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Sample records for acid gas treating

  1. Fluoroalkyl chloroformates in treating amino acids for gas chromatographic analysis.

    PubMed

    Husek, Petr; Simek, Petr; Hartvich, Petr; Zahradnícková, Helena

    2008-04-01

    Novel fluoroalkyl chloroformates with three and four carbon atoms were investigated for the immediate conversion of amino acids into hydrophobic derivatives in water-containing media. Derivatization conditions were extensively studied and optimized sample preparation protocols elaborated. More than 30 amino acids were treated with the particular reagent in isooctane by simply vortexing the reactive organic phase with a slightly basified aqueous medium containing pyridine or 3-picoline as a catalyst. Outstanding separation of nearly all components on 5% phenylmethylsilicone phase in gas chromatographic (GC) analysis with mass spectrometric (MS) or flame ionization detection (FID) required <10 min. Quantitation characteristics involving linearity in the range of 0.1-100 nmol, regression coefficients of 0.999-0.953 (histidine), MS limit of detection (LOD) reaching 0.03 pmol at proline to nearly 20 pmol at glutamic acid, plus electron impact (EI) spectra and diagnostic SIM fragment ions of the derivatives are reported. The novel method is simple, robust and rapid, enabling to treat amino acids in aqueous environment and to analyze them in <15 min. PMID:18242622

  2. Study on removal of elemental mercury from simulated flue gas over activated coke treated by acid

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ma, Jinfeng; Li, Caiting; Zhao, Lingkui; Zhang, Jie; Song, Jingke; Zeng, Guangming; Zhang, Xunan; Xie, Yine

    2015-02-01

    This work addressed the investigation of activated coke (AC) treated by acids. Effects of AC samples, modified by ether different acids (H2SO4, HNO3 and HClO4) or HClO4 of varied concentrations, on Hg0 removal were studied under simulated flue gas conditions. In addition, effects of reaction temperature and individual flue gas components including O2, NO, SO2 and H2O were discussed. In the experiments, Brunauer-Emmett-Teller (BET), X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) and Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR) were applied to explore the surface properties of sorbents and possible mechanism of Hg0 oxidation. Results showed that AC sample treated by HClO4 of 4.5 mol/L exhibited maximum promotion of efficiency on Hg0 removal at 160 °C. NO was proved to be positive in the removal of Hg0. And SO2 displayed varied impact in capturing Hg0 due to the integrated reactions between SO2 and modified AC. The addition of O2 could improve the advancement further to some extent. Besides, the Hg0 removal capacity had a slight declination when H2O was added in gas flow. Based on the analysis of XPS and FTIR, the selected sample absorbed Hg0 mostly in chemical way. The reaction mechanism, deduced from results of characterization and performance of AC samples, indicated that Hg0 could firstly be absorbed on sorbent and then react with oxygen-containing (Csbnd O) or chlorine-containing groups (Csbnd Cl) on the surface of sorbent. And the products were mainly in forms of mercuric chloride (HgCl2) and mercuric oxide (HgO).

  3. System of treating flue gas

    DOEpatents

    Ziegler, D.L.

    1975-12-01

    A system is described for treating or cleaning incinerator flue gas containing acid gases and radioactive and fissionable contaminants. Flue gas and a quench solution are fed into a venturi and then tangentially into the lower portion of a receptacle for restricting volumetric content of the solution. The upper portion of the receptacle contains a scrub bed to further treat or clean the flue gas.

  4. Acid gas treating by aqueous alkanolamines. Annual report, January-December 1994

    SciTech Connect

    Sandall, O.C.; Rinker, E.B.; Ashour, S.

    1994-12-01

    The objective of this work is to investigate the simulateneous absorption or desorption of CO2 and H2S into and from a mixed aqueous amine solvent consisting of methyldiethanolamine (MDEA) and diethanolamine (DEA). In work completed this year the authors have measured the density, viscosity and surface tension of pure MDEA and DEA over a range in temperatures. The diffusivity of N2O was measured in aqueous blends of MDEA and DEA at 50 wt% total amine for various ratios of DEA to MDEA over the temperature range 20 to 80 deg. C. A theoretically-based model has been developed for the correlation of the physical solubility of N2O in aqueous amine solutions. A penetration theory type model which was developed to describe acid gas absorption in aqueous amine solutions was used to carry out a sensitivity analysis for the various parameters affecting the rate of absorption of CO2 in MDEA solutions.

  5. Acid gas treating by aqueous alkanolamines. Annual report, January-December 1993

    SciTech Connect

    Sandall, O.C.; Rinker, E.B.; Ashour, S.

    1993-12-01

    The objective of the work is to investigate the simultaneous absorption or desorption of CO2 and H2S into and from a mixed aqueous amine solvent consisting of methyldiethanolamine (MDEA) and diethanolamine (DEA). In work completed thus far, density, viscosity, gas diffusivity, gas solubility, surface tension, and amine solution vapor pressure have been measured for aqueous MDEA, DEA, and MDEA/DEA mixtures over the temperature range 20 to 100 deg. C and for concentrations up to 50 weight %. A mathematical model, based on the penetration theory, for the simultaneous absorption (desorption) of CO2 and H2S into (from) aqueous solutions of MDEA and DEA has been developed.

  6. Acid gas treating by aqueous alkanolamines. Annual report, July-December 1992

    SciTech Connect

    Sandall, O.C.; Rinker, E.B.; Tamimi, A.; Davis, R.A.; Oelschlager, D.W.

    1992-12-01

    The objective of the work is to investigate the simultaneous absorption or desorption of CO2 and H2S into and from a mixed aqueous amine solvent consisting of methyldiethanolamine (MDEA) and diethanolamine (DEA). In work completed thus far models have been developed for single gas (either H2S or CO2) absorption into a single amine solution (MDEA or DEA). Density and viscosity measurements have been made for aqueous MDEA, DEA and MDEA/DEA mixtures over the temperature range 20 to 100 C and for concentrations up to 50 weight %.

  7. Process of treating gas condensate

    SciTech Connect

    Hitzel, H.

    1984-11-06

    The sewage consists of gas condensates from coal-gasifying plants and/or coal chemical plants and contains the anions SO/sub 4/--, SCN-, NO/sub 3/-, Cl- and F- in a total of at least 2 mval/l and contains organic matter corresponding to a chemical oxygen demand of at least 1000 mg/l. The sewage is passed through a biological purification stage, and a succeeding fine purification stage. In an anion exchanger, strong anions are exchanged with hydrogen carbonate ions. The water leaving the anion exchange stage has an alkalinity of at least 2 mval/l and is passed at least in part through a cation exchanger before the water is recycled to the sewage. The water which has left the anion exchanger may be used as cooling water in a cooling tower before or after the cation exchanger. Organic acids are used for regeneration in the cation exchanger and the regeneration eluate is added to the sewage which is to be treated in the biological purification stage.

  8. Gas treating alternatives for LNG plants

    SciTech Connect

    Clarke, D.S.; Sibal, P.W.

    1998-12-31

    This paper covers the various gas treating processes available for treating sour natural gas to specifications required for LNG production. The LNG product specification requires that the total sulfur level be less than 30--40 ppmv, the CO{sub 2} level be less than 50 ppmv and the water level be less than 100 ppmv to prevent freezing problems in the LNG cryogenic column. A wide variety of natural gas compositions are encountered in the various fields and the gas treating process selection is dependent on the type of impurities present in the gas, namely, levels of H{sub 2}S, CO{sub 2}, mercaptans and other organic sulfur compounds. This paper discusses the implications various components in the feed to the LNG plant can have on process selection, and the various treating processes that are available to condition the gas. Process selection criteria, design and operating philosophies are discussed. An economic comparison for two treating schemes is provided.

  9. Acidic gas capture by diamines

    SciTech Connect

    Rochelle, Gary; Hilliard, Marcus

    2011-05-10

    Compositions and methods related to the removal of acidic gas. In particular, the present disclosure relates to a composition and method for the removal of acidic gas from a gas mixture using a solvent comprising a diamine (e.g., piperazine) and carbon dioxide. One example of a method may involve a method for removing acidic gas comprising contacting a gas mixture having an acidic gas with a solvent, wherein the solvent comprises piperazine in an amount of from about 4 to about 20 moles/kg of water, and carbon dioxide in an amount of from about 0.3 to about 0.9 moles per mole of piperazine.

  10. Treating burns caused by hydrofluoric acid.

    PubMed

    Summers, Anthony

    2011-06-01

    Hydrofluoric acid is an ingredient of many common household and industrial solutions. Even seemingly minor burns caused by this acid can have catastrophic effects if they are treated inappropriately or late. This article describes the signs and symptoms, the pathophysiology and the emergency management of hydrofluoric acid burns.

  11. ELEMENTAL MERCURY ADSORPTION BY ACTIVATED CARBON TREATED WITH SULFURIC ACID

    EPA Science Inventory

    The paper gives results of a study of the adsorption of elemental mercury at 125 C by a sulfuric-acid (H2S04, 50% w/w/ solution)-treated carbon for the removal of mercury from flue gas. The pore structure of the sample was characterized by nitrogen (N2) at -196 C and the t-plot m...

  12. Methanol gas-treating scheme offers economics, versatility

    SciTech Connect

    Minkkinen, A.; Larue, J.Y. ); Patel, S. ); Levier, J.F. )

    1992-06-01

    This paper reports on a process that has been developed by Institut Francais du Petrole (IFP) to treat natural-gas using methanol as a single, basic solvent to dehydrate, control dew point, recover hydrocarbon liquids, and sweeten produced gas. The impetus for IFP's research and developmental efforts which began in 1986 was to integrate the functional process steps - dehydration, NGL extraction, and acid-gas removal - into a compact solvent process with which water, NGL, and acid gases could be extracted with only a single solvent. Pilot testing and detailed evaluation of Ifpexol with competitive technologies indicated that it exhibits low thermal-energy requirements, has no vent emissions, and allows recovery of process water. Petro-Canada has agreed to collaborate with IFP by installing the first industrial application at its East Gilby gas plant in Alberta.

  13. Contamination and purification of alkaline gas treating solutions

    SciTech Connect

    McCullough, J.G.; Nielsen, R.B.

    1996-08-01

    Alkanolamine and potassium carbonate solutions in gas treating units removing carbon dioxide, hydrogen sulfide, or both are contaminated by impurities in the feed gases and makeup water and by the products of the degradation and oxidation of amines occurring in the units themselves. Feed gas impurities include oxygen, carbonyl sulfide, carbon monoxide, hydrogen cyanide, ammonia, brine, solid particles, heavy hydrocarbons, sulfur dioxide, hydrochloric acid, organic acids, and pipeline corrosion inhibitors. Impure makeup water contains sulfate, chloride, alkali metal, and alkaline earth ions (hardness). Reactions causing contamination in the units include oxidation of hydrogen sulfide to sulfate and thiosulfate, oxidation of amines to formic acid and other products, and degradation of amines by carbon dioxide. The resulting heat-stable salts and polymers reduce the gas absorbing capacity of alkanolamine solutions and increase their corrosiveness. Similar problems occur in potassium carbonate solutions, except that degradation products of amine activators are too dilute to be harmful. Contaminants are removed by inlet gas separation, charcoal and mechanical filtration, neutralization of heat-stable salts, reclaiming at both atmospheric and reduced pressure, upstream washing of the feed gas, electrodialysis, use of antioxidants, ion exchange, and blowdown and dumping of the solution.

  14. [Studies on interaction of acid-treated nanotube titanic acid and amino acids].

    PubMed

    Zhang, Huqin; Chen, Xuemei; Jin, Zhensheng; Liao, Guangxi; Wu, Xiaoming; Du, Jianqiang; Cao, Xiang

    2010-06-01

    Nanotube titanic acid (NTA) has distinct optical and electrical character, and has photocatalysis character. In accordance with these qualities, NTA was treated with acid so as to enhance its surface activity. Surface structures and surface groups of acid-treated NTA were characterized and analyzed by Transmission Electron Microscope (TEM) and Fourier Transform Infrared Spectrometry (FT-IR). The interaction between acid-treated NTA and amino acids was investigated. Analysis results showed that the lengths of acid-treated NTA became obviously shorter. The diameters of nanotube bundles did not change obviously with acid-treating. Meanwhile, the surface of acid-treated NTA was cross-linked with carboxyl or esterfunction. In addition, acid-treated NTA can catch amino acid residues easily, and then form close combination.

  15. Selective gas treating produces better claus feeds

    SciTech Connect

    Goar, B.G.

    1980-01-01

    Methyldiethanolamine (MDEA) systems with 20-25% by wt MDEA solutions in water are cheaper and more convenient than monoethanolamine (MEA) or diethanolamine (DEA) systems for selective H/sub 2/S removal from gas streams containing H/sub 2/S and CO/sub 2/, because the amine circulation rate will be much less for the MDEA system; apparently, the reaction between MDEA and H/sub 2/S is gas-film-diffusion-rate limited, and the reaction between MDEA and CO/sub 2/ is kinetically controlled. MDEA systems facilitate selective H/sub 2/S absorption by controlling residence time, which is done by limiting the number of contact trays and the amine circulation rate. At high pressures, MDEA systems can remove H/sub 2/S down to 0.25-0.50 g/100 std cu ft, with only 20-30% of the CO/sub 2/ being co-absorbed. The MDEA system at the Husky (Oil Co.) Clark Avenue Gas Plant in Santa Maria, Calif., uses selective amine regeneration technology licensed from Shell Development Co. to enrich Claus unit feed from approx. 23 mole Vertical Bar3< H/sub 2/S up to approx. 50 mole % H/sub 2/S, thus allowing 94% sulfur recovery in a once-through system. Two other MDEA systems for high-pressure gas treating are discussed.

  16. Nitric acid requirement for treating sludge

    SciTech Connect

    Hsu, C.W.

    1992-09-04

    The hydroxylamine nitrate (HAN) precipitate hydrolysis process produces sufficient oxidant (nitrate) such that the resulting blend of formic acid treated sludge and the aqueous product from hydrolysis (PHA) produces a melter feed of acceptable redox (i.e. Fe+2/Total Fe <0.33). With implementation of Late Washing (to reduce the nitrite content of the tetraphenyborate slurry produced during In-Tank Precipitation to 0.01M or less), HAN is no longer required during hydrolysis. As a result, the nitrate content of the melter feed will be reduced greater than an order-of-magnitude and the resulting melter feed produced will be too reducing. If formic acid treatment of the sludge is retained, it will be necessary to trim the melter feed with an oxidant to attain a proper redox. Rather than trimming the melter feed with an oxidant subsequent to the SRAT cycle in which formic acid is used to acidify the sludge, the Savannah River Technology Center (SRTC) has recommended this be accomplished by conversion to nitric acid addition to the Sludge Receipt and Adjustment Tank (SRAT) in place of formic acid (1). This memorandum specifies the stoichiometric bases for determining the nitric acid requirement for the SRAT.

  17. Destruction of acid gas emissions

    SciTech Connect

    Mathur, M.P.; Fu, Yuan C.; Ekmann, J.M.; Boyle, J.M.

    1990-12-31

    A method of destroying NO{sub x} and SO{sub x} in a combustion gas is disclosed. The method includes generating active species by treating stable molecules in a high temperature plasma. Ammonia, methane, steam, hydrogen, nitrogen or a combustion of these gases can be selected as the stable molecules. The gases are subjected to plasma conditions sufficient to create free radicals, ions or excited atoms such as N, NH, NH{sub 2}, OH, CH and/or CH{sub 2}. These active species are injected into a combustion gas at a location of sufficiently high temperature to maintain the species in active state and permit them to react with NO{sub x} and SO{sub x}. Typically the injection is made into the immediate post-combustion gases at temperatures of 475--950{degrees}C. 1 fig.

  18. Destruction of acid gas emissions

    DOEpatents

    Mathur, Mahendra P.; Fu, Yuan C.; Ekmann, James M.; Boyle, John M.

    1991-01-01

    A method of destroying NO.sub.x and SO.sub.2 in a combustion gas in disclosed. The method includes generating active species by treating stable moleucles in a high temperature plasma. Ammonia, methane, steam, hydrogen, nitrogen or a combination of these gases can be selected as the stable molecules. The gases are subjected to plasma conditions sufficient to create free radicals, ions or excited atoms such as N, NH, NH.sub.2, OH.sup.-, CH and/or CH.sub.2. These active species are injected into a combustion gas at a location of sufficiently high temperature to maintain the species in active state and permit them to react with NO.sub.x and SO.sub.2. Typically the injection is made into the immediate post-combustion gases at temperatures of 475.degree.-950.degree. C.

  19. Gelled acidic well treating composition and process

    SciTech Connect

    Swanson, B.L.

    1981-01-13

    Gelled acidic compositions suitable for either matrix-acidizing or fracture-acidizing of subterranean formations comprising water , a water-dispersible polymer selected from cellulose ethers and polymers of acrylamides, an acid, an aldehyde, and a phenolic compound capable of causing gelation of an aqueous dispersion of the polymer, acid, aldehyde, and phenolic compound are provided. In another embodiment, guar gum, polyvinylpyrrolidone and biopolysaccharides can also be used as the polymeric component in said compositions.

  20. Molecular spectroscopic study of acid treated fenugreek seeds

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ibrahim, Medhat

    2010-12-01

    Fenugreek seeds were subjected to acid treatment in order to activate its surface. XRF indicated that there was no change in the level of metals and metal oxides as a result of the treatment. FTIR of the treated fenugreek showed no change in the characteristic bands and/or structure of the fenugreek. A shift in both OH and metal oxide bands suggest a role for metal, hydrated metal and metal oxide in fenugreek seed. Molecular modeling suggests that metal oxides such as Al 16O 24 offer its surface for the adsorption of gases. The interaction of gases with metal oxide is depending on the type of gas rather than the type of coordination. Finally results indicate that fenugreek could be used safely to control the level of gases in stomach.

  1. Effect and mechanism of coking residual ammonia water treating by flue gas.

    PubMed

    Cheng, Z J; Yin, G J; Yang, L Q; Wang, W; Cheng, D D

    2001-04-01

    The treatment of coking residual ammonia water has been a big difficult problem at home and abroad, and there is no breakthrough research achievement in the past. The invention patent "The method of treating all coking wastewater or treating coking residual ammonia water by flue gas" has been successfully used in Huaian Steel Works for high concentration and organic industry wastewater treatment. Not only can it realize the wastewater zero discharge, but also the wastewater treatment has an effect of de-sulfur and de-nitrogen for flue gas. So that the flue gas exhaust can meet the requirement of emission standard. The mass transfer and heat transfer, fly ash absorption and coagulation, acid and alkali neutralization reaction, catalysis oxidation and reduction reaction in flue gas would be the major factors.

  2. Method for treating a nuclear process off-gas stream

    DOEpatents

    Pence, Dallas T.; Chou, Chun-Chao

    1984-01-01

    Disclosed is a method for selectively removing and recovering the noble gas and other gaseous components typically emitted during nuclear process operations. The method is adaptable and useful for treating dissolver off-gas effluents released during reprocessing of spent nuclear fuels whereby to permit radioactive contaminant recovery prior to releasing the remaining off-gases to the atmosphere. Briefly, the method sequentially comprises treating the off-gas stream to preliminarily remove NO.sub.x, hydrogen and carbon-containing organic compounds, and semivolatile fission product metal oxide components therefrom; adsorbing iodine components on silver-exchanged mordenite; removing water vapor carried by said stream by means of a molecular sieve; selectively removing the carbon dioxide components of said off-gas stream by means of a molecular sieve; selectively removing xenon in gas phase by passing said stream through a molecular sieve comprising silver-exchanged mordenite; selectively separating krypton from oxygen by means of a molecular sieve comprising silver-exchanged mordenite; selectively separating krypton from the bulk nitrogen stream using a molecular sieve comprising silver-exchanged mordenite cooled to about -140.degree. to -160.degree. C.; concentrating the desorbed krypton upon a molecular sieve comprising silver-exchange mordenite cooled to about -140.degree. to -160.degree. C.; and further cryogenically concentrating, and the recovering for storage, the desorbed krypton.

  3. Advancements in treating subquality natural gas using N-formyl morpholine

    SciTech Connect

    Palla, N.; Lee, A.L.; Gross, M.; Hooper, H.M.; Menzel, J.; Leppin, D.

    1998-12-31

    Process selection for gas treating is a complex phenomenon because processing requirements vary widely, and there are many gas sweetening solvents that are available to meet the requisite specification. Over the past few years, the Institute of Gas Technology (IGT) and Krupp Uhde GmbH (KU) have been conducting research on a physical solvent N-Formyl Morpholine (NFM) for treatment of subquality natural gas because of its advantages of lower energy consumption, higher CO{sub 2}/H{sub 2}S gas loadings, selective absorption of CO{sub 2}/H{sub 2}S, and lower loss of valuable C{sub 1}-C{sub 6} hydrocarbons as compared with other commercial physical solvents. Field experiment studies form the 1 MMscfd pilot plant unit operating at Shell`s Fandango facility confirms NFM as a cost-effective gas treating solvent. To date, a total of 78 tests using Koch`s random, high capacity and high-efficiency structured packing have been completed. These field experiments were conducted at wellhead conditions at 1,000 psig using slipstream from the Shell plant containing sour gas concentrations up to 43 mol % CO{sub 2}. These data, when used in a sophisticated process simulation, predicted a minimum of 40% operating cost savings depending upon sour gas concentration. This paper explains the development of NFM technology with results from laboratory and field tests. This paper also discusses case studies pertaining to NFM application to retrofits, as well as new plants. Furthermore, this paper illustrates the scaling-up calculations from field test investigations. The potential of mixed solvent -- NFM and morpholine additives -- will also be discussed for increased acid gas loading, reduced circulation rate and column size. This emerging technology is the product of extensive research by IGT and is commercially available through KU for gas treating applications.

  4. Data on (+)-usnic acid: A new application to treat toxoplasmosis.

    PubMed

    Si, Kaiwei; Wei, Linlin; Yu, Xiaozhuo; Wu, Feng; Li, Xiaoqi; Li, Chen; Cheng, Yanbin

    2016-09-01

    Toxoplasma gondii pathogen is a threat to human health that results in economic burden. Unfortunately, there are very few high-efficiency and low-toxicity drugs for toxoplasmosis in the clinic. (+)-Usnic acid derived from lichen species has been reported to have anti-inflammatory, antibacterial, anti-parasitology, and even anti-cancer activities. In associated with the published article "Effects of (+)-Usnic Acid and (+)-Usnic Acid-Liposome on Toxoplasma gondii" [1], this dataset article provided the detailed information of experimental designing, methods, features as well as the raw data of (+)-usnic acid and (+)-usnic acid-liposome on toxoplasma in vivo and vitro. (+)-Usnic acid may be a potential agent for treating toxoplasmosis. PMID:27437438

  5. Use precise calculation models to operate or design refinery gas treating systems

    SciTech Connect

    1996-07-01

    Amine simulators using rate-based calculation methodology can show refinery operators how to treat more acid gas with existing equipment. These simulators can rate the performance and design of an existing unit by evaluating tray size, downcomer configuration, column diameter, wier height, tray depth and operation with a particular solvent. In addition, these simulators can optimize plant designers` solvent selection and equipment sizing in grassroots applications.

  6. Activation of Inactive Nitrogenase by Acid-Treated Component I

    PubMed Central

    Nagatani, H. H.; Shah, Vinod K.; Brill, Winston J.

    1974-01-01

    When Azotobacter vinelandii was derepressed for nitrogenase synthesis in a N-free medium containing tungstate instead of molybdate, an inactive component I was synthesized. Although this inactive component I could be activated in vivo upon addition of molybdate to the medium, it could not be activated in vitro when molybdate was added to the extracts. Activation occurred, however, when an acid-treated component I was added to extracts of cells derepressed in medium containing tungstate. Acid treatment completely abolished component I activity. Mutant strains UW45 and UW10 were unable to fix N2. Both strains synthesized normal levels of component II but produced inactive component I. Acid-treated component I activated inactive component I in extracts of mutant strain UW45 but not mutant strain UW10. This activating factor could be obtained from N2-fixing Klebsiella pneumoniae, Clostridium pasteurianum, and Rhodospirillum rubrum. PMID:4218230

  7. Chloroxyanion Residue Quantification in Cantaloupes Treated with Chlorine Dioxide Gas.

    PubMed

    Kaur, Simran; Smith, David J; Morgan, Mark T

    2015-09-01

    Previous studies show that treatment of cantaloupes with chlorine dioxide (ClO2) gas at 5 mg/liter for 10 min results in a significant reduction (P < 0.05) in initial microflora, an increase in shelf life without any alteration in color, and a 4.6- and 4.3-log reduction of Escherichia coli O157:H7 and Listeria monocytogenes, respectively. However, this treatment could result in the presence of chloroxyanion residues, such as chloride (Cl(-)), chlorite (ClO2(-)), chlorate (ClO3(-)), and perchlorate (ClO4(-)), which, apart from chloride, are a toxicity concern. Radiolabeled chlorine dioxide ((36)ClO2) gas was used to describe the identity and distribution of chloroxyanion residues in or on cantaloupe subsequent to fumigation with ClO2 gas at a mean concentration of 5.1 ± 0.7 mg/liter for 10 min. Each treated cantaloupe was separated into rind, flesh, and mixed (rind and flesh) sections, which were blended and centrifuged to give the corresponding sera fractions. Radioactivity detected, ratio of radioactivity to mass of chlorite in initial ClO2 gas generation reaction, and distribution of chloroxyanions in serum samples were used to calculate residue concentrations in flesh, rind, and mixed samples. Anions detected on the cantaloupe were Cl(-) (∼ 90%) and ClO3(-) (∼ 10%), located primarily in the rind (19.3 ± 8.0 μg of Cl(-)/g of rind and 4.8 ± 2.3 μg of ClO3(-)/g of rind, n = 6). Cantaloupe flesh (∼ 200 g) directly exposed to(36)ClO2 gas treatment showed the presence of only Cl(-) residues (8.1 ± 1.0 μg of Cl(-)/g of flesh, n = 3). Results indicate chloroxyanion residues Cl(-) and ClO3(-) are only present on the rind of whole cantaloupes treated with ClO2 gas. However during cutting, residues may be transferred to the fruit flesh. Because Cl(-) is not toxic, only ClO3(-) would be a toxicity concern, but the levels transferred from rind to flesh are very low. In the case of fruit flesh directly exposed to ClO2 gas, only nontoxic Cl(-) was detected. This

  8. Chloroxyanion Residue Quantification in Cantaloupes Treated with Chlorine Dioxide Gas.

    PubMed

    Kaur, Simran; Smith, David J; Morgan, Mark T

    2015-09-01

    Previous studies show that treatment of cantaloupes with chlorine dioxide (ClO2) gas at 5 mg/liter for 10 min results in a significant reduction (P < 0.05) in initial microflora, an increase in shelf life without any alteration in color, and a 4.6- and 4.3-log reduction of Escherichia coli O157:H7 and Listeria monocytogenes, respectively. However, this treatment could result in the presence of chloroxyanion residues, such as chloride (Cl(-)), chlorite (ClO2(-)), chlorate (ClO3(-)), and perchlorate (ClO4(-)), which, apart from chloride, are a toxicity concern. Radiolabeled chlorine dioxide ((36)ClO2) gas was used to describe the identity and distribution of chloroxyanion residues in or on cantaloupe subsequent to fumigation with ClO2 gas at a mean concentration of 5.1 ± 0.7 mg/liter for 10 min. Each treated cantaloupe was separated into rind, flesh, and mixed (rind and flesh) sections, which were blended and centrifuged to give the corresponding sera fractions. Radioactivity detected, ratio of radioactivity to mass of chlorite in initial ClO2 gas generation reaction, and distribution of chloroxyanions in serum samples were used to calculate residue concentrations in flesh, rind, and mixed samples. Anions detected on the cantaloupe were Cl(-) (∼ 90%) and ClO3(-) (∼ 10%), located primarily in the rind (19.3 ± 8.0 μg of Cl(-)/g of rind and 4.8 ± 2.3 μg of ClO3(-)/g of rind, n = 6). Cantaloupe flesh (∼ 200 g) directly exposed to(36)ClO2 gas treatment showed the presence of only Cl(-) residues (8.1 ± 1.0 μg of Cl(-)/g of flesh, n = 3). Results indicate chloroxyanion residues Cl(-) and ClO3(-) are only present on the rind of whole cantaloupes treated with ClO2 gas. However during cutting, residues may be transferred to the fruit flesh. Because Cl(-) is not toxic, only ClO3(-) would be a toxicity concern, but the levels transferred from rind to flesh are very low. In the case of fruit flesh directly exposed to ClO2 gas, only nontoxic Cl(-) was detected. This

  9. Gas phase acidity of substituted benzenes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bouchoux, Guy

    2011-04-01

    Deprotonation thermochemistry of benzene derivatives C 6H 5X (X = H, F, Cl, OH, NH 2, CN, CHO, NO 2, CH 3, C 2H 5, CHCH 2, CCH) has been examined at the G3B3 level of theory. For X = F, Cl, CN, CHO and NO 2, the most favorable deprotonation site is the ortho position of the phenyl ring. This regio-specificity is directly related to the field/inductive effect of the substituent. G3B3 gas phase acidities, Δ acidH° and Δ acidG°, compare within less than 4 kJ mol -1 with experimental data. A noticeable exception is nitrobenzene for which tabulated acidity appear to be underestimated by ca. 120 kJ mol -1.

  10. Suitability of bronopol preservative treated milk for fatty acid determination.

    PubMed

    Butler, Gillian; Stergiadis, Sokratis

    2011-05-01

    This work aimed to test if milk preserved with bronopol can be reliably used for fatty acid determination. Dairy production and milk quality are often monitored regularly to assess performance and contribute to selection indices. With evidence that fat composition can be influenced by selective breeding, there might be an interest in using samples collected in routine testing to evaluate individual cow fatty acid profiles, contributing to breeding indices. However, most recording services use a preservative such as bronopol and there is no published record if this influences subsequent fatty acid analysis. This study used milk from an oil seed supplementation trial, generating a wide range of milk fatty acid profiles, to test if the concentration of 31 individual fatty acids determined by GC were influenced by bronopol. Provided preserved samples are subsequently frozen, milk treated with bronopol can reliably be used to evaluate fatty acid composition in most cases; however bronopol might influence a few long-chain fatty acids present in relatively low concentrations. This is one small step towards simplifying milk compositional analysis but it could ultimately streamline the inclusion of milk fat quality into breeding indices, either with a view to 'healthier' milk or potentially reducing methane output and the environmental impact of dairy production.

  11. Process for defoaming acid gas scrubbing solutions and defoaming solutions

    SciTech Connect

    Ernst, E.R.; Robbins, M.L.

    1980-06-17

    The foam in acid gas scrubbing solutions created during an acid gas scrubbing process is reduced or eliminated by the addition of certain polyoxyethylene polyoxypropylene block copolymers as defoaming agents. The defoaming agents are particularly effective when the acid gas scrubbing solution contains an amine having a large hydrophobic moiety.

  12. 30 CFR 250.120 - How does injecting, storing, or treating gas affect my royalty payments?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false How does injecting, storing, or treating gas... Performance Standards § 250.120 How does injecting, storing, or treating gas affect my royalty payments? (a... and treat it at an off-lease or off-unit location, you must pay royalties when the gas is...

  13. [BTF performance treating a chlorobenzene-contaminated gas stream].

    PubMed

    Zhou, Qing-Wei; Zhu, Run-Ye; Hu, Jun; Zhang, Li-Li; Chen, Jian-Meng

    2011-12-01

    In this study, biotrickling filter (BTF) inoculated with acclimated sludge was established to treat waste gas containing chlorobenzene. The BTF performance, average well color development (AWCD) values and microbial community were examined in steady state. Results revealed BTF achieved removal efficiency more than 80% of chlorobenzene under the conditions of < 0.6 g x m(-3) inlet concentration and > 45 s EBRT. Therefore, BTF have an advantage in treating low-concentration waste gas containing chlorobenzene (< or = 0.6 g x m(-3)). The overall chlorobenzene elimination capacity reached a maximum of 70 g x (m3 x h)(-1) at an inlet load of 80 g x (m3 x h)(-1). The mass ratio of carbon dioxide produced to the BTo-X removed was approximately 1.92, which confirms complete degradation of chlorobenzene, given that some of the organic carbon consumed is also used for the microbial growth. The degradation of chlorobenzene in the BTF followed Michaelis-Menten kinetic model, the maximum specific degradation rate (r(max)) was 35.6 g x (m3 x h)(-1). The AWCD values indicated that the microorganisms in the BTF showed high the microbial metabolic activity. The PCR-DGGE fingerprinting analysis on biofilm samples in the BTF indicated that the microbial community had a relative stability and complexity during the steady-state phase. The stability and complexity of microbial community could contribute to the degradation and mineralization of chlorobenzene in BTF.

  14. Capture and release of acid-gasses with acid-gas binding organic compounds

    DOEpatents

    Heldebrant, David J; Yonker, Clement R; Koech, Phillip K

    2015-03-17

    A system and method for acid-gas capture wherein organic acid-gas capture materials form hetero-atom analogs of alkyl-carbonate when contacted with an acid gas. These organic-acid gas capture materials include combinations of a weak acid and a base, or zwitterionic liquids. This invention allows for reversible acid-gas binding to these organic binding materials thus allowing for the capture and release of one or more acid gases. These acid-gas binding organic compounds can be regenerated to release the captured acid gasses and enable these organic acid-gas binding materials to be reused. This enables transport of the liquid capture compounds and the release of the acid gases from the organic liquid with significant energy savings compared to current aqueous systems.

  15. [White rot fungi biofilter treating waste gas containing chlorobenzene].

    PubMed

    Wang, Can; Xi, Jin-ying; Hu, Hong-ying; Yu, Yin; Wen, Xiang-hua

    2008-02-01

    A novel gas-solid phase bioreactor, using bamboo as support material, inoculated with white rot fungi Phanerochaete chrysosporium was established to treat waste gas containing chlorobenzene. The performance of P. chrysosporium bioreactor was examined under different conditions. Results showed that the maximum removal efficiency of nearly 80% (average removal efficiency of 50%) could be reached under the condition of chlorobenzene inlet concentration of 200-1500 mg/m3 and the empty bed retention time (EBRT) of 122 s. While the maximum chlorobenzene removal rate of 94 g/(m3 x h) [average removal efficiency o f 60 g/(m3 x h)] had been achieved within chlorobenzene inlet concentration of 500- 1500 mg/m3 and at the flow rate of 0.5 m3/h. Furthermore, the removal rates of the bioreactor at different flow rates were also examined, suggesting that the response of removal rate to the change of inlet loading was dependent on the flow rate. Lower flow rate could promote the extent of removal rate enhancement compared to the higher flow rate. Moreover, the profile of chlorobenzene concentration along the height of the biofilter showed a nonlinear decrease trend.

  16. Using Willie's Acid-Base Box for Blood Gas Analysis

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dietz, John R.

    2011-01-01

    In this article, the author describes a method developed by Dr. William T. Lipscomb for teaching blood gas analysis of acid-base status and provides three examples using Willie's acid-base box. Willie's acid-base box is constructed using three of the parameters of standard arterial blood gas analysis: (1) pH; (2) bicarbonate; and (3) CO[subscript…

  17. [Determination of docosahexaenoic acid in milk powder by gas chromatography using acid hydrolysis].

    PubMed

    Shao, Shiping; Xiang, Dapeng; Li, Shuang; Xi, Xinglin; Chen, Wenrui

    2015-11-01

    A method to determine docosahexenoic acid (DHA) in milk powder by gas chromatography was established. The milk powder samples were hydrolyzed with hydrochloric acid, extracted to get total fatty acids by Soxhlet extractor, then esterified with potassium hydroxide methanol solution to form methyl esters, and treated with sodium hydrogen sulfate. The optimal experiment conditions were obtained from orthogonal experiment L9(3(3)) which performed with three factors and three levels, and it requires the reaction performed with 1 mol/L potassium hydroxide solution at 25 degrees C for 5 min. The derivative treated with sodium hydrogen sulfate was separated on a column of SP-2560 (100 m x 0.25 mm x 0.20 μm), and determined in 55 min by temperature programming-gas chromatography. Good linearity was obtained in the range 5.0-300 mg/L with the correlation coefficient of 0.999 9. The relative standard deviations (RSDs) were 3.4%, 1.2% and 1.1% for the seven repeated experiments of 10, 50 and 100 mg/L of DHA, respectively. The limit of detection was 2 mg/kg, and the recoveries of DHA were in the range of 90.4%-93.5%. The results are satisfactory through the tests of practical samples. PMID:26939370

  18. 30 CFR 250.120 - How does injecting, storing, or treating gas affect my royalty payments?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 2 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false How does injecting, storing, or treating gas... OUTER CONTINENTAL SHELF General Performance Standards § 250.120 How does injecting, storing, or treating...) If you produce gas from an OCS lease and treat it at an off-lease or off-unit location, you must...

  19. Electrical Properties of Heat-Treated Poly-Lactic Acid

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Oi, Toru; Shinyama, Katsuyoshi; Fujita, Shigetaka

    Poly-lactic acid (PLA), a biodegradable plastic, has excellent electrical insulation properties at temperatures ranging from room temperature to around 70°C. At temperatures higher than 70°C, however, the insulation performance of PLA deteriorates due to its poor heat resistance. In this study, PLA was heat-treated at 100°C to endow it with greater heat resistance, and the effects that this heat treatment had on the electrical properties of PLA were investigated. Before being subjected to heat treatment, crystallinity (xc) of PLA was about 6%. After the heat treatment was begun, xc increased in proportion to the heat treatment time, such that measurements revealed that xc had increased to about 42% by the time 15 minutes had passed since the start of the heat treatment. The temperature dependence of the insulation breakdown strength (EB) of heat-treated PLA was investigated, and it was found that EB of heat-treated PLA (PLA-A) decreases at a more moderate rate at temperatures higher than 60°C.

  20. Hollow fiber gas-liquid membrane contactors for acid gas capture: a review.

    PubMed

    Mansourizadeh, A; Ismail, A F

    2009-11-15

    Membrane contactors using microporous membranes for acid gas removal have been extensively reviewed and discussed. The microporous membrane acts as a fixed interface between the gas and the liquid phase without dispersing one phase into another that offers a flexible modular and energy efficient device. The gas absorption process can offer a high selectivity and a high driving force for transport even at low concentrations. Using hollow fiber gas-liquid membrane contactors is a promising alternative to conventional gas absorption systems for acid gas capture from gas streams. Important aspects of membrane contactor as an efficient energy devise for acid gas removal including liquid absorbents, membrane characteristics, combination of membrane and absorbent, mass transfer, membrane modules, model development, advantages and disadvantages were critically discussed. In addition, current status and future potential in research and development of gas-liquid membrane contactors for acid gas removal were also briefly discussed.

  1. Corrosion control in alkanolamine gas treating: Absorber corrosion

    SciTech Connect

    Helle, H.P.E.

    1995-12-01

    Even in 1980, when corrosion in alkanolamine units was rampant, over 50% of all acid gas purification systems was based on alkanolamine absorbents. Over the years the control of corrosion has gradually become firmer. This paper examines the reasons for corrosion and provides insight in one particular aspect of corrosion in alkanolamine units, absorber corrosion. Three factors are identified, solvent degradation, local stagnancy and exceeding the units capacity. Solvent degradation increases the corrosivity of the solvent proper by the formation of complexing compounds such as diamines. Local stagnancy allows the solvent loading level to approach equilibrium which creates a corrosive environment. Exceeding the unit`s capacity will achieve essentially the same but on a larger scale. The corrosion enhancement by interaction of a total of 12 factors is made visual and clarified. The paper examines step by step the means to prevent a number of the factors arising. Guidelines are given for design of the absorber and absorber internals, the molarity of the solvent, inhibition and the benefits and handicaps of filming inhibitors.

  2. Effects of gas atmospheres on poly(lactic acid) film in acrylic acid plasma treatment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhao, Yun; Fina, Alberto; Venturello, Alberto; Geobaldo, Francesco

    2013-10-01

    Plasma polymerized acrylic acid (AA) coatings were deposited on poly(lactic acid) (PLA) films in various gas atmospheres during the pre-treatment of PLA and the deposition of AA, respectively. Therefore, this work was twofold: the argon pretreated PLA films followed by a deposition in argon were investigated against the mixture of argon and oxygen pretreated ones under the same deposition conditions; the plasma deposition of AA operating in different atmospheres (argon, oxygen and nitrogen) was employed to modify the pretreated PLA in oxygen. Chemical and physical changes on the plasma-treated surfaces were examined using contact angle, X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS), field emission scanning electron microscopy (FE-SEM) and attenuated total reflection infrared (ATR-FTIR) analysis. The results showed that the discharge gas can have a significant influence on the chemical composition of the PLA surfaces: oxygen plasmas introduced oxygen-containing groups in company with surface etching in pretreatment and deposition, while argon discharges was able to achieve much better hydrophilic behavior and high retention ratio of poly(acrylic acid) (PAA) coating before and after washing in water.

  3. 30 CFR 250.120 - How does injecting, storing, or treating gas affect my royalty payments?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 2 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false How does injecting, storing, or treating gas... SHELF General Performance Standards § 250.120 How does injecting, storing, or treating gas affect my... CFR 550.119, you must pay royalty before injecting it into the storage reservoir. (c) If you...

  4. Metabolomics Analysis and Biosynthesis of Rosmarinic Acid in Agastache rugosa Kuntze Treated with Methyl Jasmonate

    PubMed Central

    Uddin, Md. Romij; Xu, Hui; Park, Woo Tae; Tuan, Pham Anh; Li, Xiaohua; Chung, Eunsook; Lee, Jai-Heon; Park, Sang Un

    2013-01-01

    This study investigated the effect of methyl jasmonate (MeJA) on metabolic profiles and rosmarinic acid (RA) biosynthesis in cell cultures of Agastache rugosa Kuntze. Transcript levels of phenylpropanoid biosynthetic genes, i.e., ArPAL, Ar4CL, and ArC4H, maximally increased 4.5-fold, 3.4-fold, and 3.5-fold, respectively, compared with the untreated controls, and the culture contained relatively high amounts of RA after exposure of cells to 50 µM MeJA. RA levels were 2.1-, 4.7-, and 3.9-fold higher after exposure to 10, 50, and 100 µM MeJA, respectively, than those in untreated controls. In addition, the transcript levels of genes attained maximum levels at different time points after the initial exposure. The transcript levels of ArC4H and Ar4CL were transiently induced by MeJA, and reached a maximum of up to 8-fold at 3 hr and 6 hr, respectively. The relationships between primary metabolites and phenolic acids in cell cultures of A. rugosa treated with MeJA were analyzed by gas chromatography coupled with time-of-flight mass spectrometry. In total, 45 metabolites, including 41 primary metabolites and 4 phenolic acids, were identified from A. rugosa. Metabolite profiles were subjected to partial least square-discriminate analysis to evaluate the effects of MeJA. The results indicate that both phenolic acids and precursors for the phenylpropanoid biosynthetic pathway, such as aromatic amino acids and shikimate, were induced as a response to MeJA treatment. Therefore, MeJA appears to have an important impact on RA accumulation, and the increased RA accumulation in the treated cells might be due to activation of the phenylpropanoid genes ArPAL, ArC4H, and Ar4CL. PMID:23724034

  5. Chloroxyanion residue quantification in cantaloupes treated with chlorine dioxide gas

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Previous studies show that treatment of cantaloupes with chlorine dioxide (ClO2) gas at 5 mg/L for 10 minutes, results in a significant reduction (p<0.05) in initial microflora, an increase in shelf life without any alteration in color, and a 4.6 and 4.3 log reduction of E. coli O157:H7 and L. monoc...

  6. Treating exhaust gas from a pressurized fluidized bed reaction system

    DOEpatents

    Isaksson, J.; Koskinen, J.

    1995-08-22

    Hot gases from a pressurized fluidized bed reactor system are purified. Under super atmospheric pressure conditions hot exhaust gases are passed through a particle separator, forming a filtrate cake on the surface of the separator, and a reducing agent--such as an NO{sub x} reducing agent (like ammonia)--is introduced into the exhaust gases just prior to or just after particle separation. The retention time of the introduced reducing agent is enhanced by providing a low gas velocity (e.g. about 1--20 cm/s) during passage of the gas through the filtrate cake while at super atmospheric pressure. Separation takes place within a distinct pressure vessel, the interior of which is at a pressure of about 2--100 bar, and introduction of reducing agent can take place at multiple locations (one associated with each filter element in the pressure vessel), or at one or more locations just prior to passage of clean gas out of the pressure vessel (typically passed to a turbine). 8 figs.

  7. Treating exhaust gas from a pressurized fluidized bed reaction system

    SciTech Connect

    Isaksson, Juhani; Koskinen, Jari

    1995-01-01

    Hot gases from a pressurized fluidized bed reactor system are purified. Under superatmospheric pressure conditions hot exhaust gases are passed through a particle separator, forming a flitrate cake on the surface of the separator, and a reducing agent--such as an NO.sub.x reducing agent (like ammonia), is introduced into the exhaust gases just prior to or just after particle separation. The retention time of the introduced reducing agent is enhanced by providing a low gas velocity (e.g. about 1-20 cm/s) during passage of the gas through the filtrate cake while at superatmospheric pressure. Separation takes place within a distinct pressure vessel the interior of which is at a pressure of about 2-100 bar, and-introduction of reducing agent can take place at multiple locations (one associated with each filter element in the pressure vessel), or at one or more locations just prior to passage of clean gas out of the pressure vessel (typically passed to a turbine).

  8. CrystaSulf{sup SM} liquid redox and TDA gas phase H{sub 2}S conversion technologies for sour gas treating

    SciTech Connect

    Dalrymple, D.A.; Deberry, D.W.; Srinivas, G.

    1999-07-01

    Sour natural gas that contains hydrogen sulfide (H{sub 2}S) accounts for 15 to 25% of the gas processed in the US. Worldwide, as much as 30% of the gas reserves are sour. The need for more cost-effective approaches to process subquality gas is becoming more evident as new drilling occurs deeper within existing fields and in new fields. These types of producing zones tend to be sour. Gas containing very small amounts of sulfur (e.g., less than 0.2 long tons per day (LTPD)) can be cost-effectively treated with nonregenerable scavengers. This can be performed by injecting a liquid scavenger directly into a pipe containing the sour gas (direct injection) or by passing the sour gas through a tower containing a liquid or solid scavenger. Gas containing more than 25 to 30 LTPD of sulfur is generally processed by first separating the acid gases with an amine unit and then processing the amine offgas in a Claus plant to produce molten elemental sulfur. However, gas streams with sulfur amounts between 0.2 and 25 LTPD have generally posed treatment challenges to industry. This paper describes two emerging technologies for treating gases containing H{sub 2}S--the CrystaSulf{sup SM} liquid redox process and the TDA gas phase direct oxidation process. Both convert the H{sub 2}S to elemental sulfur and both are being pilot tested during 1999. Radian International is commercializing both processes. CrystaSulf appears to be well suited to treat sour streams containing between 0.2 and 25 LTPD of sulfur. CrystaSulf can achieve sulfur control efficiencies of 99.8% or greater and can be applied directly to sour streams or to tailgases from amine units or Clause plants. The TDA direct oxidation process provides a cost effective way to treat amine unit tailgas and in a single stage can achieve 85 to 97% sulfur control efficiencies for that stream. Following successful pilot plant testing, both processes will be available commercially.

  9. Removal of nitric oxide from exhaust gas with cyanuric acid--

    SciTech Connect

    Siebers, D.L. . Combustion Research Faclity); Caton, J.A. . Dept. of Mechanical Engineering)

    1990-01-01

    Addition of gaseous isocyanic acid (HNCO) to the exhaust of combustion systems or chemical process is proposed as a method for reducing nitric oxide (NO) emissions. The HNCO selectively reduces NO in the exhaust through a multistep chemical reaction mechanism. This article presents an experimental investigation of the proposed NO reduction process using cyanuric acid as the source of HNCO. At elevated temperature cyanuric acid decomposes and forms HNCO. The effects of temperature, exhaust gas composition, cyanuric acid concentration (i.e., HNCO concentration), and surfaces were examined. The experiments were conducted in an electrically heated quartz flow reactor using either exhaust from a diesel engine or simulated exhaust gas. The results demonstrate that gas phase NO reduction approaching 100% can be obtained.

  10. Acid gas removal in a confined vortex scrubber

    SciTech Connect

    Hura, H.S.; Diehl, R.C.

    1994-12-31

    This paper reports results of acid gas removal tests performed on a confined vortex scrubber. The confined vortex scrubber (CVS) was developed at the Energy Technology Office of Textron Defense Systems (ETO/TDS) under company as well as Pittsburgh Energy Technology Center (PETC) funding. Previous tests on the CVS have demonstrated > 98% capture for sub-micron fly ash particles, as well as high mercury vapor removal from gas streams. In the recent tests water, sodium hydroxide, and sodium sulfite and bisulfite solutions were used to scrub out hydrochloric, acid gas (HCl) and sulfur dioxide (SO{sub 2}) doped in air supplied to the CVS. The capture efficiency was determined as a function of acid gas concentration, liquor flow rate, and liquor type. When the liquor was supplied only inside the CVS squirrel cage the HCl removal efficiency varied from 85--100% while the SO{sub 2} removal efficiency varied from 60--80%. Significantly higher captures were obtained at 1/3 rd the liquor flow rate by spraying the liquor upstream of the CVS in the air inlet pipe, and increasing the liquor/gas contact time. Total HCl captures > 95% and SO{sub 2} captures > 85% were obtained at a liquid/gas ratio of only 2 gal/1,000 acf for acid gas concentrations of 200--1,800 ppmv. There were no significant differences in the SO{sub 2}, scrubbing ability of the three sodium solutions, and the HCl scrubbing ability of water and a sodium hydroxide solution. These results suggest that the acid gas capture in the CVS is mass transfer limited because of the extremely short gas residence times in the CVS.

  11. Valproic Acid Induced Hyperammonemia in a Long Time Treated Patient

    PubMed Central

    Seide, Margaret; Stern, Robert G.

    2016-01-01

    We report a case of a patient who had been on long time valproic acid for treatment of bipolar affective disorder. While being an inpatient, serology ammonia level testing revealed a very high ammonia level despite being asymptomatic. Dual therapy of carnitine and lactulose was provided to the patient for treatment of the hyperammonemia. It should also be noted that, during this treatment, valproic acid was not stopped. Consequently, this case illustrates that patients can present asymptomatically despite very high ammonia levels and hyperammonemia can occur in chronic valproic acid despite not increasing the dose of the medication and psychiatrists do not need to discontinue valproic acid in the presence of elevated levels of ammonia if the patient shows no signs of encephalopathy or delirium. PMID:27516916

  12. Valproic Acid Induced Hyperammonemia in a Long Time Treated Patient.

    PubMed

    Aiyer, Rohit; Seide, Margaret; Stern, Robert G

    2016-01-01

    We report a case of a patient who had been on long time valproic acid for treatment of bipolar affective disorder. While being an inpatient, serology ammonia level testing revealed a very high ammonia level despite being asymptomatic. Dual therapy of carnitine and lactulose was provided to the patient for treatment of the hyperammonemia. It should also be noted that, during this treatment, valproic acid was not stopped. Consequently, this case illustrates that patients can present asymptomatically despite very high ammonia levels and hyperammonemia can occur in chronic valproic acid despite not increasing the dose of the medication and psychiatrists do not need to discontinue valproic acid in the presence of elevated levels of ammonia if the patient shows no signs of encephalopathy or delirium. PMID:27516916

  13. Greenhouse gas emissions from constructed wetlands treating dairy wastewater

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Glass, Vimy M.

    In Nova Scotia, constructed wetland systems are widely considered as effective treatment systems for agricultural wastewater. Although research has examined the water quality treatment attributes, there has been limited focus on the air quality effects of these systems. Six operational pilot-scale constructed wetlands were built with flow-through chambers for quantifying greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions in Truro, NS. Utilized within this facility were three gas analyzers to monitor GHG emissions (CO2, N 2O, CH4) and the gaseous fluxes could then be determined using the mass balance micrometeorological technique. Prior to data collection, the site underwent testing to ensure valid conclusions and replicated responses from the wetland systems. Those wetlands receiving wastewater at a typical HLR (10.6 mm d-1) and with ample vegetation displayed the best concentration reductions. During the growing season (GS), average CO 2 consumption was large (approximately -44 g CO2m -2 d-1) for wetlands with dense vegetation (approximately 100% cover) at the typical loading rate. For those wetlands at higher loading rates, CO2 emissions were observed to be as high as +9.2 g CO 2m-2 d-1. Wetlands with typical loading rates and healthy aquatic vegetation produced average CH4 fluxes of approximately 43 g CO2 eq. m-2d-1, while higher loaded systems with little vegetation approached 90 g CO 2 eq. m-2d-1. During the non-growing season (NGS), all vegetated wetlands exhibited higher CH4 emissions than the non-vegetated systems (˜15 to 20% higher). Vegetation maturity played a strong role in the GHG balance. The average CO2consumption for wetlands with established vegetation was ˜ -36 g CO2 m -2 d-1 during the GS. Wetland 4, which had been newly transplanted in 2004, had the highest single day CO2 consumption of -152 g CO2m-2 d-1 . Methane emissions from wetlands with two-year-old vegetation followed the same pattern but were approximately half of the emissions recorded from 2003. The

  14. Cyclodextrins: a new efficient absorbent to treat waste gas streams.

    PubMed

    Blach, Philippe; Fourmentin, Sophie; Landy, David; Cazier, Fabrice; Surpateanu, Gheorghe

    2008-01-01

    Volatile Organic Compounds (VOCs) in the air provoke health and environmental concerns. This paper focuses on the absorption method to treat industrial polluted air loaded with VOCs. The key variable of this treatment being the choice of a suitable liquid absorbent, the aim of this research work is to investigate the effectiveness and the regeneration of a new potential family of absorbent: cyclodextrins (CDs). All CDs derivatives tested are able to decrease the Henry's law constant of toluene: a reduction of volatility up to 95% may be obtained, depending on CD nature and concentration. Moreover, absorption experiments show that beta-CD, which presents the highest absorption ability, is 250 time more efficient than water. The absorption efficiency is not totally correlated with static experiments, suggesting that, in addition to Henry's law constants and inclusion compounds stability, toluene diffusion into such solutions has to be taken into account. It is also to be noted that salt and pH variations seem to have little influence on the absorption capacity of CDs, which may be of great interest for industrial applications. Finally, since production of solid compounds was not observed during these experiments and since temperature decreases the capture ability in a drastic way, regeneration of the washing solution can be achieved by heating the solution in combination with air stripping.

  15. Electrochemical activity of iron in acid treated bentonite and influence of added nickel

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mudrinić, T.; Mojović, Z.; Milutinović-Nikolić, A.; Mojović, M.; Žunić, M.; Vukelić, N.; Jovanović, D.

    2015-10-01

    Bentonite originated from Mečji Do, Serbia, was submitted to acid treatment at 70 °C for 30 min, while only the concentration of applied HCl varied. The obtained acid treated samples were used to modify glassy carbon (GC) electrode. The effect of applied acid treatment on the electrochemical behavior of GC electrodes modified with these materials was investigated. Furthermore, the effect of the introduction of nickel into acid treated samples was studied. The incorporation of nickel into acid treated bentonite was achieved by either ion exchange or impregnation/decomposition method. The obtained samples were characterized using the following methods: inductively coupled plasma (ICP), X-ray diffraction (XRD), Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) spectroscopy and electron spin resonance (ESR) spectroscopy. The electrochemical behavior of these samples was tested by cyclic voltammetry in 0.1 mol dm-3 H2SO4 solution. The ICP, FTIR and ESR results exhibited a slight decrease of iron content in the acid treated samples. XRD and FTIR results confirmed that the conditions applied for the acid treatment were mild enough for the smectite structure to be preserved. The electrocatalytic test showed that the current response of Fe2+/Fe3+ oxidation/reduction process increased on the GC electrodes separately modified with each of the acid treated samples in comparison with current obtained on the GC electrode modified with untreated sample. These results indicated that applied acid treatment probably increased the accessibility of the electroactive iron within smectite. Cyclic voltammograms obtained for the GC electrodes modified with acid treated bentonite materials showed greater anodic charge (qa) than cathodic charge (qc). This difference might be due to iron detachment from smectite structure during the oxidation process. Further modification of the selected acid treated sample with nickel species resulted in decreased current response of the Fe2+/Fe3+ oxidation

  16. Aminomethylphosphonic acid accumulation in plant species treated with glyphosate

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Aminomethylphosphonic acid (AMPA) is the most frequently detected metabolite of glyphosate in plants. Greenhouse studies were conducted to determine the glyphosate I50 values (rate required to cause a 50% reduction in plant growth) and to quantify AMPA and shikimate concentrations in selected legum...

  17. Alpha-amino acid behaves differently from beta- or gamma-amino acids as treated by trimetaphosphate.

    PubMed

    Gao, X; Liu, Y; Xu, P X; Cai, Y M; Zhao, Y F

    2008-01-01

    The condensation reactions of sodium trimetaphosphate with single amino acids, namely glycine, L-alanine, beta-alanine and gamma-aminobutyric acid or pairs of these amino acids were reinvestigated by electrospray ion-trap mass spectrometry and high performance liquid chromatography. It was found when mixtures were treated by sodium trimetaphosphate only in the presence of alpha-amino acid dipeptides were formed. Without addition of alpha-amino acids, the beta-amino acid or gamma-aminobutyric acid could not form peptide either by themselves or with their mixtures under the same conditions. From the data it is concluded that phosphate might select alpha-amino acids to produce the peptides being important precursors for the origin of life. PMID:17973074

  18. Treating landfill gas hydrogen sulphide with mineral wool waste (MWW) and rod mill waste (RMW).

    PubMed

    Bergersen, Ove; Haarstad, Ketil

    2014-01-01

    Hydrogen sulphide (H2S) gas is a major odorant at municipal landfills. The gas can be generated from different waste fractions, for example demolition waste containing gypsum based plaster board. The removal of H2S from landfill gas was investigated by filtering it through mineral wool waste products. The flow of gas varied from 0.3 l/min to 3.0 l/min. The gas was typical for landfill gas with a mean H2S concentration of ca. 4500 ppm. The results show that the sulphide gas can effectively be removed by mineral wool waste products. The ratios of the estimated potential for sulphide precipitation were 19:1 for rod mill waste (RMW) and mineral wool waste (MWW). A filter consisting of a mixture of MWW and RMW, with a vertical perforated gas tube through the center of filter material and with a downward gas flow, removed 98% of the sulfide gas over a period of 80 days. A downward gas flow was more efficient in contacting the filter materials. Mineral wool waste products are effective in removing hydrogen sulphide from landfill gas given an adequate contact time and water content in the filter material. Based on the estimated sulphide removal potential of mineral wool and rod mill waste of 14 g/kg and 261 g/kg, and assuming an average sulphide gas concentration of 4500 ppm, the removal capacity in the filter materials has been estimated to last between 11 and 308 days. At the studied location the experimental gas flow was 100 times less than the actual gas flow. We believe that the system described here can be upscaled in order to treat this gas flow.

  19. Acid gas extraction of pyridine from water

    SciTech Connect

    Laitinen, A.; Kaunisto, J.

    2000-01-01

    Pyridine was extracted from aqueous solutions initially containing 5 or 15 wt % pyridine by using liquid or supercritical carbon dioxide at 10 MPa as a solvent in a mechanically agitated countercurrent extraction column. The lowest pyridine concentration in the raffinate was 0.06 wt %, whereas the pyridine concentration in the extract was 86--94 wt %. From the initial amount of pyridine, 96--99% was transferred from the feed stream to the extract by using relatively small solvent-to-feed ratios of 2.8--4.6 (kg of solvent/kg of feed). The measured distribution coefficients for the water/pyridine/carbon dioxide system ranged from 0.3 to 1 (weight units), depending on the initial pyridine concentration in water. Carbon dioxide is a particularly suitable solvent for the extraction of pyridine from concentrated aqueous solutions. The efficiency may be the result of an acid-base interaction between weakly basic pyridine solute and weakly acidic carbon dioxide solvent in an aqueous environment.

  20. Acid gas scrubbing by composite solvent-swollen membranes

    DOEpatents

    Matson, Stephen L.; Lee, Eric K. L.; Friesen, Dwayne T.; Kelly, Donald J.

    1988-01-01

    A composite immobilized liquid membrane suitable for acid gas scrubbing is disclosed. The membrane is a solvent-swollen polymer and a microporous polymeric support, the solvent being selected from a class of highly polar solvents containing at least one atom selected from nitrogen, oxygen, phosphorous and sulfur, and having a boiling point of at least 100.degree. C. and a solubility parameter of from about 7.5 to about 13.5 (cal/cm.sup.3 -atm).sup.1/2. Such solvents are homogeneously distributed through the solvent-swollen polymer from 20% to 95% by weight. Also disclosed are methods of acid gas scrubbing of high- and low-Btu gas effluents with such solvent-swollen membranes.

  1. Acid gas scrubbing by composite solvent-swollen membranes

    DOEpatents

    Matson, S.L.; Lee, E.K.L.; Friesen, D.T.; Kelly, D.J.

    1988-04-12

    A composite immobilized liquid membrane suitable for acid gas scrubbing is disclosed. The membrane is a solvent-swollen polymer and a microporous polymeric support, the solvent being selected from a class of highly polar solvents containing at least one atom selected from nitrogen, oxygen, phosphorus and sulfur, and having a boiling point of at least 100 C and a solubility parameter of from about 7.5 to about 13.5 (cal/cm[sup 3]-atm)[sup 1/2]. Such solvents are homogeneously distributed through the solvent-swollen polymer from 20% to 95% by weight. Also disclosed are methods of acid gas scrubbing of high- and low-Btu gas effluents with such solvent-swollen membranes. 3 figs.

  2. Gas dilution system results and application to acid rain utilities

    SciTech Connect

    Jolley-Souders, K.; Geib, R.; Dunn, C.

    1997-12-31

    In 1997, the United States EPA will remove restrictions preventing acid rain utilities from using gas dilution systems for calibration or linearity studies for continuous emissions monitoring, Test Method 205 in 40CFR51 requires that a gas dilution system must produce calibration gases whose measured values are within {+-}2% of predicted values. This paper presents the evaluation of the Environics/CalMat 2020 Dilution System for use in calibration studies. Internal studies show that concentrations generated by this unit are within {+-}0.5% of predicted values. Studies are being conducted by several acid rain utilities to evaluate the Environics/CalMat system using single minor component calibration standards. In addition, an internally generated study is being performed to demonstrate the system`s accuracy using a multi-component gas mixture. Data from these tests will be presented in the final version of the paper.

  3. Interactions between greenhouse gas policies and acid rain control strategies

    SciTech Connect

    Klein, D.E.; Kane, R.L.; Mansueti, L.

    1997-12-31

    Conventional wisdom and much of the public policy debate have usually drawn a clean delineation between acid rain issues and global warming concerns. This traditional approach of evaluating one policy at a time is too simplistic to serve as a framework for electric utilities making major capital investment and fuel procurement decisions to comply with various environmental requirements. Potential Climate change regulation can affect acid rain compliance decisions, and acid rain compliance decisions will affect future GHG emissions. This paper explores two categories of linkages between these different environmental issues. First, the assumptions one makes regarding future climate change policies can have a profound impact on the economic attractiveness of various acid rain compliance strategies. Second, decisions regarding acid rain compliance strategy can have greenhouse gas implications that might prove more or less difficult to address in future climate change legislation.

  4. Brain Pathology in Adult Rats Treated With Domoic Acid.

    PubMed

    Vieira, A C; Alemañ, N; Cifuentes, J M; Bermúdez, R; Peña, M López; Botana, L M

    2015-11-01

    Domoic acid (DA) is a neurotoxin reported to produce damage to the hippocampus, which plays an important role in memory. The authors inoculated rats intraperitoneally with an effective toxic dose of DA to study the distribution of the toxin in major internal organs by using immunohistochemistry, as well as to evaluate the induced pathology by means of histopathologic and immunohistochemical methods at different time points after toxin administration (6, 10, and 24 hours; 5 and 54 days). DA was detected by immunohistochemistry exclusively in pyramidal neurons of the hippocampus at 6 and 10 hours after dosing. Lesions induced by DA were prominent at 5 days following treatment in selected regions of the brain: hippocampus, amygdala, piriform and perirhinal cortices, olfactory tubercle, septal nuclei, and thalamus. The authors found 2 types of lesions: delayed death of selective neurons and large areas of necrosis, both accompanied by astrocytosis and microgliosis. At 54 days after DA exposure, the pathology was characterized by still-distinguishable dying neurons, calcified lesions in the thalamus, persistent astrocytosis, and pronounced microgliosis. The expression of nitric oxide synthases suggests a role for nitric oxide in the pathogenesis of neuronal degeneration and chronic inflammation induced by DA in the brain.

  5. Epidermodysplasia verruciformis treated using topical 5-aminolaevulinic acid photodynamic therapy.

    PubMed

    Karrer, S; Szeimies, R M; Abels, C; Wlotzke, U; Stolz, W; Landthaler, M

    1999-05-01

    We describe a 65-year-old woman who had had wart-like lesions on the hands, lower arms and forehead for about 45 years. She had already had several basal cell carcinomas excised. Histological study, electron microscopy and in situ hybridization [human papilloma virus (HPV)-types 5/8/12/14/19-23/25/36] of skin biopsies confirmed a diagnosis of epidermodysplasia verruciformis (EV). Photodynamic therapy (PDT) was performed using a 20% 5-aminolaevulinic acid ointment applied for 6 h to the lesions and irradiating using an incoherent light source (lambda = 580-740 nm, 160 mW/cm2, 160 J/cm2). Following PDT, blistering and crusting of the lesions occurred, but these healed completely within 2-3 weeks without scarring, and the cosmetic result was excellent. Six months after PDT a skin biopsy was taken. In situ hybridization was positive for HPV type 8 in skin which was clinically and histologically normal. Twelve months after PDT a few lesions had recurred on the hands. Although permanent cure of EV cannot be achieved by any therapy at present and single lesions continue to appear in this patient, topical PDT might result in better control of HPV-induced lesions.

  6. Epidermodysplasia verruciformis treated using topical 5-aminolaevulinic acid photodynamic therapy.

    PubMed

    Karrer, S; Szeimies, R M; Abels, C; Wlotzke, U; Stolz, W; Landthaler, M

    1999-05-01

    We describe a 65-year-old woman who had had wart-like lesions on the hands, lower arms and forehead for about 45 years. She had already had several basal cell carcinomas excised. Histological study, electron microscopy and in situ hybridization [human papilloma virus (HPV)-types 5/8/12/14/19-23/25/36] of skin biopsies confirmed a diagnosis of epidermodysplasia verruciformis (EV). Photodynamic therapy (PDT) was performed using a 20% 5-aminolaevulinic acid ointment applied for 6 h to the lesions and irradiating using an incoherent light source (lambda = 580-740 nm, 160 mW/cm2, 160 J/cm2). Following PDT, blistering and crusting of the lesions occurred, but these healed completely within 2-3 weeks without scarring, and the cosmetic result was excellent. Six months after PDT a skin biopsy was taken. In situ hybridization was positive for HPV type 8 in skin which was clinically and histologically normal. Twelve months after PDT a few lesions had recurred on the hands. Although permanent cure of EV cannot be achieved by any therapy at present and single lesions continue to appear in this patient, topical PDT might result in better control of HPV-induced lesions. PMID:10354037

  7. Spectra investigation on surface characteristics of graphene oxide nanosheets treated with tartaric, malic and oxalic acids.

    PubMed

    Teng, Xiyao; Yan, Manqing; Bi, Hong

    2014-01-24

    The surface characteristics of graphene oxide nanosheets (GO) treated respectively with tartaric acid, malic acid and oxalic acid, have been investigated by mainly using optical spectroscopic methods including Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FT-IR), Ultraviolet-visible (UV-Vis) absorption and Raman spectroscopy. Additionally, the electrochemical property of the products has also been studied. The data revealed that oxygen-containing groups such as OH, COOH and CO on the GO surface have been almost removed and thus reduced graphene oxide nanosheets (RGN) were obtained. Interestingly, the number of sp(2) domains of RGN increases as treated by tartaric acidacidacid whereas the steric hindrance (SH) decreases and the ionization constant (IC) differs among these three acids. Furthermore, the specific capacitances (Cs) of GO have been greatly promoted from 2.4 F g(-1) to 100.8, 112.4, and 147 F g(-1) after treated with tartaric, malic and oxalic acids, respectively. This finding agrees well with the spectra result of the tendency of surface conjugated degree alteration. We claim that the difference in both SH and IC among these acids is the main reason for the diverse surface characteristics as well as the improved Cs of the RGN.

  8. Methane Production from Rice Straw Hydrolysate Treated with Dilute Acid by Anaerobic Granular Sludge.

    PubMed

    Cheng, Jing-Rong; Liu, Xue-Ming; Chen, Zhi-Yi

    2016-01-01

    The traditional anaerobic digestion process of straw to biogas faces bottlenecks of long anaerobic digestion time, low digestion rate, less gas production, etc., while straw hydrolysate has the potential to overcome these drawbacks. In this study, the dilute sulphuric acid-treated hydrolysate of rice straw (DSARSH) containing high sulfate was firstly proved to be a feasible substrate for methane production under mesophilic digestion by granular sludge within a short digestion time. Batch anaerobic digestion process was operated under different initial chemical oxygen demand (COD) values at temperature of 37 °C with the pH of 8.5. Among the initial COD values ranging from 3000 to 11,000 mg/L, 5000 mg/L was proved to be the most appropriate considering high COD removal efficiency (94.17 ± 1.67 %), CH4 content (65.52 ± 3.12 %), and CH4 yield (0.346 ± 0.008 LCH4/g COD removed) within 120 h. Furthermore, when the studied system operated at the initial COD of 5000 mg/L, the sulfate removal ratio could reach 56.28 %.

  9. Ammonia and greenhouse gas emissions from constructed wetlands treating swine wastewater

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Ammonia and greenhouse gas emissions from marsh-pond-marsh constructed wetlands treating swine wastewater were measured with closed-chamber technique using a photoacoustic multigas analyzer. Theory behind the technique was discussed and the technique was demonstrated with actual field data. Nitrous ...

  10. Gas-phase NMR studies of alcohols. Intrinsic acidities

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chauvel, J. Paul; True, Nancy S.

    1985-05-01

    Gas-phase (≈100 Torr) 1H NMR spectra of eighteen simple aliphatic and unsaturated alcohols, four fluorinated alcohols, and two thiols were obtained at 148.6°C where hydrogen bonding has little effect on chemical shifts. For the methanol, ethanol, n-propanol, i-propanol, t-butanol, i- butanol, neopentanol, 2,2,2-trifluoroethanol and benzyl alcohol, the observed hydroxylic proton chemical shifts correlate with previously obtained relative gas-phase acidities from thermochemical analysis which employed equilibrium constants of proton transfer reactions measured via mass spectroscopic and ion cyclotron resonance techniques. The correlational dependence is 10.3(0.5) kcal/mol ppm with a correlation coefficient of 0.99. These results demonstrate that the trend of increasing acidity with increasing size of the alkyl substituent is also reflected in the neutral forms of the alcohols, indicating that the polarizability of the ionic forms is not the only determining factor in relative gas-phase acidities of alcohols. Although factors affecting the hydroxylic proton chemical shifts of the larger substituted and unsaturated alcohols are more complex, their observed 1H NMR spectra also reflect this trend. For methanol and ethanol observed gas-phase 1H chemical shifts are also compared with recent theoritical calculations. 3JHH coupling constants across CO bonds are ≈ 5.5 Hz, significantly smaller than typical 3JHH coupling across sp 3 hybrid C C bonds.

  11. APPARATUS AND METHOD FOR TREATING POLLUTANTS IN A GAS USING HYDROGEN PEROXIDE AND UV LIGHT

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cooper, Charles David (Inventor); Clauseu, christian Anthony (Inventor)

    2005-01-01

    An apparatus for treating pollutants in a gas may include a source of hydrogen peroxide, and a treatment injector for creating and injecting dissociated hydrogen peroxide into the flow of gas. The treatment injector may further include an injector housing having an inlet, an outlet, and a hollow interior extending there between. The inlet may be connected in fluid communication with the source of hydrogen peroxide so that hydrogen peroxide flows through the hollow interior and toward the outlet. At least one ultraviolet (UV) lamp may be positioned within the hollow interior of the injector housing. The at least one UV lamp may dissociate the hydrogen peroxide flowing through the tube. The dissociated hydrogen peroxide may be injected into the flow of gas from the outlet for treating pollutants, such as nitrogen oxides.

  12. Apparatus and method for treating pollutants in a gas using hydrogen peroxide and UV light

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cooper, Charles David (Inventor); Clausen, Christian Anthony (Inventor)

    2005-01-01

    An apparatus for treating pollutants in a gas may include a source of hydrogen peroxide, and a treatment injector for creating and injecting dissociated hydrogen peroxide into the flow of gas. The treatment injector may further include an injector housing having an inlet, an outlet, and a hollow interior extending therebetween. The inlet may be connected in fluid communication with the source of hydrogen peroxide so that hydrogen peroxide flows through the hollow interior and toward the outlet. At least one ultraviolet (UV) lamp may be positioned within the hollow interior of the injector housing. The at least one UV lamp may dissociate the hydrogen peroxide flowing through the tube. The dissociated hydrogen peroxide may be injected into the flow of gas from the outlet for treating pollutants, such as nitrogen oxides.

  13. Modeling acid-gas generation from boiling chloride brines

    PubMed Central

    2009-01-01

    Background This study investigates the generation of HCl and other acid gases from boiling calcium chloride dominated waters at atmospheric pressure, primarily using numerical modeling. The main focus of this investigation relates to the long-term geologic disposal of nuclear waste at Yucca Mountain, Nevada, where pore waters around waste-emplacement tunnels are expected to undergo boiling and evaporative concentration as a result of the heat released by spent nuclear fuel. Processes that are modeled include boiling of highly concentrated solutions, gas transport, and gas condensation accompanied by the dissociation of acid gases, causing low-pH condensate. Results Simple calculations are first carried out to evaluate condensate pH as a function of HCl gas fugacity and condensed water fraction for a vapor equilibrated with saturated calcium chloride brine at 50-150°C and 1 bar. The distillation of a calcium-chloride-dominated brine is then simulated with a reactive transport model using a brine composition representative of partially evaporated calcium-rich pore waters at Yucca Mountain. Results show a significant increase in boiling temperature from evaporative concentration, as well as low pH in condensates, particularly for dynamic systems where partial condensation takes place, which result in enrichment of HCl in condensates. These results are in qualitative agreement with experimental data from other studies. Conclusion The combination of reactive transport with multicomponent brine chemistry to study evaporation, boiling, and the potential for acid gas generation at the proposed Yucca Mountain repository is seen as an improvement relative to previously applied simpler batch evaporation models. This approach allows the evaluation of thermal, hydrological, and chemical (THC) processes in a coupled manner, and modeling of settings much more relevant to actual field conditions than the distillation experiment considered. The actual and modeled distillation

  14. Modeling acid-gas generation from boiling chloride brines

    SciTech Connect

    Zhang, Guoxiang; Spycher, Nicolas; Sonnenthal, Eric; Steefel, Carl

    2009-11-16

    This study investigates the generation of HCl and other acid gases from boiling calcium chloride dominated waters at atmospheric pressure, primarily using numerical modeling. The main focus of this investigation relates to the long-term geologic disposal of nuclear waste at Yucca Mountain, Nevada, where pore waters around waste-emplacement tunnels are expected to undergo boiling and evaporative concentration as a result of the heat released by spent nuclear fuel. Processes that are modeled include boiling of highly concentrated solutions, gas transport, and gas condensation accompanied by the dissociation of acid gases, causing low-pH condensate. Simple calculations are first carried out to evaluate condensate pH as a function of HCl gas fugacity and condensed water fraction for a vapor equilibrated with saturated calcium chloride brine at 50-150 C and 1 bar. The distillation of a calcium-chloride-dominated brine is then simulated with a reactive transport model using a brine composition representative of partially evaporated calcium-rich pore waters at Yucca Mountain. Results show a significant increase in boiling temperature from evaporative concentration, as well as low pH in condensates, particularly for dynamic systems where partial condensation takes place, which result in enrichment of HCl in condensates. These results are in qualitative agreement with experimental data from other studies. The combination of reactive transport with multicomponent brine chemistry to study evaporation, boiling, and the potential for acid gas generation at the proposed Yucca Mountain repository is seen as an improvement relative to previously applied simpler batch evaporation models. This approach allows the evaluation of thermal, hydrological, and chemical (THC) processes in a coupled manner, and modeling of settings much more relevant to actual field conditions than the distillation experiment considered. The actual and modeled distillation experiments do not represent

  15. Fatty acids determination in Bronte pistachios by gas chromatographic method.

    PubMed

    Pantano, Licia; Lo Cascio, Giovanni; Alongi, Angelina; Cammilleri, Gaetano; Vella, Antonio; Macaluso, Andrea; Cicero, Nicola; Migliazzo, Aldo; Ferrantelli, Vincenzo

    2016-10-01

    A gas chromatographic with flame ionization detector (GC-MS FID) method for the identification and quantification of fatty acids based on the extraction of lipids and derivatisation of free acids to form methyl esters was developed and validated. The proposed method was evaluated to a number of standard FAs, and Bronte pistachios samples were used for that purpose and to demonstrate the applicability of the proposed method. In this regard, repeatability, mean and standard deviation of the analytical procedure were calculated. The results obtained have demonstrated oleic acid as the main component of Bronte pistachios (72.2%) followed by linoleic acid (13.4%) and showed some differences in composition with respect to Tunisian, Turkish and Iranian pistachios.

  16. Estimation of brassylic acid by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry

    SciTech Connect

    Mohammed J. Nasrullah, Erica N. Pfarr, Pooja Thapliyal, Nicholas S. Dusek, Kristofer L. Schiele, Christy Gallagher-Lein, and James A. Bahr

    2010-10-29

    The main focus of this work is to estimate Brassylic Acid (BA) using gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS). BA is a product obtained from the oxidative cleavage of Erucic Acid (EA). BA has various applications for making nylons and high performance polymers. BA is a 13 carbon compound with two carboxylic acid functional groups at the terminal end. BA has a long hydrocarbon chain that makes the molecule less sensitive to some of the characterization techniques. Although BA can be characterized by NMR, both the starting material (EA) and products BA and nonanoic acid (NA) have peaks at similar {delta}, ppm values. Hence it becomes difficult for the quick estimation of BA during its synthesis.

  17. Fatty acids determination in Bronte pistachios by gas chromatographic method.

    PubMed

    Pantano, Licia; Lo Cascio, Giovanni; Alongi, Angelina; Cammilleri, Gaetano; Vella, Antonio; Macaluso, Andrea; Cicero, Nicola; Migliazzo, Aldo; Ferrantelli, Vincenzo

    2016-10-01

    A gas chromatographic with flame ionization detector (GC-MS FID) method for the identification and quantification of fatty acids based on the extraction of lipids and derivatisation of free acids to form methyl esters was developed and validated. The proposed method was evaluated to a number of standard FAs, and Bronte pistachios samples were used for that purpose and to demonstrate the applicability of the proposed method. In this regard, repeatability, mean and standard deviation of the analytical procedure were calculated. The results obtained have demonstrated oleic acid as the main component of Bronte pistachios (72.2%) followed by linoleic acid (13.4%) and showed some differences in composition with respect to Tunisian, Turkish and Iranian pistachios. PMID:27265004

  18. Fundamental thermochemical properties of amino acids: gas-phase and aqueous acidities and gas-phase heats of formation.

    PubMed

    Stover, Michele L; Jackson, Virgil E; Matus, Myrna H; Adams, Margaret A; Cassady, Carolyn J; Dixon, David A

    2012-03-01

    The gas-phase acidities of the 20 L-amino acids have been predicted at the composite G3(MP2) level. A broad range of structures of the neutral and anion were studied to determine the lowest energy conformer. Excellent agreement is found with the available experimental gas-phase deprotonation enthalpies, and the calculated values are within experimental error. We predict that tyrosine is deprotonated at the CO(2)H site. Cysteine is predicted to be deprotonated at the SH but the proton on the CO(2)H is shared with the S(-) site. Self-consistent reaction field (SCRF) calculations with the COSMO parametrization were used to predict the pK(a)'s of the non-zwitterion form in aqueous solution. The differences in the non-zwitterion pK(a) values were used to estimate the free energy difference between the zwitterion and nonzwitterion forms in solution. The heats of formation of the neutral compounds were calculated from atomization energies and isodesmic reactions to provide the first reliable set of these values in the gas phase. Further calculations were performed on five rare amino acids to predict their heats of formation, acidities, and pK(a) values.

  19. Mobility of acid-treated carbon nanotubes in water-saturated porous media.

    PubMed

    Peng, X J; Du, C J; Liang, Z; Wang, J; Luan, Z K; Li, W J

    2011-01-01

    The production, use, and disposal of nanomaterials may inevitably lead to their appearance in water. With the development of new industries around nanomaterials, it seems necessary to be concerned about the transport of nanomaterials in the environment. In this paper, the transport of acid-treated carbon nanotubes (CNTs) in porous media was investigated. Before the mobility investigation, the stability of acid-treated CNT dispersions was studied using ultraviolet-visible spectra and it was indicated that, under the chemical conditions employed in this work, there was no apparent aggregation. The mobility investigation showed that transport of acid-treated CNTs increased with treatment time due to increase in particle zeta potential. Carbon nanotubes treated with nitric acid for 2, 6, and 12 h possessed measured zeta potentials of -30.0, -43.0, and -48.5 mV, respectively. Utilizing clean-bed filtration theory, we showed that acid-treated CNTs have the potential to migrate 3.28, 5.67, and 7.69 m in saturated glass beads, respectively. We showed that solution ionic strength and pH have important effects on the mobility of acid-treated CNTs. Increasing the pH from 6.0 to 7.9 resulted in an increase in migration potential from 2.96 to 10.86 m. Increasing the ionic strength from 0.005 to 0.020 M resulted in a decrease in CNT migration potential from 5.67 to 1.42 m.

  20. Characterization of 22 Vibrio species by gas chromatography analysis of their cellular fatty acids.

    PubMed

    Urdaci, M C; Marchand, M; Grimont, P A

    1990-05-01

    The cellular fatty acid compositions of 51 Vibrio strains belonging to 22 species as well as five Aeromonas strains were determined by using capillary gas-liquid chromatography (GLC). The major fatty acids were most often hexadecenoic, hexadecanoic and octadecenoic acids. Heptadecenoic acid was present in significant amounts in V. alginolyticus, V. natriegens, V. parahaemolyticus and "Vibrio navarrensis". Twenty fatty acids including branched and hydroxy acids were detected in the genus Vibrio. Quantitative results were treated by principal component analysis to display groups of strains. The first three components (accounting for 69% of the variance) showed the type strains of V. fischeri, V. ordalii, V. damsela, V. mediterranei, V. tubiashii, V. campbellii, V. pelagius, V. gazogenes, and V. nereis to be unclustered. V. alginolyticus (4 strains) and V. parahaemolyticus (4 strains) showed some overlap and the type strain of V. natriegens was in their neighborhood. V. harveyi (4 strains) formed a cluster and V. vulnificus was in its vicinity. V. cholerae (5 strains) overlapped with V. diazotrophicus (3 strains) and was close to the type strain of V. mimicus and V. anguillarum. V. metschnikovii (3 strains) clustered with the type strain of V. cincinnatiensis. A decision tree was devised for the identification of Vibrio species based on qualitative characteristics of fatty acid patterns. However, the following three groups, V. alginolyticus-V. parahaemolyticus-V. natriegens, V. metschnikovii-V. cincinnatiensis and V. cholerae-V. mimicus could not be split into such a decision tree.

  1. TECHNICAL AND OPERATING SUPPORT FOR PILOT DEMONSTRATION OF MORPHYSORB ACID GAS REMOVAL PROCESS

    SciTech Connect

    Nagaraju Palla; Dennis Leppin

    2004-02-01

    Over the past 14 years, the Gas Technology Institute and jointly with Uhde since 1997 developing Morphysorb{reg_sign} a new physical solvent-based acid gas removal process. Based on extensive laboratory, bench, pilot-plant scale experiments and computer simulations, DEGT Gas Transmission Company, Canada (DEGT) has chosen the process for use at its Kwoen processing facility near Chetwynd, British Columbia, Canada as the first commercial application for the Morphysorb process. DOE co-funded the development of the Morphysorb process in various stages of development. DOE funded the production of this report to ensure that the results of the work would be readily available to potential users of the process in the United States. The Kwoen Plant is designed to process 300 MMscfd of raw natural gas at 1,080-psia pressure. The sour natural gas contains 20 to 25 percent H{sub 2}S and CO{sub 2}. The plant reduces the acid gas content by about 50% and injects the removed H{sub 2}S and CO{sub 2} into an injection well. The Kwoen plant has been operating since August 2002. Morphysorb{reg_sign} is a physical solvent-based process used for the bulk removal of CO{sub 2} and/or H{sub 2}S from natural gas and other gaseous streams. The solvent consists of N-Formyl morpholine and other morpholine derivatives. This process is particularly effective for high-pressure and high acid-gas applications and offers substantial savings in investment and operating cost compared to competitive physical solvent-based processes. GTI and DEGT first entered into an agreement in 2002 to test the Morphysorb process at their Kwoen Gas Treating Plant in northern BC. The process is operating successfully without any solvent related problems and has between DEGTC and GTI. As of December 2003, about 90 Bcf of sour gas was processed. Of this about 8 Bcf of acid gas containing mainly H{sub 2}S and CO{sub 2} was injected back into the depleted reservoir and 82 Bcf sent for further processing at DEGTC's Pine

  2. Process for producing and recovering elemental sulfur from acid gas

    SciTech Connect

    Reed, R. L.

    1985-03-26

    A system and process produce high actual levels of sulfur recovery from acid gas. The system includes two conventional Claus reactors and two cold bed adsorption (CBA) reactors. Four condensers are provided, one disposed before each of the catalytic reactors, and one disposed after the CBA reactor. The system includes a gas clean-up treatment zone for hydrogenation, drying and oxidation of gas to provide stoichiometric ratio of H/sub 2/S and SO/sub 2/. The gas is passed through the clean-up treatment zone prior to being fed to the first of the CBA reactors. The system is designed to operate either in a recovery mode or in a regeneration mode. In the recovery mode, the reactors are in series and the CBA reactors are operated below dew point of sulfur. In regeneration mode, effluent from the clean-up treatment zone is heated in a heat exchanger using effluent from the first catalytic reactor as the heat source. The resulting regeneration gas is fed to one of the two CBA reactors to vaporize sulfur and regenerate the catalyst. The vaporized sulfur is recovered in the condenser. The effluent from the condenser is passed to the other CBA reactor which is operated in the recovery mode during regeneration.

  3. Diffuse alveolar hemorrhage: retrospective review of clinical outcome in allogeneic transplant recipients treated with aminocaproic acid.

    PubMed

    Wanko, Sam O; Broadwater, Gloria; Folz, Rodney J; Chao, Nelson J

    2006-09-01

    Diffuse alveolar hemorrhage (DAH) after allogeneic hematopoietic stem cell transplantation (HSCT) is often fatal. Standard therapy with high-dose corticosteroid is not always effective. There is paucity of data in the literature about other potentially useful agents, such as aminocaproic acid (Amicar) in the post-transplantation setting. We retrospectively reviewed our data on 115 consecutive patients who underwent HSCT and had pulmonary complications, with the aim of determining the overall clinical outcome in recipients of allogeneic transplants and in the subgroup of these patients who were treated with concomitant Solu-Medrol and aminocaproic acid. Aminocaproic acid was added at the discretion of the attending physician. We identified 14 allogeneic transplant recipients (median age, 41 years) with 15 episodes of DAH who were treated with Solu-Medrol (250 mg to 1 g intravenously per day). Of these, 8 patients also received concomitant aminocaproic acid at 1000 mg intravenously every 6 hours. Failure to improve was the most common reason for adding aminocaproic acid. The incidence of DAH was 12.2% (10.3% in myeloablative versus 1.9% in nonmyeloablative recipients). The overall 100-day DAH mortality and median transplantation survival were 60% and 99 days, respectively. Among the subset of patients treated with the combination of Solu-Medrol and aminocaproic acid, we observed a 100-day DAH mortality and median transplantation survival of 44% and 167 days, respectively, compared with 83% and 96.5 days in those treated with Solu-Medrol alone. The median time to DAH was 40.5 days, and the median time to death was 53 days in the combined treatment group compared with 29.5 days in those treated with steroid alone. There were no significant differences in coagulation parameters between subsets. Infections (yeast, respiratory syncytial virus, herpes simplex virus, and parainfluenza) were isolated and treated from 6 diagnostic bronchial alveolar lavage samples and were

  4. Reversible Acid Gas Capture Using CO2-Binding Organic Liquids

    SciTech Connect

    Heldebrant, David J.; Koech, Phillip K.; Yonker, Clement R.; Rainbolt, James E.; Zheng, Feng

    2010-08-31

    Acid gas scrubbing technology is predominantly aqueous alkanolamine based. Of the acid gases, CO2, H2S and SO2 have been shown to be reversible, however there are serious disadvantages with corrosion and high regeneration costs. The primary scrubbing system composed of monoethanolamine is limited to 30% by weight because of the highly corrosive solution. This gravimetric limitation limits the CO2 volumetric (≤108 g/L) and gravimetric capacity (≤7 wt%) of the system. Furthermore the scrubbing system has a large energy penalty from pumping and heating the excess water required to dissolve the MEA bicarbonate salt. Considering the high specific heat of water (4 j/g-1K-1), low capacities and the high corrosion we set out to design a fully organic solvent that can chemically bind all acid gases i.e. CO2 as reversible alkylcarbonate ionic liquids or analogues thereof. Having a liquid acid gas carrier improves process economics because there is no need for excess solvent to pump and to heat. We have demonstrated illustrated in Figure 1, that CO2-binding organic liquids (CO2BOLs) have a high CO2 solubility paired with a much lower specific heat (<1.5 J/g-1K-1) than aqueous systems. CO2BOLs are a subsection of a larger class of materials known as Binding Organic Liquids (BOLs). Our BOLs have been shown to reversibly bind and release COS, CS2, and SO2, which we denote COSBOLS, CS2BOLs and SO2BOLs. Our BOLs are highly tunable and can be designed for post or pre-combustion gas capture. The design and testing of the next generation zwitterionic CO2BOLs and SO2BOLs are presented.

  5. The effect of zeolite treatment by acids on sodium adsorption ratio of coal seam gas water.

    PubMed

    Wang, Xiaoyu; Ozdemir, Orhan; Hampton, Marc A; Nguyen, Anh V; Do, Duong D

    2012-10-15

    Many coal seam gas (CSG) waters contain a sodium ion concentration which is too high relative to calcium and magnesium ions for environment acceptance. Natural zeolites can be used as a cheap and effective method to control sodium adsorption ratio (SAR, which is a measure of the relative preponderance of sodium to calcium and magnesium) due to its high cation exchange capacity. In this study, a natural zeolite from Queensland was examined for its potential to treat CSG water to remove sodium ions to lower SAR and reduce the pH value. The results demonstrate that acid activated zeolite at 30%wt solid ratio can reduce the sodium content from 563.0 to 182.7 ppm; the pH from 8.74 to 6.95; and SAR from 70.3 to 18.5. Based on the results of the batch experiments, the sodium adsorption capacity of the acid-treated zeolite is three times greater than that of the untreated zeolite. Both the untreated and acid-treated zeolite samples were characterized using zeta potential, surface characterization, DTA/TG and particle size distribution in order to explain their adsorption behaviours.

  6. The effect of zeolite treatment by acids on sodium adsorption ratio of coal seam gas water.

    PubMed

    Wang, Xiaoyu; Ozdemir, Orhan; Hampton, Marc A; Nguyen, Anh V; Do, Duong D

    2012-10-15

    Many coal seam gas (CSG) waters contain a sodium ion concentration which is too high relative to calcium and magnesium ions for environment acceptance. Natural zeolites can be used as a cheap and effective method to control sodium adsorption ratio (SAR, which is a measure of the relative preponderance of sodium to calcium and magnesium) due to its high cation exchange capacity. In this study, a natural zeolite from Queensland was examined for its potential to treat CSG water to remove sodium ions to lower SAR and reduce the pH value. The results demonstrate that acid activated zeolite at 30%wt solid ratio can reduce the sodium content from 563.0 to 182.7 ppm; the pH from 8.74 to 6.95; and SAR from 70.3 to 18.5. Based on the results of the batch experiments, the sodium adsorption capacity of the acid-treated zeolite is three times greater than that of the untreated zeolite. Both the untreated and acid-treated zeolite samples were characterized using zeta potential, surface characterization, DTA/TG and particle size distribution in order to explain their adsorption behaviours. PMID:22841594

  7. Conversion of Aqueous Ammonia-Treated Corn Stover to Lactic Acid by Simultaneous Saccharification and Cofermentation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhu, Yongming; Lee, Y. Y.; Elander, Richard T.

    Treatment of corn stover with aqueous ammonia removes most of the structural lignin, whereas retaining the majority of the carbohydrates in the solids. After treatment, both the cellulose and hemicellulose in corn stover become highly susceptible to enzymatic digestion. In this study, corn stover treated by aqueous ammonia was investigated as the substrate for lactic acid production by simultaneous saccharification and cofermentation (SSCF). A commercial cellulase (Spezyme-CP) and Lactobacillus pentosus American Type Culture Collection (ATCC) 8041 (Spanish Type Culture Collection [CECT]-4023) were used for hydrolysis and fermentation, respectively. In batch SSCF operation, the carbohydrates in the treated corn stover were converted to lactic acid with high yields, the maximum lactic acid yield reaching 92% of the stoichiometric maximum based on total fermentable carbohydrates (glucose, xylose, and arabinose). A small amount of acetic acid was also produced from pentoses through the phosphoketolase pathway. Among the major process variables for batch SSCF, enzyme loading and the amount of yeast extract were found to be the key factors affecting lactic acid production. Further tests on nutrients indicated that corn steep liquor could be substituted for yeast extract as a nitrogen source to achieve the same lactic acid yield. Fed-batch operation of the SSCF was beneficial in raising the concentration of lactic acid to a maximum value of 75.0 g/L.

  8. NRMRL EVALUATES ACTIVE AND SEMI-PASSIVE TECHNOLOGIES FOR TREATING ACID MINE DRAINAGE

    EPA Science Inventory

    Two-page article describing three SITE demonstration projects underway on the Leviathan mine site in California. BiPhasic lime treatment, lime treatment lagoons and compost free BioReactors are being evaluated as innovative technologies for treating acid mine drainage.

  9. Activated carbon passes tests for acid-gas cleanup

    SciTech Connect

    Harruff, L.G.; Bushkuhl, S.J.

    1996-06-24

    Use of activated carbon to remove hydrocarbon contaminants from the acid-gas feed to Claus sulfur-recovery units has been successfully pilot tested in Saudi Arabia. Pilot plant results are discussed here along with issues involved in scale-up to commercial size. Heavy hydrocarbons, particularly benzene, toluene, and xylene (BTX) have been linked to coke formation and catalyst deactivation in Claus converters. This deactivation results in reduced sulfur recovery and increased sulfur emissions from these plants. This clean-up process was proven to be capable of removing 95% of the BTX and other C{sub 6}+s from acid gas over a wide range of actual plant conditions. Following the adsorption step, the activated carbon was easily regenerated by use of low-pressure steam. A post-regeneration drying step using plant fuel gas also proved beneficial. The paper discusses feed contaminants, vapor-phase cleanup, testing design, test parameters and results, bed drying after regeneration, regeneration conditions, basic flow, system control, and full-scale installation.

  10. Combined electrostatic precipitator and acidic gas removal system

    SciTech Connect

    Sparks, L.E.; Plaks, N.

    1989-12-05

    This patent describes a method of retrofitting an apparatus for removing acidic gas and particulate matter from air. The device to be retrofit including an electrostatic precipitator, lacking a precharger, positioned within a housing, a flue gas generating means outside the housing, an entry port in the housing and upstream of the electrostatic precipitator; an exit port in the housing and downstream of the electrostatic precipitator; and ductwork, outside the housing, leading from the generating means to the entry port. The retrofitting comprising the steps of: substituting electrostatic filtration units, for dry electrostatic precipitation, each comprising a precharger and a downstream particle collector having wires of from 1/4 to 1/2 inch in diameter for the electrostatic precipitator. The substituted units being designed so as to occupy less space in the housing that the electrostatic filter lacking a precharger, thereby leaving free space within the housing between a one of the prechargers which is first downstream from the entry port and the exit port and inserting an acidic gas removal means, within the housing.

  11. An empirical model for gas phase acidity and basicity estimation.

    PubMed

    You, H; Kim, G E; Na, C H; Lee, S; Lee, C J; Cho, K-H; Akiyama, Y; Ishida, T; No, K T

    2014-01-01

    Gas phase acidity and basicity estimation models have been developed for acidic and basic functional groups of amino acid side-chains and also for a number of small organic molecules. The acidic functional groups include aliphatic and aromatic alcohol, and aliphatic and aromatic carboxylic acid, and the basic functional groups include aliphatic, aromatic and hetero-aromatic amines, and also pyridino-, pyrazolo- and imidazolo-groupings. The models are described in terms of a linear combination of descriptors that highly influence reactivity at the reaction centres of the functional groups. In order to describe the chemical environments of the deprotonating and protonating sites, atomic descriptors such as the effective atomic electronegativity and effective atomic polarizability of the atoms in the reaction field and the electrostatic potentials at the reaction sites have been introduced. The coefficient of determination (r(2)) of each model is above 0.8, apart from the imidazole model. The models are readily applicable, ranging from simple organic molecules to proteins.

  12. Measurement of Gas-phase Acids in Diesel Exhaust

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wentzell, J. J.; Liggio, J.; Li, S.; Vlasenko, A. L.; Staebler, R. M.; Brook, J.; Lu, G.; Poitras, M.; Chan, T.

    2012-12-01

    Gas-phase acids were measured using chemical ionization mass spectrometry (CIMS) as part of the Diesel Engine Emission Research Experiment (DEERE). The CIMS technique, utilizing acetate ion (CH3COO-) as a reagent ion, proved to be a rapid (measurements on the order of seconds) and sensitive (several counts/pptv) method of quantifying the acid emissions. Diluted diesel exhaust measurements were made from a Constant Volume Sampling dilution tunnel using a light duty (1.9L turbocharged Volkswagen Jetta TDI) diesel engine equipped with an OEM diesel oxidation catalyst and exhaust gas recirculation, mounted on an engine dynamometer. Acids measured included isocyanic, nitrous, nitric, propionic and sum of lactic and oxalic, as well as other unidentified compounds. Complimentary measurements of CO, CO2, Total Hydrocarbon (THC), and NOx, were also performed. Several engine modes (different engine rpm and torque outputs) at steady state were examined to determine their effect on acid emissions. Emission rates with respect to NOx and fuel based emission factors were determined. Measurements of HONO fuel emission factors agree well with real-world measurements within a traffic tunnel.1 The first estimate of isocyanic acid emission factors from a diesel engine is reported, and suggests that the emission of this highly toxic compound in diesel exhaust should not be ignored. 1. Kurtenbach, R., Becker, K. H., Gomes, J. A. G., Kleffmann, J.,Lorzer, J. C., Spittler, M., Wiesen, P., Ackermann, R., Geyer, A.,and Platt, U.: Investigations of emissions and heterogeneous formation of HONO in a road traffic tunnel, Atmos. Environ., 35, 3385-3394, doi:10.1016/S1352-2310(01)00138-8, 2001.

  13. Effects of Irrigating with Treated Oil and Gas Product Water on Crop Biomass and Soil Permeability

    SciTech Connect

    Terry Brown; Jeffrey Morris; Patrick Richards; Joel Mason

    2010-09-30

    Demonstrating effective treatment technologies and beneficial uses for oil and gas produced water is essential for producers who must meet environmental standards and deal with high costs associated with produced water management. Proven, effective produced-water treatment technologies coupled with comprehensive data regarding blending ratios for productive long-term irrigation will improve the state-of-knowledge surrounding produced-water management. Effective produced-water management scenarios such as cost-effective treatment and irrigation will discourage discharge practices that result in legal battles between stakeholder entities. The goal of this work is to determine the optimal blending ratio required for irrigating crops with CBNG and conventional oil and gas produced water treated by ion exchange (IX), reverse osmosis (RO), or electro-dialysis reversal (EDR) in order to maintain the long term physical integrity of soils and to achieve normal crop production. The soils treated with CBNG produced water were characterized with significantly lower SAR values compared to those impacted with conventional oil and gas produced water. The CBNG produced water treated with RO at the 100% treatment level was significantly different from the untreated produced water, while the 25%, 50% and 75% water treatment levels were not significantly different from the untreated water. Conventional oil and gas produced water treated with EDR and RO showed comparable SAR results for the water treatment technologies. There was no significant difference between the 100% treated produced water and the control (river water). The EDR water treatment resulted with differences at each level of treatment, which were similar to RO treated conventional oil and gas water. The 100% treated water had SAR values significantly lower than the 75% and 50% treatments, which were similar (not significantly different). The results of the greenhouse irrigation study found the differences in biomass

  14. Degradation of 3-chloro-4-hydroxybenzoic acid in biological treated effluent by gamma irradiation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chu, Libing; Wang, Jianlong

    2016-02-01

    Gamma irradiation-induced degradation of a chlorinated aromatic compound, 3-chloro-4-hydroxybenzoic acid (CHBA) in biological treated effluent was studied and the results were compared with those obtained in deionized water. Gamma irradiation led to a complete decomposition of CHBA and a partial mineralization in the treated effluent. The removal of CHBA followed the pseudo first-order reaction kinetic model and the rate constant in the treated effluent was 1.7-3.5 times lower than that in deionized water. The CHBA degradation rate was higher at acidic condition than at neutral and alkaline conditions. The radiolytic yield, G-value for CHBA degradation was lower in the treated effluent, which decreased with increase in absorbed doses and increased with increase in initial concentrations of CHBA. The degradation mechanism of CHBA using gamma irradiation was proposed through the oxidation by -OH and reduction by eaq- and H- radicals. As exposed to gamma irradiation, dechlorination takes place rapidly and combines with the oxidation and cleavage of the aromatic ring, producing chloride ions, small carboxylic acids, acetaldehyde and other intermediates into the solution.

  15. Quantitative Organic Acids in Urine by Two Dimensional Gas Chromatography-Time of Flight Mass Spectrometry (GCxGC-TOFMS).

    PubMed

    Sweetman, Lawrence; Ashcraft, Paula; Bennett-Firmin, Jeanna

    2016-01-01

    Seventy-six organic acids in urine specimens are determined with quantitative two dimensional Gas Chromatography-Time of Flight Mass Spectrometry (GCxGC-TOFMS). The specimen is treated with urease to remove urea then derivatized to form pentafluorobenzyl oximes (PFBO) of oxoacids. The sample is then treated with ethyl alcohol to precipitate proteins and centrifuged. After drying the supernatant, the organic acids are derivatized to form volatile trimethylsilyl (TMS) derivatives for separation by capillary two dimensional Gas Chromatography (GCxGC) with temperature programming and modulation. Detection is by Time of Flight Mass Spectrometry (TOFMS) with identification of the organic acids by their mass spectra. Organic acids are quantitated by peak areas of reconstructed ion chromatograms with internal standards and calibration curves. Organic acids are quantified to determine abnormal patterns for the diagnosis of more than 100 inherited disorders of organic acid metabolism. Characteristic abnormal metabolites are quantified to monitor dietary and other modes of treatment for patients who are diagnosed with specific organic acid disorders.

  16. [Enantioseparation of 2-phenylcarboxylic acid esters by capillary gas chromatography].

    PubMed

    Shi, Xueyan; Liu, Feipeng; Bian, Qinghua

    2016-01-01

    Chiral 2-arylcarboxylic acid derivatives are important intermediates for preparing 2-arylcarboxylic acids, which are non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs). In order to separate 2-phenylcarboxylic acid ester enantiomers by capillary gas chromatography (CGC), 2, 6-di-O-pentyl-3-O-butyryl-β-cyclodextrin and 2,6-di-O-benzyl-3-O-heptanoyl-β-cyclodextrin were used as CGC chiral stationary phases, separately, and their enantioseparation abilities to enantiomers of methyl 2-phenylbutanoate, ethyl 2-phenylbutanoate, isopropyl 2-phenylbutanoate, methyl 2-phenylpropionate and cyclopentyl 2-phenylpropionate were examined. It was found that methyl 2-phenylbutanoate, methyl 2-phenylpropionate and cyclopentyl 2-phenylpropionate were successfully separated by using 2,6-di-O-pentyl-3-O-butyryl-β-cyclodextrin and 2,6-di-O-benzyl-3-O-heptanoyl-β-cyclodextrin as CGC chiral stationary phases, respectively. The enantiomer separation abilities of 2, 6-di-O-pentyl-3-O-butyryl-β-cyclodextrin to the three pairs of 2-phenylcarboxylic acid esters tested are superior to those of 2, 6-di-O-benzyl-3-O-heptanoyl-β-cyclodextrin. PMID:27319170

  17. GAS-GRAIN MODELING OF ISOCYANIC ACID (HNCO), CYANIC ACID (HOCN), FULMINIC ACID (HCNO), AND ISOFULMINIC ACID (HONC) IN ASSORTED INTERSTELLAR ENVIRONMENTS

    SciTech Connect

    Quan Donghui; Herbst, Eric; Osamura, Yoshihiro; Roueff, Evelyne

    2010-12-20

    Isocyanic acid (HNCO) is a well-known interstellar molecule. Evidence also exists for the presence of two of its metastable isomers in the interstellar medium: HCNO (fulminic acid) and HOCN (cyanic acid). Fulminic acid has been detected toward cold and lukewarm sources, while cyanic acid has been detected both in these sources and in warm sources in the Galactic Center. Gas-phase models can reproduce the abundances of the isomers in cold sources, but overproduce HCNO in the Galactic Center. Here we present a detailed study of a gas-grain model that contains these three isomers, plus a fourth isomer, isofulminic acid (HONC), for four types of sources: hot cores, the warm envelopes of hot cores, lukewarm corinos, and cold cores. The current model is partially able to rationalize the abundances of HNCO, HOCN, and HCNO in cold and warm sources. Predictions for HONC in all environments are also made.

  18. [Cd uptake in rice cultivars and Cd fractions in soil treated with organic acids and EDTA].

    PubMed

    Zhang, Hai-Bo; Li, Yang-Rui; Xu, Wei-Hong; Chen, Gui-Qing; Wang, Hui-Xian; Han, Gui-Qi; Zhang, Xiao-Jing; Xiong, Zhi-Ting; Zhang, Jin-Zhong; Xie, De-Ti

    2011-09-01

    A pot experiment was conducted to examine the yield, quality and cadmium (Cd) uptake in different rice cultivars, and Cd speciation in soil after exposing to Cd (0, 1 and 5 mg x kg(-1)) in the presence of organic acids and ethylenediamine tetraacetic acid (EDTA). The results showed that general increase in the yield for cultivars Xiushui63 and II you527 was observed. Yield of two rice cultivars were in order of organic acids treatment or organic acids + 1/2EDTA treatment > EDTA treatment. The exchangeable, carbonate related and ferric-manganese oxidation related Cd increased; while organic complexation Cd and residules decreased in the presence of organic acids and EDTA. Cadmium concentrations in grain, straw and roots of both cultivars markedly reduced in the presence of organic acids and EDTA. Grain Cd concentration was the lowest for plants treated with EDTA, followed by organic acids + 1/2EDTA, and the highest Cd concentration in grain was found in the treatment with organic acids. Grain Cd concentration decreased by 9.0% to 49.3% and 16.5% to 30.6% at 1 mg x kg(-1) Cd in the presence of organic acids and EDTA, and by 12.7% to 28.5% and 4.3% to 19.1% at 5 mg x kg(-1) Cd. Cadmium concentration and accumulation in plants and total Cd content in soil were higher in Xiushui63 than in that in II you527. Grain Cd concentration decreased, and yield and quality of two rice cultivars increased at the same time in the presence of organic acids + 1/2EDTA.

  19. Studies on forming gas annealing treated BiFeO3 thin films and capacitors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lee, Chia-Ching; Wu, Lin-Jung; Wu, Jenn-Ming

    2007-11-01

    The structure and electric properties of BiFeO3(BFO )/BaPbO3(BPO) and Pt/BFO/BPO capacitors with forming gas annealing (FGA) treatment were investigated. X-ray diffraction patterns indicated that the annealing did not affect the structure and phase of BFO films. A degraded electric property was obtained in FGA-treated Pt/BFO/BPO films. It can be attributed to the formation of reduction and incomplete reduction of Bi+3 of BFO. Retention and fatigue properties were obtained in FGA-treated BPO/BFO/BPO capacitors. The normalized Pr loss was 22.8% after applying a voltage above 2Vc (coercive voltage) with 1011cycles. The retention behavior within 30000s is governed by the logarithmic time dependence.

  20. [Determination of dimethylbenzoic acid isomers in urine by gas chromatography].

    PubMed

    Kostrzewski, P; Wiaderna-Brycht, A; Czerski, B

    1994-01-01

    Trimethylobenzene (TMB) is a main ingredient of many organic solvents used in industry. In Farbasol (Polish trade name of the solvent) TMB occurs as a mixture of three isomers: pseudocumene (1, 2, 4-TMB) 30%; mesitylene (1, 3, 5-TMB) 15%; hemimellitene (1,2,3-TMB) 5%. As it is known in human organism, TMB is metabolized mainly to dimethylbenzoic (DMBA) and dimethylhippuric (DMHA) acids, and some authors suggest, that the acids excreted in urine can be biological indicators of exposure to TMB. This study was aimed at developing the method of determination of DMBA isomers in urine. Biological material was hydrolyzed with sodium hydroxide and next extracted with diethyl ether. DMBA concentration in urine was determined by gas chromatography using a variant of quantitative analysis with internal standard (5-methyl-2-isopropylphenol, thymol). Analytical parameters of the developed method of determination of DMBA isomers in urine such as linearity, precision, reproducibility, stability (192 days, when urine samples stored at-18 degrees C), detectability limit (400 micrograms/dm3) have been fully compatible with the requirements of biological monitoring. In order to confirm the presence of DMBA isomers in urine, four volunteers were exposed (8 hours) to Farbasol in toxicological chamber. The TMB concentration in the air, determined by means of gas chromatograph (HP 5890), amounted to 100 mg/m3 (MAC value in Poland). In urine samples collected 2,3-; 2,4-; 2,5-; 2,6-; 3,4-; 3,5-dimethylbenzoic acids were identified by means of GC/MSD.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS) PMID:8170375

  1. Adsorption of Crystal violet on raw and acid-treated montmorillonite, K10, in aqueous suspension.

    PubMed

    Sarma, Gautam Kumar; Sen Gupta, Susmita; Bhattacharyya, Krishna G

    2016-04-15

    Crystal violet is used as a dye in cotton and silk textiles, paints and printing ink. The dye is hazardous and exposure to it may cause permanent injury to the cornea and conjunctiva including permanent blindness, and in severe cases, may lead to respiratory and kidney failure. The present work describes removal of Crystal violet from aqueous solution by adsorption on raw and acid-treated montmorillonite, K10. The clay mineral was treated with 0.25 and 0.50 M sulfuric acid and the resulting materials were characterized by XRD, zeta potential, SEM, FTIR, cation exchange capacity, BET surface area and pore volume measurements. The influences of pH, interaction time, adsorbent amount, and temperature on adsorption were monitored and explained on the basis of physico-chemical characteristics of the materials. Basic pH generally favors adsorption but considerable removal was possible even under neutral conditions. Adsorption was very rapid and equilibrium could be attained in 180 min. The kinetics conformed to second order model. Langmuir monolayer adsorption capacity of raw montmorillonite K10 was 370.37 mg g(-1) whereas 0.25 M and 0.50 M acid treated montmorillonite K10 had capacities of 384.62 and 400.0 mg g(-1) respectively at 303 K. Adsorption was exothermic and decreased in the temperature range of 293-323 K. Thermodynamically, the process was spontaneous with Gibbs energy decreasing with rise in temperature. The results suggest that montmorillonite K10 and its acid treated forms would be suitable for removing Crystal violet from aqueous solution.

  2. Protein Analysis of Sapienic Acid-Treated Porphyromonas gingivalis Suggests Differential Regulation of Multiple Metabolic Pathways

    PubMed Central

    Dawson, Deborah V.; Blanchette, Derek R.; Drake, David R.; Wertz, Philip W.; Brogden, Kim A.

    2015-01-01

    ABSTRACT Lipids endogenous to skin and mucosal surfaces exhibit potent antimicrobial activity against Porphyromonas gingivalis, an important colonizer of the oral cavity implicated in periodontitis. Our previous work demonstrated the antimicrobial activity of the fatty acid sapienic acid (C16:1Δ6) against P. gingivalis and found that sapienic acid treatment alters both protein and lipid composition from those in controls. In this study, we further examined whole-cell protein differences between sapienic acid-treated bacteria and untreated controls, and we utilized open-source functional association and annotation programs to explore potential mechanisms for the antimicrobial activity of sapienic acid. Our analyses indicated that sapienic acid treatment induces a unique stress response in P. gingivalis resulting in differential expression of proteins involved in a variety of metabolic pathways. This network of differentially regulated proteins was enriched in protein-protein interactions (P = 2.98 × 10−8), including six KEGG pathways (P value ranges, 2.30 × 10−5 to 0.05) and four Gene Ontology (GO) molecular functions (P value ranges, 0.02 to 0.04), with multiple suggestive enriched relationships in KEGG pathways and GO molecular functions. Upregulated metabolic pathways suggest increases in energy production, lipid metabolism, iron acquisition and processing, and respiration. Combined with a suggested preferential metabolism of serine, which is necessary for fatty acid biosynthesis, these data support our previous findings that the site of sapienic acid antimicrobial activity is likely at the bacterial membrane. IMPORTANCE P. gingivalis is an important opportunistic pathogen implicated in periodontitis. Affecting nearly 50% of the population, periodontitis is treatable, but the resulting damage is irreversible and eventually progresses to tooth loss. There is a great need for natural products that can be used to treat and/or prevent the overgrowth of

  3. Exciton-blocking phosphonic acid-treated anode buffer layers for organic photovoltaics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zimmerman, Jeramy D.; Song, Byeongseop; Griffith, Olga; Forrest, Stephen R.

    2013-12-01

    We demonstrate significant improvements in power conversion efficiency of bilayer organic photovoltaics by replacing the exciton-quenching MoO3 anode buffer layer with an exciton-blocking benzylphosphonic acid (BPA)-treated MoO3 or NiO layer. We show that the phosphonic acid treatment creates buffers that block up to 70% of excitons without sacrificing the hole extraction efficiency. Compared to untreated MoO3 anode buffers, BPA-treated NiO buffers exhibit a ˜ 25% increase in the near-infrared spectral response in diphenylanilo functionalized squaraine (DPSQ)/C60-based bilayer devices, increasing the power conversion efficiency under 1 sun AM1.5G simulated solar illumination from 4.8 ± 0.2% to 5.4 ± 0.3%. The efficiency can be further increased to 5.9 ± 0.3% by incorporating a highly conductive exciton blocking bathophenanthroline (BPhen):C60 cathode buffer. We find similar increases in efficiency in two other small-molecule photovoltaic systems, indicating the generality of the phosphonic acid-treated buffer approach to enhance exciton blocking.

  4. Hyponatremic Chloride-depletion Metabolic Alkalosis Successfully Treated with High Cation-gap Amino Acid.

    PubMed

    Ryuge, Akihiro; Matsui, Katsuomi; Shibagaki, Yugo

    2016-01-01

    Chloride (Cl)-depletion alkalosis (CDA) develops due to the loss of Cl-rich body fluid, i.e., vomiting or diuretics use, and is typically treated with a chloride-rich solution such as normal saline (NS). Although NS is one of the most utilized Cl-rich solutions, high cation-gap amino acid (HCG-AA) predominantly comprises Cl and less sodium, making HCG-AA more efficient in correcting CDA. We herein report a case of CDA with chronic hyponatremia after frequent vomiting, which was successfully treated with HCG-AA without overcorrecting hyponatremia or causing hypervolemia. HCG-AA may be more beneficial than NS for treating hyponatremic or hypervolemic metabolic alkalosis. PMID:27374680

  5. Differential Gene Expression in GPR40-Overexpressing Pancreatic β-cells Treated with Linoleic Acid

    PubMed Central

    Kim, In-Su; Yang, So-Young; Han, Joo-Hui; Jung, Sang-Hyuk; Park, Hyun-Soo

    2015-01-01

    "G protein-coupled receptor 40" (GPR40), a receptor for long-chain fatty acids, mediates the stimulation of glucose-induced insulin secretion. We examined the profiles of differential gene expression in GPR40-activated cells treated with linoleic acid, and finally predicted the integral pathways of the cellular mechanism of GPR40-mediated insulinotropic effects. After constructing a GPR40-overexpressing stable cell line (RIN-40) from the rat pancreatic β-cell line RIN-5f, we determined the gene expression profiles of RIN-5f and RIN-40. In total, 1004 genes, the expression of which was altered at least twofold, were selected in RIN-5f versus RIN-40. Moreover, the differential genetic profiles were investigated in RIN-40 cells treated with 30 µM linoleic acid, which resulted in selection of 93 genes in RIN-40 versus RIN-40 treated with linoleic acid. Based on the Kyoto Encyclopedia of Genes and Genomes Pathway (KEGG, http://www.genome.jp/kegg/), sets of genes induced differentially by treatment with linoleic acid in RIN-40 cells were found to be related to mitogen-activated protein (MAP) kinase- and neuroactive ligand-receptor interaction pathways. A gene ontology (GO) study revealed that more than 30% of the genes were associated with signal transduction and cell proliferation. Thus, this study elucidated a gene expression pattern relevant to the signal pathways that are regulated by GPR40 activation during the acute period. Together, these findings increase our mechanistic understanding of endogenous molecules associated with GPR40 function, and provide information useful for identification of a target for the management of type 2 diabetes mellitus. PMID:25729276

  6. An acid-gas removal system for upgrading subquality natural gas

    SciTech Connect

    Palla, N.; Lee, A.L.; Leppin, D.; Shoemaker, H.D.; Hooper, H.M.; Emmrich, G.; Moore, T.F.

    1996-09-01

    The objective of this project is to develop systems to reduce the cost of treating subquality natural gas. Based on over 1,000 laboratory experiments on vapor-liquid equilibria and mass transfer and simulation studies, the use of N-Formyl Morpholine as a solvent together with structured packings has the following advantages: high capacity for H{sub 2}S and CO{sub 2} removal; little or no refrigeration required; less loss of hydrocarbons (CH{sub 4}, C{sub 2}-C{sub 6}); and dehydration potential. To verify these findings and to obtain additional data base for scale-up, a field test unit capable of processing 1MMSCF/d of natural gas has been installed at the Shell Western E and P Inc. (SWEPI) Fandango processing plant site. The results of the testing at the Fandango site will be presented when available.

  7. Tissue distribution and urinary excretion of dimethylated arsenic and its metabolites in dimethylarsinic acid- or arsenate-treated rats

    SciTech Connect

    Adair, Blakely M.; Moore, Tanya; Conklin, Sean D.; Creed, John T.; Wolf, Douglas C.; Thomas, David J. . E-mail: thomas.david@epa.gov

    2007-07-15

    Adult female Fisher 344 rats received drinking water containing 0, 4, 40, 100, or 200 parts per million of dimethylarsinic acid or 100 parts per million of arsenate for 14 days. Urine was collected during the last 24 h of exposure. Tissues were then taken for analysis of dimethylated and trimethylated arsenicals; urines were analyzed for these arsenicals and their thiolated derivatives. In dimethylarsinic acid-treated rats, highest concentrations of dimethylated arsenic were found in blood. In lung, liver, and kidney, concentrations of dimethylated arsenic exceeded those of trimethylated species; in urinary bladder and urine, trimethylated arsenic predominated. Dimethylthioarsinic acid and trimethylarsine sulfide were present in urine of dimethylarsinic acid-treated rats. Concentrations of dimethylated arsenicals were similar in most tissues of dimethylarsinic acid- and arsenate-treated rats, including urinary bladder which is the target for dimethylarsinic acid-induced carcinogenesis in the rat. Mean concentration of dimethylated arsenic was significantly higher (P < 0.05) in urine of dimethylarsinic acid-treated rats than in arsenate-treated rats, suggesting a difference between treatment groups in the flux of dimethylated arsenic through urinary bladder. Concentrations of trimethylated arsenic concentrations were consistently higher in dimethylarsinic acid-treated rats than in arsenate-treated rats; these differences were significant (P < 0.05) in liver, urinary bladder, and urine. Concentrations of dimethylthioarsinic acid and trimethylarsine sulfide were higher in urine from dimethylarsinic acid-treated rats than from arsenate-treated rats. Dimethylarsinic acid is extensively metabolized in the rat, yielding significant concentrations of trimethylated species and of thiolated derivatives. One or more of these metabolites could be the species causing alterations of cellular function that lead to tumors in the urinary bladder.

  8. Reducing and verifying haloacetic acids in treated drinking water using a biological filter system.

    PubMed

    Lou, Jie C; Chan, Hung Y; Yang, Chih Y; Tseng, Wei B; Han, Jia Y

    2014-01-01

    This study focused on reducing the haloacetic acid (HAA) concentrations in treated drinking water. HAA has been thought to be one possible nutrient supporting heterotrophic bacteria regrowth in drinking water. In this study, experiments were conducted using a pilot-scale system to evaluate the efficiency of biological filters (BF) for reducing excess HAA concentrations in water. The BF system reduced the total HAA concentration and the concentrations of five HAA species in the water. Dichloroacetic acid (DCAA), monobromoacetic acid (MBAA) and dibromoacetic acid (DBAA) were the three main HAA5 species that were present in the treated drinking water in this investigation. Combined, these three species represent approximately 77% of the HAA5 in the finished water after BF. The verification of the empirical HAA equation for the outlet in the BF system indicated linear relationships with high correlation coefficients. The empirical equation for the HAA5 concentrations in the finished water was established by examining other nutrients (e.g., dissolved organic carbon (DOC), ultraviolet absorbance at 254 nm wavelength (UV254), and ammonia nitrogen) that can reduce pathogenic contamination. These findings may be useful for designing advanced processes for conventional water treatment plants or for managing water treatment and distribution systems for providing high-quality drinking water.

  9. Zinc recovery by ultrasound acid leaching of double kiln treated electric arc furnace dust

    SciTech Connect

    Barrera Godinez, J.A.

    1989-01-01

    The need to convert 70,000 tons a year of electric arc furnace (EAF) dust into an environmentally safe or recyclable product has encouraged studies to reclaim zinc from this waste material. Successful characterization of a double-kiln calcine, produced from EAF dust, has shown that the calcine pellets consisted mainly of zinc oxide plates with some iron oxide particles. Preliminary leaching tests using hydrochloric and sulfuric acids indicated that this calcine is suitable for selective ultrasound leaching of zinc. A factorially designed screening test using hydrochloric acid showed that ultrasound significantly lowered iron dissolution and increased zinc dissolution, thus enhancing the selective leaching of zinc. Ultrasound, temperature, air bubbling rate and acidity increased the sulfuric acid selectivity, while fluorosilicic acid was not selective. Reactor characterization through ultrasonic field measurements led to the selection of reactor and ultrasound bath, which were utilized to enhance the selectivity of a laboratory scale sulfuric acid leaching of a double-kiln treated electric arc furnace dust. Results indicated that ultrasonic leaching of this calcine is a satisfactory technique to selectively separate zinc from iron. After further iron removal by precipitation and cementation of nickel, it was possible to electrowin zinc from the leach liquor under common industrial conditions, with current efficiencies from 86% through 92% being observed. Calcine washing showed that a substantial chloride removal is possible, but fluoride ion in the electrolyte caused deposit sticking during electrowinning.

  10. A novel cleaner production process of citric acid by recycling its treated wastewater.

    PubMed

    Xu, Jian; Su, Xian-Feng; Bao, Jia-Wei; Zhang, Hong-Jian; Zeng, Xin; Tang, Lei; Wang, Ke; Zhang, Jian-Hua; Chen, Xu-Sheng; Mao, Zhong-Gui

    2016-07-01

    In this study, a novel cleaner production process of citric acid was proposed to completely solve the problem of wastewater management in citric acid industry. In the process, wastewater from citric acid fermentation was used to produce methane through anaerobic digestion and then the anaerobic digestion effluent was further treated with air stripping and electrodialysis before recycled as process water for the later citric acid fermentation. This proposed process was performed for 10 batches and the average citric acid production in recycling batches was 142.4±2.1g/L which was comparable to that with tap water (141.6g/L). Anaerobic digestion was also efficient and stable in operation. The average chemical oxygen demand (COD) removal rate was 95.1±1.2% and methane yield approached to 297.7±19.8mL/g TCODremoved. In conclusion, this novel process minimized the wastewater discharge and achieved the cleaner production in citric acid industry.

  11. Laser restoring the glass surface treated with acid-based paint

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Strusevich, Anastasia V.; Poltaev, Yuriy A.; Sinev, Dmitrii A.

    2013-11-01

    The modern city facilities are often being attacked by graffiti artists, and increasingly vandals leave "tags" using paints, which compound based on acids, hydrofluoric or acetic commonly. These paints not only ink the surface, but also increase the surface roughness, and such impact can not be corrected by conventional cleaning. Thus, it was requested to develop technology that would not only clean the surface, but also to restore its structure by smoothing out irregularities and roughness formed after exposure in acid. In this work we investigated the effect of restoring the surface of the glass, spoiled by acid-based paint and then treated with CO2-laser. During the experiments, it was found that it is real to create the single-step laser surface restoring technology.

  12. A new nanocomposite forward osmosis membrane custom-designed for treating shale gas wastewater.

    PubMed

    Qin, Detao; Liu, Zhaoyang; Delai Sun, Darren; Song, Xiaoxiao; Bai, Hongwei

    2015-09-29

    Managing the wastewater discharged from oil and shale gas fields is a big challenge, because this kind of wastewater is normally polluted by high contents of both oils and salts. Conventional pressure-driven membranes experience little success for treating this wastewater because of either severe membrane fouling or incapability of desalination. In this study, we designed a new nanocomposite forward osmosis (FO) membrane for accomplishing simultaneous oil/water separation and desalination. This nanocomposite FO membrane is composed of an oil-repelling and salt-rejecting hydrogel selective layer on top of a graphene oxide (GO) nanosheets infused polymeric support layer. The hydrogel selective layer demonstrates strong underwater oleophobicity that leads to superior anti-fouling capability under various oil/water emulsions, and the infused GO in support layer can significantly mitigate internal concentration polarization (ICP) through reducing FO membrane structural parameter by as much as 20%. Compared with commercial FO membrane, this new FO membrane demonstrates more than three times higher water flux, higher removals for oil and salts (>99.9% for oil and >99.7% for multivalent ions) and significantly lower fouling tendency when investigated with simulated shale gas wastewater. These combined merits will endorse this new FO membrane with wide applications in treating highly saline and oily wastewaters.

  13. A new nanocomposite forward osmosis membrane custom-designed for treating shale gas wastewater

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Qin, Detao; Liu, Zhaoyang; Delai Sun, Darren; Song, Xiaoxiao; Bai, Hongwei

    2015-09-01

    Managing the wastewater discharged from oil and shale gas fields is a big challenge, because this kind of wastewater is normally polluted by high contents of both oils and salts. Conventional pressure-driven membranes experience little success for treating this wastewater because of either severe membrane fouling or incapability of desalination. In this study, we designed a new nanocomposite forward osmosis (FO) membrane for accomplishing simultaneous oil/water separation and desalination. This nanocomposite FO membrane is composed of an oil-repelling and salt-rejecting hydrogel selective layer on top of a graphene oxide (GO) nanosheets infused polymeric support layer. The hydrogel selective layer demonstrates strong underwater oleophobicity that leads to superior anti-fouling capability under various oil/water emulsions, and the infused GO in support layer can significantly mitigate internal concentration polarization (ICP) through reducing FO membrane structural parameter by as much as 20%. Compared with commercial FO membrane, this new FO membrane demonstrates more than three times higher water flux, higher removals for oil and salts (>99.9% for oil and >99.7% for multivalent ions) and significantly lower fouling tendency when investigated with simulated shale gas wastewater. These combined merits will endorse this new FO membrane with wide applications in treating highly saline and oily wastewaters.

  14. A new nanocomposite forward osmosis membrane custom-designed for treating shale gas wastewater.

    PubMed

    Qin, Detao; Liu, Zhaoyang; Delai Sun, Darren; Song, Xiaoxiao; Bai, Hongwei

    2015-01-01

    Managing the wastewater discharged from oil and shale gas fields is a big challenge, because this kind of wastewater is normally polluted by high contents of both oils and salts. Conventional pressure-driven membranes experience little success for treating this wastewater because of either severe membrane fouling or incapability of desalination. In this study, we designed a new nanocomposite forward osmosis (FO) membrane for accomplishing simultaneous oil/water separation and desalination. This nanocomposite FO membrane is composed of an oil-repelling and salt-rejecting hydrogel selective layer on top of a graphene oxide (GO) nanosheets infused polymeric support layer. The hydrogel selective layer demonstrates strong underwater oleophobicity that leads to superior anti-fouling capability under various oil/water emulsions, and the infused GO in support layer can significantly mitigate internal concentration polarization (ICP) through reducing FO membrane structural parameter by as much as 20%. Compared with commercial FO membrane, this new FO membrane demonstrates more than three times higher water flux, higher removals for oil and salts (>99.9% for oil and >99.7% for multivalent ions) and significantly lower fouling tendency when investigated with simulated shale gas wastewater. These combined merits will endorse this new FO membrane with wide applications in treating highly saline and oily wastewaters. PMID:26416014

  15. A new nanocomposite forward osmosis membrane custom-designed for treating shale gas wastewater

    PubMed Central

    Qin, Detao; Liu, Zhaoyang; Delai Sun, Darren; Song, Xiaoxiao; Bai, Hongwei

    2015-01-01

    Managing the wastewater discharged from oil and shale gas fields is a big challenge, because this kind of wastewater is normally polluted by high contents of both oils and salts. Conventional pressure-driven membranes experience little success for treating this wastewater because of either severe membrane fouling or incapability of desalination. In this study, we designed a new nanocomposite forward osmosis (FO) membrane for accomplishing simultaneous oil/water separation and desalination. This nanocomposite FO membrane is composed of an oil-repelling and salt-rejecting hydrogel selective layer on top of a graphene oxide (GO) nanosheets infused polymeric support layer. The hydrogel selective layer demonstrates strong underwater oleophobicity that leads to superior anti-fouling capability under various oil/water emulsions, and the infused GO in support layer can significantly mitigate internal concentration polarization (ICP) through reducing FO membrane structural parameter by as much as 20%. Compared with commercial FO membrane, this new FO membrane demonstrates more than three times higher water flux, higher removals for oil and salts (>99.9% for oil and >99.7% for multivalent ions) and significantly lower fouling tendency when investigated with simulated shale gas wastewater. These combined merits will endorse this new FO membrane with wide applications in treating highly saline and oily wastewaters. PMID:26416014

  16. Safety in use of cryotherapy and topical salicylic acid with lactic acid combination in treating verruca vulgaris.

    PubMed

    Sultana, R; Alam, M; Khondker, L; Ahamed, R S

    2012-10-01

    An interventional study in the treatment of verruca vulgaris was conducted in sixty patients. This study conducted in the out-patient Department of Dermatology and Venereology, Chittagong Medical College Hospital, Chittagong, Bangladesh for duration of eight months (From January 2009 to September 2009). Thirty patients treated with cryotherapy, belonged to Group C and rest thirty patients treated with topical salicylic acid with lactic acid, belonged to Group D. The result showed that the highest side effects immediately after therapy for Group C was burning 30(100%), then irritation 29(96.7%), erythema 28(93.7%), blister formation 28(93.7%) and pain 23(76.7%). On the other hand, highest side effect for Group D is irritation 29(96.7%), then burning 22(73.3%), pain 11(36.7%), pruritus 06(20%), blister formation 04(13%) and erythema 01(3.3%). Statistical significant difference was observed between Group C & Group D patients other than irritation. At 2nd visit, erythema 26(86.7%) was evidenced for Group C, whereas in Group D, there was irritation 16(53.3%). After 3rd visit in 4th week for Group C patients, there was burning 13(43.3%) but in Group D patients, hypo-pigmentation 13(43.3%) was evidenced. On 4th visit in 6th week, hypo-pigmentation 09(30%) was seen in Group C, while in Group D, pruritus and irritation were found. Statistical significant difference was observed between Group C & Group D respondents. Both treatments were associated with side-effects but these were higher with cryotherapy. The study recommends the combination of topical salicylic acid with lactic acid is safer than cryotherapy.

  17. Chemical, sensory and shelf life evaluation of sliced salmon treated with salts of organic acids

    PubMed Central

    Sallam, Khalid Ibrahim

    2007-01-01

    This study was carried out to evaluate the shelf life, chemical quality and sensory attributes of salmon slices treated by dipping in 2.5% aqueous solution of sodium acetate (NaA), sodium lactate (NaL), or sodium citrate (NaC) during refrigerated storage at 1 °C. The chemical analyses demonstrated significant reduction in K value, hypoxanthine (Hx) concentration, total volatile base nitrogen (TVB-N), and trimethylamine (TMA) in treated salmon slices when compared with the control. Sensory scores of treated salmon were in a typical category for appearance, juiciness and tenderness compared with the control. Only minor changes in the sensory attributes were recognized by few panellists in NaA- and NaL-treated samples. A shelf life of 12, 12 and 15 days has been estimated for salmon treated with NaL, NaC, and NaA, respectively, versus 8 days for control. The salts of organic acids can therefore be used as safe preservatives for fish under refrigerated storage. PMID:17245440

  18. Reactive Transport Modeling of Acid Gas Generation and Condensation

    SciTech Connect

    G. Zhahg; N. Spycher; E. Sonnenthal; C. Steefel

    2005-01-25

    Pulvirenti et al. (2004) recently conducted a laboratory evaporation/condensation experiment on a synthetic solution of primarily calcium chloride. This solution represents one potential type of evaporated pore water at Yucca Mountain, Nevada, a site proposed for geologic storage of high-level nuclear waste. These authors reported that boiling this solution to near dryness (a concentration factor >75,000 relative to actual pore waters) leads to the generation of acid condensate (pH 4.5) presumably due to volatilization of HCl (and minor HF and/or HNO{sub 3}). To investigate the various processes taking place, including boiling, gas transport, and condensation, their experiment was simulated by modifying an existing multicomponent and multiphase reactive transport code (TOUGHREACT). This code was extended with a Pitzer ion-interaction model to deal with high ionic strength. The model of the experiment was set-up to capture the observed increase in boiling temperature (143 C at {approx}1 bar) resulting from high concentrations of dissolved salts (up to 8 m CaCl{sub 2}). The computed HCI fugacity ({approx} 10{sup -4} bars) generated by boiling under these conditions is not sufficient to lower the pH of the condensate (cooled to 80 and 25 C) down to observed values unless the H{sub 2}O mass fraction in gas is reduced below {approx}10%. This is because the condensate becomes progressively diluted by H{sub 2}O gas condensation. However, when the system is modeled to remove water vapor, the computed pH of instantaneous condensates decreases to {approx}1.7, consistent with the experiment (Figure 1). The results also show that the HCl fugacity increases, and calcite, gypsum, sylvite, halite, MgCl{sub 2}4H{sub 2}O and CaCl{sub 2} precipitate sequentially with increasing concentration factors.

  19. MTHFR C677T polymorphism, folic acid and hyperhomocysteinemia in levodopa treated patients with Parkinson's disease.

    PubMed

    Woitalla, D; Kuhn, W; Müller, T

    2004-01-01

    Certain mutations (TT homozygous; CT heterozygous; CC wild-type) of the methylenetetrahydrofolate (MTHFR) gene and long-term levodopa application in patients with Parkinson's disease (PD) support onset of hyperhomocysteinemia. Total plasma homocysteine (t-hcys) depends on B6, B12, folic acid, all of which support remyelination from t-hcys to methionine. Objective of this trial were to compare B6, B12, folic acid and t-hcys levels in plasma of 83 levodopa treated PD patients and 44 controls. PD patients with the CT or TT genotype had significant higher t-hcys levels than controls or PD patients with the CC allele. Concentrations of B6 or B12 did not differ, but folic acid was significant higher in PD patients with the CT mutation. We recommend MTHFR genotyping, t-hcys monitoring and early vitamin supplementation in PD patients. The folic acid increase in PD patients with the CT allele is hypothetically due to an endogenous upregulation of folic acid absorption to decrease t-hcys. PMID:15354385

  20. Effect of losartan on serum uric acid in hypertension treated with a diuretic: the COMFORT study.

    PubMed

    Matsumura, Kiyoshi; Arima, Hisatomi; Tominaga, Mitsuhiro; Ohtsubo, Toshio; Sasaguri, Toshiyuki; Fujii, Koji; Fukuhara, Masayo; Uezono, Keiko; Morinaga, Yuki; Ohta, Yuko; Otonari, Takatoshi; Kawasaki, Junya; Kato, Isao; Tsuchihashi, Takuya

    2015-01-01

    It has been shown that losartan, an angiotensin II receptor blocker (ARB), reduces serum uric acid levels. However, the effects of losartan on serum uric acid levels in the patients treated with a thiazide diuretic have not been fully elucidated. We have investigated the effects of losartan compared with other ARBs on blood variables and blood pressure control in hypertensive patients treated with a thiazide diuretic using data from the COMFORT study. The present analysis included a total of 118 hypertensive subjects on combination treatment with ARBs except for losartan and a diuretic who were randomly assigned to a daily regimen of a combination pill (losartan 50 mg/hydrochlorothiazide 12.5 mg) or to continuation of two pills, an ARB except for losartan and a diuretic. Blood pressures were evaluated at 1, 3, and 6 months after randomization and changes in blood variables including serum uric acid were evaluated during 6 months treatment period. Mean follow-up blood pressure levels were not different between the combination pill (losartan treatment) group and the control (ARBs except for losartan) group. On the other hand, serum uric acid significantly decreased in the combination pill group compared with the control group (-0.44 versus + 0.10 mg/dl; p = 0.01), although hematocrit, serum creatinine, sodium and potassium were not different between the groups. These results suggest that the treatment regimen switched from a combination therapy of ARBs except for losartan and a diuretic to a combination pill (losartan/ hydrochlorothiazide) decreases serum uric acid without affecting blood pressure control.

  1. Microbial shelf life determination of vacuum-packaged fresh beef treated with polylactic acid, lactic acid, and nisin solutions.

    PubMed

    Ariyapitipun, T; Mustapha, A; Clarke, A D

    1999-08-01

    The effectiveness of polylactic acid, lactic acid, nisin, and combinations of the acids and nisin on extending the shelf-life of raw beef was determined. Fresh beef pieces (5 by 5 by 2.5 cm) were dipped in a solution of 2% low molecular weight polylactic acid (LMW-PLA), 2% lactic acid (LA), 200 IU of nisin per ml, or the combinations of nisin in either 2% LMW-PLA or 2% LA. The samples were then drip-dried, vacuum-packaged, and stored at 4 degrees C for up to 56 days. The beef surface pH values and numbers of psychrotrophic aerobic bacteria, psychrotrophic and mesophilic Enterobacteriaceae, Pseudomonas, and Lactobacillus were determined weekly for 56 days. The average surface pH values of the beef samples treated with 2% LMW-PLA or the combination of 200 IU of nisin per ml and 2% LMW-PLA were significantly reduced to 5.19 and 5.17, respectively, at day 0 (P < or = 0.05), while those decontaminated with 2% LA or 200 IU of nisin per ml in 2% LA solution were significantly decreased from 5.62 to 4.98 and 4.96, respectively. The 2% LMW-PLA, 2% LA, or the combinations of each acid and nisin showed immediate inhibitory effects on psychrotrophic aerobic bacteria (1.94, 2.36, 2.59, and 1.76 log reduction, respectively), psychrotrophic Enterobacteriaceae (1.37, 1.86, 1.77, and 1.35 log reduction, respectively), mesophilic Enterobacteriaceae (1.00, 1.00, 0.82, and 0.68 log reduction, respectively), and Pseudomonas (1.77, 1.57, 1.76, and 1.41 log reduction, respectively) on fresh beef (P < or = 0.05). The reduction was evident up to 56 days as seen by the numbers of Enterobacteriaceae and Pseudomonas (P < or = 0.05). Because there was no interaction between treatments and storage times, the data in each period were combined and presented as effect of treatments on overall microbial counts of fresh beef. It was found that 2% LMW-PLA, 2% LA, and the combinations of each acid and nisin significantly lowered the population of the above organisms compared with the untreated control

  2. Effectiveness of hyaluronic acid for treating diabetic foot: a systematic review and meta-analysis.

    PubMed

    Chen, Chao-Pen; Hung, Wei; Lin, Sheng-Hsuan

    2014-01-01

    Diabetic foot ulceration is a major complication of diabetes mellitus. Hyaluronic acid (HA) is used in the treatment of diabetic foot. This meta-analysis was designed to evaluate if HA increased the complete healing rate of diabetic foot compared with controls. We searched Medline, Cochrane, EMBASE, Google Scholar (until January 31, 2014) databases for prospective randomized controlled trials that assessed the effectiveness of HA in treating foot ulcers resulting from diabetes. The primary outcome for the study was complete healing rate of the ulcer at 12 weeks. Three hundred twenty-eight patients were identified from four studies that evaluated the rate of healing of diabetic foot that were treated with HA or controls. Among the four studies, odd ratios (OR) ranged from 1.19 to 8.86, with the overall OR being 1.71 (p = 0.047; 95% confidence interval = 1.01 to 2.90). In summary, our meta-analysis strengthens the findings that HA is beneficial in treating diabetic foot by increasing the rate of wound healing. These findings support the use of HA in treating diabetic foot.

  3. Enhanced lymphocyte proliferation in patients with adrenoleukodystrophy treated with erucic acid (22:1)-rich triglycerides.

    PubMed

    Pour, R B; Stöckler-Ipsiroglu, S; Hunneman, D H; Gahr, M; Korenke, G C; Pabst, W; Hanefeld, F; Peters, A

    2000-03-01

    Lymphocytopenia and depression of natural killer cells have been observed in patients with adrenoleukodystrophy (ALD) treated with glycerol trioleate and glycerol trierucate ('Lorenzo's oil'). To investigate possible alterations of cellular immunoreactivity, we measured lymphocyte proliferation in response to mitogens (PHA, Con A, PWM, OKT3) in 27 patients on treatment and in 14 patients without treatment. In patients on treatment, lymphocyte proliferation in response to the mitogens PHA and Con A was significantly higher than in patients without treatment. Lymphocyte proliferation in patients without treatment was comparable to that of normal control lymphocytes. Additionally, we found increased concentrations of erucic acid, C22:1, in lymphocytes from patients with treatment. The enhanced proliferation of lymphocytes in response to mitogens is an indication of increased reactivity of cellular immunity to unspecific immunological stimuli. Long-term side-effects on cellular immunoreactivity have to be considered in ALD patients treated with Lorenzo's oil.

  4. [Studies on transdermal delivery of ferulic acid through rat skin treated by microneedle arrays].

    PubMed

    Yang, Bing; Du, Shou-ying; Bai, Jie; Shang, Ke-xin; Lu, Yang; Li, Peng-yue

    2014-12-01

    In order to investigate the characteristics of transdermal delivery of ferulic acid under the treated of microneedle arrays and the influence on permeability of rat skin capillaries, improved Franz-cells were used in the transdermal delivery experiment with the rat skin of abdominal wall and the length of microneedle arrays, different insertion forces, retention time were studied in the influence of characteristics of transdermal delivery of FA. The amount of FA was determined by HPLC system. Intravenous injection Evans blue and FA was added after microneedle arrays treated. Established inflammation model was built by daubing dimethylbenzene. The amount of Evans blue in the rat skin was read at 590 nm wavelength with a Multiskan Go microplate reader. Compared with passive diffusion group the skin pretreated with microneedle arrays had a remarkable enhancement of FA transport (P <0.01). The accumulation of FA increased with the enhancement of insertion force as to as the increase of retention time. Microneedle arrays with different length had a remarkable enhancement of FA transport, but was not related to the increase of the length. The research of FA on the reduce of permeability of rat skin capillaries indicated that the skin pretreated with microneedle arrays could reduce the content of Evans blue in the skins of rat significantly compared with the untreated group. The permeation rate of ferulic acid transdermal delivery had remarkable increase under the treated of microneedle arrays and the length of microneedle arrays ,the retention time so as to the insertion force were important to the transdermal delivery of ferulic acid. PMID:25898576

  5. Bioavailability of heavy metals in strongly acidic soils treated with exceptional quality biosolids

    SciTech Connect

    Basta, N.T.; Sloan, J.J.

    1999-03-01

    New federal regulations may increase application of exceptional quality (EQ) biosolids to acidic soils, and information on the effect of this practice on bioavailability of heavy metal is limited. The objective of this study was to compare bioavailability of heavy metal in soil treated with nonalkaline or alkaline EQ biosolids with limestone-treated soils. Three acidic soils (pH 3.7--4.3) were treated with three amounts of lime-stabilized biosolids (LS), anaerobic-digested biosolids (AN), or agricultural limestone (L), and incubated at 25 C. Soil solution Cd, Zn, and other chemical constituents were measured at 1, 30, 90, and 180 d incubation. Soil solution Cd and Zn were AN > LS {ge} L, C. Soil solution Cd and Zn increased with AN applied but decreased wit h LS applied. The high application of LS had soil solution Zn dramatically decreased at soil pH > 5.5 and >5.1, respectively. Soil solution Cd and Zn increases were AN > LS with incubation time. Biosolids treatments increased heavy metal in Ca(NO{sub 3}){sub 2} and NaOAc fractions. Except for Cd, most metal from biosolids were in EDTA and HNO{sub 3} fractions. Heavy metal bioavailability, measured using lettuce (Latuca sativa L.), was AN > LS {ge} L, C. Although state regulations prohibiting application of nonalkaline EQ biosolids to acidic soil is a prudent practice, application of EQ alkaline biosolids that achieves soil pH > 5 minimizes risk from soil solution Cd and Zn and plant uptake of heavy metal.

  6. Effects of chrysotile and acid-treated chrysotile on macrophage cultures

    PubMed Central

    Beck, E. G.; Holt, P. F.; Nasrallah, E. T.

    1971-01-01

    Beck, E. G., Holt, P. F., and Nasrallah, E. T. (1971).Brit. J. industr. Med.,28, 179-185. Effects of chrysotile and acid-treated chrysotile on macrophage cultures. The addition of chrysotile asbestos to monolayer cultures of peritoneal and alveolar macrophages produces an increase in membrane permeability, as measured by eosin uptake and lactic dehydrogenase activity of the supernatant fluid. The lactate synthesis is increased, however. It is suggested that the permeability of the cell membrane is increased while dust particles are being phagocytosed, which may take several hours when the particles are fibrous, but that this does not imply cell damage. Treatment of chrysotile with acid, which leaves a silica surface, results in a product that reduces lactate synthesis, implying cytotoxicity. This change is counteracted by poly(2-vinyl-pyridine 1-oxide). The polymer does not affect the properties of the native chrysotile. PMID:5572686

  7. BENCH-SCALE EVALUATION OF CALCIUM SORBENTS FOR ACID GAS EMISSION CONTROL

    EPA Science Inventory

    Calcium sorbents for acid gas emission control were evaluated for effectiveness in removing SO2/HCl and SO2/NO from simulated incinerator and boiler flue gases. All tests were conducted in a bench-scale reactor (fixed-bed) simulating fabric filter conditions in an acid gas remova...

  8. The study of aluminum loss and consequent phase transformation in heat-treated acid-leached kaolin

    SciTech Connect

    Foo, Choo Thye; Mahmood, Che Seman; Mohd Salleh, Mohamad Amran

    2011-04-15

    This study investigates the effect of Al leaching during Fe removal from kaolin to mullite. Heat-treated kaolin was obtained by heating natural kaolin at 400, 500, 600, 700, 800 and 900 deg. C. The heat-treated kaolin was then leached at 100 deg. C with 4 M, 3 M, 2 M, 1 M, 0.2 M solution of H{sub 2}SO{sub 4} and 0.2 M solution of oxalic acid. The dried samples were sintered to 1300 deg. C for 4 h at a heating rate of 10 deg. C min{sup -1}. X-ray diffractometry and differential thermal analysis were used to study the phase transformation of kaolin to mullite. It was found that 700 deg. C is the optimum preheat-treatment temperature to leach out Fe and also Al for both types of the acids used. The majority of the 4 M sulfuric acid-treated kaolins formed the cristobalite phase when sintered. On the other hand, 1 M, 0.2 M sulfuric acid and 0.2 M oxalic acid leached heat-treated kaolin formed mullite and quartz phase after sintering. - Research Highlights: {yields} Preheat-treatment of kaolin improves the leachability of unwanted iron. {yields} The optimum preheat-treatment temperature is 700 deg. C. {yields} Sintered 4 M sulfuric acid-treated kaolin majorly formed the cristobalite phase. {yields} Sintered 0.2 M oxalic acid-treated kaolin formed lesser amorphous silicate phase.

  9. Uric acid plasma level and urine pH in rats treated with ambroxol.

    PubMed

    Drewa, Tomasz; Wolski, Zbigniew; Gruszka, Marzena; Misterek, Bartosz; Lysik, Joanna

    2007-01-01

    It was a chance discovery that ambroxol parenteral administration led to urinary bladder stone formation in rats. This study was undertaken to examine the serum uric acid levels and urine pH in rats after ambroxol parenteral treatment. Ambroxol influence on the uric acid level was measured in 5 rats (Rattus sp.) treated with 60 mg/kg (dissolved in injection water, sc, daily) during 2 weeks. Ambroxol influence on urine pH was examined on 45 rats divided into 3 groups. Rats from the 1st and 2nd group received 30 and 60 mg/kg/24h ambroxol, respectively. Urine was collected once daily and measured with strip kit. All values were presented as the means with standard deviations. The Student t test was used to compare the means, p < 0.05 was considered as significant. Dynamics of pH changes was measured in 4 rats treated with 60 mg/kg/24h of ambroxol. Controls received 1 mL of injection water sc. Serum uric acid level increased up to 8.7 +/- 1.0 mg/dL vs. 5.7 +/- 1.0 mg/dL in control (p < 0.002). In the 1st and 2nd group urine pH increased up to 7.5 +/- 0.5 and 7.6 +/- 0.5 vs. 6.7 +/- 0.4 (p < 0.05). Ambroxol withdrawal resulted in sequential urine pH decrease. 11 days after interruption of ambroxol therapy pH reached the starting value. Urine pH changes and possible disturbances in uric acid metabolic pathway may influence on the stone formation in rats after ambroxol parenteral treatment. The influence of ambroxol on urinary tract GAG layer and the balance between xanthine and CaOx in the urine should be checked.

  10. Mucosal acid causes gastric mucosal microcirculatory disturbance in nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drug-treated rats.

    PubMed

    Funatsu, Toshiyuki; Chono, Koji; Hirata, Takuya; Keto, Yoshihiro; Kimoto, Aishi; Sasamata, Masao

    2007-01-01

    The mechanism by which nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs) suppress gastric mucosal blood flow is not fully understood, although the depletion of mucosal prostaglandin E2 has been proposed as one possible explanation. We investigated the role of gastric acid on gastric mucosal blood flow in NSAID-treated rats. A rat stomach was mounted in an ex vivo chamber, and gastric mucosal blood flow was measured sequentially in a 5-mm2 area of the gastric corpus using a scanning laser Doppler perfusion image system. Results showed that diclofenac (5 mg/kg s.c.) and indomethacin (10 mg/kg s.c.) did not affect gastric mucosal blood flow, although both strongly decreased mucosal prostaglandin E2 when saline was instilled into the gastric chamber. On replacement of the saline in the chamber with 100 mM hydrochloric acid, these drugs caused a decrease in gastric mucosal blood flow levels within 30 min. The specific cyclooxygenase (COX)-2 inhibitors celecoxib (50 mg/kg s.c.) and rofecoxib (25 mg/kg s.c.) did not affect mucosal prostaglandin E2 level, nor did they decrease gastric mucosal blood flow, even when hydrochloric acid was added to the chamber. Furthermore, measurement of vasoconstrictive factors present in the mucosa showed that endothelin-1 levels increased after administration of diclofenac s.c. in the presence of intragastric hydrochloric acid. This indicates that the presence of mucosal hydrochloric acid plays an important role in the NSAID-induced decrease in gastric mucosal blood flow, while the COX-1-derived basal prostaglandin E2, which is unlikely to control gastric mucosal blood flow itself, protects microcirculatory systems from mucosal hydrochloric acid.

  11. Treating cattle with antibiotics affects greenhouse gas emissions, and microbiota in dung and dung beetles.

    PubMed

    Hammer, Tobin J; Fierer, Noah; Hardwick, Bess; Simojoki, Asko; Slade, Eleanor; Taponen, Juhani; Viljanen, Heidi; Roslin, Tomas

    2016-05-25

    Antibiotics are routinely used to improve livestock health and growth. However, this practice may have unintended environmental impacts mediated by interactions among the wide range of micro- and macroorganisms found in agroecosystems. For example, antibiotics may alter microbial emissions of greenhouse gases by affecting livestock gut microbiota. Furthermore, antibiotics may affect the microbiota of non-target animals that rely on dung, such as dung beetles, and the ecosystem services they provide. To examine these interactions, we treated cattle with a commonly used broad-spectrum antibiotic and assessed downstream effects on microbiota in dung and dung beetles, greenhouse gas fluxes from dung, and beetle size, survival and reproduction. We found that antibiotic treatment restructured microbiota in dung beetles, which harboured a microbial community distinct from those in the dung they were consuming. The antibiotic effect on beetle microbiota was not associated with smaller size or lower numbers. Unexpectedly, antibiotic treatment raised methane fluxes from dung, possibly by altering the interactions between methanogenic archaea and bacteria in rumen and dung environments. Our findings that antibiotics restructure dung beetle microbiota and modify greenhouse gas emissions from dung indicate that antibiotic treatment may have unintended, cascading ecological effects that extend beyond the target animal.

  12. Treating cattle with antibiotics affects greenhouse gas emissions, and microbiota in dung and dung beetles.

    PubMed

    Hammer, Tobin J; Fierer, Noah; Hardwick, Bess; Simojoki, Asko; Slade, Eleanor; Taponen, Juhani; Viljanen, Heidi; Roslin, Tomas

    2016-05-25

    Antibiotics are routinely used to improve livestock health and growth. However, this practice may have unintended environmental impacts mediated by interactions among the wide range of micro- and macroorganisms found in agroecosystems. For example, antibiotics may alter microbial emissions of greenhouse gases by affecting livestock gut microbiota. Furthermore, antibiotics may affect the microbiota of non-target animals that rely on dung, such as dung beetles, and the ecosystem services they provide. To examine these interactions, we treated cattle with a commonly used broad-spectrum antibiotic and assessed downstream effects on microbiota in dung and dung beetles, greenhouse gas fluxes from dung, and beetle size, survival and reproduction. We found that antibiotic treatment restructured microbiota in dung beetles, which harboured a microbial community distinct from those in the dung they were consuming. The antibiotic effect on beetle microbiota was not associated with smaller size or lower numbers. Unexpectedly, antibiotic treatment raised methane fluxes from dung, possibly by altering the interactions between methanogenic archaea and bacteria in rumen and dung environments. Our findings that antibiotics restructure dung beetle microbiota and modify greenhouse gas emissions from dung indicate that antibiotic treatment may have unintended, cascading ecological effects that extend beyond the target animal. PMID:27226475

  13. [Performance of an innovative polyethylene carrier biotrickling filter treating hydrogen sulphide gas].

    PubMed

    Wu, Yong-gang; Ren, Hong-qiang; Ding, Li-li

    2010-07-01

    Characteristics of double-layer biotrickling filter using high density polythene rasching rings carrier treating waste gas containing hydrogen sulphide was studied. Results showed that biotrickling filter had significant advantages of low pressure drop and even load distribution along the reactor height. When removal efficiency was greater than 90%, gas retention time was 12 s, maximum inlet load was 110 g/(m3 x h), elimination capacity was 84 g/(m3 x h). At steady state, about 37%-55% of hydrogen sulfide load was removed from the lower layer. During long-term operation, pressure drop kept to less than 280 Pa x m(-1), the backwashing period was longer than two months, no biomass accumulation happened in the lower layer, and abnormal increase in pressure drop can be used as a indicator of backwashing. Reactor recovery and restart experimental results showed that removal efficiency recovered to 95% in 1 day after 6 days without H2S, pH dramatic variation of spray liquid had significant adverse impact on biotrickling bed reactor.

  14. Analysis of mycolic acid cleavage products and cellular fatty acids of Mycobacterium species by capillary gas chromatography.

    PubMed

    Lambert, M A; Moss, C W; Silcox, V A; Good, R C

    1986-04-01

    After growth and experimental conditions were established, the mycolic acid cleavage products, constituent fatty acids, and alcohols of representative strains of Mycobacterium tuberculosis, M. smegmatis, M. fortuitum complex, M. kansasii, M. gordonae, and M. avium complex were determined by capillary gas chromatography. Reproducible cleavage of mycolic acid methyl esters to tetracosanoic (24:0) or hexacosanoic (26:0) acid methyl esters was achieved by heating the sample in a high-temperature muffle furnace. The major constituent fatty acids in all species were hexadecanoic (16:0) and octadecenoic (18:1 omega 9-c, oleic) acids. With the exception of M. gordonae, 10-methyloctadecanoic acid was found in all species; moreover, M. gordonae was the only species tested which contained 2-methyltetradecanoic acid. M. kansasii was characterized by the presence of 2,4-dimethyltetradecanoic acid, M. avium complex by 2-eicosanol, and M. tuberculosis by 26:0 mycolic acid cleavage product. The mycolic acid cleavage product in the other five species tested was 24:0. Although a limited number of strains and species were tested, preliminary results indicate that this gas chromatographic method can be used to characterize mycobacterial cultures by their mycolic acid cleavage products and constituent fatty acid and alcohol content. PMID:3084554

  15. Adhesive forces and surface properties of cold gas plasma treated UHMWPE

    PubMed Central

    Preedy, Emily Callard; Brousseau, Emmanuel; Evans, Sam L.; Perni, Stefano; Prokopovich, Polina

    2014-01-01

    Cold atmospheric plasma (CAP) treatment was used on ultra-high molecular weight polyethylene (UHMWPE), a common articulating counter material employed in hip and knee replacements. UHMWPE is a biocompatible polymer with low friction coefficient, yet does not have robust wear characteristics. CAP effectively cross-links the polymer chains of the UHMWPE improving wear performance (Perni et al., Acta Biomater. 8(3) (2012) 1357). In this work, interactions between CAP treated UHMWPE and spherical borosilicate sphere (representing model material for bone) were considered employing AFM technique. Adhesive forces increased, in the presence of PBS, after treatment with helium and helium/oxygen cold gas plasmas. Furthermore, a more hydrophilic surface of UHMWPE was observed after both treatments, determined through a reduction of up to a third in the contact angles of water. On the other hand, the asperity density also decreased by half, yet the asperity height had a three-fold decrease. This work shows that CAP treatment can be a very effective technique at enhancing the adhesion between bone and UHMWPE implant material as aided by the increased adhesion forces. Moreover, the hydrophilicity of the CAP treated UHMWPE can lead to proteins and cells adhesion to the surface of the implant stimulating osseointegration process. PMID:25431523

  16. Adhesive forces and surface properties of cold gas plasma treated UHMWPE.

    PubMed

    Preedy, Emily Callard; Brousseau, Emmanuel; Evans, Sam L; Perni, Stefano; Prokopovich, Polina

    2014-10-20

    Cold atmospheric plasma (CAP) treatment was used on ultra-high molecular weight polyethylene (UHMWPE), a common articulating counter material employed in hip and knee replacements. UHMWPE is a biocompatible polymer with low friction coefficient, yet does not have robust wear characteristics. CAP effectively cross-links the polymer chains of the UHMWPE improving wear performance (Perni et al., Acta Biomater. 8(3) (2012) 1357). In this work, interactions between CAP treated UHMWPE and spherical borosilicate sphere (representing model material for bone) were considered employing AFM technique. Adhesive forces increased, in the presence of PBS, after treatment with helium and helium/oxygen cold gas plasmas. Furthermore, a more hydrophilic surface of UHMWPE was observed after both treatments, determined through a reduction of up to a third in the contact angles of water. On the other hand, the asperity density also decreased by half, yet the asperity height had a three-fold decrease. This work shows that CAP treatment can be a very effective technique at enhancing the adhesion between bone and UHMWPE implant material as aided by the increased adhesion forces. Moreover, the hydrophilicity of the CAP treated UHMWPE can lead to proteins and cells adhesion to the surface of the implant stimulating osseointegration process.

  17. Fluroide concentration in enamel treated with 50% phosphoric acid and NaF with subsequent decalcification in "acid-gel".

    PubMed

    Bohrer, J; Gedalia, I

    1980-06-01

    Fluoride concentration of enamel surfaces treated with 50% H3PO4, together with high NaF contents or etched with 50% H3PO4 followed by application with a water solution of high NaF content, was examined. In addition, the degree of decalcification and the fluoride content of subsequently incubated enamel samples in acid-gel at 37 degrees C were determined. Generally, incubation highly increased the fluoride contents of the etched and fluoridated (experimental), control (etched only), and untreated (vaseline) enamel samples. An increasing demineralization effect was observed in the samples of the following order: experimental, control, and baseline. It appears does not predispose to an increased caries challenge in vitro.

  18. Chemical surface modification of calcium carbonate particles with stearic acid using different treating methods

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cao, Zhi; Daly, Michael; Clémence, Lopez; Geever, Luke M.; Major, Ian; Higginbotham, Clement L.; Devine, Declan M.

    2016-08-01

    Calcium carbonate (CaCO3) is often treated with stearic acid (SA) to decrease its polarity. However, the method of application of the SA treatments has a strong influence on CaCO3 thermoplastic composite's interfacial structure and distribution. Several of papers describe the promising effects of SA surface treatment, but few compare the treatment process and its effect on the properties of the final thermoplastic composite. In the current study, we assessed a new SA treatment method, namely, complex treatment for polymer composite fabrication with HDPE. Subsequently, a comparative study was performed between the "complex" process and the other existing methods. The composites were assessed using different experiments included scanning electron microscopy (SEM), void content, density, wettability, differential scanning calorimetry (DSC), and tensile tests. It was observed that the "complex" surface treatment yielded composites with a significantly lower voids content and higher density compared to other surface treatments. This indicates that after the "complex" treatment process, the CaCO3 particles and HDPE matrix are more tightly packed than other methods. DSC and wettability results suggest that the "wet" and "complex" treated CaCO3 composites had a significantly higher heat of fusion and moisture resistance compared to the "dry" treated CaCO3 composites. Furthermore, "wet" and "complex" treated CaCO3 composites have a significantly higher tensile strength than the composites containing untreated and "dry" treated CaCO3. This is mainly because the "wet" and "complex" treatment processes have increased adsorption density of stearate, which enhances the interfacial interaction between matrix and filler. These results confirm that the chemical adsorption of the surfactant ions at the solid-liquid interface is higher than at other interface. From this study, it was concluded that the utilization of the "complex" method minimised the negative effects of void

  19. Acid Black 48 dye biosorption using Saccharomyces cerevisiae immobilized with treated sugarcane bagasse.

    PubMed

    Mitter, E K; Corso, C R

    2012-01-01

    The textile industry consumes large quantities of water and chemicals, especially in dyeing and finishing processes. Textile dye adsorption can be accomplished with natural or synthetic compounds. Cell immobilization using biomaterials allows the reduction of toxicity and mechanical resistance and opens spaces within the matrix for cell growth. The use of natural materials, such as sugarcane bagasse, is promising due to the low costs involved. The aim of the present study was to evaluate the use of sugarcane bagasse treated with either polyethyleneimine (PEI), NaOH or distilled water in the cell immobilization of Saccharomyces cerevisiae for textile dye removal. Three different adsorption tests were conducted: treated sugarcane bagasse alone, free yeast cells and bagasse-immobilized yeast cells. Yeast immobilization was 31.34% with PEI-treated bagasse, 8.56% with distilled water and 22.54% with NaOH. PEI-treated bagasse exhibited the best removal rates of the dye at all pH values studied (2.50, 4.50 and 6.50). The best Acid Black 48 adsorption rates were obtained with use of free yeast cells. At pH 2.50, 1 mg of free yeast cells was able to remove 5488.49 g of the dye. The lowest adsorption capacity rates were obtained using treated bagasse alone. However, the use of bagasse-immobilized cells increased adsorption efficiency from 20 to 40%. The use of immobilized cells in textile dye removal is very attractive due to adsorbed dye precipitation, which eliminates the industrial need for centrifugation processes. Dye adsorption using only yeast cells or sugarcane bagasse requires separation methods.

  20. In vitro gas production of foliage from three browse tree species treated with different dose levels of exogenous fibrolytic enzymes.

    PubMed

    López, D; Vázquez-Armijo, J F; López-Villalobos, N; Lee-Rangel, H A; Salem, A Z M; Borquez-Gastelum, J L; Domínguez-Vara, I A; Rojo-Rubio, R

    2016-10-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the effect of different dose levels of exogenous fibrolytic enzymes (EFE) on in vitro ruminal fermentation kinetics and energy utilization of foliages from three browse trees (Pithecellobium dulce, Heliocarpus velutinus and Guazuma ulmifolia). Mixture of EFE product was added to the leaves of the three browse tree species at three dose levels: 0 (control), 3.5 and 7.0 mg/g of DM. Chemical composition of the foliages, including plant secondary metabolites such as total phenolics (TP), saponins (SAP) and aqueous fraction (AF), was determined. In addition, in vitro assaying of ruminal gas production kinetics was determined for the three browse three foliages treated with EFE. P. dulce had the highest crude protein content (p < 0.05), whereas G. ulmifolia had the highest content of neutral detergent fibre and SAP (p < 0.05) and H. velutinus had the lowest content of TP (p < 0.05). The interaction between tree species and dose level of EFE was significant (p < 0.05) for gas production (GP) at 24 h of incubation, parameters b and c of the accumulated GP curve, short-chain fatty acids (SCFA) and metabolizable energy (ME). The lowest (p < 0.01) extent of accumulated GP as well as the b and c values occurred in G. ulmifolia at 0 mg EFE/g DM. P. dulce had the highest (p < 0.05) values for ME and SCFA at the highest dose of EFE. Tree species and dose level had significant (p < 0.05) effects on all parameters describing in vitro ruminal fermentation kinetics and energy utilization. Addition of EFE improved the fermentation kinetics of the browse species considered in this study.

  1. Constructed wetlands for treating acid drainage at TVA Facilities: Progress report

    SciTech Connect

    Tomljanovich, D.A.; Brodie, G.A.; Hammer, D.A.

    1988-03-01

    A comprehensive overview is presented of TVA's use of constructed wetlands to naturally treat water quality problems associated with acid drainage at its fossil plants and the inactive Fabius Coal Mine and Preparation Plant in Jackson County, Alabama. TVA constructed its first wetland in May 1985. As of December 1987, a total of eight constructed wetlands, one enhanced natural wetland receiving acid drainage, and one former chemical treatment pond were being monitored as treatment wetlands. Some measure of success is being achieved at all the wetland systems. However, to achieve compliance quality effluent (total Fe <3.0 mg/L, total Mn <2.0 mg/L, pH 6.0--9.0 s.u., and total suspended solids <32.0 mg/L) interim chemical treatment is being used at COF to treat manganese, and at WCF to treat low pH. At KIF, water is being pumped from the final cell of the wetland to the active ashpond as an interim measure until it is shown to consistently yield compliance quality effluent. Chemical treatment is also being used to augment wetlands treatment at the Fabius Impoundment 2 and Impoundment 4 wetlands. Where chemical treatment is required, reduced chemical costs result from some level of wetlands treatment. Successful wetlands treatment has been demonstrated at three sites, where no chemical treatment is required. In the remaining two newly constructed wetlands, insufficient data exist to assess their treatment capability. Overall average construction cost based on nine wetlands was $1.13/ft/sup 2/ ($49,223/ac). Before converting one chemical treatment pond (Fabius Impoundment 3) to a wetland, TVA was annually spending $12,000 to $15,000 for chemicals and $10,000 for pond maintenance that failed to maintain complying discharges. Complying discharges and an annual wetland maintenance cost of about $1000 make the wetland an attractive and cost-beneficial treatment method. 2 refs., 15 figs., 10 tabs.

  2. Comparative biomechanical and microstructural analysis of native versus peracetic acid-ethanol treated cancellous bone graft.

    PubMed

    Rauh, Juliane; Despang, Florian; Baas, Jorgen; Liebers, Cornelia; Pruss, Axel; Gelinsky, Michael; Günther, Klaus-Peter; Stiehler, Maik

    2014-01-01

    Bone transplantation is frequently used for the treatment of large osseous defects. The availability of autologous bone grafts as the current biological gold standard is limited and there is a risk of donor site morbidity. Allogenic bone grafts are an appealing alternative, but disinfection should be considered to reduce transmission of infection disorders. Peracetic acid-ethanol (PE) treatment has been proven reliable and effective for disinfection of human bone allografts. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the effects of PE treatment on the biomechanical properties and microstructure of cancellous bone grafts (CBG). Forty-eight human CBG cylinders were either treated by PE or frozen at -20 °C and subjected to compression testing and histological and scanning electron microscopy (SEM) analysis. The levels of compressive strength, stiffness (Young's modulus), and fracture energy were significantly decreased upon PE treatment by 54%, 59%, and 36%, respectively. Furthermore, PE-treated CBG demonstrated a 42% increase in ultimate strain. SEM revealed a modified microstructure of CBG with an exposed collagen fiber network after PE treatment. We conclude that the observed reduced compressive strength and reduced stiffness may be beneficial during tissue remodeling thereby explaining the excellent clinical performance of PE-treated CBG.

  3. Compromised Osseous Healing of Dental Extraction Sites in Zoledronic Acid-Treated Dogs

    PubMed Central

    Allen, Matthew R.; Kubek, Daniel J.; Burr, David B.; Ruggiero, Salvatore L.; Chu, Tien-Min Gabriel

    2010-01-01

    PURPOSE The goal of this study was to document how treatment with a bisphosphonate affects the bone tissue following dental extraction. METHODS Skeletally mature female beagle dogs were either untreated controls (CON) or treated with intravenous zoledronic acid (ZOL). Following the extraction of the 4th premolars, healing was allowed for 4 or 8 weeks. Properties of the extraction site were assessed using micro-computed tomography (micro-CT) and dynamic histomorphometry. RESULTS The initial infilling of the extraction socket with bone was not affected by ZOL but subsequent removal of this bone was significantly suppressed compared to CON. After 8-weeks of healing, the alveolar cortical bone adjacent to the extraction socket had a remodeling rate of ~50%/year in CON animals while ZOL-treated animals had a rate of < 1%/year. One ZOL-treated animal developed exposed bone post-extraction which eventually led to the formation of a sequestrum. Assessment of the sequestrum with micro-CT and histology showed that it had features consistent with those reported in humans with osteonecrosis of the jaw. CONCLUSIONS These results, showing significantly compromised post-extraction osseous healing as well as presence of exposed bone and development of a sequestrum in one ZOL animal, provide a building block toward understanding the pathophysiology of osteonecrosis of the jaw. PMID:20458574

  4. Comparative biomechanical and microstructural analysis of native versus peracetic acid-ethanol treated cancellous bone graft.

    PubMed

    Rauh, Juliane; Despang, Florian; Baas, Jorgen; Liebers, Cornelia; Pruss, Axel; Gelinsky, Michael; Günther, Klaus-Peter; Stiehler, Maik

    2014-01-01

    Bone transplantation is frequently used for the treatment of large osseous defects. The availability of autologous bone grafts as the current biological gold standard is limited and there is a risk of donor site morbidity. Allogenic bone grafts are an appealing alternative, but disinfection should be considered to reduce transmission of infection disorders. Peracetic acid-ethanol (PE) treatment has been proven reliable and effective for disinfection of human bone allografts. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the effects of PE treatment on the biomechanical properties and microstructure of cancellous bone grafts (CBG). Forty-eight human CBG cylinders were either treated by PE or frozen at -20 °C and subjected to compression testing and histological and scanning electron microscopy (SEM) analysis. The levels of compressive strength, stiffness (Young's modulus), and fracture energy were significantly decreased upon PE treatment by 54%, 59%, and 36%, respectively. Furthermore, PE-treated CBG demonstrated a 42% increase in ultimate strain. SEM revealed a modified microstructure of CBG with an exposed collagen fiber network after PE treatment. We conclude that the observed reduced compressive strength and reduced stiffness may be beneficial during tissue remodeling thereby explaining the excellent clinical performance of PE-treated CBG. PMID:24678514

  5. Comparative Biomechanical and Microstructural Analysis of Native versus Peracetic Acid-Ethanol Treated Cancellous Bone Graft

    PubMed Central

    Rauh, Juliane; Despang, Florian; Baas, Jorgen; Liebers, Cornelia; Pruss, Axel; Günther, Klaus-Peter; Stiehler, Maik

    2014-01-01

    Bone transplantation is frequently used for the treatment of large osseous defects. The availability of autologous bone grafts as the current biological gold standard is limited and there is a risk of donor site morbidity. Allogenic bone grafts are an appealing alternative, but disinfection should be considered to reduce transmission of infection disorders. Peracetic acid-ethanol (PE) treatment has been proven reliable and effective for disinfection of human bone allografts. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the effects of PE treatment on the biomechanical properties and microstructure of cancellous bone grafts (CBG). Forty-eight human CBG cylinders were either treated by PE or frozen at −20°C and subjected to compression testing and histological and scanning electron microscopy (SEM) analysis. The levels of compressive strength, stiffness (Young's modulus), and fracture energy were significantly decreased upon PE treatment by 54%, 59%, and 36%, respectively. Furthermore, PE-treated CBG demonstrated a 42% increase in ultimate strain. SEM revealed a modified microstructure of CBG with an exposed collagen fiber network after PE treatment. We conclude that the observed reduced compressive strength and reduced stiffness may be beneficial during tissue remodeling thereby explaining the excellent clinical performance of PE-treated CBG. PMID:24678514

  6. Extension of UNRES force field to treat polypeptide chains with D-amino-acid residues

    PubMed Central

    Sieradzan, Adam K.; Hansmann, Ulrich H.E.; Scheraga, Harold A.; Liwo, Adam

    2013-01-01

    Coarse-grained force fields for protein simulations are usually designed and parameterized to treat proteins composed of natural L-amino-acid residues. However, D-amino-acid residues occur in bacterial, fungal (e.g., gramicidins), as well as human-designed proteins. For this reason, we have extended the UNRES coarse-grained force field developed in our laboratory to treat systems with D-amino-acid residues. We developed the respective virtual-bond-torsional and double-torsional potentials for rotation about the Cα · · · Cα virtual-bond axis and two consecutive Cα · · · Cα virtual-bond axes, respectively, as functions of virtual-bond-dihedral angles γ. In turn, these were calculated as potentials of mean force (PMFs) from the diabatic energy surfaces of terminally-blocked model compounds for glycine, alanine, and proline. The potential-energy surfaces were calculated by using the ab initio method of molecular quantum mechanics at the Møller-Plesset (MP2) level of theory and the 6-31G(d,p) basis set, with the rotation angles of the peptide groups about Ci-1α⋯Ciα(λ(1)) and Ciα⋯Ci+1α(λ(2)) used as variables, and the energy was minimized with respect to the remaining degrees of freedom. The PMFs were calculated by numerical integration for all pairs and triplets with all possible combinations of types (glycine, alanine, and proline) and chirality (D or L); however, symmetry relations reduce the number of non-equivalent torsional potentials to 13 and the number of double-torsional potentials to 63 for a given C-terminal blocking group. Subsequently, one- (for torsional) and two-dimensional (for double-torsional potentials) Fourier series were fitted to the PMFs to obtain analytical expressions. It was found that the torsional potentials of the x-Y and X-y types, where X and Y are Ala or Pro, respectively, and a lowercase letter denotes D-chirality, have global minima for small absolute values of γ, accounting for the double-helical structure of

  7. Gas chromatography of volatile fatty acids. Method involving separation from biological material by vacuum distillation.

    PubMed

    Tyler, J E; Dibdin, G H

    1975-02-19

    A method is described for the quantitation of C2-C5 volatile fatty acids present in biological tissues. It involved recovery of the acids from their biological matrix by vacuum micro-distillation at room temperature, followed by gas phase separation of aqueous solutions on orthophosphoric acid-modified Phasepak Q columns. The subsequent gas chromatographic procedure resolved iso from normal isomers and showed a linear response for each volatile acid over the range 10-400 ng. There was no evidence of ghosting, isomer peak broadening, or peak tailing. Relative molar response values were shown to be linear with carbon number for all the volatile fatty acids studied.

  8. Field evaluation of a solid-based H2S scavenger for treating sour natural gas. Topical report

    SciTech Connect

    Fisher, K.S.; Shires, T.M.

    1995-08-01

    The Gas Research Institute (GRI) is sponsoring an evaluation program for H2S scavenging technologies as part of an overall sulfur removal/recovery research program. The evaluation of a solid-based scavenger (Sulfa Treat) is the second in a series of full-scale field evaluations. The report presents the results of the evaluation conducted at a production plant in central Texas treating approximately 17 MMscfd of natural gas with 7 to 9 ppmv of H2S and 2.8% CO2 at 500 to 900 psig.

  9. Lactic acid production from lime-treated wheat straw by Bacillus coagulans: neutralization of acid by fed-batch addition of alkaline substrate

    PubMed Central

    Maas, Ronald H. W.; Bakker, Robert R.; Jansen, Mickel L. A.; Visser, Diana; de Jong, Ed; Eggink, Gerrit

    2008-01-01

    Conventional processes for lignocellulose-to-organic acid conversion requires pretreatment, enzymatic hydrolysis, and microbial fermentation. In this study, lime-treated wheat straw was hydrolyzed and fermented simultaneously to lactic acid by an enzyme preparation and Bacillus coagulans DSM 2314. Decrease in pH because of lactic acid formation was partially adjusted by automatic addition of the alkaline substrate. After 55 h of incubation, the polymeric glucan, xylan, and arabinan present in the lime-treated straw were hydrolyzed for 55%, 75%, and 80%, respectively. Lactic acid (40.7 g/l) indicated a fermentation efficiency of 81% and a chiral l(+)-lactic acid purity of 97.2%. In total, 711 g lactic acid was produced out of 2,706 g lime-treated straw, representing 43% of the overall theoretical maximum yield. Approximately half of the lactic acid produced was neutralized by fed-batch feeding of lime-treated straw, whereas the remaining half was neutralized during the batch phase with a Ca(OH)2 suspension. Of the lime added during the pretreatment of straw, 61% was used for the neutralization of lactic acid. This is the first demonstration of a process having a combined alkaline pretreatment of lignocellulosic biomass and pH control in fermentation resulting in a significant saving of lime consumption and avoiding the necessity to recycle lime. PMID:18247027

  10. Decontamination of CCA-treated eucalyptus wood waste by acid leaching.

    PubMed

    Ferrarini, Suzana Frighetto; dos Santos, Heldiane Souza; Miranda, Luciana Gampert; Azevedo, Carla Maria Nunes; Maia, Sandra Maria; Pires, Marçal

    2016-03-01

    Preservatives such as chromated copper arsenate (CCA) are used to increase the resistance of wood to deterioration. The components of CCA are highly toxic, resulting in growing concern over the disposal of the waste generated. The aim of this study was to investigate the removal of Cu, Cr and As present in CCA-treated eucalyptus wood from utility poles removed from service in southern Brazil, in order to render them non-hazardous waste. The removal was carried out by acid leaching in bench-scale and applying optimal extractor concentration, total solid content, reactor volume, temperature and reaction time obtained by factorial experiments. The best working conditions were achieved using three extraction steps with 0.1 mol L(-1) H2SO4 at 75°C for 2h each (total solid content of 15%), and 3 additional 1h-long washing steps using water at ambient temperature. Under these conditions, removal of 97%, 85% and 98% were obtained for Cu, Cr and As, respectively, rendering the decontaminated wood non-hazardous waste. The wastewater produced by extraction showed acid pH, high organic loading as well as high concentrations of the elements, needing prior treatment to be discarded. However, rinsing water can be recycled in the extraction process without compromising its efficiency. The acid extraction is a promising alternative for CCA removal from eucalyptus wood waste in industrial scale. PMID:26856447

  11. Acetylsalicylic Acid and Eflornithine in Treating Patients at High Risk for Colorectal Cancer | Division of Cancer Prevention

    Cancer.gov

    This phase II trial is studying how well giving acetylsalicylic acid together with eflornithine works in treating patients at high risk for colorectal cancer. Chemoprevention is the use of certain drugs to keep cancer from forming. The use of acetylsalicylic acid and eflornithine may prevent colorectal cancer. |

  12. Selection of an acid-gas removal process for an LNG plant

    SciTech Connect

    Stone, J.B.; Jones, G.N.; Denton, R.D.

    1996-12-31

    Acid gas contaminants, such as, CO{sub 2}, H{sub 2}S and mercaptans, must be removed to a very low level from a feed natural gas before it is liquefied. CO{sub 2} is typically removed to a level of about 100 ppm to prevent freezing during LNG processing. Sulfur compounds are removed to levels required by the eventual consumer of the gas. Acid-gas removal processes can be broadly classified as: solvent-based, adsorption, cryogenic or physical separation. The advantages and disadvantages of these processes will be discussed along with design and operating considerations. This paper will also discuss the important considerations affecting the choice of the best acid-gas removal process for LNG plants. Some of these considerations are: the remoteness of the LNG plant from the resource; the cost of the feed gas and the economics of minimizing capital expenditures; the ultimate disposition of the acid gas; potential for energy integration; and the composition, including LPG and conditions of the feed gas. The example of the selection of the acid-gas removal process for an LNG plant.

  13. Practical application of acid dissociation in monitoring patients treated with adalimumab.

    PubMed

    Llinares-Tello, Francisca; Rosas-Gómez de Salazar, José; Senabre-Gallego, José Miguel; Santos-Soler, Gregorio; Santos-Ramírez, Carlos; Salas-Heredia, Esteban; Barber-Vallés, Xavier; Molina-García, Juan

    2014-12-01

    Patients treated with adalimumab (ADL) can induce anti-ADL antibodies (AAA) formation that is associated with low drug levels and clinical non-response. But, in the majority of the assays, the measurement of AAA is hampered by the presence of the drug itself. In support of immunogenicity assessment in clinical samples with subtherapeutic ADL levels, we proved acid pre-treatment for AAA detection with the Promonitor-enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA). Were measured AAA after acidification in 32 serum samples with a subtherapeutic ADL trough level. ADL and AAA concentrations were measured by ELISA (Promonitor). The impact of drug concentration on AAA recovery (with or without acidification) was also evaluated by mixing known amounts of ADL (0.25, 0.5 and 1 mg/L) and AAA (100, 200, 300 and 400 AU/mL) from clinical samples in pooled serum. The drug significantly inhibited the detection of AAA in untreated samples. And progressively higher levels of ADL cause increasing inhibition of signal. Acid pre-treatment carried a significant increase in assay response, particularly at lower free ADL concentrations. AAA were detected in the 53 % of the samples after acid dissociation. In seven patients, the positive AAA after dissociation was detected in the first monitoring of ADL and five patients were positive 3 months later for AAA with the standard assay. Monitoring AAA using acid dissociation in patients with subtherapeutic circulating level of ADL could detect precocious problems of bioavailability, assess the immunogenicity of ADL and may be used to optimise dose regimens, thereby preventing prolonged use of inadequate therapy and guide change of treatment.

  14. Bioaugmentation for treating transient 4-fluorocinnamic acid shock loads in a rotating biological contactor.

    PubMed

    Amorim, Catarina L; Duque, Anouk F; Afonso, Carlos M M; Castro, Paula M L

    2013-09-01

    A rotating biological contactor (RBC) was used to treat shock loadings of 4-fluorocinnamic acid (4-FCA). Intermittent 4-FCA shocks of 35 mg L(-1) were applied (ca. 3 months) with only limited mineralization occurring and accumulation of 4-fluorobenzoate (4-FBA) as an intermediate. After bioaugmentation with a degrading bacterium the RBC was able to deal with 4-FCA intermittent loading of 80 mg L(-1) however, a gradual decline in RBC performance occurred, leading to 4-FBA accumulation. The degrading strain was recovered from the biofilm during 2 months but intermittent feeding may have led to diminishing strain numbers. Distinct bacterial communities in the 1st and the 5th and 10th stages of the RBC were revealed by denaturating gradient gel electrophoresis. Several isolates retrieved from the RBC transformed 4-FCA into 4-FBA but only two strains mineralized the compound. Bioaugmentation allowed removal of the fluorinated compound however intermittent feeding may have compromised the bioreactor efficiency.

  15. Fed-batch production of gluconic acid by terpene-treated Aspergillus niger spores.

    PubMed

    Ramachandran, Sumitra; Fontanille, Pierre; Pandey, Ashok; Larroche, Christian

    2008-12-01

    Aspergillus niger spores were used as catalyst in the bioconversion of glucose to gluconic acid. Spores produced by solid-state fermentation were treated with 15 different terpenes including monoterpenes and monoterpenoids to permeabilize and inhibit spore germination. It was found that spore membrane permeability is significantly increased by treatment with terpenoids when compared to monoterpenes. Best results were obtained with citral and isonovalal. Studies were carried out to optimize spores concentration (10(7)-10(10) spores/mL), terpene concentrations in the bioconversion medium and time of exposure (1-18 h) needed for permeabilization of spores. Fed-batch production of gluconate was done in a bioreactor with the best conditions [10(9) spores/mL of freeze-thawed spores treated with citral (3% v/v) for 5 h] followed by sequential additions of glucose powder and pH-regulated with a solution containing 2 mol/L of either NaOH or KOH. Bioconversion performance of the spore enzyme was compared with the commercial glucose oxidase at 50, 60, and 70 degrees C. Results showed that the spore enzyme was comparatively stable at 60 degrees C. It was also found that the spores could be reutilized for more than 14 cycles with almost similar reaction rate. Similar biocatalytic activity was rendered by spores even after its storage of 1 year at -20 degrees C. This study provided an experimental evidence of the significant catalytic role played by A. niger spore in bioconversion of glucose to gluconic acid with high yield and stability, giving protection to glucose oxidase.

  16. Chromate adsorption on acid-treated and amines-modified clay

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hajjaji, M.; Beraa, A.

    2015-03-01

    Acid-treated montmorillonite-rich clay and amines (methylamine, morpholine, and aniline)-modified clay adsorbents were investigated and their abilities to remove chromate from aqueous solution were studied. For the later purpose, kinetic studies were carried out under different operating conditions (chromate concentration, adsorbent content, and temperature), and adsorption isotherm measurements were performed. It was found that the kinetic of adsorption was fast and the data followed the pseudo-second rate equation. The rate of adsorption was controlled by the intra-particle diffusion and mass transfer through the liquid film, and the relative importance of these limiting steps depended on the operating conditions. Chromate adsorption was an endothermic process and took place spontaneously by physisorption. The free energy at 25 ≤ T ≤ 40 °C varied from -1.5 to -46 kJ/mol. Adsorption isotherms of Na+-saturated clay (AN), acid-treated clay (AA), and methylamine-clay and morpholine-clay (A-Me, A-Mo) were type V, whereas those of aniline-clay (A-An) were type III. The estimated maximum uptakes were 105, 29, 15, 11, and 10 mmol/kg for A-An, AN, A-Mo, AA, and A-Me, respectively. The mechanism of chromate adsorption was discussed based on the shape of the isotherms. Considering for instance the most efficient absorbent (A-An), the isotherm followed the Freundlich equation and hydrogen chromate (the main stable form at working pH) adsorbed to solid particles once aniline species were entirely desorbed.

  17. Quantitative Proteomics Reveals the Flooding-Tolerance Mechanism in Mutant and Abscisic Acid-Treated Soybean.

    PubMed

    Yin, Xiaojian; Nishimura, Minoru; Hajika, Makita; Komatsu, Setsuko

    2016-06-01

    Flooding negatively affects the growth of soybean, and several flooding-specific stress responses have been identified; however, the mechanisms underlying flooding tolerance in soybean remain unclear. To explore the initial flooding tolerance mechanisms in soybean, flooding-tolerant mutant and abscisic acid (ABA)-treated plants were analyzed. In the mutant and ABA-treated soybeans, 146 proteins were commonly changed at the initial flooding stress. Among the identified proteins, protein synthesis-related proteins, including nascent polypeptide-associated complex and chaperonin 20, and RNA regulation-related proteins were increased in abundance both at protein and mRNA expression. However, these proteins identified at the initial flooding stress were not significantly changed during survival stages under continuous flooding. Cluster analysis indicated that glycolysis- and cell wall-related proteins, such as enolase and polygalacturonase inhibiting protein, were increased in abundance during survival stages. Furthermore, lignification of root tissue was improved even under flooding stress. Taken together, these results suggest that protein synthesis- and RNA regulation-related proteins play a key role in triggering tolerance to the initial flooding stress in soybean. Furthermore, the integrity of cell wall and balance of glycolysis might be important factors for promoting tolerance of soybean root to flooding stress during survival stages.

  18. Gas chromatographic analysis of total fatty acids in cider.

    PubMed

    Blanco-Gomis, D; Alonso, J J; Cabrales, I M; Abrodo, P A

    2001-03-01

    This paper reports the composition of total fatty acids in an apple beverage, cider. Fatty acids are present in the free or esterified form and contribute to both the flavor and foam properties of cider. Fatty acids were separated and identified as methyl esters by GC-MS, and 12 of these were subsequently determined by GC-FID. The major fatty acids found in cider were caproic, caprylic, capric, and palmitic acid, the saturated acids predominating over the unsaturated ones. The proposed method was applied to 59 ciders from three consecutive harvests (1996, 1997, and 1998), which were made by 19 cider-makers from the region of Asturias (Spain). Linear discriminant analysis of fatty acids in these samples allowed selection of palmitoleic, pentadecanoic, linoleic, myristic, and linolenic acid as the most predictive variables to differentiate ciders made from apples grown in the Asturias region (1997 harvest) and ciders made from apples grown outside this region (1996 and 1998 harvests). PMID:11312846

  19. Inactivation of metalloenzymes by lysinoalanine, phenylethylaminoalanine, alkali-treated food proteins, and sulfur amino acids.

    PubMed

    Friedman, M; Grosjean, O K; Zahnley, J C

    1986-01-01

    Synthetic lysinoalanine (LAL) may be a more effective inhibitor of the zinc-containing enzyme carboxypeptidase A than is ethylenediamine tetraacetic acid (EDTA). The enzyme is also inactivated by alkali-treated, lysinoalanine-containing food proteins such as casein, high-lysine corn protein, lactalbumin, soy protein isolate, and wheat gluten, and by alkali-treated zein, which contains no lysinoalanine. Zinc sulfate regenerates only part of the enzymatic activity after exposure to the treated proteins. The extent of inhibition increases with protein concentration and time of treatment. Any inhibition due to phytate is distinct from that due to the treatment. Phenylethylaminoalanine (PEAA), derived from biogenic phenylethylamine, inhibited enzymatic activity of the metalloenzyme carboxypeptidase A (CPA). The inhibition was maximal at pH 7.0 in the pH range 7 to 8.5. The extent of inhibition increased with time of treatment and PEAA concentration. N-acetyl-PEAA did not inhibit the enzyme, suggesting that the free alpha-NH2 group is required for inhibition. PEAA, LAL, sodium phytate, and cysteine also inactivated the copper enzyme, polyphenol, oxidase (tyrosinase) which plays a major role in enzymatic (oxidative) browning of foods. Analogous comparative studies with LAL, EDTA, and sodium phytate suggest that the potency of PEAA as an inhibitor of CPA is similar to that of sodium phytate, and that of the four compounds tested, PEAA is least effective against tyrosinase. Related studies of the iron and copper containing enzyme cytochrome C oxidase showed that EDTA was not inhibitory, PEAA was slightly inhibitory, and LAL and sodium phytate were stronger inhibitors. Mechanistic explanations are offered to account for some of these observations. The possible relevance of these findings to in vivo protein digestion, enzymatic (oxidative) browning of foods, and the mechanism of the lysinoalanine effect on kidney cells are also discussed.

  20. Osteoclasts but not osteoblasts are affected by a calcified surface treated with zoledronic acid in vitro

    SciTech Connect

    Schindeler, Aaron . E-mail: AaronS@chw.edu.au; Little, David G.

    2005-12-16

    Bisphosphonates are potent inhibitors of osteoclast-mediated bone resorption. Recent interest has centered on the effects of bisphosphonates on osteoblasts. Chronic dosing of osteoblasts with solubilized bisphosphonates has been reported to enhance osteogenesis and mineralization in vitro. However, this methodology poorly reflects the in vivo situation, where free bisphosphonate becomes rapidly bound to mineralized bone surfaces. To establish a more clinically relevant cell culture model, we cultured bone cells on calcium phosphate coated quartz discs pre-treated with the potent nitrogen-containing bisphosphonate, zoledronic acid (ZA). Binding studies utilizing [{sup 14}C]-labeled ZA confirmed that the bisphosphonate bound in a concentration-dependent manner over the 1-50 {mu}M dose range. When grown on ZA-treated discs, the viability of bone-marrow derived osteoclasts was greatly reduced, while the viability and mineralization of the osteoblastic MC3T3-E1 cell line were largely unaffected. This suggests that only bone resorbing cells are affected by bound bisphosphonate. However, this system does not account for transient exposure to unbound bisphosphonate in the hours following a clinical dosing. To model this event, we transiently treated osteoblasts with ZA in the absence of a calcified surface. Osteoblasts proved highly resistant to all transitory treatment regimes, even when utilizing ZA concentrations that prevented mineralization and/or induced cell death when dosed chronically. This study represents a pharmacologically more relevant approach to modeling bisphosphonate treatment on cultured bone cells and implies that bisphosphonate therapies may not directly affect osteoblasts at bone surfaces.

  1. Cancellous bone healing around strontium-doped hydroxyapatite in osteoporotic rats previously treated with zoledronic acid.

    PubMed

    Li, Yunfeng; Shui, Xueping; Zhang, Li; Hu, Jing

    2016-04-01

    Bisphosphonates (BPs) are potent anti-osteoporotic agents. Strontium-doped hydroxyapatite (HA) (SrHA) has been reported to increase bone density and improve trabecular microarchitecture in osteoporotic animals. But information about the effect of SrHA on the surrounding bone tissue in osteoporotic animals previously on BPs treatment is limited. We hypothesize that SrHA will induce increased bone density in the vicinity of the material when compared to HA, even in osteoporotic animals previously treated with BPs. HA and 10%SrHA (HA with 10 mol % calcium substituted by strontium) implants were prepared and characterized by scanning electronic microscopy (SEM), X-ray photoemission spectroscopy (XPS), and X-ray diffraction (XRD). Osteoporotic animal model was established by bilateral ovariectomy. Twelve weeks later, all OVX rats accepted subcutaneous injection of zoledronic acid (ZOL) at the dose of 1.5 μg/kg weekly for another twelve weeks. Subsequently, rod-shaped HA and SrHA implants were inserted in the distal femur of the OVX animals previously treated with ZOL. Eight weeks after implantation, specimens were harvested for histological and micro-computed tomography (micro-CT) analysis. Compared to HA, 10%SrHA raised the percent bone volume by 32.7%, the mean trabecular thickness by 36.5%, the mean trabecular number by 34.3%, the mean connectivity density by 38.4%, while the mean trabecular separation showed no significant difference. 10%SrHA also increased the bone area density by 36.3% in histological analysis. Results from this study indicated that 10%SrHA increased bone density and improved trabecular microarchitecture around implants in osteoporotic animals previously treated with ZOL when compared to HA. PMID:25891947

  2. Counter-current acid leaching process for copper azole treated wood waste.

    PubMed

    Janin, Amélie; Riche, Pauline; Blais, Jean-François; Mercier, Guy; Cooper, Paul; Morris, Paul

    2012-09-01

    This study explores the performance of a counter-current leaching process (CCLP) for copper extraction from copper azole treated wood waste for recycling of wood and copper. The leaching process uses three acid leaching steps with 0.1 M H2SO4 at 75degrees C and 15% slurry density followed by three rinses with water. Copper is recovered from the leachate using electrodeposition at 5 amperes (A) for 75 min. Ten counter-current remediation cycles were completed achieving > or = 94% copper extraction from the wood during the 10 cycles; 80-90% of the copper was recovered from the extract solution by electrodeposition. The counter-current leaching process reduced acid consumption by 86% and effluent discharge volume was 12 times lower compared with the same process without use of counter-current leaching. However, the reuse of leachates from one leaching step to another released dissolved organic carbon and caused its build-up in the early cycles. PMID:23240206

  3. Multifunctional acid formation from the gas-phase ozonolysis of beta-pinene.

    PubMed

    Ma, Yan; Marston, George

    2008-10-28

    The gas-phase ozonolysis of beta-pinene was studied in static chamber experiments, using gas chromatography coupled to mass spectrometric and flame ionisation detection to separate and detect products. A range of multifunctional organic acids-including pinic acid, norpinic acid, pinalic-3-acid, pinalic-4-acid, norpinalic acid and OH-pinalic acid-were identified in the condensed phase after derivatisation. Formation yields for these products under systematically varying reaction conditions (by adding different OH radical scavengers and Criegee intermediate scavengers) were investigated and compared with those observed from alpha-pinene ozonolysis, allowing detailed information on product formation mechanisms to be elucidated. In addition, branching ratios for the initial steps of the reaction were inferred from quantitative measurements of primary carbonyl formation. Atmospheric implications of this work are discussed.

  4. Production of citric acid using its extraction wastewater treated by anaerobic digestion and ion exchange in an integrated citric acid-methane fermentation process.

    PubMed

    Xu, Jian; Chen, Yang-Qiu; Zhang, Hong-Jian; Tang, Lei; Wang, Ke; Zhang, Jian-Hua; Chen, Xu-Sheng; Mao, Zhong-Gui

    2014-08-01

    In order to solve the problem of extraction wastewater pollution in citric acid industry, an integrated citric acid-methane fermentation process is proposed in this study. Extraction wastewater was treated by mesophilic anaerobic digestion and then used to make mash for the next batch of citric acid fermentation. The recycling process was done for seven batches. Citric acid production (82.4 g/L on average) decreased by 34.1 % in the recycling batches (2nd-7th) compared with the first batch. And the residual reducing sugar exceeded 40 g/L on average in the recycling batches. Pigment substances, acetic acid, ammonium, and metal ions in anaerobic digestion effluent (ADE) were considered to be the inhibitors, and their effects on the fermentation were studied. Results indicated that ammonium, Na(+) and K(+) in the ADE significantly inhibited citric acid fermentation. Therefore, the ADE was treated by acidic cation exchange resin prior to reuse to make mash for citric acid fermentation. The recycling process was performed for ten batches, and citric acid productions in the recycling batches were 126.6 g/L on average, increasing by 1.7 % compared with the first batch. This process could eliminate extraction wastewater discharge and reduce water resource consumption.

  5. Effects of ozone and sulfuric acid aerosol on gas trapping in the guinea pig lung

    SciTech Connect

    Silbaugh, S.A.; Mauderly, J.L.

    1986-01-01

    Four groups of 20 guinea pigs were sequentially exposed by inhalation to either air followed by sulfuric acid aerosol, ozone followed by sulfuric acid aerosol, ozone followed by air, or air followed by air to determine whether ozone preexposure sensitizes guinea pigs to the airway constrictive effects of sulfuric acid aerosol. All first exposures to ozone or air were 2 h in duration; all second exposures to sulfuric acid or air were for 1 h. All ozone and sulfuric acid exposures were 0.8 ppm and 12 mg/m3, respectively. Animals were observed for respiratory distress during exposure, and excised lungs were quantitated for trapped gas and wet/dry ratios. None of the guinea pigs developed dyspnea, and wet/dry ratios were not altered. Ozone significantly (p less than 0.05) increased trapped gas volumes, which were 44% (ozone-acid) to 68% (ozone-air) greater than in the air-air group. Trapped gas volume was 23% greater in the ozone-acid group than in the air-acid group, but the difference was not statistically significant (p less than 0.20). Thus, ozone increased gas trapping but did not significantly sensitize guinea pigs to the bronchoconstrictive action of sulfuric acid.

  6. 30 CFR 250.120 - How does injecting, storing, or treating gas affect my royalty payments?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... sell the gas from the reservoir. (b) If you produce gas from an OCS lease and store it according to 30 CFR 550.119, you must pay royalty before injecting it into the storage reservoir. (c) If you produce... royalty payments? (a) If you produce gas from an OCS lease and inject it into a reservoir on the lease...

  7. 30 CFR 250.120 - How does injecting, storing, or treating gas affect my royalty payments?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... sell the gas from the reservoir. (b) If you produce gas from an OCS lease and store it according to 30 CFR 550.119, you must pay royalty before injecting it into the storage reservoir. (c) If you produce... royalty payments? (a) If you produce gas from an OCS lease and inject it into a reservoir on the lease...

  8. The phosphorylation status and cytoskeletal remodeling of striatal astrocytes treated with quinolinic acid

    SciTech Connect

    Pierozan, Paula; Ferreira, Fernanda; Ortiz de Lima, Bárbara; Gonçalves Fernandes, Carolina; Totarelli Monteforte, Priscila; Castro Medaglia, Natalia de; Bincoletto, Claudia; Soubhi Smaili, Soraya; Pessoa-Pureur, Regina

    2014-04-01

    Quinolinic acid (QUIN) is a glutamate agonist which markedly enhances the vulnerability of neural cells to excitotoxicity. QUIN is produced from the amino acid tryptophan through the kynurenine pathway (KP). Dysregulation of this pathway is associated with neurodegenerative conditions. In this study we treated striatal astrocytes in culture with QUIN and assayed the endogenous phosphorylating system associated with glial fibrillary acidic protein (GFAP) and vimentin as well as cytoskeletal remodeling. After 24 h incubation with 100 µM QUIN, cells were exposed to {sup 32}P-orthophosphate and/or protein kinase A (PKA), protein kinase dependent of Ca{sup 2+}/calmodulin II (PKCaMII) or protein kinase C (PKC) inhibitors, H89 (20 μM), KN93 (10 μM) and staurosporin (10 nM), respectively. Results showed that hyperphosphorylation was abrogated by PKA and PKC inhibitors but not by the PKCaMII inhibitor. The specific antagonists to ionotropic NMDA and non-NMDA (50 µM DL-AP5 and CNQX, respectively) glutamate receptors as well as to metabotropic glutamate receptor (mGLUR; 50 µM MCPG), mGLUR1 (100 µM MPEP) and mGLUR5 (10 µM 4C3HPG) prevented the hyperphosphorylation provoked by QUIN. Also, intra and extracellular Ca{sup 2+} quelators (1 mM EGTA; 10 µM BAPTA-AM, respectively) prevented QUIN-mediated effect, while Ca{sup 2+} influx through voltage-dependent Ca{sup 2+} channel type L (L-VDCC) (blocker: 10 µM verapamil) is not implicated in this effect. Morphological analysis showed dramatically altered actin cytoskeleton with concomitant change of morphology to fusiform and/or flattened cells with retracted cytoplasm and disruption of the GFAP meshwork, supporting misregulation of actin cytoskeleton. Both hyperphosphorylation and cytoskeletal remodeling were reversed 24 h after QUIN removal. Astrocytes are highly plastic cells and the vulnerability of astrocyte cytoskeleton may have important implications for understanding the neurotoxicity of QUIN in neurodegenerative

  9. Testing CO2 Sequestration in an Alkaline Soil Treated with Flue Gas Desulfurization Gypsum (FGDG)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Han, Y.; Tokunaga, T. K.

    2012-12-01

    Identifying effective and economical methods for increasing carbon storage in soils is of interest for reducing soil CO2 fluxes to the atmosphere in order to partially offset anthropogenic CO2 contributions to climate change This study investigates an alternative strategy for increasing carbon retention in soils by accelerating calcite (CaCO3) precipitation and promoting soil organic carbon (SOC) complexation on mineral surfaces. The addition of calcium ion to soils with pH > 8, often found in arid and semi-arid regions, may accelerate the slow process of calcite precipitation. Increased ionic strength from addition of a soluble Ca source also suppresses microbial activity which oxidizes SOC to gaseous CO2. Through obtaining C mass balances in soil profiles, this study is quantifying the efficiency of gypsum amendments for mitigating C losses to the atmosphere. The objective of this study is to identify conditions in which inorganic and organic C sequestration is practical in semi-arid and arid soils by gypsum treatment. As an inexpensive calcium source, we proposed to use flue gas desulfurization gypsum (FGDG), a byproduct of fossil fuel burning electric power plants. To test the hypothesis, laboratory column experiments have been conducted in calcite-buffered soil with addition of gypsum and FGDG. The results of several months of column monitoring are demonstrating that gypsum-treated soil have lowered amounts of soil organic carbon loss and increased inorganic carbon (calcite) production. The excess generation of FGDG relative to industrial and agricultural needs, FGDG, is currently regarded as waste. Thus application of FGDG application in some soils may be an effective and economical means for fixing CO2 in soil organic and inorganic carbon forms.Soil carbon cycle, with proposed increased C retention by calcite precipitation and by SOC binding onto soil mineral surfaces, with both processes driven by calcium released from gypsum dissolution.

  10. Toxic Acid Gas Absorber Design Considerations for Air Pollution Control in Process Industries

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Manyele, S. V.

    2008-01-01

    This paper analyses the design parameters for an absorber used for removal of toxic acid gas (in particular sulfur dioxide) from a process gas stream for environmental health protection purposes. Starting from the equilibrium data, Henry's law constant was determined from the slope of the y-x diagram. Based on mass balances across the absorber,…

  11. Treating Coalbed Natural Gas Produced Water for Beneficial Use By MFI Zeolite Membranes

    SciTech Connect

    Robert Lee; Liangxiong Li

    2008-03-31

    Desalination of brines produced from oil and gas fields is an attractive option for providing potable water in arid regions. Recent field-testing of subsurface sequestration of carbon dioxide for climate management purposes provides new motivation for optimizing efficacy of oilfield brine desalination: as subsurface reservoirs become used for storing CO{sub 2}, the displaced brines must be managed somehow. However, oilfield brine desalination is not economical at this time because of high costs of synthesizing membranes and the need for sophisticated pretreatments to reduce initial high TDS and to prevent serious fouling of membranes. In addition to these barriers, oil/gas field brines typically contain high concentrations of multivalent counter cations (eg. Ca{sup 2+} and SO{sub 4}{sup 2-}) that can reduce efficacy of reverse osmosis (RO). Development of inorganic membranes with typical characteristics of high strength and stability provide a valuable option to clean produced water for beneficial uses. Zeolite membranes have a well-defined subnanometer pore structure and extreme chemical and mechanical stability, thus showing promising applicability in produced water purification. For example, the MFI-type zeolite membranes with uniform pore size of {approx}0.56 nm can separate ions from aqueous solution through a mechanism of size exclusion and electrostatic repulsion (Donnan exclusion). Such a combination allows zeolite membranes to be unique in separation of both organics and electrolytes from aqueous solutions by a reverse osmosis process, which is of great interest for difficult separations, such as oil-containing produced water purification. The objectives of the project 'Treating Coalbed Natural Gas Produced Water for Beneficial Use by MFI Zeolite Membranes' are: (1) to conduct extensive fundamental investigations and understand the mechanism of the RO process on zeolite membranes and factors determining the membrane performance, (2) to improve the

  12. Development of a gas phase source for perfluoroalkyl acids to examine atmospheric sampling methods.

    PubMed

    MacInnis, John J; VandenBoer, Trevor C; Young, Cora J

    2016-06-21

    An inability to produce environmentally relevant gaseous mixing ratios of perfluoroalkyl acids (PFAAs), ubiquitous global contaminants, limits the analytical reliability of atmospheric chemists to make accurate gas and particulate measurements that are demonstrably free of interferences due to sampling artefacts. A gas phase source for PFAAs based on the acid displacement mechanism using perfluoropropionate (PFPrA), perfluorobutanoate (PFBA), perfluorohexanoate (PFHxA), and perfluorooctanoate (PFOA) has been constructed. The displacement efficiency of gas phase perfluorocarboxylic acids (PFCAs) is inversely related to chain length. Decreasing displacement efficiencies for PFPrA, PFBA, PFHxA, and PFOA were 90% ± 20%, 40% ± 10%, 40% ± 10%, 9% ± 4%, respectively. Generating detectable amounts of gas phase perfluorosulfonic acids (PFSAs) was not possible. It is likely that lower vapour pressure and much higher acidity play a role in this lack of emission. PFCA emission rates were not elevated by increasing relative humidity (25%-75%), nor flow rate of carrier gas from 33-111 sccm. Overall, reproducible gaseous production of PFCAs was within the error of the production of hydrochloric acid (HCl) as a displacing acid (±20%) and was accomplished using a dry nitrogen flow of 33 ± 2 sccm. A reproducible mass emission rate of 0.97 ± 0.10 ng min(-1) (n = 8) was observed for PFBA. This is equivalent to an atmospheric mixing ratio of 12 ppmv, which is easily diluted to environmentally relevant mixing ratios of PFBA. Conversely, generating gas phase perfluorononanoic acid (PFNA) by sublimating the solid acid under the same conditions produced a mass emission rate of 2800 ng min(-1), which is equivalent to a mixing ratio of 18 ppthv and over a million times higher than suspected atmospheric levels. Thus, for analytical certification of atmospheric sampling methods, generating gas phase standards for PFCAs is best accomplished using acid displacement under dry conditions

  13. In vitro gas production of foliage from three browse tree species treated with different dose levels of exogenous fibrolytic enzymes.

    PubMed

    López, D; Vázquez-Armijo, J F; López-Villalobos, N; Lee-Rangel, H A; Salem, A Z M; Borquez-Gastelum, J L; Domínguez-Vara, I A; Rojo-Rubio, R

    2016-10-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the effect of different dose levels of exogenous fibrolytic enzymes (EFE) on in vitro ruminal fermentation kinetics and energy utilization of foliages from three browse trees (Pithecellobium dulce, Heliocarpus velutinus and Guazuma ulmifolia). Mixture of EFE product was added to the leaves of the three browse tree species at three dose levels: 0 (control), 3.5 and 7.0 mg/g of DM. Chemical composition of the foliages, including plant secondary metabolites such as total phenolics (TP), saponins (SAP) and aqueous fraction (AF), was determined. In addition, in vitro assaying of ruminal gas production kinetics was determined for the three browse three foliages treated with EFE. P. dulce had the highest crude protein content (p < 0.05), whereas G. ulmifolia had the highest content of neutral detergent fibre and SAP (p < 0.05) and H. velutinus had the lowest content of TP (p < 0.05). The interaction between tree species and dose level of EFE was significant (p < 0.05) for gas production (GP) at 24 h of incubation, parameters b and c of the accumulated GP curve, short-chain fatty acids (SCFA) and metabolizable energy (ME). The lowest (p < 0.01) extent of accumulated GP as well as the b and c values occurred in G. ulmifolia at 0 mg EFE/g DM. P. dulce had the highest (p < 0.05) values for ME and SCFA at the highest dose of EFE. Tree species and dose level had significant (p < 0.05) effects on all parameters describing in vitro ruminal fermentation kinetics and energy utilization. Addition of EFE improved the fermentation kinetics of the browse species considered in this study. PMID:27080456

  14. Enzyme-mediated bacterial biodegradation of an azo dye (C.I. Acid blue 113): reuse of treated dye wastewater in post-tanning operations.

    PubMed

    Senthilvelan, T; Kanagaraj, J; Panda, R C

    2014-11-01

    "Dyeing" is a common practice used to color the hides during the post-tanning operations in leather processing generating plenty of wastewater. The waste stream containing dye as pollutant is severely harmful to living beings. An azo dye (C.I. Acid Blue 113) has been biodegraded effectively by bacterial culture mediated with azoreductase enzyme to reduce the pollution load in the present investigation. The maximum rate of dye degradation was found to be 96 ± 4 and 92 ± 4 % for the initial concentrations of 100 and 200 mg/l, respectively. The enzyme activity was measured using NADH as a substrate. Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FT-IR) analysis was confirmed that the transformation of azo linkage could be transformed into N2 or NH3 or incorporated into complete biomass. Breaking down of dye molecules to various metabolites (such as aniline, naphthalene-1,4-diamine, 3-aminobenzenesulfonic acid, naphthalene-1-sulfonic acid, 8-aminonaphthalene-1-sulfonic acid, 5,8-diaminonaphthalene-1-sulfonic acid) was confirmed by gas chromatography and mass spectra (GC-MS) and mass (electrospray ionization (ESI)) spectra analysis. The treated wastewater could be reused for dyeing operation in the leather processing, and the properties of produced leather were evaluated by conventional methods that revealed to have improved dye penetration into the grain layer of experimental leather sample and resulted in high levelness of dyeing, which helps to obtain the desired smoothness and soft leather properties.

  15. Assay of methylmalonic acid in the serum of patients with cobalamin deficiency using capillary gas chromatography-mass spectrometry.

    PubMed Central

    Stabler, S P; Marcell, P D; Podell, E R; Allen, R H; Lindenbaum, J

    1986-01-01

    To determine the incidence of elevated levels of serum methylmalonic acid in patients with cobalamin deficiency, we utilized a new capillary gas chromatographic-mass spectrometric technique to measure methylmalonic acid in the serum of 73 patients with clinically confirmed cobalamin deficiency. Values ranged from 55 to 22,300 ng/ml, and 69 of the 73 patients had values above the normal range of 19-76 ng/ml as determined for 50 normal blood donors. In the cobalamin-deficient patients, serum methylmalonic acid was significantly correlated with the serum folate level and the degree of neurologic involvement. Some patients with pernicious anemia who were intermittently treated with cyanocobalamin were found to have elevated serum levels of methylmalonic acid while free of hematologic and neurologic abnormalities. A cobalamin-deficient patient is described with a normal serum cobalamin and an elevated serum methylmalonic acid. We conclude that the ability to measure methylmalonic acid in human serum will be useful in studies designed to determine the incidence of cobalamin deficiency in various patient populations. PMID:3700655

  16. Cleaner production of citric acid by recycling its extraction wastewater treated with anaerobic digestion and electrodialysis in an integrated citric acid-methane production process.

    PubMed

    Xu, Jian; Su, Xian-Feng; Bao, Jia-Wei; Chen, Yang-Qiu; Zhang, Hong-Jian; Tang, Lei; Wang, Ke; Zhang, Jian-Hua; Chen, Xu-Sheng; Mao, Zhong-Gui

    2015-01-01

    To solve the pollution problem of extraction wastewater in citric acid production, an integrated citric acid-methane production process was proposed. Extraction wastewater was treated through anaerobic digestion and the anaerobic digestion effluent (ADE) was recycled for the next batch of citric acid fermentation, thus eliminating wastewater discharge and reducing water consumption. Excessive Na(+) contained in ADE could significantly inhibit citric acid fermentation in recycling and was removed by electrodialysis in this paper. Electrodialysis performance was improved after pretreatment of ADE with air stripping and activated carbon adsorption to remove precipitable metal ions and pigments. Moreover, the concentrate water was recycled and mixed with feed to improve the water recovery rate above 95% in electrodialysis treatment, while the dilute water was collected for citric acid fermentation. The removal rate of Na(+) in ADE was above 95% and the citric acid production was even higher than that with tap water.

  17. Denosumab or Zoledronic Acid in Postmenopausal Women With Osteoporosis Previously Treated With Oral Bisphosphonates

    PubMed Central

    Pannacciulli, N.; Brown, J. P.; Czerwinski, E.; Nedergaard, B. S.; Bolognese, M. A.; Malouf, J.; Bone, H. G.; Reginster, J.-Y.; Singer, A.; Wang, C.; Wagman, R. B.; Cummings, S. R.

    2016-01-01

    Context: Denosumab and zoledronic acid (ZOL) are parenteral treatments for patients with osteoporosis. Objective: The objective of the study was to compare the effect of transitioning from oral bisphosphonates to denosumab or ZOL on bone mineral density (BMD) and bone turnover. Design and Setting: This was an international, multicenter, randomized, double-blind trial. Participants: A total of 643 postmenopausal women with osteoporosis previously treated with oral bisphosphonates participated in the study. Interventions: Subjects were randomized 1:1 to sc denosumab 60 mg every 6 months plus iv placebo once or ZOL 5 mg iv once plus sc placebo every 6 months for 12 months. Main Outcome Measures: Changes in BMD and bone turnover markers were measured. Results: BMD change from baseline at month 12 was significantly greater with denosumab compared with ZOL at the lumbar spine (primary end point; 3.2% vs 1.1%; P < .0001), total hip (1.9% vs 0.6%; P < .0001), femoral neck (1.2% vs −0.1%; P < .0001), and one-third radius (0.6% vs 0.0%; P < .05). The median decrease from baseline was greater with denosumab than ZOL for serum C-telopeptide of type 1 collagen at all time points after day 10 and for serum procollagen type 1 N-terminal propeptide at month 1 and at all time points after month 3 (all P < .05). Median percentage changes from baseline in serum intact PTH were significantly greater at months 3 and 9 with denosumab compared with ZOL (all P < .05). Adverse events were similar between groups. Three events consistent with the definition of atypical femoral fracture were observed (two denosumab and one ZOL). Conclusions: In postmenopausal women with osteoporosis previously treated with oral bisphosphonates, denosumab was associated with greater BMD increases at all measured skeletal sites and greater inhibition of bone remodeling compared with ZOL. PMID:27270237

  18. Toxicity and metal speciation in acid mine drainage treated by passive bioreactors

    SciTech Connect

    Neculita, C.M.; Vigneaul, B.; Zagury, G.J.

    2008-08-15

    Sulfate-reducing passive bioreactors treat acid mine drainage (AMD) by increasing its pH and alkalinity and by removing metals as metal sulfide precipitates. In addition to discharge limits based on physicochemical parameters, however, treated effluent is required to be nontoxic. Acute and sublethal toxicity was assessed for effluent from 3.5-L column bioreactors filled with mixtures of natural organic carbon sources and operated at different hydraulic retention times (HRTs) for the treatment of a highly contaminated AMD. Effluent was first tested for acute (Daphnia magna and Oncorhynchus mykiss) and sublethal (Pseudokirchneriella subcapitata, Ceriodaphnia dabia, and Lemna minor) toxicity. Acute toxicity was observed for D. magna, and a toxicity identification evaluation (TIE) procedure was then performed to identify potential toxicants. Finally, metal speciation in the effluent was determined using ultrafiltration and geochemical modeling for the interpretation of the toxicity results. The 10-d HRT effluent was nonacutely lethal for 0. mykiss but acutely lethal for D. magna. The toxicity to D. magna, however, was removed by 2 h of aeration, and the TIE procedure suggested iron as a cause of toxicity. Sublethal toxicity of the 10-d HRT effluent was observed for all test species, but it was reduced compared to the raw AMD and to a 7.3-d HRT effluent. Data regarding metal speciation indicated instability of both effluents during aeration and were consistent with the toxicity being caused by iron. Column bioreactors in operation for more than nine months efficiently improved the physicochemical quality of highly contaminated AMD at different HRTs.

  19. Enhanced Fischer-Tropsch synthesis performance of iron-based catalysts supported on nitric acid treated N-doped CNTs

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Zhenhua; Liu, Renjie; Xu, Yan; Ma, Xinbin

    2015-08-01

    Iron-based catalysts supported on N-doped CNTs (NCNTs) treated by various concentrations of nitric acid for Fischer-Tropsch synthesis (FTS) were investigated. An improved catalytic performance for the iron catalyst supported on acid treated NCNTs was obtained and the suitable nitric acid concentration was 10 M. The physiochemical properties of the NCNTs and the corresponding catalysts were characterized by BET, TEM, XRD, XPS, TGA and H2-TPR. The acid treatment removed the impurity and amorphous carbon, damaged the bamboo-like structure and increased the number of oxygen-containing functional groups and graphitization degree on the NCNTs. The more iron particles located inside the channels of NCNTs, the better catalytic FTS performance due to high dispersion and reducibility.

  20. Modulation of drug release rate of diltiazem-HCl from hydrogel matrices of succinic acid-treated ispaghula husk.

    PubMed

    Gohel, M C; Amin, A F; Chhabaria, M T; Panchal, M K; Lalwani, A N

    2000-01-01

    The feasibility of using succinic acid-treated ispaghula husk in matrix-based tablets of diltiazem-HCl was investigated. The sample prepared using 4:1 weight ratio of ispaghula husk to succinic acid showed improved swelling and gelling. A 3(2) factorial design was employed to investigate the effect of amount of succinic acid-treated ispaghula husk and dicalcium phosphate (DCP) on the percentage of the drug dissolved in 60, 300, and 480 min from the compressed tablets. The results of multiple linear regression analysis revealed that the significance of the amount of succinic acid-treated ispaghula husk was greater in magnitude than that of the amount of DCP in controlling the drug release. Acceptable batches were identified from a contour plot with constraints on the percentage drug released at the three sampling times. A mathematical model was also evolved to describe the entire dissolution profile. The results of F-test revealed that the Higuchi model fits well to the in vitro dissolution data. The tablets showed considerable radial and axial swelling in distilled water. Succinic acid-treated ispaghula husk can be used as an economical hydrophilic matrixing agent.

  1. Acetylsalicylic Acid Compared to Placebo in Treating High-Risk Patients With Subsolid Lung Nodules | Division of Cancer Prevention

    Cancer.gov

    This randomized phase II trial studies acetylsalicylic acid compared to placebo in treating high-risk patients with subsolid lung nodules. A nodule is a growth or lump that may be malignant (cancer) or benign (not cancer). Chemoprevention is the use of drugs to keep cancer from forming or coming back. The use of acetylsalicylic acid may keep cancer from forming in patients with subsolid lung nodules. |

  2. Disinfection and toxicological assessments of pulsed UV and pulsed-plasma gas-discharge treated-water containing the waterborne protozoan enteroparasite Cryptosporidium parvum.

    PubMed

    Hayes, Jennifer; Kirf, Dominik; Garvey, Mary; Rowan, Neil

    2013-09-01

    We report for the first time on the comparative use of pulsed-plasma gas-discharge (PPGD) and pulsed UV light (PUV) for the novel destruction of the waterborne enteroparasite Cryptosporidium parvum. It also describes the first cyto-, geno- and ecotoxicological assays undertaken to assess the safety of water decontaminated using PPGD and PUV. During PPGD treatments, the application of high voltage pulses (16 kV, 10 pps) to gas-injected water (N2 or O2, flow rate 2.5L/min) resulted in the formation of a plasma that generated free radicals, ultraviolet light, acoustic shock waves and electric fields that killed ca. 4 log C. parvum oocysts in 32 min exposure. Findings showed that PPGD-treated water produced significant cytotoxic properties (as determined by MTT and neutral red assays), genotoxic properties (as determined by comet and Ames assays), and ecotoxic properties (as determined by Microtox™, Thamnotox™ and Daphnotox™ assays) that are representative of different trophic levels in aquatic environment (p<0.05). Depending in part on the type of injected gas used, PPGD-treated water became either alkaline (pH ≤ 8.58, using O2) or acidic (pH ≥ 3.21, using N2) and contained varying levels of reactive free radicals such as ozone (0.8 mg/L) and/or dissociated nitric and nitrous acid that contributed to the observed disinfection and toxicity. Chemical analysis of PPGD-treated water revealed increasing levels of electrode metals that were present at ≤ 30 times the tolerated respective values for EU drinking water. PUV-treated water did not exhibit any toxicity and was shown to be far superior to that of PPGD for killing C. parvum oocysts taking only 90 s of pulsing [UV dose of 6.29 μJ/cm(2)] to produce a 4-log reduction compared to a similar reduction level achieved after 32min PPGD treatment as determined by combined in vitro CaCo-2 cell culture-qPCR.

  3. Removal of chromium(VI) from wastewater using phosphoric acid treated activated carbon

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Suganthi, N.

    2013-06-01

    Activated carbon prepared by phosphoric acid treatment of tamarind nuts (seeds) was investigated for the removal of Cr(VI) from aqueous solutions. The characteristics of phosphorylated tamarind nut carbon (PTNC) were evaluated for porosity and surface area. The effect of contact time, pH, adsorbent dose and particle size variation were studied to evaluate the potential applicability of carbon for treating Cr(VI) containing wastewater. The adsorbent data were modeled by Langmiur and Freundlich classical adsorption isotherms. The kinetic studies showed that Cr(VI) adsorption on PTNC was in compliance with the pseudo-second-order kinetic model. Desorption studies indicated that ion-exchange mechanism was operating. The continuous adsorption was studied in glass columns of 2.5 cm diameter using electroplating wastewater to ascertain the practical applicability of PTNC in large scale. The mechanism of adsorption was found to be ion-exchange process and was supported by FTIR spectroscopy. The surface modification after adsorption was confirmed by SEM studies.

  4. Kinetics of phenolic and phthalic acid esters biodegradation in membrane bioreactor (MBR) treating municipal landfill leachate.

    PubMed

    Boonnorat, Jarungwit; Chiemchaisri, Chart; Chiemchaisri, Wilai; Yamamoto, Kazuo

    2016-05-01

    The kinetic of phenolic and phthalic acid esters (PAEs) biodegradation in membrane bioreactor (MBR) treating municipal landfill leachate was investigated. Laboratory-scale MBR was fed with mixture of fresh and stabilized landfill leachate containing carbon to nitrogen (C/N) ratio of 10, 6, 3 and operated under different solid retention time (SRT) of 90, 15 and 5 d. Batch experiments using MBR sludge obtained from each steady-state operating condition revealed highest biodegradation rate constant (k) of 0.059-0.092 h(-1) of the phenolic and PAEs compounds at C/N of 6. Heterotrophic bacteria were the major group responsible for biodegradation of compounds whereas the presence of ammonia-oxidizing bacteria (AOB) helped accelerating their removals. Heterotrophic nitrifying bacteria found under high ammonia condition had an important role in enhancing the biodegradation of phenols and PAEs by releasing phenol hydroxylase (PH), esterase (EST) and phthalate dioxygenase (PDO) enzymes and the presence of AOB helped improving biodegradation of phenolic and PAEs compounds through their co-metabolism. PMID:26908045

  5. Designing Novel Nanoformulations Targeting Glutamate Transporter Excitatory Amino Acid Transporter 2: Implications in Treating Drug Addiction

    PubMed Central

    Rao, PSS; Yallapu, Murali M.; Sari, Youssef; Fisher, Paul B.; Kumar, Santosh

    2015-01-01

    Chronic drug abuse is associated with elevated extracellular glutamate concentration in the brain reward regions. Deficit of glutamate clearance has been identified as a contributing factor that leads to enhanced glutamate concentration following extended drug abuse. Importantly, normalization of glutamate level through induction of glutamate transporter 1 (GLT1)/ excitatory amino acid transporter 2 (EAAT2) expression has been described in several in vivo studies. GLT1 upregulators including ceftriaxone, a beta-lactam antibiotic, have been effective in attenuating drug-seeking and drug-consumption behavior in rodent models. However, potential obstacles toward clinical translation of GLT1 (EAAT2) upregulators as treatment for drug addiction might include poor gastrointestinal absorption, serious peripheral adverse effects, and/or suboptimal CNS concentrations. Given the growing success of nanotechnology in targeting CNS ailments, nanoformulating known GLT1 (EAAT2) upregulators for selective uptake across the blood brain barrier presents an ideal therapeutic approach for treating drug addiction. In this review, we summarize the results obtained with promising GLT1 (EAAT2) inducing compounds in animal models recapitulating drug addiction. Additionally, the various nanoformulations that can be employed for selectively increasing the CNS bioavailability of GLT1 (EAAT2) upregulators are discussed. Finally, the applicability of GLT1 (EAAT2) induction via central delivery of drug-loaded nanoformulations is described. PMID:26635971

  6. Increased accumulation of the lipophilic cation tetraphenylphosphonium by cyclopiazonic acid-treated renal epithelial cells

    SciTech Connect

    Riley, R.T.; Norred, W.P.; Dorner, J.W.; Cole, R.J.

    1985-01-01

    Pig kidney renal epithelial cells (LLC-PK1) in culture were used to determine the effects of cyclopiazonic acid (CPA) on the uptake of the transmembrane potential probe, (TH)tetraphenylphosphonium bromide (TPP ). CPA had a significant stimulatory effect on TPP accumulation, which occurred in a dose-related manner. TPP accumulation in the presence of CPA was significantly reduced by high-potassium media (HK) and carbonylcyanide m-chlorophenylhydrazone (CCCP), but neither HK nor the protonophore CCCP, could completely abolish the stimulatory effect of CPA. The apparent transmembrane potential difference, calculated based on the difference in accumulation of TPP in low-potassium and HK media, ranged from -55.9 to -85.7 mV for control cells and -89.4 to -109.0 mV for CPA-treated cells (20 mg CPA/I). The mechanism of CPA stimulation of TPP accumulation was not known. However, it was hypothesized that the effect could be a result of alterations in ion pumps or altered membrane permeability.

  7. An analysis of the effectiveness of a constructed wetland treating acid mine drainage

    SciTech Connect

    Huddleston, G.M. III; Grant, A.J.; Ramey, B.A.

    1994-12-31

    Acid mine drainage (AMD) from an abandoned coal mine in southcentral Kentucky had pH levels as low as 2.3 and iron concentrations as high as 641 mg/L. In the summer of 1992, the US Soil Conservation Service constructed a wetland system to treat the AMD that incorporated both physical and biological treatments. The AMD was initially fed into three anoxic limestone beds followed by an aeration pond and four cattail cells. A polishing pond served as the final stage of treatment. Flow of AMD was initiated in the fall of 1992, and treatment effectiveness was monitored for the next year. Chemical analysis and the cladoceran (Ceriodaphnia dubia) survival and reproduction test were performed on water samples collected along the flow path. Water chemistry analysis and determination of toxic levels indicated a substantial increase in pH and removal of metals prior to entering the cattail cells. Water quality in the cattail cells and polishing pond varied throughout the seasons, but had improved substantially by the end of the one-year monitoring period. The use of the wetland system by macroinvertebrates also was evaluated. Results indicated that a limited number of species were found in the cattail cells, while larger numbers were recovered from the polishing pond.

  8. [Effect of heparin on acid-base and blood gas parameters].

    PubMed

    Pöge, A W

    1981-09-15

    The influence of blood-heparin-mixing proportion on the acid-base- and blood-gas parameters was measured by means of the blood-gas- automation ABL 1 with the help of 15 test persons. More than 0.15 ml heparin per ml blood, i.e. more than 750 I.U. heparin per ml blood falsify the measuring data and may lead to wrong diagnostic and therapeutic measures. In clinical practice for one 2-ml-blood test only the dead space of the plastic of various producers are characterized by acid-base- and gas values considerable differing from each other. However, they do not influence the blood parameters. By heparin-Weddel (Wales), heparin-Spofa (CSSR), heparin-Richer (Hungary) and heparin-Polfa (Poland) the same acid-base- and blood gas values will be obtained.

  9. Resin–dentin bonds to EDTA-treated vs. acid-etched dentin using ethanol wet-bonding

    PubMed Central

    Sauro, Salvatore; Toledano, Manuel; Aguilera, Fatima Sánchez; Mannocci, Francesco; Pashley, David H.; Tay, Franklin R.; Watson, Timothy F.; Osorio, Raquel

    2013-01-01

    Objective To compare resin–dentin bond strengths and the micropermeability of hydrophobic vs. hydrophilic resins bonded to acid-etched or EDTA-treated dentin, using the ethanol wet-bonding technique. Methods Flat dentin surfaces from extracted human third molars were conditioned before bonding with: 37% H3PO4 (15 s) or 0.1 M EDTA (60 s). Five experimental resin blends of different hydrophilicities and one commercial adhesive (SBMP: Scotchbond Multi-Purpose) were applied to ethanol wet-dentin (1 min) and light-cured (20 s). The solvated resins were used as primers (50% ethanol/50% comonomers) and their respective neat resins were used as the adhesive. The resin-bonded teeth were stored in distilled water (24 h) and sectioned in beams for microtensile bond strength testing. Modes of failure were examined by stereoscopic light microscopy and SEM. Confocal tandem scanning microscopy (TSM) interfacial characterization and micropermeability were also performed after filling the pulp chamber with 1 wt% aqueous rhodamine-B. Results The most hydrophobic resin 1 gave the lowest bond strength values to acid-etched dentin and all beams failed prematurely when the resin was applied to EDTA-treated dentin. Resins 2 and 3 gave intermediate bond strengths to both conditioned substrates. Resin 4, an acidic hydrophilic resin, gave the highest bond strengths to both EDTA-treated and acid-etched dentin. Resin 5 was the only hydrophilic resin showing poor resin infiltration when applied on acid-etched dentin. Significance The ethanol wet-bonding technique may improve the infiltration of most of the adhesives used in this study into dentin, especially when applied to EDTA-treated dentin. The chemical composition of the resin blends was a determining factor influencing the ability of adhesives to bond to EDTA-treated or 37% H3PO4 acid-etched dentin, when using the ethanol wet-bonding technique in a clinically relevant time period. PMID:20074787

  10. Abnormal incorporation of amino acids into the gas hydrate crystal lattice.

    PubMed

    Sa, Jeong-Hoon; Kwak, Gye-Hoon; Lee, Bo Ram; Ahn, Docheon; Lee, Kun-Hong

    2014-12-28

    Gas hydrates are crystalline ice-like solid materials enclosing gas molecules inside. The possibility of the presence of gas hydrates with amino acids in the universe is of interest when revealing the potential existence of life as they are evidence of a source of water and organic precursors, respectively. However, little is known about how they can naturally coexist, and their crystallization behavior would become far more complex as both crystallize with formation of hydrogen bonds. Here, we report abnormal incorporation of amino acids into the gas hydrate crystal lattice that is contrary to the generally accepted crystallization mode, and this resulted in lattice distortion and expansion. The present findings imply the potential for their natural coexistence by sharing the crystal lattice, and will be helpful for understanding the role of additives in the gas hydrate crystallization.

  11. Study of urinary 2-{[2-(acetylamino-2-carboxyethyl]sulfanyl}butanedioic acid, a mercapturic acid of rats treated with maleic acid.

    PubMed

    Luo, Yu-Syuan; Tsai, Hsin-Yun; Chen, Hsin-Chang; Wu, Charlene; Shen, Li-Ching; Chung, Wen-Sheng; Chiang, Su-Yin; Wu, Kuen-Yuh

    2015-08-01

    Maleic anhydride was reported illegally adulterated into starch to prepare traditional foods for decades in Taiwan. Maleic acid (MA), hydrolyzed from maleic anhydride, could cause kidney damages to animals. The potential health effects due to long-term MA exposures through food consumption have been of great concerns. Assessment of the dietary MA exposures could be very difficult and complicated. One of the alternatives is to analyze an MA-specific biomarker to assess the daily total MA intake. Therefore, this paper aimed to study the mercapturic acid of MA, 2-{[2-(acetylamino)-2-carboxyethyl]sulfanyl}butanedioic acid (MAMA), with our newly-developed isotope-dilution online solid-phase extraction liquid chromatography tandem mass spectrometry (ID-SPE-LC-MS/MS) method. MAMA was first synthesized, purified, and characterized with NMR to reveal two diastereomers and used for developing the analytical method. The method was validated to reveal excellent sensitivity with a LOD at 16.3ng/mL and a LOQ at 20.6ng/mL and used to analyze MAMA in urine samples collected from Sprague-Dawley rats treated with a single dose of 0mg/kg, 6mg/kg, and 60mg/kg (n=5) of MA through gavage. Our results show dose-dependent increases in urinary MAMA contents, and 70% MAMA was excreted within 12h with no gender differences (p>0.05). A half life of urinary MAMA was estimated at 6.8h for rat. The formation of urinary MAMA validates it as a chemically-specific biomarker for current MA exposure. Future study of MA metabolism in vivo will elucidate mechanisms of MAMA formation, and analysis of this marker in epidemiology studies could help to shed light on the causal effects of MA on human.

  12. [Exploring the mechanism of rhizoma coptidis in treating type II diabetes mellitus based on metabolomics by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry].

    PubMed

    Wang, Jing; Yuan, Zimin; Kong, Hongwei; Li, Yong; Lu, Xin; Xu, Guowang

    2012-01-01

    Metabolomics was used to explore the mechanism of Rhizoma coptidis in treating type II diabetes mellitus. The rat model of type II diabetes mellitus was constructed by an injection of streptozocin (40 mg/kg), along with diets of fat emulsion. The rats were divided into four groups, the control group, the model group, the Rhizoma coptidis group (10 g/kg) and the metformin group (0.08 g/kg). After the treatment for 30 d, blood samples were collected to test biomedical indexes, and 24 h urine samples were collected for the metabolomics experiment. In the Rhizoma coptidis group, fasting blood glucose (FBG), total cholesterol (TC) and total plasma triglycerides (TG) were significantly decreased by 59.26%, 58.66% and 42.18%, respectively, compared with those in the model group. Based on gas chromatography-mass spectrometry, a urinary metabolomics method was used to study the mechanism of Rhizoma coptidis in treating diabetes mellitus. Based on the principal component analysis, it was found that the model group and control group were separated into two different clusters. The Rhizoma coptidis group was located between the model group and the control group, closer to the control group. Twelve significantly changed metabolites of diabetes mellitus were detected and identified, including 4-methyl phenol, benzoic acid, aminomalonic acid, and so on. After diabetic rats were administered with Rhizoma coptidis, 7 metabolites were significantly changed, and L-ascorbic acid and aminomalonic acid which related with the oxidative stress were significantly regulated to normal. The pharmacological results showed that Rhizoma coptidis could display anti-hyperglycemic and anti-hyperlipidemic effects. The Rhizoma coptidis had antioxidation function in preventing the occurrence of complications with diabetes mellitus to some extent. The work illustrates that the metabolomics method is a useful tool to study the treatment mechanism of traditional Chinese medicine.

  13. Gas-Phase Structures of Ketene and Acetic Acid from Acetic Anhydride Using Very-High-Temperature Gas Electron Diffraction.

    PubMed

    Atkinson, Sandra J; Noble-Eddy, Robert; Masters, Sarah L

    2016-03-31

    The gas-phase molecular structure of ketene has been determined using samples generated by the pyrolysis of acetic anhydride (giving acetic acid and ketene), using one permutation of the very-high-temperature (VHT) inlet nozzle system designed and constructed for the gas electron diffraction (GED) apparatus based at the University of Canterbury. The gas-phase structures of acetic anhydride, acetic acid, and ketene are presented and compared to previous electron diffraction and microwave spectroscopy data to show improvements in data extraction and manipulation with current methods. Acetic anhydride was modeled with two conformers, rather than a complex dynamic model as in the previous study, to allow for inclusion of multiple pyrolysis products. The redetermined gas-phase structure of acetic anhydride (obtained using the structure analysis restrained by ab initio calculations for electron diffraction method) was compared to that from the original study, providing an improvement on the description of the low vibrational torsions compared to the dynamic model. Parameters for ketene and acetic acid (both generated by the pyrolysis of acetic anhydride) were also refined with higher accuracy than previously reported in GED studies, with structural parameter comparisons being made to prior experimental and theoretical studies. PMID:26916368

  14. Gas-Phase Structures of Ketene and Acetic Acid from Acetic Anhydride Using Very-High-Temperature Gas Electron Diffraction.

    PubMed

    Atkinson, Sandra J; Noble-Eddy, Robert; Masters, Sarah L

    2016-03-31

    The gas-phase molecular structure of ketene has been determined using samples generated by the pyrolysis of acetic anhydride (giving acetic acid and ketene), using one permutation of the very-high-temperature (VHT) inlet nozzle system designed and constructed for the gas electron diffraction (GED) apparatus based at the University of Canterbury. The gas-phase structures of acetic anhydride, acetic acid, and ketene are presented and compared to previous electron diffraction and microwave spectroscopy data to show improvements in data extraction and manipulation with current methods. Acetic anhydride was modeled with two conformers, rather than a complex dynamic model as in the previous study, to allow for inclusion of multiple pyrolysis products. The redetermined gas-phase structure of acetic anhydride (obtained using the structure analysis restrained by ab initio calculations for electron diffraction method) was compared to that from the original study, providing an improvement on the description of the low vibrational torsions compared to the dynamic model. Parameters for ketene and acetic acid (both generated by the pyrolysis of acetic anhydride) were also refined with higher accuracy than previously reported in GED studies, with structural parameter comparisons being made to prior experimental and theoretical studies.

  15. Single dose oral amoxycillin 3 g with either 125 mg or 250 mg clavulanic acid to treat uncomplicated anogenital gonorrhoea.

    PubMed Central

    Lawrence, A G; Shanson, D C

    1985-01-01

    A single supervised oral dose of amoxycillin 3 g combined with clavulanic acid 125 mg as a suspension (Augmentin 3.125G) plus probenecid 1 g, cured 97 of 100 assessable patients who had uncomplicated anogenital gonorrhoea. Thirteen of the 100 patients were infected with penicillinase producing strains of Neisseria gonorrhoeae (PPNG) and 11 (85%) of these patients were cured, including one infected with a PPNG strain that was also resistant to spectinomycin. Another group of 93 assessable patients was treated with ampicillin 3 g plus probenecid 1 g, and only 85 (91%) patients were cured. Of the eight treatment failures in this group, five were found to be infected with PPNG strains. In a second study 144 assessable patients were treated with amoxycillin 3 g combined with clavulanic acid 250 mg, (Augmentin 3.250G) plus probenecid 1 g, and a 97% cure rate was again obtained. Five of seven (71%) patients infected with PPNG strains were cured. Although both Augmentin regimens were effective for treating gonorrhoea caused by PPNG and non-PPNG strains, side effects were noted in more patients treated with 250 mg clavulanic acid (24%) than with 125 mg clavulanic acid (5%). In addition, a similar cure rate was obtained in the three primary sites of infection, the urethra, cervix, and rectum. PMID:4007860

  16. Are carboxyl groups the most acidic sites in amino acids? Gas-phase acidities, photoelectron spectra, and computations on tyrosine, p-hydroxybenzoic acid, and their conjugate bases.

    PubMed

    Tian, Zhixin; Wang, Xue-Bin; Wang, Lai-Sheng; Kass, Steven R

    2009-01-28

    Deprotonation of tyrosine in the gas phase was found to occur preferentially at the phenolic site, and the conjugate base consists of a 70:30 mixture of phenoxide and carboxylate anions at equilibrium. This result was established by developing a chemical probe for differentiating these two isomers, and the presence of both ions was confirmed by photoelectron spectroscopy. Equilibrium acidity measurements on tyrosine indicated that deltaG(acid)(o) = 332.5 +/- 1.5 kcal mol(-1) and deltaH(acid)(o) = 340.7 +/- 1.5 kcal mol(-1). Photoelectron spectra yielded adiabatic electron detachment energies of 2.70 +/- 0.05 and 3.55 +/- 0.10 eV for the phenoxide and carboxylate anions, respectively. The H/D exchange behavior of deprotonated tyrosine was examined using three different alcohols (CF3CH2OD, C6H5CH2OD, and CH3CH2OD), and incorporation of up to three deuterium atoms was observed. Two pathways are proposed to account for these results, and all of the experimental findings are supplemented with B3LYP/aug-cc-pVDZ and G3B3 calculations. In addition, it was found that electrospray ionization of tyrosine from a 3:1 (v/v) CH3OH/H2O solution using a commercial source produces a deprotonated [M-H]- anion with the gas-phase equilibrium composition rather than the structure of the ion that exists in aqueous media. Electrospray ionization from acetonitrile, however, leads largely to the liquid-phase (carboxylate) structure. A control molecule, p-hydroxybenzoic acid, was found to behave in a similar manner. Thus, the electrospray conditions that are employed for the analysis of a compound can alter the isomeric composition of the resulting anion.

  17. Salvianolic acid B stimulates osteogenesis in dexamethasone-treated zebrafish larvae

    PubMed Central

    Luo, Shi-ying; Chen, Jing-feng; Zhong, Zhi-guo; Lv, Xiao-hua; Yang, Ya-jun; Zhang, Jing-jing; Cui, Liao

    2016-01-01

    Aim: Our previous studies show that salvianolic acid B (Sal B) promotes osteoblast differentiation and matrix mineralization. In this study, we evaluated the protective effects of Sal B on the osteogenesis in dexamethasone (Dex)-treated larval zebrafish, and elucidated the underlying mechanisms. Methods: At 3 d post fertilization, wild-type AB zebrafish larvae or bone transgenic tg (sp7:egfp) zebrafish larvae were exposed to Sal B, Dex, or a mixture of Dex+Sal B for 6 d. Bone mineralization in AB strain larval zebrafish was assessed with alizarin red staining, and osteoblast differentiation in tg (sp7:egfp) larval zebrafish was examined with fluorescence scanning. The expression of osteoblast-specific genes in the larvae was detected using qRT-PCR assay. The levels of oxidative stress markers (ROS and MDA) in the larvae were also measured. Results: Exposure to Dex (5–20 μmol/L) dose-dependently decreased the bone mineralization area and integral optical density (IOD) in wild-type AB zebrafish larvae and the osteoblast fluorescence area and IOD in tg (sp7:egfp) zebrafish larvae. Exposure to Dex (10 μmol/L) significantly reduced the expression of osteoblast-specific genes, including runx2a, osteocalcin (OC), alkaline phosphatase (ALP) and osterix (sp7), and increased the accumulation of ROS and MDA in the larvae. Co-exposure to Sal B (0.2–2 μmol/L) dose-dependently increased the bone mineralization area and IOD in AB zebafish larvae and osteoblast fluorescence in tg (sp7:egfp) zebrafish larvae. Co-exposure to Sal B (2 μmol/L) significantly attenuated deleterious alterations in bony tissue and oxidative stress in both Dex-treated AB zebafish larvae and tg (sp7:egfp) zebrafish larvae. Conclusion: Sal B stimulates bone formation and rescues GC-caused inhibition on osteogenesis in larval zebrafish by counteracting oxidative stress and increasing the expression of osteoblast-specific genes. Thus, Sal B may have protective effects on bone loss trigged by GC. PMID

  18. Potential of wastewater-treating anaerobic granules for biomethanation of synthesis gas.

    PubMed

    Guiot, Serge R; Cimpoia, Ruxandra; Carayon, Gaël

    2011-03-01

    Gasification of biomass produces a mixture of gas (mainly carbon monoxide (CO), carbon dioxide (CO(2)), and hydrogen (H(2))) called synthesis gas, or syngas, by thermal degradation without combustion. Syngas can be used for heat or electricity production by thermochemical processes. This project aims at developing an alternative way to bioupgrade syngas into biogas (mainly methane), via anaerobic fermentation. Nonacclimated industrial granular sludge to be used as reactor inoculum was initially evaluated for mesophilic carboxydotrophic methanogenesis potential in batch tests at 4 and 8 mmol CO/g VSS.d, in the absence and presence of H(2) and CO(2), respectively. Granular sludge was then introduced into a 30 L gas-lift reactor and supplied with CO, to study the production of methane and other metabolites, at different gas dilutions as well as feeding and recirculation rates. A maximal CO conversion efficiency of 75%, which was gas-liquid mass transfer limited, occurred at a CO partial pressure of 0.6 atm combined with a gas recirculation ratio of 20:1. The anaerobic granule potential for methanogenesis from CO was likely hydrogenotrophic, combined with CO-dependent H(2) formation, either under mesophilic or thermophilic conditions. Thermophilic conditions provide the anaerobic granules with a CO-bioconversion potential significantly larger (5-fold) than under mesophilic conditions, so long as the gas-liquid transfer is alleviated.

  19. Economic on-line optimization for liquids extraction and treating in gas processing plants

    SciTech Connect

    Berkowitz, P.N.; Gamez, J.P.

    1995-11-01

    Significant changes in the gas processing industry are driving processors to become more dependent on their ability to adapt plant operations to respond to changing third party contracts, wide variability of inlet conditions, plus the volatile market pricing of NGL`s and residue gas in order to remain competitive and profitable. The need for flexible operations at each facility requires an on-line, real time supervisory controller/optimizer that manipulates the process to achieve its economic optimum. Economic optimum does not equal process optimum and the traditional approach of only meeting the control objectives is insufficient for today`s gas plant operations. Because gas plants have no storage of products or residue gas, lost opportunity is immediate with no means to regain lost profitability. The nonlinear characteristics of the process makes typical available control technologies unacceptable for these applications. A new solution that incorporates economics, process dynamics and the economic arrangements of the gas processor has been developed with the cooperation of industry, the Gas Research Institute (GRI) and Continental Controls, Inc. (CCI). The objective function of this software solution is the maximization of profit for the plant and its co-owners. Thus, the optimum set of controlled variables is also dynamic, dependent on product price margins, variability of the inlet gas, and the cost of utilities. This simultaneous control and optimization solution has produced benefits that have paid for the project in as little as two and one half months and typically four to seven months depending on the gas throughput and its richness.

  20. Carnosic Acid Affords Mitochondrial Protection in Chlorpyrifos-Treated Sh-Sy5y Cells.

    PubMed

    de Oliveira, Marcos Roberto; Peres, Alessandra; Ferreira, Gustavo Costa; Schuck, Patrícia Fernanda; Bosco, Simone Morelo Dal

    2016-10-01

    Carnosic acid (CA; C20H28O4) is a phenolic diterpene found in rosemary (Rosmarinus officinalis L.) and exhibits protective properties, e.g., antioxidant, anti-inflammatory, antitumor, and antimicrobial activities. In this context, CA has been viewed as a neuroprotective agent due to its ability in rescuing neuronal cells from pro-oxidant and pro-apoptotic challenges. In the present work, we found that CA pretreatment at 1 µM for 12 h suppressed the mitochondria-related pro-oxidant and mitochondria-dependent pro-apoptotic effects of chlorpyrifos (CPF) in human neuroblastoma SH-SY5Y cells. CA prevented mitochondrial membrane potential disruption and decreased the levels of oxidative stress markers in mitochondrial membranes obtained from cells exposed to CPF. CA also inhibited cytochrome c release and activation of the caspases-9 and -3, as well as decreased DNA fragmentation, in CPF-treated cells. CA upregulated the content of glutathione (GSH) in mitochondria by a mechanism involving the activation of the phosphoinositide-3-kinase (PI3K)/Akt/nuclear factor erythroid 2-related factor 2 (Nrf2) signaling pathway, since inhibition of PI3K/Akt or silencing of Nrf2 using siRNA strategy abolished the protection exerted by CA in SH-SY5Y cells. Therefore, CA protected mitochondria of SH-SY5Y cells through the activation of the PI3K/Akt/Nrf2 axis, causing upregulation of the mitochondrial GSH content and consequent antioxidant and anti-apoptotic effects. PMID:27083155

  1. Detection of methylglyoxal as a degradation product of DNA and nucleic acid components treated with strong acid.

    PubMed

    Chaplen, F W; Fahl, W E; Cameron, D C

    1996-05-01

    The 1,2-diaminobenzene derivation assay for methylglyoxal in biological systems involves the use of perchloric acid, both as a deproteinizing agent and to prevent the spontaneous formation of methylglyoxal from glycolytic pathway intermediates. However, while using a modification of the standard literature assay to measure methylglyoxal in Chinese hamster ovary cells, we found that oxidation of nucleic acids and related compounds by perchloric or trichloroacetic acid results in the formation of methylglyoxal. Compounds containing 2-deoxyribose gave higher levels of methylglyoxal than those containing ribose; purine nucleotides and deoxynucleotides gave more methylglyoxal than did the pyrimidines. Nucleic acids were the most susceptible to degradation, with 12-fold more methylglyoxal being formed from DNA than RNA. Oxidation of nucleic acids increased with higher temperatures and with decreasing nucleic acid fragment size. Another product of nucleic acid oxidation was 2,3-butanedione, the 1,2-diaminobenzene derivative of which is sometimes used as an internal standard during methylglyoxal measurement. Unless accounted for during the assay procedure, the generation of methylglyoxal and 2,3-butanedione due to the oxidation of nucleic acids may lead to substantial errors in the determination of methylglyoxal concentrations in biological systems.

  2. Evaluation of gas cooling for pressurized phosphoric acid fuel cell stacks

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Farooque, M.; Skok, A. J.; Maru, H. C.; Kothmann, R. E.; Harry, R. W.

    1983-01-01

    Gas cooling is a more reliable, less expensive and a more simple alternative to conventional liquid cooling for heat removal from the phosphoric acid fuel cell (PAFC). The feasibility of gas cooling has already been demonstrated in atmospheric pressure stacks. This paper presents theoretical and experimental investigation of gas cooling for pressurized PAFC. Two approaches to gas cooling, Distributed Gas Cooling (DIGAS) and Separated Gas Cooling (SGC) were considered, and a theoretical comparison on the basis of cell performance indicated SGC to be superior to DIGAS. The feasibility of SGC was experimentally demonstrated by operating a 45-cell stack for 700 hours at pressure, and determining thermal response and the effect of other related parameters.

  3. Evaluation of Gas-Cooled Pressurized Phosphoric Acid Fuel Cells for Electric Utility Power Generation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Faroque, M.

    1983-01-01

    Gas cooling is a more reliable, less expensive and a more simple alternative to conventional liquid cooling for heat removal from the phosphoric acid fuel cell (PAFC). The feasibility of gas-cooling was already demonstrated in atmospheric pressure stacks. Theoretical and experimental investigations of gas-cooling for pressurized PAFC are presented. Two approaches to gas cooling, Distributed Gas-Cooling (DIGAS) and Separated Gas-Cooling (SGC) were considered, and a theoretical comparison on the basis of cell performance indicated SGC to be superior to DIGAS. The feasibility of SGC was experimentally demonstrated by operating a 45-cell stack for 700 hours at pressure, and determining thermal response and the effect of other related parameters.

  4. Outcomes in patients with nonerosive reflux disease treated with a proton pump inhibitor and alginic acid ± glycyrrhetinic acid and anthocyanosides

    PubMed Central

    Di Pierro, Francesco; Gatti, Mario; Rapacioli, Giuliana; Ivaldi, Leandro

    2013-01-01

    Background The purpose of this study was to compare the efficacy of alginic acid alone versus alginic acid combined with low doses of pure glycyrrhetinic acid and bilberry anthocyanosides as an addon to conventional proton pump inhibitor therapy in relieving symptoms associated with nonerosive reflux disease. Methods This prospective, randomized, 8-week, open-label trial was conducted at two centers. Sixty-three patients with persistent symptoms of gastroesophageal reflux disease and normal upper gastrointestinal endoscopy were eligible for the study. Patients in group A (n = 31) were treated with pantoprazole and a formula (Mirgeal®) containing alginic acid and low doses of pure glycyrrhetinic acid + standardized Vaccinium myrtillus extract for 4 weeks, then crossed over to the multi-ingredient formula for a further 4 weeks. Patients in group B (n = 32) were treated pantoprazole and alginic acid alone twice daily, then crossed over to alginic acid twice daily for a further 4 weeks. Efficacy was assessed by medical evaluation of a symptom relief score, estimated using a visual analog scale (0–10). Side effects, tolerability, and compliance were also assessed. Results Of the 63 patients enrolled in the study, 58 (29 in group A and 29 in group B) completed the 8-week trial. The baseline characteristics were comparable between the two groups. During the study, significant differences were recorded in symptom scores for both groups. In group A, symptoms of chest pain, heartburn, and abdominal swelling were less serious than in group B. Treatment A was better tolerated, did not induce hypertension, and had fewer side effects than treatment B. No significant differences in compliance were found between the two groups. Conclusion Use of low doses of pure glycyrrhetinic acid + bilberry anthocyanosides, together with alginic acid as addon therapy, substantially improves symptoms in patients with nonerosive reflux disease without increasing side effects or worsening

  5. Acid gas absorption in aqueous solutions of mixed amines

    SciTech Connect

    Rinker, E.B.; Ashour, S.S.; Sandall, O.C.

    1996-12-31

    A mass transfer model has been developed to describe the rate of absorption (or desorption) of H{sub 2}S and CO{sub 2} in aqueous blends of a tertiary and a secondary or a primary amine. The model is based on penetration theory, and all significant chemical reactions are incorporated in the model. The reactions are taken to be reversible, with reactions involving only a proton transfer considered to be at equilibrium. The particular amines studied in this research were methyldiethanolamine (MDEA), a tertiary amine, and diethanolamine (DEA), a secondary amine. Key physicochemical data needed in the model, such as diffusion coefficients, kinetic rate constants, and gas solubilities, were measured. Experimental absorption rates of CO{sub 2} and H{sub 2}S were measured in a model gas-liquid contacting device and were compared with model predictions. Experiments were carried out for single amine solutions (both MDEA and DEA) and for amine blends.

  6. GAS PERMEATION PROPERTIES OF POLY(LACTIC ACID). (R826733)

    EPA Science Inventory

    Abstract

    The need for the development of polymeric materials based on renewable resources has led to the development of poly(lactic acid) (PLA) which is being produced from a feedstock of corn rather than petroleum. The present study examines the permeation of nitrogen...

  7. Chemical composition, silage fermentation characteristics, and in vitro ruminal fermentation parameters of potato-wheat straw silage treated with molasses and lactic acid bacteria and corn silage.

    PubMed

    Babaeinasab, Y; Rouzbehan, Y; Fazaeli, H; Rezaei, J

    2015-09-01

    The aim of this study was to determine the effect of molasses and lactic acid bacteria (LAB) on the chemical composition, silage fermentation characteristics, and in vitro ruminal fermentation parameters of an ensiled potato-wheat straw mixture in a completely randomized design with 4 replicates. Wheat straw was harvested at full maturity and potato tuber when the leaves turned yellowish. The potato-wheat straw (57:43 ratio, DM basis) mixture was treated with molasses, LAB, or a combination. Lalsil Fresh LB (Lallemand, France; containing NCIMB 40788) or Lalsil MS01 (Lallemand, France; containing MA18/5U and MA126/4U) were each applied at a rate of 3 × 10 cfu/g of fresh material. Treatments were mixed potato-wheat straw silage (PWSS) without additive, PWSS inoculated with Lalsil Fresh LB, PWSS inoculated with Lalsil MS01, PWSS + 5% molasses, PWSS inoculated with Lalsil Fresh LB + 5% molasses, PWSS inoculated with Lalsil MS01 + 5% molasses, and corn silage (CS). The compaction densities of PWSS treatments and CS were approximately 850 and 980 kg wet matter/m, respectively. After anaerobic storage for 90 d, chemical composition, silage fermentation characteristics, in vitro gas production (GP), estimated OM disappearance (OMD), ammonia-N, VFA, microbial CP (MCP) production, and cellulolytic bacteria count were determined. Compared to CS, PWSS had greater ( < 0.001) values of DM, ADL, water-soluble carbohydrates, pH, and ammonia-N but lower ( < 0.05) values of CP, ash free-NDF (NDFom), ash, nitrate, and lactic, acetic, propionic, and butyric acids concentrations. When PWSS was treated with molasses, LAB, or both, the contents of CP and lactic and acetic acids increased, whereas NDFom, ammonia-N, and butyric acid decreased ( < 0.05). Based on in vitro ruminal experiments, PWSS had greater ( < 0.05) values of GP, OMD, and MCP but lower ( < 0.05) VFA and acetic acid compared to CS. With adding molasses alone or in combination with LAB inoculants to PWSS, the values of GP

  8. XPS analysis of down stream plasma treated wool: Influence of the nature of the gas on the surface modification of wool

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Molina, R.; Espinós, J. P.; Yubero, F.; Erra, P.; González-Elipe, A. R.

    2005-12-01

    A microwave plasma treatment in a down stream configuration was used to modify the natural hydrophobocity of untreated wool fibers. This property is a consequence of the presence of a Fatty acid monolayer (F-layer) on the outermost part of the fiber surface. The wool fibers treated with plasma were analyzed by means of X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) without previous exposure to the air. Experiments have been carried out with air, water vapor, oxygen and nitrogen as plasma gas. The "in situ" analysis of the treated samples has permitted to differentiate between the plasma effects and those other linked to the exposure of the fibers to the air after their treatment. The results have evidenced the effects induced by the different active species generated by plasma from the different components of the air. In general, the intensity of C sbnd C peaks decreases and that of the C sbnd O, C dbnd O and O sbnd C dbnd O increases when using a gas containing oxygen species. Simultaneously, the intensity of the S sbnd S groups decreases and that of the sulphonate (SO 3-) increases. Other changes are also detected in the intensity of the N 1s level. The extent and characteristics of the oxidation and functionalisation of the hydrocarbon chains of the F-layer depend on the nature of gas. Thus, whereas treatments with plasmas of air and water vapor strongly affect the hydrocarbon chains of the F-layer, oxygen is less effective in the oxidation process. It has been also noted that the active species formed in the nitrogen plasma do not induce any significant change in the surface composition of the wool fibers.

  9. Formation routes of interstellar glycine involving carboxylic acids: possible favoritism between gas and solid phase.

    PubMed

    Pilling, Sergio; Baptista, Leonardo; Boechat-Roberty, Heloisa M; Andrade, Diana P P

    2011-11-01

    Despite the extensive search for glycine (NH₂CH₂COOH) and other amino acids in molecular clouds associated with star-forming regions, only upper limits have been derived from radio observations. Nevertheless, two of glycine's precursors, formic acid and acetic acid, have been abundantly detected. Although both precursors may lead to glycine formation, the efficiency of reaction depends on their abundance and survival in the presence of a radiation field. These facts could promote some favoritism in the reaction pathways in the gas phase and solid phase (ice). Glycine and these two simplest carboxylic acids are found in many meteorites. Recently, glycine was also observed in cometary samples returned by the Stardust space probe. The goal of this work was to perform theoretical calculations for several interstellar reactions involving the simplest carboxylic acids as well as the carboxyl radical (COOH) in both gas and solid (ice) phase to understand which reactions could be the most favorable to produce glycine in interstellar regions fully illuminated by soft X-rays and UV, such as star-forming regions. The calculations were performed at four different levels for the gas phase (B3LYP/6-31G*, B3LYP/6-31++G**, MP2/6-31G*, and MP2/6-31++G**) and at MP2/6-31++G** level for the solid phase (ice). The current two-body reactions (thermochemical calculation) were combined with previous experimental data on the photodissociation of carboxylic acids to promote possible favoritism for glycine formation in the scenario involving formic and acetic acid in both gas and solid phase. Given that formic acid is destroyed more in the gas phase by soft X-rays than acetic acid is, we suggest that in the gas phase the most favorable reactions are acetic acid with NH or NH₂OH. Another possible reaction involves NH₂CH₂ and COOH, one of the most-produced radicals from the photodissociation of acetic acid. In the solid phase, we suggest that the reactions of formic acid with NH

  10. Gas Phase Structure of Amino Acids: La-Mb Studies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mata, I. Pena S.; Sanz, M. E.; Vaquero, V.; Cabezas, C.; Perez, C.; Blanco, S.; López, J. C.; Alonso, J. L.

    2009-06-01

    Recent improvements in our laser ablation molecular beam Fourier transform microwave (LA-MB-FTMW) spectrometer such as using Laval-type nozzles and picoseconds Nd:YAG lasers (30 to 150 ps) have allowed a major step forward in the capabilities of this experimental technique as demonstrated by the last results in serine cysteine and threonine^a for which seven, six and seven conformers have been respectively identified. Taking advantage of these improvements we have investigated the natural amino acids metionine, aspartic and glutamic acids and the γ-aminobutyric acid (GABA) with the aim of identify and characterize their lower energy conformers. Searches in the rotational spectra have lead to the identification of seven conformers of metionine, six and five of aspartic and glutamic acids, respectively, and seven for the γ-aminobutyric. These conformers have been unambiguously identified by their spectroscopic constants. In particular the ^{14}N nuclear quadrupole coupling constants, that depend heavily on the orientation of the amino group with respect to the principal inertial axes of the molecule, prove to be a unique tool to distinguish unambigously between conformations with similar rotational constants. For the γ-aminobutyric acid two of the seven observed structures are stablized by an intramolecular interaction n-π*. Two new conformers of proline have been identified together with the two previously observed. J. L. Alonso, C. Pérez, M. E. Sanz, J. C. López, S. Blanco, Phys.Chem.Chem.Phys., 2009, 11, 617. D. B. Atkinson, M. A. Smith, Rev. Sci. Instrum. 1995, 66, 4434 S. Blanco, M. E. Sanz, J. C. López, J. L. Alonso, Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA2007, 104, 20183. M. E. Sanz, S. Blanco, J. C. López, J. L. Alonso, Angew. Chem. Int. Ed.,2008, 120, 6312. A. Lesarri, S. Mata, E. J. Cocinero, S. Blanco, J.C. López, J. L. Alonso, Angew. Chem. Int. Ed. , 2002, 41, 4673

  11. Field test results of the physical solvent N-Formyl morpholine for gas treating applications

    SciTech Connect

    Palla, N.; Lee, A.L.

    1997-12-31

    The Institute of Gas Technology (IGT) is developing gas processing technology that will reduce gas processing costs for current production and allow subquality gas to be economically produced that would have been otherwise, not produced. The experimental program has primarily focused on the evaluation of N-Formyl Morpholine (NFM) as a physical solvent for the cost-effective upgrading of subquality natural gas to pipeline quality. The selection of NFM for this program was based on previous work conducted by IGT in the selective removal of hydrogen sulfide, and carbon dioxide from coal gasifier effluents. That work showed that the use of NFM resulted in a significant cost advantage over 107 other solvents for that application. The project approach for the development of NFM process has been divided into following main categories: obtain vapor-liquid equilibrium, physical properties and additional published literature data; obtain mass-transfer coefficients using 2 inch absorber/stripper apparatus and calculate equation of state parameters and binary interaction parameters using VLE data; develop a gas processing model using Aspen Plus simulation program and evaluate economic advantages of the NFM process compared to commercial physical solvent; and design a pilot plant skid mounted field test unit and conduct field test experiments.

  12. Gas chromatographic organic acid profiling analysis of brandies and whiskeys for pattern recognition analysis.

    PubMed

    Park, Y J; Kim, K R; Kim, J H

    1999-06-01

    An efficient gas chromatographic profiling and pattern recognition method is described for brandy and whiskey samples according to their organic acid contents. It involves solid-phase extraction of organic acids using Chromosorb P with subsequent conversion to stable tert-butyldimethylsilyl derivatives for the direct analysis by capillary column gas chromatography and gas chromatography-mass spectrometry. A total of 12 organic acids were reproducibly identified in liquor samples (1 mL). When the GC profiles were simplified to their retention index spectra, characteristic patterns were obtained for each liquor sample as well as for each group average. Stepwise discriminant analysis provided star symbols characteristic for each liquor sample and group average. As expected, canonical discriminant analysis correctly classified 23 liquor samples studied into two groups of either brandy or whiskey.

  13. Gas chromatographic organic acid profiling analysis of brandies and whiskeys for pattern recognition analysis.

    PubMed

    Park, Y J; Kim, K R; Kim, J H

    1999-06-01

    An efficient gas chromatographic profiling and pattern recognition method is described for brandy and whiskey samples according to their organic acid contents. It involves solid-phase extraction of organic acids using Chromosorb P with subsequent conversion to stable tert-butyldimethylsilyl derivatives for the direct analysis by capillary column gas chromatography and gas chromatography-mass spectrometry. A total of 12 organic acids were reproducibly identified in liquor samples (1 mL). When the GC profiles were simplified to their retention index spectra, characteristic patterns were obtained for each liquor sample as well as for each group average. Stepwise discriminant analysis provided star symbols characteristic for each liquor sample and group average. As expected, canonical discriminant analysis correctly classified 23 liquor samples studied into two groups of either brandy or whiskey. PMID:10794629

  14. Collection and analysis of organic acids in exhaust gas. Comparison of different methods

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zervas, E.; Montagne, X.; Lahaye, J.

    This paper reports the development of a specific method to identify organic acids in exhaust gases. The organic acids are collected in two impingers containing liquids (pure water or Na 2CO 3 1% aqueous solution) and four cartridges containing solids (silica, fluorisil, alumina B and alumina N). Once collected, the acids are eluted of the solids by a hot water stream. These traps performances, in terms of organic acids collection and elution efficiency, are evaluated and compared. Two sources are used to produce the gas flow containing organic acids: one generates a flow whose concentration is known and stable, the other produces organic acids among other combustion products. For eluted solutions analysis, two methods are used: isocratic ionic chromatography/conductivity detection and GC/FID. Their efficiency in separating 10 aliphatic acids are compared. Their characteristics such as detection limits, detection linearity, repeatability and possible interferences with other components found in exhaust gases are determined. The stability of the organic acids solutions is also studied. Lastly, the use of these methods is illustrated by the analysis of the gas-phase organic acids exhausted by a spark ignition and by a diesel engine.

  15. Engineering Porous Organic Cage Crystals with Increased Acid Gas Resistance.

    PubMed

    Zhu, Guanghui; Hoffman, Christopher D; Liu, Yang; Bhattacharyya, Souryadeep; Tumuluri, Uma; Jue, Melinda L; Wu, Zili; Sholl, David S; Nair, Sankar; Jones, Christopher W; Lively, Ryan P

    2016-07-25

    Both known and new CC3-based porous organic cages are prepared and exposed to acidic SO2 in vapor and liquid conditions. Distinct differences in the stability of the CC3 cages exist depending on the chirality of the diamine linkers used. The acid catalyzed CC3 degradation mechanism is probed via in situ IR and a degradation pathway is proposed and supported with computational results. CC3 crystals synthesized with racemic mixtures of diaminocyclohexane exhibited enhanced stability compared to CC3-R and CC3-S. Confocal fluorescent microscope images reveal that the stability difference in CC3 species originates from an abundance of mesoporous grain boundaries in CC3-R and CC3-S, allowing facile access of aqueous SO2 throughout the crystal, promoting decomposition. These grain boundaries are absent from CC3 crystals made with racemic linkers. PMID:27253350

  16. Gas Phase Electronic Spectroscopy of 5-FLUOROSALICYLIC Acid.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Young, Justin W.; Fleisher, Adam J.; Pratt, David W.

    2010-06-01

    Methyl salicylate and its derivatives have generated large amounts of interest due to the possibility of intramolecular proton transfer in their electronically excited states (ESPT). Here, the excited state dynamics of 5-fluorosalicylic acid and its dimer will be discussed within the context of their vibrationally and rotationally resolved electronic spectra. Stark effect studies of the latter permit identification of specific conformers of 5FSA. However, some species exhibit broadened spectra, whereas others do not, suggesting a species-specific ESPT reaction. thanks

  17. TECHNICAL AND OPERATING SUPPORT FOR PILOT DEMONSTRATION OF MORPHYSORB ACID GAS REMOVAL PROCESS

    SciTech Connect

    Nagaraju Palla; Dennis Leppin

    2003-06-30

    GTI and Krupp Uhde have been jointly developing advanced technology for removing high concentrations of acid gas from high-pressure natural gas for over a decade. This technology, the Morphysorb{reg_sign} process, based on N-formyl and N-acetyl morpholine mixtures, has now been tested in a large-scale facility and this paper presents preliminary results from acceptance testing at that facility. Earlier publications have discussed the bench-scale and pilot plant work that led up to this important milestone. The site was Duke Energy's new Kwoen sour gas upgrader near Chetwynd B.C., Canada. This facility has a nameplate capacity of 300 MMscfd of sour natural gas. The objective of the Morphysorb process at this site was to remove 33 MMscfd of acid gas (H{sub 2}S and CO{sub 2}) for reinjection downhole. This represents about half the acid gas present in the feed to the plant. In so doing, proportionately more of the plant ''sales'' gas, which is sent for final processing at the nearby Pine River plant, can be sent down the line without coming up against the sulfur removal capacity limits of Pine River plant, than could with other solvents that were evaluated. Other benefits include less loss of methane downhole with the rejected acid gas and lower circulation and recycle compression horsepower than with competitive solvents. On the downside, the process is expected to have higher solvent vaporization losses than competitive solvents, but this is a comparatively minor drawback when weighed against the value of the benefits. These benefits (and drawbacks) were developed into quantitative ''acceptance'' criteria, which will determine if the solvent will continue to be used at the site and for award of monetary bonuses to the process developer (GTI).

  18. TECHNICAL AND OPERATING SUPPORT FOR PILOT DEMONSTRATION OF MORPHYSORB ACID GAS REMOVAL PROCESS

    SciTech Connect

    Nagaraju Palla; Dennis Leppin

    2003-09-30

    GTI and Krupp Uhde have been jointly developing advanced technology for removing high concentrations of acid gas from high-pressure natural gas for over a decade. This technology, the Morphysorb{reg_sign} process, based on N-formyl and N-acetyl morpholine mixtures, has now been tested in a large-scale facility and this paper presents preliminary results from acceptance testing at that facility. Earlier publications have discussed the bench-scale and pilot plant work that led up to this important milestone. The site was Duke Energy's new Kwoen sour gas upgrader near Chetwynd B.C., Canada. This facility has a nameplate capacity of 300 MMscfd of sour natural gas. The objective of the Morphysorb process at this site was to remove 33 MMscfd of acid gas (H{sub 2}S and CO{sub 2}) for reinjection downhole. This represents about half the acid gas present in the feed to the plant. In so doing, proportionately more of the plant ''sales'' gas, which is sent for final processing at the nearby Pine River plant, can be sent down the line without coming up against the sulfur removal capacity limits of Pine River plant, than could with other solvents that were evaluated. Other benefits include less loss of methane downhole with the rejected acid gas and lower circulation and recycle compression horsepower than with competitive solvents. On the downside, the process is expected to have higher solvent vaporization losses than competitive solvents, but this is a comparatively minor drawback when weighed against the value of the benefits. These benefits (and drawbacks) were developed into quantitative ''acceptance'' criteria, which will determine if the solvent will continue to be used at the site and for award of monetary bonuses to the process developer (GTI).

  19. Gas Phase Measurements of Mono-Fluoro Acids and the Dimer of 3-FLUORO-BENZOIC Acid

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Daly, Adam M.; Carey, Spencer J.; Pejlovas, Aaron M.; Li, Kexin; Kang, Lu; Kukolich, Stephen G.

    2016-06-01

    The gas phase homodimer of 3-fluorobenzoic acid was detected and the spectra showed evidence of proton tunneling. Experimental rotational constants are A(0^+)= 1151.8(5), B(0^+)=100.3(5), C(0^+)= 87.64(3) MHz and A(0^-)=1152.2(5), B(0^-)= 100.7(5), C(0^-)=88.85(3) MHz for the two ground vibrational states split by the proton tunneling motion. The tunneling splitting (ΔE) is approximately 560 MHz. This homodimer appears to be the largest carboxylic acid dimer observed with F-T microwave spectroscopy. Additionally, the microwave spectra of the mono-fluoro-benozic acids, (2-fluoro, 3-floro and 4-fluoro) benzoic acid have been measured in the frequency range of 4-14 GHz using a pulsed beam Fourier Transform microwave spectrometer. Measured rotational transition lines were assigned and fit using a rigid rotor Hamiltonian. Assignments were made for 3 conformers of 2-fluorobenzoic acid, 2 conformers of 3-fluorobenzoic acid and 1 conformer of 4-fluorobenzoic acid. Supported by the NSF CHE-1057796

  20. Gas phase measurements of mono-fluoro-benzoic acids and the dimer of 3-fluoro-benzoic acid

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Daly, Adam M.; Carey, Spencer J.; Pejlovas, Aaron M.; Li, Kexin; Kang, Lu; Kukolich, Stephen G.

    2015-04-01

    The microwave spectrum of the mono-fluoro-benzoic acids, 2-fluoro-, 3-fluoro-, and 4-fluoro-benzoic acid have been measured in the frequency range of 4-14 GHz using a pulsed beam Fourier transform microwave spectrometer. Measured rotational transition lines were assigned and fit using a rigid rotor Hamiltonian. Assignments were made for 3 conformers of 2-fluorobenzoic acid, 2 conformers of 3-fluorobenzoic acid, and 1 conformer of 4-fluorobenzoic acid. Additionally, the gas phase homodimer of 3-fluorobenzoic acid was detected, and the spectra showed evidence of proton tunneling. Experimental rotational constants are A(0+) = 1151.8(5), B(0+) = 100.3(5), C(0+) = 87.64(3) MHz and A(0-) = 1152.2(5), B(0-) = 100.7(5), C(0-) = 88.85(3) MHz for the two ground vibrational states split by the proton tunneling motion. The tunneling splitting (ΔE) is approximately 560 MHz. This homodimer appears to be the largest carboxylic acid dimer observed with F-T microwave spectroscopy.

  1. Gas phase measurements of mono-fluoro-benzoic acids and the dimer of 3-fluoro-benzoic acid

    SciTech Connect

    Daly, Adam M.; Carey, Spencer J.; Pejlovas, Aaron M.; Li, Kexin; Kukolich, Stephen G.; Kang, Lu

    2015-04-14

    The microwave spectrum of the mono-fluoro-benzoic acids, 2-fluoro-, 3-fluoro-, and 4-fluoro-benzoic acid have been measured in the frequency range of 4-14 GHz using a pulsed beam Fourier transform microwave spectrometer. Measured rotational transition lines were assigned and fit using a rigid rotor Hamiltonian. Assignments were made for 3 conformers of 2-fluorobenzoic acid, 2 conformers of 3-fluorobenzoic acid, and 1 conformer of 4-fluorobenzoic acid. Additionally, the gas phase homodimer of 3-fluorobenzoic acid was detected, and the spectra showed evidence of proton tunneling. Experimental rotational constants are A(0{sup +}) = 1151.8(5), B(0{sup +}) = 100.3(5), C(0{sup +}) = 87.64(3) MHz and A(0{sup −}) = 1152.2(5), B(0{sup −}) = 100.7(5), C(0{sup −}) = 88.85(3) MHz for the two ground vibrational states split by the proton tunneling motion. The tunneling splitting (ΔE) is approximately 560 MHz. This homodimer appears to be the largest carboxylic acid dimer observed with F-T microwave spectroscopy.

  2. Decreased platelet membrane anisotropy in patients with adrenoleukodystrophy treated with erucic acid (22:1)-rich triglycerides.

    PubMed

    Stöckler, S; Opper, C; Greinacher, A; Hunneman, D H; Korenke, G C; Unkrig, C J; Hanefeld, F

    1997-03-01

    Low platelet count and bleeding diathesis have been observed in patients with adrenoleukodystrophy (ALD) treated with erucic acid (22:1)-rich triglycerides ("Lorenzo's oil'). To investigate possible alterations of biophysical membrane properties, we measured platelet membrane anisotropy, which is inversely related to membrane fluidity, in 16 patients with and in 3 patients without treatment. In patients on treatment, platelet membrane anisotropy was significantly decreased. Additionally, we found increased platelet concentrations of 22:1 and compromised in vitro platelet aggregation response. The decrease of platelet membrane anisotropy is probably a main cause of bleeding diathesis. Long-term haematological side-effects must be considered in ALD patients treated with Lorenzo's oil.

  3. Persistent Effectivity of Gas Plasma-Treated, Long Time-Stored Liquid on Epithelial Cell Adhesion Capacity and Membrane Morphology

    PubMed Central

    Hoentsch, Maxi; Bussiahn, René; Rebl, Henrike; Bergemann, Claudia; Eggert, Martin; Frank, Marcus; von Woedtke, Thomas; Nebe, Barbara

    2014-01-01

    Research in plasma medicine includes a major interest in understanding gas plasma-cell interactions. The immediate application of gas plasma in vitro inhibits cell attachment, vitality and cell-cell contacts via the liquid. Interestingly, in our novel experiments described here we found that the liquid-mediated plasma effect is long-lasting after storage up to seven days; i. e. the liquid preserves the characteristics once induced by the argon plasma. Therefore, the complete Dulbecco's Modified Eagle cell culture medium was argon plasma-treated (atmospheric pressure, kINPen09) for 60 s, stored for several days (1, 4 and 7 d) at 37°C and added to a confluent mouse hepatocyte epithelial cell (mHepR1) monolayer. Impaired tight junction architecture as well as shortened microvilli on the cell membrane could be observed, which was accompanied by the loss of cell adhesion capacity. Online-monitoring of vital cells revealed a reduced cell respiration. Our first time-dependent analysis of plasma-treated medium revealed that temperature, hydrogen peroxide production, pH and oxygen content can be excluded as initiators of cell physiological and morphological changes. The here observed persisting biological effects in plasma-treated liquids could open new medical applications in dentistry and orthopaedics. PMID:25170906

  4. Data in support of the bone analysis of NOD-SCID mice treated with zoledronic acid and prednisolone.

    PubMed

    Hori, Naoko; Abe, Takahiro; Sato, Tsuyoshi; Kokabu, Shoichiro; Shimamura, Yumiko; Sato, Tomoya; Yoda, Tetsuya

    2016-06-01

    This paper reports data on the bone, specifically the tibia and mandible, of nonobese diabetic mice with severe combined immunodeficiency disease (NOD-SCID mice) treated with zoledronic acid (ZA) and prednisolone (PSL). The data described here are related to the research article titled "Zoledronic acid basically increases circulating soluble RANKL level in mice, and in glucocorticoid-administrated mice, more increases lymphocytes derived sRANKL by bacterial endotoxic stimuli" [1]. The present data and the NOD-SCID mice experiments described contain insights into the role of bone-remodeling factors induced by ZA treatment.

  5. [The role and limitations of litholytic therapy of cholesterin cholecystolithiasis. Results in 86 cases treated with chenic acid].

    PubMed

    Mortola, G P; Anfossi, A; Parodi, E; Cafiero, F; Pezzoli, F; Berti Riboli, E

    1980-09-01

    86 carefully selected patients with cholesterinic cholecystic lithiasis were submitted to litholytic treatment with chenodesoxycholic acid at a dose of 15 mg per kg of body weight as part of a multidisciplinary therapeutic approach to biliary lithiasis. Follow up of these patients up to 24 months showed the positive action of the drug on dyspeptic pain symptomatology, the absence of significant side effects, and the absence of hepatotoxic effects of chenic acid at therapeutic doses, as well as its effectiveness with respect to total or partial litholysis in 78% of patients. These data confirm the positive role of litholytic treatment as an alternative to cholecystectomy in highly selected patients treated at specialist centres.

  6. Determination of Free Fatty Acids and Triglycerides by Gas Chromatography Using Selective Esterification Reactions

    SciTech Connect

    Kail, Brian W; Link, Dirk D; Morreale, Bryan D

    2012-11-01

    A method for selectively determining both free fatty acids (FFA) and triacylglycerides (TAGs) in biological oils was investigated and optimized using gas chromatography after esterification of the target species to their corresponding fatty acid methyl esters (FAMEs). The method used acid catalyzed esterification in methanolic solutions under conditions of varying severity to achieve complete conversion of more reactive FFAs while preserving the concentration of TAGs. Complete conversion of both free acids and glycerides to corresponding FAMEs was found to require more rigorous reaction conditions involving heating to 120°C for up to 2 h. Method validation was provided using gas chromatography–flame ionization detection, gas chromatography–mass spectrometry, and liquid chromatography–mass spectrometry. The method improves on existing methods because it allows the total esterified lipid to be broken down by FAMEs contributed by FFA compared to FAMEs from both FFA and TAGs. Single and mixed-component solutions of pure fatty acids and triglycerides, as well as a sesame oil sample to simulate a complex biological oil, were used to optimize the methodologies. Key parameters that were investigated included: HCl-to-oil ratio, temperature and reaction time. Pure free fatty acids were found to esterify under reasonably mild conditions (10 min at 50°C with a 2.1:1 HCl to fatty acid ratio) with 97.6 ± 2.3% recovery as FAMEs, while triglycerides were largely unaffected under these reaction conditions. The optimized protocol demonstrated that it is possible to use esterification reactions to selectively determine the free acid content, total lipid content, and hence, glyceride content in biological oils. This protocol also allows gas chromatography analysis of FAMEs as a more ideal analyte than glyceride species in their native state.

  7. Preparation of sphingolipid fatty acid methyl esters for determination by gas-liquid chromatography.

    PubMed

    MacGee, J; Williams, M G

    1981-01-30

    Sphingolipid fatty acids are first converted to a mixture of free acids and their n-butyl esters by heating the specimen at 85 degree C in aqueous butanolic hydrogen chloride; the butyl esters are then saponified with methanolic potassium hydroxide. After acidification and extraction into hexane, the fatty acids are extracted into a very small volume of aqueous trimethyl(m-trifluorotolyl)ammonium hydroxide (TMTFTH), injection of an aliquot of the TMTFTH extract into the gas chromatograph yields the fatty acid methyl esters by pyrolytic methylation of the quaternary ammonium salts of the fatty acids. The preparation of a specimen ready for the gas--liquid chromatographic (GLC) analysis with quantitative recovery of the sphingolipid fatty acids can be accomplished in less than 2 h. By comparison, none of a number of well-accepted techniques for the release of sphingomyelin fatty acids by hydrolysis or methanolysis released the fatty acids quantitatively in less than 3 h, and all required additional manipulations before GLC analysis. PMID:7217267

  8. Ammonia gas sensing behavior of tanninsulfonic acid doped polyaniline-TiO₂ composite.

    PubMed

    Bairi, Venu Gopal; Bourdo, Shawn E; Sacre, Nicolas; Nair, Dev; Berry, Brian C; Biris, Alexandru S; Viswanathan, Tito

    2015-10-16

    A highly active tannin doped polyaniline-TiO₂ composite ammonia gas sensor was developed and the mechanism behind the gas sensing activity was reported for the first time. A tanninsulfonic acid doped polyaniline (TANIPANI)-titanium dioxide nanocomposite was synthesized by an in situ polymerization of aniline in the presence of tanninsulfonic acid and titanium dioxide nanoparticles. X-ray diffraction and thermogravimetric analysis were utilized to determine the incorporation of TiO₂ in TANIPANI matrix. UV-Visible and infrared spectroscopy studies provided information about the electronic interactions among tannin, polyaniline, and TiO₂. Scanning electron microscopy (SEM) along with energy dispersive X-ray spectroscopy (EDS) and atomic force microscopy (AFM) surface analysis techniques were used to investigate the metal oxide dispersions inside polyaniline matrix. Gas sensors were prepared by spin coating solutions of TANIPANI-TiO₂ and TANIPANI composites onto glass slides. Sensors were tested at three different concentrations (20 ppm, 40 ppm, and 60 ppm) of ammonia gas at ambient temperature conditions by measuring the changes in surface resistivity of the films with respect to time. Ammonia gas sensing plots are presented showing the response values, response times and recovery times. The TANIPANI-TiO₂ composite exhibited better response and shorter recovery times when compared to TANIPANI control and other polyaniline composites that have been reported in the literature. For the first time a proposed mechanism of gas sensing basing on the polaron band localization and its effects on the gas sensing behavior of polyaniline are reported.

  9. Start-up, performance and optimization of a compost biofilter treating gas-phase mixture of benzene and toluene.

    PubMed

    Rene, Eldon R; Kar, Saurajyoti; Krishnan, Jagannathan; Pakshirajan, K; López, M Estefanía; Murthy, D V S; Swaminathan, T

    2015-08-01

    The performance of a compost biofilter inoculated with mixed microbial consortium was optimized for treating a gas-phase mixture of benzene and toluene. The biofilter was acclimated to these VOCs for a period of ∼18d. The effects of concentration and flow rate on the removal efficiency (RE) and elimination capacity (EC) were investigated by varying the inlet concentration of benzene (0.12-0.95g/m(3)), toluene (0.14-1.48g/m(3)) and gas-flow rate (0.024-0.072m(3)/h). At comparable loading rates, benzene removal in the mixture was reduced in the range of 6.6-41% in comparison with the individual benzene degradation. Toluene removal in mixture was even more affected as observed from the reductions in REs, ranging from 18.4% to 76%. The results were statistically interpreted by performing an analysis of variance (ANOVA) to elucidate the main and interaction effects.

  10. Surface Remelting Treated High Velocity arc Sprayed FeNiCrAlBRE Coating by Tungsten Inert Gas

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tian, H. L.; Wei, S. C.; Chen, Y. X.; Tong, H.; Liu, Y.; Xu, B. S.

    This study aims at evaluating the effect of the TIG (Tungsten Inert Gas) remelting treatment of self-fluxing FeNiCrAlBRE alloy coatings, formed by means of high velocity arc spraying on steel surfaces. The treated and untreated samples were subjected to comparative structural examination using scanning electron microscopes. For quantitative investigation of porosity, a computer image analyser was used. Additionally, the wear resistance and wear volume loss of the worn tracks before and after the remelting process were contrastively evaluated in details. After the sprayed coatings were treated by TIG remelting in a proper conditions, the microstructure examination of the remelted coatings showed that a change of the microstructure from lamellar to cellular structure. Also, the results show that the remelting process decrease the coating defects and make the coating more wearable.

  11. A report of two cases of chronic serious manganese poisoning treated with sodium para-aminosalicylic acid.

    PubMed Central

    Ky, S Q; Deng, H S; Xie, P Y; Hu, W

    1992-01-01

    Two cases of chronic manganese poisoning were treated with sodium para-aminosalicylic acid (PAS-Na; 6 g/day in 500 ml of 10% glucose solution by intravenous drip). The results indicated that one had been clinically cured and that the other had obviously improved in clinical symptoms and signs. Thus PAS-Na appears to be an effective drug for treatment of serious chronic manganese poisoning. Images PMID:1733459

  12. LABORATORY EVALUATION OF ZERO-VALENT IRON TO TREAT GROUNDWATER IMPACTED BY ACID MINE DRAINAGE

    EPA Science Inventory

    The generation and release of acidic, metal-rich water from mine wastes continues to be an intractable environmental problem. Although the effects of acid mine drainage (AMD) are most evident in surface waters, there is an obvious need for developing cost-effective approaches fo...

  13. Changes in tissue free amino acid pools in growing chickens fed thermally treated vetch diets.

    PubMed

    Fernández-Fígares, I; Nieto, R; Aguilera, J F; Lachica, M

    2014-04-01

    A three-day assay was developed to evaluate the effect of autoclaving on protein quality of vetch as an alternative to classical growth methods. Male chickens (n = 10/diet) were given approximately isonitrogenous diets based on raw or autoclaved vetch for 3 days. Samples of plasma, muscle and liver were obtained for free amino acid analysis. Heating vetch depressed growth (11.9 vs. 23.2 g/d; p < 0.05). Plasma methionine and histidine increased (0.05 < p < 0.06), while gluconeogenic amino acids tended to decrease (p < 0.10) after heating. Muscle free amino acids did not change except for a trend to increased methionine (p = 0.06) in birds fed autoclaved vetch. In liver, most essential amino acids, glycine, proline and tyrosine increased markedly with heated vetch diet. Correlations between plasma and muscle free amino acids were poor compared with those between plasma and liver free amino acids. Liver free amino acid pool was more sensitive than muscle or plasma pool to amino acid inflow modifications after vetch heating.

  14. Process strategies to maximize lipid accumulations of novel yeast in acid and base treated hydrolyzates

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Oleaginous yeasts can accumulate up to 70% of cell biomass as lipids, predominantly as triacylglycerols. Yeast lipid fatty acid profiles have been reported to be similar to that of vegetable oils and consist primarily of oleic, palmitic, stearic, and linoleic acids. This capability provides the oppo...

  15. Fuel and lubricant additives from acid treated mixtures of vegetable oil derived amides and esters

    SciTech Connect

    Bonazza, B.R.; Devault, A.N.

    1981-05-26

    Vegetable oils such as corn oil, peanut oil, and soy oil are reacted with polyamines to form a mixture containing amides, imides, half esters, and glycerol with subsequent treatment with a strong acid such as sulfonic acid to produce a product mix that has good detergent properties in fuels and lubricants.

  16. Gene-Expression Patterns and Levels of Jasmonic Acid in Rice Treated with the Resistance Inducer 2,6-Dichloroisonicotinic Acid.

    PubMed Central

    Schweizer, P.; Buchala, A.; Metraux, J. P.

    1997-01-01

    Acquired disease resistance can be induced in rice (Oryza sativa) by a number of synthetic or natural compounds, but the molecular mechanisms behind the phenomenon are poorly understood. One of the synthetic inducers of resistance, 2,6-dichloroisonicotinic acid (INA), efficiently protected rice leaves from infection by the rice blast fungus Magnaporthe grisea (Hebert) Barr. A comparison of gene-expression patterns in plants treated with INA versus plants inoculated with the compatible pathogen M. grisea or the incompatible pathogen Pseudomonas syringae pv syringae revealed only a marginal overlap: 6 gene products, including pathogenesis-related proteins (PR1-PR9), accumulated in both INA-treated and pathogen-attacked leaves, whereas 26 other gene products accumulated only in INA-treated or only in pathogen-attacked leaves. Lipoxygenase enzyme activity and levels of nonconjugated jasmonic acid (JA) were enhanced in leaves of plants treated with a high dose of INA (100 ppm). Exogenously applied JA enhanced the gene induction and plant protection caused by lower doses of INA (0.1 to 10 ppm) that by themselves did not give rise to enhanced levels of endogenous (-)-JA. These data suggest that INA, aside from activating a pathogen-induced signaling pathway, also induces events that are not related to pathogenesis. JA acts as an enhancer of both types of INA-induced reactions in rice. PMID:12223792

  17. Citric acid effects on brain and liver oxidative stress in lipopolysaccharide-treated mice.

    PubMed

    Abdel-Salam, Omar M E; Youness, Eman R; Mohammed, Nadia A; Morsy, Safaa M Youssef; Omara, Enayat A; Sleem, Amany A

    2014-05-01

    Citric acid is a weak organic acid found in the greatest amounts in citrus fruits. This study examined the effect of citric acid on endotoxin-induced oxidative stress of the brain and liver. Mice were challenged with a single intraperitoneal dose of lipopolysaccharide (LPS; 200 μg/kg). Citric acid was given orally at 1, 2, or 4 g/kg at time of endotoxin injection and mice were euthanized 4 h later. LPS induced oxidative stress in the brain and liver tissue, resulting in marked increase in lipid peroxidation (malondialdehyde [MDA]) and nitrite, while significantly decreasing reduced glutathione, glutathione peroxidase (GPx), and paraoxonase 1 (PON1) activity. Tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-α) showed a pronounced increase in brain tissue after endotoxin injection. The administration of citric acid (1-2 g/kg) attenuated LPS-induced elevations in brain MDA, nitrite, TNF-α, GPx, and PON1 activity. In the liver, nitrite was decreased by 1 g/kg citric acid. GPx activity was increased, while PON1 activity was decreased by citric acid. The LPS-induced liver injury, DNA fragmentation, serum transaminase elevations, caspase-3, and inducible nitric oxide synthase expression were attenuated by 1-2 g/kg citric acid. DNA fragmentation, however, increased after 4 g/kg citric acid. Thus in this model of systemic inflammation, citric acid (1-2 g/kg) decreased brain lipid peroxidation and inflammation, liver damage, and DNA fragmentation.

  18. Citric Acid Effects on Brain and Liver Oxidative Stress in Lipopolysaccharide-Treated Mice

    PubMed Central

    Youness, Eman R.; Mohammed, Nadia A.; Morsy, Safaa M. Youssef; Omara, Enayat A.; Sleem, Amany A.

    2014-01-01

    Abstract Citric acid is a weak organic acid found in the greatest amounts in citrus fruits. This study examined the effect of citric acid on endotoxin-induced oxidative stress of the brain and liver. Mice were challenged with a single intraperitoneal dose of lipopolysaccharide (LPS; 200 μg/kg). Citric acid was given orally at 1, 2, or 4 g/kg at time of endotoxin injection and mice were euthanized 4 h later. LPS induced oxidative stress in the brain and liver tissue, resulting in marked increase in lipid peroxidation (malondialdehyde [MDA]) and nitrite, while significantly decreasing reduced glutathione, glutathione peroxidase (GPx), and paraoxonase 1 (PON1) activity. Tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-α) showed a pronounced increase in brain tissue after endotoxin injection. The administration of citric acid (1–2 g/kg) attenuated LPS-induced elevations in brain MDA, nitrite, TNF-α, GPx, and PON1 activity. In the liver, nitrite was decreased by 1 g/kg citric acid. GPx activity was increased, while PON1 activity was decreased by citric acid. The LPS-induced liver injury, DNA fragmentation, serum transaminase elevations, caspase-3, and inducible nitric oxide synthase expression were attenuated by 1–2 g/kg citric acid. DNA fragmentation, however, increased after 4 g/kg citric acid. Thus in this model of systemic inflammation, citric acid (1–2 g/kg) decreased brain lipid peroxidation and inflammation, liver damage, and DNA fragmentation. PMID:24433072

  19. Induction of cellular deoxyribonucleic acid synthesis in butyrate-treated cells by simian virus 40 deoxyribonucleic acid

    SciTech Connect

    Kawasaki, S.; Diamond, L.; Baserga, R.

    1981-11-01

    Sodium butyrate (3mM) inhibited the entry into the S phase of quiescent 3T3 cells stimulated by serum, but had no effect on the accumulation of cellular ribonucleic acid. Simian virus 40 infection or manual microinjection of cloned fragments from the simian virus 40 A gene caused quiescent 3T3 cells to enter the S phase even in the presence of butyrate. NGI cells, a line of 3T3 cells transformed by simian virus 40, grew vigorously in 3 mM butyrate. Homokaryons were formed between G/sub 1/ and S-phase 3T3 cells. Butyrate inhibited the induction of deoxyribonucleic acid synthesis that usually occurs in G/sub 1/ nuclei when G/sub 1/ cells are fused with S-phase cells. However, when G/sub 1/ 3T3 cells were fused with exponentially growing NGI cells, the 3T3 nuclei were induced to enter deoxyribonucleic acid synthesis. In tsAF8 cells, a ribonucleic acid polymerase II mutant that stops in the G/sub 1/ phase of the cell cycle, no temporal sequence was demonstrated between the butyrate block and the temperature-sensitive block. These results confirm previous reports that certain virally coded proteins can induce cell deoxyribonucleic acid synthesis in the absence of cellular functions that are required by serum-stimulated cells. The author's interpretation of these data is that butyrate inhibited cell growth by inhibiting the expression of genes required for the G/sub o/ ..-->.. G/sub 1/ ..-->.. S transition and that the product of the simian virus 40 A gene overrode this inhibition by providing all of the necessary functions for the entry into the S phase.

  20. Electrochemical formation of hydroxide for enhancing carbon dioxide and acid gas uptake by a solution

    DOEpatents

    Rau, Gregory Hudson

    2012-05-15

    A system is described for forming metal hydroxide from a metal carbonate utilizing a water electrolysis cell having an acid-producing anode and a hydroxyl-producing cathode immersed in a water solution of sufficient ionic content to allow an electric current to pass between the hydroxyl-producing cathode and the acid-producing anode. A metal carbonate, in particular water-insoluble calcium carbonate or magnesium carbonate, is placed in close proximity to the acid-producing anode. A direct current electrical voltage is provided across the acid-producing anode and the hydroxyl-producing cathode sufficient to generate acid at the acid-producing anode and hydroxyl ions at the hydroxyl-producing cathode. The acid dissolves at least part of the metal carbonate into metal and carbonate ions allowing the metal ions to travel toward the hydroxyl-producing cathode and to combine with the hydroxyl ions to form the metal hydroxide. The carbonate ions travel toward the acid-producing anode and form carbonic acid and/or water and carbon dioxide. Among other uses, the metal hydroxide formed can be employed to absorb acid gases such as carbon dioxide from a gas mixture. The invention can also generate hydrogen and oxidative gases such as oxygen or chlorine.

  1. Hydrophobic amino acids as a new class of kinetic inhibitors for gas hydrate formation

    PubMed Central

    Sa, Jeong-Hoon; Kwak, Gye-Hoon; Lee, Bo Ram; Park, Da-Hye; Han, Kunwoo; Lee, Kun-Hong

    2013-01-01

    As the foundation of energy industry moves towards gas, flow assurance technology preventing pipelines from hydrate blockages becomes increasingly significant. However, the principle of hydrate inhibition is still poorly understood. Here, we examined natural hydrophobic amino acids as novel kinetic hydrate inhibitors (KHIs), and investigated hydrate inhibition phenomena by using them as a model system. Amino acids with lower hydrophobicity were found to be better KHIs to delay nucleation and retard growth, working by disrupting the water hydrogen bond network, while those with higher hydrophobicity strengthened the local water structure. It was found that perturbation of the water structure around KHIs plays a critical role in hydrate inhibition. This suggestion of a new class of KHIs will aid development of KHIs with enhanced biodegradability, and the present findings will accelerate the improved control of hydrate formation for natural gas exploitation and the utilization of hydrates as next-generation gas capture media. PMID:23938301

  2. Hydrophobic amino acids as a new class of kinetic inhibitors for gas hydrate formation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sa, Jeong-Hoon; Kwak, Gye-Hoon; Lee, Bo Ram; Park, Da-Hye; Han, Kunwoo; Lee, Kun-Hong

    2013-08-01

    As the foundation of energy industry moves towards gas, flow assurance technology preventing pipelines from hydrate blockages becomes increasingly significant. However, the principle of hydrate inhibition is still poorly understood. Here, we examined natural hydrophobic amino acids as novel kinetic hydrate inhibitors (KHIs), and investigated hydrate inhibition phenomena by using them as a model system. Amino acids with lower hydrophobicity were found to be better KHIs to delay nucleation and retard growth, working by disrupting the water hydrogen bond network, while those with higher hydrophobicity strengthened the local water structure. It was found that perturbation of the water structure around KHIs plays a critical role in hydrate inhibition. This suggestion of a new class of KHIs will aid development of KHIs with enhanced biodegradability, and the present findings will accelerate the improved control of hydrate formation for natural gas exploitation and the utilization of hydrates as next-generation gas capture media.

  3. Keto acid profiling analysis as ethoxime/tert-butyldimethylsilyl derivatives by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry.

    PubMed

    Nguyen, Duc-Toan; Lee, Gwang; Paik, Man-Jeong

    2013-01-15

    Organic acids, including keto acids, are key intermediates of central pathways in cellular metabolism. In this study, a comprehensive and reliable method was developed and optimized for the simultaneous measurement of 17 keto acids in various biological samples. The keto acids were converted to solvent extractable forms by ethoximation followed by tert-butyldimethylsilylation for direct analysis by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry in selected ion monitoring mode. The proposed method was precise (0.05-8.3, % RSD) and accurate (-10.5 to 5.3, % RE) with low limit of detection (0.01-0.5ng/mL) and good linearity (r>0.995) in the range of 0.01-5.0μg/mL. This was suitable for profiling analysis of targeted keto acids in human plasma, urine and rat brain tissue.

  4. The basic chemistry of gas recombination in lead-acid batteries

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nelson, Robert

    2001-01-01

    Oxygen-recombination chemistry has been wedded to traditional lead-acid battery technology to produce so-called sealed, or valve-regulated, lead-acid products. Early attempts to incorporate recombination into lead-acid batteries were unsuccessful because of excessive cost, size, and/or complexity, and none were effectively commercialized. Over the past 20 years, recombination systems have been developed and are under going an extensive program of definition and refinement at many battery companies. This paper presents the basic chemistry of oxygen recombination in lead-acid cells and briefly compares it with the more highly developed nickel-cadmium system, which also operates on the oxygen cycle. Aspects of gas and thermal management relevant to valve-regulated lead-acid batteries are discussed in some detail.

  5. Gas chromatography-vacuum ultraviolet spectroscopy for analysis of fatty acid methyl esters.

    PubMed

    Fan, Hui; Smuts, Jonathan; Bai, Ling; Walsh, Phillip; Armstrong, Daniel W; Schug, Kevin A

    2016-03-01

    A new vacuum ultraviolet (VUV) detector for gas chromatography was recently developed and applied to fatty acid methyl ester (FAME) analysis. VUV detection features full spectral acquisition in a wavelength range of 115-240nm, where virtually all chemical species absorb. VUV absorption spectra of 37 FAMEs, including saturated, monounsaturated, and polyunsaturated types were recorded. Unsaturated FAMEs show significantly different gas phase absorption profiles than saturated ones, and these classes can be easily distinguished with the VUV detector. Another advantage includes differentiating cis/trans-isomeric FAMEs (e.g. oleic acid methyl ester and linoleic acid methyl ester isomers) and the ability to use VUV data analysis software for deconvolution of co-eluting signals. As a universal detector, VUV also provides high specificity, sensitivity, and a fast data acquisition rate, making it a powerful tool for fatty acid screening when combined with gas chromatography. The fatty acid profile of several food oil samples (olive, canola, vegetable, corn, sunflower and peanut oils) were analyzed in this study to demonstrate applicability to real world samples.

  6. Gas-Phase Reactivity of Carboxylic Acid Functional Groups with Carbodiimides

    PubMed Central

    Prentice, Boone M.; Gilbert, Joshua D.; Stutzman, John R.; Forrest, William P.; McLuckey, Scott A.

    2012-01-01

    Gas-phase modification of carboxylic acid functionalities is performed via ion/ion reactions with carbodiimide reagents [N-cyclohexyl-N′-(2-morpholinoethyl)carbodiimide (CMC) and [3-(3-Ethylcarbodiimide-1-yl)propyl]trimethylaminium (ECPT). Gas-phase ion/ion covalent chemistry requires the formation of a long-lived complex. In this instance, the complex is stabilized by an electrostatic interaction between the fixed charge quaternary ammonium group of the carbodiimide reagent cation and the analyte dianion. Subsequent activation results in characteristic loss of an isocyanate derivative from one side of the carbodiimide functionality, a signature for this covalent chemistry. The resulting amide bond is formed on the analyte at the site of the original carboxylic acid. Reactions involving analytes that do not contain available carboxylic acid groups (e.g., they have been converted to sodium salts) or reagents that do not have the carbodiimide functionality do not undergo a covalent reaction. This chemistry is demonstrated using PAMAM generation 0.5 dendrimer, ethylenediaminetetraacetic acid (EDTA), and the model peptide DGAILDGAILD. This work demonstrates the selective gas-phase covalent modification of carboxylic acid functionalities. PMID:23208744

  7. Nitric acid treated multi-walled carbon nanotubes optimized by Taguchi method

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shamsuddin, Shahidah Arina; Derman, Mohd Nazree; Hashim, Uda; Kashif, Muhammad; Adam, Tijjani; Halim, Nur Hamidah Abdul; Tahir, Muhammad Faheem Mohd

    2016-07-01

    Electron transfer rate (ETR) of CNTs can be enhanced by increasing the amounts of COOH groups to their wall and opened tips. With the aim to achieve the highest production amount of COOH, Taguchi robust design has been used for the first time to optimize the surface modification of MWCNTs by nitric acid oxidation. Three main oxidation parameters which are concentration of acid, treatment temperature and treatment time have been selected as the control factors that will be optimized. The amounts of COOH produced are measured by using FTIR spectroscopy through the absorbance intensity. From the analysis, we found that acid concentration and treatment time had the most important influence on the production of COOH. Meanwhile, the treatment temperature will only give intermediate effect. The optimum amount of COOH can be achieved with the treatment by 8.0 M concentration of nitric acid at 120 °C for 2 hour.

  8. METABOLISM, MICROFLORA EFFECTS, AND GENOTOXICITY IN HALOACETIC ACID-TREATED CULTURES OF RAT CECAL MICROBIOTA

    EPA Science Inventory

    Haloacetic acids are by-products of drinking water disinfection. Several compounds in this class are genotoxic and have been identified as rodent hepatocarcinogens. Enzymes produced by the normal intestinal bacteria can transform some promutagens and procarcinogens to their bio...

  9. Regeneration of an aqueous solution from an acid gas absorption process by matrix stripping

    DOEpatents

    Rochelle, Gary T.; Oyenekan, Babatunde A.

    2011-03-08

    Carbon dioxide and other acid gases are removed from gaseous streams using aqueous absorption and stripping processes. By replacing the conventional stripper used to regenerate the aqueous solvent and capture the acid gas with a matrix stripping configuration, less energy is consumed. The matrix stripping configuration uses two or more reboiled strippers at different pressures. The rich feed from the absorption equipment is split among the strippers, and partially regenerated solvent from the highest pressure stripper flows to the middle of sequentially lower pressure strippers in a "matrix" pattern. By selecting certain parameters of the matrix stripping configuration such that the total energy required by the strippers to achieve a desired percentage of acid gas removal from the gaseous stream is minimized, further energy savings can be realized.

  10. The removal torque of titanium screw inserted in rabbit tibia treated by dual acid etching.

    PubMed

    Cho, Sung-Am; Park, Kyung-Tae

    2003-09-01

    Chemical acid etching alone of the titanium implant surface have the potential to greatly enhance osseointegration without adding particulate matter (e.g. TPS or hydroxyapatite) or embedding surface contaminants (e.g. grit particles). The aims of the present study were to evaluate any differences between the machined and dual acid etching implants with the removal torque as well as topographic analysis. A total of 40 custom-made, screw-shaped, commercially pure titanium implants with length of 5 mm and an outer diameter of 3.75 mm were divided into 4 groups, 10 screws in each, and chemical modification of the titanium implant surfaces were achieved using HF and HCl/H(2)SO(4) dual acid etching. The first exposure was to hydrofluoric acid and the second was to a combination of hydrochloric acid and sulfuric acid. The tibia metaphysics was exposed by incisions through the skin, fascia, and periosteum. One implant of each group was inserted in every rabbit, 2 in each proximal tibia metaphysics. Every rabbit received 3 implants with acid etched surfaces and 1 implant with a machined surface. Twelve weeks post-surgically, 7 rabbits were sacrificed, Subsequently, the leg was stabilized and the implant was removed under reverse torque rotation with a digital torque gauge (Mark-10 Corporation, USA) (Fig. 1). Twelve weeks after implant placement, the removal torque mean values were the dual acid etched implants (24%HF+HCl/H(2)SO(4), group C) required a higher average force (34.7 Ncm), than the machined surface implants (group A) (p=0.045) (Mann-Whiteney test). Scanning electron micrographs of acid etching of the titanium surface created an even distribution of very small (1-2 microm) peaks and valleys, while machining of the titanium surface created typical microscopically grooved surface characteristics. Nonetheless, there was no difference in surface topography between each acid etched implant groups. Therefore, chemically acid etching implant surfaces have higher

  11. Noxious sensory perceptions in patients with mild to moderate rosacea treated with azelaic acid 15% gel.

    PubMed

    Draelos, Zoe Diana

    2004-10-01

    Patients with rosacea form a unique subset of the sensitive skin population because of the barrier defects inherent in this condition and the increased propensity for burning/stinging from topical products. This propensity for burning/ stinging when medications, skin care products, or cosmetics are applied to the facial skin has been frequently documented but never quantified. The objective of this 2-week study was to determine the prevalence of heightened neurosensory perceptions of burning/stinging in a random population of 40 women with mild to moderate rosacea defined as 15 or fewer inflammatory papules or pustules. Also evaluated was the effect of azelaic acid 15% gel on barrier function and facial stinging utilizing transepidermal water loss (TEWL), corneometry, and lactic acid facial sting tests as noninvasive measurement criteria. At baseline, the incidence of lactic acid stinging among these rosacea subjects was 62.5%, which is substantially higher than observed in the general population. Two weeks after application of azelaic acid 15% gel, no evidence of barrier damage was noted on TEWL or corneometry tests. Moreover, there was no statistical relationship between lactic acid stinging and a stinging response that is occasionally reported with exposure to azelaic acid 15% gel. PMID:15551720

  12. Decay resistance of wood treated with boric acid and tall oil derivates.

    PubMed

    Temiz, Ali; Alfredsen, Gry; Eikenes, Morten; Terziev, Nasko

    2008-05-01

    In this study, the effect of two boric acid concentrations (1% and 2%) and four derivates of tall oil with varying chemical composition were tested separately and in combination. The tall oil derivates were chosen in a way that they consist of different amounts of free fatty, resin acids and neutral compounds. Decay tests using two brown rot fungi (Postia placenta and Coniophora puteana) were performed on both unleached and leached test samples. Boric acid showed a low weight loss in test samples when exposed to fungal decay before leaching, but no effect after leaching. The tall oil derivates gave better efficacy against decay fungi compared to control, but are not within the range of the efficacy needed for a wood preservative. Double impregnation with boric acid and tall oil derivates gave synergistic effects for several of the double treatments both in unleached and leached samples. In the unleached samples the double treatment gave a better efficacy against decay fungi than tall oil alone. In leached samples a better efficacy against brown rot fungi were achieved than in samples with boron alone and a nearly similar or better efficacy than for tall oil alone. Boric acid at 2% concentration combined with the tall oil derivate consisting of 90% free resin acids (TO-III) showed the best performance against the two decay fungi with a weight loss less than 3% after a modified pure culture test.

  13. Effect of citric acid irrigation on the fracture resistance of endodontically treated roots

    PubMed Central

    Arslan, Hakan; Barutcigil, Cagatay; Karatas, Ertugrul; Topcuoglu, Huseyin Sinan; Yeter, Kubra Yesildal; Ersoy, Ibrahim; Ayrancı, Leyla Benan

    2014-01-01

    Objective: The aim of this study was to evaluate the effect of citric acid irrigation on root fracture in different concentrations and at various time exposures on root fracture. Materials and Methods: Forty-eight human mandibular incisors with similar dimensions were selected. The specimens were decoronated, then divided into 6 groups as follows: A group without instrumentation and filling (G1) and the 5 other groups with canal preparation and irrigation of distilled water (G2), 10% citric acid for 1 min (G3), 50% citric acid for 1 min (G4), 10% citric acid for 10 min (G5), and 50% citric acid for 10 min (G6). In the experimental groups, the canals were obturated and subjected to the strength test. Statistical analysis was performed using Kruskal-Wallis test (P = 0.05). Results: G6 showed the highest fracture resistance (629.97 N), and G3 showed the lowest fracture resistance (507.76 N). However, there was no statistically significant difference among the groups. Conclusions: The results of this study suggest that use of citric acid is safe in terms of fracture resistance. PMID:24966750

  14. Sustainable production of acrylic acid: alkali-ion exchanged beta zeolite for gas-phase dehydration of lactic acid.

    PubMed

    Yan, Bo; Tao, Li-Zhi; Liang, Yu; Xu, Bo-Qing

    2014-06-01

    Gas-phase dehydration of lactic acid (LA) to acrylic acid (AA) was investigated over alkali-exchanged β zeolite (M(x)Na(1-x)β, M=Li(+), K(+), Rb(+), or Cs(+)) of different exchange degrees (x). The reaction was conducted under varying conditions to understand the catalyst selectivity for AA production and trends of byproduct formation. The nature and exchange degree of M(+) were found to be critical for the acid-base properties and catalytic performance of the exchanged zeolite. K(x)Na(1-x)β of x=0.94 appeared to be the best performing catalyst whereas Li(x)Na(1-x)β and Naβ were the poorest in terms of AA selectivity and yield. The AA yield as high as 61 mol % (selectivity: 64 mol %) could be obtained under optimized reaction conditions for up to 8 h over the best performing K0.94Na0.06β. The acid and base properties of the catalysts were probed, respectively by temperature-programmed desorption (TPD) of adsorbed NH3 and CO2, and were related to the electrostatic potentials of the alkali ions in the zeolite, which provided a basis for the discussion of the acid-base catalysis for sustainable AA formation from LA.

  15. Re-use of stabilised flue gas ashes from solid waste incineration in cement-treated base layers for pavements.

    PubMed

    Cai, Zuansi; Jensen, Dorthe L; Christensen, Thomas H; Bager, Dirch H

    2003-02-01

    Fly ash from coal-burning power plants has been used extensively as a pozzolan and fine filler in concrete for many years. Laboratory experiments were performed investigating the effect of substituting the coal-based fly ash with chemically stabilised flue gas ashes (FGA) from waste incineration. Two types of FGA were treated by the Ferrox-process, which removes the majority of the easily soluble salts in the FGA and provides binding sites for heavy metals in terms of ferrihydrite. Cubes of cement treated base layer materials containing 5% stabilised FGA were cast, sealed and cured for two weeks. Cylinders (diameter 100 mm, length 150 mm) were drilled from these cubes for tank leaching experiments. Duplicate specimens were subject to compression strength testing and to tank leaching experiments. The compressive strength of the CTB fulfilled the Danish requirements for CTB, i.e. strength more than 5 MPa after 7 days. The tank leaching tests revealed that leaching of heavy metals was not significantly affected by the use of chemically stabilised flue gas ashes from waste incineration. Assuming that diffusion controls the leaching process it was calculated that less than 1% of the metals would leach during a 100-year period from a 0.5 m thick concrete slab exposed to water on one side. Leaching of the common ions Ca, Cl, Na and SO4 was increased 3-20 times from the specimens with chemically stabilised flue gas ashes from waste incineration. However, the quantities leached were still modest. These experiments suggest that FGA from waste incineration after Ferrox-treatment could be re-used in CTB without compromising the strength and leaching from the base layer.

  16. Thiourea-treated graphene aerogel as a highly selective gas sensor for sensing of trace level of ammonia.

    PubMed

    Alizadeh, Taher; Ahmadian, Farzaneh

    2015-10-15

    As a result of this study, a new and simple method was proposed for the fabrication of an ultra sensitive, robust and reversible ammonia gas sensor. The sensing mechanism was based upon the change in electrical resistance of a graphene aerogel as a result of sensor exposing to ammonia. Three-dimensional graphene hydrogel was first synthesized via hydrothermal method in the absence or presence of various amounts of thiourea. The obtained material was heated to obtain aerogel and then it was used as ammonia gas sensor. The materials obtained were characterized using different techniques such as Fourier transform infra red spectroscopy (FT-IR), thermal gravimetric analysis (TGA), X-ray diffraction (XRD) and scanning electron microscopy (SEM). The thiourea-treated graphene aerogel was more porous (389 m(2) g(-1)) and thermally unstable and exhibited higher sensitivity, shorter response time and better selectivity toward ammonia gas, compared to the aerogel produced in the absence of thiourea. Thiourea amount, involved in the hydrogel synthesis step, was found to be highly effective factor in the sensing properties of finally obtained aerogel. The sensor response time to ammonia was short (100 s) and completely reversible (recovery time of about 500 s) in ambient temperature. The sensor response to ammonia was linear between 0.02 and 85 ppm and its detection limit was found to be 10 ppb (3S/N).

  17. CO2 sequestration using accelerated gas-solid carbonation of pre-treated EAF steel-making bag house dust.

    PubMed

    El-Naas, Muftah H; El Gamal, Maisa; Hameedi, Suhaib; Mohamed, Abdel-Mohsen O

    2015-06-01

    Mineral CO2 sequestration is a promising process for the reduction of carbon dioxide emissions to the atmosphere. In this paper, alkaline calcium-rich dust particles collected from bag filters of electric arc furnaces (EAF) for steel making were utilized as a viable raw material for mineral CO2 sequestration. The dust particles were pre-treated through hydration, drying and screening. The pre-treated particles were then subjected to direct gas-solid carbonation reaction in a fluidized-bed reactor. The carbonated products were characterized to determine the overall sequestration capacity and the mineralogical structures. Leaching tests were also performed to measure the extracted minerals from the carbonated dust and evaluate the carbonation process on dust stabilization. The experimental results indicated that CO2 could be sequestered using the pre-treated bag house dust. The maximum sequestration of CO2 was 0.657 kg/kg of dust, based on the total calcium content. The highest degree of carbonation achieved was 42.5% and the carbonation efficiency was 69% at room temperature.

  18. A comparison of the gas phase acidities of phospholipid headgroups: experimental and computational studies.

    PubMed

    Thomas, Michael C; Mitchell, Todd W; Blanksby, Stephen J

    2005-06-01

    Proton-bound dimers consisting of two glycerophospholipids with different headgroups were prepared using negative ion electrospray ionization and dissociated in a triple quadrupole mass spectrometer. Analysis of the tandem mass spectra of the dimers using the kinetic method provides, for the first time, an order of acidity for the phospholipid classes in the gas phase of PE < PA < PG < PS < PI. Hybrid density functional calculations on model phospholipids were used to predict the absolute deprotonation enthalpies of the phospholipid classes from isodesmic proton transfer reactions with phosphoric acid. The computational data largely support the experimental acidity trend, with the exception of the relative acidity ranking of the two most acidic phospholipid species. Possible causes of the discrepancy between experiment and theory are discussed and the experimental trend is recommended. The sequence of gas phase acidities for the phospholipid headgroups is found to (1) have little correlation with the relative ionization efficiencies of the phospholipid classes observed in the negative ion electrospray process, and (2) correlate well with fragmentation trends observed upon collisional activation of phospholipid [M - H](-) anions. PMID:15907707

  19. CONJUGATED LINOLEIC ACIDS (CLA) DECREASE THE BREAST CANCER RISK IN DMBA-TREATED RATS.

    PubMed

    Białek, Agnieszka; Tokarz, Andrzej; Zagrodzki, Paweł

    2016-01-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate how supplementation of diet of female Sprague-Dawley rats with different doses of conjugated linoleic acids and for a varied period of time influences breast cancer risk, fatty acids profile and lipids peroxidation in chemically induced mammary tumors. Animals were divided into nine groups with different modifications of diet (vegetable oil, 1.0 or 2.0% of CLA) and period of supplementation, which lasted after (A), before (B) and before and after (BA) carcinogenic agent--7,12-dimethylbenz[a]anthracene administration at 50th day of life. Mammary adenocarcinomas occurred in all groups, but CLA supplementation decreased the cancer morbidity. Two percent CLA seems to be excessive because of the coexisting cachexia. Two CLA isomers (9-cis, 11-trans and 10-trans, 12-cis) were detected in tumors but content of rumenic acid was higher. Dietary supplementation significantly influenced some unsaturated fatty acids content (C18:2 n-6 trans, C20:1, C20:5 n-3, C22:2), but the anti- or prooxidant properties of CLA were not confirmed. CLA can inhibit chemically induced mammary tumors development in female rats, but their cytotoxic action seems not to be connected with lipids peroxidation. CLA isomers differ with their incorporation into cancerous tissues and they influence the content of some other fatty acids. PMID:27180424

  20. Ultrastructural Analysis of Leishmania infantum chagasi Promastigotes Forms Treated In Vitro with Usnic Acid

    PubMed Central

    da Luz, João S. B.; de Oliveira, Erwelly B.; Martins, Monica C. B.; da Silva, Nicácio H.; Alves, Luiz C.; dos Santos, Fábio A. B.; da Silva, Luiz L. S.; Silva, Eliete C.; de Medeiros, Paloma L.

    2015-01-01

    Leishmaniasis is considered by the World Health Organization as one of the infectious parasitic diseases endemic of great relevance and a global public health problem. Pentavalent antimonials used for treatment of this disease are limited and new phytochemicals emerge as an alternative to existing treatments, due to the low toxicity and cost reduction. Usnic acid is uniquely found in lichens and is especially abundant in genera such as Alectoria, Cladonia, Evernia, Lecanora, Ramalina, and Usnea. Usnic acid has been shown to exhibit antiviral, antiprotozoal, antiproliferative, anti-inflammatory, and analgesic activity. The aim of this study was to evaluate the antileishmanial activity of usnic acid on Leishmania infantum chagasi promastigotes and the occurrence of drug-induced ultrastructural damage in the parasite. Usnic acid was effective against the promastigote forms (IC50 = 18.30 ± 2.00 µg/mL). Structural and ultrastructural aspects of parasite were analyzed. Morphological alterations were observed as blebs in cell membrane and shapes given off, increasing the number of cytoplasmic vacuoles, and cellular and mitochondrial swelling, with loss of cell polarity. We concluded that the usnic acid presented antileishmanial activity against promastigote forms of Leishmania infantum chagasi and structural and ultrastructural analysis reinforces its cytotoxicity. Further, in vitro studies are warranted to further evaluate this potential. PMID:25767824

  1. Alteration in the fatty acid composition of liver, kidney and plasma from diethylhexyl phthalate-treated rats

    SciTech Connect

    Okita, J.R.; Okita, R.T. )

    1990-02-26

    Cytochromes P-450 are induced in rat liver microsomes by a number of compounds which cause peroxisome proliferation. One such compound, diethylhexyl phthalate (DEHP), induces P-450 IVA1 which catalyzes {omega}- and ({omega}-1)-hydroxylation of fatty acids. In liver of rats fed DEHP, there is a 10-fold induction of {omega}-hydroxylation of laurate and ({omega}-1)-hydroxylation of palmitate, as compared to control rat liver. There is a 3-fold induction of other hydroxylations, such as W-hydroxylation of palmitate and {omega}- ({omega}-1)-hydroxylation of syristate. Despite these increases in hydroxylase activity, the authors have not been able to demonstrate increases in hydroxy fatty acids or dicarboxylic acids in liver or plasma of rats fed DEHP. However, alterations in the fatty acid composition of lipids in liver, kidney cortex and plasma were observed. They consistently observed increases in oleate (expressed as mol% of total fatty acid) in liver (11% in control increased to 24% in DEHP-treated), kidney cortex (12% to 16%) and plasma (13% to 24%). This increase in oleate was quite striking when expressed as ug/gm tissue or ug/al plasma. DEHP treatment resulted in increased oleate in mitochondrial, microsomal and cytosolic fractions of liver.

  2. Citric acid and ethylene diamine tetra-acetic acid as effective washing agents to treat sewage sludge for agricultural reuse.

    PubMed

    Ren, Xianghao; Yan, Rui; Wang, Hong-Cheng; Kou, Ying-Ying; Chae, Kyu-Jung; Kim, In S; Park, Yong-Jin; Wang, Ai-Jie

    2015-12-01

    This paper presents the effects of different concentrations of citric acid (CA) and ethylene diamine tetra-acetic acid (EDTA) when used as additive reagents for the treatment of sewage sludge for agricultural use. Herein, both the retention of nutrients and removal of metals from the sewage sludge are examined. The average removal rate for the metals after treatment by CA decreased in the order Cu>Pb>Cd>Cr>Zn, while the rates after treatment by EDTA decreased in the order of Pb>Cu>Cr>Cd>Zn. After treatment with CA and EDTA, total nitrogen and total phosphorus concentrations in the sludge decreased, while the content of available nitrogen and Olsen-P increased. In addition, a multi-criteria analysis model-fuzzy analytic network process method (with 3 main factors and 12 assessment sub-factors) was adopted to evaluate the effectiveness of different treatment methods. The results showed that the optimal CA and EDTA concentrations for sewage sludge treatment were 0.60 and 0.125 mol/L, respectively.

  3. Citric acid and ethylene diamine tetra-acetic acid as effective washing agents to treat sewage sludge for agricultural reuse.

    PubMed

    Ren, Xianghao; Yan, Rui; Wang, Hong-Cheng; Kou, Ying-Ying; Chae, Kyu-Jung; Kim, In S; Park, Yong-Jin; Wang, Ai-Jie

    2015-12-01

    This paper presents the effects of different concentrations of citric acid (CA) and ethylene diamine tetra-acetic acid (EDTA) when used as additive reagents for the treatment of sewage sludge for agricultural use. Herein, both the retention of nutrients and removal of metals from the sewage sludge are examined. The average removal rate for the metals after treatment by CA decreased in the order Cu>Pb>Cd>Cr>Zn, while the rates after treatment by EDTA decreased in the order of Pb>Cu>Cr>Cd>Zn. After treatment with CA and EDTA, total nitrogen and total phosphorus concentrations in the sludge decreased, while the content of available nitrogen and Olsen-P increased. In addition, a multi-criteria analysis model-fuzzy analytic network process method (with 3 main factors and 12 assessment sub-factors) was adopted to evaluate the effectiveness of different treatment methods. The results showed that the optimal CA and EDTA concentrations for sewage sludge treatment were 0.60 and 0.125 mol/L, respectively. PMID:26235448

  4. Oxidative degradation of organic acids conjugated with sulfite oxidation in flue gas desulfurization

    SciTech Connect

    Lee, Y.I.

    1986-01-01

    Organic acid degradation conjugated with sulfite oxidation has been studied under flue gas desulfurization (EGD) conditions. The oxidative degradation constant, k/sub 12/, is defined as the ratio of organic acid degradation rate and sulfite oxidation rate after being normalized by the concentrations of organic acid and dissolved S(IV). K/sub 12/, not significantly affected by pH or dissolved oxygen, is around 10/sup -3/ in the absence of manganese or iron. However, k/sub 12/ is increased by certain transition metals such as Co, Ni, and Fe and is decreased by Mn and halides. Lower dissolved S(IV) magnified these effects. No k/sub 12/ greater than 4 x 10/sup -3/ or smaller than 0.1 x 10/sup -3/ has been observed. A free radical mechanism was proposed to describe the kinetics: (1) sulfate free radical is the major radical responsible to the degradation of organic acid; (2) ferrous generates sulfate radical by reacting with monoxypersulfate to enhance k/sub 12/; (3) manganous consumes sulfate radical to decrease k/sub 12/; (4) dissolved S(IV) competes with ferrous for monoxypersulfate and with manganous for sulfate radical to demonstrate the effects of dissolved S(IV) on k/sub 12/. Hydroxy and sulfonated carboxylic acids degrade approximately three times slower than saturated dicarboxylic acids; while maleic acid, an unsaturated dicarboxylic acid, degraded an order of magnitude faster. A wide spectrum of degradation products of adipic acid were found, including carbon dioxide - the major product, glutaric semialdehyde - the major retained product with low manganese, glutaric acid and valeric acids - the major retained product with high manganese, lower molecular weight mono- and dicarboxylic acids, other carbonyl compounds, and hydrocarbons.

  5. Activated carbon cleanup of the acid gas feed to Claus sulfur plants

    SciTech Connect

    Harruff, L.G.; Bushkuhl, S.J.

    1996-12-31

    This paper presents the details of a recently developed novel process using activated carbon to remove hydrocarbon contaminants from the acid gas feed to Claus sulfur recovery units. Heavy hydrocarbons, particularly benzene, toluene and xylene (BTX) have been linked to coke formation and catalyst deactivation in Claus converters. This deactivation results in reduced sulfur recovery and increased sulfur emissions from these plants. This effect is especially evident in split flow Claus plants which bypass some of the acid gas feed stream around the initial combustion step because of a low hydrogen sulfide concentration. This new clean-up process was proven to be capable of removing 95% of the BTX and other C{sub 6}{sup +} hydrocarbons from acid gas over a wide range of actual plant conditions. Following the adsorption step, the activated carbon was easily regenerated using low pressure steam. A post regeneration drying step using plant fuel gas also proved beneficial. This technology was extensively pilot tested in Saudi Aramco`s facilities in Saudi Arabia. Full scale commercial units are planned for two plants in the near future with the first coming on-line in 1997. The process described here represents the first application of activated carbon in this service, and a patent has been applied for. The paper will discuss the pilot plant results and the issues involved in scale-up to commercial size.

  6. H2S gas biological removal efficiency and bacterial community diversity in biofilter treating wastewater odor.

    PubMed

    Omri, Ilhem; Bouallagui, Hassib; Aouidi, Fathia; Godon, Jean-Jacques; Hamdi, Moktar

    2011-11-01

    The objective of this study was to assess the feasibility of using a biofilter system to treat hydrogen sulfide (H2S) contaminated air and to characterize its microbial community. The biofilter system was packed with peat. During the experimental work, the peat was divided in three layers (down, middle, and up). Satisfactory removal efficiencies of H2S were proved and reached 99% for the majority of the run time at an empty bed retention time (EBRT) of 60 s. The polymerase chain reaction-single strand conformation polymorphism (PCR-SSCP) method was used to uncover the changes in the microbial community between the different layers. Analysis of SSCP profiles demonstrated significant differences in community structure from a layer to another with a strong decrease in species diversity towards the up layer. It was found that the used support was suitable for microorganism growth, and may have a potential application in H2S biofiltration system. PMID:21945209

  7. Identification of individual acids in a commercial sample of naphthenic acids from petroleum by two-dimensional comprehensive gas chromatography/mass spectrometry.

    PubMed

    Rowland, Steven J; West, Charles E; Scarlett, Alan G; Jones, David

    2011-06-30

    The identification of most individual members of the complex mixtures of carboxylic acids found in petroleum ('naphthenic acids') has eluded chemists for over a century; they remain unresolved by conventional gas chromatographic methods. Recently, however, we successfully used two-dimensional comprehensive gas chromatography/mass spectrometry to identify numerous individual diamondoid acids in the naphthenic acids of oil sands process water (OSPW). We have now applied the same methods to a study of a mixture of commercially available naphthenic acids originally refined from petroleum. The results confirm that OSPW and refined petroleum contain very different distributions of acids, as noted previously, although some of the diamondoid acids recently identified in OSPW were detectable in both. Rather, two-dimensional comprehensive gas chromatography/time-of-flight mass spectrometry (GCxGC/ToF-MS) of the methyl esters of the petroleum acids and of numerous acids synthesised for comparison showed that the former comprised mainly C(8-18) straight-chain, methyl-branched, acyclic isoprenoid, cyclohexyl and isomeric octahydropentalene, perhydroindane and perhydronaphthalene (decalin) acids. Some of the latter bicyclic acids occurred as both the non-alkyl-substituted isomers and the bicyclic ethanoic and propanoic acids. Also present in minor quantities was a range of phenyl carboxylic and substituted phenyl alkanoic acids, and traces of non-acids, including trimethylnaphthalenes, again identified by comparison with the synthesised compounds. These results represent some of the first identifications of multiple individual naphthenic acids in commercial mixtures originating from petroleum and provide a basis for future studies of the petroleum geochemistry, toxicities and environmental impacts of the acids. Furthermore, characterisation of the acids will be important for improving the understanding of the role of naphthenic acids in petroleum engineering, particularly for

  8. Effect of liming on sulfate transformation and sulfur gas emissions in degraded vegetable soil treated by reductive soil disinfestation.

    PubMed

    Meng, Tianzhu; Zhu, Tongbin; Zhang, Jinbo; Cai, Zucong

    2015-10-01

    Reductive soil disinfestation (RSD), namely amending organic materials and mulching or flooding to create strong reductive status, has been widely applied to improve degraded soils. However, there is little information available about sulfate (SO4(2-)) transformation and sulfur (S) gas emissions during RSD treatment to degraded vegetable soils, in which S is generally accumulated. To investigate the effects of liming on SO4(2-) transformation and S gas emissions, two SO4(2-)-accumulated vegetable soils (denoted as S1 and S2) were treated by RSD, and RSD plus lime, denoted as RSD0 and RSD1, respectively. The results showed that RSD0 treatment reduced soil SO4(2-) by 51% and 61% in S1 and S2, respectively. The disappeared SO4(2-) was mainly transformed into the undissolved form. During RSD treatment, hydrogen sulfide (H2S), carbonyl sulfide (COS), and dimethyl sulfide (DMS) were detected, but the total S gas emission accounted for <0.006% of total S in both soils. Compared to RSD0, lime addition stimulated the conversion of SO4(2-) into undissolved form, reduced soil SO4(2-) by 81% in S1 and 84% in S2 and reduced total S gas emissions by 32% in S1 and 57% in S2, respectively. In addition to H2S, COS and DMS, the emissions of carbon disulfide, methyl mercaptan, and dimethyl disulfide were also detected in RSD1 treatment. The results indicated that RSD was an effective method to remove SO4(2-), liming stimulates the conversion of dissolved SO4(2-) into undissolved form, probably due to the precipitation with calcium.

  9. Gas-phase structures and thermochemistry of neutral histidine and its conjugated acid and base.

    PubMed

    Riffet, Vanessa; Bouchoux, Guy

    2013-04-28

    Extensive exploration of the conformational space of neutral, protonated and deprotonated histidine has been conducted at the G4MP2 level. Theoretical protonation and deprotonation thermochemistry as well as heats of formation of gaseous histidine and its ionized forms have been calculated at the G4 level considering either the most stable conformers or an equilibrium population of conformers at 298 K. These theoretical results were compared to evaluated experimental determinations. Recommended proton affinity and protonation entropy deduced from these comparisons are PA(His) = 980 kJ mol(-1) and ΔpS(His) ∼ 0 J mol(-1) K(-1), thus leading to a gas-phase basicity value of GB(His) = 947.5 kJ mol(-1). Similarly, gas phase acidity parameters are ΔacidH(o)(His) = 1373 kJ mol(-1), ΔacidS(His) ∼ 10 J mol(-1) K(-1) and ΔacidG(o)(His) = 1343 kJ mol(-1). Computed G4 heats of formation values are equal to -290, 265 and -451 kJ mol(-1) for gaseous neutral histidine and its protonated and deprotonated forms, respectively. The present computational data correct, and complete, previous thermochemical parameter estimates proposed for gas-phase histidine and its acido-basic properties.

  10. Differential cell fates induced by all-trans retinoic acid-treated HL-60 human leukemia cells.

    PubMed

    Ozeki, Munetaka; Shively, John E

    2008-09-01

    HL-60 human leukemia cells, differentiated into a neutrophil lineage by all-trans retinoic acid (ATRA) treatment, express three members of the carcinoembryonic antigen (CEA) gene family, CEA-related cell adhesion molecule 1 (CEACAM1; CD66a), CEACAM3 (CD66d), and CEACAM6 (CD66c). CD66d is a neutrophil lineage-specific marker, and CD66a and CD66c are found on epithelial and other cells. HL-60 cells continuously treated with ATRA underwent apoptosis, and cells transiently treated for 1 day underwent cell-cycle arrest, entered into senescence, and exhibited reduced apoptosis with CD66-positive cells accounting for the majority of live cells. CD66 antigens were also induced in NB4 leukemic cells upon continuous treatment with ATRA. NB4 cells underwent apoptosis with a higher frequency in transient versus continuous-treated cells (38% vs. 19% at Day 5), in contrast to HL-60 cells that underwent cell-cycle arrest and senescence when transiently treated with ATRA. CD66 antigens were not induced in transient, ATRA-treated NB4 cells compared with HL-60 cells. Cell-cycle arrest in HL-60 cells involved reduction in expression levels of p21, cyclins D and E, while Rb1 exhibited reduction in protein levels without changes in mRNA levels over the time course of ATRA treatment. Analysis of several proapoptotic proteins implicated the activation of calpain and cleavage of Bax in the intrinsic apoptotic pathway, similar to published studies about the apoptosis of neutrophils. CD1d expression was also induced by ATRA in HL-60 cells and ligation with anti-CD1d antibody-induced apoptosis. In contrast, CD1d-positive primary monocytes were protected from spontaneous apoptosis by CD1d ligation. These studies demonstrate distinct cell fates for ATRA-treated HL-60 cells that provide new insights into ATRA-induced cell differentiation.

  11. COMPARISON OF GENE EXPRESSION IN KIDNEY AND URINARY BLADDER FROM RATS TREATED WITH DIMETHYLARSINIC ACID

    EPA Science Inventory

    Arsenic is widespread in the environment and a human carcinogen. A major metabolite of inorganic arsenic (iAs) in most species, including humans, is dimethylarsinic acid (DMA), which is also used as a pesticide. Unlike iAs, DMA induces urinary bladder tumors in rats. DMA is belie...

  12. LIME TREATMENT LAGOONS TECHNOLOGY FOR TREATING ACID MINE DRAINAGE FROM TWO MINING SITES

    EPA Science Inventory

    Runoff and drainage from active and inactive mines are someof the most environmentally damaging land uses i the US. Acid Mine drainage (AMD) from mining sites across the country requires treatment because of high metal concentrations that exceed regulatory standards for safe disc...

  13. Adsorption and release of ofloxacin from acid- and heat-treated halloysite.

    PubMed

    Wang, Qin; Zhang, Junping; Zheng, Yue; Wang, Aiqin

    2014-01-01

    Halloysite nanotube is an ideal vehicle of the controlled release of drugs. In this study, we systematically investigated the effects of acid- and heat-treatments on the physicochemical properties, structure and morphology of halloysite by XRD, FTIR, SEM and TEM. Afterwards, the adsorption and in vitro release properties of halloysite for cationic ofloxacin (OFL) were evaluated. The results indicate that HCl treatment has no influence on the crystal structure of halloysite, whereas it becomes amorphous after calcined at temperature higher than 500 °C. Both acid- and heat-treatments have no evident influence on the tubular structure of halloysite. OFL was adsorbed onto halloysite via electrostatic interaction between protonated OFL and negative halloysite surface, cation exchange as well as electrostatic interaction between the OFL-Al(3+) complexes and the negative halloysite surface. Acid-treatment facilitates the release of the adsorbed OFL compared with the natural halloysite in spite of a slight decrease of adsorption capacity. However, heat-treatment results in a sharp decrease of adsorption capacity for OFL owning to the OFL-promoted dissolution of aluminum and the disappearance of the porous structure. Although heat-treatment also facilitates release of the adsorbed OFL, the amount of OFL released is in fact less than the natural halloysite owing to the very low adsorption capacity. Thus, acid-activation is an effective protocol to improve the adsorption and release of halloysite for cationic drug molecules.

  14. Use of branched chain amino acids for treating hepatic encephalopathy: clinical experiences.

    PubMed Central

    Rossi Fanelli, F; Cangiano, C; Capocaccia, L; Cascino, A; Ceci, F; Muscaritoli, M; Giunchi, G

    1986-01-01

    The efficacy of branched chain amino acids in two consecutive clinical studies in patients with severe hepatic encephalopathy was tested. In the preliminary uncontrolled study 19 patients with grade 3-4 hepatic encephalopathy were given an intravenous solution containing leucine 11 g/l, isoleucine 9 g/l, and valine 8.4 g/l in 20% dextrose. A complete recovery of mental state was obtained in all patients in a mean time of 20.5 hours. In a subsequent controlled study 40 patients with grade 3-4 hepatic encephalopathy were randomly assigned to receive intravenous branched chain amino acid in 20% dextrose (group A) or oral lactulose (group B). Twelve patients (70.6%) in group A and eight (47%) in group B regained consciousness in a mean time of 27.6 and 31.5 hours, respectively. The difference in the recovery rate between the two groups, although evident, was not significant. Intravenous branched chain amino acids are thus at least as effective as lactulose in reversing hepatic coma. These data argue strongly in favour of a therapeutic effect of branched chain amino acids in the treatment of hepatic encephalopathy in patients with chronic liver failure. PMID:3539709

  15. LABORATORY EVALUATION OF ZERO-VALENT IRON TO TREAT WATER IMPACTED BY ACID MINE DRAINAGE

    EPA Science Inventory

    This study examines the applicability and limitations of granular zero-valent iron for the treatment of water impacted by mine wastes. Rates of acid neutralization and of metal (Cu, Cd, Ni, Zn, Hg, Al, and Mn) and metalloid (As) uptake were determined in batch systems using simu...

  16. Identification of 19 phthalic acid esters in dairy products by gas chromatography with mass spectrometry.

    PubMed

    Wu, Pinggu; Cai, Chenggang; Yang, Dajin; Wang, Liyuan; Zhou, Yan; Shen, Xianghong; Ma, Bingjie; Tang, Jun

    2015-01-01

    A detection method for 19 kinds of phthalic acid ester compounds analyzed by n-hexane/ether/acetonitrile 1:7:8 v/v/v mixed solvent extraction, quick, easy, cheap, effective, rugged, and safe purification and internal standard method of quantitative gas chromatography with mass spectrometry was established. This method can effectively remove interfering materials, such as lipids, fatty acids, and pigments, from dairy products. The 19 kinds of phthalic acid ester compounds were within a 0.025-0.2 mg/kg range, the recovery rate was 65.2-125.7%, relative standard deviation was 7.9-15.4% (n = 6), and the limit of detection was 0.005-0.02 mg/kg. Concentrations of the 19 kinds of phthalic acid ester compounds ranged between 0.01 and 0.12 mg/kg in ten dairy materials and 20 dairy products. The established method is simple, rapid, accurate, and highly sensitive.

  17. Nutritional interventions to prevent and treat osteoarthritis. Part I: focus on fatty acids and macronutrients.

    PubMed

    Lopez, Hector L

    2012-05-01

    Osteoarthritis (OA) is the most common cause of musculoskeletal disability in elderly individuals, and it places an enormous economic burden on society. Management of OA is primarily focused on palliative relief by using agents such as nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs and analgesics. However, such an approach is limited by a narrow therapeutic focus that fails to address the progressive and multimodal nature of OA. Given the favorable safety profile of most nutritional interventions, identifying disease-modifying nutritional agents capable of improving symptoms and also preventing, slowing, or even reversing the degenerative process in OA should remain an important paradigm in translational and clinical research. Applying advances in nutritional science to musculoskeletal medicine remains challenging, given the fluid and dynamic nature of the field, along with a rapidly developing regulatory climate over manufacturing and commerce requirements. The aim of this article is to review the available literature on effectiveness and potential mechanism of macronutrients for OA, with a focus on the following: long-chain ω-3 essential fatty acids eicosapentaenoic acid and docosahexaenoic acid, functional ω-6 fatty acid γ-linolenic acid, and macronutrient composition of background diet. There also is a discussion about the concept of rational polysupplementation via the strategic integration of multiple nutraceuticals with potential complementary mechanisms for improving outcomes in OA. As applied nutritional science evolves, it will be important to stay on the forefront of proteomics, metabolomics, epigenetics, and nutrigenomics, because they hold enormous potential for developing novel therapeutic and prognostic breakthroughs in many areas of medicine, including OA.

  18. Molecular structures of benzoic acid and 2-hydroxybenzoic acid, obtained by gas-phase electron diffraction and theoretical calculations.

    PubMed

    Aarset, Kirsten; Page, Elizabeth M; Rice, David A

    2006-07-20

    The structures of benzoic acid (C6H5COOH) and 2-hydroxybenzoic acid (C6H4OHCOOH) have been determined in the gas phase by electron diffraction using results from quantum chemical calculations to inform restraints used on the structural parameters. Theoretical methods (HF and MP2/6-311+G(d,p)) predict two conformers for benzoic acid, one which is 25.0 kJ mol(-1) (MP2) lower in energy than the other. In the low-energy form, the carboxyl group is coplanar with the phenyl ring and the O-H group eclipses the C=O bond. Theoretical calculations (HF and MP2/6-311+G(d,p)) carried out for 2-hydroxybenzoic acid gave evidence for seven stable conformers but one low-energy form (11.7 kJ mol(-1) lower in energy (MP2)) which again has the carboxyl group coplanar with the phenyl ring, the O-H of the carboxyl group eclipsing the C=O bond and the C=O of the carboxyl group oriented toward the O-H group of the phenyl ring. The effects of internal hydrogen bonding in 2-hydroxybenzoic acid can be clearly observed by comparison of pertinent structural parameters between the two compounds. These differences for 2-hydroxybenzoic acid include a shorter exocyclic C-C bond, a lengthening of the ring C-C bond between the substituents, and a shortening of the carboxylic single C-O bond. PMID:16836466

  19. Requirements of glycerol and fatty acid for triglyceride synthesis and ketogenesis by hepatocytes from normal and triiodothyronine-treated rats

    SciTech Connect

    Olubadewo, J.O.; Heimberg, M.

    1985-11-15

    Hepatocytes from T3-treated rats synthesized less triglyceride and more ketone bodies from (1-/sup 14/C)oleate at all concentrations from 0-2 mM, than did hepatocytes from euthyroid animals; addition of 1.0 mM glycerol increased triglyceride synthesis and reduced ketogenesis in hepatocytes from T3-treated rats to the rates observed in euthyroid hepatocytes in the absence of added glycerol. Glycerol did not alter triglyceride synthesis, but reduced ketogenesis genesis by euthyroid hepatocytes. It is probable from these and other data that, in the hyperthyroid rat, glycero-3-P, and not fatty acid, is rate limiting for synthesis of triglyceride, and, secondarily for reducing rates of ketogenesis in the hepatocyte.

  20. [Isolation and in vitro translation of polysomes and the RNA matrix from gibberellic acid-treated etiolated dwarf pea shoots].

    PubMed

    Kilev, S N; Evtushenko, E V; Chekurov, V M; Mertvetsov, N P

    1983-08-01

    The effect of gibberellic acid (GA) on the size of polysomes (PS) and on the specific translation activity of epicotyl PS of two dwarf pea varieties was studied. It was shown that GA does not significantly alter the specific translation activity of PS and of mRNA isolated from dwarf pea epicotyl PS. Electrophoretic separation of the polypeptides synthesized in a cell-free protein-synthesizing system in PS of control and GA-treated shoots revealed no differences between them. Some minor qualitative and quantitative differences in the protein composition of the cytoplasm of control and hormone-treated shoots were found. Possible influence of GA on the composition of a definite class of mRNA and on posttranslational processing of plant proteins is discussed. PMID:6194827

  1. Effectiveness of Glycyrrhizinic Acid (Glizigen) and an Immunostimulant (Viusid) to Treat Anogenital Warts

    PubMed Central

    Domínguez Gómez, José; Simón, Ramón Daniel; Abreu Daniel, Alfredo; Zelenkova, Hana

    2012-01-01

    Genital warts are benign proliferations of skin and mucosa caused by the human papillomavirus infection (hereinafter referred to as HPV). It is one of the most common sexually transmitted diseases in the world, whose incidence rate has increased in the last three decades. Current treatment involves the physical destruction of the infected cells. The fact that there are many different types of treatment goes to show that none of them are uniformly effective or directly antiviral. Objective. Demonstrate the efficacy of Glizigen in the III-phase clinical trial combined with a food supplement (VIUSID) formulated to boost the immune system when treating external anogenital warts. Design. 100 patients clinically diagnosed with anogenital lesions were included in the trial and assigned to two groups of 50 individuals. Those from one group where treated with Glizigen and Viusid and those from the other group with 25% podophyllin in alcohol, the results from each were then compared. Results. The combined Glizigen-Viusid treatment was seen to have an 87.5% efficacy rate, which was slightly more than that of the treatment with podophyllin, and there were hardly any adverse reactions reported during the treatment. Conclusions. the combined Glizigen-Viusid treatment was effective in treating genital warts. PMID:22957266

  2. Treating cutaneous squamous cell carcinoma using 5-aminolevulinic acid polylactic-co-glycolic acid nanoparticle-mediated photodynamic therapy in a mouse model

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Xiaojie; Shi, Lei; Tu, Qingfeng; Wang, Hongwei; Zhang, Haiyan; Wang, Peiru; Zhang, Linglin; Huang, Zheng; Zhao, Feng; Luan, Hansen; Wang, Xiuli

    2015-01-01

    Background Squamous cell carcinoma (SCC) is a common skin cancer, and its treatment is still difficult. The aim of this study was to evaluate the effectiveness of nanoparticle (NP)-assisted 5-aminolevulinic acid (ALA) delivery for topical photodynamic therapy (PDT) of cutaneous SCC. Materials and methods Ultraviolet-induced cutaneous SCCs were established in hairless mice. ALA-loaded polylactic-co-glycolic acid (PLGA) NPs were prepared and characterized. The kinetics of ALA PLGA NP-induced protoporphyrin IX fluorescence in SCCs, therapeutic efficacy of ALA NP-mediated PDT, and immune responses were examined. Results PLGA NPs enhanced protoporphyrin IX production in SCC. ALA PLGA NP-mediated topical PDT was more effective than free ALA of the same concentration in treating cutaneous SCC. Conclusion PLGA NPs provide a promising strategy for delivering ALA in topical PDT of cutaneous SCC. PMID:25609949

  3. Ammonia Gas Sensing Behavior of Tanninsulfonic Acid Doped Polyaniline-TiO2 Composite

    PubMed Central

    Bairi, Venu Gopal; Bourdo, Shawn E.; Sacre, Nicolas; Nair, Dev; Berry, Brian C.; Biris, Alexandru S.; Viswanathan, Tito

    2015-01-01

    A highly active tannin doped polyaniline-TiO2 composite ammonia gas sensor was developed and the mechanism behind the gas sensing activity was reported for the first time. A tanninsulfonic acid doped polyaniline (TANIPANI)-titanium dioxide nanocomposite was synthesized by an in situ polymerization of aniline in the presence of tanninsulfonic acid and titanium dioxide nanoparticles. X-ray diffraction and thermogravimetric analysis were utilized to determine the incorporation of TiO2 in TANIPANI matrix. UV-Visible and infrared spectroscopy studies provided information about the electronic interactions among tannin, polyaniline, and TiO2. Scanning electron microscopy (SEM) along with energy dispersive X-ray spectroscopy (EDS) and atomic force microscopy (AFM) surface analysis techniques were used to investigate the metal oxide dispersions inside polyaniline matrix. Gas sensors were prepared by spin coating solutions of TANIPANI-TiO2 and TANIPANI composites onto glass slides. Sensors were tested at three different concentrations (20 ppm, 40 ppm, and 60 ppm) of ammonia gas at ambient temperature conditions by measuring the changes in surface resistivity of the films with respect to time. Ammonia gas sensing plots are presented showing the response values, response times and recovery times. The TANIPANI-TiO2 composite exhibited better response and shorter recovery times when compared to TANIPANI control and other polyaniline composites that have been reported in the literature. For the first time a proposed mechanism of gas sensing basing on the polaron band localization and its effects on the gas sensing behavior of polyaniline are reported. PMID:26501291

  4. Oxygen Effects on Thermophilic Microbial Populations in Biofilters Treating Nitric Oxide Containing Off-Gas Streams

    SciTech Connect

    Lee, Brady Douglas; Apel, William Arnold; Smith, William Aaron

    2004-04-01

    Electricity generation from coal has increased by an average of 51 billion kWh per year over the past 3 years. For this reason cost-effective strategies to control nitrogen oxides (NOx) from coal-fired power plant combustion gases must be developed. Compost biofilters operated at 55°C at an empty bed contact time (EBCT) of 13 seconds were shown to be feasible for removal of nitric oxide (NO) from synthetic flue gas. Denitrifying microbial populations in these biofilters were shown to reduce influent NO feeds by 90 to 95% at inlet NO concentrations of 500 ppmv. Oxygen was shown to have a significant effect on the NO removal efficiency demonstrated by these biofilters. Two biofilters were set up under identical conditions for the purpose of monitoring NO removal as well as changes in the microbial population in the bed medium under anaerobic and aerobic conditions. Changes in the microbial population were monitored to determine the maximum oxygen tolerance of a denitrifying biofilter as well as methods of optimizing microbial populations capable of denitrification in the presence of low oxygen concentrations. Nitric oxide removal dropped to between 10 and 20% when oxygen was present in the influent stream. The inactive compost used to pack the biofilters may have also caused the decreased NO removal efficiency compared to previous biofiltration experiments. Analysis of the bed medium microbial population using environmental scanning electron microscopy indicated significant increases in biomass populating the surface of the compost when compared to unacclimated compost.

  5. Thermal decarboxylation of acetic acid: Implications for origin of natural gas

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Kharaka, Y.K.; Carothers, W.W.; Rosenbauer, R.J.

    1983-01-01

    Laboratory experiments on the thermal decarboxylation of solutions of acetic acid at 200??C and 300??C were carried out in hydrothermal equipment allowing for on-line sampling of both the gas and liquid phases for chemical and stable-carbon-isotope analyses. The solutions had ambient pH values between 2.5 and 7.1; pH values and the concentrations of the various acetate species at the conditions of the experiments were computed using a chemical model. Results show that the concentrations of acetic acid, and not total acetate in solution, control the reaction rates which follow a first order equation based on decreasing concentrations of acetic acid with time. The decarboxylation rates at 200??C (1.81 ?? 10-8 per second) and 300??C (8.17 ?? 10-8 per second) and the extrapolated rates at lower temperatures are relatively high. The activation energy of decarboxylation is only 8.1 kcal/mole. These high decarboxylation rates, together with the distribution of short-chained aliphatic acid anions in formation waters, support the hypothesis that acid anions are precursors for an important portion of natural gas. Results of the ??13C values of CO2, CH4, and total acetate show a reasonably constant fractionation factor of about 20 permil between CO2 and CH4 at 300??C. The ??13C values of CO2 and CH4 are initially low and become higher as decarboxylation increases. ?? 1983.

  6. Characterization of naphthenic acids by gas chromatography-Fourier transform ion cyclotron resonance mass spectrometry.

    PubMed

    Ortiz, Xavier; Jobst, Karl J; Reiner, Eric J; Backus, Sean M; Peru, Kerry M; McMartin, Dena W; O'Sullivan, Gwen; Taguchi, Vince Y; Headley, John V

    2014-08-01

    During the bitumen extraction from the oil sands of Alberta, large volumes of process water containing naphthenic acids are stored in tailing ponds. The naphthenic acids along with other components in the processed waters are known to be toxic in aquatic environments. In view of the complex matrix and the toxicity of the processed waters, there is a need for complementary analytical techniques for comprehensive characterization of the naphthenic acid mixtures. This study reports the online gas chromatographic separation of naphthenic acid mixtures prior to ultrahigh resolution mass spectrometry detection, using electron and chemical ionization. Two oil sands processed water samples and two groundwater samples were characterized to evaluate the performance of the instrumental technique. The high mass resolution of the system enabled visualization of the data using Kendrick mass defect plots. The addition of gas chromatographic separations enabled visualization of the data as unique compound class elution fingerprints. The technique is demonstrated to be a valuable tool for chemical fingerprinting of naphthenic acids. PMID:25001115

  7. All-Trans-Retinoic Acid Improves Cholestasis in α-Naphthylisothiocyanate–Treated Rats and Mdr2−/− Mice

    PubMed Central

    Mennone, Albert; Soroka, Carol J.

    2014-01-01

    Chronic cholestasis results in liver injury and eventually liver failure. Although ursodeoxycholic acid (UDCA) showed limited benefits in primary biliary cirrhosis, there is an urgent need to develop alternative therapy for chronic cholestatic disorders. Previous studies from our laboratory demonstrated that all-trans-retinoic acid (atRA) is a potent suppressor of CYP7A1, the rate-limiting enzyme in bile acid synthesis. atRA also repressed the expression of tumor growth factor-β and collagen 1A1 in activated primary human stellate cells and LX2 cells. When administered together with UDCA to bile duct–ligated rats, this combined therapy significantly reduced the bile acid pool size and improved liver conditions. To further examine whether atRA alone or in combination with UDCA has greater beneficial effects than UDCA treatment alone, we assessed this treatment in two additional chronic cholestatic rodent models: α-naphthylisothiocyanate (ANIT)–treated rats and the Mdr2−/− (Abcb4−/−) knockout mouse. atRA alone significantly reduced bile duct proliferation, inflammation, and hydroxyproline levels in ANIT-treated rats, whereas the combination of atRA and UDCA significantly reduced plasma bile salt level compared with UDCA treatment. atRA alone or in combination with UDCA significantly reduced plasma levels of alkaline phosphatase and bile salts in 12-week-old Mdr2−/− mice. Reduced bile duct proliferation and inflammation were also observed in the livers of these mice. Together, atRA alone or in combination with UDCA significantly reduced the severity of liver injury in these two animal models, further supporting the combination treatment of atRA and UDCA as a potential new therapy for patients with chronic cholestatic liver disease who have not responded fully to UDCA. PMID:24492652

  8. Impact of a folic acid-enriched diet on urinary tract function in mice treated with testosterone and estradiol.

    PubMed

    Keil, Kimberly P; Abler, Lisa L; Altmann, Helene M; Wang, Zunyi; Wang, Peiqing; Ricke, William A; Bjorling, Dale E; Vezina, Chad M

    2015-06-15

    Aging men are susceptible to developing lower urinary tract symptoms, but the underlying etiology is unknown and the influence of dietary and environmental factors on them is unclear. We tested whether a folic acid-enriched diet changed urinary tract physiology and biology in control male mice and male mice with urinary dysfunction induced by exogenous testosterone and estradiol (T+E2), which mimics changing hormone levels in aging humans. T+E2 treatment increased mouse urine output, time between voiding events, and bladder capacity and compliance. Consumption of a folic acid-enriched diet moderated these changes without decreasing prostate wet weight or threshold voiding pressure. One potential mechanism for these changes involves water balance. T+E2 treatment increases plasma concentrations of anti-diuretic hormone, which is offset at least in part by a folic acid-enriched diet. Another potential mechanism involves neural control of micturition. The folic acid-enriched diet, fed to T+E2-treated mice, increased voiding frequency in response to intravesicular capsaicin infusion and increased mRNA abundance of the capsaicin-sensitive cation channel transient receptor potential vanilloid subfamily member 1 (Trpv1) in L6 and S1 dorsal root ganglia (DRG) neurons. T+E2 treatment and a folic acid-enriched diet also modified DNA methylation, which is capable of altering gene expression. We found the enriched diet increased global DNA methylation in dorsal and ventral prostate and L6 and S1 DRG. Our results are consistent with folic acid acting to slow or reverse T+E2-mediated alteration in urinary function in part by normalizing water balance and enhancing or preserving afferent neuronal function.

  9. Impact of a folic acid-enriched diet on urinary tract function in mice treated with testosterone and estradiol

    PubMed Central

    Keil, Kimberly P.; Abler, Lisa L.; Altmann, Helene M.; Wang, Zunyi; Wang, Peiqing; Ricke, William A.; Bjorling, Dale E.

    2015-01-01

    Aging men are susceptible to developing lower urinary tract symptoms, but the underlying etiology is unknown and the influence of dietary and environmental factors on them is unclear. We tested whether a folic acid-enriched diet changed urinary tract physiology and biology in control male mice and male mice with urinary dysfunction induced by exogenous testosterone and estradiol (T+E2), which mimics changing hormone levels in aging humans. T+E2 treatment increased mouse urine output, time between voiding events, and bladder capacity and compliance. Consumption of a folic acid-enriched diet moderated these changes without decreasing prostate wet weight or threshold voiding pressure. One potential mechanism for these changes involves water balance. T+E2 treatment increases plasma concentrations of anti-diuretic hormone, which is offset at least in part by a folic acid-enriched diet. Another potential mechanism involves neural control of micturition. The folic acid-enriched diet, fed to T+E2-treated mice, increased voiding frequency in response to intravesicular capsaicin infusion and increased mRNA abundance of the capsaicin-sensitive cation channel transient receptor potential vanilloid subfamily member 1 (Trpv1) in L6 and S1 dorsal root ganglia (DRG) neurons. T+E2 treatment and a folic acid-enriched diet also modified DNA methylation, which is capable of altering gene expression. We found the enriched diet increased global DNA methylation in dorsal and ventral prostate and L6 and S1 DRG. Our results are consistent with folic acid acting to slow or reverse T+E2-mediated alteration in urinary function in part by normalizing water balance and enhancing or preserving afferent neuronal function. PMID:25855514

  10. Biosensors for liquid biopsy: circulating nucleic acids to diagnose and treat cancer.

    PubMed

    Bellassai, Noemi; Spoto, Giuseppe

    2016-10-01

    The detection of cancer biomarkers freely circulating in blood offers new opportunities for cancer early diagnosis, patient follow-up, and therapy efficacy assessment based on liquid biopsy. In particular, circulating cell-free nucleic acids released from tumor cells have recently attracted great attention also because they become detectable in blood before the appearance of other circulating biomarkers, such as circulating tumor cells. The detection of circulating nucleic acids poses several technical challenges that arise from their low concentration and relatively small size. Here, possibilities offered by innovative biosensing approaches for the detection of circulating DNA in peripheral blood and blood-derived products such as plasma and serum blood are discussed. Different transduction principles are used to detect circulating DNAs and great advantages are derived from the combined use of nanostructured materials.

  11. Intravenous ascorbic acid to prevent and treat cancer-associated sepsis?

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    The history of ascorbic acid (AA) and cancer has been marked with controversy. Clinical studies evaluating AA in cancer outcome continue to the present day. However, the wealth of data suggesting that AA may be highly beneficial in addressing cancer-associated inflammation, particularly progression to systemic inflammatory response syndrome (SIRS) and multi organ failure (MOF), has been largely overlooked. Patients with advanced cancer are generally deficient in AA. Once these patients develop septic symptoms, a further decrease in ascorbic acid levels occurs. Given the known role of ascorbate in: a) maintaining endothelial and suppression of inflammatory markers; b) protection from sepsis in animal models; and c) direct antineoplastic effects, we propose the use of ascorbate as an adjuvant to existing modalities in the treatment and prevention of cancer-associated sepsis. PMID:21375761

  12. Comparative Proteomic Study of Fatty Acid-treated Myoblasts Reveals Role of Cox-2 in Palmitate-induced Insulin Resistance

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Xiulan; Xu, Shimeng; Wei, Shasha; Deng, Yaqin; Li, Yiran; Yang, Fuquan; Liu, Pingsheng

    2016-01-01

    Accumulated studies demonstrate that saturated fatty acids (FAs) such as palmitic acid (PA) inhibit insulin signaling in skeletal muscle cells and monounsaturated fatty acids such as oleic acid (OA) reverse the effect of PA on insulin signaling. The detailed molecular mechanism of these opposite effects remains elusive. Here we provide a comparative proteomic study of skeletal myoblast cell line C2C12 that were untreated or treated with PA, and PA plus OA. A total of 3437 proteins were quantified using SILAC in this study and 29 proteins fall into the pattern that OA reverses PA effect. Expression of some these proteins were verified using qRT-PCR and Western blot. The most significant change was cyclooxygenase-2 (Cox-2). In addition to whole cell comparative proteomic study, we also compared lipid droplet (LD)-associated proteins and identified that Cox-2 was one of three major altered proteins under the FA treatment. This finding was then confirmed using immunofluorescence. Finally, Cox-2 selective inhibitor, celecoxib protected cells from PA-reduced insulin signaling Akt phosphorylation. Together, these results not only provide a dataset of protein expression change in FA treatment but also suggest that Cox-2 and lipid droplets (LDs) are potential players in PA- and OA-mediated cellular processes. PMID:26899878

  13. UPR in palmitate-treated pancreatic beta-cells is not affected by altering oxidation of the fatty acid

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Background Elevated levels of lipids are detrimental for beta-cell function and mass. One of the mechanisms of how fatty acids induce apoptosis is development of the unfolded protein response (UPR). It is still far from understood how fatty acids activate the UPR, however. Methods We examined how palmitate-induced activation of the UPR was affected by altering the metabolism of the fatty acid in insulin-secreting INS-1E and MIN6 cell lines and intact human islets. To increase oxidation, we used low glucose (5.5 mM) or AICAR; and to reduce oxidation, we used high glucose (25 mM) or etomoxir. UPR was measured after 3, 24 and 48 hours of palmitate treatment. Results Modulation of palmitate oxidation by either glucose or the pharmacological agents did not affect palmitate-induced UPR activation. Conclusion Our finding suggests that other factors than oxidation of palmitate play a role in the activation of UPR in fatty acid-treated beta-cells. PMID:21978671

  14. Evaluation of safety and analgesic consumption in patients with advanced cancer treated with zoledronic acid

    PubMed Central

    Kmetec, Andrej; Hajdinjak, Tine

    2013-01-01

    Background The aim of the study was evaluation of zoledronic acid with regard to safety, effect on analgesic consumption and impact on occurrence of skeletal related events in patients with bone lesions from solid tumors and multiple myeloma. Methods We conducted an observational, 12-month, phase IV and multi-center study. One hundred and twenty-five symptomatic (pain) bone-metastatic patients were included between 2007 and 2009: 92 prostate cancers, 28 multiple myelomas, 5 others. They were prescribed monthly infusions of zoledronic acid in accordance to each disease’s treatment guidelines. Analgesics consumption, pain and laboratory values were evaluated. Results Zoledronic acid was prescribed concurrent to initial therapy for myeloma and only in late stage of prostate cancer. With treatment, percentage of patients on analgesics decreased in myeloma group (from 57% to 24%) and increased in prostate cancer group (from 70% to 88%). In patients with any analgesics, the use of opiates’ prescription dropped from 72.9% to 64%, percentages of non-steroidal analgesics and other mild analgesics increased slightly. Pain score (Visual Analog Scale, VAS) decreased non significantly (by 22%) in prostate cancer but significantly in myeloma (by 97%). Hypocalcaemia grade 3 or 4 was observed in 4% of patients. Deviations in creatinine remained stable throughout. A total of 31 skeletal related events were reported for 10 patients (8%). Conclusions Zoledronic acid was safe medication. Different response of pain was seen between prostate cancer and myeloma patients, which might be due to different stages of disease where it was prescribed according to present guidelines. Possibility of earlier start of treatment should be explored in prostate cancer. PMID:24133394

  15. Treating atopic dermatitis: safety, efficacy, and patient acceptability of a ceramide hyaluronic acid emollient foam

    PubMed Central

    Pacha, Omar; Hebert, Adelaide A

    2012-01-01

    Advances in current understanding of the pathophysiology of atopic dermatitis have led to improved targeting of the structural deficiencies in atopic skin. Ceramide deficiency appears to be one of the major alterations in atopic dermatitis and the replenishment of this epidermal component through topically applied ceramide based emollients appears to be safe, well tolerated, and effective. Recently a ceramide hyaluronic acid foam has become commercially available and increasing evidence supports its safety and efficacy in patients who suffer from atopic dermatitis. PMID:22690129

  16. Radiogenic Ar retention in residual silica from acid-treated micas

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Derkowski, Arkadiusz; Szczerba, Marek; Środoń, Jan; Banaś, Michał

    2014-03-01

    In sedimentary basins, immediate equilibration with surface and pore waters of Ar, released from K-bearing minerals during their diagenesis or weathering, has been a paradigm for geochemistry and geochronology. Consequently, K-Ar and Ar-Ar isotope geochronology techniques applied to sedimentary rocks are based on an assumption that no measurable external radiogenic 40Ar (“excess argon”) has been locked in the rock components during their formation and alteration. Our results indicate that the reaction of micaceous sedimentary and diagenetic clay minerals (illite, glauconite) with acid produces microporous silica that retains a great fraction of the initial argon, releasing potassium to the solution. In all tested cases the evolution of K-Ar isotope ages followed the very same pattern: the apparent K-Ar isotope age increased enormously after acid treatment and dropped significantly after silica removal (with hot Na2CO3), but never decreased lower than the initial K-Ar isotope age of the untreated sample. The amorphous silica content and the apparent K-Ar age increased with the acid reaction time. Using the molecular dynamics simulations, the clay-acid reaction by-product was shown to bend and wrap, producing three-dimensional, protonated and hydrated silica. As a consequence of dramatically different hydration energies of Ar and K, potassium is instantaneously released and hydrated outside the residual structure while Ar atoms remain inside the silica network, adsorbed on the surface. This is, to our knowledge, the first experimental evidence that the excess argon can be retained in solid mineral reaction products formed under pressure and temperature close to those of the Earth surface (1 atm, <80 °C).

  17. Options for treating high-temperature gas-cooled reactor fuel for repository disposal

    SciTech Connect

    Lotts, A.L.; Bond, W.D.; Forsberg, C.W.; Glass, R.W.; Harrington, F.E.; Micheals, G.E.; Notz, K.J.; Wymer, R.G.

    1992-02-01

    This report describes the options that can reasonably be considered for disposal of high-temperature gas-cooled reactor (HTGR) fuel in a repository. The options include whole-block disposal, disposal with removal of graphite (either mechanically or by burning), and reprocessing of spent fuel to separate the fuel and fission products. The report summarizes what is known about the options without extensively projecting or analyzing actual performance of waste forms in a repository. The report also summarizes the processes involved in convert spent HTGR fuel into the various waste forms and projects relative schedules and costs for deployment of the various options. Fort St. Vrain Reactor fuel, which utilizes highly-enriched {sup 235}U (plus thorium) and is contained in a prismatic graphite block geometry, was used as the baseline for evaluation, but the major conclusions would not be significantly different for low- or medium-enriched {sup 235}U (without thorium) or for the German pebble-bed fuel. Future US HTGRs will be based on the Fort St. Vrain (FSV) fuel form. The whole block appears to be a satisfactory waste form for disposal in a repository and may perform better than light-water reactor (LWR) spent fuel. From the standpoint of process cost and schedule (not considering repository cost or value of fuel that might be recycled), the options are ranked as follows in order of increased cost and longer schedule to perform the option: (1) whole block, (2a) physical separation, (2b) chemical separation, and (3) complete chemical processing.

  18. Quantification of phenyllactic acid in wheat sourdough using high resolution gas chromatography-mass spectrometry.

    PubMed

    Ryan, Liam Anthony Matthew; Dal Bello, Fabio; Czerny, Michael; Koehler, Peter; Arendt, Elke Karin

    2009-02-11

    In this study, high-resolution gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (HRGC-MS) was successfully used to quantify the level of phenyllactic acid produced by Lactobacillus plantarum strains during sourdough fermentation. Investigation of samples collected during fermentation revealed that the production of phenyllactic acid occurs throughout the growth of L. plantarum in sourdough, but the highest production rate was observed during the logarithmic growth phase. The highest amount, that is, 33.47 mg of phenyllactic acid/kg of dough, was measured in sourdough fermented by the antifungal strain L. plantarum FST 1.7. Sourdoughs fermented by different L. plantarum strains contained different amounts of phenyllactic acid, thus indicating that the production is strain-dependent. Phenylacetic acid was also detected during sourdough analysis, thus showing that the HRGC-MS protocol developed is suitable for the detection not only of phenyllactic acid, but also of a broader range of phenolic acids that are highly relevant, but present in very low amounts in sourdough.

  19. A Descriptive in vitro Electron Microscopic Study of Acidic Fluoride-Treated Enamel: Potential Anti-Erosion Effects.

    PubMed

    Hjortsjö, Carl; Young, Alix; Kiesow, Andreas; Cismak, Andreas; Berthold, Lutz; Petzold, Matthias

    2015-01-01

    This study aimed to investigate the surface zones of acidic fluoride-treated enamel. Human teeth were each divided into three or four enamel specimens that were treated for 10 min with solutions of 0.2 and 0.4% HF (pH 3.09 and 2.94), 1.74% SnF2 (pH 2.9), 0.68% TiF4 (pH 1.6) and 0.84% NaF (pH 4.5). Untreated specimens functioned as negative controls. The microstructure and elemental composition of the surface zones were studied by scanning electron microscopy/energy-dispersive X-ray (EDX) analysis, transmission electron microscopy (TEM) and nanospot-EDX following cross-sectional preparation using focused ion beam technology. TEM/EDX analyses of NaF-treated specimens showed a 500-nm-thick closed surface film containing 20-40 at% (atomic percent) F. HF-treated specimens had a distinct surface film 200-600 nm thick (dense, not globular) containing 45-47 at% F. TiF4-treated specimens had a surface film of 200-300 nm in thickness containing 8-11 at% Ti but no detectable fluoride. SnF2-treated specimens had a modified surface enamel layer varying in thickness from 200 to 800 nm with an inhomogeneous distribution of Sn. Local spots were detected with as high as 8 at% Sn (30 wt%, weight percent). The results suggest that the reaction mechanisms of SnF2 and TiF4 solutions with dental enamel differ from those occurring after enamel exposure to acidulated NaF and HF solutions. While the HF and NaF treatments resulted in the formation of CaF2-like material as shown by EDX, no significant surface fluoridation was found for SnF2 and TiF4 solutions within the TEM/EDX detection limits. These results suggest that the erosion-protective mechanisms of these latter compounds probably relate more to the formation of hardly soluble and acid-resistant reaction surface films and less to surface fluoride incorporation.

  20. A Descriptive in vitro Electron Microscopic Study of Acidic Fluoride-Treated Enamel: Potential Anti-Erosion Effects.

    PubMed

    Hjortsjö, Carl; Young, Alix; Kiesow, Andreas; Cismak, Andreas; Berthold, Lutz; Petzold, Matthias

    2015-01-01

    This study aimed to investigate the surface zones of acidic fluoride-treated enamel. Human teeth were each divided into three or four enamel specimens that were treated for 10 min with solutions of 0.2 and 0.4% HF (pH 3.09 and 2.94), 1.74% SnF2 (pH 2.9), 0.68% TiF4 (pH 1.6) and 0.84% NaF (pH 4.5). Untreated specimens functioned as negative controls. The microstructure and elemental composition of the surface zones were studied by scanning electron microscopy/energy-dispersive X-ray (EDX) analysis, transmission electron microscopy (TEM) and nanospot-EDX following cross-sectional preparation using focused ion beam technology. TEM/EDX analyses of NaF-treated specimens showed a 500-nm-thick closed surface film containing 20-40 at% (atomic percent) F. HF-treated specimens had a distinct surface film 200-600 nm thick (dense, not globular) containing 45-47 at% F. TiF4-treated specimens had a surface film of 200-300 nm in thickness containing 8-11 at% Ti but no detectable fluoride. SnF2-treated specimens had a modified surface enamel layer varying in thickness from 200 to 800 nm with an inhomogeneous distribution of Sn. Local spots were detected with as high as 8 at% Sn (30 wt%, weight percent). The results suggest that the reaction mechanisms of SnF2 and TiF4 solutions with dental enamel differ from those occurring after enamel exposure to acidulated NaF and HF solutions. While the HF and NaF treatments resulted in the formation of CaF2-like material as shown by EDX, no significant surface fluoridation was found for SnF2 and TiF4 solutions within the TEM/EDX detection limits. These results suggest that the erosion-protective mechanisms of these latter compounds probably relate more to the formation of hardly soluble and acid-resistant reaction surface films and less to surface fluoride incorporation. PMID:26536617

  1. Combined liquid and gas chromatographic characterisation of polyglycerol fatty acid esters.

    PubMed

    De Meulenaer, B; Van Royen, G; Vanhoutte, B; Huyghebaert, A

    2000-10-27

    In the present study a combined liquid and gas chromatographic technique is described for the analysis of polyglycerol fatty acid esters. Liquid chromatographic fractionation of samples resulted in pure standards of monoesters of di- and triglycerols and diesters of di- and triglycerols. Confirmation of their identity was achieved by LC-MS analysis. Moreover, a chromatographic identification of the mono- and diesters of cyclic diglycerol was proposed. From the isolation of pure esters and their gas chromatographic analysis, it was revealed that co-elution of several compounds occurred. Thus it was shown that prefractionation of the sample using a simplified liquid chromatographic separation, was necessary in order to characterise the esters correctly. In combination with some other chemical analyses, a complete profile of the chemical composition of polyglycerol fatty acid esters can be obtained.

  2. Electrons Mediate the Gas-Phase Oxidation of Formic Acid with Ozone.

    PubMed

    van der Linde, Christian; Tang, Wai-Kit; Siu, Chi-Kit; Beyer, Martin K

    2016-08-26

    Gas-phase reactions of CO3 (.-) with formic acid are studied using Fourier transform ion cyclotron resonance (FT-ICR) mass spectrometry. Signal loss indicates the release of a free electron, with the formation of neutral reaction products. This is corroborated by adding traces of SF6 to the reaction gas, which scavenges 38 % of the electrons. Quantum chemical calculations of the reaction potential energy surface provide a reaction path for the formation of neutral carbon dioxide and water as the thermochemically favored products. From the literature, it is known that free electrons in the troposphere attach to O2 , which in turn transfer the electron to O3 . O3 (.-) reacts with CO2 to form CO3 (.-) . The reaction reported here formally closes the catalytic cycle for the oxidation of formic acid with ozone, catalyzed by free electrons.

  3. Formation of organic acids from the gas-phase ozonolysis of terpinolene.

    PubMed

    Ma, Yan; Marston, George

    2009-06-01

    Gas-phase ozonolysis of terpinolene was studied in static chamber experiments using gas chromatography coupled to mass spectrometric and flame ionisation detection to separate and detect products. Two isomers of C(7)-diacids and three isomers of C(7)-aldehydic acids were identified in the condensed phase after derivatisation. Possible mechanisms of formation of these acids were investigated using different OH radical scavengers and relative humidities, and were compared to those reported earlier for the ozonolysis of beta-pinene. In addition, branching ratios for some of the individual reaction steps, e.g. the branching ratio between the two hydroperoxide channels of the C(7)-CI, were deduced from the quantitative product yield data. Branching ratios for POZ decomposition and the stabilisation/decomposition of the C(7-)CI were also obtained from measurements of the C(7) primary carbonyl product. PMID:19458821

  4. Elusive Sulfurous Acid: Gas-Phase Basicity and IR Signature of the Protonated Species.

    PubMed

    Sinha, Rajeev K; Scuderi, Debora; Maitre, Philippe; Chiavarino, Barbara; Crestoni, Maria Elisa; Fornarini, Simonetta

    2015-05-01

    The ion corresponding to protonated sulfurous acid, H3SO3(+), has been successfully delivered into the gas phase by electrospray ionization of the solution of a suitable precursor and an in-source fragmentation process. The neutral acid is a highly elusive molecule. However, its gas-phase basicity has been ascertained by means of a kinetic study of proton-transfer reactivity. The structure of the H3SO3(+) sampled ion has been probed by IRMPD spectroscopy in two complementary IR frequency ranges in conjunction with density functional theory calculations and found to conform to a trihydroxosulfonium ion. The characteristic IR signatures may aid in deciphering the presence of this species in extraterrestrial atmospheres. PMID:26263321

  5. Elusive Sulfurous Acid: Gas-Phase Basicity and IR Signature of the Protonated Species.

    PubMed

    Sinha, Rajeev K; Scuderi, Debora; Maitre, Philippe; Chiavarino, Barbara; Crestoni, Maria Elisa; Fornarini, Simonetta

    2015-05-01

    The ion corresponding to protonated sulfurous acid, H3SO3(+), has been successfully delivered into the gas phase by electrospray ionization of the solution of a suitable precursor and an in-source fragmentation process. The neutral acid is a highly elusive molecule. However, its gas-phase basicity has been ascertained by means of a kinetic study of proton-transfer reactivity. The structure of the H3SO3(+) sampled ion has been probed by IRMPD spectroscopy in two complementary IR frequency ranges in conjunction with density functional theory calculations and found to conform to a trihydroxosulfonium ion. The characteristic IR signatures may aid in deciphering the presence of this species in extraterrestrial atmospheres.

  6. Investigation of secondary formation of formic acid: urban environment vs. oil and gas producing region

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yuan, B.; Veres, P. R.; Warneke, C.; Roberts, J. M.; Gilman, J. B.; Koss, A.; Edwards, P. M.; Graus, M.; Kuster, W. C.; Li, S.-M.; Wild, R. J.; Brown, S. S.; Dubé, W. P.; Lerner, B. M.; Williams, E. J.; Johnson, J. E.; Quinn, P. K.; Bates, T. S.; Lefer, B.; Hayes, P. L.; Jimenez, J. L.; Weber, R. J.; Zamora, R.; Ervens, B.; Millet, D. B.; Rappenglück, B.; de Gouw, J. A.

    2015-02-01

    Formic acid (HCOOH) is one of the most abundant carboxylic acids in the atmosphere. However, current photochemical models cannot fully explain observed concentrations and in particular secondary formation of formic acid across various environments. In this work, formic acid measurements made at an urban receptor site (Pasadena) in June-July 2010 during CalNex (California Research at the Nexus of Air Quality and Climate Change) and a site in an oil and gas producing region (Uintah Basin) in January-February 2013 during UBWOS 2013 (Uintah Basin Winter Ozone Studies) will be discussed. Although the VOC (volatile organic compounds) compositions differed dramatically at the two sites, measured formic acid concentrations were comparable: 2.3 ± 1.3 in UBWOS 2013 and 2.0 ± 1.0 ppb in CalNex. We determine that concentrations of formic acid at both sites were dominated by secondary formation (> 99%). A constrained box model using the Master Chemical Mechanism (MCM v3.2) underestimates the measured formic acid concentrations drastically at both sites (by a factor of > 10). Compared to the original MCM model that includes only ozonolysis of unsaturated organic compounds and OH oxidation of acetylene, when we updated yields of ozonolysis of alkenes and included OH oxidation of isoprene, vinyl alcohol chemistry, reaction of formaldehyde with HO2, oxidation of aromatics, and reaction of CH3O2 with OH, the model predictions for formic acid were improved by a factor of 6.4 in UBWOS 2013 and 4.5 in CalNex, respectively. A comparison of measured and modeled HCOOH/acetone ratios is used to evaluate the model performance for formic acid. We conclude that the modified chemical mechanism can explain 19 and 45% of secondary formation of formic acid in UBWOS 2013 and CalNex, respectively. The contributions from aqueous reactions in aerosol and heterogeneous reactions on aerosol surface to formic acid are estimated to be 0-6 and 0-5% in UBWOS 2013 and CalNex, respectively. We observe that

  7. Surfactant control of gas transport and reactions at the surface of sulfuric acid.

    PubMed

    Park, Seong-Chan; Burden, Daniel K; Nathanson, Gilbert M

    2009-02-17

    Aerosol particles in the atmosphere are tiny chemical reactors that catalyze numerous reactions, including the conversion of benign gases into ozone-destroying ones. In the lower stratosphere, these particles are often supercooled mixtures of water and sulfuric acid. The different species present at the surface of these droplets (H(2)O, H(3)O(+), HSO(4)(-), H(2)SO(4), and SO(4)(2-)) stand at the "gas-liquid frontier"; as the first to be struck by impinging molecules, these species provide the initial environment for solvation and reaction. Furthermore, aerosol particles may contain a wide range of organic molecules, some of which migrate to the surface and coat the droplet. How do ambient gases dissolve in the droplet if it is coated with an organic layer? At one extreme, monolayer films of insoluble, long-chain alcohols can dramatically reduce gas transport, packing so tightly at the surface of water that they impede water evaporation by factors of 10,000 or more. Shorter chain surfactants are expected to pack less tightly, but we wondered whether these incomplete monolayers also block gas transport and whether this system could serve as a model for understanding the surfaces of atmospheric aerosol particles. To address these questions, our research focuses on small, soluble surfactants such as butanol and hexanol dissolved in supercooled sulfuric acid. These amphiphilic molecules spontaneously segregate to the surface and coat the acid but only to a degree. Gas-liquid scattering experiments reveal that these porous films behave in surprisingly diverse ways: they can impose a barrier (to N(2)O(5) hydrolysis), be "invisible" (to water evaporation), or even enhance gas uptake (of HCl). The transition from obstacle to catalyst can be traced to specific interactions between the surfactant and each gas. For example, the hydrolysis of N(2)O(5) may be impeded because of its large size and because alcohol molecules that straddle the interface limit contact between N(2)O(5

  8. Surfactant control of gas transport and reactions at the surface of sulfuric acid.

    PubMed

    Park, Seong-Chan; Burden, Daniel K; Nathanson, Gilbert M

    2009-02-17

    Aerosol particles in the atmosphere are tiny chemical reactors that catalyze numerous reactions, including the conversion of benign gases into ozone-destroying ones. In the lower stratosphere, these particles are often supercooled mixtures of water and sulfuric acid. The different species present at the surface of these droplets (H(2)O, H(3)O(+), HSO(4)(-), H(2)SO(4), and SO(4)(2-)) stand at the "gas-liquid frontier"; as the first to be struck by impinging molecules, these species provide the initial environment for solvation and reaction. Furthermore, aerosol particles may contain a wide range of organic molecules, some of which migrate to the surface and coat the droplet. How do ambient gases dissolve in the droplet if it is coated with an organic layer? At one extreme, monolayer films of insoluble, long-chain alcohols can dramatically reduce gas transport, packing so tightly at the surface of water that they impede water evaporation by factors of 10,000 or more. Shorter chain surfactants are expected to pack less tightly, but we wondered whether these incomplete monolayers also block gas transport and whether this system could serve as a model for understanding the surfaces of atmospheric aerosol particles. To address these questions, our research focuses on small, soluble surfactants such as butanol and hexanol dissolved in supercooled sulfuric acid. These amphiphilic molecules spontaneously segregate to the surface and coat the acid but only to a degree. Gas-liquid scattering experiments reveal that these porous films behave in surprisingly diverse ways: they can impose a barrier (to N(2)O(5) hydrolysis), be "invisible" (to water evaporation), or even enhance gas uptake (of HCl). The transition from obstacle to catalyst can be traced to specific interactions between the surfactant and each gas. For example, the hydrolysis of N(2)O(5) may be impeded because of its large size and because alcohol molecules that straddle the interface limit contact between N(2)O(5

  9. Prototype demonstration of dual sorbent injection for acid gas control on municipal solid waste combustion units

    SciTech Connect

    1994-05-01

    This report gathered and evaluated emissions and operations data associated with furnace injection of dry hydrated lime and duct injection of dry sodium bicarbonate at a commercial, 1500 ton per day, waste-to-energy facility. The information compiled during the project sheds light on these sorbents to affect acid gas emissions from municipal solid waste combustors. The information assesses the capability of these systems to meet the 1990 Clean Air Act and 1991 EPA Emission Guidelines.

  10. Gas chromatographic/mass spectrometric determination of lysergic acid diethylamide (LSD) in serum samples.

    PubMed

    Musshoff, F; Daldrup, T

    1997-08-01

    A sensitive method for the detection and quantification of lysergic acid diethylamide (LSD) in serum samples is described. After liquid-liquid extraction the trimethylsilyl derivative of LSD is detected by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry. Experiments with spiked samples resulted in a recovery of 76%, the coefficient of variation was 9.3%. Excellent linearity was obtained over the range 0.1-10 ng ml-1. Additionally experiments demonstrating the light sensitivity of LSD are presented together with casuistics.

  11. Effects of emulsified octadecanic acids on gas production and cellulolysis by the rumen anaerobic fungus, Piromyces communis M014.

    PubMed

    Kim, Chang-H; Lee, Shin J; Ha, Jong K; Kim, Wan Y; Lee, Sung S

    2008-02-01

    Responses of the rumen anaerobic fungus, Piromyces communis M014, to octadecanic long-chain fatty acids (LCFAs) were evaluated by measuring total and hydrogen gas productions, filter paper (FP) cellulose degradation and polysaccharidase enzyme activities. Octadecanic acids (stearic acid, C(18:0); oleic acid, C(18:1); linoleic acid, C(18:2) and linolenic acid, C(18:3)) were emulsified by ultrasonication under anaerobic conditions, and added to the medium at the level of 0.001%. When P. communis M014 was grown in culture with stearic and oleic acids, the cumulative gas production, FP cellulose digestion and enzyme activities were significantly (p<0.05) increased in the early incubation times relative to those for the control. However, the addition of linolenic acid inhibited all of the investigated parameters, including cellulose degradation, enzyme activities and gas production, up to 168h incubation. These results indicated that stearic and oleic acids tended to have stimulatory effects on fungal cellulolysis, whereas linolenic acid caused a significant (p<0.05) inhibitory effect on cellulolysis by the rumen fungus. The fungus, P. communis M014, can biohydrogenate C(18) unsaturated fatty acids to escape from their toxic effects. Therefore, in this study, the results indicated that the more highly the added C(18) LCFA to the fungal culture was unsaturated, the higher the inhibition of gas production and cellulase enzyme activity was.

  12. [Study on the start-up of an innovative polyethylene carrier biotrickling filter treating waste gas containing hydrogen sulphide].

    PubMed

    Wu, Yong-gang; Ren, Hong-qiang; Ding, Li-li; Wu, Ji-chun

    2006-12-01

    Start-up of an innovative biotrickling bed packed with high density polyethylene carrier was studied. Two biofilm formation methods, continuous liquid stream (CLS) and gas-liquid phase joint (GLJ) biofilm formation, were studied for a quick start-up of biotrickling bed reactor treating gaseous hydrogen sulfide. Results show that the start-up time of the former is shorter, i. e. about 7 d at temperature 20- 28 degrees C . More steady performance was found in the reactor with CLS biofilm formation when sudden changes of GRT and inlet sulfide concentration happened. The removal efficiency of the former kept above 95% when inlet hydrogen sulphide concentration below 343 mg/m(3). Furthermore, the removal efficiency of S2- from the liquid used as the monitoring parameter of biofilm formation is suggested. After start-up period accomplished, no notable influence observed on removal efficiency when reducing supply of carbon source in trickling liquid through two different methods. The results show that the elimination of hydrogen sulphide in waste gas mainly attributed to autotrophic bacteria.

  13. [Development of an ultrasound-mediated nucleic acid delivery system for treating muscular dystrophies].

    PubMed

    Negishi, Yoichi; Hamano, Nobuhito; Shiono, Hitomi; Akiyama, Saki; Endo-Takahashi, Yoko; Suzuki, Ryo; Maruyama, Kazuo; Aramaki, Yukihiko

    2012-01-01

    Muscular dystrophies are a group of heterogeneous diseases that are characterized by progressive muscle weakness, wasting and degeneration. These muscular deficiencies are often caused by the loss of the protein dystrophin, a crucial element of the dystrophin-glycoprotein complex of muscle fibers. Duchenne muscular dystrophy (DMD) is a fatal, X-linked muscular disease that occurs in 1 out of every 3500 males. Therefore, feasible strategies for replacing or repairing the defective gene are required; however, to date, no effective therapeutic strategies for muscular dystrophies have been established. In this review, we first introduce gene therapies mediated by adeno-associated viruses (AAVs) including a functional dystrophin cDNA or antisense oligonucleotide (AO)-induced exon-skipping therapies, which are designed to exclude the mutated or additional exon(s) in the defective gene and thereby correct the translational reading frame. Recently, we developed "Bubble liposomes" (BLs), which are polyethylene glycol (PEG)-modified liposomes entrapping echo-contrast gas that is known as ultrasound (US) imaging gas. BL application combined with US exposure can function as a novel gene delivery tool, and we demonstrate that the US-mediated eruption of BLs is a feasible and efficient technique to deliver plasmid DNA or AOs for the treatment of muscular dystrophies.

  14. Chaperone-Mediated Autophagy Targets IFNAR1 for Lysosomal Degradation in Free Fatty Acid Treated HCV Cell Culture

    PubMed Central

    Kurt, Ramazan; Chandra, Partha K.; Aboulnasr, Fatma; Panigrahi, Rajesh; Ferraris, Pauline; Aydin, Yucel; Reiss, Krzysztof; Wu, Tong; Balart, Luis A.; Dash, Srikanta

    2015-01-01

    Background Hepatic steatosis is a risk factor for both liver disease progression and an impaired response to interferon alpha (IFN-α)-based combination therapy in chronic hepatitis C virus (HCV) infection. Previously, we reported that free fatty acid (FFA)-treated HCV cell culture induces hepatocellular steatosis and impairs the expression of interferon alpha receptor-1 (IFNAR1), which is why the antiviral activity of IFN-α against HCV is impaired. Aim To investigate the molecular mechanism by which IFNAR1 expression is impaired in HCV cell culture with or without free fatty acid-treatment. Method HCV-infected Huh 7.5 cells were cultured with or without a mixture of saturated (palmitate) and unsaturated (oleate) long-chain free fatty acids (FFA). Intracytoplasmic fat accumulation in HCV-infected culture was visualized by oil red staining. Clearance of HCV in FFA cell culture treated with type I IFN (IFN-α) and Type III IFN (IFN-λ) was determined by Renilla luciferase activity, and the expression of HCV core was determined by immunostaining. Activation of Jak-Stat signaling in the FFA-treated HCV culture by IFN-α alone and IFN-λ alone was examined by Western blot analysis and confocal microscopy. Lysosomal degradation of IFNAR1 by chaperone-mediated autophagy (CMA) in the FFA-treated HCV cell culture model was investigated. Results FFA treatment induced dose-dependent hepatocellular steatosis and lipid droplet accumulation in HCV-infected Huh-7.5 cells. FFA treatment of infected culture increased HCV replication in a concentration-dependent manner. Intracellular lipid accumulation led to reduced Stat phosphorylation and nuclear translocation, causing an impaired IFN-α antiviral response and HCV clearance. Type III IFN (IFN-λ), which binds to a separate receptor, induces Stat phosphorylation, and nuclear translocation as well as antiviral clearance in FFA-treated HCV cell culture. We show here that the HCV-induced autophagy response is increased in FFA-treated

  15. Carbon and nitrogen dynamics and greenhouse gas emissions in constructed wetlands treating wastewater: a review

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jahangir, M. M. R.; Richards, K. G.; Healy, M. G.; Gill, L.; Müller, C.; Johnston, P.; Fenton, O.

    2016-01-01

    The removal efficiency of carbon (C) and nitrogen (N) in constructed wetlands (CWs) is very inconsistent and frequently does not reveal whether the removal processes are due to physical attenuation or whether the different species have been transformed to other reactive forms. Previous research on nutrient removal in CWs did not consider the dynamics of pollution swapping (the increase of one pollutant as a result of a measure introduced to reduce a different pollutant) driven by transformational processes within and around the system. This paper aims to address this knowledge gap by reviewing the biogeochemical dynamics and fate of C and N in CWs and their potential impact on the environment, and by presenting novel ways in which these knowledge gaps may be eliminated. Nutrient removal in CWs varies with the type of CW, vegetation, climate, season, geographical region, and management practices. Horizontal flow CWs tend to have good nitrate (NO3-) removal, as they provide good conditions for denitrification, but cannot remove ammonium (NH4+) due to limited ability to nitrify NH4+. Vertical flow CWs have good NH4+ removal, but their denitrification ability is low. Surface flow CWs decrease nitrous oxide (N2O) emissions but increase methane (CH4) emissions; subsurface flow CWs increase N2O and carbon dioxide (CO2) emissions, but decrease CH4 emissions. Mixed species of vegetation perform better than monocultures in increasing C and N removal and decreasing greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions, but empirical evidence is still scarce. Lower hydraulic loadings with higher hydraulic retention times enhance nutrient removal, but more empirical evidence is required to determine an optimum design. A conceptual model highlighting the current state of knowledge is presented and experimental work that should be undertaken to address knowledge gaps across CWs, vegetation and wastewater types, hydraulic loading rates and regimes, and retention times, is suggested. We recommend that

  16. Comparison of Gas Sensors Based on Oxygen Plasma-Treated Carbon Nanotube Network Films with Different Semiconducting Contents

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ham, Seung Woo; Hong, Hyun Pyo; Kim, Jin Woong; Kim, Jong Hyun; Kim, Ki Bum; Park, Chan Won; Min, Nam Ki

    2015-05-01

    We report on the effect of oxygen plasma treatment on the performance of single-wall carbon nanotube (SWCNT) NH3 gas sensors with different semiconducting contents (66% and 90% semiconducting SWCNTs). The performance of chemical sensors based on SWCNT networks depends on the concentration of semiconducting SWCNTs (s-SWCNTs), whose conductance can be significantly modulated by the absorbed molecules and the surface functionalization. After oxygen plasma treatment, the 66% s-SWCNT sample showed an increase in sensitivity from 0.0275%/ppm to 0.1525%/ppm (5.5 times), while the 90% s-SWCNT device demonstrated an increase in sensitivity from 0.1184%/ppm to 1.5707%/ppm (13 times). These results correspond to improvements in sensitivity of 57 times and 10 times compared with pristine and plasma-treated 66% s-SWCNT samples, respectively. In addition, the plasma-treated sensors exhibited much faster response and recovery times than the pristine one. The large improvement in performance was explained by the presence of oxygen-containing functional groups and the sp2-sp3 structure change of SWCNTs, which changes the binding energy while increasing the uptake of polar molecules such as NH3.

  17. Effect on combined cycle efficiency of stack gas temperature constraints to avoid acid corrosion

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Nainiger, J. J.

    1980-01-01

    To avoid condensation of sulfuric acid in the gas turbine exhaust when burning fuel oils contaning sulfur, the exhaust stack temperature and cold-end heat exchanger surfaces must be kept above the condensation temperature. Raising the exhaust stack temperature, however, results in lower combined cycle efficiency compared to that achievable by a combined cycle burning a sulfur-free fuel. The maximum difference in efficiency between the use of sulfur-free and fuels containing 0.8 percent sulfur is found to be less than one percentage point. The effect of using a ceramic thermal barrier coating (TBC) and a fuel containing sulfur is also evaluated. The combined-cycle efficiency gain using a TBC with a fuel containing sulfur compared to a sulfur-free fuel without TBC is 0.6 to 1.0 percentage points with air-cooled gas turbines and 1.6 to 1.8 percentage points with water-cooled gas turbines.

  18. Determination of phenoxy acid herbicides in water by electron-capture and microcoulometric gas chromatography

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Goerlitz, D.F.; Lamar, William L.

    1967-01-01

    A sensitive gas chromatographic method using microcoulometric titration and electron-capture detection for the analysis of 2,4-D, silvex, 2,4,5-T, and other phenoxy acid herbicides in water is described. The herbicides are extracted from unfiltered water samples (800-1,000 ml) by use of ethyl ether ; then the herbicides are concentrated and esterilied. To allow the analyst a choice, two esterilication procedures--using either boron trifluoride-methanol or diazomethane--are evaluated. Microcoulometric gas chromatography is specific for the detection of halogenated compounds such as the phenoxy acid herbicides whereas it does not respond to nonhalogenated components. Microcoulometric gas chromatography requires care and patience. It is not convenient for rapid screening of l-liter samples that contain less than 1 microgram of the herbicide. Although electroncapture gas chromatography is less selective and more critically affected by interfering substances, it is, nevertheless, convenient and more sensitive than microcoulometric gas chromatography. Two different liquid phases are used in the gas chromatographic columns--DC-200 silicone in one column and QF-1 silicone in the other. The performance of both columns is improved by the addition of Carbowax 20M. The Gas Chrom Q support is coated with the liquid phases by the 'frontal-analysis' technique. The practical lower limits for measurement of the phenoxy acid herbicides in water primarily depend upon the sample size, interferences present, anal instrumentation used. With l-liter samples of water, the practical lower limits of measurement are 10 ppt (parts per trillion) for 2,4-D and 2 ppt for silvex and 2,4,5-T when electron-capture detection is used, and approximately 20 ppt for each herbicide when analyzed by microcoulometric-titration gas chromatography. Recoveries of the herbicides immediately after addition to unfiltered water samples averaged 92 percent for 2,4-D, 90 percent for silvex, and 98 percent for 2

  19. Biochemical study on the protective role of folic acid in rabbits treated with chromium (VI).

    PubMed

    El-Demerdash, Fatma M; Yousef, Mokhtar I; Elaswad, Fathia A M

    2006-01-01

    Deleterious effects of chromium (VI) compounds are diversified affecting almost all the organ systems in a wide variety of animals. Therefore, the present study was carried out to determine the effectiveness of folic acid (FA) in alleviating the toxicity of chromium (VI) on certain biochemical parameters, lipid peroxidation, and enzyme activities of male New Zealand white rabbits. Six rabbits per group were assigned to one of four treatment groups: 0 mg FA and 0 mg Cr(VI)/kg BW (control); 8.3 microg FA/kg BW; 5 mg Cr(VI)/kg BW; 5 mg Cr(VI) plus 8.3 microg FA/kg BW, respectively. Rabbits were orally administered their respective doses every day for 10 weeks. Results obtained showed that Cr(VI) significantly (P < 0.05) increased the levels of free radicals and the activity of glutathione S-transferase (GST), and decreased the content of sulfhydryl groups (SH groups) in liver, testes, brain, kidney, and lung. The activities of aspartate aminotransferase (AST), alanine aminotransferase (ALT), alkaline phosphatase (AlP), acid phosphatase (AcP), and lactate dehydrogenase (LDH) were significantly decreased in liver and testes due to Cr(VI) administration. Also, AlP and AcP activities were significantly decreased in kidney and lung. The activity of acetylcholinesterase (AChE) was significantly decreased in brain and plasma. Contrariwise, the activities of AST and ALT were significantly increased in plasma, while AlP and AcP decreased. Chromium (VI) treatment caused a significant decrease in plasma total protein (TP) and globulin, and increased total lipids (TL), cholesterol, glucose, urea, creatinine, and bilirubin concentrations. Folic acid alone significantly decreased the levels of free radicals in liver, brain, and kidney, and increased the content of SH-group. The activities of AST, ALT, and LDH in liver; AST, ALT, AlP, AcP, and LDH in testes; AcP in kidney; AlP and AcP in lung, and LDH in brain were significantly increased. Plasma TP and albumin were increased, while

  20. Benzimidazole as corrosion inhibitor for heat treated 6061 Al- SiCp composite in acetic acid

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chacko, Melby; Nayak, Jagannath

    2015-06-01

    6061 Al-SiCpcomposite was solutionizedat 350 °C for 30 minutes and water quenched. It was then underaged at 140 °C (T6 treatment). The aging behaviour of the composite was studied using Rockwell B hardness measurement. Corrosion behaviour of the underaged sample was studied in different concentrations of acetic acid and at different temperatures. Benzimidazole at different concentrations was used for the inhibition studies. Inhibition efficiency of benzimidazole was calculated for different experimental conditions. Thermodynamic parameters were found out which suggested benzimidazole is an efficient inhibitor and it adsorbed on to the surface of composite by mixed adsorption where chemisorption is predominant.

  1. The Quality Changes of Postharvest Mulberry Fruit Treated by Chitosan-g-Caffeic Acid During Cold Storage.

    PubMed

    Yang, Caifeng; Han, Beibei; Zheng, Yu; Liu, Lili; Li, Changlong; Sheng, Sheng; Zhang, Jian; Wang, Jun; Wu, Fuan

    2016-04-01

    This study aimed to characterize the effects of chitosan-g-caffeic acid (CTS-g-CA) on improving the quality and extending the shelf life of postharvest mulberry fruit during storage at 4 °C for 18 d. CTS-g-CA was enzymatically synthesized using laccase from Pleurotus ostreatus as a catalyst. The synergistic effects of CTS-g-CA treatment on mulberry fruit were evaluated using a co-toxicity factor (cf). The results showed that the rotting rate of CTS-g-CA-treated fruit was 37.67% (compared with that of the control at 97.67%) on day 18. The weight loss and malondialdehyde (MDA) contents of the CTS-g-CA-treated mulberry fruit were significantly lower (P < 0.05) than those of the control, CA, CTS, and CA+CTS treatments. Moreover, the DPPH and ABTS radical scavenging activities of the CTS-g-CA treatment were both higher than those of the control. Furthermore, the CTS-g-CA treatment also maintained higher levels of main active substances, such as anthocyanins, ascorbic acid, polyphenols and flavones, in mulberry fruit than the other treatments. Therefore, CTS-g-CA could be used to improve the quality and extend the shelf life of postharvest mulberry fruit during cold storage. PMID:26992122

  2. The Quality Changes of Postharvest Mulberry Fruit Treated by Chitosan-g-Caffeic Acid During Cold Storage.

    PubMed

    Yang, Caifeng; Han, Beibei; Zheng, Yu; Liu, Lili; Li, Changlong; Sheng, Sheng; Zhang, Jian; Wang, Jun; Wu, Fuan

    2016-04-01

    This study aimed to characterize the effects of chitosan-g-caffeic acid (CTS-g-CA) on improving the quality and extending the shelf life of postharvest mulberry fruit during storage at 4 °C for 18 d. CTS-g-CA was enzymatically synthesized using laccase from Pleurotus ostreatus as a catalyst. The synergistic effects of CTS-g-CA treatment on mulberry fruit were evaluated using a co-toxicity factor (cf). The results showed that the rotting rate of CTS-g-CA-treated fruit was 37.67% (compared with that of the control at 97.67%) on day 18. The weight loss and malondialdehyde (MDA) contents of the CTS-g-CA-treated mulberry fruit were significantly lower (P < 0.05) than those of the control, CA, CTS, and CA+CTS treatments. Moreover, the DPPH and ABTS radical scavenging activities of the CTS-g-CA treatment were both higher than those of the control. Furthermore, the CTS-g-CA treatment also maintained higher levels of main active substances, such as anthocyanins, ascorbic acid, polyphenols and flavones, in mulberry fruit than the other treatments. Therefore, CTS-g-CA could be used to improve the quality and extend the shelf life of postharvest mulberry fruit during cold storage.

  3. Immunoreactivity of lactic acid-treated mare's milk after simulated digestion.

    PubMed

    Fotschki, Joanna; Szyc, Anna; Wróblewska, Barbara

    2015-02-01

    The similarity of mare's milk to breast milk makes it an interesting substrate for the creation of dairy beverages. The aim of this study was to determine the immunoreactivity of the digested mare's milk products carried out by lactic acid fermentation with Lactobacillus casei LCY, Streptococcus thermophilus MK10 and Bifidobacterium animalis Bi30. Simulation of digestion with saliva, pepsin and pancreatin/bile salts was carried out. The immunoreactivity of the milk proteins was assessed by competitive ELISA. The separation of proteins was studied using a tricine SDS-PAGE method. It has been demonstrated that lactic acid fermentation significantly decreases the immunoreactivity of β-lactoglobulin, β-casein, κ-casein and bovine serum albumin. The level of reduction was connected to the type of bacterial strain. The simulated digestion processes caused the decline of immunoreactivity, and the decreases obtained in the experiment were as follows: lactoferrin: 95%, β-lactoglobulin: 94%, β-casein: 93%, α-lactalbumin: 82%, α-casein: 82%, bovine serum albumin: 76% and κ-casein: 37%. The results of the study indicated that microbial fermentation with tested strains is a valuable method for reducing the immunoreactivity of mare's milk proteins. However, further studies with other bacterial strains are needed to gain a higher level of elimination or total reduction of mare's milk immunoreactivity to possibly introduce fermented mare's milk into the diet of patients with immune-mediated digestive problems.

  4. Extinction of Vibrio cholerae in acidic substrata: contaminated cabbage and lettuce treated with lime juice.

    PubMed

    Mata, L; Vargas, C; Saborío, D; Vives, M

    1994-12-01

    Lime juice killed millions of Vibrio cholerae O1, El Tor, Inaba, present on cabbage and lettuce contaminated in the laboratory. The lethal effect was evident within 5 min of exposure to lime juice. No vibrios could be recovered at dilution 1:10 using alkaline peptone water (APW) and thiosulfate-citrate-bile salts-saccharose agar (TCBS). More than 99.9% of the initial inoculum was effectively destroyed. The number of vibrios killed by lime juice was 2 to 6 logarithms greater than the maximum infecting dose, and 4 to 8 logs greater than the minimum infecting dose for cholera El Tor. The time interval needed for killing was smaller than the usual waiting time for serving food in homes and restaurants. The addition of lime juice to non-acidic foods, beverages and water, is strongly recommended to prevent infection with cholera vibrios and other acid-sensitive microorganisms. This measure is particularly important for rural and slum populations in the tropics and subtropics.

  5. Amino acid conjugated self assembling molecules for enhancing surface wettability of fiber laser treated titanium surfaces

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Akkan, Cagri K.; Hür, Deniz; Uzun, Lokman; Garipcan, Bora

    2016-03-01

    Surface wetting properties of implants are one of the most critical parameter, which determine the interaction of proteins and cells with the implant surface. In this regards, acid etching and sand blasting are the mostly used methods at surface modification of Titanium (Ti) for enhanced surface wettability. Besides, these kinds of modifications may cause a conflict whether the surface wettability is influenced by the process related surface contaminations or by the surface roughness. In contrast, lasers might be an option for the alteration of surface wetting properties via supporting micro and/or nano surface topographies while preventing surface chemical contaminations. In this work, we focused on two steps of surface processing approaches of Ti surface: physical and chemical modifications. Herein, we hierarchically structured Ti surfaces by using microsecond modulated pulsed fiber laser. Subsequently, laser structured and non-structured Ti surfaces were further modified with novel histidine and leucine Amino Acid conjugated Self-Assembled Molecules (His1-SAMs2 and Leu3-SAMs) to alter the surface wettability by introducing biologically hydrophilic and hydrophobic groups. Modification of Ti surfaces with His-SAMs and Leu-SAMs ended up with stable wetting properties when compared to non-modified surfaces after 7 days which may enhances the cell-surface interaction.

  6. Combined therapy of Ulmo honey (Eucryphia cordifolia) and ascorbic acid to treat venous ulcers1

    PubMed Central

    Calderon, Mariano del Sol; Figueroa, Carolina Schencke; Arias, Jessica Salvo; Sandoval, Alejandra Hidalgo; Torre, Felipe Ocharan

    2015-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: to assess the clinical effect of topical treatment using Ulmo honey associated with oral ascorbic acid in patients with venous ulcers. METHOD: longitudinal and descriptive quantitative study. During one year, 18 patients were assessed who were clinically diagnosed with venous ulcer in different stages, male and female, adult, with a mean injury time of 13 months. Ulmo honey was topically applied daily. The dressing was applied in accordance with the technical standard for advanced dressings, combined with the daily oral consumptions of 500 mg of ascorbic acid. The monitoring instrument is the assessment table of venous ulcers. RESULTS: full healing was achieved in 100% of the venous ulcers. No signs of complications were observed, such as allergies or infection. CONCLUSION: the proposed treatment showed excellent clinical results for the healing of venous ulcers. The honey demonstrated debriding and non-adherent properties, was easy to apply and remove and was well accepted by the users. The described results generated a research line on chronic wound treatment. PMID:26039296

  7. Evaluation of a limestone channel and wetland system for treating acid mine drainage

    SciTech Connect

    Brenner, F.J.; Pruent, P.

    1999-07-01

    The Carpentertown Coal and Coke Company operated two drift mines on the site for 17 years closing in December 1987, but the company continued to operate a cleaning plant and coal refuse disposal site until the company declared bankruptcy in June 1989. In summer of 1993, eight acid seeps developed from the 2 ha coal refuse site with a combined flow of 36 1/min with iron and manganese loading rates of 419 and 576 gm/day. In 1995, a 212 m (700 ft) open limestone channel (OLC) and a 344 m{sup 2} (1,142 ft{sup 2}) and a 2,110 m{sup 2}(43,750 ft{sup 2}) aerobic wetland was constructed as a passive treatment system. over the 34-month monitoring period, the acid loading to the receiving stream was reduced by 88% with a corresponding increase of 111% in alkalinity. The iron and manganese loading to the receiving stream was reduced by 91% and 57%, respectively.

  8. UV Tolerance of Spoilage Microorganisms and Acid-Shocked and Acid-Adapted Escherichia coli in Apple Juice Treated with a Commercial UV Juice-Processing Unit.

    PubMed

    Usaga, Jessie; Padilla-Zakour, Olga I; Worobo, Randy W

    2016-02-01

    The enhanced thermal tolerance and survival responses of Escherichia coli O157:H7 in acid and acidified foods is a major safety concern for the production of low-pH products, including beverages. Little is known about this phenomenon when using UV light treatments. This study was conducted to evaluate the effects of strain (E. coli O157:H7 strains C7927, ATCC 35150, ATCC 43895, and ATCC 43889 and E. coli ATCC 25922) and physiological state (control-unadapted, acid adapted, and acid shocked) on the UV tolerance of E. coli in apple juice treated under conditions stipulated in current U.S. Food and Drug Administration regulations. A greater than 5-log reduction of E. coli was obtained under all tested conditions. A significant effect of strain (P < 0.05) was observed, but the physiological state did not influence pathogen inactivation (P ≥ 0.05). The UV sensitivity of three spoilage microorganisms (Aspergillus niger, Penicillium commune, and Alicyclobacillus acidoterrestris) was also determined at UV doses of 0 to 98 mJ/cm(2). Alicyclobacillus was the most UV sensitive, followed by Penicillium and Aspergillus. Because of the nonsignificant differences in UV sensitivity of E. coli in different physiological states, the use of an unadapted inoculum would be adequate to conduct challenge studies with the commercial UV unit used in this study at a UV dose of 14 mJ/cm(2). The high UV tolerance of spoilage microorganisms supports the need to use a hurdle approach (e.g., coupling of refrigeration, preservatives, and/or other technologies) to extend the shelf life of UV-treated beverages. PMID:26818991

  9. UV Tolerance of Spoilage Microorganisms and Acid-Shocked and Acid-Adapted Escherichia coli in Apple Juice Treated with a Commercial UV Juice-Processing Unit.

    PubMed

    Usaga, Jessie; Padilla-Zakour, Olga I; Worobo, Randy W

    2016-02-01

    The enhanced thermal tolerance and survival responses of Escherichia coli O157:H7 in acid and acidified foods is a major safety concern for the production of low-pH products, including beverages. Little is known about this phenomenon when using UV light treatments. This study was conducted to evaluate the effects of strain (E. coli O157:H7 strains C7927, ATCC 35150, ATCC 43895, and ATCC 43889 and E. coli ATCC 25922) and physiological state (control-unadapted, acid adapted, and acid shocked) on the UV tolerance of E. coli in apple juice treated under conditions stipulated in current U.S. Food and Drug Administration regulations. A greater than 5-log reduction of E. coli was obtained under all tested conditions. A significant effect of strain (P < 0.05) was observed, but the physiological state did not influence pathogen inactivation (P ≥ 0.05). The UV sensitivity of three spoilage microorganisms (Aspergillus niger, Penicillium commune, and Alicyclobacillus acidoterrestris) was also determined at UV doses of 0 to 98 mJ/cm(2). Alicyclobacillus was the most UV sensitive, followed by Penicillium and Aspergillus. Because of the nonsignificant differences in UV sensitivity of E. coli in different physiological states, the use of an unadapted inoculum would be adequate to conduct challenge studies with the commercial UV unit used in this study at a UV dose of 14 mJ/cm(2). The high UV tolerance of spoilage microorganisms supports the need to use a hurdle approach (e.g., coupling of refrigeration, preservatives, and/or other technologies) to extend the shelf life of UV-treated beverages.

  10. Supramolecular Adducts of Cucurbit[7]uril and Amino Acids in the Gas Phase

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kovalenko, Ekaterina; Vilaseca, Marta; Díaz-Lobo, Mireia; Masliy, A. N.; Vicent, Cristian; Fedin, Vladimir P.

    2016-02-01

    The complexation of the macrocyclic cavitand cucurbit[7]uril (Q7) with a series of amino acids (AA) with different side chains (Asp, Asn, Gln, Ser, Ala, Val, and Ile) is investigated by ESI-MS techniques. The 1:1 [Q7 + AA + 2H]2+ adducts are observed as the base peak when equimolar Q7:AA solutions are electrosprayed, whereas the 1:2 [Q7 + 2AA + 2H]2+ dications are dominant when an excess of the amino acid is used. A combination of ion mobility mass spectrometry (IM-MS) and DFT calculations of the 1:1 [Q7 + AA + 2H]2+ (AA = Tyr, Val, and Ser) adducts is also reported and proven to be unsuccessful at discriminating between exclusion or inclusion-type conformations in the gas phase. Collision induced dissociation (CID) revealed that the preferred dissociation pathways of the 1:1 [Q7 + AA + 2H]2+ dications are strongly influenced by the identity of the amino acid side chain, whereas ion molecule reactions towards N-butylmethylamine displayed a common reactivity pattern comprising AA displacement. Special emphasis is given on the differences between the gas-phase behavior of the supramolecular adducts with amino acids (AA = Asp, Asn, Gln, Ser, Ala, Val, and Ile) and those featuring basic (Lys and Arg) and aromatic (Tyr and Phe) side chains.

  11. Long-term competition between sulfate reducing and methanogenic bacteria in UASB reactors treating volatile fatty acids

    SciTech Connect

    Omil, F. |; Lens, P.; Visser, A.; Hulshoff Pol, L.W.; Lettinga, G.

    1998-03-20

    The competition between acetate utilizing methane-producing bacteria (MB) and sulfate-reducing bacteria (SRB) was studied in mesophilic (30 C) upflow anaerobic sludge bed (UASB) reactors treating volatile fatty acids and sulfate. The UASB reactors treated a VFA mixture (with an acetate:propionate:butyrate ratio of 5:3:2 on COD basis) or acetate as the sole substrate at different COD:sulfate ratios. The outcome of the competition was evaluated in terms of conversion rates and specific methanogenic and sulfidogenic activities. The COD:sulfate ratio was a key factor in the partitioning of acetate utilization between MB and SRB. In excess of sulfate, SRB became predominant over MB after prolonged reactor operation: 250 and 400 days were required to increase the amount of acetate used by SRB from 50 to 90% in the reactor treating, respectively, the VFA mixture or acetate as the sole substrate. The competition for acetate was further studied by dynamic simulations using a mathematical model based on the Monod kinetic parameters of acetate utilizing SRB and MB. The simulations confirmed the long term nature of the competition between these acetotrophs. A high reactor pH ({+-}8), a short solid retention time (<150 days), and the presence of a substantial SRB population in the inoculum may considerably reduce the time required for acetate-utilizing SRB to outcompete MB.

  12. Interaction of Gas Phase Oxalic Acid with Ammonia and its Atmospheric Implications

    SciTech Connect

    Peng, Xiu-Qiu; Liu, Yi-Rong; Huang, Teng; Jiang, Shuai; Huang, Wei

    2015-04-14

    Oxalic acid is believed to play an important role in the formation and growth of atmospheric organic aerosols. However, as a common organic acid, the understanding of the larger clusters formed by gas phase oxalic acid with multiple ammonia molecules is incomplete. In this work, the structural characteristics and thermodynamics of oxalic acid clusters with up to six ammonia molecules have been investigated at the PW91PW91/6-311++G(3df,3pd) level of theory. We found that oxalic acid forms relatively stable clusters with ammonia molecules, and that ionization events play a key role. The analyses of the thermodynamics and atmospheric relevance indicate that the heterodimer (H2C2O4)(NH3) shows an obvious relative concentration in the atmosphere, and thus likely participates in new particle formation. However, with increasing number of ammonia molecules, the concentration of clusters decreases gradually. Additionally, clusters of oxalic acid with ammonia molecules are predicted to form favorably in low temperature conditions and show high Rayleigh scattering intensities.

  13. Investigation of sorbic acid volatile degradation products in pharmaceutical formulations using static headspace gas chromatography.

    PubMed

    Yarramraju, Sitaramaraju; Akurathi, Vamsidhar; Wolfs, Kris; Van Schepdael, Ann; Hoogmartens, Jos; Adams, Erwin

    2007-06-28

    An analytical method that allows simultaneous analysis of sorbic acid and its degradation products was developed using static headspace gas chromatography (HS-GC). AT-Aquawax-DA, the capillary column used, showed good selectivity and separation towards sorbic acid and its degradation products. Sorbic acid degradation was investigated in both acidic and aqueous media at room and elevated temperatures. In total 12 sorbic acid degradation products were found, 8 of which could be characterized. The method was investigated for its accuracy towards estimation of degradation products. Using the HS-GC method different batches of pharmaceutical preparations such as cold cream, cetomacrogol cream and vaseline were investigated for sorbic acid degradation products which were estimated by applying the standard addition method. Acetaldehyde was found to be the major degradation product. The other identified degradation products were: acetone; 2-methylfuran; crotonaldehyde; alfa-angelicalactone; 2-acetyl, 5-methylfuran; toluene and 2,5-dimethylfuran. Both mass spectrometeric (MS) and flame ionization detection (FID) were used. The qualitative investigation was done on HS-GC-MS and the quantitative work on HS-GC-FID. PMID:17306494

  14. Surface Lewis acid-base properties of polymers measured by inverse gas chromatography.

    PubMed

    Shi, Baoli; Zhang, Qianru; Jia, Lina; Liu, Yang; Li, Bin

    2007-05-18

    Surface Lewis acid-base properties are significant for polymers materials. The acid constant, K(a) and base constant, K(b) of many polymers were characterized by some researchers with inverse gas chromatography (IGC) in recent years. In this paper, the surface acid-base constants, K(a) and K(b) of 20 kinds of polymers measured by IGC in recent years are summarized and discussed, including seven polymers characterized in this work. After plotting K(b) versus K(a), it is found that the polymers can be encircled by a triangle. They scatter in two regions of the triangle. Four polymers exist in region I. K(b)/K(a) of the polymers in region I are 1.4-2.1. The other polymers exist in region II. Most of the polymers are relative basic materials.

  15. Effect of dimethylamine on the gas phase sulfuric acid concentration measured by Chemical Ionization Mass Spectrometry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rondo, L.; Ehrhart, S.; Kürten, A.; Adamov, A.; Bianchi, F.; Breitenlechner, M.; Duplissy, J.; Franchin, A.; Dommen, J.; Donahue, N. M.; Dunne, E. M.; Flagan, R. C.; Hakala, J.; Hansel, A.; Keskinen, H.; Kim, J.; Jokinen, T.; Lehtipalo, K.; Leiminger, M.; Praplan, A.; Riccobono, F.; Rissanen, M. P.; Sarnela, N.; Schobesberger, S.; Simon, M.; Sipilä, M.; Smith, J. N.; Tomé, A.; Tröstl, J.; Tsagkogeorgas, G.; Vaattovaara, P.; Winkler, P. M.; Williamson, C.; Wimmer, D.; Baltensperger, U.; Kirkby, J.; Kulmala, M.; Petäjä, T.; Worsnop, D. R.; Curtius, J.

    2016-03-01

    Sulfuric acid is widely recognized as a very important substance driving atmospheric aerosol nucleation. Based on quantum chemical calculations it has been suggested that the quantitative detection of gas phase sulfuric acid (H2SO4) by use of Chemical Ionization Mass Spectrometry (CIMS) could be biased in the presence of gas phase amines such as dimethylamine (DMA). An experiment (CLOUD7 campaign) was set up at the CLOUD (Cosmics Leaving OUtdoor Droplets) chamber to investigate the quantitative detection of H2SO4 in the presence of dimethylamine by CIMS at atmospherically relevant concentrations. For the first time in the CLOUD experiment, the monomer sulfuric acid concentration was measured by a CIMS and by two CI-APi-TOF (Chemical Ionization-Atmospheric Pressure interface-Time Of Flight) mass spectrometers. In addition, neutral sulfuric acid clusters were measured with the CI-APi-TOFs. The CLOUD7 measurements show that in the presence of dimethylamine (<5 to 70 pptv) the sulfuric acid monomer measured by the CIMS represents only a fraction of the total H2SO4, contained in the monomer and the clusters that is available for particle growth. Although it was found that the addition of dimethylamine dramatically changes the H2SO4 cluster distribution compared to binary (H2SO4-H2O) conditions, the CIMS detection efficiency does not seem to depend substantially on whether an individual H2SO4 monomer is clustered with a DMA molecule. The experimental observations are supported by numerical simulations based on A Self-contained Atmospheric chemistry coDe coupled with a molecular process model (Sulfuric Acid Water NUCleation) operated in the kinetic limit.

  16. Effect of dimethylamine on the gas phase sulfuric acid concentration measured by Chemical Ionization Mass Spectrometry

    PubMed Central

    Ehrhart, S.; Kürten, A.; Adamov, A.; Bianchi, F.; Breitenlechner, M.; Duplissy, J.; Franchin, A.; Dommen, J.; Donahue, N. M.; Dunne, E. M.; Flagan, R. C.; Hakala, J.; Hansel, A.; Keskinen, H.; Kim, J.; Jokinen, T.; Lehtipalo, K.; Leiminger, M.; Praplan, A.; Riccobono, F.; Rissanen, M. P.; Sarnela, N.; Schobesberger, S.; Simon, M.; Sipilä, M.; Smith, J. N.; Tomé, A.; Tröstl, J.; Tsagkogeorgas, G.; Vaattovaara, P.; Winkler, P. M.; Williamson, C.; Wimmer, D.; Baltensperger, U.; Kirkby, J.; Kulmala, M.; Petäjä, T.; Worsnop, D. R.; Curtius, J.

    2016-01-01

    Abstract Sulfuric acid is widely recognized as a very important substance driving atmospheric aerosol nucleation. Based on quantum chemical calculations it has been suggested that the quantitative detection of gas phase sulfuric acid (H2SO4) by use of Chemical Ionization Mass Spectrometry (CIMS) could be biased in the presence of gas phase amines such as dimethylamine (DMA). An experiment (CLOUD7 campaign) was set up at the CLOUD (Cosmics Leaving OUtdoor Droplets) chamber to investigate the quantitative detection of H2SO4 in the presence of dimethylamine by CIMS at atmospherically relevant concentrations. For the first time in the CLOUD experiment, the monomer sulfuric acid concentration was measured by a CIMS and by two CI‐APi‐TOF (Chemical Ionization‐Atmospheric Pressure interface‐Time Of Flight) mass spectrometers. In addition, neutral sulfuric acid clusters were measured with the CI‐APi‐TOFs. The CLOUD7 measurements show that in the presence of dimethylamine (<5 to 70 pptv) the sulfuric acid monomer measured by the CIMS represents only a fraction of the total H2SO4, contained in the monomer and the clusters that is available for particle growth. Although it was found that the addition of dimethylamine dramatically changes the H2SO4 cluster distribution compared to binary (H2SO4‐H2O) conditions, the CIMS detection efficiency does not seem to depend substantially on whether an individual H2SO4 monomer is clustered with a DMA molecule. The experimental observations are supported by numerical simulations based on A Self‐contained Atmospheric chemistry coDe coupled with a molecular process model (Sulfuric Acid Water NUCleation) operated in the kinetic limit.

  17. Effect of dimethylamine on the gas phase sulfuric acid concentration measured by Chemical Ionization Mass Spectrometry

    PubMed Central

    Ehrhart, S.; Kürten, A.; Adamov, A.; Bianchi, F.; Breitenlechner, M.; Duplissy, J.; Franchin, A.; Dommen, J.; Donahue, N. M.; Dunne, E. M.; Flagan, R. C.; Hakala, J.; Hansel, A.; Keskinen, H.; Kim, J.; Jokinen, T.; Lehtipalo, K.; Leiminger, M.; Praplan, A.; Riccobono, F.; Rissanen, M. P.; Sarnela, N.; Schobesberger, S.; Simon, M.; Sipilä, M.; Smith, J. N.; Tomé, A.; Tröstl, J.; Tsagkogeorgas, G.; Vaattovaara, P.; Winkler, P. M.; Williamson, C.; Wimmer, D.; Baltensperger, U.; Kirkby, J.; Kulmala, M.; Petäjä, T.; Worsnop, D. R.; Curtius, J.

    2016-01-01

    Abstract Sulfuric acid is widely recognized as a very important substance driving atmospheric aerosol nucleation. Based on quantum chemical calculations it has been suggested that the quantitative detection of gas phase sulfuric acid (H2SO4) by use of Chemical Ionization Mass Spectrometry (CIMS) could be biased in the presence of gas phase amines such as dimethylamine (DMA). An experiment (CLOUD7 campaign) was set up at the CLOUD (Cosmics Leaving OUtdoor Droplets) chamber to investigate the quantitative detection of H2SO4 in the presence of dimethylamine by CIMS at atmospherically relevant concentrations. For the first time in the CLOUD experiment, the monomer sulfuric acid concentration was measured by a CIMS and by two CI‐APi‐TOF (Chemical Ionization‐Atmospheric Pressure interface‐Time Of Flight) mass spectrometers. In addition, neutral sulfuric acid clusters were measured with the CI‐APi‐TOFs. The CLOUD7 measurements show that in the presence of dimethylamine (<5 to 70 pptv) the sulfuric acid monomer measured by the CIMS represents only a fraction of the total H2SO4, contained in the monomer and the clusters that is available for particle growth. Although it was found that the addition of dimethylamine dramatically changes the H2SO4 cluster distribution compared to binary (H2SO4‐H2O) conditions, the CIMS detection efficiency does not seem to depend substantially on whether an individual H2SO4 monomer is clustered with a DMA molecule. The experimental observations are supported by numerical simulations based on A Self‐contained Atmospheric chemistry coDe coupled with a molecular process model (Sulfuric Acid Water NUCleation) operated in the kinetic limit. PMID:27610289

  18. Labile aluminium chemistry downstream a limestone treated lake and an acid tributary: effects of warm winters and extreme rainstorms.

    PubMed

    Andersen, Dag O

    2006-08-01

    The outlet from the limestone treated Lake Terjevann consisted mainly of well-mixed lake water (mean pH 6.1) during the ice-free seasons including the unusually warm winters of 1992 and 1993. However, during the ice-covered period acidic water (mean pH 4.8, mean inorganic aluminium (Al(i)) about 160 microg/l) from the catchment draining under the lake ice dominated. A downstream tributary was generally acid and rich in aluminium (mean pH 4.6, Al(i) about 230 microg/l). After an extreme rainstorm loaded with sea-salts cation exchange in the soil resulted in more than a doubling of the Al(i) concentration (reaching about 500 microg/l). It took 3-4 months until the Al(i) concentration returned to pre-event levels. During the ice-covered period, the acidic outlet and tributary waters resulted in acidic conditions below the confluence (pH<4.8, Al(i) about 150 microg/l) while during the ice-free periods the more neutral outlet water resulted in higher pH and lower Al(i) concentrations (pH>5.2, Al(i) about 95 microg/l). However, during the latter climatic conditions the water was most probably more harmful to fish due to hydrolysing and polymerizing aluminium. After the sea-salt event, the increased Al(i) concentration in the tributary made the zone below the confluence potentially more toxic (pH approximately 5, Al(i) approximately 250 microg/l). Expected global warming resulting in winter mean temperatures above 0 degrees C may eliminate the seasonal acidification of the outlet from limestone-treated lakes creating permanent toxic mixing zones in the confluence below acidic aluminium-rich tributaries. Besides, more frequent rainstorms as a consequence of global warming may increase the frequency of sea-salt events and the Al(i) concentrations in the mixing zones.

  19. Labile aluminium chemistry downstream a limestone treated lake and an acid tributary: effects of warm winters and extreme rainstorms.

    PubMed

    Andersen, Dag O

    2006-08-01

    The outlet from the limestone treated Lake Terjevann consisted mainly of well-mixed lake water (mean pH 6.1) during the ice-free seasons including the unusually warm winters of 1992 and 1993. However, during the ice-covered period acidic water (mean pH 4.8, mean inorganic aluminium (Al(i)) about 160 microg/l) from the catchment draining under the lake ice dominated. A downstream tributary was generally acid and rich in aluminium (mean pH 4.6, Al(i) about 230 microg/l). After an extreme rainstorm loaded with sea-salts cation exchange in the soil resulted in more than a doubling of the Al(i) concentration (reaching about 500 microg/l). It took 3-4 months until the Al(i) concentration returned to pre-event levels. During the ice-covered period, the acidic outlet and tributary waters resulted in acidic conditions below the confluence (pH<4.8, Al(i) about 150 microg/l) while during the ice-free periods the more neutral outlet water resulted in higher pH and lower Al(i) concentrations (pH>5.2, Al(i) about 95 microg/l). However, during the latter climatic conditions the water was most probably more harmful to fish due to hydrolysing and polymerizing aluminium. After the sea-salt event, the increased Al(i) concentration in the tributary made the zone below the confluence potentially more toxic (pH approximately 5, Al(i) approximately 250 microg/l). Expected global warming resulting in winter mean temperatures above 0 degrees C may eliminate the seasonal acidification of the outlet from limestone-treated lakes creating permanent toxic mixing zones in the confluence below acidic aluminium-rich tributaries. Besides, more frequent rainstorms as a consequence of global warming may increase the frequency of sea-salt events and the Al(i) concentrations in the mixing zones. PMID:16269168

  20. Comparison of the composition and gas/particle partitioning of organic acids in monoterpene and isoprene dominated environments

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Thompson, S.; Yatavelli, L. R.; Stark, H.; Kimmel, J.; Krechmer, J.; Hu, W.; Palm, B. B.; Campuzano Jost, P.; Day, D. A.; Isaacman, G. A.; Goldstein, A. H.; Khan, M. H.; Holzinger, R.; Lopez-Hilfiker, F.; Mohr, C.; Thornton, J. A.; Jayne, J. T.; Worsnop, D. R.; Jimenez, J. L.

    2013-12-01

    Gas and particle-phase organic acids measurements from two different regions with different biogenic volatile organic compound emissions are used to understand gas/particle partitioning principles. A Chemical Ionization High Resolution Time-of-Flight Mass Spectrometer (HRToF-CIMS), with acetate (CH3COO-) as the reagent ion was used to selectively detect acids. Hundreds of gas and particle-phase organic acids were measured in both locations, a monoterpene and MBO-dominated environment (ponderosa pine forest in Colorado, BEACHON-RoMBAS 2011) and isoprene and terpene-dominated environment (mixed deciduous and pine forest in Alabama, SOAS 2013). Time series of gas/particle partitioning for ions consistent with tracers for isoprene oxidation such as methacrylic acid epoxide (MAE) and isoprene epoxydiol (IEPOX) and tracers for α-pinene oxidation such as pinic and pinonic acid will be presented. Gas/particle partitioning, represented as the fraction of each species in the particle-phase, Fp, was calculated for C1-C18 alkanoic acids and biogenic VOC oxidation tracers and compared to an absorptive partitioning model. These results are compared with those of two other instruments that can also quantify gas/particle partitioning with high time resolution: a Semivolatile Thermal Desorption Aerosol GC/MS (SV-TAG) and a Thermal Desorption Proton Transfer Time-of-Flight Mass Spectrometer (TD-PTRMS). Data from both environments were consistent with the values and trends predicted by the absorptive partitioning model for the tracer acids. However, for low carbon number alkanoic acids we report a higher fraction in the particle phase than predicted by the model. The Fp for the bulk-averaged acids and its relationship to the degree of oxidation and carbon number will also be presented. Temporal patterns and correlations with atmospheric conditions and composition will be explored for individual and bulk acids. We will discuss atmospheric implications of the gas/particle partitioning

  1. Fermentation quality and chemical composition of shrub silage treated with lactic acid bacteria inoculants and cellulase additives.

    PubMed

    Sun, Qizhong; Gao, Fengqin; Yu, Zhu; Tao, Ya; Zhao, Shufen; Cai, Yimin

    2012-04-01

    Effects of lactic acid bacteria (LAB) inoculants and cellulase additives on fermentation quality and chemical compositions of shrub silages were studied by using a small-scale fermentation system. Two LAB inoculants of Qingbao (Lactobacillus plantarum, Pediococcus acidilacticii, Lactobacillus casei and Clostridium phage) and Caihe (Lactobacillus plantarum, Lactobacillus brevis and Pediococcus acidilactici) and a commercial cellulase made from Trichoderma reesei were used as additives for intermediate pea-shrub, rush bushclover, arborescent ceratoides and shrubby silage preparation. The crude protein, neutral detergent fiber and water-soluble carbohydrate contents of the four shrub materials were 10.1-14.2, 62.6-67.2 and 1.9-3.5% on a dry matter basis, respectively. All shrub silages had pH 3.40-4.43, ammonia-N 0.1-0.2% g/kg and lactic acid 1.3-2.9% on a fresh matter basis. The silage quality of LAB-inoculated silages did not have a greater effect than control silages, except shrubby silage preparation. Silages treated with the cellulase, the pH of rush bushclover and shrubby sweetvetch silage were significantly (P < 0.05) lower and the lactic acid content were significantly (P < 0.05) higher than the control silages. The results confirmed that shrub contained a relatively high content of crude protein; its silages can be preserved in good quality, and they are new potential resources for livestock feed. PMID:22515690

  2. Uptake of barbituric acid derivatives in small intestinal brush border membrane vesicles from retinyl palmitate-treated rats.

    PubMed

    Tanii, H; Horie, T

    2000-08-01

    Brush border membrane was prepared from the small intestinal (jejunum) cells along the crypt-villus axis. The fluorescence spectra of 1,8-anilinonaphthalene sulfonic acid and the steady-state fluorescence anisotropy of 1,6-diphenyl-1,3,5-hexatriene were measured in the brush border membrane vesicle suspension. The hydrophobicity of brush border membrane was found to be in the order villus tip >mid villus >lower villus. The fluidity of brush border membrane was in the order villus tip acid derivatives by brush border membrane vesicles was well correlated with their partition coefficients (isopentyl acetate/water). No significant difference was observed between the uptake of hexobarbital by brush border membrane vesicles from the villus tip and lower villus. When retinyl palmitate was administered to rats, the fluidity of brush border membrane was found to be higher in the retinyl palmitate-treated rats than in the control rats. However, no significant difference in the uptake of hexobarbital by brush border membrane vesicles was observed between the retinyl palmitate-administered rats and the control rats. Thus, the retinyl palmitate treatment seems unlikely to affect the passively transported ligands like barbituric acid derivatives in brush border membrane vesicles. PMID:10989945

  3. [Rice straw and sewage sludge as carbon sources for sulfate-reducing bacteria treating acid mine drainage].

    PubMed

    Su, Yu; Wang, Jin; Peng, Shu-chuan; Yue, Zheng-bo; Chen, Tian-hu; Jin, Jie

    2010-08-01

    The performance of three organic carbon sources was assessed in terms of sulfate reduction and main metal removal, by using sewage sludge as the source of sulfate-reducing bacteria (SRB) and adding rice straw and ethanol with equal quantity. Results indicated that sewage sludge which contained certain amount of alkaline material could neutralize acidity of acid mine drainage(AMD) on the first day of experiment, elevating pH value from the initial 2.5 to around 5.4-6.3 and achieving suitable pH condition for SRB growth. Sewage sludge contained fewer biodegradable organic substance, reactive mixture with single sewage sludge showed the lowest sulfate reduction (65.9%). When the single sewage sludge was supplemented with rice straw, SRB reducing sulfate was enhanced (79.2%), because the degradation rate of rice straw was accelerated by the specific bacteria in sewage sludge, providing relatively abundant carbon source for SRB. Control experiment with ethanol was most effective in promoting sulfate reduction (97.9%). Metal removal efficiency in all three reactors was as high as 99% for copper, early copper removal was mainly attributed to the adsorption capacity of sewage sludge prior to SRB acclimation. It is feasible for using rice straw and sewage sludge as carbon sources for SRB treating acid mine drainage at a low cost, this may have significant implication for in situ bioremediation of mine environment.

  4. [Rice straw and sewage sludge as carbon sources for sulfate-reducing bacteria treating acid mine drainage].

    PubMed

    Su, Yu; Wang, Jin; Peng, Shu-chuan; Yue, Zheng-bo; Chen, Tian-hu; Jin, Jie

    2010-08-01

    The performance of three organic carbon sources was assessed in terms of sulfate reduction and main metal removal, by using sewage sludge as the source of sulfate-reducing bacteria (SRB) and adding rice straw and ethanol with equal quantity. Results indicated that sewage sludge which contained certain amount of alkaline material could neutralize acidity of acid mine drainage(AMD) on the first day of experiment, elevating pH value from the initial 2.5 to around 5.4-6.3 and achieving suitable pH condition for SRB growth. Sewage sludge contained fewer biodegradable organic substance, reactive mixture with single sewage sludge showed the lowest sulfate reduction (65.9%). When the single sewage sludge was supplemented with rice straw, SRB reducing sulfate was enhanced (79.2%), because the degradation rate of rice straw was accelerated by the specific bacteria in sewage sludge, providing relatively abundant carbon source for SRB. Control experiment with ethanol was most effective in promoting sulfate reduction (97.9%). Metal removal efficiency in all three reactors was as high as 99% for copper, early copper removal was mainly attributed to the adsorption capacity of sewage sludge prior to SRB acclimation. It is feasible for using rice straw and sewage sludge as carbon sources for SRB treating acid mine drainage at a low cost, this may have significant implication for in situ bioremediation of mine environment. PMID:21090305

  5. Parenteral safflower oil emulsion (Liposyn 10%): safety and effectiveness in treating or preventing essential fatty acid deficiency in surgical patients.

    PubMed Central

    Bivins, B A; Rapp, R P; Record, K; Meng, H C; Griffen, W O

    1980-01-01

    The safety and effectiveness of a 10% safflower oil emulsion in treating or preventing essential fatty acid deficiency was tested in a prospective study of 15 surgical patients requiring total parenteral nutrition for two to four weeks. Three dosage regimens were evaluated including: Group I: 4% of calories as linoleate daily (five patients), Group II: 4% of calories as linoleate every other day (two patients), and Group III: 8% of calories every other day (eight patients). Patients were monitored for laboratory changes from baseline specifically in those areas where previous fat emulsions have caused serious deviations. No significant changes were noted in hematologic parameters, coagulation studies, cholesterol and triglyceride serum levels. Although there were sporadic mild deviations in liver function changes in several patients, no clinically significant adverse effects could be directly attributed to infusion of the fat emulsion. Three patients had baseline triene/tetraene ratios of 0.4 or greater, indicative of essential fatty/acid deficiency, and these ratios dropped to less than 0.4 within eight days of beginning therapy with the parenteral fat emulsion. The remaining 12 patients maintained a normal triene/tetraene ratio of less than 0.4 throughout the 28 day study period. All three dosage regimens were considered effective for treatment and prevention of essential fatty acid deficiency. Images Fig. 1. Fig. 2. Fig. 3. PMID:6767452

  6. Population growth of Varroa destructor (Acari: Varroidae) in commercial honey bee colonies treated with beta plant acids.

    PubMed

    DeGrandi-Hoffman, Gloria; Ahumada, Fabiana; Curry, Robert; Probasco, Gene; Schantz, Lloyd

    2014-10-01

    Varroa (Varroa destuctor Anderson and Trueman) populations in honey bee (Apis mellifera L.) colonies might be kept at low levels by well-timed miticide applications. HopGuard(®) (HG) that contains beta plant acids as the active ingredient was used to reduce mite populations. Schedules for applications of the miticide that could maintain low mite levels were tested in hives started from either package bees or splits of larger colonies. The schedules were developed based on defined parameters for efficacy of the miticide and predictions of varroa population growth generated from a mathematical model of honey bee colony-varroa population dynamics. Colonies started from package bees and treated with HG in the package only or with subsequent HG treatments in the summer had 1.2-2.1 mites per 100 bees in August. Untreated controls averaged significantly more mites than treated colonies (3.3 mites per 100 bees). By October, mite populations ranged from 6.3 to 15.0 mites per 100 bees with the lowest mite numbers in colonies treated with HG in August. HG applications in colonies started from splits in April reduced mite populations to 0.12 mites per 100 bees. In September, the treated colonies had significantly fewer mites than the untreated controls. Subsequent HG applications in September that lasted for 3 weeks reduced mite populations to levels in November that were significantly lower than in colonies that were untreated or had an HG treatment that lasted for 1 week. The model accurately predicted colony population growth and varroa levels until the fall when varroa populations measured in colonies established from package bees or splits were much greater than predicted. Possible explanations for the differences between actual and predicted mite populations are discussed.

  7. Simultaneous determination of C2-C22 non-esterified fatty acids and other metabolically relevant carboxylic acids in biological material by gas chromatography of their benzyl esters.

    PubMed

    Schatowitz, B; Gercken, G

    1988-03-18

    A method for the simultaneous determination of non-esterified short-, medium- and long-chain fatty acids and other types of metabolically relevant carboxylic acids such as hydroxy, keto, aromatic and dicarboxylic acids in biological material by capillary gas chromatography of benzyl ester derivatives is described. Sample preparation avoiding incomplete isolation of carboxylic acids consisted of deproteinization and extraction with ethanol, fixation of carboxylic acids as carboxylates, removal of interfering compounds such as neutral lipids by hexane extraction and amino acids, acyl carnitines and other cations by cation-exchange chromatography, derivatization of keto groups of ketocarboxylic acids into O-methyl oximes and benzyl ester formation by reaction of the potassium carboxylates with benzyl bromide via crown ether catalysis. The sample preparation conditions were investigated, showing the usefulness of this method for quantitative determinations. Chromatograms obtained from human serum, human urine and rat heart ventricle and concentrations of carboxylic acids in these specimens are presented. PMID:3372640

  8. Sustainable synthesis of aldehydes, ketones or acids from neat alcohols using nitrogen dioxide gas, and related reactions.

    PubMed

    Naimi-Jamal, M Reza; Hamzeali, Hamideh; Mokhtari, Javad; Boy, Jürgen; Kaupp, Gerd

    2009-01-01

    Benzylic alcohols are quantitatively oxidized by gaseous nitrogen dioxide to give pure aromatic aldehydes. The reaction gas mixtures are transformed to nitric acid, which renders the processes free of waste. The exothermic gas-liquid or gas-solid reactions profit from the solubility of nitrogen dioxide in the neat benzylic alcohols. The acid formed impedes further oxidation of the benzaldehydes. The neat isolated benzaldehydes and nitrogen dioxide quantitatively give the benzoic acids. Solid long-chain primary alcohols are directly and quantitatively oxidized with nitrogen dioxide gas to give the fatty acids in the solid state. The oxidations with ubiquitous nitrogen dioxide are extended to solid heterocyclic thioamides, which gives disulfides, and to diphenylamine, which gives tetraphenylhydrazine. These sustainable (green) specific oxidation procedures produce no dangerous residues from the oxidizing agent or from auxiliaries. PMID:19115303

  9. Tolerance of selected crop and pasture species to lime-treated acid mine water

    SciTech Connect

    Mentz, W.H.; Barnard, R.O.; Rethman, N.F.G.

    1995-09-01

    The use of mine waters with high CaSO{sub 4} loads creates problems for both the mining industry and the regulatory government departments. One of the alternative strategies is to use such water to irrigate crops on the mine property. To do this the relative sensitivity of different crops to such water and the long term effects on the soil need to be assessed. This report refers to pot studies conducted under glasshouse conditions using corn, sorghum, soybean, pearl millet, cowpeas, rye, oats, triticale, wheat and ryegrass. Although treated mine water had significant effects on different growth parameters and ratios (corn, soybean, rye and ryegrass being the most strongly affected), the most notable results was the uptake of large amounts of Ca Mg, SO{sub 4}, Mn, and Zn by virtually all species. Although the uptake was increased, the concentrations were still within acceptable limits for plant growth. These concentrations may, however, hold implications for animals and humans. There is an urgent need for such work to be continued to assess the influence of different levels of salt and the allocation of elements to different plant parts.

  10. Effect of omega-3 fatty acids on haemostatic functions in urocortin-treated obese rats.

    PubMed

    El-Gendy, Ahmed A; Abbas, Amr M

    2014-09-01

    Urocortin 1 (UCN1) decreases food intake. We investigated the effects of UCN1 and omega-3 fatty acids (FA) on metabolic and coagulation parameters in high fat diet (HFD)-fed rats. Fifty male Sprague Dawley rats were divided into five groups; control, HFD, HFD with omega-3 FA, HFD with UCN1, and HFD with UCN1 and omega-3 FA. Food intake, body weight (BW), body mass index (BMI), Lee index, glucose, insulin, HOMA-IR, triglycerides, cholesterol, low (LDL) and high (HDL) density lipoproteins, fibrinogen, plasminogen activator inhibitor 1 (PAI-1), fibrin degradation product (FDP), clotting time, bleeding time, prothrombin time (PT), activated partial thromboplastin time (aPTT), and platelet aggregation were measured. Food intake, BW, BMI, Lee index, glucose, insulin, HOMA-IR, triglycerides, cholesterol, LDL, fibrinogen, platelet aggregation, PAI-1, and FDP increased while bleeding and clotting times, PT, and aPTT decreased in HFD rats. UCN1 decreased food intake, BW, BMI, Lee index, bleeding and clotting times, PT, and aPTT and increased fibrinogen, PAI-1, FDP, and platelet aggregation in HFD rats. Omega-3 FA decreased food intake, BW, BMI, Lee index, platelet aggregation, glucose, insulin, HOMA-IR, triglycerides, and increased HDL and bleeding time in HFD rats. We concluded that UCN1 worsens the hypercoagulable state in HFD rats while omega-3 FA improve the insulin resistance and decrease the platelet aggregation in those rats. PMID:25062615

  11. In vitro properties and performance of glutaraldehyde-crosslinked bovine pericardial bioprostheses treated with glutamic acid.

    PubMed

    Braile, Maria Christiane Valéria Braga; Carnevalli, Nelly Cristina; Goissis, Gilberto; Ramirez, Vladimir Aparecido; Braile, Domingo Marcolino

    2011-05-01

    Calcification is one of the major causes of failure of heart valve bioprostheses (HVBs) derived from glutaraldehyde (GA)-processed bovine pericardium (BP) or porcine aortic valves. New crosslinking reagent procedures are still far from giving satisfactory results, and this is the main reason why GA is still the reagent of choice for the fixation of native tissue intended for HVB manufacture. Nevertheless, two new findings with respect to GA processing may significantly improve HVB performance postimplantation: the finding that increasing concentrations of GA result in a decrease in calcification; the blocking of free aldehyde usually by nucleophyles or the treatment of processed material at low pH. This work investigates the in vitro properties of BP fixed with GA followed by the treatment with glutamic acid under alkaline conditions in order to prepare BP materials with lower calcification potential postimplantation. In comparison to conventional processing, except for the tensile strength that was slightly lower, elongation and toughness were higher than the accepted values. No significant differences were observed in the performance indexes (mean pressure gradient, mean effective area, regurgitant fraction, performance and efficiency indexes) with wear resistance over 150 × 10⁶ cycles. These results indicate that the processing of BP described in this work may be of potential use in the manufacture of HVBs.

  12. Protective effect of vitamin E on sperm motility and oxidative stress in valproic acid treated rats.

    PubMed

    Ourique, Giovana M; Saccol, Etiane M H; Pês, Tanise S; Glanzner, Werner G; Schiefelbein, Sun Hee; Woehl, Viviane M; Baldisserotto, Bernardo; Pavanato, Maria A; Gonçalves, Paulo B D; Barreto, Kátia P

    2016-09-01

    Long-term administration of valproic acid (VPA) is known to promote reproductive impairment mediated by increase in testicular oxidative stress. Vitamin E (VitE) is a lipophilic antioxidant known to be essential for mammalian spermatogenesis. However, the capacity of this vitamin to abrogate the VPA-mediated oxidative stress has not yet been assessed. In the current study, we evaluated the protective effect of VitE on functional abnormalities related to VPA-induced oxidative stress in the male reproductive system. VPA (400 mg kg(-1)) was administered by gavage and VitE (50 mg kg(-1)) intraperitoneally to male Wistar rats for 28 days. Analysis of spermatozoa from the cauda epididymides was performed. The testes and epididymides were collected for measurement of oxidative stress biomarkers. Treatment with VPA induced a decrease in sperm motility accompanied by an increase in oxidative damage to lipids and proteins, depletion of reduced glutathione and a decrease in total reactive antioxidant potential on testes and epididymides. Co-administration of VitE restored the antioxidant potential and prevented oxidative damage on testes and epididymides, restoring sperm motility. Thus, VitE protects the reproductive system from the VPA-induced damage, suggesting that it may be a useful compound to minimize the reproductive impairment in patients requiring long-term treatment with VPA.

  13. Acute arsenic poisoning treated by intravenous dimercaptosuccinic acid (DMSA) and combined extrarenal epuration techniques.

    PubMed

    Hantson, Philippe; Haufroid, Vincent; Buchet, Jean-Pierre; Mahieu, Paul

    2003-01-01

    Arsenic poisoning was diagnosed in a 26-year-old man who had been criminally intoxicated over the last two weeks preceding admission by the surreptitious oral administration of probably 10 g of arsenic trioxide (As2O3). The patient developed severe manifestations of toxic hepatitis and pancreatitis, and thereafter neurological disorders, respiratory distress, acute renal failure, and cardiovascular disturbances. In addition to supportive therapy, extrarenal elimination techniques and chelating agents were used. Dimercaprol (BAL) and dimercaptosuccinic acid (DMSA or succimer) were used simultaneously as arsenic chelating agents for two days, and thereafter DMSA was used alone. DMSA was administered by intravenous (20 mg/kg/d for five days, then 10 mg/kg/d for six days) and intraperitoneal route. Intravenous DMSA infusion was well tolerated and resulted in an increase in arsenic blood concentration immediately after the infusion. Continuous venovenous hemofiltration combined with hemodialysis, and peritoneal dialysis were proposed to enhance arsenic elimination. It was calculated that over an 11-day period 14.5 mg arsenic were eliminated by the urine, 26.7 mg by hemodialysis, 17.8 mg by peritoneal dialysis, and 7.8 mg by continuous venovenous hemofiltration. These amounts appeared negligible with regard to the probable ingested dose. The patient died on day 26 from the consequences of multiple organ failure, with subarachnoid hemorrhage and generalized infection caused by Aspergillus fumigatus.

  14. In vitro properties and performance of glutaraldehyde-crosslinked bovine pericardial bioprostheses treated with glutamic acid.

    PubMed

    Braile, Maria Christiane Valéria Braga; Carnevalli, Nelly Cristina; Goissis, Gilberto; Ramirez, Vladimir Aparecido; Braile, Domingo Marcolino

    2011-05-01

    Calcification is one of the major causes of failure of heart valve bioprostheses (HVBs) derived from glutaraldehyde (GA)-processed bovine pericardium (BP) or porcine aortic valves. New crosslinking reagent procedures are still far from giving satisfactory results, and this is the main reason why GA is still the reagent of choice for the fixation of native tissue intended for HVB manufacture. Nevertheless, two new findings with respect to GA processing may significantly improve HVB performance postimplantation: the finding that increasing concentrations of GA result in a decrease in calcification; the blocking of free aldehyde usually by nucleophyles or the treatment of processed material at low pH. This work investigates the in vitro properties of BP fixed with GA followed by the treatment with glutamic acid under alkaline conditions in order to prepare BP materials with lower calcification potential postimplantation. In comparison to conventional processing, except for the tensile strength that was slightly lower, elongation and toughness were higher than the accepted values. No significant differences were observed in the performance indexes (mean pressure gradient, mean effective area, regurgitant fraction, performance and efficiency indexes) with wear resistance over 150 × 10⁶ cycles. These results indicate that the processing of BP described in this work may be of potential use in the manufacture of HVBs. PMID:21595718

  15. Protective effect of vitamin E on sperm motility and oxidative stress in valproic acid treated rats.

    PubMed

    Ourique, Giovana M; Saccol, Etiane M H; Pês, Tanise S; Glanzner, Werner G; Schiefelbein, Sun Hee; Woehl, Viviane M; Baldisserotto, Bernardo; Pavanato, Maria A; Gonçalves, Paulo B D; Barreto, Kátia P

    2016-09-01

    Long-term administration of valproic acid (VPA) is known to promote reproductive impairment mediated by increase in testicular oxidative stress. Vitamin E (VitE) is a lipophilic antioxidant known to be essential for mammalian spermatogenesis. However, the capacity of this vitamin to abrogate the VPA-mediated oxidative stress has not yet been assessed. In the current study, we evaluated the protective effect of VitE on functional abnormalities related to VPA-induced oxidative stress in the male reproductive system. VPA (400 mg kg(-1)) was administered by gavage and VitE (50 mg kg(-1)) intraperitoneally to male Wistar rats for 28 days. Analysis of spermatozoa from the cauda epididymides was performed. The testes and epididymides were collected for measurement of oxidative stress biomarkers. Treatment with VPA induced a decrease in sperm motility accompanied by an increase in oxidative damage to lipids and proteins, depletion of reduced glutathione and a decrease in total reactive antioxidant potential on testes and epididymides. Co-administration of VitE restored the antioxidant potential and prevented oxidative damage on testes and epididymides, restoring sperm motility. Thus, VitE protects the reproductive system from the VPA-induced damage, suggesting that it may be a useful compound to minimize the reproductive impairment in patients requiring long-term treatment with VPA. PMID:27424124

  16. A Wood-Waste Cover Prevents Sulphide Oxidation and Treats Acid Effluents at the East-Sullivan Mine Site

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Germain, D.; Tassé, N.; Cyr, J.

    2004-05-01

    At the East Sullivan site, wood wastes covering the abandoned mine tailings impoundment prevent sulphide oxidation by creating an anoxic environment. The addition of coarse ligneous wastes favours infiltration, resulting in a water table rise. This maintains most tailings saturated and thus provides an additional protection against sulphide oxidation. Moreover, high infiltration allows a more rapid flushing of acid prone groundwater generated prior to the cover placement. Finally, the pore-waters under the cover are characterized by a strong reducing potential and high alkalinity. These conditions favour sulphate reduction and base metal precipitation as sulphides and carbonates. The restoration strategy capitalized on the alkaline and reductive properties of the waters underlying the wood-waste cover. An original treatment of acid effluents, based on the recirculation of water discharging around the impoundment through the organic cover, was implemented in 1998. In 2003, the total volume of water treated was 725 000 m3. Data gathered near the dispersal zone show that despite dispersing acid water, the groundwater pH decreases by only one unit from 7 to 6, during the recirculation period: May to October. However, alkalinity decreases from 800 to 100 mg/L-CaCO3. But it is back up to 800 mg/L the following spring, thanks to sulphate reduction. Fe2+ concentrations near the dispersal zone are maintained below 2 mg/L. Evolution of the iron mass in the surface waters suggests that the contaminated groundwater flush is completed in the north and west sectors of the impoundment; the east and south ones are expected to be recovered within 3 to 4 years. A wood-waste cover, besides limiting sulphide oxidation, can fill the role of alkaline reducing barrier for the treatment of these acidogenic waters, until a balance between acidity and alkalinity in the effluent is reached.

  17. Butyric Acid- and Dimethyl Disulfide-Assimilating Microorganisms in a Biofilter Treating Air Emissions from a Livestock Facility▿

    PubMed Central

    Kristiansen, Anja; Lindholst, Sabine; Feilberg, Anders; Nielsen, Per H.; Neufeld, Josh D.; Nielsen, Jeppe L.

    2011-01-01

    Biofiltration has proven an efficient tool for the elimination of volatile organic compounds (VOCs) and ammonia from livestock facilities, thereby reducing nuisance odors and ammonia emissions to the local environment. The active microbial communities comprising these filter biofilms have not been well characterized. In this study, a trickle biofilter treating air from a pig facility was investigated and proved efficient in removing carboxylic acids (>70% reduction), mainly attributed to the primary filter section within which reduced organic sulfur compounds were also depleted (up to 50%). The secondary filter eliminated several aromatic compounds: phenol (81%), p-cresol (89%), 4-ethylphenol (68%), indole (48%), and skatole (69%). The active butyric acid degrading bacterial community of an air filter sample was identified by DNA stable-isotope probing (DNA-SIP) and microautoradiography, combined with fluorescence in situ hybridization (MAR-FISH). The predominant 16S rRNA gene sequences from a clone library derived from “heavy” DNA from [13C4]butyric acid incubations were Microbacterium, Gordonia, Dietzia, Rhodococcus, Propionibacterium, and Janibacter, all from the Actinobacteria. Actinobacteria were confirmed and quantified by MAR-FISH as being the major bacterial phylum assimilating butyric acid along with several Burkholderiales-related Betaproteobacteria. The active bacterial community assimilating dimethyl disulfide (DMDS) was characterized by DNA-SIP and MAR-FISH and found to be associated with the Actinobacteria, along with a few representatives of Flavobacteria and Sphingobacteria. Interestingly, ammonia-oxidizing Betaproteobacteria were also implicated in DMDS degradation, as were fungi. Thus, multiple isotope-based methods provided complementary data, enabling high-resolution identification and quantitative assessments of odor-eliminating Actinobacteria-dominated populations of these biofilter environments. PMID:22003018

  18. Dose-Responsive Gene Expression in Suberoylanilide Hydroxamic Acid (SAHA) Treated Resting CD4+ T Cells

    PubMed Central

    Reardon, Brian; Beliakova-Bethell, Nadejda; Spina, Celsa A.; Singhania, Akul; Margolis, David M.; Richman, Douglas R.; Woelk, Christopher H.

    2015-01-01

    Design Persistent latently infected CD4+ T cells represent a major obstacle to HIV eradication. Histone deacetylase inhibitors (HDACis) are a proposed activation therapy. However, off-target effects on expression in host immune cells are poorly understood. We hypothesized that HDACi-modulated genes would be best identified with dose-response analysis. Methods Resting primary CD4+ T cells were treated with 0.34, 1, 3, or 10 μM of the HDACi, SAHA, for 24 hours and subjected to microarray gene expression analysis. Genes with dose-correlated expression were filtered to identify a subset with consistent up or downregulation at each SAHA dose. Histone modifications were characterized in 6 SAHA dose-responsive genes by chromatin immunoprecipitation (ChIP-RT-qPCR). Results A large number of genes were shown to be up (N=657) or downregulated (N=725) by SAHA in a dose-responsive manner (FDR p-value < 0.05, fold change ≥ |2|). Several genes (CTNNAL1, DPEP2, H1F0, IRGM, PHF15, and SELL) are potential in vivo biomarkers of SAHA activity. SAHA dose-responsive genes included transcription factors, HIV restriction factors, histone methyltransferases, and host proteins that interact with HIV. Pathway analysis suggested net downregulation of T cell activation with increasing SAHA dose. Histone acetylation was not correlated with host gene expression, but plausible alternative mechanisms for SAHA-modulated gene expression were identified. Conclusions Numerous genes in CD4+ T cells are modulated by SAHA in a dose-responsive manner, including genes that may negatively influence HIV activation from latency. Our study suggests that SAHA influences gene expression through a confluence of several mechanisms, including histone modification, and altered expression and activity of transcription factors. PMID:26258524

  19. Gas-phase acidities of o-, m- and p-dehydrobenzoic acid radicals. Determination of the substituent constants for a phenyl radical site

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wenthold, Paul G.; Squires, Robert R.

    1998-05-01

    Reaction of CO2 with o-, m-, and p-benzyne radical anions in the gas phase produces o-, m-, and p-dehydrobenzoate radical anions, respectively. The (oxygen) gas-phase basicities of these ions, which are equivalent to the gas-phase acidities of the corresponding dehydrobenzoic acid radicals, [Delta]Gacid(o-, m-, or p-C6H4CO2-H), have been determined with a flowing afterglowtriple quadrupole apparatus by means of the kinetic method. The measured values are (in kcal mol-1): [Delta]Gacid(o-C6H4CO2H) = 330.4 +/- 0.4, [Delta]Gacid(m-C6H4CO2H) = 330.2 +/- 0.4, and [Delta]Gacid(p-C6H4CO2H) = 331.6 +/- 0.4 kcal mol-1. All three radicals are more acidic than benzoic acid ([Delta]Gacid = 333.1 +/- 2.0 kcal mol-1). The measured gas-phase acidities for the meta and para isomers suggest values for the resonance-effect substituent constant, [sigma]R, and the field/inductive effect substituent constant, [sigma]F, for a phenyl radical site of - 0.47 and 0.57, respectively. This classifies a phenyl radical site as a strong inductive withdrawing, and strong resonance donating substituent. Density functional calculations of the gas-phase acidities of dehydrobenzoic acids are in good agreement with the experimental results. The increased acidities of the dehydrobenzoic acids are shown to arise from a balance between the electron withdrawing effect of the electronegative radical site, and a compensating polarization of the [pi] system which mimics the effect of a resonance donor group located at the radical carbon.

  20. Synthesis of hierarchical SnO2 nanoflowers with enhanced acetic acid gas sensing properties

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jin, W. X.; Ma, S. Y.; Tie, Z. Z.; Li, W. Q.; Luo, J.; Cheng, L.; Xu, X. L.; Wang, T. T.; Jiang, X. H.; Mao, Y. Z.

    2015-10-01

    Different morphologies hierarchical flower-like tin dioxide (SnO2) nanostructures were fabricated by changing the volume ratio of glycol and de-ionized water (Vg:Vw = 0, 1:2, 1:1 and 2:1) under a template-free and low-cost hydrothermal method and subsequent calcinations. The architectures, morphologies and gas sensing performances of the products were characterized by X-ray diffraction patterns (XRD), scanning electron microscopy (SEM), transmission electron microscopy (TEM), Brunauer-Emmett-Teller (BET) and gas-sensing measurement device. It can be observed that all the nanoflowers were composed of two-dimensional (2D) nanosheets, and the thickness of nanosheets is only about 9 nm when Vg:Vw = 1:1. The sensor based on the product of Vg:Vw = 1:1 exhibited excellent gas sensing performance toward 500 ppm acetic acid at 260 °C, and the response value of this sensor was about 153.6, which was above 7.5 times higher than that of ammonia (about 20.3). In addition, the 3D flower-like SnO2 nanostructures exhibited not only high response and selectivity to ppm level acetone, but also fast response and recovery time within 10 s, demonstrating it can be used as a potential candidate for detecting acetic acid. Finally, the possible formation mechanism was proposed, too.

  1. The singular gas-phase structure of 1-aminocyclopropanecarboxylic acid (Ac3c).

    PubMed

    Jiménez, Ana I; Vaquero, Vanesa; Cabezas, Carlos; López, Juan C; Cativiela, Carlos; Alonso, José L

    2011-07-13

    The natural nonproteinogenic α-amino acid 1-aminocyclopropanecarboxylic acid (Ac(3)c) has been vaporized by laser ablation and studied in the gas phase by molecular-beam Fourier transform microwave spectroscopy. Comparison of the experimental rotational and (14)N nuclear quadrupole coupling constants with the values predicted ab initio for these parameters has allowed the unambiguous identification of three Ac(3)c conformers differing in the hydrogen bonding pattern. Two of them resemble those characterized before for the coded aliphatic α-amino acids. Remarkably, a third conformer predicted to be energetically accessible for all of these amino acids but never observed (the so-called "missing conformer") has been found for Ac(3)c, close in energy to the global minimum. This is the first time that such a conformer, stabilized by an N-H···O(H) hydrogen bond, is detected in the rotational spectrum of a gaseous α-amino acid with a nonpolar side chain. The conjugative interaction established between the cyclopropane ring and the adjacent carbonyl group seems to be responsible for the unique conformational properties exhibited by Ac(3)c.

  2. Autism-like behaviours with transient histone hyperacetylation in mice treated prenatally with valproic acid.

    PubMed

    Kataoka, Shunsuke; Takuma, Kazuhiro; Hara, Yuta; Maeda, Yuko; Ago, Yukio; Matsuda, Toshio

    2013-02-01

    Maternal use of valproic acid (VPA) during pregnancy has been implicated in the aetiology of autism spectrum disorders in children, and rodents prenatally exposed to VPA showed behavioural alterations similar to those observed in humans with autism. However, the exact mechanism for VPA-induced behavioural alterations is not known. To study this point, we examined the effects of prenatal exposure to VPA and valpromide, a VPA analog lacking histone deacetylase inhibition activity, on behaviours, cortical pathology and histone acetylation levels in mice. Mice exposed to VPA at embryonic day 12.5 (E12.5), but not at E9 and E14.5, displayed social interaction deficits, anxiety-like behaviour and memory deficits at age 4-8 wk. In contrast to male mice, the social interaction deficits (a decrease in sniffing behaviour) were not observed in female mice at age 8 wk. The exposure to VPA at E12.5 decreased the number of Nissl-positive cells in the middle and lower layers of the prefrontal cortex and in the lower layers of the somatosensory cortex at age 8 wk. Furthermore, VPA exposure caused a transient increase in acetylated histone levels in the embryonic brain, followed by an increase in apoptotic cell death in the neocortex and a decrease in cell proliferation in the ganglionic eminence. In contrast, prenatal exposure to valpromide at E12.5 did not affect the behavioural, biochemical and histological parameters. Furthermore, these findings suggest that VPA-induced histone hyperacetylation plays a key role in cortical pathology and abnormal autism-like behaviours in mice.

  3. Spoilage and safety characteristics of ground beef treated with lactic acid bacteria.

    PubMed

    Hoyle, A R; Brooks, J C; Thompson, L D; Palmore, W; Stephens, T P; Brashears, M M

    2009-11-01

    Lactic acid bacteria (LAB) can decrease numbers of Escherichia coli O157:H7 and Salmonella in ground beef during storage. Two dose-titration studies were conducted in ground beef to determine dose levels of LAB needed to inhibit the pathogens. A second study evaluated whether LAB masked changes typically associated with the spoilage of ground beef displayed under refrigerated (0 degrees C) or abusive (10 degrees C) temperatures packaged in both traditional overwrap (TOP) and modified atmosphere packaging (MAP; 80% O(2)-20% CO(2)). Microbial analyses were conducted to determine spoilage endpoints and pathogen reduction. In the dose-titration study, Salmonella was reduced by 3 log cycles at all doses (10(6), 10(7), and 10(8) LAB per g) after 3 days of storage and was eliminated after 5 days of storage. E. coli O157:H7 was reduced by 2 log cycles at all dosages after 3 days of storage and by 3 log cycles after 5 days of storage. In the spoilage studies, as expected, total aerobic plate counts and LAB populations in LAB-inoculated samples were higher than the controls initially, but the counts were similar near the end of the study. While total spoilage bacteria generally increased over time, very few differences existed between treatments stored at 0 degrees C and 10 degrees C in coliforms, Brochothrix thermosphacta, yeasts and molds, and Pseudomonas spp. counts for both the TOP and MAP samples. We conclude that LAB could potentially be added to ground beef in TOP and MAP as a processing intervention for E. coli O157:H7 and Salmonella without masking microbial spoilage characteristics. PMID:19903389

  4. ELECTRIC POWER GENERATION USING A PHOSPHORIC ACID FUEL CELL ON A MUNICIPAL SOLID WASTE LANDFILL GAS STREAM

    EPA Science Inventory

    The report gives results of tests to verify the performance of a landfill gas pretreatment unit (GPU) and a phorsphoric acid fuel cell system. The complete system removes contaminants from landfill gas and produces electricity for on-site use or connection to an electric grid. Th...

  5. Comparison of alkaline phosphatase activity of MC3T3-E1 cells cultured on different Ti surfaces: modified sandblasted with large grit and acid-etched (MSLA), laser-treated, and laser and acid-treated Ti surfaces

    PubMed Central

    Li, Lin-Jie; Kim, So-Nam

    2016-01-01

    PURPOSE In this study, the aim of this study was to evaluate the effect of implant surface treatment on cell differentiation of osteoblast cells. For this purpose, three surfaces were compared: (1) a modified SLA (MSLA: sand-blasted with large grit, acid-etched, and immersed in 0.9% NaCl), (2) a laser treatment (LT: laser treatment) titanium surface and (3) a laser and acid-treated (LAT: laser treatment, acid-etched) titanium surface. MATERIALS AND METHODS The MSLA surfaces were considered as the control group, and LT and LAT surfaces as test groups. Alkaline phosphatase expression (ALP) was used to quantify osteoblastic differentiation of MC3T3-E1 cell. Surface roughness was evaluated by a contact profilometer (URFPAK-SV; Mitutoyo, Kawasaki, Japan) and characterized by two parameters: mean roughness (Ra) and maximum peak-to-valley height (Rt). RESULTS Scanning electron microscope revealed that MSLA (control group) surface was not as rough as LT, LAT surface (test groups). Alkaline phosphatase expression, the measure of osteoblastic differentiation, and total ALP expression by surface-adherent cells were found to be highest at 21 days for all three surfaces tested (P<.05). Furthermore, ALP expression levels of MSLA and LAT surfaces were significantly higher than expression levels of LT surface-adherent cells at 7, 14, and 21 days, respectively (P<.05). However, ALP expression levels between MSLA and LAT surface were equal at 7, 14, and 21 days (P>.05). CONCLUSION This study suggested that MSLA and LAT surfaces exhibited more favorable environment for osteoblast differentiation when compared with LT surface, the results that are important for implant surface modification studies. PMID:27350860

  6. Pyrolytic Methylation-Gas Chromatography of Whole Bacterial Cells for Rapid Profiling of Cellular Fatty Acids

    PubMed Central

    Dworzanski, Jacek P.; Berwald, Luc; Meuzelaar, Henk L. C.

    1990-01-01

    A novel, on-line derivatization technique has been developed which enables generation of fatty acid methyl ester (FAME) profiles from microorganisms by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry without the need for laborious and time-consuming sample preparation. Microgram amounts of bacterial cells are directly applied to a thin ferromagnetic filament and covered with a single drop of methanolic solution of tetramethylammonium hydroxide. After air drying, the filament is inserted into a special gas chromatograph inlet equipped with a high-frequency coil, thus enabling rapid inductive heating of the ferromagnetic filament. This so-called Curie-point heating technique is shown to produce patterns of bacterial FAMEs which are qualitatively and quantitatively nearly identical to those obtained from extracts of methylated lipids prepared by conventional sample pretreatment methods. Relatively minor differences involve the loss of hydroxy-substituted fatty acids by the pyrolytic approach as well as strongly enhanced signals of FAMEs derived from mycolic acids. This type of pyrolysis enables on-line derivatization and thermal extraction of volatile derivatives for analysis, whereas the residual components remain on a disposable probe (ferromagnetic wire) of a pyrolytic device. The reduced sample size (micrograms instead of milligrams) and the lack of sample preparation requirements open up the possibility of rapid microbiological identification of single colonies (thus overcoming the need for time-consuming subculturing) as well as analysis of FAME profiles directly from complex environmental samples. PMID:16348214

  7. Avocado roots treated with salicylic acid produce phenol-2,4-bis (1,1-dimethylethyl), a compound with antifungal activity.

    PubMed

    Rangel-Sánchez, Gerardo; Castro-Mercado, Elda; García-Pineda, Ernesto

    2014-02-15

    We demonstrated the ability of salicylic acid (SA) to induce a compound in avocado roots that strengthens their defense against Phytophthora cinnamomi. The SA content of avocado roots, before and after the application of exogenous SA, was determined by High-Performance Liquid Chromatography (HPLC). After 4h of SA feeding, the endogenous level in the roots increased to 223 μg g(-1) FW, which was 15 times the amount found in control roots. The methanolic extract obtained from SA-treated avocado roots inhibited the radial growth of P. cinnamomi. A thin layer chromatographic bioassay with the methanolic extract and spores of Aspergillus showed a distinct inhibition zone. The compound responsible for the inhibition was identified as phenol-2,4-bis (1,1-dimethylethyl) by gas chromatography and mass spectrometry. At a concentration of 100 μg/mL, the substance reduced germinative tube length in Aspergillus and radial growth of P. cinnamomi. A commercial preparation of phenol-2,4-bis (1,1-dimethylethyl) caused the same effects on mycelium morphology and radial growth as our isolate, confirming the presence of this compound in the root extracts. This is the first report of the induction of this compound in plants by SA, and the results suggest that it plays an important role in the defense response of avocado.

  8. Proteomic analysis of Physcomitrella patens treated with 12-oxo-phytodienoic acid, an important oxylipin in plants.

    PubMed

    Toshima, Erika; Nanjo, Yohei; Komatsu, Setsuko; Abe, Tatsuya; Matsuura, Hideyuki; Takahashi, Kosaku

    2014-01-01

    12-Oxo-phytodienoic acid (OPDA) is biosynthesized in the octadecanoid pathway and is considered to be a signaling molecule in plants. In Physcomitrella patens, OPDA is induced by bacterial infection and mechanical stress and is known to suppress growth; however, the functional mechanism of OPDA signaling remains elusive. In this study, we performed a proteomic analysis of P. patens treated with OPDA and found that the expression of 82 proteins was significantly altered, with approximately 80% of these proteins being downregulated by OPDA. The identified proteins were mainly categorized as being involved in photosynthesis, metabolism, and protein synthesis, and most of the proteins that were upregulated by OPDA are involved in light-dependent reactions, suggesting that OPDA regulates a function in chloroplasts. Additionally, OPDA induced the expression of an allene oxide cyclase (PpAOC1) in the octadecanoid pathway, demonstrating positive feedback regulation by OPDA in P. patens.

  9. Thorium(IV) removal from aqueous medium by citric acid treated mangrove endophytic fungus Fusarium sp. #ZZF51.

    PubMed

    Yang, S K; Tan, N; Yan, X M; Chen, F; Long, W; Lin, Y C

    2013-09-15

    Thorium(IV) biosorption is investigated by citric acid treated mangrove endophytic fungus Fussarium sp. #ZZF51 (CA-ZZF51) from South China Sea. The biosorption process was optimized at pH 4.5, equilibrium time 90 min, initial thorium(IV) concentration 50 mg L(-1) and adsorbent dose 0.6 g L(-1) with 90.87% of removal efficiency and 75.47 mg g(-1) of adsorption capacity, which is obviously greater than that (11.35 mg g(-1)) of the untreated fungus Fussarium sp. #ZZF51 for thorium(IV) biosorption under the condition of optimization. The experimental data are analyzed by using isotherm and kinetic models. Kinetic data follow the pseudo-second-order model and equilibrium data agree very well with the Langmuir model. In addition, FTIR analysis indicates that hydroxyl, amino, and carbonyl groups act as the important roles in the adsorption process.

  10. Isoflavone, glyphosate, and aminomethylphosphonic acid levels in seeds of glyphosate-treated, glyphosate-resistant soybean.

    PubMed

    Duke, Stephen O; Rimando, Agnes M; Pace, Patrick F; Reddy, Krishna N; Smeda, Reid J

    2003-01-01

    The estrogenic isoflavones of soybeans and their glycosides are products of the shikimate pathway, the target pathway of glyphosate. This study tested the hypothesis that nonphytotoxic levels of glyphosate and other herbicides known to affect phenolic compound biosynthesis might influence levels of these nutraceutical compounds in glyphosate-resistant soybeans. The effects of glyphosate and other herbicides were determined on estrogenic isoflavones and shikimate in glyphosate-resistant soybeans from identical experiments conducted on different cultivars in Mississippi and Missouri. Four commonly used herbicide treatments were compared to a hand-weeded control. The herbicide treatments were (1) glyphosate at 1260 g/ha at 3 weeks after planting (WAP), followed by glyphosate at 840 g/ha at 6 WAP; (2) sulfentrazone at 168 g/ha plus chlorimuron at 34 g/ha applied preemergence (PRE), followed by glyphosate at 1260 g/ha at 6 WAP; (3) sulfentrazone at 168 g/ha plus chlorimuron at 34 g/ha applied PRE, followed by glyphosate at 1260 g/ha at full bloom; and (4) sulfentrazone at 168 g/ha plus chlorimuron at 34 g/ha applied PRE, followed by acifluorfen at 280 g/ha plus bentazon at 560 g/ha plus clethodim at 140 g/ha at 6 WAP. Soybeans were harvested at maturity, and seeds were analyzed for daidzein, daidzin, genistein, genistin, glycitin, glycitein, shikimate, glyphosate, and the glyphosate degradation product, aminomethylphosphonic acid (AMPA). There were no remarkable effects of any treatment on the contents of any of the biosynthetic compounds in soybean seed from either test site, indicating that early and later season applications of glyphosate have no effects on phytoestrogen levels in glyphosate-resistant soybeans. Glyphosate and AMPA residues were higher in seeds from treatment 3 than from the other two treatments in which glyphosate was used earlier. Intermediate levels were found in treatments 1 and 2. Low levels of glyphosate and AMPA were found in treatment 4 and a

  11. Effects of worts treated with proteases on the assimilation of free amino acids and fermentation performance of lager yeast.

    PubMed

    Lei, Hongjie; Zheng, Liye; Wang, Chenxia; Zhao, Haifeng; Zhao, Mouming

    2013-02-01

    The objective of this study was to investigate the changes in free amino acids (FAA) composition by supplementing three commercial proteases (Neutrase, Flavorzyme and Protamex) at the beginning of wort mashing, and monitoring the effects on the assimilation pattern of FAA and fermentation performance of lager yeast (Saccharomyces pastorianus) during normal and high gravity fermentations. Proteases supplementation significantly improved the extract yield and FAA level of mashed worts. Normal gravity worts treated with Flavorzyme and Neutrase exhibited higher fermentability, ethanol production and flavor volatiles concentration compared to the control worts, while these beneficial effects were observed in high gravity worts treated with Protamex and Neutrase. The reason for the above results is proposed to be the change in the assimilation pattern of FAA in lager yeast with increased wort gravity, especially for the improved assimilation ratios of Leu, Arg, Phe, His, Asp and Val. In normal gravity fermentations, there were strong correlations between the assimilation amounts of Lys, Leu, Arg and His and fermentability, while in high gravity fermentations, these good correlations were found with only Lys and His. The present study suggested that optimizing the composition of FAA by supplementing proteases during wort mashing was beneficial to beer brewing for improving fermentation performance of lager yeast and flavor volatiles formation.

  12. Intra-articular Hyaluronic Acid in Treating Knee Osteoarthritis: a PRISMA-Compliant Systematic Review of Overlapping Meta-analysis.

    PubMed

    Xing, Dan; Wang, Bin; Liu, Qiang; Ke, Yan; Xu, Yuankun; Li, Zhichang; Lin, Jianhao

    2016-09-12

    Numerous meta-analyses have been conducted aiming to compare hyaluronic acid (HA) and placebo in treating knee osteoarthritis (OA). Nevertheless, the conclusions of these meta-analyses are not in consistency. The purpose of the present study was to perform a systematic review of overlapping meta-analyses investigating the efficacy and safety of HA for Knee OA and to provide treatment recommendations through the best evidence. A systematic review was conducted based on the PRISMA guidelines. The meta-analyses and/or systematic reviews that compared HA and placebo for knee OA were identified. AMSTAR instrument was used to evaluate the methodological quality of individual study. The information of heterogeneity within each variable was fetched for the individual studies. Which meta-analyses can provide best evidence was determined according to Jadad algorithm. Twelve meta-analyses met the eligibility requirements. The Jadad decision making tool suggests that the highest quality review should be selected. As a result, a high-quality Cochrane review was included. The present systematic review of overlapping meta-analyses demonstrates that HA is an effective intervention in treating knee OA without increased risk of adverse events. Therefore, the present conclusions may help decision makers interpret and choose among discordant meta-analyses.

  13. Biostimulatory effects of low-level laser therapy on epithelial cells and gingival fibroblasts treated with zoledronic acid

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Basso, F. G.; Pansani, T. N.; Turrioni, A. P. S.; Kurachi, C.; Bagnato, V. S.; Hebling, J.; de Souza Costa, C. A.

    2013-05-01

    Low-level laser therapy (LLLT) has been considered as an adjuvant treatment for bisphosphonate-related osteonecrosis, presenting positive clinical outcomes. However, there are no data regarding the effect of LLLT on oral tissue cells exposed to bisphosphonates. This study aimed to evaluate the effects of LLLT on epithelial cells and gingival fibroblasts exposed to a nitrogen-containing bisphosphonate—zoledronic acid (ZA). Cells were seeded in wells of 24-well plates, incubated for 48 h and then exposed to ZA at 5 μM for an additional 48 h. LLLT was performed with a diode laser prototype—LaserTABLE (InGaAsP—780 nm ± 3 nm, 25 mW), at selected energy doses of 0.5, 1.5, 3, 5, and 7 J cm-2 in three irradiation sessions, every 24 h. Cell metabolism, total protein production, gene expression of vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) and collagen type I (Col-I), and cell morphology were evaluated 24 h after the last irradiation. Data were statistically analyzed by Kruskal-Wallis and Mann-Whitney tests at 5% significance. Selected LLLT parameters increased the functions of epithelial cells and gingival fibroblasts treated with ZA. Gene expression of VEGF and Col-I was also increased. Specific parameters of LLLT biostimulated fibroblasts and epithelial cells treated with ZA. Analysis of these in vitro data may explain the positive in vivo effects of LLLT applied to osteonecrosis lesions.

  14. Intra-articular Hyaluronic Acid in Treating Knee Osteoarthritis: a PRISMA-Compliant Systematic Review of Overlapping Meta-analysis

    PubMed Central

    Xing, Dan; Wang, Bin; Liu, Qiang; Ke, Yan; Xu, Yuankun; Li, Zhichang; Lin, Jianhao

    2016-01-01

    Numerous meta-analyses have been conducted aiming to compare hyaluronic acid (HA) and placebo in treating knee osteoarthritis (OA). Nevertheless, the conclusions of these meta-analyses are not in consistency. The purpose of the present study was to perform a systematic review of overlapping meta-analyses investigating the efficacy and safety of HA for Knee OA and to provide treatment recommendations through the best evidence. A systematic review was conducted based on the PRISMA guidelines. The meta-analyses and/or systematic reviews that compared HA and placebo for knee OA were identified. AMSTAR instrument was used to evaluate the methodological quality of individual study. The information of heterogeneity within each variable was fetched for the individual studies. Which meta-analyses can provide best evidence was determined according to Jadad algorithm. Twelve meta-analyses met the eligibility requirements. The Jadad decision making tool suggests that the highest quality review should be selected. As a result, a high-quality Cochrane review was included. The present systematic review of overlapping meta-analyses demonstrates that HA is an effective intervention in treating knee OA without increased risk of adverse events. Therefore, the present conclusions may help decision makers interpret and choose among discordant meta-analyses. PMID:27616273

  15. Intra-articular Hyaluronic Acid in Treating Knee Osteoarthritis: a PRISMA-Compliant Systematic Review of Overlapping Meta-analysis.

    PubMed

    Xing, Dan; Wang, Bin; Liu, Qiang; Ke, Yan; Xu, Yuankun; Li, Zhichang; Lin, Jianhao

    2016-01-01

    Numerous meta-analyses have been conducted aiming to compare hyaluronic acid (HA) and placebo in treating knee osteoarthritis (OA). Nevertheless, the conclusions of these meta-analyses are not in consistency. The purpose of the present study was to perform a systematic review of overlapping meta-analyses investigating the efficacy and safety of HA for Knee OA and to provide treatment recommendations through the best evidence. A systematic review was conducted based on the PRISMA guidelines. The meta-analyses and/or systematic reviews that compared HA and placebo for knee OA were identified. AMSTAR instrument was used to evaluate the methodological quality of individual study. The information of heterogeneity within each variable was fetched for the individual studies. Which meta-analyses can provide best evidence was determined according to Jadad algorithm. Twelve meta-analyses met the eligibility requirements. The Jadad decision making tool suggests that the highest quality review should be selected. As a result, a high-quality Cochrane review was included. The present systematic review of overlapping meta-analyses demonstrates that HA is an effective intervention in treating knee OA without increased risk of adverse events. Therefore, the present conclusions may help decision makers interpret and choose among discordant meta-analyses. PMID:27616273

  16. 5-aminolevulinic acid for quantitative seek-and-treat of high-grade dysplasia in Barrett's esophagus cellular models

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yeh, Shu-Chi Allison; Ling, Celine S. N.; Andrews, David W.; Patterson, Michael S.; Diamond, Kevin R.; Hayward, Joseph E.; Armstrong, David; Fang, Qiyin

    2015-02-01

    High-grade dysplasia (HGD) in Barrett's esophagus (BE) poses increased risk for developing esophageal adenocarcinoma. To date, early detection and treatment of HGD regions are still challenging due to the sampling error from tissue biopsy and relocation error during the treatment after histopathological analysis. In this study, CP-A (metaplasia) and CP-B (HGD) cell lines were used to investigate the "seek-and-treat" potential using 5-aminolevulinic acid-induced protoporphyrin IX (PpIX). The photodynamic therapy photosensitizer then provides both a phototoxic effect and additional image contrast for automatic detection and real-time laser treatment. Complementary to our studies on automatic classification, this work focused on characterizing subcellular irradiation and the potential phototoxicity on both metaplasia and HGD. The treatment results showed that the HGD cells are less viable than metaplastic cells due to more PpIX production at earlier times. Also, due to mitochondrial localization of PpIX, a better killing effect was achieved by involving mitochondria or whole cells compared with just nucleus irradiation in the detected region. With the additional toxicity given by PpIX and potential morphological/textural differences for pattern recognition, this cellular platform serves as a platform to further investigate real-time "seek-and-treat" strategies in three-dimensional models for improving early detection and treatment of BE.

  17. Effect of peat quality on microbial greenhouse gas formation in an acidic fen

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Reiche, M.; Gleixner, G.; Küsel, K.

    2009-09-01

    Peatlands play an important role in the global carbon cycle and represent both an important stock of soil carbon and a substantial natural source of relevant greenhouse gases like CO2 and CH4. While it is known that the microbial availability of organic matter affects degradation and mineralization processes in peatlands, the manner in which peat organic matter affects the formation of CO2 and CH4 remains unclear. In this study we developed a fast and simple peat quality index in order to estimate its greenhouse gas potential by linking the thermo-degradability of peat with anaerobic CO2 and CH4 formation rates. Peat samples were obtained at several depths (0-40 cm) at four sampling locations from an acidic fen (pH∼4.7). CO2 and CH4 formation rates were highly spatially variable and depended on depth, sampling location, and the composition of pyrolysable organic matter. Peat samples active in CO2 and CH4 formation had a quality index above 1.35, and the fraction of thermally labile pyrolyzable organic matter (comparable to easily available carbon substrates for microbial activity) obtained by thermogravimetry was above 35%. Curie-point pyrolysis-gas chromatography/mass spectrometry mainly identified carbohydrates and lignin as pyrolysis products in these samples, indicating that undecomposed organic matter was found in this fraction. In contrast, lipids and unspecific pyrolysis products, which indicate recalcitrant and highly decomposed organic matter, correlated significantly with lower CO2 formation and reduced methanogenesis. Our results suggest that undecomposed organic matter is a prerequisite for CH4 and CO2 development in acidic fens. Furthermore, the new peat quality index should aide the estimation of greenhouse gas formation potential resulting from peatland restoration and permafrost thawing and help yield more robust models of trace gas fluxes from peatlands for climate change research.

  18. Effect of peat quality on microbial greenhouse gas formation in an acidic fen

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Reiche, M.; Gleixner, G.; Küsel, K.

    2010-01-01

    Peatlands play an important role in the global carbon cycle and represent both an important stock of soil carbon and a substantial natural source of relevant greenhouse gases like CO2 and CH4. While it is known that the quality of organic matter affects microbial degradation and mineralization processes in peatlands, the manner in which the quality of peat organic matter affects the formation of CO2 and CH4 remains unclear. In this study we developed a fast and simple peat quality index in order to estimate its potential greenhouse gas formation by linking the thermo-degradability of peat with potential anaerobic CO2 and CH4 formation rates. Peat samples were obtained at several depths (0-40 cm) at four sampling locations from an acidic fen (pH 4.7). CO2 and CH4 formation rates were highly spatially variable and depended on depth, sampling location, and the composition of pyrolysable organic matter. Peat samples active in CO2 and CH4 formation had a quality index above 1.35, and the fraction of thermally labile pyrolyzable organic matter (comparable to easily available carbon substrates for microbial activity) obtained by thermogravimetry was above 35%. Curie-point pyrolysis-gas chromatography/mass spectrometry mainly identified carbohydrates and lignin as pyrolysis products in these samples, indicating that undecomposed organic matter was found in this fraction. In contrast, lipids and unspecific pyrolysis products, which indicate recalcitrant and highly decomposed organic matter, correlated significantly with lower CO2 formation and reduced methanogenesis. Our results suggest that undecomposed organic matter is a prerequisite for CH4 and CO2 development in acidic fens. Furthermore, the new peat quality index should aide the estimation of potential greenhouse gas formation resulting from peatland restoration and permafrost thawing and help yield more robust models of trace gas fluxes from peatlands for climate change research.

  19. Comparison of acidic and neutral PH root conditioners prior to a coronally positioned flap to treat gingival recession

    PubMed Central

    Ahmadi, Roya Shariatmadar; Awwadi, Mohammd Reza; Moatazed, Shilan; Rezaei, Fatemeh; Hajisadeghi, Samira

    2014-01-01

    Background: Localized gingival recession can be treated successfully via coronally positioned flap (CPF) and additional use of root surface demineralization agents. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the effects of additional use of ethylene diamine tetraacetic acid (EDTA) and citric acid as a root conditioner in association with CPF to cover localized buccal gingival recessions. Materials and Methods: Twenty-seven patients with 66 Miller class I buccal gingival recession ≥ 2 mm on single-rooted teeth were studied. Patients were randomly assigned: CPF with EDTA gel (test 1) and CPF with saturated citric acid (test 2) or CPF alone (control). Clinical parameters were measured at baseline and 1, 2, 3 and 6 months after surgery; assessment included recession depth (RD), clinical attachment level (CAL), probing depth (PD) and height of keratinized gingiva (HKG). SPSS version-20 was used to perform all statistical analyses. Data was reported as Mean ± SD. Age, RD, CAL, PD, and HKG before treatment and after 6 months among study groups were compared by one-way ANOVA followed by the Tukey test. The level of significance was considered to be less than 0.05. Results: At 6 months, all treatment modalities showed significant root coverage and gain in CAL. RD was reduced from 2.86 ± 0.76 mm to 0.55±0.53 mm in the EDTA group and from 2.37±0.57 mm to 1.03±0.43 mm in the acid group and from 2.37±0.54 mm to 0.85±0.49 mm in the control group. The average percentage of root coverage for the EDTA, acid, and control groups were 80.73%, 52.16%, and 64.50%, respectively. At 6 months, there was a significant difference (P < 0.05) in all parameters for the EDTA group (except HKG that did not vary among the groups). Conclusion: Root preparation with EDTA was an effective procedure to cover localized gingival recessions and significantly improved the amount of root coverage obtained. PMID:25097639

  20. [Gas chromatography in quantitative analysis of hydrocyanic acid and its salts in cadaveric blood].

    PubMed

    Iablochkin, V D

    2003-01-01

    A direct gas chromatography method was designed for the quantitative determination of cyanides (prussic acid) in cadaveric blood. Its sensitivity is 0.05 mg/ml. The routine volatile products, including substances, which emerge due to putrefaction of organic matters, do not affect the accuracy and reproducibility of the method; the exception is H-propanol that was used as the internal standard. The method was used in legal chemical expertise related with acute cyanide poisoning (suicide) as well as with poisoning of products of combustion of nonmetals (foam-rubber). The absolute error does not exceed 10% with a mean quadratic deviation of 0.0029-0.0033 mg. PMID:14689782

  1. Analysis of the citric acid cycle intermediates using gas chromatography-mass spectrometry.

    PubMed

    Kombu, Rajan S; Brunengraber, Henri; Puchowicz, Michelle A

    2011-01-01

    Researchers view analysis of the citric acid cycle (CAC) intermediates as a metabolomic approach to identifying unexpected correlations between apparently related and unrelated pathways of metabolism. Relationships of the CAC intermediates, as measured by their concentrations and relative ratios, offer useful information to understanding interrelationships between the CAC and metabolic pathways under various physiological and pathological conditions. This chapter presents a relatively simple method that is sensitive for simultaneously measuring concentrations of CAC intermediates (relative and absolute) and other related intermediates of energy metabolism using gas chromatography-mass spectrometry.

  2. [Gas chromatography in quantitative analysis of hydrocyanic acid and its salts in cadaveric blood].

    PubMed

    Iablochkin, V D

    2003-01-01

    A direct gas chromatography method was designed for the quantitative determination of cyanides (prussic acid) in cadaveric blood. Its sensitivity is 0.05 mg/ml. The routine volatile products, including substances, which emerge due to putrefaction of organic matters, do not affect the accuracy and reproducibility of the method; the exception is H-propanol that was used as the internal standard. The method was used in legal chemical expertise related with acute cyanide poisoning (suicide) as well as with poisoning of products of combustion of nonmetals (foam-rubber). The absolute error does not exceed 10% with a mean quadratic deviation of 0.0029-0.0033 mg.

  3. Determination of linoleic acid in toothpaste by gas chromatography with flame ionization detection.

    PubMed

    Wejnerowska, Grazyna; Gackowska, Alicja; Gaca, Jerzy

    2008-06-01

    A new method for the determination of linoleic acid (LA) in toothpaste by a routine analysis has been proposed. Studies were based on the ISO 5509 procedure, which was modified for the purpose of LA determination in the toothpaste. Gas chromatography (GC) was employed for the qualitative and quantitative determination of linoleic acid methyl ester. The content of LA (5.31%) in sunflower oil added to the toothpaste composition (0.5%) was determined, and then the optimization studies for the determination of LA in the toothpaste samples were carried out. The relative standard deviation (RSD) of the procedure developed was 9.96% (n = 9). The quantitative analysis showed that the content of LA in the toothpaste samples studied was 0.0258 +/- 0.0011%. The detection limit of LA in toothpaste was approximately 0.001%.

  4. Environmental policy constraints for acidic exhaust gas scrubber discharges from ships.

    PubMed

    Ülpre, H; Eames, I

    2014-11-15

    Increasingly stringent environmental legislation on sulphur oxide emissions from the combustion of fossil fuels onboard ships (International Maritime Organization (IMO) Regulation 14) can be met by either refining the fuel to reduce sulphur content or by scrubbing the exhaust gases. Commonly used open loop marine scrubbers discharge warm acidic exhaust gas wash water into the sea, depressing its pH. The focus on this paper is on the physics and chemistry behind the disposal of acidic discharges in seawater. The IMO Marine Environment Protection Committee (MEPC 59/24/Add.1 Annex 9) requires the wash water to reach a pH greater than 6.5 at a distance of 4m from the point of discharge. We examine the engineering constraints, specifically size and number of ports, to identify the challenges of meeting regulatory compliance. PMID:25284442

  5. Environmental policy constraints for acidic exhaust gas scrubber discharges from ships.

    PubMed

    Ülpre, H; Eames, I

    2014-11-15

    Increasingly stringent environmental legislation on sulphur oxide emissions from the combustion of fossil fuels onboard ships (International Maritime Organization (IMO) Regulation 14) can be met by either refining the fuel to reduce sulphur content or by scrubbing the exhaust gases. Commonly used open loop marine scrubbers discharge warm acidic exhaust gas wash water into the sea, depressing its pH. The focus on this paper is on the physics and chemistry behind the disposal of acidic discharges in seawater. The IMO Marine Environment Protection Committee (MEPC 59/24/Add.1 Annex 9) requires the wash water to reach a pH greater than 6.5 at a distance of 4m from the point of discharge. We examine the engineering constraints, specifically size and number of ports, to identify the challenges of meeting regulatory compliance.

  6. Anti-apoptotic and anti-glycative effects of asiatic acid in the brain of D-galactose treated mice.

    PubMed

    Chao, Pei-chun; Yin, Mei-chin; Mong, Mei-chin

    2015-02-01

    Protection of asiatic acid (AA) in mice brain against D-galactose (DG) induced aging was examined. AA at 5, 10 or 20 mg kg(-1) per day was supplied to DG treated mice for 8 weeks. AA intake at 10 or 20 mg kg(-1) per day increased its deposit in brain. DG treatment increased Bax, cleaved caspase-3 protein expression and decreased Bcl-2 expression. AA intake at 10 and 20 mg kg(-1) per day declined Bax, cleaved caspase-3 expression, and retained Bcl-2 expression. DG treatment decreased brain glutathione content and glutathione peroxidase activity; increased brain reactive oxygen species and protein carbonyl levels, and enhanced NAPDH oxidase expression. AA intake at test doses reversed these changes. DG treatment up-regulated the expression of advanced glycation end product (AGE), carboxymethyllysine, receptor of AGE (RAGE), mitogen-activated protein kinases and CD11b as well as increasing the interleukin (IL)-6 and tumor necrosis factor (TNF)-alpha release in the brain. AA intake at 5, 10 and 20 mg kg(-1) per day lowered AGE and carboxymethyllysine expression, and at 10 and 20 mg kg(-1) per day reduced RAGE production. AA intake dose-dependently suppressed p-p38 expression and lowered IL-6 and TNF-alpha levels, and at 10 and 20 mg kg(-1) per day down-regulated p-JNK and CD11b expression. DG treatment declined brain-derived neurotropic factor (BDNF) expression and raised glial fibrillary acidic protein (GFAP) expression. AA intake at 20 mg kg(-1) per day retained BDNF expression and at 10 and 20 mg kg(-1) per day reduced GFAP expression. These findings indicated that the supplement of asiatic acid might be beneficial to the prevention or alleviation of brain aging.

  7. Inhibition of methane and natural gas hydrate formation by altering the structure of water with amino acids

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sa, Jeong-Hoon; Kwak, Gye-Hoon; Han, Kunwoo; Ahn, Docheon; Cho, Seong Jun; Lee, Ju Dong; Lee, Kun-Hong

    2016-08-01

    Natural gas hydrates are solid hydrogen-bonded water crystals containing small molecular gases. The amount of natural gas stored as hydrates in permafrost and ocean sediments is twice that of all other fossil fuels combined. However, hydrate blockages also hinder oil/gas pipeline transportation, and, despite their huge potential as energy sources, our insufficient understanding of hydrates has limited their extraction. Here, we report how the presence of amino acids in water induces changes in its structure and thus interrupts the formation of methane and natural gas hydrates. The perturbation of the structure of water by amino acids and the resulting selective inhibition of hydrate cage formation were observed directly. A strong correlation was found between the inhibition efficiencies of amino acids and their physicochemical properties, which demonstrates the importance of their direct interactions with water and the resulting dissolution environment. The inhibition of methane and natural gas hydrate formation by amino acids has the potential to be highly beneficial in practical applications such as hydrate exploitation, oil/gas transportation, and flow assurance. Further, the interactions between amino acids and water are essential to the equilibria and dynamics of many physical, chemical, biological, and environmental processes.

  8. Inhibition of methane and natural gas hydrate formation by altering the structure of water with amino acids.

    PubMed

    Sa, Jeong-Hoon; Kwak, Gye-Hoon; Han, Kunwoo; Ahn, Docheon; Cho, Seong Jun; Lee, Ju Dong; Lee, Kun-Hong

    2016-08-16

    Natural gas hydrates are solid hydrogen-bonded water crystals containing small molecular gases. The amount of natural gas stored as hydrates in permafrost and ocean sediments is twice that of all other fossil fuels combined. However, hydrate blockages also hinder oil/gas pipeline transportation, and, despite their huge potential as energy sources, our insufficient understanding of hydrates has limited their extraction. Here, we report how the presence of amino acids in water induces changes in its structure and thus interrupts the formation of methane and natural gas hydrates. The perturbation of the structure of water by amino acids and the resulting selective inhibition of hydrate cage formation were observed directly. A strong correlation was found between the inhibition efficiencies of amino acids and their physicochemical properties, which demonstrates the importance of their direct interactions with water and the resulting dissolution environment. The inhibition of methane and natural gas hydrate formation by amino acids has the potential to be highly beneficial in practical applications such as hydrate exploitation, oil/gas transportation, and flow assurance. Further, the interactions between amino acids and water are essential to the equilibria and dynamics of many physical, chemical, biological, and environmental processes.

  9. Inhibition of methane and natural gas hydrate formation by altering the structure of water with amino acids

    PubMed Central

    Sa, Jeong-Hoon; Kwak, Gye-Hoon; Han, Kunwoo; Ahn, Docheon; Cho, Seong Jun; Lee, Ju Dong; Lee, Kun-Hong

    2016-01-01

    Natural gas hydrates are solid hydrogen-bonded water crystals containing small molecular gases. The amount of natural gas stored as hydrates in permafrost and ocean sediments is twice that of all other fossil fuels combined. However, hydrate blockages also hinder oil/gas pipeline transportation, and, despite their huge potential as energy sources, our insufficient understanding of hydrates has limited their extraction. Here, we report how the presence of amino acids in water induces changes in its structure and thus interrupts the formation of methane and natural gas hydrates. The perturbation of the structure of water by amino acids and the resulting selective inhibition of hydrate cage formation were observed directly. A strong correlation was found between the inhibition efficiencies of amino acids and their physicochemical properties, which demonstrates the importance of their direct interactions with water and the resulting dissolution environment. The inhibition of methane and natural gas hydrate formation by amino acids has the potential to be highly beneficial in practical applications such as hydrate exploitation, oil/gas transportation, and flow assurance. Further, the interactions between amino acids and water are essential to the equilibria and dynamics of many physical, chemical, biological, and environmental processes. PMID:27526869

  10. Inhibition of methane and natural gas hydrate formation by altering the structure of water with amino acids.

    PubMed

    Sa, Jeong-Hoon; Kwak, Gye-Hoon; Han, Kunwoo; Ahn, Docheon; Cho, Seong Jun; Lee, Ju Dong; Lee, Kun-Hong

    2016-01-01

    Natural gas hydrates are solid hydrogen-bonded water crystals containing small molecular gases. The amount of natural gas stored as hydrates in permafrost and ocean sediments is twice that of all other fossil fuels combined. However, hydrate blockages also hinder oil/gas pipeline transportation, and, despite their huge potential as energy sources, our insufficient understanding of hydrates has limited their extraction. Here, we report how the presence of amino acids in water induces changes in its structure and thus interrupts the formation of methane and natural gas hydrates. The perturbation of the structure of water by amino acids and the resulting selective inhibition of hydrate cage formation were observed directly. A strong correlation was found between the inhibition efficiencies of amino acids and their physicochemical properties, which demonstrates the importance of their direct interactions with water and the resulting dissolution environment. The inhibition of methane and natural gas hydrate formation by amino acids has the potential to be highly beneficial in practical applications such as hydrate exploitation, oil/gas transportation, and flow assurance. Further, the interactions between amino acids and water are essential to the equilibria and dynamics of many physical, chemical, biological, and environmental processes. PMID:27526869

  11. Preparation of fatty acid methyl esters for gas-liquid chromatography.

    PubMed

    Ichihara, Ken'ichi; Fukubayashi, Yumeto

    2010-03-01

    A convenient method using commercial aqueous concentrated HCl (conc. HCl; 35%, w/w) as an acid catalyst was developed for preparation of fatty acid methyl esters (FAMEs) from sterol esters, triacylglycerols, phospholipids, and FFAs for gas-liquid chromatography (GC). An 8% (w/v) solution of HCl in methanol/water (85:15, v/v) was prepared by diluting 9.7 ml of conc. HCl with 41.5 ml of methanol. Toluene (0.2 ml), methanol (1.5 ml), and the 8% HCl solution (0.3 ml) were added sequentially to the lipid sample. The final HCl concentration was 1.2% (w/v). This solution (2 ml) was incubated at 45 degrees C overnight or heated at 100 degrees C for 1-1.5 h. The amount of FFA formed in the presence of water derived from conc. HCl was estimated to be <1.4%. The yields of FAMEs were >96% for the above lipid classes and were the same as or better than those obtained by saponification/methylation or by acid-catalyzed methanolysis/methylation using commercial anhydrous HCl/methanol. The method developed here could be successfully applied to fatty acid analysis of various lipid samples, including fish oils, vegetable oils, and blood lipids by GC. PMID:19759389

  12. Preparation of fatty acid methyl esters for gas-liquid chromatography[S

    PubMed Central

    Ichihara, Ken'ichi; Fukubayashi, Yumeto

    2010-01-01

    A convenient method using commercial aqueous concentrated HCl (conc. HCl; 35%, w/w) as an acid catalyst was developed for preparation of fatty acid methyl esters (FAMEs) from sterol esters, triacylglycerols, phospholipids, and FFAs for gas-liquid chromatography (GC). An 8% (w/v) solution of HCl in methanol/water (85:15, v/v) was prepared by diluting 9.7 ml of conc. HCl with 41.5 ml of methanol. Toluene (0.2 ml), methanol (1.5 ml), and the 8% HCl solution (0.3 ml) were added sequentially to the lipid sample. The final HCl concentration was 1.2% (w/v). This solution (2 ml) was incubated at 45°C overnight or heated at 100°C for 1–1.5 h. The amount of FFA formed in the presence of water derived from conc. HCl was estimated to be <1.4%. The yields of FAMEs were >96% for the above lipid classes and were the same as or better than those obtained by saponification/methylation or by acid-catalyzed methanolysis/methylation using commercial anhydrous HCl/methanol. The method developed here could be successfully applied to fatty acid analysis of various lipid samples, including fish oils, vegetable oils, and blood lipids by GC. PMID:19759389

  13. Conformations and spectroscopic properties of laccaic acid A in the gas phase and in implicit water.

    PubMed

    Dokmaisrijan, Supaporn; Payaka, Apirak; Tantishaiyakul, Vimon; Chairat, Montra; Nimmanpipug, Piyarat; Lee, Vannajan Sanghiran

    2013-03-15

    Conformations and spectroscopic properties of laccaic acid A (lacA) were studied by means of the experimental and theoretical approaches. The minimum energy conformers of lacA in the gas phase and in implicit water obtained from the B3LYP/6-311G(d,p) calculations displayed the same orientation of the COOH and OH groups on the anthraquinone-based component. The intramolecular hydrogen bonds (H-bonds) formed between the COOH, C=O and OH groups are very strong. In contrast, the orientations of the Ph(OH)CH(2)CH(2)NHCOCH(3) substituent moiety on the anthraquinone-based component in the gas phase and in implicit water are completely different. The substituent prefers to bind with the anthraquinone-based component in the gas phase while it moves away from the anthraquinone-based component in implicit water. The calculated IR spectra of the two lowest-lying energy conformers of lacA in the gas phase fit to the experimental FTIR spectrum. The full assignments of the vibrational modes with the correlated vibrational wavenumbers of those conformers were proposed here, for the first time. The intramolecular H-bond formations in lacA can cause the shift of the vibrational wavenumber for the COOH, C=O, OH and NH groups as compared to the normal vibrations of these groups. The NMR spectra showed that the stabilities of the two lowest-lying energy conformers of lacA in the gas phase are comparable and this is consistent with their computational energies. The UV-Vis spectra of the lowest-lying energy conformers of lacA in implicit water were compared with the experimental UV-Vis spectrum. The calculations suggested that the electronic transition in the visible region involves with the singlet π→π(*) excitation which the electron density transfers to a COOH group on the anthraquinone ring.

  14. Changes in the chemical composition of an acidic soil treated with marble quarry and marble cutting wastes.

    PubMed

    Tozsin, Gulsen; Oztas, Taskin; Arol, Ali Ihsan; Kalkan, Ekrem

    2015-11-01

    Soil acidity greatly affects the availability of plant nutrients. The level of soil acidity can be adjusted by treating the soil with certain additives. The objective of this study was to determine the effect of marble quarry waste (MQW) and marble cutting waste (MCW) on the chemical composition and the acidity of a soil. Marble wastes at different rates were applied to an acid soil. Their effectiveness in neutralizing the soil pH was compared with that of agricultural lime. The changes in the chemical composition of the soil were also evaluated with column test at the end of a 75-day incubation period. The results indicated that the MQW and MCW applications significantly increased the soil pH (from 4.71 up to 6.54), the CaCO3 content (from 0.33% up to 0.75%), and the exchangeable Ca (from 14.79 cmol kg(-1) up to 21.18 cmol kg(-1)) and Na (from 0.57 cmol kg(-1) up to 1.07 cmol kg(-1)) contents, but decreased the exchangeable K (from 0.46 cmol kg(-1) down to 0.28 cmol kg(-1)), the plant-available P (from 25.56 mg L(-1) down to 16.62 mg L(-1)), and the extractable Fe (from 259.43 mg L(-1) down to 55.4 mg L(-1)), Cu (from 1.97 mg L(-1) down to 1.42 mg L(-1)), Mn (from 17.89 mg L(-1) down to 4.61 mg L(-1)) and Zn (from 7.88 mg L(-1) down to 1.56 mg L(-1)) contents. In addition, the Cd (from 0.060 mg L(-1) down to 0.046 mg L(-1)), Ni (from 0.337 mg L(-1) down to 0.092 mg L(-1)) and Pb (from 28.00 mg L(-1) down to 20.08 mg L(-1)) concentrations decreased upon the treatment of the soil with marble wastes.

  15. Changes in the chemical composition of an acidic soil treated with marble quarry and marble cutting wastes.

    PubMed

    Tozsin, Gulsen; Oztas, Taskin; Arol, Ali Ihsan; Kalkan, Ekrem

    2015-11-01

    Soil acidity greatly affects the availability of plant nutrients. The level of soil acidity can be adjusted by treating the soil with certain additives. The objective of this study was to determine the effect of marble quarry waste (MQW) and marble cutting waste (MCW) on the chemical composition and the acidity of a soil. Marble wastes at different rates were applied to an acid soil. Their effectiveness in neutralizing the soil pH was compared with that of agricultural lime. The changes in the chemical composition of the soil were also evaluated with column test at the end of a 75-day incubation period. The results indicated that the MQW and MCW applications significantly increased the soil pH (from 4.71 up to 6.54), the CaCO3 content (from 0.33% up to 0.75%), and the exchangeable Ca (from 14.79 cmol kg(-1) up to 21.18 cmol kg(-1)) and Na (from 0.57 cmol kg(-1) up to 1.07 cmol kg(-1)) contents, but decreased the exchangeable K (from 0.46 cmol kg(-1) down to 0.28 cmol kg(-1)), the plant-available P (from 25.56 mg L(-1) down to 16.62 mg L(-1)), and the extractable Fe (from 259.43 mg L(-1) down to 55.4 mg L(-1)), Cu (from 1.97 mg L(-1) down to 1.42 mg L(-1)), Mn (from 17.89 mg L(-1) down to 4.61 mg L(-1)) and Zn (from 7.88 mg L(-1) down to 1.56 mg L(-1)) contents. In addition, the Cd (from 0.060 mg L(-1) down to 0.046 mg L(-1)), Ni (from 0.337 mg L(-1) down to 0.092 mg L(-1)) and Pb (from 28.00 mg L(-1) down to 20.08 mg L(-1)) concentrations decreased upon the treatment of the soil with marble wastes. PMID:26246275

  16. Stereometabolism of ethylbenzene in man: gas chromatographic determination of urinary excreted mandelic acid enantiomers and phenylglyoxylic acid and their relation to the height of occupational exposure.

    PubMed

    Korn, M; Gfrörer, W; Herz, R; Wodarz, I; Wodarz, R

    1992-01-01

    Ethylbenzene is an important industrial solvent and a key substance in styrene production. Ethylbenzene metabolism leads to the formation of mandelic acid, which occurs in two enantiomeric forms, and phenylglyoxylic acid. To decide which enantiomer is preferably formed, 70 urine samples of exposed workers were taken at the end of shifts and--after 3-pentyl ester derivatisation--gas chromatographically analysed. The R/S ratio of mandelic acid enantiomers in urine amounts to 19:1, which means that R-mandelic acid is a major metabolite and S-mandelic acid is one of the minor urinary metabolites of ethylbenzene in man. The R/S ratio is independent of ambient air concentration of ethylbenzene within the investigated range. Compared to an ethylbenzene monoexposure the height of total mandelic acid excretion is decreased in the case of coexposure to other aromatic solvents.

  17. Benzyl esters of C2-C20 fatty acids and metabolically relevant carboxylic acids. Preparation and gas chromatography-mass spectrometry.

    PubMed

    Schatowitz, B; Gercken, G

    1987-11-13

    Short-, medium- and long-chain fatty acids, and other types of metabolically relevant carboxylic acids like hydroxy-, keto-, aromatic and dicarboxylic acids, were analyzed by capillary gas chromatography. For separation, benzyl ester derivatives were used, prepared by reaction of the potassium carboxylates with benzyl bromide in acetonitrile catalyzed by a crown ether. The reaction conditions for quantitative benzylation were studied. Keto groups of ketocarboxylic acids were stabilized prior to benzylation by formation of O-methyl oximes using methoxyamine hydrochloride in aqueous-ethanolic solution. The separation of more than 45 carboxylic acids was achieved on a CP-Sil 5 CB fused-silica capillary column in less than 70 min. The electron impact mass spectra of ketocarboxylic acid O-methyl oxime benzyl esters PMID:3693495

  18. Gas-Phase Amidation of Carboxylic Acids with Woodward's Reagent K Ions.

    PubMed

    Peng, Zhou; Pilo, Alice L; Luongo, Carl A; McLuckey, Scott A

    2015-10-01

    Gas-phase amidation of carboxylic acids in multiply-charged peptides is demonstrated via ion/ion reactions with Woodward's reagent K (wrk) in both positive and negative mode. Woodward's reagent K, N-ethyl-3-phenylisoxazolium-3'-sulfonate, is a commonly used reagent that activates carboxylates to form amide bonds with amines in solution. Here, we demonstrate that the analogous gas-phase chemistry occurs upon reaction of the wrk ions and doubly protonated (or doubly deprotonated) peptide ions containing the carboxylic acid functionality. The reaction involves the formation of the enol ester intermediate in the electrostatic complex. Upon collisional activation, the ethyl amine on the reagent is transferred to the activated carbonyl carbon on the peptide, resulting in the formation of an ethyl amide (addition of 27 Da to the peptide) with loss of a neutral ketene derivative. Further collision-induced dissociation (CID) of the products and comparison with solution-phase amidation product confirms the structure of the ethyl amide.

  19. Gas-Phase Amidation of Carboxylic Acids with Woodward's Reagent K Ions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Peng, Zhou; Pilo, Alice L.; Luongo, Carl A.; McLuckey, Scott A.

    2015-06-01

    Gas-phase amidation of carboxylic acids in multiply-charged peptides is demonstrated via ion/ion reactions with Woodward's reagent K (wrk) in both positive and negative mode. Woodward's reagent K, N-ethyl-3-phenylisoxazolium-3'-sulfonate, is a commonly used reagent that activates carboxylates to form amide bonds with amines in solution. Here, we demonstrate that the analogous gas-phase chemistry occurs upon reaction of the wrk ions and doubly protonated (or doubly deprotonated) peptide ions containing the carboxylic acid functionality. The reaction involves the formation of the enol ester intermediate in the electrostatic complex. Upon collisional activation, the ethyl amine on the reagent is transferred to the activated carbonyl carbon on the peptide, resulting in the formation of an ethyl amide (addition of 27 Da to the peptide) with loss of a neutral ketene derivative. Further collision-induced dissociation (CID) of the products and comparison with solution-phase amidation product confirms the structure of the ethyl amide.

  20. The microbial communities and potential greenhouse gas production in boreal acid sulphate, non-acid sulphate, and reedy sulphidic soils.

    PubMed

    Šimek, Miloslav; Virtanen, Seija; Simojoki, Asko; Chroňáková, Alica; Elhottová, Dana; Krištůfek, Václav; Yli-Halla, Markku

    2014-01-01

    Acid sulphate (AS) soils along the Baltic coasts contain significant amounts of organic carbon and nitrogen in their subsoils. The abundance, composition, and activity of microbial communities throughout the AS soil profile were analysed. The data from a drained AS soil were compared with those from a drained non-AS soil and a pristine wetland soil from the same region. Moreover, the potential production of methane, carbon dioxide, and nitrous oxide from the soils was determined under laboratory conditions. Direct microscopic counting, glucose-induced respiration (GIR), whole cell hybridisation, and extended phospholipid fatty acid (PLFA) analysis confirmed the presence of abundant microbial communities in the topsoil and also in the deepest Cg2 horizon of the AS soil. The patterns of microbial counts, biomass and activity in the profile of the AS soil and partly also in the non-AS soil therefore differed from the general tendency of gradual decreases in soil profiles. High respiration in the deepest Cg2 horizon of the AS soil (5.66 μg Cg(-1)h(-1), as compared to 2.71 μg Cg(-1)h(-1) in a top Ap horizon) is unusual but reasonable given the large amount of organic carbon in this horizon. Nitrous oxide production peaked in the BCgc horizon of the AS and in the BC horizon of the non-AS soil, but the peak value was ten-fold higher in the AS soil than in the non-AS soil (82.3 vs. 8.6 ng Ng(-1)d(-1)). The data suggest that boreal AS soils on the Baltic coast contain high microbial abundance and activity. This, together with the abundant carbon and total and mineral nitrogen in the deep layers of AS soils, may result in substantial gas production. Consequently, high GHG emissions could occur, for example, when the generally high water table is lowered because of arable farming.

  1. Absorption of sulfur dioxide from simulated flue gas by polyethyleneimine-phosphoric acid solution.

    PubMed

    Bo, Wen; Li, Hongxia; Zhang, Junjie; Song, Xiangjia; Hu, Jinshan; Liu, Ce

    2016-12-01

    Clean fuel technologies have been widely developed in current society because fuel combustion can directly bring about the emission of hazardous gasses such as SO2. Flue gas desulfurization by polyethyleneimine (PEI)-phosphoric acid solution is an efficient desulfurization method. In this research, the PEI and the additive H3PO4 were used as absorption solution. SO2 was absorbed by the system and desorbed from the loaded solution. The cycle operation was also analyzed. Some technology conditions such as the concentration of PEI, the temperature, the gas flow rate, the concentration of SO2 and the pH value were experimentally researched. With the optimized process, the absorption efficiency of this system could reach 98% and the desorption efficiency was over 60%, showing good absorption/desorption capability. With this efficient approach, the present study may open a new window for developing high-performance absorbents which can make SO2 be well desorbed from the loaded solution and better reused in the flue gas desulfurization. PMID:27082307

  2. Reclamation of acid, toxic coal spoils using wet flue gas desulfurization by-product, fly ash and sewage sludge. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Kost, D.A.; Vimmerstedt, J.P.; Stehouwer, R.C.

    1997-03-01

    Establishment of vegetation on acid abandoned minelands requires modification of soil physical and chemical conditions. Covering the acid minesoil with topsoil or borrow soil is a common practice but this method may be restricted by availability of borrow soil and cause damage to the borrow site. An alternative approach is to use waste materials as soil amendments. There is a long history of using sewage sludge and fly ash as amendments for acid minesoils. Flue gas desulfurization (FGD) by-products are newer materials that are also promising amendments. Most flue gas sludges are mixtures of Calcium sulfate (CaSO{sub 4}), calcium sulfite (CaSO{sub 3}), calcium carbonate (CaCO{sub 3}), calcium hydroxide [Ca(OH){sub 2}], and fly ash. Some scrubbing processes produce almost pure gypsum (CaSO{sub 4}2H{sub 2}O). The primary purpose of the project is to evaluate two wet FGD by-products for effects on vegetation establishment and surface and ground water quality on an acid minesoil. One by-product from the Conesville, OH power plant (American Electric Power Service Corporation) contains primarily calcium sulfite and fly ash. The other by-product (Mg-gypsum FGD) from an experimental scrubber at the Zimmer power plant (Cincinnati Gas and Electric Company) is primarily gypsum with 4% magnesium hydroxide. These materials were compared with borrow soil and sewage sludge as minesoil amendments. Combinations of each FGD sludge with sewage sludge were also tested. This report summarizes two years of measurements of chemical composition of runoff water, ground water at two depths in the subsoil, soil chemical properties, elemental composition and yield of herbaceous ground cover, and elemental composition, survival and height of trees planted on plots treated with the various amendments. The borrow soil is the control for comparison with the other treatments.

  3. Dissociation of carbonic acid: gas phase energetics and mechanism from ab initio metadynamics simulations.

    PubMed

    Kumar, P Padma; Kalinichev, Andrey G; Kirkpatrick, R James

    2007-05-28

    A comprehensive metadynamics study of the energetics, stability, conformational changes, and mechanism of dissociation of gas phase carbonic acid, H2CO3, yields significant new insight into these reactions. The equilibrium geometries, vibrational frequencies, and conformer energies calculated using the density functional theory are in good agreement with the previous theoretical predictions. At 315 K, the cis-cis conformer has a very short life time and transforms easily to the cis-trans conformer through a change in the O=C-O-H dihedral angle. The energy difference between the trans-trans and cis-trans conformers is very small (approximately 1 kcal/mol), but the trans-trans conformer is resistant to dissociation to carbon dioxide and water. The cis-trans conformer has a relatively short path for one of its hydroxyl groups to accept the proton from the other end of the molecule, resulting in a lower activation barrier for dissociation. Comparison of the free and potential energies of dissociation shows that the entropic contribution to the dissociation energy is less than 10%. The potential energy barrier for dissociation of H2CO3 to CO2 and H2O from the metadynamics calculations is 5-6 kcal/mol lower than in previous 0 K studies, possibly due to a combination of a finite temperature and more efficient sampling of the energy landscape in the metadynamics calculations. Gas phase carbonic acid dissociation is triggered by the dehydroxylation of one of the hydroxyl groups, which reorients as it approaches the proton on the other end of the molecule, thus facilitating a favorable H-O-H angle for the formation of a product H2O molecule. The major atomic reorganization of the other part of the molecule is a gradual straightening of the O=C=O bond. The metadynamics results provide a basis for future simulation of the more challenging carbonic acid-water system.

  4. Fast derivatization of fatty acids in different meat samples for gas chromatography analysis.

    PubMed

    Figueiredo, Ingrid Lima; Claus, Thiago; Oliveira Santos Júnior, Oscar; Almeida, Vitor Cinque; Magon, Thiago; Visentainer, Jesuí Vergilio

    2016-07-22

    In order to analyze the composition of fatty acids employing gas chromatography as the separation method, a derivatization of lipids using esterification and transesterification reactions is needed. The methodologies currently available are time consuming and use large amounts of sample and reagents. Thus, this work proposes a new procedure to carry out the derivatization of fatty acids without the need for prior extraction of lipids. The use of small amounts of sample (100mg) allows the analysis to be performed in specific parts of animals, in most cases without having them slaughtered. Another benefit is the use of small amounts of reagents (only 2mL of NaOH/Methanol and H2SO4/Methanol). The use of an experimental design procedure (Design Expert software) allows the optimization of the alkaline and acid reaction times. The procedure was validated for five minutes in both steps. The method was validated for bovine fat, beef, chicken, pork, fish and shrimp meats. The results for the merit figures of accuracy (from 101.07% to 109.18%), precision (RSDintra-day (from 0.65 to 3.93%), RSDinter-day (from 1.57 to 5.22%)), linearity (R(2)=0.9864) and robustness confirmed that the new method is satisfactory within the linear range of 2-30% of lipids in the sample. Besides the benefits of minimizing the amount of samples and reagents, the procedure enables gas chromatography sample preparation in a very short time compared with traditional procedures. PMID:27320376

  5. Recent Selected Ion Flow Tube (SIFT) Studies Concerning the Formation of Amino Acids in the Gas Phase

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jackson, Douglas M.; Adams, Nigel G.; Babcock, Lucia M.

    2006-01-01

    Recently the simplest amino acid, glycine, has been detected in interstellar clouds, ISC, although this has since been contested. In order to substantiate either of these claims, plausible routes to amino acids need to be investigated. For gas phase synthesis, the SIFT technique has been employed to study simple amino acids via ion-molecule reactions of several ions of interstellar interest with methylamine, ethylamine, formic acid, acetic acid, and methyl formate. Carboxylic acid type ions were considered in the reactions involving the amines. In reactions where the carboxylic acid and methyl formate neutrals were studied, the reactant ions were primarily amine ion fragments. It was observed that the amines and acids preferentially fragment or accept a proton whenever energetically possible. NH3(+), however, uniquely reacted with the neutrals via atom abstraction to form NH4(+). These studies yielded a body of data relevant to astrochemistry, supplementing the available literature. However, the search for gas phase routes to amino acids using conventional molecules has been frustrated. Our most recent research investigates the fragmentation patterns of several amino acids and several possible routes have been suggested for future study.

  6. Induction of karyopherin α1 expression by indole-3-acetic acid in auxin-treated or overproducing tobacco plants.

    PubMed

    Rand, Karin; Kobrinsky-Aaronowitz, Irina; Levy, Yael; Shaul, Orit; Aloni, Roni; Gafni, Yedidya

    2011-06-01

    Macromolecules may transfer between the cytoplasm and the nucleus only through specific gates - the nuclear pore complexes (NPCs). Translocation of nucleic acids and large proteins requires the presence of a nuclear localization signal (NLS) within the transported molecule. This NLS is recognized by a class of soluble transport receptors termed karyopherins α and beta. We previously characterized the expression pattern of the tomato karyopherin α 1 (LeKAPα1) promoter in transformed tobacco plants. Expression of LeKAPα1 was mainly observed in growing tissues where cell division and extension is rapid. The expression pattern of LeKAPα1 resembled that of auxin-responsive genes. This led us to suggest that auxin participates in the regulation of LeKAPα1 expression. Here we characterized the correlation between auxin level and the activity of the LeKAPα1 promoter. To this end, transgenic tobacco plants carrying the GUS reporter gene under the control of the LeKAPα1 promoter were treated with various levels of exogenous auxin. We also studied transgenic plants in which we increased the endogenous levels of auxin. For this, we expressed in plants both the LeKAPα1 promoter-GUS reporter and the Agrobacterium tumefaciens iaaM gene, which increases the endogenous levels of auxin. The results indicate that the auxin indole-3-acetic acid (IAA) can induce LeKAPα1 expression. We also identified that the sites and levels of LeKAPα1 expression correlated with the endogenous pathways of polar auxin transport.

  7. Salvianolic acid B ameliorates depressive-like behaviors in chronic mild stress-treated mice: involvement of the neuroinflammatory pathway

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Jin-qiang; Wu, Xiao-hui; Feng, Yi; Xie, Xiao-fang; Fan, Yong-hua; Yan, Shuo; Zhao, Qiu-ying; Peng, Cheng; You, Zi-li

    2016-01-01

    Aim: Major depressive disorder (MDD) is a debilitating mental disorder associated with dysfunction of the neurotransmitter-neuroendocrine system and neuroinflammatory responses. Salvianolic acid B (SalB) has shown a variety of pharmacological activities, including anti-inflammatory, antioxidant and neuroprotective effects. In this study, we examined whether SalB produced antidepressant-like actions in a chronic mild stress (CMS) mouse model, and explored the mechanisms underlying the antidepressant-like actions of SalB. Methods: Mice were subjected to a CMS paradigm for 6 weeks. In the last 3 weeks the mice were daily administered SalB (20 mg·kg−1·d−1, ip) or a positive control drug imipramine (20 mg·kg−1·d−1, ip). The depressant-like behaviors were evaluated using the sucrose preference test, the forced swimming test (FST), and the tail suspension test (TST). The gene expression of cytokines in the hippocampus and cortex was analyzed with RT-PCR. Plasma corticosterone (CORT) and cerebral cytokines levels were assayed with an ELISA kit. Neural apoptosis and microglial activation in brain tissues were detected using immunofluorescence staining. Results: Administration of SalB or imipramine reversed the reduced sucrose preference ratio of CMS-treated mice, and significantly decreased their immobility time in the FST and TST. Administration of SalB significantly decreased the expression of pro-inflammatory cytokines IL-1β and TNF-α, and markedly increased the expression of anti-inflammatory cytokines IL-10 and TGF-β in the hippocampus and cortex of CMS-treated mice, and normalized their elevated plasma CORT levels, whereas administration of imipramine did not significantly affect the imbalance between pro- and anti-inflammatory cytokines in the hippocampus and cortex of CMS-treated mice. Finally, administration of SalB significantly decreased CMS-induced apoptosis and microglia activation in the hippocampus and cortex, whereas administration of

  8. Measurements of gas phase acids in diesel exhaust: a relevant source of HNCO?

    PubMed

    Wentzell, Jeremy J B; Liggio, John; Li, Shao-Meng; Vlasenko, A; Staebler, Ralf; Lu, Gang; Poitras, Marie-Josée; Chan, Tak; Brook, Jeffrey R

    2013-07-16

    Gas-phase acids in light duty diesel (LDD) vehicle exhaust were measured using chemical ionization mass spectrometry (CIMS). Fuel based emission factors (EF) and NOx ratios for these species were determined under differing steady state engine operating conditions. The derived HONO and HNO3 EFs agree well with literature values, with HONO being the single most important acidic emission. Of particular importance is the quantification of the EF for the toxic species, isocyanic acid (HNCO). The emission factors for HNCO ranged from 0.69 to 3.96 mg kgfuel(-1), and were significantly higher than previous biomass burning emission estimates. Further ambient urban measurements of HNCO demonstrated a clear relationship with the known traffic markers of benzene and toluene, demonstrating for the first time that urban commuter traffic is a source of HNCO. Estimates based upon the HNCO-benzene relationship indicate that upward of 23 tonnes of HNCO are released annually from commuter traffic in the Greater Toronto Area, far exceeding the amount possible from LDD alone. Nationally, 250 to 770 tonnes of HNCO may be emitted annually from on-road vehicles, likely representing the dominant source of exposure in urban areas, and with emissions comparable to that of biomass burning. PMID:23781923

  9. Synthesis of formamide and isocyanic acid after ion irradiation of frozen gas mixtures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kaňuchová, Z.; Urso, R. G.; Baratta, G. A.; Brucato, J. R.; Palumbo, M. E.; Strazzulla, G.

    2016-01-01

    Context. Formamide (NH2HCO) and isocyanic acid (HNCO) have been observed as gaseous species in several astronomical environments such as cometary comae and pre- and proto-stellar objects. A debate is open on the formation route of those molecules, in particular if they are formed by chemical reactions in the gas phase and/or on grains. In this latter case it is relevant to understand if the formation occurs through surface reactions or is induced by energetic processing. Aims: We present arguments that support the formation of formamide in the solid phase by cosmic-ion-induced energetic processing of ices present as mantles of interstellar grains and on comets. Formamides, along with other molecules, are expelled in the gas phase when the physical parameters are appropriate to induce the desorption of ices. Methods: We have performed several laboratory experiments in which ice mixtures (H2O:CH4:N2, H2O:CH4:NH3, and CH3OH:N2) were bombarded with energetic (30-200 keV) ions (H+ or He+). FTIR spectroscopy was performed before, during, and after ion bombardment. In particular, the formation of HNCO and NH2HCO was measured quantiatively. Results: Energetic processing of ice can quantitatively reproduce the amount of NH2HCO observed in cometary comae and in many circumstellar regions. HNCO is also formed, but additional formation mechanisms are requested to quantitatively account for the astronomical observations. Conclusions: We suggest that energetic processing of ices in the pre- and proto-stellar regions and in comets is the main mechanism to produce formamide, which, once it is released in the gas phase because of desorption of ices, is observed in the gas phase in these astrophysical environments.

  10. Use of hexadeuterated valproic acid and gas chromatography-mass spectrometry to determine the pharmacokinetics of valproic acid

    SciTech Connect

    Acheampong, A.A.; Abbott, F.S.; Orr, J.M.; Ferguson, S.M.; Burton, R.W.

    1984-04-01

    Di-(( 3,3,3-/sup 2/H3)propyl)acetic acid, a hexadeuterated analogue of valproic acid, was synthesized and its pharmacokinetic properties compared with valproic acid. Concentrations of valproic acid and (/sup 2/H)valproic acid in serum and saliva were determined by GC-MS using selected-ion monitoring. Saliva drug levels were measured with good precision down to 0.1 microgram/mL. Kinetic equivalence of valproic acid and (/sup 2/H)valproic acid was demonstrated in a single-dose study in a human volunteer. An isotope effect was observed for omega-oxidation, but the difference in metabolism was not sufficient to make (/sup 2/H)valproic acid biologically nonequivalent. The application of (/sup 2/H)valproic acid to determine the kinetics of valproic acid under steady-state concentrations was evaluated in the same volunteer. The kinetic data obtained with (/sup 2/H)valproic acid was consistent with previously reported values for valproic acid including kinetic differences observed between single-dose and steady-state experiments. Saliva levels of valproic acid were found to give a good correlation with total serum valproic acid under multiple-dose conditions. A concentration dependence was found for the ratio of saliva valproic acid to free valproic acid in serum, low ratios being observed at high serum concentrations of valproic acid.

  11. Nutritional evaluation of biologically treated white kidney beans (Phaseolus vulgaris L.) in pigs: ileal and amino acid digestibility.

    PubMed

    Schulze, H; Savelkoul, F H; Verstegen, M W; van der Poel, A F; Tamminga, S; Groot Nibbelink, S

    1997-12-01

    We studied the effect of feeding young growing pigs a semisynthetic diet containing 7.5% white kidney beans-germinated (GB), pancreatin treated (PTB), or untreated (raw beans RB)--on protein and amino acid (AA) digestibilities at the terminal ileum. Eleven castrated male pigs (12.2 kg live weight) fitted with a post-valve T-cecal cannula and two blood catheters were used. The 15N-isotope dilution method was used to determine the amount of endogenous protein passing the terminal ileum and the true ileal protein digestibility. Ileal crude protein losses in pigs fed the RB, GB, and PTB diets were 51.9, 27.4, and 51.1 g/kg of DMI, respectively. The total amounts of AA passing the terminal ileum of the pigs fed the RB, GB, and PTB diets were 48.6, 21.4, and 42.2 g/kg DMI, respectively. The apparent ileal crude protein and AA digestibilities of the RB, GB, and PTB diets were 74, 87, and 75% and 76, 89, and 78%, respectively. True ileal protein digestibilities were 88, 93, and 93% for the RB, GB, and PTB diets, respectively. On the basis of this research, germination of white kidney beans improves the digestion of protein by decreasing the content of bean antinutritional factors and increasing the bean true ileal protein digestibility.

  12. Nutritional evaluation of biologically treated white kidney beans (Phaseolus vulgaris L.) in pigs: ileal and amino acid digestibility.

    PubMed

    Schulze, H; Savelkoul, F H; Verstegen, M W; van der Poel, A F; Tamminga, S; Groot Nibbelink, S

    1997-12-01

    We studied the effect of feeding young growing pigs a semisynthetic diet containing 7.5% white kidney beans-germinated (GB), pancreatin treated (PTB), or untreated (raw beans RB)--on protein and amino acid (AA) digestibilities at the terminal ileum. Eleven castrated male pigs (12.2 kg live weight) fitted with a post-valve T-cecal cannula and two blood catheters were used. The 15N-isotope dilution method was used to determine the amount of endogenous protein passing the terminal ileum and the true ileal protein digestibility. Ileal crude protein losses in pigs fed the RB, GB, and PTB diets were 51.9, 27.4, and 51.1 g/kg of DMI, respectively. The total amounts of AA passing the terminal ileum of the pigs fed the RB, GB, and PTB diets were 48.6, 21.4, and 42.2 g/kg DMI, respectively. The apparent ileal crude protein and AA digestibilities of the RB, GB, and PTB diets were 74, 87, and 75% and 76, 89, and 78%, respectively. True ileal protein digestibilities were 88, 93, and 93% for the RB, GB, and PTB diets, respectively. On the basis of this research, germination of white kidney beans improves the digestion of protein by decreasing the content of bean antinutritional factors and increasing the bean true ileal protein digestibility. PMID:9419992

  13. Physicochemical and acid gelation properties of commercial UHT-treated plant-based milk substitutes and lactose free bovine milk.

    PubMed

    Mäkinen, Outi E; Uniacke-Lowe, Thérèse; O'Mahony, James A; Arendt, Elke K

    2015-02-01

    Physicochemical and acid gelation properties of UHT-treated commercial soy, oat, quinoa, rice and lactose-free bovine milks were studied. The separation profiles were determined using a LUMiSizer dispersion analyser. Soy, rice and quinoa milks formed both cream and sediment layers, while oat milk sedimented but did not cream. Bovine milk was very stable to separation while all plant milks separated at varying rates; rice and oat milks being the most unstable products. Particle sizes in plant-based milk substitutes, expressed as volume mean diameters (d4.3), ranged from 0.55μm (soy) to 2.08μm (quinoa) while the average size in bovine milk was 0.52μm. Particles of plant-based milk substitutes were significantly more polydisperse compared to those of bovine milk. Upon acidification with glucono-δ-lactone (GDL), bovine, soy and quinoa milks formed structured gels with maximum storage moduli of 262, 187 and 105Pa, respectively while oat and rice milks did not gel. In addition to soy products currently on the market, quinoa may have potential in dairy-type food applications. PMID:25172757

  14. A cluster of pediatric metallic mercury exposure cases treated with meso-2,3-dimercaptosuccinic acid (DMSA)

    PubMed Central

    Forman, J; Moline, J; Cernichiari, E; Sayegh, S; Torres, J C; Landrigan, M M; Hudson, J; Adel, H N; Landrigan, P J

    2000-01-01

    Nine children and their mother were exposed to vapors of metallic mercury. The source of the exposure appears to have been a 6-oz vial of mercury taken from a neighbor's home. The neighbor reportedly operated a business preparing mercury-filled amulets for practitioners of the Afro-Caribbean religion Santeria. At diagnosis, urinary mercury levels in the children ranged from 61 to 1,213 microg/g creatinine, with a geometric mean of 214.3 microg/m creatinine. All of the children were asymptomatic. To prevent development of neurotoxicity, we treated the children with oral meso-2,3-dimercaptosuccinic acid (DMSA). During chelation, the geometric mean urine level rose initially by 268% to 573.2 microg mercury/g creatinine (p<0.0005). At the 6-week follow-up examination after treatment, the geometric mean urine mercury level had fallen to 102.1 microg/g creatinine, which was 17.8% of the geometric mean level observed during treatment (p<0.0005) and 47.6% of the original baseline level (p<0.001). Thus, oral chelation with DMSA produced a significant mercury diuresis in these children. We observed no adverse side effects of treatment. DMSA appears to be an effective and safe chelating agent for treatment of pediatric overexposure to metallic mercury. Images Figure 1 PMID:10856034

  15. Formation and Fragmentation of Protonated Molecules after Ionization of Amino Acid and Lactic Acid Clusters by Collision with Ions in the Gas Phase.

    PubMed

    Poully, Jean-Christophe; Vizcaino, Violaine; Schwob, Lucas; Delaunay, Rudy; Kocisek, Jaroslav; Eden, Samuel; Chesnel, Jean-Yves; Méry, Alain; Rangama, Jimmy; Adoui, Lamri; Huber, Bernd

    2015-08-01

    Collisions between O(3+) ions and neutral clusters of amino acids (alanine, valine and glycine) as well as lactic acid are performed in the gas phase, in order to investigate the effect of ionizing radiation on these biologically relevant molecular systems. All monomers and dimers are found to be predominantly protonated, and ab initio quantum-chemical calculations on model systems indicate that for amino acids, this is due to proton transfer within the clusters after ionization. For lactic acid, which has a lower proton affinity than amino acids, a significant non-negligible amount of the radical cation monomer is observed. New fragment-ion channels observed from clusters, as opposed to isolated molecules, are assigned to the statistical dissociation of protonated molecules formed upon ionization of the clusters. These new dissociation channels exhibit strong delayed fragmentation on the microsecond time scale, especially after multiple ionization.

  16. Detection of a CO and NH3 gas mixture using carboxylic acid-functionalized single-walled carbon nanotubes.

    PubMed

    Dong, Ki-Young; Choi, Jinnil; Lee, Yang Doo; Kang, Byung Hyun; Yu, Youn-Yeol; Choi, Hyang Hee; Ju, Byeong-Kwon

    2013-01-01

    Carbon nanotubes (CNT) are extremely sensitive to environmental gases. However, detection of mixture gas is still a challenge. Here, we report that 10 ppm of carbon monoxide (CO) and ammonia (NH3) can be electrically detected using a carboxylic acid-functionalized single-walled carbon nanotubes (C-SWCNT). CO and NH3 gases were mixed carefully with the same concentrations of 10 ppm. Our sensor showed faster response to the CO gas than the NH3 gas. The sensing properties and effect of carboxylic acid group were demonstrated, and C-SWCNT sensors with good repeatability and fast responses over a range of concentrations may be used as a simple and effective detection method of CO and NH3 mixture gas.

  17. Formation of Amino Acids on the Sonolysis of Aqueous Solutions Containing Acetic Acid, Methane, or Carbon Dioxide, in the Presence of Nitrogen Gas.

    PubMed

    Dharmarathne, Leena; Grieser, Franz

    2016-01-21

    The sonolysis of aqueous solutions containing acetic acid, methane, or carbon dioxide in the presence of nitrogen gas was found to produce a number of different amino acids at a rate of ∼1 to 100 nM/min, using ultrasound at an operating power of 70 W and 355 kHz. Gas-phase elementary reactions are suggested, and discussed, to account for the formation of the complex biomolecules from the low molar mass solutes used. On the basis of the results, a new hypothesis is presented to explain the formation of amino acids under primitive atmospheric conditions and how their formation may be linked to the eventual abiotic genesis of life on Earth.

  18. Formation of Amino Acids on the Sonolysis of Aqueous Solutions Containing Acetic Acid, Methane, or Carbon Dioxide, in the Presence of Nitrogen Gas.

    PubMed

    Dharmarathne, Leena; Grieser, Franz

    2016-01-21

    The sonolysis of aqueous solutions containing acetic acid, methane, or carbon dioxide in the presence of nitrogen gas was found to produce a number of different amino acids at a rate of ∼1 to 100 nM/min, using ultrasound at an operating power of 70 W and 355 kHz. Gas-phase elementary reactions are suggested, and discussed, to account for the formation of the complex biomolecules from the low molar mass solutes used. On the basis of the results, a new hypothesis is presented to explain the formation of amino acids under primitive atmospheric conditions and how their formation may be linked to the eventual abiotic genesis of life on Earth. PMID:26695890

  19. Effects of temperature on adsorption and oxidative degradation of bisphenol A in an acid-treated iron-amended granular activated carbon

    EPA Science Inventory

    The present study suggests a combined adsorption and Fenton oxidation using an acid treated Fe-amended granular activated carbon (Fe-GAC) for effective removal of bisphenol A in water. When the Fe-GAC adsorbs and is saturated with BPA in water, Fenton oxidation of BPA occurs in ...

  20. Gas diffusion electrode setup for catalyst testing in concentrated phosphoric acid at elevated temperatures

    SciTech Connect

    Wiberg, Gustav K. H. E-mail: m.arenz@chem.ku.dk; Fleige, Michael; Arenz, Matthias E-mail: m.arenz@chem.ku.dk

    2015-02-15

    We present a detailed description of the construction and testing of an electrochemical cell setup allowing the investigation of a gas diffusion electrode containing carbon supported high surface area catalysts. The setup is designed for measurements in concentrated phosphoric acid at elevated temperature, i.e., very close to the actual conditions in high temperature proton exchange membrane fuel cells (HT-PEMFCs). The cell consists of a stainless steel flow field and a PEEK plastic cell body comprising the electrochemical cell, which exhibits a three electrode configuration. The cell body and flow field are braced using a KF-25 vacuum flange clamp, which allows an easy assembly of the setup. As demonstrated, the setup can be used to investigate temperature dependent electrochemical processes on high surface area type electrocatalysts, but it also enables quick screening tests of HT-PEMFC catalysts under realistic conditions.

  1. Advanced Acid Gas Separation Technology for Clean Power and Syngas Applications

    SciTech Connect

    Amy, Fabrice; Hufton, Jeffrey; Bhadra, Shubhra; Weist, Edward; Lau, Garret; Jonas, Gordon

    2015-06-30

    Air Products has developed an acid gas removal technology based on adsorption (Sour PSA) that favorably compares with incumbent AGR technologies. During this DOE-sponsored study, Air Products has been able to increase the Sour PSA technology readiness level by successfully operating a two-bed test system on coal-derived sour syngas at the NCCC, validating the lifetime and performance of the adsorbent material. Both proprietary simulation and data obtained during the testing at NCCC were used to further refine the estimate of the performance of the Sour PSA technology when expanded to a commercial scale. In-house experiments on sweet syngas combined with simulation work allowed Air Products to develop new PSA cycles that allowed for further reduction in capital expenditure. Finally our techno economic analysis of the use the Sour PSA technology for both IGCC and coal-to-methanol applications suggests significant improvement of the unit cost of electricity and methanol compared to incumbent AGR technologies.

  2. Incorporation of small BN domains in graphene during CVD using methane, boric acid and nitrogen gas.

    PubMed

    Bepete, George; Voiry, Damien; Chhowalla, Manish; Chiguvare, Zivayi; Coville, Neil J

    2013-07-21

    Chemical doping of graphene with small boron nitride (BN) domains has been shown to be an effective way of permanently modulating the electronic properties in graphene. Herein we show a facile method of growing large area graphene doped with small BN domains on copper foils using a single step CVD route with methane, boric acid powder and nitrogen gas as the carbon, boron and nitrogen sources respectively. This facile and safe process avoids the use of boranes and ammonia. Optical microscopy confirmed that continuous films were grown and Raman spectroscopy confirmed changes in the electronic structure of the grown BN doped graphene. Using XPS studies we find that both B and N can be substituted into the graphene structure in the form of small BN domains to give a B-N-C system. A novel structure for the BN doped graphene is proposed. PMID:23759928

  3. Alterations in acid-base status and blood gas dynamics during progressive hyperkalaemia in neonatal calves.

    PubMed

    Singh, A; Randhawa, S S; Setia, M S

    1989-03-01

    Alterations in acid-base status and blood-gas dynamics were studied during induced progressive hyperkalaemia in neonatal calves. The hyperkalaemia was associated initially with respiratory alkalosis in arterial blood when plasma K+ was increased to 6.08 +/- 1.02 mmol litre-1. The rise of plasma K+ above 6.08 +/- 1.02 mmol litre-1 led to the development of metabolic acidosis in arterial and venous blood. There was partial respiratory compensation. Plasma K+ concentrations at or above 11.03 +/- 0.34 mmol litre-1 were associated with a decrease in arterial oxygen tension and arterial oxygen saturation. The oxygen extraction ratio was increased during hyperkalaemia.

  4. Incorporation of small BN domains in graphene during CVD using methane, boric acid and nitrogen gas.

    PubMed

    Bepete, George; Voiry, Damien; Chhowalla, Manish; Chiguvare, Zivayi; Coville, Neil J

    2013-07-21

    Chemical doping of graphene with small boron nitride (BN) domains has been shown to be an effective way of permanently modulating the electronic properties in graphene. Herein we show a facile method of growing large area graphene doped with small BN domains on copper foils using a single step CVD route with methane, boric acid powder and nitrogen gas as the carbon, boron and nitrogen sources respectively. This facile and safe process avoids the use of boranes and ammonia. Optical microscopy confirmed that continuous films were grown and Raman spectroscopy confirmed changes in the electronic structure of the grown BN doped graphene. Using XPS studies we find that both B and N can be substituted into the graphene structure in the form of small BN domains to give a B-N-C system. A novel structure for the BN doped graphene is proposed.

  5. Incorporation of small BN domains in graphene during CVD using methane, boric acid and nitrogen gas

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bepete, George; Voiry, Damien; Chhowalla, Manish; Chiguvare, Zivayi; Coville, Neil J.

    2013-06-01

    Chemical doping of graphene with small boron nitride (BN) domains has been shown to be an effective way of permanently modulating the electronic properties in graphene. Herein we show a facile method of growing large area graphene doped with small BN domains on copper foils using a single step CVD route with methane, boric acid powder and nitrogen gas as the carbon, boron and nitrogen sources respectively. This facile and safe process avoids the use of boranes and ammonia. Optical microscopy confirmed that continuous films were grown and Raman spectroscopy confirmed changes in the electronic structure of the grown BN doped graphene. Using XPS studies we find that both B and N can be substituted into the graphene structure in the form of small BN domains to give a B-N-C system. A novel structure for the BN doped graphene is proposed.

  6. Infrared and density functional theory studies of formic acid hydrate clusters in noble gas matrices

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ito, Fumiyuki

    2016-08-01

    Infrared absorption spectra of formic acid hydrate clusters (HCOOH)m(H2O)n have been measured in noble gas matrices (Ar and Kr). The concentration dependence of the spectra and the comparison with a previous experimental study on HCOOH(H2O) and HCOOH(H2O)2 [Geoge et al., Spectrochim. Acta, Part A 60 (2004) 3225] led to the identification of large clusters. Density functional theory calculations at the B3LYP-DCP/6-31+G(2d,2p) level were carried out to determine the anharmonic vibrational properties of the clusters, enabling a consistent assignment of the observed vibrational peaks to specific clusters.

  7. 2005 Crater Lake Formation, Lahar, Acidic Flood, and Gas Emission From Chiginagak Volcano, Alaska

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schaefer, J. R.; Scott, W. E.; McGimsey, R. G.; Jorgenson, J.

    2005-12-01

    A 400-m-wide crater lake developed in the formerly snow-and-ice-filled crater of Mount Chiginagak volcano sometime between August 2004 and June 2005, presumably due to increased heat flux from the hydrothermal system. We are also evaluating the possible role of magma intrusion and degassing. In early summer 2005, clay-rich debris and an estimated 5.6 million cubic meters of acidic water from the crater exited through tunnels in the base of a glacier that breaches the south crater rim. Over 27 kilometers downstream, the acidic waters of the flood reached approximately 1.5 meters above current water levels and inundated an important salmon spawning drainage, acidifying at least the surface water of Mother Goose Lake (approximately 1 cubic kilometer in volume) and preventing the annual salmon run. No measurements of pH were taken until late August 2005. At that time the pH of water sampled from the Mother Goose Lake inlet, lake surface, and outlet stream (King Salmon River) was 3.2. Defoliation and leaf damage of vegetation along affected streams, in areas to heights of over 70 meters in elevation above flood level, indicates that a cloud of detrimental gas or aerosol accompanied the flood waters. Analysis of stream water, lake water, and vegetation samples is underway to better determine the agent responsible for the plant damage. This intriguing pattern of gas-damaged vegetation concentrated along and above the flood channels is cause for further investigation into potential hazards associated with Chiginagak's active crater lake. Anecdotal evidence from local lodge owners and aerial photographs from 1953 suggest that similar releases occurred in the mid-1970s and early 1950s.

  8. Effects of nitric acid gas alone or in combination with ozone on healthy volunteers

    SciTech Connect

    Aris, R.; Christian, D.; Tager, I.; Ngo, L.; Finkbeiner, W.E.; Balmes, J.R. )

    1993-10-01

    Nitric acid (HNO3) is the most prevalent acid air pollutant in the western United States and has the potential to cause adverse respiratory effects through both acidification and oxidation reactions. To study this potential, we measured physiologic (specific airway resistance, SRaw, FEV1, and FVC) and bronchoalveolar lavage (total and differential cell counts, LDH, fibronectin, and total protein) end points in a group of 10 healthy, athletic subjects who were exposed to 500 micrograms/m3 of HNO3 gas or filtered air for 4 h during moderate exercise (ventilatory rate, 40 L/min) and underwent bronchoscopy 18 h later. Under an identical protocol, 10 healthy subjects were exposed to 500 micrograms/m3 of HNO3 gas plus 0.20 ppm ozone (O3) or 0.20 ppm O3 alone to determine if HNO3 might enhance the toxicity of O3. In addition to bronchoalveolar lavage (BAL), we employed the techniques of isolated left mainstem bronchial lavage and bronchial biopsy to determine if proximal airway injury was caused by pollutant exposure and whether there was any correlation with the degree of distal lung injury as assessed by BAL. We found no significant differences in pulmonary function tests or in the cellular or biochemical constituents in either the BAL or the left mainstem lavage fluids between the HNO3 and the air exposures. Similarly, there were no differences in these end points between the HNO3/O3 and the O3 exposures. Furthermore, there were no significant differences in the bronchial biopsy specimens between the HNO3 and air exposures or between the HNO3/O3 and O3 exposures.

  9. Fatty acid composition of wild mushroom species of order Agaricales--examination by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry and chemometrics.

    PubMed

    Marekov, Ilko; Momchilova, Svetlana; Grung, Bjørn; Nikolova-Damyanova, Boryana

    2012-12-01

    Applying gas chromatography-mass spectrometry of 4,4-dimethyloxazoline fatty acid derivatives, the fatty acid composition of 15 mushroom species belonging to 9 genera and 5 families of order Agaricales growing in Bulgaria is determined. The structure of 31 fatty acids (not all present in each species) is unambiguously elucidated, with linoleic, oleic and palmitic acids being the main components (ranging between 70.9% (Marasmius oreades) and 91.2% (Endoptychum agaricoides)). A group of three hexadecenoic positionally isomeric fatty acids, 6-, 9- and 11-16:1, appeared to be characteristic components of the examined species. By applying chemometrics it was possible to show that the fatty acid composition closely reflects the classification of the species.

  10. EPR studies of free radicals in A-2058 human melanoma cells treated by valproic acid and 5,7-dimethoxycoumarin.

    PubMed

    Zdybel, Magdalena; Chodurek, Ewa; Pilawa, Barbara

    2014-01-01

    Free radicals in A-2058 human melanoma cells were studied by the use of electron paramagnetic resonance (EPR) spectroscopy. The aim of this work was to determine the changes in relative free radical concentrations in tumor A-2058 cells after treatment by valproic acid (VPA) and 5,7-dimethoxycoumarin (DMC). The influences of VPA and DMC on free radicals in A-2058 cells were compared with those for human melanoma malignum A-375 and G-361 cells, which were tested by us earlier. Human malignant melanoma A-2058 cells were exposed to interactions with VPA, DMC, and both VPA and DMC. The tumor cells A-2058 were purchased from LGC Standards (Lomianki, Poland), and they were grown in the standard conditions: at 37°C and in an atmosphere containing 95% air and 5% CO2, in the Minimum Essential Medium Eagle (MEM, Sigma-Aldrich). The A-2058 cells were incubated with VPA (1 mM) and DMC (10 μM) for 4 days. The first-derivative EPR spectra of the control A-2058 cells, and the cells treated with VPA, DMC, and both VPA and DMC, were measured by the electron paramagnetic resonance spectrometer of Radiopan (Poznań, Poland) with microwaves from an X-band (9.3 GHz). The parameters of the EPR lines: amplitudes (A), integral intensities (I), line widths (ΔBpp), and g-factors, were analyzed. The changes of amplitudes and line widths with microwave power increasing from 2.2 to 70 mW were drawn evaluated, o-Semiquinone free radicals of melanin biopolymer are mainly responsible for the EPR lines of A-2058 melanoma malignum cells. The amounts of free radicals in A-2058 cells treated with VPA, and both VPA and DMC, were lower than in the untreated control cells. Application of the tested substances (VPA, and both VPA and DMC) as the antitumor compounds was discussed. DMC without VPA did not decrease free radicals concentration in A-2058 cells. The studies con-firmed that EPR spectroscopy may be used to examine interactions of free radicals with antitumor compounds.

  11. Salvianolic Acid B Prevents Bone Loss in Prednisone-Treated Rats through Stimulation of Osteogenesis and Bone Marrow Angiogenesis

    PubMed Central

    Cui, Liao; Li, Ting; Liu, Yuyu; Zhou, Le; Li, Pinghua; Xu, Bilian; Huang, Lianfang; Chen, Yan; Liu, Yanzhi; Tian, Xiaoyan; Jee, Webster S. S.; Wu, Tie

    2012-01-01

    Glucocorticoid (GC) induced osteoporosis (GIO) is caused by the long-term use of GC for treatment of autoimmune and inflammatory diseases. The GC related disruption of bone marrow microcirculation and increased adipogenesis contribute to GIO development. However, neither currently available anti-osteoporosis agent is completely addressed to microcirculation and bone marrow adipogenesis. Salvianolic acid B (Sal B) is a polyphenolic compound from a Chinese herbal medicine, Salvia miltiorrhiza Bunge. The aim of this study was to determine the effects of Sal B on osteoblast bone formation, angiogenesis and adipogenesis-associated GIO by performing marrow adipogenesis and microcirculation dilation and bone histomorphometry analyses. (1) In vivo study: Bone loss in GC treated rats was confirmed by significantly decreased BMD, bone strength, cancellous bone mass and architecture, osteoblast distribution, bone formation, marrow microvessel density and diameter along with down-regulation of marrow BMPs expression and increased adipogenesis. Daily treatment with Sal B (40 mg/kg/d) for 12 weeks in GC male rats prevented GC-induced cancellous bone loss and increased adipogenesis while increasing cancellous bone formation rate with improved local microcirculation by capillary dilation. Treatment with Sal B at a higher dose (80 mg/kg/d) not only prevented GC-induced osteopenia, but also increased cancellous bone mass and thickness, associated with increase of marrow BMPs expression, inhibited adipogenesis and further increased microvessel diameters. (2) In vitro study: In concentration from 10−6 mol/L to 10−7 mol/L, Sal B stimulated bone marrow stromal cell (MSC) differentiation to osteoblast and increased osteoblast activities, decreased GC associated adipogenic differentiation by down-regulation of PPARγ mRNA expression, increased Runx2 mRNA expression without osteoblast inducement, and, furthermore, Sal B decreased Dickkopf-1 and increased β-catenin mRNA expression with

  12. Collection of VLE data for acid gas-alkanolamine systems using Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy

    SciTech Connect

    Bullin, J.A.; Frazier, R.E.

    1991-09-01

    The industrial standard process for the purification of natural gas is to remove acid gases, mainly hydrogen sulfide and carbon dioxide, by the absorption and reaction of these gases with alkanolamines. Inadequate data for vapor -- liquid equilibrium (VLE) hinder the industry from converting operations to more energy efficient amine mixtures and conserving energy. Some energy reductions have been realized in the past decade by applying such amine systems as hindered'' amines, methyldiethanolamine (MDEA), and MDEA based amine mixtures. However, the lack of reliable and accurate fundamental VLE data impedes the commercial application of these more efficient alkanolamine systems. The first project objective is to improve the accuracy of vapor -- liquid equilibrium measurements at low hydrogen sulfide concentrations. The second project objective is to measure the VLE for amine mixtures. By improving the accuracy of the VLE measurements on MDEA and mixtures with other amines, energy saving can be quickly and confidently implemented in the many existing absorption units already in use. If about 25% of the existing 95.3 billion SCFD gas purification capacity is converted to these new amine systems, the energy savings are estimated to be about 3 {times} 10{sup 14} BTU/yr.

  13. Gas/particle partitioning behavior of perfluorocarboxylic acids with terrestrial aerosols.

    PubMed

    Arp, Hans Peter H; Goss, Kai-Uwe

    2009-11-15

    Experimentally determined gas/particle partitioning constants, K(ip), using inverse gas chromatography (IGC) are presented for perfluorocarboxylic acids (PFCAs), covering a diverse set of terrestrial aerosols over an ambient range of relative humidity (RH) and temperature. The results are compared to estimated K(ip) values using a recently developed model that has been validated for diverse neutral and ionizable organic compounds. The modeling results consistently underestimate the experimental results. This is likely due to additional partition mechanisms unique for surfactants not being accounted for in the model, namely aggregate formation and water surface adsorption. These processes likely also biased the IGC K(ip) measurements compared to ambient PFCA concentrations. Nevertheless, both the experimental and modeling results indicate that partitioning to terrestrial particles in ambient atmospheres is negligible, though sorption to condensed water can be substantial. This favors rain sequestration as a more important atmospheric removal mechanism than dry particle sequestration. PFCAs found on particle filters during ambient sampling are thus accountable to vapor-phase PFCAs or aqueous-phase PFCAs sorbing directly to the filters, or the trapping of perfluorocarboxylate-salt particles. Further work on understanding the partitioning and speciation of PFCAs in atmospheric water droplets is needed to further quantify and understand their atmospheric behavior. To aid in this, a general RH dependent K(ip) model for surfactants is presented.

  14. Macroscopic to microscopic studies of flue gas desulfurization byproducts for acid mine drainage mitigation

    SciTech Connect

    Robbins, E.I.; Kalyoncu, R.S.; Finkelman, R.B.; Matos, G.R.; Barsotti, A.F.; Haefner, R.J.; Rowe, G.L. Jr.; Savela, C.E.; Eddy, J.I.

    1996-12-31

    The use of flue gas desulfurization (FGD) systems to reduce SO{sub 2} emissions has resulted in the generation of large quantities of byproducts. These and other byproducts are being stockpiled at the very time that alkaline materials having high neutralization potential are needed to mitigate acid mine drainage (AMD). FGD byproducts are highly alkaline materials composed primarily of unreacted sorbents (lime or limestone and sulfates and sulfites of Ca). The American Coal Ash Association estimated that approximately 20 million tons of FGD material were generated by electric power utilities equipped with wet lime-limestone PGD systems in 1993. Less than 5% of this material has been put to beneficial use for agricultural soil amendments and for the production of wallboard and cement. Four USGS projects are examining FGD byproduct use to address these concerns. These projects involve (1) calculating the volume of flue gas desulfurization (FGD) byproduct generation and their geographic locations in relation to AMD, (2) determining byproduct chemistry and mineralogy, (3) evaluating hydrology and geochemistry of atmospheric fluidized bed combustion byproduct as soil amendment in Ohio, and (4) analyzing microbial degradation of gypsum in anoxic limestone drains in West Virginia.

  15. Gas-Phase Thermal Tautomerization of Imidazole-Acetic Acid: Theoretical and Computational Investigations.

    PubMed

    Aziz, Saadullah G; Osman, Osman I; Elroby, Shaaban A; Hilal, Rifaat H

    2015-11-04

    The gas-phase thermal tautomerization reaction between imidazole-4-acetic (I) and imidazole-5-acetic (II) acids was monitored using the traditional hybrid functional (B3LYP) and the long-range corrected functionals (CAM-B3LYP and ωB97XD) with 6-311++G** and aug-cc-pvdz basis sets. The roles of the long-range and dispersion corrections on their geometrical parameters, thermodynamic functions, kinetics, dipole moments, Highest Occupied Molecular Orbital-Lowest Unoccupied Molecular Orbital (HOMO-LUMO) energy gaps and total hyperpolarizability were investigated. All tested levels of theory predicted the preference of I over II by 0.750-0.877 kcal/mol. The origin of predilection of I is assigned to the H-bonding interaction (nN8→σ*O14-H15). This interaction stabilized I by 15.07 kcal/mol. The gas-phase interconversion between the two tautomers assumed a 1,2-proton shift mechanism, with two transition states (TS), TS1 and TS2, having energy barriers of 47.67-49.92 and 49.55-52.69 kcal/mol, respectively, and an sp³-type intermediate. A water-assisted 1,3-proton shift route brought the barrier height down to less than 20 kcal/mol in gas-phase and less than 12 kcal/mol in solution. The relatively high values of total hyperpolarizability of I compared to II were interpreted and discussed.

  16. Transparent nanocellulosic multilayer thin films on polylactic acid with tunable gas barrier properties.

    PubMed

    Aulin, Christian; Karabulut, Erdem; Tran, Amy; Wågberg, Lars; Lindström, Tom

    2013-08-14

    The layer-by-layer (LbL) deposition method was used for the build-up of alternating layers of nanofibrillated cellulose (NFC) or carboxymethyl cellulose (CMC) with a branched, cationic polyelectrolyte, polyethyleneimine (PEI) on flexible poly (lactic acid) (PLA) substrates. With this procedure, optically transparent nanocellulosic films with tunable gas barrier properties were formed. 50 layer pairs of PEI/NFC and PEI/CMC deposited on PLA have oxygen permeabilities of 0.34 and 0.71 cm(3)·μm/m(2)·day·kPa at 23 °C and 50% relative humidity, respectively, which is in the same range as polyvinyl alcohol and ethylene vinyl alcohol. The oxygen permeability of these multilayer nanocomposites outperforms those of pure NFC films prepared by solvent-casting. The nanocellulosic LbL assemblies on PLA substrates was in detailed characterized using a quartz crystal microbalance with dissipation (QCM-D). Atomic force microscopy (AFM) reveals large structural differences between the PEI/NFC and the PEI/CMC assemblies, with the PEI/NFC assembly showing a highly entangled network of nanofibrils, whereas the PEI/CMC surfaces lacked structural features. Scanning electron microscopy images showed a nearly perfect uniformity of the nanocellulosic coatings on PLA, and light transmittance results revealed remarkable transparency of the LbL-coated PLA films. The present work demonstrates the first ever LbL films based on high aspect ratio, water-dispersible nanofibrillated cellulose, and water-soluble carboxymethyl cellulose polymers that can be used as multifunctional films and coatings with tailorable properties, such as gas barriers and transparency. Owing to its flexibility, transparency and high-performance gas barrier properties, these thin film assemblies are promising candidates for several large-scale applications, including flexible electronics and renewable packaging.

  17. Transparent nanocellulosic multilayer thin films on polylactic acid with tunable gas barrier properties.

    PubMed

    Aulin, Christian; Karabulut, Erdem; Tran, Amy; Wågberg, Lars; Lindström, Tom

    2013-08-14

    The layer-by-layer (LbL) deposition method was used for the build-up of alternating layers of nanofibrillated cellulose (NFC) or carboxymethyl cellulose (CMC) with a branched, cationic polyelectrolyte, polyethyleneimine (PEI) on flexible poly (lactic acid) (PLA) substrates. With this procedure, optically transparent nanocellulosic films with tunable gas barrier properties were formed. 50 layer pairs of PEI/NFC and PEI/CMC deposited on PLA have oxygen permeabilities of 0.34 and 0.71 cm(3)·μm/m(2)·day·kPa at 23 °C and 50% relative humidity, respectively, which is in the same range as polyvinyl alcohol and ethylene vinyl alcohol. The oxygen permeability of these multilayer nanocomposites outperforms those of pure NFC films prepared by solvent-casting. The nanocellulosic LbL assemblies on PLA substrates was in detailed characterized using a quartz crystal microbalance with dissipation (QCM-D). Atomic force microscopy (AFM) reveals large structural differences between the PEI/NFC and the PEI/CMC assemblies, with the PEI/NFC assembly showing a highly entangled network of nanofibrils, whereas the PEI/CMC surfaces lacked structural features. Scanning electron microscopy images showed a nearly perfect uniformity of the nanocellulosic coatings on PLA, and light transmittance results revealed remarkable transparency of the LbL-coated PLA films. The present work demonstrates the first ever LbL films based on high aspect ratio, water-dispersible nanofibrillated cellulose, and water-soluble carboxymethyl cellulose polymers that can be used as multifunctional films and coatings with tailorable properties, such as gas barriers and transparency. Owing to its flexibility, transparency and high-performance gas barrier properties, these thin film assemblies are promising candidates for several large-scale applications, including flexible electronics and renewable packaging. PMID:23834391

  18. Gas-Phase Thermal Tautomerization of Imidazole-Acetic Acid: Theoretical and Computational Investigations

    PubMed Central

    Aziz, Saadullah G.; Osman, Osman I.; Elroby, Shaaban A.; Hilal, Rifaat H.

    2015-01-01

    The gas-phase thermal tautomerization reaction between imidazole-4-acetic (I) and imidazole-5-acetic (II) acids was monitored using the traditional hybrid functional (B3LYP) and the long-range corrected functionals (CAM-B3LYP and ωB97XD) with 6-311++G** and aug-cc-pvdz basis sets. The roles of the long-range and dispersion corrections on their geometrical parameters, thermodynamic functions, kinetics, dipole moments, Highest Occupied Molecular Orbital–Lowest Unoccupied Molecular Orbital (HOMO–LUMO) energy gaps and total hyperpolarizability were investigated. All tested levels of theory predicted the preference of I over II by 0.750–0.877 kcal/mol. The origin of predilection of I is assigned to the H-bonding interaction (nN8→σ*O14–H15). This interaction stabilized I by 15.07 kcal/mol. The gas-phase interconversion between the two tautomers assumed a 1,2-proton shift mechanism, with two transition states (TS), TS1 and TS2, having energy barriers of 47.67–49.92 and 49.55–52.69 kcal/mol, respectively, and an sp3-type intermediate. A water-assisted 1,3-proton shift route brought the barrier height down to less than 20 kcal/mol in gas-phase and less than 12 kcal/mol in solution. The relatively high values of total hyperpolarizability of I compared to II were interpreted and discussed. PMID:26556336

  19. Evaluation of a rapid method for preparation of fatty acid methyl esters for analysis by gas-liquid chromatography.

    PubMed

    Misir, R; Laarveld, B; Blair, R

    1985-08-30

    The major limitation to fatty acid analysis by gas-liquid chromatography is associated with preparation of fatty acid methyl esters (FAME). In the present study, FAME preparations were made from plant oils (corn, olive, sunflower), sunflower oil margarine, lard and various animal tissue fats by a rapid transesterification involving tetramethylammonium hydroxide in methanol, and also by a longer conventional saponification-esterification method. Fats from animal (beef, mutton, pork) adipose tissues were extracted by a simpler modified procedure and also by the Folch method prior to the rapid and the conventional FAME preparations, respectively. FAME analysis on a gas-liquid chromatograph equipped with a Silar 10C glass capillary column indicated similar fatty acid composition of a given fat or oil, whether FAME was prepared by the rapid or the longer conventional method. The data obtained by both methods were very highly correlated for all the fats (r = 0.9895 - 0.9999). However, the rapid method showed a tendency for enhanced recoveries of lower chain fatty acids (e.g. 14:0), and also of unsaturated C18 isomers. Possibly, losses of fatty acids that occurred during the lengthy fat extraction, fatty acid esterification or ether-evaporation FAME concentration steps (conventional method) were minimised by the single transesterification step (rapid method). This rapid transesterification method appears to be an attractive alternative to FAME preparation from a wide variety of different fats for gas-liquid chromatographic analysis. PMID:4044736

  20. Strontium isotope quantification of siderite, brine and acid mine drainage contributions to abandoned gas well discharges in the Appalachian Plateau

    SciTech Connect

    Chapman, Elizabeth C.; Capo, Rosemary C.; Stewart, Brian W.; Hedin, Robert S.; Weaver, Theodore J.; Edenborn, Harry M.

    2013-04-01

    Unplugged abandoned oil and gas wells in the Appalachian region can serve as conduits for the movement of waters impacted by fossil fuel extraction. Strontium isotope and geochemical analysis indicate that artesian discharges of water with high total dissolved solids (TDS) from a series of gas wells in western Pennsylvania result from the infiltration of acidic, low Fe (Fe < 10 mg/L) coal mine drainage (AMD) into shallow, siderite (iron carbonate)-cemented sandstone aquifers. The acidity from the AMD promotes dissolution of the carbonate, and metal- and sulfate-contaminated waters rise to the surface through compromised abandoned gas well casings. Strontium isotope mixing models suggest that neither upward migration of oil and gas brines from Devonian reservoirs associated with the wells nor dissolution of abundant nodular siderite present in the mine spoil through which recharge water percolates contribute significantly to the artesian gas well discharges. Natural Sr isotope composition can be a sensitive tool in the characterization of complex groundwater interactions and can be used to distinguish between inputs from deep and shallow contamination sources, as well as between groundwater and mineralogically similar but stratigraphically distinct rock units. This is of particular relevance to regions such as the Appalachian Basin, where a legacy of coal, oil and gas exploration is coupled with ongoing and future natural gas drilling into deep reservoirs.

  1. Hyperbaric programs in the United States: Locations and capabilities of treating decompression sickness, arterial gas embolisms, and acute carbon monoxide poisoning: survey results.

    PubMed

    Chin, Walter; Jacoby, Laura; Simon, Olivia; Talati, Nisha; Wegrzyn, Gracelene; Jacoby, Rachelle; Proano, Jacob; Sprau, Susan E; Markovitz, Gerald; Hsu, Rita; Joo, Ellie

    2016-01-01

    Hyperbaric oxygen therapy is the primary treatment for arterial gas embolism, decompression sickness and acute carbon monoxide poisoning. Though there has been a proliferation of hyperbaric centers throughout the United States, a scarcity of centers equipped to treat emergency indications makes transport of patients necessary. To locate and characterize hyperbaric chambers capable of treating emergency cases, a survey of centers throughout the entire United States was conducted. Using Google, Yahoo, HyperbaricLink and the UHMS directory, a database for United States chambers was created. Four researchers called clinicians from the database to administer the survey. All centers were contacted for response until four calls went unreturned or a center declined to be included. The survey assessed chamber readiness to respond to high-acuity patients, including staff availability, use of medical equipment such as ventilators and intravenous infusion devices, and responding yes to treating hyperbaric emergencies within a 12-month period. Only 43 (11.9%, N = 361) centers had equipment, intravenous infusion pumps and ventilators, and staff necessary to treat high-acuity patients. Considering that a primary purpose of hyperbaric oxygen therapy is the treatment of arterial gas embolism and decompression sickness, more hyperbaric centers nationwide should be able to accommodate these emergency cases quickly and safely. PMID:27000011

  2. Hyperbaric programs in the United States: Locations and capabilities of treating decompression sickness, arterial gas embolisms, and acute carbon monoxide poisoning: survey results.

    PubMed

    Chin, Walter; Jacoby, Laura; Simon, Olivia; Talati, Nisha; Wegrzyn, Gracelene; Jacoby, Rachelle; Proano, Jacob; Sprau, Susan E; Markovitz, Gerald; Hsu, Rita; Joo, Ellie

    2016-01-01

    Hyperbaric oxygen therapy is the primary treatment for arterial gas embolism, decompression sickness and acute carbon monoxide poisoning. Though there has been a proliferation of hyperbaric centers throughout the United States, a scarcity of centers equipped to treat emergency indications makes transport of patients necessary. To locate and characterize hyperbaric chambers capable of treating emergency cases, a survey of centers throughout the entire United States was conducted. Using Google, Yahoo, HyperbaricLink and the UHMS directory, a database for United States chambers was created. Four researchers called clinicians from the database to administer the survey. All centers were contacted for response until four calls went unreturned or a center declined to be included. The survey assessed chamber readiness to respond to high-acuity patients, including staff availability, use of medical equipment such as ventilators and intravenous infusion devices, and responding yes to treating hyperbaric emergencies within a 12-month period. Only 43 (11.9%, N = 361) centers had equipment, intravenous infusion pumps and ventilators, and staff necessary to treat high-acuity patients. Considering that a primary purpose of hyperbaric oxygen therapy is the treatment of arterial gas embolism and decompression sickness, more hyperbaric centers nationwide should be able to accommodate these emergency cases quickly and safely.

  3. Gas-aerosol cycling of ammonia and nitric acid in The Netherlands

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Roelofs, Geert-Jan; Derksen, Jeroen

    2010-05-01

    Atmospheric ammonia and nitric acid are present over NW Europe in large abundance. Observations made during the IMPACT measurement campaign (May 2008, Cabauw, The Netherlands) show a pronounced diurnal cycle of aerosol ammonium and nitrate on relatively dry days. Simultaneously, AERONET data show a distinct diurnal cycle in aerosol optical thickness (AOT). We used a global aerosol-climate model (ECHAM5-HAM) and a detailed aerosol-cloud column model to help analyse the observations from this period. The study shows that the diurnal cycle in AOT is partly associated with particle number concentration, with distinct peaks in the morning and evening. More important is relative humidity (RH). RH maximizes in the night and early morning, decreases during the morning and increases again in the evening. The particle wet radius, and therefore AOT, changes accordingly. In addition, the RH variability also influences chemistry associated with ammonia and nitric acid (formation of ammonium nitrate, dissolution in aerosol water), resulting in the observed diurnal cycle of aerosol ammonium and nitrate. The additional aerosol matter increases the hygroscopicity of the particles, and this leads to further swelling by water vapor condensation and a further increase of AOT. During the day, as RH decreases and the particles shrink, aerosol ammonium and nitrate are again partly expelled to the gas phase. This behaviour contributes significantly to the observed diurnal cycle in AOT, and it illustrates the complexity of using AOT as a proxy for aerosol concentrations in aerosol climate studies in the case of heavily polluted areas.

  4. Validation of an enantioselective analysis for (l)-pidolic acid by chiral gas chromatography with derivatization.

    PubMed

    Salisbury, John J; Li, Mingshu; Boyd, Aisha

    2016-02-20

    A sensitive and rapid analytical method has been validated for the enantiomeric purity determination of l-pidolic acid, a biological lactam and metabolite of glutamic acid commonly found in urine, skin, bones, brain and is available commercially as a food supplement. An efficient, two-step achiral derivatization was implemented which consisted of an alkylation step (using HCl-IPA) followed by an acylation step (using TFAA) of the carboxy and amide functional groups. This allowed detection with high sensitivity using gas chromatography with flame ionization detection. The described procedure employs a CP-Chiralsil-L Val column (25m×0.25mm) at a constant flow rate of 1.5mLmin(-1), a gradient temperature program from 80°C to 160°C and an injector and detector temperature of 250°C. The proposed method was validated according to ICH Q2 standards and included such parameters as specificity, system precision, analyst repeatability, intermediate precision, accuracy, linearity, LOD/LOQ and solution stability. PMID:26710173

  5. Fluoride accumulation by plants grown in acid soils amended with flue gas desulphurisation gypsum.

    PubMed

    Álvarez-Ayuso, E; Giménez, A; Ballesteros, J C

    2011-09-15

    The application of flue gas desulphurisation (FGD) gypsum as an acid soil ameliorant was studied in order to establish the possible detrimental effects on plants and animals feeding on them caused by the high fluoride content in this by-product. A greenhouse experiment was conducted under controlled conditions to determine the F accumulation by two plant species (alfalfa (Medicago sativa L.) and ryegrass (Lolium perenne L.)) grown in acid soils amended with different FGD gypsum doses (0-10%). The F concentrations in plant aerial parts were comprised in the range 22-65 mg kg(-1), and those in plant roots varied from 49 to 135 mg kg(-1). The F contents in the above-ground plant tissues showed to decrease with the FGD gypsum application rate, whereas an inverse trend was manifested by plant roots. The increase in the soil content of soluble Ca as a result of the FGD gypsum addition seemed to play an important role in limiting the translocation of F to plant aerial parts.

  6. Determination of methacrylic acid in food simulants by pyrolytic butylation-gas chromatography.

    PubMed

    Huang, Zhongping; Qiu, Ruofeng; Liu, Tingfei; Huang, Yilei; Zhu, Zuoyi; Wang, Lili

    2016-07-01

    An on-line pyrolytic butylation approach was proposed to determine methacrylic acid (MA) in food simulants by gas chromatography (GC) without an expensive pyrolyzer. MA in food simulants was converted into butyl methacrylate in the presence of tetrabutylammonium hydroxide (TBAH) without any pretreatment at 330°C in the injection-port, contributing to high GC signal response. The derivatizing conditions for the proposed method were optimized, namely the injection-port temperature, type and amount of the organic alkaline used for derivatization. A series of standard solutions of MA in the range of 1.0-50mg/kg were analyzed with correlation coefficient r≥0.9975. The limits of detection (LODs) were less than 0.15mg/kg for MA in four matrix simulants (distilled water, 3%w/v acetic acid, 10%v/v ethanol, and isooctane). Relative standard deviations (RSDs) for retention time, peak height and peak area were all less than 3.88%. The technique was successfully applied to the analysis of MA migrating from plastic cup samples, with recoveries of added MA in the range of 96.5-123.0%. Direct injection of the simulants into the GC system after migration tests, without any pretreatment step, makes the developed method of great value for rapid screening analysis of samples in bulks. PMID:27262371

  7. Profiling of soil fatty acids using comprehensive two-dimensional gas chromatography with mass spectrometry detection.

    PubMed

    Zeng, Annie Xu; Chin, Sung-Tong; Patti, Antonio; Marriott, Philip J

    2013-11-22

    Profiling of phospholipid fatty acids (PLFA) represents a challenging goal for distinguishing the diversity of microbial communities and biomass in the complex and heterogeneous soil ecosystem. Comprehensive two-dimensional gas chromatography (GC×GC) coupled with simultaneous flame ionisation and mass spectrometry detection was applied as a culture-independent method for PLFA profiling of microbial classification in forest soil. A number of column sets were evaluated for the GC×GC separation of fatty acid methyl esters (FAME). Due to better isomeric separation and compound patterns on the 2D contour plot, an apolar-polar column combination was selected for soil microbial PLFA characterisation. A comprehensive view of PLFA composition with carbon chain length varying from 12 to 20 was observed in forest soil samples, with the commonly reported bacterial FAME of iso-/anteiso-, methyl-branched-, cyclopropyl-, and hydroxyl-substituted FA identified by their mass spectral and retention time according to authentic standards. Notably, some uncommon oxygenated FAME were found in high abundance and were further characterised by GC×GC coupled with high resolution mass spectrometry. This tentatively revealed geometric pairs of methyl 9,10-epoxyoctadecanoate isomers.

  8. Application of acid-treated yeast cell wall (AYC) as a pharmaceutical additive I. AYC as a novel coating material.

    PubMed

    Kasai, T; Eguchi, T; Ishiwaki, N; Kaneshige, J; Ozeki, T; Yuasa, H

    2000-08-25

    Acid-treated yeast cell wall (AYC) was newly prepared by acidifying the cell wall of brewer's yeast and the potential to use AYC as a novel coating material was studied. AYC had an oval shape with the diameter of several microm. The rheogram of AYC aqueous dispersion showed the plastic fluid property that is generally observed in the suspension. Core tablets containing 3% of acetaminophen (AAP) were coated with the AYC aqueous dispersion containing 5% (w/v) of AYC and 0.35% (w/v) of glycerol at various coating percents. The AAP release profile from the AYC-coated tablets was studied by the JP13 paddle method using solutions at various pH. Tensile strength and permeability of oxygen and water vapor of AYC cast film were measured. The AAP release from the AYC-coated tablets showed sigmoidal release profile with an initial lag time and the duration of the lag time depended on the coating percent of AYC. The pH of the dissolution fluid or the storage at room temperature for 120 days had little affect on AAP release from the AYC-coated tablets. These results suggest that it is possible to control the start time of medicine release independent of the pH by coating of AYC, that is the time-controlled release. The AYC cast film showed a large tensile strength and an extremely small oxygen permeability coefficient and a sufficient level of water permeability coefficient in order to protect from moisture. These results present that AYC has the high utility as a novel aqueous coating material for DDS preparations. PMID:11011986

  9. Additional chromosome abnormalities in patients with acute promyelocytic leukemia treated with all-trans retinoic acid and chemotherapy

    PubMed Central

    Cervera, José; Montesinos, Pau; Hernández-Rivas, Jesús M.; Calasanz, María J.; Aventín, Anna; Ferro, María T.; Luño, Elisa; Sánchez, Javier; Vellenga, Edo; Rayón, Chelo; Milone, Gustavo; de la Serna, Javier; Rivas, Concha; González, José D.; Tormo, Mar; Amutio, Elena; González, Marcos; Brunet, Salut; Lowenberg, Bob; Sanz, Miguel A.

    2010-01-01

    Background Acute promyelocytic leukemia is a subtype of acute myeloid leukemia characterized by the t(15;17). The incidence and prognostic significance of additional chromosomal abnormalities in acute promyelocytic leukemia is still a controversial matter. Design and Methods Based on cytogenetic data available for 495 patients with acute promyelocytic leukemia enrolled in two consecutive PETHEMA trials (LPA96 and LPA99), we analyzed the incidence, characteristics, and outcome of patients with acute promyelocytic leukemia with and without additional chromosomal abnormalities who had been treated with all-trans retinoic acid plus anthracycline monochemotherapy for induction and consolidation. Results Additional chromosomal abnormalities were observed in 140 patients (28%). Trisomy 8 was the most frequent abnormality (36%), followed by abn(7q) (5%). Patients with additional chromosomal abnormalities more frequently had coagulopathy (P=0.03), lower platelet counts (P=0.02), and higher relapse-risk scores (P=0.02) than their counterparts without additional abnormalities. No significant association with FLT3/ITD or other clinicopathological characteristics was demonstrated. Patients with and without additional chromosomal abnormalities had similar complete remission rates (90% and 91%, respectively). Univariate analysis showed that additional chromosomal abnormalities were associated with a lower relapse-free survival in the LPA99 trial (P=0.04), but not in the LPA96 trial. However, neither additional chromosomal abnormalities overall nor any specific abnormality was identified as an independent risk factor for relapse in multivariate analysis. Conclusions The lack of independent prognostic value of additional chromosomal abnormalities in acute promyelocytic leukemia does not support the use of alternative therapeutic strategies when such abnormalities are found. PMID:19903674

  10. Nuclear abnormalities in buccal mucosa cells of patients with type I and II diabetes treated with folic acid.

    PubMed

    Gómez-Meda, B C; Zamora-Perez, A L; Muñoz-Magallanes, T; Sánchez-Parada, M G; García Bañuelos, J J; Guerrero-Velázquez, C; Sánchez-Orozco, L V; Vera-Cruz, J M; Armendáriz-Borunda, J; Zúñiga-González, G M

    2016-02-01

    Diabetes mellitus (DM) is characterized by high blood glucose. Excessive production of free radicals may cause oxidative damage to DNA and other molecules, leading to complications of the disease. It may be possible to delay or reduce such damage by administration of antioxidants such as folic acid (FA). The objective of this study was to determine the effect of FA on nuclear abnormalities (NAs) in the oral mucosa of patients with DM. NAs (micronucleated cells, binucleated cells, pyknotic nuclei, karyorrhexis, karyolysis, abnormally condensed chromatin, and nuclear buds) were analyzed in 2000 cells from 45 healthy individuals (control group) and 55 patients with controlled or uncontrolled type I or II DM; 35 patients in the latter group were treated with FA. Samples were taken from the FA group before and after treatment. An increased rate of NAs was found in patients with DM in comparison with that of the control group (P<0.001). FA supplementation in patients with DM reduced the frequency of NAs (20.4 ± 8.0 before treatment vs. 10.5 ± 5.2 after treatment; P<0.001). The type I and type II DM and controlled and uncontrolled DM subgroups were analyzed in terms of sex, age, and smoking habit. The significantly reduced frequencies of buccal mucosa cells with micronuclei, binucleation, pyknosis, karyorrhexis, karyorrhexis+abnormally condensed chromatin, karyolysis, and nuclear buds produced by FA supplementation in DM patients (P<0.02) are consistent with the idea that free radicals are responsible for the increased frequency of NAs in DM patients.

  11. Nuclear abnormalities in buccal mucosa cells of patients with type I and II diabetes treated with folic acid.

    PubMed

    Gómez-Meda, B C; Zamora-Perez, A L; Muñoz-Magallanes, T; Sánchez-Parada, M G; García Bañuelos, J J; Guerrero-Velázquez, C; Sánchez-Orozco, L V; Vera-Cruz, J M; Armendáriz-Borunda, J; Zúñiga-González, G M

    2016-02-01

    Diabetes mellitus (DM) is characterized by high blood glucose. Excessive production of free radicals may cause oxidative damage to DNA and other molecules, leading to complications of the disease. It may be possible to delay or reduce such damage by administration of antioxidants such as folic acid (FA). The objective of this study was to determine the effect of FA on nuclear abnormalities (NAs) in the oral mucosa of patients with DM. NAs (micronucleated cells, binucleated cells, pyknotic nuclei, karyorrhexis, karyolysis, abnormally condensed chromatin, and nuclear buds) were analyzed in 2000 cells from 45 healthy individuals (control group) and 55 patients with controlled or uncontrolled type I or II DM; 35 patients in the latter group were treated with FA. Samples were taken from the FA group before and after treatment. An increased rate of NAs was found in patients with DM in comparison with that of the control group (P<0.001). FA supplementation in patients with DM reduced the frequency of NAs (20.4 ± 8.0 before treatment vs. 10.5 ± 5.2 after treatment; P<0.001). The type I and type II DM and controlled and uncontrolled DM subgroups were analyzed in terms of sex, age, and smoking habit. The significantly reduced frequencies of buccal mucosa cells with micronuclei, binucleation, pyknosis, karyorrhexis, karyorrhexis+abnormally condensed chromatin, karyolysis, and nuclear buds produced by FA supplementation in DM patients (P<0.02) are consistent with the idea that free radicals are responsible for the increased frequency of NAs in DM patients. PMID:26921015

  12. Antioxidant responses and renal crystal formation in rainbow trout treated with melamine administered individually or in combination with cyanuric acid.

    PubMed

    Pacini, Nicole; Prearo, Marino; Abete, Maria Cesarina; Brizio, Paola; Dörr, Ambrosius Josef Martin; Reimschuessel, Renate; Andersen, Wendy; Gasco, Laura; Righetti, Marzia; Elia, Antonia Concetta

    2013-01-01

    In 2007 and 2008, renal stone formation and kidney damage in human infants were linked to consumption of melamine (MEL)-contaminated infant formula, as well as renal failure and death in pets due to pet food containing both MEL and cyanuric acid (CYA). The aim of this study was to examine the effects of MEL and CYA administered individually or in combination on concentrations of certain metabolites and enzyme activities that serve as markers for oxidative stress in kidney and liver of rainbow trout. In addition, the levels of muscle MEL and renal crystal formation were determined. Trout were fed MEL and/or CYA for 8 wk at 250, 500, or 1000 mg of each compound/kg in feed. Fish muscle residues of MEL exhibited a dose-response relationship. Coexposure of trout to MEL and CYA at the highest dose led to lower MEL residue concentrations in muscle compared to exposure to MEL alone. Renal MEL-CYA complexes were found in kidneys of fish treated with combined MEL and CYA. A dose response was evident with respect to both (1) number of trout displaying renal crystals and (2) number of crystals per fish. Changes in concentration of antioxidant parameters, such as glutathione, superoxide dismutase, catalase, glutathione peroxidase, and glutathione S-transferase, were recorded in both tissues of MEL- and CYA-dosed trout. Lipid peroxidation was more pronounced in kidney than liver. Therefore, feed contaminated with both MEL and CYA could be problematic for fish, as MEL administered to trout, individually or in combination with CYA, may facilitate the onset of oxidative damage in trout. PMID:23721584

  13. Performance traits and immune response of broiler chicks treated with zinc and ascorbic acid supplementation during cyclic heat stress

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chand, Naila; Naz, Shabana; Khan, Ajab; Khan, Sarzamin; Khan, Rifat Ullah

    2014-12-01

    This research was conducted to investigate the effect of supplementation of zinc (Zn) and ascorbic acid (AA) in heat-stressed broilers. A total of 160-day-old broiler chicks of approximately the same weight and appearance were divided into four treatment groups (control, T1, T2, and T3). Control group was fed a standard diet without any supplementation. T1 was supplemented with Zn at the rate of 60 mg/kg of feed, T2 was supplemented with 300 mg/kg of feed AA, and T3 was supplemented with combination of Zn and AA. From week 3 to 5, heat stress environment was provided at the rate of 12 h at 25 °C, 3 h at 25 to 34 °C, 6 h at 34 °C, and 3 h at 34 to 25 °C daily. The results revealed that feed intake, body weight and feed conversion ratio (FCR), and weight of thymus, spleen, and bursa of Fabricius improved significantly ( P < 0.05) in T3 compared to the other treatments. Antibody titer against Newcastle disease (ND), infectious bursal disease (IBD), and infectious bronchitis (IB) increased significantly ( P < 0.05) in T2 and T3 groups. However, total leucocytes count, lymphocytes, and monocytes increased ( P < 0.05) in all treated groups compared to control. The results indicated that the supplementation of Zn or AA alone or in combination improved the performance and immune status of broilers reared under heat stress.

  14. Perfluorosulfonic acid membrane catalysts for optical sensing of anhydrides in the gas phase.

    PubMed

    Ayyadurai, Subasri M; Worrall, Adam D; Bernstein, Jonathan A; Angelopoulos, Anastasios P

    2010-07-15

    Continuous, on-site monitoring of personal exposure levels to occupational chemical hazards in ambient air is a long-standing analytical challenge. Such monitoring is required to institute appropriate health measures but is often limited by the time delays associated with batch air sampling and the need for off-site instrumental analyses. In this work, we report on the first attempt to use the catalytic properties of perfluorosulfonic acid (PSA) membranes to obtain a rapid, selective, and highly sensitive optical response to trimellitic anhydride (TMA) in the gas phase for portable sensor device application. TMA is used as starting material for various organic products and is recognized to be an extremely toxic agent by the National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health (NIOSH). Resorcinol dye is shown to become immobilized in PSA membranes and diffusionally constrain an orange brown product that results from acid-catalyzed reaction with more rapidly diffusing TMA molecules. FTIR, UV/vis, reaction selectivity to TMA versus trimellitic acid (TMLA), and homogeneous synthesis are used to infer 5,7- dihydroxyanthraquinone-2-carboxylic acid as the acylation product of the reaction. The color response has a sensitivity to at least 3 parts per billion (ppb) TMA exposure and, in addition to TMLA, excludes maleic anhydride (MA) and phthalic anhydride (PA). Solvent extraction at long times is used to determine that the resorcinol extinction coefficient in 1100 EW PSA membrane has a value of 1210 m(2)/g at 271.01 nm versus a value of 2010 m(2)/g at 275.22 nm in 50 vol% ethanol/water solution. The hypsochromic wavelength shift and reduced extinction coefficient suggest that the polar perfluorosulfonic acid groups in the membrane provide the thermodynamic driving force for diffusion and immobilization. At a resorcinol concentration of 0.376 g/L in the membrane, a partition coefficient of nearly unity is obtained between the membrane and solution concentrations and a

  15. Fuel additives from SO/sub 2/ treated mixtures of amides and esters derived from vegetable oil, tall oil acid, or aralkyl acid

    SciTech Connect

    Efner, H. F.; Schiff, S.

    1985-03-12

    Vegetable oils, particularly soybean oil, tall oil acid, or aralkyl acids, particularly phenylstearic acid, are reacted with multiamines, particularly tetraethylenepentamine, to form a product mixture for subsequent reaction with SO/sub 2/ to produce a product mix that has good detergent properties in fuels.

  16. Evaluation of a sunscreen photoprotective effect by ascorbic acid assessment in human dermis using microdialysis and gas chromatography mass spectrometry.

    PubMed

    Lévêque, Nathalie; Mac-Mary, Sophie; Muret, Patrice; Makki, Safwat; Aubin, Francois; Kantelip, Jean-Pierre; Heusèle, Catherine; S, Schnebert; Humbert, Philippe

    2005-03-01

    Ultraviolet irradiation causes adverse effects like sunburn, photosensitivity reactions or immunologic suppression. The aim of this study was to evaluate the photo-protective outcome of a sunscreen cream (SPF8) by the determination of erythema indexes and the assessment of ascorbic acid and its metabolites in human dermis. These substances were used as markers of oxidative effect. Eight healthy female subjects were enrolled in this study. Two abdominal areas were exposed to solar simulated irradiation with three minimal erythema dose, one with SPF8 application and the other site without SPF8 application. Two other areas were used as control, one without SPF8 application and the other site after SPF8 application. Ascorbic acid and its metabolites (dehydroascorbic acid, threonic acid, oxalic acid and xylose) were collected from human dermis by microdialysis and assessed by gas chromatography mass spectrometry. Irradiated site without sunscreen application had significantly demonstrated lower dermis ascorbic acid concentrations and a higher erythema index than the three other sites (P < 0.05). Threonic acid, oxalic acid and xylose dermis concentrations were significantly higher in site III than in the control site I (P < 0.05). The protected-irradiated site did not show erythema formation and there was stability of ascorbic acid dermis concentrations with non-variation in its metabolites. The assessment of ascorbic acid and its metabolites in human dermis could be an efficient tool to demonstrate the oxidative process and consequently to control the efficiency of sunscreen creams against undesirable UV effects. PMID:15740589

  17. Semiautomated solid-phase extraction followed by derivatisation and gas chromatography–mass spectrometry for determination of perfluoroalkyl acids in water.

    PubMed

    Jurado-Sánchez, Beatriz; Ballesteros, Evaristo; Gallego, Mercedes

    2013-11-29

    This paper describes a sensitive approach for the determination of 6 perfluoroalkyl carboxylic acids and perfluorooctane sulfonic acid in water. Samples were preconcentrated using an automatic solid-phase extraction module and then manually derivatised and determined by gas chromatography–mass spectrometry. The analytes were derivatised with a isobutyl chloroformate/isobutanol mixture, using 3% N,N-dicyclohexylcarbodiimide in pyridine as the catalyst. From a systematic comparison of several reversed-phase and anion-exchange sorbent materials for the retention of perfluoroalkyl acids, the high-est retention efficiencies (∼100%) were achieved with LiChrolut EN and Discovery DSC-SAX columns.LiChrolut EN was the sorbent selected due to several advantages (sample pH ∼1; sample flow rate,5.5 mL/min; breakthrough volume, 300 mL) over Discovery DSC-SAX (sample pH ∼6; sample flow rate,3.0 mL/min; breakthrough volume, 45 mL), for the retention of the studied compounds. Detection and quantification limits within the range of 0.1–0.5 ng/L and 0.4–1.7 ng/L, respectively, were obtained for a sorbent column of 70 mg of LiChrolut EN and 250 mL of sample, the relative standard deviation being lower than 7%. The method was applied both to the analysis of water collected at the intake (raw) and atthe exit (treated) of two drinking water treatment plants, as well as to various types of water. Few samples were positive for perfluoroalkyl acids and only one acid (perfluoroheptanoic or perfluorooctanoic) was found in each treatment plant. The highest number and concentration of analytes (perfluoroheptanoic,perfluorooctanoic and perfluorodecanoic acid) were found in one wastewater.

  18. Electrophilic acid gas-reactive fluid, proppant, and process for enhanced fracturing and recovery of energy producing materials

    DOEpatents

    Fernandez, Carlos A.; Heldebrant, David J.; Bonneville, Alain H. R.; Jung, Hun Bok; Carroll, Kenneth

    2016-09-20

    An electrophilic acid gas-reactive fracturing and recovery fluid, proppant, and process are detailed. The fluid expands in volume to provide rapid and controlled increases in pressure that enhances fracturing in subterranean bedrock for recovery of energy-producing materials. Proppants stabilize openings in fractures and fissures following fracturing.

  19. Measuring Gas-Phase Basicities of Amino Acids Using an Ion Trap Mass Spectrometer: A Physical Chemistry Laboratory Experiment

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sunderlin, Lee S.; Ryzhov, Victor; Keller, Lanea M. M.; Gaillard, Elizabeth R.

    2005-01-01

    An experiment is performed to measure the relative gas-phase basicities of a series of five amino acids to compare the results to literature values. The experiments use the kinetic method for deriving ion thermochemistry and allow students to perform accurate measurements of thermodynamics in a relatively short time.

  20. Changes of phenolic-acids and vitamin E profiles on germinated rough rice (Oryza sativa L.) treated by high hydrostatic pressure.

    PubMed

    Kim, Min Young; Lee, Sang Hoon; Jang, Gwi Yeong; Li, Meishan; Lee, Youn Ri; Lee, Junsoo; Jeong, Heon Sang

    2017-02-15

    This study was performed to investigate changes in the phenolic acid and vitamin E profiles of germinated rough rice following high hydrostatic pressure treatment (HPT). Rough rice was germinated at 37°C for two days and subjected to 0.1, 10, 30, 50, and 100MPa pressures for 24h. The total phenolic acid content increased from 85.37μg/g at 0.1MPa to 183.52μg/g at 100MPa. The highest gallic acid (4.29μg/g), catechin (9.55μg/g), p-coumaric acid (8.36μg/g), ferulic acid (14.99μg/g), salicylic acid (14.88μg/g), naringin (6.18μg/g), trans-cinnamic acid (45.23μg/g), and kaempferol (40.95μg/g) contents occurred in the sample treated at 100MPa after germination. The maximum vitamin E content of about 2.56 (BG) and 4.34mg/100g (AG) were achieved at 30MPa. These result suggest that a combination of HPT and germination are efficient method for enhancement of functionality in rough rice, and clarify the influence of HPT conditions on the vitamin E and phenolic acid in germination rough rice. PMID:27664614

  1. Effects of phosphoric acid sprayed into an incinerator furnace on the flue gas pressure drop at fabric filters.

    PubMed

    Takahashi, Shigetoshi; Hwang, In-Hee; Matsuto, Toshihiko

    2016-06-01

    Fabric filters are widely used to remove dust from flue gas generated by waste incineration. However, a pressure drop occurs at the filters, caused by growth of a dust layer on the filter fabric despite regular cleaning by pulsed-jet air. The pressure drop at the fabric filters leads to energy consumption at induced draft fan to keep the incinerator on negative pressure, so that its proper control is important to operate incineration facility efficiently. The pressure drop at fabric filters decreased whenever phosphoric acid wastewater (PAW) was sprayed into an incinerator for treating industrial waste. Operational data obtained from the incineration facility were analyzed to determine the short- and long-term effects of PAW spraying on the pressure drop. For the short-term effect, it was confirmed that the pressure drop at the fabric filters always decreased to 0.3-1.2kPa within about 5h after spraying PAW. This effect was expected to be obtained by about one third of present PAW spraying amount. However, from the long-term perspective, the pressure drop showed an increase in the periods of PAW spraying compared with periods for which PAW spraying was not performed. The pressure drop increase was particularly noticeable after the initial PAW spraying, regardless of the age and type of fabric filters used. These results suggest that present PAW spraying causes a temporary pressure drop reduction, leading to short-term energy consumption savings; however, it also causes an increase of the pressure drop over the long-term, degrading the overall operating conditions. Thus, appropriate PAW spraying conditions are needed to make effective use of PAW to reduce the pressure drop at fabric filters from a short- and long-term point of view.

  2. Effects of phosphoric acid sprayed into an incinerator furnace on the flue gas pressure drop at fabric filters.

    PubMed

    Takahashi, Shigetoshi; Hwang, In-Hee; Matsuto, Toshihiko

    2016-06-01

    Fabric filters are widely used to remove dust from flue gas generated by waste incineration. However, a pressure drop occurs at the filters, caused by growth of a dust layer on the filter fabric despite regular cleaning by pulsed-jet air. The pressure drop at the fabric filters leads to energy consumption at induced draft fan to keep the incinerator on negative pressure, so that its proper control is important to operate incineration facility efficiently. The pressure drop at fabric filters decreased whenever phosphoric acid wastewater (PAW) was sprayed into an incinerator for treating industrial waste. Operational data obtained from the incineration facility were analyzed to determine the short- and long-term effects of PAW spraying on the pressure drop. For the short-term effect, it was confirmed that the pressure drop at the fabric filters always decreased to 0.3-1.2kPa within about 5h after spraying PAW. This effect was expected to be obtained by about one third of present PAW spraying amount. However, from the long-term perspective, the pressure drop showed an increase in the periods of PAW spraying compared with periods for which PAW spraying was not performed. The pressure drop increase was particularly noticeable after the initial PAW spraying, regardless of the age and type of fabric filters used. These results suggest that present PAW spraying causes a temporary pressure drop reduction, leading to short-term energy consumption savings; however, it also causes an increase of the pressure drop over the long-term, degrading the overall operating conditions. Thus, appropriate PAW spraying conditions are needed to make effective use of PAW to reduce the pressure drop at fabric filters from a short- and long-term point of view. PMID:27040089

  3. Effect of combination therapy consisting of enalapril, α-lipoic acid, and menhaden oil on diabetic neuropathy in a high fat/low dose streptozotocin treated rat.

    PubMed

    Davidson, Eric P; Holmes, Amey; Coppey, Lawrence J; Yorek, Mark A

    2015-10-15

    We have previously demonstrated that treating diabetic rats with enalapril, an angiotensin converting enzyme (ACE) inhibitor, α-lipoic acid, an antioxidant, or menhaden oil, a natural source of omega-3 fatty acids can partially improve diabetic peripheral neuropathy. In this study we sought to determine the efficacy of combining these three treatments on vascular and neural complications in a high fat fed low dose streptozotocin treated rat, a model of type 2 diabetes. Rats were fed a high fat diet for 8 weeks followed by a 30 mg/kg dose of streptozotocin. Eight weeks after the onset of hyperglycemia diabetic rats were treated with a combination of enalapril, α-lipoic acid and menhaden oil. Diabetic rats not receiving treatment were continued on the high fat diet. Glucose clearance was impaired in diabetic rats and significantly improved with treatment. Diabetes caused steatosis, elevated serum lipid levels, slowing of motor and sensory nerve conduction, thermal hypoalgesia, reduction in intraepidermal nerve fiber profiles, decrease in cornea sub-basal nerve fiber length and corneal sensitivity and impairment in vascular relaxation to acetylcholine and calcitonin gene-related peptide in epineurial arterioles of the sciatic nerve. Treating diabetic rats with the combination of enalapril, α-lipoic acid and menhaden oil reversed all these deficits to near control levels except for motor nerve conduction velocity which was also significantly improved compared to diabetic rats but remained significantly decreased compared to control rats. These studies suggest that a combination therapeutic approach may be most effective for treating vascular and neural complications of type 2 diabetes.

  4. Gas phase C{sub 2}-C{sub 10} organic acids concentrations in the Los Angeles atmosphere

    SciTech Connect

    Nolte, C.G.; Fraser, M.P.; Cass, G.R.

    1999-02-15

    The atmospheric concentrations of gas-phase C{sub 2}--C{sub 10} monocarboxylic and benzoic acids are reported in samples collected during a severe Los Angeles area photochemical smog episode. Average urban concentrations are 10--50 {times} greater than concentrations observed at a remote background location, indicating an anthropogenic origin for these compounds. Average urban concentrations during the episode were 16.1 {micro}g m{sup {minus}3} (6.6 ppb) for acetic acid and 1.67 {micro}g m{sup {minus}3} (0.55 ppb) for propionic acid, with progressively lesser amounts as the carbon chain length of the acids is increased. Spatial and diurnal variations in atmospheric organic acids concentrations point to the importance of both direct emissions from primary sources and formation by photochemical reaction of precursor compounds.

  5. Blood gas tensions, acid-base status, heart rates, and venous profiles in exercising horses with laryngeal hemiplegia before and after corrective surgery.

    PubMed

    Tate, L P; Corbett, W T; Bishop, B J; Foreman, J H

    1993-01-01

    The physiologic effects of exercise were studied in four horses with complete laryngeal hemiplegia. Right carotid arteries were surgically elevated to a subcutaneous position for percutaneous catheterization. Each horse was fitted with a device designed to obtain multiple arterial samples while the horse was exercised over a 1.6-km course. After each horse completed 10 test gallops, the laryngeal hemiplegia was treated using a laryngeal prothesis and ventriculectomy. The horses were then reconditioned, and the exercise test and sampling were repeated. Horses with laryngeal hemiplegia became acidotic, hypoxic, and hypercapnic compared to normal horses. Surgical treatment improved blood gas and acid-base status, but the values were not equivalent to those in normal horses similarly tested.

  6. Characterization of Benthic Microbial Community Structure by High-Resolution Gas Chromatography of Fatty Acid Methyl Esters

    PubMed Central

    Bobbie, Ronald J.; White, David C.

    1980-01-01

    Fatty acids are a widely studied group of lipids of sufficient taxonomic diversity to be useful in defining microbial community structure. The extraordinary resolution of glass capillary gas-liquid chromatography can be utilized to separate and tentatively identify large numbers of fatty acid methyl esters derived from the lipids of estuarine detritus and marine benthic microbiota without the bias of selective methods requiring culture or recovery of the microbes. The gas-liquid chromatographic analyses are both reproducible and highly sensitive, and the recovery of fatty acids is quantitative. The analyses can be automated, and the diagnostic technique of mass spectral fragmentation analysis can be readily applied. Splitless injection on glass capillary gas chromatographic columns detected by mass spectral selective ion monitoring provides an ultrasensitive and definitive monitoring system. Reciprocal mixtures of bacteria and fungi, when extracted and analyzed, showed progressive changes of distinctive fatty acid methyl esters derived from the lipids. By manipulating the environment of an estuarine detrital microbial community with antibiotics and culture conditions, it was possible to produce a community greatly enriched in eucaryotic fungi, as evidenced by scanning electron microscopic morphology. The fatty acid methyl esters from the lipids in the fungus-enriched detritus showed enrichment of the C18 dienoic and the C18 and C20 polyenoic esters. Manipulation of the detrital microbiota that increased the procaryotic population resulted in an absence of large structures typical of fungal mycelia or diatoms, as evidenced by scanning electron microscopy, and a significantly larger proportion of anteiso- and isobranched C15 fatty acid esters, C17 cyclopropane fatty acid esters, and the cis-vaccenic isomer of the C18 monoenoic fatty acid esters. As determined by these techniques, a marine settling community showed greater differences in bacterial as contrasted to

  7. Determination of short-chain fatty acids in serum by hollow fiber supported liquid membrane extraction coupled with gas chromatography.

    PubMed

    Zhao, Guohua; Liu, Jing-Fu; Nyman, Margareta; Jönsson, Jan Ake

    2007-02-01

    A method based on hollow fiber supported liquid membrane extraction coupled with a gas chromatograph equipped with flame ionization detector (GC-FID) was developed for the determination of six short-chain fatty acids including acetic acid, propionic acid, i-butyric acid, n-butyric acid, i-valeric acid and n-valeric acid in serum. Hollow fiber supported liquid membrane extraction was employed for preconcentration and clean-up of the samples. The fatty acids were extracted from the acidic donor (diluted serum) into a liquid membrane formed in the wall of the hollow fiber with 10% tri-n-octylphoshphine oxide (TOPO) in di-n-hexyl ether, and then extracted back into a basic acceptor solution filled in the lumen of the hollow fiber. After being acidified with HCl, the acceptor was directly analyzed by GC-FID. The acceptor concentration, donor pH, membrane liquid and extracting time were optimized giving an enrichment factor up to 155 times. The good linearity (r(2)>0.980), reasonable recovery (87.2-121%), and satisfactory intra-assay (8.2-11.5%) and inter-assay (6.1-11.6%) precision illustrated the good performance of the present method. Limits of detection (LOD) ranged from 0.04 to 0.24 microM and limits of quantification (LOQ) varied from 0.13 to 0.80 microM. PMID:17070116

  8. Conformational preferences of γ-aminobutyric acid in the gas phase and in water

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Song, Il Keun; Kang, Young Kee

    2012-09-01

    The conformational study of γ-aminobutyric acid (GABA) has been carried out at the M06-2X/cc-pVTZ level of theory in the gas phase and the SMD M06-2X/cc-pVTZ level of theory in water. In the gas phase, the folded conformation gG1 with gauche- and gauche+ conformations for the Cβsbnd Cα and Cγsbnd Cβ bonds, respectively, is found to be lowest in energy and enthalpy, which can be ascribed to the favored hyperconjugative n → π* interaction between the lone electron pair of the amine nitrogen atom and the Cdbnd O bond of the carboxylic group and the favored antiparallel dipole-dipole interaction between the Nsbnd H bond and the Cdbnd O bond. In addition, the intramolecular hydrogen bonds between the carboxylic group and the amine Nsbnd H group have contributed to stabilize some low-energy conformers. However, the most preferred conformation is found to be tG1 and more stable by 0.4 kcal/mol in ΔG than the conformer gG1, in which the favored entropic term due to the conformational flexibility and the other favored n → σ*, σ → σ*, and π → σ* interactions seem to play a role. The conformational preferences of the neutral GABA calculated by ΔG's are reasonably consistent with the populations deduced from FT microwave spectroscopy in supersonic jets combined with laser ablation. In water, the two folded conformers Gg and gG of the zwitterionic GABA are dominantly populated, each of which has the population of 47%, and the hydrogen bond between the ammonium Nsbnd H group and the lone electron pair of the Csbnd O- group seems to be crucial in stabilizing these conformers. Our calculated result that the folded conformers preferentially exist in water is consistent with the 1H NMR experiments in D2O.

  9. Gas/particle partitioning of low-molecular-weight dicarboxylic acids at a suburban site in Saitama, Japan

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bao, Linfa; Matsumoto, Mariko; Kubota, Tsutomu; Sekiguchi, Kazuhiko; Wang, Qingyue; Sakamoto, Kazuhiko

    2012-02-01

    Low-molecular-weight dicarboxylic acids (diacids) exhibit semivolatile behavior in the atmosphere, but their partitioning between the gaseous and particulate phases is still unclear. An annular denuder-filter pack system with a cyclone PM 2.5 was employed to investigate the gaseous and particulate phase concentrations of diacids, with high collection efficiency of most target compounds. Saturated diacids, unsaturated diacids, ketocarboxylic acids, and dicarbonyls were determined in gaseous and particulate samples collected from a suburban site in Japan, during 2007 summer, 2008 late-winter and early-winter. The concentrations of gaseous and particulate diacids in early-winter were lower than those in summer, but higher than those in late-winter. Individual diacid in gaseous phase showed a relatively good correlation with ambient oxidants, but a low correlation with NO gas (a primary pollutant). Particulate fraction to the total amount ( FP) of individual acid was larger in winter than in summer, and also was larger at night than in the daytime. In the same sample, individual diacid and ketocarboxylic acid had higher particulate phase occurrence ( FP > 56% in summer), whereas unsaturated diacid had higher gaseous phase occurrence ( FP < 18% in summer). In summer, gas/particle partitioning of diacids varied diurnally; FP values of oxalic and glyoxylic acids increased from their lowest values in the morning to their highest values at night, exhibiting the similar diurnal variation of relative humidity in the atmosphere. The higher humidity at night may lead to the formation of droplets in which water-soluble gaseous phases can dissolve, thus promoting gas-to-particle conversion. These results suggest that gas/particle partitioning of diacids depends not only on the concentrations in the gaseous phase by photochemical oxidation, but also on the characteristics of the atmosphere (e.g., temperature, sunlight, and relative humidity) and the aerosols (e.g., acidity

  10. Investigating the Weak to Evaluate the Strong: An Experimental Determination of the Electron Binding Energy of Carborane Anions and the Gas phase Acidity of Carborane Acids

    SciTech Connect

    Meyer, Matthew M; Wang, Xue B; Reed, Christopher A; Wang, Lai S; Kass, Steven R

    2009-12-23

    Five CHB11X6Y5- carborane anions from the series X = Br, Cl, I and Y = H, Cl, CH3 were generated by electrospray ionization, and their reactivity with a series of Brønsted acids and electron transfer reagents were examined in the gas phase. The undecachlorocarborane acid, H(CHB11Cl11), was found to be far more acidic than the former record holder, (1-C4F9SO2)2NH (i.e., ΔH°acid = 241 ± 29 vs 291.1 ± 2.2 kcal mol-1) and bridges the gas-phase acidity and basicity scales for the first time. Its conjugate base, CHB11Cl11-, was found by photoelectron spectroscopy to have a remarkably large electron binding energy (6.35 ± 0.02 eV) but the value for the (1-C4F9SO2)2N- anion is even larger (6.5 ± 0.1 eV). Consequently, it is the weak H-(CHB11Cl11) BDE (70.0 kcal mol-1, G3(MP2)) compared to the strong BDE of (1-C4F9SO2)2N-H (127.4 ± 3.2 kcal mol-1) that accounts for the greater acidity of carborane acids.

  11. Removal of Perfluorocarboxylic Acids (PFCAs) from Carpets Treated with Stain-protection Products by Using Carpet Cleaning Machines

    EPA Science Inventory

    PFCAs are found in a variety of consumer products, including, but not limited to, treated clothing and textiles, floor care products, paper containers for food, and carpets. For example, carpet that has been treated with stain-protection, carpet-care solutions, either by the manu...

  12. Metabolic responses, performance, and reticuloruminal pH of early-lactating cows fed concentrates treated with lactic acid, with or without inorganic phosphorus supplementation.

    PubMed

    Khol-Parisini, A; Humer, E; Harder, H; Mickdam, E; Zebeli, Q

    2016-08-01

    Recent data indicate beneficial effects of treating grains with lactic acid (LA) in alleviating the need for inorganic phosphorus supplementation during ruminal fermentation in vitro. The aim of this study was to evaluate the effects of feeding concentrates treated with LA with or without inorganic phosphorus supplementation on feed intake, performance, blood variables, and reticuloruminal pH in dairy cows. A total of 16 early-lactating cows (12 Simmental and 4 Brown Swiss) were included in this study from d 1 until d 37 postpartum. Cows were fed 3 total mixed rations differing in supplementation of inorganic phosphorus and treatment of concentrates. The control (CON) and LA (+P) diets included a concentrate mixture containing 0.8% monocalcium phosphate, and the LA (-P) diet contained no inorganic phosphorus source. The concentrates of the LA (+P) and LA (-P) diets were treated with 5% LA for 24h before feeding, and the concentrate of the CON diet was not treated. Dry matter intake and milk yield were recorded daily, and milk composition and blood variables were determined on several occasions during the trial. Reticuloruminal pH was measured using indwelling sensors that allowed for continuous measurement during the experimental period. Data showed depressed dry matter intake in cows receiving LA-treated concentrates, but milk yield, body weight, and body weight changes remained similar among treatment groups. Cows receiving the LA-treated diets had lower concentrations of serum nonesterified fatty acids, cholesterol, and insulin, and they tended to have higher serum phosphorus levels. On the other hand, reticuloruminal pH was lower and duration of the pH being <6.0 was longer in cows in the LA-treated groups. Aspartate aminotransferase, gamma-glutamyltransferase, and concentrations of bilirubin and bile acids were lower in the LA (-P) group. Taken together, the 5% LA-treated diet without inorganic phosphorus supplementation did not exert any negative effects on

  13. Suppression of asymmetric acid efflux and gravitropism in maize roots treated with auxin transport inhibitors of sodium orthovanadate

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mulkey, T. J.; Evans, M. L.

    1982-01-01

    In gravitropically stimulated roots of maize (Zea mays L., hybrid WF9 x 38MS), there is more acid efflux on the rapidly growing upper side than on the slowly growing lower side. In light of the Cholodny/Went hypothesis of gravitropism which states that gravitropic curvature results from lateral redistribution of auxin, the effects of auxin transport inhibitors on the development of acid efflux asymmetry and curvature in gravistimulated roots were examined. All the transport inhibitors tested prevented both gravitropism and the development of asymmetric acid efflux in gravistimulated roots. The results indicate that auxin redistribution may cause the asymmetry of acid efflux, a finding consistent with the Cholodny/Went hypothesis of gravitropism. As further evidence that auxin-induced acid efflux asymmetry may mediate gravitropic curvature, sodium orthovanadate, an inhibitor of auxin-induced H+ efflux was found to prevent both gravitropism and the development of asymmetric acid efflux in gravistimulated roots.

  14. Combustion Instability in an Acid-Heptane Rocket with a Pressurized-Gas Propellant Pumping System

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Tischler, Adelbert O.; Bellman, Donald R.

    1951-01-01

    Results of experimental measurements of low-frequency combustion instability of a 300-pound thrust acid-heptane rocket engine were compared to the trends predicted by an analysis of combustion instability in a rocket engine with a pressurized-gas propellant pumping system. The simplified analysis, which assumes a monopropellant model, was based on the concept of a combustion the delay occurring from the moment of propellant injection to the moment of propellant combustion. This combustion time delay was experimentally measured; the experimental values were of approximately half the magnitude predicted by the analysis. The pressure-fluctuation frequency for a rocket engine with a characteristic length of 100 inches and operated at a combustion-chamber pressure of 280 pounds per square inch absolute was 38 cycles per second; the analysis indicated. a frequency of 37 cycles per second. Increasing combustion-chamber characteristic length decreased the pressure-fluctuation frequency, in conformity to the analysis. Increasing the chamber operating pressure or increasing the injector pressure drop increased the frequency. These latter two effects are contrary to the analysis; the discrepancies are attributed to the conflict between the assumptions made to simplify the analysis and the experimental conditions. Oxidant-fuel ratio had no apparent effect on the experimentally measured pressure-fluctuation frequency for acid-heptane ratios from 3.0 to 7.0. The frequencies decreased with increased amplitude of the combustion-chamber pressure variations. The analysis indicated that if the combustion time delay were sufficiently short, low-frequency combustion instability would be eliminated.

  15. Competitive threshold collision-induced dissociation: Gas-phase acidities and bond dissociation energies for a series of alcohols

    SciTech Connect

    DeTuri, V.F.; Ervin, K.M.

    1999-09-02

    Energy-resolved competitive collision-induced dissociation methods are used to measure the gas-phase acidities of a series of alcohols (methanol, ethanol, 2-propanol, and 2-methyl-2-propanol). The competitive dissociation reactions of fluoride-alcohol, [F{sup {minus}}{center{underscore}dot}HOR], alkoxide-water, [RO{sup {minus}}{center{underscore}dot}HOH], and alkoxide-methanol [RO{+-}{center{underscore}dot}HOCH{sub 3}] proton-bound complexes are studied using a guided ion beam tandem mass spectrometer. The reaction cross sections and product branching fractions to the two proton transfer channels are measured as a function of collision energy. The enthalpy difference between the two product channels is found by modeling the reaction cross sections near threshold using RRKM theory to account for the energy-dependent product branching ratio and kinetic shift. From the enthalpy difference, the alcohol gas-phase acidities are determined relative to the well-known values of HF and H{sub 2}O. The measured gas-phase acidities are {Delta}{sub acid}H{sub 298}(CH{sub 3}OH) = 1599 {+-} 3 kJ/mol, {Delta}{sub acid}H{sub 298}(CH{sub 3}CH{sub 2}OH) = 1586 {+-} 5 kJ/mol, {Delta}{sub acid}H{sub 298}((CH{sub 3}){sub 2}CHOH) = 1576 {+-} 4 kJ/mol, and {Delta}{sub acid}H{sub 298}((CH{sub 3}){sub 3}COH) = 1573 {+-} 3 kJ/mol.

  16. Removal of Ni(II) and Cu(II) ions using native and acid treated Ni-hyperaccumulator plant Alyssum discolor from Turkish serpentine soil.

    PubMed

    Bayramoglu, Gulay; Arica, M Yakup; Adiguzel, Nezaket

    2012-09-01

    Alyssum discolor biomass was collected from serpentine soil and was used for removal of metal ions. The plant species grown on serpentine soils are known to be rich with metals ions and thus have more capability for accumulating heavy metals. Native and acid-treated biomass of A. discolor (A. discolor) were utilized for the removal of Ni(II) and Cu(II) ions from aqueous solutions. The effects of contact time, initial concentration, and pH on the biosorption of Ni(II) and Cu(II) ions were investigated. Biosorption equilibrium was established in about 60 min. The surface properties of the biomass preparations were varied with pH, and the maximum amounts of Ni(II) and Cu(II) ions on both A. discolor biomass preparations were adsorbed at pH 5.0. The maximum biosorption capacities of the native, and acid-treated biomass preparations for Ni(II) were 13.1 and 34.7 mgg(-1) and for Cu(II) 6.15 and 17.8 mgg(-1) dry biomass, respectively. The biosorption of Ni(II) and Cu(II) ions from single and binary component systems can be successfully described by Langmuir and Freundlich isotherms. When the heavy metal ions were in competition, the amounts of biosorbed metal ions on the acid treated plant biomass were found to be 0.542 mmolg(-1) for Ni(II) and 0.162 mmolg(-1) for Cu(II), the A. discolor biomass was significantly selective for Ni(II) ions. The information gained from these studies was expected to indicate whether the native, and acid-treated forms can have the potential to be used for the removal and recovery of Ni(II) ions from wastewaters. PMID:22608134

  17. Can we Replace Arterial Blood Gas Analysis by Pulse Oximetry in Neonates with Respiratory Distress Syndrome, who are Treated According to INSURE Protocol?

    PubMed Central

    Niknafs, Pedram; Norouzi, Elahe; Bahman Bijari, Bahareh; Baneshi, Mohammad Reza

    2015-01-01

    Neonates with respiratory distress syndrome (RDS), who are treated according to INSURE protocol; require arterial blood gas (ABG) analysis to decide on appropriate management. We conducted this study to investigate the validity of pulse oximetry instead of frequent ABG analysis in the evaluation of these patients. From a total of 193 blood samples obtained from 30 neonates <1500 grams with RDS, 7.2% were found to have one or more of the followings: acidosis, hypercapnia, or hypoxemia. We found that pulse oximetry in the detection of hyperoxemia had a good validity to appropriately manage patients without blood gas analysis. However, the validity of pulse oximetry was not good enough to detect acidosis, hypercapnia, and hypoxemia. PMID:25999627

  18. Gas-phase hydrolysis of triplet SO2: A possible direct route to atmospheric acid formation.

    PubMed

    Donaldson, D James; Kroll, Jay A; Vaida, Veronica

    2016-07-15

    Sulfur chemistry is of great interest to the atmospheric chemistry of several planets. In the presence of water, oxidized sulfur can lead to new particle formation, influencing climate in significant ways. Observations of sulfur compounds in planetary atmospheres when compared with model results suggest that there are missing chemical mechanisms. Here we propose a novel mechanism for the formation of sulfurous acid, which may act as a seed for new particle formation. In this proposed mechanism, the lowest triplet state of SO2 ((3)B1), which may be accessed by near-UV solar excitation of SO2 to its excited (1)B1 state followed by rapid intersystem crossing, reacts directly with water to form H2SO3 in the gas phase. For ground state SO2, this reaction is endothermic and has a very high activation barrier; our quantum chemical calculations point to a facile reaction being possible in the triplet state of SO2. This hygroscopic H2SO3 molecule may act as a condensation nucleus for water, giving rise to facile new particle formation (NPF).

  19. Gas-phase hydrolysis of triplet SO2: A possible direct route to atmospheric acid formation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Donaldson, D. James; Kroll, Jay A.; Vaida, Veronica

    2016-07-01

    Sulfur chemistry is of great interest to the atmospheric chemistry of several planets. In the presence of water, oxidized sulfur can lead to new particle formation, influencing climate in significant ways. Observations of sulfur compounds in planetary atmospheres when compared with model results suggest that there are missing chemical mechanisms. Here we propose a novel mechanism for the formation of sulfurous acid, which may act as a seed for new particle formation. In this proposed mechanism, the lowest triplet state of SO2 (3B1), which may be accessed by near-UV solar excitation of SO2 to its excited 1B1 state followed by rapid intersystem crossing, reacts directly with water to form H2SO3 in the gas phase. For ground state SO2, this reaction is endothermic and has a very high activation barrier; our quantum chemical calculations point to a facile reaction being possible in the triplet state of SO2. This hygroscopic H2SO3 molecule may act as a condensation nucleus for water, giving rise to facile new particle formation (NPF).

  20. Gas-phase hydrolysis of triplet SO2: A possible direct route to atmospheric acid formation

    PubMed Central

    Donaldson, D. James; Kroll, Jay A.; Vaida, Veronica

    2016-01-01

    Sulfur chemistry is of great interest to the atmospheric chemistry of several planets. In the presence of water, oxidized sulfur can lead to new particle formation, influencing climate in significant ways. Observations of sulfur compounds in planetary atmospheres when compared with model results suggest that there are missing chemical mechanisms. Here we propose a novel mechanism for the formation of sulfurous acid, which may act as a seed for new particle formation. In this proposed mechanism, the lowest triplet state of SO2 (3B1), which may be accessed by near-UV solar excitation of SO2 to its excited 1B1 state followed by rapid intersystem crossing, reacts directly with water to form H2SO3 in the gas phase. For ground state SO2, this reaction is endothermic and has a very high activation barrier; our quantum chemical calculations point to a facile reaction being possible in the triplet state of SO2. This hygroscopic H2SO3 molecule may act as a condensation nucleus for water, giving rise to facile new particle formation (NPF). PMID:27417675

  1. Optimizing Techology to Reduce Mercury and Acid Gas Emissions from Electric Power Plants

    SciTech Connect

    Jeffrey C. Quick; David E. Tabet; Sharon Wakefield; Roger L. Bon

    2004-01-31

    More than 56,000 coal quality data records from five public data sets have been selected for use in this project. These data will be used to create maps showing where coals with low mercury and acid-gas emissions might be found for power plants classified by air-pollution controls. Average coal quality values, calculated for 51,156 commercial coals by U.S. county-of-origin, are listed in the appendix. Coal moisture values are calculated for commercially shipped coal from 163 U.S. counties, where the raw assay data (including mercury and chlorine values) are reported on a dry basis. The calculated moisture values are verified by comparison with observed moisture values in commercial coal. Moisture in commercial U.S. coal shows provincial variation. For example, high volatile C bituminous rank coal from the Interior province has 3% to 4% more moisture than equivalent Rocky Mountain province coal. Mott-Spooner difference values are calculated for 4,957 data records for coals collected from coal mines and exploration drill holes. About 90% of the records have Mott-Spooner difference values within {+-}250 Btu/lb.

  2. Gas-phase hydrolysis of triplet SO2: A possible direct route to atmospheric acid formation.

    PubMed

    Donaldson, D James; Kroll, Jay A; Vaida, Veronica

    2016-01-01

    Sulfur chemistry is of great interest to the atmospheric chemistry of several planets. In the presence of water, oxidized sulfur can lead to new particle formation, influencing climate in significant ways. Observations of sulfur compounds in planetary atmospheres when compared with model results suggest that there are missing chemical mechanisms. Here we propose a novel mechanism for the formation of sulfurous acid, which may act as a seed for new particle formation. In this proposed mechanism, the lowest triplet state of SO2 ((3)B1), which may be accessed by near-UV solar excitation of SO2 to its excited (1)B1 state followed by rapid intersystem crossing, reacts directly with water to form H2SO3 in the gas phase. For ground state SO2, this reaction is endothermic and has a very high activation barrier; our quantum chemical calculations point to a facile reaction being possible in the triplet state of SO2. This hygroscopic H2SO3 molecule may act as a condensation nucleus for water, giving rise to facile new particle formation (NPF). PMID:27417675

  3. Advanced Acid Gas Separation Technology for the Utilization of Low Rank Coals

    SciTech Connect

    Kloosterman, Jeff

    2012-12-31

    Air Products has developed a potentially ground-breaking technology – Sour Pressure Swing Adsorption (PSA) – to replace the solvent-based acid gas removal (AGR) systems currently employed to separate sulfur containing species, along with CO{sub 2} and other impurities, from gasifier syngas streams. The Sour PSA technology is based on adsorption processes that utilize pressure swing or temperature swing regeneration methods. Sour PSA technology has already been shown with higher rank coals to provide a significant reduction in the cost of CO{sub 2} capture for power generation, which should translate to a reduction in cost of electricity (COE), compared to baseline CO{sub 2} capture plant design. The objective of this project is to test the performance and capability of the adsorbents in handling tar and other impurities using a gaseous mixture generated from the gasification of lower rank, lignite coal. The results of this testing are used to generate a high-level pilot process design, and to prepare a techno-economic assessment evaluating the applicability of the technology to plants utilizing these coals.

  4. Direct effects of nitroprusside do not alter gas exchange in canine oleic acid edema.

    PubMed

    Angle, M; Ducas, J; Schick, U; Girling, L; Prewitt, R M

    1984-11-01

    The authors investigated why intrapulmonary shunt (QS/QT) increases with sodium nitroprusside (SNP) in canine oleic acid pulmonary edema. To determine the effects of flow alone on QS/QT, a peripheral arteriovenous fistula with a variable resistor was employed to increase cardiac output (Q) 26 and 52% above base line in a stepwise fashion (P less than 0.01). To examine the direct effects of SNP, distinct from changes in flow, the drug was given to produce matched increments in Q in each dog (P less than 0.01). To control for time, base-line measurements were obtained before and after each intervention, the sequence of which was alternated. At each increment in Q, SNP and the arteriovenous fistula increased QS/QT a similar amount. The mixed venous O2 tension (P-vO2) followed Q similarly in each group. Pulmonary vascular resistance (PVR) fell more (P less than 0.01) with SNP than with the arteriovenous fistula at identical Q and P-vO2. The authors conclude that, in this model, a direct pharmacological effect of SNP does not contribute to the deterioration in QS/QT. In fact, SNP exerts a pulmonary vasoactive effect that does not adversely affect gas exchange. PMID:6520043

  5. Penetration of methyl isocyanate through organic vapor and acid gas respirator cartridges

    SciTech Connect

    Moyer, E.S.; Berardinelli, S.P.

    1987-04-01

    Methyl isocyanate (MIC) is a volatile, toxic chemical used to manufacture carbamate pesticides. In light of the December 1984 Bhopal, India disaster and possible safety problems at the Institute facility, NIOSH conducted this research as a basis upon which to recommend protective equipment that might be used in an emergency situation where extremely high MIC concentrations might be encountered. Both protective clothing and respirators were evaluated. In particular, NIOSH studies air-purifying respirators in order to assess their effectiveness against MIC vapor penetration. NIOSH does not recommend any air purifying respirator for MIC because of its high toxicity and lack of warming properties and because no effective end of service life indicator currently is available for MIC. This report addresses only MIC penetration through air-purifying cartridges at challenge concentration designed to simulate emergency escape conditions. The results presented are for two different manufacturers' organic vapor (OV) and acid gas cartridges. Penetration tests were conducted at three or four MIC challenge concentrations and at three different humidity conditions. In general, breakthrough times (1% of challenge concentration) were very short (<20 min). Also, high relative humidity was found to decrease the breakthrough time of MIC.

  6. Penetration of methyl isocyanate through organic vapor and acid gas respirator cartridges.

    PubMed

    Moyer, E S; Berardinelli, S P

    1987-04-01

    Methyl isocyanate (MIC) is a volatile, toxic chemical [Threshold Limit Value (TLV) = 0.02 ppm] used to manufacture carbamate pesticides. The principal manufacturer of MIC is Union Carbide, and the site of production is Institute, West Virginia. In light of the December 1984 Bhopal, India disaster and possible safety problems at the Institute facility, NIOSH conducted this research as a basis upon which to recommend protective equipment that might be used in an emergency situation where extremely high MIC concentrations might be encountered. Both protective clothing and respirators were evaluated. In particular, NIOSH studied air-purifying respirators in order to assess their effectiveness against MIC vapor penetration. NIOSH does not recommend any air purifying respirator for MIC because of its high toxicity and lack of warning properties and because no effective end of service life indicator currently is available for MIC. This report addresses only MIC penetration through air-purifying cartridges at challenge concentrations designed to simulate emergency escape conditions. Another report addresses the protective clothing issue. The results presented are for two different manufacturers' organic vapor (OV) and acid gas cartridges. Penetration tests were conducted at three or four MIC challenge concentrations and at three different humidity conditions. In general, breakthrough times (1% of challenge concentration) were very short (less than 20 min). Also, high relative humidity was found to decrease the breakthrough time of MIC. PMID:3591646

  7. Evaluation of the potentials of humic acid removal in water by gas phase surface discharge plasma.

    PubMed

    Wang, Tiecheng; Qu, Guangzhou; Ren, Jingyu; Yan, Qiuhe; Sun, Qiuhong; Liang, Dongli; Hu, Shibin

    2016-02-01

    Degradation of humic acid (HA), a predominant type of natural organic matter in ground water and surface waters, was conducted using a gas phase surface discharge plasma system. HA standard and two surface waters (Wetland, and Weihe River) were selected as the targets. The experimental results showed that about 90.9% of standard HA was smoothly removed within 40 min's discharge plasma treatment at discharge voltage 23.0 kV, and the removal process fitted the first-order kinetic model. Roles of some active species in HA removal were studied by evaluating the effects of solution pH and OH radical scavenger; and the results presented that O3 and OH radical played significant roles in HA removal. Scanning electron microscope (SEM) and FTIR analysis showed that HA surface topography and molecular structure were changed during discharge plasma process. The mineralization of HA was analyzed by UV-Vis spectrum, dissolved organic carbon (DOC), specific UV absorbance (SUVA), UV absorption ratios, and excitation-emission matrix (EEM) fluorescence. The formation of disinfection by-products during HA sample chlorination was also identified, and CHCl3 was detected as the main disinfection by-product, but discharge plasma treatment could suppress its formation to a certain extent. In addition, approximately 82.3% and 67.9% of UV254 were removed for the Weihe River water and the Wetland water after 40 min of discharge plasma treatment.

  8. Reactions of charged phenyl radicals with aliphatic amino acids in the gas phase.

    PubMed

    Huang, Yiqun; Guler, Leo; Heidbrink, Jenny; Kenttämaa, Hilkka

    2005-03-23

    Gas-phase reactivity of five differently substituted positively charged phenyl radicals was examined toward six amino acids by using Fourier transform ion cyclotron resonance mass spectrometry (FT-ICR). The reactivity of the radicals studied was determined by the electrophilicity of the radical, which can be characterized by the radical's electron affinity (EA). The larger the electron affinity of the radical, the higher the overall reaction rate. In addition to the expected H-atom abstraction, several unprecedented reaction pathways were observed, including NH2 abstraction, SH abstraction, and SCH3 abstraction. These reaction pathways dominate for the most electrophilic radicals, and they may not follow radical but rather nucleophilic addition-elimination mechanisms. Hydrogen abstraction from glycine was also investigated theoretically. The results indicate that hydrogen abstraction from alphaC of glycine is both kinetically and thermodynamically favored over the NH2 group. The ordering of transition state energies for hydrogen abstraction from the alphaC and NH2 groups was found to reflect the radicals' EA ordering.

  9. Shear Bond Strength of an Etch-and-rinse Adhesive to Er:YAG Laser- and/or Phosphoric Acid-treated Dentin

    PubMed Central

    Davari, Abdolrahim; Sadeghi, Mostafa; Bakhshi, Hamid

    2013-01-01

    Background and aims. Er:YAG laser irradiation has been claimed to improve the adhesive properties of dentin; therefore, it has been proposed as an alternative to acid etching. The aim of this in vitro study was to investigate the shear bond strength of an etch-and-rinse adhesive system to dentin surfaces following Er:YAG laser and/or phosphoric acid etching. Materials and methods. The roots of 75 sound maxillary premolars were sectioned below the CEJ and the crowns were embedded in auto-polymerizing acrylic resin with the buccal surfaces facing up. The buccal surfaces were ground using a diamond bur and polished until the dentin was exposed; the samples were randomly divided into five groups (n=15) according to the surface treatment: (1) acid etching; (2) laser etching; (3) laser etching followed by acid etching; (4) acid etching followed by laser etching and (5) no acid etching and no laser etching (control group). Composite resin rods (Point 4, Kerr Co) were bonded to treated dentin surfaces with an etch-and-rise adhesive system (Optibond FL, Kerr Co) and light-cured.After storage for two weeks at 37°C and 100% humidity and then thermocycling, bond strength was measured with a Zwick Universal Testing Machine at a crosshead speed of 1 mm/min. Data was analyzed using parametric and non-parametric tests (P<0.05). Results. Mean shear bond strength for acid etching (20.1±1.8 MPa) and acid+laser (15.6±3.5 MPa) groups were significantly higher than those for laser+acid (15.6±3.5 MPa), laser etching (14.1±3.4 MPa) and control (8.1±2.1 MPa) groups. However, there were no significant differences between acid etching and acid+laser groups, and between laser+acid and laser groups. Conclusion. When the cavity is prepared by bur, it is not necessary to etch the dentin surface by Er:YAG laser following acid etching and acid etching after laser etching. PMID:23875083

  10. Transcriptome analysis of acetic-acid-treated yeast cells identifies a large set of genes whose overexpression or deletion enhances acetic acid tolerance.

    PubMed

    Lee, Yeji; Nasution, Olviyani; Choi, Eunyong; Choi, In-Geol; Kim, Wankee; Choi, Wonja

    2015-08-01

    Acetic acid inhibits the metabolic activities of Saccharomyces cerevisiae. Therefore, a better understanding of how S. cerevisiae cells acquire the tolerance to acetic acid is of importance to develop robust yeast strains to be used in industry. To do this, we examined the transcriptional changes that occur at 12 h post-exposure to acetic acid, revealing that 56 and 58 genes were upregulated and downregulated, respectively. Functional categorization of them revealed that 22 protein synthesis genes and 14 stress response genes constituted the largest portion of the upregulated and downregulated genes, respectively. To evaluate the association of the regulated genes with acetic acid tolerance, 3 upregulated genes (DBP2, ASC1, and GND1) were selected among 34 non-protein synthesis genes, and 54 viable mutants individually deleted for the downregulated genes were retrieved from the non-essential haploid deletion library. Strains overexpressing ASC1 and GND1 displayed enhanced tolerance to acetic acid, whereas a strain overexpressing DBP2 was sensitive. Fifty of 54 deletion mutants displayed enhanc