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Sample records for acid fumaric acid

  1. Fumaric acid production by fermentation

    PubMed Central

    Roa Engel, Carol A.; Zijlmans, Tiemen W.; van Gulik, Walter M.; van der Wielen, Luuk A. M.

    2008-01-01

    The potential of fumaric acid as a raw material in the polymer industry and the increment of cost of petroleum-based fumaric acid raises interest in fermentation processes for production of this compound from renewable resources. Although the chemical process yields 112% w/w fumaric acid from maleic anhydride and the fermentation process yields only 85% w/w from glucose, the latter raw material is three times cheaper. Besides, the fermentation fixes CO2. Production of fumaric acid by Rhizopus species and the involved metabolic pathways are reviewed. Submerged fermentation systems coupled with product recovery techniques seem to have achieved economically attractive yields and productivities. Future prospects for improvement of fumaric acid production include metabolic engineering approaches to achieve low pH fermentations. PMID:18214471

  2. 21 CFR 172.350 - Fumaric acid and salts of fumaric acid.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Fumaric acid and salts of fumaric acid. 172.350... HUMAN CONSUMPTION Special Dietary and Nutritional Additives § 172.350 Fumaric acid and salts of fumaric acid. Fumaric acid and its calcium, ferrous, magnesium, potassium, and sodium salts may be safely...

  3. 21 CFR 172.350 - Fumaric acid and salts of fumaric acid.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Fumaric acid and salts of fumaric acid. 172.350... HUMAN CONSUMPTION Special Dietary and Nutritional Additives § 172.350 Fumaric acid and salts of fumaric acid. Fumaric acid and its calcium, ferrous, magnesium, potassium, and sodium salts may be safely...

  4. 21 CFR 172.350 - Fumaric acid and salts of fumaric acid.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Fumaric acid and salts of fumaric acid. 172.350... HUMAN CONSUMPTION Special Dietary and Nutritional Additives § 172.350 Fumaric acid and salts of fumaric acid. Fumaric acid and its calcium, ferrous, magnesium, potassium, and sodium salts may be safely...

  5. Fumaric acid esters in dermatology

    PubMed Central

    Wollina, Uwe

    2011-01-01

    Fumaric acid esters (FAE) are substances of interest in dermatology. FAE exert various activities on cutaneous cells and cytokine networks. So far only a mixture of dimethylfumarate (DMF) and three salts of monoethylfumarate (MEF) have gained approval for the oral treatment of moderate-to-severe plaque-type psoriasis in Germany. DMF seems to be the major active component. There is evidence that FAE are not only effective and safe in psoriasis but granulomatous non-infectious diseases like granuloma annulare, necrobiosis lipoidica and sarcoidosis. In vitro and animal studies suggest some activity in malignant melanoma as well. PMID:23130241

  6. 21 CFR 172.350 - Fumaric acid and salts of fumaric acid.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... acid. Fumaric acid and its calcium, ferrous, magnesium, potassium, and sodium salts may be safely used... anhydrous basis. (2) The calcium, magnesium, potassium, and sodium salts contain a minimum of 99 percent...

  7. Critical factors in sonochemical degradation of fumaric acid.

    PubMed

    Wu, Zhilin; Cravotto, Giancarlo; Adrians, Marcus; Ondruschka, Bernd; Li, Weixin

    2015-11-01

    The effects of critical factors such as Henry's Law constant, atmospheric OH rate constant, initial concentration, H2O2, FeSO4 and tert-butanol on the sonochemical degradation of fumaric acid have been investigated. The pseudo first-order rate constant for the sonochemical degradation of 1mM fumaric acid is much lower than those for chloroform and phenol degradation, and is related to solute concentration at the bubble/water interface and reactivity towards hydroxyl radicals. Furthermore, fumaric acid is preferentially oxidized at the lower initial concentration. It is unreactive to H2O2 under agitation at room temperature. However, the degradation rate of fumaric acid increases with the addition of H2O2 under sonication. 0.1 mM of fumaric acid suppresses H2O2 formation thanks to water sonolysis, while degradation behavior is also dramatically affected by the addition of an oxidative catalyst (FeSO4) or radical scavenger (tert-butanol), indicating that the degradation of fumaric acid is caused by hydroxyl radicals generated during the collapse of high-energy cavities. PMID:26186831

  8. [Fumaric acid as therapeutic agent for multiple sclerosis].

    PubMed

    Haghikia, A; Linker, R; Gold, R

    2014-06-01

    After the approval of fumaric acid in February 2014 another first line agent is now available for the treatment of multiple sclerosis (MS). Along with the various beta interferon preparations, glatiramer acetate, teriflunomide and fumaric acid add to the repertoire of oral therapeutics for the initial treatment of relapsing remitting MS in daily practice. In order to employ these drugs in an individualized and precise medical manner and considering their efficacy and side effects, it seems worthwhile to learn the so far known mode of action and background history. Fumaric acid, as one of the newest drugs approved for MS, reveals the longest history as it was in use for decades as a treatment in psoriasis patients. Furthermore, fumaric acid is a good example for so far not extensively exploited option of drug reposition in medicine in general. The current review summarizes the outcomes of the clinical approval studies of fumaric acid in MS and discusses the dual mode of action, the immunomodulatory and tissue protective effect, as well as the reported adverse events under fumaric acid treatment. This review aims to serve an aid in the daily decision-making practice when choosing the baseline therapy for MS patients. PMID:24668400

  9. Presystemic metabolism and intestinal absorption of antipsoriatic fumaric acid esters.

    PubMed

    Werdenberg, D; Joshi, R; Wolffram, S; Merkle, H P; Langguth, P

    2003-09-01

    Psoriasis is a chronic inflammatory skin disease. Its treatment is based on the inhibition of proliferation of epidermal cells and interference in the inflammatory process. A new systemic antipsoriasis drug, which consists of dimethylfumarate and ethylhydrogenfumarate in the form of their calcium, magnesium and zinc salts has been introduced in Europe with successful results. In the present study, a homologous series of mono- and diesters of fumaric acid has been studied with respect to the sites and kinetics of presystemic ester degradation using pancreas extract, intestinal perfusate, intestinal homogenate and liver S9 fraction. In addition, intestinal permeability has been determined using isolated intestinal mucosa as well as Caco-2 cell monolayers, in order to obtain estimates of the fraction of the dose absorbed for these compounds. Relationships between the physicochemical properties of the fumaric acid esters and their biological responses were investigated. The uncharged diester dimethylfumarate displayed a high presystemic metabolic lability in all metabolism models. It also showed the highest permeability in the Caco-2 cell model. However, in permeation experiments with intestinal mucosa in Ussing-type chambers, no undegraded DMF was found on the receiver side, indicating complete metabolism in the intestinal tissue. The intestinal permeability of the monoesters methyl hydrogen fumarate, ethyl hydrogen fumarate, n-propylhydrogen fumarate and n-pentyl hydrogen fumarate increased with an increase in their lipophilicity, however, their presystemic metabolism rates likewise increased with increasing ester chain length. It is concluded that for fumarates, an increase in intestinal permeability of the more lipophilic derivatives is counterbalanced by an increase in first-pass extraction. PMID:12973823

  10. Reconstruction of cytosolic fumaric acid biosynthetic pathways in Saccharomyces cerevisiae

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background Fumaric acid is a commercially important component of foodstuffs, pharmaceuticals and industrial materials, yet the current methods of production are unsustainable and ecologically destructive. Results In this study, the fumarate biosynthetic pathway involving reductive reactions of the tricarboxylic acid cycle was exogenously introduced in S. cerevisiae by a series of simple genetic modifications. First, the Rhizopus oryzae genes for malate dehydrogenase (RoMDH) and fumarase (RoFUM1) were heterologously expressed. Then, expression of the endogenous pyruvate carboxylase (PYC2) was up-regulated. The resultant yeast strain, FMME-001 ↑PYC2 + ↑RoMDH, was capable of producing significantly higher yields of fumarate in the glucose medium (3.18 ± 0.15 g liter-1) than the control strain FMME-001 empty vector. Conclusions The results presented here provide a novel strategy for fumarate biosynthesis, which represents an important advancement in producing high yields of fumarate in a sustainable and ecologically-friendly manner. PMID:22335940

  11. Preservation of acidified cucumbers with a combination of fumaric acid and cinnamaldehyde that target lactic acid bacteria and yeasts

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The naturally occurring compound, fumaric acid, was evaluated as a potential preservative for the long-term storage of cucumbers. Fumaric acid inhibited growth of lactic acid bacteria (LAB) in an acidified cucumber juice medium model system resembling conditions that could allow preservation of cucu...

  12. The Photochemical Isomerization of Maleic to Fumaric Acid: An Undergraduate Organic Chemistry Experiment.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Castro, Albert J.; And Others

    1983-01-01

    Describes an undergraduate organic chemistry experiment on the photochemical isomerization of maleic to fumaric acid. Background information, chemical reactions involved, and experimental procedures are included. (JN)

  13. Nanofiltration, bipolar electrodialysis and reactive extraction hybrid system for separation of fumaric acid from fermentation broth.

    PubMed

    Prochaska, Krystyna; Staszak, Katarzyna; Woźniak-Budych, Marta Joanna; Regel-Rosocka, Magdalena; Adamczak, Michalina; Wiśniewski, Maciej; Staniewski, Jacek

    2014-09-01

    A novel approach based on a hybrid system allowing nanofiltration, bipolar electrodialysis and reactive extraction, was proposed to remove fumaric acid from fermentation broth left after bioconversion of glycerol. The fumaric salts can be concentrated in the nanofiltration process to a high yield (80-95% depending on pressure), fumaric acid can be selectively separated from other fermentation components, as well as sodium fumarate can be conversed into the acid form in bipolar electrodialysis process (stack consists of bipolar and anion-exchange membranes). Reactive extraction with quaternary ammonium chloride (Aliquat 336) or alkylphosphine oxides (Cyanex 923) solutions (yield between 60% and 98%) was applied as the final step for fumaric acid recovery from aqueous streams after the membrane techniques. The hybrid system permitting nanofiltration, bipolar electrodialysis and reactive extraction was found effective for recovery of fumaric acid from the fermentation broth. PMID:24983693

  14. Transport and metabolism of fumaric acid in Saccharomyces cerevisiae in aerobic glucose-limited chemostat culture.

    PubMed

    Shah, Mihir V; van Mastrigt, Oscar; Heijnen, Joseph J; van Gulik, Walter M

    2016-04-01

    Currently, research is being focused on the industrial-scale production of fumaric acid and other relevant organic acids from renewable feedstocks via fermentation, preferably at low pH for better product recovery. However, at low pH a large fraction of the extracellular acid is present in the undissociated form, which is lipophilic and can diffuse into the cell. There have been no studies done on the impact of high extracellular concentrations of fumaric acid under aerobic conditions in S. cerevisiae, which is a relevant issue to study for industrial-scale production. In this work we studied the uptake and metabolism of fumaric acid in S. cerevisiae in glucose-limited chemostat cultures at a cultivation pH of 3.0 (pH < pK). Steady states were achieved with different extracellular levels of fumaric acid, obtained by adding different amounts of fumaric acid to the feed medium. The experiments were carried out with the wild-type S. cerevisiae CEN.PK 113-7D and an engineered S. cerevisiae ADIS 244 expressing a heterologous dicarboxylic acid transporter (DCT-02) from Aspergillus niger, to examine whether it would be capable of exporting fumaric acid. We observed that fumaric acid entered the cells most likely via passive diffusion of the undissociated form. Approximately two-thirds of the fumaric acid in the feed was metabolized together with glucose. From metabolic flux analysis, an increased ATP dissipation was observed only at high intracellular concentrations of fumarate, possibly due to the export of fumarate via an ABC transporter. The implications of our results for the industrial-scale production of fumaric acid are discussed. Copyright © 2015 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. PMID:26683700

  15. Metabolic engineering of Rhizopus oryzae: Effects of overexpressing pyc and pepc genes on fumaric acid biosynthesis from glucose

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Fumaric acid, a dicarboxylic acid used as a food acidulant and in manufacturing synthetic resins, can be produced from glucose in fermentation by Rhizopus oryzae. However, the fumaric acid yield is limited by the co-production of ethanol and other byproducts. To increase fumaric acid production, ove...

  16. Metabolic modeling of fumaric acid production by Rhizopus arrhizus

    SciTech Connect

    Gangl, I.C.; Weigand, W.W.; Keller, F.A.

    1991-12-31

    A metabolic model is developed for fumaric acid production by Rhizopus arrhizus. The model describes the reaction network and the extents of reaction in terms of the concentrations of the measurable species. The proposed pathway consists of the Embden-Meyerhof pathway and two pathways to FA production, both of which require CO{sub 2} fixation (the forward and the reverse TCA cycles). Relationships among the measurable quantities, in addition to those obtainable by a macroscopic mass balance, are found by invoking a pseudo-steady-state assumption on the nonaccumulating species in the pathway. Applications of the metabolic model, such as verifying the proposed pathway, obtaining the theoretical yield and selectivity, and detecting experimental errors, are discussed.

  17. Chitosan grafted monomethyl fumaric acid as a potential food preservative.

    PubMed

    Khan, Imran; Ullah, Shafi; Oh, Deog-Hwan

    2016-11-01

    The present study aims at in vitro antibacterial and antioxidant activity evaluation of chitosan modified with monomethyl fumaric acid (MFA) using 1-ethyl-3-(3-dimethylaminopropyl) carbodiimide (EDC) as mediator. Three different kinds of chitosan derivatives Ch-Ds-1,Ch-Ds-2 and Ch-Ds-3 were synthesized by feeding different concentration of MFA. The chemical structures of resulting materials were characterized by (1)H NMR, (13)C NMR, HR-XRD, FT-IR and TNBS assay. The results showed that Ch-Ds-1, Ch-Ds-2 and Ch-Ds-3 were successfully synthesized. The % amino groups of chitosan modified by MFA were evaluated by TNBS assay and ranging from 1.82±0.05% to 7.88±0.04%. All the chitosan derivatives are readily soluble in water and swelled by dimethyl sulfoxide (DMSO), toluene and dimethyl formamide (DMF). The antioxidant activity for all the chitosan derivatives have been significantly improved (P<0.05) compared to the chitosan. Upon antibacterial activity at pH 4.0, all the chitosan derivatives showed significant (P<0.05) antibacterial activity against Gram positive Staphylococcus aureus, Listeria monocytogenes strains and Gram negative Escherichia coli and Salmonella enteritidis strains compared to chitosan. In conclusion, MFA modified chitosan has shown enhanced activities along with solubility, and could be used as a novel food preservative and packaging material for long time food safety and security. PMID:27516253

  18. pH-Dependent Uptake of Fumaric Acid in Saccharomyces cerevisiae under Anaerobic Conditions

    PubMed Central

    Jamalzadeh, Elaheh; Verheijen, Peter J. T.; Heijnen, Joseph J.

    2012-01-01

    Microbial production of C4 dicarboxylic acids from renewable resources has gained renewed interest. The yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae is known as a robust microorganism and is able to grow at low pH, which makes it a suitable candidate for biological production of organic acids. However, a successful metabolic engineering approach for overproduction of organic acids requires an incorporation of a proper exporter to increase the productivity. Moreover, low-pH fermentations, which are desirable for facilitating the downstream processing, may cause back diffusion of the undissociated acid into the cells with simultaneous active export, thereby creating an ATP-dissipating futile cycle. In this work, we have studied the uptake of fumaric acid in S. cerevisiae in carbon-limited chemostat cultures under anaerobic conditions. The effect of the presence of fumaric acid at different pH values (3 to 5) has been investigated in order to obtain more knowledge about possible uptake mechanisms. The experimental results showed that at a cultivation pH of 5.0 and an external fumaric acid concentration of approximately 0.8 mmol · liter−1, the fumaric acid uptake rate was unexpectedly high and could not be explained by diffusion of the undissociated form across the plasma membrane alone. This could indicate the presence of protein-mediated import. At decreasing pH levels, the fumaric acid uptake rate was found to increase asymptotically to a maximum level. Although this observation is in accordance with protein-mediated import, the presence of a metabolic bottleneck for fumaric acid conversion under anaerobic conditions could not be excluded. PMID:22113915

  19. Fumaric acid microenvironment tablet formulation and process development for crystalline cenicriviroc mesylate, a BCS IV compound.

    PubMed

    Menning, Mark M; Dalziel, Sean M

    2013-11-01

    Cenicriviroc mesylate (CVC) is a potent dual antagonist of C-C chemokine receptor type 5 (CCR5) and C-C chemokine receptor type 2 (CCR2) in phase 2b development as an entry inhibitor for HIV-1 infection treatment.1,2 CVC is a weak base exhibiting BCS IV characteristics with a highly pH dependent solubility profile (>100 mg/mL for pH < 2 and <0.2 μg/mL for pH > 4) and low Caco-2 cell line permeability. Previous tablet formulations of CVC, including spray-dried dispersion and a wet granulation with citric acid, had been found unacceptable for commercial use due to chemical and physical instability or unacceptably high excipient loading precluding fixed-dose combinability. A high drug loading, 26% (w/w), acidic microenvironment tablet formulation with fumaric acid solubilizer (1:1 CVC/fumaric acid) and a dry granulation process was developed iteratively through a sequence of prototypes characterized by beagle dog absorption studies, focused beam reflectance measurement (FBRM), dynamic vapor sorption (DVS), and accelerated stability testing. The fumaric acid based dry granulated product demonstrated a mean bioavailability comparable to an oral solution dose in a dog model. Stability and moisture sensitivity of the formulation were improved via the dry granulation process technique and the use of fumaric acid. It is hypothesized that the observed slow dissolution kinetics of fumaric acid prolongs an acidic microenvironment around the agglomerated CVC crystals and excipients leading to increased CVC dissolution and thereby absorption. The fumaric acid formulation also demonstrated absorption resilience to gastric pH extremes in a dog model. This optimized formulation and process enables CVC to be a viable candidate for current HIV treatment paradigms of single once daily fixed-dose combination products. PMID:23941629

  20. Antiproliferative and cytotoxic profiles of antipsoriatic fumaric acid derivatives in keratinocyte cultures.

    PubMed

    Sebök, B; Bonnekoh, B; Geisel, J; Mahrle, G

    1994-01-01

    Oral administration with complex mixtures of fumaric acid derivatives is known to have antipsoriatic efficacy. The present studies aimed to clarify the mode of action and toxicity of the individual compounds. Hyperproliferative HaCaT keratinocytes in monolayer cultures were exposed to fumaric acid, dimethylfumarate, zinc monoethylfumarate, calcium monoethylfumarate and magnesium monoethylfumarate at concentrations between 0.4 microM and 960 microM for 48 h. Cell proliferation was studied by [3H]thymidine incorporation. In addition 14C-labelled amino acid uptake and total protein content were measured. Direct cytotoxicity was determined by the release of cytoplasmic lactate dehydrogenase (LDH) into the culture medium. The corresponding 50% inhibition concentrations (IC50) were calculated for DNA/protein synthesis: 2.3/2.5 microM (dimethylfumarate), 133/145 microM (zinc monoethylfumarate), 215/230 microM (calcium monoethylfumarate), 275/270 microM (magnesium monoethylfumarate), > 960/> 960 microM (fumaric acid). The total protein content was less sensitive. Antiproliferative activity was found for dimethylfumarate and to a lesser degree for calcium monoethylfumarate already at the subtoxic concentrations of 1.3 and 4 microM, respectively. In the case of magnesium monoethylfumarate, zinc monoethylfumarate and fumaric acid there was no such dissociation between their cytotoxic and antiproliferative potential. These data indicate that most of the antipsoriatic potential of fumaric therapies is due to the dimethylfumarate compound. PMID:8157084

  1. Fumaric acid: an overlooked form of fixed carbon in Arabidopsis and other plant species

    SciTech Connect

    Chia, D.W.; Yoder, T.J.; Reiter, W.D.; Gibson, S.I.

    2000-10-01

    Photoassimilates are used by plants for production of energy, as carbon skeletons and in transport of fixed carbon between different plant organs. Many studies have been devoted to characterizing the factors that. regulate photoassimilate concentrations in different plant species. Most studies examining photoassimilate concentrations in C{sub 3} plants have focused on analyzing starch and soluble sugars. However, work presented here demonstrates that a number of C{sub 3} plants, including the popular model organism Arabidopsis thaliana (L.) Heynh., and agriculturally important plants, such as soybean [Glycine ma (L.) Merr.], contain significant quantities of furnaric acid. In fact, furnaric acid can accumulate to levels of several mg per g fresh weight in A-abidopsis leaves, often exceeding starch and soluble sugar levels. Furnaric acid is a component of the tricarboxylic acid cycle and, like starch and soluble sugars, can be metabolized to yield energy and carbon skeletons for production of other compounds. Fumaric acid concentrations increase with plant age and light intensity in Arabidopsis leaves. Arabidopsis phloem exudates contain significant quantities of fumaric acid, raising the possibility that fumaric acid may function in carbon transport.

  2. Direct fungal fermentation of lignocellulosic biomass into itaconic, fumaric, and malic acids: current and future prospects.

    PubMed

    Mondala, Andro H

    2015-04-01

    Various economic and environmental sustainability concerns as well as consumer preference for bio-based products from natural sources have paved the way for the development and expansion of biorefining technologies. These involve the conversion of renewable biomass feedstock to fuels and chemicals using biological systems as alternatives to petroleum-based products. Filamentous fungi possess an expansive portfolio of products including the multifunctional organic acids itaconic, fumaric, and malic acids that have wide-ranging current applications and potentially addressable markets as platform chemicals. However, current bioprocessing technologies for the production of these compounds are mostly based on submerged fermentation, which necessitates physicochemical pretreatment and hydrolysis of lignocellulose biomass to soluble fermentable sugars in liquid media. This review will focus on current research work on fungal production of itaconic, fumaric, and malic acids and perspectives on the potential application of solid-state fungal cultivation techniques for the consolidated hydrolysis and organic acid fermentation of lignocellulosic biomass. PMID:25557737

  3. Determination of fumaric acid, maleic acid, and phthalic acid in groundwater and soil

    SciTech Connect

    Dietz, E.A.; Singley, K.F. . Technology Center)

    1994-01-01

    When present at > 1 [mu]g/mL, each title compound was determined in groundwater by ion-exclusion chromatography after sample acidification and filtration. For groundwater with one or all analyte concentrations of < 1 [mu]g/mL, the acid anions were first concentrated from a 100-mL sample using a quaternary amine anion-exchange cartridge. The acids were recovered by eluting the cartridge with 1 mL of N H[sub 2]SO[sub 4] and 2-mL deionized water washes; this solution then was examined by anion-exclusion chromatography. Analytes were monitored with a UV detector operated at 200 nm. The analysis procedures for groundwater were validated with solutions which were fortified with from 50 ng/mL to 200 [mu]g/mL of each analyte; recoveries ranged from 90 to 110%. The soil method was validated using fortified samples which contained each acid at concentrations of from 5 to 160 [mu]g/g. Recovery values were between 81 and 120%. For samples exhibiting minimal detector response from compounds other than the acids of interest, 100-[mu]L injection volumes provided an estimated detection limit of 1 [mu]g/g for soil and 10 ng/mL for groundwater.

  4. Characterization of the hyperline of D1/D0 conical intersections between the maleic acid and fumaric acid anion radicals

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Takahashi, Ohgi; Sumita, Masato

    2004-10-01

    The cation and anion radicals of symmetrical 1,2-disubstituted ethylenes are expected to have a symmetry-allowed conical intersection (CI) between the ground doublet state (D0) and the lowest excited doublet state (D1) near a 90°-twisted geometry. By the complete active space self-consistent field method, we characterized the hyperline formed by D1/D0 CIs between the anion radicals of maleic acid (cis) and fumaric acid (trans). An implication of the results for the known one-way cis→trans photoisomerization of the maleic acid anion radical and other related ion radicals is presented.

  5. Effect of fumaric acid, its dimethylester, and topical antipsoriatic drugs on epidermal differentiation in the mouse tail model.

    PubMed

    Sebök, B; Szabados, T; Kerényi, M; Schneider, I; Mahrle, G

    1996-01-01

    Fumaric acid, fumaric acid dimethylester, and the dithranol derivative C4-lactone were studied in the mouse tail test to evaluate their effects on epidermal cell differentiation compared with other topical antipsoriatic drugs, such as betamethasone, calcipotriol, and dithranol. Mouse tails were treated for 2 weeks and longitudinal histological sections prepared of the tail skin. The length of the orthokeratotic regions (stratum granulosum) was measured on 10 sequential scales per tail and expressed as percentage of the full length of the scale. In addition, epidermal thickness was measured and the efficacy of the various compounds evaluated. In comparison to 2% salicylic acid ointment, all tested compounds except fumaric acid significantly (p < or = 0.05) increased the proportion of the orthokeratotic region. C4-lactone and calcipotriol were less effective than dithranol, fumaric acid dimethylester only moderately influenced cell differentiation, and betamethasone showed the least potent effect. Dithranol was the most potent substance inducing orthokeratosis without increasing epidermal thickness. PMID:8722603

  6. Preservation of acidified cucumbers with a natural preservative combination of fumaric acid and allyl isothiocyanate that target lactic acid bacteria and yeasts

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Without the addition of preservative compounds cucumbers acidified with 150 mM acetic acid with pH adjusted to 3.5 typically undergo fermentation by lactic acid bacteria. Fumaric acid (20 mM) inhibited growth of Lactobacillus plantarum and the lactic acid bacteria present on fresh cucumbers, but sp...

  7. Spectroscopic investigation on cocrystal formation between adenine and fumaric acid based on infrared and Raman techniques

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Du, Yong; Fang, Hong Xia; Zhang, Qi; Zhang, Hui Li; Hong, Zhi

    2016-01-01

    As an important component of double-stranded DNA, adenine has powerful hydrogen-bond capability, due to rich hydrogen bond donors and acceptors existing within its molecular structure. Therefore, it is easy to form cocrystal between adenine and other small molecules with intermolecular hydrogen-bond effect. In this work, cocrystal of adenine and fumaric acid has been characterized as model system by FT-IR and FT-Raman spectral techniques. The experimental results show that the cocrystal formed between adenine and fumaric acid possesses unique spectroscopical characteristic compared with that of starting materials. Density functional theory (DFT) calculation has been performed to optimize the molecular structures and simulate vibrational modes of adenine, fumaric acid and the corresponding cocrystal. Combining the theoretical and experimental vibrational results, the characteristic bands corresponding to bending and stretching vibrations of amino and carbonyl groups within cocrystal are shifted into lower frequencies upon cocrystal formation, and the corresponding bond lengths show some increase due to the effect of intermolecular hydrogen bonding. Different vibrational modes shown in the experimental spectra have been assigned based on the simulation DFT results. The study could provide experimental and theoretical benchmarks to characterize cocrystal formed between active ingredients and cocrystal formers and also the intermolecular hydrogen-bond effect within cocrystal formation process by vibrational spectroscopic techniques.

  8. Effects of Fumaric Acids on Cuprizone Induced Central Nervous System De- and Remyelination in the Mouse

    PubMed Central

    Moharregh-Khiabani, Darius; Blank, Alexander; Skripuletz, Thomas; Miller, Elvira; Kotsiari, Alexandra; Gudi, Viktoria; Stangel, Martin

    2010-01-01

    Background Fumaric acid esters (FAE) are a group of compounds which are currently under investigation as an oral treatment for relapsing-remitting multiple sclerosis. One of the suggested modes of action is the potential of FAE to exert a neuroprotective effect. Methodology/Principal Findings We have investigated the impact of monomethylfumarate (MMF) and dimethylfumaric acid (DMF) on de- and remyelination using the toxic cuprizone model where the blood-brain-barrier remains intact and only scattered T-cells and peripheral macrophages are found in the central nervous system (CNS), thus excluding the influence of immunomodulatory effects on peripheral immune cells. FAE showed marginally accelerated remyelination in the corpus callosum compared to controls. However, we found no differences for demyelination and glial reactions in vivo and no cytoprotective effect on oligodendroglial cells in vitro. In contrast, DMF had a significant inhibitory effect on lipopolysaccharide (LPS) induced nitric oxide burst in microglia and induced apoptosis in peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMC). Conclusions These results contribute to the understanding of the mechanism of action of fumaric acids. Our data suggest that fumarates have no or only little direct protective effects on oligodendrocytes in this toxic model and may act rather indirectly via the modulation of immune cells. PMID:20668697

  9. Genetic Engineering Activates Biosynthesis of Aromatic Fumaric Acid Amides in the Human Pathogen Aspergillus fumigatus

    PubMed Central

    Kalb, Daniel; Heinekamp, Thorsten; Lackner, Gerald; Scharf, Daniel H.; Dahse, Hans-Martin; Brakhage, Axel A.

    2014-01-01

    The Aspergillus fumigatus nonribosomal peptide synthetase FtpA is among the few of this species whose natural product has remained unknown. Both FtpA adenylation domains were characterized in vitro. Fumaric acid was identified as preferred substrate of the first and both l-tyrosine and l-phenylalanine as preferred substrates of the second adenylation domain. Genetically engineered A. fumigatus strains expressed either ftpA or the regulator gene ftpR, encoded in the same cluster of genes, under the control of the doxycycline-inducible tetracycline-induced transcriptional activation (tet-on) cassette. These strains produced fumaryl-l-tyrosine and fumaryl-l-phenylalanine which were identified by liquid chromatography and high-resolution mass spectrometry. Modeling of the first adenylation domain in silico provided insight into the structural requirements to bind fumaric acid as peptide synthetase substrate. This work adds aromatic fumaric acid amides to the secondary metabolome of the important human pathogen A. fumigatus which was previously not known as a producer of these compounds. PMID:25527545

  10. Transcriptome analysis of Rhizopus oryzae in response to xylose during fumaric acid production.

    PubMed

    Xu, Qing; Liu, Ying; Li, Shuang; Jiang, Ling; Huang, He; Wen, Jianping

    2016-08-01

    Xylose is one of the most abundant lignocellulosic components, but it cannot be used by R. oryzae for fumaric acid production. Here, we applied high-throughput RNA sequencing to generate two transcriptional maps of R. oryzae following fermentation in glucose or xylose. The differential expression analysis showed that, genes involved in amino acid metabolism, fatty acid metabolism, and gluconeogenesis, were up-regulated in response to xylose. Moreover, we discovered the potential presence of oxidative stress in R. oryzae during xylose fermentation. To adapt to this unfavorable condition, R. oryzae displayed reduced growth and induce of a number of antioxidant enzymes, including genes involved in glutathione, trehalose synthesis, and the proteasomal pathway. These responses might divert the flow of carbon required for the accumulation of fumaric acid. Furthermore, using high-throughput RNA sequencing, we identified a large number of novel transcripts and a substantial number of genes that underwent alternative splicing. Our analysis provides remarkable insight into the mechanisms underlying xylose fermentation by R. oryzae. These results may reveal potential target genes or strategies to improve xylose fermentation. PMID:27170374

  11. Thermal-induced conversion of maleic and fumaric acid anion radicals in poly(methyl methacrylate)

    SciTech Connect

    Torikai, A.; Fukumoto, M.

    1980-04-01

    Thermal-induced conversion of maleic and fumaric acid anion radicals produced by ..gamma.. irradiation at 77/sup 0/K in poly(methyl methacrylate) (PMMA) was studied by electron spin resonance (ESR) and optical absorption spectroscopic measurements. The ESR spectra of these acid anion radicals change into two-line spectra with a line separation of ca. 10 G by thermal annealing. This spectrum is assigned to a protonated radical of each acid anion radical. Anion radicals of the solutes are relatively stable below the ..gamma.. transition point of PMMA and the conversion reaction takes place near this point. This means that the molecular motion of matrix molecule affects the radical conversion reaction.

  12. Aerobic growth of campylobacter in media supplemented with a-ketoglutaric, lactic, and/or fumaric acids

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    A study was conducted to examine the ability of Campylobacter spp. to grow aerobically in media supplemented with selected organic acids. Basal broth media composed of tryptose, yeast extract, and a mineral-vitamin solution was supplemented with a-ketoglutaric, lactic, and/or fumaric acids. The fina...

  13. Enhanced succinic acid production in Aspergillus saccharolyticus by heterologous expression of fumarate reductase from Trypanosoma brucei.

    PubMed

    Yang, Lei; Lübeck, Mette; Ahring, Birgitte K; Lübeck, Peter S

    2016-02-01

    Aspergillus saccharolyticus exhibits great potential as a cell factory for industrial production of dicarboxylic acids. In the analysis of the organic acid profile, A. saccharolyticus was cultivated in an acid production medium using two different pH conditions. The specific activities of the enzymes, pyruvate carboxylase (PYC), malate dehydrogenase (MDH), and fumarase (FUM), involved in the reductive tricarboxylic acid (rTCA) branch, were examined and compared in cells harvested from the acid production medium and a complete medium. The results showed that ambient pH had a significant impact on the pattern and the amount of organic acids produced by A. saccharolyticus. The wild-type strain produced higher amount of malic acid and succinic acid in the pH buffered condition (pH 6.5) compared with the pH non-buffered condition. The enzyme assays showed that the rTCA branch was active in the acid production medium as well as the complete medium, but the measured enzyme activities were different depending on the media. Furthermore, a soluble NADH-dependent fumarate reductase gene (frd) from Trypanosoma brucei was inserted and expressed in A. saccharolyticus. The expression of the frd gene led to an enhanced production of succinic acid in frd transformants compared with the wild-type in both pH buffered and pH non-buffered conditions with highest amount produced in the pH buffered condition (16.2 ± 0.5 g/L). This study demonstrates the feasibility of increasing succinic acid production through the cytosolic reductive pathway by genetic engineering in A. saccharolyticus. PMID:26521243

  14. Effects of irradiation and fumaric acid treatment on the inactivation of Listeria monocytogenes and Salmonella typhimurium inoculated on sliced ham

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Song, Hyeon-Jeong; Lee, Ji-Hye; Song, Kyung Bin

    2011-11-01

    To examine the effects of fumaric acid and electron beam irradiation on the inactivation of foodborne pathogens in ready-to-eat meat products, sliced ham was inoculated with Listeria monocytogenes and Salmonella typhimurium. The inoculated ham slices were treated with 0.5% fumaric acid or electron beam irradiation at 2 kGy. Fumaric acid treatment reduced the populations of L. monocytogenes and S. typhimurium by approximately 1 log CFU/g compared to control populations. In contrast, electron beam irradiation decreased the populations of S. typhimurium and L. monocytogenes by 3.78 and 2.42 log CFU/g, respectively. These results suggest that electron beam irradiation is a better and appropriate technique for improving the microbial safety of sliced ham.

  15. Pharmacokinetics of anti-psoriatic fumaric acid esters in psoriasis patients.

    PubMed

    Rostami-Yazdi, Martin; Clement, Bernd; Mrowietz, Ulrich

    2010-09-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate pharmacokinetic parameters of fumaric acid esters (FAE) in psoriasis patients for the first time. For this prupose new HPLC assays were developed. Additionally, physicochemical parameters of FAE were determined, allowing a better interpretation of the in vivo data. In vivo, monomethylfumarate (MMF) and monoethylfumarate (MEF) were detected after t (lag) = 120 min. T (max) and c (max) of MMF were 210 min and 11.2 microM, respectively, 210 min and 5.2 microM for MEF. The half-life of MMF was 38.7 min, and 25.4 min of MEF. The AUC(0-infinity) of MMF was 172 min microg ml(-1) and 63.6 min microg ml(-1) of MEF. Data display median of three subjects. No plasma levels of dimethylfumarate (DMF) or fumaric acid (FA) were detected. The evaluation of physicochemical parameters of FAE showed that only DMF fulfils the criteria of Lipinski's rule of five. The pKa of MMF was determined as 3.63. The data of this study provide evidence that DMF is most likely absorbed out of the duodenum into the presystemic circulation and is not completely hydrolysed to MMF before uptake as assumed by others. PMID:20574745

  16. Fumaric Acid Esters Stimulate Astrocytic VEGF Expression through HIF-1α and Nrf2

    PubMed Central

    Wiesner, Diana; Merdian, Irma; Lewerenz, Jan; Ludolph, Albert C.; Dupuis, Luc; Witting, Anke

    2013-01-01

    Fumaric acid esters (FAE) are oral analogs of fumarate that have recently been shown to decrease relapse rate and disease progression in multiple sclerosis (MS), prompting to investigate their protective potential in other neurological diseases such as amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS). Despite efficacy in MS, mechanisms of action of FAEs are still largely unknown. FAEs are known to activate the transcription factor Nrf2 and downstream anti-oxidant responses through the succination of Nrf2 inhibitor KEAP1. However, fumarate is also a known inhibitor of prolyl-hydroxylases domain enzymes (PhD), and PhD inhibition might lead to stabilization of the HIF-1α transcription factor under normoxic conditions and subsequent activation of a pseudo hypoxic response. Whether Nrf2 activation is associated with HIF-1α stabilization in response to FAEs in cell types relevant to MS or ALS remains unknown. Here, we show that FAEs elicit HIF-1α accumulation, and VEGF release as its expected consequence, in astrocytes but not in other cell types of the central nervous system. Reporter assays demonstrated that increased astrocytic VEGF release in response to FAEs was dependent upon both HIF-1α and Nrf2 activation. Last, astrocytes of transgenic mice expressing SOD1(G93A), an animal model of ALS, displayed reduced VEGF release in response to FAEs. These studies show that FAEs elicit different signaling pathways in cell types from the central nervous system, in particular a pseudo-hypoxic response in astrocytes. Disease relevant mutations might affect this response. PMID:24098549

  17. Fumaric acid esters stimulate astrocytic VEGF expression through HIF-1α and Nrf2.

    PubMed

    Wiesner, Diana; Merdian, Irma; Lewerenz, Jan; Ludolph, Albert C; Dupuis, Luc; Witting, Anke

    2013-01-01

    Fumaric acid esters (FAE) are oral analogs of fumarate that have recently been shown to decrease relapse rate and disease progression in multiple sclerosis (MS), prompting to investigate their protective potential in other neurological diseases such as amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS). Despite efficacy in MS, mechanisms of action of FAEs are still largely unknown. FAEs are known to activate the transcription factor Nrf2 and downstream anti-oxidant responses through the succination of Nrf2 inhibitor KEAP1. However, fumarate is also a known inhibitor of prolyl-hydroxylases domain enzymes (PhD), and PhD inhibition might lead to stabilization of the HIF-1α transcription factor under normoxic conditions and subsequent activation of a pseudo hypoxic response. Whether Nrf2 activation is associated with HIF-1α stabilization in response to FAEs in cell types relevant to MS or ALS remains unknown. Here, we show that FAEs elicit HIF-1α accumulation, and VEGF release as its expected consequence, in astrocytes but not in other cell types of the central nervous system. Reporter assays demonstrated that increased astrocytic VEGF release in response to FAEs was dependent upon both HIF-1α and Nrf2 activation. Last, astrocytes of transgenic mice expressing SOD1(G93A), an animal model of ALS, displayed reduced VEGF release in response to FAEs. These studies show that FAEs elicit different signaling pathways in cell types from the central nervous system, in particular a pseudo-hypoxic response in astrocytes. Disease relevant mutations might affect this response. PMID:24098549

  18. Effects of fumaric acid on rumen fermentation, milk composition and metabolic parameters in lactating cows.

    PubMed

    Remling, N; Riede, S; Lebzien, P; Meyer, U; Höltershinken, M; Kersten, S; Breves, G; Flachowsky, G; Dänicke, S

    2014-10-01

    The aim of this study was to determine the influence of fumaric acid (FA) on ruminal fermentation and its effects on the acid-base balance of seven ruminally and duodenally fistulated multiparous German Holstein cows. The experiment was conducted in a change-over design with three periods in which the animals were randomly arranged in one of three treatments: Control (C; without FA), 300 or 600 g FA per day. The diets consisted of 7.4 kg DM grass silage, 4.2 kg concentrate mixture and 0, 300 or 600 g FA or wheat starch as isocaloric compensation per day and cow. FA supplementation decreased the rumen pH, acetic acid and butyric acid and increased propionic acid in rumen fluid. The results of the single-strand conformation polymorphism analysis (SSCP) did not show an influence of FA on the microbial population in the rumen. The beta-hydroxybutyrate (BHB) concentration in blood and the pH of the urine decreased, while the blood gases were unaffected by supplementation of the acid. The microbial protein per MJ ME decreased in the duodenum with FA supplementation. The milk fat concentration decreased after addition of FA. We conclude that in this study feeding of up to 600 g FA per day did not result in an acidosis. It seems that up to 600 g FA per day did not have a significant influence on the acid-base balance of dairy cows. PMID:24313964

  19. Methane emissions from beef cattle: effects of fumaric acid, essential oil, and canola oil.

    PubMed

    Beauchemin, K A; McGinn, S M

    2006-06-01

    The objective of this study was to identify feed additives that reduce enteric methane emissions from cattle. We measured methane emissions, total tract digestibility (using chromic oxide), and ruminal fermentation (4 h after feeding) in growing beef cattle fed a diet supplemented with various additives. The experiment was designed as a replicated 4 x 4 Latin square with 21-d periods and was conducted using 16 Angus heifers (initial BW of 260 +/- 32 kg). Treatments were: control (no additive), fumaric acid (175 g/d) with sodium bicarbonate (75 g/d), essential oil and spice extract (1 g/d), or canola oil (4.6% of DMI). The basal diet consisted of 75% whole-crop barley silage, 19% steam-rolled barley, and 6% supplement (DM basis). Four large chambers (2 animals fed the same diet per chamber) were equipped to measure methane emissions for 3 d each period. Adding canola oil to the diet decreased (P = 0.009) total daily methane emissions by 32% and tended (P = 0.09) to decrease methane emissions as a percentage of gross energy intake by 21%. However, much of the reduction in methane emissions was due to decreased (P < 0.05) feed intake and lower (P < 0.05) total tract digestibility of DM and fiber. Digestibility of all nutrients was also lowered (P < 0.05) by feeding essential oil, but there were no effects on ruminal fermentation or methane emissions. In contrast, adding fumaric acid to the diet increased total VFA concentration (P = 0.03), increased propionate proportions (P = 0.01), and decreased the acetate:propionate ratio (P = 0.002), but there was no measurable effect on methane emissions. The study demonstrates that canola oil can be used to reduce methane losses from cattle, but animal performance may be compromised due to lower feed intake and decreased fiber digestibility. Essential oils had no effect on methane emissions, whereas fumaric acid caused potentially beneficial changes in ruminal fermentation but no measurable reductions in methane emissions. PMID

  20. Fumaric Acid Production in Saccharomyces cerevisiae by In Silico Aided Metabolic Engineering

    PubMed Central

    Xu, Guoqiang; Zou, Wei; Chen, Xiulai; Xu, Nan; Liu, Liming; Chen, Jian

    2012-01-01

    Fumaric acid (FA) is a promising biomass-derived building-block chemical. Bio-based FA production from renewable feedstock is a promising and sustainable alternative to petroleum-based chemical synthesis. Here we report on FA production by direct fermentation using metabolically engineered Saccharomyces cerevisiae with the aid of in silico analysis of a genome-scale metabolic model. First, FUM1 was selected as the target gene on the basis of extensive literature mining. Flux balance analysis (FBA) revealed that FUM1 deletion can lead to FA production and slightly lower growth of S. cerevisiae. The engineered S. cerevisiae strain obtained by deleting FUM1 can produce FA up to a concentration of 610±31 mg L–1 without any apparent change in growth in fed-batch culture. FT-IR and 1H and 13C NMR spectra confirmed that FA was synthesized by the engineered S. cerevisiae strain. FBA identified pyruvate carboxylase as one of the factors limiting higher FA production. When the RoPYC gene was introduced, S. cerevisiae produced 1134±48 mg L–1 FA. Furthermore, the final engineered S. cerevisiae strain was able to produce 1675±52 mg L–1 FA in batch culture when the SFC1 gene encoding a succinate–fumarate transporter was introduced. These results demonstrate that the model shows great predictive capability for metabolic engineering. Moreover, FA production in S. cerevisiae can be efficiently developed with the aid of in silico metabolic engineering. PMID:23300594

  1. Growth characteristics of Ti-based fumaric acid hybrid thin films by molecular layer deposition.

    PubMed

    Cao, Yan-Qiang; Zhu, Lin; Li, Xin; Cao, Zheng-Yi; Wu, Di; Li, Ai-Dong

    2015-09-01

    Ti-based fumaric acid hybrid thin films were successfully prepared using inorganic TiCl4 and organic fumaric acid as precursors by molecular layer deposition (MLD). The effect of deposition temperature from 180 °C to 350 °C on the growth rate, composition, chemical state, and topology of hybrid films has been investigated systematically by means of a series of analytical tools such as spectroscopic ellipsometry, atomic force microscopy (AFM), high resolution X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) and Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR). The MLD process of the Ti-fumaric acid shows self-limiting surface reaction with a reasonable growth rate of ∼0.93 Å per cycle and small surface roughness of ∼0.59 nm in root-mean-square value at 200 °C. A temperature-dependent growth characteristic has been observed in the hybrid films. On increasing the temperature from 180 °C to 300 °C, the growth rate decreases from 1.10 to 0.49 Å per cycle and the XPS composition of the film's C : O : Ti ratio changes from 8.35 : 7.49 : 1.00 to 4.66 : 4.80 : 1.00. FTIR spectra indicate that the hybrid films show bridging bonding mode at a low deposition temperature of 200 °C and bridging/bidentate mixed bonding mode at elevated deposition temperatures of 250 and 300 °C. The higher C and O amounts deviating from the ideal composition may be ascribed to increased organic incorporation into the hybrid films at lower deposition temperature and temperature-dependent density of reactive sites (-OH). The composition of hybrid films grown at 350 °C shows a dramatic decrease in C and O elemental composition (C : O : Ti = 1.97 : 2.76 : 1.00) due to the thermal decomposition of the fumaric acid precursor. The produced by-product H2O changes the structure of the hybrid films, resulting in the formation of more Ti-O bonds at high temperatures. The stability of the hybrid films against chemical and thermal treatment, and long-term storage by

  2. Recent advances in the biomedical applications of fumaric acid and its ester derivatives: The multifaceted alternative therapeutics.

    PubMed

    Das, Ratul Kumar; Brar, Satinder Kaur; Verma, Mausam

    2016-04-01

    Several lines of evidence have demonstrated the potential biomedical applications of fumaric acid (FA) and its ester derivatives against many human disease conditions. Fumaric acid esters (FAEs) have been licensed for the systemic treatment of the immune-mediated disease psoriasis. Biogen Idec Inc. announced about the safety and efficacy of the formulation FAE (BG-12) for treating RRMS (relapsing-remitting multiple sclerosis). Another FAE formulation DMF (dimethyl fumarate) was found to be capable of reduction in inflammatory cardiac conditions, such as autoimmune myocarditis and ischemia and reperfusion. DMF has also been reported to be effective as a potential neuroprotectant against the HIV-associated neurocognitive disorders (HAND). Many in vivo studies carried out on rat and mice models indicated inhibitory effects of fumaric acid on carcinogenesis of different origins. Moreover, FAEs has emerged as an important matrix ingredient in the fabrication of biodegradable scaffolds for tissue engineering applications. Drug delivery vehicles composed of FAEs have shown promising results in delivering some leading drug molecules. Apart from these specific applications and findings, many more studies on FAEs have revealed new therapeutic potentials with the scope of clinical applications. However, until now, this scattered vital information has not been written into a collective account and analyzed for minute details. The aim of this paper is to review the advancement made in the biomedical application of FA and FAEs and to focus on the clinical investigation and molecular interpretation of the beneficial effects of FA and FAEs. PMID:26922546

  3. Role of fumaric acid in anti-inflammatory and analgesic activities of a Fumaria indica extracts

    PubMed Central

    Shakya, Anshul; Singh, Gireesh Kumar; Chatterjee, Shyam Sunder; Kumar, Vikas

    2014-01-01

    Aim: The aim was to test whether the ethanolic extract of Fumaria indica (FI) possesses anti-inflammatory and analgesic activities, and fumaric acid (FA) could be one of its bioactive constituent involved in such activities of the extract. Materials and Methods: For anti-inflammatory activity, carrageenan-induced edema and cotton pellet induced granuloma tests in rats and for analgesic activity rat tail flick test and hot plate and acetic acid writhing tests in mice were used. All tests were performed after seven daily oral doses of the FI extract (100, 200, and 400 mg/kg/day) and pure FA (1.25, 2.50, and 5.00 mg/kg/day). Results: Anti-inflammatory activities of FI and FA were observed in carrageenan-induced edema and cotton pallet granuloma even after their lowest tested doses. No analgesic activity of lowest tested dose of FA was observed in the acetic acid writhing test, but likewise, all tested dose levels of FI, higher tested dose levels of FA were also possess significant analgesic activity in this test. Further, significant analgesic activities of both FI and FA in hot plate and tale flick tests were observed after all their tested doses. Conclusions: These observations are in agreement with our working hypothesis on the connection of FA in mode(s) of action(s) of FI, and reaffirm the conviction that FI could be an herbal alternative against fibromyalgia and other pathologies often associate with, or caused by, inflammatory processes. PMID:26401369

  4. Methane emissions from beef cattle: Effects of monensin, sunflower oil, enzymes, yeast, and fumaric acid.

    PubMed

    McGinn, S M; Beauchemin, K A; Coates, T; Colombatto, D

    2004-11-01

    Methane emitted from the livestock sector contributes to greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions. Understanding the effects of diet on enteric methane production can help refine GHG emission inventories and identify viable GHG reduction strategies. Our study focused on measuring methane and carbon dioxide emissions, total-tract digestibility, and ruminal fermentation in growing beef cattle fed a diet supplemented with various additives or ingredients. Two experiments, each designed as a 4 x 4 Latin square with 21-d periods, were conducted using 16 Holstein steers (initial BW 311.6 +/- 12.3 kg). In Exp. 1, treatments were control (no additive), monensin (Rumensin, Elanco Animal Health, Indianapolis, IN; 33 mg/kg DM), sunflower oil (400 g/d, approximately 5% of DMI), and proteolytic enzyme (Protex 6-L, Genencor Int., Inc., CA; 1 mL/kg DM). In Exp. 2, treatments were control (no additive), Procreatin-7 yeast (Prince Agri Products, Inc., Quincy, IL; 4 g/d), Levucell SC yeast (Lallemand, Inc., Rexdale, Ontario, Canada; 1 g/d), and fumaric acid (Bartek Ingredients Inc., Stoney Creek, Ontario, Canada; 80 g/d). The basal diet consisted of 75% barley silage, 19% steam-rolled barley grain, and 6% supplement (DM basis). Four large chambers (two animals per chamber) were equipped with lasers and infrared gas analyzers to measure methane and carbon dioxide, respectively, for 3 d each period. Total-tract digestibility was determined using chromic oxide. Approximately 6.5% of the GE consumed was lost in the form of methane emissions from animals fed the control diet. In Exp. 1, sunflower oil decreased methane emissions by 22% (P = 0.001) compared with the control, whereas monensin (P = 0.44) and enzyme had no effect (P = 0.82). However, oil decreased (P = 0.03) the total-tract digestibility of NDF by 20%. When CH(4) emissions were corrected for differences in energy intake, the loss of GE to methane was decreased by 21% (P = 0.002) using oil and by 9% (P = 0.09) using monensin. In Exp. 2

  5. Effect of Sodium Lauryl Sulfate-Fumaric Acid Coupled Addition on the In Vitro Rumen Fermentation with Special Regard to Methanogenesis

    PubMed Central

    Abdl-Rahman, M. A.; Sawiress, F. A. R.; Abd El-Aty, A. M.

    2010-01-01

    The aim of the current study was to evaluate the effect of sodium lauryl sulfate-fumaric acid coupled addition on in vitro methangenesis and rumen fermentation. Evaluation was carried out using in vitro gas production technique. Ruminal contents were collected from five steers immediately after slaughtering and used for preparation of inoculums of mixed rumen microorganisms. Rumen fluid was then mixed with the basal diet of steers and used to generate four treatments, negative control (no additives), sodium lauryl sulfate (SLS) treated, fumaric acid treated, and SLS-fumaric acid coupled addition treated. The results revealed that, relative to control, efficiency in reduction of methanogenesis was as follows: coupled addition > SLS-addition > fumaric acid addition. Both SLS-addition and SLS-fumaric acid coupled addition demonstrated a decremental effect on ammonia nitrogen (NH3–N), total short chain volatile fatty acids (SCVFAs) concentrations and the amount of substrate degraded, and an increment effect on microbial mass and microbial yield (YATP). Nevertheless, fumaric acid did not alter any of the previously mentioned parameters but induced a decremental effect on NH3–N. Furthermore, both fumaric acid and SLS-fumaric acid coupled addition increased propionate at the expense of acetate and butyrate, while, defaunation increased acetate at the expense of propionate and butyrate. The pH value was decreased by all treatments relative to control, while, cellulase activity did not differ by different treatments. The current study can be promising strategies for suppressing ruminal methane emissions and improving ruminants feed efficiency. PMID:20445794

  6. Simultaneous Production and Recovery of Fumaric Acid from Immobilized Rhizopus oryzae with a Rotary Biofilm Contactor and an Adsorption Column

    PubMed Central

    Cao, N.; Du, J.; Gong, C. S.; Tsao, G. T.

    1996-01-01

    An integrated system of simultaneous fermentation-adsorption for the production and recovery of fumaric acid from glucose by Rhizopus oryzae was investigated. The system was constructed such that growing Rhizopus mycelia were self-immobilized on the plastic discs of a rotary biofilm contactor during the nitrogen-rich growth phase. During the nongrowth, production phase, the biofilm was alternately exposed to liquid medium and air upon rotation of the discs in the horizontal fermentation vessel. The product of fermentation, fumaric acid, was removed simultaneously and continuously by a coupled adsorption column, thereby moderating inhibition, enhancing the fermentation rate, and sustaining cell viability. Another beneficial effect of the removal of fumaric acid is release of hydroxyl ions from a polyvinyl pyridine adsorbent into the circulating fermentation broth. This moderates the decrease in pH that would otherwise occur. Polyvinyl pyridine and IRA-900 gave the highest loading for this type of fermentation. This fermentation system is capable of producing fumaric acid with an average yield of 85 g/liter from 100 g of glucose per liter within 20 h under repetitive fed-batch cycles. On a weight yield basis, 91% of the theoretical maximum was obtained with a productivity of 4.25 g/liter/h. This is in contrast to stirred-tank fermentation supplemented with calcium carbonate, whose average weight yield was 65% after 72 h with a productivity of 0.9 g/liter/h. The immobilized reactor was operated repetitively for 2 weeks without loss of biological activity. PMID:16535381

  7. Mixed-ligand complex compounds of rare-earth elements (REE) with acetylacetone and fumaric or maleic acid

    SciTech Connect

    Panyushkin, V.T.; Akhrimenko, N.V.

    1994-10-01

    Previously the authors investigated the possibility of synthesis of the f-block element mixed complexes with {beta}-diketones and organic unsaturated acids. The mixed-ligand complexes of lanthanides [Ln = Nd(III), Sm(III), Eu(III), Tb(III), Dy(III), Ho(III), and Yb(III)] with acetylacetone (acac) and fumaric or maleic acid (AcidH{sub 2}) were synthesized. The mixed-ligand complexes were prepared by the interaction of REE tris(acetylacetonates) [Ln(acac){sub 3}{center_dot} 3H{sub 2}O] with half as much excess of the organic acid in a solution of diethyl ether. According to the data of elemental analysis and thermogravimetric and spectroscopic investigations, the mixed complexes studied are of composition Ln(acac){sub 2}(AcidH){center_dot}H{sub 2}O.

  8. Effects of the dicarboxylic acids malate and fumarate on E. coli 0157:H7 and Salmonella enterica Typhimurium populations in pure culture and in mixed ruminal microorganism fermentations

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The dicarboxylic organic acids malate and fumarate increase ruminal pH, reduce methane production, increase propionate and total VFA production, and reduce lactic acid accumulation in a manner similar to ionophores. These acids stimulate the ruminal bacterium Selenomonas ruminantium to ferment lact...

  9. The First-in-Class Potassium-Competitive Acid Blocker, Vonoprazan Fumarate: Pharmacokinetic and Pharmacodynamic Considerations.

    PubMed

    Echizen, Hirotoshi

    2016-04-01

    Vonoprazan fumarate (Takecab) is a first-in-class potassium-competitive acid blocker that has been available in the market in Japan since February 2015. Vonoprazan is administered orally at 20 mg once daily for the treatment of gastroduodenal ulcer, at 20 and 10 mg once daily for the treatment and secondary prevention of reflux esophagitis, respectively, at 10 mg once daily for the secondary prevention of low-dose aspirin- or non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drug-induced peptic ulcer, and at 20 mg twice daily in combination with clarithromycin and amoxicillin for the eradication of Helicobacter pylori. It inhibits H(+),K(+)-ATPase activities in a reversible and potassium-competitive manner with a potency of inhibition approximately 350 times higher than the proton pump inhibitor, lansoprazole. Vonoprazan is absorbed rapidly and reaches maximum plasma concentration at 1.5-2.0 h after oral administration. Food has minimal effect on its intestinal absorption. Oral bioavailability in humans remains unknown. The plasma protein binding of vonoprazan is 80% in healthy subjects. It distributes extensively into tissues with a mean apparent volume of distribution of 1050 L. Being a base with pKa of 9.6 and with acid-resistant properties, vonoprazan is highly concentrated in the acidic canaliculi of the gastric parietal cells and elicited an acid suppression effect for longer than 24 h after the administration of 20 mg. The mean apparent terminal half-life of the drug is approximately 7.7 h in healthy adults. Vonoprazan is metabolized to inactive metabolites mainly by cytochrome P450 (CYP)3A4 and to some extent by CYP2B6, CYP2C19, CYP2D6, and SULT2A1. A mass balance study showed that 59 and 8% of the orally administered radioactivity was recovered in urine as metabolites and in an unchanged form, respectively, indicating extensive metabolism. Genetic polymorphism of CYP2C19 may influence drug exposure but only to a clinically insignificant extent (15-29%), according to the

  10. Characterization of the hyperline of D{sub 1}/D{sub 0} conical intersections between the maleic acid and fumaric acid anion radicals

    SciTech Connect

    Takahashi, Ohgi; Sumita, Masato

    2004-10-08

    The cation and anion radicals of symmetrical 1,2-disubstituted ethylenes are expected to have a symmetry-allowed conical intersection (CI) between the ground doublet state (D{sub 0}) and the lowest excited doublet state (D{sub 1}) near a 90 deg.-twisted geometry. By the complete active space self-consistent field method, we characterized the hyperline formed by D{sub 1}/D{sub 0} CIs between the anion radicals of maleic acid (cis) and fumaric acid (trans). An implication of the results for the known one-way cis{yields}trans photoisomerization of the maleic acid anion radical and other related ion radicals is presented.

  11. Fumaric acid esters prevent the NLRP3 inflammasome-mediated and ATP-triggered pyroptosis of differentiated THP-1 cells.

    PubMed

    Miglio, Gianluca; Veglia, Eleonora; Fantozzi, Roberto

    2015-09-01

    Fumaric acid esters (FAEs) exert therapeutic effects in patients with psoriasis and multiple sclerosis, however their mode of action remains elusive. Pyroptosis is a caspase-1-dependent pro-inflammatory form of programmed cell death, mediated by the activation of inflammasomes. To understand the pharmacological basis of the therapeutic effects of FAEs, the anti-pyroptotic activity of dimethyl fumarate (DMF) and its hydrolysis metabolite monomethyl fumarate (MMF) was studied in a model of NLRP3 inflammasome-mediated pyroptosis of human macrophages. Phorbol myristate acetate-differentiated THP-1 cells were exposed to lipopolysaccharide (5 μg/ml; 4h), then pulsed with ATP (5mM; 1h). MMF, DMF, or parthenolide (positive control) were added 1h before the ATP pulse. The pyroptotic cell death was evaluated by morphological examination and quantified by measuring the lactate dehydrogenase leakage. The ATP-triggered death of THP-1 cells (60.4 ± 4.0%) was significantly (P<0.01) prevented by DMF, in a time- and concentration-dependent manner (pIC50 and maximal effect were 6.6 and 67.6 ± 1.2%, respectively). MMF was less efficacious than DMF. These effects were accompanied by a decreased intracellular activation of caspase-1 and interleukin-1β release from ATP-treated cells, thus suggesting that FAEs antagonise the effects of ATP by preventing the activation of the pyroptotic molecular cascade leading to cell death. These results indicate that FAEs are endowed with anti-pyroptotic activity, which may contribute to their therapeutic effects. PMID:26096886

  12. Production of fumaric acid by simultaneous saccharification and fermentation of starchy materials with 2-deoxyglucose-resistant mutant strains of Rhizopus oryzae.

    PubMed

    Deng, Yuefang; Li, Shuang; Xu, Qing; Gao, Min; Huang, He

    2012-03-01

    A mutant strain with high glucoamylase activity and insensitive to catabolite repression was developed to produce fumaric acid by simultaneous saccharification and fermentation (SSF) of starch without additional commercial glucoamylase supplementation. A series of mutant strains resistant to the non-metabolizable and toxic glucose analog 2-deoxyglucose (2-DG) were obtained by implanting nitrogen ion (N(+)) into Rhizopus oryzae ME-F12. Among them, the best mutant strain DG-3 produced 39.80 g/L fumaric acid, which is 1.28-fold of that produced by ME-F12, and exhibited higher glucoamylase activity during SSF. Higher fumaric acid production (44.10 g/L) was achieved when the initial total sugar concentration of cornstarch was 100g/L. During SSF of cheap, raw bioresource-degermed corn powder (100g/L total sugar) by DG-3, the maximum fumaric acid concentration and productivity were 32.18 g/L and 0.44 g/(Lh), respectively. PMID:22217732

  13. The antiproliferative activity of all-trans-retinoic acid catabolites and isomers is differentially modulated by liarozole-fumarate in MCF-7 human breast cancer cells.

    PubMed Central

    Van heusden, J.; Wouters, W.; Ramaekers, F. C.; Krekels, M. D.; Dillen, L.; Borgers, M.; Smets, G.

    1998-01-01

    The clinical use of all-trans-retinoic acid (ATRA) in the treatment of cancer is significantly hampered by the prompt emergence of resistance, believed to be caused by increased ATRA catabolism. Inhibitors of ATRA catabolism may therefore prove valuable for cancer therapy. Liarozole-fumarate is an anti-tumour drug that inhibits the cytochrome P450-dependent catabolism of ATRA. ATRA, but also its naturally occurring catabolites, 4-oxo-ATRA and 5,6-epoxy-ATRA, as well as its stereoisomers, 9-cis-RA and 13-cis-RA, show significant antiproliferative activity in MCF-7 human breast cancer cells. To further elucidate its mechanism of action, we investigated whether liarozole-fumarate was able to enhance the antiproliferative activity of ATRA catabolites and isomers. Liarozole-fumarate alone up to a concentration of 10(-6) M had no effect on MCF-7 cell proliferation. However, in combination with ATRA or the ATRA catabolites, liarozole-fumarate (10(-6) M) significantly enhanced their antiproliferative activity. On the contrary, liarozole-fumarate (10(-6) M) was not able to potentiate the antiproliferative activity of the ATRA stereoisomers, most probably because of the absence of cytochrome P450-dependent catabolism. Together, these findings show that liarozole-fumarate acts as a versatile inhibitor of retinoid catabolism in that it not only blocks the breakdown of ATRA, but also inhibits the catabolic pathway of 4-oxo-ATRA and 5,6-epoxy-ATRA, thereby enhancing their antiproliferative activity. PMID:9579827

  14. A fermentative approach towards optimizing directed biosynthesis of fumaric acid by Rhizopus oryzae 1526 utilizing apple industry waste biomass.

    PubMed

    Das, Ratul Kumar; Brar, Satinder Kaur; Verma, Mausam

    2015-12-01

    The present research account deals with the bioproduction of fumaric acid (FA) from apple pomace ultrafiltration sludge (APUS) and apple pomace (AP) through fermentation. The filamentous fungus Rhizopus oryzae 1526 was used as a biocatalyst and its morphological impact on FA production was analysed in detail. For submerged fermentation, 40 g L(-1) of total solids concentration of APUS, pH 6.0, 30 °C, 200 rpm flask shaking speed and 72 h of incubation were found to be optimum for FA production (25.2 ± 1.0 g L(-1), 0.350 g (L(-1) h(-1))). Broth viscosity (cP), residual reducing sugar (g L(-1)) and ethanol (g L(-1)) produced as by-product, were also analysed. Plastic trays were used for solid state fermentation and at optimized level of moisture and incubation period, 52 ± 2.67 g FA per kg dry weight of AP was obtained. Changes in the total phenolic content (mg g(-1) dry weight of AP) were monitored at regular intervals. Utilization of APUS and AP for the directed synthesis of the high-value platform chemical FA by the fungal strain R. oryzae 1526 was an excellent display of fungal physiological and morphological control over a fermentative product. PMID:26615750

  15. Conversion of fumaric acid to L-malic by sol-gel immobilized Saccharomyces cerevisiae in a supported liquid membrane bioreactor.

    PubMed

    Bressler, Eyal; Pines, Ophry; Goldberg, Israel; Braun, Sergei

    2002-01-01

    Conversion of fumaric acid (FA) to L-malic acid (LMA) was carried out in a bioreactor divided by two supported liquid membranes (SLMs) into three compartments: Feed, Reaction, and Product. The Feed/Reaction SLM, made of tri-n-octylphosphine oxide (vol 10%) in ethyl acetate, was selective toward the substrate, fumaric acid (S(FA/LMA) = 10). The Reaction/Product SLM, made of di(2-ethylhexyl) phosphate (vol 10%) in dichloromethane, was selective toward the product, L-malic acid (S(LMA/FA) = 680). Immobilized yeast engineered to overproduce the enzyme fumarase [E.C. 4.2.1.2] was placed in the Reaction compartment and served as the catalyst. The yeast was immobilized in small glasslike beads of alginate-silicate sol-gel matrix. The construction of the bioreactor ensured unidirectional flow of the substrate from the Feed to the Reaction and of the product from the Reaction to the Product compartments, with the inorganic counterion traveling in the opposite direction. The conversion of almost 100%, above the equilibrium value of ca. 84% and higher than that for the industrial process, 70%, was achieved. In contrast to the existing industrial biocatalytic process resulting in L-malic acid salts, direct production of the free acid is described. PMID:12052057

  16. Effects of the dicarboxylic acids malate and fumarate on E. coli O157:H7 and Salmonella Typhimurium populations in pure culture and mixed ruminal culture in in vitro fermentations

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The dicarboxylic acids malate and fumarate increase ruminal pH, reduce methane production, increase propionate and total VFA production, and reduce lactic acid accumulation in a manner similar to ionophores. The mechanism by which these acids effect the ruminal environment is reported to be through...

  17. Fumaric acid esters promote neuronal survival upon ischemic stress through activation of the Nrf2 but not HIF-1 signaling pathway.

    PubMed

    Lin-Holderer, Jiemeng; Li, Lexiao; Gruneberg, Daniel; Marti, Hugo H; Kunze, Reiner

    2016-06-01

    Oxidative stress is a hallmark of ischemic stroke pathogenesis causing neuronal malfunction and cell death. Up-regulation of anti-oxidative genes through activation of the NF-E2-related transcription factor 2 (Nrf2) is one of the key mechanisms in cellular defense against oxidative stress. Fumaric acid esters (FAEs) represent a class of anti-oxidative and anti-inflammatory molecules that are already in clinical use for multiple sclerosis therapy. Purpose of this study was to investigate whether FAEs promote neuronal survival upon ischemia, and analyze putative underlying molecular mechanisms in neurons. Murine organotypic hippocampal slice cultures, and two neuronal cell lines were treated with dimethyl fumarate (DMF) and monomethyl fumarate (MMF). Ischemic conditions were generated by exposing cells and slice cultures to oxygen-glucose deprivation (OGD), and cell death was determined through propidium iodide staining. Treatment with both DMF and MMF immediately after OGD during reoxygenation strongly reduced cell death in hippocampal cultures ex vivo. Both DMF and MMF promoted neuronal survival in HT-22 and SH-SY5Y cell lines exposed to ischemic stress. DMF but not MMF activated the anti-oxidative Nrf2 pathway in neurons. Accordingly, Nrf2 knockdown in murine neurons abrogated the protective effect of DMF but not MMF. Moreover, FAEs did not activate the hypoxia-inducible factor (HIF) pathway suggesting that this pathway may not significantly contribute to FAE mediated neuroprotection. Our results may provide the basis for a new therapeutic approach to treat ischemic pathologies such as stroke with a drug that already has a broad safety record in humans. PMID:26801077

  18. Bioresorbable bone graft substitutes of different osteoconductivities: a histologic evaluation of osteointegration of poly(propylene glycol-co-fumaric acid)-based cement implants in rats.

    PubMed

    Lewandrowski, K U; Gresser, J D; Wise, D L; Trantol, D J

    2000-04-01

    Bioresorbable bone graft substitutes may significantly reduce the disadvantages associated with autografts, allografts and other synthetic materials currently used in bone graft procedures. We investigated the biocompatibility and osteointegration of a bioresorbable bone graft substitute made from the unsaturated polyester poly(propylene-glycol-co-fumaric acid), or simply poly(propylene fumarate), PPF, which is crosslinked in the presence of soluble and insoluble calcium filler salts. Four sets of animals each having three groups of 8 were evaluated by grouting bone graft substitutes of varying compositions into 3-mm holes that were made into the anteromedial tibial metaphysis of rats. Four different formulations varying as to the type of soluble salt filler employed were used: set 1--calcium acetate, set 2--calcium gluconate, set 3--calcium propionate, and set 4--control with hydroxapatite, HA, only. Animals of each of the three sets were sacrificed in groups of 8 at postoperative week 1, 3, and 7. Histologic analysis revealed that in vivo biocompatibility and osteointegration of bone graft substitutes was optimal when calcium acetate was employed as a soluble salt filler. Other formulations demonstrated implant surface erosion and disintegration which was ultimately accompanied by an inflammatory response. This study suggested that PPF-based bone graft substitutes can be designed to provide an osteoconductive pathway by which bone will grow in faster because of its capacity to develop controlled porosities in vivo. Immediate applicability of this bone graft substitute, the porosity of which can be tailored for the reconstruction of defects of varying size and quality of the recipient bed, is to defects caused by surgical debridement of infections, previous surgery, tumor removal, trauma, implant revisions and joint fusion. Clinical implications of the relation between developing porosity, resulting osteoconduction, and bone repair in vivo are discussed. PMID

  19. Fumaric Acid Esters Do Not Reduce Inflammatory NF-κB/p65 Nuclear Translocation, ICAM-1 Expression and T-Cell Adhesiveness of Human Brain Microvascular Endothelial Cells.

    PubMed

    Haarmann, Axel; Nehen, Mathias; Deiß, Annika; Buttmann, Mathias

    2015-01-01

    Dimethyl fumarate (DMF) is approved for disease-modifying treatment of patients with relapsing-remitting multiple sclerosis. Animal experiments suggested that part of its therapeutic effect is due to a reduction of T-cell infiltration of the central nervous system (CNS) by uncertain mechanisms. Here we evaluated whether DMF and its primary metabolite monomethyl fumarate (MMF) modulate pro-inflammatory intracellular signaling and T-cell adhesiveness of nonimmortalized single donor human brain microvascular endothelial cells at low passages. Neither DMF nor MMF at concentrations of 10 or 50 µM blocked the IL-1β-induced nuclear translocation of NF-κB/p65, whereas the higher concentration of DMF inhibited the nuclear entry of p65 in human umbilical vein endothelium cultured in parallel. DMF and MMF also did not alter the IL-1β-stimulated activation of p38 MAPK in brain endothelium. Furthermore, neither DMF nor MMF reduced the basal or IL-1β-inducible expression of ICAM-1. In accordance, both fumaric acid esters did not reduce the adhesion of activated Jurkat T cells to brain endothelium under basal or inflammatory conditions. Therefore, brain endothelial cells probably do not directly mediate a potential blocking effect of fumaric acid esters on the inflammatory infiltration of the CNS by T cells. PMID:26287168

  20. Chemistry of a novel zerovalent ruthenium π-acidic alkene complex, Ru (η6-1,3,5-cyclooctatriene)(η2-dimethyl fumarate)2

    PubMed Central

    Mitsudo, Take-aki; Ura, Yasuyuki; Kondo, Teruyuki

    2007-01-01

    A novel zerovalent ruthenium complex with a π-acidic ligand, Ru(η6-cyclooctatriene)(η2-dimethyl fumarate)2 (1), was prepared from Ru(η4-cyclooctadiene)(η6-cyclooctatriene) [Ru(cod)(cot)]. Complex 1 or Ru(cod)(cot) catalyzes various new carbon-carbon bond-forming reactions that include the [2 + 2] cycloaddition of alkenes and alkynes via ruthenacycles, the creation of a new hydrocarbon, pentacyclo[6.6.0.02,6.03,13.010,14]tetradeca-4,11-diene [PCTD], by dimerization of 2,5-norbornadiene via C-C bond cleavage, and the codimerization of alkynes and/or alkenes. Complex 1 was shown to be an excellent mother complex for various zerovalent ruthenium complexes. Complex 1 reacts with amines, phosphines or water to give new zerovalent ruthenium complexes with the ligands. The resulting aqua complexes have a water ligand with an oxygen atom that is a chiral center, i.e., ruthenium complexes with a ‘chiral water’ ligand were prepared and fully characterized. PMID:24019585

  1. Novel biodegradable poly(propylene fumarate)-co-poly(l-lactic acid) porous scaffolds fabricated by phase separation for tissue engineering applications

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Xifeng; Miller, A. Lee; Waletzki, Brian E.; Yaszemski, Michael J.

    2015-01-01

    Scaffolds with intrinsically interconnected porous structures are highly desirable in tissue engineering and regenerative medicine. In this study, three-dimensional polymer scaffolds with highly interconnected porous structures were fabricated by thermally induced phase separation of novel synthesized biodegradable poly(propylene fumarate)-co-poly(l-lactic acid) in a dioxane/water binary system. Defined porous scaffolds were achieved by optimizing conditions to attain interconnected porous structures. The effect of phase separation parameters on scaffold morphology were investigated, including polymer concentration (1, 3, 5, 7, and 9%), quench time (1, 4, and 8 min), dioxane/water ratio (83/17, 85/15, and 87/13 wt/wt), and freeze temperature (−20, −80, and −196 °C). Interesting pore morphologies were created by adjusting these processing parameters, e.g., flower-shaped (5%; 85/15; 1 min; −80 °C), spherulite-like (5%; 85/15; 8 min; −80 °C), and bead-like (5%; 87/13; 1 min; −80 °C) morphology. Modulation of phase separation conditions also resulted in remarkable differences in scaffold porosities (81% to 91%) and thermal properties. Furthermore, scaffolds with varied mechanic strengths, degradation rates, and protein adsorption capabilities could be fabricated using the phase separation method. In summary, this work provides an effective route to generate multi-dimensional porous scaffolds that can be applied to a variety of hydrophobic polymers and copolymers. The generated scaffolds could potentially be useful for various tissue engineering applications including bone tissue engineering. PMID:26989483

  2. 27 CFR 24.182 - Use of acid to correct natural deficiencies.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    .... Tartaric acid or malic acid, or a combination of tartaric acid and malic acid, may be added prior to or... acid, fumaric acid, malic acid, lactic acid or tartaric acid, or a combination of two or more of these... citric acid may be added to citrus fruit, juice or wine, only malic acid may......

  3. 27 CFR 24.182 - Use of acid to correct natural deficiencies.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    .... Tartaric acid or malic acid, or a combination of tartaric acid and malic acid, may be added prior to or... acid, fumaric acid, malic acid, lactic acid or tartaric acid, or a combination of two or more of these... citric acid may be added to citrus fruit, juice or wine, only malic acid may......

  4. 40 CFR 721.10457 - 1,2-Benzenedicarboxylic acid, mixed esters with benzyl alc., cyclohexanol, 2-ethyl-1-hexanol...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... esters with benzyl alc., cyclohexanol, 2-ethyl-1-hexanol, fumaric acid and propylene glycol. 721.10457...-hexanol, fumaric acid and propylene glycol. (a) Chemical substance and significant new uses subject to... alc., cyclohexanol, 2-ethyl-1-hexanol, fumaric acid and propylene glycol (PMN P-03-154; CAS No....

  5. 40 CFR 721.10457 - 1,2-Benzenedicarboxylic acid, mixed esters with benzyl alc., cyclohexanol, 2-ethyl-1-hexanol...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... esters with benzyl alc., cyclohexanol, 2-ethyl-1-hexanol, fumaric acid and propylene glycol. 721.10457...-hexanol, fumaric acid and propylene glycol. (a) Chemical substance and significant new uses subject to... alc., cyclohexanol, 2-ethyl-1-hexanol, fumaric acid and propylene glycol (PMN P-03-154; CAS No....

  6. Crystal Structures and Phase Relationships of 2 Polymorphs of 1,4-Diazabicyclo[3.2.2]nonane-4-Carboxylic Acid 4-Bromophenyl Ester Fumarate, A Selective α-7 Nicotinic Receptor Partial Agonist.

    PubMed

    Robert, Benoît; Perrin, Marc-Antoine; Barrio, Maria; Tamarit, Josep-Lluis; Coquerel, Gérard; Ceolin, René; Rietveld, Ivo B

    2016-01-01

    Two polymorphs of the 1:1 fumarate salt of 1,4-diazabicyclo[3.2.2]nonane-4-carboxylic acid 4-bromophenyl ester, developed for the treatment of cognitive symptoms of schizophrenia and Alzheimer disease, have been characterized. The 2 crystal structures have been solved, and their phase relationships have been established. The space group of form I is P2₁/c with a unit-cell volume of 1811.6 (5) Å(3) with Z = 4. The crystals of form I were 2-component nonmerohedral twins. The space group of form II is P2₁/n with a unit-cell volume of 1818.6 (3) Å(3) with Z = 4. Relative stabilities have been inferred from experimental and topological P-T diagrams exhibiting an overall enantiotropic relationship between forms I and II although the solid-solid transition has never been observed. The slope of the I-II equilibrium in the P-T diagram is negative, form II is the stable phase below the solid-solid transition temperature of 371 K, and form I exhibits a stable melting equilibrium. The I-II transition temperature has been obtained from the intersection of the sublimation curves of the 2 solid forms. PMID:26852840

  7. Preparation of polyaniline nanostructures doped with different dicarboxylic acids through template-free method

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sun, Chuanyu; Wang, Yu

    2014-09-01

    In this article nanoscaled polyanilines (PANI) were prepared based on template-free method in the presence of dicarboxylic acid dopants (e.g. D-tartaric acid, succinic acid, maleic acid and fumaric acid). The trans-cis isomerization of butenedioic acid played an important role in the formation of nanostructures from the plane-like to nanofibers, and the PANI doped with maleic acid (MA) had larger diameter, higher crystallinity and conductivity than PANI doped with fumaric acid (FA).

  8. Potential drugs which activate nuclear factor E2-related factor 2 signaling to prevent diabetic cardiovascular complications: A focus on fumaric acid esters.

    PubMed

    Zhou, Shanshan; Jin, Jingpeng; Bai, Tao; Sachleben, Leroy R; Cai, Lu; Zheng, Yang

    2015-08-01

    Diabetes and its cardiovascular complications have been a major public health issue. These complications are mainly attributable to a severe imbalance between free radical and reactive oxygen species production and the antioxidant defense systems. Nuclear factor E2-related factor 2 (Nrf2) is a transcription factor that controls the basal and inducible expression of a battery of antioxidant enzyme genes and other cyto-protective phase II detoxifying enzymes. As a result, Nrf2 has gained great attention as a promising drug target for preventing diabetic cardiovascular complications. And while animal studies have shown that several Nrf2 activators manifest a potential to efficiently prevent the diabetic complications, their use in humans has not been approved due to the lack of substantial evidence regarding safety and efficacy of the Nrf2 activation. We provide here a brief review of a few clinically-used drugs that can up-regulate Nrf2 with the potential of extending their usage to diabetic patients for the prevention of cardiovascular complications and conclude with a closer inspection of dimethyl fumarate and its mimic members. PMID:26044512

  9. Controlled release of vascular endothelial growth factor using poly-lactic-co-glycolic acid microspheres: In vitro characterization and application in polycaprolactone fumarate nerve conduits

    PubMed Central

    Rui, Jing; Dadsetan, Mahrokh; Runge, M. Brett; Spinner, Robert J.; Yaszemski, Michael J.; Windebank, Anthony J.; Wang, Huan

    2014-01-01

    Vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) is a potent angiogenic stimulator. Controlled release of such stimulators may enhance and guide the vascularization process, and when applied in a nerve conduit may play a role in nerve regeneration. We report the fabrication and in vitro characterization of VEGF encapsulating poly-lactic-co-glycolic acid (PLGA) microspheres and the in vivo application of nerve conduits supplemented with VEGF-containing microspheres. PLGA microspheres containing VEGF were prepared by the double emulsion-solvent evaporation technique. This yielded 83.16% of the microspheres with a diameter < 53 µm. VEGF content measured by ELISA indicated 93.79 ±10.64% encapsulation efficiency. Release kinetics were characterized by an initial burst release of 67.6±8.25% within the first 24 hours, followed by consistent release of approximately 0.34% per day for 4 weeks. Bioactivity of the released VEGF was tested by human umbilical vein endothelial cell (HUVEC) proliferation assay. VEGF released at all time points enhanced HUVEC proliferation confirming that VEGF retained its bioactivity through the 4-week time period. When the microsphere delivery system was placed in a biosynthetic nerve scaffold, robust nerve regeneration was observed. This study established a novel system for controlled release of growth factors and enables in vivo studies of nerve conduits conditioned with this system. PMID:22019759

  10. Amino acids

    MedlinePlus

    Amino acids are organic compounds that combine to form proteins . Amino acids and proteins are the building blocks of life. When proteins are digested or broken down, amino acids are left. The human body uses amino acids ...

  11. Folic Acid

    MedlinePlus

    Folic acid is a B vitamin. It helps the body make healthy new cells. Everyone needs folic acid. For women who may get pregnant, it is really important. Getting enough folic acid before and during pregnancy can prevent major birth ...

  12. Folic Acid

    MedlinePlus

    Folic acid is used to treat or prevent folic acid deficiency. It is a B-complex vitamin needed by ... Folic acid comes in tablets. It usually is taken once a day. Follow the directions on your prescription label ...

  13. Aspartic acid

    MedlinePlus

    ... also called asparaginic acid. Aspartic acid helps every cell in the body work. It plays a role in: Hormone production and release Normal nervous system function Plant sources of aspartic acid include: Legumes such as ...

  14. 27 CFR 24.182 - Use of acid to correct natural deficiencies.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... acid, fumaric acid, malic acid, lactic acid or tartaric acid, or a combination of two or more of these... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 1 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Use of acid to correct... AND TRADE BUREAU, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY ALCOHOL WINE Production of Wine § 24.182 Use of acid...

  15. 27 CFR 24.182 - Use of acid to correct natural deficiencies.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... acid, fumaric acid, malic acid, lactic acid or tartaric acid, or a combination of two or more of these... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 1 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Use of acid to correct... AND TRADE BUREAU, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY ALCOHOL WINE Production of Wine § 24.182 Use of acid...

  16. 27 CFR 24.182 - Use of acid to correct natural deficiencies.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... acid, fumaric acid, malic acid, lactic acid or tartaric acid, or a combination of two or more of these... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 1 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Use of acid to correct... AND TRADE BUREAU, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY LIQUORS WINE Production of Wine § 24.182 Use of acid...

  17. Acid Rain.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Openshaw, Peter

    1987-01-01

    Provides some background information on acid deposition. Includes a historical perspective, describes some effects of acid precipitation, and discusses acid rain in the United Kingdom. Contains several experiments that deal with the effects of acid rain on water quality and soil. (TW)

  18. Interactions of amino acids, carboxylic acids, and mineral acids with different quinoline derivatives

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kalita, Dipjyoti; Deka, Himangshu; Samanta, Shyam Sundar; Guchait, Subrata; Baruah, Jubaraj B.

    2011-03-01

    A series of quinoline containing receptors having amide and ester bonds are synthesized and characterised. The relative binding abilities of these receptors with various amino acids, carboxylic acids and mineral acids are determined by monitoring the changes in fluorescence intensity. Among the receptors bis(2-(quinolin-8-yloxy)ethyl) isophthalate shows fluorescence enhancement on addition of amino acids whereas the other receptors shows fluorescence quenching on addition of amino acids. The receptor N-(quinolin-8-yl)-2-(quinolin-8-yloxy) propanamide has higher binding affinity for amino acids. However, the receptor N-(quinolin-8-yl)-2-(quinolin-8-yloxy)acetamide having similar structure do not bind to amino acids. This is attributed to the concave structure of the former which is favoured due to the presence of methyl substituent. The receptor bis(2-(quinolin-8-yloxy)ethyl) isophthalate do not bind to hydroxy carboxylic acids, but is a good receptor for dicarboxylic acids. The crystal structure of bromide and perchlorate salts of receptor 2-bromo-N-(quinolin-8-yl)-propanamide are determined. In both the cases the amide groups are not in the plane of quinoline ring. The structure of N-(quinolin-8-yl)-2-(quinolin-8-yloxy)acetamide, N-(2-methoxyphenethyl)-2-(quinolin-8-yloxy)acetamide and their salts with maleic acid as well as fumaric acid are determined. It is observed that the solid state structures are governed by the double bond geometry of these two acid. Maleic acid forms salt in both the cases, whereas fumaric acid forms either salt or co-crystals.

  19. Response of early-weaned pigs to an enterotoxigenic Escherichia coli (K88) challenge when fed diets containing spray-dried porcine plasma or pea protein isolate plus egg yolk antibody, zinc oxide, fumaric acid, or antibiotic.

    PubMed

    Owusu-Asiedu, A; Nyachoti, C M; Marquardt, R R

    2003-07-01

    The effect of feeding diets containing either spray-dried porcine plasma (SDPP) or pea protein-isolate (PPI) supplemented with either egg yolk antibodies (EYA) from hens immunized with enterotoxigenic Escherichia coli (ETEC) (K88 and F18) antigens, ZnO, fumaric acid (FA), or carbadox (AB) on pig performance, incidence of scours, and gut morphology was studied in a 14-d experiment. Ninety 10-d-old weaned pigs were assigned to six dietary treatments in a completely randomized design to give five pens per treatment with three pigs per pen. The diets were SDPP without EYA (SDPP - EYA), PPI without EYA (PPI - EYA), PPI with EYA (PPI + EYA), PPI with ZnO (PPI + ZnO), PPI with FA (PPI + FA), or PPI with AB (PPI + AB). Diets were formulated to similar nutrient levels, with AB, EYA, FA, and ZnO at 0.25, 0.5, 2.0, and 0.4% of the diet, respectively. Pigs were weighed and bled on d 0, 7, and 14 to determine plasma urea N (PUN). Pigs were orally challenged with a 6-mL dose of 10(10) cfu/mL ETEC (K88) on d 7. On d 14, three pigs per treatment were killed to obtain sections of the small intestine for histological measurements. Weekly feed intake, BW changes, and gain:feed were determined. Incidence of scours and scour scores were monitored and fecal swabs were taken before and after ETEC challenge for PCR test to detect ETEC (K88). Feeding SDPP or supplementing PPI-based diets with EYA, ZnO, FA, or AB did not affect (P > 0.05) ADG, ADFI (as-fed basis), or gain:feed throughout the study. However, pigs fed PPI - EYA tended to have lower (P = 0.08) ADFI during wk 2 (137.9 g/d) and lower (P < 0.10) ADG from d 0 to 14 (100.1 g/d) than those fed the SDPP - EYA (156.6 g/d), PPI + EYA (151.2 g/d), PPI + ZnO (158.9 g/ d), PPI + FA (155.4 g/d), and PPI + AB (152.6 g/d) diets. Although scours was evident in all pigs 8 h after the ETEC challenge, it lasted only 3 to 5 d in pigs fed SDPP or PPI supplemented with EYA, ZnO, FA, or AB. Pigs fed PPI - EYA continued to have severe diarrhea

  20. Amino acids

    MedlinePlus

    ... this page: //medlineplus.gov/ency/article/002222.htm Amino acids To use the sharing features on this page, please enable JavaScript. Amino acids are organic compounds that combine to form proteins . ...

  1. Mefenamic Acid

    MedlinePlus

    Mefenamic acid is used to relieve mild to moderate pain, including menstrual pain (pain that happens before or during a menstrual period). Mefenamic acid is in a class of medications called NSAIDs. ...

  2. Aminocaproic Acid

    MedlinePlus

    Aminocaproic acid is used to control bleeding that occurs when blood clots are broken down too quickly. This type ... the baby is ready to be born). Aminocaproic acid is also used to control bleeding in the ...

  3. Ascorbic Acid

    MedlinePlus

    Ascorbic acid is used to prevent and treat scurvy, a disease caused by a lack of vitamin C in ... Ascorbic acid comes in extended-release (long-acting) capsules and tablets, lozenges, syrup, chewable tablets, and liquid drops to ...

  4. Acid mucopolysaccharides

    MedlinePlus

    ... this page: //medlineplus.gov/ency/article/003368.htm Acid mucopolysaccharides To use the sharing features on this page, please enable JavaScript. Acid mucopolysaccharides is a test that measures the amount ...

  5. Ethacrynic Acid

    MedlinePlus

    Ethacrynic acid, a 'water pill,' is used to treat swelling and fluid retention caused by various medical problems. It ... Ethacrynic acid comes as a tablet to take by mouth. It is usually taken once or twice a day ...

  6. Valproic Acid

    MedlinePlus

    Valproic acid is used alone or with other medications to treat certain types of seizures. Valproic acid is also used to treat mania (episodes of ... to relieve headaches that have already begun. Valproic acid is in a class of medications called anticonvulsants. ...

  7. Fatty acids - trans fatty acids

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The data supporting a negative effect of dietary trans fatty acids on cardiovascular disease risk is consistent. The primary dietary sources of trans fatty acids include partially hydrogenated fat and rudiment fat. The adverse effect of trans fatty acids on plasma lipoprotein profiles is consisten...

  8. 21 CFR 172.350 - Fumaric acid and salts of fumaric acid.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... Section 172.350 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) FOOD ADDITIVES PERMITTED FOR DIRECT ADDITION TO FOOD FOR HUMAN CONSUMPTION Special Dietary and... special dietary use, when the use is consistent with good nutrition practice....

  9. Acid Deposition

    EPA Science Inventory

    This indicator presents acid deposition trends in the contiguous U.S. from 1989 to 2007. Data are broken down by wet and dry deposition and deposition of nitrogen and sulfur compounds. Acid deposition is particularly damaging to lakes, streams, and forests and the plants and a...

  10. Acid rain

    SciTech Connect

    White, J.C. )

    1988-01-01

    This book presents the proceedings of the third annual conference sponsored by the Acid Rain Information Clearinghouse (ARIC). Topics covered include: Legal aspects of the source-receptor relationship: an energy perspective; Scientific uncertainty, agency inaction, and the courts; and Acid rain: the emerging legal framework.

  11. Acid rain

    SciTech Connect

    Elsworth, S.

    1985-01-01

    This book was written in a concise and readable style for the lay public. It's purpose was to make the public aware of the damage caused by acid rain and to mobilize public opinion to favor the elimination of the causes of acid rain.

  12. Acid rain

    SciTech Connect

    Sweet, W.

    1980-06-20

    Acid precipitation includes not only rain but also acidified snow, hail and frost, as well as sulfur and nitrogen dust. The principal source of acid precipitation is pollution emitted by power plants and smelters. Sulfur and nitrogen compounds contained in the emissions combine with moisture to form droplets with a high acid content - sometimes as acidic as vinegar. When sufficiently concentrated, these acids can kill fish and damage material structures. Under certain circumstances they may reduce crop and forest yields and cause or aggravate respiratory diseases in humans. During the summer, especially, pollutants tend to collect over the Great Lakes in high pressure systems. Since winds typically are westerly and rotate clockwise around high pressure systems, the pollutants gradually are dispersed throughout the eastern part of the continent.

  13. Asparagusic acid.

    PubMed

    Mitchell, Stephen C; Waring, Rosemary H

    2014-01-01

    Asparagusic acid (1,2-dithiolane-4-carboxylic acid) is a simple sulphur-containing 5-membered heterocyclic compound that appears unique to asparagus, though other dithiolane derivatives have been identified in non-food species. This molecule, apparently innocuous toxicologically to man, is the most probable culprit responsible for the curious excretion of odorous urine following asparagus ingestion. The presence of the two adjacent sulphur atoms leads to an enhanced chemical reactivity, endowing it with biological properties including the ability to substitute potentially for α-lipoic acid in α-keto-acid oxidation systems. This brief review collects the scattered data available in the literature concerning asparagusic acid and highlights its properties, intermediary metabolism and exploratory applications. PMID:24099657

  14. [Gastric Acid].

    PubMed

    Ruíz Chávez, R

    1996-01-01

    Gastric acid, a product of parietal cells secretion, full fills multiple biological roles which are absolutely necessary to keep corporal homeostasis. The production of the acid depends upon an effector cellular process represented in the first step by histamine, acetilcholine and gastrin, first messengers of the process. These interact with specific receptors than in sequence activate second messengers -cAMP and the calcium-calmodulin system- which afterwards activate a kinase. An specific protein is then phosphorilated by this enzyme, being the crucial factor that starts the production of acid. Finally, a proton bomb, extrudes the acid towards the gastric lumen. The secretion process mentioned above, is progressive lyactivated in three steps, two of which are stimulators -cephalic and gastric phases- and the other one inhibitor or intestinal phase. These stages are started by mental and neurological phenomena -thought, sight, smell or memory-; by food, drugs or other ingested substances; and by products of digestion. Changes in regulation of acid secretion, in the structure of gastro-duodenal mucosal barrier by a wide spectrum of factors and agents including food, drugs and H. pylori, are the basis of acid-peptic disease, entity in which gastric acid plays a fundamental role. From the therapeutic point of view, so at the theoretical as at the practical levels, t is possible to interfere with the secretion of acid by neutralization of some of the steps of the effector cellular process. An adequate knowledge of the basics related to gastric acid, allows to create strategies for the clinical handling of associated pathology, specifically in relation to peptic acid disease in all of the known clinical forms. PMID:12165790

  15. Acid fog

    SciTech Connect

    Hileman, B.

    1983-03-01

    Fog in areas of southern California previously thought to be pollution-free has been shown to have a pH as low as 1.69. It has been found to be most acidic after smoggy days, suggesting that it forms on the aerosol associated with the previously exiting smog. Studies on Whiteface Mountain in the Adirondacks show that fog water is often 10 times as acidic as rainwater. As a result of their studies, California plans to spend $4 million on acid deposition research in the coming year. (JMT)

  16. Dicarboxylic acids generated by thermal alteration of kerogen and humic acids

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kawamura, Kimitaka; Kaplan, I. R.

    1987-01-01

    Significant amounts (up to 2 percent of organic geopolymers) of low-molecular-weight (LMW) dicarboxylic acids (C2-C10) have been detected during thermal alteration (270 C, 2 h) of kerogens and humic acids isolated from young or ancient lithified sediments. Their distribution is characterized by the predominance of oxalic acid followed by succinic, fumaric, and methylsuccinic acids. These acids are probably released by the breakdown of macromolecular structures, which have incorporated biogenic organic compounds, including diacids, during early digenesis in sediments. Because of their reactivity, LMW diacids may play geochemically important roles under natural conditions.

  17. Production of Succinic Acid from Citric Acid and Related Acids by Lactobacillus Strains

    PubMed Central

    Kaneuchi, Choji; Seki, Masako; Komagata, Kazuo

    1988-01-01

    A number of Lactobacillus strains produced succinic acid in de Man-Rogosa-Sharpe broth to various extents. Among 86 fresh isolates from fermented cane molasses in Thailand, 30 strains (35%) produced succinic acid; namely, 23 of 39 Lactobacillus reuteri strains, 6 of 18 L. cellobiosus strains, and 1 of 6 unidentified strains. All of 10 L. casei subsp. casei strains, 5 L. casei subsp. rhamnosus strains, 6 L. mali strains, and 2 L. buchneri strains did not produce succinic acid. Among 58 known strains including 48 type strains of different Lactobacillus species, the strains of L. acidophilus, L. crispatus, L. jensenii, and L. parvus produced succinic acid to the same extent as the most active fresh isolates, and those of L. alimentarius, L. collinoides, L. farciminis, L. fructivorans (1 of 2 strains tested), L. malefermentans, and L. reuteri were also positive, to lesser extents. Diammonium citrate in de Man-Rogosa-Sharpe broth was determined as a precursor of the succinic acid produced. Production rates were about 70% on a molar basis with two fresh strains tested. Succinic acid was also produced from fumaric and malic acids but not from dl-isocitric, α-ketoglutaric, and pyruvic acids. The present study is considered to provide the first evidence on the production of succinic acid, an important flavoring substance in dairy products and fermented beverages, from citrate by lactobacilli. PMID:16347795

  18. Folic acid

    MedlinePlus

    ... in the blood vessel to keep it open. Bipolar disorder. Taking folic acid does not appear to improve the antidepressant effects of lithium in people with bipolar disorder. However, taking folate with the medication valproate improves ...

  19. Mefenamic Acid

    MedlinePlus

    ... as mefenamic acid may cause ulcers, bleeding, or holes in the stomach or intestine. These problems may ... like coffee grounds, blood in the stool, or black and tarry stools.Keep all appointments with your ...

  20. ACID RAIN

    EPA Science Inventory

    Acid precipitation has become one of the major environmental problems of this decade. It is a challenge to scientists throughout the world. Researchers from such diverse disciplines as plant pathology, soil science, bacteriology, meteorology and engineering are investigating diff...

  1. Acid Precipitation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Likens, Gene E.

    1976-01-01

    Discusses the fact that the acidity of rain and snow falling on parts of the U.S. and Europe has been rising. The reasons are still not entirely clear and the consequences have yet to be well evaluated. (MLH)

  2. Carnosic acid.

    PubMed

    Birtić, Simona; Dussort, Pierre; Pierre, François-Xavier; Bily, Antoine C; Roller, Marc

    2015-07-01

    Carnosic acid (salvin), which possesses antioxidative and antimicrobial properties, is increasingly exploited within the food, nutritional health and cosmetics industries. Since its first extraction from a Salvia species (∼70 years ago) and its identification (∼50 years ago), numerous articles and patents (∼400) have been published on specific food and medicinal applications of Rosmarinus and Salvia plant extracts abundant in carnosic acid. In contrast, relevant biochemical, physiological or molecular studies in planta have remained rare. In this overview, recent advances in understanding of carnosic acid distribution, biosynthesis, accumulation and role in planta, and its applications are summarised. We also discuss the deficiencies in our understanding of the relevant biochemical processes, and suggest the molecular targets of carnosic acid. Finally, future perspectives and studies related to its potential roles are highlighted. PMID:25639596

  3. Aminocaproic Acid

    MedlinePlus

    Amicar® Oral Solution ... Aminocaproic acid comes as a tablet and a solution (liquid) to take by mouth. It is usually ... it at room temperature and away from excess heat and moisture (not in the bathroom). Throw away ...

  4. Tranexamic Acid

    MedlinePlus

    ... is used to treat heavy bleeding during the menstrual cycle (monthly periods) in women. Tranexamic acid is in ... tablets for more than 5 days in a menstrual cycle or take more than 6 tablets in a ...

  5. Interconversion of biologically important carboxylic acids by radiation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Negron-Mendoza, A.; Ponnamperuma, C.

    1978-01-01

    The interconversion of a group of biologically important polycarboxylic acids (acetic, fumaric, malic, malonic, succinic, citric, isocitric, tricarballylic) under gamma-ray or ultraviolet radiation was investigated. The formation of high molecular weight compounds was observed in all cases. Succinic acid was formed in almost all radiolysis experiments. Citric, malonic, and succinic acids appeared to be relatively insensitive to radiation. Interconversion of the polycarboxylic acids studied may have occurred under the effect of radiation in the prebiotic earth.

  6. Acidic precipitation

    SciTech Connect

    Martin, H.C.

    1987-01-01

    At the International Symposium on Acidic Precipitation, over 400 papers were presented, and nearly 200 of them are included here. They provide an overview of the present state of the art of acid rain research. The Conference focused on atmospheric science (monitoring, source-receptor relationships), aquatic effects (marine eutrophication, lake acidification, impacts on plant and fish populations), and terrestrial effects (forest decline, soil acidification, etc.).

  7. Fumarate permeation in normal and acidotic rat kidney mitochondria: fumarate/malate and fumarate/aspartate translocators.

    PubMed

    Atlante, A; Gagliardi, S; Passarella, S

    1998-02-24

    In order to gain some insight into the fate of fumarate synthesised in the cytosol in the purine nucleotide cycle and in amino acid catabolism, the capability of both rat kidney mitochondria and acidotic rat kidney mitochondria to take up either externally synthesised, via adenylsuccinate lyase, or added fumarate in exchange with intramitochondrial malate or aspartate was tested by means of both spectrophotometric and isotopic techniques. The appearance of either malate or aspartate caused by the presence of fumarate was revealed outside normal and acidotic mitochondria by using specific substrate detecting systems. Consistently, externally added fumarate was found to cause efflux of either [14C]-malate or [14C]-aspartate from loaded mitochondria. The occurrence in rat kidney mitochondria of two separate translocators, i.e., fumarate/malate and fumarate/aspartate carriers, is shown in the light of saturation kinetics and the different inhibitor sensitivity. The fumarate/aspartate antiporters found in normal and acidotic mitochondria appear to differ from each other. PMID:9500979

  8. Composition of quince (Cydonia oblonga Miller) seeds: phenolics, organic acids and free amino acids.

    PubMed

    Silva, Branca M; Andrade, Paula B; Ferreres, Federico; Seabra, Rosa M; Oliveira, M Beatriz P P; Ferreira, Margarida A

    2005-04-01

    Phenolic compounds, organic acids and free amino acids of quince seeds were determined by HPLC/DAD, HPLC/UV and GC/FID, respectively. Quince seeds presented a phenolic profile composed of 3-O-caffeoylquinic, 4-O-caffeoylquinic, 5-O-caffeoylquinic and 3,5-dicaffeoylquinic acids, lucenin-2, vicenin-2, stellarin-2, isoschaftoside, schaftoside, 6-C-pentosyl-8-C-glucosyl chrysoeriol and 6-C-glucosyl-8-C-pentosyl chrysoeriol. Six identified organic acids constituted the organic acid profile of quince seeds: citric, ascorbic, malic, quinic, shikimic and fumaric acids. The free amino acid profile was composed of 21 identified free amino acids and the three most abundant were glutamic and aspartic acids and asparagine. PMID:15702641

  9. [Contact dermatitis due to dimethyl fumarate].

    PubMed

    Silvestre, J F; Mercader, P; Giménez-Arnau, A M

    2010-04-01

    Dimethyl fumarate is a fumaric acid ester. It been used for some years to treat psoriasis and also as a preservative in desiccant sachets in the transport of furniture and footwear. Its irritant properties and sensitizing potential in contact with the skin were recently highlighted when it was implicated as the causative agent in 2 epidemics of severe acute eczema: sofa dermatitis in northern Europe and shoe dermatitis in Spain. The present article aims to guide dermatologists in the diagnosis and management of patients allergic to dimethyl fumarate. We review the clinical manifestations, results of patch tests, possible cross-reactions, and sources of exposure to dimethyl fumarate responsible for these skin reactions. PMID:20398596

  10. Salicylic acids

    PubMed Central

    Hayat, Shamsul; Irfan, Mohd; Wani, Arif; Nasser, Alyemeni; Ahmad, Aqil

    2012-01-01

    Salicylic acid is well known phytohormone, emerging recently as a new paradigm of an array of manifestations of growth regulators. The area unleashed yet encompassed the applied agriculture sector to find the roles to strengthen the crops against plethora of abiotic and biotic stresses. The skipped part of integrated picture, however, was the evolutionary insight of salicylic acid to either allow or discard the microbial invasion depending upon various internal factors of two interactants under the prevailing external conditions. The metabolic status that allows the host invasion either as pathogenesis or symbiosis with possible intermediary stages in close systems has been tried to underpin here. PMID:22301975

  11. Mitochondrial engineering of the TCA cycle for fumarate production.

    PubMed

    Chen, Xiulai; Dong, Xiaoxiang; Wang, Yuancai; Zhao, Zihao; Liu, Liming

    2015-09-01

    Microbial fumarate production from renewable feedstock is a promising and sustainable alternative to petroleum-based chemical synthesis. Here, mitochondrial engineering was used to construct the oxidative pathway for fumarate production starting from the TCA cycle intermediate α-ketoglutarate in Candida glabrata. Accordingly, α-ketoglutarate dehydrogenase complex (KGD), succinyl-CoA synthetase (SUCLG), and succinate dehydrogenase (SDH) were selected to be manipulated for strengthening the oxidative pathway, and the engineered strain T.G-K-S-S exhibited increased fumarate biosynthesis (1.81 g L(-1)). To further improve fumarate production, the oxidative route was optimized. First, three fusion proteins KGD2-SUCLG2, SUCLG2-SDH1 and KGD2-SDH1 were constructed, and KGD2-SUCLG2 led to improved fumarate production (4.24 g L(-1)). In addition, various strengths of KGD2-SUCLG2 and SDH1 expression cassettes were designed by combinations of promoter strengths and copy numbers, resulting in a large increase in fumarate production (from 4.24 g L(-1) to 8.24 g L(-1)). Then, through determining intracellular amino acids and its related gene expression levels, argininosuccinate lyase in the urea cycle was identified as the key factor for restricting higher fumarate production. Correspondingly, after overexpression of it, the fumarate production was further increased to 9.96 g L(-1). Next, two dicarboxylic acids transporters facilitated an improvement of fumarate production, and, as a result, the final strain T.G-KS(H)-S(M)-A-2S reached fumarate titer of 15.76 g L(-1). This strategy described here paves the way to the development of an efficient pathway for microbial production of fumarate. PMID:25708514

  12. Recovery of succinic acid from fermentation broth.

    PubMed

    Kurzrock, Tanja; Weuster-Botz, Dirk

    2010-03-01

    Succinic acid is of high interest as bio-feedstock for the chemical industry. It is a precursor for a variety of many other chemicals, e.g. 1,4-butandiol, tetrahydrofuran, biodegradable polymers and fumaric acid. Besides optimized production strains and fermentation processes it is indispensable to develop cost-saving and energy-effective downstream processes to compete with the current petrochemical production process. Various methods such as precipitation, sorption and ion exchange, electrodialysis, and liquid-liquid extraction have been investigated for the recovery of succinic acid from fermentation broth and are reviewed critically here. PMID:19898782

  13. Folic acid

    MedlinePlus

    ... disease called vitiligo, and an inherited disease called Fragile-X syndrome. It is also used for reducing harmful side ... to blood clots (ischemic stroke). Inherited disease called Fragile-X syndrome.Taking folic acid by mouth does not improve ...

  14. Acid rain

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1984-06-01

    An overview is presented of acid rain and the problems it causes to the environment worldwide. The acidification of lakes and streams is having a dramatic effect on aquatic life. Aluminum, present in virtually all forest soils, leaches out readily under acid conditions and interferes with the gills of all fish, some more seriously than others. There is evidence of major damage to forests in European countries. In the US, the most severe forest damage appears to be in New England, New York's Adirondacks, and the central Appalachians. This small region is part of a larger area of the Northeast and Canada that appears to have more acid rainfall than the rest of the country. It is downwind from major coal burning states, which produce about one quarter of US SO/sub 2/ emissions and one sixth of nitrogen oxide emissions. Uncertainties exist over the causes of forest damage and more research is needed before advocating expensive programs to reduce rain acidity. The President's current budget seeks an expansion of research funds from the current $30 million per year to $120 million.

  15. Formic acid

    Integrated Risk Information System (IRIS)

    Formic acid ; CASRN 64 - 18 - 6 Human health assessment information on a chemical substance is included in the IRIS database only after a comprehensive review of toxicity data , as outlined in the IRIS assessment development process . Sections I ( Health Hazard Assessments for Noncarcinogenic Effect

  16. Selenious acid

    Integrated Risk Information System (IRIS)

    Selenious acid ; CASRN 7783 - 00 - 8 Human health assessment information on a chemical substance is included in the IRIS database only after a comprehensive review of toxicity data , as outlined in the IRIS assessment development process . Sections I ( Health Hazard Assessments for Noncarcinogenic E

  17. Benzoic acid

    Integrated Risk Information System (IRIS)

    Benzoic acid ; CASRN 65 - 85 - 0 Human health assessment information on a chemical substance is included in the IRIS database only after a comprehensive review of toxicity data , as outlined in the IRIS assessment development process . Sections I ( Health Hazard Assessments for Noncarcinogenic Effec

  18. Trichloroacetic acid

    Integrated Risk Information System (IRIS)

    Trichloroacetic acid ( TCA ) ; CASRN 76 - 03 - 9 Human health assessment information on a chemical substance is included in the IRIS database only after a comprehensive review of toxicity data , as outlined in the IRIS assessment development process . Sections I ( Health Hazard Assessments for Nonca

  19. Dichloroacetic acid

    Integrated Risk Information System (IRIS)

    Dichloroacetic acid ; CASRN 79 - 43 - 6 Human health assessment information on a chemical substance is included in the IRIS database only after a comprehensive review of toxicity data , as outlined in the IRIS assessment development process . Sections I ( Health Hazard Assessments for Noncarcinogeni

  20. Acrylic acid

    Integrated Risk Information System (IRIS)

    Acrylic acid ( CASRN 79 - 10 - 7 ) Human health assessment information on a chemical substance is included in the IRIS database only after a comprehensive review of toxicity data , as outlined in the IRIS assessment development process . Sections I ( Health Hazard Assessments for Noncarcinogenic Eff

  1. Cacodylic acid

    Integrated Risk Information System (IRIS)

    Cacodylic acid ; CASRN 75 - 60 - 5 Human health assessment information on a chemical substance is included in the IRIS database only after a comprehensive review of toxicity data , as outlined in the IRIS assessment development process . Sections I ( Health Hazard Assessments for Noncarcinogenic Eff

  2. Phosphoric acid

    Integrated Risk Information System (IRIS)

    Phosphoric acid ; CASRN 7664 - 38 - 2 Human health assessment information on a chemical substance is included in the IRIS database only after a comprehensive review of toxicity data , as outlined in the IRIS assessment development process . Sections I ( Health Hazard Assessments for Noncarcinogenic

  3. Stearic Acid

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Young, Jay A.

    2004-01-01

    A chemical laboratory information profile (CLIP) is presented for the chemical, stearic acid. The profile lists the chemical's physical and harmful characteristics, exposure limits, and symptoms of major exposure, for the benefit of teachers and students, who use the chemical in the laboratory.

  4. Terpolymers of ethyl acrylate/methacrylic acid/unsaturated acid ester of alcohols and acids as anti-settling agents in coal water slurries

    SciTech Connect

    Savoly, A.; Villa, J.L.; Grinstein, R.H.; Nachfolger, S.J.

    1988-05-17

    This patent describes a pumpable stabilized coal water slurry, having a coal content of at least about 50% by weight wherein at least 80% of the coal particles are about 200 mesh or finer, containing from about 0.01% to about 1% by weight of the slurry of a water soluble terpolymer of ethylacrylate (A), metacrylic acid (B) and a third monomer (C) selected from the group consisting of an unsaturated carboxylic acid ester of an alcohol and an ethoxylated carboxylic acid. The unsaturated carboxylic acid is a mono- or di- basic unsaturated carboxylic acid of 3 to 10 carbon atoms selected from the group consisting of acrylic acid, methacrylic acid, itaconic acid, fumaric acid, and maleic acid.

  5. Hydroxycarboxylic acids and salts

    DOEpatents

    Kiely, Donald E; Hash, Kirk R; Kramer-Presta, Kylie; Smith, Tyler N

    2015-02-24

    Compositions which inhibit corrosion and alter the physical properties of concrete (admixtures) are prepared from salt mixtures of hydroxycarboxylic acids, carboxylic acids, and nitric acid. The salt mixtures are prepared by neutralizing acid product mixtures from the oxidation of polyols using nitric acid and oxygen as the oxidizing agents. Nitric acid is removed from the hydroxycarboxylic acids by evaporation and diffusion dialysis.

  6. Dimethyl fumarate modulates antioxidant and lipid metabolism in oligodendrocytes.

    PubMed

    Huang, He; Taraboletti, Alexandra; Shriver, Leah P

    2015-08-01

    Oxidative stress contributes to pathology associated with inflammatory brain disorders and therapies that upregulate antioxidant pathways may be neuroprotective in diseases such as multiple sclerosis. Dimethyl fumarate, a small molecule therapeutic for multiple sclerosis, activates cellular antioxidant signaling pathways and may promote myelin preservation. However, it is still unclear what mechanisms may underlie this neuroprotection and whether dimethyl fumarate affects oligodendrocyte responses to oxidative stress. Here, we examine metabolic alterations in oligodendrocytes treated with dimethyl fumarate by using a global metabolomic platform that employs both hydrophilic interaction liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry and shotgun lipidomics. Prolonged treatment of oligodendrocytes with dimethyl fumarate induces changes in citric acid cycle intermediates, glutathione, and lipids, indicating that this compound can directly impact oligodendrocyte metabolism. These metabolic alterations are also associated with protection from oxidant challenge. This study provides insight into the mechanisms by which dimethyl fumarate could preserve myelin integrity in patients with multiple sclerosis. PMID:25967672

  7. Fumarate induces redox-dependent senescence by modifying glutathione metabolism

    PubMed Central

    Zheng, Liang; Cardaci, Simone; Jerby, Livnat; MacKenzie, Elaine D.; Sciacovelli, Marco; Johnson, T. Isaac; Gaude, Edoardo; King, Ayala; Leach, Joshua D. G.; Edrada-Ebel, RuAngelie; Hedley, Ann; Morrice, Nicholas A.; Kalna, Gabriela; Blyth, Karen; Ruppin, Eytan; Frezza, Christian; Gottlieb, Eyal

    2015-01-01

    Mutations in the tricarboxylic acid (TCA) cycle enzyme fumarate hydratase (FH) are associated with a highly malignant form of renal cancer. We combined analytical chemistry and metabolic computational modelling to investigate the metabolic implications of FH loss in immortalized and primary mouse kidney cells. Here, we show that the accumulation of fumarate caused by the inactivation of FH leads to oxidative stress that is mediated by the formation of succinicGSH, a covalent adduct between fumarate and glutathione. Chronic succination of GSH, caused by the loss of FH, or by exogenous fumarate, leads to persistent oxidative stress and cellular senescence in vitro and in vivo. Importantly, the ablation of p21, a key mediator of senescence, in Fh1-deficient mice resulted in the transformation of benign renal cysts into a hyperplastic lesion, suggesting that fumarate-induced senescence needs to be bypassed for the initiation of renal cancers. PMID:25613188

  8. Metabolic engineering in the biotechnological production of organic acids in the tricarboxylic acid cycle of microorganisms: Advances and prospects.

    PubMed

    Yin, Xian; Li, Jianghua; Shin, Hyun-Dong; Du, Guocheng; Liu, Long; Chen, Jian

    2015-11-01

    Organic acids, which are chemically synthesized, are also natural intermediates in the metabolic pathways of microorganisms, among which the tricarboxylic acid (TCA) cycle is the most crucial route existing in almost all living organisms. Organic acids in the TCA cycle include citric acid, α-ketoglutaric acid, succinic acid, fumaric acid, l-malic acid, and oxaloacetate, which are building-block chemicals with wide applications and huge markets. In this review, we summarize the synthesis pathways of these organic acids and review recent advances in metabolic engineering strategies that enhance organic acid production. We also propose further improvements for the production of organic acids with systems and synthetic biology-guided metabolic engineering strategies. PMID:25902192

  9. Methylmalonic acid blood test

    MedlinePlus

    ... acid is a substance produced when proteins, called amino acids, in the body break down. The health care ... Cederbaum S, Berry GT. Inborn errors of carbohydrate, ammonia, amino acid, and organic acid metabolism. In: Gleason CA, Devaskar ...

  10. Folic acid - test

    MedlinePlus

    Folic acid is a type of B vitamin. This article discusses the test to measure the amount of folic acid in the blood. ... that may interfere with test results, including folic acid supplements. Drugs that can decrease folic acid measurements ...

  11. Uric acid urine test

    MedlinePlus

    The uric acid urine test measures the level of uric acid in urine. Uric acid level can also be checked using a blood ... help determine the cause of a high uric acid level in the blood. It may also be ...

  12. Methylmalonic acid blood test

    MedlinePlus

    The methylmalonic acid blood test measures the amount of methylmalonic acid in the blood. ... Methylmalonic acid is a substance produced when proteins, called amino acids, in the body break down. The health care ...

  13. Folic Acid and Pregnancy

    MedlinePlus

    ... 5 Things to Know About Zika & Pregnancy Folic Acid and Pregnancy KidsHealth > For Parents > Folic Acid and ... before conception and during early pregnancy . About Folic Acid Folic acid, sometimes called folate, is a B ...

  14. Understanding Acid Rain

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Damonte, Kathleen

    2004-01-01

    The term acid rain describes rain, snow, or fog that is more acidic than normal precipitation. To understand what acid rain is, it is first necessary to know what an acid is. Acids can be defined as substances that produce hydrogen ions (H+), when dissolved in water. Scientists indicate how acidic a substance is by a set of numbers called the pH…

  15. New bioactive fatty acids

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Many oxygenated fatty acids are bioactive compounds. Nocardia cholesterolicum and Flavobacterium DS5 convert oleic acid to 10 hydroxy stearic acid and linoleic acid to 10-hydroxy-12(Z)-octadecanoic acid. Pseudomonas aeruginosa PR3 converts oleic acid to the new compounds, 7,10-dihydroxy-8(E)-octad...

  16. New Bioactive Fatty Acids

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Many oxygenated fatty acids are bioactive compounds. Nocardia cholesterolicum and Flavobacterium DS5 convert oleic acid to 10 hydroxy stearic acid and linoleic acid to 10-hydroxy-12(Z)-octadecanoic acid. Pseudomonas aeruginosa PR3 converts oleic acid to new compounds, 7,10-dihydroxy-8(E)-octadecen...

  17. Variability for free sugars and organic acids in Capsicum Chinense

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Fruit of 216 genotypes of Capsicum chinense Jacq. were analyzed for concentrations of the simple sugars sucrose, glucose, fructose, and the organic acids; citric, malic, succinic, fumaric and ascorbic. Concentrations [mg/100g Fresh Weight (FW) of whole fruit] of sucrose, glucose and fructose in fru...

  18. Enhanced affinity of ketotifen toward tamarind seed polysaccharide in comparison with hydroxyethylcellulose and hyaluronic acid: a nuclear magnetic resonance investigation.

    PubMed

    Uccello-Barretta, Gloria; Nazzi, Samuele; Balzano, Federica; Di Colo, Giacomo; Zambito, Ylenia; Zaino, Chiara; Sansò, Marco; Salvadori, Eleonora; Benvenuti, Marco

    2008-08-01

    Nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) spectroscopy demonstrated that, in aqueous solution, ketotifen fumarate bound more strongly to tamarind seed polysaccharide (TSP) than to hydroxyethylcellulose or hyaluronic acid. Results were confirmed by dynamic dialysis technique. PMID:18595715

  19. Bioactive Fatty Acids

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Oxygenated fatty acids are useful as specialty chemicals, plasticizers, and biomedicals. Microbial enzymes convert fatty acids to mono-, di-, and trihydroxy fatty acid products. Among them, Bacillus megaterium ALA2 converted n-6 and n-3 PUFAs to many new oxygenated fatty acids. Linoleic acid was ...

  20. METABOLISM OF DICARBOXYLIC ACIDS IN ACETOBACTER XYLINUM

    PubMed Central

    Benziman, Moshe; Abeliovitz, A.

    1964-01-01

    Benziman, Moshe (The Hebrew University of Jerusalem, Jerusalem, Israel), and A. Abeliovitz. Metabolism of dicarboxylic acids in Acetobacter xylinum. J. Bacteriol. 87:270–277. 1964.—During the oxidation of fumarate or l-malate by whole cells or extracts of Acetobacter xylinum grown on succinate, a keto acid accumulated in the medium in considerable amounts. This acid was identified as oxaloacetic acid (OAA). No accumulation of OAA was observed when succinate served as substrate. These phenomena could be explained by the kinetics of malate, succinate, and OAA oxidation. OAA did not inhibit malate oxidation, even when present at high concentrations. When cells were incubated with OAA or fumarate in the presence of C14O2, only the beta-carboxyl of residual OAA was found to be labeled. Evidence was obtained indicating that nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide (NAD) or nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide phosphate (NADP) are not directly involved in malate oxidation by cell-free extracts. The results suggest that malate oxidation in A. xylinum is irreversible, and is catalyzed by an enzyme which is not NAD- or NADP-linked. PMID:14151044

  1. Dicarboxylic acids generated by thermal alteration of kerogen and humic acids.

    PubMed

    Kawamura, K; Kaplan, I R

    1987-01-01

    Significant amounts (up to 2% of organic geopolymers) of low molecular weight (LMW) dicarboxylic acids (C2-C10) have been detected during thermal alteration (270 degrees C, 2 h) of kerogens and humic acids isolated from young or ancient lithified sediments. Their distribution is characterized by predominance of oxalic acid followed by succinic, fumaric and methylsuccinic acids. These acids are probably released by the breakdown of macromolecular structures, which have incorporated biogenic organic compounds, including diacids, during early diagenesis in sediments. Because of their reactivity, LMW diacids may play the following geochemically important roles under natural conditions: (1) the diacids dissolve carbonates and clay minerals to increase porosity and permeability, which enhances migration of oils and gas generated from catagenesis of kerogen dispersed in shale, and (2) the diacids may form organo-metal complexes, which are important for mobilization, transport and accumulation of trace metals in sedimentary basins. PMID:11542084

  2. Uric acid test (image)

    MedlinePlus

    Uric acid urine test is performed to check for the amount of uric acid in urine. Urine is collected over a 24 ... testing. The most common reason for measuring uric acid levels is in the diagnosis or treatment of ...

  3. Amino Acid Metabolism Disorders

    MedlinePlus

    ... defects & other health conditions > Amino acid metabolism disorders Amino acid metabolism disorders E-mail to a friend Please ... baby’s newborn screening may include testing for certain amino acid metabolism disorders. These are rare health conditions that ...

  4. Plasma amino acids

    MedlinePlus

    Amino acids blood test ... types of methods used to determine the individual amino acid levels in the blood. ... test is done to measure the level of amino acids in the blood. An increased level of a ...

  5. Stomach acid test

    MedlinePlus

    Gastric acid secretion test ... of the cells in the stomach to release acid. The stomach contents are then removed and analyzed. ... 3.5). These numbers are converted to actual acid production in units of milliequivalents per hour in ...

  6. Azelaic Acid Topical

    MedlinePlus

    Azelaic acid gel is used to clear the bumps, lesions, and swelling caused by rosacea (a skin disease that ... redness, flushing, and pimples on the face). Azelaic acid cream is used to treat acne. Azelaic acid ...

  7. Facts about Folic Acid

    MedlinePlus

    ... Information For... Media Policy Makers Facts About Folic Acid Language: English Español (Spanish) Recommend on Facebook Tweet ... of the baby's brain and spine. About folic acid Folic acid is a B vitamin. Our bodies ...

  8. Acid Lipase Disease

    MedlinePlus

    ... Awards Enhancing Diversity Find People About NINDS NINDS Acid Lipase Disease Information Page Synonym(s): Cholesterol Ester Storage ... Trials Related NINDS Publications and Information What is Acid Lipase Disease ? Acid lipase disease or deficiency occurs ...

  9. Dimethyl Fumarate

    MedlinePlus

    ... course of disease where symptoms flare up from time to time) of multiple sclerosis (MS; a condition in which ... day. Take dimethyl fumarate at around the same times every day. Follow the directions on your prescription ...

  10. Folic acid - test

    MedlinePlus

    ... folic acid measurements include: Alcohol Aminosalicylic acid Birth control pills Estrogens Tetracyclines Ampicillin Chloramphenicol Erythromycin Methotrexate Penicillin Aminopterin Phenobarbital Phenytoin Drugs to treat malaria

  11. Oxalic acid poisoning

    MedlinePlus

    Symptoms of oxalic acid poisoning include: Abdominal pain Burns and blisters where the acid contacted the skin Collapse Convulsions Mouth pain Shock Throat pain Tremors (unintentional trembling) Vomiting

  12. Acid distribution in phosphoric acid fuel cells

    SciTech Connect

    Okae, I.; Seya, A.; Umemoto, M.

    1996-12-31

    Electrolyte acid distribution among each component of a cell is determined by capillary force when the cell is not in operation, but the distribution under the current load conditions had not been clear so far. Since the loss of electrolyte acid during operation is inevitable, it is necessary to store enough amount of acid in every cell. But it must be under the level of which the acid disturbs the diffusion of reactive gases. Accordingly to know the actual acid distribution during operation in a cell is very important. In this report, we carried out experiments to clarify the distribution using small single cells.

  13. Extraction chemistry of fermentation product carboxylic acids

    SciTech Connect

    Kertes, A.S.; King, C.J.

    1986-02-01

    Within the framework of a program aiming to improve the existing extractive recovery technology of fermentation products, the state of the art is critically reviewed. The acids under consideration are propionic, lactic, pyruvic, succinic, fumaric, maleic, malic, itaconic, tartaric, citric, and isocitric, all obtained by the aerobic fermentation of glucose via the glycolytic pathways and glyoxylate bypass. With no exception, it is the undissociated monomeric acid that is extracted into carbon-bonded and phosphorus-bonded oxygen donor extractants. In the organic phase, the acids are usually dimerized. The extractive transfer process obeys the Nernst law, and the measured partition coefficients range from about 0.003 for aliphatic hydrocarbons to about 2 to 3 for aliphatic alcohols and ketones to about 10 or more for organophosphates. Equally high distribution ratios are measured when long-chain tertiary amines are employed as extractants, forming bulky salts preferentially soluble in the organic phase.

  14. Extraction chemistry of fermentation product carboxylic acid

    SciTech Connect

    Kertes, A.S.; King, C.J.

    1986-02-01

    Within the framework of a program aiming to improve the existing extractive recovery technology of fermentation products, the state of the art is critically reviewed. The acids under consideration are propionic, lactic, pyruvic, succinic, fumaric, maleic, malic, itaconic, tartaric, citric, and isocitric, all obtained by the aerobic fermentation of glucose via the glycolytic pathway and glyoxylate bypass. With no exception, it is the undissociated monomeric acid that is extracted into carbon-bonded and phosphorus-bonded oxygen donor extractants. In the organic phase, the acids are usually dimerized. The extractive transfer process obeys the Nernst law, and the measured partition coefficients range from about 0.003 for aliphatic hydrocarbons to about 2 to 3 for aliphatic alcohols and ketones to about 10 or more for organophosphates. Equally high distribution ratios are measured when long-chain tertiary amines are employed as extractants, forming bulky salts preferentially soluble in the organic phase. 123 references.

  15. Dimethyl fumarate in relapsing-remitting multiple sclerosis: rationale, mechanisms of action, pharmacokinetics, efficacy and safety.

    PubMed

    Dubey, Duvyanshu; Kieseier, Bernd C; Hartung, Hans P; Hemmer, Bernhard; Warnke, Clemens; Menge, Til; Miller-Little, William A; Stuve, Olaf

    2015-04-01

    Dimethyl fumarate (DMF), a fumaric acid ester, is a new orally available disease-modifying agent that was recently approved by the US FDA and the EMA for the management of relapsing forms of multiple sclerosis (MS). Fumaric acid has been used for the management of psoriasis, for more than 50 years. Because of the known anti-inflammatory properties of fumaric acid ester, DMF was brought into clinical development in MS. More recently, neuroprotective and myelin-protective mechanism actions have been proposed, making it a possible candidate for MS treatment. Two Phase III clinical trials (DEFINE, CONFIRM) have evaluated the safety and efficacy of DMF in patients with relapsing-remitting MS. Being an orally available agent with a favorable safety profile, it has become one of the most commonly prescribed disease-modifying agents in the USA and Europe. PMID:25800129

  16. Acid tolerance in amphibians

    SciTech Connect

    Pierce, B.A.

    1985-04-01

    Studies of amphibian acid tolerance provide information about the potential effects of acid deposition on amphibian communities. Amphibians as a group appear to be relatively acid tolerant, with many species suffering increased mortality only below pH 4. However, amphibians exhibit much intraspecific variation in acid tolerance, and some species are sensitive to even low levels of acidity. Furthermore, nonlethal effects, including depression of growth rates and increases in developmental abnormalities, can occur at higher pH.

  17. Field enhancement sample stacking for analysis of organic acids in traditional Chinese medicine by capillary electrophoresis.

    PubMed

    Zhu, Qianqian; Xu, Xueqin; Huang, Yuanyuan; Xu, Liangjun; Chen, Guonan

    2012-07-13

    A technique known as field enhancement sample stacking (FESS) and capillary electrophoresis (CE) separation has been developed to analyze and detect organic acids in the three traditional Chinese medicines (such as Portulaca oleracea L., Crataegus pinnatifida and Aloe vera L.). In FESS, a reverse electrode polarity-stacking mode (REPSM) was applied as on-line preconcentration strategy. Under the optimized condition, the baseline separation of eight organic acids (linolenic acid, lauric acid, p-coumaric acid, ascorbic acid, benzoic acid, caffeic acid, succinic acid and fumaric acid) could be achieved within 20 min. Validation parameters of this method (such as detection limits, linearity and precision) were also evaluated. The detection limits ranged from 0.4 to 60 ng/mL. The results indicated that the proposed method was effective for the separation of mixtures of organic acids. Satisfactory recoveries were also obtained in the analysis of these organic acids in the above traditional Chinese medicine samples. PMID:22381886

  18. Toxicity of adipic acid.

    PubMed

    Kennedy, Gerald L

    2002-05-01

    Adipic acid has very low acute toxicity in rats with an LD50 > 5000 mg/kg. Adipic acid produced mild to no skin irritation on intact guinea pig skin as a 50% concentration in propylene glycol; it was not a skin sensitizer. Adipic acid caused mild conjunctival irritation in washed rabbit eyes; in unwashed rabbit eyes, there was mild conjunctival irritation, minimal iritis, but no corneal effects. Adipic acid dust may irritate the mucous membranes of the lungs and nose. In a 2-year feeding study, rats fed adipic acid at concentrations up to 5% in the diet exhibited only weight loss. Adipic acid is not genetically active in a wide variety of assay systems. Adipic acid caused no developmental toxicity in mice, rats, rabbits, or hamsters when administered orally. Adipic acid is partially metabolized in humans; the balance is eliminated unchanged in the urine. Adipic acid is slightly to moderately toxic to fish, daphnia, and algae in acute tests. PMID:12024802

  19. Acid Thunder: Acid Rain and Ancient Mesoamerica

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kahl, Jonathan D. W.; Berg, Craig A.

    2006-01-01

    Much of Mesoamerica's rich cultural heritage is slowly eroding because of acid rain. Just as water dissolves an Alka-Seltzer tablet, acid rain erodes the limestone surfaces of Mexican archaeological sites at a rate of about one-half millimeter per century (Bravo et al. 2003). A half-millimeter may not seem like much, but at this pace, a few…

  20. Quantity of acid in acid fog

    SciTech Connect

    Deal, W.J.

    1983-07-01

    This communication notes the actual magnitude of the acidity in acidic fog particles and suggests a possible line of inquiry into the health effects of such fog so that it can be determined whether a typical fog is detrimental or beneficial relative to dry air.

  1. [Amino acids in saliva].

    PubMed

    Klinger, G; Gruhn, K

    1984-01-01

    Total amino acids in saliva and free and peptide-bound amino acids from 21 saliva samples were determined. The contents of amino acids was 25 mmol/1; total nitrogen content was 78-80 mmol/1. Amino acids consist of Prolin in 25%. Some patients were examined before and after application of the depot estrogen ethinyl estradiosulfonat, which stimulates the assimilation of protein. After application, amino acids increased and the authors found a shift between the single amino acids. Estrogen medication induced an increase in proteins with the character of collagens. Clinical effects are discussed. (author's modified) PMID:6240853

  2. Extraction of carboxylic acids by amine extractants

    SciTech Connect

    Tamada, Janet Ayako; King, C.J.

    1989-01-01

    This work examines the chemistry of solvent extraction by long-chain amines for recovery of carboxylic acids from dilute aqueous solution. Long-chain amines act as complexing agents with the acid, which facilitates distribution of the acid into the organic phase. The complexation is reversible, allowing for recovery of the acid from the organic phase and regeneration of the extractant. Batch extraction experiments were performed to study the complexation of acetic, lactic, succinic, malonic, fumaric, and maleic acids with Alamine 336, an aliphatic, tertiary amine extractant, dissolved in various diluents. Results were interpreted by a ''chemical'' model, in which stoichiometric ratios of acid and amine molecules are assumed to form complexes in the solvent phase. From fitting of the extraction data, the stoichiometry of complexes formed and the corresponding equilibrium constants were obtained. The results of the model were combined with infrared spectroscopic experiments and results of past studies to analyze the chemical interactions that are responsible for extraction behavior. The information from the equilibrium studies was used to develop guidelines for large-scale staged extraction and regeneration schemes. A novel scheme, in which the diluent composition is shifted between extraction and regeneration, was developed which could achieve both high solute recovery and high product concentration. 169 refs., 57 figs., 15 tabs.

  3. Hydrochloric acid poisoning

    MedlinePlus

    Hydrochloric acid is a clear, poisonous liquid. It is highly corrosive, which means it immediately causes severe damage, ... discusses poisoning due to swallowing or breathing in hydrochloric acid. This article is for information only. Do NOT ...

  4. Omega-3 Fatty Acids

    MedlinePlus

    Omega-3 fatty acids are used together with lifestyle changes (diet, weight-loss, exercise) to reduce the amount ... the blood in people with very high triglycerides. Omega-3 fatty acids are in a class of medications ...

  5. Omega-6 Fatty Acids

    MedlinePlus

    Omega-6 fatty acids are types of fats. Some types are found in vegetable oils, including corn, evening primrose seed, safflower, and soybean oils. Other types of omega-6 fatty acids are found in black currant seed, borage seed, ...

  6. Zoledronic Acid Injection

    MedlinePlus

    Zoledronic acid (Reclast) is used to prevent or treat osteoporosis (condition in which the bones become thin and weak ... of life,' end of regular menstrual periods). Zoledronic acid (Reclast) is also used to treat osteoporosis in ...

  7. Aminolevulinic Acid Topical

    MedlinePlus

    Aminolevulinic acid is used in combination with photodynamic therapy (PDT; special blue light) to treat actinic keratoses (small crusty ... skin cancer) of the face or scalp. Aminolevulinic acid is in a class of medications called photosensitizing ...

  8. Acid-fast stain

    MedlinePlus

    The acid-fast stain is a laboratory test that determines if a sample of tissue, blood, or other body ... dye. The slide is then washed with an acid solution and a different stain is applied. Bacteria ...

  9. Uric acid - blood

    MedlinePlus

    Uric acid is a chemical created when the body breaks down substances called purines. Purines are found in some ... dried beans and peas, and beer. Most uric acid dissolves in blood and travels to the kidneys. ...

  10. Hydrochloric acid poisoning

    MedlinePlus

    Hydrochloric acid is a clear, poisonous liquid. It is highly corrosive, which means it immediately causes severe damage, such ... poisoning due to swallowing or breathing in hydrochloric acid. This article is for information only. Do NOT ...

  11. Omega-6 Fatty Acids

    MedlinePlus

    ... types of fats. Some types are found in vegetable oils, including corn, evening primrose seed, safflower, and soybean ... from studying specific omega-6 fatty acids or plant oils containing omega-6 fatty acids. See the separate ...

  12. Uric Acid Test

    MedlinePlus

    ... limited. Home Visit Global Sites Search Help? Uric Acid Share this page: Was this page helpful? Also known as: Serum Urate; UA Formal name: Uric Acid Related tests: Synovial Fluid Analysis , Kidney Stone Analysis , ...

  13. Acid-fast stain

    MedlinePlus

    ... this page: //medlineplus.gov/ency/article/003766.htm Acid-fast stain To use the sharing features on this page, please enable JavaScript. The acid-fast stain is a laboratory test that determines ...

  14. Aminocaproic Acid Injection

    MedlinePlus

    Aminocaproic acid injection is used to control bleeding that occurs when blood clots are broken down too quickly. This ... the baby is ready to be born). Aminocaproic acid injection is also used to control bleeding in ...

  15. Deoxycholic Acid Injection

    MedlinePlus

    Deoxycholic acid injection is used to improve the appearance and profile of moderate to severe submental fat ('double chin'; fatty tissue located under the chin). Deoxycholic acid injection is in a class of medications called ...

  16. Methylmalonic Acid Test

    MedlinePlus

    ... limited. Home Visit Global Sites Search Help? Methylmalonic Acid Share this page: Was this page helpful? Also known as: MMA Formal name: Methylmalonic Acid Related tests: Vitamin B12 and Folate , Homocysteine , Intrinsic ...

  17. Fatty acid analogs

    DOEpatents

    Elmaleh, David R.; Livni, Eli

    1985-01-01

    In one aspect, a radioactively labeled analog of a fatty acid which is capable of being taken up by mammalian tissue and which exhibits an in vivo beta-oxidation rate below that with a corresponding radioactively labeled fatty acid.

  18. Boric acid poisoning

    MedlinePlus

    ... boric acid poisoning usually occurs when someone swallows powdered roach-killing products that contain the chemical. Chronic ... vein (IV) Medicines to treat symptoms Note: Activated charcoal does not effectively treat (absorb) boric acid. For ...

  19. Lactic acid test

    MedlinePlus

    ... this page: //medlineplus.gov/ency/article/003507.htm Lactic acid test To use the sharing features on this page, please enable JavaScript. Lactic acid is mainly produced in muscle cells and red ...

  20. PRODUCTION OF TRIFLUOROACETIC ACID

    DOEpatents

    Haworth, W.N.; Stacey, M.

    1949-07-19

    A method is given for the production of improved yields of trifluoroacetic acid. The compound is prepared by oxidizing m-aminobenzotrifluoride with an alkali metal or alkaline earth metal permanganate at a temperature in the range of 80 deg C to 100 deg C while dissolved ln a mixture of water with glacial acetic acid and/or trifluoroacetic acid. Preferably a mixture of water and trifluoroacetic acid ls used as the solvent.

  1. Plant fatty acid hydroxylases

    DOEpatents

    Somerville, Chris; Broun, Pierre; van de Loo, Frank

    2001-01-01

    This invention relates to plant fatty acyl hydroxylases. Methods to use conserved amino acid or nucleotide sequences to obtain plant fatty acyl hydroxylases are described. Also described is the use of cDNA clones encoding a plant hydroxylase to produce a family of hydroxylated fatty acids in transgenic plants. In addition, the use of genes encoding fatty acid hydroxylases or desaturases to alter the level of lipid fatty acid unsaturation in transgenic plants is described.

  2. Efficient aspartic acid production by a psychrophile-based simple biocatalyst.

    PubMed

    Tajima, Takahisa; Hamada, Mai; Nakashimada, Yutaka; Kato, Junichi

    2015-10-01

    We previously constructed a Psychrophile-based Simple bioCatalyst (PSCat) reaction system, in which psychrophilic metabolic enzymes are inactivated by heat treatment, and used it here to study the conversion of aspartic acid from fumaric acid mediated by the activity of aspartate ammonia-lyase (aspartase). In Escherichia coli, the biosynthesis of aspartic acid competes with that of L-malic acid produced from fumaric acid by fumarase. In this study, E. coli aspartase was expressed in psychrophilic Shewanella livingstonensis Ac10 heat treated at 50 °C for 15 min. The resultant PSCat could convert fumaric acid to aspartic acid without the formation of L-malic acid because of heat inactivation of psychrophilic fumarase activity. Furthermore, alginate-immobilized PSCat produced high yields of aspartic acid and could be re-used nine times. The results of our study suggest that PSCat can be applied in biotechnological production as a new approach to increase the yield of target compounds. PMID:26254042

  3. Quantity of acid in acid fog

    SciTech Connect

    Deal, W.J.

    1983-07-01

    The chemical composition of fog particles has become of considerable interest, because of both the possibility of interpreting atmospheric- chemistry processes in fog particles in terms of the principles of aqueous chemistry and the potential health effects of species present in fog particles. The acidity of fog particles has received wide attention. This communication noted the actual magnitude of the excess acidity in acidic fog particles and suggested a possible line of inquiry into the health effects of such fog so that it can be determined whether a typical fog is detrimental or beneficial relative to dry air. (DP)

  4. The Acid Rain Reader.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stubbs, Harriett S.; And Others

    A topic which is often not sufficiently dealt with in elementary school textbooks is acid rain. This student text is designed to supplement classroom materials on the topic. Discussed are: (1) "Rain"; (2) "Water Cycle"; (3) "Fossil Fuels"; (4) "Air Pollution"; (5) "Superstacks"; (6) "Acid/Neutral/Bases"; (7) "pH Scale"; (8) "Acid Rain"; (9)…

  5. What Is Acid Rain?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Likens, Gene E.

    2004-01-01

    Acid rain is the collective term for any type of acidified precipitation: rain, snow, sleet, and hail, as well as the presence of acidifying gases, particles, cloud water, and fog in the atmosphere. The increased acidity, primarily from sulfuric and nitric acids, is generated as a by-product of the combustion of fossil fuels such as coal and oil.…

  6. Acid Rain Study Guide.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hunger, Carolyn; And Others

    Acid rain is a complex, worldwide environmental problem. This study guide is intended to aid teachers of grades 4-12 to help their students understand what acid rain is, why it is a problem, and what possible solutions exist. The document contains specific sections on: (1) the various terms used in conjunction with acid rain (such as acid…

  7. [alpha]-Oxocarboxylic Acids

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kerber, Robert C.; Fernando, Marian S.

    2010-01-01

    Several [alpha]-oxocarboxylic acids play key roles in metabolism in plants and animals. However, there are inconsistencies between the structures as commonly portrayed and the reported acid ionization constants, which result because the acids are predominantly hydrated in aqueous solution; that is, the predominant form is RC(OH)[subscript 2]COOH…

  8. Induction therapy with a combination of fumarates and cyclosporine: A benefit for the patient?

    PubMed

    Fallah Arani, S; Neumann, H A M; Thio, H B

    2016-08-01

    Fumarates or fumaric acid esters derivates (FAED) have appeared to be effective and less toxic than other systemic treatments for psoriasis. Due to its safe adverse event profile, FAED can be used as a long-term maintenance therapy. One of the greatest reasons why FAED are not preferred as a first-line treatment is that according to the recommended dosing schedule, clinically meaningful improvement is seen just after 6 to 8 weeks of therapy. In this manuscript, we suppose an alternative induction scheme with a combination therapy of fumarates and cyclosporine for a more rapid improvement and better compliance. PMID:26651839

  9. Cleavage of nucleic acids

    DOEpatents

    Prudent, James R.; Hall, Jeff G.; Lyamichev, Victor L.; Brow, Mary Ann D.; Dahlberg, James E.

    2007-12-11

    The present invention relates to means for the detection and characterization of nucleic acid sequences, as well as variations in nucleic acid sequences. The present invention also relates to methods for forming a nucleic acid cleavage structure on a target sequence and cleaving the nucleic acid cleavage structure in a site-specific manner. The structure-specific nuclease activity of a variety of enzymes is used to cleave the target-dependent cleavage structure, thereby indicating the presence of specific nucleic acid sequences or specific variations thereof.

  10. Amino acid analysis

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Winitz, M.; Graff, J. (Inventor)

    1974-01-01

    The process and apparatus for qualitative and quantitative analysis of the amino acid content of a biological sample are presented. The sample is deposited on a cation exchange resin and then is washed with suitable solvents. The amino acids and various cations and organic material with a basic function remain on the resin. The resin is eluted with an acid eluant, and the eluate containing the amino acids is transferred to a reaction vessel where the eluant is removed. Final analysis of the purified acylated amino acid esters is accomplished by gas-liquid chromatographic techniques.

  11. Editorial: Acid precipitation

    SciTech Connect

    1995-09-01

    This editorial focuses on acid rain and the history of public and governmental response to acid rain. Comments on a book by Gwineth Howell `Acid Rain and Acid Waters` are included. The editor feels that Howells has provide a service to the environmental scientific community, with a textbook useful to a range of people, as well as a call for decision makers to learn from the acid rain issue and use it as a model for more sweeping global environmental issues. A balance is needed among several parameters such as level of evidence, probability that the evidence will lead to a specific direction and the cost to the global community. 1 tab.

  12. Cleavage of nucleic acids

    SciTech Connect

    Prudent, James R.; Hall, Jeff G.; Lyamichev, Victor I.; Brow; Mary Ann D.; Dahlberg, James E.

    2010-11-09

    The present invention relates to means for the detection and characterization of nucleic acid sequences, as well as variations in nucleic acid sequences. The present invention also relates to methods for forming a nucleic acid cleavage structure on a target sequence and cleaving the nucleic acid cleavage structure in a site-specific manner. The structure-specific nuclease activity of a variety of enzymes is used to cleave the target-dependent cleavage structure, thereby indicating the presence of specific nucleic acid sequences or specific variations thereof.

  13. Cleavage of nucleic acids

    DOEpatents

    Prudent, James R.; Hall, Jeff G.; Lyamichev, Victor I.; Brow, Mary Ann D.; Dahlberg, James E.

    2000-01-01

    The present invention relates to means for the detection and characterization of nucleic acid sequences, as well as variations in nucleic acid sequences. The present invention also relates to methods for forming a nucleic acid cleavage structure on a target sequence and cleaving the nucleic acid cleavage structure in a site-specific manner. The structure-specific nuclease activity of a variety of enzymes is used to cleave the target-dependent cleavage structure, thereby indicating the presence of specific nucleic acid sequences or specific variations thereof.

  14. Nucleic acid detection assays

    DOEpatents

    Prudent, James R.; Hall, Jeff G.; Lyamichev, Victor I.; Brow, Mary Ann; Dahlberg, James E.

    2005-04-05

    The present invention relates to means for the detection and characterization of nucleic acid sequences, as well as variations in nucleic acid sequences. The present invention also relates to methods for forming a nucleic acid cleavage structure on a target sequence and cleaving the nucleic acid cleavage structure in a site-specific manner. The structure-specific nuclease activity of a variety of enzymes is used to cleave the target-dependent cleavage structure, thereby indicating the presence of specific nucleic acid sequences or specific variations thereof.

  15. Nucleic acid detection compositions

    DOEpatents

    Prudent, James R.; Hall, Jeff G.; Lyamichev, Victor I.; Brow, Mary Ann; Dahlberg, James L.

    2008-08-05

    The present invention relates to means for the detection and characterization of nucleic acid sequences, as well as variations in nucleic acid sequences. The present invention also relates to methods for forming a nucleic acid cleavage structure on a target sequence and cleaving the nucleic acid cleavage structure in a site-specific manner. The structure-specific nuclease activity of a variety of enzymes is used to cleave the target-dependent cleavage structure, thereby indicating the presence of specific nucleic acid sequences or specific variations thereof.

  16. Acidic Ionic Liquids.

    PubMed

    Amarasekara, Ananda S

    2016-05-25

    Ionic liquid with acidic properties is an important branch in the wide ionic liquid field and the aim of this article is to cover all aspects of these acidic ionic liquids, especially focusing on the developments in the last four years. The structural diversity and synthesis of acidic ionic liquids are discussed in the introduction sections of this review. In addition, an unambiguous classification system for various types of acidic ionic liquids is presented in the introduction. The physical properties including acidity, thermo-physical properties, ionic conductivity, spectroscopy, and computational studies on acidic ionic liquids are covered in the next sections. The final section provides a comprehensive review on applications of acidic ionic liquids in a wide array of fields including catalysis, CO2 fixation, ionogel, electrolyte, fuel-cell, membrane, biomass processing, biodiesel synthesis, desulfurization of gasoline/diesel, metal processing, and metal electrodeposition. PMID:27175515

  17. Nucleic acid detection kits

    DOEpatents

    Hall, Jeff G.; Lyamichev, Victor I.; Mast, Andrea L.; Brow, Mary Ann; Kwiatkowski, Robert W.; Vavra, Stephanie H.

    2005-03-29

    The present invention relates to means for the detection and characterization of nucleic acid sequences, as well as variations in nucleic acid sequences. The present invention also relates to methods for forming a nucleic acid cleavage structure on a target sequence and cleaving the nucleic acid cleavage structure in a site-specific manner. The structure-specific nuclease activity of a variety of enzymes is used to cleave the target-dependent cleavage structure, thereby indicating the presence of specific nucleic acid sequences or specific variations thereof. The present invention further relates to methods and devices for the separation of nucleic acid molecules based on charge. The present invention also provides methods for the detection of non-target cleavage products via the formation of a complete and activated protein binding region. The invention further provides sensitive and specific methods for the detection of nucleic acid from various viruses in a sample.

  18. Demospongic Acids Revisited

    PubMed Central

    Kornprobst, Jean-Michel; Barnathan, Gilles

    2010-01-01

    The well-known fatty acids with a Δ5,9 unsaturation system were designated for a long period as demospongic acids, taking into account that they originally occurred in marine Demospongia sponges. However, such acids have also been observed in various marine sources with a large range of chain-lengths (C16–C32) and from some terrestrial plants with short acyl chains (C18–C19). Finally, the Δ5,9 fatty acids appear to be a particular type of non-methylene-interrupted fatty acids (NMA FAs). This article reviews the occurrence of these particular fatty acids in marine and terrestrial organisms and shows the biosynthetic connections between Δ5,9 fatty acids and other NMI FAs. PMID:21116406

  19. Characterization, metabolites and gas formation of fumarate reducing bacteria isolated from Korean native goat (Capra hircus coreanae).

    PubMed

    Mamuad, Lovelia L; Kim, Seon Ho; Lee, Sung Sil; Cho, Kwang Keun; Jeon, Che Ok; Lee, Sang-Suk

    2012-12-01

    Fumarate reducing bacteria, able to convert fumarate to succinate, are possible to use for the methane reduction in rumen because they can compete for H(2) with methanogens. In this, we isolated fumarate reducing bacteria from a rumen of Korean native goat and characterized their molecular properties [fumarate reductase A gene (frdA)], fumarate reductase activities, and productions of volatile fatty acids and gas. Eight fumarate reducing bacteria belonging to Firmicutes were isolated from rumen fluid samples of slaughtered Korean black goats and characterized their phylogenetic positions based on 16S rRNA gene sequences. PCR based analyses showed that only one strain, closely related to Mitsuokella jalaludinii, harbored frdA. The growths of M. jalaludinii and Veillonella parvula strains were tested for different media. Interestingly, M. jalaludinii grew very well in the presence of hydrogen alone, while V. parvula grew well in response of fumarate and fumarate plus hydrogen. M. jalaludinii produced higher levels of lactate (P≤0.05) than did V. parvula. Additionally, M. jalaludinii produced acetate, but not butyrate, whereas V. parvula produced butyrate, not acetate. The fumarate reductase activities of M. jalaludinii and V. parvula were 16.8 ± 0.34 and 16.9 ± 1.21 mmol NADH oxidized/min/mg of cellular N, respectively. In conclusion, this showed that M. jalaludinii can be used as an efficient methane reducing agent in rumen. PMID:23274978

  20. Process for the preparation of lactic acid and glyceric acid

    DOEpatents

    Jackson, James E [Haslett, MI; Miller, Dennis J [Okemos, MI; Marincean, Simona [Dewitt, MI

    2008-12-02

    Hexose and pentose monosaccharides are degraded to lactic acid and glyceric acid in an aqueous solution in the presence of an excess of a strongly anionic exchange resin, such as AMBERLITE IRN78 and AMBERLITE IRA400. The glyceric acid and lactic acid can be separated from the aqueous solution. Lactic acid and glyceric acid are staple articles of commerce.

  1. Microorganisms for producing organic acids

    SciTech Connect

    Pfleger, Brian Frederick; Begemann, Matthew Brett

    2014-09-30

    Organic acid-producing microorganisms and methods of using same. The organic acid-producing microorganisms comprise modifications that reduce or ablate AcsA activity or AcsA homolog activity. The modifications increase tolerance of the microorganisms to such organic acids as 3-hydroxypropionic acid, acrylic acid, propionic acid, lactic acid, and others. Further modifications to the microorganisms increase production of such organic acids as 3-hydroxypropionic acid, lactate, and others. Methods of producing such organic acids as 3-hydroxypropionic acid, lactate, and others with the modified microorganisms are provided. Methods of using acsA or homologs thereof as counter-selectable markers are also provided.

  2. Acid-Base Homeostasis

    PubMed Central

    Nakhoul, Nazih; Hering-Smith, Kathleen S.

    2015-01-01

    Acid-base homeostasis and pH regulation are critical for both normal physiology and cell metabolism and function. The importance of this regulation is evidenced by a variety of physiologic derangements that occur when plasma pH is either high or low. The kidneys have the predominant role in regulating the systemic bicarbonate concentration and hence, the metabolic component of acid-base balance. This function of the kidneys has two components: reabsorption of virtually all of the filtered HCO3− and production of new bicarbonate to replace that consumed by normal or pathologic acids. This production or generation of new HCO3− is done by net acid excretion. Under normal conditions, approximately one-third to one-half of net acid excretion by the kidneys is in the form of titratable acid. The other one-half to two-thirds is the excretion of ammonium. The capacity to excrete ammonium under conditions of acid loads is quantitatively much greater than the capacity to increase titratable acid. Multiple, often redundant pathways and processes exist to regulate these renal functions. Derangements in acid-base homeostasis, however, are common in clinical medicine and can often be related to the systems involved in acid-base transport in the kidneys. PMID:26597304

  3. Citric Acid Alternative to Nitric Acid Passivation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lewis, Pattie L. (Compiler)

    2013-01-01

    The Ground Systems Development and Operations GSDO) Program at NASA John F. Kennedy Space Center (KSC) has the primary objective of modernizing and transforming the launch and range complex at KSC to benefit current and future NASA programs along with other emerging users. Described as the launch support and infrastructure modernization program in the NASA Authorization Act of 2010, the GSDO Program will develop and implement shared infrastructure and process improvements to provide more flexible, affordable, and responsive capabilities to a multi-user community. In support of the GSDO Program, the purpose of this project is to demonstratevalidate citric acid as a passivation agent for stainless steel. Successful completion of this project will result in citric acid being qualified for use as an environmentally preferable alternative to nitric acid for passivation of stainless steel alloys in NASA and DoD applications.

  4. USGS Tracks Acid Rain

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Gordon, John D.; Nilles, Mark A.; Schroder, LeRoy J.

    1995-01-01

    The U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) has been actively studying acid rain for the past 15 years. When scientists learned that acid rain could harm fish, fear of damage to our natural environment from acid rain concerned the American public. Research by USGS scientists and other groups began to show that the processes resulting in acid rain are very complex. Scientists were puzzled by the fact that in some cases it was difficult to demonstrate that the pollution from automobiles and factories was causing streams or lakes to become more acidic. Further experiments showed how the natural ability of many soils to neutralize acids would reduce the effects of acid rain in some locations--at least as long as the neutralizing ability lasted (Young, 1991). The USGS has played a key role in establishing and maintaining the only nationwide network of acid rain monitoring stations. This program is called the National Atmospheric Deposition Program/National Trends Network (NADP/NTN). Each week, at approximately 220 NADP/NTN sites across the country, rain and snow samples are collected for analysis. NADP/NTN site in Montana. The USGS supports about 72 of these sites. The information gained from monitoring the chemistry of our nation's rain and snow is important for testing the results of pollution control laws on acid rain.

  5. Recovery of organic acids

    DOEpatents

    Verser, Dan W.; Eggeman, Timothy J.

    2009-10-13

    A method is disclosed for the recovery of an organic acid from a dilute salt solution in which the cation of the salt forms an insoluble carbonate salt. A tertiary amine and CO.sub.2 are introduced to the solution to form the insoluble carbonate salt and a complex between the acid and an amine. A water immiscible solvent, such as an alcohol, is added to extract the acid/amine complex from the dilute salt solution to a reaction phase. The reaction phase is continuously dried and a product between the acid and the solvent, such as an ester, is formed.

  6. Recovery of organic acids

    SciTech Connect

    Verser, Dan W.; Eggeman, Timothy J.

    2011-11-01

    A method is disclosed for the recovery of an organic acid from a dilute salt solution in which the cation of the salt forms an insoluble carbonate salt. A tertiary amine and CO.sub.2 are introduced to the solution to form the insoluble carbonate salt and a complex between the acid and an amine. A water immiscible solvent, such as an alcohol, is added to extract the acid/amine complex from the dilute salt solution to a reaction phase. The reaction phase is continuously dried and a product between the acid and the solvent, such as an ester, is formed.

  7. THIN-LAYER SEPARATION OF CITRIC ACID CYCLE INTERMEDIATES, LACTIC ACID, AND THE AMINO ACID TAURINE

    EPA Science Inventory

    This paper describes a two-dimensional mixed-layer method for separating citric acid cycle intermediates, lactic acid and the amino acid taurine. The method cleanly separates all citric acid cycle intermediates tested, excepting citric acid and isocitric acid. The solvents are in...

  8. The antipsoriatic dimethyl-fumarate suppresses interferon-gamma -induced ICAM-1 and HLA-DR expression on hyperproliferative keratinocytes. Quantification by a culture plate-directed APAAP-ELISA technique.

    PubMed

    Sebok, B; Bonnekoh, B; Vetter, R; Schneider, I; Gollnick, H; Mahrle, G

    1998-01-01

    The derivatives of fumaric acid show antipsoriatic effects but details of the mechanism of action are largely unknown. The study focused on the effect of fumaric acid, dimethyl-fumarate, Zn-, Ca- and Mg-monoethyl-fumarate on the interferon-gamma (IFN-gamma)-induced expression of ICAM-1 and HLA-DR molecules on keratinocytes. Human hyperproliferative keratinocytes of the HaCaT cell line were exposed to IFN-gamma (10 U/ml) alone or in combination with fumaric acid and its derivatives for 48 hrs. The effect of fumarates was investigated semiquantitatively using the alkaline phosphatase-anti-alkaline phosphatase (APAAP) method. Subsequently, the effect of dimethyl-fumarate, the main component of "fumaric acid therapy", was evaluated quantitatively by means of an APAAP-ELISA technique. The semiquantitative evaluation revealed that in the micromolar dose range investigated only dimethyl-fumarate demonstrated substantial growth inhibition and down-regulation of the cell surface markers. In the quantitative evaluation, dimethyl-fumarate significantly (pfumarate had no influence on the ICAM-1 and HLA-DR expression on IFN-gamma-exposed normal human epidermal keratinocytes in primary cultures. Thus, there is experimental evidence that dimethyl-fumarate may exert its antipsoriatic effect not only as an antiproliferative agent but also by down-regulation of ICAM-1 and HLA-DR molecules on hyperproliferative keratinocytes. PMID:9649687

  9. Water-enhanced solubility of carboxylic acids in organic solvents and its applications to extraction processes

    SciTech Connect

    Starr, J.N.; King, C.J.

    1991-11-01

    The solubilities of carboxylic acids in certain organic solvents increase remarkably with an increasing amount of water in the organic phase. This phenomenon leads to a novel extract regeneration process in which the co-extracted water is selectively removed from an extract, and the carboxylic acid precipitates. This approach is potentially advantageous compared to other regeneration processes because it removes a minor component of the extract in order to achieve a large recovery of acid from the extract. Carboxylic acids of interest include adipic acid, fumaric acid, and succinic acid because of their low to moderate solubilities in organic solvents. Solvents were screened for an increase in acid solubility with increased water concentration in the organic phase. Most Lewis-base solvents were found to exhibit this increased solubility phenomena. Solvents that have a carbonyl functional group showed a very large increase in acid solubility. 71 refs., 52 figs., 38 tabs.

  10. Toxicology of Perfluoroalkyl acids

    EPA Science Inventory

    The Perfluoroalkyl acids(PFAAs) area a family of organic chemicals consisting of a perflurinated carbon backbone (4-12in length) and a acidic functional moiety (Carboxylate or sulfonate). These compounds have excellent surface-tension reducing properties and have numerous industr...

  11. Toxicology of Perfluoroalkyl Acids*

    EPA Science Inventory

    The perfluoroalkyl acids (PFAAs) are a family of organic chemicals consisting of a perfluorinated carbon backbone (4-12 in length) and an acidic functional moiety (carboxylate or sulfonate). These compounds are chemically stable, have excellent surface-tension reducing properties...

  12. Lead-acid cell

    SciTech Connect

    Hradcovsky, R.J.; Kozak, O.R.

    1980-12-09

    A lead-acid storage battery is described that has a lead negative electrode, a lead dioxide positive electrode and a sulfuric acid electrolyte having an organic catalyst dissolved therein which prevents dissolution of the electrodes into lead sulfate whereby in the course of discharge, the lead dioxide is reduced to lead oxide and the lead is oxidized.

  13. Proteins and Amino Acids

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Proteins are the most abundant substances in living organisms and cells. All proteins are constructed from the same twenty amino acids that are linked together by covalent bonds. Shorter chains of two or more amino acids can be linked by covalent bonds to form polypeptides. There are twenty amino...

  14. EFFECTS OF ACID PRECIPITATION

    EPA Science Inventory

    Recent reviews of available data indicate that precipitation in a large region of North America is highly acidic when its pH is compared with the expected pH value of 5.65 for pure rain water in equilibrium with CO2. A growing body of evidence suggests that acid rain is responsib...

  15. Bile acid transporters

    PubMed Central

    Dawson, Paul A.; Lan, Tian; Rao, Anuradha

    2009-01-01

    In liver and intestine, transporters play a critical role in maintaining the enterohepatic circulation and bile acid homeostasis. Over the past two decades, there has been significant progress toward identifying the individual membrane transporters and unraveling their complex regulation. In the liver, bile acids are efficiently transported across the sinusoidal membrane by the Na+ taurocholate cotransporting polypeptide with assistance by members of the organic anion transporting polypeptide family. The bile acids are then secreted in an ATP-dependent fashion across the canalicular membrane by the bile salt export pump. Following their movement with bile into the lumen of the small intestine, bile acids are almost quantitatively reclaimed in the ileum by the apical sodium-dependent bile acid transporter. The bile acids are shuttled across the enterocyte to the basolateral membrane and effluxed into the portal circulation by the recently indentified heteromeric organic solute transporter, OSTα-OSTβ. In addition to the hepatocyte and enterocyte, subgroups of these bile acid transporters are expressed by the biliary, renal, and colonic epithelium where they contribute to maintaining bile acid homeostasis and play important cytoprotective roles. This article will review our current understanding of the physiological role and regulation of these important carriers. PMID:19498215

  16. Fats and fatty acids

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The absolute fat requirement of the human species is the amount of essential fatty acids needed to maintain optimal fatty acid composition of all tissues and normal eicosanoid synthesis. At most, this requirement is no more than about 5% of an adequate energy intake. However, fat accounts for appro...

  17. Analysis of Organic Acids.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Griswold, John R.; Rauner, Richard A.

    1990-01-01

    Presented are the procedures and a discussion of the results for an experiment in which students select unknown carboxylic acids, determine their melting points, and investigate their solubility behavior in water and ethanol. A table of selected carboxylic acids is included. (CW)

  18. EXPOSURES TO ACIDIC AEROSOLS

    EPA Science Inventory

    Ambient monitoring of acid aerosol in four U.S. cities and in a rural region of southern Ontario clearly show distinct periods of strong acidity. easurements made in Kingston, TN, and Stuebenville, OH, resulted in 24-hr H+ ion concentrations exceeding 100 nmole/m3 more than 10 ti...

  19. Mutant fatty acid desaturase

    DOEpatents

    Shanklin, John; Cahoon, Edgar B.

    2004-02-03

    The present invention relates to a method for producing mutants of a fatty acid desaturase having a substantially increased activity towards fatty acid substrates with chains containing fewer than 18 carbons relative to an unmutagenized precursor desaturase having an 18 carbon atom chain length substrate specificity. The method involves inducing one or more mutations in the nucleic acid sequence encoding the precursor desaturase, transforming the mutated sequence into an unsaturated fatty acid auxotroph cell such as MH13 E. coli, culturing the cells in the absence of supplemental unsaturated fatty acids, thereby selecting for recipient cells which have received and which express a mutant fatty acid desaturase with an elevated specificity for fatty acid substrates having chain lengths of less than 18 carbon atoms. A variety of mutants having 16 or fewer carbon atom chain length substrate specificities are produced by this method. Mutant desaturases produced by this method can be introduced via expression vectors into prokaryotic and eukaryotic cells and can also be used in the production of transgenic plants which may be used to produce specific fatty acid products.

  20. Omega-3 Fatty Acids

    MedlinePlus

    Omega-3 fatty acids are used together with lifestyle changes (diet, weight-loss, exercise) to reduce the amount of triglycerides (a fat-like ... people with very high triglycerides. Omega-3 fatty acids are in a class of medications called antilipemic ...

  1. Salicylic Acid Topical

    MedlinePlus

    Propa pH® Peel-Off Acne Mask ... pimples and skin blemishes in people who have acne. Topical salicylic acid is also used to treat ... medications called keratolytic agents. Topical salicylic acid treats acne by reducing swelling and redness and unplugging blocked ...

  2. Amino Acid Crossword Puzzle

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sims, Paul A.

    2011-01-01

    Learning the 20 standard amino acids is an essential component of an introductory course in biochemistry. Later in the course, the students study metabolism and learn about various catabolic and anabolic pathways involving amino acids. Learning new material or concepts often is easier if one can connect the new material to what one already knows;…

  3. The Oncometabolite Fumarate Promotes Pseudohypoxia Through Noncanonical Activation of NF-κB Signaling*

    PubMed Central

    Shanmugasundaram, Karthigayan; Nayak, Bijaya; Shim, Eun-Hee; Livi, Carolina B.; Block, Karen; Sudarshan, Sunil

    2014-01-01

    Inactivating mutations of the gene encoding the tricarboxylic acid cycle enzyme fumarate hydratase (FH) have been linked to an aggressive variant of hereditary kidney cancer (hereditary leiomyomatosis and renal cell cancer). These tumors accumulate markedly elevated levels of fumarate. Fumarate is among a growing list of oncometabolites identified in cancers with mutations of genes involved in intermediary metabolism. FH-deficient tumors are notable for their pronounced accumulation of the transcription factor hypoxia inducible factor-1α (HIF-1α) and aggressive behavior. To date, HIF-1α accumulation in hereditary leiomyomatosis and renal cell cancer tumors is thought to result from fumarate-dependent inhibition of prolyl hydroxylases and subsequent evasion from von Hippel-Lindau-dependent degradation. Here, we demonstrate a novel mechanism by which fumarate promotes HIF-1α mRNA and protein accumulation independent of the von Hippel-Lindau pathway. Here we demonstrate that fumarate promotes p65 phosphorylation and p65 accumulation at the HIF-1α promoter through non-canonical signaling via the upstream Tank binding kinase 1 (TBK1). Consistent with these data, inhibition of the TBK1/p65 axis blocks HIF-1α accumulation in cellular models of FH loss and markedly reduces cell invasion of FH-deficient RCC cancer cells. Collectively, our data demonstrate a novel mechanism by which pseudohypoxia is promoted in FH-deficient tumors and identifies TBK1 as a novel putative therapeutic target for the treatment of aggressive fumarate-driven tumors. PMID:25028521

  4. Progressive neurologic dysfunction in a psoriasis patient treated with dimethyl fumarate.

    PubMed

    Bartsch, Thorsten; Rempe, Torge; Wrede, Arne; Leypoldt, Frank; Brück, Wolfgang; Adams, Ortwin; Rohr, Axel; Jansen, Olav; Wüthrich, Christian; Deuschl, Günther; Koralnik, Igor J

    2015-10-01

    Progressive multifocal leukoencephalopathy (PML) has recently been described in psoriasis or multiple sclerosis patients treated with fumaric acid esters (fumarates), who had developed severe and long-standing lymphocytopenia (<500/mm(3) ). We report a psoriasis patient who presented with progressive neurologic dysfunction and seizures after 2.5 years of fumarate therapy. Despite absolute lymphocyte counts remaining between 500-1000/mm(3) , his CD4(+) and CD8(+) T-cell counts were markedly low. MRI showed right hemispheric and brainstem lesions and JC virus DNA was undetectable in his cerebrospinal fluid. Brain biopsy revealed typical features of PML as well as JC virus-infected neurons. Clinicians should consider PML in the differential diagnosis of fumarate-treated patients presenting with brain lesions or seizures even in the absence of severe lymphocytopenia. PMID:26150206

  5. Organic acids composition of Cydonia oblonga Miller leaf.

    PubMed

    Oliveira, Andreia P; Pereira, José A; Andrade, Paula B; Valentão, Patrícia; Seabra, Rosa M; Silva, Branca M

    2008-11-15

    Organic acid profiles of 36 Cydonia oblonga Miller leaf samples, from three different geographical origins of northern (Bragança and Carrazeda de Ansiães) and central Portugal (Covilhã), harvested in three collection months (June, August and October of 2006), were determined by HPLC/UV (214nm). Quince leaves presented a common organic acid profile, composed of six constituents: oxalic, citric, malic, quinic, shikimic and fumaric acids. C. oblonga leaves total organic acid content varied from 1.6 to 25.8g/kg dry matter (mean value of 10.5g/kg dry matter). Quinic acid was the major compound (72.2%), followed by citric acid (13.6%). Significant differences were found in malic and quinic acids relative abundances and total organic acid contents according to collection time, which indicates a possible use of these compounds as maturity markers. Between June and August seems to be the best period to harvest quince leaves for preparation of decoctions or infusions, since organic acids total content is higher in this season. PMID:26047441

  6. The Path of Carbon in Photosynthesis VIII. The Role of Malic Acid

    DOE R&D Accomplishments Database

    Bassham, James A.; Benson, Andrew A.; Calvin, Melvin

    1950-01-25

    Malonate has been found to inhibit the formation of malic acid during short periods of photosynthesis with radioactive carbon dioxide. This result, together with studies which show the photosynthetic cycle to be operating normally at the same time, indicates that malic acid is not an intermediate in photosynthesis but is probably closely related to some intermediate of the cycle. Absence of labeled succinic and fumaric acids in these experiments, in addition to the failure of malonate to inhibit photosynthesis, precludes the participation of these acids as intermediates in photosynthesis.

  7. Trans Fatty Acids

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Doyle, Ellin

    1997-09-01

    Fats and their various fatty acid components seem to be a perennial concern of nutritionists and persons concerned with healthful diets. Advice on the consumption of saturated, polyunsaturated, monounsaturated, and total fat bombards us from magazines and newspapers. One of the newer players in this field is the group of trans fatty acids found predominantly in partially hydrogenated fats such as margarines and cooking fats. The controversy concerning dietary trans fatty acids was recently addressed in an American Heart Association (AHA) science advisory (1) and in a position paper from the American Society of Clinical Nutrition/American Institute of Nutrition (ASCN/AIN) (2). Both reports emphasize that the best preventive strategy for reducing risk for cardiovascular disease and some types of cancer is a reduction in total and saturated fats in the diet, but a reduction in the intake of trans fatty acids was also recommended. Although the actual health effects of trans fatty acids remain uncertain, experimental evidence indicates that consumption of trans fatty acids adversely affects serum lipid levels. Since elevated levels of serum cholesterol and triacylglycerols are associated with increased risk of cardiovascular disease, it follows that intake of trans fatty acids should be minimized.

  8. Sulfuric Acid on Europa

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1999-01-01

    Frozen sulfuric acid on Jupiter's moon Europa is depicted in this image produced from data gathered by NASA's Galileo spacecraft. The brightest areas, where the yellow is most intense, represent regions of high frozen sulfuric acid concentration. Sulfuric acid is found in battery acid and in Earth's acid rain.

    This image is based on data gathered by Galileo's near infrared mapping spectrometer.

    Europa's leading hemisphere is toward the bottom right, and there are enhanced concentrations of sulfuric acid in the trailing side of Europa (the upper left side of the image). This is the face of Europa that is struck by sulfur ions coming from Jupiter's innermost moon, Io. The long, narrow features that crisscross Europa also show sulfuric acid that may be from sulfurous material extruded in cracks.

    Galileo, launched in 1989, has been orbiting Jupiter and its moons since December 1995. JPL manages the Galileo mission for NASA's Office of Space Science, Washington DC. JPL is a division of the California Institute of Technology, Pasadena, CA.

  9. Strongly Acidic Auxin Indole-3-Methanesulfonic Acid

    PubMed Central

    Cohen, Jerry D.; Baldi, Bruce G.; Bialek, Krystyna

    1985-01-01

    A radiochemical synthesis is described for [14C]indole-3-methanesulfonic acid (IMS), a strongly acidic auxin analog. Techniques were developed for fractionation and purification of IMS using normal and reverse phase chromatography. In addition, the utility of both Fourier transform infrared spectrometry and fast atom bombardment mass spectrometry for analysis of IMS has been demonstrated. IMS was shown to be an active auxin, stimulating soybean hypocotyl elongation, bean first internode curvature, and ethylene production. IMS uptake by thin sections of soybean hypocotyl was essentially independent of solution pH and, when applied at a 100 micromolar concentration, IMS exhibited a basipetal polarity in its transport in both corn coleoptile and soybean hypocotyl sections. [14C]IMS should, therefore, be a useful compound to study fundamental processes related to the movement of auxins in plant tissues and organelles. PMID:16664007

  10. Understanding acid rain

    SciTech Connect

    Budiansky, S.

    1981-06-01

    The complexities of the phenomenon of acid rain are described. Many factors, including meteorology, geology, chemistry, and biology, all play parts. Varying weather, varying soils, the presence of other pollutants and species differences all act to blur the connections between industrial emissions, acid rain, and environmental damage. Some experts believe that the greatest pH shock to lakes occurs during snow melt and runoff in the spring; others believe that much of the plant damage ascribed to acid rain is actually due to the effects of ozone. Much work needs to be done in the area of sampling. Historical data are lacking and sampling methods are not sufficiently accurate. (JMT)

  11. LC-MS analysis of low molecular weight organic acids derived from root exudation.

    PubMed

    Jaitz, Leonhard; Mueller, Bernhard; Koellensperger, Gunda; Huber, Daniela; Oburger, Eva; Puschenreiter, Markus; Hann, Stephan

    2011-06-01

    A sensitive method for quantification of citric, fumaric, malic, malonic, oxalic, trans aconitic, and succinic acid in soil- and root-related samples is presented. The method is based on a novel, fast, and simple esterification procedure and subsequent analysis via liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry. Derivatization comprises in situ generation of HCl, which catalyzes the Fischer esterification with benzyl alcohol. As a key advance, the esterification with the aromate allows reversed-phase separation and improves electrospray ionization efficiency. The method provided procedural detection limits of 1 nM for citric, 47 nM for fumaric, 10 nM for malic, 10 nM for malonic, 16 nM for oxalic, 15 nM for succinic, and 2 nM for aconitic acid utilizing 500 μL of liquid sample. The working range was 3 nM to 10 μM for citric acid, 158 nM to 10 μM for fumaric acid, 34 nM to 10 μM for malic acid, 33 nM to 10 μM for malonic acid, 53 nM to 10 μM for oxalic acid, 48 nM to 10 μM for succinic acid, and 6 nM to 10 μM for aconitic acid. Quantification of the analytes in soil-related samples was performed via external calibration of the entire procedure utilizing (13)C-labeled oxalic and citric acid as internal standards. The robustness of the method was tested with soil extracts and samples from hydroponic experiments. The latter concerned the regulation of phosphorus solubilization via plant root exudation of citric, malic, and oxalic acid. PMID:20711769

  12. WASTE ACID DETOXIFICATION AND RECLAMATION

    EPA Science Inventory

    This Environmental Security Technology Certification Program (ESTCP) project demonstrated the Waste Acid Detoxification and Reclamation (WADR) systems ability to recover waste electropolish acid solutions generated during the manufacturing of gun-tubes, and reuse the clean acid. ...

  13. Disorders of Amino Acid Metabolism

    MedlinePlus

    ... Aspiration Syndrome Additional Content Medical News Disorders of Amino Acid Metabolism By Lee M. Sanders, MD, MPH NOTE: ... Metabolic Disorders Disorders of Carbohydrate Metabolism Disorders of Amino Acid Metabolism Disorders of Lipid Metabolism Amino acids are ...

  14. Acid soldering flux poisoning

    MedlinePlus

    The harmful substances in soldering fluxes are called hydrocarbons. They include: Ammonium chloride Rosin Hydrochloric acid Zinc ... Lee DC. Hydrocarbons. In: Marx JA, Hockberger RS, Walls RM, et ... Rosen's Emergency Medicine: Concepts and Clinical Practice . 8th ...

  15. Aminolevulinic Acid Topical

    MedlinePlus

    ... in combination with photodynamic therapy (PDT; special blue light) to treat actinic keratoses (small crusty or scaly ... photosensitizing agents. When aminolevulinic acid is activated by light, it damages the cells of actinic keratosis lesions.

  16. Difficult Decisions: Acid Rain.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Miller, John A.; Slesnick, Irwin L.

    1989-01-01

    Discusses some of the contributing factors and chemical reactions involved in the production of acid rain, its effects, and political issues pertaining to who should pay for the clean up. Supplies questions for consideration and discussion. (RT)

  17. Uric acid - urine

    MedlinePlus

    ... to filter fluids and waste normally (chronic glomerulonephritis ) Lead poisoning Long-term (chronic) alcohol use Risks There are ... Elsevier Saunders; 2011:chap 28. Read More Gout Lead poisoning Liver disease Polycythemia vera Uric acid - blood Update ...

  18. Amoxicillin and Clavulanic Acid

    MedlinePlus

    ... is used to treat certain infections caused by bacteria, including infections of the ears, lungs, sinus, skin, ... antibiotics. It works by stopping the growth of bacteria. Clavulanic acid is in a class of medications ...

  19. Hydrofluoric acid poisoning

    MedlinePlus

    Chemical Emergencies: Case Definition: Hydrofluoric Acid . Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, U.S. Dept of Health and Human Services; 2005. Goldfrank LR, ed. Goldfrank's Toxicologic Emergencies . 8th ed. New ...

  20. Lead/acid batteries

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bullock, Kathryn R.

    Lead/acid batteries are produced in sizes from less than 1 to 3000 Ah for a wide variety of portable, industrial and automotive applications. Designs include Planté, Fauré or pasted, and tubular electrodes. In addition to the traditional designs which are flooded with sulfuric acid, newer 'valve-regulated" designs have the acid immolibized in a silica gel or absorbed in a porous glass separator. Development is ongoing worldwide to increase the specific power, energy and deep discharge cycle life of this commercially successful system to meet the needs of new applications such as electric vehicles, load leveling, and solar energy storage. The operating principles, current status, technical challenges and commercial impact of the lead/acid battery are reviewed.

  1. Citric acid urine test

    MedlinePlus

    ... used to diagnose renal tubular acidosis and evaluate kidney stone disease. ... tubular acidosis and a tendency to form calcium kidney stones. The following may decrease urine citric acid levels: ...

  2. Pantothenic acid and biotin

    MedlinePlus

    ... JavaScript. Pantothenic acid and biotin are types of B vitamins. They are water-soluble, which means that the ... found in foods that are good sources of B vitamins, including the following: Animal proteins Avocado Broccoli, kale, ...

  3. (Acid rain workshop)

    SciTech Connect

    Turner, R.S.

    1990-12-05

    The traveler presented a paper entitled Susceptibility of Asian Ecosystems to Soil-Mediated Acid Rain Damage'' at the Second Workshop on Acid Rain in Asia. The workshop was organized by the Asian Institute of Technology (Bangkok, Thailand), Argonne National Laboratory (Argonne, Illinois), and Resource Management Associates (Madison, Wisconsin) and was sponsored by the US Department of Energy, the United Nations Environment Program, the United Nations Economic and Social Commission for Asia and the Pacific, and the World Bank. Papers presented on the first day discussed how the experience gained with acid rain in North America and Europe might be applied to the Asian situation. Papers describing energy use projections, sulfur emissions, and effects of acid rain in several Asian countries were presented on the second day. The remaining time was allotted to discussion, planning, and writing plans for a future research program.

  4. Stomach acid test

    MedlinePlus

    Gastric acid secretion test ... The test is done after you have not eaten for a while so fluid is all that remains in ... injected into your body. This is done to test the ability of the cells in the stomach ...

  5. Deoxycholic Acid Injection

    MedlinePlus

    ... severe submental fat ('double chin'; fatty tissue located under the chin). Deoxycholic acid injection is in a ... as a liquid to be injected subcutaneously (just under the skin) by a doctor. Your doctor will ...

  6. Amino Acids and Chirality

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cook, Jamie E.

    2012-01-01

    Amino acids are among the most heavily studied organic compound class in carbonaceous chondrites. The abundance, distributions, enantiomeric compositions, and stable isotopic ratios of amino acids have been determined in carbonaceous chondrites fi'om a range of classes and petrographic types, with interesting correlations observed between these properties and the class and typc of the chondritcs. In particular, isomeric distributions appear to correlate with parent bodies (chondrite class). In addition, certain chiral amino acids are found in enantiomeric excess in some chondrites. The delivery of these enantiomeric excesses to the early Earth may have contributed to the origin of the homochirality that is central to life on Earth today. This talk will explore the amino acids in carbonaceous chondritcs and their relevance to the origin of life.

  7. Valproic Acid and Pregnancy

    MedlinePlus

    ... in the treatment of epilepsy, and to treat bipolar disorder and migraines. I have been taking valproic acid ... that women with seizure disorders and women with bipolar disorder might have menstrual problems and difficulty getting pregnant. ...

  8. Amino Acid Metabolism Disorders

    MedlinePlus

    Metabolism is the process your body uses to make energy from the food you eat. Food is ... One group of these disorders is amino acid metabolism disorders. They include phenylketonuria (PKU) and maple syrup ...

  9. Uric acid - blood

    MedlinePlus

    ... High levels of uric acid can sometimes cause gout or kidney disease. You may have this test ... Alcoholism Chemotherapy-related side effects Diabetes Excessive exercise Gout Hypoparathyroidism Lead poisoning Leukemia Medullary cystic kidney disease ...

  10. Citric acid urine test

    MedlinePlus

    ... The test is used to diagnose renal tubular acidosis and evaluate kidney stone disease. Normal Results The ... level of citric acid may mean renal tubular acidosis and a tendency to form calcium kidney stones. ...

  11. Folic Acid Quiz

    MedlinePlus

    ... more easily than natural food folate. Close × Answer: D CORRECT: Folic acid reduces the risk for spina ... g., orange juice and green vegetables). Close × Answer: D CORRECT: Spina bifida and anencephaly are neural tube ...

  12. Folic acid in diet

    MedlinePlus

    ... green leafy vegetables Dried beans and peas (legumes) Citrus fruits and juices Fortified means that vitamins have ... A.D.A.M. Editorial team. Related MedlinePlus Health Topics Folic Acid Browse the Encyclopedia A.D. ...

  13. Amoxicillin and Clavulanic Acid

    MedlinePlus

    ... Amoxicillin is in a class of medications called penicillin-like antibiotics. It works by stopping the growth ... allergic to amoxicillin (Amoxil, Trimox, Wymox), clavulanic acid, penicillin, cephalosporins, or any other medications.tell your doctor ...

  14. Boric Acid Poisoning

    PubMed Central

    Wong, L. C.; Heimbach, M. D.; Truscott, D. R.; Duncan, B. D.

    1964-01-01

    Boric acid poisoning in 11 infants, occurring in the newborn nursery as a result of the accidental and inadvertent use of 2.5% boric acid in the preparation of the formulae, is reported. Five of the infants died. All except two exhibited the classical symptomatology of acute boric acid poisoning, namely, diarrhea, vomiting, erythema, exfoliation, desquamation of the skin, and marked central nervous system irritation. Early manifestations of poisoning were nonspecific, and one patient died before skin manifestations were noted. Peritoneal dialysis, instituted in nine cases, was found to be the most effective method of treatment. It is recommended that boric acid, which is of doubtful therapeutic value, should be completely removed from hospitals, dispensaries and pharmacopoeias. ImagesFig. 1Fig. 2 PMID:14166459

  15. Polymers for acid thickening

    SciTech Connect

    Dixon, K.W.

    1980-09-30

    Acids, thickened with branched emulsion or suspension polymers of diallyldimethylammonium chloride are useful as oil well drilling and fracturing fluids for stimulating well production and in other applications, such as thickeners for cosmetics, paints, adhesives, textiles and printing inks.

  16. Acid-base chemistry

    SciTech Connect

    Hand, C.W.; Blewit, H.L.

    1985-01-01

    The book is not a research compendium and there are no references to the literature. It is a teaching text covering the entire range of undergraduate subject matter dealing with acid-base chemistry (some of it remotely) as taught in inorganic, analytical, and organic chemistry courses. The excellent chapters VII through IX deal in detail with the quantitative aspects of aqueous acid-base equilibria (salt hydrolysis and buffer, titrations, polyprotic and amphoteric substances).

  17. Utilization of acid tars

    SciTech Connect

    Frolov, A.F.; Denisova, T.L.; Aminov, A.N.

    1987-01-01

    Freshly produced acid tar (FPAT), obtained as refinery waste in treating petroleum oils with sulfuric acid and oleum, contains 80% or more sulfuric acid. Of such tars, pond acid tars, which contain up to 80% neutral petroleum products and sulfonated resins, are more stable, and have found applications in the production of binders for paving materials. In this article the authors are presenting results obtained in a study of the composition and reactivity of FPAT and its stability in storage in blends with asphalts obtained in deasphalting operations, and the possibility of using the FPAT in road construction has been examined. In this work, wastes were used which were obtained in treating the oils T-750, KhF-12, I-8A, and MS-14. Data on the change in group chemical composition of FPAT are shown, and the acidity, viscosity, needle penetration, and softening point of acid tars obtained from different grades of oils are plotted as functions of the storage time. It is also shown that the fresh and hardened FPATs differ in their solubilities in various solvents.

  18. Mammalian Fatty Acid Elongases

    PubMed Central

    Jump, Donald B.

    2009-01-01

    Summary Very long chain fatty acids confer functional diversity on cells by variations in their chain length and degree of unsaturation. Microsomal fatty acid elongation represents the major pathway for determining the chain length of saturated, monounsaturated, and polyunsaturated fatty acids in cellular lipids. The overall reaction for fatty acid elongation involves four enzymes and utilizes malonyl CoA, NADPH, and fatty acyl CoA as substrates. While the fundamental pathway and its requirements have been known for many years, recent advances have revealed a family of enzymes involved in the first step of the reaction, i.e., the condensation reaction. Seven fatty acid elongase subtypes (Elovl #1–7) have been identified in the mouse, rat, and human genomes. These enzymes determine the rate of overall fatty acid elongation. Moreover, these enzymes also display differential substrate specificity, tissue distribution, and regulation, making them important regulators of cellular lipid composition as well as specific cellular functions. Herein, methods are described to measure elongase activity, analyze elongation products, and alter cellular elongase expression. PMID:19763486

  19. Neutron Nucleic Acid Crystallography.

    PubMed

    Chatake, Toshiyuki

    2016-01-01

    The hydration shells surrounding nucleic acids and hydrogen-bonding networks involving water molecules and nucleic acids are essential interactions for the structural stability and function of nucleic acids. Water molecules in the hydration shells influence various conformations of DNA and RNA by specific hydrogen-bonding networks, which often contribute to the chemical reactivity and molecular recognition of nucleic acids. However, X-ray crystallography could not provide a complete description of structural information with respect to hydrogen bonds. Indeed, X-ray crystallography is a powerful tool for determining the locations of water molecules, i.e., the location of the oxygen atom of H2O; however, it is very difficult to determine the orientation of the water molecules, i.e., the orientation of the two hydrogen atoms of H2O, because X-ray scattering from the hydrogen atom is very small.Neutron crystallography is a specialized tool for determining the positions of hydrogen atoms. Neutrons are not diffracted by electrons, but are diffracted by atomic nuclei; accordingly, neutron scattering lengths of hydrogen and its isotopes are comparable to those of non-hydrogen atoms. Therefore, neutron crystallography can determine both of the locations and orientations of water molecules. This chapter describes the current status of neutron nucleic acid crystallographic research as well as the basic principles of neutron diffraction experiments performed on nucleic acid crystals: materials, crystallization, diffraction experiments, and structure determination. PMID:26227050

  20. Autophagy on acid.

    PubMed

    Wojtkowiak, Jonathan W; Gillies, Robert J

    2012-11-01

    The microenvironment of solid tumors tends to be more acidic (6.5-7.0) than surrounding normal (7.2-7.4) tissue. Chaotic vasculature, oxygen limitation and major metabolic changes all contribute to the acidic microenvironment. We have previously proposed that low extracellular pH (pHe) plays a critical role in the development and progression of solid tumors. While extracellular acidosis is toxic to most normal cells, cancer cells can adapt and survive under this harsh condition. In this study, we focused on identifying survival strategies employed by cancer cells when challenged with an acidic pHe (6.6-6.7) either acutely or for many generations. While acutely acidic cells did not grow, those acclimated over many generations grew at the same rate as control cells. We observed that these cells induce autophagy in response to acidosis both acutely and chronically, and that this adaptation appears to be necessary for survival. Inhibition of autophagy in low pH cultured cells results in cell death. Histological analysis of tumor xenografts reveals a strong correlation of LC3 protein expression in regions projected to be acidic. Furthermore, in vivo buffering experiments using sodium bicarbonate, previously shown to raise extracellular tumor pH, decreases LC3 protein expression in tumor xenografts. These data imply that autophagy can be induced by extracellular acidosis and appears to be chronically employed as a survival adaptation to acidic microenvironments. PMID:22874557

  1. Method for isolating nucleic acids

    DOEpatents

    Hurt, Jr., Richard Ashley; Elias, Dwayne A.

    2015-09-29

    The current disclosure provides methods and kits for isolating nucleic acid from an environmental sample. The current methods and compositions further provide methods for isolating nucleic acids by reducing adsorption of nucleic acids by charged ions and particles within an environmental sample. The methods of the current disclosure provide methods for isolating nucleic acids by releasing adsorbed nucleic acids from charged particles during the nucleic acid isolation process. The current disclosure facilitates the isolation of nucleic acids of sufficient quality and quantity to enable one of ordinary skill in the art to utilize or analyze the isolated nucleic acids for a wide variety of applications including, sequencing or species population analysis.

  2. Acidification and Acid Rain

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Norton, S. A.; Veselã½, J.

    2003-12-01

    Air pollution by acids has been known as a problem for centuries (Ducros, 1845; Smith, 1872; Camuffo, 1992; Brimblecombe, 1992). Only in the mid-1900s did it become clear that it was a problem for more than just industrially developed areas, and that precipitation quality can affect aquatic resources ( Gorham, 1955). The last three decades of the twentieth century saw tremendous progress in the documentation of the chemistry of the atmosphere, precipitation, and the systems impacted by acid atmospheric deposition. Chronic acidification of ecosystems results in chemical changes to soil and to surface waters and groundwater as a result of reduction of base cation supply or an increase in acid (H+) supply, or both. The most fundamental changes during chronic acidification are an increase in exchangeable H+ or Al3+ (aluminum) in soils, an increase in H+ activity (˜concentration) in water in contact with soil, and a decrease in alkalinity in waters draining watersheds. Water draining from the soil is acidified and has a lower pH (=-log [H+]). As systems acidify, their biotic community changes.Acidic surface waters occur in many parts of the world as a consequence of natural processes and also due to atmospheric deposition of strong acid (e.g., Canada, Jeffries et al. (1986); the United Kingdom, Evans and Monteith (2001); Sweden, Swedish Environmental Protection Board (1986); Finland, Forsius et al. (1990); Norway, Henriksen et al. (1988a); and the United States (USA), Brakke et al. (1988)). Concern over acidification in the temperate regions of the northern hemisphere has been driven by the potential for accelerating natural acidification by pollution of the atmosphere with acidic or acidifying compounds. Atmospheric pollution ( Figure 1) has resulted in an increased flux of acid to and through ecosystems. Depending on the ability of an ecosystem to neutralize the increased flux of acidity, acidification may increase only imperceptibly or be accelerated at a rate that

  3. Using organic acids to control subacute ruminal acidosis and fermentation in feedlot cattle fed a high-grain diet.

    PubMed

    Vyas, D; Beauchemin, K A; Koenig, K M

    2015-08-01

    The objective of this study was to determine whether supplementing organic acids can prevent incidences of subacute ruminal acidosis (SARA) in beef heifers fed a diet consisting of 8% barley silage and 92% barley grain-based concentrate (DM basis). Ten ruminally cannulated Hereford crossbred heifers (484 ± 25 kg BW) were used in a replicated 5 × 5 Latin square design with 14-d periods including 10 d for dietary adaptation and 4 d for measurements. Dietary treatments included no supplementation (Control), low fumaric acid (61 g/d), high fumaric acid (125 g/d), low malic acid (59 g/d), and high malic acid (134 g/d). Organic acid supplementation had no effect on DMI ( = 0.77). Similarly, no effects were observed on mean ( = 0.74), minimum ( = 0.64), and maximum ( = 0.27) ruminal pH measured continuously for 48 h. Moreover, area under the curve for pH thresholds 6.2 ( = 0.97), 5.8 ( = 0.66), 5.5 ( = 0.55), and 5.2 ( = 0.93) was similar for all treatments. However, malic acid supplementation lowered the amount of time that ruminal pH was <6.2 compared with the Control ( = 0.02) and fumaric acid treatments ( < 0.01). No effects were observed on total VFA concentrations with organic acid supplementation ( = 0.98) compared with the Control, but greater total VFA concentrations were observed with fumaric acid compared with the malic acid treatments ( = 0.02). The population of total culturable bacteria 3 h after feeding was reduced with supplemental malic acid compared with the Control ( = 0.03) and fumaric acid treatments ( = 0.03). However, no effects were observed with organic acid supplementation on lactic acid-utilizing bacteria ( = 0.59). In conclusion, under the conditions of the present study, organic acid supplementation did not have any significant effects on ruminal fermentation parameters compared with the Control and were not effective in preventing SARA in beef cattle fed high-grain diets. PMID:26440175

  4. Effects of intermediate metabolite carboxylic acids of TCA cycle on Microcystis with overproduction of phycocyanin.

    PubMed

    Bai, Shijie; Dai, Jingcheng; Xia, Ming; Ruan, Jing; Wei, Hehong; Yu, Dianzhen; Li, Ronghui; Jing, Hongmei; Tian, Chunyuan; Song, Lirong; Qiu, Dongru

    2015-04-01

    Toxic Microcystis species are the main bloom-forming cyanobacteria in freshwaters. It is imperative to develop efficient techniques to control these notorious harmful algal blooms (HABs). Here, we present a simple, efficient, and environmentally safe algicidal way to control Microcystis blooms, by using intermediate carboxylic acids from the tricarboxylic acid (TCA) cycle. The citric acid, alpha-ketoglutaric acid, succinic acid, fumaric acid, and malic acid all exhibited strong algicidal effects, and particularly succinic acid could cause the rapid lysis of Microcystis in a few hours. It is revealed that the Microcystis-lysing activity of succinic acid and other carboxylic acids was due to their strong acidic activity. Interestingly, the acid-lysed Microcystis cells released large amounts of phycocyanin, about 27-fold higher than those of the control. On the other hand, the transcription of mcyA and mcyD of the microcystin biosynthesis operon was not upregulated by addition of alpha-ketoglutaric acid and other carboxylic acids. Consider the environmental safety of intermediate carboxylic acids. We propose that administration of TCA cycle organic acids may not only provide an algicidal method with high efficiency and environmental safety but also serve as an applicable way to produce and extract phycocyanin from cyanobacterial biomass. PMID:25342454

  5. Discovery of essential fatty acids

    PubMed Central

    Spector, Arthur A.; Kim, Hee-Yong

    2015-01-01

    Dietary fat was recognized as a good source of energy and fat-soluble vitamins by the first part of the 20th century, but fatty acids were not considered to be essential nutrients because they could be synthesized from dietary carbohydrate. This well-established view was challenged in 1929 by George and Mildred Burr who reported that dietary fatty acid was required to prevent a deficiency disease that occurred in rats fed a fat-free diet. They concluded that fatty acids were essential nutrients and showed that linoleic acid prevented the disease and is an essential fatty acid. The Burrs surmised that other unsaturated fatty acids were essential and subsequently demonstrated that linolenic acid, the omega-3 fatty acid analog of linoleic acid, is also an essential fatty acid. The discovery of essential fatty acids was a paradigm-changing finding, and it is now considered to be one of the landmark discoveries in lipid research. PMID:25339684

  6. Acid Rain, pH & Acidity: A Common Misinterpretation.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Clark, David B.; Thompson, Ronald E.

    1989-01-01

    Illustrates the basis for misleading statements about the relationship between pH and acid content in acid rain. Explains why pH cannot be used as a measure of acidity for rain or any other solution. Suggests that teachers present acidity and pH as two separate and distinct concepts. (RT)

  7. Nitric acid-formic acid compatibility in DWPF

    SciTech Connect

    Eibling, R.E.

    1992-10-20

    The addition of the Nitric Acid Flowsheet to the DWPF feed preparation process introduces nitric acid into a vessel which will subsequently receive a formic acid solution. The combination of these two acids suggests that a denitration reaction might occur. This memorandum reviews the conditions under which a denitration reaction is possible and compares these conditions to DWPF operating conditions.

  8. Amino-acid contamination of aqueous hydrochloric acid.

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wolman, Y.; Miller, S. L.

    1971-01-01

    Considerable amino-acid contamination in commercially available analytical grade hydrochloric acid (37% HCl) was found. One bottle contained 8,300 nmol of amino-acids per liter. A bottle from another supplier contained 6,700 nmol per liter. The contaminants were mostly protein amino-acids and several unknowns. Data on the volatility of the amino-acids during HCl distillation were also obtained.

  9. Optical high acidity sensor

    DOEpatents

    Jorgensen, B.S.; Nekimken, H.L.; Carey, W.P.; O`Rourke, P.E.

    1997-07-22

    An apparatus and method for determining acid concentrations in solutions having acid concentrations of from about 0.1 Molar to about 16 Molar is disclosed. The apparatus includes a chamber for interrogation of the sample solution, a fiber optic light source for passing light transversely through the chamber, a fiber optic collector for receiving the collimated light after transmission through the chamber, a coating of an acid resistant polymeric composition upon at least one fiber end or lens, the polymeric composition in contact with the sample solution within the chamber and having a detectable response to acid concentrations within the range of from about 0.1 Molar to about 16 Molar, a measurer for the response of the polymeric composition in contact with the sample solution, and a comparer of the measured response to predetermined standards whereby the acid molarity of the sample solution within the chamber can be determined. Preferably, a first lens is attached to the end of the fiber optic light source, the first lens adapted to collimate light from the fiber optic light source, and a second lens is attached to the end of the fiber optic collector for focusing the collimated light after transmission through the chamber. 10 figs.

  10. Domoic Acid Epileptic Disease

    PubMed Central

    Ramsdell, John S.; Gulland, Frances M.

    2014-01-01

    Domoic acid epileptic disease is characterized by spontaneous recurrent seizures weeks to months after domoic acid exposure. The potential for this disease was first recognized in a human case study of temporal lobe epilepsy after the 1987 amnesic shellfish-poisoning event in Quebec, and was characterized as a chronic epileptic syndrome in California sea lions through investigation of a series of domoic acid poisoning cases between 1998 and 2006. The sea lion study provided a breadth of insight into clinical presentations, unusual behaviors, brain pathology, and epidemiology. A rat model that replicates key observations of the chronic epileptic syndrome in sea lions has been applied to identify the progression of the epileptic disease state, its relationship to behavioral manifestations, and to define the neural systems involved in these behavioral disorders. Here, we present the concept of domoic acid epileptic disease as a delayed manifestation of domoic acid poisoning and review the state of knowledge for this disease state in affected humans and sea lions. We discuss causative mechanisms and neural underpinnings of disease maturation revealed by the rat model to present the concept for olfactory origin of an epileptic disease; triggered in dendodendritic synapases of the olfactory bulb and maturing in the olfactory cortex. We conclude with updated information on populations at risk, medical diagnosis, treatment, and prognosis. PMID:24663110

  11. Domoic acid epileptic disease.

    PubMed

    Ramsdell, John S; Gulland, Frances M

    2014-03-01

    Domoic acid epileptic disease is characterized by spontaneous recurrent seizures weeks to months after domoic acid exposure. The potential for this disease was first recognized in a human case study of temporal lobe epilepsy after the 1987 amnesic shellfish-poisoning event in Quebec, and was characterized as a chronic epileptic syndrome in California sea lions through investigation of a series of domoic acid poisoning cases between 1998 and 2006. The sea lion study provided a breadth of insight into clinical presentations, unusual behaviors, brain pathology, and epidemiology. A rat model that replicates key observations of the chronic epileptic syndrome in sea lions has been applied to identify the progression of the epileptic disease state, its relationship to behavioral manifestations, and to define the neural systems involved in these behavioral disorders. Here, we present the concept of domoic acid epileptic disease as a delayed manifestation of domoic acid poisoning and review the state of knowledge for this disease state in affected humans and sea lions. We discuss causative mechanisms and neural underpinnings of disease maturation revealed by the rat model to present the concept for olfactory origin of an epileptic disease; triggered in dendodendritic synapases of the olfactory bulb and maturing in the olfactory cortex. We conclude with updated information on populations at risk, medical diagnosis, treatment, and prognosis. PMID:24663110

  12. Optical high acidity sensor

    DOEpatents

    Jorgensen, Betty S.; Nekimken, Howard L.; Carey, W. Patrick; O'Rourke, Patrick E.

    1997-01-01

    An apparatus and method for determining acid concentrations in solutions having acid concentrations of from about 0.1 Molar to about 16 Molar is disclosed. The apparatus includes a chamber for interrogation of the sample solution, a fiber optic light source for passing light transversely through the chamber, a fiber optic collector for receiving the collimated light after transmission through the chamber, a coating of an acid resistant polymeric composition upon at least one fiber end or lens, the polymeric composition in contact with the sample solution within the chamber and having a detectable response to acid concentrations within the range of from about 0.1 Molar to about 16 Molar, a measurer for the response of the polymeric composition in contact with the sample solution, and, a comparer of the measured response to predetermined standards whereby the acid molarity of the sample solution within the chamber can be determined. Preferably, a first lens is attached to the end of the fiber optic light source, the first lens adapted to collimate light from the fiber optic light source, and a second lens is attached to the end of the fiber optic collector for focusing the collimated light after transmission through the chamber.

  13. A Demonstration of Acid Rain

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fong, Man Wai

    2004-01-01

    A demonstration showing acid rain formation is described. Oxides of sulfur and nitrogen that result from the burning of fossil fuels are the major pollutants of acid rain. In this demonstration, SO[subscript 2] gas is produced by the burning of matches. An acid-base indicator will show that the dissolved gas turns an aqueous solution acidic.

  14. [Determination of organic acids in rice wine by ion-exclusion chromatography].

    PubMed

    Lin, Xiaojie; Wei, Wei; He, Zhigang; Lin, Xiaozi

    2014-03-01

    An ion-exclusion chromatographic method for the simultaneous determination of organic acids in rice wine was developed. An IC-Pak Ion Exclusion column (300 mm x 7.8 mm, 7 microm) was used at 50 degrees C. The mobile phases were H2SO4 (phase A) and acetonitrile (phase B) (98:2, v/v) at a flow rate of 0.5 mL/min. The gradient elution program was as follows: 0-40 min, 0.01 mol/L H2SO4 to 0.02 mol/L H2SO4; 40-50 min, 0.01 mol/L H2SO4. The injection volume was 10 microL. The detection wavelength was set at 210 nm. The results showed that oxalic acid, maleic acid, citric acid, tartaric acid, malic acid, ascorbic acid, succinic acid, lactic, fumaric acid, acetic acid, propionic acid, isobutyric acid and butyric acid were completely separated and determined in 30 min. The linear correlation coefficients were above 0.999 7 in the range of 0.001- 1.000 g/L. Under the optimized conditions, the recoveries of organic acids in rice wine were in the range of 93.4% - 103.8% with the relative standard deviations (RSDs, n = 5) of 0.1% - 1.5%. This method is feasible, convenient, fast, accurate and applicable for the quantitative analysis of the organic acids in rice wine. PMID:24984473

  15. Oleanolic acid ethanol monosolvate

    PubMed Central

    Froelich, Anna; Gzella, Andrzej K.

    2010-01-01

    Crystals of the title compound (systematic name: 3β-hy­droxy­olean-12-en-28-oic acid ethanol monosolvate), C30H48O3·C2H5OH, were obtained from unsuccessful co-crystallization trials. The asymmetric unit contains two symmetry-independent oleanolic acid mol­ecules, as well as two ethanol solvent mol­ecules. Inter­molecular O—H⋯O hydrogen bonds stabilize the crystal packing. In the oleanolic acid mol­ecules, ring C has a slightly distorted envelope conformation, while rings A, B, D and E adopt chair conformations and rings D and E are cis-fused. Both independent ethanol mol­ecules are orientationally disordered [occupancy ratios of 0.742 (8):0.258 (8) and 0.632 (12):0.368 (12). PMID:21588987

  16. Amino acid analysis.

    PubMed

    Crabb, J W; West, K A; Dodson, W S; Hulmes, J D

    2001-05-01

    Amino acid analysis (AAA) is one of the best methods to quantify peptides and proteins. Two general approaches to quantitative AAA exist, namely, classical postcolumn derivatization following ion-exchange chromatography and precolumn derivatization followed by reversed-phase HPLC (RP-HPLC). Excellent instrumentation and several specific methodologies are available for both approaches, and both have advantages and disadvantages. This unit focuses on picomole-level AAA of peptides and proteins using the most popular precolumn-derivatization method, namely, phenylthiocarbamyl amino acid analysis (PTC-AAA). It is directed primarily toward those interested in establishing the technology with a modest budget. PTC derivatization and analysis conditions are described, and support and alternate protocols describe additional techniques necessary or useful for most any AAA method--e.g., sample preparation, hydrolysis, instrument calibration, data interpretation, and analysis of difficult or unusual residues such as cysteine, tryptophan, phosphoamino acids, and hydroxyproline. PMID:18429107

  17. Acid rain: Controllable?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Machta, Lester

    Acid rain is one of a growing number of environmental issues in which impacts are far removed from the source o f the irritants. Those who suffer may differ in geographical area from those who benefit from the activity which releases pollution to the atmosphere. Like the issue concerning the depletion of ozone by manufactured chemicals, the acid rain issue further emphasizes the need for continuing atmospheric chemistry research, a science whose history dates back but a few decades. Examination of the acid rain issue also calls for intimate collaboration of atmospheric scientists with ecologists, biologists, and other scientists, who must advise the geophysicists regarding what chemicals in the environment produce damage, their mode of entry into an ecosystem, and the need to understand acute or chronic impacts.

  18. Acid rain in Asia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bhatti, Neeloo; Streets, David G.; Foell, Wesley K.

    1992-07-01

    Acid rain has been an issue of great concern in North America and Europe during the past several decades. However, due to the passage of a number of recent regulations, most notably the Clean Air Act in the United States in 1990, there is an emerging perception that the problem in these Western nations is nearing solution. The situation in the developing world, particularly in Asia, is much bleaker. Given the policies of many Asian nations to achieve levels of development comparable with the industrialized world—which necessitate a significant expansion of energy consumption (most derived from indigenous coal reserves)—the potential for the formation of, and damage from, acid deposition in these developing countries is very high. This article delineates and assesses the emissions patterns, meteorology, physical geology, and biological and cultural resources present in various Asian nations. Based on this analysis and the risk factors to acidification, it is concluded that a number of areas in Asia are currently vulnerable to acid rain. These regions include Japan, North and South Korea, southern China, and the mountainous portions of Southeast Asia and southwestern India. Furthermore, with accelerated development (and its attendant increase in energy use and production of emissions of acid deposition precursors) in many nations of Asia, it is likely that other regions will also be affected by acidification in the near future. Based on the results of this overview, it is clear that acid deposition has significant potential to impact the Asian region. However, empirical evidence is urgently needed to confirm this and to provide early warning of increases in the magnitude and spread of acid deposition and its effects throughout this part of the world.

  19. Organic acid contents in onion cultivars (Allium cepa L.).

    PubMed

    Rodríguez Galdón, Beatriz; Tascón Rodríguez, Catalina; Rodríguez Rodríguez, Elena; Díaz Romero, Carlos

    2008-08-13

    The following organic acids (glutamic, oxalic, pyruvic, malic, tartaric, citric, and fumaric), pungency, Brix degree, acidity, and pH were determined in onion cultivars (Texas, Guayonje, San Juan de la Rambla, Carrizal Alto, Carrizal Bajo, and Masca) harvested in the same agroclimatic conditions. Glutamic acid was the most abundant organic acid (325 +/- 133 mg/100 g) followed by citric acid (48.5 +/- 24.1 mg/100 g) and malic acid (43.6 +/- 10.4 mg/100 g). There were significant differences between the onion cultivars in the mean concentrations of all of the analyzed parameters. The San Juan de la Rambla and Masca cultivars presented, in general, higher concentrations of the organic acids than the other cultivars. Significant differences in most of the analyzed parameters were observed between the two seed origins for the Masca and San Juan de la Rambla cultivars. The onion samples tended to be classified according to the cultivar and, in the case of San Juan de la Rambla cultivar, according to the precedence of the seeds after applying discriminant analysis. PMID:18616262

  20. NITRIC ACID PICKLING PROCESS

    DOEpatents

    Boller, E.R.; Eubank, L.D.

    1958-08-19

    An improved process is described for the treatment of metallic uranium surfaces preparatory to being given hot dip coatings. The process consists in first pickling the uraniunn surInce with aqueous 50% to 70% nitric acid, at 60 to 70 deg C, for about 5 minutes, rinsing the acid solution from the uranium article, promptly drying and then passing it through a molten alkali-metal halide flux consisting of 42% LiCl, 53% KCla and 5% NaCl into a molten metal bath consisting of 85 parts by weight of zinc and 15 parts by weight of aluminum

  1. [Nicotinic acid and nicotinamide].

    PubMed

    Kobayashi, M; Shimizu, S

    1999-10-01

    Nicotinic acid and nicotinamide are called niacin. They are the antipellagra vitamin essential to many animals for growth and health. In human being, niacin is believed necessary together with other vitamins for the prevention and cure of pellagra. Niacin is widely distributed in nature; appreciable amounts are found in liver, fish, yeast and cereal grains. Nicotinamide is a precursor of the coenzyme NAD and NADP. Some of the most understood metabolic processes that involve niacin are glycolysis, fatty acid synthesis and respiration. Niacin is also related to the following diseases: Hartnup disease; blue diaper syndrome; tryptophanuria; hydroxykynureninuria; xanthurenic aciduria; Huntington's disease. PMID:10540864

  2. Fatty Acids of Thiobacillus thiooxidans

    PubMed Central

    Levin, Richard A.

    1971-01-01

    Fatty acid spectra were made on Thiobacillus thiooxidans cultures both in the presence and absence of organic compounds. Small additions of glucose or acetate had no significant effect either on growth or fatty acid content. The addition of biotin had no stimulatory effect but did result in slight quantitative changes in the fatty acid spectrum. The predominant fatty acid was a C19 cyclopropane acid. PMID:4945206

  3. Fumarate Reductase-Producing Enterococci Reduce Methane Production in Rumen Fermentation In Vitro.

    PubMed

    Kim, Seon-Ho; Mamuad, Lovelia L; Kim, Dong-Woon; Kim, Soo-Ki; Lee, Sang-Suk

    2016-03-28

    Biotic agents such as fumarate-reducing bacteria can be used for controlling methane (CH4) production in the rumen. Fumarate-reducing bacteria convert fumarate to succinate by fumarate reductase, ultimately leading to the production of propionate. Fumarate-reducing bacteria in the genus Enterococcus were isolated from rumen fluid samples from slaughtered Korean native goats. The enterococci were identified as Enterococcus faecalis SROD5 and E. faecium SROD by phylogenetic analyses of 16S rRNA gene sequences. The fumarate reductase activities of the SROD5 and SROD strains were 42.13 and 37.05 mM NADH oxidized/min/mg of cellular nitrogen (N), respectively. Supplementation of rumen fermentation in vitro with the SROD5 and SROD strains produced significantly higher propionate, butyrate, and total volatile fatty acid (VFA) concentrations than controls at 12 h; VFA concentrations tended to increase after 24 h of incubation. The generated CH4 concentration was significantly lower in the SROD5 and SROD treatment groups after 24 h of incubation. These findings indicate that E. faecium SROD has potential as a direct-fed microbial additive for increasing total VFAs while decreasing CH4 production in rumen fermentation in vitro. PMID:26767574

  4. The Acid-Base Titration of a Very Weak Acid: Boric Acid

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Celeste, M.; Azevedo, C.; Cavaleiro, Ana M. V.

    2012-01-01

    A laboratory experiment based on the titration of boric acid with strong base in the presence of d-mannitol is described. Boric acid is a very weak acid and direct titration with NaOH is not possible. An auxiliary reagent that contributes to the release of protons in a known stoichiometry facilitates the acid-base titration. Students obtain the…

  5. Comparison of Buffer Effect of Different Acids During Sandstone Acidizing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Umer Shafiq, Mian; Khaled Ben Mahmud, Hisham; Hamid, Mohamed Ali

    2015-04-01

    The most important concern of sandstone matrix acidizing is to increase the formation permeability by removing the silica particles. To accomplish this, the mud acid (HF: HCl) has been utilized successfully for many years to stimulate the sandstone formations, but still it has many complexities. This paper presents the results of laboratory investigations of different acid combinations (HF: HCl, HF: H3PO4 and HF: HCOOH). Hydrofluoric acid and fluoboric acid are used to dissolve clays and feldspar. Phosphoric and formic acids are added as a buffer to maintain the pH of the solution; also it allows the maximum penetration of acid into the core sample. Different tests have been performed on the core samples before and after the acidizing to do the comparative study on the buffer effect of these acids. The analysis consists of permeability, porosity, color change and pH value tests. There is more increase in permeability and porosity while less change in pH when phosphoric and formic acids were used compared to mud acid. From these results it has been found that the buffer effect of phosphoric acid and formic acid is better than hydrochloric acid.

  6. Single bubble sonochemistry: decomposition of alkyl bromide and the isomerization reaction of maleic acid.

    PubMed

    Troia, A; Ripa, D Madonna; Spagnolo, R; Maurino, V

    2006-07-01

    Single bubble cavitation offers an unique opportunity to evaluate the effect of bubble activity in promoting chemical reactions. In this paper we study the isomerization reaction of maleic acid into fumaric acid using an aqueous solution of maleic acid saturated with CH2Br2. The Br* radicals are generated at the bubble surface and a whitish thread forms. For comparison, the same reaction was conducted in a sonochemical bath. A possible scheme of the reactions activated at bubble surface after the decomposition of organic brominated substances is proposed. PMID:16168698

  7. Alkyl phosphonic acids and sulfonic acids in the Murchison meteorite

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cooper, George W.; Onwo, Wilfred M.; Cronin, John R.

    1992-01-01

    Homologous series of alkyl phosphonic acids and alkyl sulfonic acids, along with inorganic orthophosphate and sulfate, are identified in water extracts of the Murchison meteorite after conversion to their t-butyl dimethylsilyl derivatives. The methyl, ethyl, propyl, and butyl compounds are observed in both series. Five of the eight possible alkyl phosphonic acids and seven of the eight possible alkyl sulfonic acids through C4 are identified. Abundances decrease with increasing carbon number as observed of other homologous series indigenous to Murchison. Concentrations range downward from approximately 380 nmol/gram in the alkyl sulfonic acid series, and from 9 nmol/gram in the alkyl phosphonic acid series.

  8. Docosahexaenoic acid and lactation

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Docosahexaenoic acid (DHA) is an important component of membrane phospholipids in the retina, and brain, and accumulates rapidly in these tissues during early infancy. DHA is present in human milk, but the amount varies considerably and is largely dependent on maternal diet. This article reviews dat...

  9. ACID AEROSOL MEASUREMENT WORKSHOP

    EPA Science Inventory

    This report documents the discussion and results of the U.S. EPA Acid Aerosol Measurement Workshop, conducted February 1-3, 1989, in Research Triangle Park, North Carolina. t was held in response to recommendations by the Clean Air Scientific Advisory Committee (CASAC) regarding ...

  10. Acid Rain Classroom Projects.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Demchik, Michael J.

    2000-01-01

    Describes a curriculum plan in which students learn about acid rain through instructional media, research and class presentations, lab activities, simulations, design, and design implementation. Describes the simulation activity in detail and includes materials, procedures, instructions, examples, results, and discussion sections. (SAH)

  11. Acid rain bibliography

    SciTech Connect

    Sayers, C.S.

    1983-09-01

    This bibliography identifies 900 citations on various aspects of Acid Rain, covering published bibliographies, books, reports, conference and symposium proceedings, audio visual materials, pamphlets and newsletters. It includes five sections: citations index (complete record of author, title, source, order number); KWIC index; title index; author index; and source index. 900 references.

  12. The Acid Rain Debate.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Oates-Bockenstedt, Catherine

    1997-01-01

    Details an activity designed to motivate students by incorporating science-related issues into a classroom debate. Includes "The Acid Rain Bill" and "Position Guides" for student roles as committee members, consumers, governors, industry owners, tourism professionals, senators, and debate directors. (DKM)

  13. The Acid Rain Debate.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bybee, Rodger; And Others

    1984-01-01

    Describes an activity which provides opportunities for role-playing as industrialists, ecologists, and government officials. The activity involves forming an international commission on acid rain, taking testimony, and, based on the testimony, making recommendations to governments on specific ways to solve the problem. Includes suggestions for…

  14. The Acid Rain Game.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rakow, Steven J.; Glenn, Allen

    1982-01-01

    Provides rationale for and description of an acid rain game (designed for two players), a problem-solving model for elementary students. Although complete instructions are provided, including a copy of the game board, the game is also available for Apple II microcomputers. Information for the computer program is available from the author.…

  15. Acid Rain Investigations.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hugo, John C.

    1992-01-01

    Presents an activity in which students investigate the formation of solid ammonium chloride aerosol particles to help students better understand the concept of acid rain. Provides activity objectives, procedures, sample data, clean-up instructions, and questions and answers to help interpret the data. (MDH)

  16. Brain amino acid sensing.

    PubMed

    Tsurugizawa, T; Uneyama, H; Torii, K

    2014-09-01

    The 20 different amino acids, in blood as well as in the brain, are strictly maintained at the same levels throughout the day, regardless of food intake. Gastric vagal afferents only respond to free glutamate and sugars, providing recognition of food intake and initiating digestion. Metabolic control of amino acid homeostasis and diet-induced thermogenesis is triggered by this glutamate signalling in the stomach through the gut-brain axis. Rats chronically fed high-sugar and high-fat diets do not develop obesity when a 1% (w/v) monosodium glutamate (MSG) solution is available in a choice paradigm. Deficiency of the essential amino acid lysine (Lys) induced a plasticity in rats in response to Lys. This result shows how the body is able to identify deficient nutrients to maintain homeostasis. This plastic effect is induced by activin A activity in the brain, particularly in certain neurons in the lateral hypothalamic area (LHA) which is the centre for amino acid homeostasis and appetite. These neurons respond to glutamate signalling in the oral cavity by which umami taste is perceived. They play a quantitative role in regulating ingestion of deficient nutrients, thereby leading to a healthier life. After recovery from malnutrition, rats prefer MSG solutions, which serve as biomarkers for protein nutrition. PMID:25200295

  17. Targeting tumor acidity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Reshetnyak, Yana K.; Engelman, Donald M.; Andreev, Oleg A.

    2012-02-01

    One of the main features of solid tumors is extracellular acidity, which correlates with tumor aggressiveness and metastatic potential. We introduced novel approach in targeting of acidic tumors, and translocation of cell-impermeable cargo molecules across cellular membrane. Our approach is based on main principle of insertion and folding of a polypeptide in lipid bilayer of membrane. We have identified family of pH Low Insertion Peptides (pHLIPs), which are capable spontaneous insertion and folding in membrane at mild acidic conditions. The affinity of peptides of pHLIP family to membrane at low pH is several times higher than at neutral pH. The process of peptides folding occurs within milliseconds. The energy released in a result of folding (about 2 kcal/mol) could be used to move polar cargo across a membrane, which is a novel concept in drug delivery. pHLIP peptides could be considered as a pH-sensitive single peptide molecular transporters and conjugated with imaging probes for fluorescence, MR, PET and SPECT imaging, they represent a novel in vivo marker of acidity. The work is supported by NIH grants CA133890 and GM073857 to OAA, DME, YRK.

  18. Synthesis of (+)-Coronafacic Acid

    PubMed Central

    Taber, Douglass F.; Sheth, Ritesh B.; Tian, Weiwei

    2009-01-01

    An enantioselective synthesis of (+)-coronafacic acid has been achieved. Rhodium catalyzed cyclization of an α-diazoester provided the intermediate cyclopentanone in high enantiomeric purity. Subsequent Fe-mediated cyclocarbonylation of a derived alkenyl cyclopropane gave a bicyclic enone, that then was hydrogenated and carried on to the natural product. PMID:19231870

  19. Plant fatty acid hydroxylase

    DOEpatents

    Somerville, Chris; van de Loo, Frank

    2000-01-01

    The present invention relates to the identification of nucleic acid sequences and constructs, and methods related thereto, and the use of these sequences and constructs to produce genetically modified plants for the purpose of altering the composition of plant oils, waxes and related compounds.

  20. Spermatotoxicity of dichloroacetic acid

    EPA Science Inventory

    The testicular toxicity of dichloroacetic acid (DCA), a disinfection byproduct of drinking water, was evaluated in adult male rats given both single and multiple (up to 14 d) oral doses. Delayed spermiation and altered resorption of residual bodies were observed in rats given sin...

  1. A Direct, Biomass-Based Synthesis of Benzoic Acid: Formic Acid-Mediated Deoxygenation of the Glucose-Derived Materials Quinic Acid and Shikimic Acid

    SciTech Connect

    Arceo, Elena; Ellman, Jonathan; Bergman, Robert

    2010-05-03

    An alternative biomass-based route to benzoic acid from the renewable starting materials quinic acid and shikimic acid is described. Benzoic acid is obtained selectively using a highly efficient, one-step formic acid-mediated deoxygenation method.

  2. Synthesis of acid addition salt of delta-aminolevulinic acid from 5-bromo levulinic acid esters

    DOEpatents

    Moens, Luc

    2003-06-24

    A process of preparing an acid addition salt of delta-aminolevulinc acid comprising: a) dissolving a lower alkyl 5-bromolevulinate and hexamethylenetetramine in a solvent selected from the group consisting of water, ethyl acetate, chloroform, acetone, ethanol, tetrahydrofuran and acetonitrile, to form a quaternary ammonium salt of the lower alkyl 5-bromolevulinate; and b) hydrolyzing the quaternary ammonium salt with an inorganic acid to form an acid addition salt of delta-aminolevulinic acid.

  3. Photostabilization of ascorbic acid with citric acid, tartaric acid and boric acid in cream formulations.

    PubMed

    Ahmad, I; Ali Sheraz, M; Ahmed, S; Shad, Z; Vaid, F H M

    2012-06-01

    This study involves the evaluation of the effect of certain stabilizers, that is, citric acid (CT), tartaric acid (TA) and boric acid (BA) on the degradation of ascorbic acid (AH(2) ) in oil-in-water cream formulations exposed to the UV light and stored in the dark. The apparent first-order rate constants (0.34-0.95 × 10(-3) min(-1) in light, 0.38-1.24 × 10(-2) day(-1) in dark) for the degradation reactions in the presence of the stabilizers have been determined. These rate constants have been used to derive the second-order rate constants (0.26-1.45 × 10(-2) M(-1) min(-1) in light, 3.75-8.50 × 10(-3) M(-1) day(-1) in dark) for the interaction of AH(2) and the individual stabilizers. These stabilizers are effective in causing the inhibition of the rate of degradation of AH(2) both in the light and in the dark. The inhibitory effect of the stabilizers is in the order of CT > TA > BA. The rate of degradation of AH(2) in the presence of these stabilizers in the light is about 120 times higher than that in the dark. This could be explained on the basis of the deactivation of AH(2) -excited triplet state by CT and TA and by the inhibition of AH(2) degradation through complex formation with BA. AH(2) leads to the formation of dehydroascorbic acid (A) by chemical and photooxidation in cream formulations. PMID:22296174

  4. Effect of an acid filler on hydrolysis and biodegradation of poly-lactic acid (PLA)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Iozzino, Valentina; Speranza, Vito; Pantani, Roberto

    2015-12-01

    The use of biodegradable polymers is certainly an excellent strategy to solve many of the problems related to the disposal of the traditional polymers, whose accumulation in the environment is harmful and damaging. In order to optimize the use of biodegradable polymers, it is very important to understand and control the transformation processes, the structures and the morphologies resulting from the process conditions used to produce the articles and, not least, the biodegradation. The latter is strictly dependent on the just mentioned variables. The poly-lactic acid, PLA, is a biodegradable polymer. Many studies have been carried out on the degradation process of this polymer. In the course of this work we performed degradation tests on the PLA, with a specific D-isomer content, having amorphous structure, and in particular of biodegradation and hydrolysis. An acid chemical, fumaric acid, was added to PLA with the objective of controlling the rate of hydrolysis and of biodegradation. The hydrolysis process was followed, as function of time, by means of different techniques: pH variation, variation of weight of samples and variation of crystallinity degree and glass transition temperature using DSC analysis. The samples were also analyzed in terms of biodegradability by means of a homemade respirometer apparatus, in controlled composting conditions.

  5. Fatty acid-producing hosts

    SciTech Connect

    Pfleger, Brian F; Lennen, Rebecca M

    2013-12-31

    Described are hosts for overproducing a fatty acid product such as a fatty acid. The hosts include an exogenous nucleic acid encoding a thioesterase and, optionally, an exogenous nucleic acid encoding an acetyl-CoA carboxylase, wherein an acyl-CoA synthetase in the hosts are functionally delected. The hosts prefereably include the nucleic acid encoding the thioesterase at an intermediate copy number. The hosts are preferably recominantly stable and growth-competent at 37.degree. C. Methods of producing a fatty acid product comprising culturing such hosts at 37.degree. C. are also described.

  6. [Lipid synthesis by an acidic acid tolerant Rhodotorula glutinis].

    PubMed

    Lin, Zhangnan; Liu, Hongjuan; Zhang, Jian'an; Wang, Gehua

    2016-03-01

    Acetic acid, as a main by-product generated in the pretreatment process of lignocellulose hydrolysis, significantly affects cell growth and lipid synthesis of oleaginous microorganisms. Therefore, we studied the tolerance of Rhodotorula glutinis to acetic acid and its lipid synthesis from substrate containing acetic acid. In the mixed sugar medium containing 6 g/L glucose and 44 g/L xylose, and supplemented with acetic acid, the cell growth was not:inhibited when the acetic acid concentration was below 10 g/L. Compared with the control, the biomass, lipid concentration and lipid content of R. glutinis increased 21.5%, 171% and 122% respectively when acetic acid concentration was 10 g/L. Furthermore, R. glutinis could accumulate lipid with acetate as the sole carbon source. Lipid concentration and lipid yield reached 3.20 g/L and 13% respectively with the initial acetic acid concentration of 25 g/L. The lipid composition was analyzed by gas chromatograph. The main composition of lipid produced with acetic acid was palmitic acid, stearic acid, oleic acid, linoleic acid and linolenic acid, including 40.9% saturated fatty acids and 59.1% unsaturated fatty acids. The lipid composition was similar to that of plant oil, indicating that lipid from oleaginous yeast R. glutinis had potential as the feedstock of biodiesel production. These results demonstrated that a certain concentration of acetic acid need not to be removed in the detoxification process when using lignocelluloses hydrolysate to produce microbial lipid by R. glutinis. PMID:27349116

  7. Circulating folic acid in plasma: relation to folic acid fortification

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The implementation of folic acid fortification in the United States has resulted in unprecedented amounts of this synthetic form of folate in the American diet. Folic acid in circulation may be a useful measure of physiologic exposure to synthetic folic acid, and there is a potential for elevated co...

  8. College Chemistry Students' Mental Models of Acids and Acid Strength

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McClary, LaKeisha; Talanquer, Vicente

    2011-01-01

    The central goal of this study was to characterize the mental models of acids and acid strength expressed by advanced college chemistry students when engaged in prediction, explanation, and justification tasks that asked them to rank chemical compounds based on their relative acid strength. For that purpose we completed a qualitative research…

  9. NAPAP (National Acid Precipitation Assessment Program) results on acid rain

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1990-06-01

    The National Acid Precipitation Assessment Program (NAPAP) was mandated by Congress in 1980 to study the effects of acid rain. The results of 10 years of research on the effect of acid deposition and ozone on forests, particularly high elevation spruce and fir, southern pines, eastern hardwoods and western conifers, will be published this year.

  10. Acid Earth--The Global Threat of Acid Pollution.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McCormick, John

    Acid pollution is a major international problem, but the debate it has elicited has often clouded the distinction between myth and facts. This publication attempts to concerning the acid pollution situation. This publication attempts to identify available facts. It is the first global review of the problem of acid pollution and the first to…

  11. Industrial ecotoxicology "acid rain".

    PubMed

    Astolfi, E; Gotelli, C; Higa, J

    1986-01-01

    The acid rain phenomenon was studied in the province of Cordoba, Argentina. This study, based on a previously outlined framework, determined the anthropogenic origin of the low pH due to the presence of industrial hydrochloric acid wastage. This industrial ecotoxicological phenomenon seriously affected the forest wealth, causing a great defoliation of trees and shrubs, with a lower effect on crops. A survey on its effects on human beings has not been carried out, but considering the corrosion caused to different metals and its denouncing biocide effect on plants and animals, we should expect to find some kind of harm to the health of the workers involved or others engaged in farming, and even to those who are far away from the polluting agent. PMID:3758667

  12. [Progress in glucaric acid].

    PubMed

    Qiu, Yuying; Fang, Fang; Du, Guocheng; Chen, Jian

    2015-04-01

    Glucaric acid (GA) is derived from glucose and commonly used in chemical industry. It is also considered as one of the "Top value-added chemicals from biomass" as carbohydrate monomers to produce various synthetic polymers and bioenergy. The demand for GA in food manufacture is increasing. GA has also attracted public attentions due to its therapeutic uses such as regulating hormones, increasing the immune function and reducing the risks of cancers. Currently GA is produced by chemical oxidation. Research on production of GA via microbial synthesis is still at preliminary stage. We reviewed the advances of glucaric acid applications, preparation and quantification methods. The prospects on production of GA by microbial fermentation were also discussed. PMID:26380405

  13. Acid hydrolysis of cellulose

    SciTech Connect

    Salazar, H.

    1980-12-01

    One of the alternatives to increase world production of etha nol is by the hydrolysis of cellulose content of agricultural residues. Studies have been made on the types of hydrolysis: enzimatic and acid. Data obtained from the sulphuric acid hydrolysis of cellulose showed that this process proceed in two steps, with a yield of approximately 95% glucose. Because of increases in cost of alternatives resources, the high demand of the product and the more economic production of ethanol from cellulose materials, it is certain that this technology will be implemented in the future. At the same time further studies on the disposal and reuse of the by-products of this production must be undertaken.

  14. Eucomic acid methanol monosolvate

    PubMed Central

    Li, Guo-Qiang; Li, Yao-Lan; Wang, Guo-Cai; Liang, Zhi-Hong; Jiang, Ren-Wang

    2011-01-01

    In the crystal structure of the title compound [systematic name: 2-hy­droxy-2-(4-hy­droxy­benz­yl)butane­dioic acid methanol monosolvate], C11H12O6·CH3OH, the dihedral angles between the planes of the carboxyl groups and the benzene ring are 51.23 (9) and 87.97 (9)°. Inter­molecular O—H⋯O hydrogen-bonding inter­actions involving the hy­droxy and carb­oxy­lic acid groups and the methanol solvent mol­ecule give a three-dimensional structure. PMID:22091200

  15. (Radioiodinated free fatty acids)

    SciTech Connect

    Knapp, Jr., F. F.

    1987-12-11

    The traveler participated in the Second International Workshop on Radioiodinated Free Fatty Acids in Amsterdam, The Netherlands where he presented an invited paper describing the pioneering work at the Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) involving the design, development and testing of new radioiodinated methyl-branched fatty acids for evaluation of heart disease. He also chaired a technical session on the testing of new agents in various in vitro and in vivo systems. He also visited the Institute for Clinical and Experimental Nuclear Medicine in Bonn, West Germany, to review, discuss, plan and coordinate collaborative investigations with that institution. In addition, he visited the Cyclotron Research Center in Liege, Belgium, to discuss continuing collaborative studies with the Osmium-191/Iridium-191m radionuclide generator system, and to complete manuscripts and plan future studies.

  16. Six hydrogen-bonded supramolecular frameworks assembled from organic acids and p-dimethylaminobenzaldehyde

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jin, Shouwen; Wang, Lanqing; Lou, Yulei; Liu, Li; Li, Bin; Li, Linyu; Feng, Chao; Liu, Hui; Wang, Daqi

    2016-03-01

    Cocrystallization of the commonly available organic compound, p-dimethylaminobenzaldehyde, with a series of organic acids gave a total of six molecular adducts with the compositions: p-dimethylaminobenzaldehyde : (3,5-dinitrosalicylic acid) [(L) · (Hdsa), Hdsa = 3,5-dinitrosalicylic acid] (1), p-dimethylaminobenzaldehyde : (3-nitrophthalic acid) [(L) · (3-H2npa), 3-H2npa = 3-nitrophthalic acid] (2), p-dimethylaminobenzaldehyde : (4-nitrophthalic acid) [(L) · (4-H2npa), 4-H2npa = 4-nitrophthalic acid] (3), p-dimethylaminobenzaldehyde : (1,5-naphthalenedisulfonic acid) : (NH3)2 [NH4 · (HL) · (nds2-) · NH3, nds- = 1,5-naphthalenedisulfonate] (4), p-dimethylaminobenzaldehyde : (oxalic acid)0.5 [(L) · (H2oa)0.5, H2oa = oxalic acid] (5), and p-dimethylaminobenzaldehyde : (fumaric acid)0.5 [(L) · (H2fum)0.5, H2fum = fumaric acid] (6). The six molecular adducts have been characterized by X-ray diffraction technique, IR, and elemental analysis, and the melting points of all adducts were also reported. And their structural and supramolecular aspects are fully analyzed. Of the six adducts, only 4 is an organic salt and the other five are cocrystals. The crystal packing is interpreted in terms of the strong classical hydrogen bonds as well as other weak non-classical hydrogen bonds. The different families of non-covalent bonds contribute to the stabilization and expansion of the total high-dimensional (2D-3D) frameworks.

  17. Tunnelling in carbonic acid.

    PubMed

    Wagner, J Philipp; Reisenauer, Hans Peter; Hirvonen, Viivi; Wu, Chia-Hua; Tyberg, Joseph L; Allen, Wesley D; Schreiner, Peter R

    2016-06-14

    The cis,trans-conformer of carbonic acid (H2CO3), generated by near-infrared radiation, undergoes an unreported quantum mechanical tunnelling rotamerization with half-lives in cryogenic matrices of 4-20 h, depending on temperature and host material. First-principles quantum chemistry at high levels of theory gives a tunnelling half-life of about 1 h, quite near those measured for the fastest rotamerizations. PMID:27248671

  18. Optimize acid gas removal

    SciTech Connect

    Nicholas, D.M.; Wilkins, J.T.

    1983-09-01

    Innovative design of physical solvent plants for acid gas removal can materially reduce both installation and operating costs. A review of the design considerations for one physical solvent process (Selexol) points to numerous arrangements for potential improvement. These are evaluated for a specific case in four combinations that identify an optimum for the case in question but, more importantly, illustrate the mechanism for use for such optimization elsewhere.

  19. Studies on terreic acid.

    PubMed

    Yamamoto, H; Moriyama, K; Jinnouchi, H; Yagishita, K

    1980-03-01

    It was found that Aspergillus sp. No. Y-8980 which was isolated from a soil sample collected at Yoron Island in Kagoshima Prefecture belonged to Aspergillus terreus group by morphological observation. The active substance produced by the strain was obtained with a high yield in sucrose-yeast extract medium and extracted by chloroform, ethyl acetate and n-butanol at pH 2.4 approximately 2.6 from the culture broth. The substance was crystallized from chloroform and ethyl acetate after charcoal treatment of the crude crystal. From various physico-chemical properties, it was found that the substance was identical to terreic acid. Terreic acid showed MICs of 25 approximately 100 mcg/ml, 12.5 mcg/ml and 50 mcg/ml against Gram-positive and Gram-negative bacteria, Xanthomonas oryzae and Xanthomonas citri, respectively, but it did not control Pseudomonas, fungi and yeast. The LD50 was 75 mg/kg i.p. and i.v. in mice. With regards to the anti-tumor effect, the morphological degeneration on HeLa cells (human carcinoma cells) was observed in the concentrations of more than 6.25 mcg/ml of terreic acid. An increase of body weight of mice caused by Ehrlich ascites carcinoma cells was not definitely observed by the daily administration of 150 mcg of terreic acid per mouse for 8 consecutive days. Above showed the enough survival effect in dd mice implanted with Ehrlich ascites carcinoma cells, and the effect also was demonstrated by anatomies of mice. PMID:7190624

  20. Absolute configuration of a chiral CHD group via neutron diffraction: confirmation of the absolute stereochemistry of the enzymatic formation of malic acid

    SciTech Connect

    Bau, R.; Brewer, I.; Chiang, M.Y.; Fujita, S.; Hoffman, J.; Watkins, M.I.; Koetzle, T.F.

    1983-09-30

    Neutron diffraction has been used to monitor the absolute stereochemistry of an enzymatic reaction. (-)(2S)malic-3-d acid was prepared by the action of fumarase on fumaric acid in D/sub 2/O. After a large number of cations were screened, it was found that (+)(R)..cap alpha..-phenylethylamine forms the large crystals necessary for a neutron diffraction analysis. The subsequent structure determination showed that (+)(R)..cap alpha..-phenylethylammonium (-)(2S)malate-3-d has an absolute configuration of R at the CHD site. This result confirms the absolute stereochemistry of fumarate-to-malate transformation as catalyzed by the enzyme fumarase.

  1. Perfluorooctanoic acid and environmental risks

    EPA Science Inventory

    Perfluorooctanoic acid (PFOA) is a member of the perfluoroalkyl acids (PFAA) family of chemicals, which consist of a carbon backbone typically four to fourteen carbons in length and a charged functional moiety.

  2. Folic Acid Questions and Answers

    MedlinePlus

    ... swallow large pills. How can I take a vitamin with folic acid? A : These days, multivitamins with folic acid come in chewable chocolate or fruit flavors, liquids, and large oval or smaller round ...

  3. Pantothenic acid (Vitamin B5)

    MedlinePlus

    Pantothenic acid is a vitamin, also known as vitamin B5. It is widely found in both plants and animals ... Vitamin B5 is commercially available as D-pantothenic acid, as well as dexpanthenol and calcium pantothenate, which ...

  4. Bile acid sequestrants for cholesterol

    MedlinePlus

    Bile acid sequestrants are medicines that help lower your LDL (bad) cholesterol . Too much cholesterol in your blood can ... block them. These medicines work by blocking bile acid in your stomach from being absorbed in your ...

  5. Omega-3 fatty acids (image)

    MedlinePlus

    Omega-3 fatty acids are a form of polyunsaturated fat that the body derives from food. Omega-3s (and omega-6s) are known as essential fatty acids (EFAs) because they are important for good health. ...

  6. Pantothenic acid (Vitamin B5)

    MedlinePlus

    ... D-pantothenic acid, as well as dexpanthenol and calcium pantothenate, which are chemicals made in the lab from ... Early research suggests that pantothenic acid (given as calcium pantothenate) does not reduce symptoms of osteoarthritis. Recovery after ...

  7. Amino acid imbalance in cystinuria

    PubMed Central

    Asatoor, A. M.; Freedman, P. S.; Gabriel, J. R. T.; Milne, M. D.; Prosser, D. I.; Roberts, J. T.; Willoughby, C. P.

    1974-01-01

    After oral ingestion of a free amino acid mixture by three cystinuric patients, plasma increments of lysine and arginine were lower and those of many other amino acids were significantly higher than those found in control subjects. Similar results were obtained in control subjects after amino acid imbalance had been artificially induced by the omission of cystine, lysine, and arginine from the amino acid mixture. Especially high increments of alanine and proline provided the best evidence of amino acid imbalance caused by a temporary lysine and, to a lesser extent, arginine and cystine deficit. No such amino acid imbalance was found to occur in the cystinuric patients after ingestion of whole protein, indicating that absorption of oligopeptides produced by protein digestion provided a balanced physiological serum amino acid increment. This is considered to explain the lack of any unequivocal nutritional deficit in cystinuric patients despite poor absorption of the essential free amino acid, lysine. PMID:4411931

  8. Immunomodulatory spherical nucleic acids

    PubMed Central

    Radovic-Moreno, Aleksandar F.; Chernyak, Natalia; Mader, Christopher C.; Nallagatla, Subbarao; Kang, Richard S.; Hao, Liangliang; Walker, David A.; Halo, Tiffany L.; Merkel, Timothy J.; Rische, Clayton H.; Anantatmula, Sagar; Burkhart, Merideth; Mirkin, Chad A.; Gryaznov, Sergei M.

    2015-01-01

    Immunomodulatory nucleic acids have extraordinary promise for treating disease, yet clinical progress has been limited by a lack of tools to safely increase activity in patients. Immunomodulatory nucleic acids act by agonizing or antagonizing endosomal toll-like receptors (TLR3, TLR7/8, and TLR9), proteins involved in innate immune signaling. Immunomodulatory spherical nucleic acids (SNAs) that stimulate (immunostimulatory, IS-SNA) or regulate (immunoregulatory, IR-SNA) immunity by engaging TLRs have been designed, synthesized, and characterized. Compared with free oligonucleotides, IS-SNAs exhibit up to 80-fold increases in potency, 700-fold higher antibody titers, 400-fold higher cellular responses to a model antigen, and improved treatment of mice with lymphomas. IR-SNAs exhibit up to eightfold increases in potency and 30% greater reduction in fibrosis score in mice with nonalcoholic steatohepatitis (NASH). Given the clinical potential of SNAs due to their potency, defined chemical nature, and good tolerability, SNAs are attractive new modalities for developing immunotherapies. PMID:25775582

  9. Cannabinoid acids analysis.

    PubMed

    Lercker, G; Bocci, F; Frega, N; Bortolomeazzi, R

    1992-03-01

    The cannabinoid pattern of vegetable preparations from Cannabis sativa (hashish, marijuana) allows to recognize the phenotype of the plants, to be used as drug or for fiber. Cannabinoid determination by analytical point of view has represented some problems caused by the complex composition of the hexane extract. Capillary gas chromatography of the hexane extracts of vegetable samples, shows the presence of rather polar constituents that eluted, with noticeable interactions, only on polar phase. The compounds can be methylated by diazomethane and silanized (TMS) by silylating reagents. The methyl and methyl-TMS derivatives are analyzed by high resolution gas chromatography (HRGC) and by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS). The identification of the compounds shows their nature of cannabinoid acids, which the main by quantitative point of view results the cannabidiolic acid (CBDA). It is known that the cannabinoid acids are thermally unstable and are transformed in the corresponding cannabinoids by decarboxilation. This is of interest in forensic analysis with the aim to establish the total amount of THC in the Cannabis preparations, as the active component. PMID:1503600

  10. Acid rain: Reign of controversy

    SciTech Connect

    Kahan, A.M.

    1986-01-01

    Acid Rain is a primer on the science and politics of acid rain. Several introductory chapters describe in simple terms the relevant principles of water chemistry, soil chemistry, and plant physiology and discuss the demonstrated or postulated effects of acid rain on fresh waters and forests as well as on statuary and other exposed objects. There follow discussions on the economic and social implications of acid rain (for example, possible health effects) and on the sources, transport, and distribution of air pollutants.

  11. Effect of Dietary Supplementation of Organic Acids on Performance, Intestinal Histomorphology, and Serum Biochemistry of Broiler Chicken

    PubMed Central

    Adil, Sheikh; Banday, Tufail; Bhat, Gulam Ahmad; Mir, Masood Saleem; Rehman, Manzoor

    2010-01-01

    The aim of the study was to determine the effect of dietary supplementation of organic acids on the performance, intestinal histomorphology, and blood biochemistry of broiler chicken. The birds in the control (T1) group were fed the basal diet whereas in other treatment groups basal diet was supplemented with 2% butyric acid (T2), 3% butyric acid (T4), 2% fumaric acid (T4), 3% fumaric acid (T5), 2% lactic acid (T6), and 3% lactic acid (T7). Broiler chicken fed diets supplemented with organic acids had significantly (P < .05) improved body weight gains and feed conversion ratio. No effect (P < .05) on cumulative feed consumption was observed. The addition of organic increased villus height in the small intestines but the differences were not significant (P < .05) in case of the ileum. Serum calcium and phosphorus concentrations were increased (P < .05) but no effect (P < .05) on the concentration of serum glucose and cholesterol, serum glutamic pyruvic transaminase (SGPT), and serum glutamic oxaloacetate transaminase (SGOT) was observed. The results indicated that the organic acid supplementation, irrespective of type and level of acid used, had a beneficial effect on the performance of broiler chicken. PMID:20613998

  12. Carboxylic acid sorption regeneration process

    DOEpatents

    King, C. Judson; Poole, Loree J.

    1995-01-01

    Carboxylic acids are sorbed from aqueous feedstocks into an organic liquid phase or onto a solid adsorbent. The acids are freed from the sorbent phase by treating it with aqueous alkylamine thus forming an alkylammonium carboxylate which is dewatered and decomposed to the desired carboxylic acid and the alkylamine.

  13. Carboxylic acid sorption regeneration process

    DOEpatents

    King, C.J.; Poole, L.J.

    1995-05-02

    Carboxylic acids are sorbed from aqueous feedstocks into an organic liquid phase or onto a solid adsorbent. The acids are freed from the sorbent phase by treating it with aqueous alkylamine thus forming an alkylammonium carboxylate which is dewatered and decomposed to the desired carboxylic acid and the alkylamine. 10 figs.

  14. An Umbrella for Acid Rain.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Randal, Judith

    1979-01-01

    The Environmental Protection Agency has awarded several grants to study effects of and possible solutions to the problem of "acid rain"; pollution from atmospheric nitric and sulfuric acids. The research program is administered through North Carolina State University at Raleigh and will focus on biological effects of acid rain. (JMF)

  15. BACTERIAL OXIDATION OF DIPICOLINIC ACID

    PubMed Central

    Kobayashi, Yasuo; Arima, Kei

    1962-01-01

    Kobayashi, Yasuo (University of Tokyo, Tokyo, Japan) and Kei Arima. Bacterial oxidation of dipicolinic acid. II. Identification of α-ketoglutaric acid and 3-hydroxydipicolinic acid and some properties of cell-free extracts. J. Bacteriol. 84:765–771. 1962—When a dipicolinic acid (DPA)-decomposing bacterium, Achromobacter strain 1–2, was incubated at 30 C with shaking in a DPA solution containing 10−3m arsenite, a keto acid was accumulated. The 2,4-dinitrophenylhydrazone of this acid was synthesized and identified as α-ketoglutaric acid by paper chromatography, visible absorption spectrum, infrared analysis, elemental analysis, and mixed melting point. During this incubation, oxalic acid equivalent to the consumed dipicolinic acid was produced. A fluorescent material was also isolated from culture fluid and identified as 3-hydroxydipicolinic acid by paper chromatography and the ultraviolet absorption spectrum. Further, cell-free extracts were prepared by sonic oscillation. Ferrous ion and a reduced di- or triphosphopyridine nucleotide-generating system were proven to be required for enzymic oxidation of DPA. And 3-hydroxydipicolinic acid was also oxidized by this preparation. From the results obtained, a possible metabolic pathway of dipicolinic acid was proposed. PMID:14033954

  16. Pantothenic acid biosynthesis in zymomonas

    SciTech Connect

    Tao, Luan; Tomb, Jean-Francois; Viitanen, Paul V.

    2014-07-01

    Zymomonas is unable to synthesize pantothenic acid and requires this essential vitamin in growth medium. Zymomonas strains transformed with an operon for expression of 2-dehydropantoate reductase and aspartate 1-decarboxylase were able to grow in medium lacking pantothenic acid. These strains may be used for ethanol production without pantothenic acid supplementation in seed culture and fermentation media.

  17. Scientists Puzzle Over Acid Rain

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chemical and Engineering News, 1975

    1975-01-01

    Reports on a growing concern over increased acidity in atmospheric percipitation. Explores possible causes of the increased acidity, identifies chemical components of precipitation in various parts of the world, and presents environmental changes that might be attributed to the acidity. (GS)

  18. Serum Uric Acid in Smokers

    PubMed Central

    Hanna, Bassam E.; Hamed, Jamal M.; Touhala, Luma M.

    2008-01-01

    Objectives To demonstrate the possible effect of smoking on serum uric acid. Methods Subjects enrolled in study were divided into two groups; nonsmokers and smokers, each with 60 male volunteers of the same social class and dietary habit without history of alcohol consumption, diabetes mellitus, hyperuricemia and gout, renal, joint, lung or heart diseases. Fasting blood and random urine samples were obtained from both groups for measurement of uric acid and creatinine. Calculation of both urine uric acid/urine creatinine ratio and fraction excretion of uric acid were done. The results were statistically evaluated by standard statistical methods. Results No significant differences in the age, serum creatinine, spot urine uric acid/urine creatinine ratio and fraction excretion of uric acid between the two groups, serum uric acid was significantly lower in smokers. In smokers there was significant negative correlation of smoking status (average number of cigarette smoked/day, duration of smoking and cumulative amount of smoking) with serum uric acid. Conclusion After exclusion of other factors affecting uric acid level, the significant low serum uric acid level in smokers was attributed to reduce endogenous production as a result of chronic exposure to cigarette smoke that is a significant source of oxidative stress. As this reduction is proportionate with smoking status and predisposes to cardiovascular disease, it is, therefore, recommended for smokers to stop or reduce smoking and introduce serum uric acid estimation as routine test since its cheap and simple to reflect their antioxidant level. Keywords Smokers; Uric acid; CVD. PMID:22334840

  19. Novel Regenerated Solvent Extraction Processes for the Recovery of Carboxylic Acids or Ammonia from Aqueous Solutions Part I. Regeneration of Amine-Carboxylic Acid Extracts

    SciTech Connect

    Poole, L.J.; King, C.J.

    1990-03-01

    Two novel regenerated solvent extraction processes are examined. The first process has the potential to reduce the energy costs inherent in the recovery of low-volatility carboxylic acids from dilute aqueous solutions. The second process has the potential for reducing the energy costs required for separate recovery of ammonia and acid gases (e.g. CO{sub 2} and H{sub 2}S) from industrial sour waters. The recovery of carboxylic acids from dilute aqueous solution can be achieved by extraction with tertiary amines. An approach for regeneration and product recovery from such extracts is to back-extract the carboxylic acid with a water-soluble, volatile tertiary amine, such as trimethylamine. The resulting trimethylammonium carboxylate solution can be concentrated and thermally decomposed, yielding the product acid and the volatile amine for recycle. Experimental work was performed with lactic acid, succinic acid, and fumaric acid. Equilibrium data show near-stoichiometric recovery of the carboxylic acids from an organic solution of Alamine 336 into aqueous solutions of trimethylamine. For fumaric and succinic acids, partial evaporation of the aqueous back extract decomposes the carboxylate and yields the acid product in crystalline form. The decomposition of aqueous solutions of trimethylammonium lactates was not carried out to completion, due to the high water solubility of lactic acid and the tendency of the acid to self-associate. The separate recovery of ammonia and acid gases from sour waters can be achieved by combining steam-stripping of the acid gases with simultaneous removal of ammonia by extraction with a liquid cation exchanger. The use of di-2,4,4-trimethylpentyl phosphinic acid as the liquid cation exchanger is explored in this work. Batch extraction experiments were carried out to measure the equilibrium distribution ratio of ammonia between an aqueous buffer solution and an organic solution of the phosphinic acid (0.2N) in Norpar 12. The concentration

  20. Experimental study of the hydrothermal reactivity of organic acids and acid anions: II. Acetic acid, acetate, and valeric acid

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    McCollom, Thomas M.; Seewald, Jeffrey S.

    2003-10-01

    Organic acids and acid anions occur in substantial concentrations in many aqueous geologic fluids and are thought to take part in a variety of geochemical processes ranging from the transport of metals in ore-forming fluids to the formation of natural gas to serving as a metabolic energy source for microbes in subsurface habitats. The widespread occurrence of organic acids and their potential role in diverse geologic processes has led to numerous experimental studies of their thermal stability, yet there remain substantial gaps in our knowledge of the factors that control the rates and reaction pathways for the decomposition of these compounds under geologic conditions. In order to address some of these uncertainties, a series of laboratory experiments were conducted to examine the behavior of organic acids and acid anions under hydrothermal conditions in the presence of minerals. Reported here are results of experiments where aqueous solutions of acetic acid, sodium acetate, or valeric acid ( n-pentanoic acid) were heated at 325°C, 350 bars in the presence of the mineral assemblages hematite + magnetite + pyrite, pyrite + pyrrhotite + magnetite, and hematite + magnetite. The results indicate that aqueous acetic acid and acetate decompose by a combination of two reaction pathways: decarboxylation and oxidation. Both reactions are promoted by minerals, with hematite catalyzing the oxidation reaction while magnetite catalyzes decarboxylation. The oxidation reaction is much faster, so that oxidation dominates the decomposition of acetic acid and acetate when hematite is present. In contrast to previous reports that acetate decomposed more slowly than acetic acid, we found that acetate decomposed at slightly faster rates than the acid in the presence of minerals. Although longer-chain monocarboxylic acids are generally thought to decompose by decarboxylation, valeric acid appeared to decompose primarily by "deformylation" to 1-butene plus formic acid. Subsequent

  1. Role of acid diffusion in matrix acidizing of carbonates

    SciTech Connect

    Hoefner, M.L.; Fogler, H.S.; Stenius, P.; Sjoblom, J.

    1987-02-01

    To increase the efficiency of matrix treatments in carbonates, a new type of retarded acid-in-oil microemulsion system has ben developed. The microemulsion is of low viscosity but can exhibit acid diffusion rates two orders of magnitude lower than aqueous HCl. Decreased acid diffusion delays spending and allows live acid to penetrate the rock matrix more uniformly and to greater distances. Coreflood results show that the microemulsion can stimulate cores in fewer PV's and under conditions of low injection rates where aqueous HCl fails completely. The microemulsion could also conceivably increase acid penetration along any natural fractures and fissures that may be present, thus increasing acidizing efficiency in this type of treatment. The relationship between the acid diffusion rate and the ability of the fluid to matrix-stimulate limestone is investigated.

  2. Composition for nucleic acid sequencing

    DOEpatents

    Korlach, Jonas; Webb, Watt W.; Levene, Michael; Turner, Stephen; Craighead, Harold G.; Foquet, Mathieu

    2008-08-26

    The present invention is directed to a method of sequencing a target nucleic acid molecule having a plurality of bases. In its principle, the temporal order of base additions during the polymerization reaction is measured on a molecule of nucleic acid, i.e. the activity of a nucleic acid polymerizing enzyme on the template nucleic acid molecule to be sequenced is followed in real time. The sequence is deduced by identifying which base is being incorporated into the growing complementary strand of the target nucleic acid by the catalytic activity of the nucleic acid polymerizing enzyme at each step in the sequence of base additions. A polymerase on the target nucleic acid molecule complex is provided in a position suitable to move along the target nucleic acid molecule and extend the oligonucleotide primer at an active site. A plurality of labelled types of nucleotide analogs are provided proximate to the active site, with each distinguishable type of nucleotide analog being complementary to a different nucleotide in the target nucleic acid sequence. The growing nucleic acid strand is extended by using the polymerase to add a nucleotide analog to the nucleic acid strand at the active site, where the nucleotide analog being added is complementary to the nucleotide of the target nucleic acid at the active site. The nucleotide analog added to the oligonucleotide primer as a result of the polymerizing step is identified. The steps of providing labelled nucleotide analogs, polymerizing the growing nucleic acid strand, and identifying the added nucleotide analog are repeated so that the nucleic acid strand is further extended and the sequence of the target nucleic acid is determined.

  3. Evolution of rosmarinic acid biosynthesis.

    PubMed

    Petersen, Maike; Abdullah, Yana; Benner, Johannes; Eberle, David; Gehlen, Katja; Hücherig, Stephanie; Janiak, Verena; Kim, Kyung Hee; Sander, Marion; Weitzel, Corinna; Wolters, Stefan

    2009-01-01

    Rosmarinic acid and chlorogenic acid are caffeic acid esters widely found in the plant kingdom and presumably accumulated as defense compounds. In a survey, more than 240 plant species have been screened for the presence of rosmarinic and chlorogenic acids. Several rosmarinic acid-containing species have been detected. The rosmarinic acid accumulation in species of the Marantaceae has not been known before. Rosmarinic acid is found in hornworts, in the fern family Blechnaceae and in species of several orders of mono- and dicotyledonous angiosperms. The biosyntheses of caffeoylshikimate, chlorogenic acid and rosmarinic acid use 4-coumaroyl-CoA from the general phenylpropanoid pathway as hydroxycinnamoyl donor. The hydroxycinnamoyl acceptor substrate comes from the shikimate pathway: shikimic acid, quinic acid and hydroxyphenyllactic acid derived from l-tyrosine. Similar steps are involved in the biosyntheses of rosmarinic, chlorogenic and caffeoylshikimic acids: the transfer of the 4-coumaroyl moiety to an acceptor molecule by a hydroxycinnamoyltransferase from the BAHD acyltransferase family and the meta-hydroxylation of the 4-coumaroyl moiety in the ester by a cytochrome P450 monooxygenase from the CYP98A family. The hydroxycinnamoyltransferases as well as the meta-hydroxylases show high sequence similarities and thus seem to be closely related. The hydroxycinnamoyltransferase and CYP98A14 from Coleus blumei (Lamiaceae) are nevertheless specific for substrates involved in RA biosynthesis showing an evolutionary diversification in phenolic ester metabolism. Our current view is that only a few enzymes had to be "invented" for rosmarinic acid biosynthesis probably on the basis of genes needed for the formation of chlorogenic and caffeoylshikimic acid while further biosynthetic steps might have been recruited from phenylpropanoid metabolism, tocopherol/plastoquinone biosynthesis and photorespiration. PMID:19560175

  4. The effect of several organic acids on phytate phosphorus hydrolysis in broiler chicks.

    PubMed

    Liem, A; Pesti, G M; Edwards, H M

    2008-04-01

    Supplementation of some organic acids to a P-deficient diet has been shown to improve phytate P utilization. Two experiments were conducted from 0 to 16 d in battery brooders to determine the effect of various organic acids supplementation on phytate P utilization. In both experiments, birds were fed P-deficient corn and soybean meal-based diets. In experiment 1, citric acid, malic acid, fumaric acid, and EDTA were supplemented. Experiment 2 had a 2 x 2 factorial design with 2 sources of Met, 2-hydroxy-4-(methylthio) butanoic acid (HMB) and dl-Met, with or without 500 U/kg of phytase. In experiment 1, the addition of citric, malic, and fumaric acids increased percentage of bone ash, but only the effect of citric acid was significant. The addition of citric and malic acids also significantly increased the retention of P and phytate P (P<0.05). In experiment 2, the addition of phytase to the diet significantly increased 16-d BW gain, feed intake, percentage of bone ash, milligrams of bone ash, phytate P disappearance, and decreased the incidence of P-deficiency rickets. Methionine source did not affect 16-d BW gain, feed intake, feed efficiency, milligrams of bone ash, or P rickets incidence. However, the birds fed HMB had a higher percentage of bone ash and phytate P disappearance compared with the groups fed dl-Met only when phytase was added to the diets. The additions of citric acid and HMB improved phytate P utilization. However, the reason why some organic acids are effective whereas others are not is not apparent. PMID:18339989

  5. Nematicidal Activity of Kojic Acid Produced by Aspergillus oryzae against Meloidogyne incognita.

    PubMed

    Kim, Tae Yoon; Jang, Ja Yeong; Jeon, Sun Jeong; Lee, Hye Won; Bae, Chang-Hwan; Yeo, Joo Hong; Lee, Hyang Burm; Kim, In Seon; Park, Hae Woong; Kim, Jin-Cheol

    2016-08-28

    The fungal strain EML-DML3PNa1 isolated from leaf of white dogwood (Cornus alba L.) showed strong nematicidal activity with juvenile mortality of 87.6% at a concentration of 20% fermentation broth filtrate at 3 days after treatment. The active fungal strain was identified as Aspergillus oryzae, which belongs to section Flavi, based on the morphological characteristics and sequence analysis of the ITS rDNA, calmodulin (CaM), and β-tubulin (BenA) genes. The strain reduced the pH value to 5.62 after 7 days of incubation. Organic acid analysis revealed the presence of citric acid (515.0 mg/kg), malic acid (506.6 mg/kg), and fumaric acid (21.7 mg/kg). The three organic acids showed moderate nematicidal activities, but the mixture of citric acid, malic acid, and fumaric acid did not exhibit the full nematicidal activity of the culture filtrate of EML- DML3PNa1. Bioassay-guided fractionation coupled with (1)H- and (13)C-NMR and EI-MS analyses led to identification of kojic acid as the major nematicidal metabolite. Kojic acid exhibited dose-dependent mortality and inhibited the hatchability of M. incognita, showing EC50 values of 195.2 µg/ml and 238.3 µg/ml, respectively, at 72 h postexposure. These results suggest that A. oryzae EML-DML3PNa1 and kojic acid have potential as a biological control agent against M. incognita. PMID:27197670

  6. The politics of acid rain

    SciTech Connect

    Wilcher, M.E. )

    1989-01-01

    This work examines and compares the acid rain policies through the different political systems of Canada, Great Britain and the United States. Because the flow of acid rain can transcend national boundaries, acid rain has become a crucial international problem. According to the author, because of differences in governmental institutions and structure, the extent of governmental intervention in the industrial economy, the degree of reliance on coal for power generation, and the extent of acid rain damage, national responses to the acid rain problem have varied.

  7. Invasive cleavage of nucleic acids

    DOEpatents

    Prudent, James R.; Hall, Jeff G.; Lyamichev, Victor I.; Brow, Mary Ann D.; Dahlberg, James E.

    1999-01-01

    The present invention relates to means for the detection and characterization of nucleic acid sequences, as well as variations in nucleic acid sequences. The present invention also relates to methods for forming a nucleic acid cleavage structure on a target sequence and cleaving the nucleic acid cleavage structure in a site-specific manner. The structure-specific nuclease activity of a variety of enzymes is used to cleave the target-dependent cleavage structure, thereby indicating the presence of specific nucleic acid sequences or specific variations thereof.

  8. Invasive cleavage of nucleic acids

    DOEpatents

    Prudent, James R.; Hall, Jeff G.; Lyamichev, Victor I.; Brow, Mary Ann D.; Dahlberg, James E.

    2002-01-01

    The present invention relates to means for the detection and characterization of nucleic acid sequences, as well as variations in nucleic acid sequences. The present invention also relates to methods for forming a nucleic acid cleavage structure on a target sequence and cleaving the nucleic acid cleavage structure in a site-specific manner. The structure-specific nuclease activity of a variety of enzymes is used to cleave the target-dependent cleavage structure, thereby indicating the presence of specific nucleic acid sequences or specific variations thereof.

  9. Tested Demonstrations: Color Oscillations in the Formic Acid-Nitric Acid-Sulfuric Acid System.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Raw, C. J. G.; And Others

    1983-01-01

    Presented are procedures for demonstrating the production of color oscillations when nitric acid is added to a formic acid/concentrated sulfuric acid mixture. Because of safety considerations, "Super-8" home movie of the color changes was found to be satisfactory for demonstration purposes. (JN)

  10. Amino acids in Arctic aerosols

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Scalabrin, E.; Zangrando, R.; Barbaro, E.; Kehrwald, N. M.; Gabrieli, J.; Barbante, C.; Gambaro, A.

    2012-11-01

    Amino acids are significant components of atmospheric aerosols, affecting organic nitrogen input to marine ecosystems, atmospheric radiation balance, and the global water cycle. The wide range of amino acid reactivities suggest that amino acids may serve as markers of atmospheric transport and deposition of particles. Despite this potential, few measurements have been conducted in remote areas to assess amino acid concentrations and potential sources. Polar regions offer a unique opportunity to investigate atmospheric processes and to conduct source apportionment studies of such compounds. In order to better understand the importance of amino acid compounds in the global atmosphere, we determined free amino acids (FAAs) in seventeen size-segregated aerosol samples collected in a polar station in the Svalbard Islands from 19 April until 14 September 2010. We used an HPLC coupled with a tandem mass spectrometer (ESI-MS/MS) to analyze 20 amino acids and quantify compounds at fmol m-3 levels. Mean total FAA concentration was 1070 fmol m-3 where serine and glycine were the most abundant compounds in almost all samples and accounted for 45-60% of the total amino acid relative abundance. The other eighteen compounds had average concentrations between 0.3 and 98 fmol m-3. The higher amino acid concentrations were present in the ultrafine aerosol fraction (< 0.49 μm) and accounted for the majority of the total amino acid content. Local marine sources dominate the boreal summer amino acid concentrations, with the exception of the regional input from Icelandic volcanic emissions.

  11. Amino acids in Arctic aerosols

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Scalabrin, E.; Zangrando, R.; Barbaro, E.; Kehrwald, N. M.; Gabrieli, J.; Barbante, C.; Gambaro, A.

    2012-07-01

    Amino acids are significant components of atmospheric aerosols, affecting organic nitrogen input to marine ecosystems, atmospheric radiation balance, and the global water cycle. The wide range of amino acid reactivities suggest that amino acids may serve as markers of atmospheric transport and deposition of particles. Despite this potential, few measurements have been conducted in remote areas to assess amino acid concentrations and potential sources. Polar regions offer a unique opportunity to investigate atmospheric processes and to conduct source apportionment studies of such compounds. In order to better understand the importance of amino acid compounds in the global atmosphere, we determined free amino acids (FAAs) in seventeen size-segregated aerosol samples collected in a polar station in the Svalbard Islands from 19 April until 14 September 2010. We used an HPLC coupled with a tandem mass spectrometer (ESI-MS/MS) to analyze 20 amino acids to quantify compounds at fmol m-3 levels. Mean total FAA concentration was 1070 fmol m-3 where serine and glycine were the most abundant compounds in almost all samples and accounted for 45-60% of the total amino acid relative abundance. The other eighteen compounds had average concentrations between 0.3 and 98 fmol m-3. The higher amino acid concentrations were present in the ultrafine aerosol fraction (<0.49 μm) and accounted for the majority of the total amino acid content. Local marine sources dominate the boreal summer amino acid concentrations, with the exception of the regional input from Icelandic volcanics.

  12. Twinning of dodecanedicarboxylic acid

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sen, R.; Wilcox, W. R.

    1986-01-01

    Twinning of 1,10-dodecanedicarboxyl acid (DDA) was observed in 0.1 mm thick films with a polarizing microscope. Twins originated from polycrystalline regions which tended to nucleate on twin faces, and terminated by intersection gone another. Twinning increased dramatically with addition of organic compounds with a similar molecular size and shape. Increasing the freezing rate, increasing the temperature gradient, and addition of silica particles increased twinning. It is proposed that twins nucleate with polycrystals and sometimes anneal out before they become observable. The impurities may enhance twinning either by lowering the twin energy or by adsorbing on growing faces.

  13. Synthesis of amino acids

    DOEpatents

    Davis, J.W. Jr.

    1979-09-21

    A method is described for synthesizing amino acids preceding through novel intermediates of the formulas: R/sub 1/R/sub 2/C(OSOC1)CN, R/sub 1/R/sub 2/C(C1)CN and (R/sub 1/R/sub 2/C(CN)O)/sub 2/SO wherein R/sub 1/ and R/sub 2/ are each selected from hydrogen and monovalent hydrocarbon radicals of 1 to 10 carbon atoms. The use of these intermediates allows the synthesis steps to be exothermic and results in an overall synthesis method which is faster than the synthesis methods of the prior art.

  14. Controlling acid rain

    SciTech Connect

    Cannon, J.S.

    1987-01-01

    This book examines recent transfer of electric power among 48 states and present evidence of significant transfers of electric power from so-called ''perpetrator'' to ''victim'' states. The book compares the efforts of several midwestern and northeastern states during the 1970's to control the sulfur dioxide (SO/sub 2/) emissions causing acid rain. The report includes utility and government data on electricity production and sales, on purchase of out-of-state electricity, and on coal use and sulfur dioxide emissions, state by state, for 48 states.

  15. Microbial production of specialty organic acids from renewable and waste materials.

    PubMed

    Alonso, Saúl; Rendueles, Manuel; Díaz, Mario

    2015-01-01

    Microbial production of organic acids has become a fast-moving field due to the increasing role of these compounds as platform chemicals. In recent years, the portfolio of specialty fermentation-derived carboxylic acids has increased considerably, including the production of glyceric, glucaric, succinic, butyric, xylonic, fumaric, malic, itaconic, lactobionic, propionic and adipic acid through innovative fermentation strategies. This review summarizes recent trends in the use of novel microbial platforms as well as renewable and waste materials for efficient and cost-effective bio-based production of emerging high-value organic acids. Advances in the development of robust and efficient microbial bioprocesses for producing carboxylic acids from low-cost feedstocks are also discussed. The industrial market scenario is also reviewed, including the latest information on the stage of development for producing these emerging bio-products via large-scale fermentation. PMID:24754448

  16. A series of new lanthanide fumarates displaying three types of 3-D frameworks.

    PubMed

    Tan, Xiao-Feng; Zhou, Jian; Fu, Lianshe; Xiao, Hong-Ping; Zou, Hua-Hong; Tang, Qiuling

    2016-03-28

    A series of lanthanide fumarates [Sm2(fum)3(H2fum)(H2O)2] (1, H2fum = fumaric acid), [Ln2(fum)3-(H2O)4]·3H2O {Ln = Tb (2a), Dy (2b)} and [Ln2(fum)3(H2O)4] {Ln = Y (3a), Ho (3b), Er (3c), Tm (3d)} were prepared by the hydrothermal method and their structures were classified into three types. The 3-D framework of compound 1 contains a 1-D infinite [Sm-O-Sm]n chain built up from the connection of SmO8(H2O) polyhedra sharing edges via three -COO group bridges of fumarate ligands, which is further constructed into a 3-D network structure with three kinds of fumarate ligands. Compounds 2a-b are isostructural and consist of a 3-D porous framework with 0-D cavities for the accommodation of chair-like hexameric (H2O)6 clusters. Compounds 3a-d are isostructural and have a 3-D network structure remarkably different from those of 1 and 2a-b, due to the different coordination numbers for the Ln(3+) ions and distinct fumarate ligand bridging patterns. A systematic investigation of seven lanthanide fumarates and five reported compounds revealed that the well-known lanthanide contraction has a significant influence on the formation of lanthanide fumarates. The magnetic properties of compounds 1, 2b and 3b-3d were also investigated. PMID:26894939

  17. Cryoprotection from lipoteichoic acid

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rice, Charles V.; Middaugh, Amy; Wickham, Jason R.; Friedline, Anthony; Thomas, Kieth J.; Johnson, Karen; Zachariah, Malcolm; Garimella, Ravindranth

    2012-10-01

    Numerous chemical additives lower the freezing point of water, but life at sub-zero temperatures is sustained by a limited number of biological cryoprotectants. Antifreeze proteins in fish, plants, and insects provide protection to a few degrees below freezing. Microbes have been found to survive at even lower temperatures, and with a few exceptions, antifreeze proteins are missing. Survival has been attributed to external factors, such as the high salt concentration of brine veins and adhesion to particulates or ice crystal defects. We have discovered an endogenous cryoprotectant in the cell wall of bacteria, lipoteichoic acid biopolymers. Adding 1% LTA to bacteria cultures immediately prior to freezing provides 50% survival rate, similar to the results obtained with 1% glycerol. In the absence of an additive, bacterial survival is negligible as measured with the resazurin cell viability assay. The mode of action for LTA cryoprotection is unknown. With a molecular weight of 3-5 kDa, it is unlikely to enter the cell cytoplasm. Our observations suggest that teichoic acids could provide a shell of liquid water around biofilms and planktonic bacteria, removing the need for brine veins to prevent bacterial freezing.

  18. Nucleic acid detection methods

    DOEpatents

    Smith, C.L.; Yaar, R.; Szafranski, P.; Cantor, C.R.

    1998-05-19

    The invention relates to methods for rapidly determining the sequence and/or length a target sequence. The target sequence may be a series of known or unknown repeat sequences which are hybridized to an array of probes. The hybridized array is digested with a single-strand nuclease and free 3{prime}-hydroxyl groups extended with a nucleic acid polymerase. Nuclease cleaved heteroduplexes can be easily distinguish from nuclease uncleaved heteroduplexes by differential labeling. Probes and target can be differentially labeled with detectable labels. Matched target can be detected by cleaving resulting loops from the hybridized target and creating free 3-hydroxyl groups. These groups are recognized and extended by polymerases added into the reaction system which also adds or releases one label into solution. Analysis of the resulting products using either solid phase or solution. These methods can be used to detect characteristic nucleic acid sequences, to determine target sequence and to screen for genetic defects and disorders. Assays can be conducted on solid surfaces allowing for multiple reactions to be conducted in parallel and, if desired, automated. 18 figs.

  19. Nucleic Acid Detection Methods

    DOEpatents

    Smith, Cassandra L.; Yaar, Ron; Szafranski, Przemyslaw; Cantor, Charles R.

    1998-05-19

    The invention relates to methods for rapidly determining the sequence and/or length a target sequence. The target sequence may be a series of known or unknown repeat sequences which are hybridized to an array of probes. The hybridized array is digested with a single-strand nuclease and free 3'-hydroxyl groups extended with a nucleic acid polymerase. Nuclease cleaved heteroduplexes can be easily distinguish from nuclease uncleaved heteroduplexes by differential labeling. Probes and target can be differentially labeled with detectable labels. Matched target can be detected by cleaving resulting loops from the hybridized target and creating free 3-hydroxyl groups. These groups are recognized and extended by polymerases added into the reaction system which also adds or releases one label into solution. Analysis of the resulting products using either solid phase or solution. These methods can be used to detect characteristic nucleic acid sequences, to determine target sequence and to screen for genetic defects and disorders. Assays can be conducted on solid surfaces allowing for multiple reactions to be conducted in parallel and, if desired, automated.

  20. Ribonucleic acid purification.

    PubMed

    Martins, R; Queiroz, J A; Sousa, F

    2014-08-15

    Research on RNA has led to many important biological discoveries and improvement of therapeutic technologies. From basic to applied research, many procedures employ pure and intact RNA molecules; however their isolation and purification are critical steps because of the easy degradability of RNA, which can impair chemical stability and biological functionality. The current techniques to isolate and purify RNA molecules still have several limitations and the requirement for new methods able to improve RNA quality to meet regulatory demands is growing. In fact, as basic research improves the understanding of biological roles of RNAs, the biopharmaceutical industry starts to focus on them as a biotherapeutic tools. Chromatographic bioseparation is a high selective unit operation and is the major option in the purification of biological compounds, requiring high purity degree. In addition, its application in biopharmaceutical manufacturing is well established. This paper discusses the importance and the progress of RNA isolation and purification, considering RNA applicability both in research and clinical fields. In particular and in view of the high specificity, affinity chromatography has been recently applied to RNA purification processes. Accordingly, recent chromatographic investigations based on biorecognition phenomena occurring between RNA and amino acids are focused. Histidine and arginine have been used as amino acid ligands, and their ability to isolate different RNA species demonstrated a multipurpose applicability in molecular biology analysis and RNA therapeutics preparation, highlighting the potential contribution of these methods to overcome the challenges of RNA purification. PMID:24951289

  1. Growth of nitric acid hydrates on thin sulfuric acid films

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Iraci, Laura T.; Middlebrook, Ann M.; Wilson, Margaret A.; Tolbert, Margaret A.

    1994-01-01

    Type I polar stratospheric clouds (PSCs) are thought to nucleate and grow on stratospheric sulfate aerosols (SSAs). To model this system, thin sulfuric acid films were exposed to water and nitric acid vapors (1-3 x 10(exp -4) Torr H2O and 1-2.5 x 10(exp -6) Torr HNO3) and subjected to cooling and heating cycles. Fourier Transform Infrared (FTIR) spectroscopy was used to probe the phase of the sulfuric acid and to identify the HNO3/H2O films that condensed. Nitric acid trihydrate (NAT) was observed to grow on crystalline sulfuric acid tetrahydrate (SAT) films. NAT also condensed in/on supercooled H2SO4 films without causing crystallization of the sulfuric acid. This growth is consistent with NAT nucleation from ternary solutions as the first step in PSC formation.

  2. Growth of nitric acid hydrates on thin sulfuric acid films

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Iraci, Laura T.; Middlebrook, Ann M.; Wilson, Margaret A.; Tolbert, Margaret A.

    1994-05-01

    Type I polar stratospheric clouds (PSCs) are thought to nucleate and grow on stratospheric sulfate aerosols (SSAs). To model this system, thin sulfuric acid films were exposed to water and nitric acid vapors (1 - 3 × 10-4 Torr H2O and 1 - 2.5 × 10-6 Torr HNO3) and subjected to cooling and heating cycles. FTIR spectroscopy was used to probe the phase of the sulfuric acid and to identify the HNO3/H2O films that condensed. Nitric acid trihydrate (NAT) was observed to grow on crystalline sulfuric acid tetrahydrate (SAT) films. NAT also condensed in/on supercooled H2SO4 films without causing crystallization of the sulfuric acid. This growth is consistent with NAT nucleation from ternary solutions as the first step in PSC formation.

  3. Interaction of silicic acid with sulfurous acid scale inhibitor

    SciTech Connect

    Gallup, D.L.

    1997-12-31

    The solubility of amorphous silica and the inhibition of silica polymerization in the presence of sulfurous acid and sulfite salts has been investigated to 260{degrees}C. Investigations of inhibition of silica scaling from geothermal brines by sulfurous acid have produced unusual results. Bisulfite/sulfite increases amorphous silica solubility by {open_quotes}salting in{close_quotes} effects resulting from apparent complexation. Silica-sulfite complexes are postulated to form via hydrogen bonding, and appear to be much stronger than silica-sulfate complexes. Treatment of brines with sulfurous acid inhibits silica scaling by (1) retarding the kinetics of silicic acid polymerization, and (2) forming soluble sulfito-silicate complexes. Sulfurous acid offers several advantages over sulfuric acid in controlling scale deposition-reduced corrosion potential, reduced by-product scale formation potential, oxygen scavenging and inhibition of certain metal silicate scales.

  4. Determination of benzoic acid, chlorobenzoic acids and chlorendic acid in water

    SciTech Connect

    Dietz, E.A.; Cortellucci, N.J.; Singley, K.F. )

    1993-01-01

    To characterize and conduct treatment studies of a landfill leachate an analysis procedure was required to determine concentrations of benzoic acid, the three isomers of chlorobenzoic acid and chlorendic acid. The title compounds were isolated from acidified (pH 1) water by extraction with methyl t-butyl ether. Analytes were concentrated by back-extracting the ether with 0.1 N sodium hydroxide which was separated and acidified. This solution was analyzed by C[sub 18] reversed-phase HPLC with water/acetonitrile/acetic acid eluent and UV detection at 222 nm. The method has detection limits of 200 [mu]g/L for chlorendic acid and 100 [mu]g/L for benzoic acid and each isomer of chlorobenzoic acid. Validation studies with water which was fortified with the analytes at concentrations ranging from one to ten times detection limits resulted in average recoveries of >95%.

  5. Acid rain: Rhetoric and reality

    SciTech Connect

    Park, C.C.

    1987-01-01

    Acid rain is now one of the most serious environmental problems in developed countries. Emissions and fallout were previously extremely localized, but since the introduction of tall stacks policies in both Britain and the US - pardoxically to disperse particulate pollutants and hence reduce local damage - emissions are now lifted into the upper air currents and carried long distances downwind. The acid rain debate now embraces many western countries - including Canada, the US, England, Scotland, Wales, Sweden, Norway, Denmark, West Germany, the Netherlands, Austria, Switzerland - and a growing number of eastern countries - including the Soviet Union, Poland, East Germany, and Czechoslovakia. The problem of acid rain arises, strictly speaking, not so much from the rainfall itself as from its effects on the environment. Runoff affects surface water and groundwater, as well as soils and vegetation. Consequently changes in rainfall acidity can trigger off a range of impacts on the chemistry and ecology of lakes and rivers, soil chemistry and processes, the health and productivity of plants, and building materials, and metallic structures. The most suitable solutions to the problems of acid rain require prevention rather than cure, and there is broad agreement in both the political scientific communities on the need to reduce emissions of sulfur and nitrogen oxides to the atmosphere. Book divisions discuss: the problem of acid rain, the science of acid rain, the technology of acid rain, and the politics of acid rain, in an effort to evaluate this growing global problem of acid rain.

  6. Dimethyl Fumarate Ameliorates Lewis Rat Experimental Autoimmune Neuritis and Mediates Axonal Protection

    PubMed Central

    Pitarokoili, Kalliopi; Ambrosius, Björn; Meyer, Daniela; Schrewe, Lisa; Gold, Ralf

    2015-01-01

    Background Dimethyl fumarate is an immunomodulatory and neuroprotective drug, approved recently for the treatment of relapsing-remitting multiple sclerosis. In view of the limited therapeutic options for human acute and chronic polyneuritis, we used the animal model of experimental autoimmune neuritis in the Lewis rat to study the effects of dimethyl fumarate on autoimmune inflammation and neuroprotection in the peripheral nervous system. Methods and Findings Experimental autoimmune neuritis was induced by immunization with the neuritogenic peptide (amino acids 53–78) of P2 myelin protein. Preventive treatment with dimethyl fumarate given at 45 mg/kg twice daily by oral gavage significantly ameliorated clinical neuritis by reducing demyelination and axonal degeneration in the nerve conduction studies. Histology revealed a significantly lower degree of inflammatory infiltrates in the sciatic nerves. In addition, we detected a reduction of early signs of axonal degeneration through a reduction of amyloid precursor protein expressed in axons of the peripheral nerves. This reduction correlated with an increase of nuclear factor (erythroid derived 2)-related factor 2 positive axons, supporting the neuroprotective potential of dimethyl fumarate. Furthermore, nuclear factor (erythroid derived 2)-related factor 2 expression in Schwann cells was only rarely detected and there was no increase of Schwann cells death during EAN. Conclusions We conclude that immunmodulatory and neuroprotective dimethyl fumarate may represent an innovative therapeutic option in human autoimmune neuropathies. PMID:26618510

  7. Increased formation of ursodeoxycholic acid in patients treated with chenodeoxycholic acid.

    PubMed Central

    Salen, G; Tint, G S; Eliav, B; Deering, N; Mosbach, E H

    1974-01-01

    The formation of ursodeoxycholic acid, the 7 beta-hydroxy epimer of chenodeoxycholic acid, was investigated in three subjects with cerebrotendinous xanthomatosis and in four subjects with gallstones. Total biliary bile acid composition was analyzed by gas-liquid chromatography before and after 4 months of treatment with 0.75 g/day of chenodeoxycholic acid. Individual bile acids were identified by mass spectrometry. Before treatment, bile from cerebrotendinous xanthomatosis (CTX) subjects contained cholic acid, 85%; chenodeoxycholic acid, 7%; deoxycholic acid, 3%; allocholic acid, 3%; and unidentified steroids, 2%; while bile from gallstone subjects contained cholic acid, 45%; chenodeoxycholic acid, 43%; deoxycholic acid, 11%, and lithocholic acid, 1%. In all subjects, 4 months of chenodeoxycholic acid therapy increased the proportion of this bile acid to approximately 80% and decreased cholic acid to 3% of the total biliary bile acids, the remaining 17% of bile acids were identified as ursodeoxycholic acid. After the intravenous injection of [3H]chenodeoxycholic acid, the specific activity of biliary ursodeoxycholic acid exceeded the specific activity of chenodeoxycholic acid, and the resulting specific activity decay curves suggested precursor-product relationships. When [3H]7-ketolithocholic acid was administrated to another patient treated with chenodeoxycholic acid, radioactivity was detected in both the ursodeoxycholic acid and chenodeoxycholic acid fractions. These results indicate that substantial amounts of ursodeoxycholic acid are formed in patients treated with chenodeoxycholic acid. The ursodeoxycholic acid was synthesized from chenodeoxycholic acid presumably via 7-ketolithocholic acid. Images PMID:11344576

  8. Acidity of Strong Acids in Water and Dimethyl Sulfoxide.

    PubMed

    Trummal, Aleksander; Lipping, Lauri; Kaljurand, Ivari; Koppel, Ilmar A; Leito, Ivo

    2016-05-26

    Careful analysis and comparison of the available acidity data of HCl, HBr, HI, HClO4, and CF3SO3H in water, dimethyl sulfoxide (DMSO), and gas-phase has been carried out. The data include experimental and computational pKa and gas-phase acidity data from the literature, as well as high-level computations using different approaches (including the W1 theory) carried out in this work. As a result of the analysis, for every acid in every medium, a recommended acidity value is presented. In some cases, the currently accepted pKa values were revised by more than 10 orders of magnitude. PMID:27115918

  9. Changes on organic acid secretion and accumulation in Plantago almogravensis Franco and Plantago algarbiensis Samp. under aluminum stress.

    PubMed

    Martins, Neusa; Gonçalves, Sandra; Andrade, Paula B; Valentão, Patrícia; Romano, Anabela

    2013-01-01

    We investigated the effect of Al (400μM) on organic acids secretion, accumulation and metabolism in Plantago almogravensis Franco and Plantago algarbiensis Samp. Al induced a significant reduction on root elongation only in P. algarbiensis. Both species accumulated considerable amounts of Al (>120μgg(-1)) in their tissues, roots exhibiting the highest contents (>900μgg(-1)). Al stimulated malonic acid secretion in P. algarbiensis, while citric, succinic and malic acids were secreted by P. almogravensis. Moreover, Al uptake was accompanied by substantial increases of citric, oxalic, malonic and fumaric acids contents in the plantlets of either species. Overall, the acid metabolizing enzymes were not directly involved in the Al induced organic acid secretion and accumulation. Our data suggest that Al detoxification in P. almogravensis implies both secretion of organic acids from roots and tolerance to high Al tissue concentrations, while in P. algarbiensis only the tolerance mechanism seems to be involved. PMID:23199681

  10. 49 CFR 173.158 - Nitric acid.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... material. (b) Nitric acid in any concentration which does not contain sulfuric acid or hydrochloric acid as... sulfuric acid or hydrochloric acid as impurities, when offered for transportation or transported by rail... 49 Transportation 2 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Nitric acid. 173.158 Section...

  11. 49 CFR 173.158 - Nitric acid.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... material. (b) Nitric acid in any concentration which does not contain sulfuric acid or hydrochloric acid as... sulfuric acid or hydrochloric acid as impurities, when offered for transportation or transported by rail... 49 Transportation 2 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Nitric acid. 173.158 Section...

  12. 49 CFR 173.158 - Nitric acid.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... material. (b) Nitric acid in any concentration which does not contain sulfuric acid or hydrochloric acid as... sulfuric acid or hydrochloric acid as impurities, when offered for transportation or transported by rail... 49 Transportation 2 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Nitric acid. 173.158 Section...

  13. 49 CFR 173.158 - Nitric acid.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... material. (b) Nitric acid in any concentration which does not contain sulfuric acid or hydrochloric acid as... sulfuric acid or hydrochloric acid as impurities, when offered for transportation or transported by rail... 49 Transportation 2 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Nitric acid. 173.158 Section...

  14. Shaping up nucleic acid computation

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Xi

    2010-01-01

    Summary of recent advances (abstract) Nucleic acid-based nanotechnology has always been perceived as novel, but has begun to move from theoretical demonstrations to practical applications. In particular, the large address spaces available to nucleic acids can be exploited to encode algorithms and/or act as circuits, and thereby process molecular information. In this review we revisit several milestones in the field of nucleic acid-based computation, but also highlight how the prospects for nucleic acid computation go beyond just a large address space. Functional nucleic acid elements (aptamers, ribozymes, and deoxyribozymes) can serve as inputs and outputs to the environment, and can act as logical elements. Into the future, the chemical dynamics of nucleic acids may prove as useful as hybridization for computation. PMID:20538451

  15. Clinical use of acid steatocrit.

    PubMed

    Van den Neucker, A; Pestel, N; Tran, T M; Forget, P P; Veeze, H J; Bouquet, J; Sinaasappel, M

    1997-05-01

    Malabsorption of fat is an important gastrointestinal cause of malnutrition and growth retardation in childhood. The gold standard for the evaluation of fat malabsorption is the faecal fat balance method. The acid steatocrit method has recently been introduced as a simple method to evaluate faecal fat. The present study was aimed at evaluating the acid steatocrit in clinical practice. Faecal fat excretion and acid steatocrit results were determined in 42 children, half with and half without fat malabsorption. Acid steatocrit results correlated significantly with both faecal fat excretion (p < 0.01) and faecal fat concentration (p < 0.001). Sensitivity and specificity of the acid steatocrit for the diagnosis of malabsorption were 90% and 100%, respectively. We consider the acid steatocrit method useful for the screening and monitoring of patients with steatorrhoea. PMID:9183483

  16. Acid rain degradation of nylon

    SciTech Connect

    Kyllo, K.E.

    1984-01-01

    Acid rain, precipitation with a pH less than 5.6, is known to damage lakes, vegetation and buildings. Degradation of outdoor textiles by acid rain is strongly suspected but not well documented. This study reports the effects of sunlight, aqueous acid, heat and humidity (acid rain conditions) on spun delustered nylon 6,6 fabric. Untreated nylon and nylon treated with sulfuric acid of pH 2.0, 3.0, and 4.4 were exposed to light in an Atlas Xenon-arc fadeometer at 63/sup 0/C and 65% R.H. for up to 640 AATCC Fading Units. The untreated and acid treated nylon fabrics were also exposed to similar temperature and humidity condition without light. Nylon degradation was determined by changes in breaking strength, elongation, molecular weight, color, amino end group concentration (NH/sub 2/) and /sup 13/C NMR spectra. Physical damage was assessed using SEM.

  17. A Simpler Nucleic Acid

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Orgel, Leslie

    2000-01-01

    It has been supposed that for a nucleic acid analog to pair with RNA it must, like RNA, have a backbone with at least a sixatom repeat; a shorter backbone presumably would not stretch far enough to bind RNA properly. The Eschenmoser group has shown, however, that this first impression is incorrect.As they report in their new paper, Eschenmoser and co-workers ( I ) have now synthesized a substantial number of these polymers, which are called (L)-a-threofuranosyl oligonucleotides or TNAs. They are composed of bases linked to a threose sugar-phosphate backbone, with phosphodiester bonds connecting the nucleotides. The investigators discovered that pairs of complementary TNAs do indeed form stable Watson-Crick double helices and, perhaps more importantly, that TNAs form stable double helices with complementary RNAs and DNAs.

  18. Ghrelin and gastric acid secretion

    PubMed Central

    Yakabi, Koji; Kawashima, Junichi; Kato, Shingo

    2008-01-01

    Ghrelin, a novel growth hormone-releasing peptide, was originally isolated from rat and human stomach. Ghrelin has been known to increase the secretion of growth hormone (GH), food intake, and body weight gain when administered peripherally or centrally. Ghrelin is also known to stimulate the gastric motility and the secretion of gastric acid. In the previous studies, the action of ghrelin on acid secretion was shown to be as strong as that of histamine and gastrin in in-vivo experiment. In the studies, the mechanism for the action of ghrelin was also investigated. It was shown that vagotomy completely inhibited the action of ghrelin on the secretion of gastric acid suggesting that vagal nerve is involved in the mechanism for the action of ghrelin on acid secretion. As famotidine did not inhibit ghrelin-induced acid secretion in the study by Masuda et al, they concluded that histamine was not involved in the action of ghrelin on acid secretion. However, we have shown that famotidine completely inhibited ghrelin-induced acid secretion and histidine decarboxylase (HDC) mRNA was increased in gastric mucosa by ghrelin injection which is inhibited by vagotomy Our results indicate that histamine is involved in the action of ghrelin on acid secretion. Furthermore synergistic action of gastrin and ghrelin on gastric acid secretion was shown. Although gastrin has important roles in postprandial secretion of gastric acid, ghrelin may be related to acid secretion during fasting period or at night. However, further studies are needed to elucidate the physiological role of ghrelin in acid secretion. PMID:19009648

  19. Organic Acids by Ion Chromatography

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rich, William E.; Johnson, Edward; Lois, Louis; Stafford, Brian E.; Kabra, Pokar M.; Marton, Laurence J.

    The presence of increased levels of various organic acids in physiological fluids such as serum, plasma, and urine has been correlated with a variety of diseases (1). Although some are rare, others such as lactic acidosis and hyperoxaluria are more widespread (2, 3). The estimation of organic acids in biological fluids has long been an analytical problem owing to the nature of the samples and the hydrophilic behavior of the various acids.

  20. All-trans retinoic acid regulates hepatic bile acid homeostasis

    PubMed Central

    Yang, Fan; He, Yuqi; Liu, Hui-Xin; Tsuei, Jessica; Jiang, Xiaoyue; Yang, Li; Wang, Zheng-Tao; Wan, Yu-Jui Yvonne

    2014-01-01

    Retinoic acid (RA) and bile acids share common roles in regulating lipid homeostasis and insulin sensitivity. In addition, the receptor for RA (retinoid x receptor) is a permissive partner of the receptor for bile acids, farnesoid x receptor (FXR/NR1H4). Thus, RA can activate the FXR-mediated pathway as well. The current study was designed to understand the effect of all-trans RA on bile acid homeostasis. Mice were fed an all-trans RA-supplemented diet and the expression of 46 genes that participate in regulating bile acid homeostasis was studied. The data showed that all-trans RA has a profound effect in regulating genes involved in synthesis and transport of bile acids. All-trans RA treatment reduced the gene expression levels of Cyp7a1, Cyp8b1, and Akr1d1, which are involved in bile acid synthesis. All-trans RA also decreased the hepatic mRNA levels of Lrh-1 (Nr5a2) and Hnf4α (Nr2a1), which positively regulate the gene expression of Cyp7a1 and Cyp8b1. Moreover, all-trans RA induced the gene expression levels of negative regulators of bile acid synthesis including hepatic Fgfr4, Fxr, and Shp (Nr0b2) as well as ileal Fgf15. All-trans RA also decreased the expression of Abcb11 and Slc51b, which have a role in bile acid transport. Consistently, all-trans RA reduced hepatic bile acid levels and the ratio of CA/CDCA, as demonstrated by liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry. The data suggest that all-trans RA-induced SHP may contribute to the inhibition of CYP7A1 and CYP8B1, which in turn reduces bile acid synthesis and affects lipid absorption in the gastrointestinal tract. PMID:25175738

  1. Quantitative analysis of amino acid oxidation and related gluconeogenesis in humans.

    PubMed

    Jungas, R L; Halperin, M L; Brosnan, J T

    1992-04-01

    Significant gaps remain in our knowledge of the pathways of amino acid catabolism in humans. Further quantitative data describing amino acid metabolism in the kidney are especially needed as are further details concerning the pathways utilized for certain amino acids in liver. Sufficient data do exist to allow a broad picture of the overall process of amino acid oxidation to be developed along with approximate quantitative assessments of the role played by liver, muscle, kidney, and small intestine. Our analysis indicates that amino acids are the major fuel of liver, i.e., their oxidative conversion to glucose accounts for about one-half of the daily oxygen consumption of the liver, and no other fuel contributes nearly so importantly. The daily supply of amino acids provided in the diet cannot be totally oxidized to CO2 in the liver because such a process would provide far more ATP than the liver could utilize. Instead, most amino acids are oxidatively converted to glucose. This results in an overall ATP production during amino acid oxidation very nearly equal to the ATP required to convert amino acid carbon to glucose. Thus gluconeogenesis occurs without either a need for ATP from other fuels or an excessive ATP production that could limit the maximal rate of the process. The net effect of the oxidation of amino acids to glucose in the liver is to make nearly two-thirds of the total energy available from the oxidation of amino acids accessible to peripheral tissues, without necessitating that peripheral tissues synthesize the complex array of enzymes needed to support direct amino acid oxidation. As a balanced mixture of amino acids is oxidized in the liver, nearly all carbon from glucogenic amino acids flows into the mitochondrial aspartate pool and is actively transported out of the mitochondria via the aspartate-glutamate antiport linked to proton entry. In the cytoplasm the aspartate is converted to fumarate utilizing urea cycle enzymes; the fumarate flows via

  2. Preparation and characterization Al3+-bentonite Turen Malang for esterification fatty acid (palmitic acid, oleic acid and linoleic acid)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Abdulloh, Abdulloh; Aminah, Nanik Siti; Triyono, Mudasir, Trisunaryanti, Wega

    2016-03-01

    Catalyst preparation and characterization of Al3+-bentonite for esterification of palmitic acid, oleic acid and linoleic acid has been done. Al3+-bentonite catalyst was prepared from natural bentonite of Turen Malang through cation exchange reaction using AlCl3 solution. The catalysts obtained were characterized by XRD, XRF, pyridine-FTIR and surface area analyser using the BET method. Catalyst activity test of Al3+-bentonite for esterification reaction was done at 65°C using molar ratio of metanol-fatty acid of 30:1 and 0.25 g of Al3+-bentonite catalyst for the period of ½, 1, 2, 3, 4 and 5 hours. Based on the characterization results, the Al3+-bentonite Turen Malang catalyst has a d-spacing of 15.63 Ǻ, acid sites of Brönsted and Lewis respectively of 230.79 µmol/g and 99.39 µmol/g, surface area of 507.3 m2/g and the average of radius pore of 20.09 Å. GC-MS analysis results of the oil phase after esterification reaction showed the formation of biodiesel (FAME: Fatty acid methyl ester), namely methyl palmitate, methyl oleate and methyl linoleate. The number of conversions resulted in esterification reaction using Al3+-bentonite Turen Malang catalyst was 74.61%, 37.75%, and 20, 93% for the esterification of palmitic acid, oleic acid and linoleic acid respectively.

  3. Acidity of frozen electrolyte solutions.

    PubMed

    Robinson, Carmen; Boxe, C S; Guzman, M I; Colussi, A J; Hoffmann, M R

    2006-04-20

    Ice is selectively intolerant to impurities. A preponderance of implanted anions or cations generates electrical imbalances in ice grown from electrolyte solutions. Since the excess charges are ultimately neutralized via interfacial (H(+)/HO(-)) transport, the acidity of the unfrozen portion can change significantly and permanently. This insufficiently recognized phenomenon should critically affect rates and equilibria in frozen media. Here we report the effective (19)F NMR chemical shift of 3-fluorobenzoic acid as in situ probe of the acidity of extensively frozen electrolyte solutions. The sign and magnitude of the acidity changes associated with freezing are largely determined by specific ion combinations, but depend also on solute concentration and/or the extent of supercooling. NaCl solutions become more basic, those of (NH(4))(2)SO(4) or Na(2)SO(4) become more acidic, while solutions of the 2-(N-morpholino)ethanesulfonic acid zwitterion barely change their acidity upon freezing. We discuss how acidity scales based on solid-state NMR measurements could be used to assess the degree of ionization of weak acids and bases in frozen media. PMID:16610849

  4. Acidic gas capture by diamines

    DOEpatents

    Rochelle, Gary; Hilliard, Marcus

    2011-05-10

    Compositions and methods related to the removal of acidic gas. In particular, the present disclosure relates to a composition and method for the removal of acidic gas from a gas mixture using a solvent comprising a diamine (e.g., piperazine) and carbon dioxide. One example of a method may involve a method for removing acidic gas comprising contacting a gas mixture having an acidic gas with a solvent, wherein the solvent comprises piperazine in an amount of from about 4 to about 20 moles/kg of water, and carbon dioxide in an amount of from about 0.3 to about 0.9 moles per mole of piperazine.

  5. MedlinePlus: Folic Acid

    MedlinePlus

    ... and Tests Homocysteine Test (American Association for Clinical Chemistry) Vitamin B12 and Folate Test (American Association for Clinical Chemistry) Related Issues Folic Acid Supplements: Can They Slow ...

  6. Bacterial Decarboxylation of o-Phthalic Acids

    PubMed Central

    Taylor, Barrie F.; Ribbons, Douglas W.

    1983-01-01

    The decarboxylation of phthalic acids was studied with Bacillus sp. strain FO, a marine mixed culture ON-7, and Pseudomonas testosteroni. The mixed culture ON-7, when grown anaerobically on phthalate but incubated aerobically with chloramphenicol, quantitatively converted phthalic acid to benzoic acid. Substituted phthalic acids were also decarboxylated: 4,5-dihydroxyphthalic acid to protocatechuic acid; 4-hydroxyphthalic and 4-chlorophthalic acids to 3-hydroxybenzoic and 3-chlorobenzoic acids, respectively; and 3-fluorophthalic acid to 2-and 3-fluorobenzoic acids. Bacillus sp. strain FO gave similar results except that 4,5-dihydroxyphthalic acid was not metabolized, and both 3- and 4-hydroxybenzoic acids were produced from 4-hydroxyphthalic acid. P. testosteroni decarboxylated 4-hydroxyphthalate (to 3-hydroxybenzoate) and 4,5-dihydroxyphthalate but not phthalic acid and halogenated phthalates. Thus, P. testosteroni and the mixed culture ON-7 possessed 4,5-dihydroxyphthalic acid decarboxylase, previously described in P. testosteroni, that metabolized 4,5-dihydroxyphthalic acid and specifically decarboxylated 4-hydroxyphthalic acid to 3-hydroxybenzoic acid. The mixed culture ON-7 and Bacillus sp. strain FO also possessed a novel decarboxylase that metabolized phthalic acid and halogenated phthalates, but not 4,5-dihydroxyphthalate, and randomly decarboxylated 4-hydroxyphthalic acid. The decarboxylation of phthalic acid is suggested to involve an initial reduction to 1,2-dihydrophthalic acid followed by oxidative decarboxylation to benzoic acid. PMID:16346440

  7. Fatty acid-amino acid conjugates diversification in Lepidopteran caterpillars

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Fatty acid amino acid conjugates (FACs) have been found in Noctuid as well as Sphingid caterpillar oral secretions and especially volicitin [N-(17-hydroxylinolenoyl)-L-Glutamine] and its biochemical precursor, N-linolenoyl-L-glutamine, are known elicitors of induced volatile emissions in corn plants...

  8. Fatty Acid Desaturases, Polyunsaturated Fatty Acid Regulation, and Biotechnological Advances.

    PubMed

    Lee, Je Min; Lee, Hyungjae; Kang, SeokBeom; Park, Woo Jung

    2016-01-01

    Polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFAs) are considered to be critical nutrients to regulate human health and development, and numerous fatty acid desaturases play key roles in synthesizing PUFAs. Given the lack of delta-12 and -15 desaturases and the low levels of conversion to PUFAs, humans must consume some omega-3 and omega-6 fatty acids in their diet. Many studies on fatty acid desaturases as well as PUFAs have shown that fatty acid desaturase genes are closely related to different human physiological conditions. Since the first front-end desaturases from cyanobacteria were cloned, numerous desaturase genes have been identified and animals and plants have been genetically engineered to produce PUFAs such as eicosapentaenoic acid and docosahexaenoic acid. Recently, a biotechnological approach has been used to develop clinical treatments for human physiological conditions, including cancers and neurogenetic disorders. Thus, understanding the functions and regulation of PUFAs associated with human health and development by using biotechnology may facilitate the engineering of more advanced PUFA production and provide new insights into the complexity of fatty acid metabolism. PMID:26742061

  9. Fatty Acid Desaturases, Polyunsaturated Fatty Acid Regulation, and Biotechnological Advances

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Je Min; Lee, Hyungjae; Kang, SeokBeom; Park, Woo Jung

    2016-01-01

    Polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFAs) are considered to be critical nutrients to regulate human health and development, and numerous fatty acid desaturases play key roles in synthesizing PUFAs. Given the lack of delta-12 and -15 desaturases and the low levels of conversion to PUFAs, humans must consume some omega-3 and omega-6 fatty acids in their diet. Many studies on fatty acid desaturases as well as PUFAs have shown that fatty acid desaturase genes are closely related to different human physiological conditions. Since the first front-end desaturases from cyanobacteria were cloned, numerous desaturase genes have been identified and animals and plants have been genetically engineered to produce PUFAs such as eicosapentaenoic acid and docosahexaenoic acid. Recently, a biotechnological approach has been used to develop clinical treatments for human physiological conditions, including cancers and neurogenetic disorders. Thus, understanding the functions and regulation of PUFAs associated with human health and development by using biotechnology may facilitate the engineering of more advanced PUFA production and provide new insights into the complexity of fatty acid metabolism. PMID:26742061

  10. Biosynthetic Pathways of Vibrio succinogenes growing with fumarate as terminal electron acceptor and sole carbon source.

    PubMed

    Bronder, M; Mell, H; Stupperich, E; Kröger, A

    1982-05-01

    1. With fumarate as the terminal electron acceptor and either H2 or formate as donor, Vibrio succinogenes could grow anaerobically in a mineral medium using fumarate as the sole carbon source. Both the growth rate and the cell yield were increased when glutamate was also present in the medium. 2. Glutamate was incorporated only into the amino acids of the glutamate family (glutamate, glutamine, proline and arginine) of the protein. The residual cell constituents were synthesized from fumarate. 3. Pyruvate and phosphoenolpyruvate, as the central intermediates of most of the cell constituents, were formed through the action of malic enzyme and phosphoenolpyruvate synthetase. Fructose-1,6-bisphosphate aldolase was present in the bacterium suggesting that this enzyme is involved in carbohydrate synthesis. 4. In the absence of added glutamate the amino acids of the glutamate family were synthesized from fumarate via citrate. The enzymes involved in glutamate synthesis were present. 5. During growth in the presence of glutamate, net reducing equivalents were needed for cell synthesis. Glutamate and not H2 or formate was used as the source of these reducing equivalents. For this purpose part of the glutamate was oxidized to yield succinate and CO2. 6. The alpha-ketoglutarate dehydrogenase involved in this reaction was found to use ferredoxin as the electron acceptor. The ferredoxin of the bacterium was reoxidized by means of a NADP-ferredoxin oxidoreductase. Enzymes catalyzing the reduction of NAD, NADP or ferredoxin by H2 or formate were not detected in the bacterium. PMID:7103660

  11. A comparison of chromic acid and sulfuric acid anodizing

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Danford, M. D.

    1992-01-01

    Because of federal and state mandates restricting the use of hexavalent chromium, it was deemed worthwhile to compare the corrosion protection afforded 2219-T87 aluminum alloy by both Type I chromic acid and Type II sulfuric acid anodizing per MIL-A-8625. Corrosion measurements were made on large, flat 2219-T87 aluminum alloy sheet material with an area of 1 cm(exp 2) exposed to a corrosive medium of 3.5-percent sodium chloride at pH 5.5. Both ac electrochemical impedance spectroscopy and the dc polarization resistance techniques were employed. The results clearly indicate that the corrosion protection obtained by Type II sulfuric acid anodizing is superior, and no problems should result by substituting Type II sulfuric acid anodizing for Type I chromic acid anodizing.

  12. Effect of propionic acid on fatty acid oxidation and ureagenesis.

    PubMed

    Glasgow, A M; Chase, H P

    1976-07-01

    Propionic acid significantly inhibited 14CO2 production from [1-14C] palmitate at a concentration of 10 muM in control fibroblasts and 100 muM in methylmalonic fibroblasts. This inhibition was similar to that produced by 4-pentenoic acid. Methylmalonic acid also inhibited 14CO2 production from [1-14C] palmitate, but only at a concentration of 1 mM in control cells and 5 mM in methylmalonic cells. Propionic acid (5 mM) also inhibited ureagenesis in rat liver slices when ammonia was the substrate but not with aspartate and citrulline as substrates. Propionic acid had no direct effect on either carbamyl phosphate synthetase or ornithine transcarbamylase. These findings may explain the fatty degeneration of the liver and the hyperammonemia in propionic and methylmalonic acidemia. PMID:934734

  13. Microbial desulfonation of substituted naphthalenesulfonic acids and benzenesulfonic acids.

    PubMed Central

    Zürrer, D; Cook, A M; Leisinger, T

    1987-01-01

    Sulfur-limited batch enrichment cultures containing one of nine multisubstituted naphthalenesulfonates and an inoculum from sewage yielded several taxa of bacteria which could quantitatively utilize 19 sulfonated aromatic compounds as the sole sulfur source for growth. Growth yields were about 4 kg of protein per mol of sulfur. Specific degradation rates were about 4 to 14 mu kat/kg of protein. A Pseudomonas sp., an Arthrobacter sp., and an unidentified bacterium were examined. Each desulfonated at least 16 aromatic compounds, none of which served as a carbon source. Pseudomonas sp. strain S-313 converted 1-naphthalenesulfonic acid, 2-naphthalenesulfonic acid, 5-amino-1-naphthalenesulfonic acid, benzenesulfonic acid, and 3-aminobenzenesulfonic acid to 1-naphthol, 2-naphthol, 5-amino-1-naphthol, phenol, and 3-aminophenol, respectively. Experiments with 18O2 showed that the hydroxyl group was derived from molecular oxygen. PMID:3662502

  14. Toxicity of Select Organic Acids to the Slightly Thermophilic Acidophile Acidithiobaccillus Caldus

    SciTech Connect

    John E Aston; William A Apel; Brady D Lee; Brent M Peyton

    2009-02-01

    Acidithiobacillus caldus is a thermophilic acidophile found in commercial biomining, acid mine drainage systems, and natural environments. Previous work has characterized A. caldus as a chemolithotrophic autotroph capable of utilizing reduced sulfur compounds under aerobic conditions. Organic acids are especially toxic to chemolithotrophs in low-pH environments, where they diffuse more readily into the cell and deprotonate within the cytoplasm. In the present study, the toxic effects of oxaloacetate, pyruvate, 2-ketoglutarate, acetate, malate, succinate, and fumarate on A. caldus strain BC13 were examined under batch conditions. All tested organic acids exhibited some inhibitory effect. Oxaloacetate was observed to inhibit growth completely at a concentration of 250 µM, whereas other organic acids were completely inhibitory at concentrations of between 1,000 and 5,000 µM. In these experiments, the measured concentrations of organic acids decreased with time, indicating uptake or assimilation by the cells. Phospholipid fatty acid analyses indicated an effect of organic acids on the cellular envelope. Notable differences included an increase in cyclic fatty acids in the presence of organic acids, indicating possible instability of the cellular envelope. This was supported by field emission scanning-electron micrographs showing blebbing and sluffing in cells grown in the presence of organic acids.

  15. Toxicity of select organic acids to the slightly thermophilic acidophile Acidithiobacillus caldus.

    PubMed

    Aston, John E; Apel, William A; Lee, Brady D; Peyton, Brent M

    2009-02-01

    Acidithiobacillus caldus is a thermophilic acidophile found in commercial biomining, acid mine drainage systems, and natural environments. Previous work has characterized A. caldus as a chemolithotrophic autotroph capable of utilizing reduced sulfur compounds under aerobic conditions. Organic acids are especially toxic to chemolithotrophs in low-pH environments, where they diffuse more readily into the cell and deprotonate within the cytoplasm. In the present study, the toxic effects of oxaloacetate, pyruvate, 2-ketoglutarate, acetate, malate, succinate, and fumarate on A. caldus strain BC13 were examined under batch conditions. All tested organic acids exhibited some inhibitory effect. Oxaloacetate was observed to inhibit growth completely at a concentration of 250 microM, whereas other organic acids were completely inhibitory at concentrations of between 1,000 and 5,000 microM. In these experiments, the measured concentrations of organic acids decreased with time, indicating uptake or assimilation by the cells. Phospholipid fatty acid analyses indicated an effect of organic acids on the cellular envelope. Notable differences included an increase in cyclic fatty acids in the presence of organic acids, indicating possible instability of the cellular envelope. This was supported by field emission scanning-electron micrographs showing blebbing and sluffing in cells grown in the presence of organic acids. PMID:18803441

  16. Carbonic Acid Retreatment of Biomass

    SciTech Connect

    Baylor university

    2003-06-01

    This project sought to address six objectives, outlined below. The objectives were met through the completion of ten tasks. (1) Solidify the theoretical understanding of the binary CO{sub 2}/H{sub 2}O system at reaction temperatures and pressures. The thermodynamics of pH prediction have been improved to include a more rigorous treatment of non-ideal gas phases. However it was found that experimental attempts to confirm theoretical pH predictions were still off by a factor of about 1.8 pH units. Arrhenius experiments were carried out and the activation energy for carbonic acid appears to be substantially similar to sulfuric acid. Titration experiments have not yet confirmed or quantified the buffering or acid suppression effects of carbonic acid on biomass. (2) Modify the carbonic acid pretreatment severity function to include the effect of endogenous acid formation and carbonate buffering, if necessary. It was found that the existing severity functions serve adequately to account for endogenous acid production and carbonate effects. (3) Quantify the production of soluble carbohydrates at different reaction conditions and severity. Results show that carbonic acid has little effect on increasing soluble carbohydrate concentrations for pretreated aspen wood, compared to pretreatment with water alone. This appears to be connected to the release of endogenous acids by the substrate. A less acidic substrate such as corn stover would derive benefit from the use of carbonic acid. (4) Quantify the production of microbial inhibitors at selected reaction conditions and severity. It was found that the release of inhibitors was correlated to reaction severity and that carbonic acid did not appear to increase or decrease inhibition compared to pretreatment with water alone. (5) Assess the reactivity to enzymatic hydrolysis of material pretreated at selected reaction conditions and severity. Enzymatic hydrolysis rates increased with severity, but no advantage was detected for

  17. Carbonic Acid Pretreatment of Biomass

    SciTech Connect

    G. Peter van Walsum; Kemantha Jayawardhana; Damon Yourchisin; Robert McWilliams; Vanessa Castleberry

    2003-05-31

    This project sought to address six objectives, outlined below. The objectives were met through the completion of ten tasks. 1) Solidify the theoretical understanding of the binary CO2/H2O system at reaction temperatures and pressures. The thermodynamics of pH prediction have been improved to include a more rigorous treatment of non-ideal gas phases. However it was found that experimental attempts to confirm theoretical pH predictions were still off by a factor of about 1.8 pH units. Arrhenius experiments were carried out and the activation energy for carbonic acid appears to be substantially similar to sulfuric acid. Titration experiments have not yet confirmed or quantified the buffering or acid suppression effects of carbonic acid on biomass. 2) Modify the carbonic acid pretreatment severity function to include the effect of endogenous acid formation and carbonate buffering, if necessary. It was found that the existing severity functions serve adequately to account for endogenous acid production and carbonate effects. 3) Quantify the production of soluble carbohydrates at different reaction conditions and severity. Results show that carbonic acid has little effect on increasing soluble carbohydrate concentrations for pretreated aspen wood, compared to pretreatment with water alone. This appears to be connected to the release of endogenous acids by the substrate. A less acidic substrate such as corn stover would derive benefit from the use of carbonic acid. 4) Quantify the production of microbial inhibitors at selected reaction conditions and severity. It was found that the release of inhibitors was correlated to reaction severity and that carbonic acid did not appear to increase or decrease inhibition compared to pretreatment with water alone. 5) Assess the reactivity to enzymatic hydrolysis of material pretreated at selected reaction conditions and severity. Enzymatic hydrolysis rates increased with severity, but no advantage was detected for the use of carbonic

  18. Anacardic Acid, Salicylic Acid, and Oleic Acid Differentially Alter Cellular Bioenergetic Function in Breast Cancer Cells.

    PubMed

    Radde, Brandie N; Alizadeh-Rad, Negin; Price, Stephanie M; Schultz, David J; Klinge, Carolyn M

    2016-11-01

    Anacardic acid is a dietary and medicinal phytochemical that inhibits breast cancer cell proliferation and uncouples oxidative phosphorylation (OXPHOS) in isolated rat liver mitochondria. Since mitochondrial-targeted anticancer therapy (mitocans) may be useful in breast cancer, we examined the effect of anacardic acid on cellular bioenergetics and OXPHOS pathway proteins in breast cancer cells modeling progression to endocrine-independence: MCF-7 estrogen receptor α (ERα)+ endocrine-sensitive; LCC9 and LY2 ERα+, endocrine-resistant, and MDA-MB-231 triple negative breast cancer (TNBC) cells. At concentrations similar to cell proliferation IC50 s, anacardic acid reduced ATP-linked oxygen consumption rate (OCR), mitochondrial reserve capacity, and coupling efficiency while increasing proton leak, reflecting mitochondrial toxicity which was greater in MCF-7 compared to endocrine-resistant and TNBC cells. These results suggest tolerance in endocrine-resistant and TNBC cells to mitochondrial stress induced by anacardic acid. Since anacardic acid is an alkylated 2-hydroxybenzoic acid, the effects of salicylic acid (SA, 2-hydroxybenzoic acid moiety) and oleic acid (OA, monounsaturated alkyl moiety) were tested. SA inhibited whereas OA stimulated cell viability. In contrast to stimulation of basal OCR by anacardic acid (uncoupling effect), neither SA nor OA altered basal OCR- except OA inhibited basal and ATP-linked OCR, and increased ECAR, in MDA-MB-231 cells. Changes in OXPHOS proteins correlated with changes in OCR. Overall, neither the 2-hydroxybenzoic acid moiety nor the monounsaturated alky moiety of anacardic acid is solely responsible for the observed mitochondria-targeted anticancer activity in breast cancer cells and hence both moieties are required in the same molecule for the observed effects. J. Cell. Biochem. 117: 2521-2532, 2016. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. PMID:26990649

  19. The evolution of Jen3 proteins and their role in dicarboxylic acid transport in Yarrowia

    PubMed Central

    Dulermo, Rémi; Gamboa-Meléndez, Heber; Michely, Stéphanie; Thevenieau, France; Neuvéglise, Cécile; Nicaud, Jean-Marc

    2015-01-01

    Jen proteins in yeast are involved in the uptake of mono/dicarboxylic acids. The Jen1 subfamily transports lactate and pyruvate, while the Jen2 subfamily transports fumarate, malate, and succinate. Yarrowia lipolytica has six JEN genes: YALI0B19470g, YALI0C15488g, YALI0C21406g, YALI0D20108g, YALI0D24607g, and YALI0E32901g. Through phylogenetic analyses, we found that these genes represent a new subfamily, Jen3 and that these three Jen subfamilies derivate from three putative ancestral genes. Reverse transcription-PCR. revealed that only four YLJEN genes are expressed and they are upregulated in the presence of lactate, pyruvate, fumarate, malate, and/or succinate, suggesting that they are able to transport these substrates. Analysis of deletion mutant strains revealed that Jen3 subfamily proteins transport fumarate, malate, and succinate. We found evidence that YALI0C15488 encodes the main transporter because its deletion was sufficient to strongly reduce or suppress growth in media containing fumarate, malate, or succinate. It appears that the other YLJEN genes play a minor role, with the exception of YALI0E32901g, which is important for malate uptake. However, the overexpression of each YLJEN gene in the sextuple-deletion mutant strain ΔYLjen1-6 revealed that all six genes are functional and have evolved to transport different substrates with varying degrees of efficacy. In addition, we found that YALI0E32901p transported succinate more efficiently in the presence of lactate or fumarate. PMID:25515252

  20. Influence of organic acids on the transport of heavy metals in soil.

    PubMed

    Schwab, A P; Zhu, D S; Banks, M K

    2008-06-01

    Vegetation historically has been an important part of reclamation of sites contaminated with metals, whether the objective was to stabilize the metals or remove them through phytoremediation. Understanding the impact of organic acids typically found in the rhizosphere would contribute to our knowledge of the impact of plants in contaminated environments. Heavy metal transport in soils in the presence of simple organic acids was assessed in two laboratory studies. In the first study, thin layer chromatography (TLC) was used to investigate Zn, Cd, and Pb movement in a sandy loam soil as affected by soluble organic acids in the rhizosphere. Many of these organic acids enhanced heavy metal movement. For organic acid concentrations of 10mM, citric acid had the highest R(f) values (frontal distance moved by metal divided by frontal distance moved by the solution) for Zn, followed by malic, tartaric, fumaric, and glutaric acids. Citric acid also has the highest R(f) value for Cd movement followed by fumaric acid. Citric acid and tartaric acid enhanced Pb transport to the greatest degree. For most organic acids studied, R(f) values followed the trend Zn>Cd>Pb. Citric acid (10mM) increased R(f) values of Zn and Cd by approximately three times relative to water. In the second study, small soil columns were used to test the impact of simple organic acids on Zn, Cd, and Pb leaching in soils. Citric acid greatly enhanced Zn and Cd movement in soils but had little influence on Pb movement. The Zn and Cd in the effluents from columns treated with 10mM citric acid attained influent metal concentrations by the end of the experiment, but effluent metal concentrations were much less than influent concentrations for citrate <10mM. Exchangeable Zn in the soil columns was about 40% of total Zn, and approximately 80% total Cd was in exchangeable form. Nearly all of the Pb retained by the soil columns was exchangeable. PMID:18482743

  1. Application of acetate, lactate, and fumarate as electron donors in microbial fuel cell

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vasyliv, Oresta M.; Bilyy, Oleksandr I.; Ferensovych, Yaroslav P.; Hnatush, Svitlana O.

    2013-09-01

    Microbial fuel cells (MFCs) are devices that use bacteria as the catalysts to oxidize organic and inorganic matter and generate current. Up to now, several classes of extracellular electron transfer mechanisms have been elucidated for various microorganisms. Shewanellaceae and Geobacteraceae families include the most of model exoelectrogenic microorganisms. Desulfuromonas acetoxidans bacterium inhabits aquatic sedimental sulfur-containing environments and is philogenetically close to representatives of Geobacteraceae family. Two chamber microbial fuel cell (0.3 l volume) was constructed with application of D. acetoxidans IMV B-7384 as anode biocatalyst. Acetic, lactic and fumaric acids were separately applied as organic electron donors for bacterial growth in constructed MFC. Bacterial cultivation in MFC was held during twenty days. Lactate oxidation caused electric power production with the highest value up to 0.071 mW on 64 hour of D. acetoxidans IMV B-7384 growth. Addition of acetic and fumaric acids into bacterial growth medium caused maximal power production up to 0.075 and 0.074 mW respectively on the 40 hour of their growth. Increasing of incubation time up to twentieth day caused decrease of generated electric power till 0.018 mW, 0.042 mW and 0.047 mW under usage of lactic, acetic and fumaric acids respectively by investigated bacteria. Power generation by D. acetoxidans IMV B-7384 was more stabile and durable under application of acetic and fumaric acids as electron donors in constructed MFC, than under addition of lactic acid in the same concentration into the growth medium.

  2. Acid rain: effects on fish and wildlife

    SciTech Connect

    Mayer, K.S.; Multer, E.P.; Schreiber, R.K.

    1984-01-01

    The following questions concerning acid rain are discussed: what is acid rain; what causes acid rain; where do sulfur and nitrogen oxides originate; what areas in the U.S. are susceptible to acid rain; are there early warning signals of acidification to aquatic resources; how does acid rain affect fishery resources; does acid rain affect wildlife; and how can effects of acid rain be reduced.

  3. Synthesis of (+) and (-)-phaselic acid

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    (2S)-Phaselic acid (2S-O-caffeoylmalate) is a common plant metabolite belonging to the o-diphenol subclass of phenolic secondary metabolites. Our interest in this metabolite stems from previous studies showing that the presence of (2S)-phaselic acid in red clover is crucial to the preservation of ut...

  4. Synthesis of (+)- and (-)-phaselic acid

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    (2S)-Phaselic acid (2S-O-caffeoylmalate) is a common plant metabolite belonging to the o-diphenol subclass of phenolic secondary metabolites. Our interest in this metabolite stems from previous studies showing that the presence of (2S)-phaselic acid in red clover is crucial to the preservation of ut...

  5. BOTANICAL ASPECTS OF ACIDIC PRECIPITATION

    EPA Science Inventory

    Acidic precipitation can be characterized as wet or frozen atmospheric deposition with a hydrogen ion concentration greater than 2.5 microequivalents liter-1. Acidic precipitation is perceived as a significant air pollution problem derived chiefly from combustion of fossil fuels,...

  6. SOIL REACTION AND ACIDIC DEPOSITION

    EPA Science Inventory

    This chapter discusses the major chemical processes by which acidic deposition interacts with soils. he focus is on forest soils, as the effects of acidic deposition on soils used for production of food and fiber are generally small compared to effects of agricultural practices s...

  7. Acid Rain: The Scientific Challenge.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Godfrey, Paul J.

    1991-01-01

    Documents the workings and findings of the Massachusetts Acid Rain Monitoring Project, which has pooled the volunteer efforts of more than 1,000 amateur and professional scientists since 1983. Reports on the origins of air pollution, the prediction of acid rain, and its effects on both water life and land resources. (JJK)

  8. Acid Rain: An Educational Opportunity?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Marion, James I.

    1984-01-01

    Deals with how educators can handle the subject of acid rain; illustrates suggestions with experiences of grade nine students visiting Frost Valley Environmental Education Center (Oliverea, New York) to learn scientific concepts through observation of outdoor phenomena, including a stream; and discusses acid rain, pH levels, and pollution control…

  9. Acid Rain: What's the Forecast?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bybee, Rodger

    1984-01-01

    Discusses various types of acid rain, considered to be a century-old problem. Topics include: wet and dry deposition, effects on a variety of environments, ecosystems subject to detrimental effects, and possible solutions to the problem. A list of recommended resources on acid rain is provided. (BC)

  10. Acid rain & electric utilities II

    SciTech Connect

    1997-12-31

    This document presents reports which were presented at the Acid Rain and Electric Utilities Conference. Topics include environmental issues and electric utilities; acid rain program overview; global climate change and carbon dioxide; emissions data management; compliance; emissions control; allowance and trading; nitrogen oxides; and assessment. Individual reports have been processed separately for the United States Department of Energy databases.

  11. Acid Precipitation: Causes and Consequences.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Babich, Harvey; And Others

    1980-01-01

    This article is the first of three articles in a series on the acid rain problem in recent years. Discussed are the causes of acid precipitation and its consequences for the abiotic and biotic components of the terrestrial and aquatic ecosystems, and for man-made materials. (Author/SA)

  12. TRANS ACIDS IN SPECIALTY LIPIDS

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The role of trans acids in human health and nutrition is highly controversial and a search of the Internet reveals the interest in the subject. Trans acids are perceived as "killer fats" at one end of the spectrum to having no adverse effects at the other. In addition, saturated fats are perceived...

  13. Acid precipitation in historical perspective

    SciTech Connect

    Cowling, E.B.

    1982-02-01

    The history of acid precipitation is traced from the first awareness of the problem in the mid-17th century to the present. An outline of the National Acid Precipitation Assessment program is also given, and the author makes recommendations for future research. (JMT)

  14. SIMULATED ACID RAIN ON CROPS

    EPA Science Inventory

    In 1981, simulated H2SO4 acid rain was applied to alfalfa and tall fescue and a 2:1 ratio of H2SO4:HNO3 acid rain was applied to alfalfa, tall fescue, barley, wheat, potato, tomato, radish, and corn crops growing in the open field at Corvallis, Oregon. Careful attention was given...

  15. Acid rain: a background report

    SciTech Connect

    Glustrom, L.; Stolzenberg, J.

    1982-07-08

    This Staff Brief was prepared for the Wisconsin Legislative Council's Special Committee on Acid Rain to provide an introduction to the issue of acid rain. It is divided into four parts. Part I provides an overview on the controversies surrounding the measurement, formation and effects of acid rain. As described in Part I, the term acid rain is used to describe the deposition of acidic components through both wet deposition (e.g., rain or snow) and dry deposition (e.g., direct contact between atmospheric constituents and the land, water or vegetation of the earth). Part II presents background information on state agency activities relating to acid rain in Wisconsin, describes what is known about the occurrence of, susceptibility to and effects of acid rain in Wisconsin, and provides information related to man-made sources of sulfur and nitrogen oxides in Wisconsin. Part III describes major policies and regulations relating to acid rain which have been or are being developed jointly by the United States and Canadian governments, by the United States government and by the State of Wisconsin. Part IV briefly discusses possible areas for Committee action.

  16. Getting Back to Basics (& Acidics)

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rhodes, Sam

    2006-01-01

    This article describes a few novel acid-base experiments intended to introduce students to the basic concepts of acid-base chemistry and provide practical examples that apply directly to the study of biology and the human body. Important concepts such as the reaction between carbon dioxide and water, buffers and protein denaturation, are covered.…

  17. ACID DEPOSITION AND FOREST DECLINE

    EPA Science Inventory

    The location, topography and other characteristics of the high-elevation forests of eastern North America cause them to be receptors of high levels of acid deposition and airborn trace metals. No other major forested areas in the U.S. are subjected to such intensely acid cloud mo...

  18. Acid Tests and Basic Fun.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McBride, John W.

    1995-01-01

    Explores acids and bases using different indicators, such as turmeric, purple grape juice, and lichens. Because some of these indicators are not as sensitive as cabbage juice or litmus paper, determining to which acids and bases each indicator is sensitive presents an enjoyable, problem-solving challenge for students. Presents directions for…

  19. Synthesis of pyromellitic acid esters

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Fedorova, V. A.; Donchak, V. A.; Martynyuk-Lototskaya, A. N.

    1985-01-01

    The ester acids necessary for studyng the thermochemical properties of pyromellitic acid (PMK)-based peroxides were investigated. Obtaining a tetramethyl ester of a PMK was described. The mechanism of an esterification reaction is discussed, as is the complete esterification of PMK with primary alcohol.

  20. Lead-acid battery

    SciTech Connect

    Rowlette, J.J.

    1983-09-20

    A light weight lead-acid battery is disclosed having a positive terminal and a negative terminal and including one or more cells or grid stacks having a plurality of vertically stacked conductive monoplates with positive active material and negative active material deposited on alternating plates in the cell or grid stack. Electrolyte layers positioned between each monoplate are included to provide a battery cell having four sides which is capable of being electrically charged and discharged. Two vertical positive bus bars are provided on opposite sides of the battery cell for connecting the monoplates with positive active material together in parallel current conducting relation. In addition, two negative bus bars on opposite sides of the battery cell each being adjacent the positive bus bars are provided for connecting the monoplates with negative active material together in parallel current conducting relation. The positive and negative bus bars not only provide a low resistance method for connecting the plurality of conductive monoplates of their respective battery terminals but also provides support and structural strength to the battery cell structure. In addition, horizontal orientation of monoplates is provided in a vertical stacking arrangement to reduce electrolyte stratification and short circuiting due to flaking of positive and negative active materials from the monoplates.

  1. Lead-acid battery

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rowlette, John J. (Inventor)

    1983-01-01

    A light weight lead-acid battery (30) having a positive terminal (36) and a negative terminal (34) and including one or more cells or grid stacks having a plurality of vertically stacked conductive monoplates (10, 20) with positive active material and negative active material deposited on alternating plates in the cell or grid stack. Electrolyte layers (26, 28) positioned between each monoplate are included to provide a battery cell having four sides which is capable of being electrically charged and discharged. Two vertical positive bus bars (42, 43) are provided on opposite sides of the battery cell for connecting the monoplates (10) with positive active material together in parallel current conducting relation. In addition, two negative bus bars (38, 39) on opposite sides of the battery cell each being adjacent the positive bus bars are provided for connecting the monoplates (20) with negative active material together in parallel current conducting relation. The positive (42, 43) and negative (38, 39) bus bars not only provide a low resistance method for connecting the plurality of conductive monoplates of their respective battery terminals (36, 34) but also provides support and structural strength to the battery cell structure. In addition, horizontal orientation of monoplates (10, 20) is provided in a vertical stacking arrangement to reduce electrolyte stratification and short circuiting due to flaking of positive and negative active materials from the monoplates.

  2. Atmospheric dust and acid rain

    SciTech Connect

    Hedin, L.O.; Likens, G.E.

    1996-12-01

    Why is acid rain still an environmental problem in Europe and North America despite antipollution reforms? The answer really is blowing in the wind: atmospheric dust. These airborne particles can help neutralize the acids falling on forests, but dust levels are unusually low these days. In the air dust particles can neutralize acid rain. What can we do about acid rain and atmospheric dust? Suggestions range from the improbable to the feasible. One reasonable suggestion is to reduce emissions of acidic pollutants to levels that can be buffered by natural quantities of basic compounds in the atmosphere; such a goal would mean continued reductions in sulfur dioxide and nitrogen oxides, perhaps even greater than those prescribed in the 1990 Amendments to the Clean Air Act in the U.S. 5 figs.

  3. Microfluidics in amino acid analysis.

    PubMed

    Pumera, Martin

    2007-07-01

    Microfluidic devices have been widely used to derivatize, separate, and detect amino acids employing many different strategies. Virtually zero-dead volume interconnections and fast mass transfer in small volume microchannels enable dramatic increases in on-chip derivatization reaction speed, while only minute amounts of sample and reagent are needed. Due to short channel path, fast subsecond separations can be carried out. With sophisticated miniaturized detectors, the whole analytical process can be integrated on one platform. This article reviews developments of lab-on-chip technology in amino acid analysis, it shows important design features such as sample preconcentration, precolumn and postcolumn amino acid derivatization, and unlabeled and labeled amino acid detection with focus on advanced designs. The review also describes important biomedical and space exploration applications of amino acid analysis on microfluidic devices. PMID:17542043

  4. Synthesis of higher monocarboxylic acids

    SciTech Connect

    Taikov, B.F.; Novakovskii, E.M.; Zhelkovskaya, V.P.; Shadrova, V.N.; Shcherbik, P.K.

    1981-01-01

    Brown-coal and peat waxes contain higher monocarboxylic acids, alcohols and esters of them as their main components. In view of this, considerable interest is presented by the preparation of individual compounds among those mentioned above, which is particularly important in the study of the composition and development of the optimum variants of the chemical processing of the waxes. In laboratory practice, to obtain higher monocarboxylic acids use is generally made of electrosynthesis according to Kolbe which permits unbranched higher aliphatic acids with given lengths of the hydrocarbon chain to be obtained. The aim of the present work was to synthesize higher monocarboxylic acids: arachidic, behenic, lignoceric, pentacosanoic, erotic, heptacosanoic, montanic, nonacosanoic, melissic, dotriacontanoic and tetratriacontanoic, which are present in waxes. Characteristics of synthesized acids are tabulated. 20 refs.

  5. Sialic acids and autoimmune disease.

    PubMed

    Mahajan, Vinay S; Pillai, Shiv

    2016-01-01

    An important underlying mechanism that contributes to autoimmunity is the loss of inhibitory signaling in the immune system. Sialic acid-recognizing Ig superfamily lectins or Siglecs are a family of cell surface proteins largely expressed in hematopoietic cells. The majority of Siglecs are inhibitory receptors expressed in immune cells that bind to sialic acid-containing ligands and recruit SH2-domain-containing tyrosine phosphatases to their cytoplasmic tails. They deliver inhibitory signals that can contribute to the constraining of immune cells, and thus protect the host from autoimmunity. The inhibitory functions of CD22/Siglec-2 and Siglec-G and their contributions to tolerance and autoimmunity, primarily in the B lymphocyte context, are considered in some detail in this review. The relevance to autoimmunity and unregulated inflammation of modified sialic acids, enzymes that modify sialic acid, and other sialic acid-binding proteins are also reviewed. PMID:26683151

  6. Nucleic acid based molecular devices.

    PubMed

    Krishnan, Yamuna; Simmel, Friedrich C

    2011-03-28

    In biology, nucleic acids are carriers of molecular information: DNA's base sequence stores and imparts genetic instructions, while RNA's sequence plays the role of a messenger and a regulator of gene expression. As biopolymers, nucleic acids also have exciting physicochemical properties, which can be rationally influenced by the base sequence in myriad ways. Consequently, in recent years nucleic acids have also become important building blocks for bottom-up nanotechnology: as molecules for the self-assembly of molecular nanostructures and also as a material for building machinelike nanodevices. In this Review we will cover the most important developments in this growing field of nucleic acid nanodevices. We also provide an overview of the biochemical and biophysical background of this field and the major "historical" influences that shaped its development. Particular emphasis is laid on DNA molecular motors, molecular robotics, molecular information processing, and applications of nucleic acid nanodevices in biology. PMID:21432950

  7. Molten fatty acid based microemulsions.

    PubMed

    Noirjean, Cecile; Testard, Fabienne; Dejugnat, Christophe; Jestin, Jacques; Carriere, David

    2016-06-21

    We show that ternary mixtures of water (polar phase), myristic acid (MA, apolar phase) and cetyltrimethylammonium bromide (CTAB, cationic surfactant) studied above the melting point of myristic acid allow the preparation of microemulsions without adding a salt or a co-surfactant. The combination of SANS, SAXS/WAXS, DSC, and phase diagram determination allows a complete characterization of the structures and interactions between components in the molten fatty acid based microemulsions. For the different structures characterized (microemulsion, lamellar or hexagonal phases), a similar thermal behaviour is observed for all ternary MA/CTAB/water monophasic samples and for binary MA/CTAB mixtures without water: crystalline myristic acid melts at 52 °C, and a thermal transition at 70 °C is assigned to the breaking of hydrogen bounds inside the mixed myristic acid/CTAB complex (being the surfactant film in the ternary system). Water determines the film curvature, hence the structures observed at high temperature, but does not influence the thermal behaviour of the ternary system. Myristic acid is partitioned in two "species" that behave independently: pure myristic acid and myristic acid associated with CTAB to form an equimolar complex that plays the role of the surfactant film. We therefore show that myristic acid plays the role of a solvent (oil) and a co-surfactant allowing the fine tuning of the structure of oil and water mixtures. This solvosurfactant behaviour of long chain fatty acid opens the way for new formulations with a complex structure without the addition of any extra compound. PMID:27241163

  8. Acid soil and acid rain, 2nd edition

    SciTech Connect

    Kennedy, I.R.

    1992-01-01

    This book examines the basic chemical processes involved in acidification in order to better assess their long-term effects on the status of soils, the health of plants and other living species that depend on them. It also discusses acidity, pH and protons their significance in bioenergetics and the consequent role of autotrophic organisms in acidifying ecosystems. This edition incorporates and integrates recent findings that render more explanations of the causes of the environmental impacts of acidity, especially in forests and lakes. Also explores current research into acid rain and soil in order to devise appropriate measures for their amelioration.

  9. Growth and Metabolism of Lactic Acid Bacteria during and after Malolactic Fermentation of Wines at Different pH

    PubMed Central

    Davis, C. R.; Wibowo, D. J.; Lee, T. H.; Fleet, G. H.

    1986-01-01

    Commercially produced red wines were adjusted to pH 3.0, 3.2, 3.5, 3.7, or 4.0 and examined during and after malolactic fermentation for growth of lactic acid bacteria and changes in the concentrations of carbohydrates, organic acids, amino acids, and acetaldehyde. With one exception, Leuconostoc oenos conducted the malolactic fermentation in all wines and was the only species to occur in wines at pH below 3.5. Malolactic fermentation by L. oenos was accompanied by degradation of malic, citric, and fumaric acids and production of lactic and acetic acids. The concentrations of arginine, histidine, and acetaldehyde also decreased at this stage, but the behavior of hexose and pentose sugars was complicated by other factors. Pediococcus parvulus conducted the malolactic fermentation in one wine containing 72 mg of total sulfur dioxide per liter. Fumaric and citric acids were not degraded during this malolactic fermentation, but hexose sugars were metabolized. P. parvulus and species of Lactobacillus grew after malolactic fermentation in wines with pH adjusted above 3.5. This growth was accompanied by the utilization of wine sugars and production of lactic and acetic acids. PMID:16347015

  10. Functional nucleic acid probes and uses thereof

    DOEpatents

    Nilsen-Hamilton, Marit

    2006-10-03

    The present invention provides functional nucleic acid probes, and methods of using functional nucleic acid probes, for binding a target to carry out a desired function. The probes have at least one functional nucleic acid, at least one regulating nucleic acid, and at least one attenuator. The functional nucleic acid is maintained in an inactive state by the attenuator and activated by the regulating nucleic acid only in the presence of a regulating nucleic acid target. In its activated state the functional nucleic acid can bind to its target to carry out a desired function, such as generating a signal, cleaving a nucleic acid, or catalyzing a reaction.

  11. Growth of Campylobacter incubated aerobically in fumarate-pyruvate media or media supplemented with dairy, meat, or soy extracts and peptones.

    PubMed

    Hinton, Arthur

    2016-09-01

    The ability of Campylobacter to grow aerobically in media supplemented with fumarate-pyruvate or with dairy, meat, or soy extracts or peptones was examined. Optical densities (OD) of Campylobacter cultured in basal media, media supplemented with fumarate-pyruvate or with 1.0, 2.5, 5.0, or 7.5% beef extract was measured. Growth was also compared in media supplemented with other extracts or peptones. Finally, cfu/mL of Campylobacter recovered from basal media or media supplemented with fumarate-pyruvate, casamino acids, beef extract, soytone, or beef extract and soytone was determined. Results indicated that OD of cultures grown in media supplemented with fumarate-pyruvate or with 5.0 or 7.5% beef extract were higher than OD of isolates grown in basal media or media supplemented with lower concentrations of beef extract. Highest OD were produced by isolates grown in media supplemented with beef extract, peptone from meat, polypeptone, proteose peptone, or soytone. Also, more cfu/mL were recovered from media with fumarate-pyruvate, beef extract, soytone, or beef extract-soytone than from basal media or media with casamino acids. Findings indicate that media supplemented with organic acids, vitamins, and minerals and media supplemented with extracts or peptones containing these metabolites can support aerobic growth of Campylobacter. PMID:27217355

  12. Polyglycolic acid induced inflammation

    PubMed Central

    Ceonzo, Kathleen; Gaynor, Anne; Shaffer, Lisa; Kojima, Koji; Vacanti, Charles A.; Stahl, Gregory L.

    2005-01-01

    Tissue and organ replacement have quickly outpaced available supply. Tissue bioengineering holds the promise for additional tissue availability. Various scaffolds are currently used, whereas polyglycolic acid (PGA), which is currently used in absorbable sutures and orthopedic pins, provides an excellent support for tissue development. Unfortunately, PGA can induce a local inflammatory response following implantation, so we investigated the molecular mechanism of inflammation in vitro and in vivo. Degraded PGA induced an acute peritonitis, characterized by neutrophil (PMN) infiltration following intraperitoneal injection in mice. Similar observations were observed using the metabolite of PGA, glycolide. Dissolved PGA or glycolide, but not native PGA, activated the classical complement pathway in human sera, as determined by classical complement pathway hemolytic assays, C3a and C5a production, C3 and immunoglobulin deposition. To investigate whether these in vitro observations translated to in vivo findings, we used genetically engineered mice. Intraperitoneal administration of glycolide or dissolved PGA in mice deficient in C1q, factor D, C1q and factor D or C2 and factor B demonstrated significantly reduced PMN infiltration compared to congenic controls (WT). Mice deficient in C6 also demonstrated acute peritonitis. However, treatment of WT or C6 deficient mice with a monoclonal antibody against C5 prevented the inflammatory response. These data suggest that the hydrolysis of PGA to glycolide activates the classical complement pathway. Further, complement is amplified via the alternative pathway and inflammation is induced by C5a generation. Inhibition of C5a may provide a potential therapeutic approach to limit the inflammation associated with PGA derived materials following implantation. PMID:16548688

  13. 21 CFR 189.155 - Monochloroacetic acid.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Monochloroacetic acid. 189.155 Section 189.155... Human Food § 189.155 Monochloroacetic acid. (a) Monochloroacetic acid is the chemical chloroacetic acid... in alcoholic and nonalcoholic beverages. Monochloroacetic acid is permitted in food package...

  14. 21 CFR 184.1021 - Benzoic acid.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2010-04-01 2009-04-01 true Benzoic acid. 184.1021 Section 184.1021 Food and... Substances Affirmed as GRAS § 184.1021 Benzoic acid. (a) Benzoic acid is the chemical benzenecarboxylic acid (C7H6O2), occurring in nature in free and combined forms. Among the foods in which benzoic acid...

  15. 21 CFR 184.1021 - Benzoic acid.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Benzoic acid. 184.1021 Section 184.1021 Food and....1021 Benzoic acid. (a) Benzoic acid is the chemical benzenecarboxylic acid (C7H6O2), occurring in nature in free and combined forms. Among the foods in which benzoic acid occurs naturally are...

  16. 21 CFR 184.1021 - Benzoic acid.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Benzoic acid. 184.1021 Section 184.1021 Food and... Substances Affirmed as GRAS § 184.1021 Benzoic acid. (a) Benzoic acid is the chemical benzenecarboxylic acid (C7H6O2), occurring in nature in free and combined forms. Among the foods in which benzoic acid...

  17. 21 CFR 184.1021 - Benzoic acid.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Benzoic acid. 184.1021 Section 184.1021 Food and... Substances Affirmed as GRAS § 184.1021 Benzoic acid. (a) Benzoic acid is the chemical benzenecarboxylic acid (C7H6O2), occurring in nature in free and combined forms. Among the foods in which benzoic acid...

  18. 21 CFR 184.1021 - Benzoic acid.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Benzoic acid. 184.1021 Section 184.1021 Food and... Substances Affirmed as GRAS § 184.1021 Benzoic acid. (a) Benzoic acid is the chemical benzenecarboxylic acid (C7H6O2), occurring in nature in free and combined forms. Among the foods in which benzoic acid...

  19. Cycloadditions for Studying Nucleic Acids.

    PubMed

    Kath-Schorr, Stephanie

    2016-02-01

    Cycloaddition reactions for site-specific or global modification of nucleic acids have enabled the preparation of a plethora of previously inaccessible DNA and RNA constructs for structural and functional studies on naturally occurring nucleic acids, the assembly of nucleic acid nanostructures, therapeutic applications, and recently, the development of novel aptamers. In this chapter, recent progress in nucleic acid functionalization via a range of different cycloaddition (click) chemistries is presented. At first, cycloaddition/click chemistries already used for modifying nucleic acids are summarized, ranging from the well-established copper(I)-catalyzed alkyne-azide cycloaddition reaction to copper free methods, such as the strain-promoted azide-alkyne cycloaddition, tetrazole-based photoclick chemistry and the inverse electron demand Diels-Alder cycloaddition reaction between strained alkenes and tetrazine derivatives. The subsequent sections contain selected applications of nucleic acid functionalization via click chemistry; in particular, site-specific enzymatic labeling in vitro, either via DNA and RNA recognizing enzymes or by introducing unnatural base pairs modified for click reactions. Further sections report recent progress in metabolic labeling and fluorescent detection of DNA and RNA synthesis in vivo, click nucleic acid ligation, click chemistry in nanostructure assembly and click-SELEX as a novel method for the selection of aptamers. PMID:27572987

  20. Phytic acid in green leaves.

    PubMed

    Hadi Alkarawi, H; Zotz, G

    2014-07-01

    Phytic acid or phytate, the free-acid form of myo-inositolhexakiphosphate, is abundant in many seeds and fruits, where it represents the major storage form of phosphorus. Although also known from other plant tissues, available reports on the occurrence of phytic acid, e.g. in leaves, have never been compiled, nor have they been critically reviewed. We found 45 published studies with information on phytic acid content in leaves. Phytic acid was almost always detected when studies specifically tried to detect it, and accounted for up to 98% of total P. However, we argue that such extreme values, which rival findings from storage organs, are dubious and probably result from measurement errors. Excluding these high values from further quantitative analysis, foliar phytic acid-P averaged 2.3 mg·g(-1) , and represented, on average, 7.6% of total P. Remarkably, the ratio of phytic acid-P to total P did not increase with total P, we even detected a negative correlation of the two variables within one species, Manihot esculenta. This enigmatic finding warrants further attention. PMID:24341824

  1. Diabetes and Alpha Lipoic Acid

    PubMed Central

    Golbidi, Saeid; Badran, Mohammad; Laher, Ismail

    2011-01-01

    Diabetes mellitus is a multi-faceted metabolic disorder where there is increased oxidative stress that contributes to the pathogenesis of this debilitating disease. This has prompted several investigations into the use of antioxidants as a complementary therapeutic approach. Alpha lipoic acid, a naturally occurring dithiol compound which plays an essential role in mitochondrial bioenergetic reactions, has gained considerable attention as an antioxidant for use in managing diabetic complications. Lipoic acid quenches reactive oxygen species, chelates metal ions, and reduces the oxidized forms of other antioxidants such as vitamin C, vitamin E, and glutathione. It also boosts antioxidant defense system through Nrf-2-mediated antioxidant gene expression and by modulation of peroxisome proliferator activated receptors-regulated genes. ALA inhibits nuclear factor kappa B and activates AMPK in skeletal muscles, which in turn have a plethora of metabolic consequences. These diverse actions suggest that lipoic acid acts by multiple mechanisms, many of which have only been uncovered recently. In this review we briefly summarize the known biochemical properties of lipoic acid and then discussed the oxidative mechanisms implicated in diabetic complications and the mechanisms by which lipoic acid may ameliorate these reactions. The findings of some of the clinical trials in which lipoic acid administration has been tested in diabetic patients during the last 10 years are summarized. It appears that the clearest benefit of lipoic acid supplementation is in patients with diabetic neuropathy. PMID:22125537

  2. Terahertz spectrum of gallic acid

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wu, Meng; Zhao, Guozhong; Wang, Haiyan; Liang, Chengshen

    2009-11-01

    Gallic acid is natural polyphenol compound found in many green plants. More and more experiments have demonstrated that the gallic acid has comprehensive applications. In the field of medicine, the gallic acid plays an important role in antianaphylaxis, antineoplastic, antimycotic, anti-inflammatory, antivirotic, antiasthmatic and inhibiting the degradation of insulin. It also has a lot of applications in chemical industry, food industry and light industry. So it is important to study the terahertz time-domain spectroscopy of gallic acid. Terahertz time-domain spectroscopy (THz-TDS) is a new coherent spectral technology based on the femtosecond laser. In this work, the spectral characteristics of gallic acid in the range of 0.4 THz to 2.6 THz have been measured by THz-TDS. We obtained its absorption and refraction spectra at room temperature. The vibration absorption spectrum of the single molecule between 0.4 THz and 2.6 THz is simulated based on the Density Functional Theory (DFT). It is found that the gallic acid has the spectral response to THz wave in this frequency range. The results show the abnormal dispersion at 1.51 THz and 2.05 THz. These results can be used in the qualitative analysis of gallic acid and the medicine and food inspection.

  3. Bioavailability of iron, zinc, folic acid, and vitamin A from fortified maize.

    PubMed

    Moretti, Diego; Biebinger, Ralf; Bruins, Maaike J; Hoeft, Birgit; Kraemer, Klaus

    2014-04-01

    Several strategies appear suitable to improve iron and zinc bioavailability from fortified maize, and fortification per se will increase the intake of bioavailable iron and zinc. Corn masa flour or whole maize should be fortified with sodium iron ethylenediaminetetraacetate (NaFeEDTA), ferrous fumarate, or ferrous sulfate, and degermed corn flour should be fortified with ferrous sulfate or ferrous fumarate. The choice of zinc fortificant appears to have a limited impact on zinc bioavailability. Phytic acid is a major inhibitor of both iron and zinc absorption. Degermination at the mill will reduce phytic acid content, and degermed maize appears to be a suitable vehicle for iron and zinc fortification. Enzymatic phytate degradation may be a suitable home-based technique to enhance the bioavailability of iron and zinc from fortified maize. Bioavailability experiments with low phytic acid-containing maize varieties have suggested an improved zinc bioavailability compared to wild-type counterparts. The bioavailability of folic acid from maize porridge was reported to be slightly higher than from baked wheat bread. The bioavailability of vitamin A provided as encapsulated retinyl esters is generally high and is typically not strongly influenced by the food matrix, but has not been fully investigated in maize. PMID:24329552

  4. Crystal structure of l-tryptophan–fumaric acid–water (1/1/1)

    PubMed Central

    Caroline, M. Lydia; Kumaresan, S.; Aravindan, P. G.; Mohamed, M. Peer; Mani, G.

    2015-01-01

    In the title compound, C11H12N2O2·C4H4O4·H2O, the l-tryp­to­phan mol­ecule crystallized as a zwitterion, together with a neutral fumaric acid mol­ecule and a water solvent mol­ecule. In the crystal, the three components are linked by a series of N—H⋯O, O—H⋯O and C—H⋯O hydrogen bonds, forming slabs lying parallel to (001). The slabs are connected by O—H⋯O hydrogen bonds, involving inversion-related fumaric acid groups, leading to the formation of a three-dimensional structure. PMID:26396891

  5. Pyroligneous acid-the smoky acidic liquid from plant biomass.

    PubMed

    Mathew, Sindhu; Zakaria, Zainul Akmar

    2015-01-01

    Pyroligneous acid (PA) is a complex highly oxygenated aqueous liquid fraction obtained by the condensation of pyrolysis vapors, which result from the thermochemical breakdown or pyrolysis of plant biomass components such as cellulose, hemicellulose, and lignin. PA produced by the slow pyrolysis of plant biomass is a yellowish brown or dark brown liquid with acidic pH and usually comprises a complex mixture of guaiacols, catechols, syringols, phenols, vanillins, furans, pyrans, carboxaldehydes, hydroxyketones, sugars, alkyl aryl ethers, nitrogenated derivatives, alcohols, acetic acid, and other carboxylic acids. The phenolic components, namely guaiacol, alkyl guaiacols, syringol, and alkyl syringols, contribute to the smoky odor of PA. PA finds application in diverse areas, as antioxidant, antimicrobial, antiinflammatory, plant growth stimulator, coagulant for natural rubber, and termiticidal and pesticidal agent; is a source for valuable chemicals; and imparts a smoky flavor for food. PMID:25467926

  6. Drilling fluids containing amps, acrylic acid, itaconic acid polymer

    SciTech Connect

    Bardoliwalla, D.F.

    1987-10-13

    This patent describes an aqueous drilling fluid having present in an amount sufficient to reduce fluid loss of the drilling fluid, at least one polymer of (1) from about 5% to about 50% by weight of 2-acrylamido-2-methylpropane sulfonic acid and (2) from about 95% to about 50% by weight of a second component, there being from 100% to about 80% by weight of acrylic acid and from 0% by weight to about 20% by weight of itaconic acid in the second component. The polymer has a weight average molecular weight of between about 50,000 to about 1,000,000 being in its free acid or partially or completely neutralized form and being at least water dispersible. A method is described of drilling a well into a subterranean formation in which an aqueous drilling fluid is circulated into the well. The step of circulating the drilling fluid contains in an amount sufficient to reduce fluid loss of the drilling fluid, at least one polymer of (1) from about 5% to about 50% by weight of 2-acrylamido-2-methylpropane sulfonic acid and (2) from about 95% to about 50% by weight of a second component. There is from 100% to about 80% by weight of acrylic acid and from 0% by weight to about 20% by weight of itaconic acid in the second component. The polymer has weight average molecular weight of between about 50,000 to about 1,000,000 in its free acid or partially or completely neutralized form and is at least water dispersible.

  7. PRODUCTION OF TRIFLUOROACETIC ACID COMPOUNDS

    DOEpatents

    Haworth, W.N.; Stacey, M.

    1949-08-30

    A process is described for the preparation of trifluoroacetic acid. Acetone vapor diluted wlth nitrogen and fluorine also diluted with nltrogen are fed separately at a temperature of about 210 deg C into a reaction vessel containing a catalyst mass selected from-the group consisting of silver and gold. The temperature in the reaction vessel is maintained in the range of 200 deg to 250 deg C. The reaction product, trifluoroacetyl fluoride, is absorbed in aqueous alkali solution. Trifluoroacetic acid is recovered from the solution by acidification wlth an acid such as sulfuric followed by steam distillation.

  8. Chemiluminescent measurement of atmospheric acid

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Stedman, D. H.; Kok, G. L.

    1974-01-01

    The design and construction of a gas phase acid sensitive analyzer are reported. These studies showed that the chemical system was a practical analytical method. A complete instrument was developed and prepared for field testing. A Titan 3-C rocket was scheduled for launching on February 11, 1974. Through preparations made by NASA Langley the instrument was set up to monitor the acid concentration in the rocket exhaust. Due to adverse wind conditions no acid was detected. This entire trip is described in detail.

  9. PHARMACOLOGICAL ACTIVITIES OF PROTOCATECHUIC ACID.

    PubMed

    Khan, Abida Kalsoom; Rashid, Rehana; Fatima, Nighat; Mahmood, Sadaf; Mir, Sadullah; Khan, Sara; Jabeen, Nyla; Murtaza, Ghulam

    2015-01-01

    Protocatechuic acid (3,4-dihydroxybenzoic acid, PCA) is a simple phenolic acid. It is found in a large variety of edible plants and possesses various pharmacological activities. This article aims to review the modern trends in phytochemical isolation and extraction of PCA from plants and other natural resources. Moreover, this article also encompasses pharmacological and biological activities of PCA. It is well known to have anti-inflammatory, antioxidant, anti-hyperglycemia, antibacterial, anticancer, anti-ageing, anti-athro- genic, anti-tumoral, anti-asthma, antiulcer, antispasmodic and neurological properties. PMID:26647619

  10. Can crops tolerate acid rain

    SciTech Connect

    Kaplan, J.K.

    1989-11-01

    This brief article describes work by scientists at the ARS Air Quality-Plant Growth and Development Laboratory in Raleigh, North Carolina, that indicates little damage to crops as a result of acid rain. In studies with simulated acid rain and 216 exposed varieties of 18 crops, there were no significant injuries nor was there reduced growth in most species. Results of chronic and acute exposures were correlated in sensitive tomato and soybean plants and in tolerant winter wheat and lettuce plants. These results suggest that 1-hour exposures could be used in the future to screen varieties for sensitivity to acid rain.

  11. Amino Acids from a Comet

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cook, Jamie Elisla

    2009-01-01

    NASA's Stardust spacecraft returned samples from comet 81P/Wild 2 to Earth in January 2006. Examinations of the organic compounds in cometary samples can reveal information about the prebiotic organic inventory present on the early Earth and within the early Solar System, which may have contributed to the origin of life. Preliminary studies of Stardust material revealed the presence of a suite of organic compounds including several amines and amino acids, but the origin of these compounds (cometary- vs. terrestrial contamination) could not be identified. We have recently measured the carbon isotopic ratios of these amino acids to determine their origin, leading to the first detection of a coetary amino acid.

  12. Be an acid rain detective

    SciTech Connect

    Atwill, L.

    1982-07-01

    Acid rain is discussed in a question and answer format. The article is aimed at educating sport fishermen on the subject, and also to encourage them to write their congressmen, senators, and the President about the acid rain problem. The article also announces the availability of an acid rain test kit available through the magazine, ''Sports Afield.'' The kit consists of pH-test paper that turns different shades of pink and blue according to the pH of the water tested. The color of the test paper is then compared to a color chart furnished in the kit and an approximate pH can be determined.

  13. Abscission: Role of Abscisic Acid

    PubMed Central

    Cracker, L. E.; Abeles, F. B.

    1969-01-01

    The effect of abscisic acid on cotton (Gossypium hirsutum L. cv. Acala 4-42) and bean (Phaseolus vulgaris L. cv. Red Kidney) explants was 2-fold. It increased ethylene production from the explants, which was found to account for some of its ability to accelerate abscission. Absci is acid also increased the activity of cellulase. Increased synthesis of cellulase was not du to an increase in aging of the explants but rather was an effect of abscisic acid on the processes that lead to cellulase synthesis or activity. PMID:16657181

  14. Treatment of Amino Acid Metabolism Disorders

    MedlinePlus

    ... Treatment of amino acid metabolism disorders Treatment of amino acid metabolism disorders E-mail to a friend Please ... this page It's been added to your dashboard . Amino acid metabolism disorders are rare health conditions that affect ...

  15. Genetics Home Reference: sialic acid storage disease

    MedlinePlus

    ... Home Health Conditions sialic acid storage disease sialic acid storage disease Enable Javascript to view the expand/ ... Download PDF Open All Close All Description Sialic acid storage disease is an inherited disorder that primarily ...

  16. Treatment of Fatty Acid Oxidation Disorders

    MedlinePlus

    ... of fatty acid oxidation disorders Treatment of fatty acid oxidation disorders E-mail to a friend Please ... page It's been added to your dashboard . Fatty acid oxidation disorders are rare health conditions that affect ...

  17. Molar extinction coefficients of some fatty acids

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sandhu, G. K.; Singh, Kulwant; Lark, B. S.; Gerward, L.

    2002-10-01

    The attenuation of gamma rays in some fatty acids, viz. formic acid (CH 2O 2), acetic acid (C 2H 4O 2), propionic acid (C 3H 6O 2), butyric acid (C 4H 8O 2), n-hexanoic acid (C 6H 12O 2), n-caprylic acid (C 8H 16O 2), lauric acid (C 12H 24O 2), myristic acid (C 14H 28O 2), palmitic acid (C 16H 32O 2), oleic acid (C 18H 34O 2) and stearic acid (C 18H 36O 2), has been measured at the photon energies 81, 356, 511, 662, 1173 and 1332 keV. Experimental values for the molar extinction coefficient, the effective atomic number and the electron density have been derived and compared with theoretical calculations. There is good agreement between experiment and theory.

  18. Phosphonic acid based exchange resins

    DOEpatents

    Horwitz, E. Philip; Alexandratos, Spiro D.; Gatrone, Ralph C.; Chiarizia, Ronato

    1995-01-01

    An ion exchange resin for extracting metal ions from a liquid waste stream. An ion exchange resin is prepared by copolymerizing a vinylidene diphosphonic acid with styrene, acrylonitrile and divinylbenzene.

  19. Microbial production of lactic acid.

    PubMed

    Eiteman, Mark A; Ramalingam, Subramanian

    2015-05-01

    Lactic acid is an important commodity chemical having a wide range of applications. Microbial production effectively competes with chemical synthesis methods because biochemical synthesis permits the generation of either one of the two enantiomers with high optical purity at high yield and titer, a result which is particularly beneficial for the production of poly(lactic acid) polymers having specific properties. The commercial viability of microbial lactic acid production relies on utilization of inexpensive carbon substrates derived from agricultural or waste resources. Therefore, optimal lactic acid formation requires an understanding and engineering of both the competing pathways involved in carbohydrate metabolism, as well as pathways leading to potential by-products which both affect product yield. Recent research leverages those biochemical pathways, while researchers also continue to seek strains with improved tolerance and ability to perform under desirable industrial conditions, for example, of pH and temperature. PMID:25604523

  20. Low acid producing solid propellants

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bennett, Robert R.

    1995-01-01

    The potential environmental effects of the exhaust products of conventional rocket propellants have been assessed by various groups. Areas of concern have included stratospheric ozone, acid rain, toxicity, air quality and global warming. Some of the studies which have been performed on this subject have concluded that while the impacts of rocket use are extremely small, there are propellant development options which have the potential to reduce those impacts even further. This paper discusses the various solid propellant options which have been proposed as being more environmentally benign than current systems by reducing HCI emissions. These options include acid neutralized, acid scavenged, and nonchlorine propellants. An assessment of the acid reducing potential and the viability of each of these options is made, based on current information. Such an assessment is needed in order to judge whether the potential improvements justify the expenditures of developing the new propellant systems.

  1. Abiotic synthesis of fatty acids

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Leach, W. W.; Nooner, D. W.; Oro, J.

    1978-01-01

    The formation of fatty acids by Fischer-Tropsch-type synthesis was investigated with ferric oxide, ammonium carbonate, potassium carbonate, powdered Pueblito de Allende carbonaceous chondrite, and filings from the Canyon Diablo meteorite used as catalysts. Products were separated and identified by gas chromatography and mass spectrometry. Iron oxide, Pueblito de Allende chondrite, and Canyon Diablo filings in an oxidized catalyst form yielded no fatty acids. Canyon Diablo filings heated overnight at 500 C while undergoing slow purging by deuterium produced fatty acids only when potassium carbonate was admixed; potassium carbonate alone also produced these compounds. The active catalytic combinations gave relatively high yields of aliphatic and aromatic hydrocarbons; substantial amounts of n-alkenes were almost invariably observed when fatty acids were produced; the latter were in the range C6 to C18, with maximum yield in C9 or 10.

  2. Bile acid sequestrants for cholesterol

    MedlinePlus

    ... ency/patientinstructions/000787.htm Bile acid sequestrants for cholesterol To use the sharing features on this page, ... are medicines that help lower your LDL (bad) cholesterol . Too much cholesterol in your blood can stick ...

  3. Biopreservation by lactic acid bacteria.

    PubMed

    Stiles, M E

    1996-10-01

    Biopreservation refers to extended storage life and enhanced safety of foods using the natural microflora and (or) their antibacterial products. Lactic acid bacteria have a major potential for use in biopreservation because they are safe to consume and during storage they naturally dominate the microflora of many foods. In milk, brined vegetables, many cereal products and meats with added carbohydrate, the growth of lactic acid bacteria produces a new food product. In raw meats and fish that are chill stored under vacuum or in an environment with elevated carbon dioxide concentration, the lactic acid bacteria become the dominant population and preserve the meat with a "hidden' fermentation. The same applies to processed meats provided that the lactic acid bacteria survive the heat treatment or they are inoculated onto the product after heat treatment. This paper reviews the current status and potential for controlled biopreservation of foods. PMID:8879414

  4. Antibiofilm Properties of Acetic Acid

    PubMed Central

    Bjarnsholt, Thomas; Alhede, Morten; Jensen, Peter Østrup; Nielsen, Anne K.; Johansen, Helle Krogh; Homøe, Preben; Høiby, Niels; Givskov, Michael; Kirketerp-Møller, Klaus

    2015-01-01

    Bacterial biofilms are known to be extremely tolerant toward antibiotics and other antimicrobial agents. These biofilms cause the persistence of chronic infections. Since antibiotics rarely resolve these infections, the only effective treatment of chronic infections is surgical removal of the infected implant, tissue, or organ and thereby the biofilm. Acetic acid is known for its antimicrobial effect on bacteria in general, but has never been thoroughly tested for its efficacy against bacterial biofilms. In this article, we describe complete eradication of both Gram-positive and Gram-negative biofilms using acetic acid both as a liquid and as a dry salt. In addition, we present our clinical experience of acetic acid treatment of chronic wounds. In conclusion, we here present the first comprehensive in vitro and in vivo testing of acetic acid against bacterial biofilms. PMID:26155378

  5. Biotechnological production of citric acid

    PubMed Central

    Max, Belén; Salgado, José Manuel; Rodríguez, Noelia; Cortés, Sandra; Converti, Attilio; Domínguez, José Manuel

    2010-01-01

    This work provides a review about the biotechnological production of citric acid starting from the physicochemical properties and industrial applications, mainly in the food and pharmaceutical sectors. Several factors affecting citric acid fermentation are discussed, including carbon source, nitrogen and phosphate limitations, pH of culture medium, aeration, trace elements and morphology of the fungus. Special attention is paid to the fundamentals of biochemistry and accumulation of citric acid. Technologies employed at industrial scale such as surface or submerged cultures, mainly employing Aspergillus niger, and processes carried out with Yarrowia lipolytica, as well as the technology for recovering the product are also described. Finally, this review summarizes the use of orange peels and other by-products as feedstocks for the bioproduction of citric acid. PMID:24031566

  6. Simulated acid rain on crops

    SciTech Connect

    Plocher, M.D.; Perrigan, S.C.; Hevel, R.J.; Cooper, R.M.; Moss, D.N.

    1985-10-01

    In 1981, simulated H/sub 2/SO/sub 4/ acid rain was applied to alfalfa and tall fescue and a 2:1 ratio of H/sub 2/SO/sub 4/:HNO/sub 3/ acid rain was applied to alfalfa, tall fescue, barley, wheat, potato, tomato, radish, and corn crops growing in the open field at Corvallis, Oregon. Careful attention was given to effects of the acid rain on the appearance of the foliage, and the effects on yield were measured. Because the effect of pH 4.0 rain on corn yield was the only significant effect noted in the 1981 studies, in 1982, more-extensive studies of the effect of simulated H/sub 2/SO/sub 4//HNO/sub 3/ rain on corn were conducted. No significant effects of acid rain were found on foliage appearance, or on yield of grain or stover in the 1982 studies.

  7. [Treatment of hydrofluoric acid burns].

    PubMed

    Thiele, B; Winter, U J; Mahrle, G; Steigleder, G K

    1986-01-31

    A chemical-plant worker sustained hydrofluoric acid burns during cleaning procedures. Intra-arterial perfusion and intralesional injections of calcium gluconate solution prevented progression of the burns into deeper tissue layers. PMID:3943470

  8. Making cents of acid recovery

    SciTech Connect

    Ondrey, G.; Shanley, A.

    1993-04-01

    Acid recovery may be expensive, but rising transportation and landfill costs may soon make it the only alternative. Traditionally, acids used in processes from titanium dioxide production to gasoline alkylation and metal pickling were neutralized and discharged into waterways or injected into deep wells. Today, however, discharge permits are being phased out in many countries, and deep well injection is coming under closer scrutiny. An even cheaper option was selling spent acid to fertilizer producers, who used it to dissolve phosphate ores. Health concerns, a depressed fertilizer market and tightening disposal regulations for gypsum byproduct have dried up this option. The paper discusses the processes and costs involved in spent acid regeneration, gypsum-free gas treatments, and problems with explosive contaminants.

  9. EXPOSURE MODELING OF ACID AEROSOLS

    EPA Science Inventory

    The U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) is conducting an intensive characterization and human exposure monitoring program of acid species and related air pollutants in an urban environment. he EPA's Atmospheric Research and Exposure Assessment Laboratory (AREAL) in coopera...

  10. Phosphonic acid based exchange resins

    DOEpatents

    Horwitz, E.P.; Alexandratos, S.D.; Gatrone, R.C.; Chiarizia, R.

    1995-09-12

    An ion exchange resin is described for extracting metal ions from a liquid waste stream. An ion exchange resin is prepared by copolymerizing a vinylidene diphosphonic acid with styrene, acrylonitrile and divinylbenzene. 10 figs.

  11. Glucaric acids from Leonurus japonicus.

    PubMed

    Jiang, Jianshuang; Li, Yixiu; Feng, Ziming; Yang, Yanan; Zhang, Peicheng

    2015-12-01

    Three new glucaric acids, namely 2-feruloyl-4-syringoyl or 5-feruloyl-3-syringoyl glucaric acid (1), 2-syringoyl-4-feruloyl or 5-syringoyl-3-feruloyl glucaric acid (2), and 3-feruloyl-4-syringoyl or 4-feruloyl-3-syringoyl glucaric acid (3), were isolated from Leonurus japonicus Houtt. Their structures were elucidated by detailed spectroscopic means including UV, IR, HR-ESI-MS, 1D and 2D NMR data spectra. The bioactive assays of compounds 1-3 against hepatoprotection activity were determined. The result suggested that compound 2 exhibited a moderate hepatoprotection activity and the cell survival rate was 74% (10(-5)mol/L), using bicyclol (survival rate: 66%, 10(-5)mol/L) as a positive control. Furthermore, compounds 1-3 were evaluated cytotoxic activities in vitro using HCT-8, Bel-7402, BGC-823, A-549, and A2780 model and the results exhibited no obvious cytotoxicity activity. PMID:26526024

  12. Acid diffusion through polymer films

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, P. Linda; Eckert, Andrew R.; Willson, C. Grant; Webber, Stephen E.; Byers, Jeffrey D.

    1997-07-01

    In order to perform 0.2 micrometer processes, one needs to study the diffusion of photoacid generators within the photoresist system, since diffusion during post exposure bake time has an influence on the critical dimension (CD). We have developed a new method to study the diffusion of photoacid generators within a polymer film. This new method is based on monitoring the change of the fluorescence intensity of a pH- sensitive fluorescent dye caused by the reaction with photoacid. A simplified version of this experiment has been conducted by introducing acid vapor to quench the fluorescence intensity of this pH sensor. A thin polymer film is spin cast onto the sensor to create a barrier to the acid diffusion process. During the acid diffusion process, the fluorescence intensity of this pH sensor is measured in situ, using excitation and emission wavelengths at 466 nm and 516 nm, respectively. Fluoresceinamine, the pH sensitive fluorescent dye, is covalently bonded onto the treated quartz substrate to form a single dye layer. Poly(hydroxystyrene) (Mn equals 13k, Tg equals 180 degrees Celsius) in PGMEA (5% - 18% by weight) is spin cast onto this quartz substrate to form films with varying thickness. The soft bake time is 60 seconds at 90 degrees Celsius and a typical film has a thickness of 1.4 micrometers. Trifluoroacetic acid is introduced into a small chamber while the fluorescence from this quartz window is observed. Our study focuses on finding the diffusion constant of the vaporized acid (trifluoroacetic acid) in the poly(hydroxystyrene) polymer film. By applying the Fick's second law, (It - Io)/(I(infinity ) - Io) equals erfc [L/(Dt)1/2] is obtained. The change of fluorescence intensity with respect to the diffusion time is monitored. The above equation is used for the data analysis, where L represents the film thickness and t represents the average time for the acid to diffuse through the film. The diffusion constant is calculated to be at the order of 10

  13. Nucleic acid arrays and methods of synthesis

    DOEpatents

    Sabanayagam, Chandran R.; Sano, Takeshi; Misasi, John; Hatch, Anson; Cantor, Charles

    2001-01-01

    The present invention generally relates to high density nucleic acid arrays and methods of synthesizing nucleic acid sequences on a solid surface. Specifically, the present invention contemplates the use of stabilized nucleic acid primer sequences immobilized on solid surfaces, and circular nucleic acid sequence templates combined with the use of isothermal rolling circle amplification to thereby increase nucleic acid sequence concentrations in a sample or on an array of nucleic acid sequences.

  14. 21 CFR 184.1091 - Succinic acid.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2010-04-01 2009-04-01 true Succinic acid. 184.1091 Section 184.1091 Food and... Substances Affirmed as GRAS § 184.1091 Succinic acid. (a) Succinic acid (C4H6O4, CAS Reg. No. 110-15-6), also referred to as amber acid and ethylenesuccinic acid, is the chemical 1,4-butanedioic acid. It...

  15. 21 CFR 184.1009 - Adipic acid.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Adipic acid. 184.1009 Section 184.1009 Food and....1009 Adipic acid. (a) Adipic acid (C6H10O4, CAS Reg. No. 00124-04-9) is also known as 1,4-butanedicarboxylic acid or hexane-dioic acid. It is prepared by nitric acid oxidation of cyclohexanol...

  16. 21 CFR 184.1091 - Succinic acid.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Succinic acid. 184.1091 Section 184.1091 Food and... Substances Affirmed as GRAS § 184.1091 Succinic acid. (a) Succinic acid (C4H6O4, CAS Reg. No. 110-15-6), also referred to as amber acid and ethylenesuccinic acid, is the chemical 1,4-butanedioic acid. It...

  17. 21 CFR 184.1009 - Adipic acid.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Adipic acid. 184.1009 Section 184.1009 Food and... Substances Affirmed as GRAS § 184.1009 Adipic acid. (a) Adipic acid (C6H10O4, CAS Reg. No. 00124-04-9) is also known as 1,4-butanedicarboxylic acid or hexane-dioic acid. It is prepared by nitric acid...

  18. 21 CFR 184.1091 - Succinic acid.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Succinic acid. 184.1091 Section 184.1091 Food and... Substances Affirmed as GRAS § 184.1091 Succinic acid. (a) Succinic acid (C4H6O4, CAS Reg. No. 110-15-6), also referred to as amber acid and ethylenesuccinic acid, is the chemical 1,4-butanedioic acid. It...

  19. 21 CFR 184.1091 - Succinic acid.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Succinic acid. 184.1091 Section 184.1091 Food and... Substances Affirmed as GRAS § 184.1091 Succinic acid. (a) Succinic acid (C4H6O4, CAS Reg. No. 110-15-6), also referred to as amber acid and ethylenesuccinic acid, is the chemical 1,4-butanedioic acid. It...

  20. 21 CFR 184.1009 - Adipic acid.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Adipic acid. 184.1009 Section 184.1009 Food and... Substances Affirmed as GRAS § 184.1009 Adipic acid. (a) Adipic acid (C6H10O4, CAS Reg. No. 00124-04-9) is also known as 1,4-butanedicarboxylic acid or hexane-dioic acid. It is prepared by nitric acid...

  1. 21 CFR 184.1091 - Succinic acid.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Succinic acid. 184.1091 Section 184.1091 Food and....1091 Succinic acid. (a) Succinic acid (C4H6O4, CAS Reg. No. 110-15-6), also referred to as amber acid and ethylenesuccinic acid, is the chemical 1,4-butanedioic acid. It is commercially prepared...

  2. 40 CFR 721.10512 - Fatty acid maleic acid amides (generic).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 31 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Fatty acid maleic acid amides (generic... Specific Chemical Substances § 721.10512 Fatty acid maleic acid amides (generic). (a) Chemical substance... fatty acid maleic acid amides (PMNs P-07-563 and P-07-564) are subject to reporting under this...

  3. 40 CFR 721.10512 - Fatty acid maleic acid amides (generic).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 32 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Fatty acid maleic acid amides (generic... Specific Chemical Substances § 721.10512 Fatty acid maleic acid amides (generic). (a) Chemical substance... fatty acid maleic acid amides (PMNs P-07-563 and P-07-564) are subject to reporting under this...

  4. 21 CFR 172.862 - Oleic acid derived from tall oil fatty acids.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2010-04-01 2009-04-01 true Oleic acid derived from tall oil fatty acids. 172... FOOD FOR HUMAN CONSUMPTION Multipurpose Additives § 172.862 Oleic acid derived from tall oil fatty acids. The food additive oleic acid derived from tall oil fatty acids may be safely used in food and...

  5. 21 CFR 172.862 - Oleic acid derived from tall oil fatty acids.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Oleic acid derived from tall oil fatty acids. 172... FOOD FOR HUMAN CONSUMPTION Multipurpose Additives § 172.862 Oleic acid derived from tall oil fatty acids. The food additive oleic acid derived from tall oil fatty acids may be safely used in food and...

  6. 21 CFR 172.862 - Oleic acid derived from tall oil fatty acids.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Oleic acid derived from tall oil fatty acids. 172... FOOD FOR HUMAN CONSUMPTION Multipurpose Additives § 172.862 Oleic acid derived from tall oil fatty acids. The food additive oleic acid derived from tall oil fatty acids may be safely used in food and...

  7. 21 CFR 172.862 - Oleic acid derived from tall oil fatty acids.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Oleic acid derived from tall oil fatty acids. 172... FOOD FOR HUMAN CONSUMPTION Multipurpose Additives § 172.862 Oleic acid derived from tall oil fatty acids. The food additive oleic acid derived from tall oil fatty acids may be safely used in food and...

  8. Aqueous Photochemistry of Glyoxylic Acid.

    PubMed

    Eugene, Alexis J; Xia, Sha-Sha; Guzman, Marcelo I

    2016-06-01

    Aerosols affect climate change, the energy balance of the atmosphere, and public health due to their variable chemical composition, size, and shape. While the formation of secondary organic aerosols (SOA) from gas phase precursors is relatively well understood, studying aqueous chemical reactions contributing to the total SOA budget is the current focus of major attention. Field measurements have revealed that mono-, di-, and oxo-carboxylic acids are abundant species present in SOA and atmospheric waters. This work explores the fate of one of these 2-oxocarboxylic acids, glyoxylic acid, which can photogenerate reactive species under solar irradiation. Additionally, the dark thermal aging of photoproducts is studied by UV-visible and fluorescence spectroscopies to reveal that the optical properties are altered by the glyoxal produced. The optical properties display periodicity in the time domain of the UV-visible spectrum of chromophores with absorption enhancement (thermochromism) or loss (photobleaching) during nighttime and daytime cycles, respectively. During irradiation, excited state glyoxylic acid can undergo α-cleavage or participate in hydrogen abstractions. The use of (13)C nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy (NMR) analysis shows that glyoxal is an important intermediate produced during direct photolysis. Glyoxal quickly reaches a quasi-steady state as confirmed by UHPLC-MS analysis of its corresponding (E) and (Z) 2,4-dinitrophenylhydrazones. The homolytic cleavage of glyoxylic acid is proposed as a fundamental step for the production of glyoxal. Both carbon oxides, CO2(g) and CO(g) evolving to the gas-phase, are quantified by FTIR spectroscopy. Finally, formic acid, oxalic acid, and tartaric acid photoproducts are identified by ion chromatography (IC) with conductivity and electrospray (ESI) mass spectrometry (MS) detection and (1)H NMR spectroscopy. A reaction mechanism is proposed based on all experimental observations. PMID:27192089

  9. Chemical composition of acid fog

    SciTech Connect

    Waldman, J.M.; Munger, J.W.; Jacob, D.J.; Flagan, R.C.; Morgan, J.J.; Hoffmann, M.R.

    1982-11-12

    Fog water collected at three sites in Los Angeles and Bakersfield, California, was found to have higher acidity and higher concentrations of sulfate, nitrate, and ammonium than previously observed in atmospheric water droplets. The pH of the fog water was in the range of 2.2 to 4.0. the dominant processes controlling the fog water chemistry appear to be the condensation and evaporation of water vapor on preexisting aerosol and the scavenging of gas-phase nitric acid.

  10. Bile acids as metabolic regulators

    PubMed Central

    Li, Tiangang; Chiang, John Y. L.

    2015-01-01

    Summary Small molecule ligands that target to TGR5 and FXR have shown promise in treating various metabolic and inflammation-related human diseases. New insights into the mechanisms underlying the bariatric surgery and bile acid sequestrant treatment suggest that targeting the enterohepatic circulation to modulate gut-liver bile acid signaling, incretin production and microbiota represents a new strategy to treat obesity and type-2 diabetes. PMID:25584736

  11. Immobilization of Escherichia coli Cells Containing Aspartase Activity with Polyurethane and Its Application for l-Aspartic Acid Production

    PubMed Central

    Fusee, Murray C.; Swann, Wayne E.; Calton, Gary J.

    1981-01-01

    Whole cells of Escherichia coli containing aspartase activity were immobilized by mixing a cell suspension with a liquid isocyanate-capped polyurethane prepolymer (Hypol). The immobilized cell preparation was used to convert ammonium fumarate to l-aspartic acid. Properties of the immobilized E. coli cells containing aspartase were investigated with a batch reactor. A 1.67-fold increase in the l-aspartic acid production rate was observed at 37°C as compared to 25°C operating temperature. The pH optimum was broad, ranging from 8.5 to 9.2. Increasing the concentration of ammonium fumarate to 1.5 M from 1.0 M negatively affected the reaction rate. l-Aspartic acid was produced at an average rate of 2.18 × 10−4 mol/min per g (wet weight) of immobilized E. coli cells with a 37°C substrate solution consisting of 1.0 M ammonium fumarate with 1 mM Mg2+ (pH 9.0). PMID:16345865

  12. In vitro assessment of potential intestinal absorption of some phenolic families and carboxylic acids from commercial instant coffee samples.

    PubMed

    López-Froilán, R; Ramírez-Moreno, E; Podio, N S; Pérez-Rodríguez, M L; Cámara, M; Baroni, M V; Wunderlin, D A; Sánchez-Mata, M C

    2016-06-15

    Coffee is one of the most consumed beverages in the world, being a source of bioactive compounds as well as flavors. Hydroxycinnamic acids, flavonols, and carboxylic acids have been studied in the samples of instant coffee commercialized in Spain. The studies about contents of food components should be complemented with either in vitro or in vivo bioaccessibility studies to know the amount of food components effectively available for functions in the human body. In this sense, a widely used in vitro model has been applied to assess the potential intestinal absorption of phenolic compounds and organic acids. The contents of hydroxycinnamic acids and flavonols were higher in instant regular coffee samples than in the decaffeinated ones. Bioaccessible phenolic compounds in most analyzed samples account for 20-25% of hydroxycinnamic acids and 17-26% of flavonols. This could mean that a great part of them can remain in the gut, acting as potential in situ antioxidants. Quinic, acetic, pyroglutamic, citric and fumaric acids were identified in commercial instant coffee samples. Succinic acid was found in the coffee blend containing chicory. All carboxylic acids showed a very high bioaccessibility. Particularly, acetic acid and quinic acid were found in higher contents in the samples treated with the in vitro simulation of gastrointestinal processes, compared to the original ones, which can be explained by their cleavage from chlorogenic acid during digestion. This is considered as a positive effect, since quinic acid is considered as an antioxidant inducer. PMID:27191052

  13. Capillary electrophoretic study of dibasic acids of different structures: Relation to separation of oxidative intermediates in remediation

    SciTech Connect

    Yu, Z.; Cocke, D.L.

    1998-09-01

    Dicarboxylic acids are important in environmental chemistry because they are intermediates in oxidative processes involved in natural remediation and waste management processes such as oxidative detoxification and advanced oxidation. Capillary electrophoresis (CE), a promising technique for separating and analyzing these intermediates, has been used to examine a series of dibasic acids of different structures and conformations. This series includes malonic acid, succinic acid, glutaric acid, adipic acid, pimelic acid, maleic acid, fumaric acid, phthalic acid, and trans, trans-muconic acid. The CE parameters as well as structural variations (molecular structure and molecular isomers, buffer composition, pH, applied voltage, injection mode, current, temperature, and detection wavelength) that affect the separations and analytical results have been examined in this study. Those factors that affect the separation have been delineated. Among these parameters, the pH has been found to be the most important, which affects the double-layer of the capillary wall, the electro-osmotic flow and analyte mobility. The optimum pH for separating these dibasic acids, as well as the other parameters are discussed in detail and related to the development of methods for analyzing oxidation intermediates in oxidative waste management procedures.

  14. Acidic extracellular microenvironment and cancer

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Acidic extracellular pH is a major feature of tumor tissue, extracellular acidification being primarily considered to be due to lactate secretion from anaerobic glycolysis. Clinicopathological evidence shows that transporters and pumps contribute to H+ secretion, such as the Na+/H+ exchanger, the H+-lactate co-transporter, monocarboxylate transporters, and the proton pump (H+-ATPase); these may also be associated with tumor metastasis. An acidic extracellular pH not only activates secreted lysosomal enzymes that have an optimal pH in the acidic range, but induces the expression of certain genes of pro-metastatic factors through an intracellular signaling cascade that is different from hypoxia. In addition to lactate, CO2 from the pentose phosphate pathway is an alternative source of acidity, showing that hypoxia and extracellular acidity are, while being independent from each other, deeply associated with the cellular microenvironment. In this article, the importance of an acidic extracellular pH as a microenvironmental factor participating in tumor progression is reviewed. PMID:24004445

  15. Photodissociation dynamics of hydroxybenzoic acids

    SciTech Connect

    Yang Yilin; Dyakov, Yuri; Lee, Y. T.; Ni, Chi-Kung; Sun Yilun; Hu Weiping

    2011-01-21

    Aromatic amino acids have large UV absorption cross-sections and low fluorescence quantum yields. Ultrafast internal conversion, which transforms electronic excitation energy to vibrational energy, was assumed to account for the photostability of amino acids. Recent theoretical and experimental investigations suggested that low fluorescence quantum yields of phenol (chromophore of tyrosine) are due to the dissociation from a repulsive excited state. Radicals generated from dissociation may undergo undesired reactions. It contradicts the observed photostability of amino acids. In this work, we explored the photodissociation dynamics of the tyrosine chromophores, 2-, 3- and 4-hydroxybenzoic acid in a molecular beam at 193 nm using multimass ion imaging techniques. We demonstrated that dissociation from the excited state is effectively quenched for the conformers of hydroxybenzoic acids with intramolecular hydrogen bonding. Ab initio calculations show that the excited state and the ground state potential energy surfaces change significantly for the conformers with intramolecular hydrogen bonding. It shows the importance of intramolecular hydrogen bond in the excited state dynamics and provides an alternative molecular mechanism for the photostability of aromatic amino acids upon irradiation of ultraviolet photons.

  16. Evaluation of ascorbic acid in protecting labile folic acid derivatives.

    PubMed Central

    Wilson, S D; Horne, D W

    1983-01-01

    The use of ascorbic acid as a reducing agent to protect labile, reduced derivatives of folic acid has been evaluated by high-performance liquid chromatographic separations and Lactobacillus casei microbiological assay of eluate fractions. Upon heating for 10 min at 100 degrees C, solutions of tetrahydropteroylglutamic acid (H4PteGlu) in 2% sodium ascorbate gave rise to 5,10-methylene-H4PteGlu and 5-methyl-H4PteGlu. H2PteGlu acid gave rise to 5-methyl-H4PteGlu and PteGlu. 10-Formyl-H4PteGlu gave rise to 5-formyl-H4PteGlu and 10-formyl-PteGlu. 5-Formyl-H4-PteGlu gave rise to a small amount of 10-formyl-PteGlu. 5-Methyl-H4PteGlu and PteGlu appeared stable to these conditions. These interconversions were not seen when solutions of these folate derivatives were kept at 0 degrees C in 1% ascorbate. These observations indicate that elevated temperatures are necessary for the interconversions of folates in ascorbate solutions. Assays of ascorbic acid solutions indicated the presence of formaldehyde (approximately equal to 6 mM). This was confirmed by the identification of 3,5-diacetyl-1,4-dihydrolutidine by UV, visible, and fluorescence spectroscopy and by thin-layer chromatography of chloroform extracts of the reaction mixture of ascorbic acid solutions, acetylacetone, and ammonium acetate. These results indicate that solutions of sodium ascorbate used at elevated temperatures are not suitable for extracting tissue for the subsequent assay of the individual folic acid derivatives. PMID:6415653

  17. How fumarase recycles after the malate --> fumarate reaction. Insights into the reaction mechanism.

    PubMed

    Rose, I A

    1998-12-22

    Recycling of yeast fumarase to permit repetition of its reaction chemistry requires two proton transfers and two conformational changes, in pathways that are different in detail but thematically similar in the two directions. In the malate --> fumarate direction, simple anions such as acetate accelerate the fumarate-off step producing E(H(f)), a fumarate-specific isoform that retains the C3R-proton of malate. Fumarate specificity is shown with S-2,3-dicarboxyaziridine, which is competitive vs fumarate and noncompetitive with malate as substrate. The steady-state level of E(H(f)), based on Kii (S-2,3-dicarboxyaziridine), is increased by D2O and decreased by imidazole acting as a general acid for conversion of E(H(f)) to E(H(f))H. E(H(f))H is fumarate-specific as shown by the inhibition pattern with ClO4-. The pKa of this step is approximately 7.25 based on the pH dependence of Kii (ClO4-). A conformational change occurs next as shown by high sensitivity of k(cat) but not k(cat)/Km, to the microviscosogen, glycerol, and change to a nonspecific isoform, E(H(mf))H, probably the same species formed in the fumarate --> malate direction from malate-specific intermediates by a different conformational change. Malate enters the cycle by reaction with E(H(mf))H and returns to E(m)H x malate after a second conformational change. When fumarate-off is slow, as in low anion medium, malate itself becomes an activator of malate --> fumarate. This effect occurs with changes in inhibition patterns suggestive of the bypass of the slow E(f) --> E(mf) conversion in favor of direct formation of E(mf) when free fumarate is formed. 3-Nitro-2-hydroxypropionate, a strong inhibitor of fumarase [Porter, D. J. T., and Bright, H. J. (1980) J. Biol. Chem. 255, 4772-4780] in its carbanion form, is competitive with both malate and fumarate. Therefore, 3-nitro-2-hydroxypropionic acid interacts with E(H(mf))H and not with E(m) or E(f) isoforms. Occurrence of two different conformational changes in

  18. Gas-Phase Acidities of Phosphorylated Amino Acids.

    PubMed

    Stover, Michele L; Plummer, Chelsea E; Miller, Sean R; Cassady, Carolyn J; Dixon, David A

    2015-11-19

    Gas-phase acidities and heats of formation have been predicted at the G3(MP2)/SCRF-COSMO level of theory for 10 phosphorylated amino acids and their corresponding amides, including phospho-serine (pSer), -threonine (pThr), and -tyrosine (pTyr), providing the first reliable set of these values. The gas-phase acidities (GAs) of the three named phosphorylated amino acids and their amides have been determined using proton transfer reactions in a Fourier transform ion cyclotron mass spectrometer. Excellent agreement was found between the experimental and predicted GAs. The phosphate group is the deprotonation site for pSer and pThr and deprotonation from the carboxylic acid generated the lowest energy anion for pTyr. The infrared spectra were calculated for six low energy anions of pSer, pThr, and pTyr. For deprotonated pSer and pThr, good agreement is found between the experimental IRMPD spectra and the calculated spectra for our lowest energy anion structure. For pTyr, the IR spectra for a higher energy phosphate deprotonated structure is in good agreement with experiment. Additional experiments tested electrospray ionization (ESI) conditions for pTyr and determined that variations in solvent, temperature, and voltage can result in a different experimental GA value, indicating that ESI conditions affect the conformation of the pTyr anion. PMID:26492552

  19. Recovery of uranium from acid media by macroporous bifunctional phosphinic acid resin

    SciTech Connect

    Sabharwal, K.N.; Srinivasan, T.G.; Rao, P.R.V.; Nandy, K.K.

    1996-11-01

    The extraction of uranium from various acid media such as nitric acid, sulphuric acid, hydrochloric acid, phosphoric acid and perchloric acid by a macroporous bifunctional phosphinic acid resin (MPBPA) has been studied. The distribution coefficients for the extraction of uranium by the MPBPA resin are compared with the corresponding values reported in literature for the conventional sulphonic acid resin. The results clearly indicate the suitability of the MPBPA resin to recover uranium from different types of acid solutions of widely ranging acidities. 17 refs., 6 figs., 5 tabs.

  20. Extractive fermentation of acetic acid

    SciTech Connect

    Busche, R.M.

    1991-12-31

    In this technoeconomic evaluation of the manufacture of acetic acid by fermentation, the use of the bacterium: Acetobacter suboxydans from the old vinegar process was compared with expected performance of the newer Clostridium thermoaceticum bacterium. Both systems were projected to operate as immobilized cells in a continuous, fluidized bed bioreactor, using solvent extraction to recover the product. Acetobacter metabolizes ethanol aerobically to produce acid at 100 g/L in a low pH medium. This ensures that the product is in the form of a concentrated extractable free acid, rather than as an unextractable salt. Unfortunately, yields from glucose by way of the ethanol fermentation are poor, but near the biological limits of the organisms involved. Conversely, C. thermoaceticum is a thermophilic anaerobe that operates at high fermentation rates on glucose at neutral pH to produce acetate salts directly in substantially quantitative yields. However, it is severely inhibited by product, which restricts concentration to a dilute 20 g/L. An improved Acetobacter system operating with recycled cells at 50 g/L appears capable of producing acid at $0.38/lb, as compared with a $0.29/lb price for synthetic acid. However, this system has only a limited margin for process improvement. The present Clostridium system cannot compete, since the required selling price would be $0.42/lb. However, if the organism could be adapted to tolerate higher product concentrations at acid pH, selling price could be reduced to $0.22/lb, or about 80% of the price of synthetic acid.