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Sample records for acid fts salirasib

  1. [Partial sequence homology of FtsZ in phylogenetics analysis of lactic acid bacteria].

    PubMed

    Zhang, Bin; Dong, Xiu-zhu

    2005-10-01

    FtsZ is a structurally conserved protein, which is universal among the prokaryotes. It plays a key role in prokaryote cell division. A partial fragment of the ftsZ gene about 800bp in length was amplified and sequenced and a partial FtsZ protein phylogenetic tree for the lactic acid bacteria was constructed. By comparing the FtsZ phylogenetic tree with the 16S rDNA tree, it was shown that the two trees were similar in topology. Both trees revealed that Pediococcus spp. were closely related with L. casei group of Lactobacillus spp. , but less related with other lactic acid cocci such as Enterococcus and Streptococcus. The results also showed that the discriminative power of FtsZ was higher than that of 16S rDNA for either inter-species or inter-genus and could be a very useful tool in species identification of lactic acid bacteria. PMID:16342751

  2. Electrochemical oxidation of 1H,1H,2H,2H-perfluorooctane sulfonic acid (6:2 FTS) on DSA electrode: operating parameters and mechanism.

    PubMed

    Zhuo, Qiongfang; Li, Xiang; Yan, Feng; Yang, Bo; Deng, Shubo; Huang, Jun; Yu, Gang

    2014-08-01

    The 6:2 FTS was the substitute for perfluorooctane sulfonate (PFOS) in the chrome plating industry in Japan. Electrochemical oxidation of 6:2 FTS was investigated in this study. The degradabilities of PFOS and 6:2 FTS were tested on the Ti/SnO₂-Sb₂O₅-Bi₂O₃ anode. The effects of current density, potential, and supporting electrolyte on the degradation of 6:2 FTS were evaluated. Experimental results showed that 6:2 FTS was more easily degraded than PFOS on the Ti/SnO₂-Sb₂O₅-Bi₂O₃ anode. At a low current density of 1.42 mA/cm², 6:2 FTS was not degraded on Ti/SnO₂-Sb₂O₅-Bi₂O₃, while the degradation ratio increased when the current density ranged from 4.25 to 6.80 mA/cm². The degradation of 6:2 FTS at current density of 6.80 mA/cm² followed pseudo first-order kinetics with the rate constant of 0.074 hr⁻¹. The anodic potential played an important role in the degradation of 6:2 FTS, and the pseudo first-order rate constants increased with the potential. The surface of Ti/SnO₂-Sb₂O₅-Bi₂O₃ was contaminated after electrolysis at constant potential of 3V, while the fouling phenomenon was not observed at 5V. The fouled anode could be regenerated by incinerating at 600°C. The intermediates detected by ultra-performance liquid chromatography coupled with a triple-stage quadrupole mass spectrometer (UPLC-MS/MS) were shorter chain perfluorocarboxylic acids. The 6:2 FTS was first attacked by hydroxyl radical, and then formed perfluorinated carboxylates, which decarboxylated and removed CF2 units to yield shorter-chain perfluorocarboxylic acids.

  3. FTS evolution

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Provost, David E.

    1990-01-01

    Viewgraphs on flight telerobotic servicer evolution are presented. Topics covered include: paths for FTS evolution; frequently performed actions; primary task states; EPS radiator panel installation; generic task definitions; path planning; non-contact alignment; contact planning and control; and human operator interface.

  4. FtsA forms actin-like protofilaments

    PubMed Central

    Szwedziak, Piotr; Wang, Qing; Freund, Stefan MV; Löwe, Jan

    2012-01-01

    FtsA is an early component of the Z-ring, the structure that divides most bacteria, formed by tubulin-like FtsZ. FtsA belongs to the actin family of proteins, showing an unusual subdomain architecture. Here we reconstitute the tethering of FtsZ to the membrane via FtsA's C-terminal amphipathic helix in vitro using Thermotoga maritima proteins. A crystal structure of the FtsA:FtsZ interaction reveals 16 amino acids of the FtsZ tail bound to subdomain 2B of FtsA. The same structure and a second crystal form of FtsA reveal that FtsA forms actin-like protofilaments with a repeat of 48 Å. The identical repeat is observed when FtsA is polymerized using a lipid monolayer surface and FtsAs from three organisms form polymers in cells when overexpressed, as observed by electron cryotomography. Mutants that disrupt polymerization also show an elongated cell division phenotype in a temperature-sensitive FtsA background, demonstrating the importance of filament formation for FtsA's function in the Z-ring. PMID:22473211

  5. FTS2000 network architecture

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Klenart, John

    1991-01-01

    The network architecture of FTS2000 is graphically depicted. A map of network A topology is provided, with interservice nodes. Next, the four basic element of the architecture is laid out. Then, the FTS2000 time line is reproduced. A list of equipment supporting FTS2000 dedicated transmissions is given. Finally, access alternatives are shown.

  6. Novel FTS-diamine/cinnamic acid hybrids inhibit tumor cell proliferation and migration and promote apoptosis via blocking Ras-related signaling in vitro.

    PubMed

    Ling, Yong; Zhao, Xinmei; Li, Xianghua; Wang, Xuemin; Yang, Yang; Wang, Zhiqiang; Wang, Xinyang; Zhang, Jie; Zhang, Yihua

    2015-02-01

    Novel FTS-diamine/cinnamic acid hybrids 7a-f were prepared, and their in vitro biological activities were evaluated. It was found that 7c showed the strongest anti-proliferation activities against cancer cells in vitro and significant growth inhibition of tumor in vivo, and more potential for inhibitory selectivity to tumor cells than intermediate 6 and FTS. Furthermore, the anti-proliferative effect of 7c in Lovo cell lines followed a similar pattern, which included a dose-dependent induction of cell apoptosis via the up-regulation of Bax as well as activated caspase-3 and down-regulation of Bcl-2, and the inhibition of cancer cells migration and invasion in a concentration-dependent way. More importantly, 7c could significantly block Ras-related signaling pathways, which may contribute to its pro-apoptotic induction of the cancer cell lines and its inhibition of carcinoma cell proliferation, migration, and invasion. Therefore, our novel findings may provide a new framework for the discovery of new FTS hybrids for the intervention of human carcinoma cells.

  7. FTS3: Quantitative Monitoring

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Riahi, H.; Salichos, M.; Keeble, O.; Andreeva, J.; Ayllon, A. A.; Di Girolamo, A.; Magini, N.; Roiser, S.; Simon, M. K.

    2015-12-01

    The overall success of LHC data processing depends heavily on stable, reliable and fast data distribution. The Worldwide LHC Computing Grid (WLCG) relies on the File Transfer Service (FTS) as the data movement middleware for moving sets of files from one site to another. This paper describes the components of FTS3 monitoring infrastructure and how they are built to satisfy the common and particular requirements of the LHC experiments. We show how the system provides a complete and detailed cross-virtual organization (VO) picture of transfers for sites, operators and VOs. This information has proven critical due to the shared nature of the infrastructure, allowing a complete view of all transfers on shared network links between various workflows and VOs using the same FTS transfer manager. We also report on the performance of the FTS service itself, using data generated by the aforementioned monitoring infrastructure both during the commissioning and the first phase of production. We also explain how this monitoring information and network metrics produced can be used both as a starting point for troubleshooting data transfer issues, but also as a mechanism to collect information such as transfer efficiency between sites, achieved throughput and its evolution over time, most common errors, etc, and take decision upon them to further optimize transfer workflows. The service setup is subject to sites policies to control the network resource usage, as well as all the VOs making use of the Grid resources at the site to satisfy their requirements. FTS3 is the new version of FTS and has been deployed in production in August 2014.

  8. A single amino acid of a Salmonella virulence protein contributes to pathogenicity by protecting from the FtsH-mediated proteolysis.

    PubMed

    Choi, Eunna; Kwon, Kyoung; Lee, Eun-Jin

    2015-05-22

    FtsH is a membrane-bound ATP-dependent protease in bacteria that is critical for degrading membrane proteins. The MgtC virulence protein from Salmonella enterica is located at the inner membrane and required for survival inside macrophages. Here we report that a single substitution at tryptophan 226 of the MgtC protein to alanine promotes the FtsH-mediated proteolysis. The Trp residue is located at the very C-terminus of the cytoplasmic domain of the MgtC protein and conserved only in intracellular pathogens surviving within a macrophage phagosome, suggesting that Salmonella may acquire the tryptophan residue to prevent MgtC degradation by the FtsH protease. Moreover, the reduced proteolytic activity of the FtsH protease during infection further increases MgtC production, promoting Salmonella's pathogenicity inside phagocytic cells.

  9. Computer-Based Identification of a Novel LIMK1/2 Inhibitor that Synergizes with Salirasib to Destabilize the Actin Cytoskeleton

    PubMed Central

    Elad-Sfadia, Galit; Haklai, Roni; Carmeli, Shmuel; Kloog, Yoel; Wolfson, Haim J.

    2012-01-01

    Neurofibromin regulates cell motility via three distinct GTPase pathways acting through two different domains, the Ras GTPase-activating protein-related domain (GRD) and the pre-GRD domain. First, the GRD domain inhibits Ras-dependent changes in cell motility through the mitogen activated protein cascade. Second, it also regulates Rho-dependent (Ras-independent) changes by activating LIM kinase 2 (LIMK2), an enzyme that phosphorylates and inactivates cofilin (an actin-depolymerizing factor). Third, the pre-GRD domain acts through the Rac1 GTPase, that activate the P21 activated kinase 1 (PAK1)-LIMK1-cofilin pathway. We employed molecular modeling to identify a novel inhibitor of LIMK1/2. The active sites of an ephrin-A receptor (EphA3) and LIMK2 showed marked similarity (60%). On testing a known inhibitor of EphA3, we found that it fits to the LIMK1/2-ATP binding site and to the latter's substrate-binding pockets. We identified a similar compound, T56-LIMKi, and found that it inhibits LIMK1/2 kinase activities. It blocked the phosphorylation of cofilin which led to actin severance and inhibition of tumor cell migration, tumor cell growth, and anchorage-independent colony formation in soft agar. Because modulation of LIMK by neurofibromin is not affected by the Ras inhibitor Salirasib, we examined the combined effect of Salirasib and T56-LIMKi each of which can affect cell motility by a distinct pathway. We found that their combined action on cell proliferation and stress-fiber formation in neurofibromin-deficient cells was synergistic. We suggest that this drug combination may be developed for treatment of neurofibromatosis and cancer. PMID:22776759

  10. Identification and characterization of two members of the FtsH gene family in maize (Zea mays L.).

    PubMed

    Yue, Guidong; Hu, Xiaorui; He, Ying; Yang, Aifang; Zhang, Juren

    2010-02-01

    Two full-length cDNAs, designated as ZmFtsH2A and ZmFtsH2B, were isolated from maize (Zea mays L.) by suppression subtractive hybridization coupled with in silico cloning approach. The predicted proteins of ZmFtsH2A and ZmFtsH2B both consisted of 677 amino acid residues and displayed high similarity to FtsH2 protease of Arabidopsis thaliana. DNA gel blotting analysis indicated that AtFtsH2-like genes exist as two copies in maize genome. The genomic sequences of ZmFtsH2A and ZmFtsH2B were cloned and the main difference was that the first intron of ZmFtsH2B was much longer than that of ZmFtsH2A. RT-PCR analysis revealed that both genes were constitutively expressed in all examined tissues and the expression level of ZmFtsH2B transcripts was higher than that of ZmFtsH2A. The responses of the two genes in maize seedlings to PEG, cold, high salt, and ABA treatments were compared, and the results showed that ZmFtsH2B transcription in leaves was markedly up-regulated by water deficit stress and ABA treatments while ZmFtsH2A constitutively expressed both in leaves and roots under all tested stressful conditions. Drought tolerance of transgenic tobaccos overexpressing ZmFtsH2A and ZmFtsH2B weren't improved compared to wild-type controls, which indicated that two genes might not be directly involved in plant drought tolerance or the number of functional FtsH heterocomplex might not be increased in this condition. Our current study provides fundamental information for the further investigation of the maize FtsH proteins.

  11. Dr-FtsA, an actin homologue in Deinococcus radiodurans differentially affects Dr-FtsZ and Ec-FtsZ functions in vitro.

    PubMed

    Modi, Kruti; Misra, Hari S

    2014-01-01

    The Deinococcus radiodurans genome encodes homologues of divisome proteins including FtsZ and FtsA. FtsZ of this bacterium (Dr-FtsZ) has been recently characterized. In this paper, we study FtsA of D. radiodurans (Dr-FtsA) and its involvement in regulation of FtsZ function. Recombinant Dr-FtsA showed neither ATPase nor GTPase activity and its polymerization was ATP dependent. Interestingly, we observed that Dr-FtsA, when compared with E. coli FtsA (Ec-FtsA), has lower affinity for both Dr-FtsZ and Ec-FtsZ. Also, Dr-FtsA showed differential effects on GTPase activity and sedimentation characteristics of Dr-FtsZ and Ec-FtsZ. For instance, Dr-FtsA stimulated GTPase activity of Dr-FtsZ while GTPase activity of Ec-FtsZ was reduced in the presence of Dr-FtsA. Stimulation of GTPase activity of Dr-FtsZ by Dr-FtsA resulted in depolymerization of Dr-FtsZ. Dr-FtsA effects on GTPase activity and polymerization/depolymerisation characteristics of Dr-FtsZ did not change significantly in the presence of ATP. Recombinant E. coli expressing Dr-FtsA showed cell division inhibition in spite of in trans expression of Dr-FtsZ in these cells. These results suggested that Dr-FtsA, although it lacks ATPase activity, is still functional and differentially affects Dr-FtsZ and Ec-FtsZ function in vitro.

  12. Structural organization of FtsB, a transmembrane protein of the bacterial divisome

    PubMed Central

    LaPointe, Loren M.; Taylor, Keenan C.; Subramaniam, Sabareesh; Khadria, Ambalika; Rayment, Ivan; Senes, Alessandro

    2013-01-01

    We report the first structural analysis of an integral membrane protein of the bacterial divisome. FtsB is a single-pass membrane protein with a periplasmic coiled coil. Its heterologous association with its partner FtsL represents an essential event for the recruitment of the late components to the division site. Using a combination of mutagenesis, computational modeling and X-ray crystallography, we determined that FtsB self-associates and we investigated its structural organization. We found that the transmembrane domain of FtsB homo-oligomerizes through an evolutionarily conserved interaction interface where a polar residue (Gln 16) plays a critical role through the formation of an inter-helical hydrogen bond. The crystal structure of the periplasmic domain, solved as a fusion with Gp7, shows that 30 juxta-membrane amino acids of FtsB form a canonical coiled coil. The presence of conserved Gly residue in the linker region suggests that flexibility between the transmembrane and coiled coil domains is functionally important. We hypothesize that the transmembrane helices of FtsB form a stable dimeric core for its association with FtsL into a higher-order oligomer, and that FtsL is required to stabilize the periplasmic domain of FtsB, leading to the formation of a complex that is competent for binding to FtsQ, and to their consequent recruitment to the divisome. The study provides an experimentally validated structural model and identifies point mutations that disrupt association, thereby establishing important groundwork for the functional characterization of FtsB in vivo. PMID:23520975

  13. Roles for both FtsA and the FtsBLQ subcomplex in FtsN-stimulated cell constriction in Escherichia coli

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Bing; Persons, Logan; Lee, Lynda; de Boer, Piet A. J.

    2015-01-01

    SUMMARY Escherichia coli FtsN is a bitopic membrane protein that is essential for triggering active cell constriction. A small periplasmic subdomain (EFtsN) is required and sufficient for function, but its mechanism of action is unclear. We isolated extragenic EFtsN*-suppressing mutations that restore division in cells producing otherwise non-functional variants of FtsN. These mapped to the IC domain of FtsA in the cytoplasm and to small subdomains of the FtsB and FtsL proteins in the periplasm. All FtsB and FtsL variants allowed survival without EFtsN, but many then imposed a new requirement for interaction between the cytoplasmic domain of FtsN (NFtsN) with FtsA. Alternatively, variants of FtsA, FtsB or FtsL acted synergistically to allow cell division in the complete absence of FtsN. Strikingly, moreover, substitution of a single residue in FtsB (E56) proved sufficient to rescue ΔftsN cells as well. In FtsN+ cells, EFtsN*-suppressing mutations promoted cell fission at an abnormally small cell size, and caused cell shape and integrity defects under certain conditions. This and additional evidence support a model in which FtsN acts on either side of the membrane to induce a conformational switch in both FtsA and the FtsBLQ subcomplex to derepress septal peptidoglycan synthesis and membrane invagination. PMID:25496160

  14. Doxorubicin inhibits E. coli division by interacting at a novel site in FtsZ.

    PubMed

    Panda, Pragnya; Taviti, Ashoka Chary; Satpati, Suresh; Kar, Mitali Madhusmita; Dixit, Anshuman; Beuria, Tushar Kant

    2015-11-01

    The increase in antibiotic resistance has become a major health concern in recent times. It is therefore essential to identify novel antibacterial targets as well as discover and develop new antibacterial agents. FtsZ, a highly conserved bacterial protein, is responsible for the initiation of cell division in bacteria. The functions of FtsZ inside cells are tightly regulated and any perturbation in its functions leads to inhibition of bacterial division. Recent reports indicate that small molecules targeting the functions of FtsZ may be used as leads to develop new antibacterial agents. To identify small molecules targeting FtsZ and inhibiting bacterial division, we screened a U.S. FDA (Food and Drug Administration)-approved drug library of 800 molecules using an independent computational, biochemical and microbial approach. From this screen, we identified doxorubicin, an anthracycline molecule that inhibits Escherichia coli division and forms filamentous cells. A fluorescence-binding assay shows that doxorubicin interacts strongly with FtsZ. A detailed biochemical analysis demonstrated that doxorubicin inhibits FtsZ assembly and its GTPase activity through binding to a site other than the GTP-binding site. Furthermore, using molecular docking, we identified a probable doxorubicin-binding site in FtsZ. A number of single amino acid mutations at the identified binding site in FtsZ resulted in a severalfold decrease in the affinity of FtsZ for doxorubicin, indicating the importance of this site for doxorubicin interaction. The present study suggests the presence of a novel binding site in FtsZ that interacts with the small molecules and can be targeted for the screening and development of new antibacterial agents. PMID:26285656

  15. Doxorubicin inhibits E. coli division by interacting at a novel site in FtsZ.

    PubMed

    Panda, Pragnya; Taviti, Ashoka Chary; Satpati, Suresh; Kar, Mitali Madhusmita; Dixit, Anshuman; Beuria, Tushar Kant

    2015-11-01

    The increase in antibiotic resistance has become a major health concern in recent times. It is therefore essential to identify novel antibacterial targets as well as discover and develop new antibacterial agents. FtsZ, a highly conserved bacterial protein, is responsible for the initiation of cell division in bacteria. The functions of FtsZ inside cells are tightly regulated and any perturbation in its functions leads to inhibition of bacterial division. Recent reports indicate that small molecules targeting the functions of FtsZ may be used as leads to develop new antibacterial agents. To identify small molecules targeting FtsZ and inhibiting bacterial division, we screened a U.S. FDA (Food and Drug Administration)-approved drug library of 800 molecules using an independent computational, biochemical and microbial approach. From this screen, we identified doxorubicin, an anthracycline molecule that inhibits Escherichia coli division and forms filamentous cells. A fluorescence-binding assay shows that doxorubicin interacts strongly with FtsZ. A detailed biochemical analysis demonstrated that doxorubicin inhibits FtsZ assembly and its GTPase activity through binding to a site other than the GTP-binding site. Furthermore, using molecular docking, we identified a probable doxorubicin-binding site in FtsZ. A number of single amino acid mutations at the identified binding site in FtsZ resulted in a severalfold decrease in the affinity of FtsZ for doxorubicin, indicating the importance of this site for doxorubicin interaction. The present study suggests the presence of a novel binding site in FtsZ that interacts with the small molecules and can be targeted for the screening and development of new antibacterial agents.

  16. Genetic diversity of the ftsI gene in β-lactamase-nonproducing ampicillin-resistant and β-lactamase-producing amoxicillin-/clavulanic acid-resistant nasopharyngeal Haemophilus influenzae strains isolated from children in South Korea.

    PubMed

    Park, Chulmin; Kim, Kyung-Hyo; Shin, Na-Young; Byun, Ji-Hyun; Kwon, Eun-Young; Lee, Jae-Wook; Kwon, Hyo Jin; Choi, Eu Yoon; Lee, Dong-Gun; Sohn, Woo Yun; Kang, Jin Han

    2013-06-01

    Haemophilus influenzae frequently colonizes the nasopharynx of children and adults, which can lead to a variety of infections. We investigated H. influenzae carriage in the nasopharynx of 360 children, in terms of (1) the prevalence of strains with decreased susceptibility, and (2) the presence of amino acid substitutions in PBP3. One hundred twenty-three strains were isolated (34.2%, 123/360), 122 of which were classified as nontypable H. influenzae (NTHi). Of these, β-lactamase-nonproducing ampicillin-susceptible strains accounted for 26.2%, β-lactamase-producing-ampicillin-resistant strains for 9.0%, β-lactamase-nonproducing ampicillin-resistant (BLNAR) strains for 40.2%, and β-lactamase-producing amoxicillin-/clavulanic acid-resistant (BLPACR) for 24.6%, respectively. Pulsed field gel electrophoresis (PFGE) patterns were so diverse that they were clustered into 41 groups. The amino acid substitutions in the transpeptidase domain (292 amino acids) of ftsI in BLNAR isolates showed that group IIb accounted for 30.6%, IIc for 8.2%, IId for 16.3%, III for 32.7%, and the others for 12.2%. Moreover, groups IIb (56.7%; 17/30) and III (23.3%; 7/30) were prevalent among BLPACR strains. They were subclassified into more diverse sequence subtypes by analysis of the entire PBP3 (610 amino acids). Groups IIb, IIc, IId, and III exhibited 13, four, six, and four sequence subtypes, respectively. Such a genetic diversity is likely indicative of significant potential for decreased antimicrobial susceptibility in nasopharyngeal-colonizing NTHi strains.

  17. Regulation of cell division in Escherichia coli K-12: probable interactions among proteins FtsQ, FtsA, and FtsZ

    SciTech Connect

    Descoteaux, A.; Drapeau, G.R.

    1987-05-01

    In Escherichia coli, the FtsQ, FtsA, and FtsZ proteins are believed to play essential roles in the regulation of cell division. Of the three proteins, FtsZ has received the most attention, particularly because of its interactions with SfiA. Double mutants which carry mutations located in the ftsQ, ftsA, or ftsZ gene in combination with the lon-1 mutation were constructed. In the presence of the lon-1 mutation, which is known to stabilize SfiA, the ftsQ1 mutant cells were not capable of forming colonies on a rich agar medium, whereas mutant cells harboring either one of the mutations grew well on this medium. Examination of lon-1 fts double-mutant cells for sensitivity to UV light revealed that those carrying the ftsA10 allele were resistant. It was also observed that in the presence of a multicopy plasmid containing a wild-type ftsZ gene, the ftsQ1 mutant filamented markedly following a nutritional shift-up and that the division rate of ftsZ84 mutant cells was slightly reduced when they harbored a wild-type ftsQ-containing plasmid. The possibility that the Fts proteins are interacting with one another and forming a molecular complex is discussed.

  18. Characterization of the FtsZ C-Terminal Variable (CTV) Region in Z-Ring Assembly and Interaction with the Z-Ring Stabilizer ZapD in E. coli Cytokinesis

    PubMed Central

    Huang, Kuo-Hsiang; Mychack, Aaron; Tchorzewski, Lukasz; Janakiraman, Anuradha

    2016-01-01

    Polymerization of a ring-like cytoskeletal structure, the Z-ring, at midcell is a highly conserved feature in virtually all bacteria. The Z-ring is composed of short protofilaments of the tubulin homolog FtsZ, randomly arranged and held together through lateral interactions. In vitro, lateral associations between FtsZ protofilaments are stabilized by crowding agents, high concentrations of divalent cations, or in some cases, low pH. In vivo, the last 4–10 amino acid residues at the C-terminus of FtsZ (the C-terminal variable region, CTV) have been implicated in mediating lateral associations between FtsZ protofilaments through charge shielding. Multiple Z-ring associated proteins (Zaps), also promote lateral interactions between FtsZ protofilaments to stabilize the FtsZ ring in vivo. Here we characterize the complementary role/s of the CTV of E. coli FtsZ and the FtsZ-ring stabilizing protein ZapD, in FtsZ assembly. We show that the net charge of the FtsZ CTV not only affects FtsZ protofilament bundling, confirming earlier observations, but likely also the length of the FtsZ protofilaments in vitro. The CTV residues also have important consequences for Z-ring assembly and interaction with ZapD in the cell. ZapD requires the FtsZ CTV region for interaction with FtsZ in vitro and for localization to midcell in vivo. Our data suggest a mechanism in which the CTV residues, particularly K380, facilitate a conformation for the conserved carboxy-terminal residues in FtsZ, that lie immediately N-terminal to the CTV, to enable optimal contact with ZapD. Further, phylogenetic analyses suggest a correlation between the nature of FtsZ CTV residues and the presence of ZapD in the β- γ-proteobacterial species. PMID:27088231

  19. Characterization of the FtsZ C-Terminal Variable (CTV) Region in Z-Ring Assembly and Interaction with the Z-Ring Stabilizer ZapD in E. coli Cytokinesis.

    PubMed

    Huang, Kuo-Hsiang; Mychack, Aaron; Tchorzewski, Lukasz; Janakiraman, Anuradha

    2016-01-01

    Polymerization of a ring-like cytoskeletal structure, the Z-ring, at midcell is a highly conserved feature in virtually all bacteria. The Z-ring is composed of short protofilaments of the tubulin homolog FtsZ, randomly arranged and held together through lateral interactions. In vitro, lateral associations between FtsZ protofilaments are stabilized by crowding agents, high concentrations of divalent cations, or in some cases, low pH. In vivo, the last 4-10 amino acid residues at the C-terminus of FtsZ (the C-terminal variable region, CTV) have been implicated in mediating lateral associations between FtsZ protofilaments through charge shielding. Multiple Z-ring associated proteins (Zaps), also promote lateral interactions between FtsZ protofilaments to stabilize the FtsZ ring in vivo. Here we characterize the complementary role/s of the CTV of E. coli FtsZ and the FtsZ-ring stabilizing protein ZapD, in FtsZ assembly. We show that the net charge of the FtsZ CTV not only affects FtsZ protofilament bundling, confirming earlier observations, but likely also the length of the FtsZ protofilaments in vitro. The CTV residues also have important consequences for Z-ring assembly and interaction with ZapD in the cell. ZapD requires the FtsZ CTV region for interaction with FtsZ in vitro and for localization to midcell in vivo. Our data suggest a mechanism in which the CTV residues, particularly K380, facilitate a conformation for the conserved carboxy-terminal residues in FtsZ, that lie immediately N-terminal to the CTV, to enable optimal contact with ZapD. Further, phylogenetic analyses suggest a correlation between the nature of FtsZ CTV residues and the presence of ZapD in the β- γ-proteobacterial species. PMID:27088231

  20. Methane cross-validation between three Fourier Transform Spectrometers: SCISAT ACE-FTS, GOSAT TANSO-FTS, and ground-based FTS measurements in the Canadian high Arctic

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Holl, G.; Walker, K. A.; Conway, S.; Saitoh, N.; Boone, C. D.; Strong, K.; Drummond, J. R.

    2015-12-01

    We present cross-validation of remote sensing measurements of methane profiles in the Canadian high Arctic. Accurate and precise measurements of methane are essential to understand quantitatively its role in the climate system and in global change. Here, we show a cross-validation between three datasets: two from spaceborne instruments and one from a ground-based instrument. All are Fourier Transform Spectrometers (FTSs). We consider the Canadian SCISAT Atmospheric Chemistry Experiment (ACE)-FTS, a solar occultation infrared spectrometer operating since 2004, and the thermal infrared band of the Japanese Greenhouse Gases Observing Satellite (GOSAT) Thermal And Near infrared Sensor for carbon Observation (TANSO)-FTS, a nadir/off-nadir scanning FTS instrument operating at solar and terrestrial infrared wavelengths, since 2009. The ground-based instrument is a Bruker 125HR Fourier Transform Infrared (FTIR) spectrometer, measuring mid-infrared solar absorption spectra at the Polar Environment Atmospheric Research Laboratory (PEARL) Ridge Lab at Eureka, Nunavut (80° N, 86° W) since 2006. For each pair of instruments, measurements are collocated within 500 km and 24 h. An additional criterion based on potential vorticity values was found not to significantly affect differences between measurements. Profiles are regridded to a common vertical grid for each comparison set. To account for differing vertical resolutions, ACE-FTS measurements are smoothed to the resolution of either PEARL-FTS or TANSO-FTS, and PEARL-FTS measurements are smoothed to the TANSO-FTS resolution. Differences for each pair are examined in terms of profile and partial columns. During the period considered, the number of collocations for each pair is large enough to obtain a good sample size (from several hundred to tens of thousands depending on pair and configuration). Considering full profiles, the degrees of freedom for signal (DOFS) are between 0.2 and 0.7 for TANSO-FTS and between 1.5 and 3

  1. Methane cross-validation between three Fourier transform spectrometers: SCISAT ACE-FTS, GOSAT TANSO-FTS, and ground-based FTS measurements in the Canadian high Arctic

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Holl, Gerrit; Walker, Kaley A.; Conway, Stephanie; Saitoh, Naoko; Boone, Chris D.; Strong, Kimberly; Drummond, James R.

    2016-05-01

    We present cross-validation of remote sensing measurements of methane profiles in the Canadian high Arctic. Accurate and precise measurements of methane are essential to understand quantitatively its role in the climate system and in global change. Here, we show a cross-validation between three data sets: two from spaceborne instruments and one from a ground-based instrument. All are Fourier transform spectrometers (FTSs). We consider the Canadian SCISAT Atmospheric Chemistry Experiment (ACE)-FTS, a solar occultation infrared spectrometer operating since 2004, and the thermal infrared band of the Japanese Greenhouse Gases Observing Satellite (GOSAT) Thermal And Near infrared Sensor for carbon Observation (TANSO)-FTS, a nadir/off-nadir scanning FTS instrument operating at solar and terrestrial infrared wavelengths, since 2009. The ground-based instrument is a Bruker 125HR Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) spectrometer, measuring mid-infrared solar absorption spectra at the Polar Environment Atmospheric Research Laboratory (PEARL) Ridge Laboratory at Eureka, Nunavut (80° N, 86° W) since 2006. For each pair of instruments, measurements are collocated within 500 km and 24 h. An additional collocation criterion based on potential vorticity values was found not to significantly affect differences between measurements. Profiles are regridded to a common vertical grid for each comparison set. To account for differing vertical resolutions, ACE-FTS measurements are smoothed to the resolution of either PEARL-FTS or TANSO-FTS, and PEARL-FTS measurements are smoothed to the TANSO-FTS resolution. Differences for each pair are examined in terms of profile and partial columns. During the period considered, the number of collocations for each pair is large enough to obtain a good sample size (from several hundred to tens of thousands depending on pair and configuration). Considering full profiles, the degrees of freedom for signal (DOFS) are between 0.2 and 0.7 for TANSO-FTS and

  2. ACE-FTS measurements of HCFC-22

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kolonjari, F.; Walker, K. A.; Boone, C. D.; Strahan, S.; McLinden, C. A.; Manney, G. L.; Daffer, W. H.; Bernath, P. F.

    2012-04-01

    In the 1980s scientists discovered an annual springtime minimum in stratospheric ozone over the Antarctic. It was determined that the decline in ozone concentration was primarily caused by catalytic reactions of ozone and chlorine. The emissions of anthropogenic chlorofluorocarbons (CFCs) were determined to be major sources of the chlorine. The Montreal Protocol on Substances that Deplete the Ozone Layer (with its subsequent amendments) restricts the emissions of ozone depleting substances. To fulfill the need for safe, stable replacements of CFCs, hydrochlorofluorocarbons (HCFCs) and hydrofluorocarbons (HFCs) were developed. The use of HCFC-22 as a replacement has led to an increase in its atmospheric abundance. This is of concern due to its ozone depletion potential and its global warming potential. The Atmospheric Chemistry Experiment (ACE) is a mission on-board the Canadian satellite SCISAT. The primary instrument on SCISAT is a high-resolution infrared Fourier Transform Spectrometer (ACE-FTS). With its wide spectral range, the ACE-FTS is capable of measuring an extensive range of gases including key CFC and HCFC species. The altitude distribution from the ACE-FTS profiles provides information that is complementary to the ground-based measurements that have been used to monitor these species. The global distribution of HCFC-22 has been computed from measurements by ACE-FTS. Both seasonal variations and an inter-hemispheric difference are observed. Additionally, a rapid increase in the global concentration of HCFC-22 has been observed since the start of the ACE mission in 2004. Comparisons to ground-based and air-borne measurements show good agreement with the ACE-FTS measurements. The global distributions of HCFC-22 have also been compared to a chemistry and transport model (CTM), the Global Modelling Initiative Combined Stratospheric-Tropospheric Model. There are distinct differences between the model results and ACE-FTS measurements. The causes and

  3. The Flight Telerobotic Servicer (FTS) NASA's first operational robotic system

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Andary, J.; Halterman, K.; Hewitt, D.; Sabelhaus, P.

    1990-01-01

    NASA has completed the preliminary definition phase of the Flight Telerobotic Servicer (FTS) and is now preparing to begin the detailed design and fabrication phase. The FTS will be designed and built by Martin Marietta Astronautics Group in Denver, CO, for the Goddard Space Flight Center, in support of the Space Station Freedom Program. The design concepts for the FTS are discussed, as well as operational scenarios for the assembly, maintenance, servicing and inspection tasks which are being considered for the FTS. The upcoming Development Test Flight (DTF-1) is the first of two shuttle test flights to test FTS operations in the environment of space and to demonstrate the FTS capabilities in performing tasks for Space Station Freedom. Operational planning for DTF-1 is discussed as well as development plans for the operational support of the FTS on the space station.

  4. Geostationary Fourier Transform Spectrometer (GeoFTS)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sander, S. P.; Bekker, D. L.; Blavier, J. L.; Duren, R. M.; Eldering, A.; Frankenberg, C.; Key, R.; Manatt, K.; Miller, C. E.; Natraj, V.; Rider, D. M.; Wu, Y.

    2012-12-01

    In order to confidently project the future evolution of climate and support efforts to mitigate the climate change, quantifying the emissions of CO2 and CH4 is a national and international priority. To accomplish this goal, new observational approaches are required that operate over spatial scales ranging from regional to global, and temporal scales from diurnal to decadal. Geostationary satellite observations of CO2, CH4 and correlative quantities such as CO and chlorophyll fluorescence provide a new measurement approach to deliver the quantity and quality of data needed for improved flux estimates and an improved understanding of the partitioning between biogenic and anthropogenic sources. GeoFTS is an exciting new concept that combines the game changing technology of imaging Fourier Transform Spectroscopy with the observational advantages of a geostationary orbit. The GeoFTS observations enable well-posed surface-atmospheric carbon exchange assessments as well as quantify the atmospheric signatures of anthropogenic CO2 and CH4 emissions. GeoFTS uses a single instrument to make measurements in the near-infrared spectral region at high spectral resolution. The imaging FTS measures atmospheric CO2, CH4, and CO to deliver high-resolution maps multiple times per day. A half-meter-sized cube, the instrument is designed to be a secondary "hosted" payload on a commercial GEO satellite. The instrument leverages recent NASA technology investments, uses a flight-proven interferometer and sensor chip assemblies, and requires no new technology development. NASA and other government agencies have adopted the hosted payload implementation approach because it substantially reduces the overall mission cost. Dense continuous mapping (4 km x 4 km pixels at 40 deg. latitude) is a transformational advance beyond, and complementary to, the capabilities of the NASA missions of record in low earth orbit, providing two to three orders of magnitude improvement in the number of

  5. Essential and non-essential interactions in interactome networks: the Escherichia coli division proteins FtsQ-FtsN interaction.

    PubMed

    Grenga, L; Rizzo, A; Paolozzi, L; Ghelardini, P

    2013-12-01

    The Escherichia coli division protein FtsQ, which plays a central role in the septosome assembly, interacts with several protein partners of the division machinery. Its interaction with FtsB and FtsL allows the formation of the trimeric complex connecting the early cytoplasmic cell division proteins with the late, essentially periplasmic, ones. Little is known about the interactions that FtsQ contracts with other divisome components, besides the fact that all are localized in its periplasmic domain. In this domain, two independent subdomains, both involved in FtsQ, FtsI and FtsN interactions, were also identified. The study of FtsQ interaction-defective mutants constituted a basis to investigate the biological significance of its interactions. However, in the case of interactions where two independent sites are involved, mutation(s) in one domain can be suppressed by the presence of the still-functional second interaction region. To ascertain the biological role of these interactions, it is therefore necessary to select double mutants, where both sites are impaired. This paper describes the behaviour of FtsQ double mutants that have lost the ability to interact with FtsN, which is the last component in the hierarchy of divisome assembly, and is necessary to guarantee its stability and function. PMID:23782448

  6. The transmembrane domains of the bacterial cell division proteins FtsB and FtsL form a stable high-order oligomer

    PubMed Central

    Khadria, Ambalika S.; Senes, Alessandro

    2014-01-01

    FtsB and FtsL are two essential integral membrane proteins of the bacterial division complex or “divisome”, both characterized by a single transmembrane helix and a juxta-membrane coiled coil domain. The two domains are important for the association of FtsB and FtsL, a key event for their recruitment to the divisome, that in turn enables recruitment of the late divisomal components to the Z-ring and subsequent completion of the division process. Here we present a biophysical analysis performed in vitro that shows that the transmembrane domains of FtsB and FtsL associate strongly in isolation. Using FRET, we have measured the oligomerization of fluorophore-labeled transmembrane domains of FtsB and FtsL in both detergent and lipid. The data indicates that the transmembrane helices are likely a major contributor to the stability of the FtsB-FtsL complex. Our analyses show that FtsB and FtsL form a 1:1 higher-order oligomeric complex, possibly a tetramer. This finding suggests that the FtsB-FtsL complex is capable of multi-valent binding to FtsQ and other divisome components, a hypothesis that is consistent with the possibility that the FtsB-FtsL complex has a structural role in the stabilization of the Z-ring. PMID:24083359

  7. Contribution of individual promoters in the ddlB-ftsZ region to the transcription of the essential cell-division gene ftsZ in Escherichia coli.

    PubMed

    Flärdh, K; Garrido, T; Vicente, M

    1997-06-01

    The essential cell-division gene ftsZ is transcribed in Escherichia coli from at least six promoters found within the coding regions of the upstream ddlB, ftsQ, and ftsA genes. The contribution of each one to the final yield of ftsZ transcription has been estimated using transcriptional lacZ fusions. The most proximal promoter, ftsZ2p, contributes less than 5% of the total transcription from the region that reaches ftsZ. The ftsZ4p and ftsZ3p promoters, both located inside ftsA, produce almost 37% of the transcription. An ftsAp promoter within the ftsQ gene yields nearly 12% of total transcription from the region. A large proportion of transcription (approximately 46%) derives from promoters ftsQ2p and ftsQ1p, which are located inside the upstream ddlB gene. Thus, the ftsQAZ genes are to a large extent transcribed as a polycistronic mRNA. However, we find that the ftsZ proximal region is necessary for full expression, which is in agreement with a recent report that mRNA cleavage by RNase E at the end of the ftsA cistron has a significant role in the contol of ftsZ expression.

  8. Virtual screening of potential inhibitor against FtsZ protein from Staphylococcus aureus.

    PubMed

    Vijayalakshmi, Periyasamy; Nisha, Jaganathan; Rajalakshmi, Manikkam

    2014-12-01

    The gram-positive bacterium Staphylococcus aureus, responsible for a wide variety of diseases in human involve all organ systems ranging from localized skin infections to life-threatening systemic infections. FtsZ, the key protein of bacterial cell division was selected as a potent anti bacterial target. In order to identify the new compounds structure based screening process was carried out. An enrichment study was performed to select a suitable scoring function and to retrieve potential candidates against FtsZ from a large chemical database. The docking score and docking energy values were compared and their atomic interaction was also evaluated. Furthermore molecular dynamics simulation were also been performed to check the stability and the amino acids interacted towards the FtsZ. Finally we selected C ID 16284, 25916, 15894, 13403 as better lead compounds. From these results, we conclude that our insilico results will provide a framework for the detailed in vitro and in vivo studies about the FtsZ protein activity in drug development process. PMID:25519150

  9. Virtual screening of potential inhibitor against FtsZ protein from Staphylococcus aureus.

    PubMed

    Vijayalakshmi, Periyasamy; Nisha, Jaganathan; Rajalakshmi, Manikkam

    2014-11-01

    The gram-positive bacterium Staphylococcus aureus, responsible for a wide variety of diseases in human involve all organ systems ranging from localized skin infections to life-threatening systemic infections. FtsZ, the key protein of bacterial cell division was selected as a potent anti bacterial target. In order to identify the new compounds structure based screening process was carried out. An enrichment study was performed to select a suitable scoring function and to retrieve potential candidates against FtsZ from a large chemical database. The docking score and docking energy values were compared and their atomic interaction was also evaluated. Furthermore molecular dynamics simulation were also been performed to check the stability and the amino acids interacted towards the FtsZ. Finally we selected C ID 16284, 25916, 15894, 13403 as better lead compounds. From these results, we conclude that our insilico results will provide a framework for the detailed in vitro and in vivo studies about the FtsZ protein activity in drug development process. PMID:25373631

  10. Role of leucine zipper motifs in association of the Escherichia coli cell division proteins FtsL and FtsB.

    PubMed

    Robichon, Carine; Karimova, Gouzel; Beckwith, Jon; Ladant, Daniel

    2011-09-01

    FtsL and FtsB are two inner-membrane proteins that are essential constituents of the cell division apparatus of Escherichia coli. In this study, we demonstrate that the leucine zipper-like (LZ) motifs, located in the periplasmic domain of FtsL and FtsB, are required for an optimal interaction between these two essential proteins.

  11. DCS/FTS Commercial Satellite Communications System

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shimabukuro, T.; Rosner, R.; Pearsall, C.

    In order to control the rising costs of telephonic services and meeting the increasing demand for wideband video and data services within U.S. Federal Government agencies, the Defense Communications Agency and the General Services Administration have begun the implementation of a leased Commercial Satellite Communications System. Service volume demand, commonality of service requirements, and common geographic communities of interest facilitate economies of scale in the course of meeting DOD and other Federal agencies' objectives. The service, which incorporates the Federal Telecommunications Service and is therefore designated DCS/FTS, is presently studied with respect to military and national objectives.

  12. FtsZ inhibition: a promising approach for antistaphylococcal therapy.

    PubMed

    Singh, Parminder; Panda, Dulal

    2010-06-01

    Staphylococcus causes a large number of animal and human diseases and has been considered as a major health concern. With the emergence of resistant strains of staphylococcus, like methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus and vancomycin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus, the search for novel antibacterial targets has intensified. FtsZ, a bacterial cytoskeleton protein, is involved in cell division. FtsZ assembles into protofilaments in a GTP-dependent manner, and forms a dynamic Z-ring at the mid-cell position. The assembly dynamics of FtsZ in the Z-ring are regulated by the combined actions of several FtsZ-associated proteins. Furthermore, the interaction of FtsZ with accessory proteins is essential for their recruitment to the Zring. A disruption of this interaction perturbs the Z-ring formation. FtsZ inhibitors like PC-190723 have been suggested to inhibit the Staphylococcus cell division by perturbing the assembly and stability of FtsZ polymers. In this review, we discuss the assembly dynamics of Z-ring and its role in cell division. In addition, we highlight recent advances suggesting the potential of FtsZ as a drug target for antistaphylococcal therapy. PMID:20603653

  13. Resilient FTS3 service at GridKa

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hartmann, T.; Bubeliene, J.; Hoeft, B.; Obholz, L.; Petzold, A.; Wisniewski, K.

    2015-12-01

    The FTS (File Transfer Service) service provides a transfer job scheduler to distribute and replicate vast amounts of data over the heterogeneous WLCG infrastructures. Compared to the channel model of the previous versions, the most recent version of FTS simplifies and improves the flexibility of the service while reducing the load to the service components. The improvements allow to handle a higher number of transfers with a single FTS3 setup. Covering now continent-wide transfers compared to the previous version, whose installations handled only transfers within specific clouds, a resilient system becomes even more necessary with the increased number of depending users. Having set up a FTS3 services at the German T1 site GridKa at KIT in Karlsruhe, we present our experiences on the preparations for a high-availability FTS3 service. Trying to avoid single points of failure, we rely on a database cluster as fault tolerant data back-end and the FTS3 service deployed on an own cluster setup to provide a resilient infrastructure for the users. With the database cluster providing a basic resilience for the data back-end, we ensure on the FTS3 service level a consistent and reliable database access through a proxy solution. On each FTS3 node a HAproxy instance is monitoring the integrity of each database node and distributes database queries over the whole cluster for load balancing during normal operations; in case of a broken database node, the proxy excludes it transparently to the local FTS3 service. The FTS3 service itself consists of a main and a backup instance, which takes over the identity of the main instance, i.e., IP, in case of an error using a CTDB (Cluster Trivial Database) infrastructure offering clients a consistent service.

  14. The bacterial cell division proteins FtsA and FtsZ self-organize into dynamic cytoskeletal patterns

    PubMed Central

    Loose, Martin; Mitchison, Timothy J.

    2014-01-01

    Bacterial cytokinesis is commonly initiated by the Z-ring, a cytoskeletal structure assembling at the site of division. Its primary component is FtsZ, a tubulin superfamily GTPase, which is recruited to the membrane by the actin-related protein FtsA. Both proteins are required for the formation of the Z-ring, but if and how they influence each other’s assembly dynamics is not known. Here, we reconstituted FtsA-dependent recruitment of FtsZ polymers to supported membranes, where both proteins self-organize into complex patterns, such as fast-moving filament bundles and chirally rotating rings. Using fluorescence microscopy and biochemical perturbations, we found that these large-scale rearrangements of FtsZ emerge from its polymerization dynamics and a dual, antagonistic role of FtsA: recruitment of FtsZ filaments to the membrane and a negative regulation on FtsZ organization. Our findings provide a model for the initial steps of bacterial cell division and illustrate how dynamic polymers can self-organize into large-scale structures. PMID:24316672

  15. Dimethyl sulphoxide and Ca2+ stimulate assembly of Vibrio cholerae FtsZ.

    PubMed

    Chatterjee, Abhisek; Chakrabarti, Gopal

    2014-10-01

    We cloned, overexpressed and purified Vibrio cholerae FtsZ protein for the first time. We used several complementary techniques to probe and compare the comparative assembly properties of recombinant Vibrio cholerae FtsZ (VcFtsZ) and Escherichia coli FtsZ (EcFtsZ). We observed that VcFtsZ polymerized at a slower rate than EcFtsZ and interestingly its polymerization was highly dependent on the presence of Ca(2+) ion. Furthermore, DMSO specifically modulated the polymerization of VcFtsZ, promoted polymer bundling and increased the stability of the VcFtsZ protofilaments. Whereas DMSO showed no significant stimulatory effect on the assembly and bundling of EcFtsZ. Transmission electron microscopy experiments demonstrated that in presence of 8% DMSO the average thickness of the VcFtsZ polymers were increased significantly. DMSO specifically stabilized the VcFtsZ polymers against dilution induced disassembly and it reduced the GTPase activity of VcFtsZ. These results collectively suggested that despite lot of sequence homology, the assembly of VcFtsZ and EcFtsZ are differently regulated processes. We expect to use this knowledge of assembly properties of VcFtsZ for screening of small molecules against VcFtsZ for development of anti-cholera agent.

  16. Manned Mars mission on-orbit operations FTS capabilities assessment

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gallo, Frank G.; Jackson, Stewart W.

    1989-01-01

    This document presents an overview of the characteristics and capabilities of the flight telerobotic servicer (FTS), under development at GSFC at the time the report was prepared; the project has since been cancelled. The assessment was directed toward developing the FTS to enable assembly and servicing of the Mars vehicle at the space station; facilitate rendezvous, docking, and fluid transfer operations involving the Mars vehicle fuel tank; to perform strip-mining operations on the lunar/martian surfaces; and to construct a three-story shelter on the martian surface. The report considers the FTS' mechanical, electrical, thermal, and operational subsystems, as well as its proposed manipulator capabilities.

  17. Relating FTS Catalyst Properties to Performance

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ma, Wenping; Ramana Rao Pendyala, Venkat; Gao, Pei; Jermwongratanachai, Thani; Jacobs, Gary; Davis, Burton H.

    2016-01-01

    During the reporting period June 23, 2011 to August 31, 2013, CAER researchers carried out research in two areas of fundamental importance to the topic of cobalt-based Fischer-Tropsch Synthesis (FTS): promoters and stability. The first area was research into possible substitute promoters that might be used to replace the expensive promoters (e.g., Pt, Re, and Ru) that are commonly used. To that end, three separate investigations were carried out. Due to the strong support interaction of ?-Al2O3 with cobalt, metal promoters are commonly added to commercial FTS catalysts to facilitate the reduction of cobalt oxides and thereby boost active surface cobalt metal sites. To date, the metal promoters examined have been those up to and including Group 11. Because two Group 11 promoters (i.e., Ag and Au) were identified to exhibit positive impacts on conversion, selectivity, or both, research was undertaken to explore metals in Groups 12 - 14. The three metals selected for this purpose were Cd, In, and Sn. At a higher loading of 25%Co on alumina, 1% addition of Cd, In, or Sn was found to-on average-facilitate reduction by promoting a heterogeneous distribution of cobalt consisting of larger lesser interacting cobalt clusters and smaller strongly interacting cobalt species. The lesser interacting species were identified in TPR profiles, where a sharp low temperature peak occurred for the reduction of larger, weakly interacting, CoO species. In XANES, the Cd, In, and Sn promoters were found to exist as oxides, whereas typical promoters (e.g., Re, Ru, Pt) were previously determined to exist in an metallic state in atomic coordination with cobalt. The larger cobalt clusters significantly decreased the active site density relative to the unpromoted 25%Co/Al2O3 catalyst. Decreasing the cobalt loading to 15%Co eliminated the large non-interacting species. The TPR peak for reduction of strongly interacting CoO in the Cd promoted catalyst occurred at a measurably lower temperature

  18. Chloroplast Division Protein ARC3 Regulates Chloroplast FtsZ-Ring Assembly and Positioning in Arabidopsis through Interaction with FtsZ2[C][W

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Min; Schmitz, Aaron J.; Kadirjan-Kalbach, Deena K.; TerBush, Allan D.; Osteryoung, Katherine W.

    2013-01-01

    Chloroplast division is initiated by assembly of a mid-chloroplast FtsZ (Z) ring comprising two cytoskeletal proteins, FtsZ1 and FtsZ2. The division-site regulators ACCUMULATION AND REPLICATION OF CHLOROPLASTS3 (ARC3), MinD1, and MinE1 restrict division to the mid-plastid, but their roles are poorly understood. Using genetic analyses in Arabidopsis thaliana, we show that ARC3 mediates division-site placement by inhibiting Z-ring assembly, and MinD1 and MinE1 function through ARC3. ftsZ1 null mutants exhibited some mid-plastid FtsZ2 rings and constrictions, whereas neither constrictions nor FtsZ1 rings were observed in mutants lacking FtsZ2, suggesting FtsZ2 is the primary determinant of Z-ring assembly in vivo. arc3 ftsZ1 double mutants exhibited multiple parallel but no mid-plastid FtsZ2 rings, resembling the Z-ring phenotype in arc3 single mutants and showing that ARC3 affects positioning of FtsZ2 rings as well as Z rings. ARC3 overexpression in the wild type and ftsZ1 inhibited Z-ring and FtsZ2-ring assembly, respectively. Consistent with its effects in vivo, ARC3 interacted with FtsZ2 in two-hybrid assays and inhibited FtsZ2 assembly in a heterologous system. Our studies are consistent with a model wherein ARC3 directly inhibits Z-ring assembly in vivo primarily through interaction with FtsZ2 in heteropolymers and suggest that ARC3 activity is spatially regulated by MinD1 and MinE1 to permit Z-ring assembly at the mid-plastid. PMID:23715471

  19. Contribution of the FtsQ Transmembrane Segment to Localization to the Cell Division Site▿

    PubMed Central

    Scheffers, Dirk-Jan; Robichon, Carine; Haan, Gert Jan; den Blaauwen, Tanneke; Koningstein, Gregory; van Bloois, Edwin; Beckwith, Jon; Luirink, Joen

    2007-01-01

    The Escherichia coli cell division protein FtsQ is a central component of the divisome. FtsQ is a bitopic membrane protein with a large C-terminal periplasmic domain. In this work we investigated the role of the transmembrane segment (TMS) that anchors FtsQ in the cytoplasmic membrane. A set of TMS mutants was made and analyzed for the ability to complement an ftsQ mutant. Study of the various steps involved in FtsQ biogenesis revealed that one mutant (L29/32R;V38P) failed to functionally insert into the membrane, whereas another mutant (L29/32R) was correctly assembled and interacted with FtsB and FtsL but failed to localize efficiently to the cell division site. Our results indicate that the FtsQ TMS plays a role in FtsQ localization to the division site. PMID:17693520

  20. Variegated tobacco leaves generated by chloroplast FtsH suppression: implication of FtsH function in the maintenance of thylakoid membranes.

    PubMed

    Kato, Yusuke; Kouso, Takayoshi; Sakamoto, Wataru

    2012-02-01

    Mutants lacking a thylakoid membrane-bound metalloprotease, FtsH, are known to cause leaf variegation in Arabidopsis. However, the effect of reduced FtsH levels on leaf variegation has scarcely been examined in other plants. In this study, we performed RNA interference (RNAi) by which FtsH expression was suppressed in tobacco. The resulting FtsH knock-down tobacco plants showed variegation in their leaves, and a negative correlation between the degree of variegation and the level of FtsH, which supported earlier observations in Arabidopsis. A decrease of NtFtsH2 as well as NtFtsH1 suggested that these are the two major isoforms comprising the FtsH complex in tobacco chloroplasts. The RNAi tobacco lines also showed photoinhibition-vulnerable phenotypes, as evidenced by high-light-sensitive PSII activity and retarded degradation of D1 protein. Interestingly, the formation of variegated sectors during leaf development appeared to differ between Arabidopsis and tobacco. In contrast to the formation of variegation in Arabidopsis, the yellow sectors in FtsH RNAi tobacco emerged from green leaves at a late stage of leaf development. A series of cytological observations implied that thylakoid membranes were dismantled after development had already occurred. Late formation of variegation in FtsH RNAi tobacco suggested that the heteromeric FtsH complex is important for maintaining thylakoid membranes.

  1. Commissioning of the FTS-2 Data Reduction Pipeline

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sherwood, M.; Naylor, D.; Gom, B.; Bell, G.; Friberg, P.; Bintley, D.

    2015-09-01

    FTS-2 is the intermediate resolution Fourier Transform Spectrometer coupled to the SCUBA-2 facility bolometer camera at the James Clerk Maxwell Telescope in Hawaii. Although in principle FTS instruments have the advantage of relatively simple optics compared to other spectrometers, they require more sophisticated data processing to compute spectra from the recorded interferogram signal. In the case of FTS-2, the complicated optical design required to interface with the existing telescope optics introduces performance compromises that complicate spectral and spatial calibration, and the response of the SCUBA-2 arrays introduce interferogram distortions that are a challenge for data reduction algorithms. We present an overview of the pipeline and discuss new algorithms that have been written to correct the noise introduced by unexpected behavior of the SCUBA-2 arrays.

  2. Improved ACE-FTS observations of carbon tetrachloride (CCl4)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Harrison, Jeremy; Chipperfield, Martyn; Boone, Chris; Bernath, Peter

    2016-04-01

    The Atmospheric Chemistry Experiment Fourier transform spectrometer (ACE-FTS), on board the SCISAT satellite, has been recording solar occultation spectra through the Earth's atmosphere since 2004 and continues to take measurements with only minor loss in performance. ACE-FTS time series are available for a range of chlorine 'source' gases, including CCl3F (CFC-11), CCl2F2 (CFC-12), CHF2Cl (HCFC-22), CH3Cl and CCl4. Recently there has been much community interest in carbon tetrachloride (CCl4), a substance regulated by the Montreal Protocol because it leads to the catalytic destruction of stratospheric ozone. Estimated sources and sinks of CCl4 remain inconsistent with observations of its abundance. Satellite observations of CCl4 in the stratosphere are particularly useful in validating stratospheric loss (photolysis) rates; in fact the atmospheric loss of CCl4 is essentially all due to photolysis in the stratosphere. However, the latest ACE-FTS v3.5 CCl4 retrieval is biased high by ˜ 20-30%. A new ACE-FTS retrieval scheme utilising new laboratory spectroscopic measurements of CCl4 and improved microwindow selection has recently been developed. This improves upon the v3.5 retrieval and resolves the issue of the high bias; this new scheme will form the basis for the upcoming v4 processing version of ACE-FTS data. This presentation will outline the improvements made in the retrieval, and a subset of data will be compared with modelled CCl4 distributions from SLIMCAT, a state-of-the-art three-dimensional chemical transport model. The use of ACE-FTS data to evaluate the modelled stratospheric loss rate of CCl4 will also be discussed. The evaluated model, which also includes a treatment of surface soil and ocean sinks, will then be used to quantify current uncertainties in the global budget of CCl4.

  3. SCUBA-2 Fourier transform spectrometer (FTS-2) commissioning results

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gom, Brad G.; Naylor, David A.; Friberg, Per; Bell, Graham S.; Bintley, Daniel; Abdelazim, Sherif; Sherwood, Matt

    2014-07-01

    We present the latest commissioning results and instrument performance for the SCUBA-2 imaging Fourier Transform Spectrometer (FTS-2) installed at the James Clerk Maxwell Telescope (JCMT). This ancillary instrument provides intermediate spectral resolution (R ~10 to 5000) across both the 450 and 850 μm atmospheric transmission windows with a FOV of ~5 arcmin2. The superconducting TES sensors and SQUID readout of SCUBA-2 present unique challenges for operation of an FTS; the sensitivity requirements demand high detector linearity and stability in addition to control of systematic atmospheric and optical spillover effects. We discuss the challenges encountered during commissioning and ongoing efforts to mitigate their effects.

  4. Ruthenium red-induced bundling of bacterial cell division protein, FtsZ.

    PubMed

    Santra, Manas Kumar; Beuria, Tushar K; Banerjee, Abhijit; Panda, Dulal

    2004-06-18

    The assembly of FtsZ plays a major role in bacterial cell division, and it is thought that the assembly dynamics of FtsZ is a finely regulated process. Here, we show that ruthenium red is able to modulate FtsZ assembly in vitro. In contrast to the inhibitory effects of ruthenium red on microtubule polymerization, we found that a substoichiometric concentration of ruthenium red strongly increased the light-scattering signal of FtsZ assembly. Further, sedimentable polymer mass was increased by 1.5- and 2-fold in the presence of 2 and 10 microm ruthenium red, respectively. In addition, ruthenium red strongly reduced the GTPase activity and prevented dilution-induced disassembly of FtsZ polymers. Electron microscopic analysis showed that 4-10 microm of ruthenium red produced thick bundles of FtsZ polymers. The significant increase in the light-scattering signal and pelletable polymer mass in the presence of ruthenium red seemed to be due to the bundling of FtsZ protofilaments into larger polymers rather than the actual increase in the level of polymeric FtsZ. Furthermore, ruthenium red was found to copolymerize with FtsZ, and the copolymerization of substoichiometric amounts of ruthenium red with FtsZ polymers promoted cooperative assembly of FtsZ that produced large bundles. Calcium inhibited the binding of ruthenium red to FtsZ. However, a concentration of calcium 1000-fold higher than that of ruthenium red was required to produce similar effects on FtsZ assembly. Ruthenium red strongly modulated FtsZ polymerization, suggesting the presence of an important regulatory site on FtsZ and suggesting that a natural ligand, which mimics the action of ruthenium red, may regulate the assembly of FtsZ in bacteria.

  5. FtsH11 Proteases play a critical role in high temperature stress tolerance in plants

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    FtsHs (Filamentous temperature sensitive H), ATP-dependent zinc metalloproteases of the AAA-superfamily, play essential roles in the turn over of thylakoid proteins damaged by high light stress during photosynthesis. Here, we show that FtsH11, one of the 12 FtsH members in Arabidopsis, plays critic...

  6. Rhizobium meliloti contains a novel second homolog of the cell division gene ftsZ.

    PubMed Central

    Margolin, W; Long, S R

    1994-01-01

    We have identified a second homolog of the cell division gene, ftsZ, in the endosymbiont Rhizobium meliloti. The ftsZ2 gene was cloned by screening a genomic lambda library with a probe derived from PCR amplification of a highly conserved domain. It encodes a 36-kDa protein which shares a high level of sequence similarity with the FtsZ proteins of Escherichia coli and Bacillus subtilis and FtsZ1 (Z1) of R. meliloti but lacks the carboxy-terminal region conserved in other FtsZ proteins. The identity of the ftsZ2 gene product was confirmed both by in vitro transcription-translation in an R. meliloti S-30 extract and by overproduction in R. meliloti cells. As with Z1, the overproduction of FtsZ2 in E. coli inhibited cell division and induced filamentation, although to a lesser extent than with Z1. However, the expression of ftsZ2 in E. coli under certain conditions caused some cells to coil dramatically, a phenotype not observed during Z1 overproduction. Although several Tn3-GUS (glucuronidase) insertions in a plasmid-borne ftsZ2 gene failed to cross into the chromosome, one interruption in the chromosomal ftsZ2 gene was isolated, suggesting that ftsZ2 is nonessential for viability. The two ftsZ genes were genetically mapped to the R. meliloti main chromosome, approximately 100 kb apart. Images PMID:8144471

  7. Ligand screening using fluorescence thermal shift analysis (FTS).

    PubMed

    Luan, Chi-Hao; Light, Samuel H; Dunne, Sara F; Anderson, Wayne F

    2014-01-01

    The fluorescence thermal shift (FTS) method is a biophysical technique that can improve productivity in a structural genomics pipeline and provide a fast and easy platform for identifying ligands in protein function or drug discovery screening. The technique has gained widespread popularity in recent years due to its broad-scale applicability, throughput, and functional relevance. FTS is based on the principle that a protein unfolds at a critical temperature that depends upon its intrinsic stability. A probe that will fluoresce when bound to hydrophobic surfaces is used to monitor protein unfolding as temperature is increased. In this manner, conditions or small molecules that affect the thermal stability of a protein can be identified. Herein, principles, protocols, data analysis, and special considerations of FTS screening as performed for the Center for Structural Genomics of Infectious Diseases (CSGID) pipeline are described in detail. The CSGID FTS screen is designed as a high-throughput 384-well assay to be performed on a robotic platform; however, all protocols can be adapted to a 96-well format that can be assembled manually. Data analysis can be performed using a simple curve fitting of the fluorescent signal using a Boltzmann or double Boltzmann equation. A case study of 100 proteins screened against Emerald Biosystem's ADDit™ library is included as discussion. PMID:24590724

  8. FtsZ-Dependent Elongation of a Coccoid Bacterium

    PubMed Central

    Pereira, Ana R.; Hsin, Jen; Król, Ewa; Tavares, Andreia C.; Flores, Pierre; Hoiczyk, Egbert; Ng, Natalie; Dajkovic, Alex; Brun, Yves V.; VanNieuwenhze, Michael S.; Roemer, Terry; Carballido-Lopez, Rut; Huang, Kerwyn Casey

    2016-01-01

    ABSTRACT A mechanistic understanding of the determination and maintenance of the simplest bacterial cell shape, a sphere, remains elusive compared with that of more complex shapes. Cocci seem to lack a dedicated elongation machinery, and a spherical shape has been considered an evolutionary dead-end morphology, as a transition from a spherical to a rod-like shape has never been observed in bacteria. Here we show that a Staphylococcus aureus mutant (M5) expressing the ftsZG193D allele exhibits elongated cells. Molecular dynamics simulations and in vitro studies indicate that FtsZG193D filaments are more twisted and shorter than wild-type filaments. In vivo, M5 cell wall deposition is initiated asymmetrically, only on one side of the cell, and progresses into a helical pattern rather than into a constricting ring as in wild-type cells. This helical pattern of wall insertion leads to elongation, as in rod-shaped cells. Thus, structural flexibility of FtsZ filaments can result in an FtsZ-dependent mechanism for generating elongated cells from cocci. PMID:27601570

  9. Life without Division: Physiology of Escherichia coli FtsZ-Deprived Filaments

    PubMed Central

    Sánchez-Gorostiaga, Alicia; Palacios, Pilar; Martínez-Arteaga, Rocío; Sánchez, Manuel; Casanova, Mercedes

    2016-01-01

    ABSTRACT When deprived of FtsZ, Escherichia coli cells (VIP205) grown in liquid form long nonseptated filaments due to their inability to assemble an FtsZ ring and their failure to recruit subsequent divisome components. These filaments fail to produce colonies on solid medium, in which synthesis of FtsZ is induced, upon being diluted by a factor greater than 4. However, once the initial FtsZ levels are recovered in liquid culture, they resume division, and their plating efficiency returns to normal. The potential septation sites generated in the FtsZ-deprived filaments are not annihilated, and once sufficient FtsZ is accumulated, they all become active and divide to produce cells of normal length. FtsZ-deprived cells accumulate defects in their physiology, including an abnormally high number of unsegregated nucleoids that may result from the misplacement of FtsK. Their membrane integrity becomes compromised and the amount of membrane proteins, such as FtsK and ZipA, increases. FtsZ-deprived cells also show an altered expression pattern, namely, transcription of several genes responding to DNA damage increases, whereas transcription of some ribosomal or global transcriptional regulators decreases. We propose that the changes caused by the depletion of FtsZ, besides stopping division, weaken the cell, diminishing its resiliency to minor challenges, such as dilution stress. PMID:27729511

  10. FtsZ does not initiate membrane constriction at the onset of division

    PubMed Central

    Daley, Daniel O.; Skoglund, Ulf; Söderström, Bill

    2016-01-01

    The source of constriction required for division of a bacterial cell remains enigmatic. FtsZ is widely believed to be a key player, because in vitro experiments indicate that it can deform liposomes when membrane tethered. However in vivo evidence for such a role has remained elusive as it has been challenging to distinguish the contribution of FtsZ from that of peptidoglycan-ingrowth. To differentiate between these two possibilities we studied the early stages of division in Escherichia coli, when FtsZ is present at the division site but peptidoglycan synthesizing enzymes such as FtsI and FtsN are not. Our approach was to use correlative cryo-fluorescence and cryo-electron microscopy (cryo-CLEM) to monitor the localization of fluorescently labeled FtsZ, FtsI or FtsN correlated with the septal ultra-structural geometry in the same cell. We noted that the presence of FtsZ at the division septum is not sufficient to deform membranes. This observation suggests that, although FtsZ can provide a constrictive force, the force is not substantial at the onset of division. Conversely, the presence of FtsN always correlated with membrane invagination, indicating that allosteric activation of peptidoglycan ingrowth is the trigger for constriction of the cell envelope during cell division in E. coli. PMID:27609565

  11. FtsZ does not initiate membrane constriction at the onset of division.

    PubMed

    Daley, Daniel O; Skoglund, Ulf; Söderström, Bill

    2016-01-01

    The source of constriction required for division of a bacterial cell remains enigmatic. FtsZ is widely believed to be a key player, because in vitro experiments indicate that it can deform liposomes when membrane tethered. However in vivo evidence for such a role has remained elusive as it has been challenging to distinguish the contribution of FtsZ from that of peptidoglycan-ingrowth. To differentiate between these two possibilities we studied the early stages of division in Escherichia coli, when FtsZ is present at the division site but peptidoglycan synthesizing enzymes such as FtsI and FtsN are not. Our approach was to use correlative cryo-fluorescence and cryo-electron microscopy (cryo-CLEM) to monitor the localization of fluorescently labeled FtsZ, FtsI or FtsN correlated with the septal ultra-structural geometry in the same cell. We noted that the presence of FtsZ at the division septum is not sufficient to deform membranes. This observation suggests that, although FtsZ can provide a constrictive force, the force is not substantial at the onset of division. Conversely, the presence of FtsN always correlated with membrane invagination, indicating that allosteric activation of peptidoglycan ingrowth is the trigger for constriction of the cell envelope during cell division in E. coli. PMID:27609565

  12. FtsZ does not initiate membrane constriction at the onset of division.

    PubMed

    Daley, Daniel O; Skoglund, Ulf; Söderström, Bill

    2016-09-09

    The source of constriction required for division of a bacterial cell remains enigmatic. FtsZ is widely believed to be a key player, because in vitro experiments indicate that it can deform liposomes when membrane tethered. However in vivo evidence for such a role has remained elusive as it has been challenging to distinguish the contribution of FtsZ from that of peptidoglycan-ingrowth. To differentiate between these two possibilities we studied the early stages of division in Escherichia coli, when FtsZ is present at the division site but peptidoglycan synthesizing enzymes such as FtsI and FtsN are not. Our approach was to use correlative cryo-fluorescence and cryo-electron microscopy (cryo-CLEM) to monitor the localization of fluorescently labeled FtsZ, FtsI or FtsN correlated with the septal ultra-structural geometry in the same cell. We noted that the presence of FtsZ at the division septum is not sufficient to deform membranes. This observation suggests that, although FtsZ can provide a constrictive force, the force is not substantial at the onset of division. Conversely, the presence of FtsN always correlated with membrane invagination, indicating that allosteric activation of peptidoglycan ingrowth is the trigger for constriction of the cell envelope during cell division in E. coli.

  13. A protease complex in the Escherichia coli plasma membrane: HflKC (HflA) forms a complex with FtsH (HflB), regulating its proteolytic activity against SecY.

    PubMed Central

    Kihara, A; Akiyama, Y; Ito, K

    1996-01-01

    Escherichia coli FtsH (HflB), a membrane-bound ATPase is required for proteolytic degradation of uncomplexed forms of the protein translocase SecY subunit. We have now isolated SecY-stabilizing mutations that cause an amino acid substitution in the HflK-HflC membrane protein complex. Although HflKC protein was believed to have a proteolytic activity against lambda cII protein, deletion of hflK-hflC did not stabilize SecY. Instead, the mutant alleles were partially dominant and overexpression of ftsH suppressed the mutational effects, suggesting that the mutant proteins antagonized the degradation of SecY. These results raise the possibility that even the wild-type HflKC protein acts to antagonize FtsH. Consistent with this notion, the hflkC null mutation accelerated degradation of the SecY24 protein. Furthermore cross-linking, co-immunoprecipitation, histidine-tagging and gel filtration experiments all indicated that FtsH and HflKC form a complex in vivo and in vitro. Finally, purified HflKC protein inhibited the SecY-degrading activity of purified FtsH protein in vitro. These results indicate that the proteolytic activity of FtsH is modulated negatively by its association with HflKC. Images PMID:8947034

  14. Functional substitution of the transient membrane-anchor domain in Escherichia coli FtsY with an N-terminal hydrophobic segment of Streptomyces lividans FtsY.

    PubMed

    Maeda, Isamu; Hirata, Asumi; Shoji, Miki; Ueda, Shunsaku; Yoshida, Kazuyuki

    2008-10-01

    FtsY is a signal recognition particle receptor in Escherichia coli that mediates the targeting of integral membrane proteins to translocons by interacting with both signal recognition particle (SRP)-nascent polypeptide-ribosome complexes and the cytoplasmic membrane. Genes encoding the N-terminal segments of Streptomyces lividans FtsY were fused to a gene encoding the E. coli FtsY NG domain (truncated versions of FtsY lacking the transient membrane-anchor domain at the N-terminus), introduced into a conditional ftsY-deletion mutant of E. coli, and expressed in trans to produce chimeric FtsY proteins. Under FtsY-depleted conditions, strains producing chimeric proteins including 34 N-terminal hydrophobic residues grew whereas strains producing chimeric proteins without these 34 residues did not. A strain producing the chimeric protein comprising the 34 residues and NG domain processed beta-lactamase, suggesting that the SRP-dependent membrane integration of leader peptidase was restored in this strain. These results suggest that the N-terminal hydrophobic segment of FtsY in this Gram-positive bacterium is responsible for its interaction with the cytoplasmic membrane.

  15. FTS maintenance and calibration at DSS 42/43

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dachel, P. R.; Wells, J.

    1979-01-01

    An FTS maintenance and calibration task was conducted at DSS 42/43 during August 1978. The objectives of this effort were (1) the routine maintenance and calibration of hydrogen masers, (2) installation and calibration of cesium standards, (3) installation of test equipment for frequency measurement, (4) CRG testing, (5) cabling inspection and repair, (6) check thermal and magnetic environment of H-maser/cesium room, and (7) calibration of frequency and timing subsystem.

  16. Cell cycle-dependent modulation of FtsZ expression in synchronized tobacco BY2 cells.

    PubMed

    El-Shami, M; El-Kafafi, S; Falconet, D; Lerbs-Mache, S

    2002-04-01

    In higher plants, the FtsZ protein, the ancestor of tubulin, has been shown to be implicated in both proplastid division, which occurs in dividing cells and in the division of the differentiated plastids present in non-dividing cells. Here we report studies on the expression of the two FtsZ gene families in higher plants, FtsZ1 and FtsZ2, in non-synchronized and synchronized tobacco BY2 cells. We have isolated and characterized members of each gene family from Nicotiana tabacum. Specific cDNA probes for each tobacco FtsZ gene family and polyclonal antibodies specific for the FtsZ1 and FtsZ2 proteins were obtained in order to determine mRNA and protein levels. A constant level of FtsZ1 and FtsZ2 transcripts and proteins was observed in non-synchronized cell cultures. However, a complex pattern of expression of both gene families was observed during the cell cycle in synchronized cells, with mRNA and protein levels peaking during cell division, thus implying that the FtsZ proteins may be involved in plastid transmission to the two daughter cells.

  17. The GTPase Activity of Escherichia coli FtsZ Determines the Magnitude of the FtsZ Polymer Bundling by ZapA in Vitro†

    PubMed Central

    2009-01-01

    FtsZ polymerizes in a ring-like structure at mid cell to initiate cell division in Escherichia coli. The ring is stabilized by a number of proteins among which the widely conserved ZapA protein. Using antibodies against ZapA, we found surprisingly that the cellular concentration of ZapA is approximately equal to that of FtsZ. This raised the question of how the cell can prevent their interaction and thereby the premature stabilization of FtsZ protofilaments in nondividing cells. Therefore, we studied the FtsZ−ZapA interaction at the physiological pH of 7.5 instead of pH 6.5 (the optimal pH for FtsZ polymerization), under conditions that stimulate protofilament formation (5 mM MgCl2) and under conditions that stimulate and stabilize protofilaments (10 mM MgCl2). Using pelleting, light scattering, and GTPase assays, it was found that stabilization and bundling of FtsZ polymers by ZapA was inversely correlated to the GTPase activity of FtsZ. As GTP hydrolysis is the rate-limiting factor for depolymerization of FtsZ, we propose that ZapA will only enhance the cooperativity of polymer association during the transition from helical filament to mid cell ring and will not stabilize the short single protofilaments in the cytoplasm. All thus far published in vitro data on the interaction between FtsZ and ZapA have been obtained with His-ZapA. We found that in our case the presence of a His tag fused to ZapA prevented the protein to complement a ΔzapA strain in vivo and that it affected the interaction between FtsZ and ZapA in vitro. PMID:19842714

  18. The bacterial SRP receptor, FtsY, is activated on binding to the translocon.

    PubMed

    Draycheva, Albena; Bornemann, Thomas; Ryazanov, Sergey; Lakomek, Nils-Alexander; Wintermeyer, Wolfgang

    2016-10-01

    Proteins are inserted into the bacterial plasma membrane cotranslationally after translating ribosomes are targeted to the translocon in the membrane via the signal recognition particle (SRP) pathway. The targeting pathway involves an interaction between SRP and the SRP receptor, FtsY. Here we focus on the role of FtsY and its interaction with the translocon in controlling targeting. We show that in unbound FtsY the NG and A domains interact with one another. The interaction involves the membrane-targeting region at the junction between A and N domain. The closed form of FtsY is impaired in binding to SRP. Upon binding to the phospholipid-embedded translocon the domains of FtsY move apart. This enhances the docking of the FtsY NG domain to the homologous NG domain of the SRP protein Ffh. Thus, FtsY binding to the translocon has a central role in orchestrating the formation of a quaternary transfer complex in which the nascent peptide is transferred to the translocon. We propose that FtsY activation at the translocon ensures that ribosome-SRP complexes are directed to available translocons. This way sequestering SRP in futile complexes with unbound FtsY can be avoided and efficient targeting to the translocon achieved. PMID:27355662

  19. An FtsH protease is recruited to the mitochondrion of Plasmodium falciparum.

    PubMed

    Tanveer, Aiman; Allen, Stacey M; Jackson, Katherine E; Charan, Manish; Ralph, Stuart A; Habib, Saman

    2013-01-01

    The two organelles, apicoplast and mitochondrion, of the malaria parasite Plasmodium falciparum have unique morphology in liver and blood stages; they undergo complex branching and looping prior to division and segregation into daughter merozoites. Little is known about the molecular processes and proteins involved in organelle biogenesis in the parasite. We report the identification of an AAA+/FtsH protease homolog (PfFtsH1) that exhibits ATP- and Zn(2+)-dependent protease activity. PfFtsH1 undergoes processing, forms oligomeric assemblies, and is associated with the membrane fraction of the parasite cell. Generation of a transfectant parasite line with hemagglutinin-tagged PfFtsH1, and immunofluorescence assay with anti-PfFtsH1 Ab demonstrated that the protein localises to P. falciparum mitochondria. Phylogenetic analysis and the single transmembrane region identifiable in PfFtsH1 suggest that it is an i-AAA like inner mitochondrial membrane protein. Expression of PfFtsH1 in Escherichia coli converted a fraction of bacterial cells into division-defective filamentous forms implying a sequestering effect of the Plasmodium factor on the bacterial homolog, indicative of functional conservation with EcFtsH. These results identify a membrane-associated mitochondrial AAA+/FtsH protease as a candidate regulatory protein for organelle biogenesis in P. falciparum.

  20. Cytological Profile of Antibacterial FtsZ Inhibitors and Synthetic Peptide MciZ

    PubMed Central

    Araújo-Bazán, Lidia; Ruiz-Avila, Laura B.; Andreu, David; Huecas, Sonia; Andreu, José M.

    2016-01-01

    Cell division protein FtsZ is the organizer of the cytokinetic ring in almost all bacteria and a target for the discovery of new antibacterial agents that are needed to counter widespread antibiotic resistance. Bacterial cytological profiling, using quantitative microscopy, is a powerful approach for identifying the mechanism of action of antibacterial molecules affecting different cellular pathways. We have determined the cytological profile on Bacillus subtilis cells of a selection of small molecule inhibitors targeting FtsZ on different binding sites. FtsZ inhibitors lead to long undivided cells, impair the normal assembly of FtsZ into the midcell Z-rings, induce aberrant ring distributions, punctate FtsZ foci, membrane spots and also modify nucleoid length. Quantitative analysis of cell and nucleoid length combined, or the Z-ring distribution, allows categorizing FtsZ inhibitors and to distinguish them from antibiotics with other mechanisms of action, which should be useful for identifying new antibacterial FtsZ inhibitors. Biochemical assays of FtsZ polymerization and GTPase activity combined explain the cellular effects of the FtsZ polymer stabilizing agent PC190723 and its fragments. MciZ is a 40-aminoacid endogenous inhibitor of cell division normally expressed during sporulation in B. subtilis. Using FtsZ cytological profiling we have determined that exogenous synthetic MciZ is an effective inhibitor of B. subtilis cell division, Z-ring formation and localization. This finding supports our cell-based approach to screen for FtsZ inhibitors and opens new possibilities for peptide inhibitors of bacterial cell division. PMID:27752253

  1. The Hetero-Hexameric Nature of a Chloroplast AAA+ FtsH Protease Contributes to Its Thermodynamic Stability

    PubMed Central

    Ziv, Tamar; Adam, Zach; Prag, Gali

    2012-01-01

    FtsH is an evolutionary conserved membrane-bound metalloprotease complex. While in most prokaryotes FtsH is encoded by a single gene, multiple FtsH genes are found in eukaryotes. Genetic and biochemical data suggest that the Arabidopsis chloroplast FtsH is a hetero-hexamer. This raises the question why photosynthetic organisms require a heteromeric complex, whereas in most bacteria a homomeric one is sufficient. To gain structural information of the possible complexes, the Arabidopsis FtsH2 (type B) and FtsH5 (type A) were modeled. An in silico study with mixed models of FtsH2/5 suggests that heteromeric hexamer structure with ratio of 4∶2 is more likely to exists. Specifically, calculation of the buried surface area at the interfaces between neighboring subunits revealed that a hetero-complex should be thermodynamically more stable than a homo-hexamer, due to the presence of additional hydrophobic and hydrophilic interactions. To biochemically assess this model, we generated Arabidopsis transgenic plants, expressing epitope-tagged FtsH2 and immuno-purified the protein. Mass-spectrometry analysis showed that FtsH2 is associated with FtsH1, FtsH5 and FtsH8. Interestingly, we found that ‘type B’ subunits (FtsH2 and FtsH8) were 2–3 fold more abundant than ‘type A’ (FtsH1 and FtsH5). The biochemical data corroborate the in silico model and suggest that the thylakoid FtsH hexamer is composed of two ‘type A’ and four ‘type B’ subunits. PMID:22558304

  2. A novel membrane anchor for FtsZ is linked to cell wall hydrolysis in Caulobacter crescentus.

    PubMed

    Meier, Elizabeth L; Razavi, Shiva; Inoue, Takanari; Goley, Erin D

    2016-07-01

    In most bacteria, the tubulin-like GTPase FtsZ forms an annulus at midcell (the Z-ring) which recruits the division machinery and regulates cell wall remodeling. Although both activities require membrane attachment of FtsZ, few membrane anchors have been characterized. FtsA is considered to be the primary membrane tether for FtsZ in bacteria, however in Caulobacter crescentus, FtsA arrives at midcell after stable Z-ring assembly and early FtsZ-directed cell wall synthesis. We hypothesized that additional proteins tether FtsZ to the membrane and demonstrate that in C. crescentus, FzlC is one such membrane anchor. FzlC associates with membranes directly in vivo and in vitro and recruits FtsZ to membranes in vitro. As for most known membrane anchors, the C-terminal peptide of FtsZ is required for its recruitment to membranes by FzlC in vitro and midcell recruitment of FzlC in cells. In vivo, overproduction of FzlC causes cytokinesis defects whereas deletion of fzlC causes synthetic defects with dipM, ftsE and amiC mutants, implicating FzlC in cell wall hydrolysis. Our characterization of FzlC as a novel membrane anchor for FtsZ expands our understanding of FtsZ regulators and establishes a role for membrane-anchored FtsZ in the regulation of cell wall hydrolysis.

  3. Expression of the Escherichia coli ftsZ gene: trials and tribulations of gene fusion studies.

    PubMed

    Robin, A; D'Ari, R

    1993-02-01

    The ftsZ gene of Escherichia coli, which codes for an essential cell division protein, is subjected to multiple regulation, as shown in part with studies using an ftsZ::lacZ operon fusion located on phage lambda JFL100. Using this same fusion, we sought to isolate regulatory mutants overexpressing ftsZ by selecting mutants able to grow on lactose. One Lac+ mutant was obtained which overexpressed the ftsZ::lacZ fusion 70-fold. The mutation responsible for the overexpression lies in a new gene, cot, located near 56 min on the E. coli genetic map. The cot mutation probably affects the transcription of a chromosomal open reading frame, ORF1, lying downstream of the bioA gene and adjacent to the ftzZ::lacZ fusion of the lambda JFL100 prophage integrated at att lambda. Using an ftsZ84(Ts) strain, in which there was a double selection for overexpression of both ftsZ::lacZ and ftsZ+, no Lac+Tr mutants were obtained from 3.6 x 10(10) bacteria; the introduction of a mutL allele, increasing spontaneous base substitution mutation rates 75-fold, did not permit us to isolate such a mutant. We conclude that Lac+ ftsZ-constitutive mutations cannot be obtained in lambda JFL100 lysogens by a single base substitution. PMID:8468005

  4. 59 FR- Post-FTS2000 Development Record Conference Proceedings; Availability Date Change

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    1994-02-22

    ... ADMINISTRATION Post-FTS2000 Development Record Conference Proceedings; Availability Date Change February 4, 1994... Services--Public Review of the Post-FTS2000 Concept Development Record (Release #2)--Conference Proceedings...-day Concept Development Conference proceedings (October 19-21, 1993) is now available on 3.5''...

  5. 59 FR- Post-FTS2000 Concept Development Record Conference Proceedings; Date Change

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    1994-01-26

    ... Development Record Conference Proceedings; Date Change January 12, 1994. AGENCY: General Services... Services--Public Review of the Post-FTS2000 Concept Development Record (Release #2)--Conference Proceedings. SUMMARY: The availability date for public review of the Post-FTS2000 conference proceedings...

  6. The Nitrosopumilus maritimus CdvB, but Not FtsZ, Assembles into Polymers

    PubMed Central

    Ng, Kian-Hong; Srinivas, Vinayaka; Srinivasan, Ramanujam; Balasubramanian, Mohan

    2013-01-01

    Euryarchaeota and Crenarchaeota are two major phyla of archaea which use distinct molecular apparatuses for cell division. Euryarchaea make use of the tubulin-related protein FtsZ, while Crenarchaea, which appear to lack functional FtsZ, employ the Cdv (cell division) components to divide. Ammonia oxidizing archaeon (AOA) Nitrosopumilus maritimus belongs to another archaeal phylum, the Thaumarchaeota, which has both FtsZ and Cdv genes in the genome. Here, we used a heterologous expression system to characterize FtsZ and Cdv proteins from N. maritimus by investigating the ability of these proteins to form polymers. We show that one of the Cdv proteins in N. maritimus, the CdvB (Nmar_0816), is capable of forming stable polymers when expressed in fission yeast. The N. maritimus CdvB is also capable of assembling into filaments in mammalian cells. However, N. maritimus FtsZ does not assemble into polymers in our system. The ability of CdvB, but not FtsZ, to polymerize is consistent with a recent finding showing that several Cdv proteins, but not FtsZ, localize to the mid-cell site in the dividing N. maritimus. Thus, we propose that it is Cdv proteins, rather than FtsZ, that function as the cell division apparatus in N. maritimus. PMID:23818813

  7. Cloning and characterization of ftsZ and pyrF from the archaeon Thermoplasma acidophilum

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Yaoi, T.; Laksanalamai, P.; Jiemjit, A.; Kagawa, H. K.; Alton, T.; Trent, J. D.

    2000-01-01

    To characterize cytoskeletal components of archaea, the ftsZ gene from Thermoplasma acidophilum was cloned and sequenced. In T. acidophilum ftsZ, which is involved in cell division, was found to be in an operon with the pyrF gene, which encodes orotidine-5'-monophosphate decarboxylase (ODC), an essential enzyme in pyrimidine biosynthesis. Both ftsZ and pyrF from T. acidophilum were expressed in Escherichia coli and formed functional proteins. FtsZ expression in wild-type E. coli resulted in the filamentous phenotype characteristic of ftsZ mutants. T. acidophilum pyrF expression in an E. coli mutant lacking pyrF complemented the mutation and rescued the strain. Sequence alignments of ODCs from archaea, bacteria, and eukarya reveal five conserved regions, two of which have homology to 3-hexulose-6-phosphate synthase (HPS), suggesting a common substrate recognition and binding motif. Copyright 2000 Academic Press.

  8. Cloning and characterization of ftsZ and pyrF from the archaeon Thermoplasma acidophilum.

    PubMed

    Yaoi, T; Laksanalamai, P; Jiemjit, A; Kagawa, H K; Alton, T; Trent, J D

    2000-09-01

    To characterize cytoskeletal components of archaea, the ftsZ gene from Thermoplasma acidophilum was cloned and sequenced. In T. acidophilum ftsZ, which is involved in cell division, was found to be in an operon with the pyrF gene, which encodes orotidine-5'-monophosphate decarboxylase (ODC), an essential enzyme in pyrimidine biosynthesis. Both ftsZ and pyrF from T. acidophilum were expressed in Escherichia coli and formed functional proteins. FtsZ expression in wild-type E. coli resulted in the filamentous phenotype characteristic of ftsZ mutants. T. acidophilum pyrF expression in an E. coli mutant lacking pyrF complemented the mutation and rescued the strain. Sequence alignments of ODCs from archaea, bacteria, and eukarya reveal five conserved regions, two of which have homology to 3-hexulose-6-phosphate synthase (HPS), suggesting a common substrate recognition and binding motif. PMID:10973825

  9. Localization microscopy study of FtsZ structures in E. coli cells during SOS-response

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vedyaykin, A. D.; Sabantsev, A. V.; Vishnyakov, I. E.; Borchsenius, S. N.; Fedorova, Y. V.; Melnikov, A. S.; Serdobintsev, P. Yu; Khodorkovskii, M. A.

    2014-10-01

    Localization microscopy allows visualization of biological structures with resolution well below the diffraction limit. This is achieved by temporal separation of single fluorophore molecules emission and subsequent localization of them with the precision of few tens of nanometers. This method was previously successfully used to obtain images of FtsZ structures in Escherichia coli cells using FtsZ fusion with fluorescent protein mEos2. In this work we obtained superresolution images of FtsZ structures in fixed E. coli cells using immunocytochemical labeling. Comparison of superresolution FtsZ structures in cells undergoing SOS-response and "healthy" cells shows that FtsZ structures are partially disassembled during SOS-response, but still retain some periodicity.

  10. The ftsQ1p gearbox promoter of Escherichia coli is a major sigma S-dependent promoter in the ddlB-ftsA region.

    PubMed

    Ballesteros, M; Kusano, S; Ishihama, A; Vicente, M

    1998-10-01

    The most potent promoters in the ddlB-ftsA region of the dcw cluster have been analysed for sigmaS-dependent transcription. Only the gearbox promoter ftsQ1p was found to be transcribed in vitro by RNA polymerase holoenzyme coupled to sigmaS (EsigmaS). This dependency on sigmaS was also found in vivo when single-copy fusions to a reporter gene were analysed in rpoS and rpoS+ backgrounds. Although ftsQ1p can be transcribed by RNA polymerase containing either sigmaD or sigmaS, there is a preference for EsigmaS when the assay conditions include potassium glutamate and supercoiled templates, a property shared with the bolA1p gearbox promoter. The rest of the promoters assayed, ftsQ2p and ftsZ2p3p4p, similarly to the control bolA2p promoter, were preferentially transcribed by EsigmaD, the housekeeper polymerase. The ftsQ1p and the bolA1p promoters also share the presence of AT-rich sequences upstream of the - 35 region and the requirement for an intact wild-type alpha-subunit for a proficient transcription, allowing their joint classification as gearboxes.

  11. FtsZ-less prokaryotic cell division as well as FtsZ- and dynamin-less chloroplast and non-photosynthetic plastid division

    PubMed Central

    Miyagishima, Shin-ya; Nakamura, Mami; Uzuka, Akihiro; Era, Atsuko

    2014-01-01

    The chloroplast division machinery is a mixture of a stromal FtsZ-based complex descended from a cyanobacterial ancestor of chloroplasts and a cytosolic dynamin-related protein (DRP) 5B-based complex derived from the eukaryotic host. Molecular genetic studies have shown that each component of the division machinery is normally essential for normal chloroplast division. However, several exceptions have been found. In the absence of the FtsZ ring, non-photosynthetic plastids are able to proliferate, likely by elongation and budding. Depletion of DRP5B impairs, but does not stop chloroplast division. Chloroplasts in glaucophytes, which possesses a peptidoglycan (PG) layer, divide without DRP5B. Certain parasitic eukaryotes possess non-photosynthetic plastids of secondary endosymbiotic origin, but neither FtsZ nor DRP5B is encoded in their genomes. Elucidation of the FtsZ- and/or DRP5B-less chloroplast division mechanism will lead to a better understanding of the function and evolution of the chloroplast division machinery and the finding of the as-yet-unknown mechanism that is likely involved in chloroplast division. Recent studies have shown that FtsZ was lost from a variety of prokaryotes, many of which lost PG by regressive evolution. In addition, even some of the FtsZ-bearing bacteria are able to divide when FtsZ and PG are depleted experimentally. In some cases, alternative mechanisms for cell division, such as budding by an increase of the cell surface-to-volume ratio, are proposed. Although PG is believed to have been lost from chloroplasts other than in glaucophytes, there is some indirect evidence for the existence of PG in chloroplasts. Such information is also useful for understanding how non-photosynthetic plastids are able to divide in FtsZ-depleted cells and the reason for the retention of FtsZ in chloroplast division. Here we summarize information to facilitate analyses of FtsZ- and/or DRP5B-less chloroplast and non-photosynthetic plastid division. PMID

  12. Multispectrum Fitting of FTS and Crds Spectra Simultaneously

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Benner, D. Chris; Devi, V. Malathy; Sung, Keeyoon; Hodges, Joseph T.

    2012-06-01

    Various types of spectra contain different sorts of spectral line information. An FTS spectrum provides broad coverage of an identical sample at all parts of the spectrum, but a cavity ring down spectrometer provides higher resolution, more information about line shapes and greater dynamic range in spectral line intensity. In order to use all of the information available, one should put all the spectra available into a single solution. The multispectrum nonlinear least squares fitting technique has proven successful in doing this with transmission spectra from various spectrometers. However, fitting data from cavity ring down spectrometers that produce cross sections is a problem when combined with transmission spectrometers. The solution is to choose a path length for the CRDS data to produce transmissions and use the uncertainty of each cross section as a means of weighting the transmission in the multispectrum solution. This has been incorporated into our fitting technique. Sample oxygen A band fits of CRDS data from NIST combined with FTS data from a high resolution Fourier transform spectrometer in the Infrared, Bruker IFS125-HR, at JPL, equipped with two multipass White cells (absorption path length extendible to 32.5 m and 148 m, respectively) will be shown. D. Chris Benner, C. P. Rinsland, V. M. Devi, M. A. H. Smith, and D. A. Atkins, JQSRT 1995;53:705-21. Support for the work at William and Mary was provided by JPL and the NIST Greenhouse Gas Measurements and Climate Research Program. Part of the research described in this paper was performed at the Jet Propulsion Laboratory, California Institute of Technology under contracts with National Aeronautics and Space Administration. Support for the work at NIST was provided by at the NIST Greenhouse Gas Measurements and Climate Research Program.

  13. FtsZ in Bacterial Cytokinesis: Cytoskeleton and Force Generator All in One†

    PubMed Central

    Erickson, Harold P.; Anderson, David E.; Osawa, Masaki

    2010-01-01

    Summary: FtsZ, a bacterial homolog of tubulin, is well established as forming the cytoskeletal framework for the cytokinetic ring. Recent work has shown that purified FtsZ, in the absence of any other division proteins, can assemble Z rings when incorporated inside tubular liposomes. Moreover, these artificial Z rings can generate a constriction force, demonstrating that FtsZ is its own force generator. Here we review light microscope observations of how Z rings assemble in bacteria. Assembly begins with long-pitch helices that condense into the Z ring. Once formed, the Z ring can transition to short-pitch helices that are suggestive of its structure. FtsZ assembles in vitro into short protofilaments that are ∼30 subunits long. We present models for how these protofilaments might be further assembled into the Z ring. We discuss recent experiments on assembly dynamics of FtsZ in vitro, with particular attention to how two regulatory proteins, SulA and MinC, inhibit assembly. Recent efforts to develop antibacterial drugs that target FtsZ are reviewed. Finally, we discuss evidence of how FtsZ generates a constriction force: by protofilament bending into a curved conformation. PMID:21119015

  14. Mycobacterium tuberculosis FtsX extracellular domain activates the peptidoglycan hydrolase, RipC

    PubMed Central

    Mavrici, Daniela; Marakalala, Mohlopheni J.; Holton, James M.; Prigozhin, Daniil M.; Gee, Christine L.; Zhang, Yanjia J.; Rubin, Eric J.; Alber, Tom

    2014-01-01

    Bacterial growth and cell division are coordinated with hydrolysis of the peptidoglycan (PG) layer of the cell wall, but the mechanisms of regulation of extracellular PG hydrolases are not well understood. Here we report the biochemical, structural, and genetic analysis of the Mycobacterium tuberculosis homolog of the transmembrane PG-hydrolase regulator, FtsX. The purified FtsX extracellular domain binds the PG peptidase Rv2190c/RipC N-terminal segment, causing a conformational change that activates the enzyme. Deletion of ftsEX and ripC caused similar phenotypes in Mycobacterium smegmatis, as expected for genes in a single pathway. The crystal structure of the FtsX extracellular domain reveals an unprecedented fold containing two lobes connected by a flexible hinge. Mutations in the hydrophobic cleft between the lobes reduce RipC binding in vitro and inhibit FtsX function in M. smegmatis. These studies suggest how FtsX recognizes RipC and support a model in which a conformational change in FtsX links the cell division apparatus with PG hydrolysis. PMID:24843173

  15. Escherichia coli cell division mutation ftsM1 is in serU

    SciTech Connect

    Leclerc, G.; Sirard, C.; Drapeau, G.R.

    1989-04-01

    The ftsM1 mutation is believed to be in a gene implicated in the regulation of cell division in Escherichia coli because it displayed the lon mutation phenotypes. In this study, we show that this mutation is located in serU, a gene which codes for tRNA(Ser)2, and has the phenotypes of the serU allele supH. Both ftsM1 and supH suppressed the leuB6 and ilvD145 missense mutations, and both conferred temperature and UV light irradiation sensitivity to the harboring cells. Cells which carried the ftsM1 mutation or the supH suppressor had very low colony-forming abilities on salt-free L agar, and this phenotype was almost completely abolished by the presence of plasmids bearing the ftsZ+ gene. Furthermore, sensitivity of the mutant cells to UV irradiation was also markedly diminished when they carried a ftsZ+-bearing plasmid. These results suggest that supH-containing cells have reduced FtsZ activities, in accordance with their displaying the phenotypes of the lon mutant cells. The possibility that ftsM1 (supH) is functionally involved in the biosynthesis of a specific protein which affects cell division is discussed.

  16. Organization of FtsZ Filaments in the Bacterial Division Ring Measured from Polarized Fluorescence Microscopy

    PubMed Central

    Si, Fangwei; Busiek, Kimberly; Margolin, William; Sun, Sean X.

    2013-01-01

    Cytokinesis in bacteria is accomplished by a ring-shaped cell-division complex (the Z-ring). The primary component of the Z-ring is FtsZ, a filamentous tubulin homolog that serves as a scaffold for the recruitment of other cell-division-related proteins. FtsZ forms filaments and bundles. In the cell, it has been suggested that FtsZ filaments form the arcs of the ring and are aligned in the cell-circumferential direction. Using polarized fluorescence microscopy in live Escherichia coli cells, we measure the structural organization of FtsZ filaments in the Z-ring. The data suggest a disordered organization: a substantial portion of FtsZ filaments are aligned in the cell-axis direction. FtsZ organization in the Z-ring also appears to depend on the bacterial species. Taken together, the unique arrangement of FtsZ suggests novel unexplored mechanisms in bacterial cell division. PMID:24209842

  17. Transcription of ftsZ oscillates during the cell cycle of Escherichia coli.

    PubMed

    Garrido, T; Sánchez, M; Palacios, P; Aldea, M; Vicente, M

    1993-10-01

    The FtsZ protein is a key element controlling cell division in Escherichia coli. A powerful transcription titration assay was used to quantify the ftsZ mRNA present in synchronously dividing cells. The ftsZ mRNA levels oscillate during the cell cycle reaching a maximum at about the time DNA replication initiates. This cell cycle dependency is specifically due to the two proximal ftsZ promoters. A strain was constructed in which expression of ftsZ could be modulated by an exogenous inducer. In this strain cell size and cell division frequency were sensitive to the cellular FtsZ contents, demonstrating the rate-limiting role of this protein in cell division. Transcriptional activity of the ftsZ promoters was found to be independent of DnaA, indicating that DNA replication and cell division may be independently controlled at the time when new rounds of DNA replication are initiated. This suggests a parallelism between the prokaryotic cell cycle signals and the START point of eukaryotic cell cycles.

  18. Robotic technologies of the Flight Telerobotic Servicer (FTS) including fault tolerance

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Chladek, John T.; Craver, William M.

    1994-01-01

    The original FTS concept for Space Station Freedom (SSF) was to provide telerobotic assistance to enhance crew activity and safety and to reduce crew EVA (Extra Vehicular Activity) activity. The first flight of the FTS manipulator systems would demonstrate several candidate tasks and would verify manipulator performance parameters. These first flight tasks included unlocking a SSF Truss Joint, mating/demating a fluid coupling, contact following of a contour board, demonstrating peg-in-hole assembly, and grasping and moving a mass. Future tasks foreseen for the FTS system included ORU (Orbit Replaceable Unit) change-out, Hubble Space Telescope Servicing, Gamma Ray Observatory refueling, and several in-situ SSF servicing and maintenance tasks. Operation of the FTS was planned to evolve from teleoperation to fully autonomous execution of many tasks. This wide range of mission tasks combined with the desire to evolve toward fully autonomy forced several requirements which may seen extremely demanding to the telerobotics community. The FTS requirements appear to have been created to accommodate the open-ended evolution plan such that operational evolution would not be impeded by function limitations. A recommendation arising from the FTS program to remedy the possible impacts from such ambitious requirements is to analyze candidate robotic tasks. Based on these task analyses, operational impacts against development impacts were weighed prior to requirements definition. Many of the FTS requirements discussed in the following sections greatly influenced the development cost and schedule of the FTS manipulator. The FTS manipulator has been assembled at Martin Marietta and is currently in testing. Successful component tests indicate a manipulator which achieves unprecedented performance specifications.

  19. A Compete-and-Survive Mechanism Explains the Single FtsZ-Ring Formation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lan, Ganhui; Xiong, Li-Ping

    2015-03-01

    Cytokinesis is a critical step in cell reproduction. In bacterial cells, this process is mediated by the cytoskeletal Z ring which is assembled from FtsZ filaments that are ``anchored'' to the cell membrane through ZipA/FtsA molecules. Fluorescence Recovery after Photobleaching experiments have shown that the Z ring is highly dynamic, with recovery half time of 8 ~ 30 seconds, yet has a rather persistent overall structure. But it is unclear how a single narrow dynamic Z ring emerges from a big pool of cytoplasmic FtsZ molecules. Here, we developed a rule-based molecular model with FtsZ and ZipA/FtsA molecules, by explicitly considering the elementary assembling events of molecules and their diffusion. Our model can not only efficiently reproduce the Z ring with experimentally observed statistical properties, but provide a convenient way to combine biochemical dynamic and physical assembling processes within the same spatiotemporal modeling framework. In agreement with experiments, we showed that the spontaneous self-assembling process relies on the molecular ``stoichiometry'': either high or low FtsZ to ZipA/FtsA ratios would result in multiple Z rings or aggregated bundles. Our in silico FRAP experiment further yields a recovery half time comparable to experimental results. These results indicate that the rapid turnover dynamics prevents the FtsZ molecules from being sequestered by small FtsZ bundles dispersed over the membrane, allowing single Z ring to emerge and mature. This dynamic colocalization mechanism provides cells a simple way for spatial regulation.

  20. Diverse eukaryotes have retained mitochondrial homologues of the bacterial division protein FtsZ.

    PubMed

    Kiefel, Ben R; Gilson, Paul R; Beech, Peter L

    2004-03-01

    Mitochondrial fission requires the division of both the inner and outer mitochondrial membranes. Dynamin-related proteins operate in division of the outer membrane of probably all mitochondria, and also that of chloroplasts--organelles that have a bacterial origin like mitochondria. How the inner mitochondrial membrane divides is less well established. Homologues of the major bacterial division protein, FtsZ, are known to reside inside mitochondria of the chromophyte alga Mallomonas, a red alga, and the slime mould Dictyostelium discoideum, where these proteins are likely to act in division of the organelle. Mitochondrial FtsZ is, however, absent from the genomes of higher eukaryotes (animals, fungi, and plants), even though FtsZs are known to be essential for the division of probably all chloroplasts. To begin to understand why higher eukaryotes have lost mitochondrial FtsZ, we have sampled various diverse protists to determine which groups have retained the gene. Database searches and degenerate PCR uncovered genes for likely mitochondrial FtsZs from the glaucocystophyte Cyanophora paradoxa, the oomycete Phytophthora infestans, two haptophyte algae, and two diatoms--one being Thalassiosira pseudonana, the draft genome of which is now available. From Thalassiosira we also identified two chloroplast FtsZs, one of which appears to be undergoing a C-terminal shortening that may be common to many organellar FtsZs. Our data indicate that many protists still employ the FtsZ-based ancestral mitochondrial division mechanism, and that mitochondrial FtsZ has been lost numerous times in the evolution of eukaryotes.

  1. SB-RA-2001 Inhibits Bacterial Proliferation by Targeting FtsZ Assembly

    PubMed Central

    2015-01-01

    FtsZ has been recognized as a promising antimicrobial drug target because of its vital role in bacterial cell division. In this work, we found that a taxane SB-RA-2001 inhibited the proliferation of Bacillus subtilis 168 and Mycobacterium smegmatis cells with minimal inhibitory concentrations of 38 and 60 μM, respectively. Cell lengths of these microorganisms increased remarkably in the presence of SB-RA-2001, indicating that it inhibits bacterial cytokinesis. SB-RA-2001 perturbed the formation of the FtsZ ring in B. subtilis 168 cells and also affected the localization of the late cell division protein, DivIVA, at the midcell position. Flow cytometric analysis of the SB-RA-2001-treated cells indicated that the compound did not affect the duplication of DNA in B. subtilis 168 cells. Further, SB-RA-2001 treatment did not affect the localization of the chromosomal partitioning protein, Spo0J, along the two ends of the nucleoids and also had no discernible effect on the nucleoid segregation in B. subtilis 168 cells. The agent also did not appear to perturb the membrane potential of B. subtilis 168 cells. In vitro, SB-RA-2001 bound to FtsZ with modest affinity, promoted the assembly and bundling of FtsZ protofilaments, and reduced the GTPase activity of FtsZ. GTP did not inhibit the binding of SB-RA-2001 to FtsZ, suggesting that it does not bind to the GTP binding site on FtsZ. A computational analysis indicated that SB-RA-2001 binds to FtsZ in the cleft region between the C-terminal domain and helix H7, and the binding site of SB-RA-2001 on FtsZ resembled that of PC190723, a well-characterized inhibitor of FtsZ. The findings collectively suggested that SB-RA-2001 inhibits bacterial proliferation by targeting the assembly dynamics of FtsZ, and this can be exploited further to develop potent FtsZ-targeted antimicrobials. PMID:24749867

  2. A DNA damage checkpoint in Caulobacter crescentus inhibits cell division through a direct interaction with FtsW.

    PubMed

    Modell, Joshua W; Hopkins, Alexander C; Laub, Michael T

    2011-06-15

    Following DNA damage, cells typically delay cell cycle progression and inhibit cell division until their chromosomes have been repaired. The bacterial checkpoint systems responsible for these DNA damage responses are incompletely understood. Here, we show that Caulobacter crescentus responds to DNA damage by coordinately inducing an SOS regulon and inhibiting the master regulator CtrA. Included in the SOS regulon is sidA (SOS-induced inhibitor of cell division A), a membrane protein of only 29 amino acids that helps to delay cell division following DNA damage, but is dispensable in undamaged cells. SidA is sufficient, when overproduced, to block cell division. However, unlike many other regulators of bacterial cell division, SidA does not directly disrupt the assembly or stability of the cytokinetic ring protein FtsZ, nor does it affect the recruitment of other components of the cell division machinery. Instead, we provide evidence that SidA inhibits division by binding directly to FtsW to prevent the final constriction of the cytokinetic ring.

  3. Electrostatic Evaluation of the ARES I FTS Antenna Materials

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hogue, Michael D.; Calle, Carlos I.

    2010-01-01

    Surface resistivity and volume resistivity data show all the tested non-metallic materials of the Ares I FTS antenna assembly to be insulative. The external materials (White foam, phenolic) should be able to develop a large surface charge density upon tribocharging with ice crystal impingement. Dielectric breakdown tests on the FTS antenna housing materials show that each of the insulative materials are very resistive to electrical breakdown. The thicknesses of these materials in a nominal housing should protect the antenna from direct breakdown from external triboelectric charging potentials. Per data from the Air Force study, a maximum external electric potential in the range of 100kV can be developed on surfaces tribocharged by ice crystal impingement. Testing showed that under operational pressure ranges, this level of exterior voltage can result in a potential of about 6 kV induced on the electrically floating interior antenna vanes. Testing the vanes up to this voltage level showed that electrostatic discharges can occur between the electrically floating vanes and the center, grounded screw heads. Repeated tests with multiple invisible and visible discharges caused only superficial physical damage to the vanes. Fourier analysis of the discharge signals showed that the frequency range of credible discharges would not interfere with the nominal operation of the FTS antenna. However, due to the limited scope, short timetable, and limited funding of this study, a direct measurement of the triboelectric charge that could be generated on the Ares I antenna housing when the rocket traverses an ice cloud at supersonic speeds was not performed. Instead, data for the limited Air Force study [3] was used as input for our experiments. The Air Force data used was not collected with a sensor located to provide us with the best approximation at the geometry of the Ares I rocket, namely that of the windshield electrometer, because brush discharges to the metal frame of the

  4. BT-benzo-29 inhibits bacterial cell proliferation by perturbing FtsZ assembly.

    PubMed

    Ray, Shashikant; Jindal, Bhavya; Kunal, Kishore; Surolia, Avadhesha; Panda, Dulal

    2015-10-01

    We have identified a potent antibacterial agent N-(4-sec-butylphenyl)-2-(thiophen-2-yl)-1H-benzo[d]imidazole-4-carboxamide (BT-benzo-29) from a library of benzimidazole derivatives that stalled bacterial division by inhibiting FtsZ assembly. A short (5 min) exposure of BT-benzo-29 disassembled the cytokinetic Z-ring in Bacillus subtilis cells without affecting the cell length and nucleoids. BT-benzo-29 also perturbed the localization of early and late division proteins such as FtsA, ZapA and SepF at the mid-cell. Further, BT-benzo-29 bound to FtsZ with a dissociation constant of 24 ± 3 μm and inhibited the assembly and GTPase activity of purified FtsZ. A docking analysis suggested that BT-benzo-29 may bind to FtsZ at the C-terminal domain near the T7 loop. BT-benzo-29 displayed significantly weaker inhibitory effects on the assembly and GTPase activity of two mutants (L272A and V275A) of FtsZ supporting the prediction of the docking analysis. Further, BT-benzo-29 did not appear to inhibit DNA duplication and nucleoid segregation and it did not perturb the membrane potential of B. subtilis cells. The results suggested that BT-benzo-29 exerts its potent antibacterial activity by inhibiting FtsZ assembly. Interestingly, BT-benzo-29 did not affect the membrane integrity of mammalian red blood cells. BT-benzo-29 bound to tubulin with a much weaker affinity than FtsZ and exerted significantly weaker effects on mammalian cells than on the bacterial cells indicating that the compound may have a strong antibacterial potential.

  5. FtsZ and the division of prokaryotic cells and organelles.

    PubMed

    Margolin, William

    2005-11-01

    Binary fission of many prokaryotes as well as some eukaryotic organelles depends on the FtsZ protein, which self-assembles into a membrane-associated ring structure early in the division process. FtsZ is homologous to tubulin, the building block of the microtubule cytoskeleton in eukaryotes. Recent advances in genomics and cell-imaging techniques have paved the way for the remarkable progress in our understanding of fission in bacteria and organelles. PMID:16227976

  6. FtsZ Polymers Tethered to the Membrane by ZipA Are Susceptible to Spatial Regulation by Min Waves

    PubMed Central

    Martos, Ariadna; Raso, Ana; Jiménez, Mercedes; Petrášek, Zdeněk; Rivas, Germán; Schwille, Petra

    2015-01-01

    Bacterial cell division is driven by an FtsZ ring in which the FtsZ protein localizes at mid-cell and recruits other proteins, forming a divisome. In Escherichia coli, the first molecular assembly of the divisome, the proto-ring, is formed by the association of FtsZ polymers to the cytoplasmic membrane through the membrane-tethering FtsA and ZipA proteins. The MinCDE system plays a major role in the site selection of the division ring because these proteins oscillate from pole to pole in such a way that the concentration of the FtsZ-ring inhibitor, MinC, is minimal at the cell center, thus favoring FtsZ assembly in this region. We show that MinCDE drives the formation of waves of FtsZ polymers associated to bilayers by ZipA, which propagate as antiphase patterns with respect to those of Min as revealed by confocal fluorescence microscopy. The emergence of these FtsZ waves results from the displacement of FtsZ polymers from the vicinity of the membrane by MinCD, which efficiently competes with ZipA for the C-terminal region of FtsZ, a central hub for multiple interactions that are essential for division. The coupling between FtsZ polymers and Min is enhanced at higher surface densities of ZipA or in the presence of crowding agents that favor the accumulation of FtsZ polymers near the membrane. The association of FtsZ polymers to the membrane modifies the response of FtsZ to Min, and comigrating Min-FtsZ waves are observed when FtsZ is free in solution and not attached to the membrane by ZipA. Taken together, our findings show that the dynamic Min patterns modulate the spatial distribution of FtsZ polymers in controlled minimal membranes. We propose that ZipA plays an important role in mid-cell recruitment of FtsZ orchestrated by MinCDE. PMID:25954894

  7. Ras chaperones: new targets for cancer and immunotherapy.

    PubMed

    Kloog, Yoel; Elad-Sfadia, Galit; Haklai, Roni; Mor, Adam

    2013-01-01

    The Ras inhibitor S-trans,trans-farnesylthiosalicylic acid (FTS, Salirasib®) interferes with Ras membrane interactions that are crucial for Ras-dependent signaling and cellular transformation. FTS had been successfully evaluated in clinical trials of cancer patients. Interestingly, its effect is mediated by targeting Ras chaperones that serve as key coordinators for Ras proper folding and delivery, thus offering a novel target for cancer therapy. The development of new FTS analogs has revealed that the specific modifications to the FTS carboxyl group by esterification and amidation yielded compounds with improved growth inhibitory activity. When FTS was combined with additional therapeutic agents its activity toward Ras was significantly augmented. FTS should be tested not only in cancer but also for genetic diseases associated with abnormal Ras signaling, as well as for various inflammatory and autoimmune disturbances, where Ras plays a major role. We conclude that FTS has a great potential both as a safe anticancer drug and as a promising immune modulator agent. PMID:25033809

  8. Cell cycle regulation and cell type-specific localization of the FtsZ division initiation protein in Caulobacter.

    PubMed Central

    Quardokus, E; Din, N; Brun, Y V

    1996-01-01

    Many genes involved in cell division and DNA replication and their protein products have been identified in bacteria; however, little is known about the cell cycle regulation of the intracellular concentration of these proteins. It has been shown that the level of the tubulin-like GTPase FtsZ is critical for the initiation of cell division in bacteria. We show that the concentration of FtsZ varies dramatically during the cell cycle of Caulobacter crescentus. Caulobacter produce two different cell types at each cell division: (i) a sessile stalked cell that can initiate DNA replication immediately after cell division and (ii) a motile swarmer cell in which DNA replication is blocked. After cell division, only the stalked cell contains FtsZ. FtsZ is synthesized slightly before the swarmer cells differentiate into stalked cells and the intracellular concentration of FtsZ is maximal at the beginning of cell division. Late in the cell cycle, after the completion of chromosome replication, the level of FtsZ decreases dramatically. This decrease is probably mostly due to the degradation of FtsZ in the swarmer compartment of the predivisional cell. Thus, the variation of FtsZ concentration parallels the pattern of DNA synthesis. Constitutive expression of FtsZ leads to defects in stalk biosynthesis suggesting a role for FtsZ in this developmental process in addition to its role in cell division. Images Fig. 2 Fig. 3 Fig. 4 PMID:8692812

  9. Rational Design of Berberine-Based FtsZ Inhibitors with Broad-Spectrum Antibacterial Activity

    PubMed Central

    Sun, Ning; Chan, Fung-Yi; Lu, Yu-Jing; Neves, Marco A. C.; Lui, Hok-Kiu; Wang, Yong; Chow, Ka-Yan; Chan, Kin-Fai; Yan, Siu-Cheong; Leung, Yun-Chung; Abagyan, Ruben; Chan, Tak-Hang; Wong, Kwok-Yin

    2014-01-01

    Inhibition of the functional activity of Filamenting temperature-sensitive mutant Z (FtsZ) protein, an essential and highly conserved bacterial cytokinesis protein, is a promising approach for the development of a new class of antibacterial agents. Berberine, a benzylisoquinoline alkaloid widely used in traditional Chinese and native American medicines for its antimicrobial properties, has been recently reported to inhibit FtsZ. Using a combination of in silico structure-based design and in vitro biological assays, 9-phenoxyalkyl berberine derivatives were identified as potent FtsZ inhibitors. Compared to the parent compound berberine, the derivatives showed a significant enhancement of antibacterial activity against clinically relevant bacteria, and an improved potency against the GTPase activity and polymerization of FtsZ. The most potent compound 2 strongly inhibited the proliferation of Gram-positive bacteria, including methicillin-resistant S. aureus and vancomycin-resistant E. faecium, with MIC values between 2 and 4 µg/mL, and was active against the Gram-negative E. coli and K. pneumoniae, with MIC values of 32 and 64 µg/mL respectively. The compound perturbed the formation of cytokinetic Z-ring in E. coli. Also, the compound interfered with in vitro polymerization of S. aureus FtsZ. Taken together, the chemical modification of berberine with 9-phenoxyalkyl substituent groups greatly improved the antibacterial activity via targeting FtsZ. PMID:24824618

  10. Architecture of the ring formed by the tubulin homologue FtsZ in bacterial cell division

    PubMed Central

    Szwedziak, Piotr; Wang, Qing; Bharat, Tanmay A M; Tsim, Matthew; Löwe, Jan

    2014-01-01

    Membrane constriction is a prerequisite for cell division. The most common membrane constriction system in prokaryotes is based on the tubulin homologue FtsZ, whose filaments in E. coli are anchored to the membrane by FtsA and enable the formation of the Z-ring and divisome. The precise architecture of the FtsZ ring has remained enigmatic. In this study, we report three-dimensional arrangements of FtsZ and FtsA filaments in C. crescentus and E. coli cells and inside constricting liposomes by means of electron cryomicroscopy and cryotomography. In vivo and in vitro, the Z-ring is composed of a small, single-layered band of filaments parallel to the membrane, creating a continuous ring through lateral filament contacts. Visualisation of the in vitro reconstituted constrictions as well as a complete tracing of the helical paths of the filaments with a molecular model favour a mechanism of FtsZ-based membrane constriction that is likely to be accompanied by filament sliding. DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.7554/eLife.04601.001 PMID:25490152

  11. 3-Phenyl substituted 6,7-dimethoxyisoquinoline derivatives as FtsZ-targeting antibacterial agents

    PubMed Central

    Kelley, Cody; Zhang, Yongzheng; Parhi, Ajit; Kaul, Malvika; Pilch, Daniel S.; LaVoie, Edmond J.

    2014-01-01

    The emergence of multidrug-resistant bacteria has created an urgent need for antibiotics with a novel mechanism of action. The bacterial cell division protein FtsZ is an attractive target for the development of novel antibiotics. The benzo[c]phenanthridinium sanguinarine and the dibenzo[a,g]quinolizin-7-ium berberine are two structurally similar plant alkaloids that alter FtsZ function. The presence of a hydrophobic functionality at either the 1-position of 5-methylbenzo[c]phenanthridinium derivatives or the 2-position of dibenzo[a,g]quinolizin-7-ium derivatives is associated with significantly enhanced antibacterial activity. 3-Phenylisoquinoline represents a subunit within the ring-systems of both of these alkaloids. Several 3-phenylisoquinolines and 3-phenylisoquinolinium derivatives have been synthesized and evaluated for antibacterial activity against Staphylococcus aureus and Enterococcus faecalis, including multidrug-resistant strains of methicillin-resistant S. aureus (MRSA) and vancomycin-resistant E. faecalis (VRE). A number of derivatives were found to have activity against both MRSA and VRE. The binding of select compounds to S. aureus FtsZ (SaFtsZ) was demonstrated and characterized using fluorescence spectroscopy. In addition, the compounds were shown to act as stabilizers of SaFtsZ polymers and concomitant inhibitors of SaFtsZ GTPase activity. Toxicological assessment of select compounds revealed minimal cross-reaction mammalian β-tubulin as well as little or no human cytotoxicity. PMID:23127490

  12. ACE-FTS instrument: activities in preparation for launch

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Soucy, Marc-Andre; Walker, Kaley A.; Fortin, Serge; Deutsch, Christophe

    2003-11-01

    The Atmospheric Chemistry Experiment (ACE) is the mission selected by the Canadian Space Agency for its next science satellite, SCISAT-1. ACE consists of a suite of instruments in which the primary element is an infrared Fourier Transform Spectrometer (FTS) coupled with an auxiliary 2-channel visible (525 nm) and near infrared imager (1020 nm). A secondary instrument, MAESTRO, provides spectrographic data from the near ultra-violet to the near infrared, including the visible spectral range. In combination the instrument payload covers the spectral range from 0.25 to 13.3 micron. A comprehensive set of simultaneous measurements of trace gases, thin clouds, aerosols and temperature will be made by solar occultation from a satellite in low earth orbit. The ACE mission will measure and analyse the chemical and dynamical processes that control the distribution of ozone in the upper troposphere and stratosphere. A high inclination (74 degrees), low earth orbit (650 km) allows coverage of tropical, mid-latitude and polar regions. This paper presents the instrument-related activities in preparation for launch. In particular, activities related to the integration of instrument to spacecraft are presented as well as tests of the instrument on-board the SciSat-1 bus. Environmental qualification activities at spacecraft-level are described. An overview of the characterization and calibration campaign is presented. Activities for integration and verification at launch site are also covered. The latest status of the spacecraft is also presented.

  13. Sensitivity Analysis for CO2 Retrieval using GOSAT-2 FTS-2 Simulator

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kamei, Akihide; Yoshida, Yukio; Dupuy, Eric; Yokota, Yasuhiro; Hiraki, Kaduo; Matsunaga, Tsuneo

    2015-04-01

    The Greenhouse Gases Observing Satellite (GOSAT), launched in 2009, is the world's first satellite dedicated to global greenhouse gases observation. GOSAT-2, the successor mission to GOSAT, is scheduled for launch in early 2018. The Fourier Transform Spectrometer-2 (FTS-2) is the primary sensor onboard GOSAT-2. It observes infrared light reflected and emitted from the Earth's surface and atmosphere. The FTS-2 obtains high resolution spectra using three bands in the near to short-wavelength infrared (SWIR) region and two bands in the thermal infrared (TIR) region. Column amounts and vertical profiles of carbon dioxide (CO2) and methane (CH4) are retrieved from the radiance spectra obtained with the SWIR and TIR bands, respectively. Further, compared to the FTS onboard the GOSAT, the FTS-2 has several improvements: 1) added spectral coverage in the SWIR region for carbon monoxide (CO) retrieval, 2) increased signal-to-noise ratio (SNR) for all bands, 3) extended range of along-track pointing angles for sunglint observations, 4) intelligent pointing to avoid cloud contamination. Since 2012, we have been developing a simulator software to simulate the spectral radiance data that will be acquired by the GOSAT-2 FTS-2. The purpose of the GOSAT-2 FTS-2 simulator is to analyze/optimize data with respect to the sensor specification, the parameters for Level 1 processing, and the improvement of the Level 2 algorithms. The GOSAT-2 FTS-2 simulator includes the six components: 1) overall control, 2) sensor carrying platform, 3) spectral radiance calculation, 4) Fourier Transform module, 5) Level 1B (L1B) processing, and 6) L1B data output. It has been installed on the GOSAT Research Computation Facility (GOSAT RCF), which is a high-performance and energy-efficient supercomputer. More realistic and faster simulations have been made possible by the improvement of the details of sensor characteristics, the sophistication of the data processing and algorithms, the addition of the

  14. Dynamic FtsA and FtsZ localization and outer membrane alterations during polar growth and cell division in Agrobacterium tumefaciens.

    PubMed

    Zupan, John R; Cameron, Todd A; Anderson-Furgeson, James; Zambryski, Patricia C

    2013-05-28

    Growth and cell division in rod-shaped bacteria have been primarily studied in species that grow predominantly by peptidoglycan (PG) synthesis along the length of the cell. Rhizobiales species, however, predominantly grow by PG synthesis at a single pole. Here we characterize the dynamic localization of several Agrobacterium tumefaciens components during the cell cycle. First, the lipophilic dye FM 4-64 predominantly stains the outer membranes of old poles versus growing poles. In cells about to divide, however, both poles are equally labeled with FM 4-64, but the constriction site is not. Second, the cell-division protein FtsA alternates from unipolar foci in the shortest cells to unipolar and midcell localization in cells of intermediate length, to strictly midcell localization in the longest cells undergoing septation. Third, the cell division protein FtsZ localizes in a cell-cycle pattern similar to, but more complex than, FtsA. Finally, because PG synthesis is spatially and temporally regulated during the cell cycle, we treated cells with sublethal concentrations of carbenicillin (Cb) to assess the role of penicillin-binding proteins in growth and cell division. Cb-treated cells formed midcell circumferential bulges, suggesting that interrupted PG synthesis destabilizes the septum. Midcell bulges contained bands or foci of FtsA-GFP and FtsZ-GFP and no FM 4-64 label, as in untreated cells. There were no abnormal morphologies at the growth poles in Cb-treated cells, suggesting unipolar growth uses Cb-insensitive PG synthesis enzymes.

  15. Antibacterial activity of alkyl gallates is a combination of direct targeting of FtsZ and permeabilization of bacterial membranes.

    PubMed

    Król, Ewa; de Sousa Borges, Anabela; da Silva, Isabel; Polaquini, Carlos R; Regasini, Luis O; Ferreira, Henrique; Scheffers, Dirk-Jan

    2015-01-01

    Alkyl gallates are compounds with reported antibacterial activity. One of the modes of action is binding of the alkyl gallates to the bacterial membrane and interference with membrane integrity. However, alkyl gallates also cause cell elongation and disruption of cell division in the important plant pathogen Xanthomonas citri subsp. citri, suggesting that cell division proteins may be targeted by alkyl gallates. Here, we use Bacillus subtilis and purified B. subtilis FtsZ to demonstrate that FtsZ is a direct target of alkyl gallates. Alkyl gallates disrupt the FtsZ-ring in vivo, and cause cell elongation. In vitro, alkyl gallates bind with high affinity to FtsZ, causing it to cluster and lose its capacity to polymerize. The activities of a homologous series of alkyl gallates with alkyl side chain lengths ranging from five to eight carbons (C5-C8) were compared and heptyl gallate was found to be the most potent FtsZ inhibitor. Next to the direct effect on FtsZ, alkyl gallates also target B. subtilis membrane integrity-however the observed anti-FtsZ activity is not a secondary effect of the disruption of membrane integrity. We propose that both modes of action, membrane disruption and anti-FtsZ activity, contribute to the antibacterial activity of the alkyl gallates. We propose that heptyl gallate is a promising hit for the further development of antibacterials that specifically target FtsZ.

  16. Correlation between the structure and biochemical activities of FtsA, an essential cell division protein of the actin family.

    PubMed Central

    Sánchez, M; Valencia, A; Ferrándiz, M J; Sander, C; Vicente, M

    1994-01-01

    Cell division protein FtsA, predicted to belong to the actin family, is present in different cell compartments depending on its phosphorylation state. The FtsA fraction isolated from the cytoplasm is phosphorylated and capable of binding ATP, while the membrane-bound form is unphosphorylated and does not bind ATP. A variant of the protein FtsA102, in which the nucleotide binding site was destroyed by mutagenesis of a highly conserved residue predicted to be needed for the binding, does not bind ATP. Another variant, FtsA104, cannot be phosphorylated because the predicted phosphorylatable residue has been replaced by a non-phosphorylatable one. This protein although unable to bind ATP in vitro, is able to rescue the reversible ftsA2, the irreversible ftsA3 and, almost with the same efficiency, the ftsA16 amber alleles. Consequently, phosphorylation and ATP binding may not be essential for the function of FtsA. Alternatively they may have a regulatory role on the action of FtsA in the septator. Images PMID:7957059

  17. Chloroplast division in higher plants requires members of two functionally divergent gene families with homology to bacterial ftsZ.

    PubMed Central

    Osteryoung, K W; Stokes, K D; Rutherford, S M; Percival, A L; Lee, W Y

    1998-01-01

    The division of plastids is critical for viability in photosynthetic eukaryotes, but the mechanisms associated with this process are still poorly understood. We previously identified a nuclear gene from Arabidopsis encoding a chloroplast-localized homolog of the bacterial cell division protein FtsZ, an essential cytoskeletal component of the prokaryotic cell division apparatus. Here, we report the identification of a second nuclear-encoded FtsZ-type protein from Arabidopsis that does not contain a chloroplast targeting sequence or other obvious sorting signals and is not imported into isolated chloroplasts, which strongly suggests that it is localized in the cytosol. We further demonstrate using antisense technology that inhibiting expression of either Arabidopsis FtsZ gene (AtFtsZ1-1 or AtFtsZ2-1) in transgenic plants reduces the number of chloroplasts in mature leaf cells from 100 to one, indicating that both genes are essential for division of higher plant chloroplasts but that each plays a distinct role in the process. Analysis of currently available plant FtsZ sequences further suggests that two functionally divergent FtsZ gene families encoding differentially localized products participate in chloroplast division. Our results provide evidence that both chloroplastic and cytosolic forms of FtsZ are involved in chloroplast division in higher plants and imply that important differences exist between chloroplasts and prokaryotes with regard to the roles played by FtsZ proteins in the division process. PMID:9836740

  18. Herschel SPIRE-FTS observations of RCW 120

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rodón, J. A.; Zavagno, A.; Baluteau, J.-P.; Habart, E.; Köhler, M.; Le Bourlot, J.; Le Petit, F.; Abergel, A.

    2015-07-01

    Context. The expansion of Galactic H ii regions can trigger the formation of a new generation of stars. However, little is know about the physical conditions that prevail in these regions. Aims: We study the physical conditions that prevail in specific zones towards expanding H ii regions that trace representative media such as the photodissociation region, the ionized region, and condensations with and without ongoing star formation. Methods: We use the SPIRE Fourier Transform Spectrometer (FTS) on board Herschel to observe the H ii region RCW 120. Continuum and lines are observed in the 190-670μm range. Line intensities and line ratios are obtained and used as physical diagnostics of the gas. We used the Meudon PDR code and the RADEX code to derive the gas density and the radiation field at nine distinct positions including the PDR surface and regions with and without star-formation activity. Results: For the different regions we detect the atomic lines [NII] at 205μm and [CI] at 370 and 609μm, the 12CO ladder between the J = 4 and J = 13 levels and the 13CO ladder between the J = 5 and J = 14 levels, as well as CH+ in absorption. We find gas temperatures in the range 45-250 K for densities of 104-106 cm-3, and a high column density on the order of NH ~ 1022 cm-2 that is in agreement with dust analysis. The ubiquitousness of the atomic and CH+ emission suggests the presence of a low-density PDR throughout RCW 120. High-excitation lines of CO indicate the presence of irradiated dense structures or small dense clumps containing young stellar objects, while we also find a less dense medium (NH ~ 1020 cm-2) with high temperatures (80-200 K). Herschel is an ESA space observatory with science instruments provided by European-led Principal Investigator consortia and with important participation from NASA.

  19. Thylakoid-Bound FtsH Proteins Facilitate Proper Biosynthesis of Photosystem I1[OPEN

    PubMed Central

    2016-01-01

    Thylakoid membrane-bound FtsH proteases have a well-characterized role in degradation of the photosystem II (PSII) reaction center protein D1 upon repair of photodamaged PSII. Here, we show that the Arabidopsis (Arabidopsis thaliana) var1 and var2 mutants, devoid of the FtsH5 and FtsH2 proteins, respectively, are capable of normal D1 protein turnover under moderate growth light intensity. Instead, they both demonstrate a significant scarcity of PSI complexes. It is further shown that the reduced level of PSI does not result from accelerated photodamage of the PSI centers in var1 or var2 under moderate growth light intensity. On the contrary, radiolabeling experiments revealed impaired synthesis of the PsaA/B reaction center proteins of PSI, which was accompanied by the accumulation of PSI-specific assembly factors. psaA/B transcript accumulation and translation initiation, however, occurred in var1 and var2 mutants as in wild-type Arabidopsis, suggesting problems in later stages of PsaA/B protein expression in the two var mutants. Presumably, the thylakoid membrane-bound FtsH5 and FtsH2 have dual functions in the maintenance of photosynthetic complexes. In addition to their function as a protease in the degradation of the photodamaged D1 protein, they also are required, either directly or indirectly, for early assembly of the PSI complexes. PMID:27208291

  20. Targeting the Wolbachia Cell Division Protein FtsZ as a New Approach for Antifilarial Therapy

    PubMed Central

    Li, Zhiru; Garner, Amanda L.; Gloeckner, Christian; Janda, Kim D.; Carlow, Clotilde K.

    2011-01-01

    The use of antibiotics targeting the obligate bacterial endosymbiont Wolbachia of filarial parasites has been validated as an approach for controlling filarial infection in animals and humans. Availability of genomic sequences for the Wolbachia (wBm) present in the human filarial parasite Brugia malayi has enabled genome-wide searching for new potential drug targets. In the present study, we investigated the cell division machinery of wBm and determined that it possesses the essential cell division gene ftsZ which was expressed in all developmental stages of B. malayi examined. FtsZ is a GTPase thereby making the protein an attractive Wolbachia drug target. We described the molecular characterization and catalytic properties of Wolbachia FtsZ. We also demonstrated that the GTPase activity was inhibited by the natural product, berberine, and small molecule inhibitors identified from a high-throughput screen. Furthermore, berberine was also effective in reducing motility and reproduction in B. malayi parasites in vitro. Our results should facilitate the discovery of selective inhibitors of FtsZ as a novel anti-symbiotic approach for controlling filarial infection. Note The nucleotide sequences reported in this paper are available in GenBank™ Data Bank under the accession number wAlB-FtsZ (JN616286). PMID:22140592

  1. Lessons learned from three-years operation of TANSO-FTS on GOSAT

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Suto, Hiroshi; Kuze, Akihiko; Shiomi, Kei; Nakajima, Masakatsu

    2012-10-01

    To observe the global column concentration of carbon dioxide (CO2) and methane (CH4) from space, the Greenhouse gases Observing SATellite (GOSAT) was launched on January 23, 2009, and has started the operational observation. Thermal and Near Infrared Sensor for Carbon Observation- Fourier Transform Spectrometer (TANSO-FTS) has been continuously measuring CO2 and CH4 distributions globally, and the retrieved column CO2 and CH4 data have been distributed to the public. Over three-years operational periods, the useful scientific data sets and interesting articles for carbon source/sink evaluation were produced and published, and these results have been supporting to well understanding of carbon cycle. Currently, the importance of space-based carbon observation has been approved and desired the continuous observation in toward. Through the TANSO-FTS operation with the radiometric, geometric and spectroscopic characterizations, we learned how to improve the accuracy of XCO2 and XCH4 based on short-wavelength FTS. The correction procedures for micro-vibration from companion components, non-linear response of analogue and digitizing circuit are key role on the current on-board operating TANSO-FTS. On instrumental aspects, the robustness and improvements will be required on the future mission. To elucidate the carbon cycle more precisely, our experiences have to be summarized and applied in the future missions. In this presentation, the detail of lessons and learned from TANSO-FTS operation will be presented.

  2. Targeting the Wolbachia cell division protein FtsZ as a new approach for antifilarial therapy.

    PubMed

    Li, Zhiru; Garner, Amanda L; Gloeckner, Christian; Janda, Kim D; Carlow, Clotilde K

    2011-11-01

    The use of antibiotics targeting the obligate bacterial endosymbiont Wolbachia of filarial parasites has been validated as an approach for controlling filarial infection in animals and humans. Availability of genomic sequences for the Wolbachia (wBm) present in the human filarial parasite Brugia malayi has enabled genome-wide searching for new potential drug targets. In the present study, we investigated the cell division machinery of wBm and determined that it possesses the essential cell division gene ftsZ which was expressed in all developmental stages of B. malayi examined. FtsZ is a GTPase thereby making the protein an attractive Wolbachia drug target. We described the molecular characterization and catalytic properties of Wolbachia FtsZ. We also demonstrated that the GTPase activity was inhibited by the natural product, berberine, and small molecule inhibitors identified from a high-throughput screen. Furthermore, berberine was also effective in reducing motility and reproduction in B. malayi parasites in vitro. Our results should facilitate the discovery of selective inhibitors of FtsZ as a novel anti-symbiotic approach for controlling filarial infection. NOTE: The nucleotide sequences reported in this paper are available in GenBank™ Data Bank under the accession number wAlB-FtsZ (JN616286).

  3. Chrysophaentins are competitive inhibitors of FtsZ and inhibit Z-ring formation in live bacteria.

    PubMed

    Keffer, Jessica L; Huecas, Sonia; Hammill, Jared T; Wipf, Peter; Andreu, Jose M; Bewley, Carole A

    2013-09-15

    The bacterial cell division protein FtsZ polymerizes in a GTP-dependent manner to form a Z-ring that marks the plane of division. As a validated antimicrobial target, considerable efforts have been devoted to identify small molecule FtsZ inhibitors. We recently discovered the chrysophaentins, a novel suite of marine natural products that inhibit FtsZ activity in vitro. These natural products along with a synthetic hemi-chrysophaentin exhibit strong antimicrobial activity toward a broad spectrum of Gram-positive pathogens. To define their mechanisms of FtsZ inhibition and determine their in vivo effects in live bacteria, we used GTPase assays and fluorescence anisotropy to show that hemi-chrysophaentin competitively inhibits FtsZ activity. Furthermore, we developed a model system using a permeable Escherichia coli strain, envA1, together with an inducible FtsZ-yellow fluorescent protein construct to show by fluorescence microscopy that both chrysophaentin A and hemi-chrysophaentin disrupt Z-rings in live bacteria. We tested the E. coli system further by reproducing phenotypes observed for zantrins Z1 and Z3, and demonstrate that the alkaloid berberine, a reported FtsZ inhibitor, exhibits auto-fluorescence, making it incompatible with systems that employ GFP or YFP tagged FtsZ. These studies describe unique examples of nonnucleotide, competitive FtsZ inhibitors that disrupt FtsZ in vivo, together with a model system that should be useful for in vivo testing of FtsZ inhibitor leads that have been identified through in vitro screens but are unable to penetrate the Gram-negative outer membrane.

  4. Two essential FtsH proteases control the level of the Fur repressor during iron deficiency in the cyanobacterium Synechocystis sp. PCC 6803.

    PubMed

    Krynická, Vendula; Tichý, Martin; Krafl, Jaroslav; Yu, Jianfeng; Kaňa, Radek; Boehm, Marko; Nixon, Peter J; Komenda, Josef

    2014-11-01

    The cyanobacterium Synechocystis sp. PCC 6803 expresses four different FtsH protease subunits (FtsH1-4) that assemble into specific homo- and heterocomplexes. The FtsH2/FtsH3 complex is involved in photoprotection but the physiological roles of the other complexes, notably the essential FtsH1/FtsH3 complex, remain unclear. Here we show that the FtsH1 and FtsH3 proteases are involved in the acclimation of cells to iron deficiency. A mutant conditionally depleted in FtsH3 was unable to induce normal expression of the IsiA chlorophyll-protein and FutA1 iron transporter upon iron deficiency due to a block in transcription, which is regulated by the Fur transcriptional repressor. Levels of Fur declined in the WT and the FtsH2 null mutant upon iron depletion but not in the FtsH3 downregulated strain. A similar stabilizing effect on Fur was also observed in a mutant conditionally depleted in the FtsH1 subunit. Moreover, a mutant overexpressing FtsH1 showed reduced levels of Fur and enhanced accumulation of both IsiA and FutA1 even under iron sufficiency. Analysis of GFP-tagged derivatives and biochemical fractionation supported a common location for FtsH1 and FtsH3 in the cytoplasmic membrane. Overall we propose that degradation of the Fur repressor mediated by the FtsH1/FtsH3 heterocomplex is critical for acclimation to iron depletion.

  5. Influence of GTP/GDP and magnesium ion on the solvated structure of the protein FtsZ: a molecular dynamics study.

    PubMed

    Jamous, Carla; Basdevant, Nathalie; Ha-Duong, Tap

    2014-01-01

    We present here a structural analysis of ten extensive all-atom molecular dynamics simulations of the monomeric protein FtsZ in various binding states. Since the polymerization and GTPase activities of FtsZ depend on the nature of a bound nucleotide as well as on the presence of a magnesium ion, we studied the structural differences between the average conformations of the following five systems: FtsZ-Apo, FtsZ-GTP, FtsZ-GDP, FtsZ-GTP-Mg, and FtsZ-GDP-Mg. The in silico solvated average structure of FtsZ-Apo significantly differs from the crystallographic structure 1W59 of FtsZ which was crystallized in a dimeric form without nucleotide and magnesium. The simulated Apo form of the protein also clearly differs from the FtsZ structures when it is bound to its ligand, the most important discrepancies being located in the loops surrounding the nucleotide binding pocket. The three average structures of FtsZ-GTP, FtsZ-GDP, and FtsZ-GTP-Mg are overall similar, except for the loop T7 located at the opposite side of the binding pocket and whose conformation in FtsZ-GDP notably differs from the one in FtsZ-GTP and FtsZ-GTP-Mg. The presence of a magnesium ion in the binding pocket has no impact on the FtsZ conformation when it is bound to GTP. In contrast, when the protein is bound to GDP, the divalent cation causes a translation of the nucleotide outwards the pocket, inducing a significant conformational change of the loop H6-H7 and the top of helix H7.

  6. Design and realization of data acquisition system of FTS based on FPGA

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Haiying; Li, Yue

    2014-11-01

    Earth observation is an important field of infrared remote sensing. Hyper-spectral remote sensing play an important role in weather forecast, environmental protection, agricultural production and geological survey. Now, Fourier-transform spectrometer (FTS) based on theory of Michelson interferometer has successfully been used to view the earth as a satellite-based instrument. The technology of FTS is an important research direction. This paper state the application of the FTS and give the analysis and research on interference signal sample and acquisition, in addition, it give a solution in which FPGA is used to complete the parallel capture of signal. In a conclusion, this design can accomplish the multi-channel and high-speed interferometer signal acquisition and transmission which is a base for further spectrum inversion and application.

  7. FtsZ Cytoskeletal Filaments as a Template for Metallic Nanowire Fabrication.

    PubMed

    Ostrov, Nili; Fichman, Galit; Adler-Abramovich, Lihi; Gazit, Ehud

    2015-01-01

    Supramolecular protein assemblies can serve as templates for the fabrication of inorganic nanowires due to their morphological reproducibility and innate proclivity to form well-ordered structures. Amongst the variety of naturally occurring nano-scale assemblies, cytoskeletal fibers from diverse biological sources represent a unique family of scaffolds for biomimetics as they efficiently self-assemble in vitro in a controllable manner to form stable filaments. Here, we harness the bacterial FtsZ filament system as a scaffold for protein-based metal nanowires, and further demonstrate the control of wire alignment with the use of an external magnetic field. Due to the ease at which the bacterial FtsZ is overexpressed and purified, as well as the extensive studies of its ultrastructural properties and physiological significance, FtsZ filaments are an ideal substrate for large-scale production and chemical manipulation. Using a biologically compatible electroless metal deposition technique initiated by adsorption of platinum as a surface catalyst, we demonstrate the coating of assembled FtsZ filaments with iron, nickel, gold, and copper to fabricate continuous nanowires with diameters ranging from 10-50 nm. Organic-inorganic hybrid wires were analyzed using high-resolution field-emission-gun transmission and scanning electron microscopy, and confirmed by energy-dispersive elemental analysis. We also achieved alignment of ferrofluid-coated FtsZ filaments using an external magnetic field. Overall, we provide evidence for the robustness of the FtsZ filament system as a molecular scaffold, and offer an efficient, biocompatible procedure for facile bottom-up assembly of metallic wires on biological templates. We believe that bottom-up fabrication methods as reported herein significantly contribute to the expanding toolkit available for the incorporation of biological materials in nano-scale devices for electronic and electromechanical applications.

  8. A proteomic study of Corynebacterium glutamicum AAA+ protease FtsH

    PubMed Central

    Lüdke, Alja; Krämer, Reinhard; Burkovski, Andreas; Schluesener, Daniela; Poetsch, Ansgar

    2007-01-01

    Background The influence of the membrane-bound AAA+ protease FtsH on membrane and cytoplasmic proteins of Corynebacterium glutamicum was investigated in this study. For the analysis of the membrane fraction, anion exchange chromatography was combined with SDS-PAGE, while the cytoplasmic protein fraction was studied by conventional two-dimensional gel electrophoresis. Results In contrast to the situation in other bacteria, deletion of C. glutamicum ftsH has no significant effect on growth in standard minimal medium or response to heat or osmotic stress. On the proteome level, deletion of the ftsH gene resulted in a strong increase of ten cytoplasmic and membrane proteins, namely biotin carboxylase/biotin carboxyl carrier protein (accBC), glyceraldehyde-3-phosphate dehydrogenase (gap), homocysteine methyltransferase (metE), malate synthase (aceB), isocitrate lyase (aceA), a conserved hypothetical protein (NCgl1985), succinate dehydrogenase A (sdhA), succinate dehydrogenase B (sdhB), succinate dehydrogenase CD (sdhCD), and glutamate binding protein (gluB), while 38 cytoplasmic and membrane-associated proteins showed a decreased abundance. The decreasing amount of succinate dehydrogenase A (sdhA) in the cytoplasmic fraction of the ftsH mutant compared to the wild type and its increasing abundance in the membrane fraction indicates that FtsH might be involved in the cleavage of a membrane anchor of this membrane-associated protein and by this changes its localization. Conclusion The data obtained hint to an involvement of C. glutamicum FtsH protease mainly in regulation of energy and carbon metabolism, while the protease is not involved in stress response, as found in other bacteria. PMID:17254330

  9. FtsZ Cytoskeletal Filaments as a Template for Metallic Nanowire Fabrication.

    PubMed

    Ostrov, Nili; Fichman, Galit; Adler-Abramovich, Lihi; Gazit, Ehud

    2015-01-01

    Supramolecular protein assemblies can serve as templates for the fabrication of inorganic nanowires due to their morphological reproducibility and innate proclivity to form well-ordered structures. Amongst the variety of naturally occurring nano-scale assemblies, cytoskeletal fibers from diverse biological sources represent a unique family of scaffolds for biomimetics as they efficiently self-assemble in vitro in a controllable manner to form stable filaments. Here, we harness the bacterial FtsZ filament system as a scaffold for protein-based metal nanowires, and further demonstrate the control of wire alignment with the use of an external magnetic field. Due to the ease at which the bacterial FtsZ is overexpressed and purified, as well as the extensive studies of its ultrastructural properties and physiological significance, FtsZ filaments are an ideal substrate for large-scale production and chemical manipulation. Using a biologically compatible electroless metal deposition technique initiated by adsorption of platinum as a surface catalyst, we demonstrate the coating of assembled FtsZ filaments with iron, nickel, gold, and copper to fabricate continuous nanowires with diameters ranging from 10-50 nm. Organic-inorganic hybrid wires were analyzed using high-resolution field-emission-gun transmission and scanning electron microscopy, and confirmed by energy-dispersive elemental analysis. We also achieved alignment of ferrofluid-coated FtsZ filaments using an external magnetic field. Overall, we provide evidence for the robustness of the FtsZ filament system as a molecular scaffold, and offer an efficient, biocompatible procedure for facile bottom-up assembly of metallic wires on biological templates. We believe that bottom-up fabrication methods as reported herein significantly contribute to the expanding toolkit available for the incorporation of biological materials in nano-scale devices for electronic and electromechanical applications. PMID:26328401

  10. Localization of FtsZ in Helicobacter pylori and consequences for cell division.

    PubMed

    Specht, Mara; Dempwolff, Felix; Schätzle, Sarah; Thomann, Ralf; Waidner, Barbara

    2013-04-01

    Of the various kinds of cell division, the most common mode is binary fission, the division of a cell into two morphologically identical daughter cells. However, in the case of asymmetric cell division, Caulobacter crescentus produces two morphologically and functionally distinct cell types. Here, we have studied cell cycle progression of the human pathogen Helicobacter pylori using a functional green fluorescent protein (GFP) fusion of FtsZ protein and membrane staining. In small cells, representing newly divided cells, FtsZ localizes to a single cell pole. During the cell cycle, spiral intermediates are formed until an FtsZ ring is positioned with very little precision, such that central as well as acentral rings can be observed. Daughter cells showed considerably different sizes, suggesting that H. pylori divides asymmetrically. Fluorescence recovery after photobleaching (FRAP) analyses demonstrate that the H. pylori FtsZ ring is about as dynamic as that of Escherichia coli but that polar assemblies show less turnover. Strikingly, our results demonstrate that H. pylori cell division follows a different route from that in E. coli and Bacillus subtilis. It is also different from that in C. crescentus, where cytokinesis regulation proteins like MipZ play a role. Therefore, this report provides the first cell-biological analysis of FtsZ dynamics in the human pathogen H. pylori and even in epsilonproteobacteria to our knowledge. In addition, analysis of the filament architecture of H. pylori and E. coli FtsZ filaments in the heterologous system of Drosophila melanogaster S2 Schneider cells revealed that both have different filamentation properties in vivo, suggesting a unique intrinsic characteristic of each protein. PMID:23335414

  11. The Haloferax volcanii FtsY Homolog Is Critical for Haloarchaeal Growth but Does Not Require the A Domain

    PubMed Central

    Haddad, Alex; Rose, R. Wesley; Pohlschröder, Mechthild

    2005-01-01

    The targeting of many Sec substrates to the membrane-associated translocation pore requires the cytoplasmic signal recognition particle (SRP). In Eukarya and Bacteria it has been shown that membrane docking of the SRP-substrate complex occurs via the universally conserved SRP receptor (Srα/β and FtsY, respectively). While much has been learned about the archaeal SRP in recent years, few studies have examined archaeal Srα/FtsY homologs. In the present study the FtsY homolog of Haloferax volcanii was characterized in its native host. Disruption of the sole chromosomal copy of ftsY in H. volcanii was possible only under conditions where either the full-length haloarchaeal FtsY or an amino-terminally truncated version of this protein lacking the A domain, was expressed in trans. Subcellular fractionation analysis of H. volcanii ftsY deletion strains expressing either one of the complementing proteins revealed that in addition to a cytoplasmic pool, both proteins cofractionate with the haloarchaeal cytoplasmic membrane. Moreover, membrane localization of the universally conserved SRP subunit SRP54, the key binding partner of FtsY, was detected in both H. volcanii strains. These analyses suggest that the H. volcanii FtsY homolog plays a crucial role but does not require its A domain for haloarchaeal growth. PMID:15937164

  12. Bacterial Division Proteins FtsZ and ZipA Induce Vesicle Shrinkage and Cell Membrane Invagination*

    PubMed Central

    Cabré, Elisa J.; Sánchez-Gorostiaga, Alicia; Carrara, Paolo; Ropero, Noelia; Casanova, Mercedes; Palacios, Pilar; Stano, Pasquale; Jiménez, Mercedes; Rivas, Germán; Vicente, Miguel

    2013-01-01

    Permeable vesicles containing the proto-ring anchoring ZipA protein shrink when FtsZ, the main cell division protein, polymerizes in the presence of GTP. Shrinkage, resembling the constriction of the cytoplasmic membrane, occurs at ZipA densities higher than those found in the cell and is modulated by the dynamics of the FtsZ polymer. In vivo, an excess of ZipA generates multilayered membrane inclusions within the cytoplasm and causes the loss of the membrane function as a permeability barrier. Overproduction of ZipA at levels that block septation is accompanied by the displacement of FtsZ and two additional division proteins, FtsA and FtsN, from potential septation sites to clusters that colocalize with ZipA near the membrane. The results show that elementary constriction events mediated by defined elements involved in cell division can be evidenced both in bacteria and in vesicles. PMID:23921390

  13. Reduced Binding of the Endolysin LysTP712 to Lactococcus lactis ΔftsH Contributes to Phage Resistance.

    PubMed

    Roces, Clara; Campelo, Ana B; Escobedo, Susana; Wegmann, Udo; García, Pilar; Rodríguez, Ana; Martínez, Beatriz

    2016-01-01

    Absence of the membrane protease FtsH in Lactococcus lactis hinders release of the bacteriophage TP712. In this work we have analyzed the mechanism responsible for the non-lytic phenotype of L. lactis ΔftsH after phage infection. The lytic cassette of TP712 contains a putative antiholin-pinholin system and a modular endolysin (LysTP712). Inducible expression of the holin gene demonstrated the presence of a dual start motif which is functional in both wildtype and L. lactis ΔftsH cells. Moreover, simulating holin activity with ionophores accelerated lysis of wildtype cells but not L. lactis ΔftsH cells, suggesting inhibition of the endolysin rather than a role of FtsH in holin activation. However, zymograms revealed the synthesis of an active endolysin in both wildtype and L. lactis ΔftsH TP712 lysogens. A reporter protein was generated by fusing the cell wall binding domain of LysTP712 to the fluorescent mCherry protein. Binding of this reporter protein took place at the septa of both wildtype and L. lactis ΔftsH cells as shown by fluorescence microscopy. Nonetheless, fluorescence spectroscopy demonstrated that mutant cells bound 40% less protein. In conclusion, the non-lytic phenotype of L. lactis ΔftsH is not due to direct action of the FtsH protease on the phage lytic proteins but rather to a putative function of FtsH in modulating the architecture of the L. lactis cell envelope that results in a lower affinity of the phage endolysin to its substrate. PMID:26904011

  14. Sequential processing of the Toxoplasma apicoplast membrane protein FtsH1 in topologically distinct domains during intracellular trafficking.

    PubMed

    Karnataki, Anuradha; DeRocher, Amy E; Feagin, Jean E; Parsons, Marilyn

    2009-08-01

    FtsH proteins are hexameric transmembrane proteases found in chloroplasts, mitochondria and bacteria. In the protozoan Toxoplasma gondii, FtsH1 is localized to membranes of the apicoplast, a relict chloroplast present in many apicomplexan parasites. We have shown that although T. gondii FtsH1 lacks the typical bipartite targeting presequence seen on apicoplast luminal proteins, it is targeted to the apicoplast via the endoplasmic reticulum. In this report, we show that FtsH1 undergoes processing events to remove both the N- and C-termini, which are topologically separated by the membrane in which FtsH1 is embedded. Pulse-chase analysis showed that N-terminal cleavage precedes C-terminal cleavage. Unlike the processing of the N-terminal transit peptide of luminal proteins, which occurs in the apicoplast, analysis of ER-retained mutants showed that N-terminal processing of FtsH1 occurs in the endoplasmic reticulum. Two of four FtsH1 mutants bearing internal epitope tags accumulated in structures peripheral to the apicoplast, implying that FtsH1 trafficking is highly sensitive to changes in protein structure. These mutant proteins did not undergo C-terminal processing, suggesting that this processing step occurs after localization to the plastid. Mutation of the peptidase active site demonstrated that neither processing event occurs in cis. These data support a model in which multiple proteases act at different points of the trafficking pathway to form mature FtsH1, making its processing more complex than other FtsHs and unique among apicoplast proteins described thus far. PMID:19450729

  15. Reduced Binding of the Endolysin LysTP712 to Lactococcus lactis ΔftsH Contributes to Phage Resistance

    PubMed Central

    Roces, Clara; Campelo, Ana B.; Escobedo, Susana; Wegmann, Udo; García, Pilar; Rodríguez, Ana; Martínez, Beatriz

    2016-01-01

    Absence of the membrane protease FtsH in Lactococcus lactis hinders release of the bacteriophage TP712. In this work we have analyzed the mechanism responsible for the non-lytic phenotype of L. lactis ΔftsH after phage infection. The lytic cassette of TP712 contains a putative antiholin–pinholin system and a modular endolysin (LysTP712). Inducible expression of the holin gene demonstrated the presence of a dual start motif which is functional in both wildtype and L. lactis ΔftsH cells. Moreover, simulating holin activity with ionophores accelerated lysis of wildtype cells but not L. lactis ΔftsH cells, suggesting inhibition of the endolysin rather than a role of FtsH in holin activation. However, zymograms revealed the synthesis of an active endolysin in both wildtype and L. lactis ΔftsH TP712 lysogens. A reporter protein was generated by fusing the cell wall binding domain of LysTP712 to the fluorescent mCherry protein. Binding of this reporter protein took place at the septa of both wildtype and L. lactis ΔftsH cells as shown by fluorescence microscopy. Nonetheless, fluorescence spectroscopy demonstrated that mutant cells bound 40% less protein. In conclusion, the non-lytic phenotype of L. lactis ΔftsH is not due to direct action of the FtsH protease on the phage lytic proteins but rather to a putative function of FtsH in modulating the architecture of the L. lactis cell envelope that results in a lower affinity of the phage endolysin to its substrate. PMID:26904011

  16. Screening and Development of New Inhibitors of FtsZ from M. Tuberculosis

    PubMed Central

    Mathew, Bini; Ross, Larry; Connelly, Michele C.; Lofton, Hava; Rajagopalan, Malini; Guy, R. Kiplin; Reynolds, Robert C.

    2016-01-01

    A variety of commercial analogs and a newer series of Sulindac derivatives were screened for inhibition of M. tuberculosis (Mtb) in vitro and specifically as inhibitors of the essential mycobacterial tubulin homolog, FtsZ. Due to the ease of preparing diverse analogs and a favorable in vivo pharmacokinetic and toxicity profile of a representative analog, the Sulindac scaffold may be useful for further development against Mtb with respect to in vitro bacterial growth inhibition and selective activity for Mtb FtsZ versus mammalian tubulin. Further discovery efforts will require separating reported mammalian cell activity from both antibacterial activity and inhibition of Mtb FtsZ. Modeling studies suggest that these analogs bind in a specific region of the Mtb FtsZ polymer that differs from human tubulin and, in combination with a pharmacophore model presented herein, future hybrid analogs of the reported active molecules that more efficiently bind in this pocket may improve antibacterial activity while improving other drug characteristics. PMID:27768711

  17. N terminus determinants of MinC from Neisseria gonorrhoeae mediate interaction with FtsZ but do not affect interaction with MinD or homodimerization.

    PubMed

    Greco-Stewart, V; Ramirez-Arcos, S; Liao, M; Dillon, J R

    2007-06-01

    While bacterial cell division has been widely studied in rod-shaped bacteria, the mechanism of cell division in round (coccal) bacteria remains largely enigmatic. In the present study, interaction between the cell division inhibitor MinC from Neisseria gonorrhoeae (MinC(Ng)) and the gonococcal cell division proteins MinD(Ng) and FtsZ(Ng) are demonstrated. Protein truncation and site-directed mutagenic approaches determined which N-terminal residues were essential for cell division inhibition by MinC(Ng) using cell morphology as an indicator of protein functionality. Truncation from or mutation at the 13th amino acid of the N terminus of MinC(Ng) resulted in loss of protein function. Bioinformatic analyses predicted that point mutations of L35P and L68P would affect the alpha-helical conformation of the protein and we experimentally showed that these mutations alter the functionality of MinC(Ng). The bacterial two-hybrid system showed that interaction of MinC(Ng) with FtsZ(Ng) is abrogated upon truncation of 13 N-terminal residues while MinC(Ng)-MinD(Ng) interaction or MinC(Ng) homodimerization is unaffected. These data confirm interactions among gonococcal cell division proteins and determine the necessity of the 13th amino acid for MinC(Ng) function. PMID:17287984

  18. FtsZDr, a tubulin homologue in radioresistant bacterium Deinococcus radiodurans is characterized as a GTPase exhibiting polymerization/depolymerization dynamics in vitro and FtsZ ring formation in vivo.

    PubMed

    Modi, Kruti Mehta; Tewari, Raghvendra; Misra, Hari Sharan

    2014-05-01

    The GTPase-dependent polymerization/depolymerization dynamics of FtsZ regulate bacterial cell division in vivo. Deinococcus radiodurans is better known for its extraordinary radioresistance and therefore, the characterization of FtsZ of this bacterium (FtsZDr) would be required to understand the mechanisms underlying regulation of cell division in response to DNA damage. Recombinant FtsZDr bound to GTP and showed GTPase activity. It produced bundles of protofilaments in the presence of either GTP or Mg2+ ions. But the formation of the higher size ordered structures required both GTP and Mg2+ in vitro. It showed polymerization/depolymerization dynamics as a function of GTP and Mg2+. Interestingly, ATP interacted with FtsZDr and stimulated its GTPase activity by ∼2-fold possibly by increasing both substrate affinity and rate of reaction. FtsZDr-GFP expressing in D. radiodurans produced typical Z ring perpendicular to the plane of first cell division. These results suggested that FtsZDr is a GTPase in vitro and produces typical Z ring at the mid cell position in D. radiodurans.

  19. Performance Verification of GOSAT-2 FTS-2 Simulator and Sensitivity Analysis for Greenhouse Gases Retrieval

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kamei, A.; Yoshida, Y.; Dupuy, E.; Hiraki, K.; Matsunaga, T.

    2015-12-01

    The GOSAT-2, which is scheduled for launch in early 2018, is the successor mission to the Greenhouse gases Observing Satellite (GOSAT). The FTS-2 onboard the GOSAT-2 is a Fourier transform spectrometer, which has three bands in the near to short-wavelength infrared (SWIR) region and two bands in the thermal infrared (TIR) region to observe infrared light reflected and emitted from the Earth's surface and atmosphere with high-resolution spectra. Column amounts and vertical profiles of major greenhouse gases such as carbon dioxide (CO2) and methane (CH4) are retrieved from acquired radiance spectra. In addition, the FTS-2 has several improvements from the FTS onboard the GOSAT: 1) added spectral coverage in the SWIR region for carbon monoxide (CO) retrieval, 2) increased signal-to-noise ratio (SNR) for all bands, 3) extended range of along-track pointing angles for sunglint observations, 4) intelligent pointing to avoid cloud contamination. Since 2012, we have been developing a software tool, which is called the GOSAT-2 FTS-2 simulator, to simulate spectral radiance data that will be acquired by the GOSAT-2 FTS-2. The objective of it is to analyze/optimize data with respect to the sensor specification, the parameters for Level 1 processing, and the improvement of Level 2 retrieval algorithms. It consists of six components: 1) overall control, 2) sensor carrying platform, 3) spectral radiance calculation, 4) Fourier transform module, 5) Level 1B (L1B) processing, and 6) L1B data output. More realistic and faster simulations have been made possible by the improvement of details about sensor characteristics, the sophistication of data processing and algorithms, the addition of various observation modes, the use of surface and atmospheric ancillary data, and the speed-up and parallelization of radiative transfer code. This simulator is confirmed to be working properly from the reproduction of GOSAT FTS L1B data depends on the ancillary data. We will summarize the

  20. MapZ marks the division sites and positions FtsZ rings in Streptococcus pneumoniae.

    PubMed

    Fleurie, Aurore; Lesterlin, Christian; Manuse, Sylvie; Zhao, Chao; Cluzel, Caroline; Lavergne, Jean-Pierre; Franz-Wachtel, Mirita; Macek, Boris; Combet, Christophe; Kuru, Erkin; VanNieuwenhze, Michael S; Brun, Yves V; Sherratt, David; Grangeasse, Christophe

    2014-12-11

    In every living organism, cell division requires accurate identification of the division site and placement of the division machinery. In bacteria, this process is traditionally considered to begin with the polymerization of the highly conserved tubulin-like protein FtsZ into a ring that locates precisely at mid-cell. Over the past decades, several systems have been reported to regulate the spatiotemporal assembly and placement of the FtsZ ring. However, the human pathogen Streptococcus pneumoniae, in common with many other organisms, is devoid of these canonical systems and the mechanisms of positioning the division machinery remain unknown. Here we characterize a novel factor that locates at the division site before FtsZ and guides septum positioning in pneumococcus. Mid-cell-anchored protein Z (MapZ) forms ring structures at the cell equator and moves apart as the cell elongates, therefore behaving as a permanent beacon of division sites. MapZ then positions the FtsZ ring through direct protein-protein interactions. MapZ-mediated control differs from previously described systems mostly on the basis of negative regulation of FtsZ assembly. Furthermore, MapZ is an endogenous target of the Ser/Thr kinase StkP, which was recently shown to have a central role in cytokinesis and morphogenesis of S. pneumoniae. We show that both phosphorylated and non-phosphorylated forms of MapZ are required for proper Z-ring formation and dynamics. Altogether, this work uncovers a new mechanism for bacterial cell division that is regulated by phosphorylation and illustrates that nature has evolved a diversity of cell division mechanisms adapted to the different bacterial clades.

  1. Analysis of cell division gene ftsZ (sulB) from gram-negative and gram-positive bacteria.

    PubMed Central

    Corton, J C; Ward, J E; Lutkenhaus, J

    1987-01-01

    The ftsZ (sulB) gene of Escherichia coli codes for a 40,000-dalton protein that carries out a key step in the cell division pathway. The presence of an ftsZ gene protein in other bacterial species was examined by a combination of Southern blot and Western blot analyses. Southern blot analysis of genomic restriction digests revealed that many bacteria, including species from six members of the family Enterobacteriaceae and from Pseudomonas aeruginosa and Agrobacterium tumefaciens, contained sequences which hybridized with an E. coli ftsZ probe. Genomic DNA from more distantly related bacteria, including Bacillus subtilis, Branhamella catarrhalis, Micrococcus luteus, and Staphylococcus aureus, did not hybridize under minimally stringent conditions. Western blot analysis, with anti-E. coli FtsZ antiserum, revealed that all bacterial species examined contained a major immunoreactive band. Several of the Enterobacteriaceae were transformed with a multicopy plasmid encoding the E. coli ftsZ gene. These transformed strains, Shigella sonnei, Salmonella typhimurium, Klebsiella pneumoniae, and Enterobacter aerogenes, were shown to overproduce the FtsZ protein and to produce minicells. Analysis of [35S]methionine-labeled minicells revealed that the plasmid-encoded gene products were the major labeled species. This demonstrated that the E. coli ftsZ gene could function in other bacterial species to induce minicells and that these minicells could be used to analyze plasmid-endoced gene products. Images PMID:2432055

  2. Identification of ZapD as a Cell Division Factor That Promotes the Assembly of FtsZ in Escherichia coli

    PubMed Central

    Durand-Heredia, Jorge; Rivkin, Eugene; Fan, Guoxiang; Morales, Jorge

    2012-01-01

    The tubulin homolog FtsZ forms a polymeric membrane-associated ring structure (Z ring) at midcell that establishes the site of division and provides an essential framework for the localization of a multiprotein molecular machine that promotes division in Escherichia coli. A number of regulatory proteins interact with FtsZ and modulate FtsZ assembly/disassembly processes, ensuring the spatiotemporal integrity of cytokinesis. The Z-associated proteins (ZapA, ZapB, and ZapC) belong to a group of FtsZ-regulatory proteins that exhibit functionally redundant roles in stabilizing FtsZ-ring assembly by binding and bundling polymeric FtsZ at midcell. In this study, we report the identification of ZapD (YacF) as a member of the E. coli midcell division machinery. Genetics and cell biological evidence indicate that ZapD requires FtsZ but not other downstream division proteins for localizing to midcell, where it promotes FtsZ-ring assembly via molecular mechanisms that overlap with ZapA. Biochemical evidence indicates that ZapD directly interacts with FtsZ and promotes bundling of FtsZ protofilaments. Similarly to ZapA, ZapB, and ZapC, ZapD is dispensable for division and therefore belongs to the growing group of FtsZ-associated proteins in E. coli that aid in the overall fitness of the division process. PMID:22505682

  3. Retrieval of carbon dioxide vertical profiles from solar occultation observations and associated error budgets for ACE-FTS and CASS-FTS

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sioris, C. E.; Boone, C. D.; Nassar, R.; Sutton, K. J.; Gordon, I. E.; Walker, K. A.; Bernath, P. F.

    2014-07-01

    An algorithm is developed to retrieve the vertical profile of carbon dioxide in the 5 to 25 km altitude range using mid-infrared solar occultation spectra from the main instrument of the ACE (Atmospheric Chemistry Experiment) mission, namely the Fourier transform spectrometer (FTS). The main challenge is to find an atmospheric phenomenon which can be used for accurate tangent height determination in the lower atmosphere, where the tangent heights (THs) calculated from geometric and timing information are not of sufficient accuracy. Error budgets for the retrieval of CO2 from ACE-FTS and the FTS on a potential follow-on mission named CASS (Chemical and Aerosol Sounding Satellite) are calculated and contrasted. Retrieved THs have typical biases of 60 m relative to those retrieved using the ACE version 3.x software after revisiting the temperature dependence of the N2 CIA (collision-induced absorption) laboratory measurements and accounting for sulfate aerosol extinction. After correcting for the known residual high bias of ACE version 3.x THs expected from CO2 spectroscopic/isotopic inconsistencies, the remaining bias for tangent heights determined with the N2 CIA is -20 m. CO2 in the 5-13 km range in the 2009-2011 time frame is validated against aircraft measurements from CARIBIC (Civil Aircraft for the Regular Investigation of the atmosphere Based on an Instrument Container), CONTRAIL (Comprehensive Observation Network for Trace gases by Airline), and HIPPO (HIAPER Pole-to-Pole Observations), yielding typical biases of -1.7 ppm in the 5-13 km range. The standard error of these biases in this vertical range is 0.4 ppm. The multi-year ACE-FTS data set is valuable in determining the seasonal variation of the latitudinal gradient which arises from the strong seasonal cycle in the Northern Hemisphere troposphere. The annual growth of CO2 in this time frame is determined to be 2.6 ± 0.4 ppm year-1, in agreement with the currently accepted global growth rate based on

  4. Conditional Proteolysis of the Membrane Protein YfgM by the FtsH Protease Depends on a Novel N-terminal Degron*

    PubMed Central

    Bittner, Lisa-Marie; Westphal, Kai; Narberhaus, Franz

    2015-01-01

    Regulated proteolysis efficiently and rapidly adapts the bacterial proteome to changing environmental conditions. Many protease substrates contain recognition motifs, so-called degrons, that direct them to the appropriate protease. Here we describe an entirely new degron identified in the cytoplasmic N-terminal end of the membrane-anchored protein YfgM of Escherichia coli. YfgM is stable during exponential growth and degraded in stationary phase by the essential FtsH protease. The alarmone (p)ppGpp, but not the previously described YfgM interactors RcsB and PpiD, influence YfgM degradation. By scanning mutagenesis, we define individual amino acids responsible for turnover of YfgM and find that the degron does not at all comply with the known N-end rule pathway. The YfgM degron is a distinct module that facilitates FtsH-mediated degradation when fused to the N terminus of another monotopic membrane protein but not to that of a cytoplasmic protein. Several lines of evidence suggest that stress-induced degradation of YfgM relieves the response regulator RcsB and thereby permits cellular protection by the Rcs phosphorelay system. On the basis of these and other results in the literature, we propose a model for how the membrane-spanning YfgM protein serves as connector between the stress responses in the periplasm and cytoplasm. PMID:26092727

  5. Exact modeling of lineshape and wavenumber variations for off-axis detectors in Fourier transform spectrometers (FTS) sensor systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Niple, E.; Pires, A.; Poultney, S. K.

    1983-01-01

    The utilization of detector arrays in the focal planes of FTS sensor systems allows simultaneous spectral and spatial measurements. However, spectral lineshapes and wavenumber locations depend upon the size and location of the detector elements with respect to the Haidinger fringe pattern of the FTS sensor. These spectral distortions can be generalized as a shift and shape change of the FTS sensor lineshape. Depending on the distortions that can be tolerated, a degree of field-widening can be obtained for a given Haidinger fringe pattern. An exact model for predicting the FTS lineshape distortions is presented. The model is applied to several contemporary applications in order to quantify the magnitude of distortions to be expected.

  6. FtsZ protofilaments use a hinge-opening mechanism for constrictive force generation.

    PubMed

    Li, Ying; Hsin, Jen; Zhao, Lingyun; Cheng, Yiwen; Shang, Weina; Huang, Kerwyn Casey; Wang, Hong-Wei; Ye, Sheng

    2013-07-26

    The essential bacterial protein FtsZ is a guanosine triphosphatase that self-assembles into a structure at the division site termed the "Z ring". During cytokinesis, the Z ring exerts a constrictive force on the membrane by using the chemical energy of guanosine triphosphate hydrolysis. However, the structural basis of this constriction remains unresolved. Here, we present the crystal structure of a guanosine diphosphate-bound Mycobacterium tuberculosis FtsZ protofilament, which exhibits a curved conformational state. The structure reveals a longitudinal interface that is important for function. The protofilament curvature highlights a hydrolysis-dependent conformational switch at the T3 loop that leads to longitudinal bending between subunits, which could generate sufficient force to drive cytokinesis.

  7. VizieR Online Data Catalog: FTS high resolution of CoIII (Smillie+, 2016)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Smillie, D. G.; Pickering, J. C.; Nave, G.; Smith, P. L.

    2016-04-01

    The spectrum of Co III was measured in the wavenumber region 33000-66000cm-1 (3030-1515Å) using the NIST vacuum ultraviolet region (VUV) FTS (Spectrum number 6, taken on 1999 August 30). The Co III spectrum was also observed in the region 234-2550Å with the 10.7m NIST normal incidence vacuum spectrograph (NIVS; two spectra named x872 and x875, recorded on 2005 May 26, and June 8, respectively). (5 data files).

  8. New and Improved Infrared Spectroscopy of Halogen-Containing Species for ACE-FTS Retrievals

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Harrison, Jeremy J.

    2014-06-01

    The Atmospheric Chemistry Experiment Fourier transform spectrometer (ACE-FTS), onboard the SCISAT-1 satellite, is a high-resolution (0.02 cm-1) instrument covering the 750-4400 cm-1 spectral region in solar occultation mode. Launched in August 2003, the ACE-FTS has been taking atmospheric measurements for over ten years. With long atmospheric pathlengths (˜300 km) and the sun as a radiation source, the ACE-FTS provides a low detection threshold for trace species in the atmosphere. In fact, it measures the vertical profiles of more molecules in the atmosphere than any other satellite instrument.

    Fluorine- and chlorine-containing molecules in the atmosphere are very strong greenhouse gases, meaning that even small amounts of these gases contribute significantly to the radiative forcing of climate. Chlorofluorocarbons (CFCs) and hydrochlorofluorocarbons (HCFCs) are regulated by the 1987 Montreal Protocol because they deplete the ozone layer. Hydrofluorocarbons (HFCs), which do not deplete the ozone layer and are not regulated by the Montreal Protocol, have been introduced as replacements for CFCs and HCFCs. HFCs have global-warming potentials many times greater than carbon dioxide, and are increasing in the atmosphere at a very fast rate. The quantification of the atmospheric abundances of such molecules from measurements taken by the ACE-FTS and other satellite instruments crucially requires accurate quantitative infrared spectroscopy. HITRAN contains absorption cross section datasets for a number of these species, but many of them have minor deficiencies that introduce systematic errors into satellite retrievals. This talk will focus on new and improved laboratory measurements for a number of important halogenated species.

  9. Demonstration of Imaging Fourier Transform Spectrometer (FTS) Performance for Planetary and Geostationary Earth Observing

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Revercomb, Henry E.; Sromovsky, Lawrence A.; Fry, Patrick M.; Best, Fred A.; LaPorte, Daniel D.

    2001-01-01

    The combination of massively parallel spatial sampling and accurate spectral radiometry offered by imaging FTS makes it extremely attractive for earth and planetary remote sensing. We constructed a breadboard instrument to help assess the potential for planetary applications of small imaging FTS instruments in the 1 - 5 micrometer range. The results also support definition of the NASA Geostationary Imaging FTS (GIFTS) instrument that will make key meteorological and climate observations from geostationary earth orbit. The Planetary Imaging FTS (PIFTS) breadboard is based on a custom miniaturized Bomen interferometer that uses corner cube reflectors, a wishbone pivoting voice-coil delay scan mechanism, and a laser diode metrology system. The interferometer optical output is measured by a commercial infrared camera procured from Santa Barbara Focalplane. It uses an InSb 128x128 detector array that covers the entire FOV of the instrument when coupled with a 25 mm focal length commercial camera lens. With appropriate lenses and cold filters the instrument can be used from the visible to 5 micrometers. The delay scan is continuous, but slow, covering the maximum range of +/- 0.4 cm in 37.56 sec at a rate of 500 image frames per second. Image exposures are timed to be centered around predicted zero crossings. The design allows for prediction algorithms that account for the most recent fringe rate so that timing jitter produced by scan speed variations can be minimized. Response to a fixed source is linear with exposure time nearly to the point of saturation. Linearity with respect to input variations was demonstrated to within 0.16% using a 3-point blackbody calibration. Imaging of external complex scenes was carried out at low and high spectral resolution. These require full complex calibration to remove background contributions that vary dramatically over the instrument FOV. Testing is continuing to demonstrate the precise radiometric accuracy and noise characteristics.

  10. Filamentous temperature-sensitive Z (FtsZ) isoforms specifically interact in the chloroplasts and in the cytosol of Physcomitrella patens.

    PubMed

    Gremillon, Louis; Kiessling, Justine; Hause, Bettina; Decker, Eva L; Reski, Ralf; Sarnighausen, Eric

    2007-01-01

    Plant filamentous temperature-sensitive Z (FtsZ) proteins have been reported to be involved in biological processes related to plastids. However, the precise functions of distinct isoforms are still elusive. Here, the intracellular localization of the FtsZ1-1 isoform in a moss, Physcomitrella patens, was examined. Furthermore, the in vivo interaction behaviour of four distinct FtsZ isoforms was investigated. Localization studies of green fluorescent protein (GFP)-tagged FtsZ1-1 and fluorescence resonance energy transfer (FRET) analyses employing all dual combinations of four FtsZ isoforms were performed in transient protoplast transformation assays. FtsZ1-1 is localized to network structures inside the chloroplasts and exerts influence on plastid division. Interactions between FtsZ isoforms occur in distinct ordered structures in the chloroplasts as well as in the cytosol. The results expand the view of the involvement of Physcomitrella FtsZ proteins in chloroplast and cell division. It is concluded that duplication and diversification of ftsZ genes during plant evolution were the main prerequisites for the successful remodelling and integration of the prokaryotic FtsZ-dependent division mechanism into the cellular machineries of distinct complex processes in plants.

  11. An analysis of FtsZ assembly using small angle X-ray scattering and electron microscopy.

    PubMed

    Kuchibhatla, Anuradha; Abdul Rasheed, A S; Narayanan, Janaky; Bellare, Jayesh; Panda, Dulal

    2009-04-01

    Small angle X-ray scattering (SAXS) was used for the first time to study the self-assembly of the bacterial cell division protein, FtsZ, with three different additives: calcium chloride, monosodium glutamate and DEAE-dextran hydrochloride in solution. The SAXS data were analyzed assuming a model form factor and also by a model-independent analysis using the pair distance distribution function. Transmission electron microscopy (TEM) was used for direct observation of the FtsZ filaments. By sectioning and negative staining with glow discharged grids, very high bundling as well as low bundling polymers were observed under different assembly conditions. FtsZ polymers formed different structures in the presence of different additives and these additives were found to increase the bundling of FtsZ protofilaments by different mechanisms. The combined use of SAXS and TEM provided us a significant insight of the assembly of FtsZ and microstructures of the assembled FtsZ polymers.

  12. The bacterial tubulin FtsZ requires its intrinsically disordered linker to direct robust cell wall construction

    PubMed Central

    Sundararajan, Kousik; Miguel, Amanda; Desmarais, Samantha M.; Meier, Elizabeth L.; Huang, Kerwyn Casey; Goley, Erin D.

    2015-01-01

    The bacterial GTPase FtsZ forms a cytokinetic ring at midcell, recruits the division machinery, and orchestrates membrane and peptidoglycan cell wall invagination. However, the mechanism for FtsZ regulation of peptidoglycan metabolism is unknown. The FtsZ GTPase domain is separated from its membrane-anchoring C-terminal conserved (CTC) peptide by a disordered C-terminal linker (CTL). Here, we investigate CTL function in Caulobacter crescentus. Strikingly, production of FtsZ lacking the CTL (ΔCTL) is lethal: cells become filamentous, form envelope bulges, and lyse, resembling treatment with β-lactam antibiotics. This phenotype is produced by FtsZ polymers bearing the CTC and a CTL shorter than 14 residues. Peptidoglycan synthesis still occurs downstream of ΔCTL, however cells expressing ΔCTL exhibit reduced peptidoglycan crosslinking and longer glycan strands than wildtype. Importantly, midcell proteins are still recruited to sites of ΔCTL assembly. We propose that FtsZ regulates peptidoglycan metabolism through a CTL-dependent mechanism that extends beyond simple protein recruitment. PMID:26099469

  13. Structural similarity among Escherichia coli FtsW and RodA proteins and Bacillus subtilis SpoVE protein, which function in cell division, cell elongation, and spore formation, respectively.

    PubMed Central

    Ikeda, M; Sato, T; Wachi, M; Jung, H K; Ishino, F; Kobayashi, Y; Matsuhashi, M

    1989-01-01

    The Escherichia coli cell division gene ftsW (2 min) was cloned and sequenced. It encodes a hydrophobic protein(s) with 414 and/or 384 amino acid residues. The deduced amino acid sequence and the hydropathy profile of the protein showed high homology with those of the E. coli RodA protein functioning in determination of the cell shape and the Bacillus subtilis SpoVE protein functioning in spore formation. Probably similar functional membrane proteins are involved in these three cell cycle process. PMID:2509435

  14. Is ftsH the key to plastid longevity in sacoglossan slugs?

    PubMed

    de Vries, Jan; Habicht, Jörn; Woehle, Christian; Huang, Changjie; Christa, Gregor; Wägele, Heike; Nickelsen, Jörg; Martin, William F; Gould, Sven B

    2013-01-01

    Plastids sequestered by sacoglossan sea slugs have long been a puzzle. Some sacoglossans feed on siphonaceous algae and can retain the plastids in the cytosol of their digestive gland cells. There, the stolen plastids (kleptoplasts) can remain photosynthetically active in some cases for months. Kleptoplast longevity itself challenges current paradigms concerning photosystem turnover, because kleptoplast photosystems remain active in the absence of nuclear algal genes. In higher plants, nuclear genes are essential for plastid maintenance, in particular, for the constant repair of the D1 protein of photosystem II. Lateral gene transfer was long suspected to underpin slug kleptoplast longevity, but recent transcriptomic and genomic analyses show that no algal nuclear genes are expressed from the slug nucleus. Kleptoplast genomes themselves, however, appear expressed in the sequestered state. Here we present sequence data for the chloroplast genome of Acetabularia acetabulum, the food source of the sacoglossan Elysia timida, which can maintain Acetabularia kleptoplasts in an active state for months. The data reveal what might be the key to sacoglossan kleptoplast longevity: plastids that remain photosynthetically active within slugs for periods of months share the property of encoding ftsH, a D1 quality control protease that is essential for photosystem II repair. In land plants, ftsH is always nuclear encoded, it was transferred to the nucleus from the plastid genome when Charophyta and Embryophyta split. A replenishable supply of ftsH could, in principle, rescue kleptoplasts from D1 photodamage, thereby influencing plastid longevity in sacoglossan slugs. PMID:24336424

  15. Is ftsH the key to plastid longevity in sacoglossan slugs?

    PubMed

    de Vries, Jan; Habicht, Jörn; Woehle, Christian; Huang, Changjie; Christa, Gregor; Wägele, Heike; Nickelsen, Jörg; Martin, William F; Gould, Sven B

    2013-01-01

    Plastids sequestered by sacoglossan sea slugs have long been a puzzle. Some sacoglossans feed on siphonaceous algae and can retain the plastids in the cytosol of their digestive gland cells. There, the stolen plastids (kleptoplasts) can remain photosynthetically active in some cases for months. Kleptoplast longevity itself challenges current paradigms concerning photosystem turnover, because kleptoplast photosystems remain active in the absence of nuclear algal genes. In higher plants, nuclear genes are essential for plastid maintenance, in particular, for the constant repair of the D1 protein of photosystem II. Lateral gene transfer was long suspected to underpin slug kleptoplast longevity, but recent transcriptomic and genomic analyses show that no algal nuclear genes are expressed from the slug nucleus. Kleptoplast genomes themselves, however, appear expressed in the sequestered state. Here we present sequence data for the chloroplast genome of Acetabularia acetabulum, the food source of the sacoglossan Elysia timida, which can maintain Acetabularia kleptoplasts in an active state for months. The data reveal what might be the key to sacoglossan kleptoplast longevity: plastids that remain photosynthetically active within slugs for periods of months share the property of encoding ftsH, a D1 quality control protease that is essential for photosystem II repair. In land plants, ftsH is always nuclear encoded, it was transferred to the nucleus from the plastid genome when Charophyta and Embryophyta split. A replenishable supply of ftsH could, in principle, rescue kleptoplasts from D1 photodamage, thereby influencing plastid longevity in sacoglossan slugs.

  16. Is ftsH the Key to Plastid Longevity in Sacoglossan Slugs?

    PubMed Central

    de Vries, Jan; Habicht, Jörn; Woehle, Christian; Huang, Changjie; Christa, Gregor; Wägele, Heike; Nickelsen, Jörg; Martin, William F.; Gould, Sven B.

    2013-01-01

    Plastids sequestered by sacoglossan sea slugs have long been a puzzle. Some sacoglossans feed on siphonaceous algae and can retain the plastids in the cytosol of their digestive gland cells. There, the stolen plastids (kleptoplasts) can remain photosynthetically active in some cases for months. Kleptoplast longevity itself challenges current paradigms concerning photosystem turnover, because kleptoplast photosystems remain active in the absence of nuclear algal genes. In higher plants, nuclear genes are essential for plastid maintenance, in particular, for the constant repair of the D1 protein of photosystem II. Lateral gene transfer was long suspected to underpin slug kleptoplast longevity, but recent transcriptomic and genomic analyses show that no algal nuclear genes are expressed from the slug nucleus. Kleptoplast genomes themselves, however, appear expressed in the sequestered state. Here we present sequence data for the chloroplast genome of Acetabularia acetabulum, the food source of the sacoglossan Elysia timida, which can maintain Acetabularia kleptoplasts in an active state for months. The data reveal what might be the key to sacoglossan kleptoplast longevity: plastids that remain photosynthetically active within slugs for periods of months share the property of encoding ftsH, a D1 quality control protease that is essential for photosystem II repair. In land plants, ftsH is always nuclear encoded, it was transferred to the nucleus from the plastid genome when Charophyta and Embryophyta split. A replenishable supply of ftsH could, in principle, rescue kleptoplasts from D1 photodamage, thereby influencing plastid longevity in sacoglossan slugs. PMID:24336424

  17. The structural basis of FtsY recruitment and GTPase activation by SRP RNA.

    PubMed

    Voigts-Hoffmann, Felix; Schmitz, Nikolaus; Shen, Kuang; Shan, Shu-Ou; Ataide, Sandro F; Ban, Nenad

    2013-12-12

    The universally conserved signal recognition particle (SRP) system mediates the targeting of membrane proteins to the translocon in a multistep process controlled by GTP hydrolysis. Here we present the 2.6 Å crystal structure of the GTPase domains of the E. coli SRP protein (Ffh) and its receptor (FtsY) in complex with the tetraloop and the distal region of SRP-RNA, trapped in the activated state in presence of GDP:AlF4. The structure reveals the atomic details of FtsY recruitment and, together with biochemical experiments, pinpoints G83 as the key RNA residue that stimulates GTP hydrolysis. Insertion of G83 into the FtsY active site orients a single glutamate residue provided by Ffh (E277), triggering GTP hydrolysis and complex disassembly at the end of the targeting cycle. The complete conservation of the key residues of the SRP-RNA and the SRP protein implies that the suggested chemical mechanism of GTPase activation is applicable across all kingdoms. PMID:24211265

  18. A promoter for the first nine genes of the Escherichia coli mra cluster of cell division and cell envelope biosynthesis genes, including ftsI and ftsW.

    PubMed Central

    Hara, H; Yasuda, S; Horiuchi, K; Park, J T

    1997-01-01

    We constructed a null allele of the ftsI gene encoding penicillin-binding protein 3 of Escherichia coli. It caused blockage of septation and loss of viability when expression of an extrachromosomal copy of ftsI was repressed, providing a final proof that ftsI is an essential cell division gene. In order to complement this null allele, the ftsI gene cloned on a single-copy mini-F plasmid required a region 1.9 kb upstream, which was found to contain a promoter sequence that could direct expression of a promoterless lacZ gene on a mini-F plasmid. This promoter sequence lies at the beginning of the mra cluster in the 2 min region of the E. coli chromosome, a cluster of 16 genes which, except for the first 2, are known to be involved in cell division and cell envelope biosynthesis. Disruption of this promoter, named the mra promoter, on the chromosome by inserting the lac promoter led to cell lysis in the absence of a lac inducer. The defect was complemented by a plasmid carrying a chromosomal fragment ranging from the mra promoter to ftsW, the fifth gene downstream of ftsI, but not by a plasmid lacking ftsW. Although several potential promoter sequences in this region of the mra cluster have been reported, we conclude that the promoter identified in this study is required for the first nine genes of the cluster to be fully expressed. PMID:9294438

  19. Site-directed fluorescence labeling reveals a revised N-terminal membrane topology and functional periplasmic residues in the Escherichia coli cell division protein FtsK.

    PubMed

    Berezuk, Alison M; Goodyear, Mara; Khursigara, Cezar M

    2014-08-22

    In Escherichia coli, FtsK is a large integral membrane protein that coordinates chromosome segregation and cell division. The N-terminal domain of FtsK (FtsKN) is essential for division, and the C terminus (FtsKC) is a well characterized DNA translocase. Although the function of FtsKN is unknown, it is suggested that FtsK acts as a checkpoint to ensure DNA is properly segregated before septation. This may occur through modulation of protein interactions between FtsKN and other division proteins in both the periplasm and cytoplasm; thus, a clear understanding of how FtsKN is positioned in the membrane is required to characterize these interactions. The membrane topology of FtsKN was initially determined using site-directed reporter fusions; however, questions regarding this topology persist. Here, we report a revised membrane topology generated by site-directed fluorescence labeling. The revised topology confirms the presence of four transmembrane segments and reveals a newly identified periplasmic loop between the third and fourth transmembrane domains. Within this loop, four residues were identified that, when mutated, resulted in the appearance of cellular voids. High resolution transmission electron microscopy of these voids showed asymmetric division of the cytoplasm in the absence of outer membrane invagination or visible cell wall ingrowth. This uncoupling reveals a novel role for FtsK in linking cell envelope septation events and yields further evidence for FtsK as a critical checkpoint of cell division. The revised topology of FtsKN also provides an important platform for future studies on essential interactions required for this process.

  20. The Nucleoid Occlusion SlmA Protein Accelerates the Disassembly of the FtsZ Protein Polymers without Affecting Their GTPase Activity

    PubMed Central

    Cabré, Elisa J.; Monterroso, Begoña; Alfonso, Carlos; Sánchez-Gorostiaga, Alicia; Reija, Belén; Jiménez, Mercedes

    2015-01-01

    Division site selection is achieved in bacteria by different mechanisms, one of them being nucleoid occlusion, which prevents Z-ring assembly nearby the chromosome. Nucleoid occlusion in E. coli is mediated by SlmA, a sequence specific DNA binding protein that antagonizes FtsZ assembly. Here we show that, when bound to its specific target DNA sequences (SBS), SlmA reduces the lifetime of the FtsZ protofilaments in solution and of the FtsZ bundles when located inside permeable giant vesicles. This effect appears to be essentially uncoupled from the GTPase activity of the FtsZ protofilaments, which is insensitive to the presence of SlmA·SBS. The interaction of SlmA·SBS with either FtsZ protofilaments containing GTP or FtsZ oligomers containing GDP results in the disassembly of FtsZ polymers. We propose that SlmA·SBS complexes control the polymerization state of FtsZ by accelerating the disassembly of the FtsZ polymers leading to their fragmentation into shorter species that are still able to hydrolyze GTP at the same rate. SlmA defines therefore a new class of inhibitors of the FtsZ ring different from the SOS response regulator SulA and from the moonlighting enzyme OpgH, inhibitors of the GTPase activity. SlmA also shows differences compared with MinC, the inhibitor of the division site selection Min system, which shortens FtsZ protofilaments by interacting with the GDP form of FtsZ. PMID:25950808

  1. Site-directed Fluorescence Labeling Reveals a Revised N-terminal Membrane Topology and Functional Periplasmic Residues in the Escherichia coli Cell Division Protein FtsK*

    PubMed Central

    Berezuk, Alison M.; Goodyear, Mara; Khursigara, Cezar M.

    2014-01-01

    In Escherichia coli, FtsK is a large integral membrane protein that coordinates chromosome segregation and cell division. The N-terminal domain of FtsK (FtsKN) is essential for division, and the C terminus (FtsKC) is a well characterized DNA translocase. Although the function of FtsKN is unknown, it is suggested that FtsK acts as a checkpoint to ensure DNA is properly segregated before septation. This may occur through modulation of protein interactions between FtsKN and other division proteins in both the periplasm and cytoplasm; thus, a clear understanding of how FtsKN is positioned in the membrane is required to characterize these interactions. The membrane topology of FtsKN was initially determined using site-directed reporter fusions; however, questions regarding this topology persist. Here, we report a revised membrane topology generated by site-directed fluorescence labeling. The revised topology confirms the presence of four transmembrane segments and reveals a newly identified periplasmic loop between the third and fourth transmembrane domains. Within this loop, four residues were identified that, when mutated, resulted in the appearance of cellular voids. High resolution transmission electron microscopy of these voids showed asymmetric division of the cytoplasm in the absence of outer membrane invagination or visible cell wall ingrowth. This uncoupling reveals a novel role for FtsK in linking cell envelope septation events and yields further evidence for FtsK as a critical checkpoint of cell division. The revised topology of FtsKN also provides an important platform for future studies on essential interactions required for this process. PMID:25002583

  2. Spectral Characterizations of the Clouds and the Earth's Radiant Energy System (CERES) Thermistor Bolometers using Fourier Transform Spectrometer (FTS) Techniques

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Thornhill, K. Lee; Bitting, Herbert; Lee, Robert B., III; Paden, Jack; Pandey, Dhirendra K.; Priestley, Kory J.; Thomas, Susan; Wilson, Robert S.

    1998-01-01

    Fourier Transform Spectrometer (FTS) techniques are being used to characterize the relative spectral response, or sensitivity, of scanning thermistor bolometers in the infrared (IR) region (2 - >= 100-micrometers). The bolometers are being used in the Clouds and the Earth's Radiant Energy System (CERES) program. The CERES measurements are designed to provide precise, long term monitoring of the Earth's atmospheric radiation energy budget. The CERES instrument houses three bolometric radiometers, a total wavelength (0.3- >= 150-micrometers) sensor, a shortwave (0.3-5-micrometers) sensor, and an atmospheric window (8-12-micrometers) sensor. Accurate spectral characterization is necessary for determining filtered radiances for longwave radiometric calibrations. The CERES bolometers spectral response's are measured in the TRW FTS Vacuum Chamber Facility (FTS - VCF), which uses a FTS as the source and a cavity pyroelectric trap detector as the reference. The CERES bolometers and the cavity detector are contained in a vacuum chamber, while the FTS source is housed in a GN2 purged chamber. Due to the thermal time constant of the CERES bolometers, the FTS must be operated in a step mode. Data are acquired in 6 IR spectral bands covering the entire longwave IR region. In this paper, the TRW spectral calibration facility design and data measurement techniques are described. Two approaches are presented which convert the total channel FTS data into the final CERES spectral characterizations, producing the same calibration coefficients (within 0.1 percent). The resulting spectral response curves are shown, along with error sources in the two procedures. Finally, the impact of each spectral response curve on CERES data validation will be examined through analysis of filtered radiance values from various typical scene types.

  3. In vivo organization of the FtsZ-ring by ZapA and ZapB revealed by quantitative super-resolution microscopy

    PubMed Central

    Buss, Jackson; Coltharp, Carla; Huang, Tao; Pohlmeyer, Chris; Wang, Shih-Chin; Hatem, Christine; Xiao, Jie

    2013-01-01

    Summary In most bacterial cells, cell division is dependent on the polymerization of the FtsZ protein to form a ring-like structure (Z-ring) at the midcell. Despite its essential role, the molecular architecture of the Z-ring remains elusive. In this work we examine the roles of two FtsZ-associated proteins, ZapA and ZapB, in the assembly dynamics and structure of the Z-ring in E. coli cells. In cells deleted of zapA or zapB, we observed abnormal septa and highly dynamic FtsZ structures. While details of these FtsZ structures are difficult to discern under conventional fluorescence microscopy, single-molecule based superresolution imaging method Photoactivated Localization Microscopy (PALM) reveals that these FtsZ structures arise from disordered arrangements of FtsZ clusters. Quantitative analysis finds these clusters are larger and comprise more molecules than a single FtsZ protofilament, and likely represent a distinct polymeric species that is inherent to the assembly pathway of the Z-ring. Furthermore, we find these clusters are not due to the loss of ZapB-MatP interaction in ΔzapA and ΔzapB cells. Our results suggest that the main function of ZapA and ZapB in vivo may not be to promote the association of individual protofilaments but to align FtsZ clusters that consist of multiple FtsZ protofilaments. PMID:23859153

  4. Microenvironments created by liquid-liquid phase transition control the dynamic distribution of bacterial division FtsZ protein

    PubMed Central

    Monterroso, Begoña; Zorrilla, Silvia; Sobrinos-Sanguino, Marta; Keating, Christine D.; Rivas, Germán

    2016-01-01

    The influence of membrane-free microcompartments resulting from crowding-induced liquid/liquid phase separation (LLPS) on the dynamic spatial organization of FtsZ, the main component of the bacterial division machinery, has been studied using several LLPS systems. The GTP-dependent assembly cycle of FtsZ is thought to be crucial for the formation of the septal ring, which is highly regulated in time and space. We found that FtsZ accumulates in one of the phases and/or at the interface, depending on the system composition and on the oligomerization state of the protein. These results were observed both in bulk LLPS and in lipid-stabilized, phase-separated aqueous microdroplets. The visualization of the droplets revealed that both the location and structural arrangement of FtsZ filaments is determined by the nature of the LLPS. Relocation upon depolymerization of the dynamic filaments suggests the protein may shift among microenvironments in response to changes in its association state. The existence of these dynamic compartments driven by phase transitions can alter the local composition and reactivity of FtsZ during its life cycle acting as a nonspecific modulating factor of cell function. PMID:27725777

  5. Elevated guanosine 5'-diphosphate 3'-diphosphate level inhibits bacterial growth and interferes with FtsZ assembly.

    PubMed

    Yamaguchi, Takayoshi; Iida, Ken-Ichiro; Shiota, Susumu; Nakayama, Hiroaki; Yoshida, Shin-Ichi

    2015-12-01

    FtsZ, a protein essential for prokaryotic cell division, forms a ring structure known as the Z-ring at the division site. FtsZ has a GTP binding site and is assembled into linear structures in a GTP-dependent manner in vitro. We assessed whether guanosine 5'-diphosphate 3'-diphosphate (ppGpp), a global regulator of gene expression in starved bacteria, affects cell division in Salmonella Paratyphi A. Elevation of intracellular ppGpp levels by using the relA expression vector induced repression of bacterial growth and incorrect FtsZ assembly. We found that FtsZ forms helical structures in the presence of ppGpp by using the GTP binding site; however, ppGpp levels required to form helical structures were at least 20-fold higher than the required GTP levels in vitro. Furthermore, once formed, helical structures did not change to the straight form even after GTP addition. Our data indicate that elevation of the ppGpp level leads to inhibition of bacterial growth and interferes with FtsZ assembly.

  6. Structure of the tubulin/FtsZ-like protein TubZ from Pseudomonas bacteriophage ΦKZ.

    PubMed

    Aylett, Christopher H S; Izoré, Thierry; Amos, Linda A; Löwe, Jan

    2013-06-26

    Pseudomonas ΦKZ-like bacteriophages encode a group of related tubulin/FtsZ-like proteins believed to be essential for the correct centring of replicated bacteriophage virions within the bacterial host. In this study, we present crystal structures of the tubulin/FtsZ-like protein TubZ from Pseudomonas bacteriophage ΦKZ in both the monomeric and protofilament states, revealing that ΦKZ TubZ undergoes structural changes required to polymerise, forming a canonical tubulin/FtsZ-like protofilament. Combining our structures with previous work, we propose a polymerisation-depolymerisation cycle for the Pseudomonas bacteriophage subgroup of tubulin/FtsZ-like proteins. Electron cryo-microscopy of ΦKZ TubZ filaments polymerised in vitro implies a long-pitch helical arrangement for the constituent protofilaments. Intriguingly, this feature is shared by the other known subgroup of bacteriophage tubulin/FtsZ-like proteins from Clostridium species, which are thought to be involved in partitioning the genomes of bacteriophages adopting a pseudo-lysogenic life cycle. PMID:23528827

  7. A Multi-layered Protein Network Stabilizes the Escherichia coli FtsZ-ring and Modulates Constriction Dynamics

    PubMed Central

    Buss, Jackson; Coltharp, Carla; Shtengel, Gleb; Yang, Xinxing; Hess, Harald; Xiao, Jie

    2015-01-01

    The prokaryotic tubulin homolog, FtsZ, forms a ring-like structure (FtsZ-ring) at midcell. The FtsZ-ring establishes the division plane and enables the assembly of the macromolecular division machinery (divisome). Although many molecular components of the divisome have been identified and their interactions extensively characterized, the spatial organization of these proteins within the divisome is unclear. Consequently, the physical mechanisms that drive divisome assembly, maintenance, and constriction remain elusive. Here we applied single-molecule based superresolution imaging, combined with genetic and biophysical investigations, to reveal the spatial organization of cellular structures formed by four important divisome proteins in E. coli: FtsZ, ZapA, ZapB and MatP. We show that these interacting proteins are arranged into a multi-layered protein network extending from the cell membrane to the chromosome, each with unique structural and dynamic properties. Further, we find that this protein network stabilizes the FtsZ-ring, and unexpectedly, slows down cell constriction, suggesting a new, unrecognized role for this network in bacterial cell division. Our results provide new insight into the structure and function of the divisome, and highlight the importance of coordinated cell constriction and chromosome segregation. PMID:25848771

  8. Simple modeling of FtsZ polymers on flat and curved surfaces: correlation with experimental in vitro observations

    PubMed Central

    Paez, Alfonso; Mateos-Gil, Pablo; Hörger, Ines; Mingorance, Jesús; Rivas, Germán; Vicente, Miguel; Vélez, Marisela; Tarazona, Pedro

    2009-01-01

    FtsZ is a GTPase that assembles at midcell into a dynamic ring that constricts the membrane to induce cell division in the majority of bacteria, in many archea and several organelles. In vitro, FtsZ polymerizes in a GTP-dependent manner forming a variety of filamentous flexible structures. Based on data derived from the measurement of the in vitro polymerization of Escherichia coli FtsZ cell division protein we have formulated a model in which the fine balance between curvature, flexibility and lateral interactions accounts for structural and dynamic properties of the FtsZ polymers observed with AFM. The experimental results have been used by the model to calibrate the interaction energies and the values obtained indicate that the filaments are very plastic. The extension of the model to explore filament behavior on a cylindrical surface has shown that the FtsZ condensates promoted by lateral interactions can easily form ring structures through minor modulations of either filament curvature or longitudinal bond energies. The condensation of short, monomer exchanging filaments into rings is shown to produce enough force to induce membrane deformations. PACS codes: 87.15.ak, 87.16.ka, 87.17.Ee PMID:19849848

  9. SAR Studies on Trisubstituted Benzimidazoles as Inhibitors of Mtb FtsZ for the Development of Novel Antitubercular Agents

    PubMed Central

    Awasthi, Divya; Kumar, Kunal; Knudson, Susan E.; Slayden, Richard A.; Ojima, Iwao

    2014-01-01

    FtsZ, an essential protein for bacterial cell division, is a highly promising therapeutic target, especially for the discovery and development of new-generation anti-TB agents. Following up the identification of two lead 2,5,6-trisubstituted benzimidazoles, 1 and 2, targeting Mtb-FtsZ in our previous study, an extensive SAR study for optimization of these lead compounds was performed through systematic modification of the 5 and 6 positions. This study has successfully led to the discovery of a highly potent advanced lead 5f (MIC 0.06 µg/mL) and several other compounds with comparable potencies. These advanced lead compounds possess a dimethylamino group at the 6 position. The functional groups at the 5 position exhibit substantial effects on the antibacterial activity as well. In vitro experiments such as the FtsZ polymerization inhibitory assay and TEM analysis of Mtb-FtsZ treated with 5f and others indicate that Mtb-FtsZ is the molecular target for their antibacterial activity. PMID:24266862

  10. XerD-mediated FtsK-independent integration of TLCϕ into the Vibrio cholerae genome.

    PubMed

    Midonet, Caroline; Das, Bhabatosh; Paly, Evelyne; Barre, Francois-Xavier

    2014-11-25

    As in most bacteria, topological problems arising from the circularity of the two Vibrio cholerae chromosomes, chrI and chrII, are resolved by the addition of a crossover at a specific site of each chromosome, dif, by two tyrosine recombinases, XerC and XerD. The reaction is under the control of a cell division protein, FtsK, which activates the formation of a Holliday Junction (HJ) intermediate by XerD catalysis that is resolved into product by XerC catalysis. Many plasmids and phages exploit Xer recombination for dimer resolution and for integration, respectively. In all cases so far described, they rely on an alternative recombination pathway in which XerC catalyzes the formation of a HJ independently of FtsK. This is notably the case for CTXϕ, the cholera toxin phage. Here, we show that in contrast, integration of TLCϕ, a toxin-linked cryptic satellite phage that is almost always found integrated at the chrI dif site before CTXϕ, depends on the formation of a HJ by XerD catalysis, which is then resolved by XerC catalysis. The reaction nevertheless escapes the normal cellular control exerted by FtsK on XerD. In addition, we show that the same reaction promotes the excision of TLCϕ, along with any CTXϕ copy present between dif and its left attachment site, providing a plausible mechanism for how chrI CTXϕ copies can be eliminated, as occurred in the second wave of the current cholera pandemic. PMID:25385643

  11. Multispectral analysis of Cygnus Loop and IC 443 with iFTS

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Alarie, Alexandre

    2016-06-01

    Cygnus Loop and IC 443 are supernova remnants (SNRs) recognized as excellent laboratories to study the interaction between the SNR and the surrounding interstellar medium. The overall complex morphologies and large dimensions of those SNRs have always represented an observational challenge. This is especially true for optical observations for which the data available are very scarce. In order to palliate this scarcity in the optical regime, we are using two wide field-imaging Fourier transform spectrometers (iFTS): SpIOMM, attached to the Mont Megantic 1.6-m telescope and SITELLE recently installed at the Canada-France-Hawaii Telescope. Both instruments are capable of obtaining the spatially resolved visible spectrum of every source of light in an 11 arc minute field of view, in selected bandpasses. Using those iFTS on extended object such as Cygnus Loop and IC 443, we have obtained millions of spectra covering all major emission lines. Due to the large projected surface of Cygnus Loop and IC 443, we started a survey and the latest dataset will be presented. The extended 2D mappings of several emission lines ([O II] 3727, [O III] 4363, Hb, [O III] 4959, 5007, Ha, [N II] 6548, 6583 and [S II] 6716, 6731) allowed the creation of numerous ratios maps useful for shock diagnostics: shock velocity, electronic and temperature densities, location of incomplete shocks and extinction maps. These maps are then used to determine key parameters needed to compare the observations with theoretical shock models. Using the shock modeling code MAPPINGS, we can create abundances maps of nitrogen, oxygen and sulfur for an appreciable fraction of the observed regions. Furthermore, using the radial velocity as well as the spectro-imagery capability of the iFTS, we can have a glimpse of the three-dimensional structure of the remnants. All those data allow us to forge a coherent analysis of the complex interaction between the SNRs and their surrounding environment.

  12. The plastid metalloprotease FtsH6 and small heat shock protein HSP21 jointly regulate thermomemory in Arabidopsis

    PubMed Central

    Sedaghatmehr, Mastoureh; Mueller-Roeber, Bernd; Balazadeh, Salma

    2016-01-01

    Acquired tolerance to heat stress is an increased resistance to elevated temperature following a prior exposure to heat. The maintenance of acquired thermotolerance in the absence of intervening stress is called ‘thermomemory' but the mechanistic basis for this memory is not well defined. Here we show that Arabidopsis HSP21, a plastidial small heat shock protein that rapidly accumulates after heat stress and remains abundant during the thermomemory phase, is a crucial component of thermomemory. Sustained memory requires that HSP21 levels remain high. Through pharmacological interrogation and transcriptome profiling, we show that the plastid-localized metalloprotease FtsH6 regulates HSP21 abundance. Lack of a functional FtsH6 protein promotes HSP21 accumulation during the later stages of thermomemory and increases thermomemory capacity. Our results thus reveal the presence of a plastidial FtsH6–HSP21 control module for thermomemory in plants. PMID:27561243

  13. FtsK translocation permits discrimination between an endogenous and an imported Xer/dif recombination complex

    PubMed Central

    Fournes, Florian; Crozat, Estelles; Pages, Carine; Tardin, Catherine; Salomé, Laurence; Cornet, François

    2016-01-01

    In bacteria, the FtsK/Xer/dif (chromosome dimer resolution site) system is essential for faithful vertical genetic transmission, ensuring the resolution of chromosome dimers during their segregation to daughter cells. This system is also targeted by mobile genetic elements that integrate into chromosomal dif sites. A central question is thus how Xer/dif recombination is tuned to both act in chromosome segregation and stably maintain mobile elements. To explore this question, we focused on pathogenic Neisseria species harboring a genomic island in their dif sites. We show that the FtsK DNA translocase acts differentially at the recombination sites flanking the genomic island. It stops at one Xer/dif complex, activating recombination, but it does not stop on the other site, thus dismantling it. FtsK translocation thus permits cis discrimination between an endogenous and an imported Xer/dif recombination complex. PMID:27317749

  14. Hosting a Fourier Transform Spectrometer (FTS) on CubeSat Spacecraft Platforms for Global Measurements of Three-Dimensional Winds

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Scott, D. K.; Neilsen, T. L.; Weston, C.; Frazier, C.; Smith, T.; Shumway, A.

    2015-12-01

    Global measurements of vertically-resolved atmospheric wind profiles offer the potential for improved weather forecasts and superior predictions of atmospheric wind patterns. A small-satellite constellation that uses a Fourier Transform Spectrometer (FTS) instrument onboard 12U CubeSats can provide measurements of global tropospheric wind profiles from space at a very low cost. These small satellites are called FTS CubeSats. This presentation will describe a spacecraft concept that provides a stable, robust platform to host the FTS payload. Of importance to the payload are power, data, station keeping, thermal, and accommodations that enable high spectral measurements to be made from a LEO orbit. The spacecraft concept draws on Space Dynamics Laboratory (SDL) heritage and the recent success of the Dynamic Ionosphere Cubesat Experiment (DICE) and HyperAngular Rainbow Polarimeter (HARP) missions. Working with team members, SDL built a prototype observatory (spacecraft and payload) for testing and proof of concept.

  15. [Effect of cinnamon and lavender oils on FtsZ gene expression in the Staphylococus aureus ATCC 29213].

    PubMed

    Herman, A; Bochenek, J; Herman, A P

    2013-01-01

    This study was designed to determine the effect of lavender and cinnamon oils on FtsZ gene expression in Staphylococcus aureus ATCC 29213. The cinnamon and lavender oils at least partially results from the inhibition of FtsZ transcription and disruption of cell division process at the level of the septum synthesis, what is similar to mechanisms of drug action used in anti-staphylococcal therapies. The presented results could be an important background for the further detailed research, which is needed to clarify the effect of essential oils on FtsZ synthesis at the posttranscriptional level and other stages of cell division process of S. aureus and other pathogenic bacteria.

  16. The plastid metalloprotease FtsH6 and small heat shock protein HSP21 jointly regulate thermomemory in Arabidopsis.

    PubMed

    Sedaghatmehr, Mastoureh; Mueller-Roeber, Bernd; Balazadeh, Salma

    2016-01-01

    Acquired tolerance to heat stress is an increased resistance to elevated temperature following a prior exposure to heat. The maintenance of acquired thermotolerance in the absence of intervening stress is called 'thermomemory' but the mechanistic basis for this memory is not well defined. Here we show that Arabidopsis HSP21, a plastidial small heat shock protein that rapidly accumulates after heat stress and remains abundant during the thermomemory phase, is a crucial component of thermomemory. Sustained memory requires that HSP21 levels remain high. Through pharmacological interrogation and transcriptome profiling, we show that the plastid-localized metalloprotease FtsH6 regulates HSP21 abundance. Lack of a functional FtsH6 protein promotes HSP21 accumulation during the later stages of thermomemory and increases thermomemory capacity. Our results thus reveal the presence of a plastidial FtsH6-HSP21 control module for thermomemory in plants. PMID:27561243

  17. Testing of FTS fingers and interface using a passive compliant robot manipulator. [flight telerobot servicer

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Nguyen, Charles C.; Antrazi, Sami S.

    1992-01-01

    This report deals with testing of a pair of robot fingers designed for the Flight Telerobotic Servicer (FTS) to grasp a cylinder type of Orbital Replaceable Unit (ORU) interface. The report first describes the objectives of the study and then the testbed consisting of a Stewart Platform-based manipulator equipped with a passive compliant platform which also serves as a force/torque sensor. Kinematic analysis is then performed to provide a closed-form solution for the force inverse kinematics and iterative solution for the force forward kinematics using the Newton's Raphson Method. Mathematical expressions are then derived to compute force/torques applied to the FTS fingers during the mating/demating with the interface. The report then presents the three parts of the experimental study on the feasibility and characteristics of the fingers. The first part obtains data of forces applied by the fingers to the interface under various misalignments, the second part determines the maximum allowable capture angles for mating, and the third part processes and interprets the obtained force/torque data.

  18. [Docking of low-molecular ligands on the plant FtsZ-protein with application of CUDA-accelerated calculations].

    PubMed

    Demchuk, O N; Karpov, P A; Blium, Ia B

    2012-01-01

    This article provides review and analysis of opportunities for application of the CUDA technology for acceleration of computations in structural biology and bioinformatics. On the example of work with the Hex 6.1 program, comparative analysis of increase in the speed and quality of results of hard-docking of a number of low-molecular compounds on the surface of the FtsZ protein from Arabidopsis thaliana was performed. Several potential benzimidazole--plant FtsZ protein binding sites were identified. PMID:22856146

  19. Rapid in vitro assembly of Caulobacter crescentus FtsZ protein at pH 6.5 and 7.2.

    PubMed

    Milam, Sara L; Erickson, Harold P

    2013-08-16

    FtsZ from most bacteria assembles rapidly in vitro, reaching a steady-state plateau in 5-10 s after addition of GTP. A recent study used a novel dynamic light-scattering technique to assay the assembly of FtsZ from Caulobacter crescentus (CcFtsZ) and reported that assembly required 10 min, ∼100 times slower than for related bacteria. Previous studies had indicated normal, rapid assembly of CcFtsZ. We have reinvestigated the assembly kinetics using a mutant L72W, where assembly of subunits into protofilaments results in a significant increase in tryptophan fluorescence. We found that assembly reached a plateau in 5-10 s and showed no change in the following 10 min. This was confirmed by 90° light scattering and negative-stain electron microscopy. The very slow kinetics in the dynamic light-scattering study may be related to a refractory state induced when the FtsZ protein is stored without nucleotide, a phenomenon that we had observed in a previous study of EcFtsZ. We conclude that CcFtsZ is not an outlier, but shows rapid assembly kinetics similar to FtsZ from related bacteria.

  20. Sub‐cellular location of FtsH proteases in the cyanobacterium S ynechocystis sp. PCC 6803 suggests localised PSII repair zones in the thylakoid membranes

    PubMed Central

    Sacharz, Joanna; Bryan, Samantha J.; Yu, Jianfeng; Burroughs, Nigel J.; Spence, Edward M.; Nixon, Peter J.

    2015-01-01

    Summary In cyanobacteria and chloroplasts, exposure to HL damages the photosynthetic apparatus, especially the D1 subunit of Photosystem II. To avoid chronic photoinhibition, a PSII repair cycle operates to replace damaged PSII subunits with newly synthesised versions. To determine the sub‐cellular location of this process, we examined the localisation of FtsH metalloproteases, some of which are directly involved in degrading damaged D1. We generated transformants of the cyanobacterium S ynechocystis sp. PCC6803 expressing GFP‐tagged versions of its four FtsH proteases. The ftsH2–gfp strain was functional for PSII repair under our conditions. Confocal microscopy shows that FtsH1 is mainly in the cytoplasmic membrane, while the remaining FtsH proteins are in patches either in the thylakoid or at the interface between the thylakoid and cytoplasmic membranes. HL exposure which increases the activity of the Photosystem II repair cycle led to no detectable changes in FtsH distribution, with the FtsH2 protease involved in D1 degradation retaining its patchy distribution in the thylakoid membrane. We discuss the possibility that the FtsH2–GFP patches represent Photosystem II ‘repair zones’ within the thylakoid membranes, and the possible advantages of such functionally specialised membrane zones. Anti‐GFP affinity pull‐downs provide the first indication of the composition of the putative repair zones. PMID:25601560

  1. Relationship between a spleen-derived immunosuppressive peptide 'SDIP' and the 'Facteur thymique sérique' (FTS): biochemical and biological comparison of the two factors.

    PubMed Central

    Lenfant, M; Millerioux, L; Blazsek, I; Duchange, N

    1983-01-01

    A spleen-derived immunosuppressive peptide (SDIP) has been purified to homogeneity. Its physicochemical properties (electrophoretic mobility, u.v. spectra, absence of dansyl derivative) and its enzymatic susceptibilities (proteolytic enzymes, RNase, and DNase) were similar to those of the thymic hormone 'FTS'. SDIP and FTS were eluted with identical retention times in high performance liquid chromatography analysis in three different systems. When tested in sheep cell rosettes, and in the FTS radioimmunoassay in J.F. Bach's laboratory, SDIP presented an activity similar to FTS. In order to compare the thymic hormone to SDIP the biological activity of FTS was determined in in vivo and in in vitro humoral immunity reactions to a T-dependent antigen. As SDIP, FTS inhibited in vivo and in vitro the 19S-bearing cell formation during the last step of the differentiation of the lymphocytes, in the same range of concentration. The two factors appeared to stimulate the incorporation of [3H]-thymidine into the DNA of short-term cultures of thymocytes. The similarity of biological properties of SDIP and FTS together with the similarity observed in the physico-chemical and biochemical properties led to the conclusion that bovine spleen contains a factor similar to FTS. PMID:6682089

  2. Insights into nucleotide recognition by cell division protein FtsZ from a mant-GTP competition assay and molecular dynamics.

    PubMed

    Schaffner-Barbero, Claudia; Gil-Redondo, Rubén; Ruiz-Avila, Laura B; Huecas, Sonia; Läppchen, Tilman; den Blaauwen, Tanneke; Diaz, J Fernando; Morreale, Antonio; Andreu, Jose M

    2010-12-14

    Essential cell division protein FtsZ forms the bacterial cytokinetic ring and is a target for new antibiotics. FtsZ monomers bind GTP and assemble into filaments. Hydrolysis to GDP at the association interface between monomers leads to filament disassembly. We have developed a homogeneous competition assay, employing the fluorescence anisotropy change of mant-GTP upon binding to nucleotide-free FtsZ, which detects compounds binding to the nucleotide site in FtsZ monomers and measures their affinities within the millimolar to 10 nM range. We have employed this method to determine the apparent contributions of the guanine, ribose, and the α-, β-, and γ-phosphates to the free energy change of nucleotide binding. Similar relative contributions have also been estimated through molecular dynamics and binding free energy calculations, employing the crystal structures of FtsZ-nucleotide complexes. We find an energetically dominant contribution of the β-phosphate, comparable to the whole guanosine moiety. GTP and GDP bind with similar observed affinity to FtsZ monomers. Loss of the regulatory γ-phosphate results in a predicted accommodation of GDP which has not been observed in the crystal structures. The binding affinities of a series of C8-substituted GTP analogues, known to inhibit FtsZ but not eukaryotic tubulin assembly, correlate with their inhibitory capacity on FtsZ polymerization. Our methods permit testing of FtsZ inhibitors targeting its nucleotide site, as well as compounds from virtual screening of large synthetic libraries. Our results give insight into the FtsZ-nucleotide interactions, which could be useful in the rational design of new inhibitors, especially GTP phosphate mimetics.

  3. Satellite observation of atmospheric methane: intercomparison between AIRS and GOSAT TANSO-FTS retrievals

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zou, M.; Xiong, X.; Saitoh, N.; Warner, J.; Zhang, Y.; Chen, L.; Weng, F.

    2015-10-01

    Space-borne observations of atmospheric methane (CH4) have been made using the Atmospheric Infrared Sounder (AIRS) on the EOS/Aqua satellite since August 2002 and the Thermal and Near-infrared Sensor for Carbon Observation Fourier Transform Spectrometer (TANSO-FTS) on the Greenhouse Gases Observing Satellite (GOSAT) since April 2009. This study compared the GOSAT TANSO-FTS thermal infrared (TIR) version 1.0 CH4 product with the collocated AIRS version 6 CH4 product using data from 1 August 2010 to 30 June 2012, including the CH4 mixing ratios and the total column amounts. The results show that at 300-600 hPa, where both AIRS and GOSAT-TIR CH4 have peak sensitivities, they agree very well, but GOSAT-TIR retrievals tend to be higher than AIRS in layer 200-300 hPa. At 300 hPa the CH4 mixing ratio from GOSAT-TIR is, on average, 10.3 ± 31.8 ppbv higher than that from AIRS, and at 600 hPa GOSAT-TIR retrieved CH4 is -16.2 ± 25.7 ppbv lower than AIRS CH4. Comparison of the total column amount of CH4 shows that GOSAT-TIR agrees with AIRS to within 1 % in the mid-latitude regions of Southern Hemisphere and in tropics. In the mid to high latitudes in the Northern Hemisphere, GOSAT-TIR is ~ 1-2 % lower than AIRS, and in the high-latitude regions of Southern Hemisphere the difference of GOSAT from AIRS varies from -3 % in October to +2 % in July. The difference between AIRS and GOSAT TANSO-FTS retrievals is mainly due to the difference in retrieval algorithms and instruments itself, and the larger difference in the high latitude regions is associated with the low information content and small degree of freedoms of the retrieval. The degree of freedom of GOSAT-TIR retrievals is lower than that of AIRS also indicates that the constraint in GOSAT-TIR retrieval may be too strong. From the good correlation between AIRS and GOSAT-TIR retrievals and the seasonal variation they observed we are confident that the thermal infrared measurements from AIRS and GOSAT-TIR can provide

  4. Satellite observation of atmospheric methane: intercomparison between AIRS and GOSAT TANSO-FTS retrievals

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zou, Mingmin; Xiong, Xiaozhen; Saitoh, Naoko; Warner, Juying; Zhang, Ying; Chen, Liangfu; Weng, Fuzhong; Fan, Meng

    2016-08-01

    Space-borne observations of atmospheric methane (CH4) have been made using the Atmospheric Infrared Sounder (AIRS) on the EOS/Aqua satellite since August 2002 and the Thermal and Near-infrared Sensor for Carbon Observation Fourier Transform Spectrometer (TANSO-FTS) on the Greenhouse Gases Observing Satellite (GOSAT) since April 2009. This study compared the GOSAT TANSO-FTS thermal infrared (TIR) version 1.0 CH4 product with the collocated AIRS version 6 CH4 product using data from 1 August 2010 to 30 June 2012, including the CH4 mixing ratios and the total column amounts. The results show that at 300-600 hPa, where both AIRS and GOSAT-TIR CH4 have peak sensitivities, they agree very well, but GOSAT-TIR retrievals tend to be higher than AIRS in layer 200-300 hPa. At 300 hPa the CH4 mixing ratio from GOSAT-TIR is, on average, 10.3 ± 31.8 ppbv higher than that from AIRS, and at 600 hPa GOSAT-TIR retrieved CH4 is -16.2 ± 25.7 ppbv lower than AIRS CH4. Comparison of the total column amount of CH4 shows that GOSAT-TIR agrees with AIRS to within 1 % in the mid-latitude regions of the Southern Hemisphere and in the tropics. In the mid to high latitudes in the Northern Hemisphere, comparison shows that GOSAT-TIR is ˜ 1-2 % lower than AIRS, and in the high-latitude regions of the Southern Hemisphere the difference of GOSAT from AIRS varies from -3 % in October to +2 % in July. The difference between AIRS and GOSAT TANSO-FTS retrievals is mainly due to the difference in retrieval algorithms and instruments themselves, and the larger difference in the high-latitude regions is associated with the low information content and small degrees of freedom of the retrieval. The degrees of freedom of GOSAT-TIR retrievals are lower than that of AIRS, which also indicates that the constraint in GOSAT-TIR retrievals may be too strong. From the good correlation between AIRS and GOSAT-TIR retrievals and the seasonal variation they observed, we are confident that the thermal infrared

  5. The structure of FtsZ filaments in vivo suggests a force-generating role in cell division

    PubMed Central

    Li, Zhuo; Trimble, Michael J; Brun, Yves V; Jensen, Grant J

    2007-01-01

    In prokaryotes, FtsZ (the filamentous temperature sensitive protein Z) is a nearly ubiquitous GTPase that localizes in a ring at the leading edge of constricting plasma membranes during cell division. Here we report electron cryotomographic reconstructions of dividing Caulobacter crescentus cells wherein individual arc-like filaments were resolved just underneath the inner membrane at constriction sites. The filaments' position, orientation, time of appearance, and resistance to A22 all suggested that they were FtsZ. Predictable changes in the number, length, and distribution of filaments in cells where the expression levels and stability of FtsZ were altered supported that conclusion. In contrast to the thick, closed-ring-like structure suggested by fluorescence light microscopy, throughout the constriction process the Z-ring was seen here to consist of just a few short (∼100 nm) filaments spaced erratically near the division site. Additional densities connecting filaments to the cell wall, occasional straight segments, and abrupt kinks were also seen. An ‘iterative pinching' model is proposed wherein FtsZ itself generates the force that constricts the membrane in a GTP-hydrolysis-driven cycle of polymerization, membrane attachment, conformational change, depolymerization, and nucleotide exchange. PMID:17948052

  6. Activation of Xer-recombination at dif: structural basis of the FtsKγ–XerD interaction

    PubMed Central

    Keller, Andrew N.; Xin, Yue; Boer, Stephanie; Reinhardt, Jonathan; Baker, Rachel; Arciszewska, Lidia K.; Lewis, Peter J.; Sherratt, David J.; Löwe, Jan; Grainge, Ian

    2016-01-01

    Bacterial chromosomes are most often circular DNA molecules. This can produce a topological problem; a genetic crossover from homologous recombination results in dimerization of the chromosome. A chromosome dimer is lethal unless resolved. A site-specific recombination system catalyses this dimer-resolution reaction at the chromosomal site dif. In Escherichia coli, two tyrosine-family recombinases, XerC and XerD, bind to dif and carry out two pairs of sequential strand exchange reactions. However, what makes the reaction unique among site-specific recombination reactions is that the first step, XerD-mediated strand exchange, relies on interaction with the very C-terminus of the FtsK DNA translocase. FtsK is a powerful molecular motor that functions in cell division, co-ordinating division with clearing chromosomal DNA from the site of septation and also acts to position the dif sites for recombination. This is a model system for unlinking, separating and segregating large DNA molecules. Here we describe the molecular detail of the interaction between XerD and FtsK that leads to activation of recombination as deduced from a co-crystal structure, biochemical and in vivo experiments. FtsKγ interacts with the C-terminal domain of XerD, above a cleft where XerC is thought to bind. We present a model for activation of recombination based on structural data. PMID:27708355

  7. Three-dimensional structure of the Z-ring as a random network of FtsZ filaments.

    PubMed

    Piro, Oreste; Carmon, Gideon; Feingold, Mario; Fishov, Itzhak

    2013-12-01

    The spatial organization of the Z-ring, the central element of the bacterial division machinery, is not yet fully understood. Using optical tweezers and subpixel image analysis, we have recently shown that the radial width of the Z-ring in unconstricted Escherichia coli is about 100 nm. The relatively large width is consistent with the observations of others. Moreover, simulation of the experimental FtsZ distribution using the theoretical three-dimensional (3D) point spread function was strongly in favour of a toroidal rather than a thin cylindrical model of the Z-ring. Here, we show that the low density of FtsZ filaments in the ring coincides within experimental uncertainty with the critical density of a 3D random network of cylindrical sticks. This suggests that the Z-ring may consist of a percolating network of FtsZ filaments. Several factors that are expected to affect the polymerization state and the extent of self-interaction of FtsZ within the Z-ring, as well as the functional implications of its sparse toroidal structure, are discussed in terms of percolation theory.

  8. Observations of XCO2 and XCH4 with ground-based high-resolution FTS at Saga, Japan and comparisons with GOSAT products

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ohyama, H.; Kawakami, S.; Tanaka, T.; Morino, I.; Uchino, O.; Inoue, M.; Sakai, T.; Nagai, T.; Yamazaki, A.; Uchiyama, A.; Fukamachi, T.; Sakashita, M.; Kawasaki, T.; Akaho, T.; Arai, K.; Okumura, H.

    2015-08-01

    Solar absorption spectra in the near-infrared region have been continuously acquired with a ground-based (g-b) high-resolution Fourier transform spectrometer (FTS) at Saga, Japan since July 2011. Column-averaged dry-air mole fractions of greenhouse gases were retrieved from the measured spectra for the period from July 2011 to December 2014. Aircraft measurements of CO2 and CH4 for calibrating the g-b FTS data were performed in January 2012 and 2013, and it is found that the g-b FTS and aircraft data agree to within ±0.2 %. The column-averaged dry-air mole fractions of CO2 and CH4 (XCO2 and XCH4) show increasing trends, with average growth rates of 2.3 ppm yr-1 and 9.5 ppb yr-1, respectively, during the ~ 3.5 yr of observation. We compared the g-b FTS XCO2 and XCH4 data with those derived from backscattered solar spectra in the short-wavelength infrared region measured with Thermal And Near-infrared Sensor for carbon Observation-Fourier Transform Spectrometer (TANSO-FTS) onboard the Greenhouse gases Observing SATellite (GOSAT). Average differences between TANSO-FTS and g-b FTS data (TANSO-FTS minus g-b FTS) are 0.40 ± 2.51 ppm and -7.6 ± 13.7 ppb for XCO2 and XCH4, respectively. Using aerosol information measured with a sky radiometer at Saga, we found that the differences between the TANSO-FTS and g-b FTS data are moderately negatively correlated with aerosol optical thickness and do not depend explicitly on aerosol size. In addition, from aerosol profiles measured with lidar located right by the g-b FTS, we were able to show that cirrus clouds and tropospheric aerosols accumulated in the lower layers of the atmosphere tend to overestimate or underestimate the TANSO-FTS data.

  9. Observations of XCO2 and XCH4 with ground-based high-resolution FTS at Saga, Japan, and comparisons with GOSAT products

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ohyama, H.; Kawakami, S.; Tanaka, T.; Morino, I.; Uchino, O.; Inoue, M.; Sakai, T.; Nagai, T.; Yamazaki, A.; Uchiyama, A.; Fukamachi, T.; Sakashita, M.; Kawasaki, T.; Akaho, T.; Arai, K.; Okumura, H.

    2015-12-01

    Solar absorption spectra in the near-infrared region have been continuously acquired with a ground-based (g-b) high-resolution Fourier transform spectrometer (FTS) at Saga, Japan, since July 2011. Column-averaged dry-air mole fractions of greenhouse gases were retrieved from the measured spectra for the period from July 2011 to December 2014. Aircraft measurements of CO2 and CH4 for calibrating the g-b FTS data were performed in January 2012 and 2013, and it is found that the g-b FTS and aircraft data agree to within ± 0.2 %. The column-averaged dry-air mole fractions of CO2 and CH4 (XCO2 and XCH4) show increasing trends, with average growth rates of 2.3 and 9.5 ppb yr-1, respectively, during the ∼ 3.5 yr of observation. We compared the g-b FTS XCO2 and XCH4 data with those derived from backscattered solar spectra in the short-wavelength infrared (SWIR) region measured with Thermal And Near-infrared Sensor for carbon Observation-Fourier Transform Spectrometer (TANSO-FTS) onboard the Greenhouse gases Observing SATellite (GOSAT): NIES SWIR Level 2 products (versions 02.xx). Average differences between TANSO-FTS and g-b FTS data (TANSO-FTS minus g-b FTS) are 0.40 ± 2.51 and -7.6 ± 13.7 ppb for XCO2 and XCH4, respectively. Using aerosol information measured with a sky radiometer at Saga, we found that the differences between the TANSO-FTS and g-b FTS XCO2 data are moderately negatively correlated with aerosol optical thickness and do not depend explicitly on aerosol size. In addition, from several aerosol profiles measured with lidar located right by the g-b FTS, we were able to show that the presence of cirrus clouds tends to cause an overestimation in the TANSO-FTS XCO2 retrieval, while high aerosol loading in the lower troposphere tends to cause an underestimation.

  10. Design, synthesis and antibacterial activity of isatin derivatives as FtsZ inhibitors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lian, Zhi-Min; Sun, Juan; Zhu, Hai-Liang

    2016-08-01

    Seven isatin derivatives have been designed, and their chemical structures were characterized by single crystal X-ray diffraction studies, 1H NMR, MS, and elemental analysis. Structural stabilization followed by intramolecular as well as intermolecular H-bonds makes these molecules as perfect examples in molecular recognition with self-complementary donor and acceptor units within a single molecule. These compounds were evaluated for antimicrobial activities. Docking simulations have been performed to position compounds into the FtsZ active site to determine their probable binding models. All of the compounds exhibited better antibacterial activities. Interestingly, compound 5c and 5d exhibited better antibacterial activities with IC50 values of 0.03 and 0.05 μmol/mL against Staphylococcus aureus, respectively. Compound 5g displays antibacterial activity with IC50 values of 0.672 and 0.830 μmol/mL against Escherichia coli and Pseudomonas aeruginosa, respectively.

  11. A gLite FTS based solution for managing user output in CMS

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cinquilli, M.; Riahi, H.; Spiga, D.; Grandi, C.; Mancinelli, V.; Mascheroni, M.; Pepe, F.; Vaandering, E.

    2012-12-01

    The CMS distributed data analysis workflow assumes that jobs run in a different location from where their results are finally stored. Typically the user output must be transferred across the network from one site to another, possibly on a different continent or over links not necessarily validated for high bandwidth/high reliability transfer. This step is named stage-out and in CMS was originally implemented as a synchronous step of the analysis job execution. However, our experience showed the weakness of this approach both in terms of low total job execution efficiency and failure rates, wasting precious CPU resources. The nature of analysis data makes it inappropriate to use PhEDEx, the core data placement system for CMS. As part of the new generation of CMS Workload Management tools, the Asynchronous Stage-Out system (AsyncStageOut) has been developed to enable third party copy of the user output. The AsyncStageOut component manages glite FTS transfers of data from the temporary store at the site where the job ran to the final location of the data on behalf of that data owner. The tool uses python daemons, built using the WMCore framework, and CouchDB, to manage the queue of work and FTS transfers. CouchDB also provides the platform for a dedicated operations monitoring system. In this paper, we present the motivations of the asynchronous stage-out system. We give an insight into the design and the implementation of key features, describing how it is coupled with the CMS workload management system. Finally, we show the results and the commissioning experience.

  12. Interspecies Transfer of the Penicillin-Binding Protein 3-Encoding Gene ftsI between Haemophilus influenzae and Haemophilus haemolyticus Can Confer Reduced Susceptibility to β-Lactam Antimicrobial Agents

    PubMed Central

    Søndergaard, Annette; Witherden, Elizabeth A.

    2015-01-01

    Mutations in ftsI, encoding penicillin-binding protein 3, can cause decreased β-lactam susceptibility in Haemophilus influenzae. Sequencing of ftsI from clinical strains has indicated interspecies recombination of ftsI between H. influenzae and Haemophilus haemolyticus. This study documented apparently unrestricted homologous recombination of ftsI between H. influenzae and H. haemolyticus in vitro. Transfer of ftsI from resistant isolates conferred similar but not identical increases in the MICs of susceptible strains of H. influenzae and H. haemolyticus. PMID:25918135

  13. Influence of FtsZ GTPase activity and concentration on nanoscale Z-ring structure in vivo revealed by three-dimensional Superresolution imaging.

    PubMed

    Lyu, Zhixin; Coltharp, Carla; Yang, Xinxing; Xiao, Jie

    2016-10-01

    FtsZ is an essential bacterial cytoskeletal protein that assembles into a ring-like structure (Z-ring) at midcell to carry out cytokinesis. In vitro, FtsZ exhibits polymorphism in polymerizing into different forms of filaments based on its GTPase activity, concentration, and buffer condition. In vivo, the Z-ring appeared to be punctate and heterogeneously organized, although continuous, homogenous Z-ring structures have also been observed. Understanding how the Z-ring is organized in vivo is important because it provides a structural basis for the functional role of the Z-ring in cytokinesis. Here, we assess the effects of both GTPase activity and FtsZ concentration on the organization of the Z-ring in vivo using three-dimensional (3D) superresolution microscopy. We found that the Z-ring became more homogenous when assembled in the presence of a GTPase-deficient mutant, and upon overexpression of either wt or mutant FtsZ. These results suggest that the in vivo organization of the Z-ring is largely dependent on the intrinsic polymerization properties of FtsZ, which are significantly influenced by the GTPase activity and concentration of FtsZ. Our work provides a unifying theme to reconcile previous observations of different Z-ring structures, and supports a model in which the wt Z-ring comprises loosely associated, heterogeneously distributed FtsZ clusters. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. Biopolymers 105: 725-734, 2016. PMID:27310678

  14. Backbone and side chain NMR assignments of Geobacillus stearothermophilus ZapA allow identification of residues that mediate the interaction of ZapA with FtsZ.

    PubMed

    Nogueira, Maria Luiza C; Sforça, Mauricio Luis; Chin, Yanni K-Y; Mobli, Mehdi; Handler, Aaron; Gorbatyuk, Vitaliy Y; Robson, Scott A; King, Glenn F; Gueiros-Filho, Frederico J; Zeri, Ana Carolina de Mattos

    2015-10-01

    Bacterial division begins with the formation of a contractile protein ring at midcell, which constricts the bacterial envelope to generate two daughter cells. The central component of the division ring is FtsZ, a tubulin-like protein capable of self-assembling into filaments which further associate into a higher order structure known as the Z ring. Proteins that bind to FtsZ play a crucial role in the formation and regulation of the Z ring. One such protein is ZapA, a widely conserved 21 kDa homodimeric protein that associates with FtsZ filaments and promotes their bundling. Although ZapA was discovered more than a decade ago, the structural details of its interaction with FtsZ remain unknown. In this work, backbone and side chain NMR assignments for the Geobacillus stearothermophilus ZapA homodimer are described. We titrated FtsZ into (15)N(2)H-ZapA and mapped ZapA residues whose resonances are perturbed upon FtsZ binding. This information provides a structural understanding of the interaction between FtsZ and ZapA.

  15. Influence of FtsZ GTPase activity and concentration on nanoscale Z-ring structure in vivo revealed by three-dimensional Superresolution imaging.

    PubMed

    Lyu, Zhixin; Coltharp, Carla; Yang, Xinxing; Xiao, Jie

    2016-10-01

    FtsZ is an essential bacterial cytoskeletal protein that assembles into a ring-like structure (Z-ring) at midcell to carry out cytokinesis. In vitro, FtsZ exhibits polymorphism in polymerizing into different forms of filaments based on its GTPase activity, concentration, and buffer condition. In vivo, the Z-ring appeared to be punctate and heterogeneously organized, although continuous, homogenous Z-ring structures have also been observed. Understanding how the Z-ring is organized in vivo is important because it provides a structural basis for the functional role of the Z-ring in cytokinesis. Here, we assess the effects of both GTPase activity and FtsZ concentration on the organization of the Z-ring in vivo using three-dimensional (3D) superresolution microscopy. We found that the Z-ring became more homogenous when assembled in the presence of a GTPase-deficient mutant, and upon overexpression of either wt or mutant FtsZ. These results suggest that the in vivo organization of the Z-ring is largely dependent on the intrinsic polymerization properties of FtsZ, which are significantly influenced by the GTPase activity and concentration of FtsZ. Our work provides a unifying theme to reconcile previous observations of different Z-ring structures, and supports a model in which the wt Z-ring comprises loosely associated, heterogeneously distributed FtsZ clusters. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. Biopolymers 105: 725-734, 2016.

  16. Escherichia coli FtsH is a membrane-bound, ATP-dependent protease which degrades the heat-shock transcription factor sigma 32.

    PubMed Central

    Tomoyasu, T; Gamer, J; Bukau, B; Kanemori, M; Mori, H; Rutman, A J; Oppenheim, A B; Yura, T; Yamanaka, K; Niki, H

    1995-01-01

    Escherichia coli FtsH is an essential integral membrane protein that has an AAA-type ATPase domain at its C-terminal cytoplasmic part, which is homologous to at least three ATPase subunits of the eukaryotic 26S proteasome. We report here that FtsH is involved in degradation of the heat-shock transcription factor sigma 32, a key element in the regulation of the E. coli heat-shock response. In the temperature-sensitive ftsH1 mutant, the amount of sigma 32 at a non-permissive temperature was higher than in the wild-type under certain conditions due to a reduced rate of degradation. In an in vitro system with purified components, FtsH catalyzed ATP-dependent degradation of biologically active histidine-tagged sigma 32. FtsH has a zinc-binding motif similar to the active site of zinc-metalloproteases. Protease activity of FtsH for histidine-tagged sigma 32 was stimulated by Zn2+ and strongly inhibited by the heavy metal chelating agent o-phenanthroline. We conclude that FtsH is a novel membrane-bound, ATP-dependent metalloprotease with activity for sigma 32. These findings indicate a new mechanism of gene regulation in E. coli. Images PMID:7781608

  17. Backbone and side chain NMR assignments of Geobacillus stearothermophilus ZapA allow identification of residues that mediate the interaction of ZapA with FtsZ.

    PubMed

    Nogueira, Maria Luiza C; Sforça, Mauricio Luis; Chin, Yanni K-Y; Mobli, Mehdi; Handler, Aaron; Gorbatyuk, Vitaliy Y; Robson, Scott A; King, Glenn F; Gueiros-Filho, Frederico J; Zeri, Ana Carolina de Mattos

    2015-10-01

    Bacterial division begins with the formation of a contractile protein ring at midcell, which constricts the bacterial envelope to generate two daughter cells. The central component of the division ring is FtsZ, a tubulin-like protein capable of self-assembling into filaments which further associate into a higher order structure known as the Z ring. Proteins that bind to FtsZ play a crucial role in the formation and regulation of the Z ring. One such protein is ZapA, a widely conserved 21 kDa homodimeric protein that associates with FtsZ filaments and promotes their bundling. Although ZapA was discovered more than a decade ago, the structural details of its interaction with FtsZ remain unknown. In this work, backbone and side chain NMR assignments for the Geobacillus stearothermophilus ZapA homodimer are described. We titrated FtsZ into (15)N(2)H-ZapA and mapped ZapA residues whose resonances are perturbed upon FtsZ binding. This information provides a structural understanding of the interaction between FtsZ and ZapA. PMID:25967379

  18. [NEW INFORMATION ABOUT THE STRUCTURES FORMED BY FtsZ PROTEIN IN ESCHERICHIA COLI CELLS DURING DIVISION PROCESS OBTAINED BY SINGLE-MOLECULE LOCALIZATION MICROSCOPY].

    PubMed

    Vedyaykin, A D; Vishnyakov, I E; Polinovskaya, V S; Artamonova, I T; Khodorkovskii, M A; Sabantsev, A V

    2015-01-01

    FtsZ--a bacterial tubulin homolog--is one of the key bacterial division proteins, forming a contractile Z-ring at the midcell of dividing bacteria. In this work immunofluorescent labeling was used in conjunction with single-molecule localization microscopy (SMLM) to visualize native structures formed by FtsZ protein in Escherichia coli cells. This approach allowed the reorganization of FtsZ structures during cytokinesis to be visualized step-by-step. New data was obtained that support the hypothesis that the Z-ring is a spiral structure that constricts during division, assisting the formation of the septum between daughter cells.

  19. Inhibition of malignant thyroid carcinoma cell proliferation by Ras and galectin-3 inhibitors

    PubMed Central

    Menachem, A; Bodner, O; Pastor, J; Raz, A; Kloog, Y

    2015-01-01

    Anaplastic Thyroid carcinoma is an extremely aggressive solid tumor that resists most treatments and is almost always fatal. Galectin-3 (Gal-3) is an important marker for thyroid carcinomas and a scaffold of the K-Ras protein. S-trans, transfarnesylthiosalicylic acid (FTS; Salirasib) is a Ras inhibitor that inhibits the active forms of Ras proteins. Modified citrus pectin (MCP) is a water-soluble citrus-fruit-derived polysaccharide fiber that specifically inhibits Gal-3. The aim of this study was to develop a novel drug combination designed to treat aggressive anaplastic thyroid carcinoma. Combined treatment with FTS and MCP inhibited anaplastic thyroid cells proliferation in vitro by inducing cell cycle arrest and increasing apoptosis rate. Immunoblot analysis revealed a significant decrease in Pan-Ras, K-Ras, Ras-GTP, p-ERK, p53, and Gal-3 expression levels and significant increase in p21 expression levels. In nude mice, treatment with FTS and MCP inhibited tumor growth. Levels of Gal-3, K-Ras-GTP, and p-ERK were significantly decreased. To conclude, our results suggest K-Ras and Gal-3 as potential targets in anaplastic thyroid tumors and herald a novel treatment for highly aggressive anaplastic thyroid carcinoma. PMID:27551476

  20. Inhibition of malignant thyroid carcinoma cell proliferation by Ras and galectin-3 inhibitors.

    PubMed

    Menachem, A; Bodner, O; Pastor, J; Raz, A; Kloog, Y

    2015-01-01

    Anaplastic Thyroid carcinoma is an extremely aggressive solid tumor that resists most treatments and is almost always fatal. Galectin-3 (Gal-3) is an important marker for thyroid carcinomas and a scaffold of the K-Ras protein. S-trans, transfarnesylthiosalicylic acid (FTS; Salirasib) is a Ras inhibitor that inhibits the active forms of Ras proteins. Modified citrus pectin (MCP) is a water-soluble citrus-fruit-derived polysaccharide fiber that specifically inhibits Gal-3. The aim of this study was to develop a novel drug combination designed to treat aggressive anaplastic thyroid carcinoma. Combined treatment with FTS and MCP inhibited anaplastic thyroid cells proliferation in vitro by inducing cell cycle arrest and increasing apoptosis rate. Immunoblot analysis revealed a significant decrease in Pan-Ras, K-Ras, Ras-GTP, p-ERK, p53, and Gal-3 expression levels and significant increase in p21 expression levels. In nude mice, treatment with FTS and MCP inhibited tumor growth. Levels of Gal-3, K-Ras-GTP, and p-ERK were significantly decreased. To conclude, our results suggest K-Ras and Gal-3 as potential targets in anaplastic thyroid tumors and herald a novel treatment for highly aggressive anaplastic thyroid carcinoma. PMID:27551476

  1. New insights into FtsZ rearrangements during the cell division of Escherichia coli from single-molecule localization microscopy of fixed cells.

    PubMed

    Vedyaykin, Alexey D; Vishnyakov, Innokentii E; Polinovskaya, Vasilisa S; Khodorkovskii, Mikhail A; Sabantsev, Anton V

    2016-06-01

    FtsZ - a prokaryotic tubulin homolog - is one of the central components of bacterial division machinery. At the early stage of cytokinesis FtsZ forms the so-called Z-ring at mid-cell that guides septum formation. Many approaches were used to resolve the structure of the Z-ring, however, researchers are still far from consensus on this question. We utilized single-molecule localization microscopy (SMLM) in combination with immunofluorescence staining to visualize FtsZ in Esherichia coli fixed cells that were grown under slow and fast growth conditions. This approach allowed us to obtain images of FtsZ structures at different stages of cell division and accurately measure Z-ring dimensions. Analysis of these images demonstrated that Z-ring thickness increases during constriction, starting at about 70 nm at the beginning of division and increasing by approximately 25% half-way through constriction. PMID:26840800

  2. Assessment of water vapor isotopologue measurements by ACE-FTS and Odin-SMR

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bauer, Ralf; Sheese, Patrick; Walker, Kaley; Urban, Joachim; Murtagh, Donal; Boone, Chris; Bernath, Peter; Manney, Gloria

    2015-04-01

    Knowing the isotopic composition of trace gases can improve our understanding of processes in the Earth's atmosphere causing isotopic fractionation. In many studies, isotopologue (molecules of identical chemical but different isotopic composition) amounts are primarily discussed as δ values, which are defined relative to a standard, e.g.: ( ) 18 (VM RH182 O /VM RH162 O ) δ O (o) = (V-M-R-18-/V-M-R-16-)VSMOW-- 1 * 1000 H2 O H2 O with VSMOW as Vienna Standard Mean Ocean Water. This study targets the water vapor isotopologues H218O and H217O in the stratosphere and lower mesosphere using δ18O and δ17O for the comparison. Over the past decades, H218O and H217O profiles have been measured with balloon-borne (e.g. FIRS-2, Mk IV) and space-borne (e.g. ATMOS/SL3) instruments. The satellite instruments ACE-FTS (Atmospheric Chemistry Experiment - Fourier Transform Spectrometer) on the Canadian satellite SCISAT and SMR (Sub-Millimetre Radiometer) on the Swedish satellite Odin provide a significantly larger number of individual profiles with global coverage. Both instruments are still operational and provide data products for more than 10 years. Assessing their data quality is of key importance before conclusions can be drawn from these results. ACE-FTS on SCISAT is an infrared Fourier Transform Spectrometer with a high spectral resolution of 0.02 cm-1 and a spectral range from 750 to 4400 cm-1. It measures using solar occultation viewing geometry. SCISAT is in a high inclination orbit at an altitude of 650 km. It was launched in August 2003 and has been performing routine measurements since February 2004. SMR on Odin measures millimetre wave emissions from the atmosphere with a 1.1 m telescope in the 486 to 581 GHz range with four tunable radiometers. Odin was launched in February 2001 into a quasi-polar sun-synchronous orbit at about 600 km altitude. Spectral regions for the target trace gases are selected for SMR using different measurement modes and thus not all

  3. The FTS atomic spectrum tool (FAST) for rapid analysis of line spectra

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ruffoni, M. P.

    2013-07-01

    The FTS Atomic Spectrum Tool (FAST) is an interactive graphical program designed to simplify the analysis of atomic emission line spectra obtained from Fourier transform spectrometers. Calculated, predicted and/or known experimental line parameters are loaded alongside experimentally observed spectral line profiles for easy comparison between new experimental data and existing results. Many such line profiles, which could span numerous spectra, may be viewed simultaneously to help the user detect problems from line blending or self-absorption. Once the user has determined that their experimental line profile fits are good, a key feature of FAST is the ability to calculate atomic branching fractions, transition probabilities, and oscillator strengths-and their uncertainties-which is not provided by existing analysis packages. Program SummaryProgram title: FAST: The FTS Atomic Spectrum Tool Catalogue identifier: AEOW_v1_0 Program summary URL: http://cpc.cs.qub.ac.uk/summaries/AEOW_v1_0.html Program obtainable from: CPC Program Library, Queen's University, Belfast, N. Ireland Licensing provisions: GNU General Public License version 3 No. of lines in distributed program, including test data, etc.: 293058 No. of bytes in distributed program, including test data, etc.: 13809509 Distribution format: tar.gz Programming language: C++. Computer: Intel x86-based systems. Operating system: Linux/Unix/Windows. RAM: 8 MB minimum. About 50-200 MB for a typical analysis. Classification: 2.2, 2.3, 21.2. Nature of problem: Visualisation of atomic line spectra including the comparison of theoretical line parameters with experimental atomic line profiles. Accurate intensity calibration of experimental spectra, and the determination of observed relative line intensities that are needed for calculating atomic branching fractions and oscillator strengths. Solution method: FAST is centred around a graphical interface, where a user may view sets of experimental line profiles and compare

  4. Roles of Arabidopsis PARC6 in Coordination of the Chloroplast Division Complex and Negative Regulation of FtsZ Assembly1[OPEN

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Cheng; Froehlich, John E.; TerBush, Allan D.

    2016-01-01

    Chloroplast division is driven by the simultaneous constriction of the inner FtsZ ring (Z ring) and the outer DRP5B ring. The assembly and constriction of these rings in Arabidopsis (Arabidopsis thaliana) are coordinated partly through the inner envelope membrane protein ACCUMULATION AND REPLICATION OF CHLOROPLASTS6 (ARC6). Previously, we showed that PARC6 (PARALOG OF ARC6), also in the inner envelope membrane, negatively regulates FtsZ assembly and acts downstream of ARC6 to position the outer envelope membrane protein PLASTID DIVISION1 (PDV1), which functions together with its paralog PDV2 to recruit DYNAMIN-RELATED PROTEIN 5B (DRP5B) from a cytosolic pool to the outer envelope membrane. However, whether PARC6, like ARC6, also functions in coordination of the chloroplast division contractile complexes was unknown. Here, we report a detailed topological analysis of Arabidopsis PARC6, which shows that PARC6 has a single transmembrane domain and a topology resembling that of ARC6. The newly identified stromal region of PARC6 interacts not only with ARC3, a direct inhibitor of Z-ring assembly, but also with the Z-ring protein FtsZ2. Overexpression of PARC6 inhibits FtsZ assembly in Arabidopsis but not in a heterologous yeast system (Schizosaccharomyces pombe), suggesting that the negative regulation of FtsZ assembly by PARC6 is a consequence of its interaction with ARC3. A conserved carboxyl-terminal peptide in FtsZ2 mediates FtsZ2 interaction with both PARC6 and ARC6. Consistent with its role in the positioning of PDV1, the intermembrane space regions of PARC6 and PDV1 interact. These findings provide new insights into the functions of PARC6 and suggest that PARC6 coordinates the inner Z ring and outer DRP5B ring through interaction with FtsZ2 and PDV1 during chloroplast division. PMID:26527658

  5. Domain folding and flexibility of Escherichia coli FtsZ determined by tryptophan site-directed mutagenesis

    PubMed Central

    Díaz-Espinoza, Rodrigo; Garcés, Andrea P.; Arbildua, José J.; Montecinos, Felipe; Brunet, Juan E.; Lagos, Rosalba; Monasterio, Octavio

    2007-01-01

    FtsZ has two domains, the amino GTPase domain with a Rossmann fold, and the carboxyl domain that resembles the chorismate mutase fold. Bioinformatics analyses suggest that the interdomain interaction is stronger than the interaction of the protofilament longitudinal interfaces. Crystal B factor analysis of FtsZ and detected conformational changes suggest a connection between these domains. The unfolding/folding characteristics of each domain of FtsZ were tested by introducing tryptophans into the flexible region of the amino (F135W) and the carboxyl (F275W and I294W) domains. As a control, the mutation F40W was introduced in a more rigid part of the amino domain. These mutants showed a native-like structure with denaturation and renaturation curves similar to wild type. However, the I294W mutant showed a strong loss of functionality, both in vivo and in vitro when compared to the other mutants. The functionality was recovered with the double mutant I294W/F275A, which showed full in vivo complementation with a slight increment of in vitro GTPase activity with respect to the single mutant. The formation of a stabilizing aromatic interaction involving a stacking between the tryptophan introduced at position 294 and phenylalanine 275 could account for these results. Folding/unfolding of these mutants induced by guanidinium chloride was compatible with a mechanism in which both domains within the protein show the same stability during FtsZ denaturation and renaturation, probably because of strong interface interactions. PMID:17656575

  6. Function of the Borrelia burgdorferi FtsH Homolog Is Essential for Viability both In Vitro and In Vivo and Independent of HflK/C

    PubMed Central

    Chu, Chen-Yi; Bestor, Aaron; Hansen, Bryan; Lin, Tao; Gao, Lihui; Rosa, Patricia A.

    2016-01-01

    ABSTRACT In many bacteria, the FtsH protease and its modulators, HflK and HflC, form a large protein complex that contributes to both membrane protein quality control and regulation of the cellular response to environmental stress. Both activities are crucial to the Lyme disease pathogen Borrelia burgdorferi, which depends on membrane functions, such as motility, protein transport, and cell signaling, to respond to rapid changes in its environment. Using an inducible system, we demonstrate that FtsH production is essential for both mouse and tick infectivity and for in vitro growth of B. burgdorferi. FtsH depletion in B. burgdorferi cells resulted in membrane deformation and cell death. Overproduction of the protease did not have any detectable adverse effects on B. burgdorferi growth in vitro, suggesting that excess FtsH does not proteolytically overwhelm its substrates. In contrast, we did not observe any phenotype for cells lacking the protease modulators HflK and HflC (ΔHflK/C), although we examined morphology, growth rate, growth under stress conditions, and the complete mouse-tick infectious cycle. Our results demonstrate that FtsH provides an essential function in the life cycle of the obligate pathogen B. burgdorferi but that HflK and HflC do not detectably affect FtsH function. PMID:27094329

  7. Targeted Gene Knockouts Reveal Overlapping Functions of the Five Physcomitrella patens FtsZ Isoforms in Chloroplast Division, Chloroplast Shaping, Cell Patterning, Plant Development, and Gravity Sensing

    PubMed Central

    Martin, Anja; Lang, Daniel; Hanke, Sebastian T.; Mueller, Stefanie J.X.; Sarnighausen, Eric; Vervliet-Scheebaum, Marco; Reski, Ralf

    2009-01-01

    Chloroplasts and bacterial cells divide by binary fission. The key protein in this constriction division is FtsZ, a self-assembling GTPase similar to eukaryotic tubulin. In prokaryotes, FtsZ is almost always encoded by a single gene, whereas plants harbor several nuclear-encoded FtsZ homologs. In seed plants, these proteins group in two families and all are exclusively imported into plastids. In contrast, the basal land plant Physcomitrella patens, a moss, encodes a third FtsZ family with one member. This protein is dually targeted to the plastids and to the cytosol. Here, we report on the targeted gene disruption of all ftsZ genes in P. patens. Subsequent analysis of single and double knockout mutants revealed a complex interaction of the different FtsZ isoforms not only in plastid division, but also in chloroplast shaping, cell patterning, plant development, and gravity sensing. These results support the concept of a plastoskeleton and its functional integration into the cytoskeleton, at least in the moss P. patens. PMID:19946616

  8. An intercomparison study of isotopic ozone profiles from the ACE-FTS, JEM-SMILES, and Odin-SMR instruments

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jones, A.; Walker, K. A.; Suzuki, M.; Kasai, Y.; Shiotani, M.; Urban, J.; Bernath, P. F.; Manney, G. L.

    2012-12-01

    Observations of various atmospheric isotopologue species are a valuable source of information, as they can improve our current understanding of the atmosphere. For example, isotopic signatures in atmospheric profiles can be used to investigate atmospheric dynamical processes, while differences in the isotopic composition of atmospheric trace gases can be traced to effects due to their sources and sinks. This study focuses on the intercomparison of three satellite missions that provide measurements of isotopic species. The Atmospheric Chemistry Experiment-Fourier Transform Spectrometer (ACE-FTS) aboard the Canadian satellite SCISAT (launched in August 2003) was designed to investigate the composition of the upper troposphere, stratosphere, and mesosphere. ACE-FTS utilizes solar occultation to measure temperature, pressure, and vertical profiles of over thirty chemical species, including isotopologue profiles for; O3, H2O, CH4, N2O, CO, CO2 and NO. Global coverage for each species is obtained approximately over one year and with a vertical resolution of typically 3-4 km. ACE-FTS O3 isotopologue volume mixing ratio profiles are firstly compared to data measured by the Superconducting Sub-Millimeter-wave Limb Emission Sounder (SMILES), onboard the Japanese Experiment Module (JEM) of the International Space Station (ISS), and the Sub-Millimetre Radiometer (SMR) aboard the Swedish Odin satellite. Secondly, we intercompare the isotopic fractionation profiles for each ozone isotopologue product measured by the three instruments to further ascertain a level of confidence in the measurements.

  9. ACE-FTS measurements of trace species in the characterization of biomass burning plumes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tereszchuk, K. A.; González Abad, G.; Clerbaux, C.; Hurtmans, D.; Coheur, P.-F.; Bernath, P. F.

    2011-12-01

    To further our understanding of the effects of biomass burning emissions on atmospheric composition, we report measurements of trace species in biomass burning plumes made by the Atmospheric Chemistry Experiment Fourier Transform Spectrometer (ACE-FTS) instrument on the SCISAT-1 satellite. An extensive set of 15 molecules, C2H2, C2H6, CH3OH, CH4, CO, H2CO, HCN, HCOOH, HNO3, NO, NO2, N2O5, O3, OCS and SF6 are used in our analysis. Even though most biomass burning smoke is typically confined to the boundary layer, some of these emissions are injected directly into the free troposphere via fire-related convective processes and transported away from the emission source. Further knowledge of the aging of biomass burning emissions in the free troposphere is needed. Tracer-tracer correlations are made between known pyrogenic species in these plumes in an effort to characterize them and follow their chemical evolution. Criteria such as age and type of biomass material burned are considered.

  10. Drug Discovery Targeting Cell Division Proteins, Microtubules and FtsZ

    PubMed Central

    Kumar, Kunal; Awasthi, Divya; Vineberg, Jacob G.

    2014-01-01

    Eukaryotic cell division or cytokinesis has been a major target for anticancer drug discovery. After the huge success of paclitaxel and docetaxel, microtubule-stabilizing agents (MSAs) appear to have gained a premier status in the discovery of next-generation anticancer agents. However, the drug resistance caused by MDR, point mutations, and overexpression of tubulin subtypes, etc., is a serious issue associated with these agents. Accordingly, the discovery and development of new-generation MSAs that can obviate various drug resistances has a significant meaning. In sharp contrast, prokaryotic cell division has been largely unexploited for the discovery and development of antibacterial drugs. However, recent studies on the mechanism of bacterial cytokinesis revealed that the most abundant and highly conserved cell division protein, FtsZ, would be an excellent new target for the drug discovery of next-generation antibacterial agents that can circumvent drug-resistances to the commonly used drugs for tuberculosis, MRSA and other infections. This review describes an account of our research on these two fronts in drug discovery, targeting eukaryotic as well as prokaryotic cell division. PMID:24680057

  11. Depolymerization dynamics of individual filaments of bacterial cytoskeletal protein FtsZ

    PubMed Central

    Mateos-Gil, Pablo; Paez, Alfonso; Hörger, Ines; Rivas, Germán; Vicente, Miguel; Tarazona, Pedro; Vélez, Marisela

    2012-01-01

    We report observation and analysis of the depolymerization filaments of the bacterial cytoskeletal protein FtsZ (filament temperature-sensitive Z) formed on a mica surface. At low concentration, proteins adsorbed on the surface polymerize forming curved filaments that close into rings that remain stable for some time before opening irreversibly and fully depolymerizing. The distribution of ring lifetimes (T) as a function of length (N), shows that the rate of ring aperture correlates with filament length. If this ring lifetime is expressed as a bond survival time, (Tb ≡ NT), this correlation is abolished, indicating that these rupture events occur randomly and independently at each monomer interface. After rings open irreversibly, depolymerization of the remaining filaments is fast, but can be slowed down and followed using a nonhydrolyzing GTP analogue. The histogram of depolymerization velocities of individual filaments has an asymmetric distribution that can be fit with a computer model that assumes two rupture rates, a slow one similar to the one observed for ring aperture, affecting monomers in the central part of the filaments, and a faster one affecting monomers closer to the open ends. From the quantitative analysis, we conclude that the depolymerization rate is affected both by nucleotide hydrolysis rate and by its exchange along the filament, that all monomer interfaces are equally competent for hydrolysis, although depolymerization is faster at the open ends than in central filament regions, and that all monomer–monomer interactions, regardless of the nucleotide present, can adopt a curved configuration. PMID:22566654

  12. Simultaneous pre-launch characterisation of Scisat-1's ACE-FTS and MAESTRO spectrometers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dufour, D.; Scisat Test Team

    Scisat-1 is the first Canadian scientific research satellite in over 30 years, successfully launched in August 2003. Its primary focus is the study of ozone related chemistry and dynamics in the high-latitudes stratosphere, through the retrieval of solar occultation spectra taken during sunrises and sunsets. Its two spectrometers, ACE-FTS (Atmospheric Chemistry Experiment -- Fourier Transform Spectrometer) and MAESTRO (Measurement of Aerosol Extinction in the Stratosphere and Troposphere Retrieved by Occultation) are designed to measure spectra in the infrared (750 cm-1 to 4100 cm-1) and near UV-visible (280-1000 nm), respectively, and have coincident fields of view. Pre-launch instrument characterization took place at the University of Toronto's Instrument Characterization Facility in February and March 2003. Along with field of view, instrument line shape and dark current response tests, a series of NO2 and O3 absorption measurements using a novel combined 3000 K blackbody / quartz halogen lamp source were taken with both instruments simultaneously. The retrieved absorber amounts from these measurements were then used to assess the continuity of the absorption cross-sectional data sets between the visible and the infrared. A description of the experimental apparatus, tests performed, and results will be presented.

  13. ACE-FTS observations of pyrogenic trace species in boreal biomass burning plumes during BORTAS

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tereszchuk, K. A.; González Abad, G.; Clerbaux, C.; Hadji-Lazaro, J.; Hurtmans, D.; Coheur, P.-F.; Bernath, P. F.

    2012-12-01

    To further our understanding of the effects of biomass burning emissions on atmospheric composition, the Quantifying the impact of BOReal forest fires on Tropospheric oxidants over the Atlantic using Aircraft and Satellites (BORTAS) campaign was conducted on 12 July to 3 August 2011 during the Boreal forest fire season in Canada. The simultaneous aerial, ground and satellite measurement campaign sought to record instances of Boreal biomass burning to measure the tropospheric volume mixing ratios (VMRs) of short- and long-lived trace molecular species from biomass burning emissions. The goal was to investigate the connection between the composition and the distribution of these pyrogenic outflows and their resulting perturbation to atmospheric chemistry, with particular focus on oxidant species to determine the overall impact on the oxidizing capacity of the free troposphere. Measurements of pyrogenic trace species in Boreal biomass burning plumes were made by the Atmospheric Chemistry Experiment Fourier Transform Spectrometer (ACE-FTS) onboard the Canadian Space Agency (CSA) SCISAT-1 satellite during the BORTAS campaign. Even though most biomass burning smoke is typically confined to the boundary layer, emissions are often injected directly into the upper troposphere via fire-related convective processes, thus allowing space-borne instruments to measure these pyrogenic outflows. An extensive set of 15 molecules, CH3OH, CH4, C2H2, C2H6, C3H6O, CO, HCN, HCOOH, HNO3, H2CO, NO, NO2, OCS, O3 and PAN have been analyzed. Included in this analysis is the calculation of age-dependent sets of enhancement ratios for each of the species.

  14. In Escherichia coli, MreB and FtsZ direct the synthesis of lateral cell wall via independent pathways that require PBP 2.

    PubMed

    Varma, Archana; Young, Kevin D

    2009-06-01

    In Escherichia coli, the cytoplasmic proteins MreB and FtsZ play crucial roles in ensuring that new muropeptide subunits are inserted into the cell wall in a spatially correct way during elongation and division. In particular, to retain a constant diameter and overall shape, new material must be inserted into the wall uniformly around the cell's perimeter. Current thinking is that MreB accomplishes this feat through intermediary proteins that tether peptidoglycan synthases to the outer face of the inner membrane. We tested this idea in E. coli by using a DD-carboxypeptidase mutant that accumulates pentapeptides in its peptidoglycan, allowing us to visualize new muropeptide incorporation. Surprisingly, inhibiting MreB with the antibiotic A22 did not result in uneven insertion of new wall, although the cells bulged and lost their rod shapes. Instead, uneven (clustered) incorporation occurred only if MreB and FtsZ were inactivated simultaneously, providing the first evidence in E. coli that FtsZ can direct murein incorporation into the lateral cell wall independently of MreB. Inhibiting penicillin binding protein 2 (PBP 2) alone produced the same clustered phenotype, implying that MreB and FtsZ tether peptidoglycan synthases via a common mechanism that includes PBP 2. However, cell shape was determined only by the presence or absence of MreB and not by the even distribution of new wall material as directed by FtsZ.

  15. Two Dictyostelium orthologs of the prokaryotic cell division protein FtsZ localize to mitochondria and are required for the maintenance of normal mitochondrial morphology.

    PubMed

    Gilson, Paul R; Yu, Xuan-Chuan; Hereld, Dale; Barth, Christian; Savage, Amelia; Kiefel, Ben R; Lay, Sui; Fisher, Paul R; Margolin, William; Beech, Peter L

    2003-12-01

    In bacteria, the protein FtsZ is the principal component of a ring that constricts the cell at division. Though all mitochondria probably arose through a single, ancient bacterial endosymbiosis, the mitochondria of only certain protists appear to have retained FtsZ, and the protein is absent from the mitochondria of fungi, animals, and higher plants. We have investigated the role that FtsZ plays in mitochondrial division in the genetically tractable protist Dictyostelium discoideum, which has two nuclearly encoded FtsZs, FszA and FszB, that are targeted to the inside of mitochondria. In most wild-type amoebae, the mitochondria are spherical or rod-shaped, but in fsz-null mutants they become elongated into tubules, indicating that a decrease in mitochondrial division has occurred. In support of this role in organelle division, antibodies to FszA and FszA-green fluorescent protein (GFP) show belts and puncta at multiple places along the mitochondria, which may define future or recent sites of division. FszB-GFP, in contrast, locates to an electron-dense, submitochondrial body usually located at one end of the organelle, but how it functions during division is unclear. This is the first demonstration of two differentially localized FtsZs within the one organelle, and it points to a divergence in the roles of these two proteins.

  16. Upper troposphere and stratosphere distribution of hydrocarbon species in ACE-FTS measurements and GEOS-Chem simulations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Koo, Ja-Ho; Walker, Kaley A.; Jones, Dylan B. A.; Jones, Ashley; Sheese, Patrick E.; Boone, Chris D.; Bernath, Peter F.; Manney, Gloria L.

    2016-04-01

    Measurements of carbon-containing species, referred to herein as "hydrocarbons", are important components needed for describing and understanding the influence of natural and anthropogenic emissions on atmospheric chemistry. Analysis of the global pattern of hydrocarbons contributes to our understanding of the influence of regional and seasonal variation in air pollution and natural fire events. The Atmospheric Chemistry Experiment Fourier Transform Spectrometer (ACE-FTS) has monitored trace gases in the upper troposphere and stratosphere based on solar occultation measurements for more than ten years. In this study, we investigate the global pattern of seven "hydrocarbon" species (CO, C2H6, C2H2, HCN, H2CO, CH3OH, and HCOOH) and OCS using the ACE-FTS version 3.5 dataset from 2004 to 2013. All hydrocarbons show strong seasonal variation and regional differences, but the detailed pattern differs according to the speciation of the hydrocarbons. For example, in the Northern Hemisphere, CO, C2H6, and C2H2 show the highest mixing ratios in winter, but high CH3OH and HCOOH appear in summer. In the Southern hemisphere, H2CO, HCN, and HCOOH show high mixing ratios in springtime. These patterns indicate the impact of different emission sources including fuel combustion, wildfire emission, and chemical production. By calculating correlations with CO, these results can provide useful information to characterize each hydrocarbon emission. The ACE-FTS measurements have also been compared with GEOS-Chem output to examine the model performance and spatiotemporal patterns in the simulations.

  17. Update on GOSAT TANSO-FTS performance, operations, and data products after more than 6 years in space

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kuze, Akihiko; Suto, Hiroshi; Shiomi, Kei; Kawakami, Shuji; Tanaka, Makoto; Ueda, Yoko; Deguchi, Akira; Yoshida, Jun; Yamamoto, Yoshifumi; Kataoka, Fumie; Taylor, Thomas E.; Buijs, Henry L.

    2016-06-01

    A data set containing more than 6 years (February 2009 to present) of radiance spectra for carbon dioxide (CO2) and methane (CH4) observations has been acquired by the Greenhouse gases Observing SATellite (GOSAT, available at http://data.gosat.nies.go.jp/GosatUserInterfaceGateway/guig/GuigPage/open.do), nicknamed "Ibuki", Thermal And Near infrared Sensor for carbon Observation Fourier Transform Spectrometer (TANSO-FTS). This paper provides updates on the performance of the satellite and TANSO-FTS sensor and describes important changes to the data product, which has recently been made available to users. With these changes the typical accuracy of retrieved column-averaged dry air mole fractions of CO2 and CH4 (XCO2 and XCH4, respectively) are 2 ppm or 0.5 % and 13 ppb or 0.7 %, respectively. Three major anomalies of the satellite system affecting TANSO-FTS are reported: a failure of one of the two solar paddles in May 2014, a switch to the secondary pointing system in January 2015, and most recently a cryocooler shutdown and restart in August 2015. The Level 1A (L1A) (raw interferogram) and the Level 1B (L1B) (radiance spectra) of version V201 described here have long-term uniform quality and provide consistent retrieval accuracy even after the satellite system anomalies. In addition, we discuss the unique observation abilities of GOSAT made possible by an agile pointing mechanism, which allows for optimization of global sampling patterns.

  18. In Vivo Structure of the E. coli FtsZ-ring Revealed by Photoactivated Localization Microscopy (PALM)

    PubMed Central

    Fu, Guo; Huang, Tao; Buss, Jackson; Coltharp, Carla; Hensel, Zach; Xiao, Jie

    2010-01-01

    The FtsZ protein, a tubulin-like GTPase, plays a pivotal role in prokaryotic cell division. In vivo it localizes to the midcell and assembles into a ring-like structure-the Z-ring. The Z-ring serves as an essential scaffold to recruit all other division proteins and generates contractile force for cytokinesis, but its supramolecular structure remains unknown. Electron microscopy (EM) has been unsuccessful in detecting the Z-ring due to the dense cytoplasm of bacterial cells, and conventional fluorescence light microscopy (FLM) has only provided images with limited spatial resolution (200–300 nm) due to the diffraction of light. Hence, given the small sizes of bacteria cells, identifying the in vivo structure of the Z-ring presents a substantial challenge. Here, we used photoactivated localization microscopy (PALM), a single molecule-based super-resolution imaging technique, to characterize the in vivo structure of the Z-ring in E. coli. We achieved a spatial resolution of ∼35 nm and discovered that in addition to the expected ring-like conformation, the Z-ring of E. coli adopts a novel compressed helical conformation with variable helical length and pitch. We measured the thickness of the Z-ring to be ∼110 nm and the packing density of FtsZ molecules inside the Z-ring to be greater than what is expected for a single-layered flat ribbon configuration. Our results strongly suggest that the Z-ring is composed of a loose bundle of FtsZ protofilaments that randomly overlap with each other in both longitudinal and radial directions of the cell. Our results provide significant insight into the spatial organization of the Z-ring and open the door for further investigations of structure-function relationships and cell cycle-dependent regulation of the Z-ring. PMID:20856929

  19. Validation of ACE-FTS measurements of CFC-11, CFC-12, and HCFC-22 using ground-based FTIR spectrometers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kolonjari, F.; Walker, K. A.; Mahieu, E.; Batchelor, R. L.; Bernath, P. F.; Boone, C.; Conway, S. A.; Dan, L.; Griffin, D.; Harrett, A.; Kasai, Y.; Kagawa, A.; Lindenmaier, R.; Strong, K.; Whaley, C.

    2013-12-01

    Satellite datasets can be an effective global monitoring tool for long-lived compounds in the atmosphere. The Atmospheric Chemistry Experiment (ACE) is a mission on-board the Canadian satellite SCISAT-1. The primary instrument on SCISAT-1 is a high-resolution infrared Fourier transform spectrometer (ACE-FTS) which is capable of measuring a range of gases including key chlorofluorocarbon (CFC) and hydrochlorofluorocarbon (HCFC) species. These families of species are of interest because of their significant contribution to anthropogenic ozone depletion and to global warming. To assess the quality of data derived from satellite measurements, validation using other data sources is essential. Ground-based Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) spectrometers are particularly useful for this purpose. In this study, five FTIR spectrometers located at four sites around the world are used to validate the CFC-11 (CCl3F), CFC-12 (CCl2F2), and HCFC-22 (CHClF2) retrieved profiles from ACE-FTS measurements. These species are related because HCFC-22 was the primary replacement for CFC-11 and CFC-12 in refrigerant and propellant applications. The FTIR spectrometers used in this study record solar absorption spectra at Eureka (Canada), Jungfraujoch (Switzerland), Poker Flat (USA), and Toronto (Canada). The retrieval of CFC-11, CFC-12, and HCFC-22 are not standard products for many of these instruments, and as such, a harmonization of retrieval parameters between the sites has been conducted. The retrievals of these species from the FTIR spectra are sensitive from the surface to approximately 20 km, while the ACE-FTS profiles extend from approximately 6 to 30 km. For each site, partial column comparisons between coincident measurements of the three species and a validation of the observed trends will be discussed.

  20. Validation of GOSAT/TANSO-FTS TIR UTLS CO2 data (Version 1.0) using CONTRAIL measurements

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Saitoh, N.; Kimoto, S.; Sugimura, R.; Imasu, R.; Kawakami, S.; Shiomi, K.; Kuze, A.; Machida, T.; Sawa, Y.; Matsueda, H.

    2015-12-01

    The thermal infrared (TIR) band of the Thermal and Near Infrared Sensor for Carbon Observation (TANSO)-Fourier Transform Spectrometer (FTS) on board the Greenhouse Gases Observing Satellite (GOSAT) has been observing carbon dioxide (CO2) concentrations in several atmospheric layers since its launch. This study compared TANSO-FTS TIR V1.0 CO2 data and CO2 data obtained in the Comprehensive Observation Network for TRace gases by AIrLiner (CONTRAIL) project in the upper troposphere and lower stratosphere (UTLS), where the TIR band of TANSO-FTS is most sensitive to CO2 concentrations, to validate the quality of the TIR V1.0 UTLS CO2 data from 287 to 162 hPa. From a comparison made during flights between Tokyo and Sydney, the averages of the TIR upper atmospheric CO2 data agreed well with the averages of the data obtained by the CONTRAIL Continuous CO2 Measuring Experiment (CME) within 0.1 % for all of the seasons in the Southern Hemisphere. The results of a comparison for all of the eight airline routes showed that the agreement between the TIR and CONTRAIL CO2 data was within 0.5 % on average in the Northern Hemisphere, which was better than the agreement between a priori and CONTRAIL CO2 data. The quality of TIR lower stratospheric CO2 data depends largely on the information content, and therefore has a seasonal dependence. In high latitudes, TIR V1.0 lower stratospheric CO2 data are only valid in the summer. The magnitude of bias in the TIR upper atmospheric CO2 data did not have a clear longitudinal dependence. The comparison results for flights in northern low and middle latitudes showed that the agreement between TIR and CONTRAIL CO2 data in the upper troposphere was worse in the spring and summer than in the fall and winter. This could be attributed to a larger negative bias in the upper atmospheric a priori CO2 data in the spring and summer and a seasonal dependence of spectral bias in TANSO-FTS TIR Level 1B (L1B) radiance data. The negative bias in northern

  1. GOSAT/TANSO-FTS Measurement of Volcanic and Geothermal CO2 Emissions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schwandner, Florian M.; Carn, Simon A.; Newhall, Christopher G.

    2010-05-01

    volcanic CO2 anomalies using GOSAT and correlation with Aura/OMI, AIRS, and ASTER determined SO2 fluxes and ground based monitoring of CO2 and other geophysical and geochemical parameters. This will provide the ground work for future higher spatial resolution satellite missions. This is a joint effort from two GOSAT-IBUKI data application projects: "Satellite-Borne Quantification of Carbon Dioxide Emissions from Volcanoes and Geothermal Areas" (PI Schwandner), and "Application of GOSAT/TANSO-FTS to the Measurement of Volcanic CO2 Emissions" (PI Carn).

  2. FTS Studies of the 17O Enriched Isotopologues of CO_2 Toward Creating a Complete and Highly Accurate Reference Standard

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Elliott, Ben; Sung, Keeyoon; Brown, Linda; Miller, Charles

    2014-06-01

    The proliferation and increased abilities of remote sensing missions for the monitoring of planetary atmospheric gas species has spurred the need for complete and accurate spectroscopic reference standards. As a part of our ongoing effort toward creating a global carbon dioxide (CO2) frequency reference standard, we report new FTS measurements of the 17O enriched isotopologues of CO2. The first measurements were taken in the ν3 region (2200 - 2450 cm-1, 65 - 75 THz), have absolute calibration accuracies of 100 kHz (3E-6 cm-1), comparable to the uncertainties for typical sub-millimeter/THz spectroscopy. Such high absolute calibration accuracy has become regular procedure for the cases of linear molecules such as CO2 and CO for FTS measurements at JPL, and enables us to produce measured transition frequencies for entire bands with accuracies that rival those of early heterodyne measurements for individual beat notes. Additionally, by acquiring spectra of multiple carbon dioxide isotopologues simultaneously, we have begun to construct a self-consistent frequency grid based on CO2 that extends from 20 - 200 THz. These new spectroscopic reference standards are a significant step towards minimizing CO2 retrieval errors from remote sensing applications, especially those involving targets with predominantly CO2 atmospheres such as Mars, Venus and candidate terrestrial exoplanets where minor isotopologues will make significant contributions to the radiance signals.

  3. Analysis of the chloroplast proteome in arc mutants and identification of novel protein components associated with FtsZ2.

    PubMed

    Gargano, Daniela; Maple-Grødem, Jodi; Reisinger, Veronika; Eichacker, Lutz Andreas; Møller, Simon Geir

    2013-02-01

    Chloroplasts are descendants of cyanobacteria and divide by binary fission. The number of chloroplasts is regulated in a cell type-specific manner to ensure that specialized cell types can perform their functions optimally. Several protein components of the chloroplast division apparatus have been identified in the past several years, but how this process is regulated in response to developmental status, environmental signals and stress is still unknown. To begin to address this we undertook a proteomic analysis of three accumulation and replication of chloroplasts mutants that show a spectrum of plastid division perturbations. We show that defects in the chloroplast division process results in changes in the abundance of proteins when compared to wild type, but that the profile of the native stromal and membrane complexes remains unchanged. Furthermore, by combining BN-PAGE with protein interaction assays we show that AtFtsZ2-1 and AtFtsZ2-2 assemble together with rpl12A and EF-Tu into a novel chloroplast membrane complex. PMID:23225155

  4. New temperature and pressure retrieval algorithm for high-resolution infrared solar occultation spectroscopy: analysis and validation against ACE-FTS and COSMIC

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Olsen, K. S.; Toon, G. C.; Boone, C. D.; Strong, K.

    2015-10-01

    Motivated by the initial selection of a high-resolution solar occultation Fourier transform spectrometer (FTS) to fly to Mars on the ExoMars Trace Gas Orbiter, we have been developing algorithms for retrieving volume mixing ratio vertical profiles of trace gases, the primary component of which is a new algorithm and software for retrieving vertical profiles of temperature and pressure from the spectra. In contrast to Earth-observing instruments, which can rely on accurate meteorological models, a priori information, and spacecraft position, Mars retrievals require a method with minimal reliance on such data. The temperature and pressure retrieval algorithms developed for this work were evaluated using Earth-observing spectra from the Atmospheric Chemistry Experiment (ACE) FTS, a solar occultation instrument in orbit since 2003, and the basis for the instrument selected for a Mars mission. ACE-FTS makes multiple measurements during an occultation, separated in altitude by 1.5-5 km, and we analyze 10 CO2 vibration-rotation bands at each altitude, each with a different usable altitude range. We describe the algorithms and present results of their application and their comparison to the ACE-FTS data products. The Constellation Observing System for Meteorology, Ionosphere, and Climate (COSMIC) provides vertical profiles of temperature up to 40 km with high vertical resolution. Using six satellites and GPS radio occultation, COSMIC's data product has excellent temporal and spatial coverage, allowing us to find coincident measurements with ACE with very tight criteria: less than 1.5 h and 150 km. We present an inter-comparison of temperature profiles retrieved from ACE-FTS using our algorithm, that of the ACE Science Team (v3.5), and from COSMIC. When our retrievals are compared to ACE-FTS v3.5, we find mean differences between -5 and +2 K, and that our retrieved profiles have no seasonal or zonal biases, but do have a warm bias in the stratosphere and a cold bias in the

  5. New temperature and pressure retrieval algorithm for high-resolution infrared solar occultation spectroscopy: analysis and validation against ACE-FTS and COSMIC

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Olsen, Kevin S.; Toon, Geoffrey C.; Boone, Chris D.; Strong, Kimberly

    2016-03-01

    Motivated by the initial selection of a high-resolution solar occultation Fourier transform spectrometer (FTS) to fly to Mars on the ExoMars Trace Gas Orbiter, we have been developing algorithms for retrieving volume mixing ratio vertical profiles of trace gases, the primary component of which is a new algorithm and software for retrieving vertical profiles of temperature and pressure from the spectra. In contrast to Earth-observing instruments, which can rely on accurate meteorological models, a priori information, and spacecraft position, Mars retrievals require a method with minimal reliance on such data. The temperature and pressure retrieval algorithms developed for this work were evaluated using Earth-observing spectra from the Atmospheric Chemistry Experiment (ACE) FTS, a solar occultation instrument in orbit since 2003, and the basis for the instrument selected for a Mars mission. ACE-FTS makes multiple measurements during an occultation, separated in altitude by 1.5-5 km, and we analyse 10 CO2 vibration-rotation bands at each altitude, each with a different usable altitude range. We describe the algorithms and present results of their application and their comparison to the ACE-FTS data products. The Constellation Observing System for Meteorology, Ionosphere, and Climate (COSMIC) provides vertical profiles of temperature up to 40 km with high vertical resolution. Using six satellites and GPS radio occultation, COSMIC's data product has excellent temporal and spatial coverage, allowing us to find coincident measurements with ACE with very tight criteria: less than 1.5 h and 150 km. We present an intercomparison of temperature profiles retrieved from ACE-FTS using our algorithm, that of the ACE Science Team (v3.5), and from COSMIC. When our retrievals are compared to ACE-FTS v3.5, we find mean differences between -5 and +2 K and that our retrieved profiles have no seasonal or zonal biases but do have a warm bias in the stratosphere and a cold bias in the

  6. Mapping CH4 : CO2 ratios in Los Angeles with CLARS-FTS from Mount Wilson, California

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wong, K. W.; Fu, D.; Pongetti, T. J.; Newman, S.; Kort, E. A.; Duren, R.; Hsu, Y.-K.; Miller, C. E.; Yung, Y. L.; Sander, S. P.

    2015-01-01

    The Los Angeles megacity, which is home to more than 40% of the population in California, is the second largest megacity in the United States and an intense source of anthropogenic greenhouse gases (GHGs). Quantifying GHG emissions from the megacity and monitoring their spatiotemporal trends are essential to be able to understand the effectiveness of emission control policies. Here we measure carbon dioxide (CO2) and methane (CH4) across the Los Angeles megacity using a novel approach - ground-based remote sensing from a mountaintop site. A Fourier transform spectrometer (FTS) with agile pointing optics, located on Mount Wilson at 1.67 km above sea level, measures reflected near-infrared sunlight from 29 different surface targets on Mount Wilson and in the Los Angeles megacity to retrieve the slant column abundances of CO2, CH4 and other trace gases above and below Mount Wilson. This technique provides persistent space- and time-resolved observations of path-averaged dry-air GHG concentrations, XGHG, in the Los Angeles megacity and simulates observations from a geostationary satellite. In this study, we combined high-sensitivity measurements from the FTS and the panorama from Mount Wilson to characterize anthropogenic CH4 emissions in the megacity using tracer-tracer correlations. During the period between September 2011 and October 2013, the observed XCH4 : XCO2 excess ratio, assigned to anthropogenic activities, varied from 5.4 to 7.3 ppb CH4 (ppm CO2)-1, with an average of 6.4 ± 0.5 ppb CH4 (ppm CO2)-1 compared to the value of 4.6 ± 0.9 ppb CH4 (ppm CO2)-1 expected from the California Air Resources Board (CARB) bottom-up emission inventory. Persistent elevated XCH4 : XCO2 excess ratios were observed in Pasadena and in the eastern Los Angeles megacity. Using the FTS observations on Mount Wilson and the bottom-up CO2 emission inventory, we derived a top-down CH4 emission of 0.39 ± 0.06 Tg CH4 year-1 in the Los Angeles megacity. This is 18-61% larger than the

  7. Mapping CH4 : CO2 ratios in Los Angeles with CLARS-FTS from Mount Wilson, California

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wong, K. W.; Fu, D.; Pongetti, T. J.; Newman, S.; Kort, E. A.; Duren, R.; Hsu, Y.-K.; Miller, C. E.; Yung, Y. L.; Sander, S. P.

    2014-06-01

    The Los Angeles megacity, which is home to more than 40% of the population in California, is the second largest megacity in the United States and an intense source of anthropogenic greenhouse gases (GHGs). Quantifying GHG emissions from the megacity and monitoring their spatiotemporal trends are essential to be able to understand the effectiveness of emission control policies. Here we measure carbon dioxide (CO2) and methane (CH4) across the Los Angeles megacity using a novel approach - ground-based remote sensing from a mountaintop site. A Fourier Transform Spectrometer (FTS) with agile pointing optics, located on Mount Wilson at 1.67 km above sea level, measures reflected near infrared sunlight from 29 different surface targets on Mount Wilson and in the Los Angeles megacity to retrieve the slant column abundances of CO2, CH4 and other trace gases above and below Mount Wilson. This technique provides persistent space and time resolved observations of path-averaged dry-air GHG concentrations, XGHG, in the Los Angeles megacity and simulates observations from a geostationary satellite. In this study, we combined high sensitivity measurements from the FTS and the panorama from Mount Wilson to characterize anthropogenic CH4 emissions in the megacity using tracer : tracer correlations. During the period between September 2011 and October 2013, the observed XCH4 : XCO2 excess ratio, assigned to anthropogenic activities, varied from 5.4 to 7.3 ppb CH4 (ppm CO2)-1, with an average of 6.4 ± 0.5 ppb CH4 (ppm CO2)-1 compared to the value of 4.6 ± 0.9 ppb CH4 (ppm CO2)-1 expected from the California Air Resources Board (CARB) bottom-up emission inventory. Persistent elevated XCH4 : XCO2 excess ratios were observed in Pasadena and in the eastern Los Angeles megacity. Using the FTS observations on Mount Wilson and the bottom-up CO2 emission inventory, we derived a top-down CH4 emission of 0.39± 0.06 Tg CH4 year-1 in the Los Angeles megacity. This is 18-6% larger than the

  8. GOSAT CO2 and CH4 validation activity with a portable FTS at Pasadena, Chino, and Railroad Valley

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shiomi, K.; Kuze, A.; Suto, H.; Kawakami, S.; Kataoka, F.; Hedelius, J.; Viatte, C.; Wennberg, P. O.; Wunch, D.; Roehl, C. M.; Leifer, I.; Tanaka, T.; Iraci, L. T.; Bruegge, C. J.; Schwandner, F. M.; Crisp, D.

    2015-12-01

    The column-average dry air mole fractions of carbon dioxide (XCO2) and methane (XCH4) were measured with a portable Fourier transform spectrometer (FTS), EM27/SUN, using direct sunlight at 1) Caltech, in Pasadena, a northern Los Angeles suburb, 2) Chino, a dairy region east of Los Angeles, and 3) Railroad Valley (RRV), a desert playa in Nevada. They were conducted during the GOSAT/OCO-2 joint campaign for vicarious calibration and validation (cal/val) and its preparatory experiments in June-July 2015. JAXA's GOSAT has been operating since 2009 to monitor the greenhouse gases XCO2 and XCH4 using surface-reflected sunlight from space. GOSAT carries a Fourier Transform Spectrometer (TANSO-FTS) and a Cloud and Aerosol Imager (TANSO-CAI). NASA's OCO-2 has been operating since 2014, carries a grating spectrometer to make precise XCO2 observations with a-few-kilometer resolution. Their polar orbits have 12:46 pm (GOSAT) and 1:30 pm (OCO-2) observing times. For cal/val, these sites were targeted with coincident , near simultaneous ground-based and vertical profiling measurements. These sites are different types of suburban, dairy, and desert areas. Before the campaign, measurements from the JAXA EM27/SUN were compared with those from the Total Carbon Column Observing Network (TCCON) and from the Caltech EM27/SUN at Pasadena. We compared the retrieved values and simultaneously observed diurnal enhancements by advection from the Los Angeles basin. Then, we observed a diurnal cycle at Chino dairy area, an area of concentrated husbandry, producing a CH4 point source. Finally, we conducted the cal/val campaign at RRV coincident with GOSAT and OCO-2 overpass observations. Over RRV, vertical profiles of CO2 and CH4 were measured using the Alpha Jet research aircraft as a part of the NASA Ames Alpha Jet Atmospheric eXperiment (AJAX) . We will compare experimental results from the cal/val campaign for XCO2 and XCH4 with a portable FTS.

  9. E. coli low molecular weight penicillin binding proteins help orient septal FtsZ, and their absence leads to asymmetric cell division and branching

    PubMed Central

    Potluri, Lakshmi-Prasad; de Pedro, Miguel; Young, Kevin D.

    2012-01-01

    Escherichia coli cells lacking low molecular weight penicillin binding proteins (LMW PBPs) exhibit morphological alterations that also appear when the septal protein FtsZ is mislocalized, suggesting that peptidoglycan modification and division may work together to produce cell shape. We found that in strains lacking PBP5 and other LMW PBPs, higher FtsZ concentrations increased the frequency of branched cells and incorrectly oriented Z rings by 10- to 15-fold. Invagination of these rings produced improperly oriented septa, which in turn gave rise to asymmetric cell poles that eventually elongated into branches. Branches always originated from the remnants of abnormal septation events, cementing the relationship between aberrant cell division and branch formation. In the absence of PBP5, PBP6 and DacD localized to nascent septa, suggesting that these PBPs can partially substitute for the loss of PBP5. We propose that branching begins when mislocalized FtsZ triggers the insertion of inert peptidoglycan at unusual positions during cell division. Only later, after normal cell wall elongation separates the patches, do branches become visible. Thus, a relationship between the LMW PBPs and cytoplasmic FtsZ ultimately affects cell division and overall shape. PMID:22390731

  10. TPM analyses reveal that FtsK contributes both to the assembly and the activation of the XerCD-dif recombination synapse.

    PubMed

    Diagne, Cheikh Tidiane; Salhi, Maya; Crozat, Estelle; Salomé, Laurence; Cornet, Francois; Rousseau, Philippe; Tardin, Catherine

    2014-02-01

    Circular chromosomes can form dimers during replication and failure to resolve those into monomers prevents chromosome segregation, which leads to cell death. Dimer resolution is catalysed by a highly conserved site-specific recombination system, called XerCD-dif in Escherichia coli. Recombination is activated by the DNA translocase FtsK, which is associated with the division septum, and is thought to contribute to the assembly of the XerCD-dif synapse. In our study, direct observation of the assembly of the XerCD-dif synapse, which had previously eluded other methods, was made possible by the use of Tethered Particle Motion, a single molecule approach. We show that XerC, XerD and two dif sites suffice for the assembly of XerCD-dif synapses in absence of FtsK, but lead to inactive XerCD-dif synapses. We also show that the presence of the γ domain of FtsK increases the rate of synapse formation and convert them into active synapses where recombination occurs. Our results represent the first direct observation of the formation of the XerCD-dif recombination synapse and its activation by FtsK.

  11. Three-dimensional super-resolution imaging of the midplane protein FtsZ in live Caulobacter crescentus cells using astigmatism.

    PubMed

    Biteen, Julie S; Goley, Erin D; Shapiro, Lucy; Moerner, W E

    2012-03-01

    Single-molecule super-resolution imaging provides a non-invasive method for nanometer-scale imaging and is ideally suited to investigations of quasi-static structures within live cells. Here, we extend the ability to image subcellular features within bacteria cells to three dimensions based on the introduction of a cylindrical lens in the imaging pathway. We investigate the midplane protein FtsZ in Caulobacter crescentus with super-resolution imaging based on fluorescent-protein photoswitching and the natural polymerization/depolymerization dynamics of FtsZ associated with the Z-ring. We quantify these dynamics and determine the FtsZ depolymerization time to be <100 ms. We image the Z-ring in live and fixed C. crescentus cells at different stages of the cell cycle and find that the FtsZ superstructure is dynamic with the cell cycle, forming an open shape during the stalked stage and a dense focus during the pre-divisional stage.

  12. Escherichia coli low-molecular-weight penicillin-binding proteins help orient septal FtsZ, and their absence leads to asymmetric cell division and branching.

    PubMed

    Potluri, Lakshmi-Prasad; de Pedro, Miguel A; Young, Kevin D

    2012-04-01

    Escherichia coli cells lacking low-molecular-weight penicillin-binding proteins (LMW PBPs) exhibit morphological alterations that also appear when the septal protein FtsZ is mislocalized, suggesting that peptidoglycan modification and division may work together to produce cell shape. We found that in strains lacking PBP5 and other LMW PBPs, higher FtsZ concentrations increased the frequency of branched cells and incorrectly oriented Z rings by 10- to 15-fold. Invagination of these rings produced improperly oriented septa, which in turn gave rise to asymmetric cell poles that eventually elongated into branches. Branches always originated from the remnants of abnormal septation events, cementing the relationship between aberrant cell division and branch formation. In the absence of PBP5, PBP6 and DacD localized to nascent septa, suggesting that these PBPs can partially substitute for the loss of PBP5. We propose that branching begins when mislocalized FtsZ triggers the insertion of inert peptidoglycan at unusual positions during cell division. Only later, after normal cell wall elongation separates the patches, do branches become visible. Thus, a relationship between the LMW PBPs and cytoplasmic FtsZ ultimately affects cell division and overall shape.

  13. 78 FR 25132 - Enercorp, Inc., FTS Group, Inc., Games, Inc. (n/k/a InQBate Corporation), Hartmarx Corporation (n...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-04-29

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office SECURITIES AND EXCHANGE COMMISSION Enercorp, Inc., FTS Group, Inc., Games, Inc. (n/k/a InQBate Corporation), Hartmarx Corporation (n... Games, Inc. (n/k/a InQBate Corporation) because it has not filed any periodic reports since the...

  14. Four Years of CARVE-FTS Observations of CO2, CH4, and CO in the Alaskan Arctic: Status Quo and Comparison with Satellite Measurements

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kurosu, T. P.; Miller, C. E.; Dinardo, S. J.

    2015-12-01

    The end of 2015 marks the conclusion of the Carbon in Arctic Reservoirs Vulnerability Experiment (CARVE), a four-year aircraft-based Earth Venture 1 mission to study the carbon balance of the Alaskan Arctic ecosystem, with a particular focus on carbon release from melting permafrost. Operating from its base in Fairbanks, AK, the CARVE aircraft covers a range of principle flight paths in the Alaskan interior, the Yukon River valley, and the northern Alaska coast around Barrow and Dead Horse. Flight paths are chosen to maximize ecosystem variability and cover burn-recovery/regrowth sequences. CARVE observations cover the Arctic Spring/Summer/Fall seasons, with multiple flights per season and principle flight path. Science operations started in 05/2012 and will conclude in 11/2015. The CARVE suite of instruments includes flask measurements, in situ gas analyzers for CO2, CH4 and CO observations, and a three-band polarizing Fourier Transform Spectrometer (FTS) for column measurements of CO2, CH4, CO, their interfering species (e.g., H2O), and O2. The FTS covers the spectral regions of 4,200-4,900 cm-1 (CH4, CO), 5,800-6,400 cm-1 (CO2), and 12,900-13,200 cm-1 (O2), with a spectral resolution of 0.2 cm-1. Aircraft-based FTS science observations in Alaska have been performed since 23-05-2012. First-version data products from all CARVE instruments derived from observations during the 2012 campaign were publicly released earlier in 2013. The FTS has performed well during flight conditions. A recent overhaul of the retrieval algorithm has led to improvements in FTS data quality. We present results from FTS column observations of CO2, CH4, and CO, obtained over the entire CARVE observation record from 2012 to 2015, including comparisons of CARVE FTS measurements with satellite observations of GOSAT CO2 and CH4 retrieved by NIES, GOSAT CO2 from JPL/ACOS, MOPITT CO, and CO2 from OCO-2. The comparisons emphasize coincident CARVE/OCO-2 observations over Alaska during the 2015

  15. Scanning mode of the upgraded FTS-14 Digilab spectrometer — study of 8 ∗OCB polymorphism

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ściesiński, J.; Ściesińska, E.; Massalska-Arodź, M.

    2001-09-01

    Polymorphism of the right-handed octyloxycyanobiphenyl, ( S)-4-(1-methylheptyloxy)-4'-cyanobiphenyl (8 ∗OCB), was studied by means of the upgraded FTIR spectrometer DIGILAB FTS-14. Far infrared absorption spectra were recorded in the frequency range of 50-500 cm -1 for the sample temperature from 50 to 310 K. Two crystalline phases (metastable and stable) were detected. The acquisition system of the upgraded spectrometer enables real-time tracing and recording the maxima of single interferograms vs time and correlate them to the temperature of the sample. The work demonstrates the advantage of this feature of the spectrometer while studying the phase transitions and long-time relaxations in molecular crystals.

  16. The Arabidopsis minE mutation causes new plastid and FtsZ1 localization phenotypes in the leaf epidermis

    PubMed Central

    Fujiwara, Makoto T.; Kojo, Kei H.; Kazama, Yusuke; Sasaki, Shun; Abe, Tomoko; Itoh, Ryuuichi D.

    2015-01-01

    Plastids in the leaf epidermal cells of plants are regarded as immature chloroplasts that, like mesophyll chloroplasts, undergo binary fission. While mesophyll chloroplasts have generally been used to study plastid division, recent studies have suggested the presence of tissue- or plastid type-dependent regulation of plastid division. Here, we report the detailed morphology of plastids and their stromules, and the intraplastidic localization of the chloroplast division-related protein AtFtsZ1-1, in the leaf epidermis of an Arabidopsis mutant that harbors a mutation in the chloroplast division site determinant gene AtMinE1. In atminE1, the size and shape of epidermal plastids varied widely, which contrasts with the plastid phenotype observed in atminE1 mesophyll cells. In particular, atminE1 epidermal plastids occasionally displayed grape-like morphology, a novel phenotype induced by a plastid division mutation. Observation of an atminE1 transgenic line harboring an AtMinE1 promoter::AtMinE1-yellow fluorescent protein fusion gene confirmed the expression and plastidic localization of AtMinE1 in the leaf epidermis. Further examination revealed that constriction of plastids and stromules mediated by the FtsZ1 ring contributed to the plastid pleomorphism in the atminE1 epidermis. These results illustrate that a single plastid division mutation can have dramatic consequences for epidermal plastid morphology, thereby implying that plastid division and morphogenesis are differentially regulated in epidermal and mesophyll plastids. PMID:26500667

  17. The Arabidopsis minE mutation causes new plastid and FtsZ1 localization phenotypes in the leaf epidermis.

    PubMed

    Fujiwara, Makoto T; Kojo, Kei H; Kazama, Yusuke; Sasaki, Shun; Abe, Tomoko; Itoh, Ryuuichi D

    2015-01-01

    Plastids in the leaf epidermal cells of plants are regarded as immature chloroplasts that, like mesophyll chloroplasts, undergo binary fission. While mesophyll chloroplasts have generally been used to study plastid division, recent studies have suggested the presence of tissue- or plastid type-dependent regulation of plastid division. Here, we report the detailed morphology of plastids and their stromules, and the intraplastidic localization of the chloroplast division-related protein AtFtsZ1-1, in the leaf epidermis of an Arabidopsis mutant that harbors a mutation in the chloroplast division site determinant gene AtMinE1. In atminE1, the size and shape of epidermal plastids varied widely, which contrasts with the plastid phenotype observed in atminE1 mesophyll cells. In particular, atminE1 epidermal plastids occasionally displayed grape-like morphology, a novel phenotype induced by a plastid division mutation. Observation of an atminE1 transgenic line harboring an AtMinE1 promoter::AtMinE1-yellow fluorescent protein fusion gene confirmed the expression and plastidic localization of AtMinE1 in the leaf epidermis. Further examination revealed that constriction of plastids and stromules mediated by the FtsZ1 ring contributed to the plastid pleomorphism in the atminE1 epidermis. These results illustrate that a single plastid division mutation can have dramatic consequences for epidermal plastid morphology, thereby implying that plastid division and morphogenesis are differentially regulated in epidermal and mesophyll plastids. PMID:26500667

  18. Assembly, translocation, and activation of XerCD-dif recombination by FtsK translocase analyzed in real-time by FRET and two-color tethered fluorophore motion.

    PubMed

    May, Peter F J; Zawadzki, Pawel; Sherratt, David J; Kapanidis, Achillefs N; Arciszewska, Lidia K

    2015-09-15

    The FtsK dsDNA translocase functions in bacterial chromosome unlinking by activating XerCD-dif recombination in the replication terminus region. To analyze FtsK assembly and translocation, and the subsequent activation of XerCD-dif recombination, we extended the tethered fluorophore motion technique, using two spectrally distinct fluorophores to monitor two effective lengths along the same tethered DNA molecule. We observed that FtsK assembled stepwise on DNA into a single hexamer, and began translocation rapidly (∼ 0.25 s). Without extruding DNA loops, single FtsK hexamers approached XerCD-dif and resided there for ∼ 0.5 s irrespective of whether XerCD-dif was synapsed or unsynapsed. FtsK then dissociated, rather than reversing. Infrequently, FtsK activated XerCD-dif recombination when it encountered a preformed synaptic complex, and dissociated before the completion of recombination, consistent with each FtsK-XerCD-dif encounter activating only one round of recombination.

  19. A combined CoMFA and CoMSIA 3D-QSAR study of benzamide type antibacterial inhibitors of the FtsZ protein in drug-resistant Staphylococcus aureus.

    PubMed

    Andrades, J; Campanini, J; Vásquez, D; Silvestri, C; Morales, C; Romero, J; Mella, J

    2015-01-01

    A major problem today is bacterial resistance to antibiotics and the small number of new therapeutic agents approved in recent years. The development of new antibiotics capable of acting on new targets is urgently required. The filamenting temperature-sensitive Z (FtsZ) bacterial protein is a key biomolecule for bacterial division and survival. This makes FtsZ an attractive new pharmacological target for the development of antibacterial agents. There have been several attempts to develop ligands able to inhibit FtsZ. Despite the large number of synthesized compounds that inhibit the FtsZ protein, there are no quantitative structure-activity relationships (QSAR) that allow for the rational design and synthesis of promising new molecules. We present the first 3D-QSAR study of a large and diverse set of molecules that are able to inhibit the FtsZ bacterial protein. We summarize a set of chemical changes that can be made in the steric, electrostatic, hydrophobic and donor/acceptor hydrogen-bonding properties of the pharmacophore, to generate new bioactive molecules against FtsZ. These results provide a rational guide for the design and synthesis of promising new antibacterial agents, supported by the strong statistical parameters obtained from CoMFA (r(2)(pred) = 0.974) and CoMSIA (r(2)(pred) = 0.980) analyses. PMID:26505124

  20. Co-evolution of segregation guide DNA motifs and the FtsK translocase in bacteria: identification of the atypical Lactococcus lactis KOPS motif

    PubMed Central

    Nolivos, Sophie; Touzain, Fabrice; Pages, Carine; Coddeville, Michele; Rousseau, Philippe; El Karoui, Meriem; Le Bourgeois, Pascal; Cornet, François

    2012-01-01

    Bacteria use the global bipolarization of their chromosomes into replichores to control the dynamics and segregation of their genome during the cell cycle. This involves the control of protein activities by recognition of specific short DNA motifs whose orientation along the chromosome is highly skewed. The KOPS motifs act in chromosome segregation by orienting the activity of the FtsK DNA translocase towards the terminal replichore junction. KOPS motifs have been identified in γ-Proteobacteria and in Bacillus subtilis as closely related G-rich octamers. We have identified the KOPS motif of Lactococcus lactis, a model bacteria of the Streptococcaceae family harbouring a compact and low GC% genome. This motif, 5′-GAAGAAG-3, was predicted in silico using the occurrence and skew characteristics of known KOPS motifs. We show that it is specifically recognized by L. lactis FtsK in vitro and controls its activity in vivo. L. lactis KOPS is thus an A-rich heptamer motif. Our results show that KOPS-controlled chromosome segregation is conserved in Streptococcaceae but that KOPS may show important variation in sequence and length between bacterial families. This suggests that FtsK adapts to its host genome by selecting motifs with convenient occurrence frequencies and orientation skews to orient its activity. PMID:22373923

  1. Global Pattern of Hydrocarbons in the Upper Troposphere and Stratosphere from ACE-FTS measurements Compared to GEOS-Chem Simulations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Koo, J. H.; Walker, K. A.; Jones, A.; Sheese, P.; Jones, D. B. A.; Boone, C. D.; Bernath, P. F.; Manney, G. L.

    2015-12-01

    Organic carbon species, herein referred to as hydrocarbons, are important components for describing and understanding the influence of natural and anthropogenic emissions on atmospheric chemistry. Analysis of the global pattern of hydrocarbons is therefore an important step to understand the regional and seasonal variation of air pollution and natural fire events. The Atmospheric Chemistry Experiment Fourier Transform Spectrometer (ACE-FTS) has monitored trace gases in the upper troposphere and stratosphere based on solar occultation measurements for more than ten years. In this study, we investigate the global pattern of seven hydrocarbon species (CO, C2H6, C2H2, HCN, H2CO, CH3OH, and HCOOH) and OCS using the ACE-FTS version 3.5 dataset from 2004 to 2013. All hydrocarbons show strong seasonal variation and regional differences, but the detailed pattern differs according to the speciation of the hydrocarbons. For example in the Northern Hemisphere, CO, C2H6, and C2H2 show the highest mixing ratios in winter, but high CH3OH and HCOOH appear in summer. In the Southern hemisphere, H2CO, HCN, and HCOOH show high mixing ratios in springtime. These patterns indicate the effect of different emission sources including fuel combustion, wildfire emission, and chemical production. Correlation with CO also reflects these seasonal and regional differences and can provide useful information to characterize each hydrocarbon emission. We also compared the ACE-FTS measurements with GEOS-Chem output to examine the model performance and spatiotemporal patterns.

  2. Cytoplasmic Domain of MscS Interacts with Cell Division Protein FtsZ: A Possible Non-Channel Function of the Mechanosensitive Channel in Escherichia Coli

    PubMed Central

    Koprowski, Piotr; Grajkowski, Wojciech; Balcerzak, Marcin; Filipiuk, Iwona; Fabczak, Hanna; Kubalski, Andrzej

    2015-01-01

    Bacterial mechano-sensitive (MS) channels reside in the inner membrane and are considered to act as emergency valves whose role is to lower cell turgor when bacteria enter hypo-osmotic environments. However, there is emerging evidence that members of the Mechano-sensitive channel Small (MscS) family play additional roles in bacterial and plant cell physiology. MscS has a large cytoplasmic C-terminal region that changes its shape upon activation and inactivation of the channel. Our pull-down and co-sedimentation assays show that this domain interacts with FtsZ, a bacterial tubulin-like protein. We identify point mutations in the MscS C-terminal domain that reduce binding to FtsZ and show that bacteria expressing these mutants are compromised in growth on sublethal concentrations of β-lactam antibiotics. Our results suggest that interaction between MscS and FtsZ could occur upon inactivation and/or opening of the channel and could be important for the bacterial cell response against sustained stress upon stationary phase and in the presence of β-lactam antibiotics. PMID:25996836

  3. Recommended fine positioning test for the Development Test Flight (DTF-1) of the NASA Flight Telerobotic Servicer (FTS)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dagalakis, N.; Wavering, A. J.; Spidaliere, P.

    1991-01-01

    Test procedures are proposed for the NASA DTF (Development Test Flight)-1 positioning tests of the FTS (Flight Telerobotic Servicer). The unique problems associated with the DTF-1 mission are discussed, standard robot performance tests and terminology are reviewed and a very detailed description of flight-like testing and analysis is presented. The major technical problem associated with DTF-1 is that only one position sensor can be used, which will be fixed at one location, with a working volume which is probably smaller than some of the robot errors to be measured. Radiation heating of the arm and the sensor could also cause distortions that would interfere with the test. Two robot performance testing committees have established standard testing procedures relevant to the DTF-1. Due to the technical problems associated with DTF-1, these procedures cannot be applied directly. These standard tests call for the use of several test positions at specific locations. Only one position, that of the position sensor, can be used by DTF-1. Off-line programming accuracy might be impossible to measure and in that case it will have to be replaced by forward kinetics accuracy.

  4. ZipA is required for FtsZ-dependent preseptal peptidoglycan synthesis prior to invagination during cell division.

    PubMed

    Potluri, Lakshmi-Prasad; Kannan, Suresh; Young, Kevin D

    2012-10-01

    Rod-shaped bacteria grow by a repetitive cycle of elongation followed by division, and the mechanisms responsible for these two processes have been studied for decades. However, little is known about what happens during the transition between the two activities. At least one event occurs after elongation ends and before division commences, that being the insertion of new cell wall peptidoglycan into a narrowly circumscribed ribbon around midcell where septation is destined to take place. This insertion does not depend on the presence of the septation-specific protein PBP3 and is therefore known as PBP3-independent peptidoglycan synthesis (PIPS). Here we report that only FtsZ and ZipA are required to generate PIPS in wild-type Escherichia coli. PIPS does not require the participation of other members of the divisome, the MreB-directed cell wall elongation complex, alternate peptidoglycan synthases, the major peptidoglycan amidases, or any of the low-molecular-weight penicillin binding proteins. ZipA-directed PIPS may represent an intermediate stage that connects cell wall elongation to septal invagination and may be the reason ZipA is essential in the gammaproteobacteria.

  5. Application of KLIMA/G-POD algorithm to CO2 retrieval from IASI/METOP-A observations and comparison with GOSAT/TANSO-FTS products

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Laurenza, L. M.,; Cortesi, U.,; Del Bianco, S.,; Gai, M.,

    2012-04-01

    The ESA research project "Application of KLIMA algorithm to CO2 retrieval from IASI/METOP-A observations and comparison with GOSAT/TANSO-FTS products" aims at the develop of a dedicated software, based on the KLIMA inversion algorithm (originally proposed by IFAC-CNR for the ESA Earth Explorer Mission), optimally suited for CO2 retrieval and integrated into the ESA GRID-based operational environment G-POD (Grid Processing On-Demand) to processing Level-1 data acquired by the IASI instrument onboard the METOP-A satellite and to perform a comparison and cross-validation of GOSAT TANSO-FTS Level-2 data. Optimized versions of the KLIMA-IASI code have been investigated, aiming at developing a non-operation retrieval code with capabilities that meet the requirements of cross validation with GOSAT TANSO-FTS products and with adequate features for the integration on the G-POD system. For the performance of the retrieval a target accuracy of 0.3% (1 ppmv out of 370 ppmv) on regional scales (1000 x 1000 km) at monthly intervals, which is consistent with the requirements of the GOSAT mission for CO2 products, was assumed as reference value. The required maximum program size was set to 1 Gbyte and the running time was limited with the aim of processing 1 orbit of IASI data in 1 day when using G-POD computing resources. The KLIMA-IASI retrieval code has been successfully completed and has been integrated on the G-POD operational environment and now the code is available to all interested users for bulk processing of IASI data. After the procurement of a consolidated version of the KLIMA-IASI/G- POD retrieval code it was possible to start the processing of IASI spectra and for comparison and cross-validation of KLIMA-IASI CO2 products with GOSAT/TANSO-FTS operational products. Using the KLIMA inversion code integrated into the ESA G-POD, it was possible to perform an extensive inter-comparison and cross-validation of a selected set of IASI measurements collocated with GOSAT

  6. Comparative genomics of the FtsK–HerA superfamily of pumping ATPases: implications for the origins of chromosome segregation, cell division and viral capsid packaging

    PubMed Central

    Iyer, Lakshminarayan M.; Makarova, Kira S.; Koonin, Eugene V.; Aravind, L.

    2004-01-01

    Recently, it has been shown that a predicted P-loop ATPase (the HerA or MlaA protein), which is highly conserved in archaea and also present in many bacteria but absent in eukaryotes, has a bidirectional helicase activity and forms hexameric rings similar to those described for the TrwB ATPase. In this study, the FtsK–HerA superfamily of P-loop ATPases, in which the HerA clade comprises one of the major branches, is analyzed in detail. We show that, in addition to the FtsK and HerA clades, this superfamily includes several families of characterized or predicted ATPases which are predominantly involved in extrusion of DNA and peptides through membrane pores. The DNA-packaging ATPases of various bacteriophages and eukaryotic double-stranded DNA viruses also belong to the FtsK–HerA superfamily. The FtsK protein is the essential bacterial ATPase that is responsible for the correct segregation of daughter chromosomes during cell division. The structural and evolutionary relationship between HerA and FtsK and the nearly perfect complementarity of their phyletic distributions suggest that HerA similarly mediates DNA pumping into the progeny cells during archaeal cell division. It appears likely that the HerA and FtsK families diverged concomitantly with the archaeal–bacterial division and that the last universal common ancestor of modern life forms had an ancestral DNA-pumping ATPase that gave rise to these families. Furthermore, the relationship of these cellular proteins with the packaging ATPases of diverse DNA viruses suggests that a common DNA pumping mechanism might be operational in both cellular and viral genome segregation. The herA gene forms a highly conserved operon with the gene for the NurA nuclease and, in many archaea, also with the orthologs of eukaryotic double-strand break repair proteins MRE11 and Rad50. HerA is predicted to function in a complex with these proteins in DNA pumping and repair of double-stranded breaks introduced during this

  7. Enhanced Fischer-Tropsch synthesis performance of iron-based catalysts supported on nitric acid treated N-doped CNTs

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Zhenhua; Liu, Renjie; Xu, Yan; Ma, Xinbin

    2015-08-01

    Iron-based catalysts supported on N-doped CNTs (NCNTs) treated by various concentrations of nitric acid for Fischer-Tropsch synthesis (FTS) were investigated. An improved catalytic performance for the iron catalyst supported on acid treated NCNTs was obtained and the suitable nitric acid concentration was 10 M. The physiochemical properties of the NCNTs and the corresponding catalysts were characterized by BET, TEM, XRD, XPS, TGA and H2-TPR. The acid treatment removed the impurity and amorphous carbon, damaged the bamboo-like structure and increased the number of oxygen-containing functional groups and graphitization degree on the NCNTs. The more iron particles located inside the channels of NCNTs, the better catalytic FTS performance due to high dispersion and reducibility.

  8. Algorithm improvement toward better retrieval of CO2 and CH4 profiles from GOSAT/TANSO-FTS thermal infrared spectra

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Saitoh, N.; Imasu, R.; Sugita, T.; Hayashida, S.; Shiomi, K.

    2012-12-01

    The Thermal and Near-infrared Sensor for Carbon Observation Fourier Transform Spectrometer (TANSO-FTS) on board the Greenhouse Gases Observing Satellite (GOSAT) simultaneously observes column abundances and profiles of CO2 and CH4 in the same field of view, from the shortwave infrared (SWIR) and thermal infrared (TIR) bands, respectively. Combined use of the column abundances and profiles above the free troposphere is useful for deriving detailed information on concentrations in the boundary layer, and could provide a good constraint for inverse models. At this time, the version 00.01 (V00.01) data of the TIR L2 standard CO2 and CH4 products have been released to the public. The algorithm of the V00.01 TIR L2 products adopts a non-linear maximum a posteriori (MAP) method with linear mapping. In the V00.01 retrieval, our retrieval target was CO2 or CH4 profile only; temperature and water vapor profiles were taken from the Japan Meteorological Agency Grid Point Values (JMA-GPV) and treated as model parameters, and therefore, their uncertainties could affect the accuracy of the CO2 and CH4 retrieval. In this study, we used more accurate temperature and water vapor profiles observed with GPS radio occultation measurements to retrieve CO2 and CH4 profiles from TIR spectra, and assessed the impact of uncertainties in temperature and water vapor profiles on the TIR retrieval. We also tested simultaneous retrieval including a target gas (CO2 or CH4), contaminating gases such as H2O and N2O, and temperature information. Our preliminary retrieval results showed the simultaneous retrieval could produce better results than the single-target retrieval in some cases.

  9. Cooperation of both, the FKBP_N-like and the DSBA-like, domains is necessary for the correct function of FTS_1067 protein involved in Francisella tularensis virulence and pathogenesis.

    PubMed

    Senitkova, Iva; Spidlova, Petra; Stulik, Jiri

    2015-08-01

    Francisella tularensis the etiological agent of tularaemia is one of the most infectious human pathogen known. Our knowledge about its key virulence factors has increased recently but it still remains a lot to explore. One of the described essential virulence factors is membrane lipoprotein FTS_1067 (nomenclature of F. tularensis subsp. holarctica strain FSC200) with homology to the protein family of disulphide oxidoreductases DsbA. Lipoprotein consists of two different domains: the C-terminal DsbA_Com1-like domain (DSBA-like) and the N-terminal FKBP-type peptidyl-prolyl cis/trans isomerases (FKBP_N-like). To uncover the biological role of these domains, we created bacterial strain with deletion of the DSBA-like domain. This defect in gene coding for lipoprotein FTS_1067 led to high in vivo attenuation associated with the ability to induce host protective immunity. Analyses performed with the truncated recombinant protein showed that the absence of DSBA-like domain revealed the loss of thiol/disulphide oxidoreductase activity and, additionally, confirmed the role of the FKBP_N-like domain in the FTS_1067 oligomerization and chaperone-like function. Finally, we verified that only full-length form of FTS_1067 recombinant protein possesses the isomerase activity. Based on our results, we proposed that for the correct FTS_1067 protein function both domains are needed.

  10. HCl and ClO profiles inside the Antarctic vortex as observed by SMILES in November 2009: comparisons with MLS and ACE-FTS instruments

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sugita, T.; Kasai, Y.; Terao, Y.; Hayashida, S.; Manney, G. L.; Daffer, W. H.; Sagawa, H.; Suzuki, M.; Shiotani, M.; Walker, K. A.; Boone, C. D.; Bernath, P. F.

    2013-07-01

    We present vertical profiles of hydrogen chloride (HCl) and chlorine monoxide (ClO) as observed by the Superconducting Submillimeter-Wave Limb-Emission Sounder (SMILES) inside the Antarctic vortex on 19-24 November 2009. The SMILES HCl value reveals 2.8-3.1 ppbv between 450 and 500 K levels in potential temperature (PT). The high value of HCl is highlighted since it is suggested that HCl was a main component of the total inorganic chlorine (Cly), defined as Cly ≃ HCl + ClO + chlorine nitrate (ClONO2) inside the Antarctic vortex in spring, owing to low ozone values. To confirm the quality of two SMILES Level 2 (L2) data products provided by Japan Aerospace Exploration Agency (JAXA) and National Institute of Information and Communications Technology (NICT) from a view point of the partitioning of Cly, comparisons are made using other satellite data, from the Aura Microwave Limb Sounder (MLS) and Atmospheric Chemistry Experiment Fourier Transform Spectrometer (ACE-FTS). HCl values from the SMILES NICT L2 product agree to within 10% with the MLS HCl data between 425 and 650 K levels in PT and with the ACE-FTS HCl data between 425 and 575 K, respectively. The SMILES JAXA L2 product is 10 to 20% smaller than that from MLS (ACE-FTS) between 400 (500 K) and 700 K. For ClO in daytime, the difference between SMILES (JAXA and NICT) and MLS was less than ±0.05 ppbv between 500 and 650 K with the ClO values less than 0.2 ppbv. ClONO2 values as measured by ACE-FTS also reveal 0.2 ppbv at 475-500 K level, resulting in the HCl/Cly ratios of 0.91-0.95. The high HCl value and HCl/Cly ratio found from the three satellite instruments agree with the past observations inside the Antarctic vortex at this time (October to November) of year in the lower stratosphere.

  11. HCl and ClO profiles inside the Antarctic vortex as observed by SMILES in November 2009: comparisons with MLS and ACE-FTS instruments

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sugita, T.; Kasai, Y.; Terao, Y.; Hayashida, S.; Manney, G. L.; Daffer, W. H.; Sagawa, H.; Suzuki, M.; Shiotani, M.; Walker, K. A.; Boone, C. D.; Bernath, P. F.

    2013-11-01

    We present vertical profiles of hydrogen chloride (HCl) and chlorine monoxide (ClO) as observed by the Superconducting Submillimeter-Wave Limb-Emission Sounder (SMILES) on the International Space Station (ISS) inside the Antarctic vortex on 19-24 November 2009. The SMILES HCl value reveals 2.8-3.1 ppbv between 450 K and 500 K levels in potential temperature (PT). The high value of HCl is highlighted since it is suggested that HCl is a main component of the total inorganic chlorine (Cly), defined as Cly ≃ HCl + ClO + chlorine nitrate (ClONO2), inside the Antarctic vortex in spring, owing to low ozone values. To confirm the quality of two SMILES level 2 (L2) data products provided by the Japan Aerospace Exploration Agency (JAXA) and Japan's National Institute of Information and Communications Technology (NICT), vis-à-vis the partitioning of Cly, comparisons are made using other satellite data from the Aura Microwave Limb Sounder (MLS) and Atmospheric Chemistry Experiment Fourier Transform Spectrometer (ACE-FTS). HCl values from the SMILES NICT L2 product agree to within 10% (0.3 ppbv) with the MLS HCl data between 450 and 575 K levels in PT and with the ACE-FTS HCl data between 425 and 575 K. The SMILES JAXA L2 product is 10 to 20% (0.2-0.5 ppbv) lower than that from MLS between 400 and 700 K and from ACE-FTS between 500 and 700 K. For ClO in daytime, the difference between SMILES (JAXA and NICT) and MLS is less than ±0.05 ppbv (100 %) between 500 K and 650 K with the ClO values less than 0.2 ppbv. ClONO2 values as measured by ACE-FTS also reveal 0.2 ppbv at 475-500 K level, resulting in the HCl / Cly ratios of 0.91-0.95. The HCl / Cly ratios derived from each retrieval agree to within -5 to 8 % with regard to their averages. The high HCl values and HCl / Cly ratios observed by the three instruments in the lower stratospheric Antarctic vortex are consistent with previous observations in late Austral spring.

  12. Hydrogen Cyanide in the Upper Troposphere: GEM-AQ Simulation and Comparison with ACE-FTS Observations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lupu, A.; Kaminski, J. W.; Neary, L.; McConnell, J. C.; Toyota, K.; Rinsland, C. P.; Bernath, P. F.; Walker, K. A.; Boone, C. D.; Nagahama, Y.; Suzuki, K.

    2009-01-01

    We investigate the spatial and temporal distribution of hydrogen cyanide (HCN) in the upper troposphere through numerical simulations and comparison with observations from a space-based instrument. To perform the simulations, we used the Global Environmental Multiscale Air Quality model (GEM-AQ), which is based on the threedimensional Gobal multiscale model developed by the Meteorological Service of Canada for operational weather forecasting. The model was run for the period 2004-2006 on a 1.5deg x 1.5deg global grid with 28 hybrid vertical levels from the surface up to 10 hPa. Objective analysis data from the Canadian Meteorological Centre were used to update the meteorological fields every 24 h. Fire emission fluxes of gas species were generated by using year-specific inventories of carbon emissions with 8-day temporal resolution from the Global Fire Emission Database (GFED) version 2. The model output is compared with HCN profiles measured by the Atmospheric Chemistry Experiment Fourier Transform Spectrometer (ACE-FTS) instrument onboard the Canadian SCISAT-1 satellite. High values of up to a few ppbv are observed in the tropics in the Southern Hemisphere; the enhancement in HCN volume mixing ratios in the upper troposphere is most prominent in October. Low upper-tropospheric mixing ratios of less than 100 pptv are mostly recorded at middle and high latitudes in the Southern Hemisphere in May-July. Mixing ratios in Northern Hemisphere peak in the boreal summer. The amplitude of the seasonal variation is less pronounced than in the Southern Hemisphere. The comparison with the satellite data shows that in the upper troposphere GEM-AQ perform7s well globally for all seasons, except at northern hi gh and middle latitudes in surnmer, where the model has a large negative bias, and in the tropics in winter and spring, where it exhibits large positive bias. This may reflect inaccurate emissions or possible inaccuracies in the emission profile. The model is able to

  13. Retrievals of carbonyl fluoride (COF2) from ACE-FTS and MIPAS spectra and their comparison with SLIMCAT CTM calculations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Harrison, Jeremy; Cai, Shaomin; Dudhia, Anu; Chipperfield, Martyn; Boone, Chris; Bernath, Peter

    2014-05-01

    Chemistry Experiment Fourier transform spectrometer (ACE-FTS), onboard the SCISAT-1 satellite, which has been recording atmospheric spectra since 2004, and the Michelson Interferometer for Passive Atmospheric Sounding (MIPAS) instrument onboard the ENVIronmental SATellite (Envisat), which has recorded thermal emission atmospheric spectra between 2002 and 2012. The observations are compared with the output of SLIMCAT, a state-of-the-art three-dimensional chemical transport model (CTM). The model aids in the interpretation of the COF2 satellite observations, and the comparison provides a validation of emission inventories and the atmospheric degradation reaction schemes used in the model.

  14. Global stratospheric fluorine inventories for 2004-2009 from Atmospheric Chemistry Experiment Fourier Transform Spectrometer (ACE-FTS) measurements

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Brown, A. T.; Chipperfield, M. P.; Richards, N. A. D.; Boone, C.; Bernath, P. F.

    2013-06-01

    Fluorine-containing species can be extremely effective atmospheric greenhouse gases. We present fluorine budgets using organic and inorganic species retrieved by the ACE-FTS satellite instrument supplemented with output from the SLIMCAT 3D chemical transport model. The budgets are calculated between 2004 and 2009 for a number of latitude bands: 70-30° N, 30-0° N, 0-30° S, and 30-70° S. At lower altitudes total fluorine profiles are dominated by the contribution from CFC-12, up to an altitude of 20 km in the extra-tropics and 29 km in the tropics, above these altitudes the profiles are dominated by HF. Our data show that total fluorine profiles at all locations have a negative slope with altitude, providing evidence that overall fluorine emissions (measured by their F content) have been increasing with time. Total stratospheric fluorine is increasing at a similar rate in the tropics; 32.5 ± 4.9 ppt yr-1 (1.31 ± 0.20% per year) in the Northern Hemisphere (NH) and 29.8 ± 5.3 ppt yr-1 (1.21 ± 0.22% per year) in the Southern Hemisphere (SH). Extra-tropical total stratospheric fluorine is also increasing at a similar rate in both the NH and SH; 28.3 ± 2.7 ppt per year (1.12 ± 0.11% per year) in the NH and 24.3 ± 3.1 ppt per year (0.96 ± 0.12% per year) in the SH. The volume mixing ratio of each species used in this study was weighted by its global warming potential (GWP), relative molecular mass and the atmospheric pressure to produce a GWP-weighted total fluorine trend. These trends show mean changes of 0.02 ± 0.08% per year in the NH, and 0.07 ± 0.05% per year in the SH. Overall, GWP-weighted fluorine remains roughly constant globally. However, the decreasing trends in the mixing ratios of halons and CFCs, due to their prohibition under the Montreal Protocol, have suppressed an increase in total fluorine caused by increasing mixing ratios of HFCs. This has reduced the impact of fluorine containing species on global warming.

  15. Global stratospheric chlorine inventories for 2004-2009 from Atmospheric Chemistry Experiment Fourier Transform Spectrometer (ACE-FTS) measurements

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Brown, A. T.; Chipperfield, M. P.; Dhomse, S.; Boone, C.; Bernath, P. F.

    2013-09-01

    We present chlorine budgets calculated between 2004 and 2009 for four latitude bands (70° N-30° N, 30° N-0° N, 0° N-30° S, and 30° S-70° S). The budgets were calculated using ACE-FTS version 3.0 retrievals of the volume mixing ratios (VMRs) of 9 chlorine-containing species: CCl4, CFC-12 (CCl2F2), CFC-11 (CCl3F), COCl2, COClF, HCFC-22 (CHF2Cl), CH3Cl, HCl and ClONO2. These data were supplemented with calculated VMRs from the SLIMCAT 3-D chemical transport model (CFC-113, CFC-114, CFC-115, H-1211, H-1301, HCFC-141b, HCFC-142b, ClO and HOCl). The total chlorine profiles are dominated by chlorofluorocarbons (CFCs) and halons up to 24 km in the tropics and 19 km in the extra-tropics. In this altitude range CFCs and halons account for 58% of the total chlorine VMR. Above this altitude HCl increasingly dominates the total chlorine profile, reaching a maximum of 95% of total chlorine at 54 km. All total chlorine profiles exhibit a positive slope with altitude, suggesting that the total chlorine VMR is now decreasing with time. This conclusion is supported by the time series of the mean stratospheric total chlorine budgets which show mean decreases in total stratospheric chlorine of 0.38 ± 0.03% per year in the Northern Hemisphere extra-tropics, 0.35 ± 0.07% per year in the Northern Hemisphere tropical stratosphere, 0.54 ± 0.16% per year in the Southern Hemisphere tropics and 0.53 ± 0.12% per year in the Southern Hemisphere extra-tropical stratosphere for 2004-2009. Globally stratospheric chlorine is decreasing by 0.46 ± 0.02% per year. Both global warming potential-weighted chlorine and ozone depletion potential-weighted chlorine are decreasing at all latitudes. These results show that the Montreal Protocol has had a significant effect in reducing emissions of both ozone-depleting substances and greenhouse gases.

  16. Validation of GOSAT/TANSO-FTS TIR V01.00 CO2 and CH4 products

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Saitoh, N.; Kimoto, S.; Sugimura, R.; Imasu, R.; Kawakami, S.; Shiomi, K.; Machida, T.; Sawa, Y.; Matsuda, H.

    2014-12-01

    Greenhouse Gases Observing Satellite (GOSAT) has been making observations continuously for more than five years since its launch on 23 January 2009. Thermal and Near-infrared Sensor for Carbon Observation Fourier Transform Spectrometer (TANSO-FTS) on board the GOSAT simultaneously observes column abundances and profiles of CO2 and CH4 in the same field of view, from the shortwave infrared (SWIR) and thermal infrared (TIR) bands, respectively. We have just released the latest TIR CO2 and CH4 products, V01.00, to registered researchers. To validate the data quality of the V01.00 TIR CO2 product, we compared the TIR data with CO2 data obtained by Continuous CO2 Measuring Equipment (CME) on board JAL aircraft in Comprehensive Observation Network for Trace gases by Airliner (CONTRAIL) project. The aircraft CO2 data obtained during the level flights were compared with the V01.00 TIR upper tropospheric CO2 data. The CONTRAIL CO2 "profile" data obtained during the ascending and descending flights over several airports were compared with the TIR CO2 profiles. In the profile comparisons, we applied the TIR averaging kernel functions to the coincident CONTRAIL CO2 profiles. The V01.00 upper atmospheric CO2 data agreed to the CONTRAIL level flight CO2 data on average within 0.5-1%. Some TIR CO2 data showed relatively large differences from the nearest aircraft data, which suggests the existence of several problems such as L1B spectral calibration and nighttime cloud detection issues. The TIR V01.00 CO2 profile data from 9 to 13 km showed better agreement to CONTRAIL CO2 data than the a priori. However, the TIR CO2 data at around and below 5 km had low bias of 1-1.5%. The TIR V01.00 CH4 data generally showed reasonable latitudinal distributions as the previous version. In the Antarctic, unexpected high amounts of CH4 were seen in upper troposphere and lower stratosphere in autumn. This is probably because of the problem of simultaneously retrieved ozone concentration.

  17. Biological activity of Pinus nigra terpenes--evaluation of FtsZ inhibition by selected compounds as contribution to their antimicrobial activity.

    PubMed

    Sarac, Zorica; Matejić, Jelena S; Stojanović-Radić, Zorica Z; Veselinović, Jovana B; Džamić, Ana M; Bojović, Srdjan; Marin, Petar D

    2014-11-01

    In the current work, in vitro antioxidant, antibacterial, and antifungal activites of the needle terpenes of three taxa of Pinus nigra from Serbia (ssp. nigra, ssp. pallasiana, and var. banatica) were analyzed. The black pine essential oils showed generally weak antioxidative properties tested by two methods (DPPH and ABTS scavenging assays), where the highest activity was identified in P. nigra var. banatica (IC50=25.08 mg/mL and VitC=0.67 mg (vitamin C)/g when tested with the DPPH and ABTS reagents, respectively). In the antimicrobial assays, one fungal (Aspergilus niger) and two bacterial strains (Staphylococcus aureus and Bacillus cereus) showed sensitivity against essential oils of all three P. nigra taxa. The tested oils have been shown to possess inhibitory action in the range from 20.00 to 0.62 mg/mL, where var. banatica exhibited the highest and ssp. nigra the lowest antimicrobial action. In order to determine potential compounds that are responsible for alternative mode of action, molecular docking simulations inside FtsZ (a prokaryotic homolog of tubulin) were performed. Tested compounds were the most abundant terpenoid (germacrene D-4-ol) and its structurally similar terpene (germacrene D), both present in all three essential oils. It was determined that the oxygenated form of the molecule creates stable bonds with investigated enzyme FtsZ, and that this compound, through this mechanism of action participates in the antimicrobial activity.

  18. ZapE Is a Novel Cell Division Protein Interacting with FtsZ and Modulating the Z-Ring Dynamics

    PubMed Central

    Marteyn, Benoit S.; Karimova, Gouzel; Fenton, Andrew K.; Gazi, Anastasia D.; West, Nicholas; Touqui, Lhousseine; Prevost, Marie-Christine; Betton, Jean-Michel; Poyraz, Oemer; Ladant, Daniel; Gerdes, Kenn; Sansonetti, Philippe J.; Tang, Christoph M.

    2014-01-01

    ABSTRACT Bacterial cell division requires the formation of a mature divisome complex positioned at the midcell. The localization of the divisome complex is determined by the correct positioning, assembly, and constriction of the FtsZ ring (Z-ring). Z-ring constriction control remains poorly understood and (to some extent) controversial, probably due to the fact that this phenomenon is transient and controlled by numerous factors. Here, we characterize ZapE, a novel ATPase found in Gram-negative bacteria, which is required for growth under conditions of low oxygen, while loss of zapE results in temperature-dependent elongation of cell shape. We found that ZapE is recruited to the Z-ring during late stages of the cell division process and correlates with constriction of the Z-ring. Overexpression or inactivation of zapE leads to elongation of Escherichia coli and affects the dynamics of the Z-ring during division. In vitro, ZapE destabilizes FtsZ polymers in an ATP-dependent manner. PMID:24595368

  19. Singlet oxygen- and EXECUTER1-mediated signaling is initiated in grana margins and depends on the protease FtsH2.

    PubMed

    Wang, Liangsheng; Kim, Chanhong; Xu, Xia; Piskurewicz, Urszula; Dogra, Vivek; Singh, Somesh; Mahler, Hanno; Apel, Klaus

    2016-06-28

    Formation of singlet oxygen ((1)O2) has been implicated with damaging photosystem II (PSII) that needs to undergo continuous repair to maintain photosynthetic electron transport. In addition to its damaging effect, (1)O2 has also been shown to act as a signal that triggers stress acclimation and an enhanced stress resistance. A signaling role of (1)O2 was first documented in the fluorescent (flu) mutant of Arabidopsis It strictly depends on the chloroplast protein EXECUTER1 (EX1) and happens under nonphotoinhibitory light conditions. Under severe light stress, signaling is initiated independently of EX1 by (1)O2 that is thought to be generated at the acceptor side of active PSII within the core of grana stacks. The results of the present study suggest a second source of (1)O2 formation in grana margins close to the site of chlorophyll synthesis where EX1 is localized and the disassembly of damaged and reassembly of active PSII take place. The initiation of (1)O2 signaling in grana margins depends on EX1 and the ATP-dependent zinc metalloprotease FtsH. As FtsH cleaves also the D1 protein during the disassembly of damaged PSII, EX1- and (1)O2-mediated signaling seems to be not only spatially but also functionally associated with the repair of PSII. PMID:27303039

  20. Chlorine activation in the Arctic winter of 2009/2010 analyzed by combined use of JEM/SMILES and ACE-FTS

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yuji, T.; Saitoh, N.; Sugita, T.; Kasai, Y.

    2013-12-01

    The Superconducting Submillimeter-Wave Limb-Emission Sounder (SMILES) equipped in the Japanese Experiment Module "KIBO" on board the International Space Station (ISS) had observed atmospheric minor constituents including ClO in the stratosphere and mesosphere from October 12, 2009 to April 21, 2010 with more than ten times the precision of other existing sensors due to its unprecedented high sensitivity with superconducting technology. The Atmospheric Chemistry Experiment-Fourier Transform Spectrometer (ACE-FTS), which is on board SCISAT-1, has been observing atmospheric minor constituents in the upper troposphere and stratosphere since March 11, 2004 by solar occultation technique. We have analyzed the SMILES Level 2 (L2) V2.1.5 research products and the ACE-FTS L2 V3.0 products to discuss the relationship between temperature and stratospheric minor gases related to ozone depletion and the time variation of 'Cl partitioning' in the Arctic winter of 2009/2010. The correlation between the SMILES L2r ClO concentration and temperature on 475 K and 525 K from mid-January to early February showed that the ClO concentrations were higher than 0.5 ppbv at equivalent latitudes higher than 70° and solar zenith angles lower than 96°, where the temperatures were well lower than 200 K; the ClO concentrations and the solar zenith angles had a positive correlation in the region where the ClO concentrations were higher than 0.5 ppbv. However, some data with high ClO concentration also occurred under relatively warmer conditions where PSCs were not expected to exist. The temperature histories of those data showed that they had experienced near ice frost point of ~187 K at 2-4 days before the observations, and then the temperatures drastically increased as much as 20 degrees just before the observations. We have analyzed a time-series of 'Cl partitioning' by using ClO, HOCl, and HCl observed by SMILES and HCl and ClONO2 observed by ACE-FTS inside the polar vortex in 2009/2010. HCl

  1. Inactivation of Cell Division Protein FtsZ by SulA Makes Lon Indispensable for the Viability of a ppGpp0 Strain of Escherichia coli

    PubMed Central

    Nazir, Aanisa

    2015-01-01

    ABSTRACT The modified nucleotides (p)ppGpp play an important role in bacterial physiology. While the accumulation of the nucleotides is vital for adaptation to various kinds of stress, changes in the basal level modulates growth rate and vice versa. Studying the phenotypes unique to the strain lacking (p)ppGpp (ppGpp0) under overtly unstressed growth conditions may be useful to understand functions regulated by basal levels of (p)ppGpp and its physiological significance. In this study, we show that the ppGpp0 strain, unlike the wild type, requires the Lon protease for cell division and viability in LB. Our results indicate the decrease in FtsZ concentration in the ppGpp0 strain makes cell division vulnerable to SulA inhibition. We did not find evidence for SOS induction contributing to the cell division defect in the ppGpp0 Δlon strain. Based on the results, we propose that basal levels of (p)ppGpp are required to sustain normal cell division in Escherichia coli during growth in rich medium and that the basal SulA level set by Lon protease is important for insulating cell division against a decrease in FtsZ concentration and conditions that can increase the susceptibility of FtsZ to SulA. IMPORTANCE The physiology of the stringent response has been the subject of investigation for more than 4 decades, with the majority of the work carried out using the bacterial model organism Escherichia coli. These studies have revealed that the accumulation of (p)ppGpp, the effector of the stringent response, is associated with growth retardation and changes in gene expression that vary with the intracellular concentration of (p)ppGpp. By studying a synthetic lethal phenotype, we have uncovered a function modulated by the basal levels of (p)ppGpp and studied its physiological significance. Our results show that (p)ppGpp and Lon protease contribute to the robustness of the cell division machinery in E. coli during growth in rich medium. PMID:26644431

  2. Seasonal variations of acetone in the upper troposphere-lower stratosphere of the northern midlatitudes as observed by ACE-FTS

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dufour, G.; Szopa, S.; Harrison, J. J.; Boone, C. D.; Bernath, P. F.

    2016-05-01

    This study reports on the climatological acetone distribution and seasonal variations in the upper troposphere and lower stratosphere of the northern midlatitudes, derived from observations by the Atmospheric Chemistry Experiment Fourier Transform Spectrometer (ACE-FTS) onboard SCISAT. The acetone profiles retrieved from 5 to ∼20 km cover the period from January 2004 to September 2010. The 1σ statistical fitting errors are typically ∼5-20% within the upper troposphere (UT), increasing in the lower stratosphere (LS) with decreasing acetone. The systematic errors range between 15% and 20%. The largest UT acetone mixing ratios (∼1200 ppt on average in July over Siberia) are observed in summer in the northern mid- and high latitudes. Mixing ratios are larger over continental regions than over the ocean. Comparisons with airborne measurements available in the literature point toward a possible underestimation in acetone retrieved from ACE-FTS. The largest differences occur primarily in winter and for the background values. This underestimation is attributed to the complexity of the spectral region used for the retrieval. The annual cycle of acetone for the 30-70°N midlatitude band shows a maximum during summer, reflecting the annual cycle of the primary terrestrial biogenic source of acetone. By comparison with ACE-FTS, the LMDz-INCA global climate-chemistry model systematically overestimates acetone mixing ratios lower than 400 ppt. This overestimation is thus generalized for the lower stratosphere, the Tropics and beyond 70°N for the upper troposphere. In contrast, in the upper troposphere of the 30-70°N region, where the acetone levels are the highest (>450 ppt on average), the model-observation differences are in the range of the observation uncertainty. However, in this region, the model fails to capture the annual cycle of acetone, culminating in July. A seasonal cycle can only be obtained by considering high biogenic emissions but this cycle is shifted

  3. Estimating Top-down Emissions (2011-2014) of CH4 and CO2 From Los Angeles by an FTS Atop Mount Wilson

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wong, C.; Fu, D.; Pongetti, T. J.; Newman, S.; Kort, E. A.; Duren, R. M.; Hsu, Y.; Miller, C. E.; Yung, Y. L.; Sander, S. P.

    2014-12-01

    Megacities, such as Los Angeles, emit significant amount of anthropogenic greenhouse gases (GHGs). As the world's population in urban regions is expected to increase from over 50% now to 70% by 2050, monitoring the temporal trends of urban GHG emissions are necessary to verify regulation policy. Since megacities tend to have large spatially and temporally varying GHG emission characteristics, it is important to perform measurements which provide continuous spatio-temporal coverage of the domain. In this study, we demonstrate the ability to track major greenhouse gases, methane (CH4) and carbon dioxide (CO2) using ground-based remote sensing technique from Mount Wilson. Since 2010, in Los Angeles, a Fourier Transform Spectrometer (FTS) has been deployed on Mount Wilson to measure CO2, CH4, carbon monoxide (CO), the combustion tracer, and other tracer gases using reflected sunlight in the near-infrared spectral regions. Combining the unique vista from Mount Wilson and high-precision measurements from the FTS, the slant column abundances of these trace gases above and within the urban dome of Los Angeles are acquired. Within the urban dome, continuous daytime temporal and spatial measurements are recorded for 28 reflection points which are strategically located across the basin. Here we analyze the path-averaged dry air mixing ratios XCH4, XCO2 and XCO acquired by the FTS during a three-year period from 2011 to 2014. Using tracer-to-tracer correlation analysis, we investigate the ratios of XCH4:XCO2, XCH4:XCO and XCO:XCO2 in excess of the background values. Significant spatio-temporal variability in all three ratios is observed across the Los Angeles megacity during this measurement period. We then derive the top-down estimates of basin total CH4 and CO2 emissions between 2011 and 2014 using the existing bottom-up emission database of CO2and CO, and compare our estimates to the emissions reported by the state government and previous studies. Copyright 2014. California

  4. Algorithm update of the GOSAT/TANSO-FTS thermal infrared CO2 product (version 1) and validation of the UTLS CO2 data using CONTRAIL measurements

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Saitoh, Naoko; Kimoto, Shuhei; Sugimura, Ryo; Imasu, Ryoichi; Kawakami, Shuji; Shiomi, Kei; Kuze, Akihiko; Machida, Toshinobu; Sawa, Yousuke; Matsueda, Hidekazu

    2016-05-01

    The Thermal and Near Infrared Sensor for Carbon Observation (TANSO)-Fourier Transform Spectrometer (FTS) on board the Greenhouse Gases Observing Satellite (GOSAT) has been observing carbon dioxide (CO2) concentrations in several atmospheric layers in the thermal infrared (TIR) band since its launch. This study compared TANSO-FTS TIR version 1 (V1) CO2 data and CO2 data obtained in the Comprehensive Observation Network for TRace gases by AIrLiner (CONTRAIL) project in the upper troposphere and lower stratosphere (UTLS), where the TIR band of TANSO-FTS is most sensitive to CO2 concentrations, to validate the quality of the TIR V1 UTLS CO2 data from 287 to 162 hPa. We first evaluated the impact of considering TIR CO2 averaging kernel functions on CO2 concentrations using CO2 profile data obtained by the CONTRAIL Continuous CO2 Measuring Equipment (CME), and found that the impact at around the CME level flight altitudes (˜ 11 km) was on average less than 0.5 ppm at low latitudes and less than 1 ppm at middle and high latitudes. From a comparison made during flights between Tokyo and Sydney, the averages of the TIR upper-atmospheric CO2 data were within 0.1 % of the averages of the CONTRAIL CME CO2 data with and without TIR CO2 averaging kernels for all seasons in the Southern Hemisphere. The results of comparisons for all of the eight airline routes showed that the agreements of TIR and CME CO2 data were worse in spring and summer than in fall and winter in the Northern Hemisphere in the upper troposphere. While the differences between TIR and CME CO2 data were on average within 1 ppm in fall and winter, TIR CO2 data had a negative bias up to 2.4 ppm against CME CO2 data with TIR CO2 averaging kernels at the northern low and middle latitudes in spring and summer. The negative bias at the northern middle latitudes resulted in the maximum of TIR CO2 concentrations being lower than that of CME CO2 concentrations, which led to an underestimate of the amplitude of CO2

  5. Mg2+-linked self-assembly of FtsZ in the presence of GTP or a GTP analog involves the concerted formation of a narrow size distribution of oligomeric species†

    PubMed Central

    Monterroso, Begoña; Ahijado-Guzmán, Rubén; Reija, Belén; Alfonso, Carlos; Zorrilla, Silvia; Minton, Allen P.; Rivas, Germán

    2012-01-01

    The assembly of the bacterial cell division FtsZ protein in the presence of constantly replenished GTP was studied as a function of Mg2+ concentration (at neutral pH and 0.5 M potassium) under steady-state conditions by sedimentation velocity, concentration-gradient light scattering, fluorescence correlation spectroscopy and dynamic light scattering. Sedimentation velocity measurements confirmed previous results indicating cooperative appearance of a narrow size distribution of finite oligomers with increasing protein concentration. The concentration dependence of light scattering and diffusion coefficients independently verified the cooperative appearance of a narrow distribution of high molecular weight oligomers, and in addition provided a measurement of the average size of these species, which corresponds to 100 ± 20 FtsZ protomers at millimolar Mg2+ concentration. Parallel experiments on solutions containing GMPCPP, a slowly hydrolysable analog of GTP, in place of GTP, likewise indicated the concerted formation of a narrow size distribution of fibrillar oligomers with a larger average mass (corresponding to 160 ± 20 FtsZ monomers). The closely similar behavior of FtsZ in the presence of both GTP and GMPCPP suggests that the observations reflect equilibrium rather than non-equilibrium steady-state properties of both solutions and exhibit parallel manifestations of a common association scheme. PMID:22568594

  6. Human placental transfer of perfluoroalkyl acid precursors: Levels and profiles in paired maternal and cord serum.

    PubMed

    Yang, Lin; Wang, Zhen; Shi, Yu; Li, Jingguang; Wang, Yuxin; Zhao, Yunfeng; Wu, Yongning; Cai, Zongwei

    2016-02-01

    Perfluoroalkyl acids (PFAAs) precursors, the indirect source of PFAA exposure, have been observed in environmental and human samples. However, the maternal-fetal transfer of these chemicals has not been well examined. In this study, 50 paired maternal and cord serum samples collected in Jiangsu province of China were analyzed for fifteen PFAA precursors. Among the detected PFAAs, 6:2 fluorotelomer sulfonate (6:2 FTS), N-methyl- and N-ethyl-perfluorooctanesulfonamidoacetates had comparable detection rate in both maternal and cord sera, while the mean concentrations and detection rates of 8:2 FTS and perfluorooctane sulfonamide (PFOSA) were higher in maternal sera compared to cord sera (Mann-Whitney U test, P < 0.05). Analysis of variance and least significant difference tests showed that the youngest maternal age group (21-24 years old) had the highest concentration of 6:2 FTS in cord sera. Maternal serum PFOSA was found significantly correlated with the cord serum perfluorooctanesulfonate (PFOS) (Spearman test, r = 0.361, P = 0.010), indicating that maternal serum PFOSA might be an indirect source of PFOS in fetuses. The obtained results suggested the potential prenatal exposure and human placental transfer of perfluoroalkyl acid precursors.

  7. Two enzymes, TilS and HprT, can form a complex to function as a transcriptional activator for the cell division protease gene ftsH in Bacillus subtilis.

    PubMed

    Lin, Ta-Hui; Hu, Yi-Nei; Shaw, Gwo-Chyuan

    2014-01-01

    The FtsH protein is an ATP-dependent cytoplasmic membrane protease involved in the control of membrane protein quality, cell division and heat shock response in Bacillus subtilis and many other bacteria. TilS, the tRNA(Ile2) lysidine synthetase, is a tRNA-binding protein that can modify pre-tRNA(Ile2). HprT, the hypoxanthine-guanine phosphoribosyltransferase, is implicated in purine salvage. Both tilS and hprT are essential for cell viability of B. subtilis. In this report, by co-purification experiments and gel filtration analyses, we show that there is complex formation between co-expressed TilS and HprT. Electrophoretic mobility shift assays and in vitro transcription analyses demonstrated that the TilS/HprT complex functions as a specific DNA-binding protein that can stimulate ftsH transcription in vitro. Two regions located upstream of the ftsH promoter have been identified as the TilS/HprT-binding sites and shown to be required for TilS/HprT-dependent ftsH transcription in vitro and in vivo. Results from gel supershift assays support the notion that the TilS/HprT complex likely employs its distinct segments for interaction with these two distinct TilS/HprT-binding sites, respectively. In conclusion, we present the first evidence that bi-functional TilS and HprT can form a complex to function as a transcriptional activator to stimulate ftsH transcription.

  8. Validation of TANSO-FTS/GOSAT XCO2 and XCH4 glint mode retrievals using TCCON data from near-ocean sites

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhou, Minqiang; Dils, Bart; Wang, Pucai; Detmers, Rob; Yoshida, Yukio; O'Dell, Christopher W.; Feist, Dietrich G.; Almario Velazco, Voltaire; Schneider, Matthias; De Mazière, Martine

    2016-04-01

    The thermal And near infrared sensor for carbon observations Fourier transform spectrometer (TANSO-FTS) on board the Greenhouse Gases Observing Satellite (GOSAT) applies the normal nadir mode above the land ("land data") and sun glint mode over the ocean ("ocean data") to provide global distributions of column-averaged dry-air mole fractions of CO2 and CH4, or XCO2 and XCH4. Several algorithms have been developed to obtain highly accurate greenhouse gas concentrations from TANSO-FTS/GOSAT spectra. So far, all the retrieval algorithms have been validated with the measurements from ground-based Fourier transform spectrometers from the Total Carbon Column Observing Network (TCCON), but limited to the land data. In this paper, the ocean data of the SRPR, SRFP (the proxy and full-physics versions 2.3.5 of SRON/KIT's RemoTeC algorithm), NIES (National Institute for Environmental Studies operational algorithm version 02.21) and ACOS (NASA's Atmospheric CO2 Observations from Space version 3.5) are compared with FTIR measurements from five TCCON sites and nearby GOSAT land data.For XCO2, both land and ocean data of NIES, SRFP and ACOS show good agreement with TCCON measurements. Averaged over all TCCON sites, the relative biases of ocean data and land data are -0.33 and -0.13 % for NIES, 0.03 and 0.04 % for SRFP, 0.06 and -0.03 % for ACOS, respectively. The relative scatter ranges between 0.31 and 0.49 %. For XCH4, the relative bias of ocean data is even less than that of the land data for the NIES (0.02 vs. -0.35 %), SRFP (0.04 vs. 0.20 %) and SRPR (-0.02 vs. 0.06 %) algorithms. Compared to the results for XCO2, the XCH4 retrievals show larger relative scatter (0.65-0.81 %).

  9. Identification of the bacterial protein FtsX as a unique target of chemokine-mediated antimicrobial activity against Bacillus anthracis

    PubMed Central

    Crawford, Matthew A.; Lowe, David E.; Fisher, Debra J.; Stibitz, Scott; Plaut, Roger D.; Beaber, John W.; Zemansky, Jason; Mehrad, Borna; Glomski, Ian J.; Strieter, Robert M.; Hughes, Molly A.

    2011-01-01

    Chemokines are a family of chemotactic cytokines that function in host defense by orchestrating cellular movement during infection. In addition to this function, many chemokines have also been found to mediate the direct killing of a range of pathogenic microorganisms through an as-yet-undefined mechanism. As an understanding of the molecular mechanism and microbial targets of chemokine-mediated antimicrobial activity is likely to lead to the identification of unique, broad-spectrum therapeutic targets for effectively treating infection, we sought to investigate the mechanism by which the chemokine CXCL10 mediates bactericidal activity against the Gram-positive bacterium Bacillus anthracis, the causative agent of anthrax. Here, we report that disruption of the gene ftsX, which encodes the transmembrane domain of a putative ATP-binding cassette transporter, affords resistance to CXCL10-mediated antimicrobial effects against vegetative B. anthracis bacilli. Furthermore, we demonstrate that in the absence of FtsX, CXCL10 is unable to localize to its presumed site of action at the bacterial cell membrane, suggesting that chemokines interact with specific, identifiable bacterial components to mediate direct microbial killing. These findings provide unique insight into the mechanism of CXCL10-mediated bactericidal activity and establish, to our knowledge, the first description of a bacterial component critically involved in the ability of host chemokines to target and kill a bacterial pathogen. These observations also support the notion of chemokine-mediated antimicrobial activity as an important foundation for the development of innovative therapeutic strategies for treating infections caused by pathogenic, potentially multidrug-resistant microorganisms. PMID:21949405

  10. Identification of the bacterial protein FtsX as a unique target of chemokine-mediated antimicrobial activity against Bacillus anthracis.

    PubMed

    Crawford, Matthew A; Lowe, David E; Fisher, Debra J; Stibitz, Scott; Plaut, Roger D; Beaber, John W; Zemansky, Jason; Mehrad, Borna; Glomski, Ian J; Strieter, Robert M; Hughes, Molly A

    2011-10-11

    Chemokines are a family of chemotactic cytokines that function in host defense by orchestrating cellular movement during infection. In addition to this function, many chemokines have also been found to mediate the direct killing of a range of pathogenic microorganisms through an as-yet-undefined mechanism. As an understanding of the molecular mechanism and microbial targets of chemokine-mediated antimicrobial activity is likely to lead to the identification of unique, broad-spectrum therapeutic targets for effectively treating infection, we sought to investigate the mechanism by which the chemokine CXCL10 mediates bactericidal activity against the Gram-positive bacterium Bacillus anthracis, the causative agent of anthrax. Here, we report that disruption of the gene ftsX, which encodes the transmembrane domain of a putative ATP-binding cassette transporter, affords resistance to CXCL10-mediated antimicrobial effects against vegetative B. anthracis bacilli. Furthermore, we demonstrate that in the absence of FtsX, CXCL10 is unable to localize to its presumed site of action at the bacterial cell membrane, suggesting that chemokines interact with specific, identifiable bacterial components to mediate direct microbial killing. These findings provide unique insight into the mechanism of CXCL10-mediated bactericidal activity and establish, to our knowledge, the first description of a bacterial component critically involved in the ability of host chemokines to target and kill a bacterial pathogen. These observations also support the notion of chemokine-mediated antimicrobial activity as an important foundation for the development of innovative therapeutic strategies for treating infections caused by pathogenic, potentially multidrug-resistant microorganisms.

  11. CO Seasonal Variability and Trend over Paris Megacity Using Ground-Based QualAir FTS and Satellite IASI-MetOp Measurements

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Te, Yao; Jeseck, Pascal; Hadji-Lazaro, Juliette

    2012-11-01

    In a growing world with more than 7 billion inhabitants and big emerging countries such as China, Brazil and India, emissions of anthropogenic pollutants are increasing continuously. Monitoring and control of atmospheric pollutants in megacities have become a major challenge for scientists and public health authorities in environmental research area. The QualAir platform at University Pierre et Marie Curie (UPMC), is an innovating experimental research platform dedicated to survey urban atmospheric pollution and air quality. A Bruker Optics IFS 125HR Fourier transform spectrometer belonged to the Laboratoire de Physique Moléculaire pour l'Atmosphère et l'Astrophysique (LPMAA), was adapted for ground-based atmospheric measurements. As one of the major instruments of the QualAir platform, this ground-based Fourier transform spectrometer (QualAir FTS) analyses the composition of the urban atmosphere of Paris, which is the third largest European megacity. The continuous monitoring of atmospheric pollutants is essential to improve the understanding of urban air pollution processes. Associated with a sun-tracker, the QualAir remote sensing FTS operates in solar infrared absorption and enables to monitor many trace gases, and to follow up their variability in the Ile-de-France region. Concentrations of atmospheric pollutants are retrieved by the radiative transfer model PROFFIT. These ground-based remote sensing measurements are compared to ground in-situ measurements and to satellite data from IASI-MetOp (Infrared Atmospheric Sounding Interferometer). The remote sensing total column of the carbon monoxide (CO) obtained from January 2009 to June 2012, has a seasonal variability with a maximum in April and a minimum in October. While, after 2008, the mean CO level is quite stable (no significant decrease as before 2008).

  12. Sunset-sunrise difference in solar occultation ozone measurements (SAGE II, HALOE, and ACE-FTS) and its relationship to tidal vertical winds

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sakazaki, T.; Shiotani, M.; Suzuki, M.; Kinnison, D.; Zawodny, J. M.; McHugh, M.; Walker, K. A.

    2015-01-01

    This paper contains a comprehensive investigation of the sunset-sunrise difference (SSD, i.e., the sunset-minus-sunrise value) of the ozone mixing ratio in the latitude range of 10° S-10° N. SSD values were determined from solar occultation measurements based on data obtained from the Stratospheric Aerosol and Gas Experiment (SAGE) II, the Halogen Occultation Experiment (HALOE), and the Atmospheric Chemistry Experiment-Fourier transform spectrometer (ACE-FTS). The SSD was negative at altitudes of 20-30 km (-0.1 ppmv at 25 km) and positive at 30-50 km (+0.2 ppmv at 40-45 km) for HALOE and ACE-FTS data. SAGE II data also showed a qualitatively similar result, although the SSD in the upper stratosphere was 2 times larger than those derived from the other data sets. On the basis of an analysis of data from the Superconducting Submillimeter-Wave Limb-Emission Sounder (SMILES) and a nudged chemical transport model (the specified dynamics version of the Whole Atmosphere Community Climate Model: SD-WACCM), we conclude that the SSD can be explained by diurnal variations in the ozone concentration, particularly those caused by vertical transport by the atmospheric tidal winds. All data sets showed significant seasonal variations in the SSD; the SSD in the upper stratosphere is greatest from December through February, while that in the lower stratosphere reaches a maximum twice: during the periods March-April and September-October. Based on an analysis of SD-WACCM results, we found that these seasonal variations follow those associated with the tidal vertical winds.

  13. Sunset-sunrise difference in solar occultation ozone measurements (SAGE II, HALOE, and ACE-FTS) and its relationship to tidal vertical winds

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sakazaki, T.; Shiotani, M.; Suzuki, M.; Kinnison, D.; Zawodny, J. M.; McHugh, M.; Walker, K. A.

    2014-06-01

    This paper contains a comprehensive investigation of the sunset-sunrise difference (SSD; i.e., the sunset-minus-sunrise value) of the ozone mixing ratio in the latitude range of 10° S-10° N. SSD values were determined from solar occultation measurements based on data obtained from the Stratospheric Aerosol and Gas Experiment (SAGE) II, the Halogen Occultation Experiment (HALOE), and the Atmospheric Chemistry Experiment Fourier Transform Spectrometer (ACE-FTS). The SSD was negative at altitudes of 20-30 km (-0.1 ppmv at 25 km) and positive at 30-50 km (+0.2 ppmv at 40-45 km) for HALOE and ACE-FTS data. SAGE II data also showed a qualitatively similar result, although the SSD in the upper stratosphere was two times larger than those derived from the other datasets. On the basis of an analysis of data from the Superconducting Submillimeter Limb Emission Sounder (SMILES), and a nudged chemical-transport model (the Specified Dynamics version of the Whole Atmosphere Community Climate Model: SD-WACCM), we conclude that the SSD can be explained by diurnal variations in the ozone concentration, particularly those caused by vertical transport by the atmospheric tidal winds. All datasets showed significant seasonal variations in the SSD; the SSD in the upper stratosphere is greatest from December through February, while that in the lower stratosphere reaches a maximum twice: during the periods March-April and September-October. Based on an analysis of SD-WACCM results, we found that these seasonal variations follow those associated with the tidal vertical winds.

  14. The assembly of the FtsZ ring at the mid-chloroplast division site depends on a balance between the activities of AtMinE1 and ARC11/AtMinD1.

    PubMed

    Fujiwara, Makoto T; Hashimoto, Haruki; Kazama, Yusuke; Abe, Tomoko; Yoshida, Shigeo; Sato, Naoki; Itoh, Ryuuichi D

    2008-03-01

    Chloroplast division comprises a sequence of events that facilitate symmetric binary fission and that involve prokaryotic-like stromal division factors such as tubulin-like GTPase FtsZ and the division site regulator MinD. In Arabidopsis, a nuclear-encoded prokaryotic MinE homolog, AtMinE1, has been characterized in terms of its effects on a dividing or terminal chloroplast state in a limited series of leaf tissues. However, the relationship between AtMinE1 expression and chloroplast phenotype remains to be fully elucidated. Here, we demonstrate that a T-DNA insertion mutation in AtMinE1 results in a severe inhibition of chloroplast division, producing motile dots and short filaments of FtsZ. In AtMinE1 sense (overexpressor) plants, dividing chloroplasts possess either single or multiple FtsZ rings located at random intervals and showing constriction depth, mainly along the chloroplast polarity axis. The AtMinE1 sense plants displayed equivalent chloroplast phenotypes to arc11, a loss-of-function mutant of AtMinD1 which forms replicating mini-chloroplasts. Furthermore, a certain population of FtsZ rings formed within developing chloroplasts failed to initiate or progress the membrane constriction of chloroplasts and consequentially to complete chloroplast fission in both AtMinE1 sense and arc11/atminD1 plants. Our present data thus demonstrate that the chloroplast division site placement involves a balance between the opposing activities of AtMinE1 and AtMinD1, which acts to prevent FtsZ ring formation anywhere outside of the mid-chloroplast. In addition, the imbalance caused by an AtMinE1 dominance causes multiple, non-synchronous division events at the single chloroplast level, as well as division arrest, which becomes apparent as the chloroplasts mature, in spite of the presence of FtsZ rings. PMID:18204083

  15. MIPAS temperature from the stratosphere to the lower thermosphere: comparison of version vM21 with ACE-FTS, MLS, OSIRIS, SABER, SOFIE and lidar measurements

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    García-Comas, M.; Funke, B.; Gardini, A.; López-Puertas, M.; Jurado-Navarro, A.; von Clarmann, T.; Stiller, G.; Kiefer, M.; Boone, C. D.; Leblanc, T.; Marshall, B. T.; Schwartz, M. J.; Sheese, P. E.

    2014-07-01

    We present vM21 MIPAS temperatures from the lower stratosphere to the lower thermosphere, which cover all optimized resolution measurements performed by MIPAS in the Middle Atmosphere, Upper Atmosphere and NoctiLucent Cloud modes during its lifetime. i.e., from January 2005 to March 2012. The main upgrades with respect to the previous version of MIPAS temperatures (vM11) are the update of the spectroscopic database, the use of a different climatology of atomic oxygen and carbon dioxide, and the improvement of important technical aspects of the retrieval setup (temperature gradient along the line of sight and offset regularizations, apodization accuracy). Additionally, an updated version of ESA calibrated L1b spectra (5.02/5.06) is used. The vM21 temperatures correct the main systematic errors of the previous version because they on average provide a 1-2 K warmer stratopause and middle mesosphere, and a 6-10 K colder mesopause (except in high latitude summers) and lower thermosphere. These lead to a remarkable improvement of MIPAS comparisons with ACE-FTS, MLS, OSIRIS, SABER, SOFIE and the two Rayleigh lidars at Mauna Loa and Table Mountain, that, with few specific exceptions, typically exhibit differences smaller than 1 K below 50 km and than 2 K at 50-80 km in spring, autumn, winter at all latitudes, and summer at low to mid-latitudes. Differences in the high latitude summers are typically smaller than 1 K below 50 km, smaller than 2 K at 50-65 km and 5 K at 65-80 km. Differences with the other instruments in the mid-mesosphere are generally negative. MIPAS mesopause is within 4 K of the other instruments measurements, except in the high latitude summers, where it is within 5-10 K of the other instruments, being warmer than SABER, MLS and OSIRIS and colder than ACE-FTS and SOFIE. The agreement in the lower thermosphere is typically better than 5 K, except for high latitudes during spring and summer, where MIPAS usually exhibits larger vertical gradients.

  16. MIPAS temperature from the stratosphere to the lower thermosphere: Comparison of vM21 with ACE-FTS, MLS, OSIRIS, SABER, SOFIE and lidar measurements

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    García-Comas, M.; Funke, B.; Gardini, A.; López-Puertas, M.; Jurado-Navarro, A.; von Clarmann, T.; Stiller, G.; Kiefer, M.; Boone, C. D.; Leblanc, T.; Marshall, B. T.; Schwartz, M. J.; Sheese, P. E.

    2014-11-01

    We present vM21 MIPAS temperatures from the lower stratosphere to the lower thermosphere, which cover all optimized resolution measurements performed by MIPAS in the middle-atmosphere, upper-atmosphere and noctilucent-cloud modes during its lifetime, i.e., from January 2005 to April 2012. The main upgrades with respect to the previous version of MIPAS temperatures (vM11) are the update of the spectroscopic database, the use of a different climatology of atomic oxygen and carbon dioxide, and the improvement in important technical aspects of the retrieval setup (temperature gradient along the line of sight and offset regularizations, apodization accuracy). Additionally, an updated version of ESA-calibrated L1b spectra (5.02/5.06) is used. The vM21 temperatures correct the main systematic errors of the previous version because they provide on average a 1-2 K warmer stratopause and middle mesosphere, and a 6-10 K colder mesopause (except in high-latitude summers) and lower thermosphere. These lead to a remarkable improvement in MIPAS comparisons with ACE-FTS, MLS, OSIRIS, SABER, SOFIE and the two Rayleigh lidars at Mauna Loa and Table Mountain, which, with a few specific exceptions, typically exhibit differences smaller than 1 K below 50 km and than 2 K at 50-80 km in spring, autumn and winter at all latitudes, and summer at low to midlatitudes. Differences in the high-latitude summers are typically smaller than 1 K below 50 km, smaller than 2 K at 50-65 km and 5 K at 65-80 km. Differences between MIPAS and the other instruments in the mid-mesosphere are generally negative. MIPAS mesopause is within 4 K of the other instruments measurements, except in the high-latitude summers, when it is within 5-10 K, being warmer there than SABER, MLS and OSIRIS and colder than ACE-FTS and SOFIE. The agreement in the lower thermosphere is typically better than 5 K, except for high latitudes during spring and summer, when MIPAS usually exhibits larger vertical gradients.

  17. Absolute Rovibrational Intensities for the Chi(sup 1)Sigma(sup +) v=3 <-- 0 Band of (12)C(16)O Obtained with Kitt Peak and BOMEM FTS Instruments

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Chackerian, Charles, Jr.; Kshirsagar, R. J.; Giver, L. P.; Brown, L. R.; Condon, Estelle P. (Technical Monitor)

    1999-01-01

    This work was initiated to compare absolute line intensities retrieved with the Kitt Peak FTS (Fourier Transform Spectrometer) and Ames BOMEM FTS. Since thermal contaminations can be a problem using the BOMEM instrument if proper precautions are not taken it was thought that measurements done at 6300 per cm would more easily result in satisfactory intercomparisons. Very recent measurements of the CO 3 <-- 0 band fine intensities confirms results reported here that the intensities listed in HITRAN (High Resolution Molecular Absorption Database) for this band are on the order of six to seven percent too low. All of the infrared intensities in the current HITRAN tabulation are based on the electric dipole moment function reported fifteen years ago. The latter in turn was partly based on intensities for the 3 <-- 0 band reported thirty years ago. We have, therefore, redetermined the electric dipole moment function of ground electronic state CO.

  18. Methane Cross-Validation Between Spaceborne Solar Occultation Observations from ACE-FTS, Spaceborne Nadir Sounding from Gosat, and Ground-Based Solar Absorption Measurements, at a High Arctic Site.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Holl, G.; Walker, K. A.; Conway, S. A.; Saitoh, N.; Boone, C. D.; Strong, K.; Drummond, J. R.

    2014-12-01

    We present cross-validation of remote sensing observations of methane profiles in the Canadian High Arctic. Methane is the third most important greenhouse gas on Earth, and second only to carbon dioxide in its contribution to anthropogenic global warming. Accurate and precise observations of methane are essential to understand quantitatively its role in the climate system and in global change. The Arctic is a particular region of concern, as melting permafrost and disappearing sea ice might lead to accelerated release of methane into the atmosphere. Global observations require spaceborne instruments, in particular in the Arctic, where surface measurements are sparse and expensive to perform. Satellite-based remote sensing is an underconstrained problem, and specific validation under Arctic circumstances is required. Here, we show a cross-validation between two spaceborne instruments and ground-based measurements, all Fourier Transform Spectrometers (FTS). We consider the Canadian SCISAT ACE-FTS, a solar occultation spectrometer operating since 2004, and the Japanese GOSAT TANSO-FTS, a nadir-pointing FTS operating at solar and terrestrial infrared wavelengths, since 2009. The ground-based instrument is a Bruker Fourier Transform Infrared (FTIR) spectrometer, measuring mid-infrared solar absorption spectra at the Polar Environmental and Atmospheric Research Laboratory (PEARL) at Eureka, Nunavut (80°N, 86°W) since 2006. Measurements are collocated considering temporal, spatial, and geophysical criteria and regridded to a common vertical grid. We perform smoothing on the higher-resolution instrument results to account for different vertical resolutions. Then, profiles of differences for each pair of instruments are examined. Any bias between instruments, or any accuracy that is worse than expected, needs to be understood prior to using the data. The results of the study will serve as a guideline on how to use the vertically resolved methane products from ACE and

  19. Long-term Trends in Mesospheric Temperatures at high and low latitudes derived from OH airglow spectra of Kiruna FTS and Sloan Digital Sky Survey

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kim, Yongha; Kim, Jeong-Han; Kim, Gawon; Lee, Youngsun

    2016-07-01

    We have analyzed mesospheric temperatures from OH airglow measurements with Fourier Transform Spectrometer (FTS) in the period of 2003 - 2012 at Kiruna (67.9°N, 21.1°E). We also derived mesospheric temperatures from rotational emission lines of the OH airglow (8-3) band in the sky spectra of Sloan Digital Sky Survey (SDSS) in the period of 2000 - 2014. The main objective of SDSS is to make a detailed 3-dimensional map of the universe by observing images and spectra of various celestial objects at Apache Point Observatory (APO, 32°N 105°W). From both temperature sets we first estimated the solar responses of mesospheric temperatures to F10.7 variation and the seasonal variation of mesospheric temperatures. After removing the solar response, we found the long-term mesospheric temperature trends of -4 ˜-6.6 K/decade at Kiruna and -0.02 ± 0.7 K/decade at Apache Point. Our results indicate significant cooling trend at the high latitude but very little or no cooling at the low latitude. Although both trends are comparable and consistent with other studies, the temperature trend from SDSS spectra should be regarded as unique contribution to global monitoring of climate change because the SDSS project is completely independent of climate studies.

  20. A DOAS-like method for total column of CO2 from ground-based FTS measurements of the direct solar beam

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Huo, Y. F.; Duan, M. Z.; Tian, W. S.

    2014-03-01

    A new algorithm, similar to that of DOAS method, is developed to retrieve the total column CO2 from the ground-based hyper-spectral measurements of direct solar beam. Other than spectrum fitting method, which is generally used in the optimal estimation algorithm, the radiances ratio at two wavelength named channel pair, where one is of weak and the other is of relatively strong absorption, is used to retrieve the total column CO2 in the Short Wave InfraRed(SWIR) band. Sensitivity studies show that this DOAS-like method is less dependent on the model parameters such as aerosols, water vapor, surface pressure, temperature, wavelength shift and signal noise, and the pairs of channels are carefully selected based on the sensitivity studies. To validate the algorithm, the FTS measurements located at Xi'Chong astronomical observatory are used to derive the total column CO2 amount, 272 pairs ratios are used in the retrieval and the results agree very well with that of GOSAT, which shows that the DOAS-like method could give reasonable value of XCO2.

  1. Preliminary assignments of 2 ν 3 - ν 4 hot band of 12 CH 4 in the 2 μm transparency window from long-path FTS spectra

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nikitin, A. V.; Daumont, L.; Thomas, X.; Régalia, L.; Rey, M.; Tyuterev, Vl. G.; Brown, L. R.

    2011-07-01

    New measurements and assignments for the rovibrational transitions of the hot band 2 v3- v4 of 12CH 4 are reported from 4600 to 4880 cm -1 and refer to lower part of the 2 μm methane transparency window. Three long-path spectra were recorded with a Fourier transform spectrometer (FTS) in Reims using an L = 1603 m absorption path length at 1, 7, 34 h Pa for the natural samples of CH 4; a spectrum of enriched 13CH 4 was also used. Assignments were made for 196 lines of 2 v3(F 2,E)- v4. These transitions had an integrated intensity of 5 × 10 -24 cm/molecule at 296 K and improved the overall description of absorption in the 2.1 μm region. The empirical upper state levels of these assignments belong to Tetradecad (4800-6200 cm -1). The new analysis provided much better accuracies of badly blended positions of 2 v3(F 2)-ground state manifolds at 1.66 μm.

  2. Sodium chloride-induced filamentation and alternative gene expression of fts, murZ, and gnd in Listeria monocytogenes 08-5923 on vacuum-packaged ham.

    PubMed

    Liu, Xiaoji; Miller, Petr; Basu, Urmila; McMullen, Lynn M

    2014-11-01

    The aim of this study was to examine the filament formation and differential gene expression of Listeria monocytogenes 08-5923 grown on refrigerated vacuum-packaged ham products with various NaCl concentrations. Filament formation of L. monocytogenes was observed on ham products with 1.35% and 2.35% NaCl, which was monitored using flow cytometry by measuring forward light scatter. Quantitative real-time PCR was used to study the differential expression of genes in filamented cells of L. monocytogenes grown on hams following 2 or 3 months of storage at 4 °C. The genes involved in cell division (ftsX/lmo2506), cell wall synthesis (murZ/lmo2552), and NADPH production (gnd/lmo1376) were significantly downregulated in filamented cells of L. monocytogenes grown on ham with 2.35% NaCl stored at 4 °C. To our knowledge, this study reports the first evidence of filament formation of Listeria grown on meat products, which could impact the food safety risk and tolerance levels of L. monocytogenes set by regulatory agencies.

  3. FtsH-mediated coordination of lipopolysaccharide biosynthesis in Escherichia coli correlates with the growth rate and the alarmone (p)ppGpp.

    PubMed

    Schäkermann, Michael; Langklotz, Sina; Narberhaus, Franz

    2013-05-01

    The outer membrane is the first line of defense for Gram-negative bacteria and serves as a major barrier for antibiotics and other harmful substances. The biosynthesis of lipopolysaccharides (LPS), the essential component of the outer membrane, must be tightly controlled as both too much and too little LPS are toxic. In Escherichia coli, the cellular level of the key enzyme LpxC, which catalyzes the first committed step in LPS biosynthesis, is adjusted by proteolysis carried out by the essential and membrane-bound protease FtsH. Here, we demonstrate that LpxC is degraded in a growth rate-dependent manner with half-lives between 4 min and >2 h. According to the cellular demand for LPS biosynthesis, LpxC is degraded during slow growth but stabilized when cells grow rapidly. Disturbing the balance between LPS and phospholipid biosynthesis in favor of phospholipid production in an E. coli strain encoding a hyperactive FabZ protein abolishes growth rate dependency of LpxC proteolysis. Lack of the alternative sigma factor RpoS or inorganic polyphosphates, which are known to mediate growth rate-dependent gene regulation in E. coli, did not affect proteolysis of LpxC. In contrast, absence of RelA and SpoT, which synthesize the alarmone (p)ppGpp, deregulated LpxC degradation resulting in rapid proteolysis in fast-growing cells and stabilization during slow growth. Our data provide new insights into the essential control of LPS biosynthesis in E. coli.

  4. Characteristics of Four-years of GOSAT/TANSO-FTS TIR V1.0 CO2 and CH4 Products

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Saitoh, N.; Kimoto, S.; Sugimura, R.; Imasu, R.; Shiomi, K.; Kuze, A.; Kataoka, F.; Knuteson, R. O.; Machida, T.; Sawa, Y.; Matsuda, H.

    2015-12-01

    Greenhouse Gases Observing Satellite (GOSAT) was launched on 23 January 2009, and has continued to make global observations, including both nadir and off-nadir measurements, for more than six years since its launch. The thermal infrared (TIR) band of Thermal and Near-infrared Sensor for Carbon Observation Fourier Transform Spectrometer (TANSO-FTS) on board the GOSAT has observed CO2 and CH4 profiles. We have analyzed the four-year data from 2010 through 2013 of the latest released version of the TIR Level 2 (L2) CO2 and CH4 products (V1.0). Comparisons of the TIR upper atmospheric CO2 product with CO2 data from Comprehensive Observation Network for Trace Gases by Airliner (CONTRAIL) aircraft measurements show that the growth rate estimated from the TIR CO2 data is slightly lower than that from the CONTRAIL data. Overall, the TIR V1.0 CO2 product has better quality in the upper troposphere and lower stratosphere than the a priori judging from comparisons with the collocated aircraft data. In spring and summer, however, the quality of the TIR L2 CO2 products became slightly worse than in the other seasons, especially in the low and northern-mid latitudes. This is because the corresponding a priori had a larger bias and the TIR Level 1B (L1B) radiance spectra might have a larger bias in the spring-summer seasons. Here, we have tested several types of correction methods to modify the L1B spectral bias, and then compared CO2 and CH4 concentrations retrieved after applying spectral bias correction factors with coincident CONTRAIL and HIAPER Pole-to-Pole Observation (HIPPO) aircraft data. The comparison results suggest that the L1B spectral bias correction factor should be changed depending on wavelength. In addition, it should be expressed as a function of on-board internal calibration blackbody temperatures. This is because they are weak season-dependent parameters; they were clearly lower in spring and summer.

  5. Global stratospheric fluorine inventory for 2004-2009 from Atmospheric Chemistry Experiment Fourier Transform Spectrometer (ACE-FTS) measurements and SLIMCAT model simulations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Brown, A. T.; Chipperfield, M. P.; Richards, N. A. D.; Boone, C.; Bernath, P. F.

    2014-01-01

    Fluorine-containing species can be extremely effective atmospheric greenhouse gases. We present fluorine budgets using organic and inorganic species retrieved by the ACE-FTS satellite instrument supplemented with output from the SLIMCAT 3-D chemical transport model. The budgets are calculated between 2004 and 2009 for a number of latitude bands: 70-30° N, 30-00° N, 00° N-30° S, and 30-70° S. At lower altitudes total fluorine profiles are dominated by the contribution from CFC-12, up to an altitude of 20 km in the extra-tropics and 29 km in the tropics; above these altitudes the profiles are dominated by hydrogen fluoride (HF). Our data show that total fluorine profiles at all locations have a negative slope with altitude, providing evidence that overall fluorine emissions (measured by their F content) have been increasing with time. Total stratospheric fluorine is increasing at a similar rate in the tropics: 32.5 ± 4.9 ppt yr-1 (1.31 ± 0.20% per year) in the Northern Hemisphere (NH) and 29.8 ± 5.3 ppt yr-1 (1.21 ± 0.22% per year) in the Southern Hemisphere (SH). Extra-tropical total stratospheric fluorine is also increasing at a similar rate in both the NH and SH: 28.3 ± 2.7 ppt per year (1.12 ± 0.11% per year) in the NH and 24.3 ± 3.1 ppt per year (0.96 ± 0.12% per year) in the SH. The calculation of radiative efficiency-weighted total fluorine allows the changes in radiative forcing between 2004 and 2009 to be calculated. These results show an increase in radiative forcing of between 0.23 ± 0.11% per year and 0.45 ± 0.11% per year, due to the increase in fluorine-containing species during this time. The decreasing trends in the mixing ratios of halons and chlorofluorocarbons (CFCs), due to their prohibition under the Montreal Protocol, have suppressed an increase in total fluorine caused by increasing mixing ratios of hydrofluorocarbons (HFCs). This has reduced the impact of fluorine-containing species on global warming.

  6. Supersonic Free-jet Quantum Cascade Laser Measurements of v4 for CF3(35)Cl and CF3(37)Cl and FTS Measurements from 400 to 1260 cm-1

    SciTech Connect

    Kelly, James F; Maki, Arthur; Blake, Thomas A; Sams, Robert L

    2008-11-01

    A supersonic free-jet spectrum of the v4 band of CF3Cl has been measured using a quantum cascade laser system. Those measurements were combined with a low temperature (-67 C) FTS spectrum of the region 1060 to 1260 cm-1 and with room temperature FTS measurements down to 400 cm-1 to give improved values for the rovibrational constants for the v1, v2, v3, 2v3, 2v5, v4, and v5 states of CF335Cl and CF337Cl. The principal perturbation found by earlier investigators in the v1 band is treated as a very weak Coriolis interaction at several avoided crossings of the rotational levels of the v1 state and the 2v5 state with kl < 0. None of the other vibrational states showed any signs of perturbations. With these new measurements we now have high resolution data on all of the fundamental vibrational states except v6.

  7. ACE-FTS Observation of a Young Biomass Burning Plume: First Reported Measurements of C2H4, C3H6O, H2CO and PAN by Infrared Occultation from Space

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Coheur, Pierre-Francois; Herbin, Herve; Clerbaux, Cathy; Hurtmans, Daniel; Wespes, Catherine; Carleer, Michel; Turquety, Solene; Rinsland, Curtis P.; Remedios, John; Hauglustaine, Didier; Boone, Chris D.; Bernath, Peter F.

    2007-01-01

    In the course of our study of the upper tropospheric composition with the infrared 35 Atmospheric Chemistry Experiment Fourier Transform Spectrometer (ACE FTS), we 36 found an occultation sequence that on 8 October 2005, sampled a remarkable plume near the 37 east coast of Tanzania. Model simulations of the CO distribution in the Southern hemisphere 38 are performed for this period and they demonstrate that the emissions for this event originated 39 from a nearby forest fire, after which the plume was transported from the source region to the 40 upper troposphere. Taking advantage of the very high signal-to-noise ratio of the ACE FTS 41 spectra over a wide wavenumber range (750-4400 cm(exp -1), we present in-depth analyses of the 42 chemical composition of this plume in the middle and upper troposphere, focusing on the 43 measurements of weakly absorbing pollutants. For this specific biomass burning event, we 44 report simultaneous observations of an unprecedented number of organic species. 45 Measurements of C2H4 (ethene), C3H4 (propyne), H2CO (formaldehyde), C3H6O (acetone) 46 and CH3COO2NO2 (perxoxyacetylnitrate, abbreviated as PAN) are the first reported 47 detections using infrared occultation spectroscopy from satellites. Based on the lifetime of the 48 emitted species, we discuss the photochemical age of the plume and also report, whenever 49 possible, the enhancement ratios relative to CO.

  8. Folic Acid

    MedlinePlus

    Folic acid is a B vitamin. It helps the body make healthy new cells. Everyone needs folic acid. For women who may get pregnant, it is really important. Getting enough folic acid before and during pregnancy can prevent major birth ...

  9. Folic Acid

    MedlinePlus

    Folic acid is used to treat or prevent folic acid deficiency. It is a B-complex vitamin needed by ... Folic acid comes in tablets. It usually is taken once a day. Follow the directions on your prescription label ...

  10. Amino acids

    MedlinePlus

    ... amino acids are: histidine, isoleucine, leucine, lysine, methionine, phenylalanine, threonine, tryptophan , and valine. Nonessential amino acids "Nonessential" means that our bodies produce an amino ...

  11. Acid Rain.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Openshaw, Peter

    1987-01-01

    Provides some background information on acid deposition. Includes a historical perspective, describes some effects of acid precipitation, and discusses acid rain in the United Kingdom. Contains several experiments that deal with the effects of acid rain on water quality and soil. (TW)

  12. Acid rain

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1985-01-01

    This report has four parts: they discuss acid rain in relation to acid soils, agriculture, forests, and aquatic ecosystems. Among findings: modern sources of acid deposition from the atmosphere for all the acid soils in the world, nor even chiefly responsible for those of northern U.S. Agriculture has its problems, but acid precipitation is probably not one of them. More research is needed to determine to what extent acid precipitation is responsible for forest declines and for smaller detrimental effects on forest growth where no damage to the foliage is evident. Many lakes and streams are extremely sensitive to added acids.

  13. Revealing the ISM in high redshift starburst galaxies: An analysis of Herschel PACS and SPIRE FTS spectroscopic observations of HerMES and H-ATLAS-selected lensed galaxies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cooray, Asantha

    In the quest to develop a fundamental understanding of galaxy formation and evolution, observations of dusty star-forming galaxies (DSFGs) promise significant progress this decade. The importance of DSFGs is highlighted by the fact that half of the energy emitted by extragalactic sources emerges as dust-reprocessed light at infrared (IR) to sub millimeter wavelength. In the post-herschel\\ era, we are now at a unique position to tackle some of the key questions on galaxy formation and evolution because of the large area Herschel's Key Project surveys (HerMES and H-ATLAS). In particular those surveys have allowed us to identify a sample of 250 strongly gravitationally lensed DSFGs at z > 1. They give us a unique opportunity to dissect the detailed structures and kinematics of DSFGs. The Herschel Science Archive also contains individual follow up data on 44 and 25 of the brightest sources with SPIRE-FTS and PACS, respectively, in the spectroscopy mode, taking over 250 hours in four open-time programs. Only one of the 44 SPIRE FTS targets has yet to appear in the published literature. One of the four include an open-time 2 PACS spectroscopy program that was led at UCI by a former postdoc from the PI's group. That program was initially approved at Priority 2 in 2011, but was triggered in late 2012 and achieved 100% completion during the last two weeks of Herschel lifetime in May 2013. This archival analysis, interpretation, and modeling program involves two parts: (i) PACS spectroscopy in 50 to 200 microns of 25 lensed galaxies in the fine-structure emission lines [SiII]34, [SIII]33, [OIV]26, [OIII]52, [NIII]57 and [OI]63, and the molecular hydrogen H_2 S(0) and S(1). (ii) SPIRE FTS spectroscopy of 44 lensed galaxies, including above 25, over the wavelength range of 200 to 600 microns targeting [CII]158, [OIII]88, [OI]63/145, and [NI]122. The analysis will lead to a better understanding of the ISM of starbursting galaxies that span 1 < z < 3.1 range in redshift and a

  14. Aminocaproic Acid

    MedlinePlus

    Aminocaproic acid is used to control bleeding that occurs when blood clots are broken down too quickly. This type ... the baby is ready to be born). Aminocaproic acid is also used to control bleeding in the ...

  15. Ethacrynic Acid

    MedlinePlus

    Ethacrynic acid, a 'water pill,' is used to treat swelling and fluid retention caused by various medical problems. It ... Ethacrynic acid comes as a tablet to take by mouth. It is usually taken once or twice a day ...

  16. Aristolochic Acids

    MedlinePlus

    ... Sciences NIH-HHS www.niehs.nih.gov Aristolochic Acids Key Points Report on Carcinogens Status Known to be human carcinogens Aristolochia Clematitis Aristolochic Acids n Known human carcinogens n Found in certain ...

  17. Obeticholic Acid

    MedlinePlus

    Obeticholic acid is used alone or in combination with ursodiol (Actigall, Urso) to treat primary biliary cholangitis (PBC; a ... were not treated successfully with ursodiol alone. Obeticholic acid is in a class of medications called farnesoid ...

  18. Acid mucopolysaccharides

    MedlinePlus

    ... this page: //medlineplus.gov/ency/article/003368.htm Acid mucopolysaccharides To use the sharing features on this page, please enable JavaScript. Acid mucopolysaccharides is a test that measures the amount ...

  19. Fatty acids - trans fatty acids

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The data supporting a negative effect of dietary trans fatty acids on cardiovascular disease risk is consistent. The primary dietary sources of trans fatty acids include partially hydrogenated fat and rudiment fat. The adverse effect of trans fatty acids on plasma lipoprotein profiles is consisten...

  20. The Greenhouse Gas Climate Change Initiative (GHG-CCI): comparative validation of GHG-CCI SCIAMACHY/ENVISAT and TANSO-FTS/GOSAT CO2 and CH4 retrieval algorithm products with measurements from the TCCON

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dils, B.; Buchwitz, M.; Reuter, M.; Schneising, O.; Boesch, H.; Parker, R.; Guerlet, S.; Aben, I.; Blumenstock, T.; Burrows, J. P.; Butz, A.; Deutscher, N. M.; Frankenberg, C.; Hase, F.; Hasekamp, O. P.; Heymann, J.; De Mazière, M.; Notholt, J.; Sussmann, R.; Warneke, T.; Griffith, D.; Sherlock, V.; Wunch, D.

    2014-06-01

    Column-averaged dry-air mole fractions of carbon dioxide and methane have been retrieved from spectra acquired by the TANSO-FTS (Thermal And Near-infrared Sensor for carbon Observations-Fourier Transform Spectrometer) and SCIAMACHY (Scanning Imaging Absorption Spectrometer for Atmospheric Cartography) instruments on board GOSAT (Greenhouse gases Observing SATellite) and ENVISAT (ENVIronmental SATellite), respectively, using a range of European retrieval algorithms. These retrievals have been compared with data from ground-based high-resolution Fourier transform spectrometers (FTSs) from the Total Carbon Column Observing Network (TCCON). The participating algorithms are the weighting function modified differential optical absorption spectroscopy (DOAS) algorithm (WFMD, University of Bremen), the Bremen optimal estimation DOAS algorithm (BESD, University of Bremen), the iterative maximum a posteriori DOAS (IMAP, Jet Propulsion Laboratory (JPL) and Netherlands Institute for Space Research algorithm (SRON)), the proxy and full-physics versions of SRON's RemoTeC algorithm (SRPR and SRFP, respectively) and the proxy and full-physics versions of the University of Leicester's adaptation of the OCO (Orbiting Carbon Observatory) algorithm (OCPR and OCFP, respectively). The goal of this algorithm inter-comparison was to identify strengths and weaknesses of the various so-called round- robin data sets generated with the various algorithms so as to determine which of the competing algorithms would proceed to the next round of the European Space Agency's (ESA) Greenhouse Gas Climate Change Initiative (GHG-CCI) project, which is the generation of the so-called Climate Research Data Package (CRDP), which is the first version of the Essential Climate Variable (ECV) "greenhouse gases" (GHGs). For XCO2, all algorithms reach the precision requirements for inverse modelling (< 8 ppm), with only WFMD having a lower precision (4.7 ppm) than the other algorithm products (2.4-2.5 ppm

  1. Aspartic acid

    MedlinePlus

    ... Hormone production and release Normal nervous system function Plant sources of aspartic acid include: Legumes such as soybeans, garbanzo beans, and lentils Peanuts, almonds, walnuts, and flaxseeds Animal ...

  2. Usnic acid.

    PubMed

    Ingólfsdóttir, K

    2002-12-01

    Since its first isolation in 1844, usnic acid [2,6-diacetyl-7,9-dihydroxy-8,9b-dimethyl-1,3(2H,9bH)-dibenzo-furandione] has become the most extensively studied lichen metabolite and one of the few that is commercially available. Usnic acid is uniquely found in lichens, and is especially abundant in genera such as Alectoria, Cladonia, Usnea, Lecanora, Ramalina and Evernia. Many lichens and extracts containing usnic acid have been utilized for medicinal, perfumery, cosmetic as well as ecological applications. Usnic acid as a pure substance has been formulated in creams, toothpaste, mouthwash, deodorants and sunscreen products, in some cases as an active principle, in others as a preservative. In addition to antimicrobial activity against human and plant pathogens, usnic acid has been shown to exhibit antiviral, antiprotozoal, antiproliferative, anti-inflammatory and analgesic activity. Ecological effects, such as antigrowth, antiherbivore and anti-insect properties, have also been demonstrated. A difference in biological activity has in some cases been observed between the two enantiomeric forms of usnic acid. Recently health food supplements containing usnic acid have been promoted for use in weight reduction, with little scientific support. The emphasis of the current review is on the chemistry and biological activity of usnic acid and its derivatives in addition to rational and ecologically acceptable methods for provision of this natural compound on a large scale.

  3. Acid rain

    SciTech Connect

    Elsworth, S.

    1985-01-01

    This book was written in a concise and readable style for the lay public. It's purpose was to make the public aware of the damage caused by acid rain and to mobilize public opinion to favor the elimination of the causes of acid rain.

  4. Acid rain

    SciTech Connect

    White, J.C. )

    1988-01-01

    This book presents the proceedings of the third annual conference sponsored by the Acid Rain Information Clearinghouse (ARIC). Topics covered include: Legal aspects of the source-receptor relationship: an energy perspective; Scientific uncertainty, agency inaction, and the courts; and Acid rain: the emerging legal framework.

  5. How Acidic Is Carbonic Acid?

    PubMed

    Pines, Dina; Ditkovich, Julia; Mukra, Tzach; Miller, Yifat; Kiefer, Philip M; Daschakraborty, Snehasis; Hynes, James T; Pines, Ehud

    2016-03-10

    Carbonic, lactic, and pyruvic acids have been generated in aqueous solution by the transient protonation of their corresponding conjugate bases by a tailor-made photoacid, the 6-hydroxy-1-sulfonate pyrene sodium salt molecule. A particular goal is to establish the pK(a) of carbonic acid H2CO3. The on-contact proton transfer (PT) reaction rate from the optically excited photoacid to the carboxylic bases was derived, with unprecedented precision, from time-correlated single-photon-counting measurements of the fluorescence lifetime of the photoacid in the presence of the proton acceptors. The time-dependent diffusion-assisted PT rate was analyzed using the Szabo-Collins-Kimball equation with a radiation boundary condition. The on-contact PT rates were found to follow the acidity order of the carboxylic acids: the stronger was the acid, the slower was the PT reaction to its conjugate base. The pK(a) of carbonic acid was found to be 3.49 ± 0.05 using both the Marcus and Kiefer-Hynes free energy correlations. This establishes H2CO3 as being 0.37 pK(a) units stronger and about 1 pK(a) unit weaker, respectively, than the physiologically important lactic and pyruvic acids. The considerable acid strength of intact carbonic acid indicates that it is an important protonation agent under physiological conditions. PMID:26862781

  6. Acid rain

    SciTech Connect

    Sweet, W.

    1980-06-20

    Acid precipitation includes not only rain but also acidified snow, hail and frost, as well as sulfur and nitrogen dust. The principal source of acid precipitation is pollution emitted by power plants and smelters. Sulfur and nitrogen compounds contained in the emissions combine with moisture to form droplets with a high acid content - sometimes as acidic as vinegar. When sufficiently concentrated, these acids can kill fish and damage material structures. Under certain circumstances they may reduce crop and forest yields and cause or aggravate respiratory diseases in humans. During the summer, especially, pollutants tend to collect over the Great Lakes in high pressure systems. Since winds typically are westerly and rotate clockwise around high pressure systems, the pollutants gradually are dispersed throughout the eastern part of the continent.

  7. Asparagusic acid.

    PubMed

    Mitchell, Stephen C; Waring, Rosemary H

    2014-01-01

    Asparagusic acid (1,2-dithiolane-4-carboxylic acid) is a simple sulphur-containing 5-membered heterocyclic compound that appears unique to asparagus, though other dithiolane derivatives have been identified in non-food species. This molecule, apparently innocuous toxicologically to man, is the most probable culprit responsible for the curious excretion of odorous urine following asparagus ingestion. The presence of the two adjacent sulphur atoms leads to an enhanced chemical reactivity, endowing it with biological properties including the ability to substitute potentially for α-lipoic acid in α-keto-acid oxidation systems. This brief review collects the scattered data available in the literature concerning asparagusic acid and highlights its properties, intermediary metabolism and exploratory applications.

  8. Acid rain

    SciTech Connect

    Bess, F.D.

    1980-01-01

    The acid rain problem in the northeastern U.S. has been growing in severity and geographical areas affected. Acid rain has damaged, or will result in damage to visibility, physical structures and materials, aquatic life, timber, crops, and soils. The principal causes of acid rain in the northeastern U.S. are sulfur oxide and nitrogen oxide emissions from large power plants and smelters in the Ohio River Valley. Immediate corrective action and appropriate research are needed to reduce acid precipitation. Short-term programs that will define the rate of environmental deterioration, remaining environmental capacity to resist sudden deterioration, mechanisms of acid rain formation, and costs of various control options must be developed. (3 maps, 13 references, 1 table)

  9. Asparagusic acid.

    PubMed

    Mitchell, Stephen C; Waring, Rosemary H

    2014-01-01

    Asparagusic acid (1,2-dithiolane-4-carboxylic acid) is a simple sulphur-containing 5-membered heterocyclic compound that appears unique to asparagus, though other dithiolane derivatives have been identified in non-food species. This molecule, apparently innocuous toxicologically to man, is the most probable culprit responsible for the curious excretion of odorous urine following asparagus ingestion. The presence of the two adjacent sulphur atoms leads to an enhanced chemical reactivity, endowing it with biological properties including the ability to substitute potentially for α-lipoic acid in α-keto-acid oxidation systems. This brief review collects the scattered data available in the literature concerning asparagusic acid and highlights its properties, intermediary metabolism and exploratory applications. PMID:24099657

  10. Acid fog

    SciTech Connect

    Hileman, B.

    1983-03-01

    Fog in areas of southern California previously thought to be pollution-free has been shown to have a pH as low as 1.69. It has been found to be most acidic after smoggy days, suggesting that it forms on the aerosol associated with the previously exiting smog. Studies on Whiteface Mountain in the Adirondacks show that fog water is often 10 times as acidic as rainwater. As a result of their studies, California plans to spend $4 million on acid deposition research in the coming year. (JMT)

  11. Tranexamic Acid

    MedlinePlus

    ... is used to treat heavy bleeding during the menstrual cycle (monthly periods) in women. Tranexamic acid is in ... tablets for more than 5 days in a menstrual cycle or take more than 6 tablets in a ...

  12. Mefenamic Acid

    MedlinePlus

    ... as mefenamic acid may cause ulcers, bleeding, or holes in the stomach or intestine. These problems may ... like coffee grounds, blood in the stool, or black and tarry stools.Keep all appointments with your ...

  13. Acid Precipitation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Likens, Gene E.

    1976-01-01

    Discusses the fact that the acidity of rain and snow falling on parts of the U.S. and Europe has been rising. The reasons are still not entirely clear and the consequences have yet to be well evaluated. (MLH)

  14. Acidic precipitation

    SciTech Connect

    Martin, H.C.

    1987-01-01

    At the International Symposium on Acidic Precipitation, over 400 papers were presented, and nearly 200 of them are included here. They provide an overview of the present state of the art of acid rain research. The Conference focused on atmospheric science (monitoring, source-receptor relationships), aquatic effects (marine eutrophication, lake acidification, impacts on plant and fish populations), and terrestrial effects (forest decline, soil acidification, etc.).

  15. Salicylic acids

    PubMed Central

    Hayat, Shamsul; Irfan, Mohd; Wani, Arif; Nasser, Alyemeni; Ahmad, Aqil

    2012-01-01

    Salicylic acid is well known phytohormone, emerging recently as a new paradigm of an array of manifestations of growth regulators. The area unleashed yet encompassed the applied agriculture sector to find the roles to strengthen the crops against plethora of abiotic and biotic stresses. The skipped part of integrated picture, however, was the evolutionary insight of salicylic acid to either allow or discard the microbial invasion depending upon various internal factors of two interactants under the prevailing external conditions. The metabolic status that allows the host invasion either as pathogenesis or symbiosis with possible intermediary stages in close systems has been tried to underpin here. PMID:22301975

  16. Stearic Acid

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Young, Jay A.

    2004-01-01

    A chemical laboratory information profile (CLIP) is presented for the chemical, stearic acid. The profile lists the chemical's physical and harmful characteristics, exposure limits, and symptoms of major exposure, for the benefit of teachers and students, who use the chemical in the laboratory.

  17. Trichloroacetic acid

    Integrated Risk Information System (IRIS)

    Trichloroacetic acid ( TCA ) ; CASRN 76 - 03 - 9 Human health assessment information on a chemical substance is included in the IRIS database only after a comprehensive review of toxicity data , as outlined in the IRIS assessment development process . Sections I ( Health Hazard Assessments for Nonca

  18. Acrylic acid

    Integrated Risk Information System (IRIS)

    Acrylic acid ( CASRN 79 - 10 - 7 ) Human health assessment information on a chemical substance is included in the IRIS database only after a comprehensive review of toxicity data , as outlined in the IRIS assessment development process . Sections I ( Health Hazard Assessments for Noncarcinogenic Eff

  19. Selenious acid

    Integrated Risk Information System (IRIS)

    Selenious acid ; CASRN 7783 - 00 - 8 Human health assessment information on a chemical substance is included in the IRIS database only after a comprehensive review of toxicity data , as outlined in the IRIS assessment development process . Sections I ( Health Hazard Assessments for Noncarcinogenic E

  20. Dichloroacetic acid

    Integrated Risk Information System (IRIS)

    Dichloroacetic acid ; CASRN 79 - 43 - 6 Human health assessment information on a chemical substance is included in the IRIS database only after a comprehensive review of toxicity data , as outlined in the IRIS assessment development process . Sections I ( Health Hazard Assessments for Noncarcinogeni

  1. Cacodylic acid

    Integrated Risk Information System (IRIS)

    Cacodylic acid ; CASRN 75 - 60 - 5 Human health assessment information on a chemical substance is included in the IRIS database only after a comprehensive review of toxicity data , as outlined in the IRIS assessment development process . Sections I ( Health Hazard Assessments for Noncarcinogenic Eff

  2. Phosphoric acid

    Integrated Risk Information System (IRIS)

    Phosphoric acid ; CASRN 7664 - 38 - 2 Human health assessment information on a chemical substance is included in the IRIS database only after a comprehensive review of toxicity data , as outlined in the IRIS assessment development process . Sections I ( Health Hazard Assessments for Noncarcinogenic

  3. Benzoic acid

    Integrated Risk Information System (IRIS)

    Benzoic acid ; CASRN 65 - 85 - 0 Human health assessment information on a chemical substance is included in the IRIS database only after a comprehensive review of toxicity data , as outlined in the IRIS assessment development process . Sections I ( Health Hazard Assessments for Noncarcinogenic Effec

  4. Formic acid

    Integrated Risk Information System (IRIS)

    Formic acid ; CASRN 64 - 18 - 6 Human health assessment information on a chemical substance is included in the IRIS database only after a comprehensive review of toxicity data , as outlined in the IRIS assessment development process . Sections I ( Health Hazard Assessments for Noncarcinogenic Effect

  5. [Hyaluronic acid].

    PubMed

    Pomarede, N

    2008-01-01

    Hyaluronic Acid (HA) is now a leader product in esthetic procedures for the treatment of wrinkles and volumes. The structure of HA, its metabolism, its physiological function are foremost breaking down then its use in aesthetic dermatology: steps of injection, possible side effects, benefits and downsides of the use of HA in aesthetic dermatology.

  6. Potent Antibacterial Antisense Peptide–Peptide Nucleic Acid Conjugates Against Pseudomonas aeruginosa

    PubMed Central

    Ghosal, Anubrata

    2012-01-01

    Pseudomonas aeruginosa is an opportunistic pathogen causing severe infections in hospital settings, especially with immune compromised patients, and the increasing prevalence of multidrug resistant strains urges search for new drugs with novel mechanisms of action. In this study we introduce antisense peptide–peptide nucleic acid (PNA) conjugates as antibacterial agents against P. aeruginosa. We have designed and optimized antisense peptide–PNA conjugates targeting the translation initiation region of the ftsZ gene (an essential bacterial gene involved in cell division) or the acpP gene (an essential bacterial gene involved in fatty acid synthesis) of P. aeruginosa (PA01) and characterized these compounds according to their antimicrobial activity and mode of action. Four antisense PNA oligomers conjugated to the H-(R-Ahx-R)4-Ahx-βala or the H-(R-Ahx)6-βala peptide exhibited complete growth inhibition of P. aeruginosa strains PA01, PA14, and LESB58 at 1–2 μM concentrations without any indication of bacterial membrane disruption (even at 20 μM), and resulted in specific reduction of the targeted mRNA levels. One of the four compounds showed clear bactericidal activity while the other significantly reduced bacterial survival. These results open the possibility of development of antisense antibacterials for treatment of Pseudomonas infections. PMID:23030590

  7. Hydroxycarboxylic acids and salts

    DOEpatents

    Kiely, Donald E; Hash, Kirk R; Kramer-Presta, Kylie; Smith, Tyler N

    2015-02-24

    Compositions which inhibit corrosion and alter the physical properties of concrete (admixtures) are prepared from salt mixtures of hydroxycarboxylic acids, carboxylic acids, and nitric acid. The salt mixtures are prepared by neutralizing acid product mixtures from the oxidation of polyols using nitric acid and oxygen as the oxidizing agents. Nitric acid is removed from the hydroxycarboxylic acids by evaporation and diffusion dialysis.

  8. Methylmalonic acid blood test

    MedlinePlus

    ... acid is a substance produced when proteins, called amino acids, in the body break down. The health care ... Cederbaum S, Berry GT. Inborn errors of carbohydrate, ammonia, amino acid, and organic acid metabolism. In: Gleason CA, Devaskar ...

  9. Folic Acid and Pregnancy

    MedlinePlus

    ... 5 Things to Know About Zika & Pregnancy Folic Acid and Pregnancy KidsHealth > For Parents > Folic Acid and ... before conception and during early pregnancy . About Folic Acid Folic acid, sometimes called folate, is a B ...

  10. Understanding Acid Rain

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Damonte, Kathleen

    2004-01-01

    The term acid rain describes rain, snow, or fog that is more acidic than normal precipitation. To understand what acid rain is, it is first necessary to know what an acid is. Acids can be defined as substances that produce hydrogen ions (H+), when dissolved in water. Scientists indicate how acidic a substance is by a set of numbers called the pH…

  11. Precipitation: its acidic nature.

    PubMed

    Frohliger, J O; Kane, R

    1975-08-01

    A comparison of the free hydrogen ion concentration and the total hydrogen ion concentration of rain samples shows that rain is a weak acid. The weak acid nature of rain casts doubt on the concepts that the acidity of rain is increasing and that these increases are due to strong acids such as sulfuric acid.

  12. Amino Acid Metabolism Disorders

    MedlinePlus

    ... defects & other health conditions > Amino acid metabolism disorders Amino acid metabolism disorders E-mail to a friend Please ... baby’s newborn screening may include testing for certain amino acid metabolism disorders. These are rare health conditions that ...

  13. Carbolic acid poisoning

    MedlinePlus

    Phenol poisoning; Phenylic acid poisoning; Hydroxybenzene poisoning; Phenic acid poisoning; Benzenol poisoning ... Below are symptoms of carbolic acid poisoning in different parts of the ... urine Decreased urine output No urine output EYES, EARS, ...

  14. Azelaic Acid Topical

    MedlinePlus

    Azelaic acid gel is used to clear the bumps, lesions, and swelling caused by rosacea (a skin disease that ... redness, flushing, and pimples on the face). Azelaic acid cream is used to treat acne. Azelaic acid ...

  15. Uric acid test (image)

    MedlinePlus

    Uric acid urine test is performed to check for the amount of uric acid in urine. Urine is collected over a 24 ... testing. The most common reason for measuring uric acid levels is in the diagnosis or treatment of ...

  16. Facts about Folic Acid

    MedlinePlus

    ... Information For... Media Policy Makers Facts About Folic Acid Language: English Español (Spanish) Recommend on Facebook Tweet ... of the baby's brain and spine. About folic acid Folic acid is a B vitamin. Our bodies ...

  17. Acid Lipase Disease

    MedlinePlus

    ... Awards Enhancing Diversity Find People About NINDS NINDS Acid Lipase Disease Information Page Synonym(s): Cholesterol Ester Storage ... Trials Related NINDS Publications and Information What is Acid Lipase Disease ? Acid lipase disease or deficiency occurs ...

  18. Acid distribution in phosphoric acid fuel cells

    SciTech Connect

    Okae, I.; Seya, A.; Umemoto, M.

    1996-12-31

    Electrolyte acid distribution among each component of a cell is determined by capillary force when the cell is not in operation, but the distribution under the current load conditions had not been clear so far. Since the loss of electrolyte acid during operation is inevitable, it is necessary to store enough amount of acid in every cell. But it must be under the level of which the acid disturbs the diffusion of reactive gases. Accordingly to know the actual acid distribution during operation in a cell is very important. In this report, we carried out experiments to clarify the distribution using small single cells.

  19. Acid tolerance in amphibians

    SciTech Connect

    Pierce, B.A.

    1985-04-01

    Studies of amphibian acid tolerance provide information about the potential effects of acid deposition on amphibian communities. Amphibians as a group appear to be relatively acid tolerant, with many species suffering increased mortality only below pH 4. However, amphibians exhibit much intraspecific variation in acid tolerance, and some species are sensitive to even low levels of acidity. Furthermore, nonlethal effects, including depression of growth rates and increases in developmental abnormalities, can occur at higher pH.

  20. Bioconversions of ferulic acid, an hydroxycinnamic acid.

    PubMed

    Mathew, Sindhu; Abraham, T Emilia

    2006-01-01

    Ferulic acid is the most abundant hydroxycinnamic acid in the plant world and is ester linked to arabinose, in various plant polysaccharides such as arabinoxylans and pectins. It is a precursor to vanillin, one of the most important aromatic flavor compound used in foods, beverages, pharmaceuticals, and perfumes. This article presents an overview of the various biocatalytic routes, focusing on the relevant biotransformations of ferulic acid using plant sources, microorganisms, and enzymes.

  1. Acid Thunder: Acid Rain and Ancient Mesoamerica

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kahl, Jonathan D. W.; Berg, Craig A.

    2006-01-01

    Much of Mesoamerica's rich cultural heritage is slowly eroding because of acid rain. Just as water dissolves an Alka-Seltzer tablet, acid rain erodes the limestone surfaces of Mexican archaeological sites at a rate of about one-half millimeter per century (Bravo et al. 2003). A half-millimeter may not seem like much, but at this pace, a few…

  2. Quantity of acid in acid fog

    SciTech Connect

    Deal, W.J.

    1983-07-01

    This communication notes the actual magnitude of the acidity in acidic fog particles and suggests a possible line of inquiry into the health effects of such fog so that it can be determined whether a typical fog is detrimental or beneficial relative to dry air.

  3. Lactic acid test

    MedlinePlus

    ... this page: //medlineplus.gov/ency/article/003507.htm Lactic acid test To use the sharing features on this page, please enable JavaScript. Lactic acid is mainly produced in muscle cells and red ...

  4. Omega-6 Fatty Acids

    MedlinePlus

    ... types of fats. Some types are found in vegetable oils, including corn, evening primrose seed, safflower, and soybean ... from studying specific omega-6 fatty acids or plant oils containing omega-6 fatty acids. See the separate ...

  5. Fatty acid analogs

    DOEpatents

    Elmaleh, David R.; Livni, Eli

    1985-01-01

    In one aspect, a radioactively labeled analog of a fatty acid which is capable of being taken up by mammalian tissue and which exhibits an in vivo beta-oxidation rate below that with a corresponding radioactively labeled fatty acid.

  6. Deoxycholic Acid Injection

    MedlinePlus

    Deoxycholic acid injection is used to improve the appearance and profile of moderate to severe submental fat ('double chin'; fatty tissue located under the chin). Deoxycholic acid injection is in a class of medications called ...

  7. Aminocaproic Acid Injection

    MedlinePlus

    Aminocaproic acid injection is used to control bleeding that occurs when blood clots are broken down too quickly. This ... the baby is ready to be born). Aminocaproic acid injection is also used to control bleeding in ...

  8. Zoledronic Acid Injection

    MedlinePlus

    ... acid (Reclast) is used to prevent or treat osteoporosis (condition in which the bones become thin and ... Zoledronic acid (Reclast) is also used to treat osteoporosis in men, and to prevent or treat osteoporosis ...

  9. Uric Acid Test

    MedlinePlus

    ... limited. Home Visit Global Sites Search Help? Uric Acid Share this page: Was this page helpful? Also known as: Serum Urate; UA Formal name: Uric Acid Related tests: Synovial Fluid Analysis , Kidney Stone Analysis , ...

  10. Methylmalonic Acid Test

    MedlinePlus

    ... limited. Home Visit Global Sites Search Help? Methylmalonic Acid Share this page: Was this page helpful? Also known as: MMA Formal name: Methylmalonic Acid Related tests: Vitamin B12 and Folate , Homocysteine , Intrinsic ...

  11. Hydrochloric acid poisoning

    MedlinePlus

    Hydrochloric acid is a clear, poisonous liquid. It is highly corrosive, which means it immediately causes severe ... discusses poisoning due to swallowing or breathing in hydrochloric acid. This article is for information only. Do ...

  12. Mixed Acid Oxidation

    SciTech Connect

    Pierce, R.A.

    1999-10-26

    Several non-thermal processes have been developed to destroy organic waste compounds using chemicals with high oxidation potentials. These efforts have focused on developing technologies that work at low temperatures, relative to incineration, to overcome many of the regulatory issues associated with obtaining permits for waste incinerators. One such technique with great flexibility is mixed acid oxidation. Mixed acid oxidation, developed at the Savannah River Site, uses a mixture of an oxidant (nitric acid) and a carrier acid (phosphoric acid). The carrier acid acts as a non-volatile holding medium for the somewhat volatile oxidant. The combination of acids allows appreciable amounts of the concentrated oxidant to remain in the carrier acid well above the oxidant''s normal boiling point.

  13. Plant fatty acid hydroxylases

    DOEpatents

    Somerville, Chris; Broun, Pierre; van de Loo, Frank

    2001-01-01

    This invention relates to plant fatty acyl hydroxylases. Methods to use conserved amino acid or nucleotide sequences to obtain plant fatty acyl hydroxylases are described. Also described is the use of cDNA clones encoding a plant hydroxylase to produce a family of hydroxylated fatty acids in transgenic plants. In addition, the use of genes encoding fatty acid hydroxylases or desaturases to alter the level of lipid fatty acid unsaturation in transgenic plants is described.

  14. PRODUCTION OF TRIFLUOROACETIC ACID

    DOEpatents

    Haworth, W.N.; Stacey, M.

    1949-07-19

    A method is given for the production of improved yields of trifluoroacetic acid. The compound is prepared by oxidizing m-aminobenzotrifluoride with an alkali metal or alkaline earth metal permanganate at a temperature in the range of 80 deg C to 100 deg C while dissolved ln a mixture of water with glacial acetic acid and/or trifluoroacetic acid. Preferably a mixture of water and trifluoroacetic acid ls used as the solvent.

  15. Quantity of acid in acid fog

    SciTech Connect

    Deal, W.J.

    1983-07-01

    The chemical composition of fog particles has become of considerable interest, because of both the possibility of interpreting atmospheric- chemistry processes in fog particles in terms of the principles of aqueous chemistry and the potential health effects of species present in fog particles. The acidity of fog particles has received wide attention. This communication noted the actual magnitude of the excess acidity in acidic fog particles and suggested a possible line of inquiry into the health effects of such fog so that it can be determined whether a typical fog is detrimental or beneficial relative to dry air. (DP)

  16. Acid Rain Study Guide.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hunger, Carolyn; And Others

    Acid rain is a complex, worldwide environmental problem. This study guide is intended to aid teachers of grades 4-12 to help their students understand what acid rain is, why it is a problem, and what possible solutions exist. The document contains specific sections on: (1) the various terms used in conjunction with acid rain (such as acid…

  17. The Acid Rain Reader.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stubbs, Harriett S.; And Others

    A topic which is often not sufficiently dealt with in elementary school textbooks is acid rain. This student text is designed to supplement classroom materials on the topic. Discussed are: (1) "Rain"; (2) "Water Cycle"; (3) "Fossil Fuels"; (4) "Air Pollution"; (5) "Superstacks"; (6) "Acid/Neutral/Bases"; (7) "pH Scale"; (8) "Acid Rain"; (9)…

  18. What Is Acid Rain?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Likens, Gene E.

    2004-01-01

    Acid rain is the collective term for any type of acidified precipitation: rain, snow, sleet, and hail, as well as the presence of acidifying gases, particles, cloud water, and fog in the atmosphere. The increased acidity, primarily from sulfuric and nitric acids, is generated as a by-product of the combustion of fossil fuels such as coal and oil.…

  19. [alpha]-Oxocarboxylic Acids

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kerber, Robert C.; Fernando, Marian S.

    2010-01-01

    Several [alpha]-oxocarboxylic acids play key roles in metabolism in plants and animals. However, there are inconsistencies between the structures as commonly portrayed and the reported acid ionization constants, which result because the acids are predominantly hydrated in aqueous solution; that is, the predominant form is RC(OH)[subscript 2]COOH…

  20. Nucleic acid detection compositions

    DOEpatents

    Prudent, James R.; Hall, Jeff G.; Lyamichev, Victor I.; Brow, Mary Ann; Dahlberg, James L.

    2008-08-05

    The present invention relates to means for the detection and characterization of nucleic acid sequences, as well as variations in nucleic acid sequences. The present invention also relates to methods for forming a nucleic acid cleavage structure on a target sequence and cleaving the nucleic acid cleavage structure in a site-specific manner. The structure-specific nuclease activity of a variety of enzymes is used to cleave the target-dependent cleavage structure, thereby indicating the presence of specific nucleic acid sequences or specific variations thereof.

  1. Cleavage of nucleic acids

    DOEpatents

    Prudent, James R.; Hall, Jeff G.; Lyamichev, Victor I.; Brow, Mary Ann D.; Dahlberg, James E.

    2000-01-01

    The present invention relates to means for the detection and characterization of nucleic acid sequences, as well as variations in nucleic acid sequences. The present invention also relates to methods for forming a nucleic acid cleavage structure on a target sequence and cleaving the nucleic acid cleavage structure in a site-specific manner. The structure-specific nuclease activity of a variety of enzymes is used to cleave the target-dependent cleavage structure, thereby indicating the presence of specific nucleic acid sequences or specific variations thereof.

  2. Nucleic acid detection assays

    DOEpatents

    Prudent, James R.; Hall, Jeff G.; Lyamichev, Victor I.; Brow, Mary Ann; Dahlberg, James E.

    2005-04-05

    The present invention relates to means for the detection and characterization of nucleic acid sequences, as well as variations in nucleic acid sequences. The present invention also relates to methods for forming a nucleic acid cleavage structure on a target sequence and cleaving the nucleic acid cleavage structure in a site-specific manner. The structure-specific nuclease activity of a variety of enzymes is used to cleave the target-dependent cleavage structure, thereby indicating the presence of specific nucleic acid sequences or specific variations thereof.

  3. Cleavage of nucleic acids

    DOEpatents

    Prudent, James R.; Hall, Jeff G.; Lyamichev, Victor L.; Brow, Mary Ann D.; Dahlberg, James E.

    2007-12-11

    The present invention relates to means for the detection and characterization of nucleic acid sequences, as well as variations in nucleic acid sequences. The present invention also relates to methods for forming a nucleic acid cleavage structure on a target sequence and cleaving the nucleic acid cleavage structure in a site-specific manner. The structure-specific nuclease activity of a variety of enzymes is used to cleave the target-dependent cleavage structure, thereby indicating the presence of specific nucleic acid sequences or specific variations thereof.

  4. Cleavage of nucleic acids

    SciTech Connect

    Prudent, James R.; Hall, Jeff G.; Lyamichev, Victor I.; Brow; Mary Ann D.; Dahlberg, James E.

    2010-11-09

    The present invention relates to means for the detection and characterization of nucleic acid sequences, as well as variations in nucleic acid sequences. The present invention also relates to methods for forming a nucleic acid cleavage structure on a target sequence and cleaving the nucleic acid cleavage structure in a site-specific manner. The structure-specific nuclease activity of a variety of enzymes is used to cleave the target-dependent cleavage structure, thereby indicating the presence of specific nucleic acid sequences or specific variations thereof.

  5. Editorial: Acid precipitation

    SciTech Connect

    1995-09-01

    This editorial focuses on acid rain and the history of public and governmental response to acid rain. Comments on a book by Gwineth Howell `Acid Rain and Acid Waters` are included. The editor feels that Howells has provide a service to the environmental scientific community, with a textbook useful to a range of people, as well as a call for decision makers to learn from the acid rain issue and use it as a model for more sweeping global environmental issues. A balance is needed among several parameters such as level of evidence, probability that the evidence will lead to a specific direction and the cost to the global community. 1 tab.

  6. [Safety of folic acid].

    PubMed

    Ströhle, Alexander; Wolters, Maike; Hahn, Andreas

    2015-08-01

    Improving dietary folate intake is a central public health goal. However, critical voices have become louder warning of too high intake of folic acid. Safety concerns of a high folic acid exposure are usually limited to synthetic folic acid contained in drugs and food supplements. Against this background, the present article focuses on two matters: (a) How do the absorption and metabolism of synthetic folic acid differ from that of other folates? (b) How has the longterm safety of folic acid to be judged, especially regarding the risk of colorectal cancer, autism, asthma, impaired immune defence, masking vitamin B12 deficiency and interactions with the methotrexate metabolism?

  7. Amino acid analysis

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Winitz, M.; Graff, J. (Inventor)

    1974-01-01

    The process and apparatus for qualitative and quantitative analysis of the amino acid content of a biological sample are presented. The sample is deposited on a cation exchange resin and then is washed with suitable solvents. The amino acids and various cations and organic material with a basic function remain on the resin. The resin is eluted with an acid eluant, and the eluate containing the amino acids is transferred to a reaction vessel where the eluant is removed. Final analysis of the purified acylated amino acid esters is accomplished by gas-liquid chromatographic techniques.

  8. Acidic Ionic Liquids.

    PubMed

    Amarasekara, Ananda S

    2016-05-25

    Ionic liquid with acidic properties is an important branch in the wide ionic liquid field and the aim of this article is to cover all aspects of these acidic ionic liquids, especially focusing on the developments in the last four years. The structural diversity and synthesis of acidic ionic liquids are discussed in the introduction sections of this review. In addition, an unambiguous classification system for various types of acidic ionic liquids is presented in the introduction. The physical properties including acidity, thermo-physical properties, ionic conductivity, spectroscopy, and computational studies on acidic ionic liquids are covered in the next sections. The final section provides a comprehensive review on applications of acidic ionic liquids in a wide array of fields including catalysis, CO2 fixation, ionogel, electrolyte, fuel-cell, membrane, biomass processing, biodiesel synthesis, desulfurization of gasoline/diesel, metal processing, and metal electrodeposition.

  9. Nucleic acid detection kits

    DOEpatents

    Hall, Jeff G.; Lyamichev, Victor I.; Mast, Andrea L.; Brow, Mary Ann; Kwiatkowski, Robert W.; Vavra, Stephanie H.

    2005-03-29

    The present invention relates to means for the detection and characterization of nucleic acid sequences, as well as variations in nucleic acid sequences. The present invention also relates to methods for forming a nucleic acid cleavage structure on a target sequence and cleaving the nucleic acid cleavage structure in a site-specific manner. The structure-specific nuclease activity of a variety of enzymes is used to cleave the target-dependent cleavage structure, thereby indicating the presence of specific nucleic acid sequences or specific variations thereof. The present invention further relates to methods and devices for the separation of nucleic acid molecules based on charge. The present invention also provides methods for the detection of non-target cleavage products via the formation of a complete and activated protein binding region. The invention further provides sensitive and specific methods for the detection of nucleic acid from various viruses in a sample.

  10. Acidic Ionic Liquids.

    PubMed

    Amarasekara, Ananda S

    2016-05-25

    Ionic liquid with acidic properties is an important branch in the wide ionic liquid field and the aim of this article is to cover all aspects of these acidic ionic liquids, especially focusing on the developments in the last four years. The structural diversity and synthesis of acidic ionic liquids are discussed in the introduction sections of this review. In addition, an unambiguous classification system for various types of acidic ionic liquids is presented in the introduction. The physical properties including acidity, thermo-physical properties, ionic conductivity, spectroscopy, and computational studies on acidic ionic liquids are covered in the next sections. The final section provides a comprehensive review on applications of acidic ionic liquids in a wide array of fields including catalysis, CO2 fixation, ionogel, electrolyte, fuel-cell, membrane, biomass processing, biodiesel synthesis, desulfurization of gasoline/diesel, metal processing, and metal electrodeposition. PMID:27175515

  11. Boric acid and boronic acids inhibition of pigeonpea urease.

    PubMed

    Reddy, K Ravi Charan; Kayastha, Arvind M

    2006-08-01

    Urease from the seeds of pigeonpea was competitively inhibited by boric acid, butylboronic acid, phenylboronic acid, and 4-bromophenylboronic acid; 4-bromophenylboronic acid being the strongest inhibitor, followed by boric acid > butylboronic acid > phenylboronic acid, respectively. Urease inhibition by boric acid is maximal at acidic pH (5.0) and minimal at alkaline pH (10.0), i.e., the trigonal planar B(OH)3 form is a more effective inhibitor than the tetrahedral B(OH)4 -anionic form. Similarly, the anionic form of phenylboronic acid was least inhibiting in nature.

  12. Biotransformation of cinnamic acid, p-coumaric acid, caffeic acid, and ferulic acid by plant cell cultures of Eucalyptus perriniana.

    PubMed

    Katsuragi, Hisashi; Shimoda, Kei; Kubota, Naoji; Nakajima, Nobuyoshi; Hamada, Hatsuyuki; Hamada, Hiroki

    2010-01-01

    Biotransformations of phenylpropanoids such as cinnamic acid, p-coumaric acid, caffeic acid, and ferulic acid were investigated with plant-cultured cells of Eucalyptus perriniana. The plant-cultured cells of E. perriniana converted cinnamic acid into cinnamic acid β-D-glucopyranosyl ester, p-coumaric acid, and 4-O-β-D-glucopyranosylcoumaric acid. p-Coumaric acid was converted into 4-O-β-D-glucopyranosylcoumaric acid, p-coumaric acid β-D-glucopyranosyl ester, 4-O-β-D-glucopyranosylcoumaric acid β-D-glucopyranosyl ester, a new compound, caffeic acid, and 3-O-β-D-glucopyranosylcaffeic acid. On the other hand, incubation of caffeic acid with cultured E. perriniana cells gave 3-O-β-D-glucopyranosylcaffeic acid, 3-O-(6-O-β-D-glucopyranosyl)-β-D-glucopyranosylcaffeic acid, a new compound, 3-O-β-D-glucopyranosylcaffeic acid β-D-glucopyranosyl ester, 4-O-β-D-glucopyranosylcaffeic acid, 4-O-β-D-glucopyranosylcaffeic acid β-D-glucopyranosyl ester, ferulic acid, and 4-O-β-D-glucopyranosylferulic acid. 4-O-β-D-Glucopyranosylferulic acid, ferulic acid β-D-glucopyranosyl ester, and 4-O-β-D-glucopyranosylferulic acid β-D-glucopyranosyl ester were isolated from E. perriniana cells treated with ferulic acid.

  13. Process for the preparation of lactic acid and glyceric acid

    DOEpatents

    Jackson, James E [Haslett, MI; Miller, Dennis J [Okemos, MI; Marincean, Simona [Dewitt, MI

    2008-12-02

    Hexose and pentose monosaccharides are degraded to lactic acid and glyceric acid in an aqueous solution in the presence of an excess of a strongly anionic exchange resin, such as AMBERLITE IRN78 and AMBERLITE IRA400. The glyceric acid and lactic acid can be separated from the aqueous solution. Lactic acid and glyceric acid are staple articles of commerce.

  14. Well acidizing compositions and methods

    SciTech Connect

    Swanson, B. L.

    1980-12-23

    Gelled acidic compositions suitable for matrix acidizing or fracture acidizing of subterranean formations are provided comprising water, a water-dispersible polymeric viscosifier such as a polymer of acrylamide, an acid, and a polyphenolic material such as lignite.

  15. Bile acids but not acidic acids induce Barrett's esophagus.

    PubMed

    Sun, Dongfeng; Wang, Xiao; Gai, Zhibo; Song, Xiaoming; Jia, Xinyong; Tian, Hui

    2015-01-01

    Barrett's esophagus (BE) is associated with the development of esophageal adenocarcinoma (EAC). Bile acids (BAs) refluxing into the esophagus contribute to esophageal injury, which results in BE and subsequent EAC. We developed two animal models to test the role of BAs in the pathogenesis of BE. We surgically generated BA reflux, with or without gastric acid, in rats. In a second experiment, we fed animals separately with BAs and gastric acid. Pathologic changes were examined and the expression of Muc2 and Cdx2 in BE tissue was tested by immunostaining. Inflammatory factors in the plasma, as well as differentiation genes in BE were examined through highly sensitive ELISA and semi-quantitative RT-PCR techniques. We found that BAs are sufficient for the induction of esophagitis and Barrett's-like metaplasia in the esophagus. Overexpression of inflammatory cells, IL-6, and TNF-α was observed both in animals fed with BAs and surgically generated BA reflux. Furthermore, elevated levels of Cdx2, Muc2, Bmp4, Kit19, and Tff2 (differentiation genes in BE) were found in BA-treated rats. In conclusion, BAs, but not gastric acid, are a major causative factor for BE. We confirmed that BAs contribute to the development of BE by inducing the inflammatory response in the esophagus. Inhibiting BAs may be a promising therapy for BE.

  16. Microorganisms for producing organic acids

    DOEpatents

    Pfleger, Brian Frederick; Begemann, Matthew Brett

    2014-09-30

    Organic acid-producing microorganisms and methods of using same. The organic acid-producing microorganisms comprise modifications that reduce or ablate AcsA activity or AcsA homolog activity. The modifications increase tolerance of the microorganisms to such organic acids as 3-hydroxypropionic acid, acrylic acid, propionic acid, lactic acid, and others. Further modifications to the microorganisms increase production of such organic acids as 3-hydroxypropionic acid, lactate, and others. Methods of producing such organic acids as 3-hydroxypropionic acid, lactate, and others with the modified microorganisms are provided. Methods of using acsA or homologs thereof as counter-selectable markers are also provided.

  17. Acid-Base Homeostasis.

    PubMed

    Hamm, L Lee; Nakhoul, Nazih; Hering-Smith, Kathleen S

    2015-12-01

    Acid-base homeostasis and pH regulation are critical for both normal physiology and cell metabolism and function. The importance of this regulation is evidenced by a variety of physiologic derangements that occur when plasma pH is either high or low. The kidneys have the predominant role in regulating the systemic bicarbonate concentration and hence, the metabolic component of acid-base balance. This function of the kidneys has two components: reabsorption of virtually all of the filtered HCO3(-) and production of new bicarbonate to replace that consumed by normal or pathologic acids. This production or generation of new HCO3(-) is done by net acid excretion. Under normal conditions, approximately one-third to one-half of net acid excretion by the kidneys is in the form of titratable acid. The other one-half to two-thirds is the excretion of ammonium. The capacity to excrete ammonium under conditions of acid loads is quantitatively much greater than the capacity to increase titratable acid. Multiple, often redundant pathways and processes exist to regulate these renal functions. Derangements in acid-base homeostasis, however, are common in clinical medicine and can often be related to the systems involved in acid-base transport in the kidneys.

  18. Favourable effects of eicosapentaenoic acid on the late step of the cell division in a piezophilic bacterium, Shewanella violacea DSS12, at high-hydrostatic pressures.

    PubMed

    Kawamoto, Jun; Sato, Takako; Nakasone, Kaoru; Kato, Chiaki; Mihara, Hisaaki; Esaki, Nobuyoshi; Kurihara, Tatsuo

    2011-08-01

    Shewanella violacea DSS12, a deep-sea bacterium, produces eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA) as a component of membrane phospholipids. Although various isolates from the deep sea, such as Photobacterium profundum SS9, Colwellia psychrerythraea 34H and various Shewanella strains, produce EPA- or docosahexaenoic acid-containing phospholipids, the physiological role of these polyunsaturated fatty acids remains unclear. In this article, we illustrate the physiological importance of EPA for high-pressure adaptation in strain DSS12 with the help of an EPA-deficient mutant (DSS12(pfaA)). DSS12(pfaA) showed significant growth retardation at 30 MPa, but not at 0.1 MPa. We also found that DSS12(pfaA) grown at 30 MPa forms filamentous cells. When an EPA-containing phospholipid (sn-1-oleoly-sn-2-eicosapentaenoyl phosphatidylethanolamine) was supplemented, the growth retardation and the morphological defect of DSS12(pfaA) were suppressed, indicating that the externally added EPA-containing phospholipid compensated for the loss of endogenous EPA. In contrast, the addition of an oleic acid-containing phospholipid (sn-1,2-dioleoyl phosphatidylethanolamine) did not affect the growth and the morphology of the cells. Immunofluorescent microscopic analysis with anti-FtsZ antibody revealed a number of Z-rings and separated nucleoids in DSS12(pfaA) grown at 30 MPa. These results demonstrate the physiological importance of EPA for the later step of Z-ring formation of S. violacea DSS12 under high-pressure conditions. PMID:21518217

  19. Assessing the Parameterization of Nitric Oxide Emissions By Lightning in a Chemical Transport Model with Nitric Acid Columns from the IASI Satellite Instrument

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cooper, M.; Martin, R.; Wespes, C.; Coheur, P. F.; Clerbaux, C.; Murray, L. T.

    2014-12-01

    Nitrogen oxides (NOx ≡ NO + NO2) in the free troposphere largely control the production of ozone (O3), an important greenhouse gas and atmospheric oxidant. As HNO3 is the dominant sink of tropospheric NOx, improved understanding of its production and loss mechanisms can help to better constrain NOx emissions, and in turn improve understanding of ozone production and its effect on climate. However, this understanding is inhibited by the scarcity of direct measurements of free tropospheric HNO3, particularly in the tropics. We interpret tropical tropospheric nitric acid columns from the IASI satellite instrument with a global chemical transport model (GEOS-Chem). Overall GEOS-Chem generally agrees with IASI, however we find that the simulation underestimates IASI nitric acid over Southeast Asia by a factor of two. The bias is confirmed by comparing the GEOS-Chem simulation with additional satellite (HIRDLS, ACE-FTS) and aircraft (PEM-Tropics A and PEM-West B) observations of the middle and upper troposphere. We show that this bias can be explained by the parameterization of lightning NOx emissions, primarily from the misrepresentation of concentrated subgrid lightning NOx plumes. We tested a subgrid lightning plume parameterization and found that an additional 0.5 Tg N with an ozone production efficiency of 15 mol/mol would reduce the regional nitric acid bias from 92% to 6% without perturbing the rest of the tropics. Other sensitivity studies such as modified NOx yield per flash, increased altitude of lightning NOx emissions, or changes to convective mass flux or wet deposition of nitric acid required unrealistic changes to reduce the bias. This work demonstrates the importance of a comprehensive lightning parameterization to constraining NOx emissions.

  20. Citric Acid Alternative to Nitric Acid Passivation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lewis, Pattie L. (Compiler)

    2013-01-01

    The Ground Systems Development and Operations GSDO) Program at NASA John F. Kennedy Space Center (KSC) has the primary objective of modernizing and transforming the launch and range complex at KSC to benefit current and future NASA programs along with other emerging users. Described as the launch support and infrastructure modernization program in the NASA Authorization Act of 2010, the GSDO Program will develop and implement shared infrastructure and process improvements to provide more flexible, affordable, and responsive capabilities to a multi-user community. In support of the GSDO Program, the purpose of this project is to demonstratevalidate citric acid as a passivation agent for stainless steel. Successful completion of this project will result in citric acid being qualified for use as an environmentally preferable alternative to nitric acid for passivation of stainless steel alloys in NASA and DoD applications.

  1. Enzymatic gallic acid esterification.

    PubMed

    Weetal, H H

    1985-02-01

    Gallic acid esters of n-propyl and amyl alcohols have been produced by enzymatic synthesis in organic solvents using immobilized tannase. Studies indicate that maximum esterification of gallic acid occurs with amyl alcohol. The enzyme shows broad alcohol specificity. However, the enzyme exhibits absolute specificity for the acid portion of the ester. Studies were carried out on K(m), V(max), pH, and temperature optima.

  2. Amino acids and proteins.

    PubMed

    van Goudoever, Johannes B; Vlaardingerbroek, Hester; van den Akker, Chris H; de Groof, Femke; van der Schoor, Sophie R D

    2014-01-01

    Amino acids and protein are key factors for growth. The neonatal period requires the highest intake in life to meet the demands. Those demands include amino acids for growth, but proteins and amino acids also function as signalling molecules and function as neurotransmitters. Often the nutritional requirements are not met, resulting in a postnatal growth restriction. However, current knowledge on adequate levels of both amino acid as well as protein intake can avoid under nutrition in the direct postnatal phase, avoid the need for subsequent catch-up growth and improve later outcome.

  3. USGS Tracks Acid Rain

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Gordon, John D.; Nilles, Mark A.; Schroder, LeRoy J.

    1995-01-01

    The U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) has been actively studying acid rain for the past 15 years. When scientists learned that acid rain could harm fish, fear of damage to our natural environment from acid rain concerned the American public. Research by USGS scientists and other groups began to show that the processes resulting in acid rain are very complex. Scientists were puzzled by the fact that in some cases it was difficult to demonstrate that the pollution from automobiles and factories was causing streams or lakes to become more acidic. Further experiments showed how the natural ability of many soils to neutralize acids would reduce the effects of acid rain in some locations--at least as long as the neutralizing ability lasted (Young, 1991). The USGS has played a key role in establishing and maintaining the only nationwide network of acid rain monitoring stations. This program is called the National Atmospheric Deposition Program/National Trends Network (NADP/NTN). Each week, at approximately 220 NADP/NTN sites across the country, rain and snow samples are collected for analysis. NADP/NTN site in Montana. The USGS supports about 72 of these sites. The information gained from monitoring the chemistry of our nation's rain and snow is important for testing the results of pollution control laws on acid rain.

  4. Recovery of organic acids

    DOEpatents

    Verser, Dan W.; Eggeman, Timothy J.

    2011-11-01

    A method is disclosed for the recovery of an organic acid from a dilute salt solution in which the cation of the salt forms an insoluble carbonate salt. A tertiary amine and CO.sub.2 are introduced to the solution to form the insoluble carbonate salt and a complex between the acid and an amine. A water immiscible solvent, such as an alcohol, is added to extract the acid/amine complex from the dilute salt solution to a reaction phase. The reaction phase is continuously dried and a product between the acid and the solvent, such as an ester, is formed.

  5. Recovery of organic acids

    DOEpatents

    Verser, Dan W.; Eggeman, Timothy J.

    2009-10-13

    A method is disclosed for the recovery of an organic acid from a dilute salt solution in which the cation of the salt forms an insoluble carbonate salt. A tertiary amine and CO.sub.2 are introduced to the solution to form the insoluble carbonate salt and a complex between the acid and an amine. A water immiscible solvent, such as an alcohol, is added to extract the acid/amine complex from the dilute salt solution to a reaction phase. The reaction phase is continuously dried and a product between the acid and the solvent, such as an ester, is formed.

  6. Geostationary Imaging FTS (GIFTS) Data Processing: Measurement Simulation and Compression

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Huang, Hung-Lung; Revercomb, H. E.; Thom, J.; Antonelli, P. B.; Osborne, B.; Tobin, D.; Knuteson, R.; Garcia, R.; Dutcher, S.; Li, J.

    2001-01-01

    GIFTS (Geostationary Imaging Fourier Transform Spectrometer), a forerunner of next generation geostationary satellite weather observing systems, will be built to fly on the NASA EO-3 geostationary orbit mission in 2004 to demonstrate the use of large area detector arrays and readouts. Timely high spatial resolution images and quantitative soundings of clouds, water vapor, temperature, and pollutants of the atmosphere for weather prediction and air quality monitoring will be achieved. GIFTS is novel in terms of providing many scientific returns that traditionally can only be achieved by separate advanced imaging and sounding systems. GIFTS' ability to obtain half-hourly high vertical density wind over the full earth disk is revolutionary. However, these new technologies bring forth many challenges for data transmission, archiving, and geophysical data processing. In this paper, we will focus on the aspect of data volume and downlink issues by conducting a GIFTS data compression experiment. We will discuss the scenario of using principal component analysis as a foundation for atmospheric data retrieval and compression of uncalibrated and un-normalized interferograms. The effects of compression on the degradation of the signal and noise reduction in interferogram and spectral domains will be highlighted. A simulation system developed to model the GIFTS instrument measurements is described in detail.

  7. Herschel-SPIRE FTS Spectroscopy of Evolved Stars

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wesson, R.; Cernicharo, J.; Barlow, M. J.; Matsuura, M.; Decin, L.; Groenewegen, M. A. T.; Polehampton, E. T.; Agundez, M.; Cohen, M.; Daniel, F.; Exter, K. M.; Gear, W. K.; Gomez, H. L.; Hargrave, P. C.; Imhof, P.; Ivison, R. J.; Leeks, S. J.; Lim, T. L.; Olofsson, G.; Savini, G.; Sibthorpe, B.; Swinyard, B. M.; Ueta, T.; Witherick, D. K.; Yates, J. A.

    2011-09-01

    We present far-infrared and submillimetre spectra of evolved objects observed with the SPIRE Fourier-transform spectrometer on board the Herschel Space Observatory. The observations cover wavelengths 195-670 μm, a region of the electromagnetic spectrum hitherto difficult to study. The far-infrared spectra of these objects are rich and complex. We determine physical conditions from observations of the rotational lines of several molecules, and present initial large velocity gradient models for AFGL 618. We detect water in AFGL 2688 for the first time, and confirm its presence in AFGL 618 in both ortho and para forms. In addition, we detect of the J = 1-0 line of CH+ in NGC 7027. Finally, we present new Herschel-SPIRE spectroscopic observations of both O-rich and C-rich evolved sources, and discuss preliminary investigations into their physical conditions.

  8. An update on the NAST-I airborne FTS

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Larar, Allen M.; Smith, William L.; Zhou, Daniel K.; Liu, Xu; Noe, Anna; Oliver, Don; Flood, Michael; Rochette, Luc; Tian, Jialin

    2011-11-01

    The NPOESS / NASA Airborne Sounder Testbed - Interferometer (NAST-I) is a well-proven airborne remote sensing system, which has flown in 18 previous field campaigns aboard the high altitude NASA ER-2, Northrop Grumman / Scaled Composites Proteus, and NASA WB-57 aircraft since initially being flight qualified in 1998. While originally developed to provide experimental observations needed to finalize specifications and test proposed designs and data processing algorithms for the Cross-track Infrared Sounder (CrIS) to fly on the National Polar-orbiting Operational Environmental Satellite System (NPOESS) Preparatory Project (NPP) and the Joint Polar Satellite System, JPSS (formerly NPOESS, prior to recent program restructuring), its unprecedented data quality and system characteristics have contributed to a variety of atmospheric research and measurement validation objectives. This paper will provide a program overview and update, including a summary of measurement system capabilities, select scientific results, and recent refurbishment activities.

  9. Mutant fatty acid desaturase

    DOEpatents

    Shanklin, John; Cahoon, Edgar B.

    2004-02-03

    The present invention relates to a method for producing mutants of a fatty acid desaturase having a substantially increased activity towards fatty acid substrates with chains containing fewer than 18 carbons relative to an unmutagenized precursor desaturase having an 18 carbon atom chain length substrate specificity. The method involves inducing one or more mutations in the nucleic acid sequence encoding the precursor desaturase, transforming the mutated sequence into an unsaturated fatty acid auxotroph cell such as MH13 E. coli, culturing the cells in the absence of supplemental unsaturated fatty acids, thereby selecting for recipient cells which have received and which express a mutant fatty acid desaturase with an elevated specificity for fatty acid substrates having chain lengths of less than 18 carbon atoms. A variety of mutants having 16 or fewer carbon atom chain length substrate specificities are produced by this method. Mutant desaturases produced by this method can be introduced via expression vectors into prokaryotic and eukaryotic cells and can also be used in the production of transgenic plants which may be used to produce specific fatty acid products.

  10. Amino Acid Crossword Puzzle

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sims, Paul A.

    2011-01-01

    Learning the 20 standard amino acids is an essential component of an introductory course in biochemistry. Later in the course, the students study metabolism and learn about various catabolic and anabolic pathways involving amino acids. Learning new material or concepts often is easier if one can connect the new material to what one already knows;…

  11. Toxicology of Perfluoroalkyl acids

    EPA Science Inventory

    The Perfluoroalkyl acids(PFAAs) area a family of organic chemicals consisting of a perflurinated carbon backbone (4-12in length) and a acidic functional moiety (Carboxylate or sulfonate). These compounds have excellent surface-tension reducing properties and have numerous industr...

  12. Uric acid - blood

    MedlinePlus

    ... High levels of uric acid can sometimes cause gout or kidney disease. You may have this test if you have had or are about to have certain types of chemotherapy. Rapid weight loss, which may occur with such treatments, can increase the amount of uric acid in ...

  13. Bile acid transporters

    PubMed Central

    Dawson, Paul A.; Lan, Tian; Rao, Anuradha

    2009-01-01

    In liver and intestine, transporters play a critical role in maintaining the enterohepatic circulation and bile acid homeostasis. Over the past two decades, there has been significant progress toward identifying the individual membrane transporters and unraveling their complex regulation. In the liver, bile acids are efficiently transported across the sinusoidal membrane by the Na+ taurocholate cotransporting polypeptide with assistance by members of the organic anion transporting polypeptide family. The bile acids are then secreted in an ATP-dependent fashion across the canalicular membrane by the bile salt export pump. Following their movement with bile into the lumen of the small intestine, bile acids are almost quantitatively reclaimed in the ileum by the apical sodium-dependent bile acid transporter. The bile acids are shuttled across the enterocyte to the basolateral membrane and effluxed into the portal circulation by the recently indentified heteromeric organic solute transporter, OSTα-OSTβ. In addition to the hepatocyte and enterocyte, subgroups of these bile acid transporters are expressed by the biliary, renal, and colonic epithelium where they contribute to maintaining bile acid homeostasis and play important cytoprotective roles. This article will review our current understanding of the physiological role and regulation of these important carriers. PMID:19498215

  14. Analysis of Organic Acids.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Griswold, John R.; Rauner, Richard A.

    1990-01-01

    Presented are the procedures and a discussion of the results for an experiment in which students select unknown carboxylic acids, determine their melting points, and investigate their solubility behavior in water and ethanol. A table of selected carboxylic acids is included. (CW)

  15. Omega-3 Fatty Acids

    MedlinePlus

    Omega-3 fatty acids are used together with lifestyle changes (diet, weight-loss, exercise) to reduce the amount of triglycerides (a fat-like ... people with very high triglycerides. Omega-3 fatty acids are in a class of medications called antilipemic ...

  16. Toxicology of Perfluoroalkyl Acids*

    EPA Science Inventory

    The perfluoroalkyl acids (PFAAs) are a family of organic chemicals consisting of a perfluorinated carbon backbone (4-12 in length) and an acidic functional moiety (carboxylate or sulfonate). These compounds are chemically stable, have excellent surface-tension reducing properties...

  17. Salicylic Acid Topical

    MedlinePlus

    ... skin blemishes in people who have acne. Topical salicylic acid is also used to treat skin conditions that involve scaling or overgrowth of skin ... water for 15 minutes.Do not apply topical salicylic acid to skin that is broken, red, swollen, irritated, or infected. ...

  18. Uric acid and hypertension.

    PubMed

    Feig, Daniel I

    2011-09-01

    A link between serum uric acid and the development of hypertension was first hypothesized in the 1870s. Although numerous epidemiologic studies in the 1980s and 1990s suggested an association, relatively little attention was paid to it until recently. Animal models have suggested a two-step pathogenesis by which uric acid initially activates the renin angiotensin system and suppresses nitric oxide, leading to uric acid-dependent increase in systemic vascular resistance, followed by a uric acid-mediated vasculopathy, involving renal afferent arterioles, resulting in a late sodium-sensitive hypertension. Initial clinical trials in young patients have supported these mechanisms in young patients but do not yet support pharmacologic reduction of serum uric acid as first-line therapy for hypertension.

  19. Biosynthesis of pulcherriminic acid

    PubMed Central

    MacDonald, J. C.

    1965-01-01

    1. Candida pulcherrima was grown on a complex medium to which various compounds had been added to determine their effect on the biosynthesis of pulcherriminic acid. Most of the pulcherriminic acid synthesized by C. pulcherrima PRL2019 was derived from the l-[1-14C]leucine added to the medium. 2. The cyclic dipeptide of l-leucine (cyclo-l-leucyl-l-leucyl) was shown, by trapping experiments involving cycloleucyl-leucyl isomers, to be synthesized by strain PRL2019. Cyclo-l-leucyl-l-leucyl was derived from l-leucine and was converted into pulcherriminic acid. Cyclo-l-leucyl-l-leucyl was a precursor of pulcherriminic acid in strain PRL2007 also. 3. The results supported the hypothesis that pulcherriminic acid is derived from l-leucine and that cyclo-l-leucyl-l-leucyl is an intermediate in the biosynthesis. PMID:5837792

  20. Total syntheses of cis-cyclopropane fatty acids: dihydromalvalic acid, dihydrosterculic acid, lactobacillic acid, and 9,10-methylenehexadecanoic acid.

    PubMed

    Shah, Sayali; White, Jonathan M; Williams, Spencer J

    2014-12-14

    cis-Cyclopropane fatty acids (cis-CFAs) are widespread constituents of the seed oils of subtropical plants, membrane components of bacteria and protozoa, and the fats and phospholipids of animals. We describe a systematic approach to the synthesis of enantiomeric pairs of four cis-CFAs: cis-9,10-methylenehexadecanoic acid, lactobacillic acid, dihydromalvalic acid, and dihydrosterculic acid. The approach commences with Rh2(OAc)4-catalyzed cyclopropenation of 1-octyne and 1-decyne, and hinges on the preparative scale chromatographic resolution of racemic 2-alkylcycloprop-2-ene-1-carboxylic acids using a homochiral Evan's auxiliary. Saturation of the individual diastereomeric N-cycloprop-2-ene-1-carbonylacyloxazolidines, followed by elaboration to alkylcyclopropylmethylsulfones, allowed Julia-Kocienski olefination with various ω-aldehyde-esters. Finally, saponification and diimide reduction afforded the individual cis-CFA enantiomers. PMID:25321346

  1. Gluconic acid production.

    PubMed

    Anastassiadis, Savas; Morgunov, Igor G

    2007-01-01

    Gluconic acid, the oxidation product of glucose, is a mild neither caustic nor corrosive, non toxic and readily biodegradable organic acid of great interest for many applications. As a multifunctional carbonic acid belonging to the bulk chemicals and due to its physiological and chemical characteristics, gluconic acid itself, its salts (e.g. alkali metal salts, in especially sodium gluconate) and the gluconolactone form have found extensively versatile uses in the chemical, pharmaceutical, food, construction and other industries. Present review article presents the comprehensive information of patent bibliography for the production of gluconic acid and compares the advantages and disadvantages of known processes. Numerous manufacturing processes are described in the international bibliography and patent literature of the last 100 years for the production of gluconic acid from glucose, including chemical and electrochemical catalysis, enzymatic biocatalysis by free or immobilized enzymes in specialized enzyme bioreactors as well as discontinuous and continuous fermentation processes using free growing or immobilized cells of various microorganisms, including bacteria, yeast-like fungi and fungi. Alternatively, new superior fermentation processes have been developed and extensively described for the continuous and discontinuous production of gluconic acid by isolated strains of yeast-like mold Aureobasidium pullulans, offering numerous advantages over the traditional discontinuous fungi processes.

  2. Trans Fatty Acids

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Doyle, Ellin

    1997-09-01

    Fats and their various fatty acid components seem to be a perennial concern of nutritionists and persons concerned with healthful diets. Advice on the consumption of saturated, polyunsaturated, monounsaturated, and total fat bombards us from magazines and newspapers. One of the newer players in this field is the group of trans fatty acids found predominantly in partially hydrogenated fats such as margarines and cooking fats. The controversy concerning dietary trans fatty acids was recently addressed in an American Heart Association (AHA) science advisory (1) and in a position paper from the American Society of Clinical Nutrition/American Institute of Nutrition (ASCN/AIN) (2). Both reports emphasize that the best preventive strategy for reducing risk for cardiovascular disease and some types of cancer is a reduction in total and saturated fats in the diet, but a reduction in the intake of trans fatty acids was also recommended. Although the actual health effects of trans fatty acids remain uncertain, experimental evidence indicates that consumption of trans fatty acids adversely affects serum lipid levels. Since elevated levels of serum cholesterol and triacylglycerols are associated with increased risk of cardiovascular disease, it follows that intake of trans fatty acids should be minimized.

  3. Sulfuric Acid on Europa

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1999-01-01

    Frozen sulfuric acid on Jupiter's moon Europa is depicted in this image produced from data gathered by NASA's Galileo spacecraft. The brightest areas, where the yellow is most intense, represent regions of high frozen sulfuric acid concentration. Sulfuric acid is found in battery acid and in Earth's acid rain.

    This image is based on data gathered by Galileo's near infrared mapping spectrometer.

    Europa's leading hemisphere is toward the bottom right, and there are enhanced concentrations of sulfuric acid in the trailing side of Europa (the upper left side of the image). This is the face of Europa that is struck by sulfur ions coming from Jupiter's innermost moon, Io. The long, narrow features that crisscross Europa also show sulfuric acid that may be from sulfurous material extruded in cracks.

    Galileo, launched in 1989, has been orbiting Jupiter and its moons since December 1995. JPL manages the Galileo mission for NASA's Office of Space Science, Washington DC. JPL is a division of the California Institute of Technology, Pasadena, CA.

  4. Strongly Acidic Auxin Indole-3-Methanesulfonic Acid

    PubMed Central

    Cohen, Jerry D.; Baldi, Bruce G.; Bialek, Krystyna

    1985-01-01

    A radiochemical synthesis is described for [14C]indole-3-methanesulfonic acid (IMS), a strongly acidic auxin analog. Techniques were developed for fractionation and purification of IMS using normal and reverse phase chromatography. In addition, the utility of both Fourier transform infrared spectrometry and fast atom bombardment mass spectrometry for analysis of IMS has been demonstrated. IMS was shown to be an active auxin, stimulating soybean hypocotyl elongation, bean first internode curvature, and ethylene production. IMS uptake by thin sections of soybean hypocotyl was essentially independent of solution pH and, when applied at a 100 micromolar concentration, IMS exhibited a basipetal polarity in its transport in both corn coleoptile and soybean hypocotyl sections. [14C]IMS should, therefore, be a useful compound to study fundamental processes related to the movement of auxins in plant tissues and organelles. PMID:16664007

  5. Adaptation of model proteins from cold to hot environments involves continuous and small adjustments of average parameters related to amino acid composition.

    PubMed

    De Vendittis, Emmanuele; Castellano, Immacolata; Cotugno, Roberta; Ruocco, Maria Rosaria; Raimo, Gennaro; Masullo, Mariorosario

    2008-01-01

    The growth temperature adaptation of six model proteins has been studied in 42 microorganisms belonging to eubacterial and archaeal kingdoms, covering optimum growth temperatures from 7 to 103 degrees C. The selected proteins include three elongation factors involved in translation, the enzymes glyceraldehyde-3-phosphate dehydrogenase and superoxide dismutase, the cell division protein FtsZ. The common strategy of protein adaptation from cold to hot environments implies the occurrence of small changes in the amino acid composition, without altering the overall structure of the macromolecule. These continuous adjustments were investigated through parameters related to the amino acid composition of each protein. The average value per residue of mass, volume and accessible surface area allowed an evaluation of the usage of bulky residues, whereas the average hydrophobicity reflected that of hydrophobic residues. The specific proportion of bulky and hydrophobic residues in each protein almost linearly increased with the temperature of the host microorganism. This finding agrees with the structural and functional properties exhibited by proteins in differently adapted sources, thus explaining the great compactness or the high flexibility exhibited by (hyper)thermophilic or psychrophilic proteins, respectively. Indeed, heat-adapted proteins incline toward the usage of heavier-size and more hydrophobic residues with respect to mesophiles, whereas the cold-adapted macromolecules show the opposite behavior with a certain preference for smaller-size and less hydrophobic residues. An investigation on the different increase of bulky residues along with the growth temperature observed in the six model proteins suggests the relevance of the possible different role and/or structure organization played by protein domains. The significance of the linear correlations between growth temperature and parameters related to the amino acid composition improved when the analysis was

  6. Understanding acid rain

    SciTech Connect

    Budiansky, S.

    1981-06-01

    The complexities of the phenomenon of acid rain are described. Many factors, including meteorology, geology, chemistry, and biology, all play parts. Varying weather, varying soils, the presence of other pollutants and species differences all act to blur the connections between industrial emissions, acid rain, and environmental damage. Some experts believe that the greatest pH shock to lakes occurs during snow melt and runoff in the spring; others believe that much of the plant damage ascribed to acid rain is actually due to the effects of ozone. Much work needs to be done in the area of sampling. Historical data are lacking and sampling methods are not sufficiently accurate. (JMT)

  7. Understanding Acid Base Disorders.

    PubMed

    Gomez, Hernando; Kellum, John A

    2015-10-01

    The concentration of hydrogen ions is regulated in biologic solutions. There are currently 3 recognized approaches to assess changes in acid base status. First is the traditional Henderson-Hasselbalch approach, also called the physiologic approach, which uses the relationship between HCO3(-) and Pco2; the second is the standard base excess approach based on the Van Slyke equation. The third approach is the quantitative or Stewart approach, which uses the strong ion difference and the total weak acids. This article explores the origins of the current concepts framing the existing methods to analyze acid base balance.

  8. Acid rain and soil.

    PubMed

    vanLoon, G W

    1984-08-01

    A summary of important chemical properties of soil is given and the way in which acid rain may affect these properties is discussed. Acid rain may suppress microbiological decomposition and nitrification processes, thus influencing the nutrient status of soils. It has also been found that soil organic matter is less soluble in more acid solutions. Changed nutrient availability patterns are predicted in a low pH environment and enhanced leaching of essential elements from the soil exchange complex has been observed. Increased solubility of potentially toxic elements such as aluminium may also occur from soils which have been exposed to acidified rainfall.

  9. Disorders of Amino Acid Metabolism

    MedlinePlus

    ... Aspiration Syndrome Additional Content Medical News Disorders of Amino Acid Metabolism By Lee M. Sanders, MD, MPH NOTE: ... Metabolic Disorders Disorders of Carbohydrate Metabolism Disorders of Amino Acid Metabolism Disorders of Lipid Metabolism Amino acids are ...

  10. Pantothenic acid and biotin

    MedlinePlus

    ... well as other nutrients, are provided in the Dietary Reference Intakes (DRIs) developed by the Food and Nutrition Board ... level that is thought to ensure enough nutrition. Dietary Reference Intakes for pantothenic acid: Age 0 to 6 months: ...

  11. Amino Acid Metabolism Disorders

    MedlinePlus

    Metabolism is the process your body uses to make energy from the food you eat. Food is ... One group of these disorders is amino acid metabolism disorders. They include phenylketonuria (PKU) and maple syrup ...

  12. [Hydrofluoric acid burns].

    PubMed

    Holla, Robin; Gorter, Ramon R; Tenhagen, Mark; Vloemans, A F P M Jos; Breederveld, Roelf S

    2016-01-01

    Hydrofluoric acid is increasingly used as a rust remover and detergent. Dermal contact with hydrofluoric acid results in a chemical burn characterized by severe pain and deep tissue necrosis. It may cause electrolyte imbalances with lethal consequences. It is important to identify high-risk patients. 'High risk' is defined as a total affected body area > 3% or exposure to hydrofluoric acid in a concentration > 50%. We present the cases of three male patients (26, 31, and 39 years old) with hydrofluoric acid burns of varying severity and describe the subsequent treatments. The application of calcium gluconate 2.5% gel to the skin is the cornerstone of the treatment, reducing pain as well as improving wound healing. Nails should be thoroughly inspected and possibly removed if the nail is involved, to ensure proper healing. In high-risk patients, plasma calcium levels should be evaluated and cardiac monitoring is indicated.

  13. Folic acid - test

    MedlinePlus

    ... folic acid before and during pregnancy helps prevent neural tube defects, such as spina bifida. Women who ... take more if they have a history of neural tube defects in earlier pregnancies. Ask your provider ...

  14. Nitric acid poisoning

    MedlinePlus

    Symptoms from swallowing nitric acid may include: Abdominal pain - severe Burns to skin or mouth Drooling Fever Mouth pain - severe Rapid drop in blood pressure (shock) Throat swelling, which leads to breathing difficulty ...

  15. [Hydrofluoric acid burns].

    PubMed

    Holla, Robin; Gorter, Ramon R; Tenhagen, Mark; Vloemans, A F P M Jos; Breederveld, Roelf S

    2016-01-01

    Hydrofluoric acid is increasingly used as a rust remover and detergent. Dermal contact with hydrofluoric acid results in a chemical burn characterized by severe pain and deep tissue necrosis. It may cause electrolyte imbalances with lethal consequences. It is important to identify high-risk patients. 'High risk' is defined as a total affected body area > 3% or exposure to hydrofluoric acid in a concentration > 50%. We present the cases of three male patients (26, 31, and 39 years old) with hydrofluoric acid burns of varying severity and describe the subsequent treatments. The application of calcium gluconate 2.5% gel to the skin is the cornerstone of the treatment, reducing pain as well as improving wound healing. Nails should be thoroughly inspected and possibly removed if the nail is involved, to ensure proper healing. In high-risk patients, plasma calcium levels should be evaluated and cardiac monitoring is indicated. PMID:27189091

  16. Difficult Decisions: Acid Rain.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Miller, John A.; Slesnick, Irwin L.

    1989-01-01

    Discusses some of the contributing factors and chemical reactions involved in the production of acid rain, its effects, and political issues pertaining to who should pay for the clean up. Supplies questions for consideration and discussion. (RT)

  17. Hyaluronic acid fillers.

    PubMed

    Monheit, Gary D; Coleman, Kyle M

    2006-01-01

    Although hyaluronic acids are a relatively new treatment for facial lines and wrinkles, they have provided numerous advances in the area of cosmetic surgery. This article discusses the inherent properties of hyaluronic acid fillers that make them ideal for treatment of facial lines. It encompasses a review of the current literature on U.S. Food and Drug Administration-approved hyaluronic acid fillers and the role that each of these fillers currently has in facial cosmetics. This article also discusses the potential pitfalls and adverse effects that can be associated with using hyaluronic acids for filling facial lines. Finally, it serves as an overview of current techniques for clinical assessment of patients as well as administration and treatment of facial lines and wrinkles.

  18. Boric acid poisoning

    MedlinePlus

    Borax poisoning ... The main symptoms of boric acid poisoning are blue-green vomit, diarrhea, and a bright red rash on the skin. Other symptoms may include: Blisters Collapse Coma Convulsions Drowsiness ...

  19. Stomach acid test

    MedlinePlus

    Gastric acid secretion test ... The test is done after you have not eaten for a while so fluid is all that remains in ... injected into your body. This is done to test the ability of the cells in the stomach ...

  20. Aminolevulinic Acid Topical

    MedlinePlus

    ... under the skin that result from exposure to sunlight and can develop into skin cancer) of the ... acid will make your skin very sensitive to sunlight (likely to get sunburn). Avoid exposure of treated ...

  1. Amino Acids and Chirality

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cook, Jamie E.

    2012-01-01

    Amino acids are among the most heavily studied organic compound class in carbonaceous chondrites. The abundance, distributions, enantiomeric compositions, and stable isotopic ratios of amino acids have been determined in carbonaceous chondrites fi'om a range of classes and petrographic types, with interesting correlations observed between these properties and the class and typc of the chondritcs. In particular, isomeric distributions appear to correlate with parent bodies (chondrite class). In addition, certain chiral amino acids are found in enantiomeric excess in some chondrites. The delivery of these enantiomeric excesses to the early Earth may have contributed to the origin of the homochirality that is central to life on Earth today. This talk will explore the amino acids in carbonaceous chondritcs and their relevance to the origin of life.

  2. (Acid rain workshop)

    SciTech Connect

    Turner, R.S.

    1990-12-05

    The traveler presented a paper entitled Susceptibility of Asian Ecosystems to Soil-Mediated Acid Rain Damage'' at the Second Workshop on Acid Rain in Asia. The workshop was organized by the Asian Institute of Technology (Bangkok, Thailand), Argonne National Laboratory (Argonne, Illinois), and Resource Management Associates (Madison, Wisconsin) and was sponsored by the US Department of Energy, the United Nations Environment Program, the United Nations Economic and Social Commission for Asia and the Pacific, and the World Bank. Papers presented on the first day discussed how the experience gained with acid rain in North America and Europe might be applied to the Asian situation. Papers describing energy use projections, sulfur emissions, and effects of acid rain in several Asian countries were presented on the second day. The remaining time was allotted to discussion, planning, and writing plans for a future research program.

  3. Folic acid in diet

    MedlinePlus

    ... a regular supply of the vitamin in the foods you eat. ... vitamins have been added to the food. Many foods are now fortified with folic acid. Some of these are enriched breads, cereals, flours, ...

  4. Valproic Acid and Pregnancy

    MedlinePlus

    ... in the treatment of epilepsy, and to treat bipolar disorder and migraines. I have been taking valproic acid ... that women with seizure disorders and women with bipolar disorder might have menstrual problems and difficulty getting pregnant. ...

  5. Citric acid urine test

    MedlinePlus

    ... The test is used to diagnose renal tubular acidosis and evaluate kidney stone disease. Normal Results The ... level of citric acid may mean renal tubular acidosis and a tendency to form calcium kidney stones. ...

  6. Folic Acid Quiz

    MedlinePlus

    ... more easily than natural food folate. Close × Answer: D CORRECT: Folic acid reduces the risk for spina ... g., orange juice and green vegetables). Close × Answer: D CORRECT: Spina bifida and anencephaly are neural tube ...

  7. Hydrofluoric acid poisoning

    MedlinePlus

    ... your skin or eyes, you may have: Blisters Burns Pain Vision loss Hydrofluoric acid poisoning can have ... urine tests Camera down the throat to see burns in the esophagus and the stomach (endoscopy) Fluids ...

  8. Portable nucleic acid thermocyclers.

    PubMed

    Almassian, David R; Cockrell, Lisa M; Nelson, William M

    2013-11-21

    A nucleic acid thermal cycler is considered to be portable if it is under ten pounds, easily carried by one individual, and battery powered. Nucleic acid amplification includes both polymerase chain reaction (e.g. PCR, RT-PCR) and isothermal amplification (e.g. RPA, HDA, LAMP, NASBA, RCA, ICAN, SMART, SDA). There are valuable applications for portable nucleic acid thermocyclers in fields that include clinical diagnostics, biothreat detection, and veterinary testing. A system that is portable allows for the distributed detection of targets at the point of care and a reduction of the time from sample to answer. The designer of a portable nucleic acid thermocycler must carefully consider both thermal control and the detection of amplification. In addition to thermal control and detection, the designer may consider the integration of a sample preparation subsystem with the nucleic acid thermocycler. There are a variety of technologies that can achieve accurate thermal control and the detection of nucleic acid amplification. Important evaluation criteria for each technology include maturity, power requirements, cost, sensitivity, speed, and manufacturability. Ultimately the needs of a particular market will lead to user requirements that drive the decision between available technologies.

  9. Neutron Nucleic Acid Crystallography.

    PubMed

    Chatake, Toshiyuki

    2016-01-01

    The hydration shells surrounding nucleic acids and hydrogen-bonding networks involving water molecules and nucleic acids are essential interactions for the structural stability and function of nucleic acids. Water molecules in the hydration shells influence various conformations of DNA and RNA by specific hydrogen-bonding networks, which often contribute to the chemical reactivity and molecular recognition of nucleic acids. However, X-ray crystallography could not provide a complete description of structural information with respect to hydrogen bonds. Indeed, X-ray crystallography is a powerful tool for determining the locations of water molecules, i.e., the location of the oxygen atom of H2O; however, it is very difficult to determine the orientation of the water molecules, i.e., the orientation of the two hydrogen atoms of H2O, because X-ray scattering from the hydrogen atom is very small.Neutron crystallography is a specialized tool for determining the positions of hydrogen atoms. Neutrons are not diffracted by electrons, but are diffracted by atomic nuclei; accordingly, neutron scattering lengths of hydrogen and its isotopes are comparable to those of non-hydrogen atoms. Therefore, neutron crystallography can determine both of the locations and orientations of water molecules. This chapter describes the current status of neutron nucleic acid crystallographic research as well as the basic principles of neutron diffraction experiments performed on nucleic acid crystals: materials, crystallization, diffraction experiments, and structure determination. PMID:26227050

  10. Neutron Nucleic Acid Crystallography.

    PubMed

    Chatake, Toshiyuki

    2016-01-01

    The hydration shells surrounding nucleic acids and hydrogen-bonding networks involving water molecules and nucleic acids are essential interactions for the structural stability and function of nucleic acids. Water molecules in the hydration shells influence various conformations of DNA and RNA by specific hydrogen-bonding networks, which often contribute to the chemical reactivity and molecular recognition of nucleic acids. However, X-ray crystallography could not provide a complete description of structural information with respect to hydrogen bonds. Indeed, X-ray crystallography is a powerful tool for determining the locations of water molecules, i.e., the location of the oxygen atom of H2O; however, it is very difficult to determine the orientation of the water molecules, i.e., the orientation of the two hydrogen atoms of H2O, because X-ray scattering from the hydrogen atom is very small.Neutron crystallography is a specialized tool for determining the positions of hydrogen atoms. Neutrons are not diffracted by electrons, but are diffracted by atomic nuclei; accordingly, neutron scattering lengths of hydrogen and its isotopes are comparable to those of non-hydrogen atoms. Therefore, neutron crystallography can determine both of the locations and orientations of water molecules. This chapter describes the current status of neutron nucleic acid crystallographic research as well as the basic principles of neutron diffraction experiments performed on nucleic acid crystals: materials, crystallization, diffraction experiments, and structure determination.

  11. Utilization of acid tars

    SciTech Connect

    Frolov, A.F.; Denisova, T.L.; Aminov, A.N.

    1987-01-01

    Freshly produced acid tar (FPAT), obtained as refinery waste in treating petroleum oils with sulfuric acid and oleum, contains 80% or more sulfuric acid. Of such tars, pond acid tars, which contain up to 80% neutral petroleum products and sulfonated resins, are more stable, and have found applications in the production of binders for paving materials. In this article the authors are presenting results obtained in a study of the composition and reactivity of FPAT and its stability in storage in blends with asphalts obtained in deasphalting operations, and the possibility of using the FPAT in road construction has been examined. In this work, wastes were used which were obtained in treating the oils T-750, KhF-12, I-8A, and MS-14. Data on the change in group chemical composition of FPAT are shown, and the acidity, viscosity, needle penetration, and softening point of acid tars obtained from different grades of oils are plotted as functions of the storage time. It is also shown that the fresh and hardened FPATs differ in their solubilities in various solvents.

  12. Method for isolating nucleic acids

    SciTech Connect

    Hurt, Jr., Richard Ashley; Elias, Dwayne A.

    2015-09-29

    The current disclosure provides methods and kits for isolating nucleic acid from an environmental sample. The current methods and compositions further provide methods for isolating nucleic acids by reducing adsorption of nucleic acids by charged ions and particles within an environmental sample. The methods of the current disclosure provide methods for isolating nucleic acids by releasing adsorbed nucleic acids from charged particles during the nucleic acid isolation process. The current disclosure facilitates the isolation of nucleic acids of sufficient quality and quantity to enable one of ordinary skill in the art to utilize or analyze the isolated nucleic acids for a wide variety of applications including, sequencing or species population analysis.

  13. Acidification and Acid Rain

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Norton, S. A.; Veselã½, J.

    2003-12-01

    Air pollution by acids has been known as a problem for centuries (Ducros, 1845; Smith, 1872; Camuffo, 1992; Brimblecombe, 1992). Only in the mid-1900s did it become clear that it was a problem for more than just industrially developed areas, and that precipitation quality can affect aquatic resources ( Gorham, 1955). The last three decades of the twentieth century saw tremendous progress in the documentation of the chemistry of the atmosphere, precipitation, and the systems impacted by acid atmospheric deposition. Chronic acidification of ecosystems results in chemical changes to soil and to surface waters and groundwater as a result of reduction of base cation supply or an increase in acid (H+) supply, or both. The most fundamental changes during chronic acidification are an increase in exchangeable H+ or Al3+ (aluminum) in soils, an increase in H+ activity (˜concentration) in water in contact with soil, and a decrease in alkalinity in waters draining watersheds. Water draining from the soil is acidified and has a lower pH (=-log [H+]). As systems acidify, their biotic community changes.Acidic surface waters occur in many parts of the world as a consequence of natural processes and also due to atmospheric deposition of strong acid (e.g., Canada, Jeffries et al. (1986); the United Kingdom, Evans and Monteith (2001); Sweden, Swedish Environmental Protection Board (1986); Finland, Forsius et al. (1990); Norway, Henriksen et al. (1988a); and the United States (USA), Brakke et al. (1988)). Concern over acidification in the temperate regions of the northern hemisphere has been driven by the potential for accelerating natural acidification by pollution of the atmosphere with acidic or acidifying compounds. Atmospheric pollution ( Figure 1) has resulted in an increased flux of acid to and through ecosystems. Depending on the ability of an ecosystem to neutralize the increased flux of acidity, acidification may increase only imperceptibly or be accelerated at a rate that

  14. Discovery of essential fatty acids

    PubMed Central

    Spector, Arthur A.; Kim, Hee-Yong

    2015-01-01

    Dietary fat was recognized as a good source of energy and fat-soluble vitamins by the first part of the 20th century, but fatty acids were not considered to be essential nutrients because they could be synthesized from dietary carbohydrate. This well-established view was challenged in 1929 by George and Mildred Burr who reported that dietary fatty acid was required to prevent a deficiency disease that occurred in rats fed a fat-free diet. They concluded that fatty acids were essential nutrients and showed that linoleic acid prevented the disease and is an essential fatty acid. The Burrs surmised that other unsaturated fatty acids were essential and subsequently demonstrated that linolenic acid, the omega-3 fatty acid analog of linoleic acid, is also an essential fatty acid. The discovery of essential fatty acids was a paradigm-changing finding, and it is now considered to be one of the landmark discoveries in lipid research. PMID:25339684

  15. Boric acid catalyzed chemoselective esterification of alpha-hydroxycarboxylic acids.

    PubMed

    Houston, Todd A; Wilkinson, Brendan L; Blanchfield, Joanne T

    2004-03-01

    Boric acid catalyzes the selective esterification of alpha-hydroxycarboxylic acids without causing significant esterification to occur with other carboxylic acids. The procedure is simple, high-yielding, and applicable to the esterification of alpha-hydroxy carboxylates in the presence of other carboxylic acids including beta-hydroxyacids within the same molecule. [reaction: see text

  16. Acid Rain, pH & Acidity: A Common Misinterpretation.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Clark, David B.; Thompson, Ronald E.

    1989-01-01

    Illustrates the basis for misleading statements about the relationship between pH and acid content in acid rain. Explains why pH cannot be used as a measure of acidity for rain or any other solution. Suggests that teachers present acidity and pH as two separate and distinct concepts. (RT)

  17. Amino-acid contamination of aqueous hydrochloric acid.

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wolman, Y.; Miller, S. L.

    1971-01-01

    Considerable amino-acid contamination in commercially available analytical grade hydrochloric acid (37% HCl) was found. One bottle contained 8,300 nmol of amino-acids per liter. A bottle from another supplier contained 6,700 nmol per liter. The contaminants were mostly protein amino-acids and several unknowns. Data on the volatility of the amino-acids during HCl distillation were also obtained.

  18. Analysis of Bile Acids

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sjövall, Jan; Griffiths, William J.; Setchell, Kenneth D. R.; Mano, Nariyasu; Goto, Junichi

    Bile acids constitute a large family of steroids in vertebrates, normally formed from cholesterol and carrying a carboxyl group in a side-chain of variable length. Bile alcohols, also formed from cholesterol, have similar structures as bile acids, except for the absence of a carboxyl group in the steroid skeleton. The conversion of cholesterol to bile acids and/or bile alcohols is of major importance for maintenance of cholesterol homeostasis, both from quantitative and regulatory points of view (Chiang, 2004; Kalaany and Mangelsdorf, 2006; Moore, Kato, Xie, et al., 2006; Scotti, Gilardi, Godio, et al., 2007). Appropriately conjugated bile acids and bile alcohols (also referred to as bile salts) are secreted in bile and serve vital functions in the absorption of lipids and lipid-soluble compounds (Hofmann, 2007). Reliable analytical methods are required for studies of the functions and pathophysiological importance of the variety of bile acids and bile alcohols present in living organisms. When combined with genetic and proteomic studies, analysis of these small molecules (in today's terminology: metabolomics, steroidomics, sterolomics, cholanoidomics, etc.) will lead to a deeper understanding of the integrated metabolic processes in lipid metabolism.

  19. Optical high acidity sensor

    DOEpatents

    Jorgensen, B.S.; Nekimken, H.L.; Carey, W.P.; O`Rourke, P.E.

    1997-07-22

    An apparatus and method for determining acid concentrations in solutions having acid concentrations of from about 0.1 Molar to about 16 Molar is disclosed. The apparatus includes a chamber for interrogation of the sample solution, a fiber optic light source for passing light transversely through the chamber, a fiber optic collector for receiving the collimated light after transmission through the chamber, a coating of an acid resistant polymeric composition upon at least one fiber end or lens, the polymeric composition in contact with the sample solution within the chamber and having a detectable response to acid concentrations within the range of from about 0.1 Molar to about 16 Molar, a measurer for the response of the polymeric composition in contact with the sample solution, and a comparer of the measured response to predetermined standards whereby the acid molarity of the sample solution within the chamber can be determined. Preferably, a first lens is attached to the end of the fiber optic light source, the first lens adapted to collimate light from the fiber optic light source, and a second lens is attached to the end of the fiber optic collector for focusing the collimated light after transmission through the chamber. 10 figs.

  20. Optical high acidity sensor

    DOEpatents

    Jorgensen, Betty S.; Nekimken, Howard L.; Carey, W. Patrick; O'Rourke, Patrick E.

    1997-01-01

    An apparatus and method for determining acid concentrations in solutions having acid concentrations of from about 0.1 Molar to about 16 Molar is disclosed. The apparatus includes a chamber for interrogation of the sample solution, a fiber optic light source for passing light transversely through the chamber, a fiber optic collector for receiving the collimated light after transmission through the chamber, a coating of an acid resistant polymeric composition upon at least one fiber end or lens, the polymeric composition in contact with the sample solution within the chamber and having a detectable response to acid concentrations within the range of from about 0.1 Molar to about 16 Molar, a measurer for the response of the polymeric composition in contact with the sample solution, and, a comparer of the measured response to predetermined standards whereby the acid molarity of the sample solution within the chamber can be determined. Preferably, a first lens is attached to the end of the fiber optic light source, the first lens adapted to collimate light from the fiber optic light source, and a second lens is attached to the end of the fiber optic collector for focusing the collimated light after transmission through the chamber.

  1. Acid sludge utilization

    SciTech Connect

    Suarez, M.

    1980-09-01

    The Peak Oil Company of Tampa, Florida, in cooperation with the United States Department of Energy, has completed an initial study for the incorporation of acid-sludge derived from the rerefining of used lubricating oil into a useful and salable building material. Both bricks and paving materials have been produced using a formulation developed by Peak. Equipment has been designed and constructed for the specific purpose of preparing emulsions containing the acid-sludge, which is a vital ingredient in the final formulation. Testing of products obtained from these initial efforts shows that the acid in the sludge has been effectively neutralized and that heavy metals are not leached from the bricks or paving material in normal testing. While some properties of the building materials that incorporate the acid-sludge by-product are below standards for clay and shale brick, uses are defined for the product as is, and there is some promise of eventual production of building materials that meet all specifications for competitive materials. Initial cost estimations are encouraging, indicating that a profit can be derived by converting a hazardous and noxious by-product of rerefining to a construction material. Acid-sludge has presented a complex and costly disposal problem to the industry resulting in a serious depletion in the capacity for rerefining used lubricating oil.

  2. Domoic acid epileptic disease.

    PubMed

    Ramsdell, John S; Gulland, Frances M

    2014-03-01

    Domoic acid epileptic disease is characterized by spontaneous recurrent seizures weeks to months after domoic acid exposure. The potential for this disease was first recognized in a human case study of temporal lobe epilepsy after the 1987 amnesic shellfish-poisoning event in Quebec, and was characterized as a chronic epileptic syndrome in California sea lions through investigation of a series of domoic acid poisoning cases between 1998 and 2006. The sea lion study provided a breadth of insight into clinical presentations, unusual behaviors, brain pathology, and epidemiology. A rat model that replicates key observations of the chronic epileptic syndrome in sea lions has been applied to identify the progression of the epileptic disease state, its relationship to behavioral manifestations, and to define the neural systems involved in these behavioral disorders. Here, we present the concept of domoic acid epileptic disease as a delayed manifestation of domoic acid poisoning and review the state of knowledge for this disease state in affected humans and sea lions. We discuss causative mechanisms and neural underpinnings of disease maturation revealed by the rat model to present the concept for olfactory origin of an epileptic disease; triggered in dendodendritic synapases of the olfactory bulb and maturing in the olfactory cortex. We conclude with updated information on populations at risk, medical diagnosis, treatment, and prognosis. PMID:24663110

  3. Domoic Acid Epileptic Disease

    PubMed Central

    Ramsdell, John S.; Gulland, Frances M.

    2014-01-01

    Domoic acid epileptic disease is characterized by spontaneous recurrent seizures weeks to months after domoic acid exposure. The potential for this disease was first recognized in a human case study of temporal lobe epilepsy after the 1987 amnesic shellfish-poisoning event in Quebec, and was characterized as a chronic epileptic syndrome in California sea lions through investigation of a series of domoic acid poisoning cases between 1998 and 2006. The sea lion study provided a breadth of insight into clinical presentations, unusual behaviors, brain pathology, and epidemiology. A rat model that replicates key observations of the chronic epileptic syndrome in sea lions has been applied to identify the progression of the epileptic disease state, its relationship to behavioral manifestations, and to define the neural systems involved in these behavioral disorders. Here, we present the concept of domoic acid epileptic disease as a delayed manifestation of domoic acid poisoning and review the state of knowledge for this disease state in affected humans and sea lions. We discuss causative mechanisms and neural underpinnings of disease maturation revealed by the rat model to present the concept for olfactory origin of an epileptic disease; triggered in dendodendritic synapases of the olfactory bulb and maturing in the olfactory cortex. We conclude with updated information on populations at risk, medical diagnosis, treatment, and prognosis. PMID:24663110

  4. A Demonstration of Acid Rain

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fong, Man Wai

    2004-01-01

    A demonstration showing acid rain formation is described. Oxides of sulfur and nitrogen that result from the burning of fossil fuels are the major pollutants of acid rain. In this demonstration, SO[subscript 2] gas is produced by the burning of matches. An acid-base indicator will show that the dissolved gas turns an aqueous solution acidic.

  5. DOCOSAHEXAENOIC ACID AND ARACHIDONIC ACID PREVENT ESSENTIAL FATTY ACID DEFICIENCY AND HEPATIC STEATOSIS

    PubMed Central

    Le, Hau D.; Meisel, Jonathan A.; de Meijer, Vincent E.; Fallon, Erica M.; Gura, Kathleen M.; Nose, Vania; Bistrian, Bruce R.; Puder, Mark

    2012-01-01

    Objectives Essential fatty acids are important for growth, development, and physiologic function. Alpha-linolenic acid and linoleic acid are the precursors of docosahexaenoic and arachidonic acid, respectively, and have traditionally been considered the essential fatty acids. However, we hypothesized that docosahexaenoic acid and arachidonic acid can function as the essential fatty acids. Methods Using a murine model of essential fatty acid deficiency and consequent hepatic steatosis, we provided mice with varying amounts of docosahexaenoic and arachidonic acids to determine whether exclusive supplementation of docosahexaenoic and arachidonic acids could prevent essential fatty acid deficiency and inhibit or attenuate hepatic steatosis. Results Mice supplemented with docosahexaenoic and arachidonic acids at 2.1% or 4.2% of their calories for 19 days had normal liver histology and no biochemical evidence of essential fatty acid deficiency, which persisted when observed after 9 weeks. Conclusion Supplementation of sufficient amounts of docosahexaenoic and arachidonic acids alone without alpha-linolenic and linoleic acids meets essential fatty acid requirements and prevents hepatic steatosis in a murine model. PMID:22038210

  6. Biodegradation of cyanuric acid.

    PubMed

    Saldick, J

    1974-12-01

    Cyanuric acid biodegrades readily under a wide variety of natural conditions, and particularly well in systems of either low or zero dissolved-oxygen level, such as anaerobic activated sludge and sewage, soils, muds, and muddy streams and river waters, as well as ordinary aerated activated sludge systems with typically low (1 to 3 ppm) dissolved-oxygen levels. Degradation also proceeds in 3.5% sodium chloride solution. Consequently, there are degradation pathways widely available for breaking down cyanuric acid discharged in domestic effluents. The overall degradation reaction is merely a hydrolysis; CO(2) and ammonia are the initial hydrolytic breakdown products. Since no net oxidation occurs during this breakdown, biodegradation of cyanuric acid exerts no primary biological oxygen demand. However, eventual nitrification of the ammonia released will exert its usual biological oxygen demand.

  7. Exposures to acidic aerosols.

    PubMed

    Spengler, J D; Keeler, G J; Koutrakis, P; Ryan, P B; Raizenne, M; Franklin, C A

    1989-02-01

    Ambient monitoring of acid aerosols in four U.S. cities and in a rural region of southern Ontario clearly show distinct periods of strong acidity. Measurements made in Kingston, TN, and Steubenville, OH, resulted in 24-hr H+ ion concentrations exceeding 100 nmole/m3 more than 10 times during summer months. Periods of elevated acidic aerosols occur less frequently in winter months. The H+ determined during episodic conditions in southern Ontario indicates that respiratory tract deposition can exceed the effects level reported in clinical studies. Observed 12-hr H+ concentrations exceeded 550 nmole/m3 (approximately 27 micrograms/m3 H2SO4). The maximum estimated 1-hr concentration exceeded 1500 nmole/m3 for H+ ions. At these concentrations, an active child might receive more than 2000 nmole of H+ ion in 12 hr and in excess of 900 nmole during the hour when H2SO4 exceeded 50 micrograms/m3.

  8. Biodegradation of Cyanuric Acid

    PubMed Central

    Saldick, Jerome

    1974-01-01

    Cyanuric acid biodegrades readily under a wide variety of natural conditions, and particularly well in systems of either low or zero dissolved-oxygen level, such as anaerobic activated sludge and sewage, soils, muds, and muddy streams and river waters, as well as ordinary aerated activated sludge systems with typically low (1 to 3 ppm) dissolved-oxygen levels. Degradation also proceeds in 3.5% sodium chloride solution. Consequently, there are degradation pathways widely available for breaking down cyanuric acid discharged in domestic effluents. The overall degradation reaction is merely a hydrolysis; CO2 and ammonia are the initial hydrolytic breakdown products. Since no net oxidation occurs during this breakdown, biodegradation of cyanuric acid exerts no primary biological oxygen demand. However, eventual nitrification of the ammonia released will exert its usual biological oxygen demand. PMID:4451360

  9. Calorimetry of Nucleic Acids.

    PubMed

    Rozners, Eriks; Pilch, Daniel S; Egli, Martin

    2015-12-01

    This unit describes the application of calorimetry to characterize the thermodynamics of nucleic acids, specifically, the two major calorimetric methodologies that are currently employed: differential scanning (DSC) and isothermal titration calorimetry (ITC). DSC is used to study thermally induced order-disorder transitions in nucleic acids. A DSC instrument measures, as a function of temperature (T), the excess heat capacity (C(p)(ex)) of a nucleic acid solution relative to the same amount of buffer solution. From a single curve of C(p)(ex) versus T, one can derive the following information: the transition enthalpy (ΔH), entropy (ΔS), free energy (ΔG), and heat capacity (ΔCp); the state of the transition (two-state versus multistate); and the average size of the molecule that melts as a single thermodynamic entity (e.g., the duplex). ITC is used to study the hybridization of nucleic acid molecules at constant temperature. In an ITC experiment, small aliquots of a titrant nucleic acid solution (strand 1) are added to an analyte nucleic acid solution (strand 2), and the released heat is monitored. ITC yields the stoichiometry of the association reaction (n), the enthalpy of association (ΔH), the equilibrium association constant (K), and thus the free energy of association (ΔG). Once ΔH and ΔG are known, ΔS can also be derived. Repetition of the ITC experiment at a number of different temperatures yields the ΔCp for the association reaction from the temperature dependence of ΔH.

  10. Acid rain in Asia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bhatti, Neeloo; Streets, David G.; Foell, Wesley K.

    1992-07-01

    Acid rain has been an issue of great concern in North America and Europe during the past several decades. However, due to the passage of a number of recent regulations, most notably the Clean Air Act in the United States in 1990, there is an emerging perception that the problem in these Western nations is nearing solution. The situation in the developing world, particularly in Asia, is much bleaker. Given the policies of many Asian nations to achieve levels of development comparable with the industrialized world—which necessitate a significant expansion of energy consumption (most derived from indigenous coal reserves)—the potential for the formation of, and damage from, acid deposition in these developing countries is very high. This article delineates and assesses the emissions patterns, meteorology, physical geology, and biological and cultural resources present in various Asian nations. Based on this analysis and the risk factors to acidification, it is concluded that a number of areas in Asia are currently vulnerable to acid rain. These regions include Japan, North and South Korea, southern China, and the mountainous portions of Southeast Asia and southwestern India. Furthermore, with accelerated development (and its attendant increase in energy use and production of emissions of acid deposition precursors) in many nations of Asia, it is likely that other regions will also be affected by acidification in the near future. Based on the results of this overview, it is clear that acid deposition has significant potential to impact the Asian region. However, empirical evidence is urgently needed to confirm this and to provide early warning of increases in the magnitude and spread of acid deposition and its effects throughout this part of the world.

  11. Acid Precipitation; (USA)

    SciTech Connect

    Rushing, J.W.; Hicks, S.C.

    1991-01-01

    This publication, Acid Precipitation (APC) announces on a monthly basis the current worldwide information on acid precipitation and closely related subjects, including wet and dry deposition, long-range transport, environmental effects, modeling, and socioeconomic factors. Information on the following subjects is included within the scope of this publication, but all subjects may not appear in each issue: Pollution sources and pollution control technology; atmospheric transport and chemistry; terrestrial transport and chemistry; aquatic transport and chemistry; biological effects; corrosive effects; and socioeconomics, policy, and legislation.

  12. Whither acid rain?

    PubMed

    Brimblecombe, P

    2001-04-01

    Acid rain, the environmental cause célèbre of the 1980s seems to have vanished from popular conscience. By contrast, scientific research, despite funding difficulties, has continued to produce hundreds of research papers each year. Studies of acid rain taught much about precipitation chemistry, the behaviour of snow packs, long-range transport of pollutants and new issues in the biology of fish and forested ecosystems. There is now evidence of a shift away from research in precipitation and sulfur chemistry, but an impressive theoretical base remains as a legacy.

  13. NITRIC ACID PICKLING PROCESS

    DOEpatents

    Boller, E.R.; Eubank, L.D.

    1958-08-19

    An improved process is described for the treatment of metallic uranium surfaces preparatory to being given hot dip coatings. The process consists in first pickling the uraniunn surInce with aqueous 50% to 70% nitric acid, at 60 to 70 deg C, for about 5 minutes, rinsing the acid solution from the uranium article, promptly drying and then passing it through a molten alkali-metal halide flux consisting of 42% LiCl, 53% KCla and 5% NaCl into a molten metal bath consisting of 85 parts by weight of zinc and 15 parts by weight of aluminum

  14. Fatty acids of Thiobacillus thiooxidans.

    PubMed

    Levin, R A

    1971-12-01

    Fatty acid spectra were made on Thiobacillus thiooxidans cultures both in the presence and absence of organic compounds. Small additions of glucose or acetate had no significant effect either on growth or fatty acid content. The addition of biotin had no stimulatory effect but did result in slight quantitative changes in the fatty acid spectrum. The predominant fatty acid was a C(19) cyclopropane acid.

  15. Fatty Acids of Thiobacillus thiooxidans

    PubMed Central

    Levin, Richard A.

    1971-01-01

    Fatty acid spectra were made on Thiobacillus thiooxidans cultures both in the presence and absence of organic compounds. Small additions of glucose or acetate had no significant effect either on growth or fatty acid content. The addition of biotin had no stimulatory effect but did result in slight quantitative changes in the fatty acid spectrum. The predominant fatty acid was a C19 cyclopropane acid. PMID:4945206

  16. The Acid-Base Titration of a Very Weak Acid: Boric Acid

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Celeste, M.; Azevedo, C.; Cavaleiro, Ana M. V.

    2012-01-01

    A laboratory experiment based on the titration of boric acid with strong base in the presence of d-mannitol is described. Boric acid is a very weak acid and direct titration with NaOH is not possible. An auxiliary reagent that contributes to the release of protons in a known stoichiometry facilitates the acid-base titration. Students obtain the…

  17. Lactic acid bacterial cell factories for gamma-aminobutyric acid.

    PubMed

    Li, Haixing; Cao, Yusheng

    2010-11-01

    Gamma-aminobutyric acid is a non-protein amino acid that is widely present in organisms. Several important physiological functions of gamma-aminobutyric acid have been characterized, such as neurotransmission, induction of hypotension, diuretic effects, and tranquilizer effects. Many microorganisms can produce gamma-aminobutyric acid including bacteria, fungi and yeasts. Among them, gamma-aminobutyric acid-producing lactic acid bacteria have been a focus of research in recent years, because lactic acid bacteria possess special physiological activities and are generally regarded as safe. They have been extensively used in food industry. The production of lactic acid bacterial gamma-aminobutyric acid is safe and eco-friendly, and this provides the possibility of production of new naturally fermented health-oriented products enriched in gamma-aminobutyric acid. The gamma-aminobutyric acid-producing species of lactic acid bacteria and their isolation sources, the methods for screening of the strains and increasing their production, the enzymatic properties of glutamate decarboxylases and the relative fundamental research are reviewed in this article. And the potential applications of gamma-aminobutyric acid-producing lactic acid bacteria were also referred to.

  18. Comparison of Buffer Effect of Different Acids During Sandstone Acidizing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Umer Shafiq, Mian; Khaled Ben Mahmud, Hisham; Hamid, Mohamed Ali

    2015-04-01

    The most important concern of sandstone matrix acidizing is to increase the formation permeability by removing the silica particles. To accomplish this, the mud acid (HF: HCl) has been utilized successfully for many years to stimulate the sandstone formations, but still it has many complexities. This paper presents the results of laboratory investigations of different acid combinations (HF: HCl, HF: H3PO4 and HF: HCOOH). Hydrofluoric acid and fluoboric acid are used to dissolve clays and feldspar. Phosphoric and formic acids are added as a buffer to maintain the pH of the solution; also it allows the maximum penetration of acid into the core sample. Different tests have been performed on the core samples before and after the acidizing to do the comparative study on the buffer effect of these acids. The analysis consists of permeability, porosity, color change and pH value tests. There is more increase in permeability and porosity while less change in pH when phosphoric and formic acids were used compared to mud acid. From these results it has been found that the buffer effect of phosphoric acid and formic acid is better than hydrochloric acid.

  19. [Studies on interaction of acid-treated nanotube titanic acid and amino acids].

    PubMed

    Zhang, Huqin; Chen, Xuemei; Jin, Zhensheng; Liao, Guangxi; Wu, Xiaoming; Du, Jianqiang; Cao, Xiang

    2010-06-01

    Nanotube titanic acid (NTA) has distinct optical and electrical character, and has photocatalysis character. In accordance with these qualities, NTA was treated with acid so as to enhance its surface activity. Surface structures and surface groups of acid-treated NTA were characterized and analyzed by Transmission Electron Microscope (TEM) and Fourier Transform Infrared Spectrometry (FT-IR). The interaction between acid-treated NTA and amino acids was investigated. Analysis results showed that the lengths of acid-treated NTA became obviously shorter. The diameters of nanotube bundles did not change obviously with acid-treating. Meanwhile, the surface of acid-treated NTA was cross-linked with carboxyl or esterfunction. In addition, acid-treated NTA can catch amino acid residues easily, and then form close combination.

  20. Docosahexaenoic acid and lactation

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Docosahexaenoic acid (DHA) is an important component of membrane phospholipids in the retina, and brain, and accumulates rapidly in these tissues during early infancy. DHA is present in human milk, but the amount varies considerably and is largely dependent on maternal diet. This article reviews dat...

  1. Orphenadrinium picrate picric acid

    PubMed Central

    Fun, Hoong-Kun; Hemamalini, Madhukar; Siddaraju, B. P.; Yathirajan, H. S.; Narayana, B.

    2010-01-01

    The asymmetric unit of the title compound N,N-dimethyl-2-[(2-methyl­phen­yl)phenyl­meth­oxy]ethanaminium picrate picric acid, C18H24NO+·C6H2N3O7 −·C6H3N3O7, contains one orphenadrinium cation, one picrate anion and one picric acid mol­ecule. In the orphenadrine cation, the two aromatic rings form a dihedral angle of 70.30 (7)°. There is an intra­molecular O—H⋯O hydrogen bond in the picric acid mol­ecule, which generates an S(6) ring motif. In the crystal structure, the orphenadrine cations, picrate anions and picric acid mol­ecules are connected by strong inter­molecular N—H⋯O hydrogen bonds, π⋯π inter­actions between the benzene rings of cations and anions [centroid–centroid distance = 3.5603 (9) Å] and weak C—H⋯O hydrogen bonds, forming a three-dimensional network. PMID:21580426

  2. Acid Rain Investigations.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hugo, John C.

    1992-01-01

    Presents an activity in which students investigate the formation of solid ammonium chloride aerosol particles to help students better understand the concept of acid rain. Provides activity objectives, procedures, sample data, clean-up instructions, and questions and answers to help interpret the data. (MDH)

  3. The Acid Rain Debate.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Oates-Bockenstedt, Catherine

    1997-01-01

    Details an activity designed to motivate students by incorporating science-related issues into a classroom debate. Includes "The Acid Rain Bill" and "Position Guides" for student roles as committee members, consumers, governors, industry owners, tourism professionals, senators, and debate directors. (DKM)

  4. Acid rain bibliography

    SciTech Connect

    Sayers, C.S.

    1983-09-01

    This bibliography identifies 900 citations on various aspects of Acid Rain, covering published bibliographies, books, reports, conference and symposium proceedings, audio visual materials, pamphlets and newsletters. It includes five sections: citations index (complete record of author, title, source, order number); KWIC index; title index; author index; and source index. 900 references.

  5. Acid Rain Classroom Projects.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Demchik, Michael J.

    2000-01-01

    Describes a curriculum plan in which students learn about acid rain through instructional media, research and class presentations, lab activities, simulations, design, and design implementation. Describes the simulation activity in detail and includes materials, procedures, instructions, examples, results, and discussion sections. (SAH)

  6. The Acid Rain Debate.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bybee, Rodger; And Others

    1984-01-01

    Describes an activity which provides opportunities for role-playing as industrialists, ecologists, and government officials. The activity involves forming an international commission on acid rain, taking testimony, and, based on the testimony, making recommendations to governments on specific ways to solve the problem. Includes suggestions for…

  7. The Acid Rain Game.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rakow, Steven J.; Glenn, Allen

    1982-01-01

    Provides rationale for and description of an acid rain game (designed for two players), a problem-solving model for elementary students. Although complete instructions are provided, including a copy of the game board, the game is also available for Apple II microcomputers. Information for the computer program is available from the author.…

  8. Targeting tumor acidity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Reshetnyak, Yana K.; Engelman, Donald M.; Andreev, Oleg A.

    2012-02-01

    One of the main features of solid tumors is extracellular acidity, which correlates with tumor aggressiveness and metastatic potential. We introduced novel approach in targeting of acidic tumors, and translocation of cell-impermeable cargo molecules across cellular membrane. Our approach is based on main principle of insertion and folding of a polypeptide in lipid bilayer of membrane. We have identified family of pH Low Insertion Peptides (pHLIPs), which are capable spontaneous insertion and folding in membrane at mild acidic conditions. The affinity of peptides of pHLIP family to membrane at low pH is several times higher than at neutral pH. The process of peptides folding occurs within milliseconds. The energy released in a result of folding (about 2 kcal/mol) could be used to move polar cargo across a membrane, which is a novel concept in drug delivery. pHLIP peptides could be considered as a pH-sensitive single peptide molecular transporters and conjugated with imaging probes for fluorescence, MR, PET and SPECT imaging, they represent a novel in vivo marker of acidity. The work is supported by NIH grants CA133890 and GM073857 to OAA, DME, YRK.

  9. Spermatotoxicity of dichloroacetic acid

    EPA Science Inventory

    The testicular toxicity of dichloroacetic acid (DCA), a disinfection byproduct of drinking water, was evaluated in adult male rats given both single and multiple (up to 14 d) oral doses. Delayed spermiation and altered resorption of residual bodies were observed in rats given sin...

  10. Plant fatty acid hydroxylase

    DOEpatents

    Somerville, Chris; van de Loo, Frank

    2000-01-01

    The present invention relates to the identification of nucleic acid sequences and constructs, and methods related thereto, and the use of these sequences and constructs to produce genetically modified plants for the purpose of altering the composition of plant oils, waxes and related compounds.

  11. Alkyl phosphonic acids and sulfonic acids in the Murchison meteorite

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cooper, George W.; Onwo, Wilfred M.; Cronin, John R.

    1992-01-01

    Homologous series of alkyl phosphonic acids and alkyl sulfonic acids, along with inorganic orthophosphate and sulfate, are identified in water extracts of the Murchison meteorite after conversion to their t-butyl dimethylsilyl derivatives. The methyl, ethyl, propyl, and butyl compounds are observed in both series. Five of the eight possible alkyl phosphonic acids and seven of the eight possible alkyl sulfonic acids through C4 are identified. Abundances decrease with increasing carbon number as observed of other homologous series indigenous to Murchison. Concentrations range downward from approximately 380 nmol/gram in the alkyl sulfonic acid series, and from 9 nmol/gram in the alkyl phosphonic acid series.

  12. A Direct, Biomass-Based Synthesis of Benzoic Acid: Formic Acid-Mediated Deoxygenation of the Glucose-Derived Materials Quinic Acid and Shikimic Acid

    SciTech Connect

    Arceo, Elena; Ellman, Jonathan; Bergman, Robert

    2010-05-03

    An alternative biomass-based route to benzoic acid from the renewable starting materials quinic acid and shikimic acid is described. Benzoic acid is obtained selectively using a highly efficient, one-step formic acid-mediated deoxygenation method.

  13. 49 CFR 173.158 - Nitric acid.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... material. (b) Nitric acid in any concentration which does not contain sulfuric acid or hydrochloric acid as... sulfuric acid or hydrochloric acid as impurities, when offered for transportation or transported by...

  14. 49 CFR 173.158 - Nitric acid.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... material. (b) Nitric acid in any concentration which does not contain sulfuric acid or hydrochloric acid as... sulfuric acid or hydrochloric acid as impurities, when offered for transportation or transported by...

  15. 49 CFR 173.158 - Nitric acid.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... material. (b) Nitric acid in any concentration which does not contain sulfuric acid or hydrochloric acid as... sulfuric acid or hydrochloric acid as impurities, when offered for transportation or transported by...

  16. Synthesis of acid addition salt of delta-aminolevulinic acid from 5-bromo levulinic acid esters

    DOEpatents

    Moens, Luc

    2003-06-24

    A process of preparing an acid addition salt of delta-aminolevulinc acid comprising: a) dissolving a lower alkyl 5-bromolevulinate and hexamethylenetetramine in a solvent selected from the group consisting of water, ethyl acetate, chloroform, acetone, ethanol, tetrahydrofuran and acetonitrile, to form a quaternary ammonium salt of the lower alkyl 5-bromolevulinate; and b) hydrolyzing the quaternary ammonium salt with an inorganic acid to form an acid addition salt of delta-aminolevulinic acid.

  17. Photostabilization of ascorbic acid with citric acid, tartaric acid and boric acid in cream formulations.

    PubMed

    Ahmad, I; Ali Sheraz, M; Ahmed, S; Shad, Z; Vaid, F H M

    2012-06-01

    This study involves the evaluation of the effect of certain stabilizers, that is, citric acid (CT), tartaric acid (TA) and boric acid (BA) on the degradation of ascorbic acid (AH(2) ) in oil-in-water cream formulations exposed to the UV light and stored in the dark. The apparent first-order rate constants (0.34-0.95 × 10(-3) min(-1) in light, 0.38-1.24 × 10(-2) day(-1) in dark) for the degradation reactions in the presence of the stabilizers have been determined. These rate constants have been used to derive the second-order rate constants (0.26-1.45 × 10(-2) M(-1) min(-1) in light, 3.75-8.50 × 10(-3) M(-1) day(-1) in dark) for the interaction of AH(2) and the individual stabilizers. These stabilizers are effective in causing the inhibition of the rate of degradation of AH(2) both in the light and in the dark. The inhibitory effect of the stabilizers is in the order of CT > TA > BA. The rate of degradation of AH(2) in the presence of these stabilizers in the light is about 120 times higher than that in the dark. This could be explained on the basis of the deactivation of AH(2) -excited triplet state by CT and TA and by the inhibition of AH(2) degradation through complex formation with BA. AH(2) leads to the formation of dehydroascorbic acid (A) by chemical and photooxidation in cream formulations.

  18. Fatty acid-producing hosts

    DOEpatents

    Pfleger, Brian F; Lennen, Rebecca M

    2013-12-31

    Described are hosts for overproducing a fatty acid product such as a fatty acid. The hosts include an exogenous nucleic acid encoding a thioesterase and, optionally, an exogenous nucleic acid encoding an acetyl-CoA carboxylase, wherein an acyl-CoA synthetase in the hosts are functionally delected. The hosts prefereably include the nucleic acid encoding the thioesterase at an intermediate copy number. The hosts are preferably recominantly stable and growth-competent at 37.degree. C. Methods of producing a fatty acid product comprising culturing such hosts at 37.degree. C. are also described.

  19. Acid diffusion through polyaniline membranes

    SciTech Connect

    Su, T.M.; Huang, S.C.; Conklin, J.A.

    1995-12-01

    Polyaniline membranes in the undoped (base) and doped (acid) forms are studied for their utility as pervaporation membranes. The separation of water from mixtures of propionic acid, acetic acid and formic acid have been demonstrated from various feed compositions. Doped polyaniline displays an enhanced selectivity of water over these organic acids as compared with undoped polyaniline. For as-cast polyaniline membranes a diffusion coefficient (D) on the order of 10{sup -9} cm{sup 2}/sec has been determined for the flux of protons through the membranes using hydrochloric acid.

  20. Treatment of Bile Acid Amidation Defects with Glycocholic Acid

    PubMed Central

    Heubi, James E.; Setchell, Kenneth D.R.; Jha, Pinky; Buckley, Donna; Zhang, Wujuan; Rosenthal, Philip; Potter, Carol; Horslen, Simon; Suskind, David

    2014-01-01

    Bile acid amidation defects were predicted to present with fat/fat soluble vitamin malabsorption with minimal cholestasis. We identified and treated 5 patients (1 male/4 females) from 4 families with defective bile acid amidation due to a genetically confirmed deficiency in bile acid CoA:amino acid N-acyl transferase (BAAT) with the conjugated bile acid, glycocholic acid (GCA). Fast atom bombardment-mass spectrometry analysis of urine and bile at baseline revealed predominantly unconjugated cholic acid and absence of the usual glycine and taurine conjugated primary bile acids. Treatment with 15 mg/kg GCA resulted in total duodenal bile acid concentrations of 23.3 ± 19.1 mmol/L (mean ± SD) and 63.5 ± 4.0% of the bile acids were secreted in bile in the conjugated form of which GCA represented 59.6 ± 9.3% of the total biliary bile acids. Unconjugated cholic acid continued to be present in high concentrations in bile because of partial intestinal deconjugation of orally administered GCA. Serum total bile acid concentrations did not significantly differ between pretreatment and post-treatment samples and serum contained predominantly unconjugated cholic acid. These findings confirmed efficient intestinal absorption, hepatic extraction and biliary secretion of the administered GCA. Oral tolerance tests for vitamin D2 (1000 IU vitamin D2/kg) and tocopherol (100 IU/kg tocopherol acetate) demonstrated improvement in fat-soluble vitamin absorption after GCA treatment. Growth improved in 3/3 growth-delayed prepubertal patients. Conclusions: Oral glycocholic acid therapy is safe and effective in improving growth and fat-soluble vitamin absorption in children and adolescents with inborn errors of bile acid metabolism due to amidation defects. PMID:25163551

  1. [Lipid synthesis by an acidic acid tolerant Rhodotorula glutinis].

    PubMed

    Lin, Zhangnan; Liu, Hongjuan; Zhang, Jian'an; Wang, Gehua

    2016-03-01

    Acetic acid, as a main by-product generated in the pretreatment process of lignocellulose hydrolysis, significantly affects cell growth and lipid synthesis of oleaginous microorganisms. Therefore, we studied the tolerance of Rhodotorula glutinis to acetic acid and its lipid synthesis from substrate containing acetic acid. In the mixed sugar medium containing 6 g/L glucose and 44 g/L xylose, and supplemented with acetic acid, the cell growth was not:inhibited when the acetic acid concentration was below 10 g/L. Compared with the control, the biomass, lipid concentration and lipid content of R. glutinis increased 21.5%, 171% and 122% respectively when acetic acid concentration was 10 g/L. Furthermore, R. glutinis could accumulate lipid with acetate as the sole carbon source. Lipid concentration and lipid yield reached 3.20 g/L and 13% respectively with the initial acetic acid concentration of 25 g/L. The lipid composition was analyzed by gas chromatograph. The main composition of lipid produced with acetic acid was palmitic acid, stearic acid, oleic acid, linoleic acid and linolenic acid, including 40.9% saturated fatty acids and 59.1% unsaturated fatty acids. The lipid composition was similar to that of plant oil, indicating that lipid from oleaginous yeast R. glutinis had potential as the feedstock of biodiesel production. These results demonstrated that a certain concentration of acetic acid need not to be removed in the detoxification process when using lignocelluloses hydrolysate to produce microbial lipid by R. glutinis. PMID:27349116

  2. NAPAP (National Acid Precipitation Assessment Program) results on acid rain

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1990-06-01

    The National Acid Precipitation Assessment Program (NAPAP) was mandated by Congress in 1980 to study the effects of acid rain. The results of 10 years of research on the effect of acid deposition and ozone on forests, particularly high elevation spruce and fir, southern pines, eastern hardwoods and western conifers, will be published this year.

  3. Acid Earth--The Global Threat of Acid Pollution.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McCormick, John

    Acid pollution is a major international problem, but the debate it has elicited has often clouded the distinction between myth and facts. This publication attempts to concerning the acid pollution situation. This publication attempts to identify available facts. It is the first global review of the problem of acid pollution and the first to…

  4. Usnic acid controls the acidity tolerance of lichens.

    PubMed

    Hauck, Markus; Jürgens, Sascha-René

    2008-11-01

    The hypotheses were tested that, firstly, lichens producing the dibenzofuran usnic acid colonize substrates characterized by specific pH ranges, secondly, this preferred pH is in a range where soluble usnic acid and its corresponding anion occur in similar concentrations, and thirdly, usnic acid makes lichens vulnerable to acidity. Lichens with usnic acid prefer an ambient pH range between 3.5 and 5.5 with an optimum between 4.0 and 4.5. This optimum is close to the pK(a1) value of usnic acid of 4.4. Below this optimum pH, dissolved SO(2) reduces the chlorophyll fluorescence yield more in lichens with than without their natural content of usnic acid. This suggests that usnic acid influences the acidity tolerance of lichens. The putative mechanism of the limited acidity tolerance of usnic acid-containing lichens is the acidification of the cytosol by molecules of protonated usnic acid shuttling protons through the plasma membrane at an apoplastic pH

  5. College Chemistry Students' Mental Models of Acids and Acid Strength

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McClary, LaKeisha; Talanquer, Vicente

    2011-01-01

    The central goal of this study was to characterize the mental models of acids and acid strength expressed by advanced college chemistry students when engaged in prediction, explanation, and justification tasks that asked them to rank chemical compounds based on their relative acid strength. For that purpose we completed a qualitative research…

  6. Acid hydrolysis of cellulose

    SciTech Connect

    Salazar, H.

    1980-12-01

    One of the alternatives to increase world production of etha nol is by the hydrolysis of cellulose content of agricultural residues. Studies have been made on the types of hydrolysis: enzimatic and acid. Data obtained from the sulphuric acid hydrolysis of cellulose showed that this process proceed in two steps, with a yield of approximately 95% glucose. Because of increases in cost of alternatives resources, the high demand of the product and the more economic production of ethanol from cellulose materials, it is certain that this technology will be implemented in the future. At the same time further studies on the disposal and reuse of the by-products of this production must be undertaken.

  7. [Progress in glucaric acid].

    PubMed

    Qiu, Yuying; Fang, Fang; Du, Guocheng; Chen, Jian

    2015-04-01

    Glucaric acid (GA) is derived from glucose and commonly used in chemical industry. It is also considered as one of the "Top value-added chemicals from biomass" as carbohydrate monomers to produce various synthetic polymers and bioenergy. The demand for GA in food manufacture is increasing. GA has also attracted public attentions due to its therapeutic uses such as regulating hormones, increasing the immune function and reducing the risks of cancers. Currently GA is produced by chemical oxidation. Research on production of GA via microbial synthesis is still at preliminary stage. We reviewed the advances of glucaric acid applications, preparation and quantification methods. The prospects on production of GA by microbial fermentation were also discussed. PMID:26380405

  8. Eucomic acid methanol monosolvate

    PubMed Central

    Li, Guo-Qiang; Li, Yao-Lan; Wang, Guo-Cai; Liang, Zhi-Hong; Jiang, Ren-Wang

    2011-01-01

    In the crystal structure of the title compound [systematic name: 2-hy­droxy-2-(4-hy­droxy­benz­yl)butane­dioic acid methanol monosolvate], C11H12O6·CH3OH, the dihedral angles between the planes of the carboxyl groups and the benzene ring are 51.23 (9) and 87.97 (9)°. Inter­molecular O—H⋯O hydrogen-bonding inter­actions involving the hy­droxy and carb­oxy­lic acid groups and the methanol solvent mol­ecule give a three-dimensional structure. PMID:22091200

  9. Industrial ecotoxicology "acid rain".

    PubMed

    Astolfi, E; Gotelli, C; Higa, J

    1986-01-01

    The acid rain phenomenon was studied in the province of Cordoba, Argentina. This study, based on a previously outlined framework, determined the anthropogenic origin of the low pH due to the presence of industrial hydrochloric acid wastage. This industrial ecotoxicological phenomenon seriously affected the forest wealth, causing a great defoliation of trees and shrubs, with a lower effect on crops. A survey on its effects on human beings has not been carried out, but considering the corrosion caused to different metals and its denouncing biocide effect on plants and animals, we should expect to find some kind of harm to the health of the workers involved or others engaged in farming, and even to those who are far away from the polluting agent. PMID:3758667

  10. Industrial ecotoxicology "acid rain".

    PubMed

    Astolfi, E; Gotelli, C; Higa, J

    1986-01-01

    The acid rain phenomenon was studied in the province of Cordoba, Argentina. This study, based on a previously outlined framework, determined the anthropogenic origin of the low pH due to the presence of industrial hydrochloric acid wastage. This industrial ecotoxicological phenomenon seriously affected the forest wealth, causing a great defoliation of trees and shrubs, with a lower effect on crops. A survey on its effects on human beings has not been carried out, but considering the corrosion caused to different metals and its denouncing biocide effect on plants and animals, we should expect to find some kind of harm to the health of the workers involved or others engaged in farming, and even to those who are far away from the polluting agent.

  11. (Radioiodinated free fatty acids)

    SciTech Connect

    Knapp, Jr., F. F.

    1987-12-11

    The traveler participated in the Second International Workshop on Radioiodinated Free Fatty Acids in Amsterdam, The Netherlands where he presented an invited paper describing the pioneering work at the Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) involving the design, development and testing of new radioiodinated methyl-branched fatty acids for evaluation of heart disease. He also chaired a technical session on the testing of new agents in various in vitro and in vivo systems. He also visited the Institute for Clinical and Experimental Nuclear Medicine in Bonn, West Germany, to review, discuss, plan and coordinate collaborative investigations with that institution. In addition, he visited the Cyclotron Research Center in Liege, Belgium, to discuss continuing collaborative studies with the Osmium-191/Iridium-191m radionuclide generator system, and to complete manuscripts and plan future studies.

  12. Immunomodulatory spherical nucleic acids.

    PubMed

    Radovic-Moreno, Aleksandar F; Chernyak, Natalia; Mader, Christopher C; Nallagatla, Subbarao; Kang, Richard S; Hao, Liangliang; Walker, David A; Halo, Tiffany L; Merkel, Timothy J; Rische, Clayton H; Anantatmula, Sagar; Burkhart, Merideth; Mirkin, Chad A; Gryaznov, Sergei M

    2015-03-31

    Immunomodulatory nucleic acids have extraordinary promise for treating disease, yet clinical progress has been limited by a lack of tools to safely increase activity in patients. Immunomodulatory nucleic acids act by agonizing or antagonizing endosomal toll-like receptors (TLR3, TLR7/8, and TLR9), proteins involved in innate immune signaling. Immunomodulatory spherical nucleic acids (SNAs) that stimulate (immunostimulatory, IS-SNA) or regulate (immunoregulatory, IR-SNA) immunity by engaging TLRs have been designed, synthesized, and characterized. Compared with free oligonucleotides, IS-SNAs exhibit up to 80-fold increases in potency, 700-fold higher antibody titers, 400-fold higher cellular responses to a model antigen, and improved treatment of mice with lymphomas. IR-SNAs exhibit up to eightfold increases in potency and 30% greater reduction in fibrosis score in mice with nonalcoholic steatohepatitis (NASH). Given the clinical potential of SNAs due to their potency, defined chemical nature, and good tolerability, SNAs are attractive new modalities for developing immunotherapies.

  13. Acid rain in Asia

    SciTech Connect

    Bhatti, N.; Streets, D.G. ); Foell, W.K. )

    1991-01-01

    Acid rain has been an issue of widespread concern in North America and Europe for more than fifteen years. However, there is an emerging feeling that the problem in Europe and North America is nearing solution, largely as a result of existing and newly enacted legislation, decreased energy use due to conservation and efficiency improvements, and/or trends in energy policy away from fossil fuels. The situation in Asia appears much bleaker. Fossil fuels are already used in large quantities, such that local air pollution is becoming a serious problem and high deposition levels are being measured. Emission regulations in most countries (with the notable exception of Japan) are not very stringent. Energy plans in many countries (particularly PRC, India, Thailand, and South Korea) call for very large increases in coal combustion in the future. Finally, there is not presently a strong scientific or public constituency for action to mitigate the potential effects of acid deposition. These factors imply potentially serious problems in the future for long-range transport and deposition of sulfur and nitrogen species and consequent damage to ecosystems and materials. The political ramifications of transboundary environmental pollution in this region are also potentially serious. The purpose of this paper is to provide background information on the acid deposition situation in Asia, with the intention of laying the foundation for the development of a possible research program for this region. 36 refs., 8 figs., 8 tabs.

  14. Immunomodulatory spherical nucleic acids

    PubMed Central

    Radovic-Moreno, Aleksandar F.; Chernyak, Natalia; Mader, Christopher C.; Nallagatla, Subbarao; Kang, Richard S.; Hao, Liangliang; Walker, David A.; Halo, Tiffany L.; Merkel, Timothy J.; Rische, Clayton H.; Anantatmula, Sagar; Burkhart, Merideth; Mirkin, Chad A.; Gryaznov, Sergei M.

    2015-01-01

    Immunomodulatory nucleic acids have extraordinary promise for treating disease, yet clinical progress has been limited by a lack of tools to safely increase activity in patients. Immunomodulatory nucleic acids act by agonizing or antagonizing endosomal toll-like receptors (TLR3, TLR7/8, and TLR9), proteins involved in innate immune signaling. Immunomodulatory spherical nucleic acids (SNAs) that stimulate (immunostimulatory, IS-SNA) or regulate (immunoregulatory, IR-SNA) immunity by engaging TLRs have been designed, synthesized, and characterized. Compared with free oligonucleotides, IS-SNAs exhibit up to 80-fold increases in potency, 700-fold higher antibody titers, 400-fold higher cellular responses to a model antigen, and improved treatment of mice with lymphomas. IR-SNAs exhibit up to eightfold increases in potency and 30% greater reduction in fibrosis score in mice with nonalcoholic steatohepatitis (NASH). Given the clinical potential of SNAs due to their potency, defined chemical nature, and good tolerability, SNAs are attractive new modalities for developing immunotherapies. PMID:25775582

  15. Perfluorooctanoic acid and environmental risks

    EPA Science Inventory

    Perfluorooctanoic acid (PFOA) is a member of the perfluoroalkyl acids (PFAA) family of chemicals, which consist of a carbon backbone typically four to fourteen carbons in length and a charged functional moiety.

  16. Folic Acid Questions and Answers

    MedlinePlus

    ... swallow large pills. How can I take a vitamin with folic acid? A : These days, multivitamins with folic acid come in chewable chocolate or fruit flavors, liquids, and large oval or smaller round ...

  17. Omega-3 fatty acids (image)

    MedlinePlus

    Omega-3 fatty acids are a form of polyunsaturated fat that the body derives from food. Omega-3s (and omega-6s) are known as essential fatty acids (EFAs) because they are important for good health. ...

  18. Acid rain: Reign of controversy

    SciTech Connect

    Kahan, A.M.

    1986-01-01

    Acid Rain is a primer on the science and politics of acid rain. Several introductory chapters describe in simple terms the relevant principles of water chemistry, soil chemistry, and plant physiology and discuss the demonstrated or postulated effects of acid rain on fresh waters and forests as well as on statuary and other exposed objects. There follow discussions on the economic and social implications of acid rain (for example, possible health effects) and on the sources, transport, and distribution of air pollutants.

  19. Sedimentation of sulfuric acid in acid tars from current production

    SciTech Connect

    Denisova, T.L.; Frolov, A.F.; Aminov, A.N.; Novosel'tsev, S.P.

    1987-09-01

    Acid tars obtained in treating T-750, KhF-12, and I-8A oils were investigated for purposes of recovering sulfuric acid and asphalt binders from the compositions and of determining the effects of storage time on the recovery. The consumption and sedimentation levels of sulfuric acid during storage for different periods and at different temperatures were assessed. The characteristics of an asphalt binder obtained by neutralizing acid tar with a paste consisting of asphalts from deasphalting operations and slaked lime, followed by oxidation of the mixture with atmospheric air, were determined. The sulfuric acid recovered in the settling process could be burned in order to purify it of organic contaminants.

  20. Sequential injection redox or acid-base titration for determination of ascorbic acid or acetic acid.

    PubMed

    Lenghor, Narong; Jakmunee, Jaroon; Vilen, Michael; Sara, Rolf; Christian, Gary D; Grudpan, Kate

    2002-12-01

    Two sequential injection titration systems with spectrophotometric detection have been developed. The first system for determination of ascorbic acid was based on redox reaction between ascorbic acid and permanganate in an acidic medium and lead to a decrease in color intensity of permanganate, monitored at 525 nm. A linear dependence of peak area obtained with ascorbic acid concentration up to 1200 mg l(-1) was achieved. The relative standard deviation for 11 replicate determinations of 400 mg l(-1) ascorbic acid was 2.9%. The second system, for acetic acid determination, was based on acid-base titration of acetic acid with sodium hydroxide using phenolphthalein as an indicator. The decrease in color intensity of the indicator was proportional to the acid content. A linear calibration graph in the range of 2-8% w v(-1) of acetic acid with a relative standard deviation of 4.8% (5.0% w v(-1) acetic acid, n=11) was obtained. Sample throughputs of 60 h(-1) were achieved for both systems. The systems were successfully applied for the assays of ascorbic acid in vitamin C tablets and acetic acid content in vinegars, respectively.

  1. Nervonic acid and demyelinating disease.

    PubMed

    Sargent, J R; Coupland, K; Wilson, R

    1994-04-01

    Demyelination in adrenoleukodystrophy (ALD) is associated with an accumulation of very long chain saturated fatty acids such as 26:0 stemming from a genetic defect in the peroxisomal beta oxidation system responsible for the chain shortening of these fatty acids. Long chain monoenoic acids such as erucic acid, 22:1(n-9), can normalise elevated serum levels of 26:0 in ALD by depressing their biosynthesis from shorter chain saturated fatty acids. Sphingolipids from post mortem ALD brain have decreased levels of nervonic acid, 24:1(n-9), and increased levels of stearic acid, 18:0. Increased levels of 26:0 are accompanied by decreased nervonic acid biosynthesis in skin fibroblasts from ALD patients. Sphingolipids from post mortem MS brain have the same decreased 24:1(n-9) and increased 18:0 seen in post mortem ALD brain. The 24:1(n-9) content of sphingomyelin is depressed in erythrocytes from multiple sclerosis (MS) patients. Defects in the microsomal biosynthesis of very long chain fatty acids including 24:1(n-9) in 'jumpy' and 'quaking' mice are accompanied by impaired myelination. An impairment in the provision of nervonic acid in demyelinating diseases is indicated, suggesting that dietary therapy with oils rich in very long chain monenoic acid fatty acids may be beneficial in such conditions.

  2. Pantothenic acid biosynthesis in zymomonas

    SciTech Connect

    Tao, Luan; Tomb, Jean-Francois; Viitanen, Paul V.

    2014-07-01

    Zymomonas is unable to synthesize pantothenic acid and requires this essential vitamin in growth medium. Zymomonas strains transformed with an operon for expression of 2-dehydropantoate reductase and aspartate 1-decarboxylase were able to grow in medium lacking pantothenic acid. These strains may be used for ethanol production without pantothenic acid supplementation in seed culture and fermentation media.

  3. An Umbrella for Acid Rain.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Randal, Judith

    1979-01-01

    The Environmental Protection Agency has awarded several grants to study effects of and possible solutions to the problem of "acid rain"; pollution from atmospheric nitric and sulfuric acids. The research program is administered through North Carolina State University at Raleigh and will focus on biological effects of acid rain. (JMF)

  4. Carboxylic acid sorption regeneration process

    DOEpatents

    King, C.J.; Poole, L.J.

    1995-05-02

    Carboxylic acids are sorbed from aqueous feedstocks into an organic liquid phase or onto a solid adsorbent. The acids are freed from the sorbent phase by treating it with aqueous alkylamine thus forming an alkylammonium carboxylate which is dewatered and decomposed to the desired carboxylic acid and the alkylamine. 10 figs.

  5. Carboxylic acid sorption regeneration process

    DOEpatents

    King, C. Judson; Poole, Loree J.

    1995-01-01

    Carboxylic acids are sorbed from aqueous feedstocks into an organic liquid phase or onto a solid adsorbent. The acids are freed from the sorbent phase by treating it with aqueous alkylamine thus forming an alkylammonium carboxylate which is dewatered and decomposed to the desired carboxylic acid and the alkylamine.

  6. Heterogeneous uptake of amines by citric acid and humic acid.

    PubMed

    Liu, Yongchun; Ma, Qingxin; He, Hong

    2012-10-16

    Heterogeneous uptake of methylamine (MA), dimethylamine (DMA), and trimethylamine (TMA) onto citric acid and humic acid was investigated using a Knudsen cell reactor coupled to a quadrupole mass spectrometer at 298 K. Acid-base reactions between amines and carboxylic acids were confirmed. The observed uptake coefficients of MA, DMA, and TMA on citric acid at 298 K were measured to be 7.31 ± 1.13 × 10(-3), 6.65 ± 0.49 × 10(-3), and 5.82 ± 0.68 × 10(-3), respectively, and showed independence of sample mass. The observed uptake coefficients of MA, DMA, and TMA on humic acid at 298 K increased linearly with sample mass, and the true uptake coefficients of MA, DMA, and TMA were measured to be 1.26 ± 0.07 × 10(-5), 7.33 ± 0.40 × 10(-6), and 4.75 ± 0.15 × 10(-6), respectively. Citric acid, having stronger acidity, showed a higher reactivity than humic acid for a given amine; while the steric effect of amines was found to govern the reactivity between amines and citric acid or humic acid.

  7. Composition for nucleic acid sequencing

    SciTech Connect

    Korlach, Jonas; Webb, Watt W.; Levene, Michael; Turner, Stephen; Craighead, Harold G.; Foquet, Mathieu

    2008-08-26

    The present invention is directed to a method of sequencing a target nucleic acid molecule having a plurality of bases. In its principle, the temporal order of base additions during the polymerization reaction is measured on a molecule of nucleic acid, i.e. the activity of a nucleic acid polymerizing enzyme on the template nucleic acid molecule to be sequenced is followed in real time. The sequence is deduced by identifying which base is being incorporated into the growing complementary strand of the target nucleic acid by the catalytic activity of the nucleic acid polymerizing enzyme at each step in the sequence of base additions. A polymerase on the target nucleic acid molecule complex is provided in a position suitable to move along the target nucleic acid molecule and extend the oligonucleotide primer at an active site. A plurality of labelled types of nucleotide analogs are provided proximate to the active site, with each distinguishable type of nucleotide analog being complementary to a different nucleotide in the target nucleic acid sequence. The growing nucleic acid strand is extended by using the polymerase to add a nucleotide analog to the nucleic acid strand at the active site, where the nucleotide analog being added is complementary to the nucleotide of the target nucleic acid at the active site. The nucleotide analog added to the oligonucleotide primer as a result of the polymerizing step is identified. The steps of providing labelled nucleotide analogs, polymerizing the growing nucleic acid strand, and identifying the added nucleotide analog are repeated so that the nucleic acid strand is further extended and the sequence of the target nucleic acid is determined.

  8. Evolution of rosmarinic acid biosynthesis.

    PubMed

    Petersen, Maike; Abdullah, Yana; Benner, Johannes; Eberle, David; Gehlen, Katja; Hücherig, Stephanie; Janiak, Verena; Kim, Kyung Hee; Sander, Marion; Weitzel, Corinna; Wolters, Stefan

    2009-01-01

    Rosmarinic acid and chlorogenic acid are caffeic acid esters widely found in the plant kingdom and presumably accumulated as defense compounds. In a survey, more than 240 plant species have been screened for the presence of rosmarinic and chlorogenic acids. Several rosmarinic acid-containing species have been detected. The rosmarinic acid accumulation in species of the Marantaceae has not been known before. Rosmarinic acid is found in hornworts, in the fern family Blechnaceae and in species of several orders of mono- and dicotyledonous angiosperms. The biosyntheses of caffeoylshikimate, chlorogenic acid and rosmarinic acid use 4-coumaroyl-CoA from the general phenylpropanoid pathway as hydroxycinnamoyl donor. The hydroxycinnamoyl acceptor substrate comes from the shikimate pathway: shikimic acid, quinic acid and hydroxyphenyllactic acid derived from l-tyrosine. Similar steps are involved in the biosyntheses of rosmarinic, chlorogenic and caffeoylshikimic acids: the transfer of the 4-coumaroyl moiety to an acceptor molecule by a hydroxycinnamoyltransferase from the BAHD acyltransferase family and the meta-hydroxylation of the 4-coumaroyl moiety in the ester by a cytochrome P450 monooxygenase from the CYP98A family. The hydroxycinnamoyltransferases as well as the meta-hydroxylases show high sequence similarities and thus seem to be closely related. The hydroxycinnamoyltransferase and CYP98A14 from Coleus blumei (Lamiaceae) are nevertheless specific for substrates involved in RA biosynthesis showing an evolutionary diversification in phenolic ester metabolism. Our current view is that only a few enzymes had to be "invented" for rosmarinic acid biosynthesis probably on the basis of genes needed for the formation of chlorogenic and caffeoylshikimic acid while further biosynthetic steps might have been recruited from phenylpropanoid metabolism, tocopherol/plastoquinone biosynthesis and photorespiration. PMID:19560175

  9. Evolution of rosmarinic acid biosynthesis.

    PubMed

    Petersen, Maike; Abdullah, Yana; Benner, Johannes; Eberle, David; Gehlen, Katja; Hücherig, Stephanie; Janiak, Verena; Kim, Kyung Hee; Sander, Marion; Weitzel, Corinna; Wolters, Stefan

    2009-01-01

    Rosmarinic acid and chlorogenic acid are caffeic acid esters widely found in the plant kingdom and presumably accumulated as defense compounds. In a survey, more than 240 plant species have been screened for the presence of rosmarinic and chlorogenic acids. Several rosmarinic acid-containing species have been detected. The rosmarinic acid accumulation in species of the Marantaceae has not been known before. Rosmarinic acid is found in hornworts, in the fern family Blechnaceae and in species of several orders of mono- and dicotyledonous angiosperms. The biosyntheses of caffeoylshikimate, chlorogenic acid and rosmarinic acid use 4-coumaroyl-CoA from the general phenylpropanoid pathway as hydroxycinnamoyl donor. The hydroxycinnamoyl acceptor substrate comes from the shikimate pathway: shikimic acid, quinic acid and hydroxyphenyllactic acid derived from l-tyrosine. Similar steps are involved in the biosyntheses of rosmarinic, chlorogenic and caffeoylshikimic acids: the transfer of the 4-coumaroyl moiety to an acceptor molecule by a hydroxycinnamoyltransferase from the BAHD acyltransferase family and the meta-hydroxylation of the 4-coumaroyl moiety in the ester by a cytochrome P450 monooxygenase from the CYP98A family. The hydroxycinnamoyltransferases as well as the meta-hydroxylases show high sequence similarities and thus seem to be closely related. The hydroxycinnamoyltransferase and CYP98A14 from Coleus blumei (Lamiaceae) are nevertheless specific for substrates involved in RA biosynthesis showing an evolutionary diversification in phenolic ester metabolism. Our current view is that only a few enzymes had to be "invented" for rosmarinic acid biosynthesis probably on the basis of genes needed for the formation of chlorogenic and caffeoylshikimic acid while further biosynthetic steps might have been recruited from phenylpropanoid metabolism, tocopherol/plastoquinone biosynthesis and photorespiration.

  10. Microbial transformations of isocupressic acid.

    PubMed

    Lin, S J; Rosazza, J P

    1998-07-01

    Microbial transformations of the labdane-diterpene isocupressic acid (1) with different microorganisms yielded several oxygenated metabolites that were isolated and characterized by MS and NMR spectroscopic analyses. Nocardia aurantia (ATCC 12674) catalyzed the cleavage of the 13,14-double bond to yield a new nor-labdane metabolite, 2. Cunninghamella elegans (-) (NRRL 1393) gave 7beta-hydroxyisocupressic acid (3) and labda-7,13(E)-diene-6beta,15, 17-triol-19-oic acid (4), and Mucor mucedo (ATCC 20094) gave 2alpha-hydroxyisocupressic acid (5) and labda-8(17),14-diene-2alpha, 13-diol-19-oic acid (6).

  11. Invasive cleavage of nucleic acids

    DOEpatents

    Prudent, James R.; Hall, Jeff G.; Lyamichev, Victor I.; Brow, Mary Ann D.; Dahlberg, James E.

    2002-01-01

    The present invention relates to means for the detection and characterization of nucleic acid sequences, as well as variations in nucleic acid sequences. The present invention also relates to methods for forming a nucleic acid cleavage structure on a target sequence and cleaving the nucleic acid cleavage structure in a site-specific manner. The structure-specific nuclease activity of a variety of enzymes is used to cleave the target-dependent cleavage structure, thereby indicating the presence of specific nucleic acid sequences or specific variations thereof.

  12. Invasive cleavage of nucleic acids

    DOEpatents

    Prudent, James R.; Hall, Jeff G.; Lyamichev, Victor I.; Brow, Mary Ann D.; Dahlberg, James E.

    1999-01-01

    The present invention relates to means for the detection and characterization of nucleic acid sequences, as well as variations in nucleic acid sequences. The present invention also relates to methods for forming a nucleic acid cleavage structure on a target sequence and cleaving the nucleic acid cleavage structure in a site-specific manner. The structure-specific nuclease activity of a variety of enzymes is used to cleave the target-dependent cleavage structure, thereby indicating the presence of specific nucleic acid sequences or specific variations thereof.

  13. The politics of acid rain

    SciTech Connect

    Wilcher, M.E. )

    1989-01-01

    This work examines and compares the acid rain policies through the different political systems of Canada, Great Britain and the United States. Because the flow of acid rain can transcend national boundaries, acid rain has become a crucial international problem. According to the author, because of differences in governmental institutions and structure, the extent of governmental intervention in the industrial economy, the degree of reliance on coal for power generation, and the extent of acid rain damage, national responses to the acid rain problem have varied.

  14. [A catalogue of fatty acids].

    PubMed

    Canalejo, E; Martín Peña, G; Gómez Molero, L; Ruiz Galiana, J

    1996-01-01

    Fatty acids structure and function is an area of renewed interest because of its effects on plasma lipids, biosynthesis of prostaglandins, leucotrienes and thromboxanes, and the obligatory demands of some fatty acids, especially for the newborn. Fatty acids are identified in three different ways: by the classical nomenclature, by its trivial name, and by the new methods also known as the omega system. These three different methods have created some confusion. The aim of this article is to revise fatty acids chemical structure and to compile a list of nutritional important fatty acids with the three different terminologies.

  15. Tested Demonstrations: Color Oscillations in the Formic Acid-Nitric Acid-Sulfuric Acid System.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Raw, C. J. G.; And Others

    1983-01-01

    Presented are procedures for demonstrating the production of color oscillations when nitric acid is added to a formic acid/concentrated sulfuric acid mixture. Because of safety considerations, "Super-8" home movie of the color changes was found to be satisfactory for demonstration purposes. (JN)

  16. Twinning of dodecanedicarboxylic acid

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sen, R.; Wilcox, W. R.

    1986-01-01

    Twinning of 1,10-dodecanedicarboxyl acid (DDA) was observed in 0.1 mm thick films with a polarizing microscope. Twins originated from polycrystalline regions which tended to nucleate on twin faces, and terminated by intersection gone another. Twinning increased dramatically with addition of organic compounds with a similar molecular size and shape. Increasing the freezing rate, increasing the temperature gradient, and addition of silica particles increased twinning. It is proposed that twins nucleate with polycrystals and sometimes anneal out before they become observable. The impurities may enhance twinning either by lowering the twin energy or by adsorbing on growing faces.

  17. Mycophenolic Acid in Silage

    PubMed Central

    Schneweis, Isabell; Meyer, Karsten; Hörmansdorfer, Stefan; Bauer, Johann

    2000-01-01

    We examined 233 silage samples and found that molds were present in 206 samples with counts between 1 × 103 and 8.9 × 107 (mean, 4.7 × 106) CFU/g. Mycophenolic acid, a metabolite of Penicillium roqueforti, was detected by liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry in 74 (32%) of these samples at levels ranging from 20 to 35,000 (mean, 1,400) μg/kg. This compound has well-known immunosuppressive properties, so feeding with contaminated silage may promote the development of infectious diseases in livestock. PMID:10919834

  18. Synthesis of amino acids

    DOEpatents

    Davis, J.W. Jr.

    1979-09-21

    A method is described for synthesizing amino acids preceding through novel intermediates of the formulas: R/sub 1/R/sub 2/C(OSOC1)CN, R/sub 1/R/sub 2/C(C1)CN and (R/sub 1/R/sub 2/C(CN)O)/sub 2/SO wherein R/sub 1/ and R/sub 2/ are each selected from hydrogen and monovalent hydrocarbon radicals of 1 to 10 carbon atoms. The use of these intermediates allows the synthesis steps to be exothermic and results in an overall synthesis method which is faster than the synthesis methods of the prior art.

  19. Beyond acid rain

    SciTech Connect

    Gaffney, J.S.; Streit, G.E.; Spall, W.D.; Hall, J.H.

    1987-06-01

    This paper discussed the effects of the interactions of soluble oxidants and organic toxins with sulfur dioxide and nitrogen dioxide. It suggested that these chemical reactions in the atmosphere produced a more potent acid rain which was harmful not only because it had a low pH but because it contained oxidants and organic toxins which were harmful to surface vegetation and the organisms found in surface waters. It was stressed that air pollution is a global problem and that is is necessary to develop a better fundamental understanding of how air pollution is causing damage to the streams and forests of the world. 50 references.

  20. Interstellar isothiocyanic acid

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Frerking, M. A.; Linke, R. A.; Thaddeus, P.

    1979-01-01

    Isothiocyanic acid (HNCS) has been identified in Sgr B2 from millimeter-wave spectral line observations. We have definitely detected three rotational lines, and have probably detected two others. The rotational temperature of HNCS in Sgr B2 is 14 plus or minus 5 K, its column density is 2.5 plus or minus 1.0 x 10 to the 13th per sq cm, and its abundance relative to HNCO is consistent with the cosmic S/O ratio, 1/42.