), previously proposed to facilitate ferulic acid absorption in addition to passive diffusion. Short term incubation with butyric acid only led to upregulation of MCT4 while both conditions increased transepithelial transport of ferulic acid in the apical to basolateral, but not basolateral to apical, direction. Chronic treatment also elevated intracellular concentrations of ferulic acid, which in turn gave rise to increased concentrations of ferulic acid metabolites. Immunofluorescence staining of cells revealed uniform distribution of MCT1 protein in the cell membrane, whereas MCT4 was only detected in the lateral plasma membrane sections of Caco-2 cells. We therefore propose that MCT1 may be acting as an uptake transporter and MCT4 as an efflux system across the basolateral membrane for ferulic acid, and that this process is stimulated by butyric acid. PMID:26854723

  17. Ferulic acid from aleurone determines the antioxidant potency of wheat grain (Triticum aestivum L.).

    PubMed

    Mateo Anson, Nuria; van den Berg, Robin; Havenaar, Rob; Bast, Aalt; Haenen, Guido R M M

    2008-07-23

    Grain is an important source of phytochemicals, which have potent antioxidant capacity. They have been implicated in the beneficial health effect of whole grains in reducing cardiovascular disease and type 2 diabetes. The aim of the present study was to identify the most important antioxidant fractions of wheat grain. It was found that the aleurone content of these fractions was highly correlated with the antioxidant capacity of the fractions (r = 0.96, p < 0.0001). Ferulic acid appeared to be the major contributor to the antioxidant capacity in fractions with higher antioxidant capacity. The contribution of protein was rather limited. It was concluded that the antioxidant potency of wheat grain fractions is predominantly determined by aleurone content, which can be attributed to the presence of relatively large amounts of phenolic compounds, primarily ferulic acid.

  18. Protective effects of ferulic acid in amyloid precursor protein plus presenilin-1 transgenic mouse model of Alzheimer disease.

    PubMed

    Yan, Ji-Jing; Jung, Jun-Sub; Kim, Taek-Keun; Hasan, Ashraful; Hong, Chang-Won; Nam, Ju-Suk; Song, Dong-Keun

    2013-01-01

    We previously reported the protective effects of long-term administration of ferulic acid against the in vivo toxicity of β-amyloid peptide administered intracerebroventricularly in mice. In the present study, we investigated the effects of ferulic acid in transgenic amyloid precursor protein (APP)swe/presenilin 1 (PS1)dE9 (APP/PS1) mouse model of Alzheimer disease (AD). Chronic (for 6 months from the age of 6 to 12 months) oral administration of ferulic acid at a dose of 5.3 mg/kg/day significantly enhanced the performance in novel-object recognition task, and reduced amyloid deposition and interleukin-1 beta (IL-1β) levels in the frontal cortex. These results suggest that ferulic acid at a certain dosage could be useful for prevention and treatment of AD.

  19. Lipophilic caffeic and ferulic acid derivatives presenting cytotoxicity against human breast cancer cells.

    PubMed

    Serafim, Teresa L; Carvalho, Filipa S; Marques, Maria P M; Calheiros, Rita; Silva, Tiago; Garrido, Jorge; Milhazes, Nuno; Borges, Fernanda; Roleira, Fernanda; Silva, Elisiaario T; Holy, Jon; Oliveira, Paulo J

    2011-05-16

    In the present work, lipophilic caffeic and ferulic acid derivatives were synthesized, and their cytotoxicity on cultured breast cancer cells was compared. A total of six compounds were initially evaluated: caffeic acid (CA), hexyl caffeate (HC), caffeoylhexylamide (HCA), ferulic acid (FA), hexyl ferulate (HF), and feruloylhexylamide (HFA). Cell proliferation, cell cycle progression, and apoptotic signaling were investigated in three human breast cancer cell lines, including estrogen-sensitive (MCF-7) and insensitive (MDA-MB-231 and HS578T). Furthermore, direct mitochondrial effects of parent and modified compounds were investigated by using isolated liver mitochondria. The results indicated that although the parent compounds presented no cytotoxicity, the new compounds inhibited cell proliferation and induced cell cycle alterations and cell death, with a predominant effect on MCF-7 cells. Interestingly, cell cycle data indicates that effects on nontumor BJ fibroblasts were predominantly cytostatic and not cytotoxic. The parent compounds and derivatives also promoted direct alterations on hepatic mitochondrial bioenergetics, although the most unexpected and never before reported one was that FA induces the mitochondrial permeability transition. The results show that the new caffeic and ferulic acid lipophilic derivatives show increased cytotoxicity toward human breast cancer cell lines, although the magnitude and type of effects appear to be dependent on the cell type. Mitochondrial data had no direct correspondence with effects on intact cells suggesting that this organelle may not be a critical component of the cellular effects observed. The data provide a rational approach to the design of effective cytotoxic lipophilic hydroxycinnamic derivatives that in the future could be profitably applied for chemopreventive and/or chemotherapeutic purposes.

  20. A novel, stable, aqueous glucagon formulation using ferulic acid as an excipient.

    PubMed

    Bakhtiani, Parkash A; Caputo, Nicholas; Castle, Jessica R; El Youssef, Joseph; Carroll, Julie M; David, Larry L; Roberts, Charles T; Ward, W Kenneth

    2015-01-01

    Commercial glucagon is unstable due to aggregation and degradation. In closed-loop studies, it must be reconstituted frequently. For use in a portable pump for 3 days, a more stable preparation is required. At alkaline pH, curcumin inhibited glucagon aggregation. However, curcumin is not sufficiently stable for long-term use. Here, we evaluated ferulic acid, a stable breakdown product of curcumin, for its ability to stabilize glucagon. Ferulic acid-formulated glucagon (FAFG), composed of ferulic acid, glucagon, L-methionine, polysorbate-80, and human serum albumin in glycine buffer at pH 9, was aged for 7 days at 37°C. Glucagon aggregation was assessed by transmission electron microscopy (TEM) and degradation by high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC). A cell-based protein kinase A (PKA) assay was used to assess in vitro bioactivity. Pharmacodynamics (PD) of unaged FAFG, 7-day aged FAFG, and unaged synthetic glucagon was determined in octreotide-treated swine. No fibrils were observed in TEM images of fresh or aged FAFG. Aged FAFG was 94% intact based on HPLC analysis and there was no loss of bioactivity. In the PD swine analysis, the rise over baseline of glucose with unaged FAFG, aged FAFG, and synthetic native glucagon (unmodified human sequence) was similar. After 7 days of aging at 37°C, an alkaline ferulic acid formulation of glucagon exhibited significantly less aggregation and degradation than that seen with native glucagon and was bioactive in vitro and in vivo. Thus, this formulation may be stable for 3-7 days in a portable pump for bihormonal closed-loop treatment of T1D. PMID:25253164

  1. A novel, stable, aqueous glucagon formulation using ferulic acid as an excipient.

    PubMed

    Bakhtiani, Parkash A; Caputo, Nicholas; Castle, Jessica R; El Youssef, Joseph; Carroll, Julie M; David, Larry L; Roberts, Charles T; Ward, W Kenneth

    2015-01-01

    Commercial glucagon is unstable due to aggregation and degradation. In closed-loop studies, it must be reconstituted frequently. For use in a portable pump for 3 days, a more stable preparation is required. At alkaline pH, curcumin inhibited glucagon aggregation. However, curcumin is not sufficiently stable for long-term use. Here, we evaluated ferulic acid, a stable breakdown product of curcumin, for its ability to stabilize glucagon. Ferulic acid-formulated glucagon (FAFG), composed of ferulic acid, glucagon, L-methionine, polysorbate-80, and human serum albumin in glycine buffer at pH 9, was aged for 7 days at 37°C. Glucagon aggregation was assessed by transmission electron microscopy (TEM) and degradation by high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC). A cell-based protein kinase A (PKA) assay was used to assess in vitro bioactivity. Pharmacodynamics (PD) of unaged FAFG, 7-day aged FAFG, and unaged synthetic glucagon was determined in octreotide-treated swine. No fibrils were observed in TEM images of fresh or aged FAFG. Aged FAFG was 94% intact based on HPLC analysis and there was no loss of bioactivity. In the PD swine analysis, the rise over baseline of glucose with unaged FAFG, aged FAFG, and synthetic native glucagon (unmodified human sequence) was similar. After 7 days of aging at 37°C, an alkaline ferulic acid formulation of glucagon exhibited significantly less aggregation and degradation than that seen with native glucagon and was bioactive in vitro and in vivo. Thus, this formulation may be stable for 3-7 days in a portable pump for bihormonal closed-loop treatment of T1D.

  2. Metabolic engineering of Pseudomonas fluorescens for the production of vanillin from ferulic acid.

    PubMed

    Di Gioia, Diana; Luziatelli, Francesca; Negroni, Andrea; Ficca, Anna Grazia; Fava, Fabio; Ruzzi, Maurizio

    2011-12-20

    Vanillin is one of the most important flavors in the food industry and there is great interest in its production through biotechnological processes starting from natural substrates such as ferulic acid. Among bacteria, recombinant Escherichia coli strains are the most efficient vanillin producers, whereas Pseudomonas spp. strains, although possessing a broader metabolic versatility, rapidly metabolize various phenolic compounds including vanillin. In order to develop a robust Pseudomonas strain that can produce vanillin in high yields and at high productivity, the vanillin dehydrogenase (vdh)-encoding gene of Pseudomonas fluorescens BF13 strain was inactivated via targeted mutagenesis. The results demonstrated that engineered derivatives of strain BF13 accumulate vanillin if inactivation of vdh is associated with concurrent expression of structural genes for feruloyl-CoA synthetase (fcs) and hydratase/aldolase (ech) from a low-copy plasmid. The conversion of ferulic acid to vanillin was enhanced by optimization of growth conditions, growth phase and parameters of the bioconversion process. The developed strain produced up to 8.41 mM vanillin, which is the highest final titer of vanillin produced by a Pseudomonas strain to date and opens new perspectives in the use of bacterial biocatalysts for biotechnological production of vanillin from agro-industrial wastes which contain ferulic acid.

  3. Efficacy of ferulic acid encapsulated chitosan nanoparticles against Candida albicans biofilm.

    PubMed

    Panwar, Richa; Pemmaraju, Suma C; Sharma, Asvene K; Pruthi, Vikas

    2016-06-01

    Candida albicans, an opportunistic fungal pathogen is a major causative agent of superficial to systemic life-threating biofilm infections on indwelling medical devices. These biofilms acts as double edge swords owing to their resistance towards antibiotics and immunological barriers. To overcome this threat ferulic acid encapsulated chitosan nanoparticles (FA-CSNPs) were formulated to assess its efficacy as an antibiofilm agent against C. albicans. These FA-CSNPs were synthesized using ionotropic gelation method and observed through field emission scanning electron microscopy (FESEM) and fluorescent microscopy. Assessment of successful encapsulation and stability of ferulic acid into chitosan nanoparticles was made using Fourier transform infrared spectrum (FTIR), (1)H NMR and thermal analyses. Synthesized FA-CSNPs, were found to be cytocompatible, when tested using Human Embryonic Kidney (HEK-293) cell lines. XTT assay revealed that FA-CSNPs reduced the cell metabolic activity of C. albicans upto 22.5% as compared to native ferulic acid (63%) and unloaded CSNPs (88%) after 24 h incubation. Disruption of C. albicans biofilm architecture was visualized by FESEM. Results highlighted the potential of FA-CSNPs to be used as an effective alternative to the conventional antifungal therapeutics. PMID:26930164

  4. [Study on compatibility of Salviae Miltiorrhizae Radix et Rhizoma and Chuanxiong Rhizoma based on pharmacokinetics of effective components salvianolic acid B and ferulic acid in rat plasma].

    PubMed

    Zhang, Cui-ying; Zhang, Hong; Dong, Yu; Ren, Wei-guang; Chen, Heng-wen

    2015-04-01

    A study was made on the pharmacokinetic regularity of effective components salvianolic acid B and ferulic acid in Salviae Miltiorrhizae Radix et Rhizoma (SMRR) and Chuanxiong Rhizoma(CR) in rats, so as to discuss the compatibility mechanism of Salviae Miltiorrhizae Radix et Rhizoma and Chuanxiong Rhizoma. Rats were randomly divided into three groups and intravenously injected with 50 mg x kg(-1) salvianolic acid B for the single SMRR extracts group, 0.5 mg x kg(-1) ferulic acid for the single CR extracts group and 50 mg x kg(-1) salvianolic acid B + 0.5 mg x kg(-1) ferulic acid for the SMRR and CR combination group. The blood samples were collected at different time points and purified by liquid-liquid extraction with ethyl acetate. With chloramphenicol as internal standard (IS), UPLC was adopted to determine concentrations of salvianolic acid B and ferulic acid. The pharmacokinetic parameters of salvianolic acid B and ferulic acid were calculated with WinNonlin 6.2 software and analyzed by SPSS 19.0 statistical software. The UPLC analysis method was adopted to determine salvianolic acid B and ferulic acid in rat plasma, including linear equation, stability, repeatability, precision and recovery. The established sample processing and analysis methods were stable and reliable, with significant differences in major pharmacokinetic parameters, e.g., area under the curve (AUC), mean residence time (MRT) and terminal half-life (t(1/2)). According to the experimental results, the combined application of SMRR and CR can significantly impact the pharmacokinetic process of their effective components in rats and promote the wide distribution, shorten the action time and prolong the in vivo action time of salvianolic acid B and increase the blood drug concentration and accelerate the clearance of ferulic acid in vivo. PMID:26281604

  5. Controlled release of tyrosol and ferulic acid encapsulated in chitosan-gelatin films after electron beam irradiation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Benbettaïeb, Nasreddine; Assifaoui, Ali; Karbowiak, Thomas; Debeaufort, Frédéric; Chambin, Odile

    2016-01-01

    This work deals with the study of the release kinetics of antioxidants (ferulic acid and tyrosol) incorporated into chitosan-gelatin edible films after irradiation processes. The aim was to determine the influence of electron beam irradiation (at 60 kGy) on the retention of antioxidants in the film, their release in water (pH=7) at 25 °C, in relation with the barrier and mechanical properties of biopolymer films. The film preparation process coupled to the irradiation induced a loss of about 20% of tyrosol but did not affect the ferulic acid content. However, 27% of the ferulic acid remained entrapped in the biopolymer network during the release experiments whereas all tyrosol was released. Irradiation induced a reduction of the release rate for both compounds, revealing that cross-linking occurred during irradiation. This was confirmed by the mechanical properties enhancement which tensile strength value significantly increased and by the reduction of permeabilities. Although molecular weights, molar volume and molecular radius of the two compounds are very similar, the effective diffusivity of tyrosol was 40 times greater than that of ferulic acid. The much lower effective diffusion coefficient of ferulic acid as determined from the release kinetics was explained by the interactions settled between ferulic acid molecules and the gelatin-chitosan matrix. As expected, the electron beam irradiation allowed modulating the retention and then the release of antioxidants encapsulated.

  6. Ferulic Acid Suppresses Glutamate Release Through Inhibition of Voltage-Dependent Calcium Entry in Rat Cerebrocortical Nerve Terminals

    PubMed Central

    Lin, Tzu Yu; Lu, Cheng Wei; Huang, Shu-Kuei

    2013-01-01

    Abstract This study investigated the effects and possible mechanism of ferulic acid, a naturally occurring phenolic compound, on endogenous glutamate release in the nerve terminals of the cerebral cortex in rats. Results show that ferulic acid inhibited the release of glutamate evoked by the K+ channel blocker 4-aminopyridine (4-AP). The effect of ferulic acid on the evoked glutamate release was prevented by chelating the extracellular Ca2+ ions, but was insensitive to the glutamate transporter inhibitor DL-threo-beta-benzyl-oxyaspartate. Ferulic acid suppressed the depolarization-induced increase in a cytosolic-free Ca2+ concentration, but did not alter 4-AP–mediated depolarization. Furthermore, the effect of ferulic acid on evoked glutamate release was abolished by blocking the Cav2.2 (N-type) and Cav2.1 (P/Q-type) channels, but not by blocking ryanodine receptors or mitochondrial Na+/Ca2+ exchange. These results show that ferulic acid inhibits glutamate release from cortical synaptosomes in rats through the suppression of presynaptic voltage-dependent Ca2+ entry. PMID:23342970

  7. Combined treatment with caffeic and ferulic acid from Baccharis uncinella C. DC. (Asteraceae) protects against metabolic syndrome in mice

    PubMed Central

    Bocco, B.M.; Fernandes, G.W.; Lorena, F.B.; Cysneiros, R.M.; Christoffolete, M.A.; Grecco, S.S.; Lancellotti, C.L.; Romoff, P.; Lago, J.H.G.; Bianco, A.C.; Ribeiro, M.O.

    2016-01-01

    Fractionation of the EtOH extract from aerial parts of Baccharis uncinella C. DC. (Asteraceae) led to isolation of caffeic and ferulic acids, which were identified from spectroscopic and spectrometric evidence. These compounds exhibit antioxidant and anti-inflammatory properties and have been shown to be effective in the prevention/treatment of metabolic syndrome. This study investigated whether the combined treatment of caffeic and ferulic acids exhibits a more significant beneficial effect in a mouse model with metabolic syndrome. The combination treatment with caffeic and ferulic acids was tested for 60 days in C57 mice kept on a high-fat (40%) diet. The data obtained indicated that treatment with caffeic and ferulic acids prevented gain in body weight induced by the high-fat diet and improved hyperglycemia, hypercholesterolemia and hypertriglyceridemia. The expression of a number of metabolically relevant genes was affected in the liver of these animals, showing that caffeic and ferulic acid treatment results in increased cholesterol uptake and reduced hepatic triglyceride synthesis in the liver, which is a likely explanation for the prevention of hepatic steatosis. In conclusion, the combined treatment of caffeic and ferulic acids displayed major positive effects towards prevention of multiple aspects of the metabolic syndrome and liver steatosis in an obese mouse model. PMID:26840707

  8. Ferulic acid esters and weight-loss promoting effects in rats.

    PubMed

    Totani, Nagao; Tateishi, Sayuri; Takimoto, Tatsuya; Shinohara, Risa; Sasaki, Hideaki

    2012-01-01

    We previously fed rats with an ester (90 ppm in a powdered AIN93G diet) synthesized from gallic acid and 1,2-dioleoyl glycerol and found that it promoted weight loss more effectively than either octyl gallate or gallic acid. Here, we esterified ferulic acid (FerA) with oleic acid, monooleoyl glycerol and dioleoyl glycerol to obtain oleoyl ferulic acid (FO), feruloyl monooleoyl glycerol (FMO) and feruloyl dioleoyl glycerol (FDO) esters, respectively. A mixture of AIN93G and 90 ppm of each ester and FerA was fed to 10-week-old male Wistar rats for 12 weeks. The FMO and FDO groups weighed less than the control group starting from approximately 16 weeks of age. At 21 and 22 weeks of age, weight significantly differed between the FMO and both groups, respectively, and controls. The FO, FerA and control groups did not significantly differ in terms of body, liver, kidney and retroperitoneal fat tissue weights and serum biochemical findings. We concluded that the hydroxyl group of FerA is essential for promoting weight loss and that the carboxyl group should be esterified with alcohol. In addition, monooleoyl glycerol and dioleoyl glycerol did not show any difference as the alcohol moiety of the ester in the weight loss effect. PMID:22687778

  9. Ferulic acid esters and weight-loss promoting effects in rats.

    PubMed

    Totani, Nagao; Tateishi, Sayuri; Takimoto, Tatsuya; Shinohara, Risa; Sasaki, Hideaki

    2012-01-01

    We previously fed rats with an ester (90 ppm in a powdered AIN93G diet) synthesized from gallic acid and 1,2-dioleoyl glycerol and found that it promoted weight loss more effectively than either octyl gallate or gallic acid. Here, we esterified ferulic acid (FerA) with oleic acid, monooleoyl glycerol and dioleoyl glycerol to obtain oleoyl ferulic acid (FO), feruloyl monooleoyl glycerol (FMO) and feruloyl dioleoyl glycerol (FDO) esters, respectively. A mixture of AIN93G and 90 ppm of each ester and FerA was fed to 10-week-old male Wistar rats for 12 weeks. The FMO and FDO groups weighed less than the control group starting from approximately 16 weeks of age. At 21 and 22 weeks of age, weight significantly differed between the FMO and both groups, respectively, and controls. The FO, FerA and control groups did not significantly differ in terms of body, liver, kidney and retroperitoneal fat tissue weights and serum biochemical findings. We concluded that the hydroxyl group of FerA is essential for promoting weight loss and that the carboxyl group should be esterified with alcohol. In addition, monooleoyl glycerol and dioleoyl glycerol did not show any difference as the alcohol moiety of the ester in the weight loss effect.

  10. Radical scavenging activity of lipophilized products from lipase-catalyzed transesterification of triolein with cinnamic and ferulic acids.

    PubMed

    Choo, Wee-Sim; Birch, Edward John

    2009-02-01

    Lipase-catalyzed transesterification of triolein with cinnamic and ferulic acids using an immobilized lipase from Candida antarctica (E.C. 3.1.1.3) was conducted to evaluate the antioxidant activity of the lipophilized products as model systems for enhanced protection of unsaturated oil. The lipophilized products were identified using ESI-MS. Free radical scavenging activity was determined using the DPPH radical method. The polarity of the solvents proved important in determining the radical scavenging activity of the substrates. Ferulic acid showed much higher radical scavenging activity than cinnamic acid, which has limited activity. The esterification of cinnamic acid and ferulic acid with triolein resulted in significant increase and decrease in the radical scavenging activity, respectively. These opposite effects were due to the effect of addition of electron-donating alkyl groups on the predominant mechanism of reaction (hydrogen atom transfer or electron transfer) of a species with DPPH. The effect of esterification of cinnamic acid was confirmed using ethyl cinnamate which greatly enhances the radical scavenging activity. Although, compared to the lipophilized cinnamic acid product, the activity was lower. The radical scavenging activity of the main component isolated from lipophilized cinnamic acid product using solid phase extraction, monocinnamoyl dioleoyl glycerol, was as good as the unseparated mixture of lipophilized product. Based on the ratio of a substrate to DPPH concentration, lipophilized ferulic acid was a much more efficient radical scavenger than lipophilized cinnamic acid.

  11. Vanillin formation from ferulic acid in Vanilla planifolia is catalysed by a single enzyme

    PubMed Central

    Gallage, Nethaji J.; Hansen, Esben H.; Kannangara, Rubini; Olsen, Carl Erik; Motawia, Mohammed Saddik; Jørgensen, Kirsten; Holme, Inger; Hebelstrup, Kim; Grisoni, Michel; Møller, Birger Lindberg

    2014-01-01

    Vanillin is a popular and valuable flavour compound. It is the key constituent of the natural vanilla flavour obtained from cured vanilla pods. Here we show that a single hydratase/lyase type enzyme designated vanillin synthase (VpVAN) catalyses direct conversion of ferulic acid and its glucoside into vanillin and its glucoside, respectively. The enzyme shows high sequence similarity to cysteine proteinases and is specific to the substitution pattern at the aromatic ring and does not metabolize caffeic acid and p-coumaric acid as demonstrated by coupled transcription/translation assays. VpVAN localizes to the inner part of the vanilla pod and high transcript levels are found in single cells located a few cell layers from the inner epidermis. Transient expression of VpVAN in tobacco and stable expression in barley in combination with the action of endogenous alcohol dehydrogenases and UDP-glucosyltransferases result in vanillyl alcohol glucoside formation from endogenous ferulic acid. A gene encoding an enzyme showing 71% sequence identity to VpVAN was identified in another vanillin-producing plant species Glechoma hederacea and was also shown to be a vanillin synthase as demonstrated by transient expression in tobacco. PMID:24941968

  12. Vanillin formation from ferulic acid in Vanilla planifolia is catalysed by a single enzyme.

    PubMed

    Gallage, Nethaji J; Hansen, Esben H; Kannangara, Rubini; Olsen, Carl Erik; Motawia, Mohammed Saddik; Jørgensen, Kirsten; Holme, Inger; Hebelstrup, Kim; Grisoni, Michel; Møller, Birger Lindberg

    2014-01-01

    Vanillin is a popular and valuable flavour compound. It is the key constituent of the natural vanilla flavour obtained from cured vanilla pods. Here we show that a single hydratase/lyase type enzyme designated vanillin synthase (VpVAN) catalyses direct conversion of ferulic acid and its glucoside into vanillin and its glucoside, respectively. The enzyme shows high sequence similarity to cysteine proteinases and is specific to the substitution pattern at the aromatic ring and does not metabolize caffeic acid and p-coumaric acid as demonstrated by coupled transcription/translation assays. VpVAN localizes to the inner part of the vanilla pod and high transcript levels are found in single cells located a few cell layers from the inner epidermis. Transient expression of VpVAN in tobacco and stable expression in barley in combination with the action of endogenous alcohol dehydrogenases and UDP-glucosyltransferases result in vanillyl alcohol glucoside formation from endogenous ferulic acid. A gene encoding an enzyme showing 71% sequence identity to VpVAN was identified in another vanillin-producing plant species Glechoma hederacea and was also shown to be a vanillin synthase as demonstrated by transient expression in tobacco. PMID:24941968

  13. Vanillin formation from ferulic acid in Vanilla planifolia is catalysed by a single enzyme.

    PubMed

    Gallage, Nethaji J; Hansen, Esben H; Kannangara, Rubini; Olsen, Carl Erik; Motawia, Mohammed Saddik; Jørgensen, Kirsten; Holme, Inger; Hebelstrup, Kim; Grisoni, Michel; Møller, Birger Lindberg

    2014-06-19

    Vanillin is a popular and valuable flavour compound. It is the key constituent of the natural vanilla flavour obtained from cured vanilla pods. Here we show that a single hydratase/lyase type enzyme designated vanillin synthase (VpVAN) catalyses direct conversion of ferulic acid and its glucoside into vanillin and its glucoside, respectively. The enzyme shows high sequence similarity to cysteine proteinases and is specific to the substitution pattern at the aromatic ring and does not metabolize caffeic acid and p-coumaric acid as demonstrated by coupled transcription/translation assays. VpVAN localizes to the inner part of the vanilla pod and high transcript levels are found in single cells located a few cell layers from the inner epidermis. Transient expression of VpVAN in tobacco and stable expression in barley in combination with the action of endogenous alcohol dehydrogenases and UDP-glucosyltransferases result in vanillyl alcohol glucoside formation from endogenous ferulic acid. A gene encoding an enzyme showing 71% sequence identity to VpVAN was identified in another vanillin-producing plant species Glechoma hederacea and was also shown to be a vanillin synthase as demonstrated by transient expression in tobacco.

  14. Degradation of trans-ferulic acid in acidic aqueous medium by anodic oxidation, electro-Fenton and photoelectro-Fenton.

    PubMed

    Flores, Nelly; Sirés, Ignasi; Garrido, José Antonio; Centellas, Francesc; Rodríguez, Rosa María; Cabot, Pere Lluís; Brillas, Enric

    2016-12-01

    Solutions of pH 3.0 containing trans-ferulic acid, a phenolic compound in olive oil mill wastewater, have been comparatively degraded by anodic oxidation with electrogenerated H2O2 (AO-H2O2), electro-Fenton (EF) and photoelectro-Fenton (PEF). Trials were performed with a BDD/air-diffusion cell, where oxidizing OH was produced from water discharge at the BDD anode and/or in the solution bulk from Fenton's reaction between cathodically generated H2O2 and added catalytic Fe(2+). The substrate was very slowly removed by AO-H2O2, whereas it was very rapidly abated by EF and PEF, at similar rate in both cases, due to its fast reaction with OH in the bulk. The AO-H2O2 process yielded a slightly lower mineralization than EF, which promoted the accumulation of barely oxidizable products like Fe(III) complexes. In contrast, the fast photolysis of these latter species under irradiation with UVA light in PEF led to an almost total mineralization with 98% total organic carbon decay. The effect of current density and substrate concentration on the performance of all treatments was examined. Several solar PEF (SPEF) trials showed its viability for the treatment of wastewater containing trans-ferulic acid at larger scale. Four primary aromatic products were identified by GC-MS analysis of electrolyzed solutions, and final carboxylic acids like fumaric, acetic and oxalic were detected by ion-exclusion HPLC. A reaction sequence for trans-ferulic acid mineralization involving all the detected products is finally proposed. PMID:26691522

  15. Degradation of trans-ferulic acid in acidic aqueous medium by anodic oxidation, electro-Fenton and photoelectro-Fenton.

    PubMed

    Flores, Nelly; Sirés, Ignasi; Garrido, José Antonio; Centellas, Francesc; Rodríguez, Rosa María; Cabot, Pere Lluís; Brillas, Enric

    2016-12-01

    Solutions of pH 3.0 containing trans-ferulic acid, a phenolic compound in olive oil mill wastewater, have been comparatively degraded by anodic oxidation with electrogenerated H2O2 (AO-H2O2), electro-Fenton (EF) and photoelectro-Fenton (PEF). Trials were performed with a BDD/air-diffusion cell, where oxidizing OH was produced from water discharge at the BDD anode and/or in the solution bulk from Fenton's reaction between cathodically generated H2O2 and added catalytic Fe(2+). The substrate was very slowly removed by AO-H2O2, whereas it was very rapidly abated by EF and PEF, at similar rate in both cases, due to its fast reaction with OH in the bulk. The AO-H2O2 process yielded a slightly lower mineralization than EF, which promoted the accumulation of barely oxidizable products like Fe(III) complexes. In contrast, the fast photolysis of these latter species under irradiation with UVA light in PEF led to an almost total mineralization with 98% total organic carbon decay. The effect of current density and substrate concentration on the performance of all treatments was examined. Several solar PEF (SPEF) trials showed its viability for the treatment of wastewater containing trans-ferulic acid at larger scale. Four primary aromatic products were identified by GC-MS analysis of electrolyzed solutions, and final carboxylic acids like fumaric, acetic and oxalic were detected by ion-exclusion HPLC. A reaction sequence for trans-ferulic acid mineralization involving all the detected products is finally proposed.

  16. [Studies on transdermal delivery of ferulic acid through rat skin treated by microneedle arrays].

    PubMed

    Yang, Bing; Du, Shou-ying; Bai, Jie; Shang, Ke-xin; Lu, Yang; Li, Peng-yue

    2014-12-01

    In order to investigate the characteristics of transdermal delivery of ferulic acid under the treated of microneedle arrays and the influence on permeability of rat skin capillaries, improved Franz-cells were used in the transdermal delivery experiment with the rat skin of abdominal wall and the length of microneedle arrays, different insertion forces, retention time were studied in the influence of characteristics of transdermal delivery of FA. The amount of FA was determined by HPLC system. Intravenous injection Evans blue and FA was added after microneedle arrays treated. Established inflammation model was built by daubing dimethylbenzene. The amount of Evans blue in the rat skin was read at 590 nm wavelength with a Multiskan Go microplate reader. Compared with passive diffusion group the skin pretreated with microneedle arrays had a remarkable enhancement of FA transport (P <0.01). The accumulation of FA increased with the enhancement of insertion force as to as the increase of retention time. Microneedle arrays with different length had a remarkable enhancement of FA transport, but was not related to the increase of the length. The research of FA on the reduce of permeability of rat skin capillaries indicated that the skin pretreated with microneedle arrays could reduce the content of Evans blue in the skins of rat significantly compared with the untreated group. The permeation rate of ferulic acid transdermal delivery had remarkable increase under the treated of microneedle arrays and the length of microneedle arrays ,the retention time so as to the insertion force were important to the transdermal delivery of ferulic acid. PMID:25898576

  17. Generation of transgenic wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) accumulating heterologous endo-xylanase or ferulic acid esterase in the endosperm

    SciTech Connect

    Harholt, Jesper; Bach, Inga C; Lind-Bouquin, Solveig; Nunan, Kylie J.; Madrid, Susan M.; Brinch-Pedersen, Henrik; Holm, Preben B.; Scheller, Henrik V.

    2009-12-08

    Endo-xylanase (from Bacillus subtilis) or ferulic acid esterase (from Aspergillus niger) were expressed in wheat under the control of the endosperm specific 1DX5 glutenin promoter. Constructs both with and without the endoplasmic reticulum retention signal KDEL were used. Transgenic plants were recovered in all four cases but no qualitative differences could be observed whether KDEL was added or not. Endo-xylanase activity in transgenic grains was increased between two and three fold relative to wild type. The grains were shriveled and had a 25-33% decrease in mass. Extensive analysis of the cell walls showed a 10-15% increase in arabinose to xylose ratio, a 50% increase in the proportion of water extractable arabinoxylan, and a shift in the MW of the water extractable arabinoxylan from being mainly larger than 85 kD to being between 2 kD and 85 kD. Ferulic acid esterase expressing grains were also shriveled and the seed weight was decreased by 20-50%. No ferulic acid esterase activity could be detected in wild type grains whereas ferulic acid esterase activity was detected in transgenic lines. The grain cell walls had 15-40% increase in water unextractable arabinoxylan and a decrease in monomeric ferulic acid between 13 and 34%. In all the plants the observed changes are consistent with a plant response that serves to minimize the effect of the heterologously expressed enzymes by increasing arabinoxylan biosynthesis and cross-linking.

  18. Biotransformation of ferulic acid to vanillin in the packed bed-stirred fermentors

    PubMed Central

    Yan, Lei; Chen, Peng; Zhang, Shuang; Li, Suyue; Yan, Xiaojuan; Wang, Ningbo; Liang, Ning; Li, Hongyu

    2016-01-01

    We performed the biotransformation of ferulic acid to vanillin using Bacillus subtilis (B. subtilis) in the stirring packed-bed reactors filled with carbon fiber textiles (CFT). Scanning electron microscope (SEM), HPLC, qRT-PCR and ATP assay indicated that vanillin biotransformation is tightly related to cell growth, cellar activity and the extent of biofilm formation. The biotransformation was affected by hydraulic retention time (HRT), temperature, initial pH, stirring speed and ferulic acid concentration, and the maximum vanillin production was obtained at 20 h, 35 °C, 9.0, 200 rpm, 1.5 g/L, respectively. Repeated batch biotransformation performed under this optimized condition showed that the maximum productivity (0.047 g/L/h) and molar yield (60.43%) achieved in immobilized cell system were 1.84 and 3.61 folds higher than those achieved in free cell system. Therefore, the stirring reactor packed with CFT carrier biofilm formed by B. subtilis represented a valid biocatalytic system for the production of vanillin. PMID:27708366

  19. Synergistic inhibition of cancer cell proliferation with a combination of δ-tocotrienol and ferulic acid

    SciTech Connect

    Eitsuka, Takahiro; Tatewaki, Naoto; Nishida, Hiroshi; Kurata, Tadao; Nakagawa, Kiyotaka; Miyazawa, Teruo

    2014-10-24

    Highlights: • δ-Tocotrienol (δ-T3) and ferulic acid (FA) synergistically inhibit cancer cell growth. • The combination of δ-T3 and FA induces G1 arrest by up-regulating p21. • The synergy is attributed to an increase in the cellular concentration of δ-T3 by FA. - Abstract: Rice bran consists of many functional compounds and thus much attention has been focused on the health benefits of its components. Here, we investigated the synergistic inhibitory effects of its components, particularly δ-tocotrienol (δ-T3) and ferulic acid (FA), against the proliferation of an array of cancer cells, including DU-145 (prostate cancer), MCF-7 (breast cancer), and PANC-1 (pancreatic cancer) cells. The combination of δ-T3 and FA markedly reduced cell proliferation relative to δ-T3 alone, and FA had no effect when used alone. Although δ-T3 induced G1 arrest by up-regulating p21 in PANC-1 cells, more cells accumulated in G1 phase with the combination of δ-T3 and FA. This synergistic effect was attributed to an increase in the cellular concentration of δ-T3 by FA. Our results suggest that the combination of δ-T3 and FA may present a new strategy for cancer prevention and therapy.

  20. Preparation, characterization, and evaluation of liposomal ferulic acid in vitro and in vivo.

    PubMed

    Qin, Jing; Chen, DaWei; Lu, WeiGen; Xu, Huan; Yan, ChenYun; Hu, HaiYang; Chen, BaoYu; Qiao, MingXi; Zhao, XiuLi

    2008-06-01

    In the present study, various gradients were evaluated for efficient loading of weak acid into liposomes. Several salt gradients showed efficient loading of ferulic acid (FA) into liposomes and the optimized conditions were established in calcium acetate gradient method to obtain 80.2 +/- 5.2% entrapment efficiency (EE). Unilamellar vesicles were observed in micrographs and liposomal FA showed good stability. 80% of FA was released from liposomes within 5 h in vitro. There is a novel finding in this study: that drugs could be entrapped with a high solubility in the intraliposomal buffer in contrast to the low solubility in the extraliposomal buffer. The results of body distribution in rats indicated that liposomes could improve the body distribution of FA. For FA liposome, the concentration of FA in brain was two-fold higher than that of free FA. Liposomal FA was a promising approach to improve the body distribution of FA. PMID:18568910

  1. Development of a new ferulic acid certified reference material for use in clinical chemistry and pharmaceutical analysis.

    PubMed

    Yang, Dezhi; Wang, Fengfeng; Zhang, Li; Gong, Ningbo; Lv, Yang

    2015-05-01

    This study compares the results of three certified methods, namely differential scanning calorimetry (DSC), the mass balance (MB) method and coulometric titrimetry (CT), in the purity assessment of ferulic acid certified reference material (CRM). Purity and expanded uncertainty as determined by the three methods were respectively 99.81%, 0.16%; 99.79%, 0.16%; and 99.81%, 0.26% with, in all cases, a coverage factor (k) of 2 (P=95%). The purity results are consistent indicating that the combination of DSC, the MB method and CT provides a confident assessment of the purity of suitable CRMs like ferulic acid. PMID:26579451

  2. Development of a new ferulic acid certified reference material for use in clinical chemistry and pharmaceutical analysis

    PubMed Central

    Yang, Dezhi; Wang, Fengfeng; Zhang, Li; Gong, Ningbo; Lv, Yang

    2015-01-01

    This study compares the results of three certified methods, namely differential scanning calorimetry (DSC), the mass balance (MB) method and coulometric titrimetry (CT), in the purity assessment of ferulic acid certified reference material (CRM). Purity and expanded uncertainty as determined by the three methods were respectively 99.81%, 0.16%; 99.79%, 0.16%; and 99.81%, 0.26% with, in all cases, a coverage factor (k) of 2 (P=95%). The purity results are consistent indicating that the combination of DSC, the MB method and CT provides a confident assessment of the purity of suitable CRMs like ferulic acid. PMID:26579451

  3. Radical scavenging activity of lipophilized products from transesterification of flaxseed oil with cinnamic acid or ferulic acid.

    PubMed

    Choo, Wee-Sim; Birch, Edward John; Stewart, Ian

    2009-09-01

    Lipase-catalyzed transesterification of flaxseed oil with cinnamic acid (CA) or ferulic acid (FA) using an immobilized lipase from Candida antarctica (E.C. 3.1.1.3) was conducted to evaluate whether the lipophilized products provided enhanced antioxidant activity in the oil. Lipase-catalyzed transesterification of flaxseed oil with CA or FA produced a variety of lipophilized products (identified using ESI-MS-MS) such as monocinnamoyl/feruloyl-diacylglycerol, dicinnamoyl-monoacylglycerol and monocinnamoyl-monoacylglycerol. The free radical scavenging activity of the lipophilized products of lipase-catalyzed transesterification of flaxseed oil with CA or FA toward 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl radical (DPPH.) were both examined in ethanol and ethyl acetate. The polarity of the solvents proved important in determining the radical scavenging activity of the substrates. Unesterified FA showed the highest free radical scavenging activity among all substrates tested while CA had negligible activity. The esterification of CA or FA with flaxseed oil resulted in significant increase and decrease in the radical scavenging activity compared with the native phenolic acid, respectively. Based on the ratio of a substrate to DPPH. concentration, lipophilized FA was a much more efficient free radical scavenger compared to lipophilized CA and was able to provide enhanced antioxidant activity in the flaxseed oil. Lipophilized cinnamic acid did not provide enhanced radical scavenging activity in the flaxseed oil as the presence of natural hydrophilic antioxidants in the oil had much greater radical scavenging activity.

  4. Laccase-catalysed oxidation of ferulic acid and ethyl ferulate in aqueous medium: a green procedure for the synthesis of new compounds.

    PubMed

    Aljawish, Abdulhadi; Chevalot, Isabelle; Jasniewski, Jordane; Paris, Cédric; Scher, Joël; Muniglia, Lionel

    2014-02-15

    The enzymatic oxidation of ferulic acid (FA) and ethyl ferulate (EF) with Myceliophthora thermophila laccase, as biocatalyst, was performed in aqueous medium using an eco-friendly procedure to synthesize new active molecules. First, the commercial laccase was ultrafiltrated allowing for the elimination of phenolic contaminants and increasing the specific activity by a factor of 2. Then, kinetic parameters of this laccase were determined for both substrates (FA, EF), indicating a higher substrate affinity for ethyl ferulate. Additionally, enzymatic oxidation led to the synthesis of a FA-major product, exhibiting a molecular mass of 386 g/mol and a EF-major product with a molecular mass of 442 g/mol. Structural analyses by mass spectrometry allowed the identification of dimeric derivatives. The optical properties of the oxidation products showed the increase of red and yellow colours, with FA-products compared to EF-products. Additionally, enzymatic oxidation led to a decrease of antioxidant and cytotoxic activities compared to initial substrates. Consequently, this enzymatic procedure in aqueous medium could provide new compounds presenting optical, antioxidant and cytotoxic interest.

  5. Thioacidolysis Marker Compound for Ferulic Acid Incorporation into Angiosperm Lignins (and an Indicator for Cinnamoyl-coenzyme-A Reductase Deficiency

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    A molecular marker compound, derived from lignin by the thioacidolysis degradative method, for structures produced when ferulic acid is incorporated into lignification in angiosperms (poplar, Arabidopsis, tobacco) has been structurally identified as 1,2,2-trithioethyl ethylguaiacol [1-(4-hydroxy-3-m...

  6. [Pharmacokinetic effect of combined administration on spinosin and ferulic acid in monarch drug Ziziphi Spinosae Semen kernel].

    PubMed

    Gao, Rong; Li, Shan; Chen, Xian-jin; Wang, Xiao-feng; Wang, Shi-xiang; Fang, Min-feng

    2015-08-01

    To study the pharmacokinetic effect of different combined administration with monarch drug Ziziphi Spinosae Semen on its main components in rats. Sprague-Dawley (SD) rats were randomly divided into Ziziphi Spinosae Semen group, Ziziphi Spinosae Semen-Fructus Schisandrae Chinensis group, Ziziphi spinosae Semen-Salviae Miltiorrhize Radix et Rhizoma group and Zaoren Ansheng prescription group. After oral administration, HPLC was eluted with the mobile phase of acetonitrle-0.03% phosphate acid water in a gradient mode. The detection wavelength was 280 nm. The pharmacokinetic parameters of spinosin and ferulic acid were calculated by DAS 2. 0 software. Compared with Ziziphi Spinosae Semen group, Ziziphi Spinosae Semen-Fructus Schisandrae Chinensis group, Ziziphi Spinosae Semen-Salviae miltiorrhizae Radix et Rhizoma group showed a lower maximum plasma concentration (C(max)) and area under curve (AUC(0-t)) for spinosin and ferulic acid but higher clearance speed (CL/F); whereas the Zaoren Ansheng prescription group showed higher maximum plasma concentration (C(max)) and area under curve (AUC(0-t)) for spinosin and ferulic acid but lower clearance speed (CL/F). Compared with Ziziphi Spinosae Semen group, prescription group showed slower metabolism of spinosin and ferulic PMID:26790310

  7. Thermosensitive chitosan-based hydrogels for sustained release of ferulic acid on corneal wound healing.

    PubMed

    Tsai, Ching-Yao; Woung, Lin-Chung; Yen, Jiin-Cherng; Tseng, Po-Chen; Chiou, Shih-Hwa; Sung, Yen-Jen; Liu, Kuan-Ting; Cheng, Yung-Hsin

    2016-01-01

    Oxidative damage to cornea can be induced by alkaline chemical burn which may cause vision loss or blindness. Recent studies showed that exogenous application of natural antioxidants may be a potential treatment for corneal wound healing. However, low ocular bioavailability and short residence time are the limiting factors of topically administered antioxidants. Ferulic acid (FA) is a natural phenolic compound and an excellent antioxidant. The study was aimed to investigate the effects of FA in corneal epithelial cells (CECs) under oxidative stress and evaluate the feasibility of use the thermosensitive chitosan-based hydrogel containing FA for corneal wound healing. The results demonstrated that post-treatment of FA on CECs could decrease the inflammation-level and apoptosis. In the rabbit corneal alkali burn model, post-treatment FA-loaded hydrogel may promote the corneal wound healing. The results of study suggest that FA-loaded hydrogel may have the potential applications in treating corneal alkali burn. PMID:26453882

  8. UV screening of ferulic acid-zinc basic salt nanohybrid with controlled release rate.

    PubMed

    Biswick, Timothy; Park, Dae-Hwan; Shul, Yong-Gun; Hwang, Seong-Ju; Choy, Jin-Ho

    2011-01-01

    Ferulic acid (FA), an organic UV absorber and free radical scavenger, was intercalated into an inorganic zinc basic salt (ZBS) matrix to prepare a UV screening material. FA molecules were vertically oriented bilayer in the ZBS lattice with an expansion of approximately 22.7 angstroms along the c-axis. The FA-ZBS nanohybrid exhibited a superior UV-A approximately UV-B screening ability and an antioxidant activity that was comparable to that of a pure FA molecule. The in vitro release test showed the biphasic release of the FA molecules from the FA-ZBS nanohybrid that consisted of an initial burst, followed by a slow and sustained release. PMID:21446466

  9. The Effects of Ferulic Acid Against Oxidative Stress and Inflammation in Formaldehyde-Induced Hepatotoxicity.

    PubMed

    Gerin, Fethullah; Erman, Hayriye; Erboga, Mustafa; Sener, Umit; Yilmaz, Ahsen; Seyhan, Hatice; Gurel, Ahmet

    2016-08-01

    This study was designed to elucidate the protective effects of ferulic acid (FA) on formaldehyde-induced hepatotoxicity by measuring some routine biochemical parameters, cytokine levels, and oxidative stress-related parameters in addition to YKL-40 in male Wistar albino rats. Tissue superoxide dismutase (SOD), catalase (CAT), glutathione peroxidase (GSH-Px) activities, and tissue malondialdehyde (MDA) levels were measured. Also, serum YKL-40, TNF-α, IL-6, IL-1β, IL-8, total protein, albumin, total bilirubin concentrations, and AST, ALT, ALP, and LDH activities were measured. Histological specimens were examined in light microscopy. Formaldehyde significantly increased tissue MDA, and serum cytokine levels and also decreased activities of antioxidant enzymes. FA treatment decreased MDA and cytokine levels and increased activities of antioxidant enzymes. FA also alleviated degeneration due to formaldehyde toxicity. We suggested that FA can be used as a promising hepatoprotective agent against formaldehyde toxicity because of the obvious beneficial effects on oxidative stress parameters.

  10. Exposure or release of ferulic acid from wheat aleurone: impact on its antioxidant capacity.

    PubMed

    Rosa, Natalia N; Dufour, Claire; Lullien-Pellerin, Valérie; Micard, Valérie

    2013-12-01

    The relationship between the aleurone cell integrity and the exposure or release of bioavailable ferulic acid (FA) with the antioxidant capacity of aleurone in in vitro and under simulated gastric conditions was explored. The antioxidant capacity of aleurone was increased by around 2-fold when its median particle size was reduced to under 50 μm. The opening of aleurone cells increased the physical exposure of FA bound to the insoluble polysaccharides, which seemed to be responsible of the increased antioxidant capacity. Synergistic combination of xylanase and feruloyl esterase was found to be the most efficient enzymatic treatment releasing up to 86% of total FA in bioaccessible forms. This enzymatic treatment significantly enhanced the radical scavenging activity of aleurone by up to 4-fold, which overlapped the overall antioxidant potential estimated from the total content of FA in aleurone. The improvement in the antioxidant capacity of aleurone was also observed in the simulated gastric digestion by inhibition of lipid oxidation.

  11. Thermosensitive chitosan-based hydrogels for sustained release of ferulic acid on corneal wound healing.

    PubMed

    Tsai, Ching-Yao; Woung, Lin-Chung; Yen, Jiin-Cherng; Tseng, Po-Chen; Chiou, Shih-Hwa; Sung, Yen-Jen; Liu, Kuan-Ting; Cheng, Yung-Hsin

    2016-01-01

    Oxidative damage to cornea can be induced by alkaline chemical burn which may cause vision loss or blindness. Recent studies showed that exogenous application of natural antioxidants may be a potential treatment for corneal wound healing. However, low ocular bioavailability and short residence time are the limiting factors of topically administered antioxidants. Ferulic acid (FA) is a natural phenolic compound and an excellent antioxidant. The study was aimed to investigate the effects of FA in corneal epithelial cells (CECs) under oxidative stress and evaluate the feasibility of use the thermosensitive chitosan-based hydrogel containing FA for corneal wound healing. The results demonstrated that post-treatment of FA on CECs could decrease the inflammation-level and apoptosis. In the rabbit corneal alkali burn model, post-treatment FA-loaded hydrogel may promote the corneal wound healing. The results of study suggest that FA-loaded hydrogel may have the potential applications in treating corneal alkali burn.

  12. Evaluation of wound healing activity of ferulic acid in diabetic rats.

    PubMed

    Ghaisas, Mahesh M; Kshirsagar, Shashank B; Sahane, Rajkumari S

    2014-10-01

    In diabetic patients, there is impairment in angiogenesis, neovascularisation and failure in matrix metalloproteineases (MMPs), keratinocyte and fibroblast functions, which affects wound healing mechanism. Hence, diabetic patients are more prone to infections and ulcers, which finally result in gangrene. Ferulic acid (FA) is a natural antioxidant found in fruits and vegetables, such as tomatoes, rice bran and sweet corn. In this study, wound healing activity of FA was evaluated in streptozotocin-induced diabetic rats using excision wound model. FA-treated wounds were found to epithelise faster as compared with diabetic wound control group. The hydroxyproline and hexosamine content increased significantly when compared with diabetic wound control. FA effectively inhibited the lipid peroxidation and elevated the catalase, superoxide dismutase, glutathione and nitric oxide levels along with the increase in the serum zinc and copper levels probably aiding the wound healing process. Hence, the results indicate that FA significantly promotes wound healing in diabetic rats.

  13. Structure and Mechanism of Ferulic Acid Decarboxylase (FDC1) from Saccharomyces cerevisiae

    PubMed Central

    Bhuiya, Mohammad Wadud; Lee, Soon Goo

    2015-01-01

    The nonoxidative decarboxylation of aromatic acids occurs in a range of microbes and is of interest for bioprocessing and metabolic engineering. Although phenolic acid decarboxylases provide useful tools for bioindustrial applications, the molecular bases for how these enzymes function are only beginning to be examined. Here we present the 2.35-Å-resolution X-ray crystal structure of the ferulic acid decarboxylase (FDC1; UbiD) from Saccharomyces cerevisiae. FDC1 shares structural similarity with the UbiD family of enzymes that are involved in ubiquinone biosynthesis. The position of 4-vinylphenol, the product of p-coumaric acid decarboxylation, in the structure identifies a large hydrophobic cavity as the active site. Differences in the β2e-α5 loop of chains in the crystal structure suggest that the conformational flexibility of this loop allows access to the active site. The structure also implicates Glu285 as the general base in the nonoxidative decarboxylation reaction catalyzed by FDC1. Biochemical analysis showed a loss of enzymatic activity in the E285A mutant. Modeling of 3-methoxy-4-hydroxy-5-decaprenylbenzoate, a partial structure of the physiological UbiD substrate, in the binding site suggests that an ∼30-Å-long pocket adjacent to the catalytic site may accommodate the isoprenoid tail of the substrate needed for ubiquinone biosynthesis in yeast. The three-dimensional structure of yeast FDC1 provides a template for guiding protein engineering studies aimed at optimizing the efficiency of aromatic acid decarboxylation reactions in bioindustrial applications. PMID:25862228

  14. Evaluation of ability of ferulic acid to control growth and fumonisin production of Fusarium verticillioides and Fusarium proliferatum on maize based media.

    PubMed

    Ferrochio, Laura; Cendoya, Eugenia; Farnochi, María Cecilia; Massad, Walter; Ramirez, María Laura

    2013-10-15

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the efficacy of ferulic acid (1, 10, 20 and 25 mM) at different water activity (aw) values (0.99, 0.98, 0.96 and 0.93) at 25 °C on growth and fumonisin production by Fusarium verticillioides and Fusarium proliferatum on maize based media. For both Fusarium species, the lag phase significantly decreased (p ≤ 0.001), and the growth rates increased (p ≤ 0.001) at the lowest ferulic acid concentration used (1mM), regardless of the aw. However, high doses of ferulic acid (10 to 25 mM) significantly reduced (p ≤ 0.001) the growth rate of both Fusarium species, regardless of the a(w). In general, growth rate inhibition increased as ferulic acid doses increased and as media aw decreased. Fumonisin production profiles of both Fusarium species showed that low ferulic acid concentrations (1-10mM) significantly increased (p ≤ 0.001) toxin production, regardless of the aw. High doses of ferulic acid (20-25 mM) reduced fumonisin production, in comparison with the controls, by both Fusarium species but they were not statistically significant in most cases. The results show that the use of ferulic acid as a post-harvest strategy to reduce mycotoxin accumulation on maize needs to be discussed.

  15. Ferulic acid regulates the AKT/GSK-3β/CRMP-2 signaling pathway in a middle cerebral artery occlusion animal model.

    PubMed

    Gim, Sang-A; Sung, Jin-Hee; Shah, Fawad-Ali; Kim, Myeong-Ok; Koh, Phil-Ok

    2013-06-01

    Ferulic acid, a component of the plants Angelica sinensis (Oliv.) Diels and Ligusticum chuanxiong Hort, exerts a neuroprotective effect by regulating various signaling pathways. This study showed that ferulic acid treatment prevents the injury-induced increase of collapsin response mediator protein 2 (CRMP-2) in focal cerebral ischemia. Glycogen synthase kinase-3β (GSK-3β) regulates CRMP-2 function through phosphorylation of CRMP-2. Moreover, the pro-apoptotic activity of GSK-3β is inactivated by phosphorylation by Akt. This study investigated whether ferulic acid modulates the expression of CRMP-2 and its upstream targets, Akt and GSK-3β, in focal cerebral ischemia. Male rats were treated immediately with ferulic acid (100 mg/kg, i.v.) or vehicle after middle cerebral artery occlusion (MCAO), and then cerebral cortices were collected 24 hr after MCAO. MCAO resulted in decreased levels of phospho-Akt and phospho-GSK-3β, while ferulic acid treatment prevented the decrease in the levels of these proteins. Moreover, phospho-CRMP-2 and CRMP-2 levels increased during MCAO, whereas ferulic acid attenuated these injury-induced increases. These results demonstrate that ferulic acid regulates the Akt/GSK-3β/CRMP-2 signaling pathway in focal cerebral ischemic injury, thereby protecting against brain injury. PMID:23825478

  16. Protective effects of ferulic acid and related polyphenols against glyoxal- or methylglyoxal-induced cytotoxicity and oxidative stress in isolated rat hepatocytes.

    PubMed

    Maruf, Abdullah Al; Lip, HoYin; Wong, Horace; O'Brien, Peter J

    2015-06-01

    Glyoxal (GO) and methylglyoxal (MGO) cause protein and nucleic acid carbonylation and oxidative stress by forming reactive oxygen and carbonyl species which have been associated with toxic effects that may contribute to cardiovascular disease, complications associated with diabetes mellitus, Alzheimer's and Parkinson's disease. GO and MGO can be formed through oxidation of commonly used reducing sugars e.g., fructose under chronic hyperglycemic conditions. GO and MGO form advanced glycation end products which lead to an increased potential for developing inflammatory diseases. In the current study, we have investigated the protective effects of ferulic acid and related polyphenols e.g., caffeic acid, p-coumaric acid, methyl ferulate, ethyl ferulate, and ferulaldehyde on GO- or MGO-induced cytotoxicity and oxidative stress (ROS formation, protein carbonylation and mitochondrial membrane potential maintenance) in freshly isolated rat hepatocytes. To investigate and compare the protective effects of ferulic acid and related polyphenols against GO- or MGO-induced toxicity, five hepatocyte models were used: (a) control hepatocytes, (b) GSH-depleted hepatocytes, (c) catalase-inhibited hepatocytes, (d) aldehyde dehydrogenase (ALDH2)-inhibited hepatocytes, and (e) hepatocyte inflammation system (a non-toxic H2O2-generating system). All of the polyphenols tested significantly decreased GO- or MGO-induced cytotoxicity, ROS formation and improved mitochondrial membrane potential in these models. The rank order of their effectiveness was caffeic acid∼ferulaldehyde>ferulic acid>ethyl ferulate>methyl ferulate>p-coumaric acid. Ferulic acid was found to decrease protein carbonylation in GSH-depleted hepatocytes. This study suggests that ferulic acid and related polyphenols can be used therapeutically to inhibit or decrease GO- or MGO-induced hepatotoxicity.

  17. Cytoprotective mechanism of ferulic acid against high glucose-induced oxidative stress in cardiomyocytes and hepatocytes

    PubMed Central

    Song, Yuan; Wen, Luona; Sun, Jianxia; Bai, Weibin; Jiao, Rui; Hu, Yunfeng; Peng, Xichun; He, Yong; Ou, Shiyi

    2016-01-01

    Background Ferulic acid (FA), a phenolic acid, is a potential therapy for diabetes mellitus. FA has been shown to protect against hepatic and myocardial injury and oxidative stress in obese rats with late-stage diabetes, but the mechanism of the antioxidative activity of FA is still unclear. Objective The aim of this study was to elucidate whether FA can prevent damage to cardiomyocytes and hepatocytes caused by high glucose (HG)-induced oxidative stress and whether the protection effects of FA on these cells are related to the Keap1-Nrf2-ARE signaling pathways. Design Cells were divided into four groups: a control group (cultured with normal medium), an HG group (medium containing 80 mmol/L glucose), an FA+HG group (medium containing 80 mmol/L glucose and 1, 5, or 10 µg/mL FA), and a dimethylbiguanide (DMBG)+HG group (medium containing 80 mmol/L glucose and 50 µg/mL DMBG). Results FA treatment significantly increased cell viability and significantly decreased cell apoptosis compared with the HG-treated group. Moreover, FA down-regulated the expression of Keap1 protein and up-regulated the expression of Nrf2 protein and gene transcription of HO-1 and glutathione S-transferase (GST) in a dose-dependent manner. Conclusion FA alleviated the HG-induced oxidative stress and decreased cell apoptosis in hepatocytes and cardiomyocytes. These effects were associated with the Keap1-Nrf2-ARE signaling pathway. PMID:26869273

  18. Coencapsulation of Ferulic and Gallic acid in hp-b-cyclodextrin.

    PubMed

    Olga, Gortzi; Styliani, Christophoridou; Ioannis, Roussis G

    2015-10-15

    The complexes formed by two polyphenols, trans-Ferulic acid (FA) and Gallic acid (GA) with 2-hydroxypropyl-b-cyclodextrin (HPβCD), by the spray-drying method, were studied. Encapsulation-efficiencies (EE) of the complexes prepared were evaluated by HPLC. In the case of co-encapsulation, the EE of GA was lowered, whereas that of FA was almost stable, indicating a possible antagonistic relationship between the two phenols for the HPβCD cavity. The physicochemical characterization of the complexes was carried out by Fourier Transform Infrared Spectroscopy (FT-IR), Differential Scanning Calorimetry (DSC), and Scanning Electron Microscopy (SEM). SEM observations revealed that the coencapsulated phenolic complex resulted in a more rounded shape outer surfaces of HPβCD than when encapsulated separately. FT-IR and DSC data indicated that the two polyphenols exhibit a possible interaction in the coencapsulated complex. The complexes showed no loss of their ability to scavenge DPPH radical relatively to the single agent at the concentrations used.

  19. Free radical mediated grafting of chitosan with caffeic and ferulic acids: structures and antioxidant activity.

    PubMed

    Liu, Jun; Wen, Xiao-yuan; Lu, Jian-feng; Kan, Juan; Jin, Chang-hai

    2014-04-01

    In this study, two water soluble chitosan derivatives were synthesized by grafting caffeic acid (CA) and ferulic acid (FA) onto chitosan via a free radical mediated method. The structural characterization, antioxidant activity in vitro and in vivo of chitosan derivatives were determined. Results showed that the UV-vis absorption peaks of chitosan derivatives shifted toward longer wavelengths. FT-IR spectroscopy exhibited the typical phenolic characteristics within 1450-1600 cm(-1). (1)H NMR spectroscopy showed new peaks of phenyl protons at 6.2-7.6 ppm. (13)C NMR spectroscopy showed additional peaks between 110 and 150 ppm assigned to the C=C of phenolic groups. These results all confirmed the successful grafting of CA and FA onto chitosan backbones. The chitosan derivatives had decreased thermal stability and crystallinity as compared to chitosan. In vitro assays showed that the antioxidant activity decreased in the order of CA-g-chitosan>FA-g-chitosan>chitosan. Moreover, administration of the chitosan derivatives could significantly increase antioxidant enzymes activities and decrease malondialdehyde levels in both serums and livers of d-galactose induced aging mice. Our results indicated the potential of CA-g-chitosan and FA-g-chitosan in the development of novel antioxidant agents.

  20. Ferulic acid chronic treatment exerts antidepressant-like effect: role of antioxidant defense system.

    PubMed

    Lenzi, Juliana; Rodrigues, Andre Felipe; Rós, Adriana de Sousa; de Castro, Amanda Blanski; de Castro, Bianca Blanski; de Lima, Daniela Delwing; Magro, Débora Delwing Dal; Zeni, Ana Lúcia Bertarello

    2015-12-01

    Oxidative stress has been claimed a place in pathophysiology of depression; however, the details of the neurobiology of this condition remains incompletely understood. Recently, treatments employing antioxidants have been thoroughly researched. Ferulic acid (FA) is a phenolic compound with antioxidant and antidepressant-like effects. Herein, we investigated the involvement of the antioxidant activity of chronic oral FA treatment in its antidepressant-like effect using the tail suspension test (TST) and the forced swimming test (FST) in mice. The modulation of antioxidant system in blood, hippocampus and cerebral cortex was assessed after stress induction through TST and FST. Our results show that FA at the dose of 1 mg/kg has antidepressant-like effect without affecting locomotor activity. The stress induced by despair tests was able to decrease significantly the activities of superoxide dismutase (SOD) in the blood, catalase (CAT) in the blood and cerebral cortex and glutathione peroxidase (GSH-Px) in the cerebral cortex. Thiobarbituric acid-reactive substances (TBA-RS) levels were increased significantly in the cerebral cortex. Furthermore, the results show that FA was capable to increase SOD, CAT and GSH-Px activities and decrease TBA-RS levels in the blood, hippocampus and cerebral cortex. These findings demonstrated that FA treatment in low doses is capable to exert antidepressant-like effect with the involvement of the antioxidant defense system modulation.

  1. Extraction of p-coumaric acid and ferulic acid using surfactant-based aqueous two-phase system.

    PubMed

    Dhamole, Pradip B; Demanna, Dhanashree; Desai, S A

    2014-09-01

    Ferulic acid (FA) and p-coumaric acid (pCA) are high-value products that can be obtained by alkaline hydrolysis of lignocellulose. Present work explores the potential of surfactant-based cloud-point extraction (CPE) for FA and pCA extraction from corn cob hydrolysate. More than 90 % (w/w) extraction of both FA and pCA was achieved from model system with L92. The partition coefficient of FA and pCA in L92 aqueous phase system was 35 and 55, respectively. A significant enrichment (8-10-fold) of both FA and pCA was achieved in surfactant-rich phase. Furthermore, the downstream process volume was reduced by 10 to 13 times. Optimized conditions (5 % v/v L92 and pH 3.0) resulted into 85 and 89 % extraction of FA and p-CA, respectively, from alkaline corn cob hydrolysate. Biocompatibility tests were carried out for L92 for ethanol fermentation and found to be biocompatible. Thus, the new surfactant-based CPE system not only concentrated FA and pCA but also reduced the process volume significantly. Further, aqueous phase containing sugars can be used for ethanol fermentation. PMID:25082768

  2. A New Pro-Prodrug Aminoacid-Based for Trans-Ferulic Acid and Silybin Intestinal Release

    PubMed Central

    Trombino, Sonia; Ferrarelli, Teresa; Cassano, Roberta

    2014-01-01

    The aim of this work was the preparation and characterization of a pro-prodrug able to simultaneously transport silybin, a drug possessing various pharmacological effects, and trans-ferulic acid, a known antioxidant. More specifically, l-phenylalanine-N-(4-hydroxy-3-methoxy-phenyl) prop-2-en-O-(2R,3R)-3,5,7-trihydroxy-2-((2R,3R)-3-(4-hydroxy-3-methoxyphenyl)-2-(hydroxymethyl)-2,3-dihydro-benzo-(1,4)-dioxin-6-yl)croman-4-one was synthesized by using the aminoacid l-phenylalanine (l-Phe) as carrier. Indeed, l-Phe is characterized by an intrinsic chemical reactivity due to the presence of an amino group, placed on the chiral center, and of a carboxylic group. The synthesis has been characterized first by adding silybin by means of carboxylic group and then, with the aim to confer antioxidant properties to this new carrier, by linking trans-ferulic acid to l-Phe via amino group. The so obtained derivative was then characterized by FT-IR, and 1H-NMR spectroscopies. Furthermore, its ability to inhibit lipid peroxidation induced by tert-butyl hydroperoxide in rat liver microsomes, was evaluated. The 1,1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl radical-scavenging effect, was also assessed. The release of silybin and trans-ferulic acid was determined in simulated gastric and intestinal fluids over the time. The results showed that the covalent bond between both (i) silybin; or (ii) trans-ferulic acid and the amino acid was degraded by enzymatic reactions. In addition, the pro-prodrug, showed strong antioxidant and scavenger activities. Due to these properties, this new pro-prodrug could be applied for the treatment of intestinal pathologies and it might improve the therapeutic potential of silybin which is strongly limited by its low solubility. PMID:25062426

  3. Wheat bran promotes enrichment within the human colonic microbiota of butyrate-producing bacteria that release ferulic acid.

    PubMed

    Duncan, Sylvia H; Russell, Wendy R; Quartieri, Andrea; Rossi, Maddalena; Parkhill, Julian; Walker, Alan W; Flint, Harry J

    2016-07-01

    Cereal fibres such as wheat bran are considered to offer human health benefits via their impact on the intestinal microbiota. We show here by 16S rRNA gene-based community analysis that providing amylase-pretreated wheat bran as the sole added energy source to human intestinal microbial communities in anaerobic fermentors leads to the selective and progressive enrichment of a small number of bacterial species. In particular, OTUs corresponding to uncultured Lachnospiraceae (Firmicutes) related to Eubacterium xylanophilum and Butyrivibrio spp. were strongly enriched (by five to 160 fold) over 48 h in four independent experiments performed with different faecal inocula, while nine other Firmicutes OTUs showed > 5-fold enrichment in at least one experiment. Ferulic acid was released from the wheat bran during degradation but was rapidly converted to phenylpropionic acid derivatives via hydrogenation, demethylation and dehydroxylation to give metabolites that are detected in human faecal samples. Pure culture work using bacterial isolates related to the enriched OTUs, including several butyrate-producers, demonstrated that the strains caused substrate weight loss and released ferulic acid, but with limited further conversion. We conclude that breakdown of wheat bran involves specialist primary degraders while the conversion of released ferulic acid is likely to involve a multi-species pathway. PMID:26636660

  4. Wheat bran promotes enrichment within the human colonic microbiota of butyrate‐producing bacteria that release ferulic acid

    PubMed Central

    Duncan, Sylvia H.; Russell, Wendy R.; Quartieri, Andrea; Rossi, Maddalena; Parkhill, Julian; Flint, Harry J.

    2016-01-01

    Summary Cereal fibres such as wheat bran are considered to offer human health benefits via their impact on the intestinal microbiota. We show here by 16S rRNA gene‐based community analysis that providing amylase‐pretreated wheat bran as the sole added energy source to human intestinal microbial communities in anaerobic fermentors leads to the selective and progressive enrichment of a small number of bacterial species. In particular, OTUs corresponding to uncultured Lachnospiraceae (Firmicutes) related to E ubacterium xylanophilum and B utyrivibrio spp. were strongly enriched (by five to 160 fold) over 48 h in four independent experiments performed with different faecal inocula, while nine other Firmicutes OTUs showed > 5‐fold enrichment in at least one experiment. Ferulic acid was released from the wheat bran during degradation but was rapidly converted to phenylpropionic acid derivatives via hydrogenation, demethylation and dehydroxylation to give metabolites that are detected in human faecal samples. Pure culture work using bacterial isolates related to the enriched OTUs, including several butyrate‐producers, demonstrated that the strains caused substrate weight loss and released ferulic acid, but with limited further conversion. We conclude that breakdown of wheat bran involves specialist primary degraders while the conversion of released ferulic acid is likely to involve a multi‐species pathway. PMID:26636660

  5. Wheat bran promotes enrichment within the human colonic microbiota of butyrate-producing bacteria that release ferulic acid.

    PubMed

    Duncan, Sylvia H; Russell, Wendy R; Quartieri, Andrea; Rossi, Maddalena; Parkhill, Julian; Walker, Alan W; Flint, Harry J

    2016-07-01

    Cereal fibres such as wheat bran are considered to offer human health benefits via their impact on the intestinal microbiota. We show here by 16S rRNA gene-based community analysis that providing amylase-pretreated wheat bran as the sole added energy source to human intestinal microbial communities in anaerobic fermentors leads to the selective and progressive enrichment of a small number of bacterial species. In particular, OTUs corresponding to uncultured Lachnospiraceae (Firmicutes) related to Eubacterium xylanophilum and Butyrivibrio spp. were strongly enriched (by five to 160 fold) over 48 h in four independent experiments performed with different faecal inocula, while nine other Firmicutes OTUs showed > 5-fold enrichment in at least one experiment. Ferulic acid was released from the wheat bran during degradation but was rapidly converted to phenylpropionic acid derivatives via hydrogenation, demethylation and dehydroxylation to give metabolites that are detected in human faecal samples. Pure culture work using bacterial isolates related to the enriched OTUs, including several butyrate-producers, demonstrated that the strains caused substrate weight loss and released ferulic acid, but with limited further conversion. We conclude that breakdown of wheat bran involves specialist primary degraders while the conversion of released ferulic acid is likely to involve a multi-species pathway.

  6. Structural Basis of Enzymatic Activity for the Ferulic Acid Decarboxylase (FADase) from Enterobacter sp. Px6-4

    PubMed Central

    Liang, Lianming; Sun, Yuna; Huang, Jingwen; Li, Xuemei; Cao, Yi; Meng, Zhaohui; Zhang, Ke-Qin

    2011-01-01

    Microbial ferulic acid decarboxylase (FADase) catalyzes the transformation of ferulic acid to 4-hydroxy-3-methoxystyrene (4-vinylguaiacol) via non-oxidative decarboxylation. Here we report the crystal structures of the Enterobacter sp. Px6-4 FADase and the enzyme in complex with substrate analogues. Our analyses revealed that FADase possessed a half-opened bottom β-barrel with the catalytic pocket located between the middle of the core β-barrel and the helical bottom. Its structure shared a high degree of similarity with members of the phenolic acid decarboxylase (PAD) superfamily. Structural analysis revealed that FADase catalyzed reactions by an “open-closed” mechanism involving a pocket of 8×8×15 Å dimension on the surface of the enzyme. The active pocket could directly contact the solvent and allow the substrate to enter when induced by substrate analogues. Site-directed mutagenesis showed that the E134A mutation decreased the enzyme activity by more than 60%, and Y21A and Y27A mutations abolished the enzyme activity completely. The combined structural and mutagenesis results suggest that during decarboxylation of ferulic acid by FADase, Trp25 and Tyr27 are required for the entering and proper orientation of the substrate while Glu134 and Asn23 participate in proton transfer. PMID:21283705

  7. Isofunctional enzymes PAD1 and UbiX catalyze formation of a novel cofactor required by ferulic acid decarboxylase and 4-hydroxy-3-polyprenylbenzoic acid decarboxylase.

    PubMed

    Lin, Fengming; Ferguson, Kyle L; Boyer, David R; Lin, Xiaoxia Nina; Marsh, E Neil G

    2015-04-17

    The decarboxylation of antimicrobial aromatic acids such as phenylacrylic acid (cinnamic acid) and ferulic acid by yeast requires two enzymes described as phenylacrylic acid decarboxylase (PAD1) and ferulic acid decarboxylase (FDC). These enzymes are of interest for various biotechnological applications, such as the production of chemical feedstocks from lignin under mild conditions. However, the specific role of each protein in catalyzing the decarboxylation reaction remains unknown. To examine this, we have overexpressed and purified both PAD1 and FDC from E. coli. We demonstrate that PAD1 is a flavin mononucleotide (FMN)-containing protein. However, it does not function as a decarboxylase. Rather, PAD1 catalyzes the formation of a novel, diffusible cofactor required by FDC for decarboxylase activity. Coexpression of FDC and PAD1 results in the production of FDC with high levels cofactor bound. Holo-FDC catalyzes the decarboxylation of phenylacrylic acid, coumaric acid and ferulic acid with apparent kcat ranging from 1.4-4.6 s(-1). The UV-visible and mass spectra of the cofactor indicate that it appears to be a novel, modified form of reduced FMN; however, its instability precluded determination of its structure. The E. coli enzymes UbiX and UbiD are related by sequence to PAD1 and FDC respectively and are involved in the decarboxylation of 4-hydroxy-3-octaprenylbenzoic acid, an intermediate in ubiquinone biosynthesis. We found that endogenous UbiX can also activate FDC. This implies that the same cofactor is required for decarboxylation of 4-hydroxy-3-polyprenylbenzoic acid by UbiD and suggests a wider role for this cofactor in metabolism.

  8. Ferulic acid-carbazole hybrid compounds: Combination of cholinesterase inhibition, antioxidant and neuroprotection as multifunctional anti-Alzheimer agents.

    PubMed

    Fang, Lei; Chen, Mohao; Liu, Zhikun; Fang, Xubin; Gou, Shaohua; Chen, Li

    2016-02-15

    In order to search for novel multifunctional anti-Alzheimer agents, a series of ferulic acid-carbazole hybrid compounds were designed and synthesized. Ellman's assay revealed that the hybrid compounds showed moderate to potent inhibitory activity against the cholinesterases. Particularly, the AChE inhibition potency of compound 5k (IC50 1.9μM) was even 5-fold higher than that of galantamine. In addition, the target compounds showed pronounced antioxidant ability and neuroprotective property, especially against the ROS-induced toxicity. Notably, the neuroprotective effect of 5k was obviously superior to that of the mixture of ferulic acid and carbazole, indicating the therapeutic effect of the hybrid compound is better than the combination administration of the corresponding mixture.

  9. Ferulic acid-carbazole hybrid compounds: Combination of cholinesterase inhibition, antioxidant and neuroprotection as multifunctional anti-Alzheimer agents.

    PubMed

    Fang, Lei; Chen, Mohao; Liu, Zhikun; Fang, Xubin; Gou, Shaohua; Chen, Li

    2016-02-15

    In order to search for novel multifunctional anti-Alzheimer agents, a series of ferulic acid-carbazole hybrid compounds were designed and synthesized. Ellman's assay revealed that the hybrid compounds showed moderate to potent inhibitory activity against the cholinesterases. Particularly, the AChE inhibition potency of compound 5k (IC50 1.9μM) was even 5-fold higher than that of galantamine. In addition, the target compounds showed pronounced antioxidant ability and neuroprotective property, especially against the ROS-induced toxicity. Notably, the neuroprotective effect of 5k was obviously superior to that of the mixture of ferulic acid and carbazole, indicating the therapeutic effect of the hybrid compound is better than the combination administration of the corresponding mixture. PMID:26795115

  10. Effects of ferulic acid on antioxidant activity in Angelicae Sinensis Radix, Chuanxiong Rhizoma, and their combination.

    PubMed

    Wang, Lin-Yan; Tang, Yu-Ping; Liu, Xin; Zhu, Min; Tao, Wei-Wei; Li, Wei-Xia; Duan, Jin-Ao

    2015-06-01

    The present study aimed at exploring different roles of the same compound in different environment, using preparative HPLC, and the significance to investigating bio-active constituents in traditional Chinese medicine (TCM) on the basis of holism. In this study, the depletion of target component ferulic acid (FA) by using preparative HPLC followed by antioxidant activity testing was applied to investigate the roles of FA in Angelicae Sinensis Radix (DG), Chuanxiong Rhizoma (CX) and their combination (GX). The antioxidant activity was performed by 1, 1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) radical-scavenging activity testing. FA was successfully and exclusively depleted from DG, CX, and GX, respectively. By comparing the effects of the samples, it was found that FA was one of the main antioxidant constituents in DG, CX and GX, and the roles of FA were DG > CX > GX. Furthermore, the effects of FA varied at different doses in these herbs. This study provided a reliable and effective approach to clarifying the contribution of same compound in different TCMs to their bio-activities. The role of a constituent in different TCMs might be different, and a component with the same content might have different effects in different chemical environments. Furthermore, this study also suggested the potential utilization of preparative HPLC in the characterization of the roles of multi-ingredients in TCM. PMID:26073335

  11. [Study on recovery and its influencing factors of ferulic acid and tetramethylpyrazine in cerebral microdialysis probe].

    PubMed

    Liao, Wei-guo; Wang, Li-sheng; Fan, Wen-tao; Li, Zhou; Yu, Jian-ye; Liao, Feng-yun; Wu, Yin-ai; Ba, Wen-qiang; Wang, Ding

    2015-11-01

    To establish a method for detecting microdialysis recovery of tetramethylpyrazine (TMP) and ferulic acid (FA) and investigating the influencing factors, providing the basis for further in vivo microdialysis experiments. The concentration of FA and TMP in dialysates were determined by high pressure liquid chromatography ( HPLC) and probe recovery were calculated respectively. The influence of the flow rates, medium concentration, temperature and in vivo probe stability on the recovery of FA and TMP were investigated by using concentration difference method (incremental method and decrement method). The recovery obtained by incremental method were similar to by decrement method. The in vitro recovery rate of FA and TMP decreased with the increase of 1-2.5 μL min(-1), and increased obviously with the temperature of 25-42 degrees C under the same conditions. The concentration of FA and TMP had no obvious effect on the probe recovery under the same flow rate. In addition, the recovery of TMP and FA remained stable and showed similar trends under the condition of four concentration cycles, indicating that the intra day reproducibility of the concentration difference method was good. The recovery of brain microdialysis probes in vivo 8 h maintained a relatively stable, but certain differences existed between different brain microdialysis probes, demonstrating that each probe was required for recovery correction in vivo experiment. Microdialysis sampling can be used for the local brain pharmacokinetic study of FA and TMP, and retrodialysis method can be used in probe recovery of FA and TMP in vivo. PMID:27071270

  12. Ultrasensitive Detection of Ferulic Acid Using Poly(diallyldimethylammonium chloride) Functionalized Graphene-Based Electrochemical Sensor

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Lin-jie; Gao, Xia; Zhang, Pei; Feng, Shi-lan; Hu, Fang-di; Li, Ying-dong; Wang, Chun-ming

    2014-01-01

    The electrochemical redox of ferulic acid (FA) was investigated systematically by cyclic voltammetry (CV) with a poly(diallyldimethylammonium chloride) functionalized graphene-modified glassy carbon electrode (PDDA-G/GCE) as a working electrode. A simple and sensitive differential pulse voltammetry (DPV) technique was proposed for the direct quantitative determination of FA in Angelica sinensis and spiked human urine samples for the first time. The dependence of the intensities of currents and potentials on nature of the supporting electrolyte, pH, scan rate, and concentration was investigated. Under optimal conditions, the proposed sensor exhibited excellent electrochemical sensitivity to FA, and the oxidation peak current was proportional to FA concentration in the range of 8.95 × 10−8 M ~5.29 × 10−5 M, with a relatively low detection limit of 4.42 × 10−8 M. This fabricated sensor also displayed acceptable reproducibility, long-term stability, and high selectivity with negligible interferences from common interfering species. Besides, it was applied to detect FA in Angelica sinensis and biological samples with satisfactory results, making it a potential alternative tool for the quantitative detection of FA in pharmaceutical analysis. PMID:24900937

  13. Preparation of ferulic acid from agricultural wastes: its improved extraction and purification.

    PubMed

    Tilay, Ashwini; Bule, Mahesh; Kishenkumar, Jyoti; Annapure, Uday

    2008-09-10

    Ferulic acid (FA) is a phenolic antioxidant present in plants, which is widely used in the food and cosmetic industry. In the present study, various agricultural wastes such as maize bran, rice bran, wheat bran, wheat straw, sugar cane baggasse, pineapple peels, orange peels, and pomegranate peels were screened for the presence of esterified FA (EFA). Among the sources screened, maize bran was found to contain the highest amount of EFA. Pineapple peels, orange peels, and pomegranate peels were also found to contain traces of EFA. Alkaline extraction of EFA from maize bran was carried out using 2 M NaOH. Response surface methodology (RSM) was used for optimization of EFA extraction, which resulted in a 1.3-fold increase as compared to the unoptimized conventional extraction technique. FA was analyzed by means of high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC). Purification was carried out by adsorption chromatography using Amberlite XAD-16 followed by preparative high-performance thin-layer chromatography (HPTLC). The recovery of Amberlite XAD-16 purified FA was up to 57.97% with HPLC purity 50.89%. The fold purity achieved was 1.35. After preparative HPTLC, the maximum HPLC purity obtained was 95.35% along with an increase in fold purity up to 2.53.

  14. Ferulic acid ameliorates memory impairment in d-galactose-induced aging mouse model.

    PubMed

    Yang, Honggai; Qu, Zhuo; Zhang, Jingze; Huo, Liqin; Gao, Jing; Gao, Wenyuan

    2016-11-01

    Ferulic acid (FA) acts as a powerful antioxidant against various age-related diseases. To investigate the effect and underlying mechanism of FA against d-galactose(d-gal)-induced memory deficit, mice were injected with d-gal to induce memory impairment and simultaneously treated with FA and donepezil. The behavioral results revealed that chronic FA treatment reversed d-gal-induced memory impairment. Further, FA treatment inhibited d-gal-induced AChE activity and oxidative stress via increase of superoxide dismutase activity and reduced glutathione content, as well as decrease of malondialdehyde and nitric oxide levels. We also observed that FA significantly inhibits inflammation in the brain through reduction of NF-κB and IL-1β by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. Additionally, FA treatment significantly reduces the caspase-3 level in the hippocampus of d-gal-treated mice. Hematoxylin and eosin and Nissl staining showed that FA prevents neurodegeneration induced by d-gal. These findings showed that FA inhibits d-gal-induced AChE activity, oxidative stress, neuroinflammation and neurodegeneration, and consequently ameliorates memory impairment.

  15. Ferulic Acid: A Hope for Alzheimer’s Disease Therapy from Plants

    PubMed Central

    Sgarbossa, Antonella; Giacomazza, Daniela; di Carlo, Marta

    2015-01-01

    Alzheimer’s disease (AD) is a neurodegenerative disorder characterized by the deposition of extracellular amyloid-beta peptide (Aβ) and intracellular neurofibrillar tangles, associated with loss of neurons in the brain and consequent learning and memory deficits. Aβ is the major component of the senile plaques and is believed to play a central role in the development and progress of AD both in oligomer and fibril forms. Inhibition of the formation of Aβ fibrils as well as the destabilization of preformed Aβ in the Central Nervous System (CNS) would be an attractive therapeutic target for the treatment of AD. Moreover, a large number of studies indicate that oxidative stress and mitochondrial dysfunction may play an important role in AD and their suppression or reduction via antioxidant use could be a promising preventive or therapeutic intervention for AD patients. Many antioxidant compounds have been demonstrated to protect the brain from Aβ neurotoxicity. Ferulic acid (FA) is an antioxidant naturally present in plant cell walls with anti-inflammatory activities and it is able to act as a free radical scavenger. Here we present the role of FA as inhibitor or disaggregating agent of amyloid structures as well as its effects on biological models. PMID:26184304

  16. Differential Inhibition by Ferulic Acid of Nitrate and Ammonium Uptake in Zea mays L. 1

    PubMed Central

    Bergmark, Christine L.; Jackson, William A.; Volk, Richard J.; Blum, Udo

    1992-01-01

    The influence of the allelopathic compound ferulic acid (FA) on nitrogen uptake from solutions containing both NO3− and NH4+ was examined in 8-day-old nitrogen-depleted corn (Zea mays L.) seedlings. Concurrent effects on uptake of Cl− and K+ also were assessed. The presence of 250 micromolar FA inhibited the initial (0-1 hours) rate of NO3− uptake and also prevented development of the NO3−-inducible accelerated rate. The pattern of recovery when FA was removed was interpreted as indicating a rapid relief of FA-restricted NO3− uptake activity, followed by a reinitiation of the induction of that activity. No inhibition of NO3− reduction was detected. Ammonium uptake was less sensitive than NO3− uptake to inhibition by FA. An inhibition of Cl− uptake occurred as induction of the NO3− transport system developed in the absence of FA. Alterations of Cl− uptake in the presence of FA were, therefore, a result of a beneficial effect, because NO3− uptake was restricted, and a direct inhibitory effect. The presence of FA increased the initial net K+ loss from the roots during exposure to the low K, ammonium nitrate uptake solution and delayed the recovery to positive net uptake, but it did not alter the general pattern of the response. The implications of the observations are discussed for growth of plants under natural conditions and cultural practices that foster periodic accumulation of allelopathic substances. PMID:16668689

  17. Ferulic acid-coupled chitosan: thermal stability and utilization as an antioxidant for biodegradable active packaging film.

    PubMed

    Woranuch, Sarekha; Yoksan, Rangrong; Akashi, Mitsuru

    2015-01-22

    The aim of the present research was to study the thermal stability of ferulic acid after coupling onto chitosan, and the possibility of using ferulic acid-coupled chitosan (FA-CTS) as an antioxidant for biodegradable active packaging film. FA-CTS was incorporated into biodegradable film via a two-step process, i.e. compounding extrusion at temperatures up to 150°C followed by blown film extrusion at temperatures up to 175°C. Although incorporation of FA-CTS with a content of 0.02-0.16% (w/w) caused decreased water vapor barrier property and reduced extensibility, the biodegradable films possessed improved oxygen barrier property and antioxidant activity. Radical scavenging activity and reducing power of film containing FA-CTS were higher than those of film containing naked ferulic acid, by about 254% and 94%, respectively. Tensile strength and rigidity of the films were not significantly affected by the addition of FA-CTS with a content of 0.02-0.08% (w/w). The above results suggested that FA-CTS could potentially be used as an antioxidant for active packaging film.

  18. Role of Ferulic Acid in the Amelioration of Ionizing Radiation Induced Inflammation: A Murine Model

    PubMed Central

    Das, Ujjal; Manna, Krishnendu; Sinha, Mahuya; Datta, Sanjukta; Das, Dipesh Kr; Chakraborty, Anindita; Ghosh, Mahua; Saha, Krishna Das; Dey, Sanjit

    2014-01-01

    Ionizing radiation is responsible for oxidative stress by generating reactive oxygen species (ROS), which alters the cellular redox potential. This change activates several redox sensitive enzymes which are crucial in activating signaling pathways at molecular level and can lead to oxidative stress induced inflammation. Therefore, the present study was intended to assess the anti-inflammatory role of ferulic acid (FA), a plant flavonoid, against radiation-induced oxidative stress with a novel mechanistic viewpoint. FA was administered (50 mg/kg body wt) to Swiss albino mice for five consecutive days prior to exposing them to a single dose of 10 Gy 60Co γ-irradiation. The dose of FA was optimized from the survival experiment and 50 mg/kg body wt dose showed optimum effect. FA significantly ameliorated the radiation induced inflammatory response such as phosphorylation of IKKα/β and IκBα and consequent nuclear translocation of nuclear factor kappa B (NF-κB). FA also prevented the increase of cycloxygenase-2 (Cox-2) protein, inducible nitric oxide synthase-2 (iNOS-2) gene expression, lipid peroxidation in liver and the increase of tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-α) and interleukin-6 (IL-6) in serum. It was observed that exposure to radiation results in decreased activity of superoxide dismutase (SOD), catalase (CAT) and the pool of reduced glutathione (GSH) content. However, FA treatment prior to irradiation increased the activities of the same endogenous antioxidants. Thus, pretreatment with FA offers protection against gamma radiation induced inflammation. PMID:24854039

  19. The effects of ferulic acid on the pharmacokinetics of warfarin in rats after biliary drainage

    PubMed Central

    Li, Haigang; Wang, Yang; Fan, Rong; Lv, Huiying; Sun, Hua; Xie, Haitang; Tang, Tao; Luo, Jiekun; Xia, Zian

    2016-01-01

    According to previous research studies, warfarin can be detected in human bile after oral administration. Ferulic acid (FA) is the main bioactive component of many Chinese herbs for the treatment of cardiovascular disease. To elucidate the effects of FA on the pharmacokinetics of warfarin in rats after biliary drainage is necessary. Twenty rats were randomly divided into four groups: Group 1 (WN): healthy rats after the administration of warfarin sodium, Group 2 (WO): a rat model of biliary drainage after the administration of warfarin sodium, Group 3 (WFN): healthy rats after the administration of warfarin sodium and FA, and Group 4 (WFO): a rat model of biliary drainage after the administration of warfarin sodium and FA. Blood samples were collected at different time points after administration. The concentrations of blood samples were determined by ultraperformance liquid chromatography–tandem mass spectrometry. Comparisons between groups were performed according to the main pharmacokinetic parameters calculated by the DAS 2.1.1 software. The pharmacokinetic parameters showed a significant difference between the WN and WO groups, the WO group showed a decrease of 51% and 41.6% in area under the curve from 0 to time (AUC0–t) and peak plasma concentration (Cmax), respectively, whereas time to Cmax (Tmax) was delayed 3.27 folds. There were significant differences between the WFO and WFN groups, the WFO group showed a decrease of 63.8% and 70% in AUC0–t and Cmax, respectively; the delay in Tmax between the WN and WFN groups (mean, from 132–432 minutes) was significantly different; the mean retention time from 0 to time (MRT0–t) between the WO and WFO groups (mean, from 718.31–606.13 minutes) also showed a significant difference. Enterohepatic circulation markedly influences the disposition of warfarin in rats, and FA significantly affected the warfarin disposition in rat plasma. PMID:27462142

  20. Rice bran oil and oryzanol reduce plasma lipid and lipoprotein cholesterol concentrations and aortic cholesterol ester accumulation to a greater extent than ferulic acid in hypercholesterolemic hamsters.

    PubMed

    Wilson, Thomas A; Nicolosi, Robert J; Woolfrey, Benjamin; Kritchevsky, David

    2007-02-01

    Our laboratory has reported that the hypolipidemic effect of rice bran oil (RBO) is not entirely explained by its fatty acid composition. Because RBO has a greater content of the unsaponifiables, which also lower cholesterol compared to most vegetable oils, we wanted to know whether oryzanol or ferulic acid, two major unsaponifiables in RBO, has a greater cholesterol-lowering activity. Forty-eight F(1)B Golden Syrian hamsters (Mesocricetus auratus) (BioBreeders, Watertown, MA) were group housed (three per cage) in cages with bedding in an air-conditioned facility maintained on a 12-h light/dark cycle. The hamsters were fed a chow-based hypercholesterolemic diet (HCD) containing 10% coconut oil and 0.1% cholesterol for 2 weeks, at which time they were bled after an overnight fast (16 h) and segregated into 4 groups of 12 with similar plasma cholesterol concentrations. Group 1 (control) continued on the HCD, group 2 was fed the HCD containing 10% RBO in place of coconut oil, group 3 was fed the HCD plus 0.5% ferulic acid and group 4 was fed the HCD plus 0.5% oryzanol for an additional 10 weeks. After 10 weeks on the diets, plasma total cholesterol (TC) and non-high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-C) (very low- and low-density lipoprotein) concentrations were significantly lower in the RBO (-64% and -70%, respectively), the ferulic acid (-22% and -24%, respectively) and the oryzanol (-70% and -77%, respectively) diets compared to control. Plasma TC and non-HDL-C concentrations were also significantly lower in the RBO (-53% and -61%, respectively) and oryzanol (-61% and -70%, respectively) diets compared to the ferulic acid. Compared to control and ferulic acid, plasma HDL-C concentrations were significantly higher in the RBO (10% and 20%, respectively) and oryzanol (13% and 24%, respectively) diets. The ferulic acid diet had significantly lower plasma HDL-C concentrations compared to the control (-9%). The RBO and oryzanol diets were significantly lower for

  1. Ferulic Acid modulates altered lipid profiles and prooxidant/antioxidant status in circulation during nicotine-induced toxicity: a dose-dependent study.

    PubMed

    Sudheer, Adluri Ram; Chandran, Kalpana; Marimuthu, Srinivasan; Menon, Venugopal Padmanabhan

    2005-01-01

    Nicotine, an active ingredient of tobacco smoke, is known to induce hyperlipidemia and disturb the prooxidant-antioxidant status. In our study, ferulic acid, a naturally occurring nutritional compound, was tested for its antioxidant and antihyperlipidemic property in a dose-dependent manner against nicotine-induced toxicity in female Wistar rats. We tested three different doses of ferulic acid-10 mg, 20 mg, and 40 mg/kg body weight-for their protective effects. The activities of biochemical marker enzymes lactate dehydrogenase and alkaline phosphatase, levels of peroxidative indices (thiobarbituric acid reactive substances and hydroperoxides), nitric oxide, and circulatory lipids (cholesterol, triglycerides, free fatty acids, and phospholipids) were increased significantly in the nicotine-treated group when compared to normal, which were brought down in ferulic acid-treated groups. The antioxidant status (superoxide dismutase, catalase, glutathione peroxidase, vitamin E, and reduced glutathione) was found to be decreased in the nicotine-treated group, and was significantly increased in ferulic acid-administered groups. Further, ferulic acid also positively modulated the nicotine-induced changes in the micronutrients (zinc and copper) level. The dose 20 mg/kg body weight was found to be more effective than the other two doses. Our data suggest that FA exerts its preventive effects by modulating the degree of lipid peroxidation, antioxidant status, lipid profiles, and trace element levels during nicotine-induced toxicity. PMID:20021059

  2. Contributions of a unique β-clamp to substrate recognition illuminates the molecular basis of exolysis in ferulic acid esterases.

    PubMed

    Gruninger, Robert J; Cote, Chris; McAllister, Tim A; Abbott, D Wade

    2016-04-01

    Lignocellulosic biomass is a promising renewable resource; however, deconstruction of this material is still the rate-limiting step. Major obstacles in the biocatalytic turnover of lignocellulose are ester-linked decorations that prevent access to primary structural polysaccharides. Enzymes targeting these esters represent promising biotools for increasing bioconversion efficiency. Ruminant livestock are unique in their ability to degrade lignocellulose through the action of their gut microbiome. The anaerobic fungi (phylum Neocallimastigomycota) are key members of this ecosystem that express a large repertoire of carbohydrate-active enzymes (CAZymes) with little sequence identity with characterized CAZymes [Lombard, Golaconda, Drula, Coutinho and Henrissat (2014) Nucleic Acids Res. 42: , D490-D495]. We have identified a carbohydrate esterase family 1 (CE1) ferulic acid esterase (FAE) belonging to Anaeromyces mucronatus(AmCE1/Fae1a), and determined its X-ray structure in both the presence [1.55 Å (1 Å=0.1 nm)] and absence (1.60 Å) of ferulic acid. AmCE1 adopts an α/β-hydrolase fold that is structurally conserved with bacterial FAEs, and possesses a unique loop, termed the β-clamp, that encloses the ligand. Isothermal titration calorimetry reveals that substrate binding is driven by enthalpic contributions, which overcomes a large entropic penalty. A comparative analysis of AmCE1 with related enzymes has uncovered the apparent structural basis for differential FAE activities targeting cross-linking ferulic acid conjugates compared with terminal decorations. Based on comparisons to structurally characterized FAEs, we propose that the β-clamp may define the structural basis of exolytic activities in FAEs. This provides a structure-based tool for predicting exolysis and endolysis in CE1. These insights hold promise for rationally identifying enzymes tailored for bioconversion of biomass with variations in cell wall composition.

  3. Ferulic acid ethyl ester diminished Complete Freund's Adjuvant-induced incapacitation through antioxidant and anti-inflammatory activity.

    PubMed

    Cunha, Francisco Valmor Macedo; Gomes, Bruno de Sousa; Neto, Benedito de Sousa; Ferreira, Alana Rodrigues; de Sousa, Damião Pergentino; de Carvalho e Martins, Maria do Carmo; Oliveira, Francisco de Assis

    2016-01-01

    Ferulic acid ethyl ester (FAEE) is a derivate from ferulic acid which reportedly has antioxidant effect; however, its role on inflammation was unknown. In this study, we investigated the orally administered FAEE anti-inflammatory activity on experimental inflammation models and Complete Freund's Adjuvant (CFA)-induced arthritis in rats. CFA-induced arthritis has been evaluated by incapacitation model and radiographic knee joint records at different observation time. FAEE (po) reduced carrageenan-induced paw edema (p < 0.001) within the 1st to 5th hours at 50 and 100 mg/kg doses. FAEE 50 and 100 mg/kg, po inhibited leukocyte migration into air pouch model (p < 0.001), and myeloperoxidase, superoxide dismutase, and catalase activities (p < 0.001) increased total thiol concentration and decreased the TNF-α and IL-1β concentrations, NO, and thiobarbituric acid reactive species. In the CFA-induced arthritis, FAEE 50 and 100 mg/kg significantly reduced the edema and the elevation paw time, a joint disability parameter, since second hour after arthritis induction (p < 0.001). FAEE presented rat joint protective activity in radiographic records (p < 0.001). The data suggest that the FAEE exerts anti-inflammatory activity by inhibiting leukocyte migration, oxidative stress reduction, and pro-inflammatory cytokines.

  4. Evaluation of thermo sensitivity of curcumin and quantification of ferulic acid and vanillin as degradation products by a validated HPTLC method.

    PubMed

    Siddiqui, Nasir Ali

    2015-01-01

    Charismatic therapeutic potential of curcumin in biological research have triggered an interest to explore the thermal degradation pattern of curcumin, formation of ferulic acid and vanillin as degraded metabolites at different temperatures in methanol and corn oil. The results revealed 47% w/w loss of curcumin along with formation of 17% w/w vanillin and 9% w/w ferulic acid at boiling temperature of methanol while oil samples show 38.9% w/w loss of curcumin but not confirming the formation of ferulic acid and vanillin. Findings of this study revealed that formation of vanillin in methanol starts around 50°C and its concentration goes on increasing up to 70°C and then further degraded at boiling temperature of methanol. Formation of ferulic acid begins around 60°C and initially increases with rise of temperature and then decreases approaching boiling point of methanol. Vanillin as well as ferulic acid was absent in corn oil samples though degradation of curcumin was observed by reduction in peak area of curcumin. The present study was done by applying a validated high-performance thin-layer chromatography method. The method involved glass-backed HPTLC plates precoated with silica gel 60F254 as the stationary phase and toluene: ethyl acetate: methanol (8:1:1, v/v/v) as mobile phase.

  5. Genetic engineering of Pseudomonas putida KT2440 for rapid and high-yield production of vanillin from ferulic acid.

    PubMed

    Graf, Nadja; Altenbuchner, Josef

    2014-01-01

    Vanillin is one of the most important flavoring agents used today. That is why many efforts have been made on biotechnological production from natural abundant substrates. In this work, the nonpathogenic Pseudomonas putida strain KT2440 was genetically optimized to convert ferulic acid to vanillin. Deletion of the vanillin dehydrogenase gene (vdh) was not sufficient to prevent vanillin degradation. Additional inactivation of a molybdate transporter, identified by transposon mutagenesis, led to a strain incapable to grow on vanillin as sole carbon source. The bioconversion was optimized by enhanced chromosomal expression of the structural genes for feruloyl-CoA synthetase (fcs) and enoyl-CoA hydratase/aldolase (ech) by introduction of the strong tac promoter system. Further genetic engineering led to high initial conversion rates and molar vanillin yields up to 86% within just 3 h accompanied with very low by-product levels. To our knowledge, this represents the highest productivity and molar vanillin yield gained with a Pseudomonas strain so far. Together with its high tolerance for ferulic acid, the developed, plasmid-free P. putida strain represents a promising candidate for the biotechnological production of vanillin.

  6. Ferulic Acid, an Angelica sinensis-Derived Polyphenol, Slows the Progression of Membranous Nephropathy in a Mouse Model

    PubMed Central

    Cheng, Chao-Wen; Chang, Wen-Liang; Chang, Li-Cheng; Wu, Chia-Chao; Lin, Yuh-Feng; Chen, Jin-Shuen

    2012-01-01

    Membranous nephropathy (MN) is a leading cause of adult nephrotic syndrome but lacks adequate treatment. Different extracts of Angelica sinensis (AS) and one of its active compounds, ferulic acid (FA), were used to evaluate the therapeutic effects in a MN mouse model. The MN model was grouped into three subgroups: no treatment (N-T), treatment at induction of MN (Pre-T), and treatment after full-blown MN (Post-T). The results showed that the methanol (ME) layer of AS extract exhibited a therapeutic effect on MN-induced proteinuria. The ME layer-enriched compound, FA, improved the hypoalbuminemia, hyperlipidemia, and proteinuria in both Pre-T and Post-T groups. Ferulic acid also reduced the formation of oxidative protein products and increased the synthesis of antioxidant enzymes in groups Pre-T and Post-T. Regarding angiogenesis factors, the antiangiogenic factors in renal glomeruli were increased in group N-T, but, after FA treatment, only one of the antiangiogenic factors, thrombospondin-1, showed a significant decrease. Furthermore, the expression of Th2 predominant showed significant decrease in both Pre-T and Post-T groups when compared to that of N-T group. In summary, FA retarded the progression of MN, and the mechanisms involved the regulation of oxidative stresses, angiogenic and antiangiogenic factors, and attenuation of Th2 response. PMID:22844329

  7. The phenolic vir gene inducer ferulic acid is O-demethylated by the VirH2 protein of an Agrobacterium tumefaciens Ti plasmid.

    PubMed

    Kalogeraki, V S; Zhu, J; Eberhard, A; Madsen, E L; Winans, S C

    1999-11-01

    Some or possibly all Ti plasmids of Agrobacterium tumefaciens encode a bicistronic operon designated virH, which encodes two proteins, VirH1 and VirH2, that resemble a family of cytochrome P450-type monooxygenases. Expression of this operon is induced by a family of phenolic compounds that induce all other operons within the vir regulon. We hypothesized that either or both of these proteins might metabolize some or all of these phenolic compounds. We therefore tested induction of a vir promoter by a variety of phenolic compounds in isogenic strains that express or lack virH1 and virH2. Although some compounds were equally effective inducers regardless of the virH status, other compounds induced vir expression far more effectively in the virH mutant than in the virH-proficient host. For all tested compounds, VirH2 appeared to be solely responsible for this effect. One such compound, ferulic acid, was chosen for biochemical analysis. Ferulic acid was degraded by a VirH-proficient host but not by a VirH mutant. The wild-type strain released large amounts of a more hydrophilic compound into the cell supernatant. This compound was tested by mass spectroscopy, nuclear magnetic resonance and UV spectroscopy and found to consist of caffeic acid. This indicates that wild-type strains convert virtually all added ferulic acid to caffeic acid, and that VirH2 is essential for this O-demethylation reaction. Ferulic acid was far more toxic than caffeic acid to the wild-type strain, although the wild-type strain was more resistant to ferulic acid than was the virH mutant. Caffeic acid was slowly removed from the broth, suggesting further metabolic reactions. PMID:10564493

  8. Enhancement of the catalytic activity of ferulic acid decarboxylase from Enterobacter sp. Px6-4 through random and site-directed mutagenesis.

    PubMed

    Lee, Hyunji; Park, Jiyoung; Jung, Chaewon; Han, Dongfei; Seo, Jiyoung; Ahn, Joong-Hoon; Chong, Youhoon; Hur, Hor-Gil

    2015-11-01

    The enzyme ferulic acid decarboxylase (FADase) from Enterobacter sp. Px6-4 catalyzes the decarboxylation reaction of lignin monomers and phenolic compounds such as p-coumaric acid, caffeic acid, and ferulic acid into their corresponding 4-vinyl derivatives, that is, 4-vinylphenol, 4-vinylcatechol, and 4-vinylguaiacol, respectively. Among various ferulic acid decarboxylase enzymes, we chose the FADase from Enterobacter sp. Px6-4, whose crystal structure is known, and produced mutants to enhance its catalytic activity by random and site-directed mutagenesis. After three rounds of sequential mutations, FADase(F95L/D112N/V151I) showed approximately 34-fold higher catalytic activity than wild-type for the production of 4-vinylguaiacol from ferulic acid. Docking analyses suggested that the increased activity of FADase(F95L/D112N/V151I) could be due to formation of compact active site compared with that of the wild-type FADase. Considering the amount of phenolic compounds such as lignin monomers in the biomass components, successfully bioengineered FADase(F95L/D112N/V151I) from Enterobacter sp. Px6-4 could provide an ecofriendly biocatalytic tool for producing diverse styrene derivatives from biomass.

  9. Enhancement of the catalytic activity of ferulic acid decarboxylase from Enterobacter sp. Px6-4 through random and site-directed mutagenesis.

    PubMed

    Lee, Hyunji; Park, Jiyoung; Jung, Chaewon; Han, Dongfei; Seo, Jiyoung; Ahn, Joong-Hoon; Chong, Youhoon; Hur, Hor-Gil

    2015-11-01

    The enzyme ferulic acid decarboxylase (FADase) from Enterobacter sp. Px6-4 catalyzes the decarboxylation reaction of lignin monomers and phenolic compounds such as p-coumaric acid, caffeic acid, and ferulic acid into their corresponding 4-vinyl derivatives, that is, 4-vinylphenol, 4-vinylcatechol, and 4-vinylguaiacol, respectively. Among various ferulic acid decarboxylase enzymes, we chose the FADase from Enterobacter sp. Px6-4, whose crystal structure is known, and produced mutants to enhance its catalytic activity by random and site-directed mutagenesis. After three rounds of sequential mutations, FADase(F95L/D112N/V151I) showed approximately 34-fold higher catalytic activity than wild-type for the production of 4-vinylguaiacol from ferulic acid. Docking analyses suggested that the increased activity of FADase(F95L/D112N/V151I) could be due to formation of compact active site compared with that of the wild-type FADase. Considering the amount of phenolic compounds such as lignin monomers in the biomass components, successfully bioengineered FADase(F95L/D112N/V151I) from Enterobacter sp. Px6-4 could provide an ecofriendly biocatalytic tool for producing diverse styrene derivatives from biomass. PMID:26059194

  10. A comparison of skin delivery of ferulic acid and its derivatives: evaluation of their efficacy and safety.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Li-Wen; Al-Suwayeh, Saleh A; Hsieh, Pei-Wen; Fang, Jia-You

    2010-10-31

    Ferulic acid (FA) can be used as an antioxidant to prevent damage from ultraviolet (UV) radiation and skin carcinogenesis. To this end, the feasibility of the skin absorption of FA and its derivatives was evaluated in the present study. The percutaneous absorption of five compounds into/across porcine skin was measured and compared using Franz diffusion cells. The skin delivery from pH 6 and 9.9 buffers was the highest for ferulic acid ethyl ether (FAEE), followed by coniferyl aldehyde (CD), coniferyl alcohol (CA), FA, and 3-hydroxy-4-methoxycinnamic acid (HMA). The skin deposition and flux of FAEE with a pH 6 buffer were 136 nmol/g and 26 nmol/cm(2)/h, respectively. No significant difference in permeation profiles was observed between the two pH buffers. According to permeation via the skin with different treatments (delipidization, ethanol, and oleic acid treatments), it was determined that the lipid bilayers in the stratum corneum (SC) comprised the predominant barrier for FA permeation. On the other hand, FAEE could easily partition into and penetrate across the skin through intercellular pathways. Nude mouse was used as an in vivo animal model to examine the amount of permeants remaining in the skin. The in vivo skin deposition was generally correlated with the in vitro results. The in vivo skin deposition of FAEE (145 nmol/g) was comparable to that of CD (150 nmol/g). The safety study which examined transepidermal water loss (TEWL), erythema, and the skin pH value demonstrated that the topical application of FA and related compounds for up to 24h did not cause skin irritation. It can be concluded that topical delivery may serve as an efficient and safe route for FA and its derivatives against photodamage. PMID:20692328

  11. Ferulic acid, a natural polyphenol, alleviates insulin resistance and hypertension in fructose fed rats: Effect on endothelial-dependent relaxation.

    PubMed

    El-Bassossy, Hany; Badawy, Dina; Neamatallah, Thikryat; Fahmy, Ahmed

    2016-07-25

    Ferulic acid (FER) is a polyphenolic compound contained in various types of fruits. It has a substantial therapeutic effect inhibitory activity against aldose reductase (AR) inhibition. In this study, we examined the effect of FER on fructose-fed rats in comparison to a standard AR inhibitor, zopolrestat (ZOP). We determined the protective role of FER against metabolic syndrome by examining serum insulin/Glucose levels, triglycerides (TGs), cholesterol and advanced glycation end product (AGE) in rats supplied with 10% fructose drinking water. In addition, blood pressure, vascular reactivity of isolated thoracic aortas and acetylcholine-induced NO were all evaluated to estimate the cardiovascular complications of metabolic syndrome (MetS) associated with fructose feeding. Animals were randomly divided into four groups: control, (+10% fructose, Fru), zopolrestat-treated fructose fed (Fru-zop) and ferulic acid-treated fructose fed rats (Fru-Fer). After 12 weeks of FER treatment, we found significant reduction in both hyperinsulinemia and elevated diastolic blood pressure associated with fructose-fed to levels comparable to those achieved with ZOP. Both FER and ZOP significantly augmented the impaired relaxation associated with fructose-fed, whereas neither showed any significant effect on the developed vasoconstriction. Isolated aortas from fructose-fed rats incubated with either FER or ZOP, reinstated normal relaxation response to acetylcholine (ACh). Furthermore, isolated aortas showed attenuated nitric oxide (NO) production following the addition of (ACh), while both FER and ZOP restored normal induction of NO. Taken together, the current study shows that, FER alleviated insulin resistance and hypertension associated with metabolic syndrome compared to the standard AR inhibitor (ZOP). This potential protective effect is at least mediated by restoring endothelial relaxation. PMID:27287418

  12. An efficient proton-coupled electron-transfer process during oxidation of ferulic acid by horseradish peroxidase: coming full cycle.

    PubMed

    Derat, Etienne; Shaik, Sason

    2006-10-25

    Quantum mechanics/molecular mechanics calculations were utilized to study the process of oxidation of a native substrate (ferulic acid) by the active species of horseradish peroxidase (Dunford, H. B. Heme Peroxidases; Wiley-VCH: New York, 1999), Compound I and Compound II, and the manner by which the enzyme returns to its resting state. The results match experimental findings and reveal additional novel features. The calculations demonstrate that both oxidation processes are initiated by a proton-coupled electron-transfer (PCET) step, in which the active species of the enzyme participate only as electron-transfer partners, while the entire proton-transfer event is being relayed from the substrate to and from the His42 residue by a water molecule (W402). The reason for the observed (Henriksen, A; Smith, A. T.; Gajhede, M. J. Biol. Chem. 1999, 274, 35005-35011) similar reactivities of Compound I and Compound II toward ferulic acid is that the reactive isomer of Compound II is the, hitherto unobserved, Por(*)(+)Fe(III)OH isomer that resembles Compound I. The PCET mechanism reveals that His42 and W402 are crucial moieties and they determine the function of the HRP enzyme and account for its ability to perform substrate oxidation (Poulos, T. L. Peroxidases and Cytochrome P450. In The Porphyrin Handbook; Kadish, K. M., Smith, K. M., Guilard, R., Eds.; Academic Press: New York, 2000; Vol. 4, pp 189). In view of the results, the possibility of manipulating substrate oxidation by magnetic fields is an intriguing possibility. PMID:17044722

  13. Permeation and distribution of ferulic acid and its α-cyclodextrin complex from different formulations in hairless rat skin.

    PubMed

    Monti, Daniela; Tampucci, Silvia; Chetoni, Patrizia; Burgalassi, Susi; Saino, Veronica; Centini, Marisanna; Staltari, Lucia; Anselmi, Cecilia

    2011-06-01

    Ferulic acid (FA) is a natural product that occurs in seeds of many plants where it is generally located in the bran. This compound is a multifunctional ingredient endowed with antioxidative, radical scavenging, sunscreening and antibacterial actions. The aim of this study was to analyse the ferulic acid cutaneous permeation and distribution, through and into the skin layers, from different cosmetic vehicles, an O/W emulsion (pH 6.0) and two gel-type formulations at different pH levels (6.0 and 7.4), containing FA alone or an inclusion complex with α-cyclodextrin (CD-FA). In vitro permeation studies were performed in vertical diffusion cells using hairless rat excised skin. At appropriate intervals of time, the amount of permeated sunscreen/radical scavenger was evaluated by high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC). At the end of experiments, treated skin samples were sectioned with a cryomicrotome and the FA content of the individual slices was analysed by HPLC. FA-containing formulations, O/W emulsion, gels A and B, originated FA fluxes of 8.48 ± 2.31, 8.38 ± 0.89 and 5.72 ± 0.50 μg/cm(2) h, respectively, thus suggesting the pH influence on FA percutaneous permeation. The use of the inclusion complex, CD-FA, determined in all cases a decrease of FA transdermal permeation while no influence of pH was observed. Gel-type formulations containing FA ensured higher sunscreen storage in the superficial layers if compared with O/W emulsion. When FA was included in α-cyclodextrin, FA amount retained into skin layers decreased markedly. PMID:21491181

  14. Ferulic acid, a natural polyphenol, alleviates insulin resistance and hypertension in fructose fed rats: Effect on endothelial-dependent relaxation.

    PubMed

    El-Bassossy, Hany; Badawy, Dina; Neamatallah, Thikryat; Fahmy, Ahmed

    2016-07-25

    Ferulic acid (FER) is a polyphenolic compound contained in various types of fruits. It has a substantial therapeutic effect inhibitory activity against aldose reductase (AR) inhibition. In this study, we examined the effect of FER on fructose-fed rats in comparison to a standard AR inhibitor, zopolrestat (ZOP). We determined the protective role of FER against metabolic syndrome by examining serum insulin/Glucose levels, triglycerides (TGs), cholesterol and advanced glycation end product (AGE) in rats supplied with 10% fructose drinking water. In addition, blood pressure, vascular reactivity of isolated thoracic aortas and acetylcholine-induced NO were all evaluated to estimate the cardiovascular complications of metabolic syndrome (MetS) associated with fructose feeding. Animals were randomly divided into four groups: control, (+10% fructose, Fru), zopolrestat-treated fructose fed (Fru-zop) and ferulic acid-treated fructose fed rats (Fru-Fer). After 12 weeks of FER treatment, we found significant reduction in both hyperinsulinemia and elevated diastolic blood pressure associated with fructose-fed to levels comparable to those achieved with ZOP. Both FER and ZOP significantly augmented the impaired relaxation associated with fructose-fed, whereas neither showed any significant effect on the developed vasoconstriction. Isolated aortas from fructose-fed rats incubated with either FER or ZOP, reinstated normal relaxation response to acetylcholine (ACh). Furthermore, isolated aortas showed attenuated nitric oxide (NO) production following the addition of (ACh), while both FER and ZOP restored normal induction of NO. Taken together, the current study shows that, FER alleviated insulin resistance and hypertension associated with metabolic syndrome compared to the standard AR inhibitor (ZOP). This potential protective effect is at least mediated by restoring endothelial relaxation.

  15. Poly(carbonate–amide)s Derived from Bio-Based Resources: Poly(ferulic acid-co-tyrosine)

    PubMed Central

    2015-01-01

    Ferulic acid (FA), a bio-based resource found in fruits and vegetables, was coupled with a hydroxyl-amino acid to generate a new class of monomers to afford poly(carbonate–amide)s with potential to degrade into natural products. l-Serine was first selected as the hydroxyl-amino partner for FA, from which the activated p-nitrophenyl carbonate monomer was synthesized. Unfortunately, polymerizations were unsuccessful, and the elimination product was systematically obtained. To avoid elimination, we revised our strategy and used l-tyrosine ethyl ester, which lacks an acidic proton on the α position of the ethyl ester. Four new monomers were synthesized and converted into the corresponding poly(carbonate–amide)s with specific regioselectivities. The polymers were fully characterized through thermal and spectroscopic analyses. Preliminary fluorescent studies revealed interesting photophysical properties for the monomers and their corresponding poly(carbonate–amide)s, beyond the fluorescence characteristics of l-tyrosine and FA, making these materials potentially viable for sensing and/or imaging applications, in addition to their attractiveness as engineering materials derived from renewable resources. PMID:24839309

  16. Seasonal variation in abiotic factors and ferulic acid toxicity in snail-attractant pellets against the intermediate host snail Lymnaea acuminata.

    PubMed

    Agrahari, P; Singh, D K

    2013-11-01

    Laboratory evaluation was made to access the seasonal variations in abiotic environmental factors temperature, pH, dissolved oxygen, carbon dioxide, electrical conductivity and ferulic acid toxicity in snail-attractant pellets (SAP) against the intermediate host snail Lymnaea acuminata in each month of the years 2010 and 2011. On the basis of a 24-h toxicity assay, it was noted that lethal concentration values of 4.03, 3.73% and 4.45% in SAP containing starch and 4.16, 4.23% and 4.29% in SAP containing proline during the months of May, June and September, respectively, were most effective in killing the snails, while SAP containing starch/proline + ferulic acid was least effective in the month of January/February (24-h lethal concentration value was 7.67%/7.63% in SAP). There was a significant positive correlation between lethal concentration value of ferulic acid containing SAP and levels of dissolved O2 /pH of water in corresponding months. On the contrary, a negative correlation was observed between lethal concentration value and dissolved CO2 /temperature of test water in the same months. To ascertain that such a relationship between toxicity and abiotic factors is not co-incidental, the nervous tissue of treated (40% and 80% of 24-h lethal concentration value) and control group of snails was assayed for the activity of acetylcholinesterase (AChE) in each of the 12 months of the same year. There was a maximum inhibition of 58.43% of AChE, in snails exposed to 80% of the 24-h lethal concentration value of ferulic acid + starch in the month of May. This work shows conclusively that the best time to control snail population with SAP containing ferulic acid is during the months of May, June and September.

  17. Simultaneous determination of danshensu, ferulic acid, cryptotanshinone and tanshinone IIA in rabbit plasma by HPLC and their pharmacokinetic application in danxiongfang.

    PubMed

    Li, Xiaoli; Li, Xiaorong; Wang, Lijuan; Li, Yuhang; Xu, Yanxia; Xue, Ming

    2007-09-01

    A selective and sensitive reversed-phase high performance liquid chromatography method was developed and validated for the simultaneous determination of danshensu, ferulic acid, cryptotanshinone, and tanshinone IIA in rabbit plasma using p-hydroxybenzoic acid as internal standard. Liquid-liquid extraction was used for sample preparation. Chromatographic separation was successfully achieved on an Agilent HC-C(18) column using a mobile phase composed of methanol-water (from 20:80 to 80:20, v/v) containing 0.5% (v/v) glacial acetic acid. The mobile phase was employing gradient elution at a flow rate of 1.0 ml/min. The method showed good linearity and no endogenous material interfered with the marked compounds and I.S. peaks. The limit of quantification of danshensu, ferulic acid, cryptotanshinone, and tanshinone IIA were 0.1, 0.03, 0.05, and 0.05 microg/ml, respectively. The average extract recoveries of the four compounds from rabbit plasma were all over 60%. The precisions determined from 5 days were all within 10%. The established method has been successfully applied in the pharmacokinetic study and drug interaction of danshensu, ferulic acid, cryptotanshinone, and tanshinone IIA in rabbits after intravenous administration of danxiongfang, a useful compound preparation of traditional Chinese medicine. PMID:17560063

  18. Transformation of ferulic acid to vanillin using a fed-batch solid-liquid two-phase partitioning bioreactor.

    PubMed

    Ma, Xiao-kui; Daugulis, Andrew J

    2014-01-01

    Amycolatopsis sp. ATCC 39116 (formerly Streptomyces setonii) has shown promising results in converting ferulic acid (trans-4-hydroxy-3-methoxycinnamic acid; substrate), which can be derived from natural plant wastes, to vanillin (4-hydroxy-3-methoxybenzaldehyde). After exploring the influence of adding vanillin at different times during the growth cycle on cell growth and transformation performance of this strain and demonstrating the inhibitory effect of vanillin, a solid-liquid two-phase partitioning bioreactor (TPPB) system was used as an in situ product removal technique to enhance transformation productivity by this strain. The thermoplastic polymer Hytrel(®) G4078W was found to have superior partitioning capacity for vanillin with a partition coefficient of 12 and a low affinity for the substrate. A 3-L working volume solid-liquid fed-batch TPPB mode, using 300 g Hytrel G4078W as the sequestering phase, produced a final vanillin concentration of 19.5 g/L. The overall productivity of this reactor system was 450 mg/L. h, among the highest reported in literature. Vanillin was easily and quantitatively recovered from the polymers mostly by single stage extraction into methanol or other organic solvents used in food industry, simultaneously regenerating polymer beads for reuse. A polymer-liquid two phase bioreactor was again confirmed to easily outperform single phase systems that feature inhibitory or easily further degraded substrates/products. This enhancement strategy might reasonably be expected in the production of other flavor and fragrance compounds obtained by biotransformations.

  19. Metabolic engineering of Pediococcus acidilactici BD16 for production of vanillin through ferulic acid catabolic pathway and process optimization using response surface methodology.

    PubMed

    Kaur, Baljinder; Chakraborty, Debkumar; Kumar, Balvir

    2014-10-01

    Occurrence of feruloyl-CoA synthetase (fcs) and enoyl-CoA hydratase (ech) genes responsible for the bioconversion of ferulic acid to vanillin have been reported and characterized from Amycolatopsis sp., Streptomyces sp., and Pseudomonas sp. Attempts have been made to express these genes in Escherichia coli DH5α, E. coli JM109, and Pseudomonas fluorescens. However, none of the lactic acid bacteria strain having GRAS status was previously proposed for heterologous expression of fcs and ech genes for production of vanillin through biotechnological process. Present study reports heterologous expression of vanillin synthetic gene cassette bearing fcs and ech genes in a dairy isolate Pediococcus acidilactici BD16. After metabolic engineering, statistical optimization of process parameters that influence ferulic acid to vanillin biotransformation in the recombinant strain was carried out using central composite design of response surface methodology. After scale-up of the process, 3.14 mM vanillin was recovered from 1.08 mM ferulic acid per milligram of recombinant cell biomass within 20 min of biotransformation. From LCMS-ESI spectral analysis, a metabolic pathway of phenolic biotransformations was predicted in the recombinant P. acidilactici BD16 (fcs (+)/ech (+)).

  20. Ameliorative effects of ferulic Acid against lead acetate-induced oxidative stress, mitochondrial dysfunctions and toxicity in prepubertal rat brain.

    PubMed

    Lalith Kumar, Venkareddy; Muralidhara

    2014-12-01

    Epidemiological evidence has shown higher susceptibility of Children to the adverse effects of lead (Pb) exposure. However, experimental studies on Pb-induced neurotoxicity in prepubertal (PP) rats are limited. The present study aimed to examine the propensity of ferulic acid (FA), a commonly occurring phenolic acid in staple foods (fruits, vegetables, cereals, coffee etc.) to abrogate Pb-induced toxicity. Initially, we characterized Pb-induced adverse effects among PP rats exposed to Pb acetate (1,000-3,000 ppm in drinking water) for 5 weeks in terms of locomotor phenotype, activity of 5-aminolevulinic acid dehydratase (ALAD) in the blood, blood Pb levels and oxidative stress in brain regions. Further, the ameliorative effects of oral supplements of FA (25 mg/kg bw/day) were investigated in PP rats exposed to Pb (3,000 ppm). Pb intoxication increased the locomotor activity and FA supplements partially reversed the phenotype, while the reduced ALAD activity was also restored. FA significantly abrogated the enhanced oxidative stress in cerebellum (Cb) and hippocampus (Hc) as evidenced in terms of ROS generation, lipid peroxidation and protein carbonyls. Further, Pb-mediated perturbations in the glutathione levels and activity of enzymic antioxidants were also markedly restored. Furthermore, the protective effect of FA was discernible in striatum in terms of reduced oxidative stress, restored cholinergic activity and dopamine levels. Interestingly, reduced activity levels of mitochondrial complex I in Cb and enhanced levels in Hc among Pb-intoxicated rats were ameliorated by FA supplements. FA also decreased the number of damaged cells in cornu ammonis area CA1 and dentate gyrus as reflected by the histoarchitecture of Hc among Pb intoxicated rats. Collectively, our findings in the PP model allow us to hypothesize that ingestion of common phenolics such as FA may significantly alleviate the neurotoxic effects of Pb which may be largely attributed to its ability

  1. Spectroscopic (FT-IR, FT-Raman, 1H, 13C NMR, UV/VIS), thermogravimetric and antimicrobial studies of Ca(II), Mn(II), Cu(II), Zn(II) and Cd(II) complexes of ferulic acid

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kalinowska, M.; Piekut, J.; Bruss, A.; Follet, C.; Sienkiewicz-Gromiuk, J.; Świsłocka, R.; Rzączyńska, Z.; Lewandowski, W.

    2014-03-01

    The molecular structure of Mn(II), Cu(II), Zn(II), Cd(II) and Ca(II) ferulates (4-hydroxy-3-methoxycinnamates) was studied. The selected metal ferulates were synthesized. Their composition was established by means of elementary and thermogravimetric analysis. The following spectroscopic methods were used: infrared (FT-IR), Raman (FT-Raman), nuclear magnetic resonance (13C, 1H NMR) and ultraviolet-visible (UV/VIS). On the basis of obtained results the electronic charge distribution in studied metal complexes in comparison with ferulic acid molecule was discussed. The microbiological study of ferulic acid and ferulates toward Escherichia coli, Bacillus subtilis, Candida albicans, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Staphylococcus aureus and Proteus vulgaris was done.

  2. Enhancement of trichothecene mycotoxins of Fusarium oxysporum by ferulic acid aggravates oxidative damage in Rehmannia glutinosa Libosch

    PubMed Central

    Li, Zhen Fang; He, Chen Ling; Wang, Ying; Li, Ming Jie; Dai, Ya Jing; Wang, Tong; Lin, Wenxiong

    2016-01-01

    Rehmannia glutinosa is an important medicinal herb that cannot be replanted in the same field due to the effects of autotoxic substances. The effects of these substances on R. glutinosa in continuous cropping systems are unknown. In the present study, bioassays revealed that R. glutinosa exhibited severe growth restriction and higher disease indices in the FO+FA (F.oxysporum pretreated with ferulic acid) treatment. The increases in the contents of MDA and H2O2 were greater in the FA+FO treatment than in the FA or FO only treatments, respectively. Consistent with this result, the enzyme activities in the seedlings increased with treatment time. To identify the main factor underlying the increased pathogenicity of FO, macroconidia and trichothecene mycotoxins coproduced by FO were separated and used to treat R. glutinosa seedlings. The MDA and H2O2 contents were similar in the seedlings treated with deoxynivalenol and in the FA+FO treatment. Quantification of the relative expression of certain genes involved in Ca2+ signal transduction pathways suggested that trichothecene mycotoxins play an important role in the increased pathogenicity of FO. In conclusion, FA not only directly enhances oxidative damage in R. glutinosa but also increases wilting symptom outbreaks by promoting the secretion of trichothecene mycotoxins by FO. PMID:27667444

  3. Ferulic Acid Alleviates Changes in a Rat Model of Metabolic Syndrome Induced by High-Carbohydrate, High-Fat Diet.

    PubMed

    Senaphan, Ketmanee; Kukongviriyapan, Upa; Sangartit, Weerapon; Pakdeechote, Poungrat; Pannangpetch, Patchareewan; Prachaney, Parichat; Greenwald, Stephen E; Kukongviriyapan, Veerapol

    2015-08-01

    Metabolic syndrome is a cluster of metabolic abnormalities characterized by obesity, insulin resistance, hypertension and dyslipidemia. Ferulic acid (FA) is the major phenolic compound found in rice oil and various fruits and vegetables. In this study, we examined the beneficial effects of FA in minimizing insulin resistance, vascular dysfunction and remodeling in a rat model of high-carbohydrate, high-fat diet-induced metabolic changes, which is regarded as an analogue of metabolic syndrome (MS) in man. Male Sprague-Dawley rats were fed a high carbohydrate, high fat (HCHF) diet and 15% fructose in drinking water for 16 weeks, where control rats were fed with standard chow diet and tap water. FA (30 or 60 mg/kg) was orally administered to the HCHF and control rats during the last six weeks of the study. We observed that FA significantly improved insulin sensitivity and lipid profiles, and reduced elevated blood pressure, compared to untreated controls (p < 0.05). Moreover, FA also improved vascular function and prevented vascular remodeling of mesenteric arteries. The effects of FA in HCHF-induced MS may be realized through suppression of oxidative stress by down-regulation of p47phox, increased nitric oxide (NO) bioavailability with up-regulation of endothelial nitric oxide synthase (eNOS) and suppression of tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α). Our results suggest that supplementation of FA may have health benefits by minimizing the cardiovascular complications of MS and alleviating its symptoms. PMID:26247970

  4. Probiotic Ferulic Acid Esterase Active Lactobacillus fermentum NCIMB 5221 APA Microcapsules for Oral Delivery: Preparation and in Vitro Characterization.

    PubMed

    Tomaro-Duchesneau, Catherine; Saha, Shyamali; Malhotra, Meenakshi; Coussa-Charley, Michael; Kahouli, Imen; Jones, Mitchell L; Labbé, Alain; Prakash, Satya

    2012-02-16

    Probiotics possess potential therapeutic and preventative effects for various diseases and metabolic disorders. One important limitation for the oral delivery of probiotics is the harsh conditions of the upper gastrointestinal tract (GIT) which challenge bacterial viability and activity. One proposed method to surpass this obstacle is the use of microencapsulation to improve the delivery of bacterial cells to the lower GIT. The aim of this study is to use alginate-poly-L-lysine-alginate (APA) microcapsules to encapsulate Lactobacillus fermentum NCIMB 5221 and characterize its enzymatic activity and viability through a simulated GIT. This specific strain, in previous research, was characterized for its inherent ferulic acid esterase (FAE) activity which could prove beneficial in the development of a therapeutic for the treatment and prevention of cancers and metabolic disorders. Our findings demonstrate that the APA microcapsule does not slow the mass transfer of substrate into and that of the FA product out of the microcapsule, while also not impairing bacterial cell viability. The use of simulated gastrointestinal conditions led to a significant 2.5 log difference in viability between the free (1.10 × 104 ± 1.00 × 103 cfu/mL) and the microencapsulated (5.50 × 106 ± 1.00 × 105 cfu/mL) L. fermentum NCIMB 5221 following exposure. The work presented here suggests that APA microencapsulation can be used as an effective oral delivery method for L. fermentum NCIMB 5221, a FAE-active probiotic strain.

  5. Synergistic Antibacterial Effect and Antibacterial Action Mode of Chitosan-Ferulic Acid Conjugate against Methicillin-Resistant Staphylococcus aureus.

    PubMed

    Eom, Sung-Hwan; Kang, Shin-Kook; Lee, Dae-Sung; Myeong, Jeong-In; Lee, Jinhwan; Kim, Hyun-Woo; Kim, Kyoung-Ho; Je, Jae-Young; Jung, Won-Kyo; Kim, Young-Mog

    2016-04-28

    We evaluated the synergistic antibacterial effect in combination with the chitosan-ferulic acid conjugate (CFA) and β-lactam antibiotics, such as ampicillin, penicillin, and oxacillin, against methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) using fractional inhibitory concentration (FIC) indices. CFA clearly reversed the antibacterial activity of ampicillin, penicillin, and oxacillin against MRSA in the combination mode. Among these antibiotics, the combination of oxacillin-CFA resulted in a ∑FICmin range of 0.250 and ∑FICmax of 0.563, suggesting that the oxacillin-CFA combination resulted in an antibacterial synergy effect against MRSA. In addition, we determined that CFA inhibited the mRNA expression of gene mecA and the production of PBP2a, which is a key determinant for β-lactam antibiotic resistance, in a dosedependent manner. Thus, the results obtained in this study supported the idea on the antibacterial action mechanism that oxacillin will restore the antibacterial activity against MRSA through the suppression of PBP2a production by CFA.

  6. Ferulic Acid against Cyclophosphamide-Induced Heart Toxicity in Mice by Inhibiting NF-κB Pathway

    PubMed Central

    Song, Yafan; Zhang, Chunyan; Wang, Congxia; Zhao, Ling; Wang, Zheng; Dai, Zhijun; Lin, Shuai; Kang, Huafeng; Ma, Xiaobin

    2016-01-01

    The purpose of the present study was to elucidate the protective effects of ferulic acid (FA) against cyclophosphamide- (CTX-) induced changes in mice. Forty-eight male ICR mice were divided into four groups. Control group was intraperitoneally (i.p.) injected with 200 μL of phosphate buffer saline (PBS). Model group was intraperitoneally injected with a single dose of CTX (200 mg/kg). FA (50 mg/kg) and FA (100 mg/kg) groups were intraperitoneally injected with a single dose of CTX (200 mg/kg) followed by the intragastric treatment with FA (50, 100 mg/kg) for 7 consecutive days. After 12 d, the mice were sacrificed to analyze the hematological, biochemical, histological parameters and mechanism research. The results indicated that FA significantly decreased the serum levels of alanine aminotransferase (ALT), aspartate aminotransferase (AST), creatine kinase (CK), lactate dehydrogenase (LDH), interleukin-6 (IL-6), IL-1β, and tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α) in CTX-injected mice. In addition, FA effectively reduced the total numbers of white blood cells (WBCs), red blood cells, platelets, and hemoglobin content. FA also obviously attenuated the histological changes of the heart tissues caused by CTX. Moreover, Western blot demonstrated that FA inhibited the phosphorylations of NF-κB signaling pathway in CTX-stimulated cardiac tissues. In conclusion, FA might be considered as an effective agent in the amelioration of the heart toxicity resulting from CTX treatment. PMID:26881001

  7. Ferulic Acid Alleviates Changes in a Rat Model of Metabolic Syndrome Induced by High-Carbohydrate, High-Fat Diet.

    PubMed

    Senaphan, Ketmanee; Kukongviriyapan, Upa; Sangartit, Weerapon; Pakdeechote, Poungrat; Pannangpetch, Patchareewan; Prachaney, Parichat; Greenwald, Stephen E; Kukongviriyapan, Veerapol

    2015-08-04

    Metabolic syndrome is a cluster of metabolic abnormalities characterized by obesity, insulin resistance, hypertension and dyslipidemia. Ferulic acid (FA) is the major phenolic compound found in rice oil and various fruits and vegetables. In this study, we examined the beneficial effects of FA in minimizing insulin resistance, vascular dysfunction and remodeling in a rat model of high-carbohydrate, high-fat diet-induced metabolic changes, which is regarded as an analogue of metabolic syndrome (MS) in man. Male Sprague-Dawley rats were fed a high carbohydrate, high fat (HCHF) diet and 15% fructose in drinking water for 16 weeks, where control rats were fed with standard chow diet and tap water. FA (30 or 60 mg/kg) was orally administered to the HCHF and control rats during the last six weeks of the study. We observed that FA significantly improved insulin sensitivity and lipid profiles, and reduced elevated blood pressure, compared to untreated controls (p < 0.05). Moreover, FA also improved vascular function and prevented vascular remodeling of mesenteric arteries. The effects of FA in HCHF-induced MS may be realized through suppression of oxidative stress by down-regulation of p47phox, increased nitric oxide (NO) bioavailability with up-regulation of endothelial nitric oxide synthase (eNOS) and suppression of tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α). Our results suggest that supplementation of FA may have health benefits by minimizing the cardiovascular complications of MS and alleviating its symptoms.

  8. Ferulic Acid Alleviates Changes in a Rat Model of Metabolic Syndrome Induced by High-Carbohydrate, High-Fat Diet

    PubMed Central

    Senaphan, Ketmanee; Kukongviriyapan, Upa; Sangartit, Weerapon; Pakdeechote, Poungrat; Pannangpetch, Patchareewan; Prachaney, Parichat; Greenwald, Stephen E.; Kukongviriyapan, Veerapol

    2015-01-01

    Metabolic syndrome is a cluster of metabolic abnormalities characterized by obesity, insulin resistance, hypertension and dyslipidemia. Ferulic acid (FA) is the major phenolic compound found in rice oil and various fruits and vegetables. In this study, we examined the beneficial effects of FA in minimizing insulin resistance, vascular dysfunction and remodeling in a rat model of high-carbohydrate, high-fat diet-induced metabolic changes, which is regarded as an analogue of metabolic syndrome (MS) in man. Male Sprague-Dawley rats were fed a high carbohydrate, high fat (HCHF) diet and 15% fructose in drinking water for 16 weeks, where control rats were fed with standard chow diet and tap water. FA (30 or 60 mg/kg) was orally administered to the HCHF and control rats during the last six weeks of the study. We observed that FA significantly improved insulin sensitivity and lipid profiles, and reduced elevated blood pressure, compared to untreated controls (p < 0.05). Moreover, FA also improved vascular function and prevented vascular remodeling of mesenteric arteries. The effects of FA in HCHF-induced MS may be realized through suppression of oxidative stress by down-regulation of p47phox, increased nitric oxide (NO) bioavailability with up-regulation of endothelial nitric oxide synthase (eNOS) and suppression of tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α). Our results suggest that supplementation of FA may have health benefits by minimizing the cardiovascular complications of MS and alleviating its symptoms. PMID:26247970

  9. Nephroprotective effects of ferulic acid, Z-ligustilide and E-ligustilide isolated from Angelica sinensis against cisplatin toxicity in vitro.

    PubMed

    Bunel, Valérian; Antoine, Marie-Hélène; Nortier, Joëlle; Duez, Pierre; Stévigny, Caroline

    2015-04-01

    Cisplatin (CisPt), a chemotherapeutic drug applied against solid tumors, is highly detrimental to the kidney. The risk of acute kidney injury implies adequate patient hydration to ensure sufficient diuresis; this strategy, now implemented in clinical practice, remains however incompletely satisfactory. New pharmacological approaches relying on the discovery of bioactive compounds need to be developed. Based on previous studies reporting renoprotective activities for extracts of Angelica sinensis (Oliv.) Diels roots, three of its major active compounds, ferulic acid, Z-ligustilide and E-ligustilide, were investigated for possible alleviation of CisPt-induced nephrotoxicity. Five phenomena involved in acute kidney injury and subsequent fibrosis were investigated: (i) modulation of cell survival via reduction of the apoptosis rate; (ii) reduction of oxidative stress; (iii) improvement of tubular regeneration capacities through proliferation and migration; (iv) limitation of extracellular matrix and collagen deposition; and (v) prevention of the dedifferentiation processes via the β-catenin pathway. Ferulic acid emerged as the most potent compound for alleviating cell death and collagen deposition, and for enhancing cell regeneration capacities. It also partially inhibited the β-catenin pathway, but was ineffective in lowering oxidative stress. Z- and E-ligustilides, however, were effective for limiting the oxidative stress, but only moderately affected other parameters. Ferulic acid appears to be a promising nephroprotective drug lead deserving further preclinical investigation. PMID:25561245

  10. Comparison of the protective effects of ferulic acid and its drug-containing plasma on primary cultured neonatal rat cardiomyocytes with hypoxia/reoxygenation injury

    PubMed Central

    Ren, Cong; Bao, Yong-rui; Meng, Xian-sheng; Diao, Yun-peng; Kang, Ting-guo

    2013-01-01

    Backgroud: To simulate the ischemia-reperfusion injury in vivo, hypoxia/reoxygenation injury model was established in vitro and primary cultured neonatal rat cardiomyocytes were underwent hypoxia with hydrosulfite (Na2S2O4) for 1 h followed by 1 h reoxygenation. Materials and Methods: Determination the cell viability by MTT colorimetric assay. We use kit to detect the activity of lactate dehydrogenase (LDH), Na+-K+-ATPase and Ca2+-ATPase. Do research on the effect which ferulic acid and its drug-containing plasma have to self-discipline, conductivity, action potential duration and other electrophysiological phenomena of myocardial cells by direct observation using a microscope and recording method of intracellular action potential. Results: The experimental datum showed that both can reduce the damage hydrosulfite to myocardial cell damage and improve myocardial viability, reduce the amount of LDH leak, increase activity of Na+-K+-ATPase, Ca2+-ATPase, and increase APA (Action potential amplitude), Vmax (Maximum rate of depolarization) and MPD (Maximum potential diastolic). Conclusion: Taken together, therefore, we can get the conclusion that ferulic acid drug-containing plasma has better protective effect injured myocardial cell than ferulic acid. PMID:23930002

  11. Synergistic Effect of Ferulic Acid and Z-Ligustilide, Major Components of A. sinensis, on Regulating Cold-Sensing Protein TRPM8 and TPRA1 In Vitro

    PubMed Central

    Pan, Yuwei; Zhao, Guoping; Cai, Zejian; Chen, Fengguo; Xu, Dandan; Huang, Si; Lan, Hai; Tong, Yi

    2016-01-01

    Angelica sinensis has been used to attenuate cold-induced cutaneous vasospasm syndrome, such as Raynaud's disease and frostbite, in China for many years. Ferulic acid (PubChem CID: 445858) and Z-ligustilide (PubChem CID: 529865), two major components extracted from Angelica sinensis, had been reported to inhibit vasoconstriction induced by vasoconstrictors. In this study, the pharmacological interaction in regulating cold-induced vascular smooth muscle cell contraction via cold-sensing protein TRPM8 and TRPA1 was analyzed between ferulic acid and Z-ligustilide. Pharmacological interaction on inhibiting [Ca2+]i influx evoked by TRPM8 agonist WS-12 or TRPA1 agonist ASP 7663 as well as cold-induced upregulation of TRPM8 was determined using isobolographic analysis. The isobolograms demonstrated that the combinations investigated in this study produced a synergistic interaction. Combination effect of two components in inhibiting RhoA activation and phosphorylation of MLC20 induced by WS-12 or ASP 7663 was also being quantified. These findings suggest that the therapeutic effect of Angelica sinensis on cold-induced vasospasm may be partially attributed to combinational effect, via TRPM8 and TPRA1 way, between ferulic acid and Z-ligustilide. PMID:27413384

  12. Aqueous Extract of Tomato (Solanum lycopersicum L.) and Ferulic Acid Reduce the Expression of TNF-α and IL-1β in LPS-Activated Macrophages.

    PubMed

    Navarrete, Simón; Alarcón, Marcelo; Palomo, Iván

    2015-01-01

    Acute inflammation is essential for defending the body against pathogens; however, when inflammation becomes chronic, it is harmful to the body and is part of the pathophysiology of various diseases such as Diabetes Mellitus type 2 (DM2) and Cardiovascular Disease (CVD) among others. In chronic inflammation macrophages play an important role, mainly through the secretion of proinflammatory cytokines such as Tumor necrosis factor (TNF)-α and Interleukin (IL)-1β, explained in part by activation of the Toll-like receptor 4 (TLR4), a signaling pathway which culminates in the activation of Nuclear factor (NF)-κB, an important transcription factor in the expression of these proinflammatory genes. On the other hand, the benefits on health of a diet rich in fruit and vegetables are well described. In this work, the effects of aqueous extract of tomato and ferulic acid on the expression of proinflammatory cytokines in LPS activated monocyte-derived THP-1 macrophages were investigated. In addition, using Western blot, we investigated whether the inhibition was due to the interference on activation of NF-κB. We found that both the tomato extract and ferulic acid presented inhibitory activity on the expression of TNF-α and IL-1β cytokine by inhibiting the activation of NF-κB. The current results suggest that tomatoes and ferulic acid may contribute to prevention of chronic inflammatory diseases. PMID:26307961

  13. Characterization and anticancer potential of ferulic acid-loaded chitosan nanoparticles against ME-180 human cervical cancer cell lines

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Panwar, Richa; Sharma, Asvene K.; Kaloti, Mandeep; Dutt, Dharm; Pruthi, Vikas

    2016-08-01

    Ferulic acid (FA) is a widely distributed hydroxycinnamic acid found in various cereals and fruits exhibiting potent antioxidant and anticancer activities. However, due to low solubility and permeability, its availability to biological systems is limited. Non-toxic chitosan-tripolyphosphate pentasodium (CS-TPP) nanoparticles (NPs) are used to load sparingly soluble molecules and drugs, increasing their bioavailability. In the present work, we have encapsulated FA into the CS-TPP NPs to increase its potential as a therapeutic agent. Different concentrations of FA were tested to obtain optimum sized FA-loaded CS-TPP nanoparticles (FA/CS-TPP NPs) by ionic gelation method. Nanoparticles were characterized by scanning electron microscopy, Fourier transformation infrared spectroscopy (FTIR), thermogravimetric analyses and evaluated for their anticancer activity against ME-180 human cervical cancer cell lines. The FTIR spectra confirmed the encapsulation of FA and thermal analysis depicted its degradation profile. A concentration-dependent relationship between FA encapsulation efficiency and FA/CS-TPP NPs diameter was observed. Smooth and spherical FA-loaded cytocompatible nanoparticles with an average diameter of 125 nm were obtained at 40 µM FA conc. The cytotoxicity of 40 µM FA/CS-TPP NPs against ME-180 cervical cancer cell lines was found to be higher as compared to 40 µM native FA. Apoptotic morphological changes as cytoplasmic remnants and damaged wrinkled cells in ME-180 cells were visualized using scanning electron microscopic and fluorescent microscopic techniques. Data concluded that chitosan enveloped FA nanoparticles could be exploited as an excellent therapeutic drug against cancer cells proliferation.

  14. Protective Effects of Ferulic Acid against Heat Stress-Induced Intestinal Epithelial Barrier Dysfunction In Vitro and In Vivo

    PubMed Central

    He, Shasha; Liu, Fenghua; Xu, Lei; Yin, Peng; Li, Deyin; Mei, Chen; Jiang, Linshu; Ma, Yunfei; Xu, Jianqin

    2016-01-01

    Heat stress is important in the pathogenesis of intestinal epithelial barrier dysfunction. Ferulic acid (FA), a phenolic acid widely found in fruits and vegetables, can scavenge free radicals and activate cell stress responses. This study is aimed at investigating protective effects of FA on heat stress-induced dysfunction of the intestinal epithelial barrier in vitro and in vivo. Intestinal epithelial (IEC-6) cells were pretreated with FA for 4 h and then exposed to heat stress. Heat stress caused decreased transepithelial electrical resistance (TER) and increased permeability to 4-kDa fluorescein isothiocyanate (FITC)-dextran (FD4). Both effects were inhibited by FA in a dose-dependent manner. FA significantly attenuated the decrease in occludin, ZO-1 and E-cadherin expression observed with heat stress. The distortion and redistribution of occludin, ZO-1 and E-cadherin proteins were also effectively prevented by FA pretreatment. Moreover, heat stress diminished electron-dense material detected in tight junctions (TJs), an effect also alleviated by FA in a dose-dependent manner. In an in vivo heat stress model, FA (50 mg/kg) was administered to male Sprague–Dawley rats for 7 consecutive days prior to exposure to heat stress. FA pretreatment significantly attenuated the effects of heat stress on the small intestine, including the increased FD4 permeability, disrupted tight junctions and microvilli structure, and reduced occludin, ZO-1 and E-cadherin expression. Taken together, our results demonstrate that FA pretreatment is potentially protective against heat stress-induced intestinal epithelial barrier dysfunction. PMID:26894689

  15. Protective Effects of Ferulic Acid against Heat Stress-Induced Intestinal Epithelial Barrier Dysfunction In Vitro and In Vivo.

    PubMed

    He, Shasha; Liu, Fenghua; Xu, Lei; Yin, Peng; Li, Deyin; Mei, Chen; Jiang, Linshu; Ma, Yunfei; Xu, Jianqin

    2016-01-01

    Heat stress is important in the pathogenesis of intestinal epithelial barrier dysfunction. Ferulic acid (FA), a phenolic acid widely found in fruits and vegetables, can scavenge free radicals and activate cell stress responses. This study is aimed at investigating protective effects of FA on heat stress-induced dysfunction of the intestinal epithelial barrier in vitro and in vivo. Intestinal epithelial (IEC-6) cells were pretreated with FA for 4 h and then exposed to heat stress. Heat stress caused decreased transepithelial electrical resistance (TER) and increased permeability to 4-kDa fluorescein isothiocyanate (FITC)-dextran (FD4). Both effects were inhibited by FA in a dose-dependent manner. FA significantly attenuated the decrease in occludin, ZO-1 and E-cadherin expression observed with heat stress. The distortion and redistribution of occludin, ZO-1 and E-cadherin proteins were also effectively prevented by FA pretreatment. Moreover, heat stress diminished electron-dense material detected in tight junctions (TJs), an effect also alleviated by FA in a dose-dependent manner. In an in vivo heat stress model, FA (50 mg/kg) was administered to male Sprague-Dawley rats for 7 consecutive days prior to exposure to heat stress. FA pretreatment significantly attenuated the effects of heat stress on the small intestine, including the increased FD4 permeability, disrupted tight junctions and microvilli structure, and reduced occludin, ZO-1 and E-cadherin expression. Taken together, our results demonstrate that FA pretreatment is potentially protective against heat stress-induced intestinal epithelial barrier dysfunction. PMID:26894689

  16. Orally administered rosmarinic acid is present as the conjugated and/or methylated forms in plasma, and is degraded and metabolized to conjugated forms of caffeic acid, ferulic acid and m-coumaric acid.

    PubMed

    Baba, Seigo; Osakabe, Naomi; Natsume, Midori; Terao, Junji

    2004-05-28

    Rosmarinic acid (RA) is contained in various Lamiaceae herbs used commonly as culinary herbs. Although RA has various potent physiological actions, little is known on its bioavailability. We therefore investigated the absorption and metabolism of orally administered RA in rats. After being deprived of food for 12 h, RA (50 mg/kg body weight) or deionized water was administered orally to rats. Blood samples were collected from a cannula inserted in the femoral artery before and at designated time intervals after administration of RA. Urine excreted within 0 to 8 h and 8 to 18 h post-administration was also collected. RA and its related metabolites in plasma and urine were measured by LC-MS after treatment with sulfatase and/or beta-glucuronidase. RA, mono-methylated RA (methyl-RA) and m-coumaric acid (COA) were detected in plasma, with peak concentrations being reached at 0.5, 1 and 8 h after RA administration, respectively. RA, methyl-RA, caffeic acid (CAA), ferulic acid (FA) and COA were detected in urine after RA administration. These components in plasma and urine were present predominantly as conjugated forms such as glucuronide or sulfate. The percentage of the original oral dose of RA excreted in the urine within 18 h of administration as free and conjugated forms was 0.44 +/- 0.21% for RA, 1.60 +/- 0.74% for methyl-RA, 1.06 +/- 0.35% for CAA, 1.70 +/- 0.45% for FA and 0.67 +/- 0.29% for COA. Approximately 83% of the total amount of these metabolites was excreted in the period 8 to 18 h after RA administration. These results suggest that RA was absorbed and metabolized as conjugated and/or methylated forms, and that the majority of RA absorbed was degraded into conjugated and/or methylated forms of CAA, FA and COA before being excreted gradually in the urine. PMID:15120569

  17. The antinociceptive effects of ferulic acid on neuropathic pain: involvement of descending monoaminergic system and opioid receptors.

    PubMed

    Xu, Ying; Lin, Dan; Yu, Xuefeng; Xie, Xupei; Wang, Liqun; Lian, Lejing; Fei, Ning; Chen, Jie; Zhu, Naping; Wang, Gang; Huang, Xianfeng; Pan, Jianchun

    2016-04-12

    Neuropathic pain can be considered as a form of chronic stress that may share common neuropathological mechanism between pain and stress-related depression and respond to similar treatment. Ferulic acid (FA) is a major active component of angelica sinensis and has been reported to exert antidepressant-like effects; however, it remains unknown whether FA ameliorate chronic constriction injury (CCI)-induced neuropathic pain and the involvement of descending monoaminergic system and opioid receptors. Chronic treatment with FA (20, 40 and 80 mg/kg) ameliorated mechanical allodynia and thermal hyperalgesia in von Frey hair and hot plate tasks, accompanied by increasing spinal noradrenaline (NA) and serotonin (5-HT) levels. Subsequent study suggested that treatment of CCI animals with 40 and 80 mg/kg FA also inhibited spinal MAO-A levels. FA's effects on mechanical allodynia or thermal hyperalgesiawas blocked by 6-hydroxydopamine (6-OHDA) or p-chlorophenylalanine (PCPA) via pharmacological depletion of spinal noradrenaline or serotonin. Moreover, the anti-allodynic action of FA on mechanical stimuli was prevented by pre-treatment with beta2-adrenoceptor antagonist ICI 118,551, or by the delta-opioid receptor antagonist naltrindole. While the anti-hyperalgesia on thermal stimuli induced by FA was blocked by pre-treatment with 5-HT1A receptor antagonist WAY-100635, or with the irreversible mu-opioid receptor antagonist beta-funaltrexamine. These results suggest that the effect of FA on neuropathic pain is potentially mediated via amelioration of the descending monoaminergic system that coupled with spinal beta2- and 5-HT1A receptors and the downstream delta- and mu-opioid receptors differentially. PMID:26967251

  18. Scavenging mechanism of curcumin toward the hydroxyl radical: a theoretical study of reactions producing ferulic acid and vanillin.

    PubMed

    Agnihotri, Neha; Mishra, P C

    2011-12-15

    Curcumin is known to be an antioxidant, as it can scavenge free radicals from biological media. A sequence of H-abstraction and addition reactions involving up to eight OH radicals and curcumin or its degradation products leading to the formation of two other antioxidants, namely, ferulic acid and vanillin, was studied. Single electron transfer from curcumin to an OH radical was also studied. All relevant extrema on the potential energy surfaces were located by optimizing geometries of the reactant and product complexes, as well as those of the transition states, at the BHandHLYP/6-31G(d,p) level of density functional theory in the gas phase. Single-point energy calculations were also performed in the gas phase at the BHandHLYP/aug-cc-pVDZ and B3LYP/aug-cc-pVDZ levels of theory. Solvent effects in aqueous media were treated by performing single-point energy calculations at all of the above-mentioned levels of theory employing the polarizable continuum model and the geometries optimized at the BHandHLYP/6-31G(d,p) level in the gas phase. A few reaction steps were also studied by geometry optimization in aqueous media, and the thus-obtained Gibbs free energy barriers were similar to those obtained by corresponding single-point energy calculations. Our calculations show that the hydrogen atom of the OH group attached to the phenol moiety of curcumin would be most efficiently abstracted by an OH radical, in agreement with experimental observations. Further, our study shows that OH addition would be most favored at the C10 site of the heptadiene chain. It was found that curcumin can serve as an effective antioxidant.

  19. The antinociceptive effects of ferulic acid on neuropathic pain: involvement of descending monoaminergic system and opioid receptors

    PubMed Central

    Xu, Ying; Lin, Dan; Yu, Xuefeng; Xie, Xupei; Wang, Liqun; Lian, Lejing; Fei, Ning; Chen, Jie; Zhu, Naping; Wang, Gang; Huang, Xianfeng; Pan, Jianchun

    2016-01-01

    Neuropathic pain can be considered as a form of chronic stress that may share common neuropathological mechanism between pain and stress-related depression and respond to similar treatment. Ferulic acid (FA) is a major active component of angelica sinensis and has been reported to exert antidepressant-like effects; however, it remains unknown whether FA ameliorate chronic constriction injury (CCI)-induced neuropathic pain and the involvement of descending monoaminergic system and opioid receptors. Chronic treatment with FA (20, 40 and 80 mg/kg) ameliorated mechanical allodynia and thermal hyperalgesia in von Frey hair and hot plate tasks, accompanied by increasing spinal noradrenaline (NA) and serotonin (5-HT) levels. Subsequent study suggested that treatment of CCI animals with 40 and 80 mg/kg FA also inhibited spinal MAO-A levels. FA's effects on mechanical allodynia or thermal hyperalgesiawas blocked by 6-hydroxydopamine (6-OHDA) or p-chlorophenylalanine (PCPA) via pharmacological depletion of spinal noradrenaline or serotonin. Moreover, the anti-allodynic action of FA on mechanical stimuli was prevented by pre-treatment with beta2-adrenoceptor antagonist ICI 118,551, or by the delta-opioid receptor antagonist naltrindole. While the anti-hyperalgesia on thermal stimuli induced by FA was blocked by pre-treatment with 5-HT1A receptor antagonist WAY-100635, or with the irreversible mu-opioid receptor antagonist beta-funaltrexamine. These results suggest that the effect of FA on neuropathic pain is potentially mediated via amelioration of the descending monoaminergic system that coupled with spinal beta2- and 5-HT1A receptors and the downstream delta- and mu-opioid receptors differentially. PMID:26967251

  20. Effects of free ferulic acid on productive performance, blood metabolites, and carcass characteristics of feedlot finishing ewe lambs.

    PubMed

    Macías-Cruz, U; Perard, S; Vicente, R; Álvarez, F D; Torrentera-Olivera, N G; González-Ríos, H; Soto-Navarro, S A; Rojo, R; Meza-Herrera, C A; Avendaño-Reyes, L

    2014-12-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate effects of free ferulic acid (FA) supplementation on productive performance, some blood metabolite concentrations, and carcass characteristics of ewe lambs finished in a feedlot. Dorper×Pelibuey ewe lambs (n=20; BW=28.5±0.5 kg; age=5 mo) were individually housed in pens and assigned under a randomized complete block design to the following dietary treatments (n=10): daily feeding without (control) or with 300 mg of FA/animal. The feedlot feeding period lasted 34 d and then all ewe lambs were slaughtered. Free FA did not affect (P≥0.16) BW gain, ADG, DMI, and G:F during the first 17 d, but BW gain (P=0.10) and ADG (P=0.10) tended to decrease for FA from d 17 to 34 and from d 1 to 34 without affecting (P≥0.16) DMI and G:F in ewe lambs. Serum concentrations of glucose, cholesterol, triglyceride, total protein, and urea were not affected (P>0.05) by FA at d 1, 17, and 34 of the feeding period. Carcass characteristics were not affected (P>0.05) by FA. Stomach percentage tended (P=0.08) to decrease and leg yields increased (P=0.02) for FA. Other noncarcass components and wholesale cut yields were not affected (P>0.10) by FA. In conclusion, FA supplementation did not improve productive performance, metabolic status, and carcass characteristics of ewe lambs receiving a feedlot finishing diet.

  1. Ferulic acid renders protection to HEK293 cells against oxidative damage and apoptosis induced by hydrogen peroxide.

    PubMed

    Bian, Yuan-Yuan; Guo, Jia; Majeed, Hamid; Zhu, Ke-Xue; Guo, Xiao-Na; Peng, Wei; Zhou, Hui-Ming

    2015-08-01

    The application of antioxidants has been considered as an important and effective approach against conditions in which oxidative stress occurs. Especially, ferulic acid (FA) is an important antioxidant which exerts potency against cellular damage in the presence of oxidants. In the current study, the resistance effect of FA on hydrogen peroxide (H2O2)-stressed human embryonic kidney 293 cells (HEK293) in vitro was investigated. FA (1 mM) increased HEK293 cells' viability and significantly reduced H2O2-induced cellular apoptosis, which was confirmed with flow cytometry and morphological results. Cell cycle analysis indicated low percentage of sub-G0 population of FA-treated HEK293 cells that confirmed its resistance effect. The FA-treated HEK293 cells followed by H2O2 exposure resulted in decreased ROS levels compared to control (H2O2-treated only). The results indicated that pretreatment of FA on cell prior to H2O2 exposure could significantly improve cell survival and increase catalase (CAT) and superoxide dismutase (SOD) levels. On the other hand, reduction in the levels of MDA and ROS was obvious. It can be concluded that FA may protect HEK293 cells from injury induced by H2O2 through regulation of intracellular antioxidant enzyme activities and cell cycle distribution. The reduction in mitochondrial membrane potential was also inhibited by FA treatment. These results suggested the importance of naturally occurring antioxidants such as FA in therapeutic intervention methodology against oxidative stress-related diseases.

  2. Novel ferulate esterase from Gram-positive lactic acid bacteria and analyses of the recombinant enzyme produced in E. coli

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Using a plate containing ethyl ferulate as sole carbon source, various bacteria cultures were screened for ferulate esterase (FAE). Among a dozen of species showing positive FAE, one Lactobacillus fermentum strain NRRL 1932 demonstrated the strongest activity. Using a published sequence of ferulate ...

  3. High-yield production of vanillin from ferulic acid by a coenzyme-independent decarboxylase/oxygenase two-stage process.

    PubMed

    Furuya, Toshiki; Miura, Misa; Kuroiwa, Mari; Kino, Kuniki

    2015-05-25

    Vanillin is one of the world's most important flavor and fragrance compounds in foods and cosmetics. Recently, we demonstrated that vanillin could be produced from ferulic acid via 4-vinylguaiacol in a coenzyme-independent manner using the decarboxylase Fdc and the oxygenase Cso2. In this study, we investigated a new two-pot bioprocess for vanillin production using the whole-cell catalyst of Escherichia coli expressing Fdc in the first stage and that of E. coli expressing Cso2 in the second stage. We first optimized the second-step Cso2 reaction from 4-vinylguaiacol to vanillin, a rate-determining step for the production of vanillin. Addition of FeCl2 to the cultivation medium enhanced the activity of the resulting E. coli cells expressing Cso2, an iron protein belonging to the carotenoid cleavage oxygenase family. Furthermore, a butyl acetate-water biphasic system was effective in improving the production of vanillin. Under the optimized conditions, we attempted to produce vanillin from ferulic acid by a two-pot bioprocess on a flask scale. In the first stage, E. coli cells expressing Fdc rapidly decarboxylated ferulic acid and completely converted 75 mM of this substrate to 4-vinylguaiacol within 2 h at pH 9.0. After the first-stage reaction, cells were removed from the reaction mixture by centrifugation, and the pH of the resulting supernatant was adjusted to 10.5, the optimal pH for Cso2. This solution was subjected to the second-stage reaction. In the second stage, E. coli cells expressing Cso2 efficiently oxidized 4-vinylguaiacol to vanillin. The concentration of vanillin reached 52 mM (7.8 g L(-1)) in 24 h, which is the highest level attained to date for the biotechnological production of vanillin using recombinant cells.

  4. Synthesis of novel polyphenols consisted of ferulic and gallic acids, and their inhibitory effects on phorbol ester-induced Epstein-Barr virus activation and superoxide generation.

    PubMed

    Nomura, Eisaku; Hosoda, Asao; Morishita, Hideko; Murakami, Akira; Koshimizu, Koichi; Ohigashi, Hajime; Taniguchi, Hisaji

    2002-04-01

    We prepared novel polyphenols which were esters composed of two naturally occurring products, ferulic and gallic acids, and investigated their inhibitory effects on 12-O-tetradecanoylphorbol-13-acetate (TPA)-induced Epstein-Barr virus (EBV) activation and superoxide (O2-) generation. Most of these compounds exhibited significant EBV activation suppression at a concentration of 20 microM and in particular, the ester 5f having 2-methyl-1-butyl group showed high activity. The suppressive effects on O2- generation were also observed in most of the esters.

  5. pH dependence and structural interpretation of the reactions of Coprinus cinereus peroxidase with hydrogen peroxide, ferulic acid, and 2,2'-azinobis.

    PubMed

    Abelskov, A K; Smith, A T; Rasmussen, C B; Dunford, H B; Welinder, K G

    1997-08-01

    Steady-state and transient-state analysis of Coprinus cinereus peroxidase, CIP (identical to Arthromyces ramosus peroxidase), was used to characterize the kinetics of the three fundamental steps in heme peroxidase catalysis: compound I (cpd I) formation, cpd I reduction, and compound II (cpd II) reduction. The rate constant k1 for cpd I formation determined by transient-state analysis is (9.9 +/- 0.6) x 10(6) M-1 s-1. The k1 determined by steady-state analysis is (8.8 +/- 0.6) x 10(6) M-1 s-1 in the presence of ferulic acid and (6.7 +/- 0.2) x 10(6) M-1 s-1 in the presence of ABTS. The value of k1 is constant from pH 6 to 11. However, at low pH the value of k1 decreases, corresponding to titration of an enzyme group with a pKa of 5.0. Titration of this group is also detected from cyanide-binding kinetics. Furthermore, titration of this group is linked with marked spectroscopic changes unique to CIP. We ascribe these changes to protonation of proximal His183. A very low pKa is proposed for distal His55 in the resting state of CIP. The rate constants, k2 for cpd I and k3 for cpd II reduction, are very large for both ferulic acid and 2,2'-azinobis(3-ethylbenzthiazoline-6-sulfonic acid) (ABTS). For ferulic acid, transient-state kinetic analysis shows that the values of k2 and k3 are identical at pH 5-6, and the ratio k2/k3 increases to 10 at pH 10. The similar magnitude of k2 and k3 is unusual for a peroxidase. Both k2 and k3 decrease with increasing pH, and both are influenced by two ionizations: one with a pKa value near 7, assumed to reflect the protonation of His55; and the other with pKa of 9.0 +/- 0.7 for k2 and 8.8 +/- 0.4 for k3, perhaps reflecting the phenol-linked deprotonation of ferulic acid. Steady-state analysis at pH 7.0 gave k2k3/(k2 + k3) = (2.2 +/- 0.1) x 10(7) M-1 s-1 for ferulic acid, and (2.0 +/- 0.7) x 10(7) M-1 s-1 for ABTS and revealed a unimolecular step with ku = 1500 s-1, ascribed to slow ABTS radical product release. From transient

  6. A potent inhibition of oxidative stress induced gene expression in neural cells by sustained ferulic acid release from chitosan based hydrogel.

    PubMed

    Dong, Guo-Chung; Kuan, Che-Yung; Subramaniam, Sadhasivam; Zhao, Jiong-Yao; Sivasubramaniam, Savitha; Chang, Hwan-You; Lin, Feng-Huei

    2015-04-01

    Traumatic brain injury (TBI) is an extremely cataclysmic neurological disorder and the inhibition of oxidative stress following TBI could effectively protect the brain from further impairments. An injectable thermosensitive chitosan/gelatin/β-Glycerol phosphate (C/G/GP) hydrogel for the controlled release of the phenolic antioxidant ferulic acid (FA) to inhibit the neurological oxidative stress was demonstrated. The C/G/GP hydrogel ensures an excellent clinical expediency with a gelation temperature of 32.6°C and gelation time of 75.58s. In-vitro cytotoxicity assays of C/G/GP hydrogel and FA have revealed an excellent biocompatibility with the Neuro-2a cells. 500μM of FA was considered to be an effective concentration to reduce the oxidative stress in Neuro-2a cells. TUNEL staining images evidenced that the H2O2 induced DNA fragmentation was comprehensively controlled after FA treatment. The mRNA gene expression profiles markedly authenticate the neuroprotectivity of FA by down-regulating ROS, inflammatory and apoptosis related markers. The outcomes of this study suggest that, C/G/GP hydrogel carrying ferulic acid could effectively protect further secondary traumatic brain injury associated impairments.

  7. A protease-insensitive feruloyl esterase from China Holstein cow rumen metagenomic library: expression, characterization, and utilization in ferulic acid release from wheat straw.

    PubMed

    Cheng, Fansheng; Sheng, Jiping; Cai, Ting; Jin, Jian; Liu, Wanzhen; Lin, Yanmei; Du, Yongxin; Zhang, Maoqiu; Shen, Lin

    2012-03-14

    A metagenomic library of China Holstein cow rumen microbes was constructed and screened for novel gene cluster. A novel feruloyl esterase (FAE) gene was identified with a length of 789 bp and encoded a protein displaying 56% identity to known esterase sequences. The gene was functionally expressed in Escherichia coli BL21 (DE3), and the total molecular weight of the recombined protein was 32.4 kDa. The purified enzyme showed a broad specificity against the four methyl esters of hydroxycinnamic acids and high activity (259.5 U/mg) to methyl ferulate at optimum conditions (pH 8.0, 40 °C). High thermal and pH stability were also observed. Moreover, the enzyme showed broad resistance to proteases. FAE-SH1 can enhance the release of ferulic acid from wheat straw with cellulase, β-1,4-endoxylanase, β-1,3-glucanase, and pectase. These features suggest FAE-SH1 as a good candidate to enhance biomass degradation and improve the health effects of food and forage.

  8. Measurement of caffeic and ferulic acid equivalents in plasma after coffee consumption: small intestine and colon are key sites for coffee metabolism.

    PubMed

    Renouf, Mathieu; Guy, Philippe A; Marmet, Cynthia; Fraering, Anne-Lise; Longet, Karin; Moulin, Julie; Enslen, Marc; Barron, Denis; Dionisi, Fabiola; Cavin, Christophe; Williamson, Gary; Steiling, Heike

    2010-06-01

    Previous studies on coffee examined absorption of phenolic acids (PA) in the small intestine, but not the contribution of the colon to absorption. Nine healthy volunteers ingested instant soluble coffee ( approximately 335 mg total chlorogenic acids (CGAs)) in water. Blood samples were taken over 12 h, and at 24 h to assess return to baseline. Many previous studies, which used glucuronidase and sulfatase, measured only PA and did not rigorously assess CGAs. To improve this, plasma samples were analyzed after full hydrolysis by chlorogenate esterase, glucuronidase and sulfatase to release aglycone equivalents of PA followed by liquid-liquid extraction and ESI-LC-ESI-MS/MS detection. Ferulic, caffeic and isoferulic acid equivalents appeared rapidly in plasma, peaking at 1-2 h. Dihydrocaffeic and dihydroferulic acids appeared in plasma 6-8 h after ingestion (T(max=)8-12 h). Substantial variability in maximum plasma concentration and T(max) was also observed between individuals. This study confirms that the small intestine is a significant site for absorption of PA, but shows for the first time that the colon/microflora play the major role in absorption and metabolism of CGAs and PA from coffee. PMID:19937852

  9. Octadecyl ferulate behavior in 1,2-dioleoylphosphocholine liposomes

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Octadecyl ferulate, a lipophilic derivative of ferulic acid having antioxidant properties, is found throughout the plant and fungi kingdoms. Octadecyl ferulate was prepared using solid acid catalyst, monitored using supercritical fluid chromatograph and purified to a 42% yield. Differential scanning...

  10. A Stability-Indicating HPLC-DAD Method for Determination of Ferulic Acid into Microparticles: Development, Validation, Forced Degradation, and Encapsulation Efficiency.

    PubMed

    Nadal, Jessica Mendes; Toledo, Maria da Graça; Pupo, Yasmine Mendes; Padilha de Paula, Josiane; Farago, Paulo Vitor; Zanin, Sandra Maria Warumby

    2015-01-01

    A simple stability-indicating HPLC-DAD method was validated for the determination of ferulic acid (FA) in polymeric microparticles. Chromatographic conditions consisted of a RP C18 column (250 mm × 4.60 mm, 5 μm, 110 Å) using a mixture of methanol and water pH 3.0 (48 : 52 v/v) as mobile phase at a flow rate of 1.0 mL/min with UV detection at 320 nm. The developed method was validated as per ICH guidelines with respect to specificity, linearity, limit of quantification, limit of detection, accuracy, precision, and robustness provided suitable results regarding all parameters investigated. The calibration curve was linear in the concentration range of 10.0-70.0 μg/mL with a correlation coefficient >0.999. Precision (intraday and interday) was demonstrated by a relative standard deviation lower than 2.0%. Accuracy was assessed by the recovery test of FA from polymeric microparticles (99.02% to 100.73%). Specificity showed no interference from the components of polymeric microparticles or from the degradation products derived from acidic, basic, and photolytic conditions. In conclusion, the method is suitable to be applied to assay FA as bulk drug and into polymeric microparticles and can be used for studying its stability and degradation kinetics. PMID:26075139

  11. Therapeutic effect of ferulic acid, an ethereal fraction of ethanolic extract of seed of Syzygium cumini against streptozotocin-induced diabetes in male rat.

    PubMed

    Mandal, S; Barik, B; Mallick, C; De, D; Ghosh, D

    2008-03-01

    Diabetic therapeutic and antioxidative effects of an ethereal fraction of the ethanolic extract of the seed of Syzygium cumini was studied in streptozotocin (STZ)-induced diabetic rats. Diabetes resulted in a significant elevation in the fasting blood glucose level and in the activity of hepatic glucose-6-phosphatase. There was diminution in the levels of glycogen in the liver and skeletal muscle along with diminution in the activities of hepatic glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase, catalase and peroxidase in diabetic rats when compared with controls. Hepatic levels of thiobarbituric acid reactive substance (TBARS) and conjugated dienes (CD) were elevated in respect to control. Oral coadministration of the above fraction to diabetic rats resulted in significant protection in all these parameters. Histological studies of the pancreas showed a qualitative diminution in the area and volume of the islet's of Langerhans, but coadministration of the specific fraction resulted in a significant recovery of the islet's of Langerhans. Chromatography study revealed that the used fraction was ferulic acid (FA). Treatment with FA in normoglycemic rats did not show any significant change in the levels of the selected biosensors. The possible hypothesis for the therapeutic effect of FA against diabetes may be due to its pancreatic beta-cell regenerative effect and/or due to its antioxidant properties. PMID:18560627

  12. Efficient production of lignocellulolytic enzymes xylanase, β-xylosidase, ferulic acid esterase and β-glucosidase by the mutant strain Aspergillus awamori 2B.361 U2/1

    PubMed Central

    Gottschalk, Leda Maria Fortes; de Sousa Paredes, Raquel; Teixeira, Ricardo Sposina Sobral; da Silva, Ayla Sant’Ana; da Silva Bon, Elba Pinto

    2013-01-01

    The production of xylanase, β-xylosidase, ferulic acid esterase and β-glucosidase by Aspergillus awamori 2B.361 U2/1, a hyper producer of glucoamylase and pectinase, was evaluated using selected conditions regarding nitrogen nutrition. Submerged cultivations were carried out at 30 °C and 200 rpm in growth media containing 30 g wheat bran/L as main carbon source and either yeast extract, ammonium sulfate, sodium nitrate or urea, as nitrogen sources; in all cases it was used a fixed molar carbon to molar nitrogen concentration of 10.3. The use of poor nitrogen sources favored the accumulation of xylanase, β-xylosidase and ferulic acid esterase to a peak concentrations of 44,880; 640 and 118 U/L, respectively, for sodium nitrate and of 34,580, 685 and 170 U/L, respectively, for urea. However, the highest β-glucosidase accumulation of 10,470 U/L was observed when the rich organic nitrogen source yeast extract was used. The maxima accumulation of filter paper activity, xylanase, β-xylosidase, ferulic acid esterase and β-glucosidase by A. awamori 2B.361 U2/1 was compared to that produced by Trichoderma reesei Rut-C30. The level of β-glucosidase was over 17-fold higher for the Aspergillus strain, whereas the levels of xylanase and β-xylosidase were over 2-fold higher. This strain also produced ferulic acid esterase (170 U/L), which was not detected in the T. reesei culture. PMID:24294256

  13. Novel tacrine-grafted Ugi adducts as multipotent anti-Alzheimer drugs: a synthetic renewal in tacrine-ferulic acid hybrids.

    PubMed

    Benchekroun, Mohamed; Bartolini, Manuela; Egea, Javier; Romero, Alejandro; Soriano, Elena; Pudlo, Marc; Luzet, Vincent; Andrisano, Vincenza; Jimeno, María-Luisa; López, Manuela G; Wehle, Sarah; Gharbi, Tijani; Refouvelet, Bernard; de Andrés, Lucía; Herrera-Arozamena, Clara; Monti, Barbara; Bolognesi, Maria Laura; Rodríguez-Franco, María Isabel; Decker, Michael; Marco-Contelles, José; Ismaili, Lhassane

    2015-03-01

    Herein we describe the design, multicomponent synthesis, and biological, molecular modeling and ADMET studies, as well as in vitro PAMPA-blood-brain barrier (BBB) analysis of new tacrine-ferulic acid hybrids (TFAHs). We identified (E)-3-(hydroxy-3-methoxyphenyl)-N-{8[(7-methoxy-1,2,3,4-tetrahydroacridin-9-yl)amino]octyl}-N-[2-(naphthalen-2-ylamino)2-oxoethyl]acrylamide (TFAH 10 n) as a particularly interesting multipotent compound that shows moderate and completely selective inhibition of human butyrylcholinesterase (IC50 =68.2 nM), strong antioxidant activity (4.29 equiv trolox in an oxygen radical absorbance capacity (ORAC) assay), and good β-amyloid (Aβ) anti-aggregation properties (65.6 % at 1:1 ratio); moreover, it is able to permeate central nervous system (CNS) tissues, as determined by PAMPA-BBB assay. Notably, even when tested at very high concentrations, TFAH 10 n easily surpasses the other TFAHs in hepatotoxicity profiling (59.4 % cell viability at 1000 μM), affording good neuroprotection against toxic insults such as Aβ1-40 , Aβ1-42 , H2 O2 , and oligomycin A/rotenone on SH-SY5Y cells, at 1 μM. The results reported herein support the development of new multipotent TFAH derivatives as potential drugs for the treatment of Alzheimer's disease. PMID:25537267

  14. Binding of ferulic acid to cytochrome c enhances stability of the protein at physiological pH and inhibits cytochrome c-induced apoptosis.

    PubMed

    Yang, Fang; Zhou, Bing-Rui; Zhang, Peng; Zhao, Yan-Feng; Chen, Jie; Liang, Yi

    2007-12-15

    Ferulic acid (FA) is one of the most effective components of a traditional Chinese medicine, angelica, and cytochrome c plays a vital role in apoptosis. Here we report the application of fluorescence spectroscopy, isothermal titration calorimetry (ITC), differential scanning calorimetry (DSC), and circular dichroism (CD) to investigate the mechanism for the interaction of bovine heart cytochrome c with FA and the effect of the binding on native state stability of the protein at physiological pH. Fluorescence spectroscopic studies together with ITC measurements indicate that FA binds to cytochrome c with moderate affinity and quenches the intrinsic fluorescence of the protein in a static way. ITC experiments show that the interaction of cytochrome c with FA is driven by a moderately favorable entropy increase in combination with a less favorable enthalpy decrease for the first binding site of the protein. The melting temperature of cytochrome c in the presence of FA measured by DSC and CD increases 4.0 and 5.0 degrees C, respectively, compared with that in the absence of FA. Taken together, these results indicate that FA binds to and stabilizes cytochrome c at physiological pH. Furthermore, binding of FA to cytochrome c inhibits cytochrome c-induce apoptosis of human hepatoma cell line SMMC-7721. Our data provide insight into the mechanism of drug-protein interactions, and will be helpful to the understanding of the mechanism for FA-inhibited and cytochrome c-induced apoptosis.

  15. Redox cycling of endogenous copper by ferulic acid leads to cellular DNA breakage and consequent cell death: A putative cancer chemotherapy mechanism.

    PubMed

    Sarwar, Tarique; Zafaryab, Md; Husain, Mohammed Amir; Ishqi, Hassan Mubarak; Rehman, Sayeed Ur; Rizvi, M Moshahid Alam; Tabish, Mohammad

    2015-12-01

    Ferulic acid (FA) is a plant polyphenol showing diverse therapeutic effects against cancer, diabetes, cardiovascular and neurodegenerative diseases. FA is a known antioxidant at lower concentrations, however at higher concentrations or in the presence of metal ions such as copper, it may act as a pro-oxidant. It has been reported that copper levels are significantly raised in different malignancies. Cancer cells are under increased oxidative stress as compared to normal cells. Certain therapeutic substances like polyphenols can further increase this oxidative stress and kill cancer cells without affecting the proliferation of normal cells. Through various in vitro experiments we have shown that the pro-oxidant properties of FA are enhanced in the presence of copper. Comet assay demonstrated the ability of FA to cause oxidative DNA breakage in human peripheral lymphocytes which was ameliorated by specific copper-chelating agent such as neocuproine and scavengers of ROS. This suggested the mobilization of endogenous copper in ROS generation and consequent DNA damage. These results were further validated through cytotoxicity experiments involving different cell lines. Thus, we conclude that such a pro-oxidant mechanism involving endogenous copper better explains the anticancer activities of FA. This would be an alternate non-enzymatic, and copper-mediated pathway for the cytotoxic activities of FA where it can selectively target cancer cells with elevated levels of copper and ROS.

  16. Recovery of oxidative stress-induced damage in Cisd2-deficient cardiomyocytes by sustained release of ferulic acid from injectable hydrogel.

    PubMed

    Cheng, Yung-Hsin; Lin, Feng-Huei; Wang, Chien-Ying; Hsiao, Chen-Yuan; Chen, Hung-Ching; Kuo, Hsin-Yu; Tsai, Ting-Fen; Chiou, Shih-Hwa

    2016-10-01

    Aging-related oxidative stress is considered a major risk factor of cardiovascular diseases (CVD) and could be associated with mitochondrial dysfunction and reactive oxygen species (ROS) overproduction. Cisd2 is an outer mitochondrial membrane protein and plays an important role in controlling the lifespan of mammals. Ferulic acid (FA), a natural antioxidant, is able to improve cardiovascular functions and inhibit the pathogenetic CVD process. However, directly administering therapeutics with antioxidant molecules is challenging because of stability and bioavailability issues. In the present study, thermosensitive chitosan-gelatin-based hydrogel containing FA was used to treat Cisd2-deficient (Cisd2(-/-)) cardiomyocytes (CM) derived from induced pluripotent stem cells of Cisd2(-/-) murine under oxidative stress. The results revealed that the developed hydrogel could provide a sustained release of FA and increase the cell viability. Post-treatment of FA-loaded hydrogel effectively decreased the oxidative stress-induced damage in Cisd2(-/-) CM via increasing catalase activity and decreasing endogenous reactive oxygen species (ROS) production. The in vivo biocompatibility of FA-loaded hydrogel was confirmed in subcutaneously injected rabbits and intramyocardially injected Cisd2(-/-) mice. These results suggest that the thermosensitive FA-loaded hydrogel could rescue Cisd2(-/-) CM from oxidative stress-induced damage and may have potential applications in the future treatment of CVD.

  17. A mass transfer model for the fixed-bed adsorption of ferulic acid onto a polymeric resin: axial dispersion and intraparticle diffusion.

    PubMed

    Davila-Guzman, Nancy E; Cerino-Córdova, Felipe J; Soto-Regalado, Eduardo; Loredo-Cancino, Margarita; Loredo-Medrano, José A; García-Reyes, Refugio B

    2016-08-01

    In this study, amberlite XAD-16 (XAD-16) bed column system was used to remove ferulic acid (FA) from aqueous solutions. Laboratory-scale column experiments were conducted in downflow fixed bed at initial FA concentration of 1 g/L, initial pH 3, and 25°C. The performance of the adsorbent bed under different flow rates (1.3-7.7 mL/min) was studied. The bed utilization efficiency was in the range of 64.64-72.21% at the studied flow rates. A mass transfer model considering both axial dispersion and intraparticle diffusion was developed to predict the breakthrough curves of FA adsorption on XAD-16. This model predicted the experimental data better than Bohart-Adams model and Thomas model, based on the low deviation between predicted and experimental data. The axial dispersion coefficient value varied from 6.45 × 10(-6) to 1.10 × 10(-6) m(2)/s at flow rate from 1.3 to 7.7 mL/min, whereas the intraparticle diffusion coefficient was 1.04 × 10(-10) m(2)/s, being this last resistance the rate-limiting step. In conclusion, axial dispersion and intraparticle diffusion phenomena play the major role in predicting the adsorption of FA onto XAD-16 in fixed-bed columns.

  18. Preparative isolation and purification of senkyunolide-I, senkyunolide-H and ferulic acid from Rhizoma Chuanxiong using counter-current chromatography.

    PubMed

    Wei, Yun; Hu, Jia; Li, Hao; Liu, Jiangang

    2011-12-01

    Three active compounds, senkyunolide-I, senkyunolide-H and ferulic acid (FA), were successfully isolated and purified from the extracts of Rhizoma Chuanxiong by counter-current chromatography (CCC). Based on the principle of the partition coefficient values (k) for target compounds and the separation factor (α) between target compounds, the two-phase solvent system that contains n-hexane-ethyl acetate-methanol-water at an optimized volume ratio of 3:7:4:6 v/v was selected for the CCC separation, and the lower phase was employed as the mobile phase in the head-to-tail elution mode. In a single run, 400 mg of the crude extract yielded pure senkyunolide-I (6.4 mg), senkyunolide-H (1.7 mg) and FA (4.4 mg) with the purities of 98, 93 and 99%, respectively. The CCC fractions were analyzed by high-performance liquid chromatography, and the structures of the three active compounds were identified by MS and (1)H NMR.

  19. Novel xylanase from a holstein cattle rumen metagenomic library and its application in xylooligosaccharide and ferulic Acid production from wheat straw.

    PubMed

    Cheng, Fansheng; Sheng, Jiping; Dong, Rubo; Men, Yejun; Gan, Lin; Shen, Lin

    2012-12-26

    A novel gene fragment containing a xylanase was identified from a Holstein cattle rumen metagenomic library. The novel xylanase (Xyln-SH1) belonged to the glycoside hydrolase family 10 (GH10) and exhibited a maximum of 44% identity to the glycoside hydrolase from Clostridium thermocellum ATCC 27405. Xyln-SH1 was heterologously expressed, purified, and characterized. A high level of activity was obtained under the optimum conditions of pH 6.5 and 40 °C. A substrate utilization study indicated that Xyln-SH1 was cellulase-free and strictly specific to xylan from softwood. The synergistic effects of Xyln-SH1 and feruloyl esterase (FAE-SH1) were observed for the release of xylooligosaccharides (XOS) and ferulic acid (FA) from wheat straw. In addition, a high dose of Xyln-SH1 alone was observed to improve the release of FA from wheat straw. These features suggest that this enzyme has substantial potential to improve biomass degradation and industrial applications.

  20. POD promoted oxidative gelation of water-extractable arabinoxylan through ferulic acid dimers. Evidence for its negative effect on malt filterability.

    PubMed

    Wu, Dianhui; Zhou, Ting; Li, Xiaomin; Cai, Guolin; Lu, Jian

    2016-04-15

    As a major component of non-starch polysaccharide in barley, arabinoxylan (AX) plays an important role in quality traits of malt and the final beer product. The Chinese barley malt has encountered filterability problems for a long time. The main reason caused by barley cultivar has been accepted in the malting and brewing industries. In our previous proteomic study, the peroxidase (POD) BP1 was found to be in quite high abundant in the filterability defect Chinese barley malt. Therefore, the present study tried to verify its negative effect on filterability, by surveying its activity in different malt samples and detecting effects of POD on AX gelation and filterability. The results showed that the activity of POD, as well as the content of AX bounded ferulic acid, were both negatively correlated with filterability, while the feruloyl esterase activity was positively correlated with it. In addition, AX gelation catalyzed by POD caused worse filterability, and the natural inhibitor of POD, vitamin C, could blocked the cross linking catalyzed by POD and thus improve the filterability. These results all suggested the great negative effect of POD on malt filterability. PMID:26616970

  1. Ethyl oleate-containing nanostructured lipid carriers improve oral bioavailability of trans-ferulic acid ascompared with conventional solid lipid nanoparticles.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Yongtai; Li, Zhe; Zhang, Kai; Yang, Gang; Wang, Zhi; Zhao, Jihui; Hu, Rongfeng; Feng, Nianping

    2016-09-10

    trans-Ferulic acid (TFA) has antioxidative, anti-inflammatory, and cardioprotective effects, but its poor solubility in water results in unsatisfactory oral bioavailability when administered conventionally at a standard dosage. However, the limited bioavailability of TFA can be overcome by delivering it in nanostructured lipid carriers (NLCs). In this study, a microemulsion (ME)-based method was used to prepare NLCs with ethyl oleate as the liquid lipid component and glyceryl behenate as the solid lipid component. These NLCs and solid lipid nanoparticles (SLNs) were then used as vehicles for TFA. Their entrapment efficiencies (EE), stability during storage, in vitro release profiles, and in vivo pharmacokinetics were compared. The NLC formulation afforded a drug entrapment efficiency that was significantly greater than that of the SLN formulation, which was made using a single solid lipid. Furthermore, the TFA that was dispersed in the disordered binary lipid matrix of the NLC formulation was more stable than that in the SLN formulation, and thus showed less expulsion from the vehicle during storage. In in vivo pharmacokinetic studies, the NLC TFA formulation yielded a greater Cmax and AUC than that produced by the SLN formulation and an aqueous TFA suspension. This showed that the oral bioavailability of TFA was markedly improved by packaging in NLCs. NLCs are thus a promising vehicle for oral TFA administration, with significant advantages over SLNs. PMID:27374194

  2. Ferulic Acid Induces Th1 Responses by Modulating the Function of Dendritic Cells and Ameliorates Th2-Mediated Allergic Airway Inflammation in Mice

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Chen-Chen; Wang, Ching-Chiung; Huang, Huei-Mei; Lin, Chu-Lun; Leu, Sy-Jye; Lee, Yueh-Lun

    2015-01-01

    This study investigated the immunomodulatory effects of ferulic acid (FA) on antigen-presenting dendritic cells (DCs) in vitro and its antiallergic effects against ovalbumin- (OVA-) induced Th2-mediated allergic asthma in mice. The activation of FA-treated bone marrow-derived DCs by lipopolysaccharide (LPS) stimulation induced a high level of interleukin- (IL-) 12 but reduced the expression levels of the proinflammatory cytokines IL-1β, IL-6, and tumor necrosis factor- (TNF-) α. Compared to control-treated DCs, FA significantly enhanced the expressions of Notch ligand Delta-like 4 (Dll4), MHC class II, and CD40 molecules by these DCs. Furthermore, these FA-treated DCs enhanced T-cell proliferation and Th1 cell polarization. In animal experiments, oral administration of FA reduced the levels of OVA-specific immunoglobulin E (IgE) and IgG1 and enhanced IgG2a antibody production in serum. It also ameliorated airway hyperresponsiveness and attenuated eosinophilic pulmonary infiltration in dose-dependent manners. In addition, FA treatment inhibited the production of eotaxin, Th2 cytokines (IL-4, IL-5, and IL-13), and proinflammatory cytokines but promoted the Th1 cytokine interferon- (IFN-) γ production in bronchoalveolar lavage fluid (BALF) and the culture supernatant of spleen cells. These findings suggest that FA exhibits an antiallergic effect via restoring Th1/Th2 imbalance by modulating DCs function in an asthmatic mouse model. PMID:26495021

  3. Pharmacokinetic comparison of the vasorelaxant compound ferulic acid following the administration of Guanxin II to healthy volunteers and patients with angina pectoris.

    PubMed

    Li, Yun-Hui; Huang, Xi; Wang, Yang; Fan, Rong; Zhang, Hong-Min; Ren, Ping; Chen, Yao; Zhou, Hong-Hao; Liu, Zhao-Qian; Liang, Yi-Zeng; Lu, Hong-Mei

    2013-11-01

    Coronary heart disease (CHD) is the leading cause of mortality worldwide. The Chinese medicinal formula Guanxin II has been shown to have a favorable effect in the attenuation of angina. The aim of this study was to compare the pharmacokinetics of ferulic acid (FA), which is a vasorelaxant compound present in Guanxin II, in healthy volunteers and patients with angina pectoris following the administration of Guanxin II. Ex vivo experiments were performed in order to investigate the vasorelaxant effect of FA on the human internal mammary artery (IMA) to provide evidence that it is a bioactive component of Guanxin II. Following the oral administration of Guanxin II, the FA levels in the serum were quantified by a simple and rapid high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) method. Treatment with FA (10(-8)-10(-3) M) caused a concentration-dependent relaxation of endothelial IMA rings following precontraction with KCl. Statistically significant differences were identified between the pharmaco-kinetic parameters Cmax, t1/2α, t1/2β and t1/2Ka of the healthy volunteers and the patients with angina pectoris following the oral administration of Guanxin II. FA is a bioactive compound absorbed from Guanxin II that attenuates angina pectoris, a condition that may modify the pharmacokinetics of FA. Not only do the pharmacokinetic parameters direct the clinical use of Guanxin II, but they may also be useful for exploring the pathology of angina pectoris.

  4. Schwann cell proliferation and differentiation that is induced by ferulic acid through MEK1/ERK1/2 signalling promotes peripheral nerve remyelination following crush injury in rats

    PubMed Central

    Zhu, Xiaoyan; Li, Kun; Guo, Xin; Wang, Jian; Xiang, Yang

    2016-01-01

    Schwann cell proliferation and differentiation is critical for the remyelination of injured peripheral nerves. Ferulic acid (FA) is a widely used antioxidant agent with neuroprotective properties. However, the potentially beneficial effects of FA on Schwann cells are unknown. Therefore, the present study was designed to examine the effects of FA on Schwann cell proliferation and differentiation. By using the cultured primary Schwann cells and proliferation assay, the results identified that FA was capable of increasing Schwann cell proliferation and expression of myelin-associated glycoprotein (MAG) and myelin basic protein (MBP) in vitro. It was also observed that the beneficial effect of FA treatment on Schwann cells was mainly dependent on the activation of MEK1/ERK1/2 signalling. Furthermore, FA was intraperitoneally administered to rats with sciatic nerve crush injury, and the results revealed an increase in Schwann cell proliferation and differentiation, while the MAG and MBP expression levels in sciatic nerves were markedly upregulated following FA administration. In conclusion, the current results demonstrate that Schwann cell proliferation and differentiation is induced by FA through MEK1/ERK1/2 signalling and that FA may accelerate injured peripheral nerve remyelination. PMID:27588110

  5. Soluble and cell wall-bound phenolic acids and ferulic acid dehydrodimers in rye flour and five bread model systems: insight into mechanisms of improved availability

    PubMed Central

    Dynkowska, Wioletta M; Cyran, Malgorzata R; Ceglińska, Alicja

    2015-01-01

    Background The bread-making process influences bread components, including phenolics that significantly contribute to its antioxidant properties. Five bread model systems made from different rye cultivars were investigated to compare their impact on concentration of ethanol-soluble (free and ester-bound) and insoluble phenolics. Results Breads produced by a straight dough method without acid addition (A) and three-stage sourdough method with 12 h native starter preparation (C) exhibited the highest, genotype-dependent concentrations of free phenolic acids. Dough acidification by direct acid addition (method B) or by gradual production during prolonged starter fermentation (24 and 48 h, for methods D and E) considerably decreased their level. However, breads B were enriched in soluble ester-bound fraction. Both direct methods, despite substantial differences in dough pH, caused a similar increase in the amount of insoluble ester-bound fraction. The contents of phenolic fractions in rye bread were positively related to activity level of feruloyl esterase and negatively to those of arabinoxylan-hydrolysing enzymes in wholemeal flour. Conclusion The solubility of rye bread phenolics may be enhanced by application of a suitable bread-making procedure with respect to rye cultivar, as the mechanisms of this process are also governed by a response of an individual genotype with specific biochemical profile. © 2014 Plant Breeding and Acclimatization Institute, National Research Institute. © 2014 The Authors. Journal of the Science of Food and Agriculture published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd on behalf of Society of Chemical Industry. PMID:25410263

  6. Ferulic Acid Attenuates TGF-β1-Induced Renal Cellular Fibrosis in NRK-52E Cells by Inhibiting Smad/ILK/Snail Pathway

    PubMed Central

    Wei, Ming-gang; Sun, Wei; He, Wei-ming; Ni, Li; Yang, Yan-yu

    2015-01-01

    Renal fibrosis is a common cause of renal dysfunction with chronic kidney disease. Central to this process is epithelial-mesenchymal transformation (EMT) of proximal tubular epithelial cells driven by transforming growth factor-β1 (TGF-β1) signaling. The present study aimed to investigate the effect of Ferulic acid (FA) on EMT of renal proximal tubular epithelial cell line (NRK-52E) induced by TGF-β1 and to elucidate its underlying mechanism against EMT related to TGF-β1/Smads pathway. The NRK-52E cells were treated for 48 h with TGF-β1 (5 ng/mL) in different concentrations of FA (0 to 200 µM). Fibronectin, a mesenchymal marker, was assessed by western blotting. Western blotting was also used to examine the EMT markers (E-cadherin, and α-smooth muscle actin (α-SMA)), signal transducer (p-Smad2/3), and EMT initiator (Snail). ILK was also assayed by western blotting. The results showed that TGF-β1 induced spindle-like morphological transition in NRK-52E cells. Smad2/3 signaling pathway activation, increased fibronectin, α-SMA, ILK, and Snail expression, and decreased E-cadherin expression in TGF-β1-treated NRK-52E cells. FA efficiently blocked P-Smad2/3 activation and attenuated all these EMT changes induced by TGF-β1. These findings suggest that FA may serve as a potential fibrosis antagonist for renal proximal tubule cells by inhibiting EMT process. PMID:25949265

  7. Pharmacokinetic comparison of ferulic acid in normal and blood deficiency rats after oral administration of Angelica sinensis, Ligusticum chuanxiong and their combination.

    PubMed

    Li, Weixia; Guo, Jianming; Tang, Yuping; Wang, Huan; Huang, Meiyan; Qian, Dawei; Duan, Jin-Ao

    2012-01-01

    Radix Angelica Sinensis (RAS) and Rhizome Ligusticum (RLC) combination is a popular herb pair commonly used in clinics for treatment of blood deficiency syndrome in China. The aim of this study is to compare the pharmacokinetic properties of ferulic acid (FA), a main bioactive constituent in both RAS and RLC, between normal and blood deficiency syndrome animals, and to investigate the influence of compatibility of RAS and RLC on the pharmacokinetic of FA. The blood deficiency rats were induced by injecting 2% Acetyl phenylhydrazine (APH) on the first day, every other day, to a total of five times, at the dosage of 100, 50, 50, 30, 30 mg/kg body mass, respectively. Quantification of FA in rat plasma was achieved by using a simple and rapid HPLC method. Plasma samples were collected at different time points to construct pharmacokinetic profiles by plotting drug concentration versus time, and estimate pharmacokinetic parameters. Between normal and blood deficiency model groups, both AUC((0-) (t) ()) and C(max) of FA in blood deficiency rats after RAS-RLC extract administration increased significantly (P < 0.05), while clearance (CL) decreased significantly. Among three blood deficiency model groups, t(1/2α), V(d), AUC((0-) (t) ()) and AUC((0-∞)) all increased significantly in the RAS-RLC extract group compared with the RAS group. The results indicated that FA was absorbed better and eliminated slower in blood deficiency rats; RLC could significantly prolong the half-life of distribution, increase the volume of distribution and the absorption amount of FA of RAS in blood deficiency rats, which may be due to the synergic action when RAS and RLC were used together to treat blood deficiency syndrome. PMID:22489169

  8. Poly(ferulic acid-co-tyrosine): Effect of the Regiochemistry on the Photophysical and Physical Properties en Route to Biomedical Applications

    PubMed Central

    2015-01-01

    The photophysical and mechanical properties of novel poly(carbonate-amide)s derived from two biorenewable resources, ferulic acid (FA) and l-tyrosine ethyl ester, were evaluated in detail. From these two bio-based precursors, a series of four monomers were generated (having amide and/or carbonate coupling units with remaining functionalities to allow for carbonate formation) and transformed to a series of four poly(carbonate-amide)s. The simplest monomer, which was biphenolic and was obtained in a single amidation synthetic step, displayed bright, visible fluorescence that was twice brighter than FA. Multidimensional fluorescence spectroscopy of the polymers in solution highlighted the strong influence that regioselectivity and the degree of polymerization have on their photophysical properties. The regiochemistry of the system had little effect on the wettability, surface free energy, and Young’s modulus (ca. 2.5 GPa) in the solid state. Confocal imaging of solvent-cast films of each polymer revealed microscopically flat surfaces with fluorescent emission deep into the visible region. Fortuitously, one of the two regiorandom polymers (obtainable from the biphenolic monomer in only an overall two synthetic steps from FA and l-tyrosine ethyl ester) displayed the most promising fluorescent properties both in the solid state and in solution, allowing for the possibility of translating this system as a self-reporting or imaging agent in future applications. To further evaluate the potential of this polymer as a biodegradable material, hydrolytic degradation studies at different pH values and temperatures were investigated. Additionally, the antioxidant properties of the degradation products of this polymer were compared with its biphenolic monomer and FA. PMID:25364040

  9. Influence of ferulic acid on nicotine-induced lipid peroxidation, DNA damage and inflammation in experimental rats as compared to N-acetylcysteine.

    PubMed

    Sudheer, Adluri Ram; Muthukumaran, Shanmugavel; Devipriya, Nagarajan; Devaraj, Halagowder; Menon, Venugopal P

    2008-01-20

    We examined the effect of ferulic acid (FA), a naturally occurring phenolic compound on lipid peroxidation and endogenous antioxidant status, DNA damage and inflammation in nicotine-administered Wistar rats. The effect of FA against nicotine toxicity was compared with N-acetylcysteine (NAC), a well-known antioxidant. Lung toxicity was induced by subcutaneous injection of nicotine at a dose of 2.5mg/kg body weight (5 days a week, for 22 weeks) and FA and NAC were given simultaneously by intragastric intubation for 22 weeks. Seventy two Wistar rats were divided into six groups: (i) control, (ii) nicotine, (iii) nicotine+FA (iv), nicotine+NAC, (v) FA and (vi) NAC. At the end of the experimental period, cellular damage was assessed by measuring the activities of lactate dehydrogenase and alkaline phosphatase in plasma, which were significantly elevated in nicotine-administered rats when compared with control group. Enhanced lipid peroxidation (evaluated by measuring the thiobarbituric acid reactive substances and hydroperoxides) was accompanied by a significant decrease in the endogenous antioxidant status viz., superoxide dismutase, catalase, glutathione peroxidase and reduced glutathione in circulation, lung and liver of nicotine-treated rats when compared with control group. DNA single strand breaks (evaluated by comet assay) and frequency of micronuclei were significantly increased in peripheral blood of nicotine-treated rats when compared with control. Our Western blot analysis showed a significant increase in the expression of cyclooxygenase-2 and NF-kappaB in lung and liver of nicotine-treated rats. FA and NAC co-treated rats showed a significant decrease in the activities of circulatory lactate dehydrogenase and alkaline phosphatase, the levels of lipid peroxidative markers (in circulation, lung and liver), DNA single stranded breaks (comet parameters), micronuclei frequency (in the whole blood) and expression of cyclooxygenase-2 and Nf-kappaB (in lung and

  10. Protective effect of ferulic acid on nicotine-induced DNA damage and cellular changes in cultured rat peripheral blood lymphocytes: a comparison with N-acetylcysteine.

    PubMed

    Sudheer, Adluri Ram; Muthukumaran, Shanmugavelu; Kalpana, Chandran; Srinivasan, Marimuthu; Menon, Venugopal Padmanabhan

    2007-06-01

    Nicotine is the major pharmacologically active substance in cigarette smoke and plays an important etiological role in the development of lung cancer. Incidence of cancer may be related to oxidative damage to host genome by nicotine. These oxidative actions may be modified by the phytochemicals present in food. The present study describes the protective effect of ferulic acid (FA), a naturally occurring nutritional compound on nicotine-induced DNA damage and cellular changes in cultured rat peripheral blood lymphocytes in comparison with N-acetylcysteine (NAC), a well-known antioxidant. One-hour exposure of lymphocytes to nicotine at the doses of 0.125, 0.25, 0.5, 1, 2, 3 and 4 mM induced a statistically significant dose-dependent increase in the levels of thiobarbituric acid reactive substances (TBARS), a lipid peroxidative marker and decrease in the levels of reduced glutathione (GSH), an important endogenous antioxidant. The lowest concentration eliciting significant damage was 1 mM nicotine and maximum damage was observed with 3 mM concentration. Hence, the test concentration was fixed at 3 mM nicotine. We have used 5 different doses of FA (10, 50, 100, 150 and 300 microM) and NAC (0.25, 0.5, 1, 2 and 4 mM) to test their protective effects. In all the groups, FA and NAC showed a dose-dependent inhibitory effect. Maximum protection was observed at the dose of 150 microM FA and 1mM NAC. So, 150 microM FA and 1mM NAC were used for further studies. There was a significant increase in the levels of lipid peroxidative index (TBARS and hydroperoxides (HP)), severity of DNA damage (evaluated by comet assay) in nicotine-treated group, which were significantly decreased in FA and NAC-treated groups. Nicotine treatment significantly decreased the endogenous antioxidant status viz., superoxide dismutase (SOD), catalase (CAT), glutathione peroxidase (GPx), GSH, vitamin A, E and C. Co-administration of FA and NAC to nicotine-treated lymphocytes showed a significant increase

  11. A UFLC-MS/MS method for simultaneous quantitation of spinosin, mangiferin and ferulic acid in rat plasma: application to a comparative pharmacokinetic study in normal and insomnic rats.

    PubMed

    He, Bosai; Li, Qing; Jia, Ying; Zhao, Longshan; Xiao, Feng; Lv, Chunxiao; Xu, Huarong; Chen, Xiaohui; Bi, Kaishun

    2012-10-01

    Suan-Zao-Ren (SZR) decoction, consisting of Ziziphi Spinosae Semen, Poria, Chuanxiong Rhizoma, Anemarrhenae Rhizoma and Glycyrrhizae Radix Et Rhizoma, is a Traditional Chinese Medicine prescription, clinically used for the treatment of insomnia. The objective of this study was to develop a sensitive and reliable UFLC-MS/MS method for simultaneous quantitation of spinosin, mangiferin and ferulic acid, the main active ingredients in SZR decoction, and to compare the pharmacokinetics of these active ingredients in normal and insomnic rats orally administrated with the prescription. Analytes and IS were separated on a Shim-pack XR-ODS column (75 mm × 3.0 mm, 2.2 µm particles) using gradient elution with the mobile phase consisting of methanol and 0.1% formic acid in water at a flow rate of 0.4 mL/min. The detection of the analytes was performed on 4000Q UFLC-MS/MS system with turbo ion spray source in the negative ion and multiple reaction-monitoring mode. The lower limits of quantification were 1, 6 and 1 ng/mL for spinosin, mangiferin and ferulic acid, respectively. Intra- and inter-day precision and accuracy of analytes were well within acceptance criteria (15%). The mean extraction recoveries of analytes and IS from rats plasma were all more than 85.0%. The validated method has been successfully applied to comparing pharmacokinetic profiles of analytes in rat plasma. The results indicated that no significant difference in pharmacokinetic parameters of ferulic acid was observed between two groups, while absorptions of spinosin and mangiferin in insomnic group were significantly lower than those in normal group. PMID:23019165

  12. Simultaneous determination of paeoniflorin, albiflorin, ferulic acid, tetrahydropalmatine, protopine, typhaneoside, senkyunolide I in Beagle dogs plasma by UPLC-MS/MS and its application to a pharmacokinetic study after Oral Administration of Shaofu Zhuyu Decoction.

    PubMed

    Huang, Xiaochen; Su, Shulan; Cui, Wenxia; Liu, Pei; Duan, Jin-ao; Guo, Jianming; Li, Zhenhao; Shang, Erxin; Qian, Dawei; Huang, Zhijun

    2014-07-01

    In this present study, a sensitive and rapid UPLC-MS/MS method was developed for simultaneous quantification of paeoniflorin, albiflorin, ferulic acid, tetrahydropalmatine, protopine, typhaneoside and senkyunolide I in Beagle dog plasma after oral administration of the Shao-Fu-Zhu-Yu Decoction. Chloramphenicol and clarithromycin were used as internal standards. Plasma samples were processed by protein precipitation with methanol. The separation was performed on an Acquity BEH C18 column (100mm×2.1mm, 1.7μm) at a flow-rate of 0.4mL/min, using 0.1% formic acid-acetonitrile as mobile phase. Method validation was performed as per Food and Drug Administration guidelines and the results met the acceptance criteria. After validation, this method was successfully applied to a pharmacokinetic study. The results showed that the apparent plasma clearance of paeoniflorin, albiflorin, typhaneoside and senkyunolide I were significantly higher than others. Double peak was observed in plasma concentration curves of tetrahydropalmatine, the ferulic acid had a good absorption in Beagle dog plasma, and senkyunolide I was detected in plasma from the first blood sampling time (15min) and rapidly reached Tmax. The compound of typhaneoside has a low bioavailability according to the results. PMID:24907546

  13. Ferulic Acid Regulates the Nrf2/Heme Oxygenase-1 System and Counteracts Trimethyltin-Induced Neuronal Damage in the Human Neuroblastoma Cell Line SH-SY5Y.

    PubMed

    Catino, Stefania; Paciello, Fabiola; Miceli, Fiorella; Rolesi, Rolando; Troiani, Diana; Calabrese, Vittorio; Santangelo, Rosaria; Mancuso, Cesare

    2015-01-01

    Over the past years, several lines of evidence have pointed out the efficacy of ferulic acid (FA) in counteracting oxidative stress elicited by β-amyloid or free radical initiators, based on the ability of this natural antioxidant to up-regulate the heme oxygenase-1 (HO-1) and biliverdin reductase (BVR) system. However, scarce results can be found in literature regarding the cytoprotective effects of FA in case of damage caused by neurotoxicants. The aim of this work is to investigate the mechanisms through which FA exerts neuroprotection in SH-SY5Y neuroblastoma cells exposed to the neurotoxin trimethyltin (TMT). FA (1-10 μM for 6 h) dose-dependently increased both basal and TMT (10 μM for 24 h)-induced HO-1 expression in SH-SY5Y cells by fostering the nuclear translocation of the transcriptional activator Nrf2. In particular, the co-treatment of FA (10 μM) with TMT was also responsible for the nuclear translocation of HO-1 in an attempt to further increase cell stress response in SH-SY5Y cells. In addition to HO-1, FA (1-10 μM for 6 h) dose-dependently increased the basal expression of BVR. The antioxidant and neuroprotective features of FA, through the increase of HO activity, were supported by the evidence that FA inhibited TMT (10 μM)-induced lipid peroxidation (evaluated by detecting 4-hydroxy-nonenal) and DNA fragmentation in SH-SY5Y cells and that this antioxidant effect was reversed by the HO inhibitor Zinc-protoporphyrin-IX (5 μM). Among the by-products of the HO/BVR system, carbon monoxide (CORM-2, 50 nM) and bilirubin (BR, 50 nM) significantly inhibited TMT-induced superoxide anion formation in SH-SY5Y cells. All together, these results corroborate the neuroprotective effect of FA through the up-regulation of the HO-1/BVR system, via carbon monoxide and BR formation, and provide the first evidence on the role of HO-1/Nrf2 axis in FA-related enhancement of cell stress response in human neurons.

  14. Ferulic Acid Regulates the Nrf2/Heme Oxygenase-1 System and Counteracts Trimethyltin-Induced Neuronal Damage in the Human Neuroblastoma Cell Line SH-SY5Y

    PubMed Central

    Catino, Stefania; Paciello, Fabiola; Miceli, Fiorella; Rolesi, Rolando; Troiani, Diana; Calabrese, Vittorio; Santangelo, Rosaria; Mancuso, Cesare

    2016-01-01

    Over the past years, several lines of evidence have pointed out the efficacy of ferulic acid (FA) in counteracting oxidative stress elicited by β-amyloid or free radical initiators, based on the ability of this natural antioxidant to up-regulate the heme oxygenase-1 (HO-1) and biliverdin reductase (BVR) system. However, scarce results can be found in literature regarding the cytoprotective effects of FA in case of damage caused by neurotoxicants. The aim of this work is to investigate the mechanisms through which FA exerts neuroprotection in SH-SY5Y neuroblastoma cells exposed to the neurotoxin trimethyltin (TMT). FA (1–10 μM for 6 h) dose-dependently increased both basal and TMT (10 μM for 24 h)-induced HO-1 expression in SH-SY5Y cells by fostering the nuclear translocation of the transcriptional activator Nrf2. In particular, the co-treatment of FA (10 μM) with TMT was also responsible for the nuclear translocation of HO-1 in an attempt to further increase cell stress response in SH-SY5Y cells. In addition to HO-1, FA (1–10 μM for 6 h) dose-dependently increased the basal expression of BVR. The antioxidant and neuroprotective features of FA, through the increase of HO activity, were supported by the evidence that FA inhibited TMT (10 μM)-induced lipid peroxidation (evaluated by detecting 4-hydroxy-nonenal) and DNA fragmentation in SH-SY5Y cells and that this antioxidant effect was reversed by the HO inhibitor Zinc-protoporphyrin-IX (5 μM). Among the by-products of the HO/BVR system, carbon monoxide (CORM-2, 50 nM) and bilirubin (BR, 50 nM) significantly inhibited TMT-induced superoxide anion formation in SH-SY5Y cells. All together, these results corroborate the neuroprotective effect of FA through the up-regulation of the HO-1/BVR system, via carbon monoxide and BR formation, and provide the first evidence on the role of HO-1/Nrf2 axis in FA-related enhancement of cell stress response in human neurons. PMID:26779023

  15. An automated dual-gradient liquid chromatography-MS/MS method for the simultaneous determination of ferulic acid, ligustrazine and ligustilide in rat plasma and its application to a pharmacokinetic study.

    PubMed

    Zeng, Mingfei; Zhang, Jing; Yang, Yifang; Jin, Yan; Xiao, Wei; Wang, Zhenzhong; Ding, Gang; Yan, Renjie

    2014-01-01

    An automated on-line SPE and innovative fast polarity switch bioanalysis method employing dual-gradient liquid chromatography (DGLC) coupled with mass spectrometry (DGLC-MS/MS) was established and validated for the simultaneous determination of ferulic acid, ligustrazine and ligustilide in rat plasma after administration of Rhizoma Chuanxiong, Angelica sinensis extract or monomer. The proteins in plasma samples were precipitated using acetonitrile: methanol (1:1, v/v). Sulfamethoxazole was used as an internal standard. The DGLC system contains two high-pressure pumps. The first pump was used for on-line solid phase extraction with a Cyclone™ SPE column. Chromatographic separations were performed with the other pump on a Syncronis C18 rapid analytical column. The analytical column was eluted by a gradient program that featured an acetonitrile/methanol/water gradient (flow-rate, 0.4ml/min). DGLC afforded greater convenience for bioanalysis. All analytes were simultaneously monitored in positive- and negative-ion mode by SRM (selective reaction monitoring) using the fast polarity switch speed of TSQ Vantage™. Method validation of the assay was implemented. No significant matrix effect was observed. The LLOQ of all analytes were <1.0ng/ml. The precision, recovery and linearity of the analysis met the pre-established requirements. The method was applied to the pharmacokinetics of ferulic acid, ligustrazine and ligustilide in Rhizoma Chuanxiong or Angelica sinensis extracts or monomers. PMID:24140450

  16. Ferulic acid 5-hydroxylase 1 is essential for expression of anthocyanin biosynthesis-associated genes and anthocyanin accumulation under photooxidative stress in Arabidopsis.

    PubMed

    Maruta, Takanori; Noshi, Masahiro; Nakamura, Maki; Matsuda, Shun; Tamoi, Masahiro; Ishikawa, Takahiro; Shigeoka, Shigeru

    2014-04-01

    Anthocyanins are important for preventing photoinhibition and photodamage. By comprehensive reverse genetic analysis of chloroplast-produced H2O2-responsive genes, we isolated here an anthocyanin-deficient mutant under photooxidative stress, which lacked ferulate 5-hydroxylase 1 (FAH1) involved in the phenylpropanoid pathway. Interestingly, the expression of anthocyanin biosynthesis-associated genes was also inhibited in this mutant. These findings suggest that FAH1 is essential for expression of anthocyanin biosynthesis-associated genes and anthocyanin accumulation under photooxidative stress in Arabidopsis. Furthermore, we found that estrogen-inducible silencing of thylakoid membrane-bound ascorbate peroxidase, which is a major H2O2-scavenging enzyme in chloroplasts, enhances the expression of FAH1 and anthocyanin biosynthesis-associated genes and accumulation of anthocyanin without any application of stress. Thus, it is likely that chloroplastic H2O2 activates FAH1 expression to induce anthocyanin accumulation for protecting cells from photooxidative stress.

  17. A green ultrasonic-assisted liquid-liquid microextraction based on deep eutectic solvent for the HPLC-UV determination of ferulic, caffeic and cinnamic acid from olive, almond, sesame and cinnamon oil.

    PubMed

    Khezeli, Tahere; Daneshfar, Ali; Sahraei, Reza

    2016-04-01

    A simple, inexpensive and sensitive ultrasonic-assisted liquid-liquid microextraction method based on deep eutectic solvent (UALLME-DES) was used for the extraction of three phenolic acids (ferulic, caffeic and cinnamic) from vegetable oils. In a typical experiment, deep eutectic solvent as green extraction solvent was added to n-hexane (as a typical oil medium) containing target analytes. Subsequently, the extraction was accelerated by sonication. After the extraction, phase separation (DES rich phase/n-hexane phase) was performed by centrifugation. DES rich phase (lower phase) was withdrawn by a micro-syringe and submitted to isocratic reverse-phase HPLC with UV detection. Under optimum conditions obtained by response surface methodology (RSM) and desirability function (DF), the method has good linear calibration ranges (between 1.30 and 1000 µg L(-1)), coefficients of determination (r(2)>0.9949) and low limits of detection (between 0.39 and 0.63 µg L(-1)). This procedure was successfully applied to the determination of target analytes in olive, almond, sesame and cinnamon oil samples. The relative mean recoveries ranged from 94.7% to 104.6%. PMID:26838445

  18. Formation of inclusion complexes between high amylose starch and octadecyl ferulate via steam jet cooking

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Amylose can form inclusion complexes with guest molecules and represents an interesting approach to deliver bioactive molecules. However, ferulic acid has been shown not to form single helical inclusion complexes with amylose. To overcome this problem a ferulic acid ester, octadecyl ferulate, posses...

  19. Ferulic Acid Administered at Various Time Points Protects against Cerebral Infarction by Activating p38 MAPK/p90RSK/CREB/Bcl-2 Anti-Apoptotic Signaling in the Subacute Phase of Cerebral Ischemia-Reperfusion Injury in Rats

    PubMed Central

    Cheng, Chin-Yi; Tang, Nou-Ying; Kao, Shung-Te; Hsieh, Ching-Liang

    2016-01-01

    Objectives This study aimed to evaluate the effects of ferulic acid (FA) administered at various time points before or after 30 min of middle cerebral artery occlusion (MCAo) followed by 7 d of reperfusion and to examine the involvement of mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) signaling pathways in the cortical penumbra. Methods FA was intravenously administered to rats at a dose of 100 mg/kg 24 h before ischemia (B-FA), 2 h before ischemia (P-FA), immediately after ischemic insult (I-FA), 2 h after reperfusion (R-FA), or 24 h after reperfusion (D-FA). Results Our study results indicated that P-FA, I-FA, and R-FA effectively reduced cerebral infarct areas and neurological deficits. P-FA, I-FA, and R-FA significantly downregulated glial fibrillary acidic protein (GFAP), mitochondrial Bax, cytochrome c, and cleaved caspase-3 expression, and effectively restored the phospho-p38 MAPK (p-p38 MAPK)/p38 MAPK ratio, phospho-90 kDa ribosomal S6 kinase (p-p90RSK) expression, phospho-Bad (p-Bad) expression, the phospho-cAMP response element-binding protein (p-CREB)/CREB ratio, the cytosolic and mitochondrial Bcl-2/Bax ratios, and the cytosolic Bcl-xL/Bax ratio in the cortical penumbra 7 d after reperfusion. SB203580, a specific inhibitor of p38 MAPK, administered 30 min prior to ischemia abrogated the downregulating effects of I-FA on cerebral infarction, and mitochondrial Bax and cleaved caspase-3 expression, and the upregulating effects of I-FA on the p-p38 MAPK/p38 MAPK ratio, p-p90RSK expression, p-Bad expression, and the p-CREB/CREB, and cytosolic and mitochondrial Bcl-2/Bax ratios. Conclusions Our study results thus indicate that P-FA, I-FA, and R-FA effectively suppress reactive astrocytosis and exert neuroprotective effects against cerebral infarction by activating p38 MAPK signaling. The regulating effects of P-FA, I-FA, and R-FA on Bax-induced apoptosis result from activation of the p38 MAPK/p90RSK/CREB/Bcl-2 signaling pathway, and eventually contribute to

  20. Production and applications of ferulate-modified vegetable oil

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Concerns have been raised about the potential adverse health and ecological effects of the commonly used sunscreen active ingredients. A sunscreen active ingredient can be derived from two natural plant components, ferulic acid and vegetable oil triglycerides. Transesterification of ferulic acid e...

  1. Metabolism of hydroxycinnamic acids and their tartaric acid esters by Brettanomyces and Pediococcus in red wines.

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Caffeic, p-coumaric, and ferulic acids and their corresponding tartaric acid esters (caftaric, coutaric, and fertaric, respectively) are found in wines in varying concentrations. While Brettanomyces and Pediococcus can utilize the free acids, it is not known whether they can metabolize the correspon...

  2. Effects of microbial utilization of phenolic acids and their phenolic acid breakdown products on allelopathic interactions

    SciTech Connect

    Blum, U.

    1998-04-01

    Reversible sorption of phenolic acids by soils may provide some protection to phenolic acids from microbial degradation. In the absence of microbes, reversible sorption 35 days after addition of 0.5--3 {micro}mol/g of ferulic acid or p-coumaric acid was 8--14% in Cecil A{sub p} horizon and 31--38% in Cecil B{sub t} horizon soil materials. The reversibly sorbed/solution ratios (r/s) for ferulic acid or p-coumaric acid ranged from 0.12 to 0.25 in A{sub p} and 0.65 to 0.85 in B{sub t} horizon soil materials. When microbes were introduced, the r/s ratio for both the A{sub p} and B{sub t} horizon soil materials increased over time up to 5 and 2, respectively, thereby indicating a more rapid utilization of solution phenolic acids over reversibly sorbed phenolic acids. The increase in r/s ratio and the overall microbial utilization of ferulic acid and/or p-coumaric acid were much more rapid in A{sub p} than in B{sub t} horizon soil materials. Reversible sorption, however, provided protection of phenolic acids from microbial utilization for only very short periods of time. Differential soil fixation, microbial production of benzoic acids (e.g., vanillic acid and p-hydroxybenzoic acid) from cinnamic acids (e.g., ferulic acid and p-coumaric acid, respectively), and the subsequent differential utilization of cinnamic and benzoic acids by soil microbes indicated that these processes can substantially influence the magnitude and duration of the phytotoxicity of individual phenolic acids.

  3. [On the phenolic acids of vegetables. IV. Hydroxycinnamic acids and hydroxybenzoic acids of vegetables and potatoes (author's transl)].

    PubMed

    Schmidtlein, H; Herrmann, K

    1975-12-16

    Lettuce, endive and chicory exclusively, cornsalad and sweet fennel almost exclusively contain caffeic acid derivatives beside traces of ferulic acid. Parsley exclusively and spinach almost exclusively show p-coumaric acid derivatives. Compared to root, fruit and seed vegetables the contents of phenolic acids in green leaves are considerably high. Rhubarb is the only vegetable, which contains gallic acid (chief phenolic acid) beside hydroxycinnamic, protocatechuic and vanillic acid derivatives. Furthermore hydroxybenzoic acid derivatives (salicylic, gentisic and vanillic acid) occur in cornsalad, sweet fennel, parsley and spinach in small concentrations; cornsalad shows p-hydroxybenzoic acid (ca. 20 mg/kg). Onions (Allium cepa) contain almost only protocatechuic acid beside small amounts of p-hydroxybenzoic and vanillic acid. In the outer dry coloured skins protocatechuic acid reaches concentrations up to 2% of plant material; the internal pulpy tissues show lower concentrations (ca. 20 mg/kg). On the contrary to the bulbs the green leaves of onions like chive and leek contain almost exclusively compounds of ferulic and p-coumaric acid. Garlic even shows a different phenolic acid pattern of skins and internal tissues. The caffeic acid derivatives of potatoes are mainly localized to a 1--2 mm thick outer layer. The different localization of phenolic acids in the different parts of vegetable plants is discussed.

  4. Octadecyl ferulate behavior in 1,2-Dioleoylphosphocholine liposomes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Evans, Kervin O.; Compton, David L.; Whitman, Nathan A.; Laszlo, Joseph A.; Appell, Michael; Vermillion, Karl E.; Kim, Sanghoon

    2016-01-01

    Octadecyl ferulate was prepared using solid acid catalyst, monitored using Supercritical Fluid Chromatography and purified to a 42% yield. Differential scanning calorimetry measurements determined octadecyl ferulate to have melting/solidification phase transitions at 67 and 39 °C, respectively. AFM imaging shows that 5-mol% present in a lipid bilayer induced domains to form. Phase behavior measurements confirmed that octadecyl ferulate increased transition temperature of phospholipids. Fluorescence measurements demonstrated that octadecyl ferulate stabilized liposomes against leakage, maintained antioxidant capacity within liposomes, and oriented such that the feruloyl moiety remained in the hydrophilic region of the bilayer. Molecular modeling calculation indicated that antioxidant activity was mostly influenced by interactions within the bilayer.

  5. Folic Acid

    MedlinePlus

    Folic acid is a B vitamin. It helps the body make healthy new cells. Everyone needs folic acid. For women who may get pregnant, it is really important. Getting enough folic acid before and during pregnancy can prevent major birth ...

  6. Folic Acid

    MedlinePlus

    Folic acid is used to treat or prevent folic acid deficiency. It is a B-complex vitamin needed by ... Folic acid comes in tablets. It usually is taken once a day. Follow the directions on your prescription label ...

  7. Amino acids

    MedlinePlus

    ... amino acids are: histidine, isoleucine, leucine, lysine, methionine, phenylalanine, threonine, tryptophan , and valine. Nonessential amino acids "Nonessential" means that our bodies produce an amino ...

  8. Separation and detection of cell wall-bound ferulic acid dehydrodimers and dehydrotrimers in cereals and other plant materials by reversed phase high-performance liquid chromatography with ultraviolet detection.

    PubMed

    Dobberstein, Diane; Bunzel, Mirko

    2010-08-25

    Ferulate dehydrodimers and the more recently discovered dehydrotrimers play an important role in the cell wall architecture of plant-based foods and forages. High-performance liquid chromatography methods to determine ferulate dimers often lack specificity; methods for trimers did not exist yet. A method for the determination of 11 cell wall-bound ferulate dehydrodimers and -trimers was developed, including the crucial separation of the di/trimers from the often dominating phenolic monomers. Validation parameters for the basic calibration of the dimers and trimers met our acceptance criteria. However, the matrix calibration revealed that lignin-rich matrices lead to problems with precision and accuracy that likely can be addressed by using a more specific detection, that is, mass spectrometric detection, next to improved sample preparation procedures. The method was used to analyze low-lignin fibers from corn, wheat, and rye grains, wild rice, asparagus, and sugar beet. With the exception of wild rice, the 5-5/8-O-4-, 8-O-4/8-O-4-, and 8-8(aryltetralin)/8-O-4-dehydrotrimers were detected in all analyzed samples, however, often in amounts below the limit of quantitation. PMID:23654229

  9. Dietary phenolic acids and ascorbic acid: Influence on acid-catalyzed nitrosative chemistry in the presence and absence of lipids.

    PubMed

    Combet, Emilie; El Mesmari, Aziza; Preston, Tom; Crozier, Alan; McColl, Kenneth E L

    2010-03-15

    Acid-catalyzed nitrosation and production of potentially carcinogenic nitrosative species is focused at the gastroesophageal junction, where salivary nitrite, derived from dietary nitrate, encounters the gastric juice. Ascorbic acid provides protection by converting nitrosative species to nitric oxide (NO). However, NO may diffuse into adjacent lipid, where it reacts with O(2) to re-form nitrosative species and N-nitrosocompounds (NOC). In this way, ascorbic acid promotes acid nitrosation. Using a novel benchtop model representing the gastroesophageal junction, this study aimed to clarify the action of a range of water-soluble antioxidants on the nitrosative mechanisms in the presence or absence of lipids. Caffeic, ferulic, gallic, or chlorogenic and ascorbic acids were added individually to simulated gastric juice containing secondary amines, with or without lipid. NO and O(2) levels were monitored by electrochemical detection. NOC were measured in both aqueous and lipid phases by gas chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry. In the absence of lipids, all antioxidants tested inhibited nitrosation, ranging from 35.9 + or - 7.4% with gallic acid to 93 + or - 0.6% with ferulic acid. In the presence of lipids, the impact of each antioxidant on nitrosation was inversely correlated with the levels of NO they generated (R(2) = 0.95, p<0.01): gallic, chlorogenic, and ascorbic acid promoted nitrosation, whereas ferulic and caffeic acids markedly inhibited nitrosation.

  10. Acid Rain.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Openshaw, Peter

    1987-01-01

    Provides some background information on acid deposition. Includes a historical perspective, describes some effects of acid precipitation, and discusses acid rain in the United Kingdom. Contains several experiments that deal with the effects of acid rain on water quality and soil. (TW)

  11. Bioconversion of cinnamic acid derivatives by Schizophyllum commune.

    PubMed

    Nimura, Yoshifumi; Tsujiyama, Sho-ichi; Ueno, Masayoshi

    2010-10-01

    To investigate the production of useful phenols from plant resources, we examined the metabolism of cinnamic acid derivatives by a wood-rotting fungus, Schizophyllum commune. Four cinnamic acid derivatives (cinnamic, p-coumaric, ferulic, and sinapic acids) were tested as substrates. Two main reactions, reduction and cleavage of the side chain, were observed. Reduction of the side chain was confirmed in cinnamic acid and p-coumaric acid metabolism. The side chain cleavage occurred in p-coumaric acid and ferulic acid metabolism but the initial reactions of these acids differed. Sinapic acid was not metabolized by S. commune. p-Hydroxybenzaldehyde accumulation was observed in the culture to which p-coumaric acid was added. This suggests that S. commune is a useful agent for transforming p-coumaric acid into p-hydroxybenzaldehyde.

  12. Acid rain

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1985-01-01

    This report has four parts: they discuss acid rain in relation to acid soils, agriculture, forests, and aquatic ecosystems. Among findings: modern sources of acid deposition from the atmosphere for all the acid soils in the world, nor even chiefly responsible for those of northern U.S. Agriculture has its problems, but acid precipitation is probably not one of them. More research is needed to determine to what extent acid precipitation is responsible for forest declines and for smaller detrimental effects on forest growth where no damage to the foliage is evident. Many lakes and streams are extremely sensitive to added acids.

  13. Enzymatic synthesis of cinnamic acid derivatives.

    PubMed

    Lee, Gia-Sheu; Widjaja, Arief; Ju, Yi-Hsu

    2006-04-01

    Using Novozym 435 as catalyst, the syntheses of ethyl ferulate (EF) from ferulic acid (4-hydroxy 3-methoxy cinnamic acid) and ethanol, and octyl methoxycinnamate (OMC) from p-methoxycinnamic acid and 2-ethyl hexanol were successfully carried out in this study. A conversion of 87% was obtained within 2 days at 75 degrees C for the synthesis of EF. For the synthesis of OMC at 80 degrees C, 90% conversion can be obtained within 1 day. The use of solvent and high reaction temperature resulted in better conversion for the synthesis of cinnamic acid derivatives. Some cinnamic acid esters could also be obtained with higher conversion and shorter reaction times in comparison to other methods reported in the literature. The enzyme can be reused several times before significant activity loss was observed.

  14. Metabolism of hydroxycinnamic acids and esters by Brettanomyces in different red wines

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Depending on the cultivars and other factors, differing concentrations of hydroxycinnamic acids (caffeic, p-coumaric, and ferulic acids) and their corresponding tartaric acid esters (caftaric, coutaric, and fertaric acid, respectively) are found in red wines. Hydroxycinnamic acids are metabolized by...

  15. Aminocaproic Acid

    MedlinePlus

    Aminocaproic acid is used to control bleeding that occurs when blood clots are broken down too quickly. This type ... the baby is ready to be born). Aminocaproic acid is also used to control bleeding in the ...

  16. Ethacrynic Acid

    MedlinePlus

    Ethacrynic acid, a 'water pill,' is used to treat swelling and fluid retention caused by various medical problems. It ... Ethacrynic acid comes as a tablet to take by mouth. It is usually taken once or twice a day ...

  17. Aristolochic Acids

    MedlinePlus

    ... Sciences NIH-HHS www.niehs.nih.gov Aristolochic Acids Key Points Report on Carcinogens Status Known to be human carcinogens Aristolochia Clematitis Aristolochic Acids n Known human carcinogens n Found in certain ...

  18. Obeticholic Acid

    MedlinePlus

    Obeticholic acid is used alone or in combination with ursodiol (Actigall, Urso) to treat primary biliary cholangitis (PBC; a ... were not treated successfully with ursodiol alone. Obeticholic acid is in a class of medications called farnesoid ...

  19. Acid mucopolysaccharides

    MedlinePlus

    ... this page: //medlineplus.gov/ency/article/003368.htm Acid mucopolysaccharides To use the sharing features on this page, please enable JavaScript. Acid mucopolysaccharides is a test that measures the amount ...

  20. Fatty acids - trans fatty acids

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The data supporting a negative effect of dietary trans fatty acids on cardiovascular disease risk is consistent. The primary dietary sources of trans fatty acids include partially hydrogenated fat and rudiment fat. The adverse effect of trans fatty acids on plasma lipoprotein profiles is consisten...

  1. Aspartic acid

    MedlinePlus

    ... Hormone production and release Normal nervous system function Plant sources of aspartic acid include: Legumes such as soybeans, garbanzo beans, and lentils Peanuts, almonds, walnuts, and flaxseeds Animal ...

  2. Metabolism of nonesterified and esterified hydroxycinnamic acids in red wines by Brettanomyces bruxellensis

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    While Brettanomyces can metabolize non–esterified hydroxycinnamic acids found in grape musts/wines (caffeic, p–coumaric, and ferulic acids), it was not known whether this yeast could utilize the corresponding tartaric acid esters (caftaric, p–coutaric, and fertaric acids, respectively). Red wines fr...

  3. Differential metabolism of hydroxycinnamic acids by two Brettanomyces bruxellensis strains grown in red wines

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Hydroxycinnamic acids (caffeic, p-coumaric, and ferulic acids) and their corresponding tartaric acid esters (caftaric, coutaric, and fertaric acids, respectively) are found in red wines in varying concentrations depending on cultivars and other factors. While some Brettanomyces form volatile phenols...

  4. Usnic acid.

    PubMed

    Ingólfsdóttir, K

    2002-12-01

    Since its first isolation in 1844, usnic acid [2,6-diacetyl-7,9-dihydroxy-8,9b-dimethyl-1,3(2H,9bH)-dibenzo-furandione] has become the most extensively studied lichen metabolite and one of the few that is commercially available. Usnic acid is uniquely found in lichens, and is especially abundant in genera such as Alectoria, Cladonia, Usnea, Lecanora, Ramalina and Evernia. Many lichens and extracts containing usnic acid have been utilized for medicinal, perfumery, cosmetic as well as ecological applications. Usnic acid as a pure substance has been formulated in creams, toothpaste, mouthwash, deodorants and sunscreen products, in some cases as an active principle, in others as a preservative. In addition to antimicrobial activity against human and plant pathogens, usnic acid has been shown to exhibit antiviral, antiprotozoal, antiproliferative, anti-inflammatory and analgesic activity. Ecological effects, such as antigrowth, antiherbivore and anti-insect properties, have also been demonstrated. A difference in biological activity has in some cases been observed between the two enantiomeric forms of usnic acid. Recently health food supplements containing usnic acid have been promoted for use in weight reduction, with little scientific support. The emphasis of the current review is on the chemistry and biological activity of usnic acid and its derivatives in addition to rational and ecologically acceptable methods for provision of this natural compound on a large scale.

  5. Acid rain

    SciTech Connect

    Elsworth, S.

    1985-01-01

    This book was written in a concise and readable style for the lay public. It's purpose was to make the public aware of the damage caused by acid rain and to mobilize public opinion to favor the elimination of the causes of acid rain.

  6. Acid rain

    SciTech Connect

    White, J.C. )

    1988-01-01

    This book presents the proceedings of the third annual conference sponsored by the Acid Rain Information Clearinghouse (ARIC). Topics covered include: Legal aspects of the source-receptor relationship: an energy perspective; Scientific uncertainty, agency inaction, and the courts; and Acid rain: the emerging legal framework.

  7. Antioxidant and DNA damage protection potentials of selected phenolic acids.

    PubMed

    Sevgi, Kemal; Tepe, Bektas; Sarikurkcu, Cengiz

    2015-03-01

    In this study, ten different phenolic acids (caffeic, chlorogenic, cinnamic, ferulic, gallic, p-hydroxybenzoic, protocatechuic, rosmarinic, syringic, and vanillic acids) were evaluated for their antioxidant and DNA damage protection potentials. Antioxidant activity was evaluated by using four different test systems named as β-carotene bleaching, DPPH free radical scavenging, reducing power and chelating effect. In all test systems, rosmarinic acid showed the maximum activity potential, while protocatechuic acid was determined as the weakest antioxidant in β-carotene bleaching, DPPH free radical scavenging, and chelating effect assays. Phenolic acids were also screened for their protective effects on pBR322 plasmid DNA against the mutagenic and toxic effects of UV and H2O2. Ferulic acid was found as the most active phytochemical among the others. Even at the lowest concentration value (0.002 mg/ml), ferulic acid protected all of the bands in the presence of H2O2 and UV. It is followed by caffeic, rosmarinic, and vanillic acids. On the other hand, cinnamic acid (at 0.002 mg/ml), gallic acid (at 0.002 mg/ml), p-hydroxybenzoic acid (at 0.002 and 0.004 mg/ml), and protocatechuic acid (at 0.002 and 0.004 mg/ml) could not protect plasmid DNA. PMID:25542528

  8. How Acidic Is Carbonic Acid?

    PubMed

    Pines, Dina; Ditkovich, Julia; Mukra, Tzach; Miller, Yifat; Kiefer, Philip M; Daschakraborty, Snehasis; Hynes, James T; Pines, Ehud

    2016-03-10

    Carbonic, lactic, and pyruvic acids have been generated in aqueous solution by the transient protonation of their corresponding conjugate bases by a tailor-made photoacid, the 6-hydroxy-1-sulfonate pyrene sodium salt molecule. A particular goal is to establish the pK(a) of carbonic acid H2CO3. The on-contact proton transfer (PT) reaction rate from the optically excited photoacid to the carboxylic bases was derived, with unprecedented precision, from time-correlated single-photon-counting measurements of the fluorescence lifetime of the photoacid in the presence of the proton acceptors. The time-dependent diffusion-assisted PT rate was analyzed using the Szabo-Collins-Kimball equation with a radiation boundary condition. The on-contact PT rates were found to follow the acidity order of the carboxylic acids: the stronger was the acid, the slower was the PT reaction to its conjugate base. The pK(a) of carbonic acid was found to be 3.49 ± 0.05 using both the Marcus and Kiefer-Hynes free energy correlations. This establishes H2CO3 as being 0.37 pK(a) units stronger and about 1 pK(a) unit weaker, respectively, than the physiologically important lactic and pyruvic acids. The considerable acid strength of intact carbonic acid indicates that it is an important protonation agent under physiological conditions. PMID:26862781

  9. Acid rain

    SciTech Connect

    Sweet, W.

    1980-06-20

    Acid precipitation includes not only rain but also acidified snow, hail and frost, as well as sulfur and nitrogen dust. The principal source of acid precipitation is pollution emitted by power plants and smelters. Sulfur and nitrogen compounds contained in the emissions combine with moisture to form droplets with a high acid content - sometimes as acidic as vinegar. When sufficiently concentrated, these acids can kill fish and damage material structures. Under certain circumstances they may reduce crop and forest yields and cause or aggravate respiratory diseases in humans. During the summer, especially, pollutants tend to collect over the Great Lakes in high pressure systems. Since winds typically are westerly and rotate clockwise around high pressure systems, the pollutants gradually are dispersed throughout the eastern part of the continent.

  10. Asparagusic acid.

    PubMed

    Mitchell, Stephen C; Waring, Rosemary H

    2014-01-01

    Asparagusic acid (1,2-dithiolane-4-carboxylic acid) is a simple sulphur-containing 5-membered heterocyclic compound that appears unique to asparagus, though other dithiolane derivatives have been identified in non-food species. This molecule, apparently innocuous toxicologically to man, is the most probable culprit responsible for the curious excretion of odorous urine following asparagus ingestion. The presence of the two adjacent sulphur atoms leads to an enhanced chemical reactivity, endowing it with biological properties including the ability to substitute potentially for α-lipoic acid in α-keto-acid oxidation systems. This brief review collects the scattered data available in the literature concerning asparagusic acid and highlights its properties, intermediary metabolism and exploratory applications.

  11. Acid rain

    SciTech Connect

    Bess, F.D.

    1980-01-01

    The acid rain problem in the northeastern U.S. has been growing in severity and geographical areas affected. Acid rain has damaged, or will result in damage to visibility, physical structures and materials, aquatic life, timber, crops, and soils. The principal causes of acid rain in the northeastern U.S. are sulfur oxide and nitrogen oxide emissions from large power plants and smelters in the Ohio River Valley. Immediate corrective action and appropriate research are needed to reduce acid precipitation. Short-term programs that will define the rate of environmental deterioration, remaining environmental capacity to resist sudden deterioration, mechanisms of acid rain formation, and costs of various control options must be developed. (3 maps, 13 references, 1 table)

  12. Asparagusic acid.

    PubMed

    Mitchell, Stephen C; Waring, Rosemary H

    2014-01-01

    Asparagusic acid (1,2-dithiolane-4-carboxylic acid) is a simple sulphur-containing 5-membered heterocyclic compound that appears unique to asparagus, though other dithiolane derivatives have been identified in non-food species. This molecule, apparently innocuous toxicologically to man, is the most probable culprit responsible for the curious excretion of odorous urine following asparagus ingestion. The presence of the two adjacent sulphur atoms leads to an enhanced chemical reactivity, endowing it with biological properties including the ability to substitute potentially for α-lipoic acid in α-keto-acid oxidation systems. This brief review collects the scattered data available in the literature concerning asparagusic acid and highlights its properties, intermediary metabolism and exploratory applications. PMID:24099657

  13. Phenolic acids in the flowers of Althaea rosea var. nigra.

    PubMed

    Dudek, Marlena; Matławska, Irena; Szkudlarek, Maurycy

    2006-01-01

    Distribution of phenolic acids in the flowers of Althaea rosea var. nigra has been studied by 2D-TLC and HPLC methods. The phenolic acids occurring in these fractions have been identified as ferulic, vanillic, syringic, p-coumaric, p-hydroxybenzoic, p-hydroxyphenylacetic and caffeic acids. By means of the HPLC methods the contents of major phenolic acids were estimated. From among the phenolic acids analyzed the syringic, p-hydroxybenzoic and p-coumaric acids are dominant. Total content of phenolic acids was determined by the Arnov's method.

  14. Acid fog

    SciTech Connect

    Hileman, B.

    1983-03-01

    Fog in areas of southern California previously thought to be pollution-free has been shown to have a pH as low as 1.69. It has been found to be most acidic after smoggy days, suggesting that it forms on the aerosol associated with the previously exiting smog. Studies on Whiteface Mountain in the Adirondacks show that fog water is often 10 times as acidic as rainwater. As a result of their studies, California plans to spend $4 million on acid deposition research in the coming year. (JMT)

  15. Surface reactions of iron - enriched smectites: adsorption and transformation of hydroxy fatty acids and phenolic acids

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Polubesova, Tamara; Olshansky, Yaniv; Eldad, Shay; Chefetz, Benny

    2014-05-01

    Iron-enriched smectites play an important role in adsorption and transformation of soil organic components. Soil organo-clay complexes, and in particular humin contain hydroxy fatty acids, which are derived from plant biopolymer cutin. Phenolic acids belong to another major group of organic acids detected in soil. They participate in various soil processes, and are of concern due to their allelopathic activity. We studied the reactivity of iron-enriched smectites (Fe(III)-montmorillonite and nontronite) toward both groups of acids. We used fatty acids- 9(10),16-dihydroxypalmitic acid (diHPA), isolated from curtin, and 9,10,16-trihydroxypalmitic acid (triHPA); the following phenolic acids were used: ferulic, p-coumaric, syringic, and vanillic. Adsorption of both groups of acids was measured. The FTIR spectra of fatty acid-mineral complexes indicated inner-sphere complexation of fatty acids with iron-enriched smectites (versus outer-sphere complexation with Ca(II)-montmorillonite). The LC-MS results demonstrated enhanced esterification of fatty acids on the iron-enriched smectite surfaces (as compared to Ca(II)-montmorillonite). This study suggests that fatty acids can be esterified on the iron-enriched smectite surfaces, which results in the formation of stable organo-mineral complexes. These complexes may serve as a model for the study of natural soil organo-clay complexes and humin. The reaction of phenolic acids with Fe(III)-montmorillonite demonstrated their oxidative transformation by the mineral surfaces, which was affected by molecular structure of acids. The following order of their transformation was obtained: ferulic >syringic >p-coumaric >vanillic. The LC-MS analysis demonstrated the presence of dimers, trimers, and tetramers of ferulic acid on the surface of Fe(III)-montmorillonite. Oxidation and transformation of ferulic acid were more intense on the surface of Fe(III)-montmorillonite as compared to Fe(III) in solution due to stronger complexation on

  16. Anticancer agents derived from natural cinnamic acids.

    PubMed

    Su, Ping; Shi, Yaling; Wang, Jinfeng; Shen, Xiuxiu; Zhang, Jie

    2015-01-01

    Cancer is the most dangerous disease that causes deaths all over the world. Natural products have afforded a rich source of drugs in a number of therapeutic fields including anticancer agents. Many significant drugs have been derived from natural sources by structural optimization of natural products. Cinnamic acid has gained great interest due to its antiproliferative, antioxidant, antiangiogenic and antitumorigenic potency. Currently it has been observed that cinnamic acid and its analogs such as caffeic acid, sinapic acid, ferulic acid, and isoferulic acid display various pharmacological activities, such as immunomodulation, anti-inflammation, anticancer and antioxidant. They have served to be the major sources of potential leading anticancer compounds. In this review, we focus on the anticancer potency of cinnamic acid derivatives and novel strategies to design these derivatives. We hope this review will be useful for researchers who are interested in developing anticancer agents.

  17. Decarboxylation of substituted cinnamic acids by lactic acid bacteria isolated during malt whisky fermentation.

    PubMed

    van Beek, S; Priest, F G

    2000-12-01

    Seven strains of Lactobacillus isolated from malt whisky fermentations and representing Lactobacillus brevis, L. crispatus, L. fermentum, L. hilgardii, L. paracasei, L. pentosus, and L. plantarum contained genes for hydroxycinnamic acid (p-coumaric acid) decarboxylase. With the exception of L. hilgardii, these bacteria decarboxylated p-coumaric acid and/or ferulic acid, with the production of 4-vinylphenol and/or 4-vinylguaiacol, respectively, although the relative activities on the two substrates varied between strains. The addition of p-coumaric acid or ferulic acid to cultures of L. pentosus in MRS broth induced hydroxycinnamic acid decarboxylase mRNA within 5 min, and the gene was also induced by the indigenous components of malt wort. In a simulated distillery fermentation, a mixed culture of L. crispatus and L. pentosus in the presence of Saccharomyces cerevisiae decarboxylated added p-coumaric acid more rapidly than the yeast alone but had little activity on added ferulic acid. Moreover, we were able to demonstrate the induction of hydroxycinnamic acid decarboxylase mRNA under these conditions. However, in fermentations with no additional hydroxycinnamic acid, the bacteria lowered the final concentration of 4-vinylphenol in the fermented wort compared to the level seen in a pure-yeast fermentation. It seems likely that the combined activities of bacteria and yeast decarboxylate p-coumaric acid and then reduce 4-vinylphenol to 4-ethylphenol more effectively than either microorganism alone in pure cultures. Although we have shown that lactobacilli participate in the metabolism of phenolic compounds during malt whisky fermentations, the net result is a reduction in the concentrations of 4-vinylphenol and 4-vinylguaiacol prior to distillation.

  18. Tranexamic Acid

    MedlinePlus

    ... is used to treat heavy bleeding during the menstrual cycle (monthly periods) in women. Tranexamic acid is in ... tablets for more than 5 days in a menstrual cycle or take more than 6 tablets in a ...

  19. Mefenamic Acid

    MedlinePlus

    ... as mefenamic acid may cause ulcers, bleeding, or holes in the stomach or intestine. These problems may ... like coffee grounds, blood in the stool, or black and tarry stools.Keep all appointments with your ...

  20. Acid Precipitation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Likens, Gene E.

    1976-01-01

    Discusses the fact that the acidity of rain and snow falling on parts of the U.S. and Europe has been rising. The reasons are still not entirely clear and the consequences have yet to be well evaluated. (MLH)

  1. Acidic precipitation

    SciTech Connect

    Martin, H.C.

    1987-01-01

    At the International Symposium on Acidic Precipitation, over 400 papers were presented, and nearly 200 of them are included here. They provide an overview of the present state of the art of acid rain research. The Conference focused on atmospheric science (monitoring, source-receptor relationships), aquatic effects (marine eutrophication, lake acidification, impacts on plant and fish populations), and terrestrial effects (forest decline, soil acidification, etc.).

  2. Corn starch ferulates with antioxidant properties prepared by N,N'-carbonyldiimidazole-mediated grafting procedure.

    PubMed

    Wen, Yu; Ye, Fayin; Zhu, Jianfei; Zhao, Guohua

    2016-10-01

    This work presents novel synthesis processes and properties of corn starch ferulates. First, N,N'-carbonyldiimidazole, a green activating reagent, was used to transform ferulic acid into ferulate-imidazolide. The ferulate-imidazolide was then further reacted with corn starch to produce corn starch ferulates. The grafting reaction of ferulic acid onto corn starch was confirmed by FT-IR and (1)H NMR. The degree of substitution (DS), relating products and reaction parameters, depended on the molar ratio of the anhydroglucose unit to ferulic acid (nAGU/FA), the temperature of the reaction, and the time that elapsed. The dependence of the degree of substitution was optimized by response surface methodology. Results implied the greatest DS (0.389) was obtained under the conditions of nAGU/FA 1:3.6, 90°C and 7.12h. The morphological, crystalline, and in vitro antioxidant properties were evaluated. The DPPH radical scavenging activity, reducing power, and ferric reducing power of the corn starch ferulates showed potential for antioxidant properties. PMID:27132817

  3. Octadecyl ferulate behavior in 1,2-Dioleoylphosphocholine liposomes.

    PubMed

    Evans, Kervin O; Compton, David L; Whitman, Nathan A; Laszlo, Joseph A; Appell, Michael; Vermillion, Karl E; Kim, Sanghoon

    2016-01-15

    Octadecyl ferulate was prepared using solid acid catalyst, monitored using Supercritical Fluid Chromatography and purified to a 42% yield. Differential scanning calorimetry measurements determined octadecyl ferulate to have melting/solidification phase transitions at 67 and 39°C, respectively. AFM imaging shows that 5-mol% present in a lipid bilayer induced domains to form. Phase behavior measurements confirmed that octadecyl ferulate increased transition temperature of phospholipids. Fluorescence measurements demonstrated that octadecyl ferulate stabilized liposomes against leakage, maintained antioxidant capacity within liposomes, and oriented such that the feruloyl moiety remained in the hydrophilic region of the bilayer. Molecular modeling calculation indicated that antioxidant activity was mostly influenced by interactions within the bilayer. PMID:26332862

  4. Metabolite Profiles of Lactic Acid Bacteria in Grass Silage▿

    PubMed Central

    Broberg, Anders; Jacobsson, Karin; Ström, Katrin; Schnürer, Johan

    2007-01-01

    The metabolite production of lactic acid bacteria (LAB) on silage was investigated. The aim was to compare the production of antifungal metabolites in silage with the production in liquid cultures previously studied in our laboratory. The following metabolites were found to be present at elevated concentrations in silos inoculated with LAB strains: 3-hydroxydecanoic acid, 2-hydroxy-4-methylpentanoic acid, benzoic acid, catechol, hydrocinnamic acid, salicylic acid, 3-phenyllactic acid, 4-hydroxybenzoic acid, (trans, trans)-3,4-dihydroxycyclohexane-1-carboxylic acid, p-hydrocoumaric acid, vanillic acid, azelaic acid, hydroferulic acid, p-coumaric acid, hydrocaffeic acid, ferulic acid, and caffeic acid. Among these metabolites, the antifungal compounds 3-phenyllactic acid and 3-hydroxydecanoic acid were previously isolated in our laboratory from liquid cultures of the same LAB strains by bioassay-guided fractionation. It was concluded that other metabolites, e.g., p-hydrocoumaric acid, hydroferulic acid, and p-coumaric acid, were released from the grass by the added LAB strains. The antifungal activities of the identified metabolites in 100 mM lactic acid were investigated. The MICs against Pichia anomala, Penicillium roqueforti, and Aspergillus fumigatus were determined, and 3-hydroxydecanoic acid showed the lowest MIC (0.1 mg ml−1 for two of the three test organisms). PMID:17616609

  5. Salicylic acids

    PubMed Central

    Hayat, Shamsul; Irfan, Mohd; Wani, Arif; Nasser, Alyemeni; Ahmad, Aqil

    2012-01-01

    Salicylic acid is well known phytohormone, emerging recently as a new paradigm of an array of manifestations of growth regulators. The area unleashed yet encompassed the applied agriculture sector to find the roles to strengthen the crops against plethora of abiotic and biotic stresses. The skipped part of integrated picture, however, was the evolutionary insight of salicylic acid to either allow or discard the microbial invasion depending upon various internal factors of two interactants under the prevailing external conditions. The metabolic status that allows the host invasion either as pathogenesis or symbiosis with possible intermediary stages in close systems has been tried to underpin here. PMID:22301975

  6. Antioxidant and Antimelanogenic activities of polyamine conjugates from corn bran and related hydroxycinnamic acids

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The antioxidant activity of three major polyamine conjugates, N,N'-dicoumaroyl- putrescine (DCP), N-p-coumaroyl-N'-feruloylputrescine (CFP) and N,N'-diferuloyl- putrescine (DFP) isolated from corn bran, and their related hydroxycinnamic acids, p-coumaric acid (CA) and ferulic acid (FA), were evaluat...

  7. Stearic Acid

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Young, Jay A.

    2004-01-01

    A chemical laboratory information profile (CLIP) is presented for the chemical, stearic acid. The profile lists the chemical's physical and harmful characteristics, exposure limits, and symptoms of major exposure, for the benefit of teachers and students, who use the chemical in the laboratory.

  8. Trichloroacetic acid

    Integrated Risk Information System (IRIS)

    Trichloroacetic acid ( TCA ) ; CASRN 76 - 03 - 9 Human health assessment information on a chemical substance is included in the IRIS database only after a comprehensive review of toxicity data , as outlined in the IRIS assessment development process . Sections I ( Health Hazard Assessments for Nonca

  9. Acrylic acid

    Integrated Risk Information System (IRIS)

    Acrylic acid ( CASRN 79 - 10 - 7 ) Human health assessment information on a chemical substance is included in the IRIS database only after a comprehensive review of toxicity data , as outlined in the IRIS assessment development process . Sections I ( Health Hazard Assessments for Noncarcinogenic Eff

  10. Selenious acid

    Integrated Risk Information System (IRIS)

    Selenious acid ; CASRN 7783 - 00 - 8 Human health assessment information on a chemical substance is included in the IRIS database only after a comprehensive review of toxicity data , as outlined in the IRIS assessment development process . Sections I ( Health Hazard Assessments for Noncarcinogenic E

  11. Dichloroacetic acid

    Integrated Risk Information System (IRIS)

    Dichloroacetic acid ; CASRN 79 - 43 - 6 Human health assessment information on a chemical substance is included in the IRIS database only after a comprehensive review of toxicity data , as outlined in the IRIS assessment development process . Sections I ( Health Hazard Assessments for Noncarcinogeni

  12. Cacodylic acid

    Integrated Risk Information System (IRIS)

    Cacodylic acid ; CASRN 75 - 60 - 5 Human health assessment information on a chemical substance is included in the IRIS database only after a comprehensive review of toxicity data , as outlined in the IRIS assessment development process . Sections I ( Health Hazard Assessments for Noncarcinogenic Eff

  13. Phosphoric acid

    Integrated Risk Information System (IRIS)

    Phosphoric acid ; CASRN 7664 - 38 - 2 Human health assessment information on a chemical substance is included in the IRIS database only after a comprehensive review of toxicity data , as outlined in the IRIS assessment development process . Sections I ( Health Hazard Assessments for Noncarcinogenic

  14. Benzoic acid

    Integrated Risk Information System (IRIS)

    Benzoic acid ; CASRN 65 - 85 - 0 Human health assessment information on a chemical substance is included in the IRIS database only after a comprehensive review of toxicity data , as outlined in the IRIS assessment development process . Sections I ( Health Hazard Assessments for Noncarcinogenic Effec

  15. Formic acid

    Integrated Risk Information System (IRIS)

    Formic acid ; CASRN 64 - 18 - 6 Human health assessment information on a chemical substance is included in the IRIS database only after a comprehensive review of toxicity data , as outlined in the IRIS assessment development process . Sections I ( Health Hazard Assessments for Noncarcinogenic Effect

  16. [Hyaluronic acid].

    PubMed

    Pomarede, N

    2008-01-01

    Hyaluronic Acid (HA) is now a leader product in esthetic procedures for the treatment of wrinkles and volumes. The structure of HA, its metabolism, its physiological function are foremost breaking down then its use in aesthetic dermatology: steps of injection, possible side effects, benefits and downsides of the use of HA in aesthetic dermatology.

  17. Formation of inclusion complexes between high amylose starch and octadecyl ferulate via steam jet cooking.

    PubMed

    Kenar, James A; Compton, David L; Little, Jeanette A; Peterson, Steve C

    2016-04-20

    Amylose-ligand inclusion complexes represent an interesting approach to deliver bioactive molecules. However, ferulic acid has been shown not to form single helical inclusion complexes with amylose from high amylose maize starch. To overcome this problem a lipophilic ferulic acid ester, octadecyl ferulate, was prepared and complexed with amylose via excess steam jet cooking. Jet-cooking octadecyl ferulate and high amylose starch gave an amylose-octadecyl ferulate inclusion complex in 51.0% isolated yield. X-ray diffraction (XRD) and differential scanning calorimetry (DSC) confirmed that a 61 V-type inclusion complex was formed. Amylose and extraction assays showed the complex to be enriched in amylose (91.9±4.3%) and contain 70.6±5.6mgg(-1) octadecyl ferulate, although, minor hydrolysis (∼4%) of the octadecyl ferulate was observed under the excess steam jet-cooking conditions utilized. This study demonstrates that steam jet cooking is a rapid and scalable process in which to prepare amylose-octadecyl ferulate inclusion complexes. PMID:26876851

  18. Terahertz time-domain spectroscopy of four hydroxycinnamic acid derivatives.

    PubMed

    Ge, Min; Zhao, Hongwei; Wang, Wenfeng; Zhang, Zengyan; Yu, Xiaohan; Li, Wenxin

    2006-11-01

    The well-resolved absorption spectra of the hydroxycinnamic acid (HCA) derivatives, caffeic acid, ferulic acid, sinapic acid and chlorogenic acid, were measured over the frequency region from 0.3 to 2.0 THz at 294 K with terahertz time-domain spectroscopy (THz-TDS). Theoretical calculation was applied to assist the analysis and assignment of the individual THz absorption spectra of the HCA derivatives with density functional theory (DFT). The distinctive spectral features were originated from the collective motion of molecules held together by hydrogen bonds. The real and imaginary parts of dielectric function of the four HCA derivatives were also obtained. PMID:19669446

  19. Terahertz Time-Domain Spectroscopy of Four Hydroxycinnamic Acid Derivatives

    PubMed Central

    Ge, Min; Zhao, Hongwei; Zhang, Zengyan; Yu, Xiaohan; Li, Wenxin

    2006-01-01

    The well-resolved absorption spectra of the hydroxycinnamic acid (HCA) derivatives, caffeic acid, ferulic acid, sinapic acid and chlorogenic acid, were measured over the frequency region from 0.3 to 2.0 THz at 294 K with terahertz time-domain spectroscopy (THz-TDS). Theoretical calculation was applied to assist the analysis and assignment of the individual THz absorption spectra of the HCA derivatives with density functional theory (DFT). The distinctive spectral features were originated from the collective motion of molecules held together by hydrogen bonds. The real and imaginary parts of dielectric function of the four HCA derivatives were also obtained. PMID:19669446

  20. Hydroxycarboxylic acids and salts

    DOEpatents

    Kiely, Donald E; Hash, Kirk R; Kramer-Presta, Kylie; Smith, Tyler N

    2015-02-24

    Compositions which inhibit corrosion and alter the physical properties of concrete (admixtures) are prepared from salt mixtures of hydroxycarboxylic acids, carboxylic acids, and nitric acid. The salt mixtures are prepared by neutralizing acid product mixtures from the oxidation of polyols using nitric acid and oxygen as the oxidizing agents. Nitric acid is removed from the hydroxycarboxylic acids by evaporation and diffusion dialysis.

  1. Synthesis and antifungal activity of cinnamic acid esters.

    PubMed

    Tawata, S; Taira, S; Kobamoto, N; Zhu, J; Ishihara, M; Toyama, S

    1996-05-01

    Cinnamic, p-coumaric and ferulic acids were isolated from pineapple stems (Ananas comosus var. Cayenne). Twenty-four kinds of esters were prepared from these acids, alcohols and the components of Alpinia. Isopropyl 4-hydroxycinnamate (11) and butyl 4-hydroxycinnamate (12) were found to have almost the same effectiveness in antifungal activity against Pythium sp. at 10 ppm as that of the commercial fungicide iprobenfos (kitazin P).

  2. Methylmalonic acid blood test

    MedlinePlus

    ... acid is a substance produced when proteins, called amino acids, in the body break down. The health care ... Cederbaum S, Berry GT. Inborn errors of carbohydrate, ammonia, amino acid, and organic acid metabolism. In: Gleason CA, Devaskar ...

  3. Folic Acid and Pregnancy

    MedlinePlus

    ... 5 Things to Know About Zika & Pregnancy Folic Acid and Pregnancy KidsHealth > For Parents > Folic Acid and ... before conception and during early pregnancy . About Folic Acid Folic acid, sometimes called folate, is a B ...

  4. Influence of phenolic acids on indole acetic acid production and on the type III secretion system gene transcription in food-associated Pseudomonas fluorescens KM05.

    PubMed

    Myszka, Kamila; Schmidt, Marcin T; Olejnik-Schmidt, Agnieszka K; Leja, Katarzyna; Czaczyk, Katarzyna

    2014-12-01

    The purpose of these investigations was to evaluate the reduction capability of phenolic acids (ferulic, chlorogenic, gallic, and p-coumaric acids) on indole acetic acid synthesis by food-associated Pseudomonas fluorescens KM05. Specific genetic primer for the type III secretion system (TTSS) in P. fluorescens KM05 was designed and the influence of phenolic acids on its expression was investigated. In the work the ferulic and chlorogenic acids at the concentration of 0.02 and 0.04 μg/ml affected on bacterial growth pattern and the signal molecules production. The phenolic acids, that were appreciable effective against P. fluorescens KM05 indole acetic acid production, significantly suppressed TTSS gene.

  5. Understanding Acid Rain

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Damonte, Kathleen

    2004-01-01

    The term acid rain describes rain, snow, or fog that is more acidic than normal precipitation. To understand what acid rain is, it is first necessary to know what an acid is. Acids can be defined as substances that produce hydrogen ions (H+), when dissolved in water. Scientists indicate how acidic a substance is by a set of numbers called the pH…

  6. Enhanced lignin monomer production caused by cinnamic Acid and its hydroxylated derivatives inhibits soybean root growth.

    PubMed

    Lima, Rogério Barbosa; Salvador, Victor Hugo; dos Santos, Wanderley Dantas; Bubna, Gisele Adriana; Finger-Teixeira, Aline; Soares, Anderson Ricardo; Marchiosi, Rogério; Ferrarese, Maria de Lourdes Lucio; Ferrarese-Filho, Osvaldo

    2013-01-01

    Cinnamic acid and its hydroxylated derivatives (p-coumaric, caffeic, ferulic and sinapic acids) are known allelochemicals that affect the seed germination and root growth of many plant species. Recent studies have indicated that the reduction of root growth by these allelochemicals is associated with premature cell wall lignification. We hypothesized that an influx of these compounds into the phenylpropanoid pathway increases the lignin monomer content and reduces the root growth. To confirm this hypothesis, we evaluated the effects of cinnamic, p-coumaric, caffeic, ferulic and sinapic acids on soybean root growth, lignin and the composition of p-hydroxyphenyl (H), guaiacyl (G) and syringyl (S) monomers. To this end, three-day-old seedlings were cultivated in nutrient solution with or without allelochemical (or selective enzymatic inhibitors of the phenylpropanoid pathway) in a growth chamber for 24 h. In general, the results showed that 1) cinnamic, p-coumaric, caffeic and ferulic acids reduced root growth and increased lignin content; 2) cinnamic and p-coumaric acids increased p-hydroxyphenyl (H) monomer content, whereas p-coumaric, caffeic and ferulic acids increased guaiacyl (G) content, and sinapic acid increased sinapyl (S) content; 3) when applied in conjunction with piperonylic acid (PIP, an inhibitor of the cinnamate 4-hydroxylase, C4H), cinnamic acid reduced H, G and S contents; and 4) when applied in conjunction with 3,4-(methylenedioxy)cinnamic acid (MDCA, an inhibitor of the 4-coumarate:CoA ligase, 4CL), p-coumaric acid reduced H, G and S contents, whereas caffeic, ferulic and sinapic acids reduced G and S contents. These results confirm our hypothesis that exogenously applied allelochemicals are channeled into the phenylpropanoid pathway causing excessive production of lignin and its main monomers. By consequence, an enhanced stiffening of the cell wall restricts soybean root growth.

  7. Precipitation: its acidic nature.

    PubMed

    Frohliger, J O; Kane, R

    1975-08-01

    A comparison of the free hydrogen ion concentration and the total hydrogen ion concentration of rain samples shows that rain is a weak acid. The weak acid nature of rain casts doubt on the concepts that the acidity of rain is increasing and that these increases are due to strong acids such as sulfuric acid.

  8. Insulin-releasing properties of a series of cinnamic acid derivatives in vitro and in vivo.

    PubMed

    Adisakwattana, Sirichai; Moonsan, Preecha; Yibchok-Anun, Sirintorn

    2008-09-10

    Cinnamic acid derivatives are naturally occurring substances found in fruits, vegetables, and flowers and are consumed as dietary phenolic compounds. In the present study, cinnamic acid and its derivatives were evaluated for insulin secreting activity in perfused rat pancreas and pancreatic beta-cells (INS-1) as well as an increase in [Ca(2+)]i in vitro. The presence of m-hydroxy or p-methoxy residues on cinnamic acid was a significantly important substituent as an effective insulin releasing agent. The introduction of p-hydroxy and m-methoxy-substituted groups in cinnamic acid structure (ferulic acid) displayed the most potent insulin secreting agent among those of cinnamic acid derivatives. In particular, the stimulatory insulin secreting activities of test compounds were associated with a rise of [Ca(2+)]i in INS-1. In perfused rat pancreas, m-hydroxycinnamic acid, p-methoxycinnamic acid, and ferulic acid (100 microM) significantly stimulated insulin secretion during 10 min of administration. The onset time of insulin secretion of those compounds was less than 1 min and reached its peak at 4 min that was about 2.8-, 3.3-, and 3.4-fold of the baseline level, respectively. Intravenous administration of p-methoxycinnamic acid and ferulic acid (5 mg/kg) significantly decreased plasma glucose and increased insulin concentration in normal rats and maintained its level for 15 min until the end of experiment. Meanwhile, m-hydroxycinnamic acid induced a significant lowering of plasma glucose after 6 min, but the effects were transient with plasma glucose concentration, rapidly returning to basal levels. Our findings suggested that p-methoxycinnamic acid and ferulic acid may be beneficial for the treatment of diabetes mellitus because they regulated blood glucose level by stimulating insulin secretion from pancreatic beta-cells.

  9. Amino Acid Metabolism Disorders

    MedlinePlus

    ... defects & other health conditions > Amino acid metabolism disorders Amino acid metabolism disorders E-mail to a friend Please ... baby’s newborn screening may include testing for certain amino acid metabolism disorders. These are rare health conditions that ...

  10. Carbolic acid poisoning

    MedlinePlus

    Phenol poisoning; Phenylic acid poisoning; Hydroxybenzene poisoning; Phenic acid poisoning; Benzenol poisoning ... Below are symptoms of carbolic acid poisoning in different parts of the ... urine Decreased urine output No urine output EYES, EARS, ...

  11. Azelaic Acid Topical

    MedlinePlus

    Azelaic acid gel is used to clear the bumps, lesions, and swelling caused by rosacea (a skin disease that ... redness, flushing, and pimples on the face). Azelaic acid cream is used to treat acne. Azelaic acid ...

  12. Uric acid test (image)

    MedlinePlus

    Uric acid urine test is performed to check for the amount of uric acid in urine. Urine is collected over a 24 ... testing. The most common reason for measuring uric acid levels is in the diagnosis or treatment of ...

  13. Facts about Folic Acid

    MedlinePlus

    ... Information For... Media Policy Makers Facts About Folic Acid Language: English Español (Spanish) Recommend on Facebook Tweet ... of the baby's brain and spine. About folic acid Folic acid is a B vitamin. Our bodies ...

  14. Acid Lipase Disease

    MedlinePlus

    ... Awards Enhancing Diversity Find People About NINDS NINDS Acid Lipase Disease Information Page Synonym(s): Cholesterol Ester Storage ... Trials Related NINDS Publications and Information What is Acid Lipase Disease ? Acid lipase disease or deficiency occurs ...

  15. Acid distribution in phosphoric acid fuel cells

    SciTech Connect

    Okae, I.; Seya, A.; Umemoto, M.

    1996-12-31

    Electrolyte acid distribution among each component of a cell is determined by capillary force when the cell is not in operation, but the distribution under the current load conditions had not been clear so far. Since the loss of electrolyte acid during operation is inevitable, it is necessary to store enough amount of acid in every cell. But it must be under the level of which the acid disturbs the diffusion of reactive gases. Accordingly to know the actual acid distribution during operation in a cell is very important. In this report, we carried out experiments to clarify the distribution using small single cells.

  16. Enhancing charge storage of conjugated polymer electrodes with phenolic acids

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wagner, Michal; Rębiś, Tomasz; Inganäs, Olle

    2016-01-01

    We here present studies of electrochemical doping of poly(1-aminoanthraquinone) (PAAQ) films with three structurally different phenolic acids. The examined phenolic acids (sinapic, ferulic and syringic acid) were selected due to their resemblance to redox active groups, which can be found in lignin. The outstanding electrochemical stability of PAAQ films synthesized for this work enabled extensive cycling of phenolic acid-doped PAAQ films. Potentiodynamic and charge-discharge studies revealed that phenolic acid-doped PAAQ films exhibited enhanced capacitance in comparison to undoped PAAQ films, together with appearance of redox activity characteristics specific for each dopant. Electrochemical kinetic studies performed on microelectrodes affirmed the fast electron transfer for hydroquinone-to-quinone reactions with these phenolic compounds. These results imply the potential application of phenolic acids in cheap and degradable energy storage devices.

  17. Interaction of milk whey protein with common phenolic acids

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Hao; Yu, Dandan; Sun, Jing; Guo, Huiyuan; Ding, Qingbo; Liu, Ruihai; Ren, Fazheng

    2014-01-01

    Phenolics-rich foods such as fruit juices and coffee are often consumed with milk. In this study, the interactions of α-lactalbumin and β-lactoglobulin with the phenolic acids (chlorogenic acid, caffeic acid, ferulic acid, and coumalic acid) were examined. Fluorescence, CD, and FTIR spectroscopies were used to analyze the binding modes, binding constants, and the effects of complexation on the conformation of whey protein. The results showed that binding constants of each whey protein-phenolic acid interaction ranged from 4 × 105 to 7 × 106 M-n and the number of binding sites n ranged from 1.28 ± 0.13 to 1.54 ± 0.34. Because of these interactions, the conformation of whey protein was altered, with a significant reduction in the amount of α-helix and an increase in the amounts of β-sheet and turn structures.

  18. Flavonoids and free phenolic acids from Phytolacca americana L. leaves.

    PubMed

    Bylka, W; Matławska, I

    2001-01-01

    In the leaves of Phytolacca americana L. flavonoid compounds: kaempferol 3-O-beta-D-glucopyranoside, kaempferol 3-O-beta-D-xylopyranosyl (1-->2)-beta-D-glucopyranoside, kaempferol 3-O-alpha-L-rhamnopyranosyl (1-->2)-beta-D-glucopyranoside, kaempferol 3-O-diglucoside and quercetin 3-O-glucoside were identified by chemical and spectroscopic methods and using co-chromatography, phenolic acids: p-hydroxybenzoic, vanillic, synapic, p-coumaric ferulic and caffeic were also confirmed.

  19. Acid tolerance in amphibians

    SciTech Connect

    Pierce, B.A.

    1985-04-01

    Studies of amphibian acid tolerance provide information about the potential effects of acid deposition on amphibian communities. Amphibians as a group appear to be relatively acid tolerant, with many species suffering increased mortality only below pH 4. However, amphibians exhibit much intraspecific variation in acid tolerance, and some species are sensitive to even low levels of acidity. Furthermore, nonlethal effects, including depression of growth rates and increases in developmental abnormalities, can occur at higher pH.

  20. An organic solvent-tolerant phenolic acid decarboxylase from Bacillus licheniformis for the efficient bioconversion of hydroxycinnamic acids to vinyl phenol derivatives.

    PubMed

    Hu, Hongfei; Li, Lulu; Ding, Shaojun

    2015-06-01

    A new phenolic acid decarboxylase gene (blpad) from Bacillus licheniformis was cloned and overexpressed in Escherichia coli. The full-length blpad encodes a 166-amino acid polypeptide with a predicted molecular mass and pI of 19,521 Da and 5.02, respectively. The recombinant BLPAD displayed maximum activity at 37 °C and pH 6.0. This enzyme possesses a broad substrate specificity and is able to decarboxylate p-coumaric, ferulic, caffeic, and sinapic acids at the relative ratios of specific activities 100:74.59:34.41:0.29. Kinetic constant K m values toward p-coumaric, ferulic, caffeic, and sinapic acids were 1.64, 1.55, 1.93, and 2.45 mM, and V max values were 268.43, 216.80, 119.07, and 0.78 U mg(-1), respectively. In comparison with other phenolic acid decarboxylases, BLPAD exhibited remarkable organic solvent tolerance and good thermal stability. BLPAD showed excellent catalytic performance in biphasic organic/aqueous systems and efficiently converted p-coumaric and ferulic acids into 4-vinylphenol and 4-vinylguaiacol. At 500 mM of p-coumaric and ferulic acids, the recombinant BLPAD produced a total 60.63 g l(-1) 4-vinylphenol and 58.30 g l(-1) 4-vinylguaiacol with the conversion yields 97.02 and 70.96 %, respectively. The low yield and product concentration are the crucial drawbacks to the practical bioproduction of vinyl phenol derivatives using phenolic acid decarboxylases. These unusual properties make BLPAD a desirable biocatalyst for commercial use in the bioconversion of hydroxycinnamic acids to vinyl phenol derivatives via enzymatic decarboxylation in a biphasic organic/aqueous reaction system. PMID:25547838

  1. Acid Thunder: Acid Rain and Ancient Mesoamerica

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kahl, Jonathan D. W.; Berg, Craig A.

    2006-01-01

    Much of Mesoamerica's rich cultural heritage is slowly eroding because of acid rain. Just as water dissolves an Alka-Seltzer tablet, acid rain erodes the limestone surfaces of Mexican archaeological sites at a rate of about one-half millimeter per century (Bravo et al. 2003). A half-millimeter may not seem like much, but at this pace, a few…

  2. Quantity of acid in acid fog

    SciTech Connect

    Deal, W.J.

    1983-07-01

    This communication notes the actual magnitude of the acidity in acidic fog particles and suggests a possible line of inquiry into the health effects of such fog so that it can be determined whether a typical fog is detrimental or beneficial relative to dry air.

  3. Characterization of phytochemicals and antioxidant activities of red radish brines during lactic acid fermentation.

    PubMed

    Jing, Pu; Song, Li-Hua; Shen, Shan-Qi; Zhao, Shu-Juan; Pang, Jie; Qian, Bing-Jun

    2014-07-07

    Red radish (Raphanus L.) pickles are popular appetizers or spices in Asian-style cuisine. However, tons of radish brines are generated as wastes from industrial radish pickle production. In this study, we evaluated the dynamic changes in colour properties, phenolics, anthocyanin profiles, phenolic acid composition, flavonoids, and antioxidant properties in radish brines during lactic acid fermentation. The results showed that five flavonoids detected were four anthocyanins and one kaempferol derivative, including pelargonidin-3-digluoside-5-glucoside derivatives acylated with p-coumaric acid, ferulic acid, p-coumaric and manolic acids, or ferulic and malonic acids. Amounts ranged from 15.5-19.3 µg/mL in total monomeric anthocyanins, and kaempferol-3,7-diglycoside (15-30 µg/mL). 4-Hydroxy-benzoic, gentisic, vanillic, syringic, p-coumaric, ferulic, sinapic and salicylic acids were detected in amounts that varied from 70.2-92.2 µg/mL, whereas the total phenolic content was 206-220 µg/mL. The change in colour of the brine was associated with the accumulation of lactic acid and anthocyanins. The ORAC and Fe2+ chelation capacity of radish brines generally decreased, whereas the reducing power measured as FRAP values was increased during the fermentation from day 5 to day 14. This study provided information on the phytochemicals and the antioxidative activities of red radish fermentation waste that might lead to further utilization as nutraceuticals or natural colorants.

  4. Knockout of the p-Coumarate Decarboxylase Gene from Lactobacillus plantarum Reveals the Existence of Two Other Inducible Enzymatic Activities Involved in Phenolic Acid Metabolism

    PubMed Central

    Barthelmebs, Lise; Divies, Charles; Cavin, Jean-François

    2000-01-01

    Lactobacillus plantarum NC8 contains a pdc gene coding for p-coumaric acid decarboxylase activity (PDC). A food grade mutant, designated LPD1, in which the chromosomal pdc gene was replaced with the deleted pdc gene copy, was obtained by a two-step homologous recombination process using an unstable replicative vector. The LPD1 mutant strain remained able to weakly metabolize p-coumaric and ferulic acids into vinyl derivatives or into substituted phenyl propionic acids. We have shown that L. plantarum has a second acid phenol decarboxylase enzyme, better induced with ferulic acid than with p-coumaric acid, which also displays inducible acid phenol reductase activity that is mostly active when glucose is added. Those two enzymatic activities are in competition for p-coumaric and ferulic acid degradation, and the ratio of the corresponding derivatives depends on induction conditions. Moreover, PDC appeared to decarboxylate ferulic acid in vitro with a specific activity of about 10 nmol · min−1 · mg−1 in the presence of ammonium sulfate. Finally, PDC activity was shown to confer a selective advantage on LPNC8 grown in acidic media supplemented with p-coumaric acid, compared to the LPD1 mutant devoid of PDC activity. PMID:10919793

  5. Phenolic acids in neem (Azadirachta indica): a major pre-existing secondary metabolites.

    PubMed

    Singh, U P; Maurya, S; Singh, D P

    2005-01-01

    High Performance Liquid Chromatographic (HPLC) analyses of various parts (fresh and dry bark of stem, mature and tender leaves, flower and different parts of fruit, i.e., raw and ripe fruit epicarp, mesocarp and seed) of neem (Azadirachta indica), which occupies an important place in socio-cultural-religious life in Indian communities, indicate that neem is rich in pre-existing secondary metabolites (phenolic acids). Dry bark showed only tannic acid but in fresh bark three phenolic acids were observed, i.e., gallic, tannic, and ferulic acids. In tender leaves only gallic and ferulic acids were detected, but the levels of these phenolic acids in mature leaves were about three times and fifty times greater, respectively. Flowers had only two phenolic acids in which gallic acid was maximum followed by chlorogenic acid. The level of phenolic acid was maximum in seeds followed by epicarp and pulp. In raw and ripe fruit seeds four phenolic acids were detected. Raw fruit seeds were rich in phenolic acids than ripe fruit seeds. Fruit epicarp was relatively richer than seed, seed pulp and flowers of the plants. Neem flowers were also rich in gallic and chlorogenic acids. PMID:16093234

  6. Lactic acid test

    MedlinePlus

    ... this page: //medlineplus.gov/ency/article/003507.htm Lactic acid test To use the sharing features on this page, please enable JavaScript. Lactic acid is mainly produced in muscle cells and red ...

  7. Omega-6 Fatty Acids

    MedlinePlus

    ... types of fats. Some types are found in vegetable oils, including corn, evening primrose seed, safflower, and soybean ... from studying specific omega-6 fatty acids or plant oils containing omega-6 fatty acids. See the separate ...

  8. Fatty acid analogs

    DOEpatents

    Elmaleh, David R.; Livni, Eli

    1985-01-01

    In one aspect, a radioactively labeled analog of a fatty acid which is capable of being taken up by mammalian tissue and which exhibits an in vivo beta-oxidation rate below that with a corresponding radioactively labeled fatty acid.

  9. Deoxycholic Acid Injection

    MedlinePlus

    Deoxycholic acid injection is used to improve the appearance and profile of moderate to severe submental fat ('double chin'; fatty tissue located under the chin). Deoxycholic acid injection is in a class of medications called ...

  10. Aminocaproic Acid Injection

    MedlinePlus

    Aminocaproic acid injection is used to control bleeding that occurs when blood clots are broken down too quickly. This ... the baby is ready to be born). Aminocaproic acid injection is also used to control bleeding in ...

  11. Zoledronic Acid Injection

    MedlinePlus

    ... acid (Reclast) is used to prevent or treat osteoporosis (condition in which the bones become thin and ... Zoledronic acid (Reclast) is also used to treat osteoporosis in men, and to prevent or treat osteoporosis ...

  12. Uric Acid Test

    MedlinePlus

    ... limited. Home Visit Global Sites Search Help? Uric Acid Share this page: Was this page helpful? Also known as: Serum Urate; UA Formal name: Uric Acid Related tests: Synovial Fluid Analysis , Kidney Stone Analysis , ...

  13. Methylmalonic Acid Test

    MedlinePlus

    ... limited. Home Visit Global Sites Search Help? Methylmalonic Acid Share this page: Was this page helpful? Also known as: MMA Formal name: Methylmalonic Acid Related tests: Vitamin B12 and Folate , Homocysteine , Intrinsic ...

  14. Hydrochloric acid poisoning

    MedlinePlus

    Hydrochloric acid is a clear, poisonous liquid. It is highly corrosive, which means it immediately causes severe ... discusses poisoning due to swallowing or breathing in hydrochloric acid. This article is for information only. Do ...

  15. Mixed Acid Oxidation

    SciTech Connect

    Pierce, R.A.

    1999-10-26

    Several non-thermal processes have been developed to destroy organic waste compounds using chemicals with high oxidation potentials. These efforts have focused on developing technologies that work at low temperatures, relative to incineration, to overcome many of the regulatory issues associated with obtaining permits for waste incinerators. One such technique with great flexibility is mixed acid oxidation. Mixed acid oxidation, developed at the Savannah River Site, uses a mixture of an oxidant (nitric acid) and a carrier acid (phosphoric acid). The carrier acid acts as a non-volatile holding medium for the somewhat volatile oxidant. The combination of acids allows appreciable amounts of the concentrated oxidant to remain in the carrier acid well above the oxidant''s normal boiling point.

  16. Plant fatty acid hydroxylases

    DOEpatents

    Somerville, Chris; Broun, Pierre; van de Loo, Frank

    2001-01-01

    This invention relates to plant fatty acyl hydroxylases. Methods to use conserved amino acid or nucleotide sequences to obtain plant fatty acyl hydroxylases are described. Also described is the use of cDNA clones encoding a plant hydroxylase to produce a family of hydroxylated fatty acids in transgenic plants. In addition, the use of genes encoding fatty acid hydroxylases or desaturases to alter the level of lipid fatty acid unsaturation in transgenic plants is described.

  17. PRODUCTION OF TRIFLUOROACETIC ACID

    DOEpatents

    Haworth, W.N.; Stacey, M.

    1949-07-19

    A method is given for the production of improved yields of trifluoroacetic acid. The compound is prepared by oxidizing m-aminobenzotrifluoride with an alkali metal or alkaline earth metal permanganate at a temperature in the range of 80 deg C to 100 deg C while dissolved ln a mixture of water with glacial acetic acid and/or trifluoroacetic acid. Preferably a mixture of water and trifluoroacetic acid ls used as the solvent.

  18. Quantity of acid in acid fog

    SciTech Connect

    Deal, W.J.

    1983-07-01

    The chemical composition of fog particles has become of considerable interest, because of both the possibility of interpreting atmospheric- chemistry processes in fog particles in terms of the principles of aqueous chemistry and the potential health effects of species present in fog particles. The acidity of fog particles has received wide attention. This communication noted the actual magnitude of the excess acidity in acidic fog particles and suggested a possible line of inquiry into the health effects of such fog so that it can be determined whether a typical fog is detrimental or beneficial relative to dry air. (DP)

  19. Acid Rain Study Guide.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hunger, Carolyn; And Others

    Acid rain is a complex, worldwide environmental problem. This study guide is intended to aid teachers of grades 4-12 to help their students understand what acid rain is, why it is a problem, and what possible solutions exist. The document contains specific sections on: (1) the various terms used in conjunction with acid rain (such as acid…

  20. The Acid Rain Reader.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stubbs, Harriett S.; And Others

    A topic which is often not sufficiently dealt with in elementary school textbooks is acid rain. This student text is designed to supplement classroom materials on the topic. Discussed are: (1) "Rain"; (2) "Water Cycle"; (3) "Fossil Fuels"; (4) "Air Pollution"; (5) "Superstacks"; (6) "Acid/Neutral/Bases"; (7) "pH Scale"; (8) "Acid Rain"; (9)…

  1. What Is Acid Rain?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Likens, Gene E.

    2004-01-01

    Acid rain is the collective term for any type of acidified precipitation: rain, snow, sleet, and hail, as well as the presence of acidifying gases, particles, cloud water, and fog in the atmosphere. The increased acidity, primarily from sulfuric and nitric acids, is generated as a by-product of the combustion of fossil fuels such as coal and oil.…

  2. [alpha]-Oxocarboxylic Acids

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kerber, Robert C.; Fernando, Marian S.

    2010-01-01

    Several [alpha]-oxocarboxylic acids play key roles in metabolism in plants and animals. However, there are inconsistencies between the structures as commonly portrayed and the reported acid ionization constants, which result because the acids are predominantly hydrated in aqueous solution; that is, the predominant form is RC(OH)[subscript 2]COOH…

  3. Novel biomarkers of the metabolism of caffeic acid derivatives in vivo.

    PubMed

    Rechner, A R; Spencer, J P; Kuhnle, G; Hahn, U; Rice-Evans, C A

    2001-06-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate biomarkers of the bioavailability and metabolism of hydroxycinnamate derivatives through the determination of the pharmacokinetics of their urinary elimination and identification of the metabolites excreted. Coffee was used as a rich source of caffeic acid derivatives and human supplementation was undertaken. The results show a highly significant increase in the excretion of ferulic, isoferulic, dihydroferulic acid (3-(4-hydroxy-3-methoxyphenyl)-propionic acid), and vanillic acid postsupplementation relative to the levels presupplementation. Thus, ferulic, isoferulic, and dihydroferulic acids are specific biomarkers for the bioavailability and metabolism of dietary caffeic acid esters. Isoferulic acid is a unique biomarker as it is not a dietary component, however, dihydroferulic acid may well derive from other flavonoids with a structurally related B-ring. 3-Hydroxyhippuric acid has also been identified as an indicator for bioavailability and metabolism of phenolic compounds, and shows a highly significant excretion increase postsupplementation. The results reveal isoferulic acid (and possibly dihydroferulic acid) as novel markers of caffeoyl quinic acid metabolism.

  4. Nucleic acid detection compositions

    DOEpatents

    Prudent, James R.; Hall, Jeff G.; Lyamichev, Victor I.; Brow, Mary Ann; Dahlberg, James L.

    2008-08-05

    The present invention relates to means for the detection and characterization of nucleic acid sequences, as well as variations in nucleic acid sequences. The present invention also relates to methods for forming a nucleic acid cleavage structure on a target sequence and cleaving the nucleic acid cleavage structure in a site-specific manner. The structure-specific nuclease activity of a variety of enzymes is used to cleave the target-dependent cleavage structure, thereby indicating the presence of specific nucleic acid sequences or specific variations thereof.

  5. Cleavage of nucleic acids

    DOEpatents

    Prudent, James R.; Hall, Jeff G.; Lyamichev, Victor I.; Brow, Mary Ann D.; Dahlberg, James E.

    2000-01-01

    The present invention relates to means for the detection and characterization of nucleic acid sequences, as well as variations in nucleic acid sequences. The present invention also relates to methods for forming a nucleic acid cleavage structure on a target sequence and cleaving the nucleic acid cleavage structure in a site-specific manner. The structure-specific nuclease activity of a variety of enzymes is used to cleave the target-dependent cleavage structure, thereby indicating the presence of specific nucleic acid sequences or specific variations thereof.

  6. Nucleic acid detection assays

    DOEpatents

    Prudent, James R.; Hall, Jeff G.; Lyamichev, Victor I.; Brow, Mary Ann; Dahlberg, James E.

    2005-04-05

    The present invention relates to means for the detection and characterization of nucleic acid sequences, as well as variations in nucleic acid sequences. The present invention also relates to methods for forming a nucleic acid cleavage structure on a target sequence and cleaving the nucleic acid cleavage structure in a site-specific manner. The structure-specific nuclease activity of a variety of enzymes is used to cleave the target-dependent cleavage structure, thereby indicating the presence of specific nucleic acid sequences or specific variations thereof.

  7. Cleavage of nucleic acids

    DOEpatents

    Prudent, James R.; Hall, Jeff G.; Lyamichev, Victor L.; Brow, Mary Ann D.; Dahlberg, James E.

    2007-12-11

    The present invention relates to means for the detection and characterization of nucleic acid sequences, as well as variations in nucleic acid sequences. The present invention also relates to methods for forming a nucleic acid cleavage structure on a target sequence and cleaving the nucleic acid cleavage structure in a site-specific manner. The structure-specific nuclease activity of a variety of enzymes is used to cleave the target-dependent cleavage structure, thereby indicating the presence of specific nucleic acid sequences or specific variations thereof.

  8. Cleavage of nucleic acids

    SciTech Connect

    Prudent, James R.; Hall, Jeff G.; Lyamichev, Victor I.; Brow; Mary Ann D.; Dahlberg, James E.

    2010-11-09

    The present invention relates to means for the detection and characterization of nucleic acid sequences, as well as variations in nucleic acid sequences. The present invention also relates to methods for forming a nucleic acid cleavage structure on a target sequence and cleaving the nucleic acid cleavage structure in a site-specific manner. The structure-specific nuclease activity of a variety of enzymes is used to cleave the target-dependent cleavage structure, thereby indicating the presence of specific nucleic acid sequences or specific variations thereof.

  9. Editorial: Acid precipitation

    SciTech Connect

    1995-09-01

    This editorial focuses on acid rain and the history of public and governmental response to acid rain. Comments on a book by Gwineth Howell `Acid Rain and Acid Waters` are included. The editor feels that Howells has provide a service to the environmental scientific community, with a textbook useful to a range of people, as well as a call for decision makers to learn from the acid rain issue and use it as a model for more sweeping global environmental issues. A balance is needed among several parameters such as level of evidence, probability that the evidence will lead to a specific direction and the cost to the global community. 1 tab.

  10. [Safety of folic acid].

    PubMed

    Ströhle, Alexander; Wolters, Maike; Hahn, Andreas

    2015-08-01

    Improving dietary folate intake is a central public health goal. However, critical voices have become louder warning of too high intake of folic acid. Safety concerns of a high folic acid exposure are usually limited to synthetic folic acid contained in drugs and food supplements. Against this background, the present article focuses on two matters: (a) How do the absorption and metabolism of synthetic folic acid differ from that of other folates? (b) How has the longterm safety of folic acid to be judged, especially regarding the risk of colorectal cancer, autism, asthma, impaired immune defence, masking vitamin B12 deficiency and interactions with the methotrexate metabolism?

  11. Amino acid analysis

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Winitz, M.; Graff, J. (Inventor)

    1974-01-01

    The process and apparatus for qualitative and quantitative analysis of the amino acid content of a biological sample are presented. The sample is deposited on a cation exchange resin and then is washed with suitable solvents. The amino acids and various cations and organic material with a basic function remain on the resin. The resin is eluted with an acid eluant, and the eluate containing the amino acids is transferred to a reaction vessel where the eluant is removed. Final analysis of the purified acylated amino acid esters is accomplished by gas-liquid chromatographic techniques.

  12. Acidic Ionic Liquids.

    PubMed

    Amarasekara, Ananda S

    2016-05-25

    Ionic liquid with acidic properties is an important branch in the wide ionic liquid field and the aim of this article is to cover all aspects of these acidic ionic liquids, especially focusing on the developments in the last four years. The structural diversity and synthesis of acidic ionic liquids are discussed in the introduction sections of this review. In addition, an unambiguous classification system for various types of acidic ionic liquids is presented in the introduction. The physical properties including acidity, thermo-physical properties, ionic conductivity, spectroscopy, and computational studies on acidic ionic liquids are covered in the next sections. The final section provides a comprehensive review on applications of acidic ionic liquids in a wide array of fields including catalysis, CO2 fixation, ionogel, electrolyte, fuel-cell, membrane, biomass processing, biodiesel synthesis, desulfurization of gasoline/diesel, metal processing, and metal electrodeposition.

  13. Nucleic acid detection kits

    DOEpatents

    Hall, Jeff G.; Lyamichev, Victor I.; Mast, Andrea L.; Brow, Mary Ann; Kwiatkowski, Robert W.; Vavra, Stephanie H.

    2005-03-29

    The present invention relates to means for the detection and characterization of nucleic acid sequences, as well as variations in nucleic acid sequences. The present invention also relates to methods for forming a nucleic acid cleavage structure on a target sequence and cleaving the nucleic acid cleavage structure in a site-specific manner. The structure-specific nuclease activity of a variety of enzymes is used to cleave the target-dependent cleavage structure, thereby indicating the presence of specific nucleic acid sequences or specific variations thereof. The present invention further relates to methods and devices for the separation of nucleic acid molecules based on charge. The present invention also provides methods for the detection of non-target cleavage products via the formation of a complete and activated protein binding region. The invention further provides sensitive and specific methods for the detection of nucleic acid from various viruses in a sample.

  14. Acidic Ionic Liquids.

    PubMed

    Amarasekara, Ananda S

    2016-05-25

    Ionic liquid with acidic properties is an important branch in the wide ionic liquid field and the aim of this article is to cover all aspects of these acidic ionic liquids, especially focusing on the developments in the last four years. The structural diversity and synthesis of acidic ionic liquids are discussed in the introduction sections of this review. In addition, an unambiguous classification system for various types of acidic ionic liquids is presented in the introduction. The physical properties including acidity, thermo-physical properties, ionic conductivity, spectroscopy, and computational studies on acidic ionic liquids are covered in the next sections. The final section provides a comprehensive review on applications of acidic ionic liquids in a wide array of fields including catalysis, CO2 fixation, ionogel, electrolyte, fuel-cell, membrane, biomass processing, biodiesel synthesis, desulfurization of gasoline/diesel, metal processing, and metal electrodeposition. PMID:27175515

  15. Boric acid and boronic acids inhibition of pigeonpea urease.

    PubMed

    Reddy, K Ravi Charan; Kayastha, Arvind M

    2006-08-01

    Urease from the seeds of pigeonpea was competitively inhibited by boric acid, butylboronic acid, phenylboronic acid, and 4-bromophenylboronic acid; 4-bromophenylboronic acid being the strongest inhibitor, followed by boric acid > butylboronic acid > phenylboronic acid, respectively. Urease inhibition by boric acid is maximal at acidic pH (5.0) and minimal at alkaline pH (10.0), i.e., the trigonal planar B(OH)3 form is a more effective inhibitor than the tetrahedral B(OH)4 -anionic form. Similarly, the anionic form of phenylboronic acid was least inhibiting in nature.

  16. Identification/quantification of free and bound phenolic acids in peel and pulp of apples (Malus domestica) using high resolution mass spectrometry (HRMS).

    PubMed

    Lee, Jihyun; Chan, Bronte Lee Shan; Mitchell, Alyson E

    2017-01-15

    Free and bound phenolic acids were measured in the pulp and peel of four varieties of apples using high resolution mass spectrometry. Twenty-five phenolic acids were identified and included: 8 hydroxybenzoic acids, 11 hydroxycinnamic acids, 5 hydroxyphenylacetic acids, and 1 hydoxyphenylpropanoic acid. Several phenolics are tentatively identified for the first time in apples and include: methyl gallate, ethyl gallate, hydroxy phenyl acetic acid, three phenylacetic acid isomers, 3-(4-hydroxyphenyl)propionic acid, and homoveratric acid. With exception of chlorogenic and caffeic acid, most phenolic acids were quantified for the first time in apples. Significant varietal differences (p<0.05) were observed in both peel and pulp. The levels of total phenolic acids were higher in the pulp as compared to apple peel (dry weight) in all varieties. Coumaroylquinic, protocatechuic, 4-hydroxybenzoic, vanillic and t-ferulic acids were present in free forms. With exception of chlorogenic acid, all other phenolic acids were present only as bound forms.

  17. Hydroxycinnamic Acid Antioxidants: An Electrochemical Overview

    PubMed Central

    Teixeira, José; Gaspar, Alexandra; Garrido, E. Manuela; Garrido, Jorge; Borges, Fernanda

    2013-01-01

    Hydroxycinnamic acids (such as ferulic, caffeic, sinapic, and p-coumaric acids) are a group of compounds highly abundant in food that may account for about one-third of the phenolic compounds in our diet. Hydroxycinnamic acids have gained an increasing interest in health because they are known to be potent antioxidants. These compounds have been described as chain-breaking antioxidants acting through radical scavenging activity, that is related to their hydrogen or electron donating capacity and to the ability to delocalize/stabilize the resulting phenoxyl radical within their structure. The free radical scavenger ability of antioxidants can be predicted from standard one-electron potentials. Thus, voltammetric methods have often been applied to characterize a diversity of natural and synthetic antioxidants essentially to get an insight into their mechanism and also as an important tool for the rational design of new and potent antioxidants. The structure-property-activity relationships (SPARs) correlations already established for this type of compounds suggest that redox potentials could be considered a good measure of antioxidant activity and an accurate guideline on the drug discovery and development process. Due to its magnitude in the antioxidant field, the electrochemistry of hydroxycinnamic acid-based antioxidants is reviewed highlighting the structure-property-activity relationships (SPARs) obtained so far. PMID:23956973

  18. Process for the preparation of lactic acid and glyceric acid

    DOEpatents

    Jackson, James E [Haslett, MI; Miller, Dennis J [Okemos, MI; Marincean, Simona [Dewitt, MI

    2008-12-02

    Hexose and pentose monosaccharides are degraded to lactic acid and glyceric acid in an aqueous solution in the presence of an excess of a strongly anionic exchange resin, such as AMBERLITE IRN78 and AMBERLITE IRA400. The glyceric acid and lactic acid can be separated from the aqueous solution. Lactic acid and glyceric acid are staple articles of commerce.

  19. Identification of hydroxycinnamic acid-maillard reaction products in low-moisture baking model systems.

    PubMed

    Jiang, Deshou; Chiaro, Christopher; Maddali, Pranav; Prabhu, K Sandeep; Peterson, Devin G

    2009-11-11

    The chemistry and fate of hydroxycinnamic acids (ferulic, p-coumeric, caffeic, sinapic, and cinnamic acid) in a glucose/glycine simulated baking model (10% moisture at 200 degrees C for 15 min) were investigated. Liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry analysis of glucose/glycine and glucose/glycine/hydroxycinnamic acid model systems confirmed the phenolics reacted with Maillard intermediates; two main reaction product adducts were reported. On the basis of isotopomeric analysis, LC-MS, and NMR spectroscopy, structures of two ferulic acid-Maillard reaction products were identified as 6-(4-hydroxy-3-methoxyphenyl)-5-(hydroxymethyl)-8-oxabicyclo[3.2.1]oct-3-en-2-one (adduct I) and 2-(6-(furan-2-yl)-7-(4-hydroxy-3-methoxyphenyl)-1-methyl-3-oxo-2,5-diazabicyclo[2.2.2]oct-5-en-2-yl)acetic acid (adduct II). In addition, a pyrazinone-type Maillard product, 2-(5-(furan-2-yl)-6-methyl-2-oxopyrazin-1(2H)-yl) acetic acid (IIa), was identified as an intermediate for reaction product adduct II, whereas 3-deoxy-2-hexosulose was identified as an intermediate of adduct I. Both adducts I and II were suggested to be generated by pericyclic reaction mechanisms. Quantitative gas chromatography (GC) analysis and liquid chromatography (LC) also indicated that the addition of ferulic acid to a glucose/glycine model significantly reduced the generation of select Maillard-type aroma compounds, such as furfurals, methylpyrazines, 2-acetylfuran, 2-acetylpyridine, 2-acetylpyrrole, and cyclotene as well as inhibited color development in these Maillard models. In addition, adducts I and II suppressed the bacterial lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-mediated expression of two prototypical pro-inflammatory genes, inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS) and cyclooxygenase (COX)-2, in an in vitro murine macrophage model; ferulic acid reported negligible activity.

  20. Novel enzymatic synthesis of 4-O-cinnamoyl quinic and shikimic acid derivatives.

    PubMed

    Armesto, Nuria; Ferrero, Miguel; Fernández, Susana; Gotor, Vicente

    2003-07-11

    The first direct synthesis of 4-O-cinnamoyl derivatives of quinic and shikimic acids were accomplished by regioselective esterification with Candida antarctica lipase A. For hydrocinnamic esters, enzymatic transesterification with vinyl esters gave excellent yields. However, more reactive acylating agents such as anhydrides were used to synthesize cinnamic derivatives of both acids. An inhibitory effect was observed with this lipase for p-methoxy, p-hydroxy, and p-acetoxy vinyl ester and anhydride derivatives (coumarate and ferulate derivatives).

  1. Well acidizing compositions and methods

    SciTech Connect

    Swanson, B. L.

    1980-12-23

    Gelled acidic compositions suitable for matrix acidizing or fracture acidizing of subterranean formations are provided comprising water, a water-dispersible polymeric viscosifier such as a polymer of acrylamide, an acid, and a polyphenolic material such as lignite.

  2. Bile acids but not acidic acids induce Barrett's esophagus.

    PubMed

    Sun, Dongfeng; Wang, Xiao; Gai, Zhibo; Song, Xiaoming; Jia, Xinyong; Tian, Hui

    2015-01-01

    Barrett's esophagus (BE) is associated with the development of esophageal adenocarcinoma (EAC). Bile acids (BAs) refluxing into the esophagus contribute to esophageal injury, which results in BE and subsequent EAC. We developed two animal models to test the role of BAs in the pathogenesis of BE. We surgically generated BA reflux, with or without gastric acid, in rats. In a second experiment, we fed animals separately with BAs and gastric acid. Pathologic changes were examined and the expression of Muc2 and Cdx2 in BE tissue was tested by immunostaining. Inflammatory factors in the plasma, as well as differentiation genes in BE were examined through highly sensitive ELISA and semi-quantitative RT-PCR techniques. We found that BAs are sufficient for the induction of esophagitis and Barrett's-like metaplasia in the esophagus. Overexpression of inflammatory cells, IL-6, and TNF-α was observed both in animals fed with BAs and surgically generated BA reflux. Furthermore, elevated levels of Cdx2, Muc2, Bmp4, Kit19, and Tff2 (differentiation genes in BE) were found in BA-treated rats. In conclusion, BAs, but not gastric acid, are a major causative factor for BE. We confirmed that BAs contribute to the development of BE by inducing the inflammatory response in the esophagus. Inhibiting BAs may be a promising therapy for BE.

  3. Microorganisms for producing organic acids

    DOEpatents

    Pfleger, Brian Frederick; Begemann, Matthew Brett

    2014-09-30

    Organic acid-producing microorganisms and methods of using same. The organic acid-producing microorganisms comprise modifications that reduce or ablate AcsA activity or AcsA homolog activity. The modifications increase tolerance of the microorganisms to such organic acids as 3-hydroxypropionic acid, acrylic acid, propionic acid, lactic acid, and others. Further modifications to the microorganisms increase production of such organic acids as 3-hydroxypropionic acid, lactate, and others. Methods of producing such organic acids as 3-hydroxypropionic acid, lactate, and others with the modified microorganisms are provided. Methods of using acsA or homologs thereof as counter-selectable markers are also provided.

  4. Acid-Base Homeostasis.

    PubMed

    Hamm, L Lee; Nakhoul, Nazih; Hering-Smith, Kathleen S

    2015-12-01

    Acid-base homeostasis and pH regulation are critical for both normal physiology and cell metabolism and function. The importance of this regulation is evidenced by a variety of physiologic derangements that occur when plasma pH is either high or low. The kidneys have the predominant role in regulating the systemic bicarbonate concentration and hence, the metabolic component of acid-base balance. This function of the kidneys has two components: reabsorption of virtually all of the filtered HCO3(-) and production of new bicarbonate to replace that consumed by normal or pathologic acids. This production or generation of new HCO3(-) is done by net acid excretion. Under normal conditions, approximately one-third to one-half of net acid excretion by the kidneys is in the form of titratable acid. The other one-half to two-thirds is the excretion of ammonium. The capacity to excrete ammonium under conditions of acid loads is quantitatively much greater than the capacity to increase titratable acid. Multiple, often redundant pathways and processes exist to regulate these renal functions. Derangements in acid-base homeostasis, however, are common in clinical medicine and can often be related to the systems involved in acid-base transport in the kidneys.

  5. In vitro and in vivo studies on adlay-derived seed extracts: phenolic profiles, antioxidant activities, serum uric acid suppression, and xanthine oxidase inhibitory effects.

    PubMed

    Zhao, Mouming; Zhu, Dashuai; Sun-Waterhouse, Dongxiao; Su, Guowan; Lin, Lianzhu; Wang, Xiao; Dong, Yi

    2014-08-01

    This study aimed to explore the potential of polished adlay, brown adlay, adlay bran, and adlay hull to prevent and treat hyperuricemia. Brown adlay extract effectively decreased the serum uric acid levels of oxonate-induced hyperuricemic rats. Free and bound phenolic extracts from these materials contained significant amounts of phenolics, with free phenolics dominated by chlorogenic acid and p-coumaric acid while bound phenolics dominated by p-coumaric acid and ferulic acid. Free and bound phenolics of adlay bran exhibited significant xanthine oxidase inhibition activities, 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) radical scavenging activities, oxygen radical absorbance capacities, and superoxide radical scavenging activities. Adlay bran phenolics could be effective xanthine oxidase inhibitors and radical scavengers. p-Coumaric acid is a xanthine oxidase inhibitor with strong superoxide radical scavenging activity. However, ferulic acid is a xanthine oxidase inhibitor with weak superoxide radical scavenging activity. Chlorogenic acid is a superoxide radical scavenger with weak xanthine oxidase inhibitory activity.

  6. Citric Acid Alternative to Nitric Acid Passivation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lewis, Pattie L. (Compiler)

    2013-01-01

    The Ground Systems Development and Operations GSDO) Program at NASA John F. Kennedy Space Center (KSC) has the primary objective of modernizing and transforming the launch and range complex at KSC to benefit current and future NASA programs along with other emerging users. Described as the launch support and infrastructure modernization program in the NASA Authorization Act of 2010, the GSDO Program will develop and implement shared infrastructure and process improvements to provide more flexible, affordable, and responsive capabilities to a multi-user community. In support of the GSDO Program, the purpose of this project is to demonstratevalidate citric acid as a passivation agent for stainless steel. Successful completion of this project will result in citric acid being qualified for use as an environmentally preferable alternative to nitric acid for passivation of stainless steel alloys in NASA and DoD applications.

  7. Enzymatic gallic acid esterification.

    PubMed

    Weetal, H H

    1985-02-01

    Gallic acid esters of n-propyl and amyl alcohols have been produced by enzymatic synthesis in organic solvents using immobilized tannase. Studies indicate that maximum esterification of gallic acid occurs with amyl alcohol. The enzyme shows broad alcohol specificity. However, the enzyme exhibits absolute specificity for the acid portion of the ester. Studies were carried out on K(m), V(max), pH, and temperature optima.

  8. Amino acids and proteins.

    PubMed

    van Goudoever, Johannes B; Vlaardingerbroek, Hester; van den Akker, Chris H; de Groof, Femke; van der Schoor, Sophie R D

    2014-01-01

    Amino acids and protein are key factors for growth. The neonatal period requires the highest intake in life to meet the demands. Those demands include amino acids for growth, but proteins and amino acids also function as signalling molecules and function as neurotransmitters. Often the nutritional requirements are not met, resulting in a postnatal growth restriction. However, current knowledge on adequate levels of both amino acid as well as protein intake can avoid under nutrition in the direct postnatal phase, avoid the need for subsequent catch-up growth and improve later outcome.

  9. USGS Tracks Acid Rain

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Gordon, John D.; Nilles, Mark A.; Schroder, LeRoy J.

    1995-01-01

    The U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) has been actively studying acid rain for the past 15 years. When scientists learned that acid rain could harm fish, fear of damage to our natural environment from acid rain concerned the American public. Research by USGS scientists and other groups began to show that the processes resulting in acid rain are very complex. Scientists were puzzled by the fact that in some cases it was difficult to demonstrate that the pollution from automobiles and factories was causing streams or lakes to become more acidic. Further experiments showed how the natural ability of many soils to neutralize acids would reduce the effects of acid rain in some locations--at least as long as the neutralizing ability lasted (Young, 1991). The USGS has played a key role in establishing and maintaining the only nationwide network of acid rain monitoring stations. This program is called the National Atmospheric Deposition Program/National Trends Network (NADP/NTN). Each week, at approximately 220 NADP/NTN sites across the country, rain and snow samples are collected for analysis. NADP/NTN site in Montana. The USGS supports about 72 of these sites. The information gained from monitoring the chemistry of our nation's rain and snow is important for testing the results of pollution control laws on acid rain.

  10. Recovery of organic acids

    DOEpatents

    Verser, Dan W.; Eggeman, Timothy J.

    2011-11-01

    A method is disclosed for the recovery of an organic acid from a dilute salt solution in which the cation of the salt forms an insoluble carbonate salt. A tertiary amine and CO.sub.2 are introduced to the solution to form the insoluble carbonate salt and a complex between the acid and an amine. A water immiscible solvent, such as an alcohol, is added to extract the acid/amine complex from the dilute salt solution to a reaction phase. The reaction phase is continuously dried and a product between the acid and the solvent, such as an ester, is formed.

  11. Recovery of organic acids

    DOEpatents

    Verser, Dan W.; Eggeman, Timothy J.

    2009-10-13

    A method is disclosed for the recovery of an organic acid from a dilute salt solution in which the cation of the salt forms an insoluble carbonate salt. A tertiary amine and CO.sub.2 are introduced to the solution to form the insoluble carbonate salt and a complex between the acid and an amine. A water immiscible solvent, such as an alcohol, is added to extract the acid/amine complex from the dilute salt solution to a reaction phase. The reaction phase is continuously dried and a product between the acid and the solvent, such as an ester, is formed.

  12. Mutant fatty acid desaturase

    DOEpatents

    Shanklin, John; Cahoon, Edgar B.

    2004-02-03

    The present invention relates to a method for producing mutants of a fatty acid desaturase having a substantially increased activity towards fatty acid substrates with chains containing fewer than 18 carbons relative to an unmutagenized precursor desaturase having an 18 carbon atom chain length substrate specificity. The method involves inducing one or more mutations in the nucleic acid sequence encoding the precursor desaturase, transforming the mutated sequence into an unsaturated fatty acid auxotroph cell such as MH13 E. coli, culturing the cells in the absence of supplemental unsaturated fatty acids, thereby selecting for recipient cells which have received and which express a mutant fatty acid desaturase with an elevated specificity for fatty acid substrates having chain lengths of less than 18 carbon atoms. A variety of mutants having 16 or fewer carbon atom chain length substrate specificities are produced by this method. Mutant desaturases produced by this method can be introduced via expression vectors into prokaryotic and eukaryotic cells and can also be used in the production of transgenic plants which may be used to produce specific fatty acid products.

  13. Amino Acid Crossword Puzzle

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sims, Paul A.

    2011-01-01

    Learning the 20 standard amino acids is an essential component of an introductory course in biochemistry. Later in the course, the students study metabolism and learn about various catabolic and anabolic pathways involving amino acids. Learning new material or concepts often is easier if one can connect the new material to what one already knows;…

  14. Toxicology of Perfluoroalkyl acids

    EPA Science Inventory

    The Perfluoroalkyl acids(PFAAs) area a family of organic chemicals consisting of a perflurinated carbon backbone (4-12in length) and a acidic functional moiety (Carboxylate or sulfonate). These compounds have excellent surface-tension reducing properties and have numerous industr...

  15. Uric acid - blood

    MedlinePlus

    ... High levels of uric acid can sometimes cause gout or kidney disease. You may have this test if you have had or are about to have certain types of chemotherapy. Rapid weight loss, which may occur with such treatments, can increase the amount of uric acid in ...

  16. Bile acid transporters

    PubMed Central

    Dawson, Paul A.; Lan, Tian; Rao, Anuradha

    2009-01-01

    In liver and intestine, transporters play a critical role in maintaining the enterohepatic circulation and bile acid homeostasis. Over the past two decades, there has been significant progress toward identifying the individual membrane transporters and unraveling their complex regulation. In the liver, bile acids are efficiently transported across the sinusoidal membrane by the Na+ taurocholate cotransporting polypeptide with assistance by members of the organic anion transporting polypeptide family. The bile acids are then secreted in an ATP-dependent fashion across the canalicular membrane by the bile salt export pump. Following their movement with bile into the lumen of the small intestine, bile acids are almost quantitatively reclaimed in the ileum by the apical sodium-dependent bile acid transporter. The bile acids are shuttled across the enterocyte to the basolateral membrane and effluxed into the portal circulation by the recently indentified heteromeric organic solute transporter, OSTα-OSTβ. In addition to the hepatocyte and enterocyte, subgroups of these bile acid transporters are expressed by the biliary, renal, and colonic epithelium where they contribute to maintaining bile acid homeostasis and play important cytoprotective roles. This article will review our current understanding of the physiological role and regulation of these important carriers. PMID:19498215

  17. Analysis of Organic Acids.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Griswold, John R.; Rauner, Richard A.

    1990-01-01

    Presented are the procedures and a discussion of the results for an experiment in which students select unknown carboxylic acids, determine their melting points, and investigate their solubility behavior in water and ethanol. A table of selected carboxylic acids is included. (CW)

  18. Omega-3 Fatty Acids

    MedlinePlus

    Omega-3 fatty acids are used together with lifestyle changes (diet, weight-loss, exercise) to reduce the amount of triglycerides (a fat-like ... people with very high triglycerides. Omega-3 fatty acids are in a class of medications called antilipemic ...

  19. Toxicology of Perfluoroalkyl Acids*

    EPA Science Inventory

    The perfluoroalkyl acids (PFAAs) are a family of organic chemicals consisting of a perfluorinated carbon backbone (4-12 in length) and an acidic functional moiety (carboxylate or sulfonate). These compounds are chemically stable, have excellent surface-tension reducing properties...

  20. Salicylic Acid Topical

    MedlinePlus

    ... skin blemishes in people who have acne. Topical salicylic acid is also used to treat skin conditions that involve scaling or overgrowth of skin ... water for 15 minutes.Do not apply topical salicylic acid to skin that is broken, red, swollen, irritated, or infected. ...

  1. Neuroprotection comparison of chlorogenic acid and its metabolites against mechanistically distinct cell death-inducing agents in cultured cerebellar granule neurons.

    PubMed

    Taram, Faten; Winter, Aimee N; Linseman, Daniel A

    2016-10-01

    While the number of patients diagnosed with neurodegenerative disorders like Alzheimer's disease, amyotrophic lateral sclerosis, and Parkinson's disease is increasing, there are currently no effective treatments that significantly limit the neuronal cell death underlying these diseases. Chlorogenic acid (CGA), a polyphenolic compound found in high concentration in coffee, is known to possess antioxidant and free radical scavenging activity. In this study, we investigated the neuroprotective effects of CGA and its major metabolites in primary cultures of rat cerebellar granule neurons. We show that CGA and caffeic acid displayed a dramatic protective effect against the nitric oxide donor, sodium nitroprusside. In marked contrast, ferulic acid and quinic acid had no protective effect against this nitrosative stress. While CGA and quinic acid had no protective effect against glutamate-induced cell death, caffeic acid and ferulic acid significantly protected neurons from excitotoxicity. Finally, caffeic acid was the only compound to display significant protective activity against hydrogen peroxide, proteasome inhibition, caspase-dependent intrinsic apoptosis, and endoplasmic reticulum stress. These results indicate that caffeic acid displays a much broader profile of neuroprotection against a diverse range of stressors than its parent polyphenol, CGA, or the other major metabolites, ferulic acid and quinic acid. We conclude that caffeic acid is a promising candidate for testing in pre-clinical models of neurodegeneration. PMID:27444557

  2. Uric acid and hypertension.

    PubMed

    Feig, Daniel I

    2011-09-01

    A link between serum uric acid and the development of hypertension was first hypothesized in the 1870s. Although numerous epidemiologic studies in the 1980s and 1990s suggested an association, relatively little attention was paid to it until recently. Animal models have suggested a two-step pathogenesis by which uric acid initially activates the renin angiotensin system and suppresses nitric oxide, leading to uric acid-dependent increase in systemic vascular resistance, followed by a uric acid-mediated vasculopathy, involving renal afferent arterioles, resulting in a late sodium-sensitive hypertension. Initial clinical trials in young patients have supported these mechanisms in young patients but do not yet support pharmacologic reduction of serum uric acid as first-line therapy for hypertension.

  3. Biosynthesis of pulcherriminic acid

    PubMed Central

    MacDonald, J. C.

    1965-01-01

    1. Candida pulcherrima was grown on a complex medium to which various compounds had been added to determine their effect on the biosynthesis of pulcherriminic acid. Most of the pulcherriminic acid synthesized by C. pulcherrima PRL2019 was derived from the l-[1-14C]leucine added to the medium. 2. The cyclic dipeptide of l-leucine (cyclo-l-leucyl-l-leucyl) was shown, by trapping experiments involving cycloleucyl-leucyl isomers, to be synthesized by strain PRL2019. Cyclo-l-leucyl-l-leucyl was derived from l-leucine and was converted into pulcherriminic acid. Cyclo-l-leucyl-l-leucyl was a precursor of pulcherriminic acid in strain PRL2007 also. 3. The results supported the hypothesis that pulcherriminic acid is derived from l-leucine and that cyclo-l-leucyl-l-leucyl is an intermediate in the biosynthesis. PMID:5837792

  4. Interaction of cinnamic acid derivatives with commercial hypoglycemic drugs on 2-deoxyglucose uptake in 3T3-L1 adipocytes.

    PubMed

    Prabhakar, Pranav Kumar; Doble, Mukesh

    2011-09-28

    Hydroxycinnamic acid derivatives are naturally occurring substances found in fruits, vegetables, and flowers and are consumed as dietary phenolic compounds. The effect of cinnamic acid, ferulic acid, p-coumaric acid, eugenol, chlorogenic acid, and caffeic acid, alone and in combination with two commercial oral hypoglycemic drugs (OHD), namely, thiazolidinedione (THZ) and metformin, on the uptake of 2-deoxyglucose (2DG) by 3T3-L1 adipocytes is studied. All of the phytochemicals other than cinnamic acid show synergistic interaction in 2DG uptake with both of the OHDs. THZ (20 μM) in combination with ferulic acid (25 μM) or p-coumaric acid (25 μM) increases 2DG uptake by 7- or 6.34-fold, respectively, with respect to control, whereas metformin (20 μM), along with ferulic acid (25 μM) or cinnamic acid (25 μM), increases 2DG uptake by 6.45- or 5.87-fold, respectively, when compared to control. Chlorogenic and cinnamic acids increased the expression of PPARγ, whereas other hydroxycinnamic acids enhanced the expression of PI3K, indicating different mechanisms of action between these compounds. These phytochemicals were able to reduce the expressions of the fatty acid synthase and HMG CoA reductase genes, indicating that they may be able to reduce the secondary complications caused by the accumulation of lipids. These studies suggest that hydroxycinnamic acid derivatives may be beneficial for the treatment of diabetes mellitus. They may act as a supplement with commercial drugs and may reduce the secondary complications caused by OHDs.

  5. Total syntheses of cis-cyclopropane fatty acids: dihydromalvalic acid, dihydrosterculic acid, lactobacillic acid, and 9,10-methylenehexadecanoic acid.

    PubMed

    Shah, Sayali; White, Jonathan M; Williams, Spencer J

    2014-12-14

    cis-Cyclopropane fatty acids (cis-CFAs) are widespread constituents of the seed oils of subtropical plants, membrane components of bacteria and protozoa, and the fats and phospholipids of animals. We describe a systematic approach to the synthesis of enantiomeric pairs of four cis-CFAs: cis-9,10-methylenehexadecanoic acid, lactobacillic acid, dihydromalvalic acid, and dihydrosterculic acid. The approach commences with Rh2(OAc)4-catalyzed cyclopropenation of 1-octyne and 1-decyne, and hinges on the preparative scale chromatographic resolution of racemic 2-alkylcycloprop-2-ene-1-carboxylic acids using a homochiral Evan's auxiliary. Saturation of the individual diastereomeric N-cycloprop-2-ene-1-carbonylacyloxazolidines, followed by elaboration to alkylcyclopropylmethylsulfones, allowed Julia-Kocienski olefination with various ω-aldehyde-esters. Finally, saponification and diimide reduction afforded the individual cis-CFA enantiomers. PMID:25321346

  6. Free and bound cinnamic acid derivatives in corsica sweet blond oranges.

    PubMed

    Carrera, Eric; El Kebir, Mohamed Vall Ould; Jacquemond, Camille; Luro, François; Lozano, Yves; Gaydou, Emile M

    2010-03-01

    Total determination of cinnamic acids (CA), including hydroxycinnamic acid derivatives is generally not accurate since, during hydrolysis, a possible degradation of dihydroxy CA such as caffeic acid could occur. Evaluations of CA (ferulic, p-coumaric, sinapic, cinnamic and caffeic acids) before and after hydrolysis have been undertaken using standards and either with or without addition of ascorbic acid and EDTA. The method was then applied to the determination of free and bound CA in five blond cultivars (Navelina, Washington navel, Pera, Salustiana and Valencia late) of sweet oranges [Citrus sinensis (L.) Osb.]. Four parts of the fruits (peel juice, flavedo, albedo and juice) have been investigated. Results show that CA are mainly bound (86% up to 92%) in the four fruit parts. The mean of total CA contents was found to be higher in peel juice (1.5 g kg(-1)) in comparison with flavedo (0.7 g kg(-1)), albedo (0.1 g kg(-1)) and juice (0.6 g kg(-1)). Free and bound ferulic acid represented 55-70% of CA in juices, followed by p-coumaric acid (20%), sinapic acid (10%) and caffeic acid (9%). Total contents of each CA in the four fruit parts are discussed and show the potential interest in orange peel wastes. PMID:20420324

  7. Chemical oxidation of phenolic acids by soil iron and manganese oxides

    SciTech Connect

    Lehmann, R.G.

    1986-01-01

    The oxidation of six phenolic acids by soil Fe and Mn oxides was demonstrated by changes in phenolic acid extractability from soil with time, by production of Fe(II) and soluble Mn from the oxidation reaction, by quantitative recoveries of added phenolic acids from soil pretreated with dithionite-citrate to remove Fe and Mn oxides, and by the reactivity of phenolic acids in the presence of pure Mn and Fe oxides. The reactivities of phenolic acids were associated with the structures of the chemicals. Increasing methoxy substitution on the aromatic ring increased reactivity, and cinnamic acid derivatives were more reactive than benzoic acid derivatives. Oxidation products of /sup 14/C labeled ferulic acid were sorbed to MnO/sub 2/ within minutes and were unextractable by organic solvents unless the mineral was pretreated with 6 M HCl or 0.5 M NaOH. The oxidation rate of ferulic acid by MnO/sub 2/ approached zero after four days even with a surplus of reactants.

  8. Gluconic acid production.

    PubMed

    Anastassiadis, Savas; Morgunov, Igor G

    2007-01-01

    Gluconic acid, the oxidation product of glucose, is a mild neither caustic nor corrosive, non toxic and readily biodegradable organic acid of great interest for many applications. As a multifunctional carbonic acid belonging to the bulk chemicals and due to its physiological and chemical characteristics, gluconic acid itself, its salts (e.g. alkali metal salts, in especially sodium gluconate) and the gluconolactone form have found extensively versatile uses in the chemical, pharmaceutical, food, construction and other industries. Present review article presents the comprehensive information of patent bibliography for the production of gluconic acid and compares the advantages and disadvantages of known processes. Numerous manufacturing processes are described in the international bibliography and patent literature of the last 100 years for the production of gluconic acid from glucose, including chemical and electrochemical catalysis, enzymatic biocatalysis by free or immobilized enzymes in specialized enzyme bioreactors as well as discontinuous and continuous fermentation processes using free growing or immobilized cells of various microorganisms, including bacteria, yeast-like fungi and fungi. Alternatively, new superior fermentation processes have been developed and extensively described for the continuous and discontinuous production of gluconic acid by isolated strains of yeast-like mold Aureobasidium pullulans, offering numerous advantages over the traditional discontinuous fungi processes.

  9. Trans Fatty Acids

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Doyle, Ellin

    1997-09-01

    Fats and their various fatty acid components seem to be a perennial concern of nutritionists and persons concerned with healthful diets. Advice on the consumption of saturated, polyunsaturated, monounsaturated, and total fat bombards us from magazines and newspapers. One of the newer players in this field is the group of trans fatty acids found predominantly in partially hydrogenated fats such as margarines and cooking fats. The controversy concerning dietary trans fatty acids was recently addressed in an American Heart Association (AHA) science advisory (1) and in a position paper from the American Society of Clinical Nutrition/American Institute of Nutrition (ASCN/AIN) (2). Both reports emphasize that the best preventive strategy for reducing risk for cardiovascular disease and some types of cancer is a reduction in total and saturated fats in the diet, but a reduction in the intake of trans fatty acids was also recommended. Although the actual health effects of trans fatty acids remain uncertain, experimental evidence indicates that consumption of trans fatty acids adversely affects serum lipid levels. Since elevated levels of serum cholesterol and triacylglycerols are associated with increased risk of cardiovascular disease, it follows that intake of trans fatty acids should be minimized.

  10. Sulfuric Acid on Europa

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1999-01-01

    Frozen sulfuric acid on Jupiter's moon Europa is depicted in this image produced from data gathered by NASA's Galileo spacecraft. The brightest areas, where the yellow is most intense, represent regions of high frozen sulfuric acid concentration. Sulfuric acid is found in battery acid and in Earth's acid rain.

    This image is based on data gathered by Galileo's near infrared mapping spectrometer.

    Europa's leading hemisphere is toward the bottom right, and there are enhanced concentrations of sulfuric acid in the trailing side of Europa (the upper left side of the image). This is the face of Europa that is struck by sulfur ions coming from Jupiter's innermost moon, Io. The long, narrow features that crisscross Europa also show sulfuric acid that may be from sulfurous material extruded in cracks.

    Galileo, launched in 1989, has been orbiting Jupiter and its moons since December 1995. JPL manages the Galileo mission for NASA's Office of Space Science, Washington DC. JPL is a division of the California Institute of Technology, Pasadena, CA.

  11. Strongly Acidic Auxin Indole-3-Methanesulfonic Acid

    PubMed Central

    Cohen, Jerry D.; Baldi, Bruce G.; Bialek, Krystyna

    1985-01-01

    A radiochemical synthesis is described for [14C]indole-3-methanesulfonic acid (IMS), a strongly acidic auxin analog. Techniques were developed for fractionation and purification of IMS using normal and reverse phase chromatography. In addition, the utility of both Fourier transform infrared spectrometry and fast atom bombardment mass spectrometry for analysis of IMS has been demonstrated. IMS was shown to be an active auxin, stimulating soybean hypocotyl elongation, bean first internode curvature, and ethylene production. IMS uptake by thin sections of soybean hypocotyl was essentially independent of solution pH and, when applied at a 100 micromolar concentration, IMS exhibited a basipetal polarity in its transport in both corn coleoptile and soybean hypocotyl sections. [14C]IMS should, therefore, be a useful compound to study fundamental processes related to the movement of auxins in plant tissues and organelles. PMID:16664007

  12. Grass cell wall feruloylation: distribution of bound ferulate and candidate gene expression in Brachypodium distachyon.

    PubMed

    Molinari, Hugo B C; Pellny, Till K; Freeman, Jackie; Shewry, Peter R; Mitchell, Rowan A C

    2013-01-01

    The cell walls of grasses such as wheat, maize, rice, and sugar cane, contain large amounts of ferulate that is ester-linked to the cell wall polysaccharide glucuronoarabinoxylan (GAX). This ferulate is considered to limit the digestibility of polysaccharide in grass biomass as it forms covalent linkages between polysaccharide and lignin components. Candidate genes within a grass-specific clade of the BAHD acyl-coA transferase superfamily have been identified as being responsible for the ester linkage of ferulate to GAX. Manipulation of these BAHD genes may therefore be a biotechnological target for increasing efficiency of conversion of grass biomass into biofuel. Here, we describe the expression of these candidate genes and amounts of bound ferulate from various tissues and developmental stages of the model grass Brachypodium distachyon. BAHD candidate transcripts and significant amounts of bound ferulate were present in every tissue and developmental stage. We hypothesize that BAHD candidate genes similar to the recently described Oryza sativa p-coumarate monolignol transferase (OsPMT) gene (PMT sub-clade) are principally responsible for the bound para-coumaric acid (pCA), and that other BAHD candidates (non-PMT sub-clade) are responsible for bound ferulic acid (FA). There were some similarities with between the ratio of expression non-PMT/PMT genes and the ratio of bound FA/pCA between tissue types, compatible with this hypothesis. However, much further work to modify BAHD genes in grasses and to characterize the heterologously expressed proteins is required to demonstrate their function.

  13. Changes of phenolic acids and antioxidant activities during potherb mustard (Brassica juncea, Coss.) pickling.

    PubMed

    Fang, Zhongxiang; Hu, Yuxia; Liu, Donghong; Chen, Jianchu; Ye, Xingqian

    2008-06-01

    Phenolic acids in potherb mustard (Brassica juncea, Coss.) were determined and the effects of pickling methods on the contents of total free phenolic acids, total phenolic acids, total phenolics, and antioxidant activities were investigated. Gallic acid, protocatechuic acid, p-hydroxybenzoic acid, vanillic acid, caffeic acid, p-coumaric acid, ferulic acid, and sinapic acid were identified in the present study. The contents of total free phenolic acids, total phenolic acids and total phenolics in fresh potherb mustard were 84.8±0.58μg/g dry weight (DW), 539±1.36μg/g DW, and 7.95±0.28mg/g DW, respectively. The total free phenolic acids increased during the pickling processes, but the total phenolic acids, total phenolics, and antioxidant activities decreased. However, after 5 weeks of fermentation, all the pickling methods retained over 70% of total phenolic contents and above 65% of antioxidant capacities. The results indicated that pickling processes were relatively good methods for the preservation of phenolic acids and antioxidants for potherb mustard. PMID:26065739

  14. Understanding acid rain

    SciTech Connect

    Budiansky, S.

    1981-06-01

    The complexities of the phenomenon of acid rain are described. Many factors, including meteorology, geology, chemistry, and biology, all play parts. Varying weather, varying soils, the presence of other pollutants and species differences all act to blur the connections between industrial emissions, acid rain, and environmental damage. Some experts believe that the greatest pH shock to lakes occurs during snow melt and runoff in the spring; others believe that much of the plant damage ascribed to acid rain is actually due to the effects of ozone. Much work needs to be done in the area of sampling. Historical data are lacking and sampling methods are not sufficiently accurate. (JMT)

  15. Understanding Acid Base Disorders.

    PubMed

    Gomez, Hernando; Kellum, John A

    2015-10-01

    The concentration of hydrogen ions is regulated in biologic solutions. There are currently 3 recognized approaches to assess changes in acid base status. First is the traditional Henderson-Hasselbalch approach, also called the physiologic approach, which uses the relationship between HCO3(-) and Pco2; the second is the standard base excess approach based on the Van Slyke equation. The third approach is the quantitative or Stewart approach, which uses the strong ion difference and the total weak acids. This article explores the origins of the current concepts framing the existing methods to analyze acid base balance.

  16. Acid rain and soil.

    PubMed

    vanLoon, G W

    1984-08-01

    A summary of important chemical properties of soil is given and the way in which acid rain may affect these properties is discussed. Acid rain may suppress microbiological decomposition and nitrification processes, thus influencing the nutrient status of soils. It has also been found that soil organic matter is less soluble in more acid solutions. Changed nutrient availability patterns are predicted in a low pH environment and enhanced leaching of essential elements from the soil exchange complex has been observed. Increased solubility of potentially toxic elements such as aluminium may also occur from soils which have been exposed to acidified rainfall.

  17. HPLC Quantification of Phenolic Acids from Vetiveria zizanioides (L.) Nash and Its Antioxidant and Antimicrobial Activity

    PubMed Central

    Prajna, Jha; Richa, Jindal; Dipjyoti, Chakraborty

    2013-01-01

    Extraction procedure was standardized and for the soluble, glycoside, and wall-bound fractions of phenolic acids from Vetiveria zizanioides. The water soluble alkaline extract which represents the cell wall-bound fraction contained the highest amount of phenolic acids (2.62 ± 1.2 μM/g fwt GA equivalents). Increased phenolic content in the cell wall indicates more lignin deposition which has an important role in plant defense and stress mitigation. Antioxidant property expressed as percentage TEAC value obtained by ABTS assay was correlated with the amount of phenolic acids and showed a Pearson's coefficient 0.988 (significant at 0.01 level). The compounds p-coumaric acid, p-dihydroxybenzoic acid, and ferulic acid were detected in the acidic extracts by HPLC analysis. The plant extracts exhibited considerable antimicrobial activity against tested bacterial and fungal strains. PMID:26555971

  18. Disorders of Amino Acid Metabolism

    MedlinePlus

    ... Aspiration Syndrome Additional Content Medical News Disorders of Amino Acid Metabolism By Lee M. Sanders, MD, MPH NOTE: ... Metabolic Disorders Disorders of Carbohydrate Metabolism Disorders of Amino Acid Metabolism Disorders of Lipid Metabolism Amino acids are ...

  19. Accumulation of Phenolic Compounds and Expression Profiles of Phenolic Acid Biosynthesis-Related Genes in Developing Grains of White, Purple, and Red Wheat

    PubMed Central

    Ma, Dongyun; Li, Yaoguang; Zhang, Jian; Wang, Chenyang; Qin, Haixia; Ding, Huina; Xie, Yingxin; Guo, Tiancai

    2016-01-01

    Polyphenols in whole grain wheat have potential health benefits, but little is known about the expression patterns of phenolic acid biosynthesis genes and the accumulation of phenolic acid compounds in different-colored wheat grains. We found that purple wheat varieties had the highest total phenolic content (TPC) and antioxidant activity. Among phenolic acid compounds, bound ferulic acid, vanillic, and caffeic acid levels were significantly higher in purple wheat than in white and red wheat, while total soluble phenolic acid, soluble ferulic acid, and vanillic acid levels were significantly higher in purple and red wheat than in white wheat. Ferulic acid and syringic acid levels peaked at 14 days after anthesis (DAA), whereas p-coumaric acid and caffeic acid levels peaked at 7 DAA, and vanillic acid levels gradually increased during grain filling and peaked near ripeness (35 DAA). Nine phenolic acid biosynthesis pathway genes (TaPAL1, TaPAL2, TaC3H1, TaC3H2, TaC4H, Ta4CL1, Ta4CL2, TaCOMT1, and TaCOMT2) exhibited three distinct expression patterns during grain filling, which may be related to the different phenolic acids levels. White wheat had higher phenolic acid contents and relatively high gene expression at the early stage, while purple wheat had the highest phenolic acid contents and gene expression levels at later stages. These results suggest that the expression of phenolic acid biosynthesis genes may be closely related to phenolic acids accumulation. PMID:27148345

  20. Pantothenic acid and biotin

    MedlinePlus

    ... well as other nutrients, are provided in the Dietary Reference Intakes (DRIs) developed by the Food and Nutrition Board ... level that is thought to ensure enough nutrition. Dietary Reference Intakes for pantothenic acid: Age 0 to 6 months: ...

  1. Amino Acid Metabolism Disorders

    MedlinePlus

    Metabolism is the process your body uses to make energy from the food you eat. Food is ... One group of these disorders is amino acid metabolism disorders. They include phenylketonuria (PKU) and maple syrup ...

  2. [Hydrofluoric acid burns].

    PubMed

    Holla, Robin; Gorter, Ramon R; Tenhagen, Mark; Vloemans, A F P M Jos; Breederveld, Roelf S

    2016-01-01

    Hydrofluoric acid is increasingly used as a rust remover and detergent. Dermal contact with hydrofluoric acid results in a chemical burn characterized by severe pain and deep tissue necrosis. It may cause electrolyte imbalances with lethal consequences. It is important to identify high-risk patients. 'High risk' is defined as a total affected body area > 3% or exposure to hydrofluoric acid in a concentration > 50%. We present the cases of three male patients (26, 31, and 39 years old) with hydrofluoric acid burns of varying severity and describe the subsequent treatments. The application of calcium gluconate 2.5% gel to the skin is the cornerstone of the treatment, reducing pain as well as improving wound healing. Nails should be thoroughly inspected and possibly removed if the nail is involved, to ensure proper healing. In high-risk patients, plasma calcium levels should be evaluated and cardiac monitoring is indicated.

  3. Folic acid - test

    MedlinePlus

    ... folic acid before and during pregnancy helps prevent neural tube defects, such as spina bifida. Women who ... take more if they have a history of neural tube defects in earlier pregnancies. Ask your provider ...

  4. Nitric acid poisoning

    MedlinePlus

    Symptoms from swallowing nitric acid may include: Abdominal pain - severe Burns to skin or mouth Drooling Fever Mouth pain - severe Rapid drop in blood pressure (shock) Throat swelling, which leads to breathing difficulty ...

  5. [Hydrofluoric acid burns].

    PubMed

    Holla, Robin; Gorter, Ramon R; Tenhagen, Mark; Vloemans, A F P M Jos; Breederveld, Roelf S

    2016-01-01

    Hydrofluoric acid is increasingly used as a rust remover and detergent. Dermal contact with hydrofluoric acid results in a chemical burn characterized by severe pain and deep tissue necrosis. It may cause electrolyte imbalances with lethal consequences. It is important to identify high-risk patients. 'High risk' is defined as a total affected body area > 3% or exposure to hydrofluoric acid in a concentration > 50%. We present the cases of three male patients (26, 31, and 39 years old) with hydrofluoric acid burns of varying severity and describe the subsequent treatments. The application of calcium gluconate 2.5% gel to the skin is the cornerstone of the treatment, reducing pain as well as improving wound healing. Nails should be thoroughly inspected and possibly removed if the nail is involved, to ensure proper healing. In high-risk patients, plasma calcium levels should be evaluated and cardiac monitoring is indicated. PMID:27189091

  6. Difficult Decisions: Acid Rain.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Miller, John A.; Slesnick, Irwin L.

    1989-01-01

    Discusses some of the contributing factors and chemical reactions involved in the production of acid rain, its effects, and political issues pertaining to who should pay for the clean up. Supplies questions for consideration and discussion. (RT)

  7. Hyaluronic acid fillers.

    PubMed

    Monheit, Gary D; Coleman, Kyle M

    2006-01-01

    Although hyaluronic acids are a relatively new treatment for facial lines and wrinkles, they have provided numerous advances in the area of cosmetic surgery. This article discusses the inherent properties of hyaluronic acid fillers that make them ideal for treatment of facial lines. It encompasses a review of the current literature on U.S. Food and Drug Administration-approved hyaluronic acid fillers and the role that each of these fillers currently has in facial cosmetics. This article also discusses the potential pitfalls and adverse effects that can be associated with using hyaluronic acids for filling facial lines. Finally, it serves as an overview of current techniques for clinical assessment of patients as well as administration and treatment of facial lines and wrinkles.

  8. Boric acid poisoning

    MedlinePlus

    Borax poisoning ... The main symptoms of boric acid poisoning are blue-green vomit, diarrhea, and a bright red rash on the skin. Other symptoms may include: Blisters Collapse Coma Convulsions Drowsiness ...

  9. Stomach acid test

    MedlinePlus

    Gastric acid secretion test ... The test is done after you have not eaten for a while so fluid is all that remains in ... injected into your body. This is done to test the ability of the cells in the stomach ...

  10. Aminolevulinic Acid Topical

    MedlinePlus

    ... under the skin that result from exposure to sunlight and can develop into skin cancer) of the ... acid will make your skin very sensitive to sunlight (likely to get sunburn). Avoid exposure of treated ...

  11. Amino Acids and Chirality

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cook, Jamie E.

    2012-01-01

    Amino acids are among the most heavily studied organic compound class in carbonaceous chondrites. The abundance, distributions, enantiomeric compositions, and stable isotopic ratios of amino acids have been determined in carbonaceous chondrites fi'om a range of classes and petrographic types, with interesting correlations observed between these properties and the class and typc of the chondritcs. In particular, isomeric distributions appear to correlate with parent bodies (chondrite class). In addition, certain chiral amino acids are found in enantiomeric excess in some chondrites. The delivery of these enantiomeric excesses to the early Earth may have contributed to the origin of the homochirality that is central to life on Earth today. This talk will explore the amino acids in carbonaceous chondritcs and their relevance to the origin of life.

  12. (Acid rain workshop)

    SciTech Connect

    Turner, R.S.

    1990-12-05

    The traveler presented a paper entitled Susceptibility of Asian Ecosystems to Soil-Mediated Acid Rain Damage'' at the Second Workshop on Acid Rain in Asia. The workshop was organized by the Asian Institute of Technology (Bangkok, Thailand), Argonne National Laboratory (Argonne, Illinois), and Resource Management Associates (Madison, Wisconsin) and was sponsored by the US Department of Energy, the United Nations Environment Program, the United Nations Economic and Social Commission for Asia and the Pacific, and the World Bank. Papers presented on the first day discussed how the experience gained with acid rain in North America and Europe might be applied to the Asian situation. Papers describing energy use projections, sulfur emissions, and effects of acid rain in several Asian countries were presented on the second day. The remaining time was allotted to discussion, planning, and writing plans for a future research program.

  13. Folic acid in diet

    MedlinePlus

    ... a regular supply of the vitamin in the foods you eat. ... vitamins have been added to the food. Many foods are now fortified with folic acid. Some of these are enriched breads, cereals, flours, ...

  14. Valproic Acid and Pregnancy

    MedlinePlus

    ... in the treatment of epilepsy, and to treat bipolar disorder and migraines. I have been taking valproic acid ... that women with seizure disorders and women with bipolar disorder might have menstrual problems and difficulty getting pregnant. ...

  15. Citric acid urine test

    MedlinePlus

    ... The test is used to diagnose renal tubular acidosis and evaluate kidney stone disease. Normal Results The ... level of citric acid may mean renal tubular acidosis and a tendency to form calcium kidney stones. ...

  16. Folic Acid Quiz

    MedlinePlus

    ... more easily than natural food folate. Close × Answer: D CORRECT: Folic acid reduces the risk for spina ... g., orange juice and green vegetables). Close × Answer: D CORRECT: Spina bifida and anencephaly are neural tube ...

  17. Hydrofluoric acid poisoning

    MedlinePlus

    ... your skin or eyes, you may have: Blisters Burns Pain Vision loss Hydrofluoric acid poisoning can have ... urine tests Camera down the throat to see burns in the esophagus and the stomach (endoscopy) Fluids ...

  18. Portable nucleic acid thermocyclers.

    PubMed

    Almassian, David R; Cockrell, Lisa M; Nelson, William M

    2013-11-21

    A nucleic acid thermal cycler is considered to be portable if it is under ten pounds, easily carried by one individual, and battery powered. Nucleic acid amplification includes both polymerase chain reaction (e.g. PCR, RT-PCR) and isothermal amplification (e.g. RPA, HDA, LAMP, NASBA, RCA, ICAN, SMART, SDA). There are valuable applications for portable nucleic acid thermocyclers in fields that include clinical diagnostics, biothreat detection, and veterinary testing. A system that is portable allows for the distributed detection of targets at the point of care and a reduction of the time from sample to answer. The designer of a portable nucleic acid thermocycler must carefully consider both thermal control and the detection of amplification. In addition to thermal control and detection, the designer may consider the integration of a sample preparation subsystem with the nucleic acid thermocycler. There are a variety of technologies that can achieve accurate thermal control and the detection of nucleic acid amplification. Important evaluation criteria for each technology include maturity, power requirements, cost, sensitivity, speed, and manufacturability. Ultimately the needs of a particular market will lead to user requirements that drive the decision between available technologies.

  19. Neutron Nucleic Acid Crystallography.

    PubMed

    Chatake, Toshiyuki

    2016-01-01

    The hydration shells surrounding nucleic acids and hydrogen-bonding networks involving water molecules and nucleic acids are essential interactions for the structural stability and function of nucleic acids. Water molecules in the hydration shells influence various conformations of DNA and RNA by specific hydrogen-bonding networks, which often contribute to the chemical reactivity and molecular recognition of nucleic acids. However, X-ray crystallography could not provide a complete description of structural information with respect to hydrogen bonds. Indeed, X-ray crystallography is a powerful tool for determining the locations of water molecules, i.e., the location of the oxygen atom of H2O; however, it is very difficult to determine the orientation of the water molecules, i.e., the orientation of the two hydrogen atoms of H2O, because X-ray scattering from the hydrogen atom is very small.Neutron crystallography is a specialized tool for determining the positions of hydrogen atoms. Neutrons are not diffracted by electrons, but are diffracted by atomic nuclei; accordingly, neutron scattering lengths of hydrogen and its isotopes are comparable to those of non-hydrogen atoms. Therefore, neutron crystallography can determine both of the locations and orientations of water molecules. This chapter describes the current status of neutron nucleic acid crystallographic research as well as the basic principles of neutron diffraction experiments performed on nucleic acid crystals: materials, crystallization, diffraction experiments, and structure determination. PMID:26227050

  20. Neutron Nucleic Acid Crystallography.

    PubMed

    Chatake, Toshiyuki

    2016-01-01

    The hydration shells surrounding nucleic acids and hydrogen-bonding networks involving water molecules and nucleic acids are essential interactions for the structural stability and function of nucleic acids. Water molecules in the hydration shells influence various conformations of DNA and RNA by specific hydrogen-bonding networks, which often contribute to the chemical reactivity and molecular recognition of nucleic acids. However, X-ray crystallography could not provide a complete description of structural information with respect to hydrogen bonds. Indeed, X-ray crystallography is a powerful tool for determining the locations of water molecules, i.e., the location of the oxygen atom of H2O; however, it is very difficult to determine the orientation of the water molecules, i.e., the orientation of the two hydrogen atoms of H2O, because X-ray scattering from the hydrogen atom is very small.Neutron crystallography is a specialized tool for determining the positions of hydrogen atoms. Neutrons are not diffracted by electrons, but are diffracted by atomic nuclei; accordingly, neutron scattering lengths of hydrogen and its isotopes are comparable to those of non-hydrogen atoms. Therefore, neutron crystallography can determine both of the locations and orientations of water molecules. This chapter describes the current status of neutron nucleic acid crystallographic research as well as the basic principles of neutron diffraction experiments performed on nucleic acid crystals: materials, crystallization, diffraction experiments, and structure determination.

  1. Utilization of acid tars

    SciTech Connect

    Frolov, A.F.; Denisova, T.L.; Aminov, A.N.

    1987-01-01

    Freshly produced acid tar (FPAT), obtained as refinery waste in treating petroleum oils with sulfuric acid and oleum, contains 80% or more sulfuric acid. Of such tars, pond acid tars, which contain up to 80% neutral petroleum products and sulfonated resins, are more stable, and have found applications in the production of binders for paving materials. In this article the authors are presenting results obtained in a study of the composition and reactivity of FPAT and its stability in storage in blends with asphalts obtained in deasphalting operations, and the possibility of using the FPAT in road construction has been examined. In this work, wastes were used which were obtained in treating the oils T-750, KhF-12, I-8A, and MS-14. Data on the change in group chemical composition of FPAT are shown, and the acidity, viscosity, needle penetration, and softening point of acid tars obtained from different grades of oils are plotted as functions of the storage time. It is also shown that the fresh and hardened FPATs differ in their solubilities in various solvents.

  2. Method for isolating nucleic acids

    SciTech Connect

    Hurt, Jr., Richard Ashley; Elias, Dwayne A.

    2015-09-29

    The current disclosure provides methods and kits for isolating nucleic acid from an environmental sample. The current methods and compositions further provide methods for isolating nucleic acids by reducing adsorption of nucleic acids by charged ions and particles within an environmental sample. The methods of the current disclosure provide methods for isolating nucleic acids by releasing adsorbed nucleic acids from charged particles during the nucleic acid isolation process. The current disclosure facilitates the isolation of nucleic acids of sufficient quality and quantity to enable one of ordinary skill in the art to utilize or analyze the isolated nucleic acids for a wide variety of applications including, sequencing or species population analysis.

  3. Acidification and Acid Rain

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Norton, S. A.; Veselã½, J.

    2003-12-01

    Air pollution by acids has been known as a problem for centuries (Ducros, 1845; Smith, 1872; Camuffo, 1992; Brimblecombe, 1992). Only in the mid-1900s did it become clear that it was a problem for more than just industrially developed areas, and that precipitation quality can affect aquatic resources ( Gorham, 1955). The last three decades of the twentieth century saw tremendous progress in the documentation of the chemistry of the atmosphere, precipitation, and the systems impacted by acid atmospheric deposition. Chronic acidification of ecosystems results in chemical changes to soil and to surface waters and groundwater as a result of reduction of base cation supply or an increase in acid (H+) supply, or both. The most fundamental changes during chronic acidification are an increase in exchangeable H+ or Al3+ (aluminum) in soils, an increase in H+ activity (˜concentration) in water in contact with soil, and a decrease in alkalinity in waters draining watersheds. Water draining from the soil is acidified and has a lower pH (=-log [H+]). As systems acidify, their biotic community changes.Acidic surface waters occur in many parts of the world as a consequence of natural processes and also due to atmospheric deposition of strong acid (e.g., Canada, Jeffries et al. (1986); the United Kingdom, Evans and Monteith (2001); Sweden, Swedish Environmental Protection Board (1986); Finland, Forsius et al. (1990); Norway, Henriksen et al. (1988a); and the United States (USA), Brakke et al. (1988)). Concern over acidification in the temperate regions of the northern hemisphere has been driven by the potential for accelerating natural acidification by pollution of the atmosphere with acidic or acidifying compounds. Atmospheric pollution ( Figure 1) has resulted in an increased flux of acid to and through ecosystems. Depending on the ability of an ecosystem to neutralize the increased flux of acidity, acidification may increase only imperceptibly or be accelerated at a rate that

  4. Hydroxycinnamic acids used as external acceptors of electrons: an energetic advantage for strictly heterofermentative lactic acid bacteria.

    PubMed

    Filannino, Pasquale; Gobbetti, Marco; De Angelis, Maria; Di Cagno, Raffaella

    2014-12-01

    The metabolism of hydroxycinnamic acids by strictly heterofermentative lactic acid bacteria (19 strains) was investigated as a potential alternative energy route. Lactobacillus curvatus PE5 was the most tolerant to hydroxycinnamic acids, followed by strains of Weissella spp., Lactobacillus brevis, Lactobacillus fermentum, and Leuconostoc mesenteroides, for which the MIC values were the same. The highest sensitivity was found for Lactobacillus rossiae strains. During growth in MRS broth, lactic acid bacteria reduced caffeic, p-coumaric, and ferulic acids into dihydrocaffeic, phloretic, and dihydroferulic acids, respectively, or decarboxylated hydroxycinnamic acids into the corresponding vinyl derivatives and then reduced the latter compounds to ethyl compounds. Reductase activities mainly emerged, and the activities of selected strains were further investigated in chemically defined basal medium (CDM) under anaerobic conditions. The end products of carbon metabolism were quantified, as were the levels of intracellular ATP and the NAD(+)/NADH ratio. Electron and carbon balances and theoretical ATP/glucose yields were also estimated. When CDM was supplemented with hydroxycinnamic acids, the synthesis of ethanol decreased and the concentration of acetic acid increased. The levels of these metabolites reflected on the alcohol dehydrogenase and acetate kinase activities. Overall, some biochemical traits distinguished the common metabolism of strictly heterofermentative strains: main reductase activity toward hydroxycinnamic acids, a shift from alcohol dehydrogenase to acetate kinase activities, an increase in the NAD(+)/NADH ratio, and the accumulation of supplementary intracellular ATP. Taken together, the above-described metabolic responses suggest that strictly heterofermentative lactic acid bacteria mainly use hydroxycinnamic acids as external acceptors of electrons.

  5. Hydroxycinnamic Acids Used as External Acceptors of Electrons: an Energetic Advantage for Strictly Heterofermentative Lactic Acid Bacteria

    PubMed Central

    Filannino, Pasquale; Gobbetti, Marco; De Angelis, Maria

    2014-01-01

    The metabolism of hydroxycinnamic acids by strictly heterofermentative lactic acid bacteria (19 strains) was investigated as a potential alternative energy route. Lactobacillus curvatus PE5 was the most tolerant to hydroxycinnamic acids, followed by strains of Weissella spp., Lactobacillus brevis, Lactobacillus fermentum, and Leuconostoc mesenteroides, for which the MIC values were the same. The highest sensitivity was found for Lactobacillus rossiae strains. During growth in MRS broth, lactic acid bacteria reduced caffeic, p-coumaric, and ferulic acids into dihydrocaffeic, phloretic, and dihydroferulic acids, respectively, or decarboxylated hydroxycinnamic acids into the corresponding vinyl derivatives and then reduced the latter compounds to ethyl compounds. Reductase activities mainly emerged, and the activities of selected strains were further investigated in chemically defined basal medium (CDM) under anaerobic conditions. The end products of carbon metabolism were quantified, as were the levels of intracellular ATP and the NAD+/NADH ratio. Electron and carbon balances and theoretical ATP/glucose yields were also estimated. When CDM was supplemented with hydroxycinnamic acids, the synthesis of ethanol decreased and the concentration of acetic acid increased. The levels of these metabolites reflected on the alcohol dehydrogenase and acetate kinase activities. Overall, some biochemical traits distinguished the common metabolism of strictly heterofermentative strains: main reductase activity toward hydroxycinnamic acids, a shift from alcohol dehydrogenase to acetate kinase activities, an increase in the NAD+/NADH ratio, and the accumulation of supplementary intracellular ATP. Taken together, the above-described metabolic responses suggest that strictly heterofermentative lactic acid bacteria mainly use hydroxycinnamic acids as external acceptors of electrons. PMID:25261518

  6. Discovery of essential fatty acids

    PubMed Central

    Spector, Arthur A.; Kim, Hee-Yong

    2015-01-01

    Dietary fat was recognized as a good source of energy and fat-soluble vitamins by the first part of the 20th century, but fatty acids were not considered to be essential nutrients because they could be synthesized from dietary carbohydrate. This well-established view was challenged in 1929 by George and Mildred Burr who reported that dietary fatty acid was required to prevent a deficiency disease that occurred in rats fed a fat-free diet. They concluded that fatty acids were essential nutrients and showed that linoleic acid prevented the disease and is an essential fatty acid. The Burrs surmised that other unsaturated fatty acids were essential and subsequently demonstrated that linolenic acid, the omega-3 fatty acid analog of linoleic acid, is also an essential fatty acid. The discovery of essential fatty acids was a paradigm-changing finding, and it is now considered to be one of the landmark discoveries in lipid research. PMID:25339684

  7. Boric acid catalyzed chemoselective esterification of alpha-hydroxycarboxylic acids.

    PubMed

    Houston, Todd A; Wilkinson, Brendan L; Blanchfield, Joanne T

    2004-03-01

    Boric acid catalyzes the selective esterification of alpha-hydroxycarboxylic acids without causing significant esterification to occur with other carboxylic acids. The procedure is simple, high-yielding, and applicable to the esterification of alpha-hydroxy carboxylates in the presence of other carboxylic acids including beta-hydroxyacids within the same molecule. [reaction: see text

  8. Acid Rain, pH & Acidity: A Common Misinterpretation.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Clark, David B.; Thompson, Ronald E.

    1989-01-01

    Illustrates the basis for misleading statements about the relationship between pH and acid content in acid rain. Explains why pH cannot be used as a measure of acidity for rain or any other solution. Suggests that teachers present acidity and pH as two separate and distinct concepts. (RT)

  9. HPLC method for comparative study on tissue distribution in rat after oral administration of salvianolic acid B and phenolic acids from Salvia miltiorrhiza.

    PubMed

    Xu, Man; Fu, Gang; Qiao, Xue; Wu, Wan-Ying; Guo, Hui; Liu, Ai-Hua; Sun, Jiang-Hao; Guo, De-An

    2007-10-01

    A sensitive and selective high-performance liquid chromatography method was developed and validated to determine the prototype of salvianolic acid B and the metabolites of phenolic acids (protocatechuic acid, vanillic acid and ferulic acid) in rat tissues after oral administration of total phenolic acids and salvianolic acid B extracted from the roots of Salvia miltiorrhiza, respectively. The tissue samples were treated with a simple liquid-liquid extraction prior to HPLC. Analysis of the extract was performed on a reverse-phase C(18) column with a mobile phase consisting of acetonitrile and 0.05% trifluoracetic acid. The calibration curves for the four phenolic acids were linear in the given concentration ranges. The intra-day and inter-day relative standard deviations in the measurement of quality control samples were less than 10% and the accuracies were in the range of 88-115%. The average recoveries of all the tissues ranged from 78.0 to 111.8%. This method was successfully applied to evaluate the distribution of the four phenolic acids in rat tissues after oral administration of total phenolic acids of Salvia miltiorrhiza or salvianolic acid B and the possible metabolic pathway was illustrated. PMID:17549679

  10. Amino-acid contamination of aqueous hydrochloric acid.

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wolman, Y.; Miller, S. L.

    1971-01-01

    Considerable amino-acid contamination in commercially available analytical grade hydrochloric acid (37% HCl) was found. One bottle contained 8,300 nmol of amino-acids per liter. A bottle from another supplier contained 6,700 nmol per liter. The contaminants were mostly protein amino-acids and several unknowns. Data on the volatility of the amino-acids during HCl distillation were also obtained.

  11. Analysis of Bile Acids

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sjövall, Jan; Griffiths, William J.; Setchell, Kenneth D. R.; Mano, Nariyasu; Goto, Junichi

    Bile acids constitute a large family of steroids in vertebrates, normally formed from cholesterol and carrying a carboxyl group in a side-chain of variable length. Bile alcohols, also formed from cholesterol, have similar structures as bile acids, except for the absence of a carboxyl group in the steroid skeleton. The conversion of cholesterol to bile acids and/or bile alcohols is of major importance for maintenance of cholesterol homeostasis, both from quantitative and regulatory points of view (Chiang, 2004; Kalaany and Mangelsdorf, 2006; Moore, Kato, Xie, et al., 2006; Scotti, Gilardi, Godio, et al., 2007). Appropriately conjugated bile acids and bile alcohols (also referred to as bile salts) are secreted in bile and serve vital functions in the absorption of lipids and lipid-soluble compounds (Hofmann, 2007). Reliable analytical methods are required for studies of the functions and pathophysiological importance of the variety of bile acids and bile alcohols present in living organisms. When combined with genetic and proteomic studies, analysis of these small molecules (in today's terminology: metabolomics, steroidomics, sterolomics, cholanoidomics, etc.) will lead to a deeper understanding of the integrated metabolic processes in lipid metabolism.

  12. Optical high acidity sensor

    DOEpatents

    Jorgensen, B.S.; Nekimken, H.L.; Carey, W.P.; O`Rourke, P.E.

    1997-07-22

    An apparatus and method for determining acid concentrations in solutions having acid concentrations of from about 0.1 Molar to about 16 Molar is disclosed. The apparatus includes a chamber for interrogation of the sample solution, a fiber optic light source for passing light transversely through the chamber, a fiber optic collector for receiving the collimated light after transmission through the chamber, a coating of an acid resistant polymeric composition upon at least one fiber end or lens, the polymeric composition in contact with the sample solution within the chamber and having a detectable response to acid concentrations within the range of from about 0.1 Molar to about 16 Molar, a measurer for the response of the polymeric composition in contact with the sample solution, and a comparer of the measured response to predetermined standards whereby the acid molarity of the sample solution within the chamber can be determined. Preferably, a first lens is attached to the end of the fiber optic light source, the first lens adapted to collimate light from the fiber optic light source, and a second lens is attached to the end of the fiber optic collector for focusing the collimated light after transmission through the chamber. 10 figs.

  13. Optical high acidity sensor

    DOEpatents

    Jorgensen, Betty S.; Nekimken, Howard L.; Carey, W. Patrick; O'Rourke, Patrick E.

    1997-01-01

    An apparatus and method for determining acid concentrations in solutions having acid concentrations of from about 0.1 Molar to about 16 Molar is disclosed. The apparatus includes a chamber for interrogation of the sample solution, a fiber optic light source for passing light transversely through the chamber, a fiber optic collector for receiving the collimated light after transmission through the chamber, a coating of an acid resistant polymeric composition upon at least one fiber end or lens, the polymeric composition in contact with the sample solution within the chamber and having a detectable response to acid concentrations within the range of from about 0.1 Molar to about 16 Molar, a measurer for the response of the polymeric composition in contact with the sample solution, and, a comparer of the measured response to predetermined standards whereby the acid molarity of the sample solution within the chamber can be determined. Preferably, a first lens is attached to the end of the fiber optic light source, the first lens adapted to collimate light from the fiber optic light source, and a second lens is attached to the end of the fiber optic collector for focusing the collimated light after transmission through the chamber.

  14. Acid sludge utilization

    SciTech Connect

    Suarez, M.

    1980-09-01

    The Peak Oil Company of Tampa, Florida, in cooperation with the United States Department of Energy, has completed an initial study for the incorporation of acid-sludge derived from the rerefining of used lubricating oil into a useful and salable building material. Both bricks and paving materials have been produced using a formulation developed by Peak. Equipment has been designed and constructed for the specific purpose of preparing emulsions containing the acid-sludge, which is a vital ingredient in the final formulation. Testing of products obtained from these initial efforts shows that the acid in the sludge has been effectively neutralized and that heavy metals are not leached from the bricks or paving material in normal testing. While some properties of the building materials that incorporate the acid-sludge by-product are below standards for clay and shale brick, uses are defined for the product as is, and there is some promise of eventual production of building materials that meet all specifications for competitive materials. Initial cost estimations are encouraging, indicating that a profit can be derived by converting a hazardous and noxious by-product of rerefining to a construction material. Acid-sludge has presented a complex and costly disposal problem to the industry resulting in a serious depletion in the capacity for rerefining used lubricating oil.

  15. Domoic acid epileptic disease.

    PubMed

    Ramsdell, John S; Gulland, Frances M

    2014-03-01

    Domoic acid epileptic disease is characterized by spontaneous recurrent seizures weeks to months after domoic acid exposure. The potential for this disease was first recognized in a human case study of temporal lobe epilepsy after the 1987 amnesic shellfish-poisoning event in Quebec, and was characterized as a chronic epileptic syndrome in California sea lions through investigation of a series of domoic acid poisoning cases between 1998 and 2006. The sea lion study provided a breadth of insight into clinical presentations, unusual behaviors, brain pathology, and epidemiology. A rat model that replicates key observations of the chronic epileptic syndrome in sea lions has been applied to identify the progression of the epileptic disease state, its relationship to behavioral manifestations, and to define the neural systems involved in these behavioral disorders. Here, we present the concept of domoic acid epileptic disease as a delayed manifestation of domoic acid poisoning and review the state of knowledge for this disease state in affected humans and sea lions. We discuss causative mechanisms and neural underpinnings of disease maturation revealed by the rat model to present the concept for olfactory origin of an epileptic disease; triggered in dendodendritic synapases of the olfactory bulb and maturing in the olfactory cortex. We conclude with updated information on populations at risk, medical diagnosis, treatment, and prognosis. PMID:24663110

  16. Domoic Acid Epileptic Disease

    PubMed Central

    Ramsdell, John S.; Gulland, Frances M.

    2014-01-01

    Domoic acid epileptic disease is characterized by spontaneous recurrent seizures weeks to months after domoic acid exposure. The potential for this disease was first recognized in a human case study of temporal lobe epilepsy after the 1987 amnesic shellfish-poisoning event in Quebec, and was characterized as a chronic epileptic syndrome in California sea lions through investigation of a series of domoic acid poisoning cases between 1998 and 2006. The sea lion study provided a breadth of insight into clinical presentations, unusual behaviors, brain pathology, and epidemiology. A rat model that replicates key observations of the chronic epileptic syndrome in sea lions has been applied to identify the progression of the epileptic disease state, its relationship to behavioral manifestations, and to define the neural systems involved in these behavioral disorders. Here, we present the concept of domoic acid epileptic disease as a delayed manifestation of domoic acid poisoning and review the state of knowledge for this disease state in affected humans and sea lions. We discuss causative mechanisms and neural underpinnings of disease maturation revealed by the rat model to present the concept for olfactory origin of an epileptic disease; triggered in dendodendritic synapases of the olfactory bulb and maturing in the olfactory cortex. We conclude with updated information on populations at risk, medical diagnosis, treatment, and prognosis. PMID:24663110

  17. Use of Vine-Trimming Wastes as Carrier for Amycolatopsis sp. to Produce Vanillin, Vanillyl Alcohol, and Vanillic Acid.

    PubMed

    Castañón-Rodríguez, Juan Francisco; Pérez-Rodríguez, Noelia; de Souza Oliveira, Ricardo Pinheiro; Aguilar-Uscanga, María Guadalupe; Domínguez, José Manuel

    2016-10-01

    Raw vine-trimming wastes or the solid residues obtained after different fractionation treatments were evaluated for their suitability as Amycolatopsis sp. immobilization carriers during the bioconversion of ferulic acid into valuable phenolic compounds such as vanillin, vanillyl alcohol, and vanillic acid, the main flavor components of vanilla pods. Previously, physical-chemical characteristics of the materials were determined by quantitative acid hydrolysis and water absorption index (WAI), and microbiological characteristics by calculating the cell retention in the carrier (λ). Additionally, micrographics of carrier surface were obtained by field emission-scanning electron microscopy to study the influence of morphological changes during pretreatments in the adhesion of cells immobilized. The results point out that in spite of showing the lowest WAI and intermediate λ, raw material was the most appropriated substrate to conduct the bioconversion, achieving up to 262.9 mg/L phenolic compounds after 24 h, corresponding to 42.9 mg/L vanillin, 115.6 mg/L vanillyl alcohol, and 104.4 mg/L vanillic acid. The results showed the potential of this process to be applied for biotechnological production of vanillin from ferulic acid solutions; however, further studies must be carried out to increase vanillin yield. Additionally, the liquors obtained after treatment of vine-trimming wastes could be assayed to replace synthetic ferulic acid. PMID:27431730

  18. Use of Vine-Trimming Wastes as Carrier for Amycolatopsis sp. to Produce Vanillin, Vanillyl Alcohol, and Vanillic Acid.

    PubMed

    Castañón-Rodríguez, Juan Francisco; Pérez-Rodríguez, Noelia; de Souza Oliveira, Ricardo Pinheiro; Aguilar-Uscanga, María Guadalupe; Domínguez, José Manuel

    2016-10-01

    Raw vine-trimming wastes or the solid residues obtained after different fractionation treatments were evaluated for their suitability as Amycolatopsis sp. immobilization carriers during the bioconversion of ferulic acid into valuable phenolic compounds such as vanillin, vanillyl alcohol, and vanillic acid, the main flavor components of vanilla pods. Previously, physical-chemical characteristics of the materials were determined by quantitative acid hydrolysis and water absorption index (WAI), and microbiological characteristics by calculating the cell retention in the carrier (λ). Additionally, micrographics of carrier surface were obtained by field emission-scanning electron microscopy to study the influence of morphological changes during pretreatments in the adhesion of cells immobilized. The results point out that in spite of showing the lowest WAI and intermediate λ, raw material was the most appropriated substrate to conduct the bioconversion, achieving up to 262.9 mg/L phenolic compounds after 24 h, corresponding to 42.9 mg/L vanillin, 115.6 mg/L vanillyl alcohol, and 104.4 mg/L vanillic acid. The results showed the potential of this process to be applied for biotechnological production of vanillin from ferulic acid solutions; however, further studies must be carried out to increase vanillin yield. Additionally, the liquors obtained after treatment of vine-trimming wastes could be assayed to replace synthetic ferulic acid.

  19. Formation of Guaiacol by Spoilage Bacteria from Vanillic Acid, a Product of Rice Koji Cultivation, in Japanese Sake Brewing.

    PubMed

    Ito, Toshihiko; Konno, Mahito; Shimura, Yoichiro; Watanabe, Seiei; Takahashi, Hitoshi; Hashizume, Katsumi

    2016-06-01

    The formation of guaiacol, a potent phenolic off-odor compound in the Japanese sake brewing process, was investigated. Eight rice koji samples were analyzed, and one contained guaiacol and 4-vinylguaiacol (4-VG) at extraordinarily high levels: 374 and 2433 μg/kg dry mass koji, respectively. All samples contained ferulic and vanillic acids at concentrations of mg/kg dry mass koji. Guaiacol forming microorganisms were isolated from four rice koji samples. They were identified as Bacillus subtilis, B. amyloliquefaciens/subtilis, and Staphylococcus gallinarum using 16S rRNA gene sequence. These spoilage bacteria convert vanillic acid to guaiacol and ferulic acid to 4-VG. However, they convert very little ferulic acid or 4-VG to guaiacol. Nine strains of koji fungi tested produced vanillic acid at the mg/kg dry mass koji level after cultivation. These results indicated that spoilage bacteria form guaiacol from vanillic acid, which is a product of koji cultivation in the sake brewing process. PMID:27181257

  20. A Demonstration of Acid Rain

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fong, Man Wai

    2004-01-01

    A demonstration showing acid rain formation is described. Oxides of sulfur and nitrogen that result from the burning of fossil fuels are the major pollutants of acid rain. In this demonstration, SO[subscript 2] gas is produced by the burning of matches. An acid-base indicator will show that the dissolved gas turns an aqueous solution acidic.

  1. DOCOSAHEXAENOIC ACID AND ARACHIDONIC ACID PREVENT ESSENTIAL FATTY ACID DEFICIENCY AND HEPATIC STEATOSIS

    PubMed Central

    Le, Hau D.; Meisel, Jonathan A.; de Meijer, Vincent E.; Fallon, Erica M.; Gura, Kathleen M.; Nose, Vania; Bistrian, Bruce R.; Puder, Mark

    2012-01-01

    Objectives Essential fatty acids are important for growth, development, and physiologic function. Alpha-linolenic acid and linoleic acid are the precursors of docosahexaenoic and arachidonic acid, respectively, and have traditionally been considered the essential fatty acids. However, we hypothesized that docosahexaenoic acid and arachidonic acid can function as the essential fatty acids. Methods Using a murine model of essential fatty acid deficiency and consequent hepatic steatosis, we provided mice with varying amounts of docosahexaenoic and arachidonic acids to determine whether exclusive supplementation of docosahexaenoic and arachidonic acids could prevent essential fatty acid deficiency and inhibit or attenuate hepatic steatosis. Results Mice supplemented with docosahexaenoic and arachidonic acids at 2.1% or 4.2% of their calories for 19 days had normal liver histology and no biochemical evidence of essential fatty acid deficiency, which persisted when observed after 9 weeks. Conclusion Supplementation of sufficient amounts of docosahexaenoic and arachidonic acids alone without alpha-linolenic and linoleic acids meets essential fatty acid requirements and prevents hepatic steatosis in a murine model. PMID:22038210

  2. Comparison of phenolic acids profile and antioxidant potential of six varieties of spelt (Triticum spelta L.).

    PubMed

    Gawlik-Dziki, Urszula; Świeca, Michał; Dziki, Dariusz

    2012-05-01

    Phenolic acids profile and antioxidant activity of six diverse varieties of spelt are reported. Antioxidant activity was assessed using eight methods based on different mechanism of action. Phenolic acids composition of spelt differed significantly between varieties and ranged from 506.6 to 1257.4 μg/g DW. Ferulic and sinapinic acids were the predominant phenolic acids found in spelt. Total ferulic acid content ranged from 144.2 to 691.5 μg/g DW. All analyzed spelt varieties possessed high antioxidant potential. In spite of the fact that bound phenolic acids possessed higher antioxidant activities, analysis of antioxidant potential and their relationship with phenolic acid content showed that free phenolics were more effective. Eight antioxidant methods were integrated to obtain a total antioxidant capacity index that may be used for comparison of total antioxidant capacity of spelt varieties. Total antioxidant potential of spelt cultivars were ordered as follows: Ceralio > Spelt INZ ≈ Ostro > Oberkulmer Rotkorn > Schwabenspelz > Schwabenkorn.

  3. Interaction of cinnamic acid derivatives with β-cyclodextrin in water: experimental and molecular modeling studies.

    PubMed

    Liu, Benguo; Zeng, Jie; Chen, Chen; Liu, Yonglan; Ma, Hanjun; Mo, Haizhen; Liang, Guizhao

    2016-03-01

    Cyclodextrins (CDs) can be used to improve the solubility and stability of cinnamic acid derivatives (CAs). However, there was no detailed report about understanding the effects of the substituent groups in the benzene ring on the inclusion behavior between CAs and CDs in aqueous solution. Here, the interaction of β-CD with CAs, including caffeic acid, ferulic acid, and p-coumaric acid, in water was investigated by phase-solubility method, UV, fluorescence, and (1)H NMR spectroscopy, together with ONIOM (our Own N-layer Integrated Orbital molecular Mechanics)-based QM/MM (Quantum Mechanics/Molecular Mechanics) calculations. Experimental results demonstrated that CAs could form 1:1 stoichiometric inclusion complex with β-CD by non-covalent bonds, and that the maximum apparent stability constants were found in caffeic acid (176M(-1)) followed by p-coumaric acid (160M(-1)) and ferulic acid (133M(-1)). Moreover, our calculations reasonably illustrated the binding orientations of β-CD with CAs determined by experimental observations.

  4. Effect of ethyl esterification of phenolic acids on low-density lipoprotein oxidation.

    PubMed

    Chalas, J; Claise, C; Edeas, M; Messaoudi, C; Vergnes, L; Abella, A; Lindenbaum, A

    2001-02-01

    Inhibition of copper-induced low-density lipoprotein (LDL) oxidation by phenolic acids and their ethyl esters was investigated. LDL oxidation was evaluated by the hydroperoxide concentration and the chromatographic pattern of apoprotein fractions after fast protein liquid chromatography (FPLC). Antiradical properties against 1,1-diphenyl-2-picryl hydrazyl (DPPH) radical and 2,2'-azobis(2-amidinopropane)dihydrochloride (AAPH) were also investigated, and lipophilicity determined by thin-layer chromatography. Caffeic acid at 5 microM and sinapic acid at 10 microM protected LDL against oxidation, inhibiting both hydroperoxide formation and the increase of apoprotein negative charge. Ferulic, gallic and p-hydroxy cinnamic acids were ineffective. Ethyl esterification increased the lipophilicity of the five acids, and enhanced the antioxidant properties of caffeic, sinapic and ferulic acids. Ethyl caffeate was protective at 1 microM. In contrast, gallic and p-hydroxy cinnamic ethyl esters were ineffective. Our results indicate that ethyl esterification of phenolic acids increases lipophilicity of their ethyl esters and may enable a better incorporation into the lipid layer of the LDL particle and the exertion of their antioxidant effect in the true site of lipoperoxidation. However, increasing lipophilicity is not the only mechanism able to potentiate preexisting antioxidant properties of molecules, and probably other mechanisms are implicated.

  5. Characterisation of calamansi (Citrus microcarpa). Part I: volatiles, aromatic profiles and phenolic acids in the peel.

    PubMed

    Cheong, Mun Wai; Chong, Zhi Soon; Liu, Shao Quan; Zhou, Weibiao; Curran, Philip; Bin Yu

    2012-09-15

    Volatile compounds in the peel of calamansi (Citrus microcarpa) from Malaysia, the Philippines and Vietnam were extracted with dichloromethane and hexane, and then analysed by gas chromatography-mass spectroscopy/flame ionisation detector. Seventy-nine compounds representing >98% of the volatiles were identified. Across the three geographical sources, a relatively small proportion of potent oxygenated compounds was significantly different, exemplified by the highest amount of methyl N-methylanthranilate in Malaysian calamansi peel. Principal component analysis and canonical discriminant analysis were applied to interpret the complex volatile compounds in the calamansi peel extracts, and to verify the discrimination among the different origins. In addition, four common hydroxycinnamic acids (caffeic, p-coumaric, ferulic and sinapic acids) were determined in the methanolic extracts of calamansi peel using ultra-fast liquid chromatography coupled to photodiode array detector. The Philippines calamansi peel contained the highest amount of total phenolic acids. In addition, p-Coumaric acid was the dominant free phenolic acids, whereas ferulic acid was the main bound phenolic acid.

  6. Biodegradation of cyanuric acid.

    PubMed

    Saldick, J

    1974-12-01

    Cyanuric acid biodegrades readily under a wide variety of natural conditions, and particularly well in systems of either low or zero dissolved-oxygen level, such as anaerobic activated sludge and sewage, soils, muds, and muddy streams and river waters, as well as ordinary aerated activated sludge systems with typically low (1 to 3 ppm) dissolved-oxygen levels. Degradation also proceeds in 3.5% sodium chloride solution. Consequently, there are degradation pathways widely available for breaking down cyanuric acid discharged in domestic effluents. The overall degradation reaction is merely a hydrolysis; CO(2) and ammonia are the initial hydrolytic breakdown products. Since no net oxidation occurs during this breakdown, biodegradation of cyanuric acid exerts no primary biological oxygen demand. However, eventual nitrification of the ammonia released will exert its usual biological oxygen demand.

  7. Exposures to acidic aerosols.

    PubMed

    Spengler, J D; Keeler, G J; Koutrakis, P; Ryan, P B; Raizenne, M; Franklin, C A

    1989-02-01

    Ambient monitoring of acid aerosols in four U.S. cities and in a rural region of southern Ontario clearly show distinct periods of strong acidity. Measurements made in Kingston, TN, and Steubenville, OH, resulted in 24-hr H+ ion concentrations exceeding 100 nmole/m3 more than 10 times during summer months. Periods of elevated acidic aerosols occur less frequently in winter months. The H+ determined during episodic conditions in southern Ontario indicates that respiratory tract deposition can exceed the effects level reported in clinical studies. Observed 12-hr H+ concentrations exceeded 550 nmole/m3 (approximately 27 micrograms/m3 H2SO4). The maximum estimated 1-hr concentration exceeded 1500 nmole/m3 for H+ ions. At these concentrations, an active child might receive more than 2000 nmole of H+ ion in 12 hr and in excess of 900 nmole during the hour when H2SO4 exceeded 50 micrograms/m3.

  8. Biodegradation of Cyanuric Acid

    PubMed Central

    Saldick, Jerome

    1974-01-01

    Cyanuric acid biodegrades readily under a wide variety of natural conditions, and particularly well in systems of either low or zero dissolved-oxygen level, such as anaerobic activated sludge and sewage, soils, muds, and muddy streams and river waters, as well as ordinary aerated activated sludge systems with typically low (1 to 3 ppm) dissolved-oxygen levels. Degradation also proceeds in 3.5% sodium chloride solution. Consequently, there are degradation pathways widely available for breaking down cyanuric acid discharged in domestic effluents. The overall degradation reaction is merely a hydrolysis; CO2 and ammonia are the initial hydrolytic breakdown products. Since no net oxidation occurs during this breakdown, biodegradation of cyanuric acid exerts no primary biological oxygen demand. However, eventual nitrification of the ammonia released will exert its usual biological oxygen demand. PMID:4451360

  9. Calorimetry of Nucleic Acids.

    PubMed

    Rozners, Eriks; Pilch, Daniel S; Egli, Martin

    2015-12-01

    This unit describes the application of calorimetry to characterize the thermodynamics of nucleic acids, specifically, the two major calorimetric methodologies that are currently employed: differential scanning (DSC) and isothermal titration calorimetry (ITC). DSC is used to study thermally induced order-disorder transitions in nucleic acids. A DSC instrument measures, as a function of temperature (T), the excess heat capacity (C(p)(ex)) of a nucleic acid solution relative to the same amount of buffer solution. From a single curve of C(p)(ex) versus T, one can derive the following information: the transition enthalpy (ΔH), entropy (ΔS), free energy (ΔG), and heat capacity (ΔCp); the state of the transition (two-state versus multistate); and the average size of the molecule that melts as a single thermodynamic entity (e.g., the duplex). ITC is used to study the hybridization of nucleic acid molecules at constant temperature. In an ITC experiment, small aliquots of a titrant nucleic acid solution (strand 1) are added to an analyte nucleic acid solution (strand 2), and the released heat is monitored. ITC yields the stoichiometry of the association reaction (n), the enthalpy of association (ΔH), the equilibrium association constant (K), and thus the free energy of association (ΔG). Once ΔH and ΔG are known, ΔS can also be derived. Repetition of the ITC experiment at a number of different temperatures yields the ΔCp for the association reaction from the temperature dependence of ΔH.

  10. Acid rain in Asia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bhatti, Neeloo; Streets, David G.; Foell, Wesley K.

    1992-07-01

    Acid rain has been an issue of great concern in North America and Europe during the past several decades. However, due to the passage of a number of recent regulations, most notably the Clean Air Act in the United States in 1990, there is an emerging perception that the problem in these Western nations is nearing solution. The situation in the developing world, particularly in Asia, is much bleaker. Given the policies of many Asian nations to achieve levels of development comparable with the industrialized world—which necessitate a significant expansion of energy consumption (most derived from indigenous coal reserves)—the potential for the formation of, and damage from, acid deposition in these developing countries is very high. This article delineates and assesses the emissions patterns, meteorology, physical geology, and biological and cultural resources present in various Asian nations. Based on this analysis and the risk factors to acidification, it is concluded that a number of areas in Asia are currently vulnerable to acid rain. These regions include Japan, North and South Korea, southern China, and the mountainous portions of Southeast Asia and southwestern India. Furthermore, with accelerated development (and its attendant increase in energy use and production of emissions of acid deposition precursors) in many nations of Asia, it is likely that other regions will also be affected by acidification in the near future. Based on the results of this overview, it is clear that acid deposition has significant potential to impact the Asian region. However, empirical evidence is urgently needed to confirm this and to provide early warning of increases in the magnitude and spread of acid deposition and its effects throughout this part of the world.

  11. Acid Precipitation; (USA)

    SciTech Connect

    Rushing, J.W.; Hicks, S.C.

    1991-01-01

    This publication, Acid Precipitation (APC) announces on a monthly basis the current worldwide information on acid precipitation and closely related subjects, including wet and dry deposition, long-range transport, environmental effects, modeling, and socioeconomic factors. Information on the following subjects is included within the scope of this publication, but all subjects may not appear in each issue: Pollution sources and pollution control technology; atmospheric transport and chemistry; terrestrial transport and chemistry; aquatic transport and chemistry; biological effects; corrosive effects; and socioeconomics, policy, and legislation.

  12. Whither acid rain?

    PubMed

    Brimblecombe, P

    2001-04-01

    Acid rain, the environmental cause célèbre of the 1980s seems to have vanished from popular conscience. By contrast, scientific research, despite funding difficulties, has continued to produce hundreds of research papers each year. Studies of acid rain taught much about precipitation chemistry, the behaviour of snow packs, long-range transport of pollutants and new issues in the biology of fish and forested ecosystems. There is now evidence of a shift away from research in precipitation and sulfur chemistry, but an impressive theoretical base remains as a legacy.

  13. NITRIC ACID PICKLING PROCESS

    DOEpatents

    Boller, E.R.; Eubank, L.D.

    1958-08-19

    An improved process is described for the treatment of metallic uranium surfaces preparatory to being given hot dip coatings. The process consists in first pickling the uraniunn surInce with aqueous 50% to 70% nitric acid, at 60 to 70 deg C, for about 5 minutes, rinsing the acid solution from the uranium article, promptly drying and then passing it through a molten alkali-metal halide flux consisting of 42% LiCl, 53% KCla and 5% NaCl into a molten metal bath consisting of 85 parts by weight of zinc and 15 parts by weight of aluminum

  14. Fatty acids of Thiobacillus thiooxidans.

    PubMed

    Levin, R A

    1971-12-01

    Fatty acid spectra were made on Thiobacillus thiooxidans cultures both in the presence and absence of organic compounds. Small additions of glucose or acetate had no significant effect either on growth or fatty acid content. The addition of biotin had no stimulatory effect but did result in slight quantitative changes in the fatty acid spectrum. The predominant fatty acid was a C(19) cyclopropane acid.

  15. Fatty Acids of Thiobacillus thiooxidans

    PubMed Central

    Levin, Richard A.

    1971-01-01

    Fatty acid spectra were made on Thiobacillus thiooxidans cultures both in the presence and absence of organic compounds. Small additions of glucose or acetate had no significant effect either on growth or fatty acid content. The addition of biotin had no stimulatory effect but did result in slight quantitative changes in the fatty acid spectrum. The predominant fatty acid was a C19 cyclopropane acid. PMID:4945206

  16. The Acid-Base Titration of a Very Weak Acid: Boric Acid

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Celeste, M.; Azevedo, C.; Cavaleiro, Ana M. V.

    2012-01-01

    A laboratory experiment based on the titration of boric acid with strong base in the presence of d-mannitol is described. Boric acid is a very weak acid and direct titration with NaOH is not possible. An auxiliary reagent that contributes to the release of protons in a known stoichiometry facilitates the acid-base titration. Students obtain the…

  17. Lactic acid bacterial cell factories for gamma-aminobutyric acid.

    PubMed

    Li, Haixing; Cao, Yusheng

    2010-11-01

    Gamma-aminobutyric acid is a non-protein amino acid that is widely present in organisms. Several important physiological functions of gamma-aminobutyric acid have been characterized, such as neurotransmission, induction of hypotension, diuretic effects, and tranquilizer effects. Many microorganisms can produce gamma-aminobutyric acid including bacteria, fungi and yeasts. Among them, gamma-aminobutyric acid-producing lactic acid bacteria have been a focus of research in recent years, because lactic acid bacteria possess special physiological activities and are generally regarded as safe. They have been extensively used in food industry. The production of lactic acid bacterial gamma-aminobutyric acid is safe and eco-friendly, and this provides the possibility of production of new naturally fermented health-oriented products enriched in gamma-aminobutyric acid. The gamma-aminobutyric acid-producing species of lactic acid bacteria and their isolation sources, the methods for screening of the strains and increasing their production, the enzymatic properties of glutamate decarboxylases and the relative fundamental research are reviewed in this article. And the potential applications of gamma-aminobutyric acid-producing lactic acid bacteria were also referred to.

  18. Comparison of Buffer Effect of Different Acids During Sandstone Acidizing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Umer Shafiq, Mian; Khaled Ben Mahmud, Hisham; Hamid, Mohamed Ali

    2015-04-01

    The most important concern of sandstone matrix acidizing is to increase the formation permeability by removing the silica particles. To accomplish this, the mud acid (HF: HCl) has been utilized successfully for many years to stimulate the sandstone formations, but still it has many complexities. This paper presents the results of laboratory investigations of different acid combinations (HF: HCl, HF: H3PO4 and HF: HCOOH). Hydrofluoric acid and fluoboric acid are used to dissolve clays and feldspar. Phosphoric and formic acids are added as a buffer to maintain the pH of the solution; also it allows the maximum penetration of acid into the core sample. Different tests have been performed on the core samples before and after the acidizing to do the comparative study on the buffer effect of these acids. The analysis consists of permeability, porosity, color change and pH value tests. There is more increase in permeability and porosity while less change in pH when phosphoric and formic acids were used compared to mud acid. From these results it has been found that the buffer effect of phosphoric acid and formic acid is better than hydrochloric acid.

  19. Interactions of low molecular weight aromatic acids and amino acids with goethite, kaolinite and bentonite with or without organic matter coating

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gao, Jiajia; Jansen, Boris; Cerli, Chiara; Kalbitz, Karsten

    2015-04-01

    Interaction of organic matter molecules with the soil's solid phase is a key factor influencing the stabilization of carbon in soils and thus forms a crucial aspect of the global carbon cycle. While subject of much research attention so far, we still have much to learn about such interactions at the molecular level; in particular in the light of competition between different classes of organic molecules and in the presence of previously adsorbed soil organic matter. We studied the interaction of a group of low molecular weight (LMW) aromatic acids (salicylic, syringic, vanillic and ferulic acid) and amino acids (lysine, glutamic, leucine and phenylalanine) on goethite, kaolinite and bentonite with and without previously adsorbed dissolved organic matter (DOM). For this we used batch experiments at pH = 6.0 where some of the organic compounds were positively charged (i.e. lysine) or negatively charged (i.e. glutamic and salicylic acid) while the minerals also displayed positively (i.e. goethite) or negatively charged surfaces (i.e. bentonite). We found much higher sorption of salicylic acid and lysine than other compounds. On the bare minerals we found a great variety of sorption strength, with salicylic acid strongly adsorbed, while syringic, vanillic and ferulic acid showed little or no adsorption. For the amino acids, protonated lysine showed a stronger affinity to negatively charged kaolinite and bentonite than other amino acids. While deprotonated glutamic acid showed the strongest adsorption on goethite. Leucine and phenylalanine showed hardly any adsorption on any of the minerals. When present concurrently, amino acids decreased the sorption of salicylic acid on the three types of mineral, while the presence of LMW aromatic acids increased the sorption of lysine on kaolinite and bentonite and the sorption of glutamic acid on goethite. The presence of previously adsorbed DOM reduced the sorption of salicylic acid and lysine. The results confirm that

  20. Cinnamic-derived acids significantly affect Fusarium graminearum growth and in vitro synthesis of type B trichothecenes.

    PubMed

    Ponts, Nadia; Pinson-Gadais, Laetitia; Boutigny, Anne-Laure; Barreau, Christian; Richard-Forget, Florence

    2011-08-01

    The impact of five phenolic acids (ferulic, coumaric, caffeic, syringic, and p-hydroxybenzoic acids) on fungal growth and type B trichothecene production by four strains of Fusarium graminearum was investigated. All five phenolic acids inhibited growth but the degree of inhibition varied between strains. Our results suggested that the more lipophilic phenolic acids are, the higher is the effect they have on growth. Toxin accumulation in phenolic acid-supplemented liquid glucose, yeast extract, and peptone cultures was enhanced in the presence of ferulic and coumaric acids but was reduced in the presence of p-hydroxybenzoic acid. This modulation was shown to correlate with a regulation of TRI5 transcription. In this study, addition of phenolic acids with greater antioxidant properties resulted in a higher toxin accumulation, indicating that the modulation of toxin accumulation may be linked to the antioxidant properties of the phenolic acids. These data suggest that, in planta, different compositions in phenolic acids of kernels from various cultivars may reflect different degrees of sensitivity to "mycotoxinogenesis."

  1. An inelastic neutron scattering study of dietary phenolic acids.

    PubMed

    Marques, M Paula M; Batista de Carvalho, Luís A E; Valero, Rosendo; Machado, Nelson F L; Parker, Stewart F

    2014-04-28

    The conformational preferences and hydrogen-bonding motifs of several potential chemopreventive hydroxycinnamic derivatives were determined by inelastic neutron scattering spectroscopy. The aim is to understand their recognized beneficial activity and establish reliable structure-activity relationships for these types of dietary phytochemicals. A series of phenolic acids with different hydroxyl/methoxyl ring substitution patterns were studied: trans-cinnamic, p-coumaric, m-coumaric, trans-caffeic and ferulic acids. Their INS spectra were completely assigned by theoretical calculations performed at the Density Functional Theory level, for the isolated molecule, dimeric centrosymmetric species and the solid (using plane-wave expansion approaches). Access to the low energy vibrational region of the spectra enabled the identification of particular modes associated with intermolecular hydrogen-bonding interactions, which are the determinants of the main conformational preferences and antioxidant capacity of these systems.

  2. [Studies on interaction of acid-treated nanotube titanic acid and amino acids].

    PubMed

    Zhang, Huqin; Chen, Xuemei; Jin, Zhensheng; Liao, Guangxi; Wu, Xiaoming; Du, Jianqiang; Cao, Xiang

    2010-06-01

    Nanotube titanic acid (NTA) has distinct optical and electrical character, and has photocatalysis character. In accordance with these qualities, NTA was treated with acid so as to enhance its surface activity. Surface structures and surface groups of acid-treated NTA were characterized and analyzed by Transmission Electron Microscope (TEM) and Fourier Transform Infrared Spectrometry (FT-IR). The interaction between acid-treated NTA and amino acids was investigated. Analysis results showed that the lengths of acid-treated NTA became obviously shorter. The diameters of nanotube bundles did not change obviously with acid-treating. Meanwhile, the surface of acid-treated NTA was cross-linked with carboxyl or esterfunction. In addition, acid-treated NTA can catch amino acid residues easily, and then form close combination.

  3. Docosahexaenoic acid and lactation

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Docosahexaenoic acid (DHA) is an important component of membrane phospholipids in the retina, and brain, and accumulates rapidly in these tissues during early infancy. DHA is present in human milk, but the amount varies considerably and is largely dependent on maternal diet. This article reviews dat...

  4. Orphenadrinium picrate picric acid

    PubMed Central

    Fun, Hoong-Kun; Hemamalini, Madhukar; Siddaraju, B. P.; Yathirajan, H. S.; Narayana, B.

    2010-01-01

    The asymmetric unit of the title compound N,N-dimethyl-2-[(2-methyl­phen­yl)phenyl­meth­oxy]ethanaminium picrate picric acid, C18H24NO+·C6H2N3O7 −·C6H3N3O7, contains one orphenadrinium cation, one picrate anion and one picric acid mol­ecule. In the orphenadrine cation, the two aromatic rings form a dihedral angle of 70.30 (7)°. There is an intra­molecular O—H⋯O hydrogen bond in the picric acid mol­ecule, which generates an S(6) ring motif. In the crystal structure, the orphenadrine cations, picrate anions and picric acid mol­ecules are connected by strong inter­molecular N—H⋯O hydrogen bonds, π⋯π inter­actions between the benzene rings of cations and anions [centroid–centroid distance = 3.5603 (9) Å] and weak C—H⋯O hydrogen bonds, forming a three-dimensional network. PMID:21580426

  5. Acid Rain Investigations.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hugo, John C.

    1992-01-01

    Presents an activity in which students investigate the formation of solid ammonium chloride aerosol particles to help students better understand the concept of acid rain. Provides activity objectives, procedures, sample data, clean-up instructions, and questions and answers to help interpret the data. (MDH)

  6. The Acid Rain Debate.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Oates-Bockenstedt, Catherine

    1997-01-01

    Details an activity designed to motivate students by incorporating science-related issues into a classroom debate. Includes "The Acid Rain Bill" and "Position Guides" for student roles as committee members, consumers, governors, industry owners, tourism professionals, senators, and debate directors. (DKM)

  7. Acid rain bibliography

    SciTech Connect

    Sayers, C.S.

    1983-09-01

    This bibliography identifies 900 citations on various aspects of Acid Rain, covering published bibliographies, books, reports, conference and symposium proceedings, audio visual materials, pamphlets and newsletters. It includes five sections: citations index (complete record of author, title, source, order number); KWIC index; title index; author index; and source index. 900 references.

  8. Acid Rain Classroom Projects.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Demchik, Michael J.

    2000-01-01

    Describes a curriculum plan in which students learn about acid rain through instructional media, research and class presentations, lab activities, simulations, design, and design implementation. Describes the simulation activity in detail and includes materials, procedures, instructions, examples, results, and discussion sections. (SAH)

  9. The Acid Rain Debate.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bybee, Rodger; And Others

    1984-01-01

    Describes an activity which provides opportunities for role-playing as industrialists, ecologists, and government officials. The activity involves forming an international commission on acid rain, taking testimony, and, based on the testimony, making recommendations to governments on specific ways to solve the problem. Includes suggestions for…

  10. The Acid Rain Game.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rakow, Steven J.; Glenn, Allen

    1982-01-01

    Provides rationale for and description of an acid rain game (designed for two players), a problem-solving model for elementary students. Although complete instructions are provided, including a copy of the game board, the game is also available for Apple II microcomputers. Information for the computer program is available from the author.…

  11. Targeting tumor acidity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Reshetnyak, Yana K.; Engelman, Donald M.; Andreev, Oleg A.

    2012-02-01

    One of the main features of solid tumors is extracellular acidity, which correlates with tumor aggressiveness and metastatic potential. We introduced novel approach in targeting of acidic tumors, and translocation of cell-impermeable cargo molecules across cellular membrane. Our approach is based on main principle of insertion and folding of a polypeptide in lipid bilayer of membrane. We have identified family of pH Low Insertion Peptides (pHLIPs), which are capable spontaneous insertion and folding in membrane at mild acidic conditions. The affinity of peptides of pHLIP family to membrane at low pH is several times higher than at neutral pH. The process of peptides folding occurs within milliseconds. The energy released in a result of folding (about 2 kcal/mol) could be used to move polar cargo across a membrane, which is a novel concept in drug delivery. pHLIP peptides could be considered as a pH-sensitive single peptide molecular transporters and conjugated with imaging probes for fluorescence, MR, PET and SPECT imaging, they represent a novel in vivo marker of acidity. The work is supported by NIH grants CA133890 and GM073857 to OAA, DME, YRK.

  12. Spermatotoxicity of dichloroacetic acid

    EPA Science Inventory

    The testicular toxicity of dichloroacetic acid (DCA), a disinfection byproduct of drinking water, was evaluated in adult male rats given both single and multiple (up to 14 d) oral doses. Delayed spermiation and altered resorption of residual bodies were observed in rats given sin...

  13. Plant fatty acid hydroxylase

    DOEpatents

    Somerville, Chris; van de Loo, Frank

    2000-01-01

    The present invention relates to the identification of nucleic acid sequences and constructs, and methods related thereto, and the use of these sequences and constructs to produce genetically modified plants for the purpose of altering the composition of plant oils, waxes and related compounds.

  14. Alkyl phosphonic acids and sulfonic acids in the Murchison meteorite

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cooper, George W.; Onwo, Wilfred M.; Cronin, John R.

    1992-01-01

    Homologous series of alkyl phosphonic acids and alkyl sulfonic acids, along with inorganic orthophosphate and sulfate, are identified in water extracts of the Murchison meteorite after conversion to their t-butyl dimethylsilyl derivatives. The methyl, ethyl, propyl, and butyl compounds are observed in both series. Five of the eight possible alkyl phosphonic acids and seven of the eight possible alkyl sulfonic acids through C4 are identified. Abundances decrease with increasing carbon number as observed of other homologous series indigenous to Murchison. Concentrations range downward from approximately 380 nmol/gram in the alkyl sulfonic acid series, and from 9 nmol/gram in the alkyl phosphonic acid series.

  15. A Direct, Biomass-Based Synthesis of Benzoic Acid: Formic Acid-Mediated Deoxygenation of the Glucose-Derived Materials Quinic Acid and Shikimic Acid

    SciTech Connect

    Arceo, Elena; Ellman, Jonathan; Bergman, Robert

    2010-05-03

    An alternative biomass-based route to benzoic acid from the renewable starting materials quinic acid and shikimic acid is described. Benzoic acid is obtained selectively using a highly efficient, one-step formic acid-mediated deoxygenation method.

  16. 49 CFR 173.158 - Nitric acid.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... material. (b) Nitric acid in any concentration which does not contain sulfuric acid or hydrochloric acid as... sulfuric acid or hydrochloric acid as impurities, when offered for transportation or transported by...

  17. 49 CFR 173.158 - Nitric acid.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... material. (b) Nitric acid in any concentration which does not contain sulfuric acid or hydrochloric acid as... sulfuric acid or hydrochloric acid as impurities, when offered for transportation or transported by...

  18. 49 CFR 173.158 - Nitric acid.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... material. (b) Nitric acid in any concentration which does not contain sulfuric acid or hydrochloric acid as... sulfuric acid or hydrochloric acid as impurities, when offered for transportation or transported by...

  19. Synthesis of acid addition salt of delta-aminolevulinic acid from 5-bromo levulinic acid esters

    DOEpatents

    Moens, Luc

    2003-06-24

    A process of preparing an acid addition salt of delta-aminolevulinc acid comprising: a) dissolving a lower alkyl 5-bromolevulinate and hexamethylenetetramine in a solvent selected from the group consisting of water, ethyl acetate, chloroform, acetone, ethanol, tetrahydrofuran and acetonitrile, to form a quaternary ammonium salt of the lower alkyl 5-bromolevulinate; and b) hydrolyzing the quaternary ammonium salt with an inorganic acid to form an acid addition salt of delta-aminolevulinic acid.

  20. Photostabilization of ascorbic acid with citric acid, tartaric acid and boric acid in cream formulations.

    PubMed

    Ahmad, I; Ali Sheraz, M; Ahmed, S; Shad, Z; Vaid, F H M

    2012-06-01

    This study involves the evaluation of the effect of certain stabilizers, that is, citric acid (CT), tartaric acid (TA) and boric acid (BA) on the degradation of ascorbic acid (AH(2) ) in oil-in-water cream formulations exposed to the UV light and stored in the dark. The apparent first-order rate constants (0.34-0.95 × 10(-3) min(-1) in light, 0.38-1.24 × 10(-2) day(-1) in dark) for the degradation reactions in the presence of the stabilizers have been determined. These rate constants have been used to derive the second-order rate constants (0.26-1.45 × 10(-2) M(-1) min(-1) in light, 3.75-8.50 × 10(-3) M(-1) day(-1) in dark) for the interaction of AH(2) and the individual stabilizers. These stabilizers are effective in causing the inhibition of the rate of degradation of AH(2) both in the light and in the dark. The inhibitory effect of the stabilizers is in the order of CT > TA > BA. The rate of degradation of AH(2) in the presence of these stabilizers in the light is about 120 times higher than that in the dark. This could be explained on the basis of the deactivation of AH(2) -excited triplet state by CT and TA and by the inhibition of AH(2) degradation through complex formation with BA. AH(2) leads to the formation of dehydroascorbic acid (A) by chemical and photooxidation in cream formulations.

  1. Joint action of benzoxazinone derivatives and phenolic acids.

    PubMed

    Jia, Chunhong; Jia, Chunghong; Kudsk, Per; Mathiassen, Solvejg K

    2006-02-22

    The joint action of binary and ternary mixtures of benzoxazinone derivatives and phenolic acids was studied using the additive dose model (ADM) as reference model. The activity of fixed-ratio mixtures of phenolic acids [ferulic acid (FA), p-coumaric acid (CA), vanillic acid (VA), and p-hydroxybenzoic acid (HBA)] and benzoxazinone derivatives [2,4-dihydroxy-7-methoxy-1,4-benzoxazin-3-one (DIMBOA), 6-methoxybenzoxazolin-2-one (MBOA), benzoxazolin-2-one (BOA), 2-aminophenol (AP), and N-(2-hydroxyphenyl)acetamide (HPAA)] on Lolium perenne and Myosotis arvensis root growth was assessed in Petri dishes. Root length was recorded 6 days after seeding, and EC(50) and EC(90) values were estimated using nonlinear regression analyses. The benzoxazinone derivatives were found to be more phytotoxic than the phenolic acids, particularly on M. arvensis. Binary mixtures of phenolic acids responded predominantly additively on both plant species. Deviations from additivity were species-specific with antagonistic responses on L. perenne and synergistic responses on M. arvensis. Similarly, binary mixtures of benzoxazinone derivatives also followed the ADM, although synergistic responses were observed for BOA + AP and BOA + HPAA. Binary and ternary mixtures of benzoxazinone derivatives and phenolic acids responded primarily antagonistically; however, a significant synergistic performance was observed with DIMBOA + FA and DIMBOA + VA on L. perenne. These results do not support the assumption that allelopathic effects of wheat can be attributed to synergistic effects of otherwise weakly active allelopathic compounds, and it is suggested that future research be directed toward identifying and studying the effects of other potential allelochemicals including the degradation products of the most abundant wheat allelochemicals.

  2. Fatty acid-producing hosts

    DOEpatents

    Pfleger, Brian F; Lennen, Rebecca M

    2013-12-31

    Described are hosts for overproducing a fatty acid product such as a fatty acid. The hosts include an exogenous nucleic acid encoding a thioesterase and, optionally, an exogenous nucleic acid encoding an acetyl-CoA carboxylase, wherein an acyl-CoA synthetase in the hosts are functionally delected. The hosts prefereably include the nucleic acid encoding the thioesterase at an intermediate copy number. The hosts are preferably recominantly stable and growth-competent at 37.degree. C. Methods of producing a fatty acid product comprising culturing such hosts at 37.degree. C. are also described.

  3. Acid diffusion through polyaniline membranes

    SciTech Connect

    Su, T.M.; Huang, S.C.; Conklin, J.A.

    1995-12-01

    Polyaniline membranes in the undoped (base) and doped (acid) forms are studied for their utility as pervaporation membranes. The separation of water from mixtures of propionic acid, acetic acid and formic acid have been demonstrated from various feed compositions. Doped polyaniline displays an enhanced selectivity of water over these organic acids as compared with undoped polyaniline. For as-cast polyaniline membranes a diffusion coefficient (D) on the order of 10{sup -9} cm{sup 2}/sec has been determined for the flux of protons through the membranes using hydrochloric acid.

  4. Treatment of Bile Acid Amidation Defects with Glycocholic Acid

    PubMed Central

    Heubi, James E.; Setchell, Kenneth D.R.; Jha, Pinky; Buckley, Donna; Zhang, Wujuan; Rosenthal, Philip; Potter, Carol; Horslen, Simon; Suskind, David

    2014-01-01

    Bile acid amidation defects were predicted to present with fat/fat soluble vitamin malabsorption with minimal cholestasis. We identified and treated 5 patients (1 male/4 females) from 4 families with defective bile acid amidation due to a genetically confirmed deficiency in bile acid CoA:amino acid N-acyl transferase (BAAT) with the conjugated bile acid, glycocholic acid (GCA). Fast atom bombardment-mass spectrometry analysis of urine and bile at baseline revealed predominantly unconjugated cholic acid and absence of the usual glycine and taurine conjugated primary bile acids. Treatment with 15 mg/kg GCA resulted in total duodenal bile acid concentrations of 23.3 ± 19.1 mmol/L (mean ± SD) and 63.5 ± 4.0% of the bile acids were secreted in bile in the conjugated form of which GCA represented 59.6 ± 9.3% of the total biliary bile acids. Unconjugated cholic acid continued to be present in high concentrations in bile because of partial intestinal deconjugation of orally administered GCA. Serum total bile acid concentrations did not significantly differ between pretreatment and post-treatment samples and serum contained predominantly unconjugated cholic acid. These findings confirmed efficient intestinal absorption, hepatic extraction and biliary secretion of the administered GCA. Oral tolerance tests for vitamin D2 (1000 IU vitamin D2/kg) and tocopherol (100 IU/kg tocopherol acetate) demonstrated improvement in fat-soluble vitamin absorption after GCA treatment. Growth improved in 3/3 growth-delayed prepubertal patients. Conclusions: Oral glycocholic acid therapy is safe and effective in improving growth and fat-soluble vitamin absorption in children and adolescents with inborn errors of bile acid metabolism due to amidation defects. PMID:25163551

  5. [Lipid synthesis by an acidic acid tolerant Rhodotorula glutinis].

    PubMed

    Lin, Zhangnan; Liu, Hongjuan; Zhang, Jian'an; Wang, Gehua

    2016-03-01

    Acetic acid, as a main by-product generated in the pretreatment process of lignocellulose hydrolysis, significantly affects cell growth and lipid synthesis of oleaginous microorganisms. Therefore, we studied the tolerance of Rhodotorula glutinis to acetic acid and its lipid synthesis from substrate containing acetic acid. In the mixed sugar medium containing 6 g/L glucose and 44 g/L xylose, and supplemented with acetic acid, the cell growth was not:inhibited when the acetic acid concentration was below 10 g/L. Compared with the control, the biomass, lipid concentration and lipid content of R. glutinis increased 21.5%, 171% and 122% respectively when acetic acid concentration was 10 g/L. Furthermore, R. glutinis could accumulate lipid with acetate as the sole carbon source. Lipid concentration and lipid yield reached 3.20 g/L and 13% respectively with the initial acetic acid concentration of 25 g/L. The lipid composition was analyzed by gas chromatograph. The main composition of lipid produced with acetic acid was palmitic acid, stearic acid, oleic acid, linoleic acid and linolenic acid, including 40.9% saturated fatty acids and 59.1% unsaturated fatty acids. The lipid composition was similar to that of plant oil, indicating that lipid from oleaginous yeast R. glutinis had potential as the feedstock of biodiesel production. These results demonstrated that a certain concentration of acetic acid need not to be removed in the detoxification process when using lignocelluloses hydrolysate to produce microbial lipid by R. glutinis. PMID:27349116

  6. Graphene quantum dots as additives in capillary electrophoresis for separation cinnamic acid and its derivatives.

    PubMed

    Sun, Yaming; Bi, Qing; Zhang, Xiaoli; Wang, Litao; Zhang, Xia; Dong, Shuqing; Zhao, Liang

    2016-05-01

    A facile capillary electrophoresis (CE) method for the separation of cinnamic acid and its derivatives (3,4-dimethoxycinnamic acid, 4-methoxycinnamic acid, isoferulic acid, sinapic acid, cinnamic acid, ferulic acid, and trans-4-hydroxycinnamic acid) using graphene quantum dots (GQDs) as additives with direct ultraviolet (UV) detection is reported. GQDs were synthesized by chemical oxidization and further purified by a macroporous resin column to remove salts (Na2SO4 and NaNO3) and other impurities. Transmission electron microscopy (TEM) indicated that GQDs have a relatively uniform particle size (2.3 nm). Taking into account the structural features of GQDs, cinnamic acid and its derivatives were adopted as model compounds to investigate whether GQDs can be used to improve CE separations. The separation performance of GQDs used as additives in CE was studied through variations of pH, concentration of the background electrolyte (BGE), and contents of GQDs. The results indicated that excellent separation can be achieved in less than 18 min, which is mainly attributed to the interaction between the analytes and GQDs, especially isoferulic acid, sinapic acid, and cinnamic acid.

  7. NAPAP (National Acid Precipitation Assessment Program) results on acid rain

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1990-06-01

    The National Acid Precipitation Assessment Program (NAPAP) was mandated by Congress in 1980 to study the effects of acid rain. The results of 10 years of research on the effect of acid deposition and ozone on forests, particularly high elevation spruce and fir, southern pines, eastern hardwoods and western conifers, will be published this year.

  8. Acid Earth--The Global Threat of Acid Pollution.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McCormick, John

    Acid pollution is a major international problem, but the debate it has elicited has often clouded the distinction between myth and facts. This publication attempts to concerning the acid pollution situation. This publication attempts to identify available facts. It is the first global review of the problem of acid pollution and the first to…

  9. Usnic acid controls the acidity tolerance of lichens.

    PubMed

    Hauck, Markus; Jürgens, Sascha-René

    2008-11-01

    The hypotheses were tested that, firstly, lichens producing the dibenzofuran usnic acid colonize substrates characterized by specific pH ranges, secondly, this preferred pH is in a range where soluble usnic acid and its corresponding anion occur in similar concentrations, and thirdly, usnic acid makes lichens vulnerable to acidity. Lichens with usnic acid prefer an ambient pH range between 3.5 and 5.5 with an optimum between 4.0 and 4.5. This optimum is close to the pK(a1) value of usnic acid of 4.4. Below this optimum pH, dissolved SO(2) reduces the chlorophyll fluorescence yield more in lichens with than without their natural content of usnic acid. This suggests that usnic acid influences the acidity tolerance of lichens. The putative mechanism of the limited acidity tolerance of usnic acid-containing lichens is the acidification of the cytosol by molecules of protonated usnic acid shuttling protons through the plasma membrane at an apoplastic pH

  10. College Chemistry Students' Mental Models of Acids and Acid Strength

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McClary, LaKeisha; Talanquer, Vicente

    2011-01-01

    The central goal of this study was to characterize the mental models of acids and acid strength expressed by advanced college chemistry students when engaged in prediction, explanation, and justification tasks that asked them to rank chemical compounds based on their relative acid strength. For that purpose we completed a qualitative research…

  11. Catabolism of coffee chlorogenic acids by human colonic microbiota.

    PubMed

    Ludwig, Iziar A; Paz de Peña, Maria; Concepción, Cid; Alan, Crozier

    2013-01-01

    Several studies have indicated potential health benefits associated with coffee consumption. These benefits might be ascribed in part to the chlorogenic acids (CGAs), the main (poly)phenols in coffee. The impact of these dietary (poly)phenols on health depends on their bioavailability. As they pass along the gastrointestinal tract, CGAs are metabolized extensively and it is their metabolites rather than the parent compounds that predominate in the circulatory system. This article reports on a study in which after incubation of espresso coffee with human fecal samples, high-performance liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry (HPLC-MS) and gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS) were used to monitor CGA breakdown and identify and quantify the catabolites produced by the colonic microflora. The CGAs were rapidly degraded by the colonic microflora and over the 6-h incubation period, 11 catabolites were identified and quantified. The appearance of the initial degradation products, caffeic and ferulic acids, was transient, with maximum quantities at 1 h. Dihydrocaffeic acid, dihydroferulic acid, and 3-(3'-hydroxyphenyl)propionic acid were the major end products, comprising 75-83% of the total catabolites, whereas the remaining 17-25% consisted of six minor catabolites. The rate and extent of the degradation showed a clear influence of the composition of the gut microbiota of individual volunteers. Pathways involved in colonic catabolism of CGAs are proposed and comparison with studies on the bioavailability of coffee CGAs ingested by humans helped distinguish between colonic catabolites and phase II metabolites of CGAs.

  12. Changes in antioxidant activity and phenolic acid composition of tarhana with steel-cut oats.

    PubMed

    Kilci, A; Gocmen, D

    2014-02-15

    Steel-cut oats (SCO) was used to replace wheat flour in the tarhana formulation (control) at the levels of 10%, 20%, 30% and 40% (w/w). Control sample included no SCO. Substitution of wheat flour in tarhana formulation with SCO affected the mineral contents positively. SCO additions also increased phenolic acid contents of tarhana samples. The most abundant phenolic acids were ferulic and vanillic acids, followed by syringic acid in the samples with SCO. Tarhana samples with SCO also showed higher antioxidant activities than the control. Compared with the control, the total phenolic content increased when the level of SCO addition was increased. SCO addition did not have a deteriorative effect on sensory properties of tarhana samples and resulted in acceptable soup properties in terms of overall acceptability. SCO addition improved the nutritional and functional properties of tarhana by causing increases in antioxidant activity, phenolic content and phenolic acids.

  13. Acid hydrolysis of cellulose

    SciTech Connect

    Salazar, H.

    1980-12-01

    One of the alternatives to increase world production of etha nol is by the hydrolysis of cellulose content of agricultural residues. Studies have been made on the types of hydrolysis: enzimatic and acid. Data obtained from the sulphuric acid hydrolysis of cellulose showed that this process proceed in two steps, with a yield of approximately 95% glucose. Because of increases in cost of alternatives resources, the high demand of the product and the more economic production of ethanol from cellulose materials, it is certain that this technology will be implemented in the future. At the same time further studies on the disposal and reuse of the by-products of this production must be undertaken.

  14. [Progress in glucaric acid].

    PubMed

    Qiu, Yuying; Fang, Fang; Du, Guocheng; Chen, Jian

    2015-04-01

    Glucaric acid (GA) is derived from glucose and commonly used in chemical industry. It is also considered as one of the "Top value-added chemicals from biomass" as carbohydrate monomers to produce various synthetic polymers and bioenergy. The demand for GA in food manufacture is increasing. GA has also attracted public attentions due to its therapeutic uses such as regulating hormones, increasing the immune function and reducing the risks of cancers. Currently GA is produced by chemical oxidation. Research on production of GA via microbial synthesis is still at preliminary stage. We reviewed the advances of glucaric acid applications, preparation and quantification methods. The prospects on production of GA by microbial fermentation were also discussed. PMID:26380405

  15. Eucomic acid methanol monosolvate

    PubMed Central

    Li, Guo-Qiang; Li, Yao-Lan; Wang, Guo-Cai; Liang, Zhi-Hong; Jiang, Ren-Wang

    2011-01-01

    In the crystal structure of the title compound [systematic name: 2-hy­droxy-2-(4-hy­droxy­benz­yl)butane­dioic acid methanol monosolvate], C11H12O6·CH3OH, the dihedral angles between the planes of the carboxyl groups and the benzene ring are 51.23 (9) and 87.97 (9)°. Inter­molecular O—H⋯O hydrogen-bonding inter­actions involving the hy­droxy and carb­oxy­lic acid groups and the methanol solvent mol­ecule give a three-dimensional structure. PMID:22091200

  16. Industrial ecotoxicology "acid rain".

    PubMed

    Astolfi, E; Gotelli, C; Higa, J

    1986-01-01

    The acid rain phenomenon was studied in the province of Cordoba, Argentina. This study, based on a previously outlined framework, determined the anthropogenic origin of the low pH due to the presence of industrial hydrochloric acid wastage. This industrial ecotoxicological phenomenon seriously affected the forest wealth, causing a great defoliation of trees and shrubs, with a lower effect on crops. A survey on its effects on human beings has not been carried out, but considering the corrosion caused to different metals and its denouncing biocide effect on plants and animals, we should expect to find some kind of harm to the health of the workers involved or others engaged in farming, and even to those who are far away from the polluting agent. PMID:3758667

  17. Industrial ecotoxicology "acid rain".

    PubMed

    Astolfi, E; Gotelli, C; Higa, J

    1986-01-01

    The acid rain phenomenon was studied in the province of Cordoba, Argentina. This study, based on a previously outlined framework, determined the anthropogenic origin of the low pH due to the presence of industrial hydrochloric acid wastage. This industrial ecotoxicological phenomenon seriously affected the forest wealth, causing a great defoliation of trees and shrubs, with a lower effect on crops. A survey on its effects on human beings has not been carried out, but considering the corrosion caused to different metals and its denouncing biocide effect on plants and animals, we should expect to find some kind of harm to the health of the workers involved or others engaged in farming, and even to those who are far away from the polluting agent.

  18. (Radioiodinated free fatty acids)

    SciTech Connect

    Knapp, Jr., F. F.

    1987-12-11

    The traveler participated in the Second International Workshop on Radioiodinated Free Fatty Acids in Amsterdam, The Netherlands where he presented an invited paper describing the pioneering work at the Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) involving the design, development and testing of new radioiodinated methyl-branched fatty acids for evaluation of heart disease. He also chaired a technical session on the testing of new agents in various in vitro and in vivo systems. He also visited the Institute for Clinical and Experimental Nuclear Medicine in Bonn, West Germany, to review, discuss, plan and coordinate collaborative investigations with that institution. In addition, he visited the Cyclotron Research Center in Liege, Belgium, to discuss continuing collaborative studies with the Osmium-191/Iridium-191m radionuclide generator system, and to complete manuscripts and plan future studies.

  19. Immunomodulatory spherical nucleic acids.

    PubMed

    Radovic-Moreno, Aleksandar F; Chernyak, Natalia; Mader, Christopher C; Nallagatla, Subbarao; Kang, Richard S; Hao, Liangliang; Walker, David A; Halo, Tiffany L; Merkel, Timothy J; Rische, Clayton H; Anantatmula, Sagar; Burkhart, Merideth; Mirkin, Chad A; Gryaznov, Sergei M

    2015-03-31

    Immunomodulatory nucleic acids have extraordinary promise for treating disease, yet clinical progress has been limited by a lack of tools to safely increase activity in patients. Immunomodulatory nucleic acids act by agonizing or antagonizing endosomal toll-like receptors (TLR3, TLR7/8, and TLR9), proteins involved in innate immune signaling. Immunomodulatory spherical nucleic acids (SNAs) that stimulate (immunostimulatory, IS-SNA) or regulate (immunoregulatory, IR-SNA) immunity by engaging TLRs have been designed, synthesized, and characterized. Compared with free oligonucleotides, IS-SNAs exhibit up to 80-fold increases in potency, 700-fold higher antibody titers, 400-fold higher cellular responses to a model antigen, and improved treatment of mice with lymphomas. IR-SNAs exhibit up to eightfold increases in potency and 30% greater reduction in fibrosis score in mice with nonalcoholic steatohepatitis (NASH). Given the clinical potential of SNAs due to their potency, defined chemical nature, and good tolerability, SNAs are attractive new modalities for developing immunotherapies.

  20. Acid rain in Asia

    SciTech Connect

    Bhatti, N.; Streets, D.G. ); Foell, W.K. )

    1991-01-01

    Acid rain has been an issue of widespread concern in North America and Europe for more than fifteen years. However, there is an emerging feeling that the problem in Europe and North America is nearing solution, largely as a result of existing and newly enacted legislation, decreased energy use due to conservation and efficiency improvements, and/or trends in energy policy away from fossil fuels. The situation in Asia appears much bleaker. Fossil fuels are already used in large quantities, such that local air pollution is becoming a serious problem and high deposition levels are being measured. Emission regulations in most countries (with the notable exception of Japan) are not very stringent. Energy plans in many countries (particularly PRC, India, Thailand, and South Korea) call for very large increases in coal combustion in the future. Finally, there is not presently a strong scientific or public constituency for action to mitigate the potential effects of acid deposition. These factors imply potentially serious problems in the future for long-range transport and deposition of sulfur and nitrogen species and consequent damage to ecosystems and materials. The political ramifications of transboundary environmental pollution in this region are also potentially serious. The purpose of this paper is to provide background information on the acid deposition situation in Asia, with the intention of laying the foundation for the development of a possible research program for this region. 36 refs., 8 figs., 8 tabs.

  1. Immunomodulatory spherical nucleic acids

    PubMed Central

    Radovic-Moreno, Aleksandar F.; Chernyak, Natalia; Mader, Christopher C.; Nallagatla, Subbarao; Kang, Richard S.; Hao, Liangliang; Walker, David A.; Halo, Tiffany L.; Merkel, Timothy J.; Rische, Clayton H.; Anantatmula, Sagar; Burkhart, Merideth; Mirkin, Chad A.; Gryaznov, Sergei M.

    2015-01-01

    Immunomodulatory nucleic acids have extraordinary promise for treating disease, yet clinical progress has been limited by a lack of tools to safely increase activity in patients. Immunomodulatory nucleic acids act by agonizing or antagonizing endosomal toll-like receptors (TLR3, TLR7/8, and TLR9), proteins involved in innate immune signaling. Immunomodulatory spherical nucleic acids (SNAs) that stimulate (immunostimulatory, IS-SNA) or regulate (immunoregulatory, IR-SNA) immunity by engaging TLRs have been designed, synthesized, and characterized. Compared with free oligonucleotides, IS-SNAs exhibit up to 80-fold increases in potency, 700-fold higher antibody titers, 400-fold higher cellular responses to a model antigen, and improved treatment of mice with lymphomas. IR-SNAs exhibit up to eightfold increases in potency and 30% greater reduction in fibrosis score in mice with nonalcoholic steatohepatitis (NASH). Given the clinical potential of SNAs due to their potency, defined chemical nature, and good tolerability, SNAs are attractive new modalities for developing immunotherapies. PMID:25775582

  2. Perfluorooctanoic acid and environmental risks

    EPA Science Inventory

    Perfluorooctanoic acid (PFOA) is a member of the perfluoroalkyl acids (PFAA) family of chemicals, which consist of a carbon backbone typically four to fourteen carbons in length and a charged functional moiety.

  3. Folic Acid Questions and Answers

    MedlinePlus

    ... swallow large pills. How can I take a vitamin with folic acid? A : These days, multivitamins with folic acid come in chewable chocolate or fruit flavors, liquids, and large oval or smaller round ...

  4. Omega-3 fatty acids (image)

    MedlinePlus

    Omega-3 fatty acids are a form of polyunsaturated fat that the body derives from food. Omega-3s (and omega-6s) are known as essential fatty acids (EFAs) because they are important for good health. ...

  5. Identification of 8-O-4/8-5(Cyclic)- and 8-8(Cyclic)/5-5-Coupled Dehydrotriferulic Acids, Naturally Occurring in Cell Walls of Mono- and Dicotyledonous Plants.

    PubMed

    Waterstraat, Martin; Bunzel, Diana; Bunzel, Mirko

    2016-09-28

    Besides ferulate dimers, higher oligomers of ferulic acid such as trimers and tetramers were previously demonstrated to occur in plant cell walls. This paper reports the identification of two new triferulic acids. 8-O-4/8-5(cyclic)-triferulic acid was synthesized from ethyl ferulate under oxidative conditions using copper(II)-tetramethylethylenediamine [CuCl(OH)-TMEDA] as a catalyst, whereas 8-8(cyclic)/5-5-triferulic acid was isolated (preparative size exclusion chromatography, reversed-phase HPLC) from saponified insoluble maize fiber. Structures of both trimers were unambiguously elucidated by high-resolution LC-ToF-MS/MS and one- ((1)H) and two-dimensional (HSQC, HMBC, COSY, NOESY) NMR spectroscopy. The newly described trimers were identified by LC-MS/MS in alkaline hydrolysates of insoluble fibers from maize, wheat, and sugar beet, indicating that ferulic acid cross-links between cell wall polymers are more diverse than previously recognized. Saponification experiments also suggest that the newly identified 8-O-4/8-5(cyclic)-triferulic acid is the naturally occurring precursor of the previously identified 8-O-4/8-5(noncyclic)-triferulic acid in plant cell walls.

  6. Identification of 8-O-4/8-5(Cyclic)- and 8-8(Cyclic)/5-5-Coupled Dehydrotriferulic Acids, Naturally Occurring in Cell Walls of Mono- and Dicotyledonous Plants.

    PubMed

    Waterstraat, Martin; Bunzel, Diana; Bunzel, Mirko

    2016-09-28

    Besides ferulate dimers, higher oligomers of ferulic acid such as trimers and tetramers were previously demonstrated to occur in plant cell walls. This paper reports the identification of two new triferulic acids. 8-O-4/8-5(cyclic)-triferulic acid was synthesized from ethyl ferulate under oxidative conditions using copper(II)-tetramethylethylenediamine [CuCl(OH)-TMEDA] as a catalyst, whereas 8-8(cyclic)/5-5-triferulic acid was isolated (preparative size exclusion chromatography, reversed-phase HPLC) from saponified insoluble maize fiber. Structures of both trimers were unambiguously elucidated by high-resolution LC-ToF-MS/MS and one- ((1)H) and two-dimensional (HSQC, HMBC, COSY, NOESY) NMR spectroscopy. The newly described trimers were identified by LC-MS/MS in alkaline hydrolysates of insoluble fibers from maize, wheat, and sugar beet, indicating that ferulic acid cross-links between cell wall polymers are more diverse than previously recognized. Saponification experiments also suggest that the newly identified 8-O-4/8-5(cyclic)-triferulic acid is the naturally occurring precursor of the previously identified 8-O-4/8-5(noncyclic)-triferulic acid in plant cell walls. PMID:27540862

  7. Acid rain: Reign of controversy

    SciTech Connect

    Kahan, A.M.

    1986-01-01

    Acid Rain is a primer on the science and politics of acid rain. Several introductory chapters describe in simple terms the relevant principles of water chemistry, soil chemistry, and plant physiology and discuss the demonstrated or postulated effects of acid rain on fresh waters and forests as well as on statuary and other exposed objects. There follow discussions on the economic and social implications of acid rain (for example, possible health effects) and on the sources, transport, and distribution of air pollutants.

  8. Sedimentation of sulfuric acid in acid tars from current production

    SciTech Connect

    Denisova, T.L.; Frolov, A.F.; Aminov, A.N.; Novosel'tsev, S.P.

    1987-09-01

    Acid tars obtained in treating T-750, KhF-12, and I-8A oils were investigated for purposes of recovering sulfuric acid and asphalt binders from the compositions and of determining the effects of storage time on the recovery. The consumption and sedimentation levels of sulfuric acid during storage for different periods and at different temperatures were assessed. The characteristics of an asphalt binder obtained by neutralizing acid tar with a paste consisting of asphalts from deasphalting operations and slaked lime, followed by oxidation of the mixture with atmospheric air, were determined. The sulfuric acid recovered in the settling process could be burned in order to purify it of organic contaminants.

  9. Sequential injection redox or acid-base titration for determination of ascorbic acid or acetic acid.

    PubMed

    Lenghor, Narong; Jakmunee, Jaroon; Vilen, Michael; Sara, Rolf; Christian, Gary D; Grudpan, Kate

    2002-12-01

    Two sequential injection titration systems with spectrophotometric detection have been developed. The first system for determination of ascorbic acid was based on redox reaction between ascorbic acid and permanganate in an acidic medium and lead to a decrease in color intensity of permanganate, monitored at 525 nm. A linear dependence of peak area obtained with ascorbic acid concentration up to 1200 mg l(-1) was achieved. The relative standard deviation for 11 replicate determinations of 400 mg l(-1) ascorbic acid was 2.9%. The second system, for acetic acid determination, was based on acid-base titration of acetic acid with sodium hydroxide using phenolphthalein as an indicator. The decrease in color intensity of the indicator was proportional to the acid content. A linear calibration graph in the range of 2-8% w v(-1) of acetic acid with a relative standard deviation of 4.8% (5.0% w v(-1) acetic acid, n=11) was obtained. Sample throughputs of 60 h(-1) were achieved for both systems. The systems were successfully applied for the assays of ascorbic acid in vitamin C tablets and acetic acid content in vinegars, respectively.

  10. Nervonic acid and demyelinating disease.

    PubMed

    Sargent, J R; Coupland, K; Wilson, R

    1994-04-01

    Demyelination in adrenoleukodystrophy (ALD) is associated with an accumulation of very long chain saturated fatty acids such as 26:0 stemming from a genetic defect in the peroxisomal beta oxidation system responsible for the chain shortening of these fatty acids. Long chain monoenoic acids such as erucic acid, 22:1(n-9), can normalise elevated serum levels of 26:0 in ALD by depressing their biosynthesis from shorter chain saturated fatty acids. Sphingolipids from post mortem ALD brain have decreased levels of nervonic acid, 24:1(n-9), and increased levels of stearic acid, 18:0. Increased levels of 26:0 are accompanied by decreased nervonic acid biosynthesis in skin fibroblasts from ALD patients. Sphingolipids from post mortem MS brain have the same decreased 24:1(n-9) and increased 18:0 seen in post mortem ALD brain. The 24:1(n-9) content of sphingomyelin is depressed in erythrocytes from multiple sclerosis (MS) patients. Defects in the microsomal biosynthesis of very long chain fatty acids including 24:1(n-9) in 'jumpy' and 'quaking' mice are accompanied by impaired myelination. An impairment in the provision of nervonic acid in demyelinating diseases is indicated, suggesting that dietary therapy with oils rich in very long chain monenoic acid fatty acids may be beneficial in such conditions.

  11. Pantothenic acid biosynthesis in zymomonas

    SciTech Connect

    Tao, Luan; Tomb, Jean-Francois; Viitanen, Paul V.

    2014-07-01

    Zymomonas is unable to synthesize pantothenic acid and requires this essential vitamin in growth medium. Zymomonas strains transformed with an operon for expression of 2-dehydropantoate reductase and aspartate 1-decarboxylase were able to grow in medium lacking pantothenic acid. These strains may be used for ethanol production without pantothenic acid supplementation in seed culture and fermentation media.

  12. An Umbrella for Acid Rain.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Randal, Judith

    1979-01-01

    The Environmental Protection Agency has awarded several grants to study effects of and possible solutions to the problem of "acid rain"; pollution from atmospheric nitric and sulfuric acids. The research program is administered through North Carolina State University at Raleigh and will focus on biological effects of acid rain. (JMF)

  13. Carboxylic acid sorption regeneration process

    DOEpatents

    King, C.J.; Poole, L.J.

    1995-05-02

    Carboxylic acids are sorbed from aqueous feedstocks into an organic liquid phase or onto a solid adsorbent. The acids are freed from the sorbent phase by treating it with aqueous alkylamine thus forming an alkylammonium carboxylate which is dewatered and decomposed to the desired carboxylic acid and the alkylamine. 10 figs.

  14. Carboxylic acid sorption regeneration process

    DOEpatents

    King, C. Judson; Poole, Loree J.

    1995-01-01

    Carboxylic acids are sorbed from aqueous feedstocks into an organic liquid phase or onto a solid adsorbent. The acids are freed from the sorbent phase by treating it with aqueous alkylamine thus forming an alkylammonium carboxylate which is dewatered and decomposed to the desired carboxylic acid and the alkylamine.

  15. Heterogeneous uptake of amines by citric acid and humic acid.

    PubMed

    Liu, Yongchun; Ma, Qingxin; He, Hong

    2012-10-16

    Heterogeneous uptake of methylamine (MA), dimethylamine (DMA), and trimethylamine (TMA) onto citric acid and humic acid was investigated using a Knudsen cell reactor coupled to a quadrupole mass spectrometer at 298 K. Acid-base reactions between amines and carboxylic acids were confirmed. The observed uptake coefficients of MA, DMA, and TMA on citric acid at 298 K were measured to be 7.31 ± 1.13 × 10(-3), 6.65 ± 0.49 × 10(-3), and 5.82 ± 0.68 × 10(-3), respectively, and showed independence of sample mass. The observed uptake coefficients of MA, DMA, and TMA on humic acid at 298 K increased linearly with sample mass, and the true uptake coefficients of MA, DMA, and TMA were measured to be 1.26 ± 0.07 × 10(-5), 7.33 ± 0.40 × 10(-6), and 4.75 ± 0.15 × 10(-6), respectively. Citric acid, having stronger acidity, showed a higher reactivity than humic acid for a given amine; while the steric effect of amines was found to govern the reactivity between amines and citric acid or humic acid.

  16. RP-HPLC analysis of phenolic acids of selected Central European Carex L. (Cyperaceae) species and its implication for taxonomy.

    PubMed

    Bogucka-Kocka, Anna; Szewczyk, Katarzyna; Janyszek, Magdalena; Janyszek, Sławomir; Cieśla, Łukasz

    2011-01-01

    Eighteen species belonging to the Carex genus were checked for the presence and the amount of eight phenolic acids (p-hydroxybenzoic, vanillic, caffeic, syringic, protocatechuic, p-coumaric, sinapic, and ferulic) by means of HPLC. Both the free and bonded phenolic acids were analyzed. The majority of the analyzed acids occurred in the studied species in relatively high amounts. The highest concentrations found were caffeic acid and p-coumaric acid, for which the detected levels were negatively correlated. A very interesting feature was the occurrence of sinapic acid, a compound very rarely detected in plant tissues. Its distribution across the analyzed set of species can be hypothetically connected with the humidity of plants' habitats. Several attempted tests of aggregative cluster analysis showed no similarity to the real taxonomical structure of the genus Carex. Thus, the phenolic acids' composition cannot be considered as the major taxonomical feature for the genus Carex.

  17. Absorption and metabolism of chlorogenic acids in cultured gastric epithelial monolayers.

    PubMed

    Farrell, Tracy L; Dew, Tristan P; Poquet, Laure; Hanson, Peter; Williamson, Gary

    2011-12-01

    Gastric absorption of feruloylquinic acid and di-O-caffeoylquinic acid analogs has never been investigated despite their potential contribution to the proposed beneficial health effects leading to reduced risk of type 2 diabetes. Using a cultured gastric epithelial model, with an acidic apical pH, the relative permeability coefficients (P(app)) and metabolic fate of a series of chlorogenic acids (CGAs) were investigated. Mechanistic studies were performed in the apical to basal direction and demonstrated differential rates of absorption for different CGA subgroups. For the first time, we show intact absorption of feruloylquinic acids and caffeoylquinic acid lactones across the gastric epithelium (P(app) ∼ 0.2 cm/s). Transport seemed to be mainly by passive diffusion, because good linearity was observed over the incubation period and test concentrations, and we speculate that a potential carrier-mediated component may be involved in uptake of certain 4-acyl CGA isomers. In contrast, absorption of intact di-O-caffeoylquinic acids was rapid (P(app) ∼ 2-10 cm/s) but nonlinear with respect to time and concentration dependence, which was potentially limited by interaction with an efflux transporter and/or pH gradient dependence. For the first time, methylation is shown in gastric mucosa. Furthermore, isoferulic acid, dimethoxycinnamic acid, and ferulic acid were identified as novel gastric metabolites of CGA biotransformation. We propose that the stomach is the first location for the release of hydroxycinnamic acids, which could explain their early detection after coffee consumption.

  18. Composition for nucleic acid sequencing

    SciTech Connect

    Korlach, Jonas; Webb, Watt W.; Levene, Michael; Turner, Stephen; Craighead, Harold G.; Foquet, Mathieu

    2008-08-26

    The present invention is directed to a method of sequencing a target nucleic acid molecule having a plurality of bases. In its principle, the temporal order of base additions during the polymerization reaction is measured on a molecule of nucleic acid, i.e. the activity of a nucleic acid polymerizing enzyme on the template nucleic acid molecule to be sequenced is followed in real time. The sequence is deduced by identifying which base is being incorporated into the growing complementary strand of the target nucleic acid by the catalytic activity of the nucleic acid polymerizing enzyme at each step in the sequence of base additions. A polymerase on the target nucleic acid molecule complex is provided in a position suitable to move along the target nucleic acid molecule and extend the oligonucleotide primer at an active site. A plurality of labelled types of nucleotide analogs are provided proximate to the active site, with each distinguishable type of nucleotide analog being complementary to a different nucleotide in the target nucleic acid sequence. The growing nucleic acid strand is extended by using the polymerase to add a nucleotide analog to the nucleic acid strand at the active site, where the nucleotide analog being added is complementary to the nucleotide of the target nucleic acid at the active site. The nucleotide analog added to the oligonucleotide primer as a result of the polymerizing step is identified. The steps of providing labelled nucleotide analogs, polymerizing the growing nucleic acid strand, and identifying the added nucleotide analog are repeated so that the nucleic acid strand is further extended and the sequence of the target nucleic acid is determined.

  19. Evolution of rosmarinic acid biosynthesis.

    PubMed

    Petersen, Maike; Abdullah, Yana; Benner, Johannes; Eberle, David; Gehlen, Katja; Hücherig, Stephanie; Janiak, Verena; Kim, Kyung Hee; Sander, Marion; Weitzel, Corinna; Wolters, Stefan

    2009-01-01

    Rosmarinic acid and chlorogenic acid are caffeic acid esters widely found in the plant kingdom and presumably accumulated as defense compounds. In a survey, more than 240 plant species have been screened for the presence of rosmarinic and chlorogenic acids. Several rosmarinic acid-containing species have been detected. The rosmarinic acid accumulation in species of the Marantaceae has not been known before. Rosmarinic acid is found in hornworts, in the fern family Blechnaceae and in species of several orders of mono- and dicotyledonous angiosperms. The biosyntheses of caffeoylshikimate, chlorogenic acid and rosmarinic acid use 4-coumaroyl-CoA from the general phenylpropanoid pathway as hydroxycinnamoyl donor. The hydroxycinnamoyl acceptor substrate comes from the shikimate pathway: shikimic acid, quinic acid and hydroxyphenyllactic acid derived from l-tyrosine. Similar steps are involved in the biosyntheses of rosmarinic, chlorogenic and caffeoylshikimic acids: the transfer of the 4-coumaroyl moiety to an acceptor molecule by a hydroxycinnamoyltransferase from the BAHD acyltransferase family and the meta-hydroxylation of the 4-coumaroyl moiety in the ester by a cytochrome P450 monooxygenase from the CYP98A family. The hydroxycinnamoyltransferases as well as the meta-hydroxylases show high sequence similarities and thus seem to be closely related. The hydroxycinnamoyltransferase and CYP98A14 from Coleus blumei (Lamiaceae) are nevertheless specific for substrates involved in RA biosynthesis showing an evolutionary diversification in phenolic ester metabolism. Our current view is that only a few enzymes had to be "invented" for rosmarinic acid biosynthesis probably on the basis of genes needed for the formation of chlorogenic and caffeoylshikimic acid while further biosynthetic steps might have been recruited from phenylpropanoid metabolism, tocopherol/plastoquinone biosynthesis and photorespiration. PMID:19560175

  20. Evolution of rosmarinic acid biosynthesis.

    PubMed

    Petersen, Maike; Abdullah, Yana; Benner, Johannes; Eberle, David; Gehlen, Katja; Hücherig, Stephanie; Janiak, Verena; Kim, Kyung Hee; Sander, Marion; Weitzel, Corinna; Wolters, Stefan

    2009-01-01

    Rosmarinic acid and chlorogenic acid are caffeic acid esters widely found in the plant kingdom and presumably accumulated as defense compounds. In a survey, more than 240 plant species have been screened for the presence of rosmarinic and chlorogenic acids. Several rosmarinic acid-containing species have been detected. The rosmarinic acid accumulation in species of the Marantaceae has not been known before. Rosmarinic acid is found in hornworts, in the fern family Blechnaceae and in species of several orders of mono- and dicotyledonous angiosperms. The biosyntheses of caffeoylshikimate, chlorogenic acid and rosmarinic acid use 4-coumaroyl-CoA from the general phenylpropanoid pathway as hydroxycinnamoyl donor. The hydroxycinnamoyl acceptor substrate comes from the shikimate pathway: shikimic acid, quinic acid and hydroxyphenyllactic acid derived from l-tyrosine. Similar steps are involved in the biosyntheses of rosmarinic, chlorogenic and caffeoylshikimic acids: the transfer of the 4-coumaroyl moiety to an acceptor molecule by a hydroxycinnamoyltransferase from the BAHD acyltransferase family and the meta-hydroxylation of the 4-coumaroyl moiety in the ester by a cytochrome P450 monooxygenase from the CYP98A family. The hydroxycinnamoyltransferases as well as the meta-hydroxylases show high sequence similarities and thus seem to be closely related. The hydroxycinnamoyltransferase and CYP98A14 from Coleus blumei (Lamiaceae) are nevertheless specific for substrates involved in RA biosynthesis showing an evolutionary diversification in phenolic ester metabolism. Our current view is that only a few enzymes had to be "invented" for rosmarinic acid biosynthesis probably on the basis of genes needed for the formation of chlorogenic and caffeoylshikimic acid while further biosynthetic steps might have been recruited from phenylpropanoid metabolism, tocopherol/plastoquinone biosynthesis and photorespiration.

  1. Microbial transformations of isocupressic acid.

    PubMed

    Lin, S J; Rosazza, J P

    1998-07-01

    Microbial transformations of the labdane-diterpene isocupressic acid (1) with different microorganisms yielded several oxygenated metabolites that were isolated and characterized by MS and NMR spectroscopic analyses. Nocardia aurantia (ATCC 12674) catalyzed the cleavage of the 13,14-double bond to yield a new nor-labdane metabolite, 2. Cunninghamella elegans (-) (NRRL 1393) gave 7beta-hydroxyisocupressic acid (3) and labda-7,13(E)-diene-6beta,15, 17-triol-19-oic acid (4), and Mucor mucedo (ATCC 20094) gave 2alpha-hydroxyisocupressic acid (5) and labda-8(17),14-diene-2alpha, 13-diol-19-oic acid (6).

  2. Invasive cleavage of nucleic acids

    DOEpatents

    Prudent, James R.; Hall, Jeff G.; Lyamichev, Victor I.; Brow, Mary Ann D.; Dahlberg, James E.

    2002-01-01

    The present invention relates to means for the detection and characterization of nucleic acid sequences, as well as variations in nucleic acid sequences. The present invention also relates to methods for forming a nucleic acid cleavage structure on a target sequence and cleaving the nucleic acid cleavage structure in a site-specific manner. The structure-specific nuclease activity of a variety of enzymes is used to cleave the target-dependent cleavage structure, thereby indicating the presence of specific nucleic acid sequences or specific variations thereof.

  3. Invasive cleavage of nucleic acids

    DOEpatents

    Prudent, James R.; Hall, Jeff G.; Lyamichev, Victor I.; Brow, Mary Ann D.; Dahlberg, James E.

    1999-01-01

    The present invention relates to means for the detection and characterization of nucleic acid sequences, as well as variations in nucleic acid sequences. The present invention also relates to methods for forming a nucleic acid cleavage structure on a target sequence and cleaving the nucleic acid cleavage structure in a site-specific manner. The structure-specific nuclease activity of a variety of enzymes is used to cleave the target-dependent cleavage structure, thereby indicating the presence of specific nucleic acid sequences or specific variations thereof.

  4. The politics of acid rain

    SciTech Connect

    Wilcher, M.E. )

    1989-01-01

    This work examines and compares the acid rain policies through the different political systems of Canada, Great Britain and the United States. Because the flow of acid rain can transcend national boundaries, acid rain has become a crucial international problem. According to the author, because of differences in governmental institutions and structure, the extent of governmental intervention in the industrial economy, the degree of reliance on coal for power generation, and the extent of acid rain damage, national responses to the acid rain problem have varied.

  5. [A catalogue of fatty acids].

    PubMed

    Canalejo, E; Martín Peña, G; Gómez Molero, L; Ruiz Galiana, J

    1996-01-01

    Fatty acids structure and function is an area of renewed interest because of its effects on plasma lipids, biosynthesis of prostaglandins, leucotrienes and thromboxanes, and the obligatory demands of some fatty acids, especially for the newborn. Fatty acids are identified in three different ways: by the classical nomenclature, by its trivial name, and by the new methods also known as the omega system. These three different methods have created some confusion. The aim of this article is to revise fatty acids chemical structure and to compile a list of nutritional important fatty acids with the three different terminologies.

  6. Tested Demonstrations: Color Oscillations in the Formic Acid-Nitric Acid-Sulfuric Acid System.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Raw, C. J. G.; And Others

    1983-01-01

    Presented are procedures for demonstrating the production of color oscillations when nitric acid is added to a formic acid/concentrated sulfuric acid mixture. Because of safety considerations, "Super-8" home movie of the color changes was found to be satisfactory for demonstration purposes. (JN)

  7. Twinning of dodecanedicarboxylic acid

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sen, R.; Wilcox, W. R.

    1986-01-01

    Twinning of 1,10-dodecanedicarboxyl acid (DDA) was observed in 0.1 mm thick films with a polarizing microscope. Twins originated from polycrystalline regions which tended to nucleate on twin faces, and terminated by intersection gone another. Twinning increased dramatically with addition of organic compounds with a similar molecular size and shape. Increasing the freezing rate, increasing the temperature gradient, and addition of silica particles increased twinning. It is proposed that twins nucleate with polycrystals and sometimes anneal out before they become observable. The impurities may enhance twinning either by lowering the twin energy or by adsorbing on growing faces.

  8. Mycophenolic Acid in Silage

    PubMed Central

    Schneweis, Isabell; Meyer, Karsten; Hörmansdorfer, Stefan; Bauer, Johann

    2000-01-01

    We examined 233 silage samples and found that molds were present in 206 samples with counts between 1 × 103 and 8.9 × 107 (mean, 4.7 × 106) CFU/g. Mycophenolic acid, a metabolite of Penicillium roqueforti, was detected by liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry in 74 (32%) of these samples at levels ranging from 20 to 35,000 (mean, 1,400) μg/kg. This compound has well-known immunosuppressive properties, so feeding with contaminated silage may promote the development of infectious diseases in livestock. PMID:10919834

  9. Synthesis of amino acids

    DOEpatents

    Davis, J.W. Jr.

    1979-09-21

    A method is described for synthesizing amino acids preceding through novel intermediates of the formulas: R/sub 1/R/sub 2/C(OSOC1)CN, R/sub 1/R/sub 2/C(C1)CN and (R/sub 1/R/sub 2/C(CN)O)/sub 2/SO wherein R/sub 1/ and R/sub 2/ are each selected from hydrogen and monovalent hydrocarbon radicals of 1 to 10 carbon atoms. The use of these intermediates allows the synthesis steps to be exothermic and results in an overall synthesis method which is faster than the synthesis methods of the prior art.

  10. Beyond acid rain

    SciTech Connect

    Gaffney, J.S.; Streit, G.E.; Spall, W.D.; Hall, J.H.

    1987-06-01

    This paper discussed the effects of the interactions of soluble oxidants and organic toxins with sulfur dioxide and nitrogen dioxide. It suggested that these chemical reactions in the atmosphere produced a more potent acid rain which was harmful not only because it had a low pH but because it contained oxidants and organic toxins which were harmful to surface vegetation and the organisms found in surface waters. It was stressed that air pollution is a global problem and that is is necessary to develop a better fundamental understanding of how air pollution is causing damage to the streams and forests of the world. 50 references.

  11. Interstellar isothiocyanic acid

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Frerking, M. A.; Linke, R. A.; Thaddeus, P.

    1979-01-01

    Isothiocyanic acid (HNCS) has been identified in Sgr B2 from millimeter-wave spectral line observations. We have definitely detected three rotational lines, and have probably detected two others. The rotational temperature of HNCS in Sgr B2 is 14 plus or minus 5 K, its column density is 2.5 plus or minus 1.0 x 10 to the 13th per sq cm, and its abundance relative to HNCO is consistent with the cosmic S/O ratio, 1/42.

  12. 20-hydroxyeicosatetraenoic acid and epoxyeicosatrienoic acids and blood pressure.

    PubMed

    McGiff, J C; Quilley, J

    2001-03-01

    The properties of 20-hydroxyeicosatetraenoic acid and epoxyeicosatrienoic acids, vasoactivity and modulation of ion transport and mediation/modulation of the effects of vasoactive hormones, such as angiotensin II and endothelin, underscore their importance to renal vascular mechanisms and electrolyte excretion. 20-Hydroxyeicosatetraenoic acid is an integral component of renal autoregulation and tubuloglomerular feedback as well as cerebral autoregulation, eliciting vasoconstriction by the inhibition of potassium channels. Nitric oxide inhibits 20-hydroxyeicosatetraenoic acid formation, the removal of which contributes to the vasodilator effect of nitric oxide. In contrast, epoxyeicosatrienoic acids are generally vasodilatory by activating potassium channels and have been proposed as endothelium-derived hyperpolarizing factors. 20-Hydroxyeicosatetraenoic acid modulates ion transport in key nephron segments by influencing the activities of sodium--potassium-ATPase and the sodium--potassium--chloride co-transporter; however, the primacy of the various arachidonate oxygenases that generate products affecting these activities changes with age. The range and diversity of activity of 20-hydroxyeicosatetraenoic acid is influenced by its metabolism by cyclooxygenase to products affecting vasomotion and salt/water excretion. 20-Hydroxyeicosatetraenoic acid is the principal renal eicosanoid that interacts with several hormonal systems that are central to blood pressure regulation. This article reviews the most recent studies that address 20-hydroxyeicosatetraenoic acid and epoxyeicosatrienoic acids in vascular and renal tubular function and hypertension.

  13. Antioxidant capacity and phenolic acids of virgin coconut oil.

    PubMed

    Marina, A M; Man, Y B Che; Nazimah, S A H; Amin, I

    2009-01-01

    The antioxidant properties of virgin coconut oil produced through chilling and fermentation were investigated and compared with refined, bleached and deodorized coconut oil. Virgin coconut oil showed better antioxidant capacity than refined, bleached and deodorized coconut oil. The virgin coconut oil produced through the fermentation method had the strongest scavenging effect on 1,1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl and the highest antioxidant activity based on the beta-carotene-linoleate bleaching method. However, virgin coconut oil obtained through the chilling method had the highest reducing power. The major phenolic acids detected were ferulic acid and p-coumaric acid. Very high correlations were found between the total phenolic content and scavenging activity (r=0.91), and between the total phenolic content and reducing power (r=0.96). There was also a high correlation between total phenolic acids and beta-carotene bleaching activity. The study indicated that the contribution of antioxidant capacity in virgin coconut oil could be due to phenolic compounds.

  14. Vibrational structure of the polyunsaturated fatty acids eicosapentaenoic acid and arachidonic acid studied by infrared spectroscopy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kiefer, Johannes; Noack, Kristina; Bartelmess, Juergen; Walter, Christian; Dörnenburg, Heike; Leipertz, Alfred

    2010-02-01

    The spectroscopic discrimination of the two structurally similar polyunsaturated C 20 fatty acids (PUFAs) 5,8,11,14,17-eicosapentaenoic acid and 5,8,11,14-eicosatetraenoic acid (arachidonic acid) is shown. For this purpose their vibrational structures are studied by means of attenuated total reflection (ATR) Fourier-transform infrared (FT-IR) spectroscopy. The fingerprint regions of the recorded spectra are found to be almost identical, while the C-H stretching mode regions around 3000 cm -1 show such significant differences as results of electronic and molecular structure alterations based on the different degree of saturation that both fatty acids can be clearly distinguished from each other.

  15. Nucleic acid detection methods

    DOEpatents

    Smith, C.L.; Yaar, R.; Szafranski, P.; Cantor, C.R.

    1998-05-19

    The invention relates to methods for rapidly determining the sequence and/or length a target sequence. The target sequence may be a series of known or unknown repeat sequences which are hybridized to an array of probes. The hybridized array is digested with a single-strand nuclease and free 3{prime}-hydroxyl groups extended with a nucleic acid polymerase. Nuclease cleaved heteroduplexes can be easily distinguish from nuclease uncleaved heteroduplexes by differential labeling. Probes and target can be differentially labeled with detectable labels. Matched target can be detected by cleaving resulting loops from the hybridized target and creating free 3-hydroxyl groups. These groups are recognized and extended by polymerases added into the reaction system which also adds or releases one label into solution. Analysis of the resulting products using either solid phase or solution. These methods can be used to detect characteristic nucleic acid sequences, to determine target sequence and to screen for genetic defects and disorders. Assays can be conducted on solid surfaces allowing for multiple reactions to be conducted in parallel and, if desired, automated. 18 figs.

  16. Nucleic Acid Detection Methods

    DOEpatents

    Smith, Cassandra L.; Yaar, Ron; Szafranski, Przemyslaw; Cantor, Charles R.

    1998-05-19

    The invention relates to methods for rapidly determining the sequence and/or length a target sequence. The target sequence may be a series of known or unknown repeat sequences which are hybridized to an array of probes. The hybridized array is digested with a single-strand nuclease and free 3'-hydroxyl groups extended with a nucleic acid polymerase. Nuclease cleaved heteroduplexes can be easily distinguish from nuclease uncleaved heteroduplexes by differential labeling. Probes and target can be differentially labeled with detectable labels. Matched target can be detected by cleaving resulting loops from the hybridized target and creating free 3-hydroxyl groups. These groups are recognized and extended by polymerases added into the reaction system which also adds or releases one label into solution. Analysis of the resulting products using either solid phase or solution. These methods can be used to detect characteristic nucleic acid sequences, to determine target sequence and to screen for genetic defects and disorders. Assays can be conducted on solid surfaces allowing for multiple reactions to be conducted in parallel and, if desired, automated.

  17. Cryoprotection from lipoteichoic acid

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rice, Charles V.; Middaugh, Amy; Wickham, Jason R.; Friedline, Anthony; Thomas, Kieth J.; Johnson, Karen; Zachariah, Malcolm; Garimella, Ravindranth

    2012-10-01

    Numerous chemical additives lower the freezing point of water, but life at sub-zero temperatures is sustained by a limited number of biological cryoprotectants. Antifreeze proteins in fish, plants, and insects provide protection to a few degrees below freezing. Microbes have been found to survive at even lower temperatures, and with a few exceptions, antifreeze proteins are missing. Survival has been attributed to external factors, such as the high salt concentration of brine veins and adhesion to particulates or ice crystal defects. We have discovered an endogenous cryoprotectant in the cell wall of bacteria, lipoteichoic acid biopolymers. Adding 1% LTA to bacteria cultures immediately prior to freezing provides 50% survival rate, similar to the results obtained with 1% glycerol. In the absence of an additive, bacterial survival is negligible as measured with the resazurin cell viability assay. The mode of action for LTA cryoprotection is unknown. With a molecular weight of 3-5 kDa, it is unlikely to enter the cell cytoplasm. Our observations suggest that teichoic acids could provide a shell of liquid water around biofilms and planktonic bacteria, removing the need for brine veins to prevent bacterial freezing.

  18. Bicyclic glutamic acid derivatives.

    PubMed

    Meyer, Udo; Bisel, Philippe; Weckert, Edgar; Frahm, August Wilhelm

    2006-05-15

    For the second-generation asymmetric synthesis of the trans-tris(homoglutamic) acids via Strecker reaction of chiral ketimines, the cyanide addition as the key stereodifferentiating step produces mixtures of diastereomeric alpha-amino nitrile esters the composition of which is independent of the reaction temperature and the type of the solvent, respectively. The subsequent hydrolysis is exclusively achieved with concentrated H(2)SO(4) yielding diastereomeric mixtures of three secondary alpha-amino alpha-carbamoyl-gamma-esters and two diastereomeric cis-fused angular alpha-carbamoyl gamma-lactams as bicyclic glutamic acid derivatives, gained from in situ stereomer differentiating cyclisation of the secondary cis-alpha-amino alpha-carbamoyl-gamma-esters. Separation was achieved by CC. The pure secondary trans-alpha-amino alpha-carbamoyl-gamma-esters cyclise on heating and treatment with concentrated H(2)SO(4), respectively, to diastereomeric cis-fused angular secondary alpha-amino imides. Their hydrogenolysis led to the enantiomeric cis-fused angular primary alpha-amino imides. The configuration of all compounds was completely established by NMR methods, CD-spectra, and by X-ray analyses of the (alphaR,1R,5R)-1-carbamoyl-2-(1-phenylethyl)-2-azabicyclo[3.3.0]octan-3-one and of the trans-alphaS,1S,2R-2-ethoxycarbonylmethyl-1-(1-phenylethylamino)cyclopentanecarboxamide. PMID:16596563

  19. Ribonucleic acid purification.

    PubMed

    Martins, R; Queiroz, J A; Sousa, F

    2014-08-15

    Research on RNA has led to many important biological discoveries and improvement of therapeutic technologies. From basic to applied research, many procedures employ pure and intact RNA molecules; however their isolation and purification are critical steps because of the easy degradability of RNA, which can impair chemical stability and biological functionality. The current techniques to isolate and purify RNA molecules still have several limitations and the requirement for new methods able to improve RNA quality to meet regulatory demands is growing. In fact, as basic research improves the understanding of biological roles of RNAs, the biopharmaceutical industry starts to focus on them as a biotherapeutic tools. Chromatographic bioseparation is a high selective unit operation and is the major option in the purification of biological compounds, requiring high purity degree. In addition, its application in biopharmaceutical manufacturing is well established. This paper discusses the importance and the progress of RNA isolation and purification, considering RNA applicability both in research and clinical fields. In particular and in view of the high specificity, affinity chromatography has been recently applied to RNA purification processes. Accordingly, recent chromatographic investigations based on biorecognition phenomena occurring between RNA and amino acids are focused. Histidine and arginine have been used as amino acid ligands, and their ability to isolate different RNA species demonstrated a multipurpose applicability in molecular biology analysis and RNA therapeutics preparation, highlighting the potential contribution of these methods to overcome the challenges of RNA purification. PMID:24951289

  20. Titration of phosphonic acid derivatives in mixtures.

    PubMed

    Wittmann, Z

    1980-01-01

    An analytical procedure is described for the determination of the weak acids phosphonomethyliminodiacetic acid and phosphonomethyliminoacetic acid in their mixtures, and the dissociation constants of phosphonomethyliminoacetic acid are reported.